❧ THE COVRTYER OF COVNT BALDESSAR CA­stilio diuided into foure bookes.

Very necessary and profita­ble for yonge Gentilmen and Gentil­women abiding in Court, Palaice or Place, done into Englyshe by Thomas Ho­by.

Imprinted at London by wyllyam Seres at the signe of the Hedg­hogge. 1561.

The contentes of the booke

The first booke, entreateth of the perfect qualities of a Courtier.
The second, of the vse of them, and of me­rie Iestes and Pranckes.
The thirde, of the condicions and quali­ties of a vvaytinge Gentillvvoman.
The fourth, of the end of a Courtier, and of honest loue.

¶The Printer to the reader, greetyng.

NOwe at the length (gentle reader) through the diligence of Maister Hoby in penninge, and mine in printing, thou hast here set forth vnto thee, the booke of the Courtier: which for thy benifite had bene done longe since, but that there were certain places in it whiche of late yeares beeing misliked of some, that had the perusing of it (with what reason iudge thou) the Authour thought it much better to keepe it in darknes a while, then to put it in light vnperfect and in peecemeale to serue the time. Vse it the [...]fore, and so peruse it that for thy profite, first he, and then I, maye thinke our trauayle herein wel imployed.

Fare well.

THOMAS SACKEVYLLE IN commendation of the vvorke. to the Rreader

THese royall kinges, that reare vp to the skye
Their Palaice tops, and decke them all with gold:
VVith rare and curious woorkes they feed the eye:
And showe what riches here great Princes hold.
A rarer work and richer far in worth,
Castilios hand presenteth here to the,
No proud ne golden Court doth he set furt [...]
But what in Court a Courtier ought to be.
The Prince he raiseth houge and mightie walles,
Castilio frames a wight of noble fame:
The kinge with gorgeous Tyssue claddes his halles,
The Count with golden vertue deckes the same,
VVhos passing skill [...]o Hobbies pen displaise
To Brittain folk, a work of worthy praise.

TO THE RIGHT HONO­rable the Lord Henry Hastinges, sonne and heire apparant to the noble Erle of Hun­tyngton.

THEMISTOCLES THE NOBLE A­THENIEN IN HIS BANISHEMENT EN­tertayned moste honourablie with the king of Per­sia, willed vpon a time to tell his cause by a spokes­man, compared it to a piece of tapistrie, that beyng spred abrode, discloseth the beautie of the woorke­manship, but foulded together, hideth it, and therfore demaunded res­pite to learne the Persian tunge to tell his owne cause: Right so [ho­norable Lorde] this Courtier hath long straid about this realme, & the fruite of him either little, or vnperfectly receiued to the commune be­nefite: for either men skilful in his tunge haue delited in him for their owne priuate commoditie, or elles he hath eftsones spoken in peece­meale by an interpreter to suche as desired to knowe his mynde, and to practise his principles: the which how vnperfect a thing it is, The▪ mystocles and experience teache. But nowe, though late in deede, yet for al that at length, beside his three principal languages, in the which he hath a long time haunted all the Courtes of Christendome, hee is beecome an Englishman [whiche many a longe tyme haue wyshed, but fewe attempted and none atchieued] and welwilling to dwell in the Court of Englande, and in plight to tel his own cause. In whose commendation I shall not neede to vse any long processe of woordes, for he can so well speak for himself, and answere to the opinion men haue a long time conceiued of him, that whatsoeuer I shoulde write therein, were but labour in waste, and rather a diminishing, then a setting foorth of his woorthinesse, and a great deale better it were to passe it ouer with silence, then to vse briefenesse. Onely for the litle acquaintaunce I haue with him, and for the general profit is in him, my desier is he should nowe at his firste arriuall, a newe man in this kinde of trade, be well entertained and muche honoured. And forso­muche [Page] as none, but a noble yonge Gentleman, and trayned vp all his life time in Court, and of worthie qualities, is meete to receiue and enterteine so worthy a Courtier, that like maye felowship and gete estimation with his like, I do dedicate him vnto your good lorde­ship, that through your meanes, and vnder your patronage he maye be commune to a greate meany. And this do I not, for that I suppose you stande in neede of any of his instructions, but partly because you may see him confirme with reason the Courtly facions, comely exer­cises, and noble vertues, that vnawares haue from time to time crept in to you, and already with practise and learning taken custome in you: And partly to gete him the more aucthoritie and credite throughe so honorable a Patrone. For no doubt, if you beseene willingly to em­brace him, other yonge and Courtly Gentlemen will not shonn hys company: And so both he shall gete him the reputation now here in Englande which he hath had a good while since beyonde the sea, in Italy, Spaine and Fraunce, and I shal thinke my smal trauayle wel imployed and sufficiently recompensed. The honour and entertain­ment that your noble Auncestours shewed Castilio the maker, whan he was in this realme to be installed knight of the Order for the Duke his Maister, was not so muche as presently both he, and this his han­dywoorke shall receiue of you. Generally ought this to be in estima­tion with all degrees of men: For to Princes and Greate men, it is a rule to rule themselues that rule others, and one of the bookes that a noble Philosopher exhorted a certaine kyng to prouide him, and dili­gently to searche, for in them he shoulde finde written suche matters, that friendes durst not vtter vnto kinges: To men growen in yeres, a pathway to the behoulding and musing of the minde, and to what­soeuer elles is meete for that age: To yonge Gentlemen, an encoura­ging to garnishe their minde with morall vertues, and their bodye with comely exercises, and both the one and the other with honest qualities to attaine vnto their noble ende: To Ladyes and Gentlewo­men, a mirrour to decke and trimme themselues with vertuous con­dicions, comely behauiours and honest enterteinment toward al men: And to them all in general, a storehouse of most necessary implements for the conuersacion, vse, and training vp of mans life with Courtly demeaners. VVere it not that the auncientnesse of tyme, the degree [Page] of a Consul, and the eloquence of Latin stile in these our daies bear [...] a greate stroke, I knowe not whether in the inuention and disposi­tion of the matter, as Castilio hath folowed Cice [...]o, and applyed to his purpose sundrye examples and pithie sentences out of him, so hee maye in feate conueyaunce and lyke trade of writing, be compared to him: But well I wotte for renowme among the Italians, he is not in­feriour to him. Cicero an excellent Oratour, in three bookes of an O­ratour vnto his brother, facioneth such a one as neuer was, nor yet i [...] like to be: Castilio an excellent Courtier, in thre bookes of a Court­yer vnto his deere friende, facioneth such a one as is harde to finde & perhappes vnpossible. Cicero bringeth in to dispute of an Oratour, CRAS [...]VS, SCEVOLA, ANTONIVS, COTTA, SVLPI­TIVS, CATVLVS, and CESAR his brother, the noblest & chie­fest Oratours in those dayes: CASTILIO to reason of a Courtier, the Lorde OCTAVIAN FREGOSO, SYR FRIDERIKC [...] his brother, the Lorde IVLIAN DE MEDICIS, the L. CE­SAR GONZAGA, the L. FRANCESCOMA [...]IA DELLA ROVER [...], COVNT LEVVIS OF CANOSSA, the L. GAS­PAR PALLAVICIN, BEMBO, BIBIENA, and other most excellent Courtiers, and of the noblest families in these dayes in Italy, whiche all afterwarde became Princes, Cardinalles, Bishoppes and greate Lordes, and some yet in lyfe. Both Cicero and Castilio professe, they folowe not any certayne appointed order of preceptes or rules, as is vsed in the instruction of youth, but call to rehearsall, matters de­bated in their times too and fro in the disputacion of most elo­quent men and excellent wittes in euery woorthy qualitie, the one company in the olde tyme assembled in Tusculane, and the other of late yeeres in the newe Palaice of Vrbin. VVhere many most ex­cellent wittes in this realme haue made no lesse of this boke then the Great Alexander did of Homer, I cannot sufficiently wonder that they haue not all this while from tyme to tyme done a commune benefite to profite others as well as themselues. In this pointe [I knowe not by what destinye] Englishemen are muche inferiour to well most all other Nations: For where they set their delite and bende themselues with an honest strife of matching others, to tourne into their mo­ther tunge, not onely the wittie writinges of other languages, but also [Page] of all the Philosophers, and all Sciences bothe Greeke and Latin, our men weene it sufficient to haue a perfecte knowledge, to no other ende, but to profite themselues, and [as it were] after muche paynes in breaking vp a gap, bestow no lesse to close it vp againe, that others maye with like trauaile folowe after. And where our learned menne for the moste part holde opinion, to haue the sciences in the mother tunge, hurteth memorie and hindreth lerning, in my opinion, they do full yll consider from whence the Grecians first, and afterwarde the Latins [...]et their knowledge. And without wading to any farther rea­sons that might be alleaged, yf they will marke well the trueth, they shall see at this daye, where the Sciences are most tourned into the vulgar tunge, there are best learned men, and comparing it wyth the contrarie, they shall also finde the effectes contrarie. In Italye [where the most translation of authors is] not onely for Philosophy, Logike Humanitie and all liberall Sciences bothe in Greeke and Latine [lea­uing a parte BARBARVS, NAVG [...]RIVS, SANNAZARVS, BEMBVS, LAZARVS and the rest that of very late dayes flory­shed] GENVA, TOMITANVS, ROBERTELLVS, MANV­TIVS, PICCOLHOMINEVS, are presently verye singular, and renowmed throughout all Christendome: but also for the same in the vulgar tunge with litle or no sight at al in the latin, ARETINO, CELLI [a tayler in Florence] THE L. VICTORIA COLVM­NA, the. L. DIONORA SANSEVERINA, the. L. BEATRICE [...]OFFREDA, VERONICA▪ GAMBERA, VIRGINEA SALVI and infinite other men and women are moste famous tho­roughout Italy, whose diuine woorkes and excellent stile bothe in rime and prose geue a sufficient testimonye, not onely of their pro­founde knowledge and noble wit, but also that knowledge may be obtained in studying onely a mannes owne natiue tunge. So that to be skilfull and exercised in authours translated, is no lesse to be called learning, then in the very same in the Latin or Greeke tunge. There­fore the translation of Latin or Greeke authours, doeth not onely not hinder learning, but it furthereth it, yea it is learning it self, and a great staye to youth, and the noble ende to the whiche they oughte to ap­plie their wittes, that with diligence and studye haue attained a per­fect vnderstanding, to open a gap for others to folow their steppes, [Page] [...]nd a vertuous exercise for the vnlatined to come by learning, and to fill their minde with the morall vertues, and their body with [...]iuyll condicions, that they maye bothe talke freely in all company, liue vp­rightly though there were no lawes, and be in a readinesse against all kinde of worldlye chaunces that happen, whiche is the profite that cōmeth of Philosophy. And he said wel that was asked the question▪ How much the learned differed frō the vnlearned, So much (quoth he) as the wel broken & ready horses▪ from the vnbroken. Wherfore I wote not how our learned men in this case can auoide the sa [...]ing of Isocrates▪ to one that amonge soundrye learned discourses at Table [...]pake neuer a woorde: Yf thou bee vnlearned, thou dooest wiselye▪ but yf thou bee learned, vnwyselye, As who should saye▪ learnyng is yll bestowed where others bee not profited by it. As I therefore haue to my smal skil bestowed some la­bour about this piece of woorke, euen so coulde I wishe with al my hart, profounde learned men in the Greeke and Latin shoulde make the lyke proofe, and euerye manne store the tunge accordinge to hys knowledge and delite aboue other men, in some piece of learnynge, that we alone of the worlde maye not bee styll counted barbarous in oure tunge, as in time out of minde we haue bene in our maners. And so shall we perchaunce in time become as famous in Englande▪ as the learned men of other nations haue ben and presently are. And though the hardnesse of this present matter be suche, and myne vnskylfulnesse to vndertake this enterprise so greate, that I myghte with good cause haue despaired to bringe to an ende it, that manye excellente wittes haue attempted, yet coulde I not chouse but yelde to the continual [...]e­questes and often perswasions of many yong gentlemen, which h [...]ue may chaunce an opinion that to be in me, that is not in deed, & vnto whom in any reasonable matter I were skilfull in neyther I coulde nor ought of duetie to wante in fulfillyng their desire. Notwithstan­ding a great while I forbare and lingered the time to see if anye of a more perfect vnderstanding in the tunge, and better practised in the matter of the booke [of whom we want not a number in this realm] woulde take the matter in hande, to do his countrey so great a bene­fite: and this imagination preuailed in me a long space after my due­tie done in translating the thirde booke [that entreateth of a Gentl [...] ­woman of the Courte] perswaded therto, in that I was enfourmed▪ [Page] it was as then in some forwardness by an other, whose wit and stile was greatly to be allowed, but sins preuented by death he could not finish it. But of late beeyng instantly craued vpon a fresh, I whet­ted my stile and settled my self to take in hand the other three boo­kes (that entreat of the perfection of a Gentilman of the Court) to fulfill their peticion in what I am able, hauing time and leyser therto, the which I haue done, though not in effect▪ yet in apparance and that in a great deale shorter time, then the hardness of the mat­ter required. And where it shall not perhappes throughly please by reason my smalle vnderstandyng in the tung, and less practise in the matters herin conteined, is not of force to giue it the brightness and full perfection in this our tung that it hath in the Italian, it shal suf­fice yet that I haue showed my self obedient in the respect a manne ought to haue toward his betters: And no more can they auoid the blame to charge me withall, then I to vndertake it. Beside that, I haue declared my good will and well meaning no less then if my counning were greater, and could extend much farther. But parauen­ture the rudeness of this shall be an encouragyng of some other to giue the onsett vpon other matters with a better ripeness of style & much more aptness, and so shall this yet somewhat profite both wayes. But the estimation it must gete by your honour, is the prin­cipall cause that setteth it out, and maketh it worne with the han­des of heedfull readers: For in case you cheerfullye receiue it, men will recken it good: Yf you alow it, worthy to be practised: Yf you commend it, woorthie to pass from hand to hand. Therfore emong the other good opinions men generally houlde of you, let it not be the least, that they may houlde also no less of this that you alowe and commende. And so shall you show vndeserued kindness, I, bounden dutie, and all others good will to imbrace & to welcome it out of Italy into Englande And thus shall Cast [...]lio be esteamed such a one as he is indeede, and wexe familiar with all men, that of late was knowen of verie fewe, and so mangled wyth varietye of iudgementes, that he was (in a maner) maymed, & lost a good peece of his estimation. But in case iudgementes now feint, or mine in­terpretation seeme not pithie but rude, not proper, but colde, there is no more imperfection in this Courtier, then in Cirus himself in [Page] the translation of Xenophon into the Italian or anie other tung, the one as necessarie and proper for a Gentilman of the Court, as the other for a king. And I shall desire my labour may so be taken well in worth, as I haue endeuoured my self to folow the very meaning & woordes of the Author, without being mislead by fansie, or lea­uing out any percell one or other, wherof I knowe not how some interpreters of this booke into other languages can excuse themsel­ues, and the more they be conferred, the more it will perchaunce appeere. Wherfore receiue you this, as a token of my good will, and so receiue it, that the frute, what euer it be, maye be acknowleaged at your handes: and you, pass the expectation of men in this, as in all other thinges, which, no doubt, is very great of you: and I, to ac­knowleage this benifit, where my habilitie stretcheth to nothyng elles, shall at the least euermore wishe vnto your Lordshipp longe lief, that you may go for­warde, as you do, in these beginninges, whi­che promise a luckie ende, to the ho­nour of your self, comefort of your friendes, and forward­ness of the commune [...]eale of your coun­trey.

Your L. most bounden Thomas Hoby.

VNTO THE REVEREND and honorable Lorde Mychaell de Sylua Bisshop of viseo.

AFter the Lorde Guidubal­do of Montefeltro Duke of Urbin was departed out of this life, cer­tein other Gentilmen and I that had bine seruauntes to him, con­tinued in seruyce wyth Duke Francescomaria Della Rouere hys heire & successor in the state:Francescoma­ria della Ro­u [...]r [...]. And whyle the sauour of the vertues of Duke Guidubaldo was fresh in my mynde, and the great delite I took in those yeeres in the louing companie of so excellent Personages as then were in the Court of Urbin: I was prouoked by the memorie therof to write these bookes of the Courtier. The which I accomplished in a fewe dayes, myndinge in time to amende those faultes that spronge of the desire that I had speedilie to paye this debt. But fortune now manie yeeres hath alwayes kept me vnder in suche continuall trauayles, that I coulde neuer gete leyser to bringe it to the passe that my feeble iudgement might be throughlie sa­tisfied with all. At such time therfore as I was in Spayne, being aduertised out of Italy how [Page] the Lady Uittoria Colonna Marquesse of Pes­cara,L. vittoria Colonna. vnto whom in foretime I had graunted a Copie of this booke, contrarie to her promise, had made a great part of it to be copied out: it greeued me somwhat whether I would or no, standinge in doubt of the sundrie inconuenien­ces that in the like cases may happen. Yet had I a hope that the witt & wisdome of that Lady (whose troth I haue alwaies had in reuerence, as a matter from aboue) was sufficient to pro­uide, not to be harmfull vnto me my beeinge o­bedient to her commaundement. At last I hard an yncklinge that part of the booke was rief in Naples in many mens handes: and as men are alwayes desirous of noueltie, it was thought that they attempted to imprint it. Wherfore I, amased at this mischaunce, determined wyth my self to ouerlooke by and by that litle in the booke that time serued me therto, with entent to set it abrode, thinking it lesse hurtful to haue it somwhat corrected with mine owne hande, then much mangled with an other mannes. Therfore to haue this my pourpose take effect, I tooke in hande to reade it ouer afresh, and so­deinlie at the first blush by reason of the title, I tooke no title grief, which in proceadinge for­ward encreased much more, remembringe that the greater part of them that are brought in to reason, are now dead. For beside those that are mentioned in the Proheme of the last booke,M. Alphon­sus Ariosto. M. [Page] Alphonsus Ariosto him self is dead, vnto whom the booke was dedicated,Duke of Ne­mours. a noble yonge Gentil­man, discreete, full of good condicions, and apt vnto euery thing meete for one liuinge in court. Likewise Duke Iulian de Medicis, whose goodnesse and noble Courtesy deserued to haue bene a longer time enioyed of the world.Cardinal of S. Maria in Portico. Also M. Bernard, Cardinall of S. Maria in Por­tico, who for his liuelie and pleasant prompt­ness of witt, was most acceptable vnto as ma­nie as knew him,Duke of Ge­nua. and dead he is. The Lord Octauian Fregoso is also dead, a man in oure tymes verie rare, of a most noble courage, of a pure lief, full of goodnesse, witt, wisdome and Courtesie, and a verie frende vnto honour and vertue, and so worthy prayse, that his verie en­nemies could say none other of hym, then what sounded to his renoume: And the mishappes he hath borne out with great steadinesse, were sufficient inoughe to geue euidence, that For­tune, as she hath alwayes bene, so is she in these dayes also an enemie to vertue. There are dead in like maner manie other that are named in this boke, vnto whō a man wold haue thought that nature had promised a verie longe lief. But the thinge that should not be rehersed wythout teares is,Dutchesse of Vrbin. that the Dutchesse she is also dead. And if my minde be troubled with the losse of so manye frindes and good Lordes of myne, that haue left me in this lief, as it were in a [Page] wildernes full of sorow, reason would it should with much more grief beare the heauinesse of the Dutchesse death, then of al the rest, bicause she was more woorth then all the rest, and I was much more bounde vnto her then vnto all the rest. Therfore for leesinge time to bestowe that of dutye I ought vpon the memorye of so excellent a Ladye, and of the rest that are no more in lief, prouoked also by the ieopardye of the booke, I haue made him to be imprinted, and setforth in such sort, as the shortnes of time hath serued me. And bicause you had no ac­queintance, neither with the Dutches, nor with any of the rest that are dead, sauing only with Duke Iulian, and with the Cardinal of S. Maria in Portico. while they liued, therfore to the entent, in what I can do, you may haue ac­queintance with them after their death, I send vnto you this booke, as a purtraict in peinc­tinge of the Court of Urbin: Not of the handi­woorke of Raphael, or Michael Angelo, but of an vnknowen peincter, and that can do no more but draw the principall lines, without setting­furth the truth with beawtifull coulours, or makinge it appeere by the art of Prospectiue that it is not. And wher I haue enforced my self to setfurth together with the comunication the propreties & condicions of such as are named in it, I confess I haue not only not fully expressed, but not somuch as touched the vertues of the [Page] Dutchesse Bicause not onlye my stile is vnsuf­ficient to express them, but also mine vnderstan­ding to conceiue them. And if in this behalf, or in anie other matter woorthy reprehention (as I know well there want not manie in the booke) fault be found in me, I will not speake a­gainst the truth. But bicause men somtime take such delite in finding fault, that they find fault also in that deserueth not reproof, vnto some yt blame me bicause I haue not folowed Boccac­cio,Boccaccio. nor bound my self to the maner of the Tus­cane speach vsed nowadayes,Tuscane tung. I will not let to say, for all Boccaccio was of a fine witt, accor­ding to those times, and in some part writt with great aduisement and diligence: yet did he write much better whan he lett him self be gui­ded with witt and his owne naturall inclinati­on, without anie other maner studie or regarde to polish his writinges, then whan with al tra­uaile and bent studye he enforced him self to be most fine and eloquent. For his verie fauourers affirme that in his own matters he was far de­ceiued in iudgement, litle regarding such thin­ges as haue gotten him a name, and greatlye esteaminge that is nothing woorth. Had I then folowed that trade of writing which is blamed in him by such as praise him in the rest, I could not haue eschewed the verye same reprooffes that are laied to Boccaccio himself as touching this. And I had deserued somuch the more, for [Page] that his errour was then, in beleauyng he did well, and mine should be nowe, in knowinge I do amisse. Again if I had folowed that trade which is reckened of many to be good, and was litle regarded of him, I should appeere in folo­wing it to disagree from the iudgement of him whom I folowed: the which thing (in mine opi­nion) were an inconuenience. And beeside yf this respect had not moued me, I could not fo­lowe him in the matter, forsomuch as he neuer wrott any thing in treatise like vnto these boo­kes of the Courtier: And in the tunge, I ought not in mine aduise, bicause the force or rule of speach doeth consist more in vse, then in anye thinge els: and it is alwayes a vice to vse woor­des that are not in commune speach. Therfore it was not meete I should haue vsed many that are in Boccaccio, which in his time were vsed, and now are out of vse emonge the Tuscanes them selues. Neyther would I binde my self to the maner of the Tuscane tunge in vse nowe a dayes, bicause the practising emonge sundrye Nations, hath alwayes bene of force to trans­port from one to an other (in a maner) as mer­chaundise, so also new woordes,New Woor­des. which after­ward remaine or decaye, according as they are admitted by custome or refused. And this beside the record of auntient writers, is to be euident­ly seene in Boccaccio, in whom there are so ma­nie woordes French, Spanish, and prouincial, [Page] and some perhappes not well vnderstood of the Tuscanes in these dayes, that whoso woulde pick them out, should make the booke much the lesser. And bicause (in mine opinion) the kinde of speach of the other noble Cities of Italy, where there resorte men of wisdome, vnderstandinge and eloquence, which practise great matters of gouernment of states, of letters, armes, and diuerse affayres, ought not altogether to be neglected for the woordes whiche in these pla­ces are vsed in cōmune speach: I suppose that they maye be vsed welinough, writing such as haue a grace and comlynesse in the pronunti­ation, and communly counted good and of pro­pre signification, though they be not Tuscane, and haue also their origion out of Italy. Bee­side this in Tuscane they vse many woordes cleane corrupte from the Latin,Deriued wordes from the Latin. the which in Lumbardye and in the other partes of Italy remaine wholl and without anye chaunge at al, and they are so vniuersallye vsed of euerye man, that of the best sorte they are allowed for good, & of the commune people vnderstood with out difficulty. Therfore I thinke I haue com­mitted no errour at all. Yf in writing I haue v­sed any of these, and rather taken the wholl and pure woord of mine owne Countrey, then the corrupt & mangled of an other. Neyther doeth that rule seeme good vnto me, where many say ye vulgar tung, the lesse it is like vnto the La­tin, [Page] the more beawtiful it is: And I can not per­ceiue why more authoritie should consist in one custome of speach, then in an other. For if Tus­cane be sufficient to authorise corrupt & mang­led▪ Latin woordes, and to geue them so greate a grace, that mangled in such sort euerye man may vse them for good (the which no man de­nieth) should not Lumbardy or any other coun­trey haue the authoritye to allow the very La­tin woordes that be pure, sounde, propre and not broken in any part so, but they may be well borne? And assuredly as it may be called a rash presumption to take in hand to forge new wordes, or to set vp ye olde in spite of custome: So is it no lesse, to take in hande against the force of the same custome to bring to naught, and (as it were) to burye aliue such as haue lasted nowe many yeeres, & haue ben defended from the ma­lice of the time with the shield of vse, & haue pre­serued their estimation and dignitye, whan in the warres and turmoiles of Italy, alterations were brought vp both of the tunge, buildinges, garmentes and maners. And beeside the hard­nesse of the matter, it seemeth to be (as it were) a certein wickednesse. Therfore where I haue not thought good in my writing to vse the wordes of Boccaccio which are vsed no more in Tuscane, nor to binde my self to their law that think it not lawful to vse them that ye Tuscan [...]s [Page] vse not nowadayes, me thynke I ought to be held excused. But I suppose both in the matter of the booke and in the tunge, forsomuch as one tung may help an other, I haue folowed Au­thores asmuch woorthie praise, as Boccaccio. And I beleaue it ought not to be imputed vnto me for an errour, that I haue chosen to make my self rather knowen for a Lumbard, in spea­king of Lumbard, then for no Tuscan, in spea­king of tomuch Tuscan. Bicause I wil not do as Theophrastus did,Cicero in Biuto. which for speaking to­much the meere Athenian tunge, was of a sim­ple olde woman knowen not to be of Athens. But bycause in thys point there is sufficyent talke in the first booke, I will make no more a do. And to auoid al contention I confesse to my faultfinders, that I haue no knowleage in this their Tuscan tunge so hard and secrete: and I say that I haue written it in mine owne, and as I speak, & vnto such as speake as I speake: and so I trust I haue offended no man. For I beleaue it is forbed no man that is, to wryte & speake in his owne tunge, neyther is anye man bound to reade or heare that contenteth hym not. Therfore if they will not reade my Cour­tier, they shall offende me nothing at all. Other say, bicause it is so hard a matter and (in a ma­ner) vnpossible to finde out a man of such per­fection, as I would haue the Courtier to be,Courtier. it is but superfluous to write it: For it is a vaine [Page] thing to teach that can not be learned. To these men I answere, I am content, to err with Pla­to, Xenophon, and M. Tullius, leauing apart the disputing of the intelligible world and of the Ideas or imagined fourmes: in which nū ­ber, as (according to that opinion) the Idea or figure conceyued in imagination of a perfect commune weale, and of a perfect king, and of a perfect Oratour are conteined: So is it also of a perfect Courtier. To the image wherof if my power could not draw nigh in stile, so much the lesse peynes shall Courtiers haue to drawe nigh in effect to the ende and marke that I in writing haue set beefore them. And if with all this they can not compasse that perfection, such as it is, which I haue endeuoured to expresse, he that cummeth nighest shall be the most per­fect: As emong many Archers that shute at one marke, where none of them hitteth the pinn, he that is nighest is out of doubt better then ye rest. Some again say that my meaning was to fa­cion my self, perswading my self that all suche qualities as I appoint to the Courtier are in me. Unto these men I will not cleane deny that I haue attempted all that my mynde is the Courtier shoulde haue knowleage in. And I thinke who so hath not the knowleage of the thinges intreated vpon in this booke, how learned so euer he be, he can full il write them. But I am not of so sclender a iudgment in knowing [Page] my self, that I wil take vpon me to know what soeuer I can wish. The defēce therfore of these accusations & perauēture of many mo, I leaue for this once▪ to the iudgement of the commune opinion: bicause for the most part the multy­tude, though they haue no perfect knowleage, yet do they feele by the instinct of nature a cer­tein sauour of good and ill, and can geue none other reason for it: One tasteth and taketh de­lite, an other refuseth & is against his stomake.

Therfore if the booke shall generally please, I wil count him good, and think that he ought to liue: But if he shall displease, I will count him naught, and beleaue that the memorye of him shall soone perish. And if for all this mine accusers will not be satisfied with this com­mune iudgemente, let them content them selues with the iudgement of time, which at length discouereth the priuie faul­tes of euery thing: And bicause it is father to truth and a iudge without passion, it accusto­meth euermore to pro­nounce true sentence of the life or death of writynges.

¶ THE FIRST BOOKE OF THE Courtier of Count Baldessar Castilio, vnto Maister Alphonsus Ariosto.

I Haue a longe time doubted with my self [most louing M. Alphonsus] which of the two were harder for me, either to denye you the thinge that you haue with suche instance manye tymes re­quired of me, or to take it in hande: Bicause on the one side me thoughte it a verye harde matter to denye anye thynge, especiallye the request beinge honest, to the personne whom I loue deerlye, and of whom I perceyue my selfe deerlye beloued. Againe on the other syde, to vndertake an enterpryse whiche I do not knowe my selfe able to brynge to an end, I iudged it vncomely for him that wayeth due reproofes so much as they oughte to be wayed. At length after muche debatynge, I haue determined to proue in this be­halfe what ayde that affection and great desyre to please, can brynge vnto my dilygence, whyche in other thynges is wonte to encrease the laboure of menne. You then require me to wryte, what is (to my thynkynge) the trade and maner of Courtyers, whyche is most syt­tynge for a Gentilman that lyueth in the Court of Prin­ces, by the whiche he maye haue the knoweleage howe to serue them perfectlye in euerye reasonable matter, and obtaine thereby fauour of them and prayse of other men. Fynallye, of what sort he ought to be that deserueth to be called so perfect a Courtyer, that there be no wante in him? wherefore I, considering this kinde of request, say, that in case it sh [...]ulde not appeare to my selfe a greater blame to haue you esteame me to be of smal frendeshippe, then all other men of litle wysdome, I woulde haue ryd my handes of this laboure▪ for feare leas [...]e I shoulde bee [Page] counted rashe of all such as knowe, what a harde matter it is, emonge suche diuersitye of maners, that are vsed in the Courtes of Christendome, to picke out the per­fectest trade and way, and (as it were) the floure of this Courtiership. Because vse maketh vs manye times to delite in, and to set litle by the self same thinges: wher­by somtime it preceadeth that maners, garmentes, cu­stomes, and facions whiche at sometyme haue beene in price, becūme not regarded, and contrarywyse the not re­garded, becūme of price. Therfore it is manifestlye to be descerned, that vse hath greater force then reason, to brynge vp neweinuentions emonge vs, and to abolishe the olde, of the whiche who so goeth about to iudge the perfection, is often tymes deceyued. For which conside­ration, perceyuinge this and manye other lettes in the matter propounded for me to write vpon, I am constrey­ned to make a peece of an excuse, and to open playnelye that this errour (yf it may be termed an errour) is com­mune to vs both, that if anye blame happen to me a­bout it, it may be also partned with you. For it ought to be reckned a no lesse offence in you to laye vppon me a burden that passeth my strengthe, then in me to take it vpon me. Let vs therfore at length settle oure selues to begin that is oure purpose and drifte, and (if it be pos­sible) let vs facion suche a Courtier, as the Prince that shalbe worthye to haue him in his seruyce, although hys state be but small, maye notwythstandynge be called a myghtye Lorde. We will not in these bookes folow any certaine order or rule of appointed preceptes, the whiche for the moste part is wont to be obserued in the teaching of anye thinge whatsoeuer it be: but after the ma­ner of men of olde time, renuinge a gratefull memorye, we will repeat certaine reasoninges that were debated in times past betwene men verye excellent for that pur­pose. And althoughe I was not there present, but at the time when they were debated, it was my chaunce to [Page] be in Englande, yet soone after my retourne, I hearde them of a person that faythfullye reported them vnto me. And I will endeuoure my selfe, for so muche as my me­morye wyll serue me, to call them perticularly to remem­braunce, that you maye see what, men worthy greate commendacion, and vnto whose iudgement a man maye in euerye poynt geue an vndoubted credyt, haue iudged and beleued in this matter. Neyther shall we swar [...]e from the pourpose to arryue in good order at the ende vn­to the whiche all oure communication is directed, yf wee disclose the cause of the reasoninges that hereafter fo­lowe.

As euerye man knoweth the lytle Citye of Vrbin is sy­tuated vpon the side of the Appennine (in a maner) in the middes of Italy towardes the Golf of Venice. Situation of Urbin. The which for all it is placed emonge hylles, and those not so pleasaunt as perhappes some other that we behoulde in manye pla­ces,Mare adriati­cum. yet in this point the element hathe bene fauoura­ble vnto it, that all aboute, the countrye is verye plenty­full and full of fruites: so that beside the holsomenesse of aer, it is verye aboundant and stored wyth all thinges necessarye for the lief of man. But amonge the greatest felycityes that men can recken it to haue, I counte thys the chief, that now a longe tyme it hath alwayes bene go­uerned with very good Princes, although in the commune calamyties of the warres of Italy it remayned also a sea­son with out anye at all. But without searching further of this we maye make a good proofe wyth the famous memorye of Duke Fridericke, who in his dayes was the light of Italy. Neyther do we want true and verye large testimonies yet remayninge of his wisdome, courtesye,Duke Fry­dericke. iustice, liberalitye, of his inuincible courage and pollycy of warr. And of this do his so many vyctoryes make proofe, chyeflye his conquerynge of places impregnable, his sodeyne redynesse in settynge forwarde to geue bat­taile, [Page] his putting to flyght sundrye tymes wyth a small numbre, verie greate and puissaunte armyes, and neuer susteined losse in any conflict: So that we may, not with­out cause, compare hym to manye famous men of olde time. This man emong his other deedes praisworthy, in the hard & sharpe situation of Vrbin buylt a Palaice, to the opinion of many men,The palaice of Urbin. the fayrest that was to be founde in all Italy, and so fornished it with euerye necessary im­plement belonging therto, that it appeared not a palaice, but a Citye in fourme of a palaice, and that not onelye with ordinarie matters, as Siluer plate, hanginges for chambers of verye riche cloth of golde, of silke and other like, but also for sightlynesse: and to decke it out withall, placed there a wonderous number of auncyent ymages of marble and mettall, verye excellente peinctinges and instrumentes of musycke of all sortes, and nothinge would he haue there but what was moste rare and excel­lent. To this with verye great charges he gathered to­gether a great number of most excellent and rare bookes, in Greke, Latin and Hebrue, the which all he garnished wyth golde and syluer, esteaming this to be the chieffest ornament of his great palaice. This duke then folowing the course of nature when he was .lxv. yeares of age, as he had liued, so did he end his lief with glorye. And left Duke after him a childe of .x. yeares,Guidubaldo duke of Ur­bin. hauynge no more male, and wythout mother, who hight Guidubaldo. Thys chylde as of the state, so did it appeare also that he was heyre of all his fathers vertues: and sodenly wyth a mar­ueylous towardnes beeganne to promise so much of him­selfe, as a manne woulde not haue thought possyble to be hoped of a man mortall. So that the opinyon of men was, that of all duke Friderickes notable dedes there was none greater then that he begat suche a son. But for­tune enuyinge this so great vertue, wythall her myght gainstoode this so gloryous a beginnynge, in suche wyse [Page] that before duke Guidubaldo was .xx. yeares of age, he fell sicke of the gout, the which encreasinge vppon him wyth most bitter paynes, in a short tyme so nummed hym of all hys members,Troubled with the goute. that he coulde neyther stande on foote nor moue hymselfe. And in this maner was one of the beste fauoured and towardlyest personages in the world defor­med and marred in his greene age. And beside, not satisfyed with thys, fortune was so contrarye to him in all his pourposes, that verye sildome he brought to passe any thynge to hys minde. And for all he had in him moste wise counsayle, and an inuincible courage, yet it seemed that whatsoeuer he tooke in hande bothe in feates of ar­mes and in euerye other thynge small or greate,His ill lucke. it came alwayes to yll successe. And of thys make proofe his manye and dyuers calamityes, which he alwayes bore out with suche stou [...]enesse of courage, that vertue neuer yelded to fortune. But wyth a boulde stomake despising her stormes, lyued wyth great dignytye and estimation e­monge all men: in sickenesse, as one that was sounde, and in aduersitye, as one that was most fortunate. So that for all he was thus diseased in his bodye, he serued in time of warre wyth moste honourable enterteinmente vnder the most famous kinges of Naples, Hys seruice with princes and commune weales. Alphonsus and Fer­dinande the yonger. Afterward with Pope Alexander the .vi. with the lordes of Venice and Florence. And when Iulius the ii. was created Pope, he was then made generall Cap­tayne of the Churche: at whych tyme proceadynge in hys accustomed vsage, he sett hys delyte aboue all thynges to haue hys house furnished with most noble and valyaunte Gentylmen, wyth whom he lyued very famylyarly, en­ioying theyr conuersation, wherein the pleasure why­che he gaue vnto other menne was no lesse,His propre­ties and qua­lityes. then that he receyued of other, because he was verye wel seene in both tunges, and together wyth a louynge behauyour and ple­sauntnesse he had also accompanied the knowleage of in­finite [Page] thinges. And beside this, the greatnesse of his cou­rage so quickened hym, that where he was not in case with hys personne to practise the feates of Chiualrye, as he had done longe before, yet dyd he take verye great de­lyte to behoulde them in other men, and with his wor­des sometyme correctinge, and otherwhyle praysinge euerye man accordynge to hys desertes, he declared euy­dentlye howe greate a iudgement he hadde in those mat­ters. And vpon this at Tylt, at Tourneye, in rydynge, in playinge at all sortes of weapon, also in inuenting de­uyces, in pastymes, in musicke, fynallye in all exercises meete for noble Gentilmen, euerye manne stryued to showe hymselfe suche a one, as myght deserue to bee iudged woorthye of so noble an assemblye. Therfore were all the houres of the daye deuyded into honourable and pleasaunt exercyses, aswell of the bodye as of the mynde. But because the Duke vsed continuallye, by rea­son of his infirmytye, soone after supper to go to his rest, euerye man ordinarelye,Elizabeth gonzaga dut­chesse of Ur­bin. at that houre drewe where the Dutchesse was, the Lady Elizabeth Gonzaga. Where al­so continuallye was the Lady Emilia Pia, who for that she was endowed with so liuelye a wytt and iudgement as you knowe, seemed the maistresse and ringe leader of all the companye,L. Emilia Pia. and that euerye manne at her recey­ued vnderstandinge and courage. There was then to be hearde pleasaunte communication and merye conceytes, and in euery mannes countenaunce a manne myght per­ceyue peyncted a louynge iocoundenesse. So that thys house truelye myght well be called the verye man­sion place of Myrth and Ioye. And I beleaue it was neuer so tasted in other place, what maner a thynge the sweete conuersatyon that is occasyoned of an amy­able and louynge companye, as it was once there. For leauynge aparte what honoure it was to all vs to serue suche a Lorde, as he whom I declared vnto you [Page] right nowe, euerye man conceyued in his minde an high contentacyon euerye tyme we came into the dutchesse sight. And it appeared that this was a chaine that kept all lincked together in loue, in suche wise that there was neuer agrement of wyll or hearty loue greater betweene brethren, then was there beetweene vs all. The lyke was beetweene the women, with whom we hadde suche free and honest conuersation, that euerye manne myght commune, syt, da [...]y, and laugh with whom he had lusted.The behauy­oure of the Dutchesse. But such was the respect which we bore to the Dutchesse wyll, that the selfe same libertye was a verye great bridle. Neither was there anye that thought it not the greatest pleasure he coulde haue in the worlde, to please her, and the greatest griefe to offende her. For this respecte were there most honest condicions coupled with wonderous greate libertye, and deuises of pastimes and laughinge matters tempred in her sight, besyde most wyttye iestes, with so comelye and graue a maiesty, that the verye sober moode and greatnesse that dyd knyt toge­ther all the actes, woordes and gestures of the Dutchesse in iesting and laughynge, made them also that had neuer seene her in their lief before, to count her a verye greate Ladye. And all that came in her presence hauyng this respect fyred in their breast, it seemed she had made them to her becke▪ so that euery man enforced himself to folowe this trade, takynge (as it were) a rule and enample of faire condicions at the presence of so greate and so vertu­ous a Lady. Whose most excellent qualities I entend, not nowe to expresse, for it is neyther my pourpose, and a­gaine they are well inoughe knowen to the worlde, and muche better then I am able either with tunge or with pen to endite. And such as would perhaps haue lien hid a space, fortune, as she that wondreth at so rare vertues, hath thought good with many aduersities and temptaty­ons of miseries to disclose them, to make trial therby that [Page] in the tender breast of a woman, in companye wyth syn­guler beawtye, there can dwell wysdome, and stoutenes of courage, and all other vertues that in graue men them selues are most seldome. But leauynge this apart, I say that the maner of all the Gentilmen in the house was immedyatelye after supper to assemble together where the dutchesse was. Where emonge other recreations, musicke and dauncynge, whiche they vsed contynuallye, sometyme they propounded feate questions, otherwhyle they inuented certayne wytty sportes and pastimes, at the deuyse sometyme of one sometyme of an other, in the whych vnder sundrye couertes, often tymes the standers bye opened subtylly theyr imaginations vnto whom they thought beste. At other tymes there arrose other dis­putations of diuers matters, or els iestinges with prompt inuentions. Manye tymes they fell into pourposes, as we nowe a dayes terme them, where in thys kynde of talke & debating of matters,Noble perso­nages in the Court of Ur­bin. there was wonderous great pleasure on all sydes: Because (as I haue sayde) the house was replenyshed wyth most noble wyttes. Emonge whych (as you knowe) were moste famous the Lord Octa­uian, Fregoso, Sir Friderick his brother the L. Iulian de Medicis, M. Peter Bembo, the L. Cesar Gonzaga, Count Lewis of Canossa, the L. Gaspar Pallauicin, the L. Lodouicus pius, M. Morello of Ortona, Peter of Naples, M. Robert of Bari, and infynyte other moste woorthye knyghtes and Gentylmen. Beesyde these there were manye that for all ordinarilye they dwelled not there, yet spent they most of their tyme there, as, M. Bernard Bibiena, Vnico Aretino, Iohnchristopher Romano, Peter Mount, Therpander, M. Nicholas Phrisio, so that thither ran continually poetes, musitiens, & al kinde of men of skyll, and the excellentest in euery faculty that were in al Italy. After pope Iulius the ii. had with his owne presence by the ayde of the Frenchmen brought Bolonia to the obedyence of the Apostolyke Sea again, in the yeare MDvi. in hys retourn [Page] toward Roome he tooke Vrbin in his way, where he was receaued as honorably as was possible, and with as sumptuous and costlye preparation, as coulde haue bine in any other Citie of Italy whatsoeuer it be. So that bee­side the Pope, all the Cardinalles and other Courtyers thought themselues throughly satisfied. And some there were that prouoked wyth the sweetenesse of this compa­nye, after the Pope and the Court was departed, conty­nued manye dayes together in Vrbin. At which time they did not onely proceade in their accustomed trade of dispor­tinge and ordinary recreations, but also euery man sett to his helpinge hande to augment them somewhat, and especially in pastymes, which they had vp almost euerye nyght. And the order therof was such, that assoone as they were assembled where the Dutches was, euery man satt him downe at his will, or as it fell to his lot, in a cir­cle together, and in s [...]ttinge were deuyded a man and a woman, as longe as there were women, for alwayes (lightlye) the number of men was farr the greater. Then were they gouerned as the Dutchesse thought best, whi­che manye times gaue this charge vnto the L. Emilia. So the daye after the Pope was departed, the companye bee­inge gathered to the accustomed place, after muche plea­saunt talke, the Dutchesse pleasure was that the L. Emilia should beginne these pastimes:Diuises of pastimes. and she after a litle refu­sing of that charge, sayd in this maner: Syth it is your pleasure (Madam) I shall be she that must giue the onsett in oure pastimes this night, bicause I ought not of rea­son disobey you, I thinke meete to propounde a pastyme, whereof I suppose shall ensue litle blame, and lesse tra­uayle. And that shall be to haue euery man, as nigh as he can, propounde a deuyse not yet hearde of, then shall we chuse out such a one as shall be thought meete to be taken in hande in this companye. And after she had thus spo­ken, she tourned her vnto the L. Gaspar Pallauicin, willynge him to propounde his: who immediatlye made answere: [Page] But first (madam) you must beeginne to propound yours. Then saide the L. Emilia: I haue alreadye done. But your grace must commaunde hym (Madam) to be obedient. Then the Dutchesse laughynge to thintent (quoth she) e­uery man shal obey you, I make you my deputy, and giue vnto you all mine aucthority. It is surely a great matter, aunswered the L. Gaspar, that it is alwaies lawfull for wo­men to haue this priuilege, to be exempt and free from paines takyng, and truelye reason woulde we should in any wise knowe why. But bicause I will not be he that shall geue example to disobey, I shal leaue thys vntill an other time,The L. Gas­pars deuise. and will speake of that I am nowe charged withall, and thus I beginne. Mine oppinion is, that oure mindes, as in other thinges, so also in louynge are diuerse in iudgemente, and therefore it chaunceth often tymes, that the thynge whyche is most acceptable vnto one, is most abhorred of an other. Yet for all that they alwayes agree in that euerye man counteth most deere the wight beloued. So that many times the ouermuch af­fection in louers doth so deceiue their iudgemente, that they weene the person whom they loue, to be so garnished wyth all excellent vertues and wythout faulte, that he hath no peere in the worlde But bycause the nature of man doth not admytte suche full perfectyons, and there is no mann that hath not some defaulte or want in hym, it can not be sayde that suche as these be are not decey­ued, and that the louer doeth not become blynde as tou­chynge the beloued. I would therefore oure pastyme should be thys nyghte to haue euerye manne open what vertues he would principally the persone he loueth should be indowed with all. And seeyng it is so necessarilye that we all haue some spotte, what vyce he woulde also haue in hym: to see who can fynde out most prayse woor­thye and manlye vertues, and most tollerable vyces, that shoulde be least hurtefull bothe to hym that loueth, and to the wyghte beloued. After the L. Gaspar hadde [Page] thus spoken,The L. Cō ­stance Freg [...] sa. the L. Emilia made a signe vnto the Lady Con­staunce Fregosa, bicause she was next in order, to folow: who was now about to speake, whan the Dutchesse sodeinlye said: Seinge the L. Emilia will not take the paine to fynde out some pastime, reason willeth that the other Ladyes should be partakers of the same priuilege, and be also fre from this burden for this night: especially seing there are so manye men in place, for assure your self we shall want no pastimes. So shall we do, aunswered the L. Emilia, and puttinge the L. Constance to silence tourned her to the L. Ce­sar Gonzaga, that sat next her, commaunding him to speak,The L. Ce­sar Gonza­gas deuise. and thus he began: Whoso wyll diligentlye consider all our doynges, he shall fynde alwayes in them sundrye im­perfections. And that happeneth, bicause nature doth va­rye, as well in this, as in all other thinges. Unto one she hath geuen the lyght of reason in one thyng, and vnto an other, in an other thyng. Therefore it commeth to passe, where one man knoweth that an other knoweth not, and is ignoraunte in the thyng that the other hath vnder­standynge in, eche man doth▪ easilye perceyue the er­rour of hys felow, and not hys owne, and we all think oure selues to be verye wyse and peraduenture in that poynt most, wherein we are most foolysh. So that we haue seene by experience in this house manye men why­che at the beegynnynge were counted most wise, in processe of tyme were knowen to be most foolysh.A kind of spi­ders, whiche beyng dyuers of nature cause diuers effectes, some after their bi­ting fal a singyng, some laugh, some wep [...], some watche, some sweate: and this disease is onely cured with ins [...]rumentes of musick, whi­che must ne­uer cease vn­til the diseased beynge con­strained with the melodye thereof to fall a daunsi [...]ge with long ex­ercise ouer­commeth the force of this poyson. Whi­che hath proceaded of no other thyng but of oure owne di­lygence, lyke, as it is fayde to be in Pulia of them that are bitten with a Tarrantula, about whom men occupye manye instrumentes of musicke, and wyth sundrye sounes goe searchynge out, vntyll the humor that maketh this dysease by a certayn concordance it hath wyth some of those sounes, feling it, doth sodeinly moue, and so stirreth the pacient, that by that styrrynge he recouereth hys health agayne. In lyke maner we, whan we haue felt [Page] some priuie operacion of folye we prouoke it so subtillye, and with suche sundry perswasions, and so diuers wayes that at length we vnderstand whether it tended. After­ward the humour knowen, we so stir it that alwayes it is brought to the perfection of open foly. And some is wexed foolish in verses, some in musicke, some in loue, some in daunsinge, some in makynge antiques, some in rydinge, some in playnge at fence, euerye man accordinge to the moine of his mettall, wherby hath ensued (as you know) marueylous great pastime. I houlde therfore for certeine, that in euerye one of vs there is some seede of folye, the which beyng stirred may multiplye (in a maner) infinite. Therfore I would this night our pastime were to dispute vpon this matter: and that euerye man myght say hys mynde, seeynge I must be openly foolysh, in what sort of foly I am foolysh, and ouer what matter, iudginge it th [...] issue for the sparkles of folye that are daylye sene to pro­ceade from me. And let the lyke be sayd of all the rest, ke­pinge the order of oure deuises, and let euerye man do his best to grounde his opinion vpon some sure signe and ar­gument, and so by this our pastime shall euerye one of vs get profite, in that we shal know our defaultes, and ther shall we the better take heede. And in case the veyne of fo­lye whiche we shall discouer, be so ranke that it shall ap­peare to vs past remedy, we will set therto oure helpyng hande, and according to the doctrine of Frier Marian, we shal gaigne a soule whiche shalbe no smal gaigne.Frier Mari­an. At th [...] deuise there was much laughing, and none cold refrain [...] from speakinge. One sayde, I shoulde be founde foolysh in imagining. An other, in viewinge. An other sayde, he was alreadye become foolysh for loue: and such lyke mat­ters. Then frier Seraphin after his maner, laughing. This (quoth he) should be to tedious a matter.Frier Sera­phin. But if you wyll haue a pretye pastime, let euery man tel his opinion, ho [...] it cummeth that (in a maner) all women abhorre rattes, loue serpentes, and you shall see that none will hit vpo [...] [Page] it, but I, that knowe this misterye by a straunge meane And nowe began he to enter into his triflyng tales, but▪ the L. Emilia commaunded him to silence, and ouerscipping the Lady that satt there,Unico Arettinos deuise made a signe to Vnico aretino that was next in order, and he without looking for anye more biddyng, I (quoth he) would gladlye be a iudge of auctho­ritye that I might with all kinde of tourment bolte out the truth of offenders: and that, to discouer the deceytes of an vngrate woman, who with the eies of an angel, and hearte of a Serpent, neuer agreeth her tounge with her mynde, and with a feygned deceyuable compassion, pur­poseth nothyng els but to make Anatomie of hartes. Nei­ther is there in all the sandie countrey of Libia to be found so venomous a serpent that is so desirous of mans bloud, as is this false creature. Which not onely for the sweete­nesse of voice and pleasant soune of woordes, but also for her eyes, for her laughing, for her countenaunce, and for all her gestures is a most perfect meremayden. Therfore seyng it is not lawfull for me, as I would, to vse chaines, ropes, or fier, to vnderstand a matter of trouth, my desire is to compasse the knowledge of it with a mirye pastyme, whiche is this: That euery man shoulde expresse his fan­sye what the S dothe signify that the dutchesse carieth in her foreheade. For although this be also an artificial co­uert, the better to beguile, perhappes there may be an in­terpretacion whiche she neuer thought vpon. And who knoweth whether fortune, with pity behoulding the tor­mentes of men, hath stirrid her with this small token to discouer against her wyll the inwarde desire she hathe to slea and bury alyue in calamitie hym that honoureth and serueth her. The dutchesse laughed▪ and Vnico, perceiuing she would haue excused her self of thys interpretacion, no (quoth he) speake you not (madam) for it is not your turne to speake nowe. The L. Emilia then tourned her and sayd. M▪ Vnico, there is none of vs all here that geueth not place to you in eueryethyng, and especiallye in knowynge the [Page] disposicion of the Dutchesse. And as you by your dyuyne wit knowe her better then all the rest, so do you loue her better then al the rest, whych lyke byrdes of a feble sight, that cannot looke stedfastlye into the circle of the Sunne, cannot so well perceyue the perfection of it. Therfore all laboure were in vaine in cleeryng of thys doubt, sa­uyng your iudgement alone. Thys interprise then is re­serued onely to you, as vnto him that alone can brynge it to an ende, and none other. Vnico, after he had pawsed a while being stil called vpon to say his fansy, at length re­hersed a rime vpon the aforesaide matter, expoundynge what signified the letter S. the which many iudged to be made at the first sight. But bicause it was more witty & better knitt then a man would haue beleued the shortnes of time required, it was thought he had prepared it be­fore. So after mens fauourable voyce geuen in the praise of this rime, and after sufficient talke, the L. Octauian Fre­goso whose tourne was then next, began in this sorte smi­lyng:The L. Oc­tauian Fre­gosos deuise. My lordes, if I should say vnto you that I neuer felt passion of loue in my daies, I am sure the Dutchesse and the L. Emilia, althoughe they beleued it not in deede, yet would they make semblant to beleue it, and would saye that it proceded bicause I mistrusted I should neuer frame any woman to loue me. The which trulye I haue not hy­therto proued with such instance, that of reason I should dispare to obtain it once. Neither haue I forborne the do­ynge of it, bicause I set so much by my self and so litle by women, that I thinke none worthye to bestowe my loue and seruice vpon. But rathe [...] amased at the continual be­wailings of some louers, that with their palenes, sorow, and silence, it appeareth they haue euermore their owne discomfort painted in their eyes. And if they speake, ac­companyinge euerye woorde wyth certeyne treblefolde syghes, they reason of nothing elles, but of teares, of tourmentes, of desperacions, and of longyng for death. So that whansoeuer any sparckle of loue hath beegonne [Page] to kyndle in my breast, I haue by and by enforced my self with all dyligence to quenche it, not for anye hatred that I haue conceyued agaynst women (as these Ladyes sup­pose) but for myne owne health. On the other side, I haue knowen some other cleane contrarye to these sorowfull, whiche do not onelye auaunce and content theymselues with the cherefull lookes, louinge woordes, and sweete countenances of their ladies, but also sauce their sorowes with sweetenesse, so that they count the debates, the an­gers and the disdeignes of them, most sweete. Therefore these men seme vnto me to be much more then happy, for whereas they fynde so muche sweetenesse in the amorous disdeignes, whiche some men recken much more bytter then death, I beleue in louyng gestures they should feele that wonderfull blisse, whyche we seeke for in vayne in thys worlde. Therefore would I oure pastyme were this nyght to haue euerye manne shew, where there muste be a dysdeygne againste hym in the person beloued, what the cause should be that should make the persone conceiue thys disdeygne. For if there be anye here that haue proued those sweete disdeignes, I am sure they wil desire for courtesy one of these causes that make them so sweet. And perhappes I shall with a better will proceade some­what farther in loue, in hope that I shall also fynde thys sweetenesse, where as some finde bitternesse, and so shall not these Ladies geue me anye more this slaunderous re­porte, that I am not in loue.M. Peter Bembos de­uyse. This pastime was muche praysed, and therefore dyd euerye man setle himselfe to reason vppon this matter. But the Lady Emilia hol­dyng her peace M. Peter Bembo, that satt next in order, spake in this maner: My Lordes, this pastime that the L. Octauian hath propounded hath raysed no smal doubt in my mind, where he hath reso [...]ed of the disdiegnes of loue, the whi­che though they be sondry, yet vnto me haue they alwaies bin most bitter. Neither do I beleue that I can learne any sauce yt shalbe sufficiēt to sweten them. But peraduēture [Page] they are the more & the lesse bitter according to the cause wherof they arrise. For I haue in my daies (I remember) seene the woman whom I serued, stirred against me, ey­ther vpon a vaine suspicyon that she conceyued her self of my trustinesse, or elles vpon some other false opinyon that had bine put into her head by some mennes report to my hindraunce, so that I beleaued no grief might be com­pared to myne. And me thought that the greatest sorowe I felt was to suffer wythout deseruyng, and to sustayne this affliction, not for any offence of mine, but for the small loue that was in her. At other times I saw her dis­deignefull for some ouersight of mine, and knew that her anger proceaded of myne offence, and at that instante I iudged the former ve [...]ation to be verye lyght in compari­son to that whych I felt then. And me thought to be in displeasure, and that for myne owne trespas, wyth the persone whom onelye I coueted and with suche diligence sought to please, was the greatest torment of all other. Therefore woulde I oure pastyme were to haue euerye man declare his opinion, where there must be a disdeigne agaynst hym in the person beloued, of whom he woulde the cause of this disdeigne shoulde haue his beeginning, whether of her or of him selfe: to know which is the grea­ter grief, eyther to dysplease the wight beloued, or to re­ceyue dyspleasure of the wyght beloued. Euery man looked what the L. Emilia woulde make aunswere to this, but without anye woord speakyng to Bembo, she tourned her and made a signe to Sir Friderick Fregoso to shew his de­uyse.S. Friderick Fregosos di­uise. And he incontinentlye beegan thus: Madam, I woulde it were lawfull for me, as the maner is manye tymes to remytte me to the iudgement of an other, for I for my part woulde wyth all my heart allowe some of the pastymes that haue bine already propounded by these Lordes, bicause in deede me thinke they would be worth the hearing. Yet least I shoulde breake the order, thys I saye: who so woulde take in hande to praise oure Court, [Page] leauing a part the desertes of the dutchesse, which ghostly spirite, with her influence, is sufficient to drawe from the earth vp into heauen the simplist wittes in the worlde, he might wel do it without suspicion of flattery.Good Court­yers in the court of Ur­bin. For perad­uenture in all Italy a man shall haue muche a do to fynde out so many gentlemen and noble personages that are so worthy, and besyde the principall profession of Chiualrye so excellent in sundry thinges, as are presētly here. Ther­fore if in any place men may be founde y deserue the name of good Courtye [...], and can iudge what belongeth to the perfeccion of Courtyership, by reason a man may beleue them to be here. To disgrace therefore many vntowardly asseheades, that through malepertnes thinke to purchase them the name of a good Courtyer, I would haue suche a pastime for this night, that one of the company myght bee picked out who should take in hand to shape in woordes a good Courtyer, specifying all suche condicions and parti­culer qualities, as of necessitie must be in hym that deser­ueth this name. And in suche thinges as shall not appere necessarie, that it may be lawfull for euery man to replye against them, as the maner of Philosophers schooles is a­gainst him that kepeth disputacions. Syr Friderick procea­ded styll forwarde, in his talke, whan the L. Emilia: inter­ruptyng hym, sayde: If it bee my L. the dutchesse pleaser, this shall be our pastime for this once. The dutchesse aun­swered: I am wel pleased. Then (in maner) all the com­pany began to say both to the dutchesse, & amōg thēselues that this was the trimmest pastyme they could haue, and without looking for answere the one of the other, thei cra­ued vpon the Lady Emilia to appoint who shoulde first be­ginne. Who tournynge her towarde the dutchesse, sayde: Commaunde you (madam) whom shall please you to take this enterprise in hande, for I wyll not by chousing more one then an other, declare my selfe to iudge in this behalf, whom I thinke to be better skilled then the rest, and so do wrong to some. The dutchesse aunswered: make you this [Page] cho [...]se your selfe, and take hede that in disobeying you bee not a president to the rest to be disobedient. Then the Lady Emilia saide laughyng vnto Lewis count of Canossi: therefore for leesyng any more tyme, you (Count) shall be he that shall take this enterprise vppon hym in fourme and maner as Syr Friderick hath declared. Not for that we knowe ye are so good a Courtyer that you haue at your fingers endes that belongeth thereto: but because in repeatinge euerye thing arsiuersy, as we hope ye wyll, we shall haue somuch the more pastyme, and euerye one shall be able to answere you, where if an other more skilfull then you should take it in hande, there should bee nothing sayde againste hym for tellyng the trueth, and so shoulde we haue but a colde pastime. The Count aunswered by and by: we neede not feare (madam) that we shal wante contrarying in wordes againste hym that telleth the trueth, as longe as you bee here. And after they had laughed a whyle at this answer, he proceded on: but truely I would with all my hearte bee ridde of this burthen, for it is to hard for me. And I know that to be most true in me which you haue spoken in iest: namelye, that I haue no vnderstandynge in that belong­eth to a good Courtyer. And this dooe I not seeke to proue with anye other tryall, for seeyng I dooe not the deedes, a manne may iudge I vnderstande it not, and I beleue I am the lesse to bee blamed. For oute of doubte it is a woorse matter not to dooe well, then not to vnderstande howe to dooe it. Yet seynge youre pleaser is, that I shall take this charge vppon me, I can not, nor wyll refuse it, for withstandyng youre order and iudgemente, the which I knowe is muche better then myne. Then the L. Cesa [...] Gonzaga. Because it is nowe (quoth he) well forwarde in nyghte, and haue here redy for vs other sortes of pastimes peraduenture it shoulde not bee amysse to deferre this re­sonynge vntyll to morowe, and the Counte shall haue leysure to thynke better vppon that he hathe to saye: for in verye deede to entreate vppon suche a matter at the [Page] fyrste syghte, it is a harde thynge. Then aunswered the Count: I wyll not dooe as he dyd, that strypped himself into his dublette, and leaped lesse grounde then he didde before in his Coate. And me thynke my lucke is good that it is late, because the shortenesse of tyme shall make me vse fewe woordes, and the sodeinnesse of the matter shall so excuse me, that it shall be lawfull for me to speak withoute blame whatsoeuer commeth firste to mynde. Because I wyll not therefore carye this burthen of due­tye anye longer vppon my shoulders, this I saye:The true perfeccion in thinges. in eue­rye thynge it is so harde a matter to knowe the true per­feccion, that it is almoste vnpossible, and that by reason of the varietie of iudgementes. Therefore manye there are, that delite in a manne of muche talke, and hym they call a pleasaunt felowe. Some wyll delite more in mode­stie, some other wyll fansye a manne that is actyue and alwayes doynge: other, one that sheweth a quietnes and a respecte in euerye thynge. And thus dooeth euerye man prayse or dysprayse accordynge to hys fansye, alwayes co­uerynge a vyce with the name of the next vertue to it,Uice cloked with ye name of a vertue, & contrariwise. and a vertue with the name of the nexte vice: as in calling him that is sawcye, bolde: hym that is sober, drie: hym that is seelye, good: hym that is vnhappye, wittie: and lykewyse in the reste. Yet doe I thinke that eche thing hath his per­feccion, althoughe it be hid, and with reasonable dyscour­ses myght be iudged of hym that hath knowlege in ye mat­ter. And for as much as the trueth (as I haue sayd) is oftē ­tymes hid, and I take not vpon me to haue this knowlege I can not praise, but that kynde of Courtyers which I set most by, and allow that whiche semeth vnto me most nigh the trueth, in my smal iudgement. The which you shal fo­lowe if ye thinke it good, or els sticke to youre owne, yf it shal vary from mine. Neither will I (for all that) stād stiffe that mine is better then yours, for not onelye one thynge maie seme vnto you, and an other to me, but also vnto my self it may appere sometime one thing, somtime another. [Page] I wyll haue this our Courtyer therfore to be a Gentlemā borne & of a good house.The facionīg of a Courtyer For it is a great deale lesse dys­praise for him that is not born a gentleman to faile in the actes of vertue then for a gentleman.A Gentleman borne. If he swarne from the steppes of his auncestours, he stayneth the name of his familie, and doeth not onely not get, but loseth that is al­ready gotten. For noblenesse of birth (is as it were) a clere lampe that sheweth forth and bringeth into light, workes bothe good and badde, and enflameth and prouoketh vnto vertue, as wel with the feare of slaunder, as also with the hope of praise. And wheras this brightnesse of noblenesse dothe not discouer the workes of the vnnoble, they haue a wante of prouocation and of feare of slaunder, and they recken not themselues bounde to wade anye further then their auncetours did before theym, whereas the noble of birthe counte it a shame not to arriue at the leaste at the boundes of their predecessours set foorth vnto thē. There­fore it chaunceth alwaies (in a maner) bothe in armes and in all other vertuous actes, that the moste famous menne are gentlemen. Because nature in euery thing hath depe­ly sowed that priuie sede, which geueth a certain force and propertie of her beginning,Gentlemen of most prowesse vnto whatsoeuer springeth of it, and maketh it lyke vnto her selfe. As we see by exaum­ple not onely in the race of horses and other beastes, but also in trees, whose slippes and graftes alwayes for the moste parte are lyke vnto the stocke of the tree they came from: and yf at any time they growe out of kind, the fault is in the husbandman. And the lyke is in men, yf they bee trayned vp in good nourtour,Good bringīg vp in youthe. moste commonlye they resē ­ble them from whom thei come and often times passe thē, but yf they haue not one that can well trayn them vp, thei growe (as it were) wylde, and neuer come to their ripe­nesse. Truth it is, whether it be through the fauour of the starres or of nature,Some borne full of graces & comelines. some there are borne endowed wyth suche graces, that they seeme not to haue bene borne, but rather facioned with the verye hande of some God, and [Page] abounde in all goodnesse bothe of bodye and mynde. As a­gaine we see some so vnapte and dull,Some [...]orne very asse [...]eds that a man wyl not beleue, but nature hath brought them into the worlde for a spite and mockerie. And lyke as these with continual di­ligence and good bringyng vp for the most parte can bring small fruite: euen so the other with litle attendance clime to the full perfeccion of all excellency. Marke me the Lorde Hyppolitus da Este Cardinall of Ferrara, he hath hadde so happye a birthe, that his person, his countenaunce, his woordes, & all his gestures are so facioned & compact with this grace,Hypolitus da Este brother to the Duke of Ferrarra. that among the moste aunciente prelates (for all he is but yonge) he dothe represente so graue an aucthoritie, that a man woulde weene he were more meete to teache, then nedefull to learne. Likewise in company with menne and women of all degrees, in sportynge, in laughynge, and in iestynge he hath in hym a certayne sweetenesse, & so come­ly demeanours, that whoso speaketh with hym or yet be­holdeth hym, muste nedes beare him an affeccion for euer. But returnyng to our purpose I saye, that betwene thys excellent grace, and that fonde foolyshnesse there is yet a meane, and they that are not by nature so perfectly furni­shed, with studye and diligence maye polishe and correct a great part of the defaultes of nature. The Courtyer ther­fore, besyde noblenesse of birthe, I wyll haue hym to be fortunate in this behalfe, & by nature to haue not only a wytte, and a comely shape of persone and countenance, but also a certain grace, and (as they saie) a hewe, that shal make him at the first sight acceptable & louyng vnto who so beholdeth him. And let this be an ornament to frame & accompanye all his actes, and to assure men in his looke, suche a one to bee woorthy the companye and fauour of e­uery great man. Here without any longer tariyng the L. G [...]sper Palla [...]icin saide: that our pastime may haue the fourme and maner agreed vpon, and least it shoulde appeare that we litle esteme the aucthoritie geuen vs to contrary you, I say (in mine aduise) that this nobl [...]nesse of birthe is not [Page] [...]o necessarie for the Courtyer. And if I wiste that anye of you thought it a straunge or a newe matter, I woulde al­ledge vnto you sondrye, who for all they were borne of moste noble bloude, yet haue they bene heaped full of vy­ces: And contrarywise, many vnnoble that haue made fa­mous their posteritie. And yf it be true that you sayde be­fore, that the priuie force of the firste seede is in euerye thynge, we shoulde al bee in one maner condicion, for that we had all one selfe begynnynge, and one shoulde not bee more noble then an other. But besyde the diuersityes and degrees in vs of highe and lowe, I beleue there bee manye other matters, wherein I iudge fortune to be the chief, be­cause we see her beare a stroke in al worldlye thinges, and (as it were) take a pastime to exalt many times whō plea­seth her without any desert at all, & burie in the botomles depth the most worthy to be exalted. I confirme your say­ing as touching the happines of thē that are borne aboun­ding in all goodnes both of minde & bodie: but this is seen aswel in the vnnoble, as in the noble of birthe, for nature hath not these so subtile distinctions: yea (as I haue sayde) we se many times in persōs of most base degree, most high giftes of nature. Therefore seing this noblenes is gotten neither wt wit, force, nor art, but is rather a praise of oure ancestours thē our own, me think it a strange opiniō that ye parētes of our Courtyer being vnnoble, his good quali­ties should be defaced, & those ou [...] good condicions whiche you haue named should not be sufficiēt to bring him to the top of al perfeccion: yt is to say, wit, beauty of fisnamy, dis­positiō of persō, & ye grace which at the first sight shal make him moste acceptable vnto all mē. Thē aunswered Count Lewis: I denie not, but in mē of base degree may reigne the very same vertues yt are in gentlemē. But to auoyd reher­sal of that we haue already said, with many other reasons that might be alleged in commendacion of noblenesse, the which is euermore honored of al mē because it stādeth with reasō yt good should spring of good, forsomuch as our entē [...] [Page] is to facion a Courtyer without ani maner default or lack in hym, & heaped with all praise, me thinke it a necessarye matter to make him a gentleman, as well for many other respects, as also for the common opinion, which by and by doeth leane to noblenesse. For where there are two in a noble mans house which at the first haue geuen no proofe of themselues with woorkes good or bad,Noblenes of birthe in esti­macion with all men. assoone as it is knowen that the one is a gentleman borne, and the other not, the vnnoble shall be muche lesse estemed with euerye manne, then the gentleman,The imprin­tinges or con­ceiuinges of ye minde with expectacion. and he muste with much tra­uaile and long time imprint in mennes heades a good op­nion of himselfe, whiche the other shal geat in a moment, and onely for that he is a gentleman: and howe waightye these imprintinges are euery man may easily iudge. For, to speake of our selues: we haue seen menne come to thys house, whiche for all they were fooles and dulwitted, yet had they a report through all Italye of great Courtyers, & though at length they were discouered and knowen, yet manye daies did thei beguyle vs, and mainteyned in oure myndes that oppinion of themselues, whiche at the fyrste they found there imprinted, although they wrought accor­dyng to their small skil. We haue seen other at the fyrste in very smal estimation,The yl incly­nacion of princes in [...]uou­ring thē that deserue it not and afterwarde in the ende haue acquited themselues marueilous well. And of these errors there are diuers causes and among other the obstinatenes of princes, whiche to proue mastries oftentimes bend thē ­selues to fauor him, that to their seeming, deserueth no fauour at all, & manye tymes in deede they are deceyued. But because thei haue alwaies many yt counterfait thē, a very great report depēdeth vpō their fauor, yt which moste cōmōly iudgemēts folow. And if thei fīd any thīg yt semeth cōtrary to ye common opiniō, thei ar in doubt for deceiuing thēselues,We be moued to passions without anye manifest cause why. & alwaies loke for some matter secretly because it semeth, yt these general opiniōs ought to be foūded vpō a trothe, & arise of reasonable causes. And forsomuch as our mindes are very apte to loue and to hate: as in the sightes [Page] of combates and games and in all other kinde of conten­cion one with an other, it is seene that the lookers on ma­ny times beare affecciō without any manifest cause why, vnto one of the two parties, with a gredy desire to haue him get the victorie, and the other to haue the ouerthrow. Also as touching the opinion of mens qualities, the good or yll reporte at the first brunt moueth oure mynde to one of these two passions: therefore it commeth to passe, that for the moste part we iudge with loue or els with hatred. You see then of what importance this first imprinting is, and howe he ought to endeuoure himself to get it good in princes, if he entende to be set by, and to purchase him the name of a good Courtyer. But to come to some par­ticularitie, I iudge the principall and true profession of a Courtyer ought to be in feates of armes,Armes the Courtyers chiefe profes­sion. the which aboue all I will haue hym to practise liuely, and to bee knowen among other for his hardinesse, for his acheuing of enter­prises, and for his fidelitie toward him whom he serueth. And he shall purchase himselfe a name with these good cō ­dicions, in doing the dedes in euerie time and place: for it is not for him to feint at any time in this behalfe without a wonderous reproche.That he take no foile. And euen as in women honestye once stained dothe neuer retourne againe to the former a­state: So the fame of a gentleman that carieth weapon, yf it once take a foile in any litle point through dastardlines or any other reproche, doeth euermore continue shameful in the worlde and full of ignoraunce. Therefore the more excellent our Courtyer shalbe in this arte, the more shall he bee worthy praise: albeit I iudge not necessarye in hym so perfect a knowledge of thynges and other qualities yt is requisite in a capitaine. But because this is ouerlarge a scope of matters, wee wyll holde oure selues contented (as wee haue sayde) with the vprightnesse of a well mea­ning minde, & with an inuincible courage, and that he al­waies shew himself such a one: for many times mē of cou­rage are sooner knowen in small matters then in greate. [Page] Often times in daungers that stande them vpon,Cowardes sometime hardie. & where many eyes be, ye shall see some that for all their hearte is dead in their bodie, yet pricked with shame or with the cō ­pany, go forwarde (as it were) blindfield and do their due­tie. And god knoweth bothe in matters that little touche them, and also where they suppose that without missynge they may conuey themselues from daunger, how they are willingynough to slepe in a whole skinne.Who haue ye stoutenesse of courage. But suche as think themselues neither marked, seen, nor knowen, and yet declare a stout courage, and suffer not the leaste thyng in the worlde to passe that maie burthen them, they haue ye courage of spirite whiche we seke to haue in our Court­yer. Yet will we not haue him for al that so lustie to make brauerie in woordes, and to bragge that he hathe wedded his harneys for his wife, and to threaten with suche grim lookes, as we haue seene Berto do oftentimes. For vnto suche maie well be saide that a worthie Gentlewoman in a noble assembly spake pleasauntly vnto one, that shall be namelesse for this tyme, whome she to shewe hym a good countenance, desired to daunce with her, and he refusing both that, and to heare musick and many other entertain­mentes offred him, alwaies affirmyng suche trifles not to be his profession, at last the Gentlewoman demaundyng him, what is then your profession? He aunswered with a frowning looke, to fight. Then saide the Gentlewoman: seing you are not nowe at the warre nor in place to fight, I woulde thinke it beste for you to bee well besmered and set vp in an armorie with other implementes of warre till time wer that you should be occupied, least you wa [...]e more rustier then you are. Thus with muche laughinge of the standers by she left him with a mocke in his foolishe pre­sumpcion. He therefore that we seeke for,A stouther­ted man. where the ene­mies are, shall shewe himselfe moste fierce, bitter, & euer­more with the firste. In euerie place beside, lowly, sober, & circumspecte, fleeing aboue all thinge,To auoide prai [...]ing a mans selfe. bragginge and vn­shamefull praising himself, for therewith a man alwaies [Page] purchaseth himself the hatred and yll will of the hearers. And I, aunswered the L. Gaspar, haue knowen few men ex­cellent in any thing whatsoeuer it bee, but they praise thē selues. And me thinke it may wel be borne in them: for he that is of skill, whan he seeth that he is not knowē for his woorkes of the ignoraunte, hath a disdeigne that his con­nynge should lye buried,Estimation the reward of vertious actes. and needes muste he open it one waie, least he should bee defrauded of the estimation that belongeth to it, whiche is the true rewarde of vertuous trauailes. Therefore among the auncient writers he that muche excelleth doeth sildome forbeare praisyng hymself. They in deede are not to be borne withall that hauyng no skill in theym, wyll prayse themselues: but we wyll not take our Courtyer to be suche a one. Then the Count, yf you haue well vnderstoode (quoth he) I blamed the pray­synge of a mans selfe impudently and withoute respecte. And surelye (as you saye) a man ought not to conceyue an yll oppinion of a skilfull man that praiseth hymselfe, dys­cretely, but rather take it for a more certaine witnes, then yf it came out of an other mans mouth. I agree well that he, whiche in praising himselfe falleth not into errour, nor purchaseth himself lothsomenes or hatred of the hearers, is moste discrete: and beside the praises whiche he geueth himselfe, deserueth the same of other men also, because it is a very harde matter. Then the L. Gaspar, this (quoth he) muste you teache vs. The Count aunswered: Emong the auntient writers there hathe not also wanted that hathe taught it.In what sort a man maye praise himself But in mine opiniō, all doth consist in speaking such thynges after a sort, yt it maye appeare that they are not rehearsed to that ende: but that they come so to pur­pose, that he can not refrayne tellyng them, and alwaies seemynge to flee his owne prayse tell the trueth. But not as those lustie laddes dooe, that open their mouthe and thruste oute woordes at auenture they care not how. As within these few dayes one of oure cōpany beyng pus­shed throughe the thygh with a pyke at Pysa, Braue roy­sters. thought that [Page] it was the bytynge of a flie. And an other sayde that he oc­cupied no lookynge glasse in his chamber, because in hys rage he was so terrible to beholde, that in lookynge vpon his owne countenaunce he shoulde put himself into much feare. At this euery one laughed. But the L. Cesar Gonzaga saide vnto them: At what laugh you? Knowe ye not that the great Alexander,Anaxagoras. hearing a certayne Philosophers op­pinion to be that there were infinite worldes, fell in we­ping: And when he was asked the question why he wept, he aunswered: Because I haue not yet one in hande, as thoughe his mynde was to haue them all. Dooe you not thynke that this was a greater brauerie, then to speak of the fly biting: So was Alexander a greater person then he that so sayde, aunswered the Count. But excellent mē in very deede are to be helde excused, whan they take muche vpon them: because he that vndertaketh great enterprises muste haue a boldnesse to dooe it, and a confidence of hym selfe, and not of a bashfull or cowardly mynde, but yet so­ber in woordes: shewing as though he tooke lesse vpō hym then he dothe in deede, so that his taking vpon him do not extend vnto rashnesse. Here the Count respetyng a while M. Bernard Bibiena saide merelye: I remember you saide be­fore, that this oure Courtyer oughte of nature to haue a faire comelynesse of fisnamye and person, with the grace that oughte to make hym so amyable. As for the grace and beautie of fisnamie, I thynke not the contrary but they are in me, and therefore doe so many women burne for the loue of me, as you knowe. But for the comely­nesse of persone, I stande somewhat in doubte, and especi­allye by reason of my legges here, for me thinke in deede thei are not so wel made as I could wishe thei wer: the bo­dy and the rest is meetely wel. Therfore declare som what more particularly this comelines of person, what it should be, that I may be out of this doubt & set my heart at reste. Whan thei had a while ughed at this, the Count sayde: Certes, ye grace of ye fisnamy, may wel be said to be in you [Page] without any lye. And no other exaumple doe I alledge but this, to declare what maner thing it shoulde bee: for vn­doubtedly we see your countenaunce is most acceptable & pleasant to beholde vnto euery man, although the propor­ciō and draughtes of it be not very delicate, but it is man­ly and hath a good grace withall. And this qualitie haue many and sundrye shapes of visages.The counte­naunce of the Courtyer. And suche a counte­naunce as this is, will I haue our Courtyer to haue, and not so softe and womanishe as manye procure to haue, ye do not onely courle the hear, and picke the browes, but al­so paumpre themselues in euery point like the most wan­ton and dishonest women in the worlde: and a man would thinke thē in goyng,Menne that woulde ap­pere womē. in standing, and in all their gestures so tender and feint, that their members were ready to flee one from an other, and their woordes they pronounce so drawningly, that a man would weene they were at that instant yelding vp the ghost: and the higher in degree the men are they talke withall, the more they vse suche facy­ons. These men, seing nature (as they seeme to haue a de­sire to appeare and to bee) hath not made them women, ought not to be esteamed in place of good women, but like common Harlottes to be banished, not onely out of pryn­ces courtes, but also oute of the companye of Gentlemen. To come therefore to the qualitie of the person, I say he is wel,Good to bee of a meane stature. if he bee neither of y least, nor of the greatest sise. For bothe the one and the other hath with it a certayne spyte­full wonder, and suche men are marueyled at, almoste, as muche as men marueile to behoulde monstrous thynges. Yet if there must nedes be a defaulte in one of the two ex­tremities, it shall be lesse hurtfull to bee somewhat of the least,Rather with the lowest then to high. then to excede the common stature in height. For mē so shut vp of bodie, beside that manye tymes they are of a dull wit, they are also vnapte for all exercyses of nimeble­nesse, whiche I much desire to haue in the Courtyer. And therefore will I haue him to bee of a good shape, and well proporcioned in his lymmes, and to shewe strength, light­nes, [Page] and quickenesse,To be a man of warre. and to haue vnderstandyng in all ex­ercises of the bodie, that belonge to a man of warre. And herein I thinke the chief point is to handle well all kynde of weapon both for footeman and horseman,To handle al kind of wea­pon. and to know the vaun [...]ages in it. And especially to be skilfull on those weapons that are vsed ordinarily emong gentlemen, for beside the vse that he shall haue of them in warre, where peraduenture nedeth no great connyng, there happen of­ten times variaunces betwene one gentleman and an o­ther, whereupon ensueth a combat. And manye tymes it shall stande him in stede to vse the weapon whiche he hath at that instant by his side, therefore it is a very sure thing to be skilfull. And I am none of them whiche saye,Fightinge maketh not a mā to forget his fence. that he forgetteth his conning whan he commeth to the poynte: for to abide by, whoso loseth his conning at that time, she­weth that he hath firste loste his heart and his spirites for feare. I think also it will serue his turne greatly, to know ye feate of wrastling,Wrastlynge. because it goeth much together with all weapon on foote. Againe it is behouffull bothe for him selfe and for his frendes,To knowe what is to be done in quar­rels whan they happen. that he haue a foresight in the quarelles and controuersies that may happē, and let him beware of the vauntages, declarynge alwaies in euerye pointe bothe courage and wisedome. Neither let him rūne rashely to these combattes, but whan he muste needes to saue his estimation withall:Not rashe to fight com­battes. for beside the greate daunger that is in the doubtfull lotte, hee that goeth headlonge to these thynges and without vrgent cause, deserueth verye great blame, although his chaunce bee good. But whan a man perceiueth that he is entred so farre that hee can not drawe backe withoute burdeyn, hee muste,Howe a man ought to be­haue himself in fightyng a combatte. bothe in suche thinges he hath to doe before the combat and also in the combat be vtterlye resolued with hymselfe, and alwayes shewe a readinesse and a stomake. And not as some dooe, passe the matter in arguing and pointes, and hauing the choise of weapon, take suche as haue neyther poynte nor edge. And arme themselues as thoughe they shoulde goe [Page] against the shotte of a Cannon. And weening it sufficyēt not to be vanquished, stande alwaies at their defence and geue grounde, in so muche that they declare an extreme faint hert, and are a mocking stocke to the verye chyldren. As those two of Ancona: that a while a goe fought a combat beside Perugia, and made them to laughe that looked on. And what were they, quoth the L. Gaspar Palla [...]icin. The [...]. Ce­sar aunswered: Cousins Germains of two sisters. Then said the Count: at the combat a man would haue thought them naturall brethren, then he went forwarde. Also men occupie their weapon oftentimes in tyme of peace aboute sondrie exercises, and gentlemen are seen in open showes in the presence of people, women and Princes. Therefore will I haue our Courtyer a perfecte horseman for euerye saddle.A perfecte horseman. And beside the skyll in horses and in whatsoeuer belongeth to a horseman, let him set all his delite and dy­lygence to wade in euerye thyng a litle farther then other menne, so that he maye bee knowen among al menne for one that is excellente.Alcibiades excelled other nations in theyr owne [...]eates. As it is reade of Alcibiades, that he e [...]celled all other nations wheresoeuer he came, and e­uerye manne in the thynge he hadde moste skyll in. So shall this oure Courtyer passe other menne, and euerye manne in his owne profession. And because it is the pecu­lyer prayse of vs Italians to ryde well, to manege wyth reason,Property of Italians. especiallye roughe horses, to runne at the rynge and at tyl [...]e, he shall bee in this amonge the beste Italy­ans. At tourneymente, in kepyng a passage, in fightinge at barriers,Property of Frenchmen. he shall be good emong the best Frenchemen. At Io [...]o di canne, runninge at Bull, castinge of speares and dartes, he shall be amonge the Spaniardes excellent. But principallye lette hym accompanye all his mocion wyth a certayne good iudgemente and grace,Property of Spaniardes yf he wyll deserue that generall fauour whiche is so muche set by. There bee also manye other exercises, the whiche thoughe they de­pende not throughlye vpon armes, yet haue they a greate agreemente with them, and haue in them muche manlye [Page] a [...]tiuitie.Hunt [...]. And of them me thinke huntynge is one of the chiefest, for it hath a certaine lykenesse with warre, and truelye a pastyme for great men, and fitte for one lyuyng in courte. And it is founde that it hath also bene muche v­sed amonge them of olde tyme. It is meete for hym also to haue the arte of swimming, to leape, to runne,Swimming Leapyng. Runnyng. Castyng the stone. to cast the stone: for beside the profite that he maie receyue of thys in the warres, it happeneth to hym manye tymes to make proofe of himselfe in suche thynges, whereby he getteth hym a reputacion, especiallye among the multitude, vnto whom a man muste sometyme applye hymselfe. Also it is a noble exercyse and meete for one lyuyng in court to play at tenyse, where the disposition of the bodye,Playe at te­nyse. the quicke­nesse and nimeblenesse of euerye member is much percey­ued, and almoste whatsoeuer a manne can see in all other exercises. And I recken vautyng of no lesse prayse, which for all it is peynefull and harde,Uawting. maketh a man more light and quicker then any of the rest: and beside the profite, yf that lightnesse be accompanyed with a good grace, it ma­keth (in my iudgemente) a better showe then anye of the reste. If our Courtyer then be taught these exercises more then indifferently well, I beleue he may sette a syde tum­blyng, clymynge vpon a corde, and suche other matters y taste somewhat of iugglers crafte,Tumblynge not fit for a Gentleman. and doe lytle beseeme a Gentleman. But because we can not alwayes endure emonge these so paynefull doynges, besyde that the con­tynuaunce goeth nyghe to geue a manne hys fyll, and taketh awaye the admyracion that menne haue of thyn­ges sildome seen, we muste contynuallye alter oure lyfe with practysynge sondrye matters.To frame himself to the company. Therefore wyll I haue oure Courtyer to descende manye times to more ea­sye and pleasaunt exercyses. And to auoyde enuye and to keepe companye pleasauntlye with euery man, let him do whatsoeuer other men do: so he decline not at any time frō commendable dedes, but gouerneth himselfe with ye good iudgement y will not suffer hym to enter into any folye: [Page] but let him laugh, dalie, iest, and daunce, yet in such wise that he maie alwayes declare himselfe to bee wittie and discrete, and euerie thynge that he doeth or speaketh, let him doe it with a grace. Truelye, saide then the L. Cesar Gonzaga the course of this communicacion shoulde not be stopped: but if I shoulde houlde my peace, I should not sa­tisfie the libertie whiche I haue to speake, nor the desyre that I haue to vnderstand one thing. And let me be pardo­ned if where I ought to speake against, I demaund a que­stion: because I suppose I maie lawfully do it after the ex­ample of▪ M. Bernard, who for the to great desire he hadde to be counted a welfauoured man, hath offended agaynst the lawes of our pastime in demaunding without speakinge against. Behoulde I beseche ye, saide then the dutchesse, howe one errour bringeth in a great sorte. Therfore who so offendeth and geueth yll example, as M. Bernard hathe done, deserueth to be punished not onely for his owne of­fence, but for other mens also. Then aunswered the▪ L. Cesar: Therefore must I (madam) escape punishmente, for that M. Bernard ought to bee punished for his owne offēce and mine bothe. Nay (quoth the dutchesse) you oughte to haue bothe double punishmente. He for his offence, and for beynge an occasion for you to commit the lyke: & you for your offence and for taking hym for a president that dyd offende. I haue not hytherto offended madam, answe­red the L▪ Cesar. Therefore because I wyll leaue the whole punishmente for M. Bernard I wyll kepe silence. And nowe he helde his peace, whan the L. Emilia aunswered: say what pleaseth you, for (by the dutchesse leaue) I perdone thys faulte, and whosoeuer shall offende in so small a trespace. Upon that the dutchesse said: I am well pleased. But take ye heede that ye deceiue not your selfe, thinking peraduē ­ture to be better reported of for mercy then for iustice. For in perdoning the offendour to muche, ye do wrong to him that doeth not offende. Yet wyll not I haue my rigour at this time in accusing your mercye to be the cause that we [Page] shall lose the hearing of this the L. Cesars demaund. So he, after the dutches & the L. Emilia had made a signe to him, sayde by and by: if I do well beare in mind, me thynke (Count Lewis) you haue this night oftētimes repeted, that the Courtier ought to accompany all his doinges, gestu­res, demeaners, finally al his mocions with a grace, and this, me think, [...]e put for a sauce to euery thing, without the which all his other properties & good condicions were litle woorth. And I beleue verely that euery man would soone be perswaded therin,Grace. for by the vertue of the worde a man may saye, that whoso hath grace is gracious. But bicause you haue saide sundry times that it is the gift of nature and of the heauens, and againe where it is not so perfect, that it maye with studye and diligence be made muche more they that be borne so happye and so welthye with such a treasure (as some that we se (me thynke ther­in they haue litle nede of anye other teacher, because the bountifull fauour of heauen doeth (as it were) in spite of them, guide them higher then they couet, & maketh them not onely acceptable, but marueylous vnto all the world. Therfore I do not reason of this, because the obtainynge of it of our selues lyeth not in our powre: but such as by nature haue one [...]y so much, that they be apte to beecome gratious in bestowinge labour, exercise, and diligence, I would faine knowe with what art, with what learning, and by what meane they shall compasse this grace, aswel in the exercises of the bodye (wherin ye thinke it so neces­sarie a matter) as in all other thynges that they dooe or speake. Therfore as you haue in praysinge thys qualytye to vs engendred (I beleue) in al a feruent thi [...]st to comeby it, by the charge ye receiued of y L. Emilia, so with [...]eaching it vs, ye are bound to quenche it. Bound I am not (quoth the Count) to teache you to haue a good grace, nor anye thing els, sauing only to shew you what a perfect Court­yer ought to be. Neither will I take vpon me to teach you this perfeccion, sins a while a goe, I said, that ye Courtier [Page] ought to haue the [...]eate of wrastlyng and vawtinge, and such other thinges, the which howe I should be able to teache them not hauing learned them my selfe, I am sure ye knowe it all. It sufficeth that as a good souldyer cann speake his minde to an armourer of what facion, of what temper and goodnesse he will haue his harneys, and for all that cannot teache him to make it, nor to hammer or temper it: So perhaps I am able to tel you what a perfect Courtyer ought to be, but not to teach you how ye should doe to be one. Notwithstanding to fulfill your request in what I am able, althoughe it be (in maner) in a prouerbe that Grace is not to be learned, Grace not to be learned. I say vnto you, wh [...]so mindeth to be gracious or to haue a good grace in t [...]e e [...]ercises of the body, (presupposing first that he be not of nature vn­apt) ought to begin betimes, and to learne his principles of cunning men. The which thyng how necessarie a mat­ter Philip king of Macedonie thought it, a man may gather in that his wil was that Aristotel so famous a philosopher,Ari [...]otle the first that taught the great Alex­ander. and perhappes the greatest that euer h [...]th bine in the world, should be the man that should instruct Alexander his sonne in the first principles of letters. And of men whom we know nowadayes, mark how wel & with what a good grace Sir Galiazzo Sanseuerino M. of the horse to the Frenche king,S. Galeaz [...]o Sanseueri­ [...]o. doth all e [...]ercises of the body: & that because, besyde the naturall disposition of person that is in him, he hath applyed all his study to learne of cunning men, & to haue continually e [...]cellent men about him, and of euery one to chuse the best of that they haue skill in. For as in wrast­ling, in vawting, & in learning to handle sundry kinde of weapons he hath taken for his guide oure M. Peter Mount, who (as you know) is the true & only maister of al artifici­all force & sleight:A good scoler must seeke to be like his maister. So in ridyng, in iustyng, & in euerye o­ther feate, he hath alwayes had before his eyes the most perfectest that hath ben knowen to be in those professiōs: He therfore that wil be a good scolar, beside ye practysing of good thinges, must euermore set al his diligence to bee [Page] lyke his mayster, and (if it were possible) chaunge himself into him. And when he hath had some entrey, it profiteth hym much to behould sondrye men of that profession: and gouerning hymselfe with that good iudgement that must alwayes be hys guyds, go about t [...] pyke out, sometyme of one and sometyme of an other, sundry matters. And euen as the bee in the greene medowes fleeth alwayes aboute the grasse chousynge out flowres:Howe grace is to be atte [...] ­ned So shall our Courtyer steale thys grace from them that to hys seming haue it, & from ech one that percell that shal be most worthy praise. And not do, as a frende of ours, whom you al know, that thought he resembled much kyng Ferdinande the yonger of Aragon, and regarded not to resemble hym in anye other poynt but in the often lyftyng vp hys head, wrying there­wythall a part of hys mouth, the whych custome the king had gotten by infyrmitye. And manye such there are that thynke they doe much, so they resemble a great man in somewhat, and take many tymes the thynge in hym that woorst becommeth hym. But I, imagynyng with my self oftentymes how this grace commeth,A generall rule leauing a part such as haue it from aboue, fynd one rule that is most general whych in thys part (me thynk) taketh place in al thynges belongyng to man in worde or deede aboue all other. And that is to eschew as much as a man may,To auoid cu­riositie & as a sharp and daungerous rock, Affectation or curiosity & (to speak a new word (to vse in euery thyng a certain Reckelesness, to couer art withall, & seeme whatsoeuer he doth & sayeth to do it wythout pain, & (as it were) not myndyng it. And of thys do I beleue grace is muche deryued,Reckelesnes, for in rare matters & wel brought to passe euery man knoweth the hardnes of them, so that a redines therin maketh great wonder. And contrarywise to vse force, and (as they say) to hale by the hear, geueth a great disgrace, & maketh euery thing how great so euer it be, to be litle estemed. Therfore yt may be said to be a very art that appeereth not to be art,To couer art neyther ought a man to put more diligence in any thing then in couering [Page] it: for in case it be open, it loseth credit cleane, and maketh a man litle set by. And I remember that I haue reade in my dayes, that there were some most excellent Oratours, which among other their cares, enforced themselues to make euery man beleue that they had no sight in letters, & dissemblinge their cunning, made semblant thei▪ orati­ons to be made very simply, and rather as nature & trueth lead them, then study and arte, the whiche if it had bene openly knowen, would haue putte a doubt in the peoples minde, for feare least he beguiled them. You may see then howe to shewe arte and suche bent study taketh away the grace of euery thing.To seme not to mynde the thing a man doeth excel­lently well▪ Which of you is it that laugheth not when our M. Peterpaul daūseth after his owne facion with such fine skippes and on tipt [...] without mouing his head, as though he were all of wood, so heedfullie, that truely a man would weene he coun [...]ed his paces. What eye is so blind that perceiueth not in this the disgrace of curiosity, and in many men & women here present the grace of that not regarded agylitie and s [...]ghte conueyaunce (for in the mocions of the bodye manye so terme it) with a kinde of speaking or smiling, or gesture, betokening not to passe v­pon it, and to minde anye other thinge more then that, to make him beleue that loketh on that he can not do amisse. Here M. Bernard Bibiena not forbearing any longer, sayde: you may se yet that our M. Robert hath found one to praise his maner of daunsing, though the reste of you set litle by it. For if this excellency doeth consist in Reckelesness, and in shewing not to passe vpon and rather to minde anye other thing then that a man is in hande withall M. Robert hath no peere in the worlde. For that men should wel perceiue that he litle mindeth it, manye tymes his garmentes fa [...]l, from hys backe, and his slippers from his feete, and daū ­seth on still without taking vppe againe anye of both. Then aunswered the Count: Seyng you will nedes haue me speake, I wyll saye some what also of oure vices. To you not marke, this that you call in M. Robert Reckelesness, [Page] is a verie curiositie? for it is well kn [...]wen that he enfor­ceth himself with al diligence possible to make a show not to minde it, and that is to minde it to much. And bicause he passeth certain limites of a meane, that Reckelesne [...] of his is curious, and not comly, and is a thing that commeth cleane contrarye to passe from the dryfte, (that is to wit) to couer arte. Therfore I iudge it a no lesse vyce of curiositye to be in Reckelesness (which in it selfe is prayse worthye) in lettynge a mans clothes fal of his backe, then in Preciseness (whiche likewise of it self is praise worthy) to carie a mans head so like a malthorse for feare of ruffling his hear,Precisene [...] or to keepe in the bottome of his cappe a looking glasse, and a combe in his sleeue, and to haue alwayes at his heeles vp and down the streetes a page with a spunge and a brushe: for this maner of Preciseness and Reckelesness are to much in the extremitie, which is alwaies a vice and contrarie to that pure and amiable simplicitie, which is so acceptable to mens mindes. Marke what an yll grace a man at armes hath, when he enforceth himselfe to goe so bolt vpright setled in saddle (as we vse to say after the Ve­netian phrase) in comparisō of an other that appeareth not to mind it, and sitteth on horseback so nimbly and close as though he were on fote. How much more do we take plea­ser in a gentilman that is a man at armes, and how much more worthy praise is he if he be modest, of few wordes, and no bragger, then an other that alwayes craketh of him self, & blaspheming with a brauery s [...]emeth to threa­ten the worlde. And this is nothing els but a curiositie to seeme to be a roister. The lyke happeneth in all exercises, yea in euerye thinge in the worlde that a man can doe or speak. Then said the L. Iulian:Musicke this in like maner is verified in musicke: where it is a verye greate vice to make two perfecte cordes, the one after the other, so that the verye sence of our hearing abhorreth it, & of [...]en times deliteth in a seconde or in a seuen, which in it selfe is an vnplea­saunt discord and not tollerable: & this proceadeth because [Page] the continuance in the perfit tunes engendreth vrkesom­nesse, and betokeneth a to curious harmonye the whyche in mynglyng therwythall the vnperfect is auoyded wyth makynge (as it were) a comparason, whereby oure eares stande to listen and gredely attend and tast the perfecte, and are otherwhyle delyted wyth the disagrement of the seconde or seuen, as it were with a thing lytle regarded. Behould ye then, answered the Count that curiousnesse hurteth in thys aswell as in other thynges. They say also that it hath bene a prouerbe emonge some most excellent poincters of old time, that To muche diligence is hurtfull, and that Apelles [...]ound fault with Protogenes because he coulde not keepe his handes from the table.To much di­ligence hurt­full Then sayd the L, Ce­sar: The very same fault (me think) is in our Frier S [...]r [...]phin that he cannot kepe his handes from the table, especially as long as there is any meat styrryng. The Count laugh­ed and went forward: Apelles meanyng was, that Protoge­nes knew not when it was well, whych was nothyng els but to reprehend, hys curyousnesse in hys workes. Thys vertue therfore contrarye to curiosity whych we for thys tyme terme Reckelesness, besyde that it is the true fountain from the whych all grace spryngeth, it bryngeth wyth it also an other ornamente, whych accompanyinge any [...] deede that a man doeth, [...] is thought [...] to be more cun­ning [...], how lytle so euer it be doeth not onely by and by open the knowledge of hym that doth it, but also many times maketh it to be estemed much more in effect then it is, because it imprinteth in the myndes of the lookers on an opinyon, that whoso can so sleyghtly do well, hath a great deale more knowledge then indeede h [...] hath: and if he wyll apply hys study and dilygence to that he doeth, he myght do it much better. And to repete euen the verye same examples, Marke a man that taketh wea­pon in hande: [...]f goyng about to cast a darte, or houldyng in hys hand a sworde or any other waster, he se [...]leth hym self lightsomely (not thinking vpon it) in a ready aptnesse wyth such actiuity, that a man would weene hys bodye & [Page] all his members were naturally setled in that disposition and without any payne, though he doeth nothing els, yet doeth he declare hymself vnto euerye man to be most per­fect in that exercise. Lykewyse in daunsinge, one mea­sure, one mocion of a bodye that hath a good grace, not be­yng forced, doeth by and by declare the knowledge of him that daunseth. A musitien, yf in singing he roule out but a playne note endinge in a dooble relise wyth a sweete tune,A slight trick betoke­neth know­ledge so easily that a man would iudge he did it at auen­ture, in that point alone he doeth men to vnderstand that his knowledge is far greater then it is indeede. Oftenty­mes also in peinctinge, one lyne not studyed vpon, one draught with the pensel sleightly drawen, so it appeareth the hand without the guiding of any study or art, tendeth to his mark, according to the peincters purpose, doth eui­dently discouer the excellency of the workman, about the opinion wherof euery man afterwarde contendeth accor­dyng to his iudgement. The like happeneth also, in a maner, about euery other thing. Therfore shall our Court­yer be esteemed excellent, and in euerye thyng he shall haue a good grace, and especially in speaking, if he auoide curiositye: into which errour many men runne, and some time more then other, certain of our Lumbardes, men that w [...] b [...] deemed to be [...] which after a yeeres trauaile abrode, come home and begin by and by to speake the Romayne tunge, somtime the spanish tunge, or the Frenche, and God wotteth howe. And all this pro­ceadeth of an ouer great desier to show much knowledge: and in this wise a man applyeth hys studye and diligence to gett a most odyous vice. And truelye it were no small trauayle for me, if I should vse in this communycatyon of oures, those auncient Tuscane wordes, that are not in vse amonge the Tuscanes nowe a dayes,Auncient [...]uscane woordes and beesyde that, I beleeue euerye manne would laughe at me. Then spake Syr Friderick, In deede reasoning together as wee nowe do [...]e, peraduenture it were not well done to vse those auntient Tuscane woordes: for (as you say) [Page] they would be a lothsomnesse both to the speaker and to the hearer, and of manye they should not be vnderstoode without muche a doe. But he that shoulde write, I would thinke he committed an errour in not vsing them: bicause they gaue a great grace and aucthoritie vnto writinges, and of them is compact a tonge more graue and more full of maiestie, then of the newe. I knowe not answered the Count, what grace and aucthority those wordes can geue vnto writinges that ought to be eschewed,Old wordes to be esch [...]ewed both in speaking and writing. not only in the maner of speach that we now vse (which you your self confesse) but also in any other maner that can be imagined. For if anye man, of howe good a iudgement so euer he were, had to make an oration of graue matters in the ve­rye Counsell chamber of Florence which is the head of Tus­cane: or els to common priuately with a person of estimaci­on in that city about waightye affaires: or also with the familiarst frend he hath about pleasaunt matters: or with women or gentilmen about matters of loue, either in i [...]s­ting or daliyng, banketting, gaming, or where euer els: or in any time or place, or purpose, I am ass [...]red he would flee the vsing of those auntient Tuscane wordes. And in vsyng them, beside that he should be a laughing stock, he should bringe no small lothesomenesse to hym that heard them. Therfore me thinke it a straunge matter to vse those wordes for good in writing, that are to be eschewed for naughtie in euerie maner of speache: and to haue that whiche is neuer proper in speache,What [...] to be the proprest way a man can vse in writing, forsomuch as (in mine opinion) wrytyng is nothinge elles, but a maner of speache, that remaineth stil after a man hath spoken, or (as it were) an Image, or rather the life of the woordes. And therfore in speache, whiche as soone as the sonne is pronounced vanisheth a way, peraduenture somthinges are more to be borne withall, then in writinge. Because writinge keepeth the woordes in store, and referreth them to the iudgemente of the reader, and geueth tyme to examyne [Page] them depely. And therefore reason willeth that greater di­ligence should be had therein to make it more trimme and better corrected: yet not so, that the written wordes should be vnlike the spoken, but in writing to chuse oute the fay­rest and proprest of significacion that be vsed in s [...]eaking. And if that should be lawful in writing, which is not law­full in speaking, there should arise an inconuenience of it (in my iudgement) very great: namely, that a man myght vse a greater libertie in the thinge, where he ought to vse most diligence, and the labour he bestoweth in writing, in stede of furtherance should hinder him.What is alo­wed in w y­ting, is allo­wed in spea­king. Therfore it is cer­tain, whatsoeuer is allowed in writing, is also allowed in speaking: and that speache is moste beautifull that is like vnto beautifull writinges. And I iudge it much more be­houfful to be vnderstoode in writing then in speaking, be­cause they that write are not alwaies presente with them that rede, as they that speake with thē that speake.Why writīg oughte to bee more vnder­stood, then speaking. Ther­fore would I commende him, that beside the eschewing of many auncient Tuskane woordes, would applye himself also to vse bothe in writing and speakyng, suche as now a daies are in vse in Tuscane and in other partes of Italy, and that haue some grace in the pronunciation. And (in my minde) whoso foloweth any other trade is not assured not to runne into that curiositie so muche blamed, whiche we haue spoken of before. Thē spake Sir Frederick: I cannot de­nye you, Count Lewi [...], that writinge is not a maner of spea­king. But this I saie, if the wordes that are spoken haue any darkenesse in them, that communicacion perceth not the minde of him that heareth: and passing without being vnderstoode, wexeth vaine and to no purpose: the whiche dothe not happen in writyng, for if the woordes that the writer vseth bring with them a litle (I will not saie diffy­cultie) but couered subtilty, and not so open, as suche as be ordinarily spoken, they geue a certain greater aucthoritye to writing, and make the reader more hedefull to pause at it, and to ponder it better, and he taketh a delyte in the [Page] wittinesse and learning of him that writeth, and with a good iudgement, after some paines takyng, he tasteth the pleaser that consisteth in harde thinges. And if the ygno­raunce of him that readeth bee suche, that he cannot com­passe that difficultie, there is no blame in the writer, nei­ther ought a man for all yt to thinke that tunge not to bee faire. Therefore in writing, I houlde opinion it is neces­sarie for a man to vse the Tuscane wordes, and only such as haue bene vsed among the auncient Tuskans: for it is a great testimoniall and approued by tyme, that they bee good and of pithie signification in that thei be applyed to. And beside this they haue t [...]at grace and maiesty that an­tiquitie geueth not only to woordes, but vnto buildinges, ymages, pein [...]tinges, and to euerye thyng that is of force to preserue it. And many times with this onely brightnes and dignitie they make the fourme of sentences very fair, and through the vertue and eleganciethereof, euery mat­ter howe base so euer it be, maie be so decked oute, that it maie deserue verye great commendacion. But this youre custome, that you make so muche a doe of, appeareth vnto me very daungerous, and many times it maie be naught. And if anye vice of speache be taken vp of many ignorant persones, me thinke for all that it oughte not to be recey­ued for a rule, nor folowed of other. Besides this, customs be manye and diuers,So manye Cities so many diuerse maner of spe­aches in I­taly. and ye haue not a notable Citye in Italy that hath not a diuers maner of speache from all the rest. Therefore if ye take not the paines to declare whiche is the best, a manne maye as well geue hym selfe to the Bergamask tunge, as to the Florentine, and to folowe youre aduyse it were no erroure at all.The barga­mask tunge ye moste barba­rous in Ita­ly. Me semeth then who so wyll be out of doubte and well assured, it is requisite for him to determyne with hym selfe to folowe on [...], that by al mens accorde is iudged good, & to take him for a guyde alwaies and for a shielde againste suche as wyll goe about to fynde faulte,Petrarca. Boccaccio. and that I thinke oughte to bee none o­ther, (I meane in the vulgar tunge) but Petrarca & Boccaccio: [Page] and who so swarueth from these two, goeth at all auen­ture, as he that walketh in the darke without lyght, and therefore many times strayeth from the right waye. But wee are so hardye nowadayes, that wee disdeigne to do as other good menne of auncient tyme haue done: that is to saye, to take dylygente heede to folowinge, without the whiche I iudge no man canne wryte well.Imitation. And me thinke Virgill declarethe a greate triall of this,Uirgil. whoo for all that with his so deuine a witte and iudgemente he tooke all hope from his posteritye for anye to folowe him at anye tyme, yet would he folow Homer. Then the L. Gasper Palla­uicin, This disputacion (quoth he) of writinge in verye deede is woorthe the hearinge: Yet were it more to our [...] purpose, if you woulde teache in what sorte the Courtier ought to speake, for me thinke he hath more neede of that, and he serueth his tourne oftner with speakyng thē with wrytinge. The L. Iulian aunswered: There is no doubt, but so excellent and so perfect a Courtier hath nede to vn­derstand both the one and the other, and without these two qualyties parauenture all the rest should not be much woorthye prayse: therefore if the Count will fulfill hys charge, he shall teache the Courtier not onelye to speake but also to write well. Then sa [...]d the Count: I will not (my Lorde) vndertake this enterprise, for it shoulde be a greate folye for me to teache an other that I vnderstand not my self. And thoughe I were skillfull in it, yet can I not see howe I shoulde thinke to do the thing in so fewe woordes, which greate Clearkes haue scase done wyth such great study & diligēce, vnto whose writings I would remit our Courtyer, if it were so yt I wer bounde to teache him to write & to speake. The L▪ Cesar then said: the L. Iuliā meaneth the speaking and writing of the vulgar tunge, & not Latin, therfore those writinges of great Clearkes are not for oure purpose. But you muste shewe vs in this behalfe as muche as you knowe, as for the reste, ye shalbe held excused. I haue already sayde, aunswered the [Page] Count. But in reasoning vpon the Tuskane tunge, per­happes it were rather the L. Iulian [...] part, then any mans els to geue iudgement in it. The L. Iulian saide: I cannot, nor of reason ought to speake against him that saith the Tus­kane tunge is fairer then al the rest Trueth it is, there are many wordes in Petrarca and Boccaccio worne out of vse now a daies:Woordes in Petrarca, & in Boccaccio not to be vsed and suche would I neuer vse neither in speakyng nor in writyng, and peraduenture they themselues if thei were nowe aliue would vse them no more. Then spake Sir Frederick: no doubt but they would vse thē still. And you Lordes of Tuscane ought to renue your tunge, and not to suffer it decaye, as you do for a man may saie nowe, that there is lesse knowledge in Florenc [...], then in manye other places of I [...]aly. Then aunswered M Bernar [...]: those woordes that are no more in vse in Florenc [...], doe styl continue among the men of the countrey, and are refused of the gentlemen for woordes corrupt and decayed by antiquitie. Then the dutchesse, let vs not swarue (quoth she) from our firste pur­pose, but lette vs make Count Lewis teache the Courtyer to speake and to write well, be it Tuscane or what euer els. The Count aunswered: I haue alreadye spoken (madam) what I knowe. And I suppose the verye same rules that teache the one, maye also serue to teache the other. But sins ye commaunde me▪ I will make aunswere vnto [...]r Frederick what commeth in my head, for I am of a contrary opinion to him. And parauenture I shal be drieuen to an­swere somewhat more darkely then will be allowed, but it shall be as muche as I am hable to saie And first I say,The vulgar tunge of I­taly is a new tunge. that (to my iudgement) this our tunge, whiche we name ye vulgar tunge, is tender and newe, for al it hath bene now vsed a long while. For in that Italy hathe bene, not onely ve [...]ed and spoyled, but also inhabited a lōg time with bar­barous people, by the great resort of those nations, the la­tin tunge was corrupted and destroyed,How the I­talian tunge was corrup­ted. and of that corruption haue spronge other tunges. The whiche lyke the ry­uers that departe from the toppe of the Appenn [...]ne & runne [Page] abrode towarde the two s [...]as: so are they also diuided, and some died with the latin speach haue spred abrode sundrye waies, some into one part, and some into another, and one dyed with barbarousnesse hath remayned in Italy. This then hath a long time bene among vs out of order and dy­uerse, because there was none that would bestow diligēce about it, nor write in it, ne yet seke to geue it brightnesse or anye grace. Yet hath it bene afterwarde broughte into better frame in [...]usc [...]n [...], then in the other partes of Italye. And by this it appeareth that the flowre of it hath remai­ned there euer since those first times, because that nation hath kept proper and sweete accentes in the pronunciatiō and an order of grammer, where it was meete, more then the other. And h [...]th had three noble wri [...]ers, whiche wit­tily bothe in the woordes and termes that custome did al­lowe in their time, haue expressed their conceites and that hath happened (in my mind) with a better grace to [...]etrarca in maters of loue, thē to any of ye other.Petrarca. Dante. Boccacci [...], Where there arose afterwarde from time to time, not onely in [...]uscan, but in al Italy, among gentlemen brought vp in court, in armes and in letters, some studye to speake and to write more finely then they did in that first rude age, whan the tur­moyle of the miseries that arose through barbarous nati­ons was not as yet quieted, many woordes haue bene left out as well in Florence it selfe, and in all [...]uscan [...], as in the residue of Italy, and other brought in, in their stead, and made in this behalfe the alteration that happeneth in all worldly thinges: the whiche also hath euermore chaunced in other tunges. For in case those aūcient latin writinges had lasted hitherto,Speaches chaunge from time to time. we shoulde see that Euan [...]e [...] and Turnus and the other La [...]in ▪ in those dayes spake otherwise thē dyd afterwarde the laste kinges of the Romaines and the fyrste Co [...]su [...]. You may see the verses song by the Sa [...]i wer scant­ly vnderstoode of their posteritie:The priestes o [...] Mar [...]. but because it was so or­deyned by the first inuentours of it, they were not altered for reuerence of religion. So from time to time Oratours [Page] and Poets forsoke manye woordes that had bene vsed a­monge their predecessours: for An [...]onius, Cr [...]ssus, [...], and Ci [...]ro eschewed manye that Ca [...]o had vsed, and Virgill many of E [...]ius, and so did the reste. For albeit they had antiqui­tie in great reuerence,Men neuer delited in wordes w [...]rne out with time. Horace. Ci [...]ero yet did they not esteme thē somuch, that they woulde bee so bounde to them, as you wil haue vs now. Yea, where they thoughte good, they spake a­gaynst them, as [...], that sayeth, his predecessours dyd foolyshlye praise Pla [...]us, which would that we should haue the aucthoritie to bring vp newe woordes. And Cicero in manye places reprehendeth manye of his predecessours, & to blame S Galb [...], he sayeth that his Oracions smelled of antiquitie. And affirmeth that E [...]nius also in some pointes set lytle by his predecessours, so that yf we wyll folow thē of olde tyme, we shall not folowe them. And Virgi [...] that you saye folowed. [...]omer, folowed hym not in the tunge. Ther­fore woulde I (for my parte) alwayes shonne the vse of those auncient woordes, except it wer in certayne clauses, and in them very seldome. And (in my iudgement) he that vseth them otherwise, committeth a no lesse errour, then whoso would to folowe them of olde time, fede vpō maste, where he hath nowe aboundaunce of corne founde oute. And because you saie the auncient woordes onely with ye brightnesse of antiquitie decke oute so highlye euery mat­matter, how base so euer it be, that it maye make it woor­thy great commendacion: I saie vnto you that not of these auncient woordes onely, but of those that be good in dede, I make so smal accompt, that I suppose without the iuyce of fair sētences thei ought of reasō to be litle set by.Woordes without faire senten­ces litle worthe. For to diuide the sentēces frō the woordes, is the deuiding of the soule frō the body, the which cānot be done, neither in the one nor in the other, wtout destrucciō ensue vpon it. That therfore which is ye principal mater & necessary for a Court yet to speak & write wel,Knowledge necessarie to speake and write well. I beleue is knowledge. For he yt hath not knowledge & the thing in his minde yt deserueth to be vnderstood, can neither speak nor write it. Thē must [Page] he couch in a good order that he hath to speake or to write, & afterward expresse it wel with wordes:what word [...] oughte to be. the which (if Ibe not deceiued) ought to be apt, chosē, clere, & wel applyed, & (aboue al) in vse also amōg the people: for very suche make the greatnes & gorgeousnes of an Oraciō, so he yt speaketh haue a good iudgement & heedfulnes withal, & the vnder­standing to pike such as be of most proper significacion for yt he entendeth to speake and commend, and tempring thē like were after his owne mynde, applyeth them in suche parte and in suche order, that at the firste showe they maie set furth and doe men to vnderstand the dignitie & bright­nes of thē, as tables of pein [...]ing placed in their good and naturall light.Thynges ne­cessary in spe­kinge. And this do I saie as well of writing as of speaking, wherein certayne thinges are requisite that are not necessary in wryting, as a good voyce, not to subtyll or soft, as in a woman: nor yet so boysterous and roughe, as in one of the Countrey, but shrill,The voyce▪ clere sweete and wel framed with a prompt pronunciacion & with fitte maners and gestures, which (in my minde) consiste in certain mo­ [...]ions of al the body not affected nor forced, but tempred wt a manerly countenance and wt a mouing of the eyes, that may geue a grace & accord with the words, & (asmuch as he can) signify also wt gestures the entēt & affecciō of the spea­ker. But al these thinges wer in vain & of smal accōpte yf the sētēces expressed by ye wordes should not be fair, witty,The sētēce [...]. subtil, fine & graue according to y mater, I doubt, said thē M Mo [...]lo, if this Cour [...]yer speake wt suche finenesse & gra­uity amōg vs, there wil be some yt wil not vnderstād him. Nay, euery one shall vnderstād him, answered ye Coūt for finenes hindreth not ye easines of vnderstanding. Neither wil I haue him to speak alwaies in grauity,What he muste speake of. but of pleasāt ma [...]ters, of mery cōceits, of honest diuises, & of iestes according to ye time, & in al notwtstāding after a pithy maner, & wt redines & varietie wtout cōfusiō, neither shall he in anye part show vanity or childish foly. And whā he shal then cō ­mune of a matter yt is dark & hard, I wil haue him both in [Page] woordes and sentences wel pointed, to expresse his iudge­ment, and to make euery doubt clere and plain after a cer­taine diligent sort without tediousnesse. Likewise (whan he shal see time) to haue the vnderstanding to speake with dignitie and vehemency,To speake to raise a [...]f [...]ty­ons. & to raise those affections which oure mindes haue in them, and to enflame or stirre them accordinge to the matter: sometime with a simplicitye of suche meekenesse of mynde, that a man woulde weene nature her self spake, to make them tender and (as it wer) dronken w [...]th sweetenesse: and with suche conueiaunce of [...]asinesse, that whoso heareth him, maye conceyue a good oppinion of himselfe, and th [...]nke that he also with very li­tle a doe, mighte attaine to that perfection, but whan he commeth to the proofe shall finde himselfe farre wide. I would haue oure Courtyer to speake and write in y sort, and not onely choose gorgeous and fine woordes out of e­uery parte of Italye, but also I would iudge him woorthy praise to vse some of those termes bothe Frenche & Spa­nishe, whiche by oure custome haue bene admitted. Ther­fore it should not mislike me,Certaine termes out of the French & Spanishe, which [...]ound not so wel in Englishe nor can be apply­ed t [...] oure phrase. fallyng so to purpose, to say, Vauntcourrour ▪ to saye, to acertain, to auenture ▪ to saye▪ to p [...]rce through a body with talke, meaning thereby to vse a familiaritie wyth him, and to grope him to geat of him some perfect knowe­ledge: to saie, a royall gentleman, a nete man [...]o be about a Prince, and suche other termes, so he maie thinke to be vnderstoode. Sometime I would haue him take certain woordes in an other significacion then that is proper to them, & wrasting them to his purpose (as it were) graffe them lyke a graffe of a tree in a more luckye stocke,Woordes i [...] an other syg­nificacion. to make them more sight­ly and faire, and (as it were) draw the matters to the sense of the verye eyes, and (as they saie) make them felte wyth hande, for the delyte of him that heareth, or readeth. Ney­ther woulde I haue him to sticke to forge newe also,To forge new wordes and with newe figures of speache, deriuing them featly from the Latin [...], as the Latins in olde tyme, deriued frō the [...]. In case then of suche learned men bothe of good witte and [Page] iudgement, as now a dayes may be piked out among vs, there were some that would bestow their trauail to write after the maner that we haue spoken of, in this tongue thinges worth the readinge, wee shoulde soone set it in good frame and flowinge with termes and good phrases, and so copious that a man might as well write in it as in anye other tongue: and thoughe it were not the meere auntient Tuscane tongue, yet shoulde it be the Italian tongue, commune, plentifull, & variable, and (as it were) like a delicious gardein ful of sundrie flowres and frutes. Neyther shoulde this be a newe matter: for of the foure tongues that were in vse amonge the Greeke writers,U. tunges of Gre [...]ce. pikinge out of euerye woorde, moodes and rules as they thought meete, they raysed therby an other, whiche was named the Commune tongue, and afterward all fyue they called with one name the Greeke tongue. And al­beit the Athenian tongue was more fine, purer, & eloquen­ter then the rest, yet did not the good writers that were not of Athens borne, so affect it, but in the stile of writing, and (as it were) in the smack and propretie of their natu­rall speache they were welinough knowen: neither were they anye whit the lesse regarded for all that, but rather such as would appeere ouer mere Athenians wer blamed for it. Amonge the Latin writers in like case manye there were in their dayes much set bye that were no Romanes al­thoughe there appeared not in them that propre and pecu­liar purenesse of the Romane tongue, whiche menne of an other nation can verie seldome attaine. In times past T. Liuius was not neglected,T. Liuius. Uirgill. althoughe some one sayde he founde in him mere Padowan: Nor Virgil, for that he was reprehended that he spake not Romane. And (as you know) there were also read & much setbye in Roome manie wri­ters of Barbarous nations. But we more precise a great deale then they of olde time, do binde our selues with cer­taine new lawes out of pourpose: and hauing the brode beaten waye beefore oure eyes, seeke through gappes to [Page] walke in vnknowen pathes. For in oure owne tounge [...] whose office is (as all others) to expresse well and clearlye the conceites of the minde, we delite in darkenesse, and callinge it the vulgar tounge,The vulgar tunge ought not to be dark will vse in it woordes, that are not onely not vnderstoode of the vulgar people, but al­so of the best sort of menne and that men of learninge, and are not vsed in any part, not regarding that all good wry­ters of olde time blamed such woordes as were refused of custome, the which you (in my mind) do not well knowe, for somuche as you say, if any vice of speache be taken vp of many ignorant parsons, it ought not to be called a cus­tome nor receiued for a rule of speache. And (as at other ty­mes I haue hard you say) ye wil haue again in the stead of Capitolio, we should say Campidoglio: for Hieronymo, Girola­m [...]: Aldace, Mere Tus­cane writing of c [...]taine wordes. for Audace: and for Patrone, padrone: & such corrupt & mangled wordes, because they haue bene founde so writ­ten by some ignorant Tuscane of olde time, and because the men of the Countr [...]y speak so in Tuscane now a dayes. The good vse of speache therefore I beleue ariseth of men that haue wytte, and with learninge and practise haue gotten a good iudgement, & with it consent and agree to receaue the woordes that they think good, which are knowen by a certaine naturall iudgement, & not by art or anye maner rule.Figures of speach, Abuse of grammer rules. Do you not knowe that figures of speach which giue suche grace and brightnesse to an Oration, are all the a­buse of Grammer rules, but yet are receaued and confir­med by vse, because men are able to make no other reason but that they delite, and to the verye sence of our eares it appeareth they bringe a lief and a sweetenesse?Good cus­tome. And this beleaue I is good custome, which the Romanes, the Napoli­tans, Thinges good in euery [...]unge. the Lombardes, & the rest are as apt to receaue, as ye Tus­canes. Truth it is, in euerye tounge some thinges are al­wayes good, as easinesse to be vnderstoode, a good ordre, varietie, piked sentences, clawses wel framed: and on the other side Affectation, & the other contrary to these are to be [...]honned. But of woordes some there are that last a good [Page] tyme and afterwarde were stale & cleane lose their grace: other some take force and creepe into estimation, for as y seasones of the yeare make leaues and fruites to fal, and afterward garnish the trees a freshe with other: Euenso, doth time make those first wordes to fall, and vse maketh other to springe afreshe and giueth theim grace and esti­mation, vntill they in lyke sorte consumed by lytle and lytle with the enuyous biting of tyme come to their end, because at the last both we and whatsoeuer is oures, are mortall.Tunges de­cayed with time. Consider with your selues that we haue no more any knoweleage of the Osca tunge. The prouinciall tung, that (a man may say) the last day was renowmed of noble writers, now is it not vnderstoode of the inhabitantes of the countrey. I beleaue therefore (as the L. Iulian hath said) that wer Petrarca, and Boccaccio, at this present in lief, they would not vse many woordes that we see in their writin­ges. Therfore (in mine opiniō) it is not well done to folow them therin. Yet do I muche commende them that can folowe that ought to be folowed: but notwithstanding I beleue it be possible ynough to write well without folow­yng, and especiallye in this our tunge, wherin we may be helped by custome, the which I wyll not take vpon me in the Latin. Then Sir Friderick, why, wil you (quoth he) cus­tom should be more appriced in the vulgar tunge, then in the Latin? Nay, bothe in the one and the other (answered the Count) I iudge custome ought to be ye maistresse. But forsomuche as those menne, vnto whom the Latin tunge was as proper, as is the vulgar tunge nowe to vs, are no more in the world, we must learne of their writinges that they learned by vse and custome: neyther doeth auncyent speach signifye any thing els but an auncyent custome of speach:Aun [...]ient speach aun­tient custome of speache. & it wer a fond matter to loue the auncient speach for nothing elles but to speake rather as men did speake, then as menne doe speake. Did not they then of olde time folowe, aunswered Sir Fridericke? I beleaue,Olde wri­ters did not imitate in all pointes. quoth the Counte, many did folowe, but not in euery point. An if [Page] Virgill had altogether folowed Hesiodus, he should not haue passed him nor Cicero Crassus, nor Ennius his predecessors. Behould Homer, who is so auntient that he is thought of ma­ny to be the first heroical Poet aswell of time, as also of excellencie of phrase: and whom wyll you haue him to haue folowed? Some other, aunswered Sir Friderick, more aun­tient then he was, whiche we heare not of, by reason of tomuch antiquitie. Whom will you say then Petrarca and Boccaccio folowed, said the Count, whiche (a man may say) were but thre dayes agoo in the world▪ I knowe not, an­swered Sir Fridericke, but it is to be thoughte they in lyke wise bent their minde to folowinge, thoughe wee knowe not of whom. The Count aunswered: a man maye be­leaue that they that were folowed, were better then they that did folowe: and it were to great a wonder that their name and renowme (if they were good) should so soone be cleane lost. But I beleaue their verye maister was witt, and their owne naturall inclination and iudgement.A man may write well without imi­tation. And therat no man ought to wonder, for (in a maner) alwayes a manne by sundrye wayes may clime to the toppe of all perfection. And their is no matter, that hath not in it ma­ny thinges of like sorte vnlike the one to the other, which for al that among them selues deserue a like praise. Mark me musick,Musick. wherin are harmonies somtime of base soune and slowe, and otherwhile very quicke and of newe diui­ses, yet do they all recreat a man: but for sundrye causes, as a manne may perceiue in the maner of singinge that Bidon vseth,Sundry sor­tes of musike and all delite which is so artificiall, counninge, vehement, stirred, and suche sundrye melodies, that the spirites of ye hearers moue al and are enflamed, and so listening a man would wene they were lifte vp in to heauen. And no lesse doeth our Marchetto Cara moue in his singinge, but with a more softe harmonye, that by a delectable waye and full of mourninge sweetnesse maketh tender and perceth the mind, and sweetly imprinteth in it a passion full of great delite. Sundrye thinges in lyke maner do equally please [Page] oure eyes somuche, that a man shall haue muche a do to iudge in whiche they most delite.Sūdry peincters perfit in sundrie kinde of trades. Behould in peincting Leonard Vncio, Mantegna, Raphael, Michelangelo, George of Cas­telfranco: they are all most excellent dooers, yet are they in working vnlike, but in any of them a man wold not iudge yt there wanted ought in his kind of trade: for euery one is knowen to be of most perfection after his maner. The like is of many Poets both Greeke and Latin, which be­ing diuerse in writing are alike in praise. Oratours also haue alwaies had such a diuersitye emong them, as (in a maner) euerye age hath brought forth & set by one sort of Oratours peculiar for that time, which haue bene vnlike & disagreing not only to their predecessours and folowers but also emong themselues.Greeke ora­tours, As it is written emonge the Grecians, of Isocrates, Lysias, Eschines & many other, al excellent, but yet like vnto none sauing themselues. And emong ye Latins, Carbo, Laelius, Scipio Affricanus, Galba, Sulpitius, Cotta, Graccus, Marcus Antonius, Crassus & so many,Latin ora­tours. that it should be long to repete them, all good and moste diuerse one from an o­ther. So that whoso could consider all the Oratours that haue bene in the worlde,So manye oratours so many kindes of speach. he should finde so manye Ora­tours, so many kindes of speach. Me thynke I remember also that Cicero in a place bringeth in Marcus Antonius to say vnto Sulpitius yt ther are many that folow no man, and yet clime they to a high degree of excellency.D [...] oratore lib. [...]. And speaketh of certein that had brought vp a new stile & phrase of spea­king faire, but not vsed of ye Oratours of that time wher­in they folowed none but themselues. Therfore he affir­meth also that maisters shoulde consider ye nature of their scolers, and taking it for their guide,Lib. ii. direct & prompt them in the way that their witt and naturall inclination mo­ueth them vnto. For this cause therfore Sir Fridericke do I beleue if a man haue not an inclination vnto some author whatsoeuer he be, it were not wel done to force him to fo­lowing. Bicause ye vertue of that disposicion of his, soone [...]inteth and is hindered, by reason that it is a stray out of [Page] the way in which he would haue profited, had he not bene stopped in it. I knowe not then how it will stande wel, in steade of enriching this tunge, and of geuyng it maiestye and light, to make it poore, sclender, bare and dark, and to seeke to shut it vp into so narrowe a rowme, that [...]uerye man should be compelled to folow onely Petrarca & Boccac­cio, & that we should not also in that tung, credit Laurence de Medicis, Francis Diaceto, and certein other that notwithstan­ding are Tuscanes, An errour to t [...]ate none but Boccac­cio and Pe­trarca. and perhappes of no lesse learning and iudgement then Petrarca and Boccaccio. And truly it should be a great miserye to stoppe without wading any farther then almost the first that euer wrote: and to dispaire, that so many and so noble wittes shall neuer find out any mo then one good maner of speach in ye tung that vnto them is proper & naturall. But now a dayes there be some so scrupulous, that (as it were) with a religion & high mis­teries of this th [...]ir Tuscane tung, put as manye as heareth [...]hem in such dread, that they bring in like case many gen­tilmen and learned men into such an awe, that they dare not open their mouth: and confesse plainly, that they can not speak ye tung which thei haue learned of their nurses, euen from their cradel. But in this point (me think) we haue spoken tomuch. Therfore let vs now procead in our communication of the Courtier. Then answered Sir Fri­derick: but first I will saye this lytle, whiche is that I de­nye not but the opinions and wittes of men are diuers e­mong themselues: neither doe I iudge it comelye for one that is vehement and quicke of nature to take in hand to write of soft and quiet matters. Nor yet for an other that is seuere and graue to write of mery conceits. For in this point (me think) it is reason euery man should apply him self to his own proper inclinatiō, & of this I beleue spake Cicero, when he said that maisters should haue a conside­ration to the nature of their scholers, least they should doe like the yll husbandmanne, that sometime in a soyle that is good onely for vynes will sowe graine. But it wyll [Page] not sinke into my head why in a perticuler tunge, that is not so proper vnto all menne, as are discourses and con­ [...]eites, and many other operations, but an inuencion con­ [...]ained vnder certaine termes, a man may not with more reason folowe them that speake best, then speake at al a­uenture. And that, as in the Latin tunge a manne ought to apply himselfe to bee in the tunge lyke vnto Virgil and Cicero, rather then Silius ane Cornelius Tacitus, so in the vul­gar tunge why it were not better to folowe the tunge of Petrarca and Boccac [...]io then any mannes els: and therin ex­presse well his owne conceites, and so applye himselfe as (Cicero saith) to his owne naturall inclination. And thus shall the difference whiche you saye is betwene the good Oratours, be found to consist in the senses and not in the tunge. Then the Count, I feare me (quoth he) we shall enter into a large sea, and leaue oure first purpose of the Courtyer. But I would knowe of you, wherin consisteth the goodnes of this tunge? Sir Fridericke, aunswered: In keping well the propertie of it: & in taking i [...] in ye signifi­cacion (vsing ye same stile & measur) that al such haue done as haue written wel. I would know then, quoth ye Count, whether this stile and measure which you speake of,Wherin con­sisteth the goodnesse of the tung. arise of the sentences or of the wordes? Of the wordes, answe­red Sir Friderick. Do you not thinke then, quoth the Count, that ye wordes of Silius and Cornelius Tacitus, are ye very same that Virgil and Cicero vse? and taken in the same significa­tion? Sir Fridericke aunswered: they are the very same in dede, but some yll applyed and dyuerslye taken. The Count aunswered: in case a manne shoulde pyke out of a booke of Cornelius and of Silius, al the woordes placed in other signification then is in Virgil and Cicero, (whiche shoulde bee verye fewe) woulde you not then saye that Cornelius in the tounge were equall with Cicero, and Silius with Virgil? Then the L. Emilia, me thinke (quoth shee) thys youre dysputation hathe lasted to longe, and hathe been verye tedyouse, therefore it shall bee best [Page] to deferre it vntill an other tyme. Sir Fridericke, began still to make aunswere,Many tal­kers of imi­tat [...] but the L. Emilia alwayes interrupted hym. At laste the Count saide: manye will iudge of styles and talke of numbers and measures, & of folowing, but they cannot doe me to vnderstande what maner a thinge stile and measure is, and wherin folowing consisteth: Nor why, thinges taken out of Homer or any other, are so well couched in Virgil, that they appeare rather amplyfied then folowed, and peraduenture the occation thereof is that I am not able to conceiue it. But because a great argument that a man vnderstandeth a thinge, is the vnderstanding that [...]e hath to teach it, I feare me they themselues haue small vnderstanding in it, and praise Virgil and Cicero, be­cause they heare them praised of many, not for that they knowe the difference betwene them and others, whiche out of peraduenture consisteth not in the obseruation of two, or three, or of tenne woordes vsed after a diuers ma­ner from other. In Salust, in Cesar, in Varro, & in other good writers, there are founde some termes applyed otherwise then Cicero applyeth them, and both the one and the other doeth welinough. Bicause in so triflynge a matter the goodnesse and perfection of a tunge doeth not consiste as Demosthenes answered Eschines well that had taken him vp, demaundinge him of certaine woordes whiche he hadde vsed and yet were not auntient,Demosthe­nes aunswer to Eschines. what monsters or won­derous matters they were? Wherat Demosthenes laughed, & answered him, that the fortunes of Grece depended not vpon them. Euen so would I passe full litle if a Tuscane should reprehende me for speaking rather Satisfatto, then Sodisfatto: and Honoreuole, Diuersitie of certain Tus­cane wordes with the rest of Italy then Horreuole: and Causa, then Cagione & Populo, then Popolo, & such other matters. Then arose Sir Friderick vpon his feete and saide: I besech ye giue the hea­ring of these few woordes. The L. Emilia answered laughing: vppon my displeasure I forbid anye of you to talke a­ny more in this matter, for I will haue you to breake it of vntill an other night. But you Count, proceade you in [Page] your communication of the Courtyer, and let vs see how good a memory you haue: for I beleue, if ye can knitt it a­gayne where you brake of, ye shall not do a litle. Madam, answered the Count, me think the thrid is broken in sun­der, but if I be not deceyued, I trowe we saide that pesty­lent curiositie doth alwayes geue an il grace vnto al thin­ges: and contrarywise simplicity and Reckelesness a mar­uailous good grace. In commendation wherof and in dis­praise of curiosity, many other thinges might be said, yet wil I alleage but one mo, and then haue done. All women generally haue a great desire to be,Women that peincte them selues to seme faire to men. and when they canne not be, at the least to appear beawtyfull. Therfore where nature in some part hath not done her deuoyr therin, they endeuour them selues to supply it with art. Of this ari­seth the trymming of the face, with such studye and many times peines, the pilling of the browes and forehead, and the vsynge of all those maner wayes, and the abydyng of such lothsomenesse, as you women beleaue are kept [...] very secret from men, and yet do all men know them. The La. Constance Fregosa laughed at this, and said: you shoulde do much better to go forward in your cōmunication, and de­clare how a man may attein a good grace, & speak of cour­tynge, then to discouer the faultes of women wythout purpose. Nay it is much to purpose, answered the Count, bicause these defaultes that I talke of take this grace from you: for they proceade of nothing els but of curious­nesse, wherby ye discouer openlye vnto euerye man the o­uer great desire that ye haue to be beawtiful. Do you not marke howe much more grace is in a woman, that if she doth trim her self, doeth it so scacely & so litle, that whoso behouldeth her, standeth in doubt whether she be trimmed or no: then in an other so bedawbed, that a man woulde wene she had a viser on her face and dareth not laugh for making it chappe: nor at any tyme chaungeth her colour, but whan she apparayleth her self in the morninge, and all the rest of the daye standeth lyke an image of woodde [Page] without mouinge, shewinge her self onely in torche light, as craftye marchaundmen do their clothes in their darke lightes.Women that bestowe no payne in set­tinge out themselues. How much more then doeth a man delite in one, I meane not foule, that is manyfestlye s [...]ene she hath no­thinge vppon her face, though she be not so white nor so red, but with her natural [...] coulour somewhat wan, some­time with blusshinge or through other chaunce dyed with a pure rednes, with her hear by happe out of order & ruf­fled, and with her simple and naturall gestures, without shewing her self to bestow diligence or study, to make her faire? This is that not regarded purenes which best plea­seth the eyes and mindes of men, that stande alwayes in awe to be deceiued by art.White teath. Whyte teeth is a good sight in a woman, for sence they are not in so open sight as is the face, but most communly are hid, a man may think she be­stoweth not so much laboure about them, to make them white, as she doeth in the face: yet who so shoulde laughe without cause purposly to show them, should discouer the art, & for all their faire whitenesse should appeare vnto all men to haue a very yll grace,Faire hādes. as Egnatius in Catullius. The like is in the handes, which being delicate, smooth & faire, yf they be shewed bare at a tyme whan occasyon is to occupye them, and not of purpose to showe the beawtye of them, they leaue a verye great desire of themselues, and especiallye after they are couered wyth gloues a­gayne, for a manne would iudge that in puttynge them on againe she passeth not and lytle regardeth whether they be in sighte or no,Clenlye and precise in pla­ces sildome seene. and that they are so fayre rather by nature, then by anye studye or dilygence. Haue ye not hadde an eye otherwhyle, whan eyther in the stretes goynge to Churche, or in anye other place, or in spor­tyng, or by any other chaunce it happeneth that a woman lyfteth vp her clothes so high, that she sheweth her foote, and sometime a litle of her pretye legge vnwittinglye? And seemeth shee not to you to haue a verye good grace, yf ye beholde her then with a certayne womanlye dyspo­sition, [Page] cleanlye and precise, with her shooes of vellute, and her hose sittynge cleane to her legge? Truely it deli­teth me much, and I beleue all of you, for euerye manne supposeth that Preciseness in so secret a place and so sildom seen, to be vnto that woman rather natural & propre then forced, and that thereby she thinketh to gett her no com­mendation at all. In such sort is curiousenesse auoyded and couered, the which you maye nowe conceyue howe contrarye it is, and taketh awaye the grace of euerye o­peration and deede, aswell of the bodye as of the minde,The minde. whereof hitherto we haue spoken but litle, and yet ought it not to be omitted, for as the minde is muche more wor­thye then the bodye, so deserueth it also to bee better dec­ked and polished. And howe that ought to be in oure Courtyer (leauynge a parte the preceptes of so manye wyse Phylosophers that wryte in this matter and define the vertues of the minde, and so subtillye dyspute of the dignitye of them) wee will expresse in fewe wordes, ap­plyinge to our pourpose, that it is sufficient he be (as they terme it commonlye) an honest manne and welmeaning: for in this is comprehended the goodnesse, the wisdome, the manlynesse and the temperaunce of the mynde, and all other qualityes that belonge to so worthye a name.To applye a mans good will is profe­ting. And I recken hym onelye a true morall Phylosopher that wyll be good, and to that, he needeth fewe other precep­tes then that will of his. And therefore saide Socrates well, that he thought his instructions hadde broughte foorth good fruite whan by them he hadde prouoked anye one to applye hys wyll to the knoweleage and learnynge of vertue. For they that are come to the pointe that they couette nothynge more then to be good, do easyly at­tayne the vnderstandynge of all that beelongeth thereto: therefore herein we wyll make no more a do. But be­syde goodnesse, the true and principall ornament of the mynde in euerye manne (I beeleaue) are letters, [Page] although the Frenchmen know onelye the noblenesse of armes,The French menne make none accōpte of learning. & passe for nothing beside: so that they do not one­lye not sett by letters, but they rather abhorre them, and all learned men they count verie rascalles, and they think it a great vilany whan any one of them is called a clarke. Then aunswered the L. Iulian, you say very true, this er­rour in deede hath longe reigned among the frenchemen. But if Monseigneur de Angoulism haue so good luck that he may (as men hope) succede in the Croun,Francis .i. French king ye glory of armes in Fraunce doeth not so florishe nor is had in suche esti­matiō, as letters wilbe, I beleaue. For it is not long sins I was in Fraunce, & saw this Prince in the Court there, who semed vnto me beside the handsomenesse of personne and beawty of visage, to haue in his countenance so great a maiestie, accompanyed neuerthelesse with a certayne louelye courteisy, that the realme of Fraunce should euer seeme vnto him a small matter. I vnderstoode afterward by many gentilmen both French and Italian, very much of the most noble condicions, of the greatnesse of courage, prowesse and liberalitie that was in him: and emonge o­ther thinges, it was tolde me that he highly loued & estea­med letters, and had in verie great reputation all learned men, and blamed the Frenchemen themselues that their mindes were so farr wide from this profession,Uniuersitye of Paris. especially hauing at their doores so noble an vniuersitye as Paris is, where all the world resorteth. Then spake the Count: It is great wonder that in these tender yeres only by the prouocation of nature, contrary to the maner of the countrey he hath geuen himself to so good a way. And because sub­iectes folow alwaies the cōdicions of the higher powers, it is possible that it may come to passe (as you say) that the Frenchmen will yet esteeme letters to be of that dignity that they are in deed. The which (if they wil geue ear ther to) they may soone be perswaded, forsomuch as men ought to couet of nature nothing so much and that is more pro­per for them,Knowleage. then knowleage: which thing it wer a great [Page] folly to say or to holde opinion that it is not alwaies good. And in case I might commune with them, or with other that were of a contrarie opinion to me, I would do my di­ligence to show them, how much letters (which vndoub­tedlye haue bene graunted of God vnto men for a soue­raigne gift) are profytable and necessarye for our lief and estimation. Neyther should I want thexamples of so ma­ny excellent capitaines of old time, which all ioyned the Ornament of letters, with the prowesse of armes.Howe the great Alexander esteamed Homer, Plutarck, in the life of Alexander. For (as you know) Alexander had Homer in such reuerence, that he laide his Ilias alwayes vnder his beddes head: and he ap­plied diligentlye not these studies onely, but also the spe­culations of Philosophye vnder the discipline of Aristotle. Alcibiades encreased his good condicions and made them greater with letters, and with the instructions of Socrates. Alcibiades Socrates scholar Also what dyligence Cesar vsed in studye, those thinges which he hath so diuinely written him self, make triall.I. Cesar. It is said that Scipio Africanus caried alwayes in his hande the bookes of Xenophon, Scipio Afri­canus. wherein vnder the name of Cyrus he instructeth a perfect king.Paidia Xenophontis. I could recite vnto you Lucullus, Sylla, Pompeius, Brutus, and many other Romanes & Gretians, but I will do no more but make mencion of Hani­bal, Hannibal learned. which being so excellent a captaine (yet for all that of a fierce nature, and voide of all humanitye, an vntrue dea­ler, and a despiser of men and of the Gods) had also vnder­stāding in letters, & the knowleage of the Greeke tunge. And if I be not deceiued (I trowe) I haue read in my time that he left a booke behind him of his owne makynge in the Greeke tunge. But this kynd of talke is more then nedeth, for I knowe all you vnderstand howe much the Frenchemen be deceiued in houlding opinion letters to do anye hurt to armes.G [...]orye▪ You knowe in great matters and auenturous in warres the true prouocation is glory: and whoso for lucres sake or for any other consideration ta­keth it in hand (beside that he neuer doeth anye thynge woorthy prayse) deserueth not the name of a gentleman, but is a most vile marchaunt. And euery man maye [Page] conceiue it to be the true glorye, that is stored vp in the holy treasure of letters,In letters the true glo­rye. excepte such vnlucky creatures as haue had no tast therof. What minde is so fainte, so bashefull and of so base a courage, that in reading the ac­tes and greatnesse of Cesar, Alexander, Scipio, Hannibal, and so many other, is not incensed with a most feruent longing to be like them:Noble courages enflamed in readyng the actes of famous cap­taines. and doth not preferre the gitting of that perpetuall fame, before this rotten life that lasteth twoo dayes? Which in despite of death maketh him lyue a greate deale more famous then before. But he that sa­uoureth not the sweetnesse of letters, cannot know how much is the greatnesse of glorye, which is a longe whyle preserued by them,The vnlear­ned knowe not glorye. and onely measureth it with the age of one or two men, for farther he beareth not in minde. Therfore can he not esteme this shorte glorye so much as he woulde do that, which (in a maner) is euerlastinge, yf by his ill happe he wer not barred from the knowleage of it. And not passing vpon it so much, reason perswadeth and a man may well beleaue he wyll neuer hasard hym self so much to come by it,Why the vn­learned seeke not to be fa­mous. as he that knoweth it. I would not nowe some one of the contrarye parte shoulde alleage vnto me the contrarye effectes to confute mine opinion with all:Italians [...]aint in armes. and tell me how the Italians with their know­leage of letters haue shewed small prowesse in armes frō a certaine time hitherto, the which neuerthelesse is to true. But in very dede a man may well saye that the of­fence of a few, hath brought (beside the great damage) an euerlasting reproche vnto all other. And the very cause of our confusion, and of the neglecting of vertue in our min­des (if it be not clean dead) proceaded of them. But it were a more shamefull matter vnto vs to publishe it, then vnto the Frenchmen the ignoraunce in letters. Therfore it is better to passe that ouer with silence that cannot be rehersed without sorow, and leauing this purpose into y which I am entred against my will,The Courti­er ought to be learned. retourne againe vnto oure Courtier, whom in letters I will haue to bee more then [Page] [...]ndyfferentlye well seene, at the leaste in those studyes, which they call Humanitie, In h [...]m [...]ni­ty In the latyn [...]nd G [...]e [...]e tung. and to haue not only the vnder­standinge of the Latin tunge, but also of the Greeke, be­cause of the many and sundrye thinges that with greate excellencye are written in it. Let him much exercise hym selfe in poets,In poetes. In oratours. and no lesse in Oratours and Historiogra­phers, and also in writinge bothe rime and prose, and es­peciallye in this our vulgar tunge.In Historiographers. For beside the conten­tation that he shall receiue thereby himselfe, he shall by this meanes neuer want pleasaunt interteinments with women which ordinarylye loue such matters.In writynge ryme and prose. And if by reason either of his other busines beside,What is to be done of a mans wri­tinges. or of his slender studie, he shall not attaine vnto that perfection that hys writinges may be worthye much commendation, let him be circumspect in keeping them close, least he make other men to laugh at him. Onely he may show them to a frend whom he may trust, for at the least wise he shall receiue so much profite, that by that exercise he shall be able to geue his iudgement vpon other mennes doinges. For it happe­neth verye sildome, that a man not exercised in writinge,The not practised can not iudge. how learned so euer he be, can at any tyme know perfect­ly the labour and toile of writers, or tast of the sweetenes and excellencye of styles, & those inner obseruations that often times are found in them of olde tyme. And besyde that, those studyes shall make him copyous, and (as Aristippus aunswered that Tiran) bould to speake vppon a good grounde wyth euerye manne.Dionisius▪ Notwithstanding I wyll haue oure Courtier to keepe faste in his minde one lesson, & that is this,To be rather warie then bould in all thinges. The wordes of flatterers sweete to be alwaies wary both in this and in euery other point, and rather fearefull then bould, & be­ware that he perswade not him self falsely to knowe the thing he knoweth not indede. Because we are of nature al ye sort of vs much more gredy of praise then is requisite, & better to our eares loue ye melody of wordes soūding to our praise, then any other song or soune yt is most sweete. [Page] And therfore manye tymes, lyke the voices of Meremay­dens, they are the cause of drownyng him that doeth not well stoppe his eares at such deceitfull harmonie. This daunger being perceiued, there hath bene among the aun­cient wise men that hath written bookes,Men take no hede to flatterers. howe a manne should know a true friend from a flatterer. But what a­auaileth it? If there be many of them (or rather infinit) that manifestly perceiue there are flatterers, and yet loue hym that flattereth them, & hate him that telleth them the trothe, and often times (standinge in opinion that he that praiseth them is to scace in his woordes) they themselues helpe him forward, and vtter such matters of themselues, that the most impudent flatterer of all is ashamed of. Let vs leaue these blinde busardes in their owne erroure,Men flatter themselues. and make oure Courtyer of so good a iudgement, that he will not be geuen to vnderstand blacke for white, nor presume more of him selfe then what he knoweth very manifestlye to be true, and especially in those thinges, whiche (yf he beare well in minde) the L. Cesar rehearsed in his diuise of pastimes, that we haue manye tymes vsed for an instru­ment to make many become foolysh. But rather, that he may be assured not to fall into anye errour,How he should auoid flatterers. where he kno­weth those prayses that are geuen him to be true: let hym not so openly consent to them, nor confirme them so with­out resistance, but rather with modesty (in a maner) denye them cleane, shewyng alwayes and countynge in effect, armes to be his principall profession, and al the other good qualities for an ornament thereof, and pryncypallye a­monge souldiers,Letters an ornamente of armes. least he be like vnto them that in lear­nyng will seeme men of warr, and among men of warr, learned. In this wise for the reasons we haue said he shal auoyde curyousnesse, and the meane thinges which he ta­keth in hand, shal appeare very great. Here M. Peter Bembo answered: I know not (Count Lewis) howe you will haue this Courtier, being learned & of so many other vertuous qualities, to count euery thing for an ornament of armes, [Page] and not armes and the reste for an ornamente of letters. The whyche wythout other addicyon are in dignitie so muche aboue armes, as the minde is aboue the bodye: be­cause the practising of them belōgeth properly to ye mind euen as the practising of armes dooeth to the body. The Count answered then:Armes be­long to the mind and body both▪ nay the practisinge of armes bee­longeth aswel to the mind as to ye body. But I wold not haue you (M. Peter) a iudge in this cause, for you would be to partial to one of the partes. And forsomuch as this dis­putation hath already bene tossed a longe time by moste wise men, we neede not to renew it, but I count it resol­ued vpon armes side, and wil haue our Courtier (since I haue the faci [...]ning of him at mi wil) think thus also. And if you be of a contrary opinion, tary til you heare a dispu­tation, where it may be as well lawfull for him yt taketh part with armes, to vse his armes, as thei yt defēd letters vse in the defence ye very same letters. Oh (ꝙ M. Pet [...]r) you rebuked the Frēchmen before for setting litle by letters, and declared what a great light of glory they shew vnto men & how they make them immortal:Petrar [...]a [...] Son. 155. & now it seemeth you are in an other opinion· Do you not remember that.

The great Macedo, when he proched neer
Fiers Achils famous Toumb, thus said and sight:
O happy Prince that found a Tromp so cleer,
Alexander. Homer.
And happy he that praysd so worthy a wight.

And if Alexander enuied Achilles not for his deedes but for his fortune that gaue him so great luck to haue his actes renowmed by Homer, Quint. Curt. lib. [...] a man may gather he estemed more the letters of Homer then ye armes of Achilles. What other iudge then or what other sentence looke you for, as tou­ching ye dygnity of armes & letters, then that which was geuen by one of the greatest capitaines that euer were? the Coūt answered: I blame ye Frenchmen because they think letters hurt the profession of armes:The Court­yer a manne of warre and learned, & I hould opi­nion yt it is not so necessary for any man to be learned, as it is for a mā of war. And these two pointes linked toge­ther [Page] and aided the one by the other (which is most fit) wil I haue to bee in the Courtier. Neyther doe I thinke my self for this to be in an other opinion, but (as I haue said) I will not dispute: whiche of them is most worthy praise, it sufficeth that learned men take not in hande at anye time to praise any but great men, & glorious actes, which of themselues deserue prayse by their proper essentiall vertues frō whence they arrise.Glorious actes a noble Therat. Beside yt, they are a most noble Theme for writers, which is a great ornament, & partly the cause of continuance of writinges, that para­uenture should not be so much read & set by, if there wan­ted in them noble matter, but counted vaine & of smal re­putation.Alexander thought not himself in­feriour. to A­chilles. And if Alexander enuied Achilles bicause he was praised of him that did it, yet doth it not consequently fo­lowe that he esteamed letters more then armes. Wherin if he had knowen himself so farr wide from Achilles, as in writing he thought al they would be from Homer yt should go about to write of him, I am sure he would muche soo­ner haue desired wel doing in himself then wel speaking in an other. Therfore think I that this was a close praise of himself, and a wishing for that he thought he had not, namelye the high excellency of a writer, and not for that he thought with himself he had already obtayned, that is to say, the prowess of armes, wherin he counted not Achilles any whit his superiour,What Alex­ander ment by calling A­chilles happy wherefore he called him happye, as it were signifiyng, where his fame in foretime was not so renowmed in the worlde, as was the fame that by so di­uyne a Poeme was cleere and excellent, it proceaded not for that his prowes and desertes were not such & worthy so much praise: but it arose of fortune that had before hād prepared for Achilles that miracle of nature for a glorious renowme & trompet of his actes. And peraduēture again he minded thereby to stirr vp some noble wit to wryte of himself, declaring thereby how acceptable it should be to him, forsomuch as he loued & reuerenced the holye monu­mentes of letters: about the which we haue now spoken [Page] sufficient. Nay more then sufficient, aunswered the L. Lo­douicus pius. For I beleue there is neuer a vessell in ye worlde possible to be founde so bigge that shalbe able to receiue al the thinges that you wil haue in this Courtyer. Then the Count, abide yet a while (quoth he) for there be manye o­ther thinges to be had in him yet. Peter of Naples aunswered: after this maner Cras [...]us de Medicis shal haue great auantage of M. Peter Bembo, at this they all laughed. And the Counte beginning a freshe, my Lordes (quoth he) you must thinke I am not pleased with the [...]urtyer if he be not also a mu­sitien, and beside his vnderstanding and couning vpon the booke, haue skill in lyke maner on sundrye instruments.The Court­yer a musiti­en. For yf we waie it well, there is no ease of the labours and medicines of feeble mindes to be founde more honeste and more praise worthye in tyme of leyser then it. And princy­pally in Courtes, where (beside the refreshing of vexacy­ons that musicke bringeth vnto eche man) many thynges are taken in hande to please women withal, whose tender and soft breastes are soone perced with melody and fylled with swetenesse. Therefore no maruaile that in the olde times and nowe a dayes they haue alwayes bene enclined to musitiens, and counted this a moste acceptable foode of the mynde. Then the L. Gaspar, I beleue musicke (quoth he) together with many other vanities is mete for women, & paraduenture for some also that haue the lykenes of men, but not for them that be men in dede: who ought not with suche delicacies to womannishe their mindes, and brynge themselues in that sort to dread death. Speake it not, an­swered the Count. For I shall enter into a large sea of the praise of Musicke, and call to rehearsal howe much it hath alwayes bene renowmed emong thē of olde time, & coū ­ted a holy matter:Musick in e­stimation in olde time. & how it hath bene ye opiniō of most wise Philosophers yt the world is made of musick, & the heauēs in their mouing make a melody, & our soule framed after ye very same sort, & therfore lifteth vp it self & (as it were) re­uiueth the vertues & force of it with musick: wherfore it is [Page] written that Alexander was sometime so feruentely styrred with it,Alexander styrred with musicke. that (in a maner) against his wyll he was forced to arise from bankettes and runne to weapon, afterward the musitien chaunging the stroke and his maner of tune,Xenofant. musitien. pa­cified himself againe and retourned from weapon to ban­ketting. And I shall tell you yt graue Socrates whan he was well stricken in yeares learned to playe vppon the harpe.Socrates be­yng olde ler­ned vpon the harpe. And I remember I haue vnderstoode that Plato and Aristotle will haue a man that is well brought vp, to be also a mu­sitien: and declare with infin [...] reasons the force of mu­sicke to be to very great purpose in vs, and for many cau­ses (that should be to long to rehearse) ought necessarilye to be learned from a mans childhoode,Why musick is good. not onely for the su­per ficial melodie that is hard, but to be sufficient to bring into vs a newe habite that is good, and a custome encly­ning to vertue, whiche maketh the minde more apt to the conceiuing of felicitie, euen as bodely exercise maketh the bodie more lustie, and not onely hurteth not ciuyl matters and warrelyke affaires, but is a great staie to them. Also Lycurgus in his sharpe lawes allowed musicke. And it is read that the Lacedemons, Lycurgus. The Lacede­mons. The Creten­ses. Epaminon­das. Themisto­cles the lesse estemed for not beyng a musitien. Chiron. Achilles a musitien. whiche were valiaunt in armes, & the Cretenses vsed harpes and other softe instrumentes: and many most excellent captaines of olde time (as Epaminondas) gaue themselues to musicke: and suche as had not a syght in it (as Themistocles) were a great deale the lesse set by. Haue you not read yt amōg the first instruccions which the good olde man Chiron taught Achilles in his tender age, whome he had brought vp frō his nurse and cradle, musick was one? And the wise maister would haue those hands that should shed so muche Troyan bloude, to be oftentimes occupyed in playing vpon the harpe? What souldyer is there (there­fore) that will thinke it a shame to folow Achilles, omitting many other famous captaines that I could alledge? Do ye not then depriue our Courtyer of musicke, which doth not onely make swete the mindes of mē, but also many times wilde beastes tame: and whoso sauoureth it not,Wielde bea­stes delyte in musicke. a manne [Page] may assuredly thinke him not to be wel in his wittes. Be­holde I pray you what force it hath, that in times paste al­lured a fishe to suffer a man to ride vpon him throughe the tempestious sea.Dolphines delyte in mu­sicke. We maie see it vsed in the holy temples to render laude and thankes vnto God,Musicke ac­ceptable to God. and it is a credible matter that it is acceptable vnto him, and that he hath ge­uen it vnto vs for a most swete lightning of our trauailes and vexations. So that many times the boisterous labou­rers in the fieldes in the heate of the sunne beguyle theyr paine with rude and cartarlyke singing.Labourers. With this the vnmanerly countreywoman that aryseth before daye oute of her slepe to spinne and carde,Countrey­women. defendeth her self and ma­keth her labour pleasant. This is the moste swete pastime after reigne, wind, and tempest vnto the miserable mari­ners.Mariners. Pylgroms. Prisoners. With this do the wery pilgromes comfort thēselues in their troublesome and long viages. And often tymes prisoners in aduersitie, in fetters, and in stockes. In lyke maner for a greater proofe that the tunablenes of musicke (though it be but rude) is a very great refreshīg of al worldly paines and griefs, a man would iudge that nature hath taughte it vnto nurses for a speciall remedye to the conty­nuall waylinges of sucking babes, whiche at the soune of of their voice fall into a quiete and swete slepe,Suckyng babes. forgetting the teares that are so proper to them, and geuen vs of na­ture in that age for a gesse of the reste of oure life to come. Here the Count pausing a whyle the L. Iulian saide: I am not of the L. Gaspars opinion, but I beleue for the reasons you alledge and for many other, that musicke is not onelye an ornament, but also necessarie for a Courtyer. But I woulde haue you declare how this and the other qualities whiche you appoint him are to be practised, and at what time, and in what sorte. Because many thinges that of thē selues bee worthie praise, oftentimes in practisyng theym out of season seeme moste foolish. And contrarywise, some thinges yt appere to be of smal momēt, in the wel applying them, are grea [...]ly estemed. Then saide the Count: before [Page] we enter into this matter, I will talke of an other thing, whiche for that it is of importaunce (in my iudgemente) I b [...]eue our Courtyer ought in no wise to leaue it out. And yt is ye cunning in drawyng, and the knowledge in the ve­ry arte of peincting.Peincting. And wonder ye not if I wish this feat in him, whiche now a dayes perhappes is counted an han­dycraft and ful litle to become a gentleman, for I remem­ber I haue read that the men of olde time, and especially in all Greece would haue Gentlemens children in the schooles to apply peincting,Gentlemens children lear­ned to peinct. as a matter both honest and necessary. And this was receiued in the firste degree of liberal artes, afterwarde openly enacted not to be taught to seruauntes and bondmen.Peincting for [...]id to bondmē Emong the Romanes in like maner it was in very great reputacion, and thereof sprong the surname of the most noble family of Fabii, for the first Fabius was sur­named [...]ictor, Fabius Pic­tor. because in dede he was a most excellēt pein­ter and so addicted to peincting, that after he had peincted the walles of the temple of Health, he writte therein hys name thinking with himselfe,Temple of health. that for all he was borne in so noble a familye whiche was honoured with so many ti­tles of Co [...]sulshi [...]pes and triumphes and other dignities, and was learned and well seene in the lawe, and reckened a­mong Oratours, to geue also an encrease of brightnesse & an ornament vnto his renowme, by leauyng behynde him a memorie that he had bene a peinter. There haue not in lyke maner wanted many other of notable famylyes that haue bene renowmed in this art, of the which (beside that in it selfe it is moste noble and worthye) there ensue ma­nye commodities,Necessarye in warre▪ and especiallye in warre to drawe oute cou [...]treys, plattefourmes, ryuers, brydges, castelles, houldes, fortresses, and suche other matters, the which thoughe a manne were hable to kepe in mynde (and that is a harde matter to doe) yet can he not shewe them to o­thers. And in verye dede who so esteameth not this arte, is (to my seemyng) farre wyde from all reason: forsomuche as the engine of the worlde that we behoulde with a large [Page] sky, so bright with shining sterres, and in the middes,The world [...] peincting. the earth enuironed with the Seas, seuered in partes wyth Hylles, Dales, and Riuers, and so decked with suche di­uerse trees, beawtifull flowres and herbes, a man maye saye it to be a noble and a great peincting, drawen wyth the hande of nature and of God: the whych whoso can fo­low in myne opinion he is woorthye much commendaci­on. Neyther can a man atteyne to thys wythout the knoweledge of manye thinges, as he well knoweth that trieth it. Therefore had they of olde time in verye great estimation both the art and the artificers, so that it came to the toppe of all excellencye. And of this maye a man gather a sufficient argument at the auntient ymages of marble and mettall, whyche at thys daye are to be seene. And though peincting be a diuerse matter from caruing, yet do they both arise of one self fountayne (namelye) of a good patterne.Auntient y­mages. And euen as the ymages are diuine and excellent,Caruing. so it is to be thought peinctinges were al­so, and so much the more, for that they conteine in them a greater workemanshipp. Then the L Emilia tour­ning her vnto Iohnchristopher Romano that sat ther emong the rest, how thinke you (quoth she) to this iudgement, will you graunt that peincting conteineth in it a greater workmanship, then caruing? Iohnchristopher answered: In my mynde caruing is of more trauaile, of more art, and of a more dignitye then peincting. Then said the Count. Bicause ymages are more durable, perhappes a man may say that they are of a more dignity. For sith they are made for a memory, they better satisfy the effect why the [...] be made, then peincting. But beside memory, both peinc­ting and caruing are made also to set out a thing, and in this point hath peincting a great deale the vpper hande, yt which though it be not so longe lastyng (to terme it so) as caruing is, yet doth it for al that endure a long tyme, and for the while it lasteth, is much more sightly. Then aun­swered Iohnchristopher ▪ I beleaue verelye you thynke not [Page] as ye speake, and all this do you for your Raphaelles sake. And peraduenture to,Raphael. you iudge the excellency you know to be in him in peincting to be of such perfection, that car­uynge in marble cannot come to that degree. But weye with your selfe, that this is the praise of the artificer and not of the art. Then he proceaded: and I iudge also both the one and the other to be an artifici [...]ll folowing of na­ture. But yet I know not how you can say, that ye trueth and property that nature maketh, cannot be folowed bet­ter in a figure of marble or mettall, whe [...]in the members are all round, proporcioned and measured as nature her self shapeth them, then in a Table where men perceyue nothing but the outwarde sygh [...] and those coulours that deceiue the eyes: & say not to me that being, is not nigher vnto the trueth then seeming.Why caruing is harder then peinc­tyng. Again, I iudge caruing in marble much harder, bicause if ye make a fault it cannot be amended again, for marble cannot be ioyned tog [...]ther, but ye must be drieuen to make a newe [...]mage, the which happeneth not in peincting, for a man may alter, put to, and diminish, alwaies making it better. The Count said laughing: I speake not for Raphaelles sake, neither ought you to think me so ignoraunt a person, but I vnderstand the excellency of Michelangelo, Michelan­gelo of you your selfe, & of other men in caruyng of marble, but I speak of the art & not of the artificers. And you say wel, that both the one and the other is the folowing of nature. But for all that, it is not so, that peinting appeareth and caruing is: for although images are all round like the liuely patterne, and peinc­tyng is onely seene in the outward apparance, yet want there manye thynges in ymages, that want not in penc­tinges, and especiallye lightes and shadowes, for fl [...]she geueth one light, and Marble an other, and that doth the Peincter naturally folow with cleare and darke, more & lesse, as he seeth occasion, which the grauer in marble can not doe. And where the Peincter maketh not his figure round, he maketh the muscules and the mēbers in round [Page] wise, so that they go to meete with the partes not seene, after such a maner, that a man may very well gather the peincter hath also a knowleage in them & vnderstandeth them. And in this poynt he must haue an other craft that is greater to frame those membres, that they may seeme short and diminishe accordinge to the proportion of the sight by the way of prospectiue,Prospectiue▪ which by force of measu­red lines, coulours, lightes and shadowes discouer vnto you also in the outward sight of an vpright wal the plain­nesse & farnesse, more and lesse, as pleaseth him.Wherin the p [...]in [...]r pas­seth the car­uer. Think you it agayn a triflynge matter to counterfeyt naturall coulours, flesh, clothe, and all other couloured thinges? This can not now the grauer in marble do, ne yet express the grace of the sight that is in the black eyes or in azurre with the shininge of those amorous beames. He can not show the coulour of yelow hear, nor ye glistring of armour, nor a darke nyght, nor a Sea tempest, nor those twinck­linges and sperkeles, nor the burninge of a Citye, nor the rising of the mornyng in the coulour of roses with those beames of purple and gold. Finallye he can not show the skye, the sea, the earth, hilles, woddes, medowes, gardei­nes, riuers, Cityes, nor houses, which the peincter doeth all. For this respect (me thinke) peincting is more noble, & conteyneth in it a greater workeman shippe then grauing in marble. And among them of old tyme I beleue it was in as high estimation as other thinges,Remnants of p [...]inctinge in Roome. the which is also to be discerned by certayn litle remnantes that are to be sene yet, especiallye in places vnder ground in Roome, but much more euidentlye may a man gather it by olde wry­tinges, wherein is so famous and so often mention both of the workes and workemen, that by them a man maye vnderstande in what high reputation they haue bene al­waies with Princes and Commune weales. Therefore it is read that Alexander loued highlye Appelles o [...] Ephesus, and somuch,Ale [...]ander [...] Appel­les. that after he had made him draw out a woman of his, naked, whom he loued most deerly, & vnderstandinge [Page] that this good peincter, for her marueylous beauty was most feruently in loue with her, without any more a do, he bestowed her vpon him.Alexanders gift to Appelles. Truely a woorthy liberalitye of Alexander, not to geue onelye treasures and states, but also his owne affections and desires, and a token of very great loue towarde Appelles, not regarding (to please him with all) the displeasure of the woman that he highly lo­ued, who it is to be thought was sore agreued to chaunge so great a king for a peincter.Onely Ap­pelles drewe [...] his pic­ture. There be manye other sig­nes rehersed also of Alexanders good will toward Appelles, but he shewed plainlye in what estimation he had him, whan he commaunded by open proclamation no other peincter shoulde be so hardy to draw out his picture. Here could I repete vnto you the contentions of manye noble peincters with the greatest commendation and maruaile (in a maner) in the world. I coulde tel you with what so­lemnitie the Emperours of old time decked out their try­umphes with peinctinges, and dedicated them vp in haū ­ted places and how deere it rest them.Estimation of peincting. And that there wer some Peincters that gaue their woorkes freely, seeming vnto them no golde nor siluer was inough to value them. And how a table of Protogenes was of such estimatiō, that Demetrius lying encamped before Rhodes, where he might haue entred the citie by setting fier to the place where he wiste this table was,A table wher in Bacchus was peinted. for feare of burning it, staid to bid them ba [...]taile, and so he wan not the city at al. And how Metrodorus a Philosopher & a most excellent peincter was sent out of Athens to L. Paulus to bringe vp his children and to deck out his triumph he had to make.Metrodorus And also manye noble writers haue written of this art, which is a token great inough to declare in what estimation it hath bene. But I will not we procede any farther in this communi­cation. Therfore it sufficeth onely to say yt our Courtier ought also to haue a knowledge in peincting, since it was honest & profitable,Profite of peincting. & much set by in those daies whan mē were of a more prowesse then they are now. And thoughe [Page] he neuer geat other profite or delite in it (beside that it is a helpe to him to iudge of the excellencye of ymages both olde and new, of vessels, buildinges, old coines, cameses, grauings and such other matters) it maketh him also vn­derstand the beawtye of liuelye bodies, and not onelye in the sweetenesse of the fisnamy, but in the proportion of all the rest, aswell in men as other liuing creatures.Louers ought to haue a [...]igh [...] in [...]. S [...] then how the knowleage in peinctinge is cause of verye great pleasure. And this let them think that do enioy and view the beauty of a woman so throughly that they think them selues in paradise, & yet haue not the feate of peinc­tinge: the which if they had, they would conceiue a farre greater contentation, for then should they more perfectly vnderstand the beauty that in their brest engendreth such hartes ease. Here the L. Cesar laughed & saide: I haue not the art of peincting, & yet I knowe assuredly I haue a far greater delyte in behoulding a woman in the world then Appelles himselfe that was so excellent whom ye named right now, could haue if he wer nowe in lief again. The Count answered:Affection of loue. this delite of yours proceadeth not wholy of the beawty, but of the affection which you perhappes beare vnto ye woman. And if you wil tell ye troth, the first time you beheld that woman, ye felt not the thousandeth part of ye delite which ye did afterward, though her beauty wer the very same▪ Therfore ye may cōceiue how affectiō beareth agreater stroke in your delite then beauty. I deny not that (quoth ye L. Cesar: but as delite ariseth of affectiō, so doth affection arise of beauty, therfore a man may say for al ye, that beauty is the cause of delite. The Count aunswe­red: there be many other thinges also that beside beawty often times enflame our mindes, as maners, knowleage, speach, gestures and a thousand mo (which peraduenture after a sort may be called beauty to) & aboue all the kno­wing a mans self to be beloued: so that without ye beautye you reason of, a man may be most feruentlye in loue, but those loues that arise onelye of the beauty which we dys­cerne superficially in bodyes, without doubt will bring a [...]arre greater delite to him that hath a more skill therein [Page] then to him that hath but a litle. Therfore retourning to our pourpose, I beleue Appelles conceiued a far greater ioy in behoulding the beawty of Campaspes then did Alexander, for a man maye easilye beleeue that the loue of them both proceaded of that beawtye,Campaspes. & perhaps also for this respect Alexander ▪ determined to bestowe her vpon him, that (in his minde) could knowe her more perfectlye [...]hen he did. Haue you not read of the fiue daughters of Croton, U [...]oug [...] ­te [...]s of Cro­ton. Zeu [...]is. which among the rest of that people, Zeusis the peincter chose to make of all fiue one figure that was most excellent in beawty, and wer renowmed of many Poets, as they that wer alowed for beaw [...]ifull of him that ought to haue a most perfect iudgment in beawty? [...]ere the L. Cesar, declaring him self not satisfied nor willing to consent by any meanes, that any man coulde t [...]st of the delite that [...]e felt in beholding the beawty of a cert [...]in wo­man, but he him self, began to [...]peake▪ & then was there hard a great scraping of fete in the floore with [...] [...]herme of loude speaking, and v­pon that euery man tourninge him selfe about, saw at the Chambre doore appeare a light of torches,L. Francisco­maria del [...]a Rouere. and by and by after entred in the L. Generall with a greate and noble traine, who was then retourned from accompaninge the Pope a peece of the way. And at his first en­trey into the Palaice demaundinge what the Dutches did, he was certe [...]ied what kind of pastime they had in hande that night, & howe the charg was committed to Count Lewis to entreat o [...] courting. Therfore he hasted him as much as he could to come betime to heare somewhat. And assone as he had saluted the Dutchesse & setled the [...]es [...]e that w [...]re risen vp at his comminge, he satte hym downe in the circ [...]e amonge them and certeine of the chiefe of his traine, amonge which were the marquesse Phebus of Ceua, and Ghirardin [...]rethern M. Hector of Roome, Vincēt Calmeta, Horace Floridus & many other▪ And whan al was whist, the L. General said: my Lordes, my comminge shoulde bee to hurtefull, if I should hindre such good cōmunication as I gesse was euen now emong you. Therfore do you me not this iniurie to depriue both youre selues and me of this pleasure. Then aunswered Count Lewis I beleaue (my Lorde) silence ought rather to please all parties then speakinge. For seinge it hath bene my lot this night before all other to take this trauaile in hande, it hath nowe w [...]ried me in speakinge and I wene [Page] all the rest in hearinge: because my talke hath not bene worthye of this companye, nor sufficient ynoughe for the waightinesse of the matter I haue bene charged withall, wherin sins I haue litle satisfied my self, I recken I haue muche lesse satysfied others. Therfore (my Lorde) your lucke hath bene good to come at the latter end, and nowe shal it be wel done to geue the enterprise of that is behind to an other that may succede in my roume. For whosoeuer he be, I knowe well he will much better acquite him selfe then I should do if I went forwarde with it, beinge thus wery as I am. This will I in no wise permit, aunswered the L. Iulian to be deceiued of the promise ye haue made me. And I knowe well the Lord Generall will not be against the vnderstandinge of that point. And what promise was that, quoth the Count? The L. Iulian answered: To declare vnto vs in what sort the Courtyer ought to vse those good condicions & qualities which you say are meete for him. The Lorde Generall, though he we [...] but a child in yeares, yet was he wise and descreete more then a man would think belonged vnto those tender yeares of his, & in euery gesture he declared with a great­nesse of minde a certaine liuelinesse of wit, which did sufficiently pro­nosticate the excellente degree of honou [...]e, and vertue where­vnto afterwarde he ascended. Wherfore he said incontinent­lye: if all this be behinde yet to be spoken of (me thinke) I am come in good season. For vnderstandinge in what sort the Courtier muste vse his good condicions & qualities, I shall knowe also what they are, and thus shall I come to the knowleage of al that haue bene spokē hitherto. Ther­fore sticke not (Count) to pay this debt, being alreadye dis­charged of one part therof. I should not haue so greate a debt to discharg, answered the Count, if the peynes were equallye deuided, but the faulte hath bene, in geuinge a Ladye authoritye to commaunde, that is to partial: and so smiling he beheld the Lady Emilia, which said immediatly: you ought not to complain of my partiality, yet sins ye do it against reasō, we wil giue one part of this honor, which you call peynes, vnto an other: & tourninge her vnto Sir [Page] Friderick Fregoso, you (quoth she) propounded this deuise o [...] the Courtier, therfore reason willeth ye should say some­what in it: & that shalbe to fulfill the L. Iulians request, in declaring in what sort, maner & time the Courtier ought to practise his good condicions and qualityes, and those o­ther thinges which the Coūt hath said are meete for him. Then Sir Friderick, Madam (quoth he) where ye will seuer the sort, the time and the maner of good condicions & qua­lityes and the well practisinge of the Courtyer, ye will se­uer that can not be sundred: for it is these thinges y make the condicions and qualityes good & the practising good. Therfore sins the Count hath spoken so much and so wel, & also said somwhat of these circumstances, and prepared for the rest in his mind that he had to say, it were but rea­son he should go forward vntill he came to the ende. The Lady Emilia aunswered: Set the case you were the Count your self, and spake that your mind geueth you he would do, and so shall all be well. Then said Calmeta, My Lordes, sins it is late, least Sir Friderick should find a scuse to vtter that he knoweth, I beleue it were wel done to deferre the rest of the communication vntill to morowe, and bestowe the small time that remayneth about some other pastyme without ambicion▪ The which being agreed vpon of all handes▪ the Dutches w [...]lled the Lady Margaret & the Lady Constāce Fre­gosa to shew them a daunce. Wherefore Barletta immediatly, a very pleasaunt musi [...]ien and an excellent daunser, who continually kept al the Court in mirth & ioy, began to play vpon his instrumentes, and they hande in hande, shewed them a daunce or twoo with a verye good grace and greate pleasure to the lookers on: That doone, because it was farre in nighte, the Dutches arrose vppon her feete, and so euery man taking his leau [...] reuerentlye of her, de­parted to his reste.

¶ THE SECOND BOOKE OF the Courtier of Count Baldessar Casti­lio vnto. M. Alphonsus Ariosto.

NOt without marueile many a time and often haue I considered wyth my self howe one errour should arise, the which bi­cause it is generallye seene in olde men, a man may beleaue it is proper and naturall vnto them: and that is,In erro [...]r in age. how (in a maner) all of them com­mend the times past, & blame the times present: disprai­sing [...]ur doinges and maners: and whatsoeuer they dyd not in their youthe: affirmynge moreouer euery good cu­stome and good trade of lyuing, euery vertue, finally ech thing to declyne alwayes from yll to worse. And in good sooth it seemeth a matter very wide from reason & wor­thye to be noted, that rype age whiche with long practise is wont to make mennes iudgementes more perfecte in other thynges, should in this behalf so corrupt them, that they should not discerne, yf the worlde wexed worse and worse, & the fathers were generally better then the chil­dren, we should long ere this tyme haue ben come to that vtmost degree of yll that can not wexe worse. And yet doe we see not onely in our dayes, but also in tymes past that this hath alwaies ben the peculier vyce of that age. The which is to be manifestlye gathered by the writynges of manye most auntient aucthours, and especyally comedy writers, whiche expresse better then the rest, the trade of mannes lyfe. The cause therefore of this false opinion in old menne, I beleue (in mine opinion) is, for that, yeares wearing away, cary also with them many commodities,The cause of the errour. and emonge other take awaye from the bloud a greate part of the lyuely spirites that altereth the complection, & the instrumentes wexe feeble, wherby the soule worketh her effectes. Therfore the sweete flowers of delite vade a­way [Page] in that season out of oure heartes, as the leaues fall from the trees after haruest, and in steade of open & cleere thoughtes there entreth cloudy and troublous heauinesse accompanied with a thousand heart grieffes: so that not onely the bloude, but the mind is also feble, nei [...]her of the former pleasures receyueth it anye thynge elles but a fast memorye and the print of the beloued time of tender age,Tyme of youth. which whan we haue vpon vs, the heauen, the earth, and ech thing to our seeming reioiceth and laugheth alwayes about our eyes, and in thought (as in a sauoury and plea­saunt gardein) florisheth the sweete spring time of mirth, so that peraduēture it were not vnprofitable, when now in the colde season, the Son of our lief (taking away from vs oure delites) beginneth to draw towarde the Weste, to lose in like case therwithal the mindefulnesse of them, and to find out (as Themistocles sayth) an art to teach vs to forget: for the sences of oure bodye are so deceyuable, that they beguile many times also the iudgment of the mind.Senses of the body Therefore (me thinke) olde men be like vnto them, that saylinge in a vessell out of an hauen, behoulde the ground with their eyes, and the vessell to ther seeminge standeth styll and the shore goeth: and yet is it cleane contrary, for the hauen, and likewise the time and pleasures continue still in their astate, & we with the vessell of mortalitye fly­ing away, go one after an other through the tempestuous sea that swaloweth vp & deuoureth al thinges, neither is it graunted vs at any time to come on shore again, but al­waies beaten with contrary windes, at the end we break our vessell at some rocke.The mind of olde age. Because therefore the minde of old age is without order subiect to many pleasures, it can not taste them: and euen as to them that be sycke of a fea­uer whan by corrupt vapours they haue lost theyr taste, all wines appeare mo [...]e bitter, though they be precious and delicate in dede: so vnto olde men for there vnaptenes (wherein notwithstanding desier fayleth them not (plea­sures seeme without taste and colde, much differing from [Page] those they remember they haue proued in foretyme, al­thoughe the pleasures in themselues be the selfe same. Therfore when they feele themselues voide of them, it is a griefe, and they blame the time present for yll, not per­ceyuinge that this chaunge proceadeth of themselues and not of the tyme. And contrarywyse whan they call to minde the pleasures past, they remember therwithall the time they had them in, and therfore commend it for good,Thinges be­loued that ac­cumpanye pleasures. because to their weening it carieth with it a sauour of it, which they felt in them whan it was presente, by reason that in effecte our mindes conceyue an hatred against all thynges that haue accompanyed oure sorowes, and loue suche as haue accompanied oure pleasures. Upon this it commeth that vnto a louer it is most acceptable sometime to behoulde a window though it be shutte, because other­whiles it may be hys chaunce to see his maistresse there: in like maner to see a rynge, a letter, a gardein or anye o­ther place or what euer other thynge he supposeth hathe bene a wittinge testimoniall of his pleasures. And con­trariwise, often times a faire trymmed and well decked chamber is abhorred of him that hath bene kept prysoner in it, or abidde therin any other sorow. And in my dayes I haue knowen some that will neuer drinke of a cup like vnto that wherin in their sickenesse they had taken a me­dicin. For euen as that windowe, ringe or letter, doeth bring to the minde a sweete remembraunce vnto the one that somuch pleaseth him, for that he imagineth it was a percell of his pleasures, so vnto the other the chamber or cuppe seemet h to bringe with the memory, his sicknes or imprisoninge againe. The verye same cause (I beleaue) moueth old men to praise the times past and discommend the present. Therfore as they talke of other thynges, so do they also of Courtes, affirminge suche as haue bene in their memory to be much more excellent and farre better furnished with notable men, then we see them to be that are now a dayes. And immediatly whan they entre into [Page] this kinde of talke, they beginne to extoll with in finyte praises the Courtes of Duke Philip, or of Duke Borso, and declare the sayinges of Nicholas Piccininus and reherse that in those tymes a man should very [...]ildome haue hearde of a murther committed,Old mens o­pinion of Courtes. and no combattes, no craftes nor deceites: but a certaine faithful and louing good meaning emong all men and an vpright dealing. And in Courtes at that time there reigned suche good condicions and such honestie that the Courtyers were (in a maner) religious folke: and woe vnto him that shoulde haue spoken an yll word of an other, or made but a signe otherwyse then ho­nestly to a woman. And on the other side, they say in these dayes euery thing is cleane contrary, and not onelye that brotherlye loue and manerlye conuersation loste emonge Courtyers, but also in Courtes there reigneth nothynge elles but enuye and malyce, yll maners, and a m [...]st wan­ton lyfe in euery kinde of vice:Enuie. Women wanton. Men wo­manish. A paraile. the women enticefull past shame, and the men womanishe. They disprayse also the apparalle to be dishonest and to softe. To be shorte, they speake against infinite thinges, emonge the whiche ma­ny in very dede deserue to be discommended, for it cannot be excused, but there are many yll and naughtie menne e­monge vs, and this oure age is muche more full of vices, then was that whiche they commende. But (me thinke) they doe full yll skanne the cause of this difference, and they bee fonde persones, because they woulde haue all goodnesse in the worlde withoute anye yll, whiche is vnpossible.Contraries For fynce yll is contrarie to good, and good to yll, it is (in a maner) necessarie by contrarietye and a certayne counterpese the one shoulde vnderprompe and strengthen the other, and where the one wanteth or en­creaseth, the other to wante or encrease also: beecause no contrarye is wythoute hys other contrarye. Who knoweth not that there shoulde bee no Iustyce in the worlde, were it not for wronges? no stoutenesse of cou­rage, were there not feynthearted? nor continency, were [Page] there not incontinencie? nor health, were there not sicke­nes? nor trueth, were there not lyes?Socrates. Esopus. nor happynesse were there not mischaunces? Therefore Socrates saieth well in Plato that he marueyleth that Esope made not an Apolo­gus or fable, wherein he mighte haue feigned that God, since he coulde neuer coople pleasure and sorowe toge­ther, might haue knit them with an extremitie, so that the beginninge of the one shoulde haue beene the ende of the other. For we see no pleasure can delite vs at a­nye time if sorow goeth not beefore.One contra­rie foloweth an other. Who can loue rest well onlesse he haue firste felte the griefe of weerinesse? Who sauereth meate, drinke, and sleepe, if he haue not firste felt hunger, thirste, and watchinge? I beleaue ther­fore passions and dyseases are geuen to menne of nature, not principallye to make them subiect to them, for it wer not mete that she, whiche is the mother of all goodnesse, shoulde by her owne purposed aduise giue vs so manye e­uilles, but since nature doth make healthe, pleasure and other goodnesse, consequentlye after these, were ioyned diseases, sorowes and other euilles. Therfore since ver­tues were graunted to the worlde for a fauoure and gifte of nature, by and by were vices by that lincked contrarie­ty necessarily accompanied with them: so that the one en­creasing or wanting, ye other must in like maner encrease or want. Therfore when our olde men praise the Courtes of times past because there were not in them so vitious men, as some that are in oures, they doe not knowe that there were not also in them so vertuous men,Better wit­tes now then in fore [...]ime. as some that are in oures: the which is no wonder, for no yll is so euill, as that which arriseth of the corrupte seede of good­nesse. And therfore where nature now bringeth forth muche better wyttes then she didde tho, euen as they that bee geuen to goodnesse doe muche better then didde those of theyr tyme, so also they that be geuen to yll doe muche woorse. Therefore it is not to bee saide, that suche as [Page] absteyned frome doinge ill because they knewe not howe to doe it, deserued in that case anye praise: for althoughe they dyd but a lyttle yll, yet dydde they the woorste they knewe. And that the wittes of those tymes were ge­nerally much inferiour to these now a dayes, a man may iudge by all that hath proceaded from thē, letters, peync­tynges, statures, buildinges and al other thinges. Again these olde men discommende many thynges in vs, which of themselues are neyther good nor badde, onelye because they did them not: and say it is no good sight to see yonge men on horsebacke aboute the stretes and especially vpon Mules, nor to weare furres, nor syde garmentes in win­ter,Thinges nei­ther good nor badd. norto weare a cappe before a man be at the least xviii. yeares of age, and such other matters, wherin truly they be much deceyued. For these facions (beside that they be commodious and profitable) are brought vp by custome, and generallye men delite in them, as at that time they were contented to goe in their iacket,Facions set-by in the olde tyme. in their breechelesse hose and in their lowe shoes with lachettes, & (to appeere fine) carye all day longe a hauke vpon their fiste, without pourpose, and daunce without touching a womans hand, and vsed many other facions, the which as they are nowe stale, so were they at that time muche set by. Therefore may it be lawefull for vs also to followe the custome of our times, without controulment of these olde men, whi­che going about to praise themselues, say: Whan I was xx. yeares olde I laye wyth my mother and sisters,The sayinge of olde men. nor a great while after wiste I what women ment: and nowe children are not so soone crepte [...]ute of the shell, but they knowe more naughtynesse, then they that were come to mans state did in those dayes: neither be they aware in so sayinge that they confirme our children to haue more wit then their olde men. Let them leaue therfore speakinge against our times, as full of vyces: for in takinge awaye them, they take also a way the vertues. And let them re­mēber [Page] that among the good men of auncient time, when as the glorious wittes florished in the world, which in ve­ry dede were of most perfection in euery vertue, and more then manlye, there were also manye moste mischeuous, which if they had still liued, shoulde haue excelled oure yll men somuch in ill, as those good men in goodnes, & of this do all Histories make full mention. But vnto these olde men I weene I haue made a sufficient aunswer. Ther­fore we will leaue aparte, this discourse, perhappes to te­dious, but not altogether out [...]f pourpose: and beeing suf­ficient to haue declared that the Courtes of oure time are worthy no lesse praise, then those that old men commend so much, we wil attende to our communication that was had about ye Courtier, wherby a man may easely gather, in what degre the Court of Vrbin was emonge the reste,Noble wit­tes in the Court of vr­ [...]in. and what maner a Prince and Lady they were that had suche noble wyttes attendyng vpon them, and howe for­tunate all they might call them selues that lyued in that familiar felowship. Whan the day folowinge therefore was come, there was great and sundrye talke betweene the Gentlemen and Ladies of the courte vpon the dispu­tacion of the night beefore: which arrose a greate parte of it, vpon the L. Generalles greedy desire, to vnderstande asmuch as had bene said in the matter, who had enquired it almoste of euerye manne: and (as it is alwaies wont to come to passe) it was reported vnto him sundrye wayes, for some praised one thing, some an other, and also [...]mōg many there was a contencion of the Countes oune mea­ning, for euerye man did not so fullye beare in minde the matters that had bene spoken. Therfore almost ye whol [...] day was spent about talking in this, and assone as night drue on, the L. Generall commaunded meate to be set on the borde, and toke all the Gentelmen with him, and im­mediatlye after supper he repayred to the Dutches side▪ who beehouldinge so great a companye assembled sooner then they had done at other tymes, saide: me thinke, it is [Page] a great weight, Sir Friderick that is layd vpon your shoul­ders, and a greate expectacion that you must satisfy. Here not tariynge for Sir Friderickes answere, and what greate weight (I beseche ye) is it, said then Vnico Aretino? Who is so foolishe that whan he can do a thinge, will not do it in a fit and due time? reasoning in this wise about the mat­ter, euery man satte him downe in his wonted place and maner with very heedfull expectacion of the propounded talke. Then Sir Friderick tourninge him to Vnico, doe you not think then, M. Vnico (quoth he) yt I am laden this night with a great & peinful burdē, since I must declare in what sorte, maner and time, the Courtier hath to practise hys good cōdicions and qualities, and to vse those other thin­ges that are alreadie saide to be mete for him? Me thynke it is no great matter, answered Vnico: and I beleue a good iudgement in the Courtyer is sufficient for al this, which the Count saide well yesterday nighte that he oughte to haue: and in case it be so, without any other preceptes, I suppose he may practyse welynough the thynge that hee knoweth in due time and after a good sorte. The whiche to bring more particularly into rule were to harde a mat­ter, and perhappes more then nedeth, for I know not who is so fonde to go about his fence, whan the rest be in their musicke: or to goe about the streetes daunsing the Moris­co, though he could doe it neuer so well: or goinge aboute to comfort a mother that had buried her childe, to beginne to talke with her of pleasant matters and mery conceites. I beleue surely no gentleman will do this, onlesse he wer cleane out of his wittes. Me think (M. Vnico) quoth Sir Fri­derick then, ye harpe to muche vppon youre extremities. For it happeneth otherwhile a man is so fonde that he re­membreth not himself so easilye, and ouersightes are not all alike. And it may be, that a man shall abstaine from a common foly which is to manifest, as that is you speake of,To obserue time. to go daunce the Morisco in the market place, and yet shal he not refraine from praising himself out of purpose, [Page] from vsing a noysome sawcinesse, from casting out other­while a worde thinking to make men laughe, whiche for that it is spoken out of time will appeare colde and with­out any grace, and these ouersightes often times are co­uered with a certaine veile that suffereth a manne not to forget who dothe them, onlesse he take no heede to them: and although for many causes our sight descerneth but li­tle, yet for ambicions sake it is darkened in especyall, for euery man willingly setteth forth himselfe in that he per­swadeth himself he knoweth▪ whether this perswasion of his bee [...]ue or false. Therefore the well behauing of a mannes selfe in this case (me think) consisteth in a certain wisedome and iudgement of choise, and to knowe more and l [...]sse what encreaseth or diminisheth in thinges, to practise them in due time or out of season. And for all the Courtyer be of so good a iudgement that he can descerne these differences, yet shall he the sooner compasse that hee seketh, if his imagination he opened with some rule, and the way [...]s shewed him, and (as it were) the places where he should groūd himself vpon, then yf he should take him self onely to the generaltie. Forsomuche as therefore the Count ye [...]sterday night entreated vpon Courtyership so c [...]piously and in so good a maner, he hath made me (true­ly) conceiue no small feare and doubte that I shall not so throughly satisfie this noble audience in the matter that lieth vpon me to discourse in, as he hath done in that was his charge. Yet to make my self partener in what I maye of his praise, and to be sure not to erre (at the least in thys part) I will not contrarie him in any point. Wherefore a­greing to his opinions, and be [...]ide the reste, as touchynge noblenes of birthe, wit and disposition of person & grace of countenaunce, I say vnto you that to gete hym prayse worthely and a good estimation with all men, and fauour with suche great m [...]n as he shal attende vpon, me thinke it behouffull he haue the vnderstanding to frame all hys life and to set foorth his good qualities generally in com­pany [Page] with al men without purchasing himself enuy. The whiche howe harde a matter it is of it selfe, a man maye consider by the sildomenesse of suche as are seen to attain to that point: because we are al the sort of vs in very dede more enclined of nature to dispraise faultes, then to com­mende thinges well done. And a man would thinke that many by a certain rooted malice,Many [...] [...] to finde faul­tes. although they manifest­ly descerne the goodnes, enforce themselues with al study and diligence to finde in vs either a faulte or at the least [...] the likenes of a fault. Therefore it behoueth oure Court­yer in all his doinges to be charie and heedfull, and what so he saith or doeth to accompany it with wisedome, and not onely to set his delite to haue in himself partes and excellent qualities, but also to order the tenour of his life af­ter suche a trade, that the whole may be answerable vnto these partes, and see the selfe same to bee alwayes and in euery thing suche, that it disagree not from it selfe, but make one body of all these good qualities, so that euerye deede of his may be compact and framed of al the vertues, as the Stoikes say the duetie of a wiseman is: although not withstanding alwaies one vertue is the principall,Stoic [...], but all are so knit and linked one to an other, that they tende to one ende, and all may bee applyed and serue to euery pur­pose. Therefore it behoueth he haue the vnderstandynge to set them forth,To set out one qualytie with another and by comparason and (as it were) con­trariety of the one, sometime to make the other the better knowen: as the good p [...]inct [...]rs with a shadow make the lightes of high places to appeere, and so with light make lowe the shadowes of plaines, and meddle diuers cou­lours together, so that throughe that diuersitie bothe the one and the other are more sightly to behoulde, and the placing of the figures contrarie the one to the other is a helpe to them to doe the feate that the peincters mynde is to bring to passe.Loweline [...]se. So that lowlines is muche to be cōmen­ded in a Gentleman that is of prowesse and well seene in armes: and as that fearcenesse seemeth the greater whan [Page] it is accompanied with sobermoode, euen so dooeth sober­mood encrease and shewe it selfe the more through fierce­nesse. Therefore little speaking, muche dooing, and not praising a mannes owne selfe in commendable deedes, dissemblyng them after an honeste sorte, dooeth encrease both the one vertue and the other in a person that can dis­creatly vse this trade: and the like is to be said in all the o­ther good qualities. Therefore will I haue our Courtyer in that he doeth or saieth to vse certaine general rules,Generall ru­les. the whiche (in my minde) containe briefly asmuch as belong­eth to me to speake. And for the first and chief lette him a­uoide (as the Count saide wel in that behalf yester night) aboue all thinges curiositie.Auoid curio­sity [...]. Afterwarde let him consider wel what the thing is he doth or speaketh, the place wher it is done, in presence of whom, in what time, the cause why he doeth it, his age, his profession,Circumstan­ces. the ende whereto it tendeth, and the meanes that may bring him to it: and so let him apply himselfe discreatly with these aduertise­mentes to whatsoeuer he mindeth to doe or speake. After Syr Fridericke had thus saide, he seemed to staye a whyle Then said M. Morello of Ortona: Me thinke these your rules teache but litle. And I for my parte am as skilfull now as I was before you spake them, althoughe I remember I haue harde them at other times also of friers with whom I haue bene in confession, and I weene they terme them circumstances. Then laughed Syr Fridericke and said: if you doe well beare in mynde, the Counte willed yesternighte that the chief profession of the Courtyer should bee in ar­mes, and spake very largely in what sorte he shoulde do it, therefore will we make no more rehearsall thereof:An example of the circumstances. yet by our rule it may be also vnderstoode, that where the Court­yer is at a skirmishe, or assault, or battaile vpon the land, or in such other places of enterprise, he ought to worke the matter wisely in seperating himself from the multitude, and vndertake his notable and bould feates which he hath to do with as litle company as he can, and in the sighte of [Page] noble men that be of most estimation in the campe, and es­pecially in the presence and (if it wer possible) beefore the very eyes of his king or greate parsonage he is in seruice withal: for in dede it is mete to set forth to the shew thin­ges well done. And I beleaue euen as it is an yll matter to seke a false renoume, and in the thing he deseru [...]th no praise at all, so is it also an yll matter to defraude a mans self of his due estimation,Praise to be sought for. & not to seke that praise, which alone is the true reward of vertuous enterprises. And I remember I haue knowen of them in my time that for all they wer of prowesse,Grosheaded persons. yet in this point they haue shewed themselues but grossheaded, and put their life in as great hasard to go take a flock of shiepe, as in being the formost to scale the walles of a batred towne, ye which our Court­yer wil not doe if he beare in minde the cause that bryng­eth him to the warre,The cause to venture life is estimacion. which ought to be onely his estima­tion. And if he happen moreouer to be one to shewe feates of Chiualrie in open sightes at tilt, turney, or Ioco di canne or in any other exercise of the person,Open sho­wes. remembryng ye place where he is, and in presence of whom, he shall prouide be­fore hand to be in his armour no lesse handsome and sight­ly then sure,Readie in his armour. and feede the eyes of the lookers on wyth all thinges that he shall thinke may geue him a good grace, & shall do his best to gete him a horse sett out with fair har­neis and sightly trappinges,A horse well trimmed. and to haue proper deuyses, apt poesies, and wittie inuentions that may drawe vnto him the eyes of the lookers on,Wittye in­uentions. as the Adamant stone doth yron. He shall neuer be among the last that come furth in­to the listes to shewe themselues, considering the people, and especially women take muche more hede to the fyrste then to the last:Not of the laste to come furthe. because the eyes and mindes that at the begynning are greedy of that noueltye, note euerye lyttle matter and printe it, afterward by continuaunce they are not onely full, but weery of it. Therefore was there a no­ble Stageplaier in olde tyme that for this respecte would alwaies be the first to come furth to playe his parte.Q. Roscius co­ [...]oe [...]us. In [Page] like maner also if our Co [...]rtier do but talke of armes, he shal haue an eie to the profession of them he talketh with­all and according to that frame himselfe,A respect to the talke of armes. and vse one ma­ner of talke with men, and an other with women: and in case he will touche any thing sounding to his own praise, he shall do it so dissemblinglye as it wer at a chaunce & by the way and with the discretion and warinesse that count Lewis shewed vs yesterday. Do you not nowe thinke (M. Morello) that our rules can teache somewhat? Trowe you not that friende of ours I tould you of a fewe dayes a goe had cleane forgotten with whom he spake, & why? Whan to entertein a gentilwoman whom he neuer saw before, at his first entring in talke with her, he began to tell how many men he had slain and what a hardie felow he was, and how he could play at twohandsworde and had neuer done vntill he hadde taught her howe to defende certeine strokes with a Pollaxe being armed and how vnarmed, & to shewe howe (in a mannes defence) to lay hande vppon a dagger, so that ye poore gentilwoman stood vpō thornes, and thought an houre a thousande yeare till she were got from him, for feare least he would go nigh to kil her as he had done those other. Into these errours runne they that haue not an eye to the circumstances whiche you saye ye haue heard of Friers. Therfore I say of ye exercises of the body, some there are that (in maner) are neuer practised but in open shewe, as runninge at Tilt, Barriers, Ioco di Canne, and all the reste that depende vppon Armes. Therefore whan oure Courtyer taketh any [...] of these in hande, firste hee muste prouide to bee so well in or­der for Horse, Harneys,Well proui­ded for open showes. and other fournitures beelong­ynge thereto, that he wante nothinge. And if he see not hym selfe throughelye fournyshed in all poyntes, lette him not meddle at all. For if he dooe not well, it can not bee scused that it is not his profession. Af­ter thys, he oughte to haue a great consideration in pre­sence [Page] of whom he sheweth himselfe, and who be his mat­ches. For it were not meete that a Gentilman shoulde be present in person and a doer in such a matter in the coun­trey, where the lookers on & the doers were of a base sort. Then saide the L. Gaspar Pallauicin. In our countrey of Lum­bardy these matters are not passed vppon, for you shall see there yonge Gentilmen vpon the holy dayes come daunce al the day long in the Sunne with them of the countrey, & passe the time with them in casting the barre, in wrast­ling, running and leaping. And I beleue it is not ill done. For no comparason is there made of noblenesse of birth, but of force and slight, in which thinges many times the men of the countrey are not a whit inferiour to Gentil­men, & it seemeth this familiar conuersation conteineth in it a certein louely freenesse. This daūsing in the son, answered Syr Fridericke, can [...] in no case away withall: & I can not see what a man shal gain by it.How to practise feates with men of the countrey. But whoso wyll wrastle▪ runne and leape with men of the countrey, ought (in my iudgement) to do it after a sorte: to proue himselfe and (as they are wonte to saye) for courtesie, not to trye maistry with them: and a man ought (in a maner) to be as­sured to get the vpper hand, elles let him not meddle with al, for it is to ill a sight and to foule a matter and without estimation to see a Gentilman ouercome by a Cartar and especially in wrastling. Therfore I beleue it is wel done to abstaine from it, at the leastwise in the presence of ma­ny, because if he ouercome, his gaine is small, and his losse in being ouercome very great. Also they play at te­nise (in maner) alwaies in open sight, & this is one of the commune games which the multitude with their pre­sence muche set furth.Play at te­nise. I will haue oure Courtier therfore to do this and all the rest beside handlyng his weapon, as a matter that is not his profession: and not seeme to seeke or loke for any praise for it, nor be acknowen y he bestow­eth much study or time about it,The fond to­yes of some. although he do it excellēt­ly well. Neither shall he be like vnto some yt haue a delite [Page] in musicke, and in speaking with whom soeuer alwaies whan he maketh a pause in their talke, begine in a voice as though they would sing. Other walking in the stretes or in the churches, go alwayes daunsing. Other meetyng in the market place or whersoeuer anye friende, make a gesture as though they would play at sence, or wrastle, ac­cording as their delite is. Here said the L. Cesar Gonzaga, we haue in Roomé a yong Cardinal that doeth better then so, whiche feeling him selfe lusty of person leadeth as manye as come to visit him (though he neuer sawe them before) into a gardein, and is very instant vppon them to strippe themselues into their dublet to leape with him. Syr Fridericke laughed, afterwarde he proceaded on. There be some other exersices that may be done both openly and priuately, as dauncyng: and in this I beleue the Courtier ought to haue a respecte, for yf he daunseth in the presence of many and in a place ful of people, he must (in my mind) keepe a certain dignitie,Daunsing. tempred notwithstanding with a handsome and sightly sweetnesse of gestures, and for all he feeleth himself very nimble and to haue time and mea­sure at will, yet let him not enter into that swiftnesse of feete and doubled footinges,Daunsing [...] priuatlye. that we see are very comely in oure Barletta, and peraduenture were vnseemely for a Gentilman, although priuately in a chamber together as we be nowe, I will not saye but he maye do both that, and also daunce the morisco & braulles, yet not openlye onlesse he were in a maske. And though it were so that all menne knewe him, it skilleth not, for there is no way to that, if a man will shewe himselfe in open sightes about such mat­ters, whether it be in armes, or out of armes.To be i [...] maske. Because to be in a maske bringeth with it a certaine libertie and ly­cence, that a man may emong other thinges take vppon him the fourme of that he hath best skill in, and vse bente studye and preciseness about the principall drift of the mat­ter wherin he will shewe himselfe, and a certaine Re [...]ke­les [...]ess aboute that is not of importaunce, whiche aug­menteth [Page] the grace of the thinge, as it were to disguise [...] yonge man in an olde mannes attire,Maner of disguising, but so that his gar­mentes be not a hindraūce to him to shew his nimblenes of person. And a man at armes in fourm of a wield shepe­hearde, or some other suche kinde of disguisinge, but with an excellent horse and wel trimmed for the purpose. Because the minde of the lookers on runneth furthwith to imagine the thing that is offered vnto the eyes at the first shew, and whan they behold afterward a farre grea­ter matter to come of it then they looked for vnder that attire, it deliteth them and they take pleasure at it. There­fore it were not meete in such pastimes and open shewes, where they take vp counterfaiting of false visages,The prince in maske not to take the shap of a prince. a prince should take vpon him to be like a prince in dede, be­cause in so doing, the pleasure that the lookers on receyue at the noueltye of the matter should want a great deale, for it is no noueltie at all to any man for a prince to bee a prince. And whan it is perceyued that beside his beinge a prince, he wil also beare the shape of a prince, he loseth the libertie to do all those thinges that are out of the digni­ty of a prince. And in case there should any contencion hap­pen especially with weapon in these pastimes, he mighte easily make men beleaue that he keepeth the persone of a prince because he will not be beaten but spared of the rest: beside that, doing in sport the very same he should do in good earnest whan neede required, it woulde take away his authoritye in deede and would appeere in lyke case to be play also. But in this point the prince stripping himself of the person of a prince, and minglinge himselfe equallye with his vnderlinges (yet in suche wise that he maye bee knowen) with refusynge superioritye, lette hym ca­leng [...] a greater superioritie, namelye, to passe other men, not in authoritie, but in vertue, & declare that his prowes is not encreased by his being a prince. Therefore I saye yt the Courtier ought in these open sightes of armes to haue the self same respect according to his degree. But in vau­ting, [Page] wrastling, running & leaping, I am well pleased he flee the multitude of people, or at the least be sene very sil­dome times. For there is nothing so excellent in ye world,In some exercises flee the multitude. that the ignorant people haue not their fil of, and smallye regard in often beholding it.P [...]ople haue son [...] their fill. The like iudgement I haue in musike: but I would not our Courtier should do as ma­ny do, that assone as they come to any place, & also in the presence of great men with whom they haue no acquain­tance at al,Some set out them selues vnaduisedly. without much entreating sett out themselues to shew asmuch as they know, yea & many times that thei know not, so that a man would weene they cam purpose­ly to shew themselues for that, & that it is their principall profession.How to shew musike. Therfore let oure Courtier come to shewe his musike as a thing to passe the time withall, and as he wer enforced to doe it, and not in the presence of noble menne, nor of any great multitude. And for all he be skilfull & do­eth wel vnderstand it, yet wil I haue him to dissemble the study and peines that a man must needes take in all thin­ges that are well done. And let him make semblante that he estemeth but litle in himself that qualitie, but in doing it excellently wel make it muche estemed of other menne. Then saide the L. Gaspar Pallauicin. There are manye sortes of musike aswell in the brest, as vpon instrumentes, ther­fore would I gladly learne whiche is the best, and at what time the Courtyer ought to practise it. Me thinke answe­red Sir Friderick, prick song is a faire musicke, so it bee done vpon the booke surely and after a good sorte.Pricke song. But to sing to the lute is muche better, because al the sweetenesse con­sisteth in one alone,To synge to the l [...]te. and a manne is muche more heede­full and vnderstandeth better the feate maner and the aer or veyne of it, whan the eares are not busyed in hearynge anye moe then one voyce: and beesyde eue­rye lyttle erroure is soone perceyued, whiche happeneth not in syngynge wyth companye, for one beareth oute an other. But syngynge to the Lute wyth the dyt­tie (me thynke) is more pleasaunte then the reste,Singinge with [...]. for [Page] it addeth to the wordes suche a grace and strength, that it is a great wonder.Instrumen­tes with tre­ates. Also all instrumentes with freates are ful of harmony, because ye tunes of them are very perfect, and with ease a manne may do many thinges vpon them that fil the minde with the sweetnesse of musike. And the musike of a sette of Uioles doth no lesse delite a man,A sette of vi­oles. A mannes brest. for it is verie sweete and artificiall. A mannes breste geueth a great ornament and grace to all these instrumentes, in the which I wil haue it sufficient that our Courtyer haue an vnderstanding. Yet the more counninger he is vppon them, the better it is for him, withoute medlynge muche with the instrumentes that Minerua and Alcibiades refused,Shalmes. Dulcimers. Harpe. because it seemeth they are noisome. Nowe as touchyng the time and season whan these sortes of musike are to be practised: I beleue at all times whan a man is in familiar and louing company,Time to practise musike. hauing nothing elles a doe. But es­peciallye they are meete to bee practised in the presence of women, because those sightes sweeten the mindes of the hearers, & make them the more apte to bee perced with the pleasantnesse of musike, & also they quicken the spirites of the verye doers. I am well pleased (as I haue saide) they flee the multitude, and especially of the vnnoble. But the seasoning of the whole muste bee discreation,Discreation. because in effect it wer a matter vnpossible to imagine all cases that fall. And if the Courtyer be a righteous iudge of himselfe, he shall apply himselfe well inough to the tyme, and shall discerne whan the hearers mindes are disposed to geue eare and whan they are not. He shall knowe his age, for (to saie the trueth) it were no meete matter, but an yll sight to see a man of eny estimation being olde,Olde men. horehea­ded and toothlesse, full of wrinckles with a lute in his ar­mes playing vpon it & singing in the middes of a compa­ny of women, although he coulde doe it reasonablye well. And that, because suche songes conteine in them woordes of loue, and in olde men loue is a thing to bee iested at: al­though otherwhile he seemeth emonge other miracles of [Page] his to take delite in spite of yeres to set a fier frosen herts. Then answered the L. Iulian: doe you not barr poore olde men from this pleasure [Syr Fridericke] for in my time I haue knowen men of yeeres haue very perfect brestes and most nimble fingers for instrumentes, muche more then some yong men. I go not about quoth Syr Fridericke, to barr olde men from this pleasure, but I wil barr you these La­dies from laughing at that folie. And in case olde men wil sing to the lute, let them doe it secretly,How olde mē should prac­tise musike. and onely to ridde their mindes of those troublesome cares and greuous dis­quietinges that oure life is full of: and to taste of that ex­cellency which I beleue Pythagoras and Socrates sauoured in musike. And set case they exercise it not at all: for that thei haue gotten a certain habit and custome of it, they shal sa­uour it muche better in hearing, then he y hath no know­ledge in it: For like as the armes of a smith that is weake in other thinges, because they are more exercised, be stron­ger then an other bodyes that is sturdy, but not exercysed to worke with his armes: euen so the eares that be exerci­sed in musike do muche better and sooner descerne it, and with much more pleasure iudge of it, then other, how good & quicke soeuer they be that haue not bene practised in the varietie of pleasant musike: because those musical tunes perce not, but withoute leauing anye taste of themselues passe by the eares not accustomed to heare them although the very wilde beastes feele some delite in melodye. This is therfore the pleasure meete for olde men to take in mu­sike. The self same I say of daunsing, for in dede these ex­ercises oughte to bee lefte of before age constraineth vs to leaue them whether we will or no. It is better then, aun­swered here M. Morello halfe chafed, to excepte all olde men and to saie that only yong men are to be called Courtiers. Then laughed Syr Fridericke and saide: Note [M. Morello] whether suche as delite in these matters, yf they bee not yonge men, do not study to appere yonge, and therfore dye [Page] their hear and make their beard grow twise a weeke,Olde mē that will seme yonge against nature. and this proceadeth vpon that nature saith to them in secrete, that these matters are not comely but for yong men. All ye Ladies laughed, because thei knew these wordes touched M. Morello, and he seemed somwhat out of pacience at the matter. Yet are there other enterteinmentes with wo­men, saide immediatly Syr Fridericke, meete for olde men. And what be these, quoth M. Morillo ▪ to tell fables? And yt to, answered Syr Fridericke. But euery age (as you know) carieth with him his thoughtes, & hath some peculiar ver­tue & some peculier vice. And old men for al they are ordi­narily wiser then yong men,The nature of olde men. more continent, & of a better foresight, yet are they wtall m ore lauis [...] in wordes, more greedie, harder to please, more fearfull, alwayes chafyng in the house, sharpe to their children, and will haue euery man wedded to their will.The nature of yong men. And contrarywise, yonge men are hardy, easie to be entreated, but more apt to brawling and chiding, waueringe and vnstedfast, that loue and vn­loue all at a time: geuen to all their delites, and ennemies to them that tell them of their profit. But of all the other ages,Mans state moste tempe­rate. mans state is moste temperate, whiche hath nowe done with the curst prankes of youth, and not yet growen to auncienty. These then that be placed (as it were) in the extremities, it is behouffull for them to knowe howe to correct the vices with reason, that nature hath bredde in them. Therefore oughte olde men to take heede of muche praising themselues,The behaui­our of olde men. and of the other vices, that we haue said are proper to them, & suffre the wisdome and know­ledge to beare stroke in them that they haue gotten by lōg experience, and be (as it were) Oracles, to the whiche euerye man should haunt for counsaile, and haue a grace in vtte­ringe that they knowe, applying it aptlye to the purpose, accompanying with the grace of yeeres a certaine tempe­rate and meery pleasauntnesse. In this wyse shall they be good Courtiers, and be well entertayned wyth menne and women, and euerye man will at all tymes be glad of [Page] their companye, wythout syngynge or daunsynge: and whan neede requireth they shall showe their prowesse in matters of weighte.The behaui­our of yonge menne. The verye same respecte and iud­gemente sh [...]ll yonge menne haue, not in keepynge the facion of olde menne (for what is meete for the one, were not in all poynctes so fitte for the other, and it is a commune sayinge, to muche grauytee in yonge menne is an yll [...]igne) but in correctynge the natural vices in them. Ther­fore delite I in a yonge manne, and especiallye a man at armes, if he haue a certayne sagenesse in him and fewe woordes, and somewhat demure,Sagenesse. wythoute those busye gestures and vnquyete manners whyche we see so ma­nye tymes in that age: for they seeme to haue a certayne gyfte aboue other yonge menne. Beesyde that, thys mylde beehauyour conteyneth in it a kynde of syghtelye fiersenesse, because it appeereth to bee sturred, not of wrathe but of iudgemente, and rather gouerned by rea­son then appetyte: and thys (in manner) alwayes is kno­wen in al menne of stomacke, and we see it lykewyse in brute beastes, that haue a certayne noble courage and stoutenesse aboue the reste: as th [...] Lion and the Egle,Noble cor­rage in brute beastes. nei­ther is it voide of reason, forsomuche as that violente and sodeyne mocyon withoute woordes or other token of co­ler whyche wyth all force bursteth oute together at once (as it were the shott of a gunn) from quietnesse, whyche is contrarye to it, is muche more vyolente and furious, then that whiche encreaseth by degrees and wexeth hott by little and little. Therefore suche as goynge aboute some enterpryse, are so full of woordes, that they leape and skip and can not stande styll, it appeereth they be ra­uyshed in those matters, and (as o [...]re M. Peter▪ Mount say­eth well) they doe like children, that goinge in the nighte singe for feare, as though that synginge of theirs shoulde make them plucke vp their spirites to be ye boulder. Euen as therfore in a yonge man a quiet & ripe youthe is to be [Page] commended, because it appeareth that lightnesse (whiche is the peculiar vice of that age) is tempred and corrected:Lightnesse. e­uen so in an olde man a grene and liuely olde age is much to be esteamed, because it appeareth that the force of the minde is so much, yt it heateth & geueth a certein strength to that feeble and colde age, & mainteineth it in that mid­dle state, which is the better part of our life. But in conclusion al these good qualities shal not suffise oure Courtyer to purchase him the general fauour of great men, Gentle­men and Ladies, yf he haue not also a gentle and louynge behauiour in his daily conuersation. And of this I beleue verely it is a hard matter to geue anye maner rule,Behauiour in dailye con­uersation. for the infinit and sundry matters that happen in practising one with an other: forsomuch as emong al the men in ye world, there are not two to be found that in euery point agree in mind together. Therfore he that must be pliable to be con­uersant with so many,So many mē so many min­des. [...]ughte to guide himselfe with hys own iudgement. And knowing the difference of one man & an other, euery day alter facion and maner accordyng to the disposition of them he is conuersant withall. And for my part I am not able in this behalf to geue him other ru­les then the aforesaid, whiche oure M. Morello learned of a child in confessing him self. Here the L. Emilia laughed and said: you would rid your handes of peines taking [Syr Fri­dericke] but you shall not escape so, for it is youre parte to minister talke vntill it be bed time. And what if I haue nothing to saye (madam.) Howe then? aunswered Syr Fri­dericke. The L. Emilia said: we shal nowe trie your wit. And if al be true I haue heard, there haue bene men so wittie & eloquent, yt thei haue not wanted matter to make a booke in the praise of a flie, other in the praise of a quartaine fe­uer, an other in the praise of bauldnes, doth not your hert serue you to finde oute somwhat to saie for one nyghte of Courting? We haue already, answered Syr Fridericke, spo­ken asmuch as wil go nigh to make two bokes. But since no excuse shal serue me, I wil speak vntil you shal think I [Page] haue fulfilled though not my duety, yet my poure. I sup­pose the conuersation which the Courtier ought chiefly to be pliable vnto with al diligence to get him fauour,Conu [...]sati [...] with his prince. is the very same that he shal haue with his prince. And although this name of conuersation bringeth with it a certain equali­tie that a man would not iudge can reigne betweene the maister and the seruaunt, yet will we so terme it for thys once. I will haue our Courtyer therfore (beside yt he hath and doeth daily geue men to vnderstande that he is of the prowesse which we haue said ought to be in him) to turne al his thoughtes & force of minde to loue, and (as it were) to reuerence the Prince he serueth aboue al other thinges, and in his wil, maners and facions, to be altogether plia­ble to please him. Here without anye longer staye, Peter of Naples saide: of these▪ To please his prince. Courtyers noweadayes ye shall finde ynow, for (me thinke) in fewe wordes ye haue peinc­ted vs out a ioly flatterer. You are farre deceiued, answe­red Syr Fridericke, Flatterers. for flatterers loue not their Lordes nor their friendes, the which I saie vnto you I will haue prin­cipally in our Courtyer: and to please him and to obey hys commaundementes whom he serueth, may be done with­out flattery, for I meane the commaundementes that are reasonable and honest, or suche as of themselues are ney­ther good nor bad, as is gaming and pastime, and geuing himself more to some one exercise then to an other. And to this will I haue the Courtyer to frame himselfe, though by nature he were not enclined to it: so that whansoeuer his lorde looketh vpon him,His behaui­our in his princis pre­sence. he may thinke in his minde yt he hath to talke with him of a matter that he will be glad to heare. The which shal come to passe if there bee a good iudgement in him to vnderstand what pleaseth his prince and a wit and wisedom to know how to applie it, & a bent wil to make him pleased with the thing which perhappes by nature should displease him. And hauinge these princi­ples, he shal neuer be sad before his prince nor melancho­ly, nor so solein as many, that a man would weene wer at [Page] debate with their Lordes, whiche is truly an hateful mat­ter. He shall not be yll tunged, and especiallye againste his superiours,Not yl tung­ed. whiche happeneth often times: for it ap­peereth that there is a storme in courtes that carieth this condicion with it, that alwaies looke who receyueth most benifittes at his Lordes handes, and promoted from very base degree to high astate,The most made of worst reporters. he is euermore complaynynge and reporteth woorst of hym: which is an vncomly thing, not onely for suche as these be, but euen for such as be yll handled in deede. Oure Courtier shall vse no fonde sau­sinesse.Not saucye. No pratler of newes. He shall be no carier about of trifling newes. He shall not be ouerseene in speakinge otherwhile woor­des that may offende, where his entent was to please. He shall not be stubborne and full of contencion,Not stubborne. as some bu­sy bodyes that a man would weene had none other delite but to vere and stirr men like flyes, and take vppon them to contrarie euery man spitefullye without respect. He shall be no babbler, not geuen to lyghtenesse, no lyar, no boaster,N [...] babbler. No lyar. No boaster. No flatterer. nor fonde flatterer, but sober, and keapinge hym alwayes within his boundes, vse continually, and especi­ally abrode, the reuerence and respecte that beecommeth the seruaunte towarde the mayster. And shall not do, as many that meetinge a Prince how great soeuer he be,The behaui­our of some fonde persons toward great men. yf they haue once spoken with him beefore, come towarde him with a certaine smilynge and frindly countenaunce, as though they would make of one their equall, or showe fauour to an inferiour of theirs. Uery sildome or (in ma­ner) neuer shall he craue any thinge of his Lorde for him­selfe,Why he shall not sue for him selfe. least the lorde hauing respect to denie it him for him selfe, should happen to graunte it him with dyspleasure, which is farr worse. Againe in suinge for others, he shall discreatly obserue the times, and his suite shall be for ho­nest and reasonable matters,His sute for others. and he shall so frame hys suite, in leauinge out those poinctes that he shall knowe wil trouble him, and in making easie after a comely sort the lettes, that his Lord wil euermore graunt it him: and [Page] though he denie it, he shall not think to haue offended him whom he ment not to doe▪ for, because greate menne often times after thei haue denied request to one that hath suid to them with great instance,The imagi­nacyon of princes. thinke the person that laboured to them so earnestly for it, was very greedy of it, and therefore in not obtaining it, hath cause to beare him yll will that denied him it, and vpon this suspicion thei con­ceiue an hatred against ye person, & can neuer afterwarde brooke him nor aforde him good countenance.He shall not presse into se­cret places He shall not couet to presse into the chamber or other secrete places where his Lord is withdrawen, onlesse he be bed, for all he be of great authoritie with him: because great men often times whan thei are priuatly gotten alone, loue a certain libertie to speake and do what thei please, & therefore will not be seene or herd of any person that may lightly deeme of them, and reason willeth no lesse. Therfore suche as speake against great menne for making of their chamber persons of no great qualitie in other thinges but in kno­wing how to attende about their person (me thinke) com­mit an errour:Greate men should make of their chamber men of no greate estimation. because I can not see why they should not haue the libertie to refresh their mindes, whiche we oure selues would haue to refreshe ours. But in case ye Court­yer that is inured with weightie affaires, happen to bee afterwarde secretely in chamber with him, he oughte to chaunge his coate & to differr graue matters till an other time and place, & frame himself to pleasante communica­cion, and suche as his lorde will bee willing to geue eare vnto, least he hinder that good moode of his. But herein & in al other thinges, let him haue an especial regard, that he be not combrous to him. And let him rather looke to haue fauour and promotion offred him,Not to sue for p romoti­ons. then craue it so o­penly in the face of the worlde, as manye dooe, that are so greedy of it, that a man would weene the not obtaynynge it, greeueth them as muche as the losse of lyfe:The griefe of some for an­ger. and yf they chaunce to enter into anye displeasure, or elles see o­ther in fauoure, they are in suche anguishe of mynde, [Page] that thei can by no meanes dissemble ye malice, & so make al men laugh them to scorne: and many times thei are the cause that great men fauour some one,Th [...] ioye of some in a meane autho­ritye. only to spite them withal. And afterward if thei happen to enter in fauour yt passeth a meane, they are so dronken in it, that thei know not what to do for ioy: & a man would wene that thei wist not what wer become of their feete and handes, and (in a maner) are ready to cal company to behoulde them and to reioice with them, as a matter they haue not bene accusto­med withal. Of this sort I wil not haue our Courtyer to be.Behauiour in receiuynge promotion. I would haue him esteame fauour and promotion, but for al that, not to loue it so much, that a man should thinke he could not liue without it. And whan he hath it, let him not shew himself new or straunge in it: nor wonder at it whan it is offred him: nor refuse it in such sort as some, yt for very ignorance receiue it not, and so make men beleue that thei acknowledge themselues vnworthy of it. Yet ought a man alwaies to humble himself somewhat vnder his degree, and not receiue fauour & promocions so easilye as thei be offred him, but refuse them modestlye, shewing he much estemeth them, and after such a sort, that he may geue him an occasion that offreth them, to offer them with a great deale more instance: because the more resistance a man maketh in such maner to receiue them, the more do­eth he seeme to the prince that geueth them to be estemed, and that the benefite whiche he bestoweth is so muche the more, as he yt receiueth it seemeth to make of it, thinking himself much honoured therby. And these are the true and perfect promotions that make men esteamed of such as se them abrode:Promotions not begged. because whan they are not craued, euerye man coniectureth they arrise of true vertue, and so muche the more, as they are accompanied with modestie. Then said the L. Cesar Gonzaga: me thinke ye haue this clause oute of the Gosspell where it is written: VVhan thou art bed to a mariage, go and sit thee downe in the lowest rowme, that whan he commeth that bed thee, he may saie, Friende come higher, and so sha [...] [Page] it be an honour for thee in the sight of the gestes. Syr Fridericke laughed and said: It were to great a sacrilege to steale out of the Gospell But you are better learned in scripture then I was aware of: then he proceaded. See into what daunger they fal sometime, yt rashly before a great manne entre into talke vnrequired:The rashnes of some. and manye times that Lord to skorne them withall, maketh no aunswere and tour­neth his head to the other hand: and in case he doeth make aunswere, euery man perceyueth it is done full skornful­lye. Therfore to purchase fauour at great mens handes, there is no better waye then to deserue it. Neyther must a manne hope when he seeth an other in fauour with a Prince, for what [...]oeuer matter,To deserue fauour. in folowinge his steppes to come to the same,Not to coun­terfait other mens doings Some ready in their iestes because euery thing is not fitt for e­uery man. And ye shal finde otherwhile some one that by nature is so readie in his meerye iestes, that what e­uer he speaketh bringeth laughter with it, & a man would weene that he were borne onlye for that: and if another that hath a graue facion in him, of howe good a witt so e­uer he be, attempt the like, it will be very colde & without any grace, so that he will make a man abhorre to heare him, and in effect will be like the asse, that to counterfeyt the dogg would play with his maister. Therefore it is meete eche man knowe himselfe and his own disposicion, and applye himselfe thereto, and consider what thynges are mete for him to folow, and what are not. Before ye go anye farther, saide here M. Vincent Calmeta, if I haue well marked, me thaught ye said right now, that the best way to purchase fauour, is to deserue it: & the Courtier oughte rather to tarie till promotions bee offered him, then pre­sumptiously to craue them. I feare me least this rule bee litle to purpose, and me thinke experience doeth vs very manifestly to vnderstande the contrarye: because nowea­dayes very fewe are in fauoure with Princes but such as be malapert. And I wote well you can be a good witnesse of some, that perceiuyng themselues in smal credite with [Page] their Princis, are come vp only with presumption. As for such as come to promotion with modestie, I for my parte know none, and if I geue you respite to bethink your self, I beleue ye wil finde out but fewe. And if you marke the French Court, which at this day is one of the nobleste in all Christendom, ye shal find yt all such as are generally in fauour there, haue in them a certein malapertn [...]sse, and yt not onely one with an other, but with the king himselfe. Do you not so say, answered Syr Fridericke, for in Fraunce there are very modest and courtious gentlemen.The frenche gentlemen without ce­emonies. Truth it is, that they vse a certein libertie and familiaritie with­out ceremonies, which is proper and natural vnto them, & therefore it ought not to be termed malapertnesse. For in that maner of theirs, although they laugh and ieste at suche as be malapert, yet do they sett muche by them that seeme to them to haue any prowesse or modesty in them. Calmeta answered:Spaniardes marke ye Spaniardes ye seme the very mai­sters of Courtly facions, and consider how many ye find yt with women and great men are not moste malapert, & so muche woorse then the Frenchemen, in that at the fyrste showe they declare a certein modesty. And no doubt but they be wise in so doing, because (as I haue said) the great men of our time do al fauour suche as are of these condici­ons. Then answered Syr Friderick: I can not abide (M. Vin­cent) yt ye should defame in this wise the great men of our time, because there be many notwithstanding ye loue mo­desty: the which I do not say of it self is sufficient to make a man esteamed, but I saie vnto you, whan it is accompa­nied with great prowesse it maketh him muche esteamed that hath it. And though of it self it lye styll, the woorthye deedes speake at large, and are much more to be wondred at, then if they were accompanied with presumption or rashnes.Many spani­ardes be sawcye. I will not nowe denie but many Spaniardes there be full of malapertnesse: but I saie vnto you, they that are best esteamed, for the moste part are very modest. Agayne some other there be also so cold, that they flee the company [Page] of menne to out of measure, and passe a certein degree of meane: so yt they make men deeme them either to fearfull or to high minded. And this doe I in no case allowe,What mo­destie ought to be. ney­ther would I haue modestie so drye and withered, that it shoulde become rudenesse. But let the Courtier, whan it commeth to pourpose, be well spoken, and in discourses vppon states, wise and expert: and haue such a iudgement that he maye frame himselfe to the manners of the coun­trey where euer he commeth. Then in lower matters, let him bee pleasauntly disposed, and reason well vppon eue­rye matter, but in especiall tende alwayes to goodnesse. No enuious person, no caryar of an yll tunge in his head: nor at anye tyme geuen to seeke prefarmente or promoti­on anye naughtie waye, nor by the meane of anye subtyll practise. Then saide Calmeta: I wyll assure you all the o­ther waies are muche more doubtfull and harder to com­passe, then is that you discommende: because now a dayes (to rehearse it againe) great menne loue none but such as be of that condicion. Do you not so say; answered then Syr Fridericke, for yt were to plaine an argumente that ye great menne of our tyme were all vitious and naughte, whiche is vntrue, for some there be that bee good. But if it fell to oure Courtyers lott to serue one that wer vitious and wycked, assoone as he knoweth it, let him forsake hym,What he must do in seruice with the wicked. least he taste of the bytter peine that all good menne feele that serue the wicked. We muste praie vnto god, answe­red Calmeta, to helpe vs to good, for whan wee are once with them, wee muste take them with all theyr faultes, for infinite respectes constraine a Gentleman after he is once entred into seruice with a Lorde, not to forsake him. But the yll lucke is in the begynnyng: and Courtyers in this case are not vnlyke vnluckye foules bread vp in an yl vale. Me thinke, quoth Syr Fridericke, duetye oughte to pre­uayle beefore all other respectes,Whan a man may forsake his maister▪ but yet so a gentleman forsake not his Lorde at the warre or in anye other ad­uersitie, and bee thought to doe it to followe Fortune, [Page] or because he wanted a meane to profitte by, at al other times I beleue he maye with good reason, and oughte to forsake that seruice, that among good men shall put hym to shame, for all men will imagine that he that serueth ye good, is good, and he that serueth the yll, is yll. I woulde haue you to clere me of one doubt that I haue in my head, quoth then the L. Lodouicus Pius, namely, whether a gentle­man be bound or no,Howe and in what princis are to be obei­ed. while he is in his Princis seruice, to obey him in all thinges which he shal commaund, though they were dishonest and shamefull matters. In dishoneste matters we are not bounde to obey any body, aunswered Syr Fridericke. And what (replyed the L. Lodouicus Pius) if I be in seruice with a Prince who handleth me well, and hopeth that I will do any thing for him that may be done, and he happen to commaunde me to kyll a man, or any o­ther like matter, ought I to refuse to do it? You ought, answered Syr Fridericke, to obey your Lorde in all thinges that tende to his profitt and honour, not in suche matters that tende to his losse and shame. Therefore yf he shoulde commaunde you to conspire treason, ye are not onely not bounde to doe it, but ye are bounde not to doe it, bothe for your owne sake and for being a minister of the shame of your Lorde.Thinges o­th [...]rwhile seeme good that be yll. Truth it is, many thinges seeme at the first sight good, which are il: and many ill, yt notwithstanding are good. Therefore it is lawfull for a man sometyme in his Lordes seruice to kill not one manne alone, but tenne thousande, and to do many other thinges, which if a man waye them not as he ought, will appeare yll, and yet are not so in deede. Then aunswered the L. Gaspar Pallauici [...]. I beseche you let vs heare you speake somwhat in this case, and teach vs how we maie descerne thinges good in deede, from suche as appeare good. I pray you pardon me, quoth Syr Fridericke, I will not at this time enter into that, for there were to muche to be saide in it: but all is to be refer­red to your discretion. Clere ye me at the least of another doubt, replied the L. Gaspar. And what doubt is that, quoth Syr Fridericke? This aunswered the L. Gaspar: I would know [Page] where I am charged by my maister in expresse wordes in an interprise or businesse what euer it be,Whether a man maie fo­low a part of his owne mind in a commission. what I haue to do therein: if I, at the deede doynge thinkynge wyth my selfe in doynge it more or lesse, or otherwise then my com­mission, to bringe it more prosperouslye to passe and more for his profit that gaue me that cōmission, whether ought I to gouern my selfe accordinge to the first charge with­oute passinge the boundes of the commission, or elles do the thinge that I iudge to be best? Then answered Sir Fri­derick: In this pointe I woulde geue you the iudgemente with the example of Manlius Torquatus, T. Manlius Torq. caused his [...]onne to be slaine for fighting con­trary to com­maundement whiche in that case for ouermuch affeccion slue his sonne, if I thoughte hym woorthy great praise, which (to saie the troth) I doe not: although againe I dare not discommende him, contrarye to the opinion of so manye hundreth yeeres. For oute of doubte, it is a daungerous matter to swarue from ye com­maūdementes of a mannes superiours, trusting more in his owne iudgement then in theirs, whom of reason he ought to obey: Because if his imagination faile him and the matter take yll successe, he renneth into the errour of disobedience, and marreth that he hath to doe, without a­ny maner excuse or hope of pardon. Againe in case ye mat­ter come well to passe accordinge to his desier,Commaundementes of the superioure poures are to be obeyed. he muste thanke his fortune, and no more a doe. Yet in this sorte a custome is brought vp to set litle by the commaundemen­tes of the superiour poures. And by his example yt bryng­eth the matter to good passe, which parauenture is a wise man and hath discoursed with reason and also ayded by fortune, afterwarde a thousand other ignoraunt persons and light headed will take a stomake to auenture in mat­ters of moste importaunce to doe after their owne waye, and to appere wise and of authoritie, wil swarue f [...]om the commission of their heades, whiche is a very yll matter, and often times the cause of infinite errours.what he that receiueth a charge ought to doe. But I be­leaue in this point, the person whom the matter toucheth ought to skanne it depely, and (as it were) put in a ba­launce [Page] the goodnesse and commoditie that is like to ensue vnto him in doing contrarie to that he is charged, admyt­ting his purpose, succede according to his hope: and coun­terpose on the other side the hurt and discommoditie that arriseth, if in doing otherwise then he is commaunded, ye matter chaunce to haue yll successe: and knowing that the hurt may be greater and of more importance, if it succeede yll, then the profitt, if it happen well, he ought to refrain, and in euery point to obserue his commission. And contra­rywise, if the profitt be like to bee of more importaunce, if it succeede well, then the hurte, if it happen amisse, I be­leue he may with good reason take in hand to do the thing that reason and iudgement shall sette before him, & leaue somewhat a side the very fourme of the commission, after the example of good marchaunt men, that to gaine much, aduenture a litle, and not much, to gaine a litle. I allowe well that he haue a regarde to the nature of the Lorde he serueth,The nature of the L. [...]o be considered and according to that, frame hymselfe. For in case he be rigorous (as many suche there are) I woulde neuer counsell him, if he were my friende, to varye in any par­cell from the appointed order, least it happen vnto him, as a maister Inginner of Athens was serued, vnto whom P. Crassus Mut [...]anus being in Asia and going aboute to batter a towne,The crueltye of Mutia­nus. sent to demaunde of him one of ye two shipmastes that he had sene in Athens to make a Ramm to beate down the walles, and sayde he woulde haue the greater. Thys Inginner, as he that was verye counnynge in deede, knewe the greater woulde not verye well serue for thys pourpose, and because the lesser was more easy to bee ca­ried, and also fytter to make that ordinaunce, he sent that to Mutianus. After he had vnderstoode how the matter pas­sed, he sente for the poore Inginner and asked hym why he obeyed hym not, and not admyttynge anye reason he coulde alleage for hymselfe, made hym to bee strypped naked, beaten and whipped with roddes, so that he died, [...]eemyng to hym in steede of obeying him, he would haue [Page] counsailed him: therefore with suche rigorous men, a man muste looke well to his doynges. But lette vs leaue a parte nowe this practyse of the superiours,Conuersaci­on with a mannes e­qualles. and come downe to the conuersation that a manne hath with his e­qualles or somewhat inferiours, for vnto them also must a manne frame hymselfe, because it is more vniuersallye frequented, and a manne findeth himselfe oftner emonge them, then emong his superiours. Although ther be some fonde persons that beeing in companye with the greatest friende they haue in the worlde,Some felowship them sel­ue s alwayes with the best apparailed. if they meete wyth one better apparailed, by and by they cleaue vnto him: and yf an other c [...]me in place better then he, they doe the like vn­to him. And againe, whan the Prince passeth throughe ye market place, through churches, or other haunted places, they make all men geue them rowme with their elbowes tyll they come to their heeles,Men that will se [...]me to be in fauour. and thoughe they haue no­thing to saie to him, yet wyll they talke with him & keape him with a long tale, laugh, clappe the handes, and nod ye head, to seeme to haue weightie businesse, that the peo­ple maye see they are in fauoure. But because these kynde of menne vouchesafe not to speake but with great menne I wyll not we should vouchsafe to speake of them. Then the L. Iulian, Since ye haue (quoth he) made mention of these that are so ready to felowshippe themselues with the wel apparailed, I would haue you to shew vs in what sorte the Courtier shoulde apparayle hymself, what kind of garment doeth beste become hym, and howe he shoulde fitte himselfe in all his garmentes aboute his bodye: bee­cause we see infinite varietie in it, and some are arayed after the Frenche facion, some after the Spanyshe attier, an other wyll seeme a Dutcheman. Neyther wante wee of them also that wil cloth themselues lyke Turkes: Some weare beardes, other dooe not.Of raiment and apparail. Therefore it were a good deede in this varietie, to s [...]ewe howe a manne shoulde chouse oute the beste. Syr Fridericke saide: In verye deede I am not able to geue anye certeyne rule aboute [Page] rayment, but that a man should frame himselfe to the cu­stome of the moste. And since (as you saye) this [...]ustome is so variable, and Italians are so desirous to take vp other mennes facions, I beleaue eue [...]y manne maye lawfullye apparail [...] himselfe at his pleasure. But I knowe not by what destinye it commeth that Italy hath [...] not, as it was wonte to haue, a facion of atti [...]r knowen to be [...] the Italian facion, for although the bringing vp of these new faci [...]ns make [...]h the first to appeere very grosse, yet w [...]re they per­auenture a token of libertie, where these haue bene a pro­nosticate of bondage, the which (me thinke) now is plain­ly ynough fulfilled. And as it is written, whan Darius the yere before he fought with Alexander had altered his swerd he wore by his side, which was a Persian blade, into the facion of Macedony, it was interpre [...]ed by the Sothsayers, how this signified,Caldaei. that they into whose facion Darius had altered the fourme of his Persian blade should become ru­lers of Persia: Euen so where we haue altered our Italian facions into straunge, me thinke, it signified, that all they into whose facions oures wer chaunged, should come in to ouerrunne vs:I taly a prey to all nations the whiche hath [...] be [...]n [...]o true, for there is not nowe a nation lefte that hath not made vs their prey, so that there remaineth little behinde to prey vpon, & yet for all that cease they not to prey still. But I wyll not en­ter into communication of sorowe: therefore it shalbe wel to speake of the raiment of our Courtyer, the whiche so it be not out of vse, nor contrary to his profession, in the rest (I thinke) it will do welynough, so the wearer be satisfied withall.Frenchemen vse long was [...]es. Dutchmen short. Truth it is, that I woulde loue it the better yf it were not extreme in any part, as the Frenchman is wont to bee sometyme ouer longe, and the Dutchmanne ouer­shorte, but as they are bothe the one and the other amen­ded and broughte into better frame by the Italians. Graue ap­paraile. Moreo­uer I will houlde alwayes with it, yf it bee rather some­what graue and auncient,Blacke cou­lour. then garishe. Therefore me thinke a blacke coulour hath a better grace in garmentes [Page] then any other, and though not throughly blacke, yet som­what darke, and this I meane for his ordinary apparaile. For there is no doubt, but vpon armour it is more meete to haue sightly and meery coulours,Coulours v­pon armour. and also garmentes for pleasure, cut, pompous and riche. Likewise in open showes about triumphes, games, maskeries, and suche o­ther matters, because so appointed there is in them a cer­tein liuelinesse and mirth, which in deede doeth well sette furth feates of armes & pastimes. But in the rest I coulde wishe they should declare the solemnitie yt the Spanyshe nation muche obserueth,Solemnitie of spaniardes for outwarde matters manye tim [...]s, are a token of the inwarde. Then saide the L. Cesar Gonzaga: I woulde not sticke muche at this, for so a gentle­man be of woorthinesse in other matters, his garmentes neyther encrease nor minishe reputation. Syr Friderick an­swered: ye saie true. Yet whiche of vs is there, that seeing a gentleman go with a garment vpon his backe quartred with sundry coulours, or with so many points tyed toge­ther, and al about with lases and fringes set ouerthwart, will not coūt him a very disard or a commune iestar? Nei­ther disard, quoth M. Peter Bembo, nor iestar woulde a man count him, that had liued any while in Lumbardy, for there they go all so. Why then, aunswered the Dutchesse smy­lyng, if they go all so, it ought not to bee obiected to them for a vice, this kinde of attier being as comely and proper to them, as it is to the Venetians to weare their longe wyde sleeues, and to the Florentines, their hoodes. I speake no more of Lumbardy, quoth Syr Fridericke, then of other places, for in euery nation ye shall finde bothe foolishe and wyse. But to speake that I thinke is most requisite as touching apparaile, I will haue the Courtier in all his garmentes handsome and clenlye, and take a certain delite in modest Precisenesse, but not for all that after a womanish or lyghte maner, neither more in one point, then in an other, as we see many so curious about their hear,Delites of men. that they forget all the rest. Other delite to haue their teeth faire. Other in [Page] their beard. Other in buskines. Other in cappes. Other in coyffes. And so it commeth to passe, that those fewe thinges whiche they haue clenly in them, appeere borow­ed ware, and all the rest, whiche is most fonde, is knowne to be their owne. But this trade wil I haue our Courtier to flee by my counsel, with an addition also, that he ought to determine with himselfe what he will appeere to be, and in suche sorte as he desireth to bee esteamed so to ap­paraile himselfe, and make his garmentes helpe him to be counted suche a one, euen of them that heare hym not speake, nor see him doe anye maner thyng. I thinke it not meete, quoth then the L. Pallauicin, neyther is it vsed e­mong honest menne to iudge mennes conditions by their garmentes, and not by their woordes and deedes, for ma­ny a manne might be deceiued: and this prouerb arriseth not without cause: the habit maketh not the Monke. I say not▪ answered Syr Friderick, that menne shoulde geue a resolute iudgement by this alone, of mennes conditions, and that they are not knowen by wordes and deedes, more then by ye garmentes. But I saie that the garment is withall no small argument of the fansie of him that weareth it,The [...]armēt iudgeth the mynde. al­though otherwhile it appeere not true. And not this a­lone, but all the beehauiours, gestures and maners, bee­side wordes and deedes, are a iudgement of the inclinati­on of him in whom they are seene. And what thynges be those, aunswered the L. Gaspar, that you fynde we maye geue iudgement vpon, yt are neyther woordes nor deedes. Then said Syr Fridericke: You are to subtill a Logicien, but to tell you as I meane,Operations. some Operations there are that remayne after they are done, as buylding, writynge, and suche other: Some remayn not, as these yt I meane now. Therefore doe I not counte in this pourpose, goynge, laughyng, lookyng, and suche matters to bee Operations, and notwithstandyng outwardly doe geue many times a knowledge of that is within. Tell me, dyd you not geue your iudgemente vpon that friende of oures we commu­ned [Page] of this morning paste, to bee a foolishe and light per­son, assoone as you sawe he wried his head and bowed his bodye, and inuited with a cheerfull countenaunce ye com­panye to put of their cappes to him? So in like maner whan you see one gase earnestely with his eyes abashed, lyke one that had lytle witt: or that laugheth so fondly as doe those dombe menne,Gozzuti, Men in the mountaines with great bottles of flesh vnder their chin, through the drinkīg of snow water. with the great wennes in theyr throte, that dwell in the Mountaines of Bergamo, thoughe he neyther speake ne doe anye thinge elles, will you not counte him a verye foole? Ye may see them that these bee­hauiours; maners and gestures, whiche I mynde not for this tyme to terme Operations, are a great matter to make menne knowne. But me thynke there is an other thyng that geueth and dimynisheth muche reputation: nam [...]ly, the choyse of friendes, with whom a manne must haue in­warde conuersation. For vndoubtedly reason wylleth that suche as are coopled in streicte amitie and vnsepera­ble companye, should be also alike in wyll, in mynde,Chois [...] of fri [...]nd [...]s. in iudgemente and inclination. So that who so is conuer­saunt wyth the ignoraunt or wycked, he is also counted ignoraunt and wycked. And contrariwise he that is con­uersaunt with the good, wyse, and dyscreete, he is recke­ned suche a one. For it seemeth by nature, that euerye thing doeth willingly felowshippe with his lyke. There­fore I beleaue that a man oughte to haue a respect in the first beeginning of these frendshippes, for of two neere friendes, who euer knoweth the one, by and by he ymagi­neth the other to bee of the same condition. Then aun­swered M. Peter Bembo: To bee bounde in frendshyppe with suche agreemente of mynde as you speake of, me thynke in deede a manne ought to haue great respect, not onely for getting or leesing reputation, but because nowe adaies ye finde very fewe true friendes. Neyther doe I beleaue yt there are any more in the world, those Pylades & Orestes, Theseus and Perithous, nor Scipio and Laelius▪ but rather it happeneth dailye, I wote not by what destinye, [Page] that two friendes whiche manye yeeres haue lyued toge­ther with most hartie loue, yet at the ende beguile one an other, in one maner or other, either for malice, or enuye, or for lightnesse, or some other yll cause: and eche one impu­teth the faulte to his felow, of that which perhappes both the one and the other deserueth. Therfore because it hath happened to me more then once to bee deceiued of hym whom I loued beste, and of whom I hoped I was beloued aboue anye other person, I haue thought with my selfe a­lone otherwhile to bee well done, neuer to put a mannes trust in any person in the worlde, nor to geue himselfe so for a prey to friend how deere and louing so euer he wer, that without stoppe a manne shoulde make him partaker of all his thoughtes, as he woulde his owne selfe: because there are in our mindes so many dennes and corners, that it is vnpossible for the witt of manne to knowe the dissy­mulations that lye lurking in them. I beleaue therefore that it is well done to loue and awaie with one more then another, according to the desertes and honesty: but not for all that so to assure a mannes selfe, with this sweete bait of frendship, that afterwarde it shoulde be to late for vs to repente. Then Syr Fridericke, Truely (quoth he) [...]he losse shoulde bee much more then the gain, if that high degree of friendshippe shoulde bee taken from the felowshippe of manne,Frendshippe necessarye for the lyfe of mā whiche (in mine opinion) ministreth vnto vs all the goodnes conteined in our life: and therefore wyll I in no case consente to you, that it is reasonable; but rather I can finde in my heart to conclude, and that with moste e­uident reasons, that without this perfect friendship, men wer much more vnluckie, then all other liuyng creatures. And albeit some wicked and prophane taste of this holye name of friendship, yet is it not for all that to be so rooted oute of mennes mindes; and for the trespasse of the yll, to depriue the good of so great a felicitie. And I beleaue ve­rely for my parte, there is here emong vs moe then one couple of friends, whose loue is indissoluble and without [Page] any guile at all, & to endure vntill death, with agreement of will, no lesse then those menne of olde time, whom you mentioned right nowe. And so is it alwaies, whan beside the inclination that commeth from aboue, a man chouseth him a friende lyke vnto himselfe in conditions. And I meane the whole to consist emong the good and vertuous menne, because the friendship of the wicked,Frend shippe of two toge­ther. is no friend­shippe. I allowe well that this knott, which is so streicte, knitt or binde no mo then two, elles were it in a hasarde: for (as you know) three instrumentes of musike are hard­lier brought to agree together then two. I woulde haue our Courtier therefore to finde him oute an especiall and hartie friende, if it were possible, of that sort we haue spo­ken of. Then according to their desertes and honesty, loue▪ honour, and obserue all other menne, and alwaies do hys beste to felowshippe himselfe with menne of estimation that are noble and knowen to bee good, more then with the vnnoble and of small reputation, so he be also beloued and honoured of them. And this shall come to passe if he be gentle, lowely, freeherted, easie to be spoken to,A mans due­tie towarde his friend. & sweete in company, humble and diligent to serue, and to haue an eye to his friendes profitt and estimation, as wel absente as present, bearing with their naturall defaultes that are to be borne withall, without breaking with them vpon a small grounde, and correcting in himselfe such as lou [...]ng­ly shall bee toulde him, neuer prefarring himselfe before other menne in seeking the hyghest and chiefe rowmes of estimation, neither in doing as some that a manne would weene despised the worlde, and with a noysome sharpnes will tell euery manne his duetie, and beside that they are full of contention in euery trifling matter, & out of tyme, they comptroule whatsoeuer they doe not themsel [...]es, & alwaies seeke cause to complaine of their friendes, which is a most hatefull thing. Here whan Sir Friderick had made a stay, the L. Gaspar Pallauicin saide: I would haue you to ex­presse somewhat more particularlye this conuersation [Page] with friendes, then you doe, for in deede ye keepe your self to muche in the generall, and touch vnto vs thinges (as it were) by the waie. Howe by the waye aunswered Syr Fri­dericke? Woulde you haue me to tell you also the verye woordes that a manne muste vse? Suppose you not then we haue sufficientlye communed of this? I thynke yea, aunswered the L. Gaspar. Yet doe I desier to vnderstand al­so some particular point of the maner of enterteinment e­mong menne and women, whiche (me thynke) is a verye necessary matter, consideryng the moste parte of a mans tyme is spent therein in Courtes, and if it were alwayes after one maner wyse, a manne would soone wexe wee­rye of it. Me thynke, aun [...]wered Syr Fridericke, we haue ge­uen the Courtier a knowledge in so many thynges, that he maye well varye his conuersation and frame hymselfe accordynge to the inclination of them he accompanyeth hymself withall, presupposyng him to be of a good iudge­mente, and therewithall to guyde hymself. And according to the time otherwhile, haue an eye to graue matters and sometyme to pastimes & games. And what games, quoth the L. Caspar? Syr Friderick aunswered: Lette vs aske counsel of Frier Seraphin that daily inuenteth newe. But in good earneste, replied the L. Gaspar, doe you not thynke it a vice in the Courtier to plaie at Dice and Cardes?Dice and Cardes. I thynke it none, quoth Syr Fridericke, onlesse a man apply it tomuch, & by reason of that, setteth aside other thynges more neces­sary, or elles for none other entent but to get money, and to beguile his felow, and in his losse, fume and take on so, that it might be thought a token of couetousnesse. The L, Gaspar answered:The play at Chestes. and what say you to the game at chestes? It is truely an honest kynde of of enterteynmente & wit­tie, quoth Syr Friderick. But me think it hath a fault, whi­che is, yt a man may be to couning at it, for who euer will be excellent in the playe of chestes, I beleaue he must bee­stowe much tyme about it, and applie it with so much stu­dy, that a man may assoone learne some noble scyence, or [Page] [...]ompase any other matter of importaunce, and yet in the ende in beestowing all that laboure,The meane knowledge is best inthe play at Chestes. he knoweth no more but a game. Therfore in this I beleaue there happeneth a very rare thing, namely, that the meane is more commen­dable, then the excellency. The L. Gaspar answered: There be many Spaniardes excellent at it, & in many other games, whiche for all that bestowe not muche studye vpon it, nor yet lay aside ye compassing of other matters. Beleaue not the contrarye aunswered Syr Fridericke, Spaniardes dissemble their study in the play at Chestes. but they beestowe muche studye vpon it, although feiningly. As for those o­ther games ye speake of beeside chestes, parauenture they are like many which I haue seen that serue to small pour­pose, but onely to make the cōmune people wonder. Ther­fore (in mine opinion) thei deserue none other praise or re­ward, then the great Alexander gaue vnto him, ye standyng a farr of, did so well broch Chiche peason vpon a nedle. But because fortune, as in manye other thinges, so in the opinion of men seemeth to beare a great stroke, it is [...]omtime seen yt a gentleman,Some woor­thy in deede. smally regar­ded of great men. how well conditioned euer he be, & endowed with many qualities, shall be litle set by of a great man, & (as thei say) groweth not in fauour with him, & without any cause why, that a man may discearn. Therefore whan he commeth into his presence with­out any acquaintance before hande, with the reste about him, though he be wittie & ready in his answeres, & show­eth himself handsomly wel in his beehauiours, in his con­ditions & wordes, & in what euer belongeth vnto him, yet wil that Lord sett light by him, & rather geue hym an yll countenance, then esteame him: and of this wil arrise that the rest immediatly will frame themselues to their lordes mind, & it shall seeme vnto euery man yt he is litle worth, neyther will any manne regarde hym, or make of him, or laugh at his pleasante sayinges, or set any thing by hym, but will beeginne all to serue him sluttish pranckes, and make him a Cousin, neyther shall good aunsweres suffyce the poore soule, nor yet the takynge of thynges as spo­ken in ieste, for euen the verye Pages wyll bee at hym, [Page] so that were he the fairest condicioned man in the world, he can not chouse but bee thus ba [...]ted and iested at. And contrariwise,Ignoraunt men other­while [...]n fa­uour. if a Prince bee inclined to one that is moste ignoraunt, that can nei [...]her do nor saie any thing, his ma­ners and beehauiours (be they neuer so fonde and foolish) are many tymes commended with acclamation and won­der of all menne, and it seemeth that all the Courte be­houldeth and obserueth him, and euerye manne laugheth at his boording and certein cartarlike [...]estes, that shoulde rather moue a manne to vomite, then to laughe: so addic­ted and stiffe menne bee in the opinions that arrise of the fauoures and disfauoures of great men. Therefore wil I haue our Courtier the best he can (beside his worthinesse) to help himself with witt and art, and whan euer he hath to goe where he is straunge and not knowen, let him pro­cure there goe first a good opinion of him, beefore he come in person, and so woork, that they maie vnderstand there, howe he is in other places with Lordes, Ladyes and gen­tlemen in good estimation:Good opini­on. because that fame, which see­meth to arrise of the iudgementes of many, engendreth a certeine assured confidence of a mans worthinesse, which afterwarde finding mennes mindes so settled and prepa­red, is easily with deedes mainteined and encreased, bee­side that a man is eased of the trouble that I feele, whan I am asked the question who I am, and what is my name. I can not see what this can helpe, aunswered M. Bernard Bibiena, for it hath sundry tymes happened vnto me, and I beleue to many moe, after I had grounded in my mynde by re­porte of manye menne of iudgemente a matter to bee of great perfection beefore I had seene it, whan I had once seen it, it feinted muche, and I was muche deceiued in mine imagination, and this proceaded of nothyng elles, but of geuing to muche credit to fame and reporte,Report de­ceiueth. and of conceiuinge in my minde so greate an opinion, that mea­ [...]uring it afterwarde with the trueth, the effecte, thoughe it were greate and excellente, yet in comparison of that I [Page] had imagined of it, seemed very sclender vnto me. Euen so (I feare me) maye also come to passe of the Courtyer. Therefore I can not see howe it were well done to geue these expectations, and to sende that fame of a man bee­fore: because oure mindes manye times facion and shape thinges, whiche is vnpossible afterwarde to aunswere to and fulfill,The report of thinges that the eye is iudge of▪ may deceyue. and so doeth a man lose more then he gayneth by it. Here Sir Friderick saide: Thinges that vnto you and many moe are lesse in effect then the fame is of them, are for the most part of that sort, that the eye at the first sight maie geue a iudgemente of them. As if you haue neuer been at Naples or at Roome, whan you here men cōmune of it, you imagine muche more of it, then perhappes you find afterwarde in sight. But in the conditions of menne it is not alike, because that you see outwardly is the least part. Therefore in case the first daie you heare a gentlemanne talke, ye perceiue not the worthinesse in him that you had beefore imagined, you doe not so soone lose the good opini­on of him, as you doe in the thinges wherein your eye is by and by a iudge. But you will looke from day to day,Thinges in the iudgemēt [...]f the minde. to haue him disclose some other hid vertue, keping notwith­standing alwaies that stedfaste imprinting whiche you haue, risen by the woordes of so manye. And this man then beeing (as I set case our Courtyer is) of so good qua­lities, he will euery houre strengthen you more and more, to geue credence to that fame, for that with his doinges he shall geue you a cause, and you will euer surmise som­what more to bee in him, then you see. And certeinly it can not bee denied, but these first imprintinges,The fir [...] conceiuing of a thing in ones minde. haue a very great force, and a man ought to take muche heede to them. And that you may vnderstand of what weight they bee, I saie vnto you, that I haue knowen in my dayes a gentleman,An example what reporte can doe. who albeit he was of sufficient manerly bee­hauiour and modest conditions and well seene in armes, yet was he not in any of these qualities so excellente, but there were manie as good and better. Notwithstandynge [Page] as lucke serued him) it beefell that a gentlewoman entred most feruently in loue with him, & this loue daily encrea­sing through declaration that the yonge man made to a­gree with her in that beehalf, and perceiuinge no maner meane how they might come to speake together, the gen­tlewoman prouoked with to greate passyon opened her desire to an other gentlewoman, by whose meane she ho­ped vpon some commodity, this woman neyther in blood nor in beautie was a whitt inferiour to the firste. Up­pon this it came to passe that she, perceiuynge her talke [...]o effectuallye of this yonge manne, whom she neuer sawe, and knowinge howe that gentlewoman, whom she wist well was most discreete and of a very good iudgement, lo­ued him ertreemelye, imagyned furthwyth that he was the fairest, the wisest, the discreetest, and finallie the wor­thiest manne to be beloued that was in the world: and so without seeinge him fell so deepe in loue wyth hym, that she practised what she coulde to come by him, not for her friend, but for her owne selfe, and to make him answera­ble to her in loue, the which she brought to passe without anye greate a doe, for (to say the troth) she was a woman rather to be sought vpon then to seeke vpon others. Now heare a pretye chaunce. It happened no longe time af­ter, that a letter which this last gentlewoman writt vn­to her louer came to the handes of another, that was a no­ble woman of excellent qualities and singular beawtye, who beeinge (as the most part of women are) inquisitiue and greedie to vnderstande secretes and especyallye of o­ther women, opened the letter, and in readinge it percey­ued it was written with an extreeme affection of loue. And the sweete woordes full of fire that she reade, firste moued her to take compassyon on that Gentlewoman (for she knew verie well from whom the letter came and to whom it went) afterward they had suche force, that skanning them in her minde, and consideringe what ma­ner a man this was like to be, that could bring ye woman [Page] into suche loue, by and by she fell in loue wyth him, and that letter was more effectuall to woorke in thys case, then peraduenture it would haue bene if it had bene sent her from the yonge man himselfe. And as it chaunceth sometime, poyson prepared in a dishe of meate for some great man, killeth him that tasteth first of it, so thys poore gentlewoman because she was to greedye, dranke of the amorous poyson that was ordeyned for an other. What shall I saye to you? The matter was verie open and spred so abrode, that manie women beeside these, partlye in des­pite of the other, and partly to do as the other did, bent all their studie and diligence to enioye his loue, and for a sea­son played as children do at [...]hopch [...]rie, and the wholl pro­ceaded of the first opinion which that woman conceyued that heard him so praysed of an other.Womens de­des out of reason. Nowe the L. Gaspar Pallauicin answered here smilinge: You to confirme your iudgement wt reason, alleage vnto me womens doinges, which for the most part are voide of al reason. And in case you would tell all, this good felowe thus fauoured of so manie women was some doult, and a man in deede not to be regarded, because the maner of them is alwayes to cleaue to the woorst, and like sheepe to do that they see the first do, bee it well or yll: beeside that they be so spitefull emong themselues▪ that if he had bene a monstrous crea­ture they would surelye haue stolen him one from an o­ther. Here manie began and (in maner) all, to speake a­gainste the L. Gasp [...]r, but the Dutches [...]e made them all to houlde their peace. Afterward she said smilinge: If the yll which you speake of women were not so farr wide from the truth, that in speakinge it, it hurteth and shameth ra­ther the speaker then them, I would suffer you to be an­swered. But I will not haue you, in speaking agaynste you wyth a number of reasons, forsake thys youre yll custome, because you may be sharplie punished for this of­fence of yours: which shall be with the ill opinion that all thei wil conceiue of you that heare you talke in this wise. Then aunswered Syr Fridericke: Saye not, my L· Gaspar, [Page] that women are so voide of reason, though somtime they applie themselues to loue more, through the iudgemente of others then their owne, for great men and many wyse men, doe often times the like. And if it be lawfull to tell ye troth, you your selfe and all we here haue many tymes, & doe at this presente credit the opinion of others, more then our owne. And that it is true, not long agoe there were certein verses showed here, that bore the name of Sanazarus, and were thought of euery bodie very excellent, and praised out of reason,What opini­on doeth. afterwarde whan they wer cer­teinly knowen to bee an other mannes doyng, they loste by and by their reputation, & seemed worse then meane. And where there was song in the Dutchesse presence, here a certein Antheme, it neuer delited nor was reckened good, vntil it was knowen to be the doing of Iosquin de Pris. But what token will you haue more plainer of opinion? Doe you not remember where you your selfe dranke of one self wine, sometime ye said it was most perfect, and an other time, without al taste? and that because you had been per­swaded they were two sortes, the one of the Coost of Ge­nua, and the other of this soile: and whan the errour was o­pened, by no meanes you woulde beleaue it: that false o­pinion was grounded so stifly in your head, whiche arrose notwithstanding of other mennes woordes. Therefore ought the Courtier diligently to applie in the beeginning to geue a good imprinting of himself, and consider what a harmefull and deadly thing it is, to runne in the contra­rie.Men that conter [...]eit to be pleasant And in this daunger more then other menne doe they stande that wil make profession to be very pleasaunt and with this their meerie facion, purchase them a certeine li­ber [...]ie, that lawfully they may saye & doe what commeth in their minde, without thinking vpon it. For suche men many times enter into certein matters, which whan thei can not gete out again, will afterwarde helpe them selues with raising laughter, and it is done with so yll a grace yt it will in no wise frame, whereby they bring a very great [Page] lothsomenesse vpon as manie as see or heare them, & they remain very colde and without any grace or countenance. Sometime thinking thereby to bee subtill witted and ful of iestes, in the presence of honourable women, yea, and often times to them themselues,Filthy talke. they thrust out filthie & most dishonest woordes: and the more they see them blush at it, the better Courtiers they recken themselues, & styll they laugh at it, and reioyce emong themselues at thys goodlie vertue they thinke thei haue gotten them. But they practise this beastlinesse for none other cause, but to bee counted Good felowes. Good fe­lowes. This is the name alone whiche they deeme woorthie praise, and whiche they bragg more of, then of anye thing elles, and to gete it them, thei speak the foulest and shamefullest villanies in the world. Many times they shoulder one an other downe the stayers,Ruffianlye pranckes. and hurle billettes and brickes, one at an others head. They hurle handfulles of dust in mens eyes. Thei cast horse and man into ditches, or downe on the side of some hill. Then at table, potage, sauce, gelies, and what euer commeth to hande, into the face it goith. And afterwarde laughe: and whoso can doe most of these trickes, he counteth him­selfe the best and galantest Courtyer, and supposeth that he hath wonne great glorye. And in case otherwhile they gete a gentleman in these their pleasaunt pastimes, that will not geue himselfe to suche horseplay, they say by and by: He is to wise, we shall haue him a Counseller, he is no good fe­lowe. But I will tell you a worse matter. Some there bee that contende and laye wager, who can eate and drinke more vnsauerye and stincking thinges, and so abhorryng & contrary to mans senses, that it is not possible to name them, without very great lothsomenesse. And what thin­ges be those, quoth the L. Lodouicus Pius? Syr Friderick aun­swered: Let the Marquesse Phebus tell you, for he hathe of­ten seen it in Fraunce, and perauenture felte it. The Mar­quesse Phebus aunswered: I haue seen none of these thin­ges done in Fraunce more then in Italy. But looke what [Page] good thinges the Italyans ▪ haue in their garmentes, in fea­stinge,Italyans bo­row of the French man. in bancketting, in feates of armes and in euery o­ther thinge that belongeth to a Courtier, they haue it all of the Frenchmen, I denie not, answered Syr Friderick, but there are also emong the Frenchmen verye honest and so­ber gentlemen, and for my part I haue knowen manye (without perauenture) worthye all praise. But yet some there are of litle good maner:Spanya a [...]ree wyth Italians in condicions. and to speake generally (me thinke) the Spaniardes agree more wyth Italyans, in condici­ons, then Frenchmen: because (in my minde) the peculiar quiet grauitie of the Spaniardes is more agreeable to oure nature then the quicke liuelinesse that is perceiued in the French nation almost in euery gesture:Grauitye in Spaniardes. which is not to be discommended in them,Liuelines in French men. but is rather a grace, for it is so naturall and propre to them, that there is no maner affec­ting or curiositie in it. There are many Italians that would faine counterfeit their facion, and can do naught elles but shake the head in speakinge, and make a legg with an yll grace, and when they come oute of their doores into the Citie,Frenche faci­ons. goe so faste that good footemen canne scant ouer­take them, and with these maners they weene themsel­ues good Frenchmen, and to haue of that libertye: whiche (ywisse) chaunseth verie sild [...]me sauinge to suche as are brought vp in Fraunce and haue learned that facion from their childhood. The like is to be said in the knowleag of sundrie tunges, which I commend much in oure Courti­er, and especiallye Spanish and Frenche, because the en­tercourse of both the one nation & the other is much haū ­ted in Italy, To haue sun­dry langua­ges▪ & these two are more agreable vnto vs then any of the rest, and those two Princes for that they are verye mighty in war and most riall in peace, haue their Court alwaies fournished with valiant gentlemen, whiche are dispersed throughout the world, and againe we must nee­des practise with them. I wil not now proceade to speake any more particularly of matters to well knowen, as that oure Courtier ought not to professe to be a glutton nor a [Page] dronkard, nor riotous and vnordinate in any il condicion▪ nor filthy and vnclenly in his liuing, with certaine rude & boysterous beehauiours that smell of the plough and cart a thousand mile of, for he that is of that sort, it is not only not to be hoped that he will make a good Courtier, but he can be set to no better vse then to kepe sheepe. And to con­clude, I saye that (to doe well) the Courtier oughte to haue a perfect vnderstandinge in that we haue sayde is meete for him, so that euery possible thinge may be easye to him, and all men wonder at him, and he at no manne: meaning notwithstanding in this poinct yt there be not a certaine loftye and vnmanerlye stubburnnesse,Some com­mende not thynges well done. as some men haue that showe themselues not to wonder at the thinges which other men do, because they take vpon them that they can do them much better: and with their silence discommend them as vnworthy to be spoken of, and wyll make a gesture (in a maner) as though none beeside were (I will not say their equall, but) able to conceyue the vn­derstanding of ye profoundnes of their couning. Therfo [...]e ought the Courtier to shonn these hateful maners, & with gentlenesse & courtesie praise other mens good dedes: and thoughe he perceyue himselfe excellent and farr aboue o­thers, yet showe that he esteameth not hymselfe for such a one. But because these so full perfections are very sil­dome founde in the nature of man, and perhappes neuer, yet ought not a man yt perceyueth himself in some part to want, to lay aside his hope to come to a good passe,Many places to be com­mend [...]d bee­side the best. though he can not reach to that perfect & high excellency which he aspireth vnto: because in euery art there be manye other places beeside the best, all praiswoorthye: and he that stri­ueth to come by ye highest, it is sildome sene that he passeth not ye meane. I will haue our Courtier therfore, if he find himself excellent in anie thinge beeside armes,Howe a man should show his counin [...]. to sett out himselfe, and gete him estymatyon by it after an honest sorte, and be so dyscreete and of so good a iudgemente, that he maye haue the vnderstandinge after a comelye [Page] maner, and with good pourpose to allure men to heare or to looke on that he supposeth himselfe to be excellente in: making semblant alwaies to doe it, not for a bragge and to shewe it for vainglory, but at a chaunce, & rather praied by others, then commyng of his owne free will. And in e­uery thing that he hath to do or to speake, if it be possible, lette him come alwaies prouided and thinke on it beefore hande, showyng notwithstanding, the whole to bee done ex tempore, and at the first sight. As for the thinges he hath but a meane skill in, let him touche them (as it were) by ye waie, without grounding muche vpon them, yet in such wi [...]e yt a man may beleue he hath a great deale more cun­ning therin, then he vttereth: as certein Poetes sometime that harped vpon verye subtill pointes of Philosophie, or other sciences, and parauenture had small vnderstanding in the matter. And in that he knoweth himself altogether ignoraunt in,Somtyme a mannes igno­raunce is to be con [...]essed. I will neuer haue him make any profession at all, nor seeke to purchase him anye fame by it: but ra­ther whan occasion serueth, confesse to haue no vnderstan­ding in it. This, ꝙ Calmeta, would Nicholetto neuer haue done, whiche being a verye excellent Philosopher, and no more skilfull in the lawe then in fleeing, whan a Gouer­nour of Padoa was mynded to geue him one of those Lec­tures in the lawe, he woulde neuer yelde at the perswasi­on of many Scholars, to deceyue the opinion whiche the gouernour had conceiued of him, & confesse that he had no vnderstanding in it: but saide styll that he was not in this point of Socrates opinion, for it is not a Phylosophers part to saye at anye tyme, that he hath no vnderstanding. I say not, aunswered Syr Fridericke, that the Courtyer should of hymself go say he hath no vnderstandyng, without it bee required of hym: for I allowe not this fondnesse to accuse & debase himselfe. Againe I remember some otherwhyle ye in like sorte doe willingly disclose some matters,Men vtter thinges to their shame many times. whiche although they happened perhappes without any faulte of theirs, yet bring they with them a shadowe of sclaunder, [Page] as did a gentleman (whom you all know) which alwayes whan he heard any mencion made of the batta [...]e beeside Parma agaynst kynge Charles, he woulde by and by declare how he fled away, and a man would weene that he sawe or vnderstoode nothing elles in that iourney: Afterward talking of a certein famous iust, he rehersed continuallie howe he was ouerthrowen: and manye times also he see­med in his talke to seeke how he might bringe into pour­pose to declare that vpon a nyghte as he was goynge to speake with a gentlewoman, he was well beaten wyth a cudgell. Such triflinge folyes I will not haue our Cour­tier to speake of. But me thinke whan occasion is of­fred to showe his skill in a matter he is altogether igno­raunte in, it is well done to auoide it. Yf necessitie com­pell him,How he should doe in a matter he hath no skil in. let him rather confesse plainly his lack of vnder­standing in it, then hasard himself, and so shall he auoide a blame that manye deserue nowadayes, which I woote not through what corrupte inward motion or iudgement out of reason, do alwayes take vpon them to practise the thinge they know not, and lay aside that they are skilfull in: and for a confirmation of this, I know a very excellent musitien,Men that take in hand thinges they haue no skill in. which leauing his musike a part hath whollye geuen himselfe to versifiynge, and thynketh hymselfe a great clearke therin, but in deede he maketh euerye man to laughe him to skorne, and now hath he also cleane lost his musike. An other, one of the chieffest peincters in the world, neglectinge his art wherin he was verie excellent▪ hath applied himselfe to learne Philosophye, wherein he hath such straunge conceites and monstrous fansyes, that withall the peinctinge he hath he can not peinct them. And such as these there be infinite. Some there be that knowing themselues to haue an excellency in one thing, make their principall profession in an other, in which not withstanding they are not ignorant, but whan time ser­ueth to show themselues in that they are most skilfull in, they doe it alwayes verie perfectlye: and otherwhile it [Page] commeth so to passe, that the company p [...]rceiuinge them so couning in that which is not their profession, they ima­gine them to be much better in that thei professe in deede. This art in case it be coopled with a good iudgemente, discontenteth me nothing at all. Then answered the L. Gaspar Palauicin: I thinke not this an art, but a verie de­ceite, and I beleaue it is not meete for him that will bee an honest man to deceiue at anye time. This quoth Syr Fridericke, is rather an ornament that accompanyeth the thinge he doeth, then a deceite: and though it be a deceite, yet is it not to be disalowed. Will you not saye also, that he that beateth his felow, where there be two plaiyng at fence together, beeguyleth hym, and that is bicause he hath more art then the other. And where you haue a iewell that vnsett seemeth faire, afterward whan it com­meth to a goldsmithes handes that in well setting it ma­keth it appeere muche more fairer, will you not saye that the goldsmith deceiueth the eyes of them that looke on it? And yet for that deceite, deserueth he praise, for with iud­gement and art a couninge hande doeth manie tymes ad a grace and ornament to yuorie, or to syluer, or to a stone that is faire in sight, settinge it in g [...]lde. We saye not then that this art or deceite (in case you wyll so terme it) deserueth anie maner blame. Also it is not ill for a man that knoweth himselfe skilfull in a matter, to seeke occa­syon after a comelye sorte to showe hys feat therein, and in lykecase to couer the partes he thynketh scante woor­thye praise, yet notwitastandinge all after a certeine wa­rye dyssymulacion.king Ferdi­nand of Na­ples. Doe you not remember how kinge Ferdinande wythout makinge any showe to seeke it, tooke occasion verye well to stryppe hymselfe sometyme into his doblet? and that bicause he knewe he was verye well made and nymble wythall. And bicause hys handes were not all of the fairest, he sildome plucked of hys glo­ues, and (in maner) neuer. And fewe there were that tooke heede to this warinesse of hys. Me thynke also [Page] I haue reade,I. Caesar that Iulius Caesar ware for the nones a gar­lande of Laurell, to hyde hys baldenesse withall. But in these matters a manne muste be verye circumspecte and of a good iudgemente least he passe hys boundes: for to auoyde one errour often tymes a manne falleth into an other, and to gete him praise, purchaseth blame. Therfore the surest way in the worlde, is, for a manne in hys lyuing and conuersation▪ In honest meane [...] liuinge. to gouerne himself alwaies with a certeine honest meane, whych (no doubt) is a great and moste sure shield againste enuie, the whiche a manne ought to auoide in what he is able. I wyll haue oure Courtier also take heede he purchase not the name of a lyar, nor of a vaine person, whiche happeneth manie ty­mes and to them also that deserue it not.No lyar. Therfore in his communicatyon let him be alwayes heedefull not to goe out of the lykelyhoode of truth, yea and not to speake to often those truthes that haue the face of a lye, as ma­nye doe, that neuer speake but of wonders, and will be of suche authoritye, that euerye vncredyble matter must be beleaued at their mouth. Other, at the firste entringe in­to a frendshipp wyth a newe friende, to gete fauour wyth hym, the firste thynge they speake, sweare that there is not a person in the world whom thei loue better and they are wyllynge to ieoparde their lyfe for hys sake, and su­che other matters out of reason, and whan they part from hym makewi [...]e to weepe, and not to speake a woorde for sorowe, Thus bicause they woulde bee counted to lo­uynge woormes, they make menne counte them ly­ars, and fonde flatterers. But it were to longe a matter and tedyous to recken vppe all vyces that maye happen in conuersatyon. Therefore, for that I de­sire in the Courtyer, it suffyceth to saye (beesyde the matters rehersed) that he bee suche a one that shall ne­uer wante good communycatyon and fytte for them he talketh wythall, and haue a good vnderstandynge [Page] with a certein sweetenesse to refresh the hearers mindes, & with meerie conceites and Iestes to prouoke them to solace & laughter,Conc [...]ytes and iestes. so that wtout beinge at any time lothesome or satiate he may euermore delite them. Now I hope my L. Emilia wil giue meleaue to houlde my peace, which in case she denie me, I shall by mine owne woordes be conuicted not to be ye good courtier I haue tould you of, for not only good cōmunication, which neither at this time nor per­happes at any other ye haue heard in me: but also this I haue, such as it is, doeth cleane faile me. Then spake the L. Generall: I will not haue this false opinion to sticke in the heade of anye of vs, that you are not a verye good Courtier, for (to say ye [...]ruth) this desire of yours to houlde your peace proceadeth rather because you would be rid of your peine, then for that ye want talke. Therfore that it maye not appeare in so noble assemblye as this is, and in so excellent talke, any percell be left out, saye you not nay to teach vs how we shoulde vse these Iestes you haue made mention of,This dis­course of Iestes▪ is ta­ken out of Cicero de O­rat. lib. ii. and showe vs the art that beelongeth to all this kinde of pleasant speach to prouoke laughter and so­lace after an honest sort, for (in myne opinion) it is verye necessary and much to pourpose for a Courtier. My Lord, answered Syr Friderick, Iestes and meerie conceites are rather a gifte, and a grace of nature, then of art, but yet there are some nations more redier in it then other some, as the Tuscanes, which in deede are very subtill. Also it appeareth propre to the Spaniardes to inuent meerie conceites. Yet are there manye notwithstanding both of this nation and o­ther also that in to much babblinge passe sometime their bound [...]s and were vnsauery and fonde,Respectes in i [...]s [...]ing. because thei haue no respecte to the condicion of the person they commune withall, to the place where they be, to the time, to the gra­uitie and modestye which they ought to haue in themsel­ues. Then answered the L. Generall: You denie that there is any art in Iestes, & yet in speaking against such as obserue them not wyth modestye and grauitie and haue [Page] not respecte to the time and to the person they commune withal, me thinke ye declare that this may also be taught and hath some doctrine in it. These rules my Lorde, an­swered Sir Fridericke, be so generall that they maye be ap­plied to euerie matter, and helpe it forward. But I haue said there is no art in Iestes, Ca [...]illatio. because (me thinke) they are onlie of two sortes: whereof the one is enlarged in com­munication that is longe and without interruption: as is seene in some men that with so good an vtterance and grace and so pleasantly declare and expresse a matter that happened vnto them or that they haue seene and hearde, that with their gesture and woordes they sett it beefore a mans eyes, and (in maner) make him feele it with hande, and this perauenture for want of an other terme we may calle Festiuitie or els Ciuilitie. Dic [...]citas. The other sort of Iestes is ve­rie breef, and consisteth only in quicke & subtill saiynges, as manie times there are heard emong vs, and in nickes, neyther doeth it appeare that they are of any grace with­out that litle bitynge,Di [...]. and these emong them of olde time wer also called Saiynges, now some terme them Priuie taun­tes. I say therfore in the first kinde, whiche is a meerye maner of expressinge, there needeth no art, bicause verye nature her self createth and shapeth menne apt to expresse pleasantly and geueth them a countenaunce, gestures, a voice, and woordes for the pourpose to counterfeit what they luste. In the other of Priuie tauntes what can art doe? Sins that quippie ought to be shott out and hit the pricke beefore a man can descerne that he that speaketh it can thinke vpon it, elles it is colde and litle woorth. Therfore (thinke I) all is the woorke of witt and nature. Then tooke M. Peter Bembo the matter in hande, and said: The L. Generall denieth not that you say: namely that nature and witt beare not the chieffest stroke, especiallye as tou­ching inuention, but it is certein that in ech mans mind, of howe good a witt soeuer he be, there arrise conceites both good and badd, and more and lesse, but then iudge­ment [Page] and art d [...]eth polishe and correct them, and chouseth the good and refuseth the bad. Therfore laiynge aside that beelonge [...]h to witt, declare you vnto vs that consi­steth in art: that is to weete, of Iestes and meery conceites that moue laughter, whiche are meete for the Courtier and whyche are not, and in what time and maner they ought to be vsed: for this is that the L. Generall demaun­deth of you. Then Sir Frid [...]ricke said smilynge: There is neuer a one of vs here that I will not geue place vnto in euerie matter, and especiallie in Iestinge, onlesse perhap­pes folies: whiche make menne laugh manie times more then wittie saiynges▪ were also to be allowed for Iestes. And so tourning him to Count Lewis and to M. Bernarde Bi­biena, he said vnto them. These be the maisters of this fa­cultie, of whom in case I must speake of meerie saiynges, I must first learne what I haue to saye. Count Lewis answered: Me thynke you beegin nowe to practise that you saye ye are not skilfull in, whiche is, to make these Lordes laughe in mocking M. Bernarde and me, bicause e­uerye one of them woteth well that ye thinge which you praise vs for, is much more perfectly in you. [...]herefore in case you be weerie, it is better for you to sue to ye Dut­chesse that it would please her to deferr the remnaunt of oure talke till to morowe, then to go about with craft to rid your handes of peines takinge. Sir Friderick beegan to make answere, but the L. Emilia int [...]rrupted him imme­diatlye and said: It is not the order that the disputacion shoulde be consumed vpon your praise, it sufficeth ye are verie well knowen all. But bicause it commeth in my minde that you (Count) imputed to me yesternyght, that I diuided not the paines takinge equallye, it shall be well done that Syr Frydericke reste hym a whyle and the charge of speakynge of Iestes we wyll commytte to M. Ber­narde Bibiena, for we doe not onlye knowe hym verye quicke wytted in talkynge wythoute intermission, but also it is not oute of oure memorye that he hath sundrye [Page] tymes pormysed to wryte of thys matter. And ther­fore we maye thyn ke he hath verye well thought vppon it all thys whyle, and ought the better to satysfie vs in it. Afterwarde when there shall be sufficientlye spo­ken of Iestes▪ Syr Fridericke shall proceede forwarde againe wyth that he hath yet beehinde concerning the Courtier. Then sayde Sir Fridericke: Madam, I knowe not what I haue lefte beehinde anie more, but lyke a trauailer on the waye nowe weerie of the peinefulnesse of my longe iourney at noone tide, I will reste me in M. Bernardes com­munication at the sowne of hys woordes, as it were vn­der some faire free that casteth a goodlye shadowe at the sweete roaringe of a plentifull and liuelye springe: after­ward (maye happe) beeinge somewhat refreshed I maye haue somewh [...]t elles to saye. M. Bernarde answered laughynge: Yf I showe you the toppe ye shall see what shadowe may be hoped for at the leaues of my tree. To heare the roaringe of the liuelye sprynge ye speake of, it maye happen bee your chaunce so to doe, for I was once tourned into a sprynge: not by anye of the goddes of olde tyme, but by oure frier Marian. And from that tyme hytherto I neuer wanted water. Then beegan they all to fall in a laughynge, bicause thys pleasante matter whiche M. Bernarde ment that happened to him in Room [...] in ye presence of Galeotto Cardinal of S, Petro in Vincula, was well knowen to them all. After they had ceased laugh­inge the L. Emilia saide: Leaue nowe makynge vs laugh wyth practisynge of Iestes, and teache vs howe we should vse them, and whence they are deryued, and what euer elles ye knowe in thys matter. And for losynge anye more tyme beegyne oute of hande. I doubte me, quoth M. Bernarde, it is late, and leaste my talke of pleasant matters should seeme vnpleasant and tedyous, perhappes it were good to deferr it tyll to morow. Here incontinentlye ma [...]ye made answere yt it lacked yet a good d [...]ale of [Page] the [...]oure whan they were w [...]nt to leaue of reasoning. Then M. Bernarde tourning to ye Dutches & the to L. Emilia, I wil not refuse this labour (quoth he) althoughe I be wont to mar­ueile at the bouldnesse of them that dare take vpon them to sing to the lute, whan our Iames Sausecondo standeth by, euen so ought not I in the presence of hearers that haue much better vnderstanding in that I haue to saye, then I my selfe, take vpon me to entreate of Iestes. Neuertheles least I should show a president to anye of these Lordes to refuse that they shall bee charged withall, I will speake as breeflye as I can possible what commeth in my minde as touching matters yt cause laughter,Homo ani­mal risibile. which is so propre to vs that to describe a man the commune saiyng is, He i [...] a liuinge creature that can laugh: because this laughing is per­ceiued onlie in man, & (in maner) alwaies is a token of a certein iocundenesse and meerie moode that he feeleth in­wardlie in his minde, which by nature is drawen to plea­santnesse and coueteth quietnes and refreshing, for whi­che cause we see menne haue inuented many matters, as sportes, games and pastimes, and so many sundrie sortes of open showes. And because we beare good will to suche as are the occasion of this recreation of oures, the maner was emonge the kinges of olde time, emong the Romanes, the Athenians and manie other,To [...]ne the eyes of the [...]ople. to gete the good will of the people withall, and to feede the eyes and myndes of the multitude, to make greate Theatres, and other publyque buildinges, and there to showe new deuises of pastimes, running of horses and Charettes, fightinges of men to­gether, straunge beastes, Comedies, Tragedies, and daunses of Antique. Neither did the graue Philosophers shonn these sightes, for manie tymes both in thys maner and at banckettes they refreshed their weeryesome myn­des, in those high discourses and diuine imaginations of theirs. The which in lykewyse all sortes of men are wyl­linge to doe, for not onlye Ploughmen, Mariners, and all such as are inured wyth harde and boysterous exercises, [Page] with hande, but also holye religious men and prisoners that from hour to hour waite for death, goe about yet to seeke some remedy and medicine to refreshe themselues. Whatsoeuer therefore causeth laughter, the same ma­keth the minde iocunde and geueth pleasure, nor suffreth a man in that instant to minde the troublesome greeffes that oure life is full of, Therfore (as you see) laughing is verie acceptable to all men, and he is muche to be com­mended that can cause it in due time and after a comlie sort. But what this laughing is, and where it consisteth, & in what maner somtime it taketh ye veines, the eies, the mouth and the sides,Wherein laughing matters con­sist. and seemeth as though it woulde make vs burst, so that what euer resistance we make, it is not possible to kepe it, I will leaue it to be disputed of De­mocritus, the which also in case he woulde promise vs, he should not perfourme it. The place therfore and (as it were) the hedspring that laughing matters ar [...]ise of, con­sisteth in a certein deformitie or ill fauourednesse, bicause a man laugheth onlie at those matters that are disagree­ing in themselues, and (to a mans seeminge) are in yll plight, where it is not so in deede. I wote not otherwise how to expounde it, but if you will beethinke your selfe, ye shall perceiue the thinge that a man alwayes laugheth at, is a matter that soundeth not well, and yet is it not in yll syttinge. What kinde of wayes therefore th [...]se be that the Courtier ought to vse in causing laughter and of what scope, I will assay in what I can to vtter vnto you as farr as my iudgemente can giue me, bicause to make men laughe alwayes is not comelie for the Courtier, nor yet in suche wise as frantike, dronken, foo [...]i [...]he and fonde men and in like maner commune iesters do: And though to a mans thinkinge Courtes cannot be without suche kind of persons, [...] yet deserue they not the name of a Cour­tier, but eche man to be called by his name and esteamed suche as they are. The scope and measure to m [...]ke [...] laughe in tauntinge must also be diligently [...] [...] [Page] who he is that is taunted, for it prouoketh no laughter to mocke and skorne a seelye soule in miserie and calami­tie, nor yet a naughtie knaue and commune [...]ibaulde, bi­cause a man would thinke that these men deserued to be otherwise punished, then in iestinge at. And mens min­des are not bent to scoff them in misery, onelesse such mē in their mishapp br [...]gg and boast of them selues and haue a proude and haughtye stomake. Again a respect must be had to them that are gen [...]rallye fauoured and beloued of euerie man, and that beare stroke, bicause in mockinge and scorninge such a one, a man may sometime purchase himselfe daungerous enimitie.Who are to be ies [...]ed at. Therefore it is not a­mysse to scoff and mocke at vices that are in persons not of such misery [...] that it should moue compassion, nor of su­che wickidness [...] that a man woulde thinke they deserued not to go on the grounde, nor of such aucthoritie that any litle displeasure of theirs may be a great hindraunce to a man. You shall vnderstande moreou [...]r that out of the places iestinge matters are deriued from, a man may in like maner pike graue sentences to praise or dispraise. And otherwhile with the self same woordes: as to praise a liberall man yt partaketh his gooddes in commune with his friendes,Pr [...]ise or dis­praise in the self woordes. the commune saying is, That he hath is none of his owne: The like may be saide in dispraise of one that hath stolen or compased that he hath by other ill meanes. It is also a commune saiyng, she is a woman of no smalle price whan a man will praise her for her vertues, for her wise­dome & goodnes: The very same may be said of a woman that loketh to be kept sumptiouslye: But it commeth oft­ner to pourpose that a man in this case serueth his tourne with ye self same places then with the self same woordes. As within these few dayes three Gentilmen standinge at masse together in a Churche where was a gentilwoman one of the three was in loue withall, there came a poore beggar & stood before her requiringe her almes, & so with much instance and lamenting with a groning voice repe­ted [Page] manie times his request: yet for all yt did she not giue him her almes, nor denie it him in making signe to depart in Gods name, but stoode musing with her self as though she minded another matter. Then said the gentilman y loued her to his two companions, see what I maye hope for at my maistresse handes, which is so cruell, yt she will neither giue the poore naked soule dead for hunger, that requireth her with such passion & so instantly, her almes, ne yet leaue to depart, so much she reioyceth to beehoulde with her eyes one that is broughte lowe with misery and that in vaine requireth her reward. One of the two an­swered: it is no crueltye, but a priuie admonicion for you to doe you to weete that your maistresse is not pleased wt him that requireth her with much instance. The other answered: Nay, it is rather a lesson for him, that although she giue not yt is required of her, yet she is willing inough to be suid to▪ See here, bicause the gentilwoman sent not the poore man away, there arrose one saying of great dis­praise, one of modest praise and another of nipping boord. To retourn therfore to declare the kindes of Iestes apper­teining to our pourpose, I say (in mine opinion) there are of three sortes, although Sir▪ FriderickRé. hath made mention but of two. The one a ciuill & pleasant declaration with­out interruption, which consisteth in the effect of a thing. The other a quicke and subtill readines,Dicto. which consisteth in one saiyng alon [...]. Therfore will we ad a third sort to these, which we call Boordes or meerie Prankes, wherin ye pro­cesse is long and the saiynges short and some deedes with all.Cicero [...] ­tioneth not this last kin [...] of iestes. The firste therfore that consisteth in communication without interruption are in ye sort (in a maner) as though a man woulde tell a tale. And to giue you an example, whan Pope Alexander the sixte died and Pius the thirde cre­ated, beeinge then in Roome and in the Palaice, youre Sir Anthonye Agnello of Mantua my L. Dutchesse, and communynge of the death of the one and creatyon of the [...]ther, and therin makyng sundrie discourses with certein [Page] friendes of his, he said: Sirs, in Catullus time gates beegan to speake without tunge and to heare without eares and in that sort discouered aduouteries. Now although men be not of such worthinesse as they were in those daies, yet perhappes the gates that are made, a great sorte of them, especiallye here in Roome, of auntient Marble, haue the same vertue they had then. And for my parte I beleaue that these two will cleere vs of all our doubtes, in case we will aske counsell of them. Then those Gentilmen mu­sed much at the matter and attended to see to what end it woulde come, whan Sir Anthony folowinge on still vp and downe lifte vp his eyes, as at a sodeine, to one of the two gates of the hall where they walked: and stayinge a while with his finger he showed his companye the inscriptyon ouer it, which was Pope Alexanders name, and at the ende of it was V and I, bicause it should signifie (as ye knowe) the sixt.Alexander PP. VI. And said: See here, this gate sayth Alexander PaPa. VI. which signifieth he hath bin Pope through the force he hath vsed, and hath preuailed more thereby then wyth right and reason. Now let vs see if we may of this other vnderstand anye thinge of the newe Bishoppe: and tour­nyng him as at auenture to the other gate, pointed to the inscription of one N. two PP. and ene V. whiche signifieth Nicholaus Papa Quintus, N. PP. V. and immediatly he said: Good Lord ill newis, see here this gate saith Nihil Papa Valet. See now how this kinde of Iestes is propre and good and how sitting it is for one in Court, whether it be true or false a man saith, for in this case it is lawfull to feigne what a man lusteth wythout blame: and in speakinge the truthe, to sett it furthe with a feat lye, augmentinge or dimini­shinge according to the pourpose. But the perfect grace & very pith of this, is to set furth so well & without pein [...] not onlie in woordes but in gestures, the thynge a man pourposeth to expresse, that vnto the hearers he maye ap­peere to do before their eyes the thinges he speaketh o [...]. And this expressed maner in this wise hath suche force, [Page] that otherwhile it setteth furth and maketh a matter de­lite verie muche, whiche of it selfe is not verie meerie nor wittie. And althoughe these protestacions neede gestu­res, and the earnestnesse that a liuelie voice hath, yet is ye force of them knowen also otherwhile in writing.Giornata. vii [...]. Nouella. ii. Who laugheth not when Iohn Boccaccio in the eight iourney of his hundreth tales declareth howe the priest of Varlungo strayned himselfe to singe a Kyrie and a Sanctus, when he perceiued Belcolore was in the Church? These be also plea­sant declarations in his tales of Calandrino and manie o­ther.Gior. viii. No­uel. ii. & vi. Gior. ix. No­uel. iii. & v. After the same sort seemeth to be the makinge a man laughe in counterfeitinge or imitatinge (howe euer we lyste to terme it) of a mans maners, wherin hitherto I haue seene none passe oure M. Robert of Bari. This were no small praise ꝙ M. Robert, if it were true▪ for then would I surely go about to counterfeite rather the good then the bad: and if I could liken my self to some I know, I would thinke my selfe a happye man. But I feare me I can counterfeite nothinge but what maketh a man laughe, which you said before consisteth in vice. M. Bernarde an­swered: In vice in deede, but that that standeth not in yll plight. And weete you well, that this counterfeitinge we speake of, can not be without witt, for beeside the ma­ner to applie his woordes and his gestures, and to set bee­fore the hearers eyes the countenance and maners of him he speaketh of, he must be wise, and haue great respect to the place, to the time and to ye persons with whom he tal­keth, and not like a commune Iester passe his boundes, which thinges you wonderfully well obserue, and there­fore I beleaue ye are skilfull in all.Counterfei­ters of m [...]ns maners. For vndoubtedlye it is not meete for a Gentlemanne to make weepinge and laughing faces, to make sounes and voices, and to wrastle with himselfe alone as Berto dooth, to apparaile himself like a lobb of the Countrey as doeth Strascino, and such other matters, which do well beecome them, bic [...]use it is their profession. But we must by the way and pri­uilie [Page] steale this counterfeiting, alwayes keaping ye a [...]aie of a gentilman, without speaking filthy wordes, or doing vncomelye deedes, without making faces and antiques, but frame our gestures after a certein maner, that who so heareth and seeth vs, may by our wordes and countenan­ces imagin muche more then he seeth and heareth, and v­pon that take occasion to laughe. He must also in this counterfeiting take heed of to much taunting in touching a man,Nippes that touch a man. especially in the ill fauourednesse of visage or yll shape of bodye. For as the mishappes and vices of the bo­die minister manie times ample matter to laughe at, if a man can discreatly handle it, euen so ye vsinge of this ma­ner to bytingly is a token not onlie of a commune iester, but of a plaine ennemy. Therfore must a man obserue in this poinct (though it be hard) the facion of our M. Roberte, as I haue said, which counterfeiteth al men and not with out touchinge them in the matters wherein they be faul­tie and in presence of themselues, and yet no man findeth himselfe agreeued, neyther may a man thinke that he can take it in ill part. And of this I will giue you no example, bicause we all see infinit in him dailie. Also it prouoketh much laughter (which neuertheles is conteined vnder de­claration) whan a man repeteth with a good grace certein defaultes of other men, so they be meane and not worthy greater correction: as foolishe matters sometime symplye of themselues alone, somtime annexed with a litle readie nippinge fondenesse. Likewise certein extreme curious & matters. Otherwhile a great and well forged lye: As few dayes ago oure M. Cesar declared a pretie foolishe mat­ter, which was, that beeyng wt the Mayor of this Citie, he saw a Countrey man come to him to complaine that he had an Asse stolen from him,Foolish mat­ [...]ers. and after he had toulde him of his pouertie and how the thief deceyued him, to make his losse the greater he said vnto him: Syr if you had seen mine Asse you should haue knowen what a cause I haue to complain [...], for with his pad on his backe a man would [Page] haue thought him very Tully himself▪ And one of our trai [...] meetinge a herd of Gotes beefore the which was a migh­tie great Ramm Gote, he stayed and with a merueilous countenaunce, saide: Marke me this Gote, he seemeth a Saint Paul. The L. Gasper saith he knew an other, whyche for that he was an olde seruaunt to Hercules duke of Ferra­ra, did offre him two pretie boyes which he had, to be hys pages, and these two died both beefore they came to hys seruice. The which whan the duke vnderstoode, he la­mented louinglie with the father, saiyng that he was ve­rie sorie, bicause whan he sawe them vpon a time he thought them handsom [...] and wittie children. The fa­ther made answere, nay my Lorde, you sawe nothing, for within these fewe dayes they were become muche more handsomer and of better qualities then I woulde euer haue thought, and sange together like a coople of haukes. And one of these dayes a Doctour of oures beehouldinge one that was iudged to be whipped aboute the markett place, and taking pitye vpon him bicause the poore soules shoulders bled sore, and went so soft a pace, as thoughe h [...] had walked about for his pleasure to passe the time with­all he sayd to hym: Goo on a pace poore felowe that thou mayst be the sooner out of thy peine. Then he tour­ninge about and beehouldynge him that so said (in a ma­ner) with a wonder, staide a while withoute anye woord, afterwarde he saide: Whan thou art whipped goe at thy pleasure, for nowe will I goe as I shall thinke good.

You may remember also the foolyshe matter that not longe a goe the Duke rehersed of the Abbot that bee­ynge presente vpon a daye whan Duke Fridericke was talkynge where he shoulde bestowe the greate quanti­tye of rubbyshe that was caste vp to laye the foundacy­on of thys Palayce, woorkynge dailye vpon it,The iudge­ment of an Abbot. sayde: My Lorde, I haue well beethoughte me where [Page] you shall beestowe it, let there be a great pitt digged and into that may you haue it caste without any more ado. Duke Fridericke answered him not withoute laughter: And where shall we beestowe then the quantitie of earth that shall be caste out of that pitt? The abbot saide vnto him: Let it be made so large that it may well receiue both the one and the other. And so for all the Duke repeted sundrie times, the greater the pitt was, the more earth should be cast out of it, yet coulde he neuer make it sinke into his braine, but it might be made so large yt it mighte receiue both the one and the other: and he answered him nothinge elles but make it so much the larger. Now see what a good forecast this Abbot had. Then said M. Peter Bembo: And why tell you not that, of your great Capitain of Florence that was beeseaged of the Duke of Calabria within Castellina? Where there were found vpon a day in the towne certeine quarelles poysoned that had bine shott out of the campe, he wrott vnto the Duke, yf the warr should procead so cruellye, he would also put a medi­cin vpon his gunnstones, & then he that hath the woorst, hath his mendes in his handes. M. Bernarde laughed and saide: Yf you houlde not youre peace (M. Peter) I will tell whatsoeuer I haue seene my selfe and hearde of your Venetians, which is not a litle, and especially when they play the riders. Doe not I beesech ye, answered M. Peter, for I will keepe to my selfe two other verie pretye ones that I knowe of your Florentines. [...] M. Bernarde saide: They are rather of the Seneses, for it often happeneth emonge them. As within these fewe dayes one of them hearing certein letters read in the Counsell chamber, in which for auoidinge to often repetition of his name that was spoken of, this terme was manie times put in, il Pre­labato (wh [...]ch si [...]nifieth the aforename?) he saidvnto him y read them: Soft, stay there a litle and tell me, this prelibato what is he? A frinde to oure Communaltye? M. Peter laughed, then he proceaded: I speake of Florentines and not [Page] of Seneses. Speake it hardly, ꝙ y L. Emilia and bash not for y matter. M. Peter said, whan the Lordes of Florence were in warr against the Pisanes, they were otherwhile out of mo­ney by reason of theyr great charges, & laying their hea­des together vpon a daye in the counsell chambre what waye were beste to make prouision to serue their tourne withall, after many diuises propounded, one of the aunti­entest Citizins said: I haue founde two wayes,A florentines deuise. wherby without much trauaile we may in a small while come by a good portion of money. Wherof the one is (bicause we haue no redier rent then the custome at the gates of Flo­rence) where we haue XI gates, let vs with speede make XI mo, and so shall we double oure reuenue. The other way is, to set vp a mint in Pistoia and an other in Prato no more nor lesse then is here within Florence: and there doe nothinge elles daye and night but coyne money, and all Ducates of golde, and this diuise (in mine opinion) is the speedier and lesse chargeable. They fell a laughing apace at the subtill diuise of this Citizin and whan laughinge was ceased the L. Emilia said: Will you (M. Bernarde) suffre M. Peter thus to ieste at Florentines without a reuenge? M. Bernarde answered smilinge: I pardon him this offence, for where he hath displeased me in iestinge at Florentines, he hath pleased me in obeyinge of you, the which I would alwaies do my selfe. Then said the L. Cesar: I hea [...]d a Brescian speake a iolie grosse matter, whiche beeinge this yeere in Venice at the feast of the Assention, Upon the as­cention daye A [...]r [...]at faire in Uenice· A faire vessell of pleasure in Uenice made Galliwise. Euerye yeere vpon the As­cension daye the Duke with all the counsell [...]oith in it a mile or two into the sea, and there casteth [...] ring of gold into it thinking by this yeerly ce­remonye they so marie the Sea that it will neuer leaue the Ci­tye on drie lande: rehersed in a place where I was to certein mates of his, the goodlye matters he had seene there, what sundrie merchaundise, what plate, what sortes of spices, and what cloth & silke there was, then how the Signoria yssued out with a great pompe in the Bucentoro to wedd the Sea, in which were so manie gentilmen well apparailed, so manie sortes of in­strumentes & melodies that a man woulde haue thought it a paradise. And whan one of his companions demaun­ded him what kynde of musike did please hym best of all [Page] that he had heard there, he said: All were good, yet emong the rest I saw one blowe in a straunge trumpett, whiche at euerye pushe thrust it into his throte more then two handful, and then by and by drew it out again, and thrust it in a freshe, that you neuer sawe a greater wondre. Then they all laughed, vnderstandinge the fonde imagi­nation of him that thoughte the blower thruste into his throte that part of the Sagbout that is hid in puttinge it backe againe. Then M. Bernarde went forward: Those Affectations and curiosities that are but meane, bringe a lothsomnesse with them, but whan they be done oute of measure they much prouoke laughter. As otherwhile whan some men are heard to speake of their auntientrye and noblenesse of birth: sometime women of their beaw­tie and handsomenesse: As not long ago a Gentilwoman did, which at a great feast beinge verie sad & musing with her s [...]lf, it was demaunded of her, what she thought vpon that should make her so sad. And she made answere, I thought vpon a matter whiche as ofte as it commeth in­to my minde doth muche trouble me, and I can not put it out of my hert: whiche is, where in the daye of generall iudgement all bodies muste arrise again and appeere na­ked beefore the iudgement seat of Christ, I can not abide the greef I feele in thinking that mine must also be sene naked. Such Affectacions as these be bicause they passe the degree, doe rather prouoke laughter then lothsomnesse. Those feat lyes now that come so well to pourpose, how they prouoke laughter ye all knowe. [...]eat lyes. And that friend of oures that suffreth vs not to wante, within these fewe dayes rehersed one to me that was very excellent. Then said the L. Iulian: What euer it were, more excellenter it can not be, nor more suttler then one y a Tuscane of oures, whiche is a merchaunt man of Luca, affirmed vnto me the last day for most certein. Tell it vs, quoth the Dutchesse. The L. Iulian said smilinge: This merchaunt man (as he saith) beeinge vpon a time in Polonia, Polonia. determined to buie a [Page] quantitie of Sables, mindinge to bringe them into Italy & to gaigne greatly by them. And after much practisinge in the matter,Muscouia▪ where he could not himselfe go into Moscouia bicause of the warr beetweene the kynge of Polonia & the Duke of Moscouia, he tooke order by the meane of some of the Countrey that vpon a day apointed certein merchaūt men of Moscouia shoulde come with their Sables into the borders of Polonia, and he promysed also to be there him­selfe to bargaine with them. This merchaunt man of Luca trauailing then with his companie toward Moscouia, arriued at the riuer of Boristhenes, Boristh [...] which he found hard fro­sen like a marble stone, and saw the Moscouites, which for suspicion of warr were in doubt of the Polakes, were on the other side, and neerer cam not than the breadth of ye riuer. So after they knewe the one the other, makinge certein signes, the Moscouites beegan to speake aloud & toulde the price how they would sell their Sables, but ye colde was so extreme, that they were not vnderstood, bicause the woor­des beefore they cam on the other syde where thys mer­chaunt of Luca was and his interpreters, were congeled in the aere and there remayned frosen and stopped. So that the Polakes that knew the maner, made no more adoe but kindled a great fire in the middest of the riuer (for to their seeminge that was the point wherto the voice came hott beefore the frost tooke it) and the riuer was so thicke fro­sen yt it did well beare the fire. Whan they had thus done the wordes that for space of an houre had bine frosen, bee­gan to thawe and cam doune, making a noyse as doeth ye snow from the mounteignes in Maye, and so immediat­lye they were well vnderstood, but the men on the other side were first departed, and bicause he thought that those woordes asked to great a price for the Sables, he woulde not bargaine, & so cam awaye without. Then they laugh­ed all. And M. Bernarde, Truelye (quoth he) thys that I wyll tell you is not so subtill, yet is it a pretye matter. and this it is. Where talke was a fewe dayes ago of [Page] the countrey or world newly founde out by the mariners of Portugal, An ape plaied at chestes. and of straunge beastes and other mat [...]ers brought from thens, that friend I toulde you of, affirmed that he had seene an Ape, verie diuers in shape from such as we are accustomed to see, yt played excellently well at Chestes. And emong other times vpon a day beefore the king of Portugal ye Gentilman that brought herr played at Chestes with herr, where the Ape showed some draugh­tes very suttill▪ so that she put him to his shiftes, at length she gaue him Checkemate. Upon this the gentilman bee­inge somwhat vexed (as communlie they are all that lose at that game) tooke the kinge in his hande whiche was good and bigg (as the facion is emonge the Portugalles) and reached the Ape a great knocke on the heade.To lose at chestes vexeth men. She furth­with leaped aside complayning greatly, and seemed to re­quire iustice at the kinges handes for the wrong done her. The gentilman afterward called her to play with him a­gain, the whiche with signes she refused a while, but at last was contented to play an other game, and as she had done the other time beefore, so did she now driue him to a narrow point. In conclusion: the Ape perceiuinge she could giue the gentilman the mate, thought with a newe diuise she would be sure to escape without any mo knoc­kes, and priuilie conueyed her right hande without ma­kinge semblant what her entent was, vnder the gentil­mans left elbowe, leaning for pleaser vpon a litle taffata coushin, and snatchinge it slightlie awaye, at one instant gaue him with her left hande a mate with a paune, and with her right hande caste the coushin vpon her heade to saue her from strokes, then she made a gamboll beefore the king ioifully, in token (as it were) of her victory. Now see whether this Ape were not wise, circumspect and of a good vn [...]erstanding. Then spake▪ the L. Cesar Gonzaga: It must needes be that this ape was a Doctour emong o­ther Apes and of much authoritie: and I beleaue the com­mune weale of the Apes of India sent her into Portugall to [Page] gete a name in a straunge countrey. At this euery manne laughed, both for the lye and for the addition made to it by the L. Cesar. So proceadinge on in his talke M. Bernarde said: You haue vnderstoode therfore what Iestes are that be of effect and communication without interruption asmuche as cummeth to mynde: therfore it shall be well nowe we speake of such as consist in one sayinge alone, and haue a quicke sharpenesse that lyeth breefly in a sentence or in a word. And euen as in the first kind of meerie talke a man must in his protestacion and counterfeitinge take heede that he be not like commune iesters and parasites, and such as with fonde matters moue menne to laughe, so in this breef kinde the Courtier must be circumspect that he appeere not malitious and venimous and speake tauntes and quippies only for spite and to touch the quick, bicause such men often times for offence of the tunge are chasti­sed in the wholl body. Of those readie Iestes therfore that consist in a short sayinge, such are most liuelie that arrise of doubtfulnesse,These two examples are put in Ita­lian, bicause they haue no grace in t [...]e En [...]lish tunge by rea­son of the doubtfulnesse of the woo [...] ­d [...]s that may be taken two sundry way­es▪ yet is the Englishe as pl [...]ntifull of these [...] as any other tunge, wher­in Syr Tho­mas Moore e [...]cell [...]d in-out time. though alwais they prouoke not laugh­ing, for they be rather praised for wittie, then for matters oflaughter. Come pochi di sono disse il nostro M. Anniball Palle. otto ad vno che li pro ponea vn maestro per insegnare Grammatica a suoi figliuogli, et poi che gliel hebbe laudato per molto dotto, ve­nendo al salario, disse, che oltre a [...]i danari volea vna camera fornita per habitare et dormire, perche esso non hauea letto. Allhor M. An­niball subito rispose, & come puo egli esser dotto se non ha letto? See howe well he tooke auauntage at the diuerse signifi­cation of hauer letto (which is interpreted both to haue a bed and to haue read.) But bicause these doubtfull woordes haue a pre­tie sharpenesse of witt in them, beeing taken in a con [...]ra­rie signification to that al other men take them, it appee­reth (as I haue said) that they rather prouoke a manne to wondre then to laughe, except whan they be ioyned with other kindes of sayinges. The kinde therfore of wittie sayinges that is most vsed to make men laughe, is whan we giue eare to heare one thinge, and he that maketh an­swere, [Page] speaketh an other and is alleaged contrarye to ex­pectacion, and in case a doubt be annexed therwithall, thē is it verie wittie and pleasant. Come laltr hieri disputandosi di far vn bel mattonato nel camerino della S. Duchessa, Matronato A pa [...]ment. dopo molte parole Voi M. Io. Christoforo diceste, Se noi potessimo hauere il ves couo di Potentia, & farlo ben Spianare, saria molto a proposito, per­che egli e il pia bel matto nato ch'io vedessi mai. Ogn'un rise molto, perche diuidendo quella parola matto nato faceste lo ambiguo, poi dicendo che Si hauesse a spianare un vescouo et metterlo per pauimē to d'un camerino fu fuor d'opinione di chi ascoltaua, Matto nato A naturall foole. cosi riusci il motto argutissimo et risibile. But of doubtfull woordes there be manie sortes, therfore must a man be circumspect and chouse out termes verie artificiallye, and leaue oute suche as make the Iest colde, and that a man would weene were haled by the heare,Iestes that are to nip­ping. or elles (as we haue saide) that haue to much bitternesse in them. As certeine compa­nions beeinge in a friendes house of theirs, who had but one eye, after he had desired the company to tarye dinner with him, they departed all sauing one, that said: And I am well pleased to tarye, for I see a voide roume for one, and so with his fingre poyncted to the hole where his eye had bine. See howe bytter and discourtious this is passynge measure, for he nipped him without a cause and wythout beeinge first pricked himselfe: and he saide the thynge that a man might speake against blinde men. Suche generall matters delyte not, bicause it appeereth they are thought vpon of pourpose. And after thys sorte was the saiynge to one wythout a nose: And where doest thou fasten thy spectakles? Or, wherewithall doest thou smell roses at the time of the yere? But emong other meerie saiynges, they haue a verie good grace that arryse whan a man at the nippynge talke of his felowe taketh the verye same woordes in the self same sence, and retourneth then backe agayne pryckynge hym wyth hys owne weapon.To ni [...]ke a man with his owne w [...]ordes. As an attourney in the lawe, vnto whom in the presence of the iudge his aduersarye saide, [Page] what barke [...]e thou? furthwyth he answered.: By­cause I see a thief. And of this sorte was also,Catullus answere to Philippus. whan Galeotto of Narni passyng throughe Siena stayed in a streete to enquire for an y [...]n, and a Senese seeinge hym so corpu­lente as he was, saide laughinge: Other menne carye their bougettes beehynde them, and this good felowe ca­ryeth his beefore him. Galeotto answered immediat­lye: So must menne do in the Countrey o [...] theeues.To chaunge a letter or su­lable. There is yet an other sorte called in Italian Bischizzi, and that consisteth in chaungynge or encreasinge, or diminis­shinge of a letter or syllable. As he that saide: Thou shouldest be better learned in the Latrine tunge then in the Greeke. And to you (madam) was written in the superscription of a letter, To the Ladye Emilia Impia. It is also a meerye diuise to mingle together a verse or mo, takyng it in an other meeninge then the Author doeth, or some other commune sayinge. Sometyme in the ve­rye same meanynge, but altringe a woorde, as a Gentil­man said that had a foule and scoulinge wief: whan he was asked the question howe he dyd, he answered:Virgil. The [...] churches of Roome. Thynke thou thy selfe, for Furiarum maxima iuxta me cu­bat. And M. Hierom Donato goynge a visitinge the Sta­cions of Roome in Lente, in companye wyth manye other Gentilmen, mett with a knott of faire Romaine Ladies, and whan one of those gentilmen had said.Ouid. Of wanton dames Roome hath like store, As sterres be in the skie. As many boy­es preserude for loue, As Kiddes in pastures lie. ‘Q [...]ot coelum stellas, tot habet tua Roma Puellas,’ by and by he added. ‘Pascua quotque hoedos, tot habet [...]ua Roma cinaedo [...],’ showinge a rout of yonge menne that came on the other side. And Marcantonio della Torte sayde after the ma­ner to the Byshoppe of Padoa, Where there was a Nounrye in Padoa vnder the charge of a religious per­son muche esteamed for hys good lyfe and learnynge, yt happened that thys father hauntinge much to the Noun­rye verie familiarlie, and confessynge often the Sisters, beegat fiue of them with chylde, where there were [Page] not passinge fiue mo in all. And whan the mat­ter was knowen, the father would haue fled, and wi [...]t not howe. The bishoppe caused him to be apprehen­ded, and vpon that, he confessed that he had gotten those fiue Nounnes with childe through the temptacion of the Dyuell, so that the Bishoppe was fullye bent to chastice him sore. And bicause this man was learned, he had ma­nye friendes, which altogether assayed to helpe him, and emonge the rest there went also M. Marcantonio to entreate for him. The Bishoppe would in no wise giue eare to them. At length they beynge instant vpon him and c [...]m­mending the gyltie, and excusinge him throughe the c [...]m­moditie, of place, frailtye of manne and manie other cau­ses▪ the Bishop said: I will do nothing for you, bicause I must make accompt vnto God of this. And whan they had replyed again, the Bishop said: what answere shall I make vnto god at ye day of iudgement,Yelde an ac­compt of thy husbandrie. whan he shall say vnto me Redde Rationem villicationis tue? M. Marcantonio an­swered him immediatly: Mary my lord the verie same yt the Gospell sayth: Dominé quinque talenta tradidisti mihi, ecce alia quinque superlucratus sum. Lorde, thou deliueredst vnto me v. talen­tes, beholde I haue gained [...]. mo. Then could not the Bishoppe absteine laughing and he asswaged much his anger and the punishmente yt he had ordeined for the offender. It is likewise verie pre [...]ie to allude to names and to feine som­what, for that he the talke is of, is so called, or els bicause he doeth some such thinge. As not longe sins Proto da Luca (which as you know is one meerelie disposed) asking the Bishopprike of Calio, To allude to names. the Pope answered him: doest thou not knowe that Calio, in the Spanishe tunge is as muche to say as, I houlde my Peace, and thou art a great prater? Therfore it were vnsittinge for a Bishoppe at any time in naminge his title to make a lye,Dooble signi­fication of Calio. now Calia, houlde thy peace then. To this Proto gaue an answere, the which al­though it were not in this sorte yet was it no lesse pretie then this. For after he had often put him in remembrance of this his suite & sawe it take none effect, at last he said: [Page] Holye father, in case youre holynesse do giue me this bis­shoppricke, yt shal not be without a profit to you, for then will I surrender two offices into your handes. And what offices hast thou to surrender into my handes, quoth the Pope? Proto answered: I shall surrender vnto you Officium principale, and Officium beatae Mariae. Dooble sign [...] ­fication of Off [...]ciu [...]. Then coulde not the Pope though he were a verye graue person, absteine from laughinge. An other also in Padoa said Ca [...]phurnius was so named, bicause he was wont to heate fourneyses. And vpon a day whan I asked Phedra how it happeneth, where prayer is made in the Church vpon goodfridaye not onlie for Chrystyans, but also for Paganes and for Iewes, there was no mention made of the Cardinalles, as there was of Bishops and other prelates. He answered me, yt the Cardinalles were conteined in the Collet, Oremus pro haereticis et Schismaticis. And oure Count Lewis saide that I reprehended a ladie of loue for occupyinge a certein kinde of lye that shined muche, bicause whan she was trimmed therwithall, I might see my selfe in her face, and for that I was yll fauoured I coulde not abyde to looke vpon my selfe. In this maner was that M. Camillo Paleotto saide vnto M. Anthonio Porcaro, whiche reasoninge of a compani­on of his that vnder confessyon had sayde vnto the Priest that he fasted with all his harte, and went to Masse and to holye seruice and did all the good deedes in the worlde, said: This felowe in stead of accusynge prayseth hym self. Unto whom M. Camillo answered: nay, he rather con­fesseth himself of these matters, bicause he reckeneth the doinge of them great sinn. Do you not remember how well the L. Generall said the last daye, whan Iohnthomas Galeotto wondred at one that demaunded two hundreth Ducates for a horse? for whan Iohnthomas saide that he was not worth a farthinge, bicause emong other yll pro­perties he had, he could not abide weapons, neyther was it possible to make him come nighe where he sawe anye, the L. Generall said (willing to reprehende him of cowar­dise) [Page] yf the horse hath this propertie that he can not abide weapons, I marue [...]le he asketh not a thousand Ducates. Also sometime a man speaketh the verie same woord, but to another ende then the commune vse is. As, whan the Duke was passing ouer a very swift riuer, he said to the trompetter: goo on. The trumpetter tourned him backe with his cappe in his hande and after a reuerent maner, saide: It shalbe youres my lorde. It is also a pleasant maner of iestinge, whan a man seemeth to take the woor­des and not the meaninge of him that speaketh. As this yeere a Dutch man in Roome meetinge in an Eueninge oure M. Phillipp Beroaldo whose Scholar he was, said vnto him: Domine magister, Deus der vobis bonum sero. And Beroal­do answered incontinently: Tibi malum cito. And Diego de Chignognes beeinge at table with the Great Capitain, Ferdinando [...]onsaluo. Note here the doob [...]e signi­f catio n of Vino Diego tooke it not for wine but for, god came, He came in­deed (quoth Diego, meaninge it by Chri [...]e) and thou knewest him [...]ot: wherby he signif ed to t [...]e hearers that Spani­arde to be of the beleaf that Chri [...]t is not yet come. whan an other Spaniarde that satt there had saide, Vino dios (calling for wine) Diego answered hym again: Vino, y nolo conocistes, to nip him for a marrane. Also▪ M, Iames Sadole­to said vnto Beroaldo, that had [...]ould him how he wold in any wise go to Bolonia what is the cause that maketh you thus to leaue Roome where there are so manie pleasures, to go to Bolonia full of disquietnesse? Beroaldo answ [...]red: I am forced to go to Bolonia for three Countes. And nowe he had lifte vp three fingers of hys left hande to al­leage three causes of his goynge, whan M. Iames sodein­lye interrupted hym and said: The three countes that make you goe to Bolonia are, Count Lewis da San Bonifacio, Count Hercules Rangon and the Count of Pepoli. Than they all laughed bicause these three Countes ha [...] bine Beroaldoes Sc [...]olers and were propre yonge menne and applyed their studie in Bolonia. This kinde of meerye iestinge therfore ma­keth a man laughe muche, bicause it bryngeth wyth it o­ther maner answeres then a manne looketh for to heare: and oure owne errour doeth naturallye delite vs in these matters, whyche whan it deceyueth vs of that we looke [Page] for, we laughe at it. But the termes of speache and fygures that haue anye grace and graue talke,Countes ta­ken here bot [...] [...]or respectes or ca [...]ses an [...] also for Er­les. are like­wise (in a maner) alwayes comelye in Iestes and meerye pleasantnesse. See howe woordes placed contrary­wyse giue a great ornament, whan a contrarye clause is sett agaynste another. The same maner is often ti­mes verye meerye and pleasant. As,Contrary woordes. a Ge [...]uese that was verye prodigall and lauysh in hys expences beeinge reprehended by a vsurer, who was most couetous, that said vnto him: And whan wilt thou leaue castynge away▪ thy substance? Then he answered: VVhan thou leauest stealinge of other mens. And bicause (as we haue alreadie said) from the places that we deriue Iestes from, that touch a manne, we may manie times from the verie same take graue sentences to prayse and commende,To ent [...]pre othe [...] ­wise then [...] man meaneth it is a verye comelye and honest maner both for the one and the other pourpose, whan a man consenteth to and confirmeth the selfe same thinge that the other speaketh, but enter­preteth it otherwise then he meaneth. As within these fewe dayes a Priest of the Countrey sayinge Masse to his parishioners, after he had toulde them what holye dayes they shoulde haue that weeke, he beegane the gene­rall confession in the name of all the people, and sayde: I haue synned in yll dooynge, in yll speakynge, in yll thynkynge, and the rest that foloweth, makynge mentyon of all the deadlye sinnes. Then a Gossippe of his and one that was verye familyar wyth the Priest to sporte with hym, saide to the standers bye: Beare recorde, Sirs, what he confesseth with hys owne mouth he hath done, for I entende to present him to the Bishoppe for it. The verye same maner vsed Sallazza della Pedrata to honoure a Ladye of loue wythall. With whome en [...]ringe in talke, after he had praysed herr beeside her vertuous qua­lities for her beawtie also, she answered him that she [Page] deserueth not that praise, bicause she was now well stri­ken in yeeres. And he then said to her: That is in you of age, is nothing elles but to liken you vnto the aungelles, whiche were the firste and are the auntientest creatures that euer God made. Also meerie sayinges are muche to the pourpose to nippe a man, aswell as graue sayinges to praise one, so the metaphors be well applyed, and espe­ciallye yf they be answered, and he that maketh answere continue in the self same metaphor spoken by the other. And in this sorte was answered to M. Palla Strozzi, Palla Strozzi. whiche banished out of Florence, and sendinge thither one of his about certein affaires,Cosimo de Medici. said vnto him after a threatninge maner: Tell Cosmus de Medicis in my name that The henn sitteth abroode. The messenger did the errand to him, as he was wylled. And Cosmus without any more deliberacion, answered him immediatlye: Tell M. Palla in my name a­gain, that Hennes can full yll sitt abroodé out of the nest. With a metaphor also M. Camillo Porcaro commended honora­blye the Lorde Marcantonio Colonna, The Lorde Marcus An­thonius Co­lumna. who vnderstandynge that M. Camillo in an Oration of hys had extolled certein noble men of Italy that were famous in marcial prowesse, and emonge the rest had made most honorable mention of him, after rendringe due thankes, he said to him: You (M. Camillo) haue done by your friendes as some mer­chaunt men play by their money, which findinge a coun­terfeit Ducat, to dispatch him away, cast him into a heape of good ones and▪ so vttre him: Euen so you, to honour me withall, where I am litle woorth, haue sett me in compa­ny with so excellent and vertuous personages, y through their prowesse, I may perauenture passe for a good one. Then M. Camillo made answere: They that vse to coun­terfeit Ducates, gylte them so that they seeme to the eye much better then the good: therfore if there were to be founde counterfeiters of menne, as there be of Ducates, a man might haue a iuste cause to suspect you were false, beeinge (as you are) of much more faire and brighter met­tall [Page] then any of the rest. You may see that this place is commune both for the one and the other kinde of Iestes, & so are manie mo, of the which a man might geue infinite examples, and especially in graue sayinges. As the great Capitain saide, whiche (beeinge sett at table and euerye roume filled) sawe two Italian Gentilmen standinge bye that had done him verye good seruice in the warr, sodain­ly he start vp and made all the rest to arrise to giue place to those two, and said: Make roume Sirs for these gentil­men to sitt at their meat, for had not they bine we should not haue had now wherwithall to feade our selues. He saide also to Diego Garzia that perswaded hym to remoue out of a daungerous place that lay open vpon gunnshott: Sins god hath not put feare into your mynd, put not you it into myne. And kinge Lewis, Lewis the xij which is nowe Frenche kinge, where it was saide vnto him soone after his crea­tion, that then was the time to be euen with his enemies that had done him so much iniurye while he was Duke of Orleans. He made answere: That the French kinge hath nothing ado to reuenge the wronges done to the Duke of Orleans. A man toucheth also in Iest manye times with a certein grauitie without mouing a man to laughe. As Gein Ottomani [...]other to the great Turke,Gein Otto­mani whan he was prisoner in Roome, he said: Iustinge (as we vsed it in Italy) seemed to him ouergreat a daliaunce, and a tryfle to yt should be in deede. And he said, whan it was tould him that kinge Ferdinande the yonger was nimble and quycke of person in renning, leapinge, vautynge and suche mat­ters, in his country slaues vsed these exercises, but great men learned from their childhood liberalitie and were re­nowmed for that. And in a maner after the same sort, sauinge it had a litle more matter to laughe at, was that the archbishopp of Florence said vnto Cardinal Alexandrino, That men haue nothinge but Substance, a body and a soul: Their Substance is at Lawyars disposynge, their Bodye at Phisitiens, and their Soul at diuines. Then answered [Page] the L. Iulian: A man might ad vnto this the saiynge of Ni­choletto: wh [...]ch is, that it is seldome seene a Lawyer to go to lawe, nor a Phisitien take medicin, nor a diuine a good Christian. M. Bernarde laughed, then he proceaded: Of this there be infinite examples spoken by great Princes and verie graue men.Compara­sons▪ But a man laugheth also manye times at comparasons. As oure Pistoia wrott vnto Sera­phin: I sende thee backe again thy great male whiche is like thy selfe. If ye remember well Seraphin was muche like a male. Again, there be some that haue a pastime to liken menne and women to horses, to dogges, to birdes, and often times to coffers, to stooles, to cartes, to candel­stickes, which somtime hath a good grace and otherwhile verye stale. Therfore in this point a man must con­sider the place, the time, the persones, and the other thin­ges we haue so manie times spoken of, Then spake the L. Gaspar Pallauicin: The comparason that the L. Iohn Gonzaga made of Alexander the great to M. Alexander his son, was verye pleasant. I wote not what it was, an­swered M. Bernarde. The L Gaspar said: the L. Ioh [...] was playinge at dice (as his vse is) and had lost a numbre of Ducates and was still on the losinge hande, and M. Alexander his sonn, which for all he is a childe delyteth no lesse in playe then his father, stoode verie still to beehould him and seemed verye sad. The Count of Pianella, that was there present with manye other Gentilmen, said: See (my Lorde) M. Alexander is verie heauie for your [...] losse, and his hert panteth waytinge whan lucke will come to you that he may gete some of your winninges: therfore rid him of this griefe, and beefore ye lose the rest, gyue hym at the least one Ducat that he maye goe playe him too, emonge hys companyons. Then sayde the L. Iohn: You are deceyued, for Alexander thynketh not v­pon suche a trifle, but as it is wrytten of Alexander the great, while he was a childe, vnderstandinge that Philipp his father had dyscomfited a great armie, and conquered [Page] a certein kingdome, he fell in weepinge, and whan he was asked the question whye he wept, he answered, bi­cause he doubted that his father would conquerr so ma­nye Countryes, that he should haue none left for him to conquerr: Euen so nowe Alexander my sonne is sorye and readye to weepe in seeinge me his father lose, by­cause he doubteth that I shall lose so much, that I shall leaue him nothinge at all to lose. Whan they had a whyle laughed at this M. Bernarde wente forwarde. A man must take heede also hys ieslynge be not wicked, and that the matter extende not (to appeere quy [...]witted) to blasphemye, and studye therin to inuent newe wayes:Blasphemye. Least herein, where a manne deserueth not onelye blame, but also sharpe punishment, he should appeere to seke a praise, which is an abhominable matter. And therfore suche as these be, that goe about to shew their pregnant witt wyth small reuerence to Godward, deserue to be excluded out of euerye Gentylmans com­panye. And no lesse,Filthy and baudie per­sons in talke. they that be filthye and baw­dye in talke, and that in the presence of women haue no maner respect, and seeme to take none other delite but to make women blushe for shame, and vpon thys goe seekynge oute meerye and iestynge woordes. As thys yeere in Ferrara at a banckett in presence of manye Ladyes there was a Florentine and a Senese, whiche for the moste parte (as you knowe) are ennemies together. The Senese sayd to nipp the Florentine: We haue ma­ryed Siena to the Emperour and giuen him Florence in dowerye. And this he spake bicause the talke was abrode in those dayes, that the Seneses had giuen a cer­tein quantitie of money to the Emperour, and he tooke the protection of them vpon him. The Florentine answered immediatlye: But Siena shalbe first ridden (after the Frenche phrase, but he spake the Italian [Page] worde) and then shall the do werye afterward be pleaded for at good leyser. You may see the taunt was wittie, but bicause it was in presence of women it appeered baw die and not to be spoken. Then spake the L. Gaspar Palla­uicin: Women haue none other delite but to heare of such matters, and yet will you depriue them of it. And for my part I haue bine ready to blushe for shame at woordes which women haue spoken to me oftener then men. And I speake not of such women as these be, quoth M. Bernarde, but of the vertuous that deserue to be reuerenced and ho­noured of all gentilmen. The L. Gaspar saide: It were good we might finde out some pretie rule howe to knowe them, bicause moste communlie the best in apparance are cleane contrarye in effect. Then said M. Bernarde smy­linge: Were not the L. Iulian here present that in euerye place is counted the protectour of women, I woulde take vpon me to answere you, but I will not take his offyce from him. Here the L. Emilia in like maner smilinge, said: Women neede no defendoure againste an accuser of so small authoritie. Therfore let ye L. Gaspar alone in this his froward opinion, risen more bicause he could neuer finde woman that was willynge to loke vpon him, then for a­nye want that is in women, and proceade you in youre communication of Iestes. Then M. Bernarde, trulye madam (quoth he) me thinke I haue named vnto you ma­nie places, out of the which a man may pike pleasant and wittie sayinges, which afterward haue so much the more grace, as they are set furth with a comelie protestacion. Yet may there be alleaged manie other also, as whan to encrease or diminish, thinges be spoken that vncrediblye passe the likelihoode of truth. And of this sort was that Marius da Volterra said by a prelate that thought himselfe so taule a person, that as he went into Saint Peters, he stow­ped for hittinge his heade againste the greate beame ouer the porche. Also the L. Iulian here saide that Golpino hys seruaunte was so leane and drie, that in a morning as he [Page] was blowing the fire to kendle it, the smoke bore him v [...] the chimney vnto the tonnell, and had gone awaye with him had he not stooke on crosse at one of the holes aboue▪ And M. Augustin Beuazzano toulde, that a couetous man ne whiche woulde not sell hys corne while it was at a hi g he price, whan he sawe afterwarde it had a great falle, for desperacion he hanged himself vpon a beame in his cham­ber, and a seruaunt of his hearing the noise, made speede, and seeing his maister hang, furthwith cut in sunder the rope and so saued him from death: afterwarde whan the couetous man came to himselfe, he woulde haue had hys seruaunt to haue paide him for his halter that he had cut. Of this sort appeareth to be also that Laurence de Medici [...] said vnto a colde iester: thou shouldest not make me laugh if thou ticklidest me. The like he answered vnto an o­ther foolishe person, who in a morninge had found him in bed verie late and blamed him for sleepinge somuche, say­inge vnto him: I haue now bine in the new and olde mar­kett place, afterward I went oute at the gate of San Gallo to walke about the walles, and haue done a thousande [...] ­ther matters, and you are yet in bed. Then said Laurence: that I haue dreamed in one houre is more woorth, then al that you haue done in foure. It is also pretie whan one reprehendeth a thinge which a man would not thinke he minded to reprehende. As the marquesse Friderick of Man­tua oure Dutchesse father, beeinge at table wyth manye gentilmen, one of them after he had eaten vp his dishe of broth, said: By your leaue my L. marquesse. And whan he had so said, he beegane to suppe vp the rest that remay­ned in the dishe. Then said the marquesse by and by: Aske leaue of the swyne, for thou doest me no wronge at all. Also M. Nicholas Leonicus said, to touch a noble manne that was falselye reported to be liberall: Gesse you what li­beralitye is in him, that doeth not onlye geue awaye hys owne good but other mens also. That is in like maner an honest and comelie kinde of iesting that consisteth in a [Page] certein dissimulacion, whan a man speaketh one thinge and priuilie meaneth another.Dissimula­cion. I speake not of the maner that is cleane contrarye, as if one shoulde call a dwarf a giaunt: and a blacke man, white: or one most ilfauoured, beawtifull, bicause they be to open contraries, although otherwhile also they stirr a man to laughe. But whan with a graue and drie speache in sportinge a man spea­keth pleasantlie that he hath not in his minde. As whan a gentilman tould M. Augustin Folietta a loude lye and ear­nestlye did affirme it, bicause he thought he scase belea­ued it. At laste M. Augustin said: Gentilman, if you will euer do me pleaser, be so good to me as to quiet your selfe in case I do not beleaue anye thinge you saye. Yet whan he replied again and bound it with an othe to be true, at lengthe he saide: Sins you wyll haue me, I am con­tent to beleaue it for youre sake, for to saye the trueth I would do a greater thinge for you then this commeth to. In a maner after the same sorte Don Giouanni di Cardona said of one that woulde forsake Rome: In mine opini­on thys felowe is yll aduysed, for he is so wicked that in abidinge in Rome it maye be his chaunce in time to be made a Cardinall. Of this sorte is also that Alphonsus Santacroce said, whiche a litle beefore hauinge certein in­iuries done him by the Cardinall of Pauia, and walking without Bolonia with certein Gentilmen nighe vn to the place of execution, and seeinge one newlye hanged there, tourned him that waye with a certein heauie looke and said so loude that euery man might heare him: Thou art a happie man that hast nothinge adoo with the Cardinal of Pauia. Iesting groū ­ded vpon scof­finge meete for great men. And the kinde of iestinge that is somewhat grounded v­pon scoffinge seemeth verie meete for great men, bicause it is graue and wittie and may be vsed both in sportynge matters and also in graue. Therfore dyd manye of olde time and menne of best estimatyon vse it: As Cato, Sci­pio, Affricanus minor. But aboue all they saye Socrates t [...]e Philosopher excelled in it. And in oure time Kynge [Page] Alphonsus the first of Aragon: which vpon a time as he went to diner tooke manye ryche iewelles from his fingers, for wetting them in washinge hys handes, and so gaue them to him that stoode nexte him as thoughe he had not minded who it was. This seruaunt had thought sure the king marked not to whom he gaue them, and bicause his heade was busied with more waightie affaires, wold soone forgete them cleane, and therof he tooke the more assurance, whan he sawe the Kinge asked not for them again. And whan the matter was passed certein dayes, wekes and monthes without hearinge anye woord of it, he thought surelye he was safe. And so about the yeeres end after this matter had happened, an other time as the kinge was in like maner going to diner, he stepped furth and put out his hande to take the kinges ringes. Then the kinge rounding him in the eare, said: The first is well for thee, these shall be good for an other. See this taunt how pleasant, wittie and graue it is,To name an yll thing with honest woordes. and woorthie in verie deede for the noble courage of an Alexander. Like vn­to this maner grounded vpon scoffinge there is also an o­ther kinde, whan with honest woordes, a man nameth a vitious matter or a thinge that deserueth blame.Frumpe [...]. As the great Capitain said vnto a Gentilman of hys, that after the iourney of Cirignola and whan all thinges were alreadye in safetye, mett him as richelye armed as might be, readye to fight. Then the greate Capitain tour­ninge to him Don Vgo di Cardona, saide: Feare ye not now any more Seatempest, for Saint Hermus hath appeered. And wyth thys honeste woorde he gaue him a nicke. Bi­cause you knowe Saint Hermus doeth alwayes appeere vnto Mariners after a tempeste and gyueth a token of caulme. And the meaning of the great capitain was, that whan this gentilman appeered it was a signe the daun­ger was alreadye cleane past. Again M. Octauian Vbal­di [...]o beeinge in Florence in companye wyth certein of the [Page] best Citizins and reasoninge together of souldiers, one of them asked him whether he knewe Antonello da Forli whi­che was then fled out of the state of Florence. M. Octauian answered: I haue no great knowledge of him, but I haue heard him alwaies reported to be a quicke souldier. Then said an other Florentin. It appeereth he is quicke, for he ta­ried not so longe as to aske leaue to depart. They be also pretie tauntes whan a man of the verie communica­tion of his felowe taketh that he would not, and my mea­ning is in that sort, as our Duke answered the Capitain that lost Saint Leo. Pope Alex­ander .vj. vsurped the dukedome of Vrbin and gaue it to hys sonne Cesar Borgia. communlye called Duca valenti­no. Whan this state was taken by Pope Alexander and giuen to Duke Valentin, the Duke beeing in Venice at that time I speake of, manie of his subiectes came continually to giue him secret information how the matters of state passed, and emonge the rest, thither came also this Capitain, whiche after he had excused himselfe the best he coulde, laiynge the fault in his vnluckinesse, he saide: My Lorde doubt ye not, my hart serueth me yet to woorke a meane that Saint Leo may be recouered again. Then answered the Duke: trouble not thy self any more about that, for in losinge it thou haste wrought a meane that it may be recouered again. Certein other sayinges there are, whan a man that is knowen to be wittie spea­keth a matter that seemeth to proceede of folye. As the last day M. Camillo Paleotto said by one: that foole, as soone as he beegane to were riche, died. There is like vnto this maner a certein wittie & kinde dissimulacion, whan a man (as I haue said) that is wise maketh semblant not to vnderstande that he doth vnderstande.Dessimula­cion. As the mar­quesse Friderick of Mantua, which beeing sued too by a pra­ting felow yt complained vpon certein of his neighbours takinge the Pigions of his Douehouse with snares, and helde one continuallye in his hande hanging by the foote in a snare, which he had founde so dead, he answered him that there should be a remedye for it. This felow neuer satisfied, not once but manye a time repeted vnto him his [Page] losse, showinge alwaies the Pigion so hanged, and saide still: But I besech you, howe thinke ye (my Lorde) what should a man do in this matter? The marquesse at length said: By mine aduise ye Pigion ought in no wise to be bu­ried in ye Church, for sins he hath so hanged himself, it is to be thought that he was desperat. In a maner after the same sorte was that Scipio Nasica said vnto Ennius. For whan Scipio went vnto Ennius house to speake with him & called to him in the streete, a maiden of his made him an­swere that He was not at home, And Scipio heard plainlye Ennius himselfe saye vnto his mayden to tell hym that he was not at home, so he departed. Within a while after Ennius came vnto Scipioes house, and so likewise stoode be­neethe and called him. Unto whom Scipio himselfe with a loude voice made answere that, He was not at home. Then said Ennius: What, do not I knowe thy voice? Scipio an­swered: Thou hast smalle Courteysie in thee, the last day I beleaued thy maiden that thou waste not at home, and now wilt not thou beleaue me my selfe? It is also pretie whan one is touched in the verie same matter that he hath first touched his felowe.To touche in the same mat­ter a man is touched. As Alonso Carillo beeinge in the Spanishe Court and hauynge committed certein youthfull partes that were of no great importance, was by the kinges commaundement caried to prison, and there abode for one night. The next day he was taken out a­gain, and whan he came to the Palaice in the morninge, he entred into ye chamber of presence that was full of gen­tilmen & Ladies, and iestynge together at this his impri­sonment, maistresse Boadilla saide: M. Alonso, I tooke great thought for this mishap of yours, for al yt knew you were in feare least the kinge wold haue hanged you. Then said immediatlye Alonso: In deede maistresse, I was in doubte of the matter my selfe to, but yet I had a good hope that you would haue begged me for your husbande. See howe sharpe and wittie this is.The maner of Spaine. Bicause in Spaine (as in many other places also) the maner is, whan a manne is lead to [Page] execution, if a commune harlot will aske him for her hus­bande, it saueth his life. In this maner also did Raphael the pein [...]ter answere two Cardinalles (with whom he might be familiar) which to make him talke, found fault in his hearinge with a table he had made, where Saint Peter and Saint Paul were: saiynge, that those twoo pictu­res were to red in the face. Then said Raphael by and by: My lordes, wonder you not at it, for I haue made them so for the nones, bicause it is to be thought that Saint Peter and Saint Paul are euen as red in heauen as you see them here, for verie shame that their Churche is gouerned by such men as you be.A semblant of laughing. Also those Iestes are pleasant, that haue in them a certein priuie semblant of laughter. As whan a husband lamented much and bewayled his wief that had hanged her selfe vpon a figgtree, an other came to him and pluckynge him by the slieue, said: friend, may I receiue suche pleaser as to haue a graff of that figgtree to graff in some stocke of myne Orcharde? There be certein other Iestes that be pacient and spoken softlie with a kinde of grauitie. As a man of the Countrye cary­inge a coffer vpon his shoulders, chaunced therwithall to gyue Cato a harde pushe, and afterward said: Giue roume. Cato answered:With a cer­te [...]n grauitie. Haste thou anye thinge vpon thy shoul­ders beeside that coffer? It is also a matter of laugh­ter whan a man hath committed an errour and to amend it speaketh a matter pourposelye that appeereth foolishe, and yet is applyed to the ende that he hath appointed, and serueth hys tourne therwithall that he seeme not oute of countenaunce and dismayed.A matter that seemeth foo­lishe. As not longe sins two en­nemies beeinge together in the Counsell chamber of Flo­rence (as it happeneth often in those Commune weales) the one of them,Altouiti. which was of the house of Altouiti, slept, and he that satt next vnto him for a sporte, where his ad­uersarye that was of the house of Alamanni, Alamanni. had said no­thinge neyther then nor beefore, stirringe him wyth his elbowe made him awake, and saide vnto him: Hea­rest [Page] thou not what suche a one saith? Make answere, for the Lordes aske for thine aduise. Then did Altouiti all sleepie arrise vpon his feete and without anye more deli­beration said: My Lordes, I say the cleane contrarye to that Alamanni hath spoken. Alamanni answered: what? I haue said nothinge. Altouiti saide inmediatlye: To that thou wilt speake. In this maner also did youre M. Seraphin the Phisitien here in Vrbin saye vnto a manne of the Country, which had receyued suche a stroke vpon the eye, that in verie deede it was oute, yet thought he beste to go seeke to M. Seraphin for remedie. Whan he saw it thoughe he knewe it was past cure, yet to plucke money out of his handes as that blowe had plucked the eye oute of his heade, he promised him largelye to heale it. And so he was in hande with him euerye day for money, put­tinge him in comforte that within sixe or seuen dayes, he shoulde beegine to see wyth it agayn. The poore coun­trye manne gaue him the litle he had, but whan he sawe him so prolonge the matter, he beegane to finde himself agreeued wyth the Physitien, and sayde that he was no­thinge the better, neyther coulde he see anye more wyth that eye, then if he had hadd none at all in hys heade. At length M. Seraphin perceyuynge there was no more to be gotten at hys handes, saide: Brother myne, thou muste haue pacience, thou haste cleane lost thine eye and no remedye is there for it, praye God thou lose not thyne other wythall. The Countrye manne see­ynge thys, fell in weepynge, and lamented muche and saide: Mayster myne, you haue pylled me and rob­bed me of my money, I will complayne to the Duke, and made the greatest outcryes in the worlde. Then sayde M. Seraphin in a rage and to cleere hymselfe: Ah thou vyllein knaue: thou wouldest then haue two eyes as Cityzins and honest menne haue, wouldest thow? Get thee hence in the Dyuelles name. And these woordes were thruste oute wyth suche [Page] furie that the poore selie manne was dismayed, and held his peace,To enterpret a matter meerely. and soft and faire departed in gods name, thin­king that he himselfe had bine in the wronge. It is al­so pretie whan a man declareth or enterpreteth a matter meerilie. As in the Spanishe Court in a morning there came into ye Palaice a knight who was very ylfauoured: and his wief, that was verie beawtifull, both apparailed in white Damaske, Dame aske. and the Queene said vnto Alonso Carillo: Howe thinke ye Alonso by these two? Madam, answered Alonso, me thinke the Ladye is the Dame, and he the aske, which signifieth a foule person and vglesome. Also whan Raphael de Pazzi sawe a letter that the Priour of Messina had written to a maistresse of his, the superscription whereof was:This letter be geuen to the cause of my griefe. Esta carta s [...]ha da dar a qui en causa mi penar, me thinke (quoth he) this letter is directed to Paul Tholossa. Imagine you how the standers bye laughed at it, for they all knew that Paul Tholossa had lent tenn thousand Ducates to the Priour of Messina, and bicause he was verie lauishe in his expences, he could finde no waye to pay his dett. It is like vnto this,Familiar ad­monition in maner of counsell. whan a man geueth familiar admonition in maner of counsell, but dissemblinglie. As Cosmus de Medicis said vnto a friend of his that had more riches then wit, and by Gosmus meanes had compassed an office with­out Florence, and at his settinge furthe askinge Cosmus what way he thought best for him to take to execute this office well: Cosmus answered him: Apparaile thy selfe in scar­late, and speake litle. Of this sort was that Count Lewis said vnto one that woulde passe for an vnknowen person in a certein daungerous place, and wist not howe to dis­guise himself, and the Count beeinge demaunded of hys aduise therin, answered: Apparaile thy selfe like a Doctour, or in some other rayment that wise men vse to weare. Also Iannotto de Pazzi said vnto one that minded to make an armynge coat of as manye diuers colours as might be inuented: Take the woordes and deedes of the Cardinall of Pauia. matters disa­greeinge: A man laugh­eth also at certein matters disagreeinge. As one said the [Page] last daye vnto M. Antony Rizzo of a certein Forliuese: Gesse whether he be a foole or no, for his name is Bartholomew. That seeme to agree. And an other: Thou seekest a rider and hast no horses. And this man wanteth nothinge but good & a horse. And at certein other that seeme to agree. As within these few dayes where there was a suspicion that a friend of oures had caused a false aduoucion of a benifice to be drawen out, afterward whan an other Priest fell sicke. Antony Torello saide vnto him: What doest thou lingre the matter,That agree not: whie doest thou not sende for thy Clerke and see whether thou cannest hit vpon this other benefyce? Like­wise at certein that doe not agree. As the last day whan the Pope had sent for M. Iohnluke of Pontremolo and M. Do­minick dalla Porta, which (as you knowe) are both crookbac­ked, and made them Auditours,The Rota in Roome is suche an o­ther matter as the Court of the Arches in England. sayinge that he enten­ded to bringe the Rota into a right frame M. Latin Iuuenal saide: Oure holie father is deceiued yf he thinke that he can bringe the Rota into a right frame with two crooked persons. Also it prouoketh laughter, whan a man graun­teth the thinge that is toulde him and more, but seemeth to vnderstande it otherwise. As Capitain Peralta beeing brought into the listes to fight the combatt wyth Aldana and Capitain Molart that was Aldanas patrine requiringe Peralta to sweare whether he had about him any Saint Iohns Gosspell or charme and inchauntmente, to preserue him from hurt. Peralta swore that he had about him neyther Gosspell, nor inchauntment, nor relike, nor any matter of deuocion wherein he had any faith. Then said Molart to touch him to be a mar [...]ane: Well no mo woordes in this for I beleaue without swearinge that you haue no faith also in Christ.Metaphors▪ It is pretie moreouer to vse metaphors at a time in such pourposes. As oure M. Marcantonio that said to Botton da Cesena, who had vexed him with woordes: Botton, Botton, thou shalt one day be the botton, and the hal­ter shalbe the bottonhole. And also whan Marcanconio had made a comedye whiche was verie longe and of sun­drye actes▪ [Page] man will vse. And althoughe all kinde of Iestes moue a man to laugh,Diuerse ef­fectes in iestes. yet do they also in this laughter make di­uerse effectes. For some haue in them a certein cleannesse and modest pleasantnesse. Other bite sometime priuily, otherwhile openlye. Other haue in them a certein wan­tonnesse. Other make one laughe assone as he heareth them. Other the more a man thinketh vpon them. O­ther in laughinge make a man blushe withall. Other stirr a man somewhat to angre. But in all kindes a man must consider the disposition of the mindes of the hearers bicause vnto persons in aduersitie oftentimes meery toy­es augment their affliction: and some infirmities there be, that the more a man occupieth medicine aboute them, the woorse they were. In case therfore the Courtier in iestinge and speakinge meerie conceytes haue a respecte to the time, to the persons, to his degree, and not vse it to often (for parde it bringeth a lothsomnesse if a man stand euermore about it, all day in all kinde of talke and with­out pourpose) he maye be called pleasant and featconcey­ted. So he be heedefull also that he be not so bitter and bi­tinge, that a man mighte coniecture he were an enuious person in prickinge without a cause, or for plaine malice, or men of to great authoritie (whiche is lacke of discreati­on) or of to much miserie (which is crueltye) or to mische­uous (which is vanitie) or elles in speakinge matters that may offende them whom he would not offende (which is ignoraunce.) For some there be that thinke they are bound to speake and to nippe without regard, as often as they can, howe euer the matter goe afterwarde. And e­monge these kinde of persons are they,The smalle respect some haue in iestinge. that to speake a woord which should seeme to come of a readinesse of witt▪ passe not for staynynge of a woorthie gentilwomans ho­nesty, which is a very naughtie matter and woorthie sore punishment. Bicause in this point women are in the number of selie soules and persons in miserye, & therfore deserue not to be nipped in it, for they haue not weapon [Page] to defende themselues. But beeside these respectes he that wilbe pleasant and full of iestinge, must be shaped of a certein nature apt to all kinde of pleasantnesse, and vn­to that frame his facions, gestures and countenaunce, the which ye more graue, steadie & sett it is, somuch the more maketh it the matters spoken to seeme wittie and subtil. But you (Sir Fridericke) that thought to rest your selfe vn­der this my tree without leaues & in my withered reaso­ninges, I beleaue you haue repented youre selfe, and you recken ye are entred into the baytinge place of Montefiore. A paltock [...] ynn. Therfore it shall be well done for you like a wel practised Courrier (to auoide an ill hos [...]erie) to arryse somwhat bee­fore your ordinarye houre and set forwarde on your iour­ney. Nay, answered Sir Fridericke, I am come to so good an hosterie, that I minde to tarye in it lenger then I had thought at the firste. Therfore I will rest me yet a while. vntill you haue made an ende of all the talke ye haue bee­gone withall. Wherof ye haue left oute one percell that ye named at the beeginning: whiche is, Meerie Pranc­kes, and it were not well done to deceyue the companye of it. But as you haue taught vs manie pretie matters con­cerninge Iestes, and made vs hardie to vse them throughe example of so many singular wittes, great men, Princis, Kinges and Popes, I suppose ye will likewise in Meerie Pranckes so boulden vs, that we maye take a courage to practise some against you your selfe. Then said M. Ber­narde smilinge: You shall not be the firste, but perhappes it will not be your chaunce, for I haue so manie times bin serued with them, yt it maketh me looke wel about me: As dogges, after they haue bine once scaulded with hott wa­ter, are aferd of the colde. How be it sins you will haue me to speake somewhat of this to,What is a Meerye pranck [...]. I beleaue I may rid my handes of it in fewe woordes. And in mine opinion a Meerie Prancke is nothinge elles, but a friendlye deceit in matters that offende not at all or verie little. And euen as in Iestynge to speake contrary to expectacyon moueth [Page] laughter, so doeth in Meerie Pranckes to doe contrarie to [...]. And these doe so muche the more delite and are to be praised, as they be wittie and modest. For he that [...] woorke a Meerie Prancke without respect, doth manie [...] offende and then arrise debates and fore hatred. But the places that a man may diriue Merie Pranckes from are (in a maner) the verie same that be in Iestes. Ther­fore to auoide repetition of the [...], I will say no more but that there be two kyndes of Meerie Pranckes, euerye one of which may afterwarde be diuided into mo partes. The one is, whan any man whoeuer he be, is deceyued witti­lie, and after a feat maner and with pleasantnesse. The other, whan a manne layeth (as it were) a nett, and sho­weth a piece of a bayte so, that a man renneth to be decey­ued of himself. The first is suche, as the Meerie Prancke was, that within these fewe dayes was wrought vnto a coople of greate Ladyes (whom I will not name) by the meane of a Spaniarde called Castilio. Then the Dutchesse, and whie (ꝙ she) will you not name them? M. Bernarde an­swered: Bicause I would not haue them to take it in yll part. Then said the Dutchesse again, smilinge: It is not againste good maner sometime to vse Meerie Pranckes with great men also. And I haue heard of manie that haue bine played to Duke Fridericke, to kinge Alphonsus of Aragon, to Queene Isabel of Spaine, and to manie other great Princis, and not onlie they tooke it not in ill part, but re­warded very largely them that plaied them those partes. M. Bernarde answered: neyther vpon this hope do I entend to name them. Say as pleaseth you quoth the Dut­chesse. Then proceaded M. Bernarde and said: Not ma­nie dayes since in the Court that I meane, there arriued a manne of the Countrie about Bergamo, to be in seruice wyth a Gentilman of the Court: whyche was so well sett oute with garmentes and so finelye clad; that for all hys brynginge vp was alwayes in keapinge Oxen and could doe nothinge elles, yet a manne that had not hearde [Page] him speake woulde haue iudged him a woorthie Gentil­man. And so whan those two Ladies were enfourmed that there was arriued a Spaniarde, seruaunt to Cardinall Borgia whose name was Castilio, a verie wittie man, a mu­sitien, a daunser and the best Courtier in all Spaine, they longed verie much to speake with him, and sent inconti­nentlye for him, and after they had receyued him honora­blye, they caused him to sitt downe, and beegan to enter­tein him with a verie greate respect in the presence of all menne, and fewe there were present that knew him not to be a Bergamask Cowherd. Therfore seeinge those Ladies enterteine him with such respect, and honour him so muche, they fell all in a laughyng, the more bicause the seelie felowe spake still his natyue language the meere Bergamaske tunge.The woorst speach in all Italy. But the Gentilmen that diuised this Prancke, had first toulde those Ladyes that emonge other thinges he was a great dissembler and spake all tunges excellentlye well, and especiallye the Countrie speache of Lumbardye so that they thought he feigned, and manie ty­mes they beehelde the one the other with certein maruei­linges, and saide: What a wonderfull matter is this, howe he counterfeyteth this tunge? In conclusion thys communication lasted so longe that euerye mans sydes aked for laughinge, and he could not chouse himselfe but vttre so manye tokens of hys noblenesse of birth, that at length those Ladies (but with muche ado) beleaued he was the man that he was in deede. Suche Meerie Pranckes we see daily,Whan a man is a feard o [...] nothing. but emong ye rest they be pleasant that at the first make a man agast and after that, ende in a matter of suretie, bicause he that was deceiued laugheth at himself whan he perceyueth he was a feard of no [...]ing. As liynge vpon a time in Paglia, Paglia is a [...] [...]illage in the vtmost boundes of the territorie o [...] Siena there chaunced to be in ye verie same ynn three other good felowes, two of Pastoia and one of Prato, whiche after supper (as the maner is for the moste part fell to gamynge. And not longe after, one of the [Page] Pistoiens losinge his reste, had not a farthynge left him to blesse himselfe, but beegan to chafe, to curse, and to bann and to blaspheme terriblye, and thus tearinge of God he went to bed. The other two after they had played a while, agreed to woorke a Meerie Pranke with him that was gone to bed. And whan they perceyued that he was fallen in sleepe, they blew out the candels and ra­ked vp the fire and beegane to speake aloude, and to make the greatest hurly burlye in the worlde, makinge wise to contende together about their game. The one said: Thou tookest the carde vnderneath. The other deniynge it said: Thou hast viede vpon flush, let vs mount: and suche other matters with suche noise that he that slept awoke, and hearynge them at play and talkinge euen as though they had seene the cardes, did a litle open his eyes: whan he sawe there was no maner light in the chamber, he sayde: What a Dyuell meane you to crie thus all night? After­warde he layed him downe again to sleepe. The other two companions gaue him no maner answere, but still continued in their pourpose vntill he awoke better & mu­che wondred, and whan he saw for certein [...]ie yt there was neyther fire nor anye kinde of lighte and perceyued they played still and fell in contention, he said: And how can ye see the cardes without light? The one of the two an­swered: I weene thou hast lost thy sight aswel as thy mo­ney. Seest thou not that we haue here two candels? He that was in bed lift vp himselfe vpon his elbowes and in a maner angred, said: Eyther I am dronken or blinde, or elles you make a lye. The two arrose and went to bed darkelong, laughinge and makinge wise to beleaue that he went about to mocke them. And he again saide to them: I tell you troth I see you not. At length the two beegane to seeme to wonder much, and the one saide to the other: By good Lord, I beleaue he speaketh in good earnest, reach me the candell, and lett vs see least perhap­pes he haue some impediment in his sight. Then thought [Page] the poore wretch surelie that he had bine blinde, and wee­ping dounright, saide: Oh Sirs, I am blinde:The greatest pilgromag [...] in Italy. and furth­with he beegane to call vpon our Ladye of Loreto and to beeseche her to perdon him his blasphemies and cursinge for the losse of his money. But his two companions put him in good comforte and saide: it is not possible but thou shouldest see vs. Yt is some fansye that thou haste concey­ued in thine heade. Oh good lorde answered the other, it is no fansye, nor I see no more then if I had neuer had eyes in my heade. Thy sighte is cleere inoughe, quoth the two. And the one said to the other: Marke how well he openeth his eyes? And how faire they be to looke to? And who wolde beleaue but he coulde see? The poore soule wept faster, and cried God mercye. In conclusion they said vnto him: See thou make a vow to go diuoutlye to our ladye of Loreto barefoote and barelegged, for that is the best remedie that may be had. And in the meane space we will goe to Aquapendente and the other townes here about to seeke for some Phisitien,Aquapenden­te is a towne of the Popes xii. miles from Paglia and will helpe the in what we can. Then did the seelie soule kneele vpon his knees in the bed, and wyth aboundance of teares and verie bitter repentance for his blaspheminge, made a so­lemne vow to go naked to our ladye of Loreto and to offre vnto her a paire of eyes of siluer, and to eate no flesh vpon the wenesdaye nor egges vpon the Fridaye, and to faste bread and water euery Saturday in worship of our lady: Yf she giue him ye grace to receyue his sight again. The two companions entringe into an other chamber, lighted a candell, and came with the greatest laughter in the world beefore this poore soule, who for all he was rid of so great an anguish as you may thinke he had, yet was he so astonied with his former feare, that he could not onlye not laugh, but not once speake a woord, and the two com­panions did nothinge elles but sturr him, saiynge that he was bounde to perfourme all those vowes, for that he had receiued the grace he asked. Of the other kynde [Page] of Meerie Pranckes whan a man deceyueth himselfe, I will giue you none other example,Whan a man deceiueth himselfe. but what happened vnto me my selfe not longe sins. For this shroftide that is past, my Lordes grace of Saint Peter ad vincula, which kno­weth full wel what a delite I haue whan I am in maske­rie to play Meerie Pranckes with friers, hauinge first giuen order as he had diuised the matter, cam vpon a daye with my L. of Aragon & certein other Cardinalles, to the win­dowes in the banckes, making wise to stande there to see maskers passe to and fro, as the maner of Roome is. I be­ing in maskerie passed bye, and whan I behelde on the one side of the streete a frier standinge (as it were) in a studye with himselfe, I iudged I had found that I sought for, and furthwith rann to him, like a greedye hauke to her preye, and whan I had asked him and he toulde me who he was, I made semblant to knowe hym, and wyth manye woordes beegane to make him beleaue that the marshall went about to seeke him for certein complain­tes against him, and persuaded him to go with me to the Chauncerye and there I would saue him. The frier dis­mayed and all tremblinge seemed as thoughe he wist not what to do, & said that he doubted taking in case he should go far from Saint Celso. Still I put him in good comfort, and saide somuche to him that he leaped vp beehinde me, and then me thought my diuise was fully accomplished. And I beegane to ride my horse by and by vp and downe the merchauntes streete, which went kicking & winsing. Imagine with your selues now what a faire sight it was to beehould a frier on horsebacke beehinde a masker, his garmentes fleeing abrode & his head shaking to and fro, that a man would haue thought he had bine alwaies fal­ling. With this faire sight, the gentilmen beegane to hurle egges out at the windowes, and afterwarde all the bankers and as many as were there, so that the haile ne­uer fell with a more vyolence from the skye, then there fell egges out from the windowes▪ whiche for the moste [Page] part came all vpon me. And I for that I was in masker [...] passed not vpon the matter, and thought verilie that all the laughinge had bine for the frier and not for me, and v­pon this went sundrie times vp and downe the Bankes alwayes with that furye of hell beehinde me. And thoughe the frier (in maner) weepinge beesought me to lett him goe downe and not to showe suche shame to the weede, yet did the knaue afterward priuilie cause egges to be giuen him by certein Lackayes sett there for the nones, & makinge wise to greepe me harde for fallynge, squised them in my bosome, and many times on my head, and otherwhile in my forehead, so that I was foule aray­ed. Finally whan euerie man was weerye both of laugh­inge and throwing egges, he leaped downe from beehind me, and plucking his hoode backward showed me a great bushe of heare, and saide: M. Bernarde, I am a horse kea­per in the stable at Saint Peter ad Vincula and am he that looketh to youre mulett. Then wiste I not whyche preuayled moste in me, grief, angre or shame. Yet for the lesse hurt I fled towarde my lodgynge, and the nexte mornynge I durste not showe my heade abrode. But the laughynge at that Meerie Prancke dyd not endure the daye folowynge onelye, but also lasteth (in a maner) vn­till this daye. And so whan they had a whyle renewed the laughinge at rehersynge this agayn▪ M. Bernarde proceaded.To feine the doinge of a matter. It is also a good and pleasant kinde of Meerie Pranckes, from whens in like maner Iestes are diriued, whan one belea­ueth yt a man will do a matter which he will not in deede. As whan I was in an Eueninge after supper vppon the bridge of Leo, & goinge together with Cesar Boccadello spor­tinge one with an other, we beegan to take houldfast the one of the others armes, as though we wold haue wrast­led, bicause then we perceyued no man about the bridge. & beeing in this maner together, there came two French­men by, which seeing vs thus striuing, demaunded what the matter ment, and stayed to part vs, thinkinge we had [Page] bine at debate in good ernest. Then said I incontinent­lye: Helpe sirs, for this poore gentilman at certein times of the moone is frantike, and see now how he striueth to cast himselfe of the bridge into the riuer. Then did the two renn and layed hande vpon Cesar with me and helde him streict. And he (sayinge alwayes that I was out of my witt) struggled the more to winde himself out of their handes, and they greeped him somuch the harder. At this the people assembled to beehoulde our rufflinge together, and euerie manne rann, and the more poore Cesar layed a­bout him with his handes and feete (for he beegane nowe to enter into coler) the more resorte of people there was, and for the greate strength he put, they beleaued verelie that he woulde haue leaped into the riuer, and therfore helde they him the streicter, so that a great thronge of people caried him to the ynn aboue grounde, all tourmoi­led and without his cappe, pale for wrathe and shame that nothinge he spake coulde preuaile, partlye bicause those Frenchmen vnderstood him not, and partly bicause I al­so cariynge him to the ynn did alwaies bewaile the poore soules ill lucke, that was so wexed out of his witt. Now (as we haue saide) of Meerie Pranckes a man maye talke at large, but it sufficeth to repete that the places whens thei are diriued be the verie same which we haue said of Iestes. Giornat. viii. Nouel. iii. Nouell. v. Nouell. vi. Nouell. ix. Giornat ix. Nouell. iii. Nouell. v. Pontius a scholar of Pa [...]a. As for examples, we haue infinit whiche we see daylye: and emong the rest there are manye pleasant in the tales of Boccaccio, as those that Bruno and Buffalmacco played to their Calandrino, and to M. Symon: and manie other of wo­men, which in verie deede are wittie and pretie. I re­member also I haue knowen in my dayes manye that haue bine meerilie disposed in this maner, and emonge the reste a Scholar in Padoa borne in Sicilia called Pontius, which seeinge vpon a time a man of the countrey haue a coople of fatt capons, feininge himselfe to bye them, was at a point with him for the price, and bed him [...]ome wyth him to his lodginge, for beeside his price he woulde geue [Page] him somwhat to breake his fast withall. And so brought him to a place where was a styple that stoode by himself, alone seuered from the Church, that a manne might goe rounde about him, and directlye ouer againste one of the foure sides of the styple was a lane. Here Pontius, whan he had first beethought himselfe what he had to doe, saide vnto the man of ye countrey: I haue layd these Capons on a wager with a felowe of mine, who saith that this toure compaseth xl. foote▪ and I say no, and euen as I met with thee I had bought this packthrid to measure it, therefore beefore we go to my lodging I will trie which of vs hath wonn the wager. And in so saiynge he drewe the pack­thrid out of his sleeue, and put the one ende of it into the man of the countreys hande, and saide: giue here, and so tooke the Capons: and with the other ende he beegane to go about the bell toure, as though he would haue measu­red it, making first the man of the countrey to stand still, and to houlde the packthrid directlye on the contrary side of the toure to that, that was at the head of ye lane, where assone as he came, he droue a naile into the walle, to the which he tyed the packthrid, and leauynge it so, went his wayes without anye more a do downe the lane with the Capons. The man of the Countrey stoode still a good while, alwayes lookinge whan he wolde haue done mea­suring. At length after he had said manie times, what do you so longe? he thought he woulde see, and founde that Pontius held not the line, but a naile that was driuen into the walle, which onlye remayned for payment of his Ca­pons. Of this sort Pontius played manye Meerie Pranckes. And there haue bine also manie other pleasaunt men in this maner, as Gonella, Meliolo in those dayes, and now our frier Seraphin and frier Marian here and manye well kno­wen to you all. And in verie deede this kinde is to be praysed in men that make profession of nothinge elles. But the Meerie Pranckes that ye Courtier ought to vse, must (by myne aduyse) be somewhat wyde from immoderate [Page] iesting. He ought also to take heed that his Meerie Prancke [...] tourne not to pilferinge,Pilferinge. as we see many naughtipackes▪ that wander about the world with diuers shiftes to gete money, feining now one matter, now an other. And that they be not to bitter, & aboue all that he haue respect and reuerence,Reuerence to women. aswell in this, as in all other thinges, to wo­men, and especially where the staininge of their honestie shall consist. Then the L. Gaspar, trulye, M. Bernarde (quoth he) you are to partiall to these women. And whie will you that men shoulde haue more respecte to women then women to men? Set not you asmuch by your honestie, as they do by theirs? Thinke you then that women ought to nippe men both with woordes and mockes in euery mat­ter without any regarde, and men shoulde stande with a flea in their eare, and thanke them for it? M. Bernarde an­swered: I say not the contrarye, but women in their Iestes and Meerie Pranckes ought to haue the respectes to menne which we haue spoken of. Yet I say with more libertie ma [...] [...]hey touch men of smalle honestie, then men maye them. And that bicause we oure selues haue established for a lawe, that in vs wanton lief is no vice, nor default, nor anye sclaunder, and in women it is so great a reproch and shame, that the that hath once an yll name, whether the report that goith of her be true or false, hathe loste her credit for euer. Therfore sins the talkinge of womens honestie is so daungerous a matter to offende them sore, I say that we ought to touche them in other matters and refraine from this. For whan the Iest or Meerie Pranck [...]ippeth to sore, it goith out of ye boundes whiche we haue alreadye said is fitt for a gentilman. Here M. Bernarde ma­kinge a litle stopp, the L. Octauian Fregoso saide smylinge: My L. Gaspar can make you an answere to this law which you alleage that we oure selues haue made,Women. that yt is not perchaunce so oute of reason, as you thynke. For sins women are moste vnperfect creatures and of litle or no woorthynesse in respect of menne, it beehoued for that [Page] they were not apt to woorke any vertuous deede of them selues, that they should haue a bridle put vpon them with shame and feare of infamye, that shoulde (in maner) by force bring into them some good condicion. And continen­cy was thought more necessary in them, then any other, [...] to haue assuraunce of children. So that verie force hath dri­uen men withall inuentions, pollicies, and wayes pos­sible to make women continent, and (in maner) graunted them in all thinges beeside to be of smalle woorthinesse, and to do the cleane contrarye alwaies to that they ought to do. Therfore sins it is lawfull for them to swarue out of the waye in all other thinges without blame, if we should touch them in those defaultes, wherin (as we haue said) they are to be borne withall, and therfore are not vn­seemelye in them, and passe full litle vpon it, we shoulde neuer moue laughter. For you haue alreadye said, that Laughter is prouoked with certein thinges that are disagreeinge. Then spake the Dutchesse: Speake you (my L. Octauian) of women thus, and then complaine that they loue you not. The L. Octauian answered: I complaine not of it, but ra­ther I thanke them for it, sins in not louinge of me, they bind not me to loue them. Neither to I speake after mine owne opinion, but I say yt ye L. Gaspar might alleage these reasons. M. Bernarde said: truly women should make a good bargayne, if they coulde make attonementes with suche two greate ennemies as you and the L. Gaspar be. I am not their ennemye answered the L. Gaspar, but you are an ennemye to menne. For in case you will not haue women touched in this honesty of theirs, you ought aswell to appoynt them a lawe not to touche menne, in that whiche is asmuche shame to vs, as incontinencye to women. And why was it not as meete for Alonso Carillo to make ye answere which he gaue maistres Boadilla of ye hope that he had to saue his lief, in that she wold take him to husband as it was for her to say first: All that knew him thought the kinge [Page] wold haue hanged him▪ Boccaccio. Giornat. iii. Nouell. vi. Giornat. vii. Nouell. vii. And whie was it not as lawefull for Richard Minutoli to beguile Philippellos wief, & to trane her to that bayne, as it was for Beatrice to make Egano her hus­bande arrise out of his bed, and Anichin to beeswadell him with a cudgell, after she had lyen a good space with him? And the other that tied the packthrid to her great toe, and made her owne husbande beleaue that he was not hym­selfe,Giorna. vii. Nouel. viii. sins you saye those Meerie Pranckes of women in Boc­caccio are so wittie & pretie. Then said M. Bernarde smiling: My lordes, forsomuch as my part hath bin to entreat on­lie of Iestes, I entende not to passe my boundes therin, & I suppose I haue already showed whie I iudge it not meete to touch women neyther in woorde nor deede about their honestie, and I haue also giuen them a rule not to nippe men where it greeueth them. But I saye that those Meerie pranckes and Iestes whiche you (my L. Gaspar) alleage, as that Alonso said vnto M. Boadilla, althoughe it somwhat touche honestie: yet doeth it not discontent me, bicause it is sett farr inoughe of, and is so priuie, that it may be sim­plye vnderstoode, so, that he might haue dissembled the matter, and affirmed that he spake it not to that ende. He spake an other (in mine opinion) verie vnseemlie, whi­che was: Whan the Queene passed by M. Boadillas house, Alonso sawe peincted with coles all the gate ouer, suche kinde of dishonest beastes, as are peincted al out ynnes in such sundrie wise, and cumminge to the Countesse of Ca­stagneto said vnto her: See (madam) the heades of the wielde beastes that M. Boadilla killeth euerie daye in hun­tinge. Marke you this, thoughe it were a wittie meta­phor, and borowed of Hunters▪ that counte it a glorye to haue manie wielde beastes heades nayled at their gates, yet is it dishonest and shamefull iestinge. Beeside that, it was not in answeringe, for an answere hath muche more courtesie in it, bicause it is thought that a manne is prouoked to it, and it must needes be at a sodeine. But to retourn to our matter of the Meerie Pranckes of women, [Page] I say not that they do well to beeguile their husbandes: but I say that some of the deceites whiche Boccaccio recy­teth of women, are pretie and wittie inough, and especi­allye those you haue spoken of your selfe. But in mine opinion the prancke that Richarde Minutoli wrought, doeth passe the boundes, and is muche more bitterer then ye Bea­trice wrought. For Richarde Minutoli tooke muche moore from Philippellos wief, then did Beatrice from Egano her hus­bande: bicause Richarde with that priuie pollicie enforced her, and made her to do of herself that she wolde not haue done: And Beatrice deceyued her husbande to do of herself that she lusted. Then saide the L. Gaspar: for no other cause can a manne excuse Beatrice but for loue, whiche ought to be alowed aswell in men as in women. Then answered M. Bernarde: Trulye the passions of loue bringe with them a great excuse of euerye fault, yet iudge I (for my part) that a Gentilman that is in loue, ought aswell in this point as in all other thynges, to be voide of dissi­mulation, and of an vpright meaninge.Loue with­out dissimula­tion. And if it be true that it is such an abhominable profit & trespace to vse tra­diment against a mans verie ennemye: consider you how muche more haynous that offence is againste a person whom a man loueth.Tradiment against one beloued. And I beleaue ech honest louer susteyneth such peynes, such watchinges, hasardeth him­selfe in suche daungers, droppeth so manie teares, vseth so manie meanes and wayes to please the woman whom he loueth, not cheeflye to come bye her body,The true end of louers de­sires. but to winn the fortresse of that minde, to breake in peeces those most harde Diamondes, to heate that colde yce, that lye manye times in the tender brestes of these women. And this do I beleaue is the true and sounde pleasure, and the ende wherto the entent of a noble courage is bent. And for my part trulye (were I in loue) I wold like it better to know assuridlye that she whom I loued and serued loued me a­gain with hert, and had bent her minde towarde me, without receiuing any other contentation, then to enioye [Page] her and to haue my fill of her againste her owne will, for in that case I shoulde thinke my selfe maister of a deade carcase. Therfore suche as compase their desires by the meane of these Meerie Pranckes, which maye perhappes ra­ther be termed Tradimentes then Meerie Pranckes, do iniurye to other,Unhonest louers. and yet receyue they not for all that the conten­tacion which a man should wishe for in loue, possessynge the bodie without the will. The like I saye of certein other that in loue practise enchauntmentes. sorceries, and otherwhile plaine force, sometime meanes to cast them in sleepe and suche like matters.Giftes in [...] And knowe for a sooth, that gyftes also diminishe muche the pleasures of loue, bicause a man maie stand in doubt whether he be beloued or no, but that the woman maketh a countenance to loue him, to fare the better by him: therfore ye see that the loue of Ladies and great women is esteamed, bicause it appeereth that it can arrise of none other cause, but of perfect and true loue, neyther is it to be thoughte that a great Ladye wyll at anye tyme showe to beare good will to her inferiour, onlesse she loue him in verye deede. The answered the L Gaspar: I denie not that the en­tent, the peynes and daungers of louers ought not prin­cipally to haue their ende dyrected to the victorye rather of the minde then of the bodye of the woman beloued. But I saye that these deceytes whiche you in men terme Tradimentes, and in women Meerie prankes, are a verie good meane to come to this ende, bicause alwayes he that pos­sesseth the bodie of women, is also maister of the mind. And if you beethinke you well, Philippellos wief after her great lamentatyon for the deceyt wrought her by Richard, knowinge howe muche more sauourye the kysses of a lo­uer were then her husbandes, tournynge her rigour in­to tender affection towarde Richarde, from that daye for­warde loued hym moste deerlye. You maye perceiue nowe that his continuall hauntinge, hys presentes, and [Page] hys so manye other tokens, whyche had bine so longe a proof of hys good will toward her, were not able to com­passe that, that hys beeyinge with her a smalle while did. Nowe see this Meerie Prancke or Tradiment (howe euer you will terme it) was a good waye to wynn the fortresse of that minde. Then M. Bernarde, you (quoth he) make a surmise, which is most false, for in case women should alwayes giue their minde to him yt possesseth their body, there should be none found that wold not loue their hus­bandes more then anye person in the worlde beesyde, where it is seene not to be so. But Iohn Boccaccio was (as you be) with out cause an ennemye to women. The L. Gaspar answered: I am no ennemye of theirs, but (to confesse the troth) fewe menne of woorthynesse there be that generally set any store by women, although otherwhile, to serue their tourne withall, they make wise to the contrarye. Then answered M. Bernarde: You doe not onelye iniurye to women, but to all menne also that reuerence them: Notwithstandinge (as I haue saide) I will not swarue from my first pourpose of Meerie Pranc­kes, and vndertake suche an enterprise so harde, as is the defence of women against you, that are a valiant Cham­pyon. Therfore I will ende this my communica­tion, whyche perhappes hath byne lenger then needed, but oute of parauenture not so pleasaunt as you looked for. And syns I see the Ladyes so quyet and beare these iniuries at youre handes so pacyentlye as they doe, I wyll hensefurth beleaue that some parte of that which the L. Octauian hath spoken is true: Namely That they passe not to be yll reported of in euerye other matter, so theyr honesty be not touched. Then a greate parte of the women there, for that the Dutch [...]sse had beckened to them so to doe: arrose vpon their feete,Orpheus was torne in peeces with women▪ & ran all laughyng toward the L. Gaspar, as they wold haue buffeted him & done as the wood womē did to Orpheus saing cōtinually: [Page] Now shall we see whether we passe to be yll spoken of or no. Thus partlye for laughinge, and partlye for the risinge of euerye one from his seate, yt seemed the sleepe that now beegane to enter into the eyes and heade of some of them departed, but the L. Gaspar said: See I pray you where thei haue not reason on their side, they will preuaile by plaine force, & so end the communication, geuinge vs leaue to depart wt stripes. Then answered yt L. Emilia: No (ꝙ she) it shall not be so: for whan you perceyued M. Bernarde was weerie of his longe talke, you beegan to speake so muche yll of women, thin­kinge you shoulde finde none to gainsaye you. But we will sett into ye field a fresher knight that shall fight with you, bicause your offence shall not be so long vnpunished. So tourninge her to the L. Iulian that hitherto had said lit­tle, she said vnto him: You are counted the protectour of the honour of women, therfore it is nowe hyghe time to showe that you come not by this name for nothinge, and in case ye haue not bine woorthelye recompensed at anye time for this profession hitherto, nowe muste you thinke that in puttinge to flight so bitter an ennemy, you shall binde all women to you muche more, and so muche, that where they shall do nothinge elles but rewarde you, yet shall the bondage still remaine freshe, and neuer cease to be recompensed. Then answered the L. Iulian: Me thinke (madam) you show great honour to your ennemy, and verie litle to youre defender: for vndoubtedlye the L. Gaspar hath said nothing against women, but it hath bine fullye answered by M. Bernarde. And I beleaue euerye one of vs knoweth, that it is meete the Courtier beare ve­rie great reuerence to warde women, and a discreete and courtiouse person ought neuer to touch their honestie nei­ther in boord, nor in good earnest. Therfore to dispute of this so open a trueth, were (in maner) to put a doubt in manifest matters. I thinke wel that the L. Octauian passed his boundes somwhat in sayinge that VVomen are most vn­perfect creatures and not apt to woorke anye vertuous deede, and of [Page] litle or no woorthinesse in respect of men. And bicause manie times credit is geuen to men of great authority, although they speake not the full truth, and also whan they speake in boorde, the L. Gaspar hath suffered himselfe to be lead by the L. Octauians woordes to saye that Men of wisdome sett no store by them, which is most false. For I haue knowen few men of woorthinesse at anye time that doe not loue and obserue women,Men of wor­thines obserue women. the vertue and consequentlye the woor­thinesse of whom I deeme not a iott inferiour to mens. Yet if we should come to this contention, the cause of wo­men were lyke to quaile greatlie, bicause these Lordes haue shaped a Courtier that is so excellent and of so ma­nie diuine qualities, that whoso hath ye vnderstanding to consider him to be such a one as he is, will imagin that ye desertes of women can not attaine to yt point. But in case yt matter should be equally deuided, we haue first neede of so witty & eloquent a person as is Count Lewis & Sir Fri­dericke, to shape a gentilwoman of the Palaice with all perfections due to a woman, as they haue shaped the Courtier with the perfections beelonging to a man. And then if he that defended their cause were anie thinge wit­tie and eloquent, I beleaue (bicause the truth will be a helpe to him) he may plainlye showe that women are as full of vertues as men be. The Ladye Emilia answe­red: Nay, a great deale more, and that it is so you may see▪ vertue is the female, and vice is the male. The L. Gas­par then laughed, and tourning him to M. Nicholas Phrisio, what is your iudgement Phrisio (quoth he) Phrisio answe­red: I am sorie for the L. Iulian that he is so seduced with the promises and flatteringe woordes of the L. Emilia to renn into an errour to speake the thinge whiche for hys sake I am ashamed of. The L. Emilia answered smilinge: you will sure be ashamed for your owne sake, whan you shall see y L. Gaspar after he is conuicted, confesse his owne errour and yours to, and demaunde that pardon whiche we will not graunt him. Then spake the Dutchesse: [Page] Bicause it is very late, I will we defar the wholl vntill to morow, the more for yt I thinke it well done we folow the L. Iulians counsell, that beefore we come to this disputaci­on we maye haue a gentilwoman of the Palaice so faci­oned in all perfections, as these Lordes haue facioned the perfect Courtier. Madam quoth the L. Emilia then, I pray God it fall not to oure lott to giue this enterprice to anye confederate with the L. Gaspar, least he facion vs for a gen­tilwoman of the Court, one that can do nought elles but looke to the kitchin and spinn. Then saide Phrisio: In deede that is an office fitt for herr. Then the Dutchesse, I haue a good hope in the L. Iulian (quoth she) who will (for the good witt and iudgement I knowe he is of) imagyn the greatest perfection that maye be wished in a woman, and in like maner expresse it well in woordes, and so shal we haue somewhat to confounde the L. Gaspars false accu­sations withall. Madam, answered the L. Iulian, I wote not whether youre diuise be good or no to committ into my handes an enterprise of so greate weight, for (to tell you the troth) I thinke not my selfe able inoughe. Ney­ther am I like the Count and Sir Fridericke, whiche with their eloquence haue shaped suche a Courtier as neuer was, nor I beleaue euer shalbe. Yet if your pleasure be so that I shall take this bourden vpon me, let it be at the least with those condicions that the other haue had before me: namely, that euerie man, where he shall thinke good, maye replye against me, and this shall I recken not ouer­thuartinge but aide, and perhappes in correctynge mine erroures we shall finde the perfection of a gentilwoman of the Palaice which we seeke for. I trust, answered the Dutchesse, your talke shall be such, that litle may be saide against you. Therfore settle your minde to thynke v­pon onlie this and facion vs suche a Gentilwoman that these our aduersaries maye be ashamed to say, that she is not equall with the Courtier in vertue: of whom it shall be well done Sir Friderick speake no more, for he hath but [Page] so well sett him furth, especiallye sins we must compare a woman to him. I haue (madam) answered Sir Friderick, litle or nothinge now left to speake of ye Courtier, and ye I did thinke vpon, M. Bernardes Iestes haue made me for­gete. If it be so quoth the Dutchesse, assembling together to morow beetimes, we shal haue lei­ser to accomplish both the one & the other. And whan she had so said, they arrose all v­pon their feete, and takynge their leaue reuerentlye of the Dut­chesse euerye man with­drue him to his lodging.

¶ THE THIRDE BOOKE OF the Courtier of Count Baldessar Casti­lio vnto. M. Alphonsus Ariosto. Englisshed at the request of the Ladye Marquesse of Northamp­ton, in anno 1551.

IT is read that Pithagoras verie wittilye and after a suttill maner found out the measure of Her­cules bodye, in that he knewe that the space where euerye fyue yeeres they kept the ga­mes or prices of Olympus in Achaia nigh vnto Elis beefore Iupiter Olympicus Temple,Pisis ad Io­uem Olimpi­cum. was measured by Hercules himselfe: and appointed a furlonge of grounde there of sixe hundreth and fiue and twentie of his owne feete: and the other furlonges whiche after his time were caste oute in diuerse partes of Greece by his suc­cessors,Plin. lib. ii. cap. xxiii. de natur. histor. were also of sixe hundreth and fiue and twentie of their feete, but for all that somewhat shorter then his. Pythagoras knewe furthwith by that proportion how mu­che Hercules foote was bigger then al the other mens feete, and so the measure of his foote once knowen, he gathered ye all Hercules bodye proporcionally in greatnesse exceaded all other mens, so muche, as that furlonge, all other fur­longes. You may then (gentle M. Alphonsus) by the ve­rie same reason easlie gather by this least parte of all the rest of the bodye, how farr the Court of Vrbin excelled all the other in Italy. The Court of Vrbin. For if the sportes & pastymes (that are vsed to none other end but to refresh ye werisome mindes after earnest labours) far passed all such as are common­ly vsed in ye other Courtes of Italy: What (gesse you) were all the vertuous practises, wherunto all menne had their mindes bent, & were fully & wholly addicted. And of this I may be boulde to make my vaunt, nothing mistrusting [Page] but to be credited ther in, consideringe I goe not about to praise so auntient antiquities wherin I might, if I were disposed, feine what I lusted: but of this I speake, I am able to bringe furth manie men of woorthy credence, for sufficient triall, whiche as yet are in lief and haue them­selues seene and marked well the liuinge & conuersation of such as in times past excelled in that Court. And I rec­ken my selfe bounde (for that lyeth in me to do) to stretch furth my force with all diligence to defende this famous memorie from mortall obliuion, and with my penn to make it liue in the mindes of oure posteritie, wherby per­happes in time to come there shall not want that will en­uie this our time. For there is no manne that readeth of the wonderfull families of times past, but in his mind he conceyueth a certein greater opinion of them that are written vpon, then it appeereth those bookes can expresse though they haue bine written with perfection: Euen so do we consider that all the readers of this our trauayle (if at the least wise it shall deserue so much fauour, yt it may come to ye sight of noble men & vertuous Ladies) will cast in their minde & thinke for a surety, that the Court of Vr­bin hath bine muche more excellent and better fournished wt notable men, then we are able to expresse in writinge. And in case so much eloquence were in me, as there was prowesse in them, I should nede none other testimonie to make such giue full credence to my woordes, as haue not seene it.

Whan therfore the companye was assembled in the ac­customed place the day folowinge at the due hour, and set with silence, euerye man tourned his eyes to Sir Fridericke and to the L. Iulian, waytinge whan the one of them would beegine to speake his minde. Wherfore the Dutchesse, after she had bine still a while, [...] L. Iulian (quoth she) eue­ry mans desire is to see this your Gentilwoman well set furthe, and if you showe vs her not in such maner, that all her beawties maye be discerned, we will suspect that you [Page] are ieolous ouer her▪ The L. Iulian answered: Madam, if I reckened her beawtifull, I woulde show you her with­out any other settingfurth,and in suche wise as Paris did beehoulde the three Goddesses.Iuno. Minerua. Venus. But in case these Ladies be not a helpe to me to trim her (who can do it right well) I doubt me, that not onlye ye L. Gaspar and Phrisio, but all ye other Lordes here shall haue a iust cause to speake yll of her. Therfore sins she is yet in some part deemed beaw­tifull, perhappes it shall be better to kepe her close and see what Sir Friderick hath yet beehind to speake of the Cour­tier, which (no doubt) is muche more beawtifull then my woman can be. That I had in minde, answered Sir Fride­ricke is not so necessary for the Courtier, but it may be left out, and no hurt done: yea, it is a contrarye matter al­most to that hitherto hath bine reasoned of. And what matter is it then, quoth the Dutchesse? Sir Fridericke an­swered, I was pourposed, in what I coulde, to declare the causes of these companies and ordres of knightes brought vp by great Princis vnder diuerse standardes,Order of S. Michael. Of the Garter. Of the Gol­den Flisé. as is that of Saint Michael in the house of Fraunce, the order of the Garter vnder the title of Saint George in the house of Eng­lande, the Golden Flice in the house of Burgony, & how these dignities be geuen, and in what sort thei that deserue are disgraded from them, how they first came vp, who were the founders of them, and to what ende they were ordei­ned, bicause we see that these knightes in great Courtes are alwayes highlye esteamed. I minded also, if time had suffised me, beside ye diuersitie of maners vsed in ye Cour­tes of christian Princes in feasting & appeeringe in open showes,Great Turké The Sophy. to speake somewhat also of the great Turkes: but much more particularlye of the Sophyes kinge of Persia: for whan I vnderstood by merchaunt men a longe time traf­ficked in that countrey, the noble men there to be very ful of prowesse and well manered and vse in their conuersa­tion one with an other, and in womens seruice, and in all their practisinges much courtesie and great sobrietie, and whan time serueth, in marciall feates, in sportinges, [Page] and vndertaking enterprises much sumptuousnes, great liberality & brauerie, I delited to knowe what order they take in these thinges which they sett most store by, wher­in their Pompes consist and braueries of garmentes & ar­mour, wherin they differ from vs, and wherin we agree, what kinde of enterteinment their women vse, and with what sober mode they showe fauour to, who so is in their loue seruice: but to say the truth, it is no fitt time nowe to entre into this talke, especiallye sins there is other to be said, and much more to our pourpose then this. Yes, ꝙ the L. Gaspar, both this and many other thinges be more to the pourpose, then to facion this gentilwoman of the Palaice, forsomuche as the verie same rules that are giuen for the Courtier, serue also for the woman, for aswell ought she to haue respect to times & places and to obserue (asmuche as her weaknesse is able to beare) all the other properties that haue bin somuch reasoned vpon, as ye Courtier. And therfore in steade of this, it were not perhappes amisse to teach some particular pointes that beelong to ye seruice a­bout a Princis person, for no doubt the Courtier ought to know them and to haue a grace in doing them. Or els to speake of the way that he ought to take in ye bodily exerci­ses, how to ride, to handle weapon, & wrastle, and wherin consisteth the hardnes of these feates. Then spake ye Dut­chesse, smiling: Princis are not serued about their persons with so excellent a Courtier as this is. As for the exercises of bodye & strength and slightnes of person, we will leaue them for M. Peter Mount here to take charge to teache them whan he shall thinke most meete, for presently the L. Iuli­an hath nothinge elles to speake of, but of this woman, whom (me thinke) you nowe beegine to haue a feare of, & therfore woulde brynge vs oute of oure pourpose. Phri­sio answered: certein it is, that nowe it is needlesse and out of pourpose to talke of women, especially beeinge yet beehinde somwhat to be spoken of the Courtier, for ye one matter ought not to be mingled with the other. You are in a great errour, answered the L. Cesar Gonzaga, for [Page] like as no Court, how great euer it be, can haue any sight­linesse, or brightnesse in it, or mirth without women, nor anie Courtier can be gratious, pleasant or hardye, nor at anye time vndertake any galant enterprise of Chiualrye onlesse he be stirred wyth the conuersacion and wyth the loue & contentacion of womē, euen so in like case ye Cour­tiers talke is most vnperfect euer more, if the entercourse of women giue them not a part of the grace wherwithall they make perfect and decke out their playing the Cour­tier. The L. Octauian laughed and saide: Beehoulde a peece of the bayte that bringeth men out of their wittes. Then the L. Iulian tourning him to the Dutchesse, Madam (quoth he) sins it is so youre pleasure, I will speake that commeth to minde, but with verie great doubt to satisfie. And i wisse a great deale lesse peine it were for me to faci­on a lady yt should deserue to be Queene of ye world, then a perfect gentilwoman of the Court, for of herr I wote not where to fett any pattern, but for a Queene I should not neede to seeke farr, and sufficient it were for me onlye to imagin the heauenly condicions of a lady whom I know, and through seeynge them, direct all my thoughtes to ex­presse plainlye with woordes the thynge that manye see with their eyes, and where I could do no more, yet should I fulfill my dutie in naminge her. Then said the Dut­chesse: Passe not your boundes (my L. Iulian) but minde the order taken, and facion the gentilwoman of the Palaice, that this so woorthie a maistresse maye haue hym that shall woorthelie serue her. The L. Iulian proceaded: for a proof therfore (Madam) that your commaundement may driue me to assaye to do, yea the thinge I haue no skill in, I shall speake of this excellent woman, as I woulde haue her. And whan I haue facioned her after my minde, and can afterwarde gete none other,Ouid. lib. xiii me [...]am: I will take her as mine owne, after the example of Pigmalion. And where as the L. Gaspar hath said, that the verye same rules that are giuen for the Courtier▪ serue also for the woman, I am of a con­trarye [Page] opinion. For albeit some qualities are commune and necessarye aswell for the woman as the man, yet are there some other more meeter for the woman then for the man, and some again meete for the man, that she ought in no wise to meddle withall.Wherin th [...] woman should differ from the [...] The verie same I saye of the exercises of the bodye. But principally in her facions, maners, woordes, gestures and conuersation (me thinke) the woman ought to be muche vnlike the man. For right as it is seemlye for him to showe a certein manlinesse full and steadye, so doeth it well in a woman to haue a tender­nes, soft and milde, with a kinde of womanlie sweetnes in euerye gesture of herres, that in goyng, standinge and speakinge what euer she lusteth, may alwayes make her appeere a woman without anye likenes of man. Adding therfore this principle to the rules that these Lordes haue taught the Courtier, I thinke well, she maye serue her tourne with manye of them, and be endowed with verye good qualities, as the L. Gaspar saith.In what they agr [...]. For many vertues of the minde I recken be as necessary for a woman, as for a man▪ Likewise noblenesse of birth, auoidinge Affectation or curiositie, to haue a good grace of nature in all her do­inges, to be of good condicyons, wyttye, foreseeyng, not haughtie, not enuious, not yll tunged, not light, not con­tentious, not vntowardlye, to haue the knowleage to wynn and kepe the good wyll of her Ladye and of all o­thers, to do well and with a good grace yt exercises comely for women.Beawtie. Me thinke well beawty is more necessarie in her then in the Courtier, for (to saye the truth) there is a great lacke in the woman that wanteth beawtie. She ought also to be more circumspect and to take better heed that she giue no occasion to be yll reported of, and so to beehaue her selfe, that she be not onlye not spotted wyth anye fault, but not so much as with suspicion. Bicause a woman hath not so manye wayes to defende her selfe from sclaunderous reportes, as hath a man. But for somuch as Count Lewis hath verye particularly expressed [Page] the principall profession of the Courtier, and willeth it to be in Marsiall feates, me thinke also beehouffull to vttre (ac­cording to my iudgement) what the Gentilwoman [...] of y Palace ought to be: in which point whan I haue through­lye satisfied,Uertues of the minde. I shall thinke my self rid of the greatest part of my dutye. Leauing therfore a part the vertues of the minde that ought to be commune to her with the Courti­er,Commune properties. as wisdome, noblenes of courage, staidenesse, and ma­nie mo, and likewise the condicions that are meete for all women, as to be good and discreete, to haue the vnder­standinge to order her husbandes gooddes and her house and children whan she is maried, and all those partes that beelonge to a good huswief: I say that for her that liueth in Court, me thinke there beelongeth vnto her aboue all other thinges,Sweetenesse in language. a certein sweetnesse in language that may delite, wherby she may gentlie entertein all kinde of men with talke woorth the hearynge and honest, and applyed to the time and place, and to the degree of the person she communeth withall: Accompaniyng with sober and qui­et maners and with the honestye that must alwayes be a stay to all her deedes,Liuelinesse of witt. a readie liuelines of wit, wherby she may declare herselfe far wide from all dulnesse: but with such a kinde of goodnes, that she may be esteamed no lesse chaste,A meane. wise and courteise, then pleasant, feat conceited & sobre: & therfore must she kepe a certein meane very hard, & (in a maner) diriued of contrarie matters, and come iust to certein limites, but not passe them. This woman ought not therfore (to make herself good and honest) be so skemish and make wise to abhorr both the companye and the talke (though somwhat of ye wantonnes [...]) if she be pre­sent,Wanton talke. to gete her thens by and by, for a man may lightlye gesse that she feined to be so coye to hide that in herselfe, whiche she doubted others might come to the knowleage of: & such nice facions are alwaies hateful. Neither ought she again (to showe herself free and pleasant) speake wor­des of dishonesty,To much familiaritye. nor vse a certein familiaritye withoute [Page] measure & bridle, and facions to make men beleaue that of her, that perhappes is not▪ but beeinge present at suche kinde of talke, she ought to geue the hearinge with a litle blushing & shamefastnes. Likewise to eschew one vice yt I haue seen reigne in many: namely,To speake and giue eare to ill report [...]s of other wo­men. to speake & willingly to giue ear to such as report ill of other women: for suche as in hearinge the dishonest beehauiours of other women disclosed, are offended at the matter, and make wise not to credit and (in maner) to thinke it a wonder that a wo­man should lead an vncleane lief, they make proof y sins this fault seemeth vnto them so foule a matter, they com­mit it not. But those yt go alwaies harking out ye loues of others & disclose them so point by point, and wt such ioye, it seemeth that they enuy the matter, & that their desire is to haue all men know it, that the like may not be impu­ted to them for a trespace, and so they tourne it to certein laughters with a kind of gesture, wherby they make men to suspect at the verie same instant that they take great contentacion at it. And of this arriseth, y men although to their seeming they giue diligent ear to it, for ye most part conceiue an ill opinion of them and haue them in verye small reputation, and (to their weeninge) with these bee­hauiours are enticed to attempt them farther. And many times afterward they renn so farr at rouers, that it pur­chaseth them worthely an yll name, and in conclusion are so litle regarded, yt men passe not for their companie, but rather abhorr them. And contrariwise,Honest wo­men esteamed with al men. there is no man so shameles and high minded, but beareth a great reuerence towarde them that be counted good & honest, bicause that grauitie tempered with knowleage and goodnes, is (as it were) a shield against the wanton pride and beastlines of saucy merchauntes. Wherfore it is seen that one woord, a laughter or a gesture of good will (how litle soeuer it be) of an honest woman, is more set by of euery man, then al ye toyes & wanton gestures of them that so lauishly show small shamefastnesse. And where they leade not in deede an vncleane lief, yet wyth those wanton countenaunces, [Page] [...]abblinge, scornfulnesse, and suche scoffynge condicions they make men to thinke they do. And forsomuch as wor­des that are not grounded vpon some pithie foundacion, are vaine and childishe, the Gentilwoman of the Palaice, beeside her discreation to vnderstand the condicion of him she talketh withall, to entertein him honestlye, must nee­des haue a sight in manie thinges, and a iudgemente in her communication to pike out such as be to pourpose for the condicion of him [...]he talketh withall,Beehauiour [...]n [...]alke. and be heedefull that she speake not otherwhile where she wold not, woor­des that may offende him. Let her beeware of praysing her selfe vndiscreatly, or beeinge to tedious that she make him not weerie. Let her n [...]t go mingle with pleasant and laughing talke, matters of grauitie: nor yet with graue, Iestes and feat conceites. Let her not foolishlye take v­pon her to know that she knoweth not,Curiositie. but soberly seeke to be esteamed for that she knoweth, auoiding (as is saide) Curiositie in all thinges. In this maner shall she be indo­wed with good condicions, & the exercises of the body com­lie for a woman shall she do wt an exceading good grace, & her talke shall be plentuous and ful of wisdome, honesty, and pleasantnesse: and so shall she be not only beloued but reuerenced of all men, and perhappes woorthie to be com­pared to this great Courtier, aswel for ye qualities of the minde as of the bodye. Wha [...] the L. Iulian had hitherto spoken, [...]e [...]e [...]de his peace, and settled himselfe as thoughe he had made an ende of his talke. Then said the L. Gaspar: No doubt (my L. Iulian) but you haue decked gaily out this Gentilwoman, and made her of an excellent condicion: Yet me seemeth that you haue gone generallye inough to woorke, and na­med in her certein thinges so great, that I thinke in my minde you are ashamed to expounde them, and haue ra­ther wished them in her, after ye maner of them that som­time wishe for thinges vnpossible and aboue nature, then taught them. Therfore woulde I that you declared vn­to vs a litle better, what exercises of the bodye are meete [Page] for a Gentilwoman of the Palaice, and in what sorte she [...]ught to entertein, and what those many thinges [...]e whi­che you saye she ought to haue a sight in: & whether wise­dome, noblenesse of courage, staidnesse and those manye other vertues that you haue spoken of, your meaninge is should helpe her about the ouerseeinge onlie of her house, children and houshoulde (the which neuerthelesse you will not haue her principall profession) or els to entertein, and to do these exercises of the body with a good grace: and in good felowship take heede ye put not these seelie vertues to so vyle an occupation that they may be ashamed of it. The L Iulian laughed and said: you can not chouse (my L. Gaspar) but still you must vttre youre yll stomake againste women. But certes me thought I had spoken sufficient, and especiallie beefore such audience, that I beleaue none here, but vnderstandeth concernynge the exercises of the body, that it is not comlye for a woman to practise feates of armes, ridinge, playinge at tenise, wrastling, and ma­nye other thinges that beelonge to men. Then said V­nico Aretino: Emonge them of olde time the maner was that women wrastled naked with men, but we haue lost this good custome together with manye mo. The L. Cesar Gonzaga replied to this. And in my time I haue seene wo­men playe at tenise, practise feates of armes, ride, hunt, and do (in a maner) all the exercises beeside, that a gentil­man can do. The L. Iulian answered: Sins I may facion this woman after my minde, I will not onelye haue her not to practise these manlie exercises so sturdie and [...]oiste­rous, but also euen those that are meete for a woman, I will haue her to do them with heedefulnesse and with the soft mildenesse that we haue said is comelie for her.Daunsing. Sing [...]ge. Speculation of musike. And therfore in daunsynge I would not see her vse to swift & violent trickes, nor yet in singinge or playinge vpon in­strumentes those harde and often diuisions that declare more counninge then sweetenesse.Instrumen­tes of [...] Likewise the instru­mētes of musike which she vseth (in mine opinion) ought [Page] to be fitt for this pourpose. Imagin with your selfe what an vnsightly matter it were to see a woman play vpon a tabour or drumm, or blowe in a flute or trompet, or anye like instrumente: and this bicause the boisterousnesse of them doeth both couer and take away that sweete milde­nes which setteth so furth euerie deede that a woman do­eth. Therfore whan she commeth to daunse, or to show any kinde of musike, she ought to be brought to it wc suf­fringe her self somewhat to be prayed,How she should come to showe her feates. and with a certein bashfulnes, that may declare the noble shamefa [...]nes that is contrarye to headinesse. She ought also to frame her garmentes to this entent, and so to apparaile herself that she appeere not fonde and light. But forsomuch as it is l [...]full & necessary for women to sett more by their beawty then men, and sundrie kindes of beawtie there are, thys woman ought to haue a iudgement to knowe what ma­ner garmentes set her best out,Garmentes. and be most fitt for the ex­ercises that she enten [...]eth to vndertake at that instant▪ & with them to arraye herselfe. And where she perceyueth in her a sightlye and cheerfull beawtye, she ought to far­ther it with gestures,Beawtie. wordes and apparaile, that all may betoken mirth. In like case an other that feeleth herself of a milde and graue disposition, she ought also to accom­pany it with facions of the like sort, to encrease that that is ye gift of nature. In like maner where she is somwhat fat [...]er or leaner then reasonable sise, or wanner, or brow­ner, to helpe it with garmentes, but feiningly asmuch as she can possible, and keapinge herselfe clenlye and hand­some, showe alwaies that she bestoweth no pein nor dili­gence at all about it. And bicause the L. Gaspar doeth also aske what these manye thinges be she ought to haue a sight in, and howe to entertein, and whether the vertues ought to be apply­ed to this enterteinment, I saye that I will haue her to vn­derstande that these Lordes haue wylled the Courtier to knowe:A iudgement in exercises not mee [...]e for her. and in those exercises that we haue saide are not comelye for her, I will at ye least she haue that iudgement, [Page] that men can haue of the thinges which they practise not, and this to haue knowleage to praise and make of Gen­tilmen more and lesse accordinge to their desertes. And to make a breef rehersall in fewe woordes of that is al­readye saide,Qualities for a Gentil­woman. I will that this woman haue a sight in let­ters, in musike, in drawinge or peinctinge, and skilfull in daunsinge, and in diuising sportes and pastimes, accom­paniynge with that discreete sobermode and with the gi­uinge a good opinion of herselfe, the other principles also that haue bine taught the Courtier. And thus in conuer­sation, in laughing, in sporting, in iesting, finally in eue­ry thinge she shall be had in very great price, and shall en­tertein accordingly both with Iestes & feat conceites meete for her, euerie person that commeth in her company. And albeit staidnes, noblenes of courage, temperance, strēgth of the minde,Uertues. wisdome and the other vertues a man wold thinke beelonged not to entertein, yet will I haue her en­dowed with them all, not somuch to entertein (although notwithstanding they may serue therto also) as to be ver­tuous: and these vertues to make her suche a one, that she may deserue to be esteamed, and al her doinges framed by them. I wonder then, ꝙ the L▪ Gaspar smilinge, sins you giue women both letters, and staidnesse, & noblenesse of courage & temperance, ye will not haue them also to beare rule in Cities & to make lawes, & to leade armies, & men to stand spinning in ye kitchin. The L. Iulian answered in like maner smiling: Perhappes to, this were not amisse, thē he proceaded. Do you not know yt Plato (which in deede was not very friendly to women) giueth them ye ouersee­ing of Cities, & all other marciall offices he appointeth to men? Thinke you not there were manye to be found that could aswel skill in ruling Cities & armies, as men can? But I haue not appointed them these offices, bicause I facion a waiting gentilwoman of ye Court, not a queene. I se wel you wold couertly haue vp again ye sclaunderous report that the L. Octauian gaue women yesterday: nam [...]ly [Page] That they be moste vnperfect creatures, and not apt to woorke any [...] vertuous deed, and of verie litle woorthiness and of no value in respet of men: But surelye both he & you should be in verie great errour if ye thought so. Then saide the L. Gaspar: I wyll not haue vp again matters alreadye past, but you woulde faine presse me to speake some worde that might offende these Ladies mindes, to make them my foes, as you with flat [...]ringe them falselye will purchase their good will. But they are so wise aboue other, that they loue trueth better (althoughe it make not so muche with them) then false praises: Neyther take they it in yll part for a man to saye, that Men are of a more woorthiness, and they will not let to confesse that you haue spoken greate wonders, and appointed to ye gentilwoman of the Palaice certein fonde vnpossible matters, and so many vertues that Socrates and Cato and all the Philosophers in the worlde are nothinge to her. For to tell you the plaine trothe, I marueile you were not ashamed somuch to passe youre boundes, where it ought to haue suffised ye to make this gentilwoman of the Palaice beawtifull, sober, honest, welspoken, and to haue the vnderstandinge to entertein without renninge in sclaunder, with daunsinge, musike, sportes, laughing, Iestes, & the other matters that we see daily vsed in Court: But to go about to giue her the knowleage of all thinges in the worlde, and to appoint her the vertues that so syl­dome times are seene in men, yea and in them of old time, it is a matter that can neyther be held withall nor scant­lye heard. Now that women are vnperfect creatures and conse­quently of less woorthiness then men, and not apt to conceiue those vertues that they are, I pourpose not to affirme it, bicause the prowesse of these Ladies were inough to make me a lyer. Yet this I saye vnto you, that most wise men haue left in writinge,A woman the default of na­ture. that nature, bicause she is alwaies set and bent to make thinges most perfect, if she coulde, woulde conti­nuallye bring furth men, and whan a woman is borne, it is a slacknes or default of nature, and contrary to that she [Page] would do. As it is also seene in one borne blinde, lame, or with some other impediment, and in trees manye fru­tes that neuer ripen: Euen so may a woman be said to be a creature brought furth at a chaunce and by happe, and that it is so, marke me the woorkes of the man and the woman, and by them make your pr [...]of of the perfection of ech of them. Howbeit sins these defaultes of women are the wite of nature that hath so brought them furthe, we ought not for this to hate them, nor feint in hauinge lesse respect to them then is meete, but to esteame them a­boue that they are, me thinketh a plaine errour. The L. Iulian looked the L. Gaspar would haue proc [...]ded on still, but whan he sawe nowe that he helde his peace, he said: Of the vnper­fectnes of women me thinke you haue alleaged a verye colde reason, wherunto (albeit may happ it were not now meete to entre into these subtil pointes) I answere accor­dinge to the opinion of him that is of skill, and accor­dinge to the truth, that Substance in what euer thinge it be, can not [...]eceiue into it more or less: Substanti [...] non recip [...] maius aut minus. for as no stone can be more per­fectlye a stone, then an other: as touchinge the beeinge of a stone: nor one blocke more perfectlie a blocke, then an o­ther: no more can one man be more perfectlye a man then an other, & consequently the male kinde shall not be more perfect, then the female, as touchinge his Formall substance: for both the one and the other is conteined vnder the Spe­cies of Homo, Homo both man and woman. and that wherein they differ is an Accidentall matter and no essentiall. In case you will then tell me that the man is more perfecte then the woman, thoughe not as touchinge the essentiall, yet in the Accidentes, I answere that these accidentes must consist eyther in the bodye or in the minde: yf in the bodye, bicause the man is more stur­dier, nimbler, lighter, and more abler to endure trauaile, I say that this is an argument of smalle perfection: for emonge men themselues such as abounde in these quali­ties aboue other, are not for them the more esteamed: and in warr, where the greatest part of peinfull labours are [Page] and of strength, the stoutest are not for all that the moste set bye. Yf in the mind, I say, what euer thinges men can v [...]derstande, the self same can women vnderstande also▪ and where it perceth the capacitie of ye one, it may in like­wise perce the others. Here after the L. Iulian [...]ad made a litle stopp, he proce [...]e [...] smilinge: Do you not know that this prin­ciple is helde in Philosophy, VVho so is tender of flesh is apt of mind? [...]herfore there is no doubt, but women beeing ten­derer of flesh, are also apter of minde, and of a more encli­ned witt to musinges and speculations, then men. After­ward he folowed on. But leauinge this a part, bicause you said that I should make my proof of the perfection of ech of them by the woorkes, I saye vnto you, if you consider the effectes of nature, you shall finde that she bringeth wo­men furth as they be, not at a chaunce, but fittlye necessary for the ende. For albeit she shapeth them of bodye not stoute and of a milde minde, with manye other qualities [...]ontrarye to mens, yet doe the condicions of eche of them stretch vnto one self ende, concerning the self same profit. For euen as through that weake feeblenes women are of a lesser courage, so are they also by the verye same more warie. Therfore moothers nourish vp children & fathers instruct them, & with manlines prouide for it abrode, that they with carefull diligence store vp in the house, which is no lesse praise. In case you wil then consider the auntient Histories (albeit men at all times haue bine verie sparing in writinge the prayses of women) and them of latter dayes, ye shall finde that continually vertue hath raigned aswell emong women as men:Women haue acheued great [...]nterprises. Women lear­ned. and that suche there haue bine also that haue made warr & obteined glorious victo­ries, gouerned realmes with great wisdome and iustice, and done what euer men haue done. As touchinge scien­ces, do you not remember ye haue read of so manie that were well seene in Philosophie?In philoso­phie. In poetrie. In Rheto­ricke. Other, yt haue bine most excellent in Poetrye? Other, that haue pleaded, & both ac­cused and defended beefore Iudges most eloquentlye? Of [Page] handicraftes, longe it were to reherse, neither is it need­full to make any rehersall therof. If then in the essentiall substance the man is no more perfect then the woman, nor yet in the Accidentes (and of this beeside reason, the expe­riences are seene) I wote not wherein this his perfection shoulde consist. And bicause you saide that Natures entent i [...] alwaies to bring furth thinges most perfect, & therfore if she could, would alwayes bringe furth a man, and that the bringing a woman furth is rather a default and slackenesse of nature, then her entent, I answere you that this is ful and wholly to be denied, nei­ther can I see whie you maye saye that nature entendeth not to bringe furth women, without whom mankind can not be preserued, wherof nature herself is more desirous then of anye thinge elles, bicause through the meanes of this felowship of male & female she bringeth furth chil­dren, that restore the receiued benifites in their childhood to their fathers in their olde dayes, in that they nourishe them: afterwarde they renue them, in beegettinge th [...]m selues also other children, of whom they looke in their old age to receiue it, that beeing yonge they beestowed vppon their fathers: wherby nature (as it were) tourning her a­bout in a circle, fulfilleth an euerlastingnesse, and in this wise geueth an immortalitie to mortall men. Sins then to this, the woman is as needefull as the man, I can not discern for what cause the one is made by happ more then the other. Truth it is that Nature entendeth alwaies to bringe furth matters most perfect, & therfore meaneth to bring furth man in his kinde, but not more male then female. Yea were it so that she alwayes brought furth male, then shoulde it withoute perauenture be an vnperfectnesse: for like as of the bodye and of the soule there arriseth a com­pounde more nobler then his partes, whiche is, man: E­uen so of the felowshippe of male and female there arri­seth a compounde preseruinge mankinde, without which the partes were in decaye, & therfore male and female by nature are alwaies together, neither can the one be wtout the other: Right so he ought not to be called ye male, that [Page] hath not a female (accordinge to the definition of both the one and the other) nor she ye female that hath not a male.male can not b [...] without female. And for somuch as one kinde alone betokeneth an imper­fection, the diuines of olde time referr both the one and the other to God: Wherfore Orpheus said that Iupiter was both male and female: And it is read in Scripture that God facioned male and female to his likenes [...]. And the Poetes manie times speaking of the Goddes, meddle the kindes together. Then the L. Gaspar, I woulde not (quoth he) we should entre into these subtill pointes, for these women will not vnderstande vs. And albeit I answere you with verie good reasons, yet will they beleaue, or at the leaste make wise to beleaue that I am in the wrong, and furth­wt will geue sentence as they lust. Yet sins we are entred into them, only this will I saye, that (as you know, it is the opinion of most wise men) the man is likened to the Fourme, [...]ourme. Mattier. the woman to the Mattier: & therfore as the Fourme is perfect [...]r then the Mattier, yea it giueth him his beeing, so is the man much m [...]re perfect then the woman. And I remember that I haue heard (whan it was) that a greate Philosopher in certein Problemes of his, saith: VVhens com­meth it that naturally the woman alwaies loueth the man, Aristot. [...]physic. xviii. that hath bine the first to receiue of her, amorous pleasure [...]? And contrariwise the man hateth the woman that hath bine the first to coople in that wise with him? and addinge therto the cause, affirmeth it to be this: For that in this act the woman receyueth of the man per­fection, and the man of the woman imperfection: and therfore e­uerie man naturallye loueth the thinge that maketh him perfect, and hateth that maketh him vnperfect. And beeside this a great argument of ye perfection of the man, and of the imperfection of the woman, is, that generallye euerye woman wisheth she were a man, by a certein pro­uocation of nature, that teacheth her to wishe for her per­fection. The L. Iulian answered sodeinlye: The seelie poore creatures wish not to be a man to make them more perfect, but to haue libertye, and to be ridd of the rule that [Page] men haue of their owne authoritie chalenged ouer them. And the similitude which you giue of the Mattier & Fourme, is not alike in euerye point: bicause the woman is not made so perfect by the man, as is the Mattier by the Fourme for the Mattier receiueth his beeinge of the Fourme, and can not stande without it: yea the more Mattier Fourmes haue, the more imperfection they haue withall, & seuered from it, are most perfect: but the woman receiueth not her bee­inge of the man, yea as she is made perfect by the man, so doeth she also make him perfect: wherby both the one and the other come together to beegete children: the whyche thinge they can not do any of them by them selues. The cause then of the continuall loue of the woman towarde the first that she hath bine with, and of the hatred of the man towarde the first woman, I will not affirme to be that youre Philosopher alleageth in his Problemes, but I impute it to the surenesse and stablenesse of the woman, and waueringe of the man, and that not without natu­rall reason: for sins the male is naturallye hott, by that qualitie he taketh lightnesse, stirring and vnstedfastnes, and contrariwise the woman throughe colde, quietnesse, steadie waightinesse, and more earnest imprintinges. Then the L. Emilia tourninge her to the L▪ Iulian, for loue of god (quoth she) come once out of these your Mattiers and Fourmes and males and females, and speake so that you maye be vnderstoode: for we haue heard and very well vn­derstoode the ill that the L. Octauian and the L. Gaspar haue spoken of vs: but sins we vnderstande not nowe in what sort you stand in our defence, m [...] thinke therfore that this is a straiynge from the pourpose, and a leauinge of the yuell imprintinge in euerye mans minde that these our ennemies haue giuen of vs. Giue vs not this name an­swered ye L. Gaspar, for more meter it were for the L. Iulian, whiche in giuinge women false prayses, declareth that there are none true for them. The L. Iulian saide then: doubt ye not (madam) all shall be answered to▪ But I will [Page] not raile vpon men so without reason, as they haue done vpon women. And if perchaunce there were any one here that meant to penn this our talke, I wolde not that in place where these Mattiers and Fourmes were vnderstoode, the argumentes and reasons which the L. Gaspar alleageth against you shoulde be seene vnanswered to. I wote not, my L. Iulian, quoth then the L. Gaspar, howe in this you can denie, that the man is not throughe his naturall qualiti­es more perfect then the woman,Heat muche p [...]rfect [...]r t [...]en colde. whiche of complexion is colde and the man hott, and muche more nobler and per­fecter is heate then colde, bicause it is actiue and furth bringinge: and (as you know) the element poureth down [...] here emonge vs onlye heate, and not colde, which perceth not the woorkes of nature: and therfore bicause women are colde of complexion, I thinke it is the cause of their feinthertednes and fearfulnesse. Will you still, answered the L. Iulian, entre into subtill pointes? you shall perceiue your self at euerye time to come into a greater pecke of troubles: & that it is so, herken to. I graunt you, ye heat in it self is more perfect then colde,Heate. but this foloweth not in meddled matters & compounded, for in case it were so, the body that were most hot should be most perfect: whiche is false, bicause temperate bodies be most perfect. I do you to weete moreouer,Women cold of complexi­on. that ye woman is of complexion colde in cōparason of ye man: which for ouermuch heat is far wide from temper: but as touching herself, she is temperate, or at ye least neerer to temper then the man,why the wo­man is more temperat then the man. bicause she hath that moisture within her of equall portion wt the natural heat, which in ye man through ouermuch drouth doth soo­ner melt & consume away. She hath also suche a kinde of colde that it resisteth & comforteth the naturall heate, and maketh it neerer to temper, & in the man ouermuch heat doth soone bring ye natural warmth to the last degree, the which wanting nourishment,Men so [...]ner drie then women. consumeth away: and ther­fore, bicause men in generacion sooner waxe dry then wo­men, it happeneth oftentimes yt they are of a shorter lief. [Page] Wherfore this perfection may also be geuen to women, y liuing longer then men, they accomplish it,The perfec­tion of wo­men abou [...] men. that is the en­tent of nature more then men. Of the heat that ye element poureth downe vpon vs, we talke not nowe, bicause it is diuerse in signification to it whiche we entreat vpon: the which sins it is nourisher of all thinges vnder ye sphere of the moone aswell hott as colde, it can not be contrarye to colde.Fearfulnesse in women. But the fearfulnes in women although it beetoke­neth an imperfection, yet doth it arrise of a praiswoorthie cause, nam [...]ly the subtilnes & readines of the spirites, that conuey spedely the shapes to the vnderstanding, & therfore are they soone out of pacience for outward matters. Full well shall you see many times some men,Heady per­sons. yt dread neither death nor any thing els, yet are they not for all that to be called hardy, bicause they know not the daunger, and goe furth like harbraines where they see ye way open, and cast no more with them selues, & this proceadeth of a certein grosnes of ye dulled spirites:Courage. therfore a fond person can not be said to be stoutherted, but verie courage in deede com­meth of a propre aduisement & determined will so to doe, and to esteame more a mans honestie and dutye, then all the perils in the worlde, and althoughe he see none other waye but death, yet to be of so quiet an hert & minde that his senses be not to seeke nor amased, but do their duty in discoursing and beethinkinge, euen as though they were most in quiet. Of this guise and maner we haue seene & heardsay many great men to be, likewise manie women, which both in o [...]de time & presentlie haue showed stoute­nes of courage and brought matters to passe in the world woorthie infinite praise, no lesse then menne haue done. Then said Phrisio: these matters beegan, whan ye first wo­man in offending made others to offend also against god,Eue. and for inheritance left vnto mankinde death, afflictions, sorowes, and all other miseries and calamityes, that be felt nowe adayes in the worlde. The L. Iulian answered: Sins you will also farther youre pourpose with entringe [Page] into scripture, doe you not knowe that the same offence was in like maner amended by a woman?Our Lady. Whiche hath profited muche more then she hindred vs, so that the tres­pace acquited with so woorthye a deede, is counted moste happye. But I pourpose not now to tell you, how much in dignitie all creatures of mankinde be inferiour to the virgin our Lady, for meddlinge holye matters with these our fonde reasoninges: Nor reherse howe manye women with infinite stedfastnes haue suffred cruell death vnder Tirannes for the name of Christ: nor them yt with lear­ninge in disputacion haue confuted so manye Idolatrers. And in case you will answere me, that this was a miracle and the grace of the holy ghost, I say vnto you that no ver­tue deserueth more praise, then that which is approued by the testimonie of god. Manye other also of whom there is no talke, you your self maye looke vpon, especially in rea­dinge Saint Hierom, which setteth out certein of his time with such wonderfull prayses, [...] Hierom. that they might suffise the holyest man yt can be. Imagin then how many there haue bine of whom there is made no mention at all: bicause ye seelie poore soules are kept close wtout the pompous pride to seeke a name of holinesse emong the people,Religious men that now a dayes many men haue, accursed Hypochrites, which not minding, or rather setting smalle store bye, ye doctrine of Christ, that willeth a man whan he fasteth, to annoint his face, that he maye appeere not to faste, and commaun­deth prayer, almes deedes, and other good woorckes, to be done, not in the markett place, nor Sinagoges, but in se­crete, So that the left hande knowe not of the right, they affirme no treasure in the world to be greater, then to giue a good example, and thus hanging their head aside and fastning their eyes vpon the grounde, spreadinge a report about, that they will not once speake to a woman, nor eate anye thinge but raw herbes, smokye, with their side garmen­tes all to ragged and torne, they beeguile the simple: but for all that, they absteine not from falsifiynge willes, [Page] sowinge mortall hatred beetweene man and wief, and o­therwhile poison: vsinge sorcery, inchauntmentes and al kinde of ribaldrie, and afterward alleage a certein autho­ritie of their owne heade, that saith: Si non caste, tamen caute ▪ and with this weene to heale euerye grea [...]esore, and with good reason to perswade hym that is not heedefull that God forgiueth soone all offences how heynous euer they be, so they be kept close and no ill example arriseth of them. Thus with a veile of holinesse, and this mische­uous deuise, manie times they tourne all their thoughtes to defile the chaste minde of some woman, often times to sowe variance beetweene brethren, to gouerne states, to set vp the [...]ne and plucke downe the other, to chop of hea­des, to imprison and banish menne, to be ministers of the wickednesse, and (in a maner) the storers and hoorders vp of the robberies that many Princes commit. Other past sh [...]me delite to seeme delicate & smothe, with their croune minionlye shauen, and well clad, and in their gate lift vp their garment to show their hose sit cleane, and the hand­somnesse of person in makinge courteisie. Other vse cer­tein bye lookes and gestures euen at masse, whiche they houlde opinion beecome them wel, and make men to bee­houlde them: mischeeuous and wicked menne, and cleane voide not onlye of all religion but of all good maner. And wh [...]n their naughty lief is laide to them, they make a Iest at it, and giue him a mocke that telleth them of it, and (as it were) count their vises a prayse. Then said the L. Emilia: Suche delite you haue to speake yll of Friers, that ye are fallen into this talke without all pourpose. But you com­mit a great offence to murmur against religious persons▪ & without any profit ye burden youre conscien [...]e: for were it not for them, that they pray vnto god for vs, we shoulde yet haue far greater plages then we haue. Then laughed the L. Iulian and said: Howe ge [...]sed you so euen (Madam) yt I spake of Friers, sins I named them not? But forsooth this that I saye, is not called murmuringe, for I speake [Page] it plaine and openlye. And I meane not the good, but the bad & wicked, of whom I haue not yet spoken ye thousan­deth part of yt I know. Speake you not now of Friers, answered the L. Emilia: for I thinke it (for my part) a gree­uous offence to giue eare to you, and for hearing you any more, I will gete me hens. I am well pleased, quoth the L. Iulian, to speake no more of this. But to retourn to the prayses of women, I saye that the L. Gaspar shall not finde me out any notable man,Women not [...]nferiour to [...]en. but I will finde his wief or sis­ter or daughter of like merite and otherwhile aboue him. Beeside that, manie haue bine occasion of infinite good­nesse to their men, and sometime broken them of manye erroures. Therfore sins women are (as we haue decla­red) naturallye as apt for the selfe same vertues, as men be, and the proof therof hath bine often seene, I wote not whye, in giuinge them that is possible they maye haue & sundrie times haue had and still haue, I ought to be dee­med to speake wonders, as the L. Gaspar hathe obiected a­gainst me: Consideringe that there haue euer bine in the worlde and still are, women as nigh ye woman of the Pa­laice whom I haue facioned, as men nigh the man whom these Lordes haue facioned. Then said the L. Gaspar: those reasons that haue experience against them (in my minde) are not good. And ywisse, yf I shoulde happen to aske you what these great women are or haue bine, so worthy praise, as the great men whose wiues, sisters, or daugh­ters they haue bine, or that haue bine occasion of anye goodnesse, or such as haue broken them of their erroures, I▪ beeleaue it woulde combre you shreudlye. Surely, answered the L. Iulian, none other thinge coulde combre me, but the multitude of them: And if time serued me, I woulde tell you to this pourpose the Hystories of Octa­uia wief to Marcus Antonius and sister to Augustus. Octauia. Porcia. Cecilia. Cornelia▪ Of Porcia daughter to Cato and wief to Brutus. Of Caia Cecilia wief to Tarquinius Priscus. Of Cornelia daughter to Sci­pio, and of infinite other, which are most knowen. And [Page] not onelye these of oure Countrey, but also Barbari [...]s, as that Alexandra whiche was wief to Alexander Kinge of the Iewes, who after the death of her husbande,Alexandra▪ Egesipp. lib. [...]. cap. 1 [...]. seeinge y peo­ple in an vprore, and alreadye runn to weapon to sl [...]a the two children whiche he had left beehinde hym, for a re­uenge of the cruell and streict bondage that their father had alwayes kept them in, she so beehaued herselfe, that sodeinlye she asswaged that iust furye, and in a moment, with wisdome made those myndes fauourable to the chil­dren, whyche the father in manye yeeres with infinit in­iuries had made their most ennemies. Tell vs at the leaste, answered the L. Emilia, howe she dyd. The L. Iuli­an saide: She perceiuing her children in so great a ieopar­dye, immediatlye caused Alexanders bodye to be caste oute into the middes of the markett place, afterwarde calling vnto her the Citizins, she said, yt she knewe their mindes were set on fire wyth moste iuste furye againste her hus­bande:She asswa­ged the furye of the people▪ For the cruell iniuries whiche he wickedlye had done them, deserued it: and euen as whan he lyued, she dyd her best alwayes to withdrawe hym from so wic­ked a lief, so nowe she was readie to make a triall therof, and to helpe them to chastise him euen deade, asmuch as she might, and therfore should take that bodye of his and giue it to be deuoured of Dogges, and rente it in peeces in the cruellest m [...]ner they coulde imagin. But yet she desired them to take pitye vppon the innocent chyldren, that coulde not onelye be in no fault, but not so muche as weettynge of their fathers yll doynges. Of such force were these woordes, that the ragynge furye once concey­ued in all that peoples myndes was sodainlye asswaged, and tourned into so tender an affection, that not onelye with one accorde they chose those children for their heades and rulers, but also to the deade corps they gaue a most honourable buryall. Here the L. Iulian made a little pause,Laodice. afterwarde he proceaded. Knowe you not that Mi­thridates wyef and Systers showed a farre lesse f [...]are [Page] of death, then Mithridates him selfe? And Asdruballes wief, then Asdrubal himself? Know you not that Harmonia daugh­ter to Hiero the Syracusan, Harmonia. woulde haue died in ye burninge of her Countrye? Then Phrisio, where obstinacye is bent, no doubt (quoth he) but otherwhile ye shall find some wo­men that will neuer chaunge pourpose, as she that coulde no longer call her husbande pricklouse, with her handes made him a signe.Ob [...]ti [...]acie called s [...]ed­fa [...]nesse. The L. Iulian laughed and said: Ob­stinacy that is bent to a vertuous ende, ought to be called stedfastnesse,Epicharia. as in Epicharia a libertine of Roome, whiche made priuie to a great conspiracie againste Nero, was of such stedfastnesse, that beeinge rent with all the most cru­ell tormentes that could be inuented, neuer vttred any of ye partners: And in ye like perill manie noble gentilmen & Senatours, fearfullye accused brethren, friendes, and the deerest & best beloued persons to them in ye worlde. What saye you of this other,Leena bitt in sunder her tunge & spitt it in the face of Hippias the Tiran. Plin lib, 34. cap. 8. called Leena? In whose honoure the Athenians dedicated before the castle gate a lionesse of met­tall without a tunge, to beetoken in her the steady vertue of silence. For she beeinge in like sort made priuie to a conspiracye againste the Tirannes, was not agast at the death of two great men her friendes, and for all she was torne with infinite and moste cruell tourmentes, neuer disclosed any of the conspiratours. Then saide the L. Margare [...] Gonzaga: Me seemeth that ye make to bre [...]f reher­sall of these vertuous actes done by women. For although these our ennemies haue heard them and read them, yet they make wise not to knowe them, and would faine the memorye of them were loste. But in case ye will doe vs to vnderstande them, we will at the least honour them. Then answered the L. Iulian: With a good will. Now wil I tell you of one, that did suche a deede as I beeleaue the L. Gaspar himself will confesse that verie fewe menne doe. And beegane. In Massilia there was in times past an v­sage, whiche is thought came out of Greece: and that was, that openlye there was poyson layed vp meddled wyth [Page] Cicuta, Cicuta a be­mi [...]ous her be horrible of sauour, one kinde wherof is supposed to be hemlocke. and it was lefull for him to take it that alleaged to the Senate that he ought to be rid of his lief for some dis­cōmoditie that he felt therin, or elles for some other iuste cause: to the entent that who so had suffered to much ad­uersitie or tasted ouer great prosperitie, he might not con­tinue in the one, or chaunge the other. In the presence therfore of Sextus Pompeius. Here Phrisio not tartyn [...]e to haue the L. Iulian p [...]oceade farther, this, me seemeth (quoth he) is the beeginninge of some longe tale. Then the L. Iulian tourninge him to the L. Margaret, said: See, Phrisio will not suffre me to speake. I would haue toulde you now of a woman, that after she had showed the Senate that she ought of right to die, glad and without any feare, tooke in the presence of Sextus Pompeius ye poyson with such sted­fastnesse of minde and with such wise and louinge exhor­tations to hers, that Pompeius and all the rest that beeheld in a woman suche knowleage and stedinesse in the trem­blinge passage of death, remayned (not without teares) astonied with great wōder. Then ye L. Gaspar smiling, & I again remember (ꝙ he) yt I haue read an Oration, wher­in an vnfortunate husband asketh leaue of the Senate to die, and alleageth that he hath a iust cause, for that he can not abide the continuall weerisomnes of his wiues chat­tinge, and had leiffer drinke of that poison which you say was laied vp openly for these respectes, then of his wiues scoldinges. The L. Iulian answered: How many seelie poore women should haue a iust cause to aske leaue to die, for abidinge, I will not say the yll woordes, but the most yuell deedes of their husbādes? For I know some my self, that in this worlde suffre the peines which are sai [...] to be in hell. Bee there not againe, trow you, answered the L. Gaspar, manye husbandes that are so tourmented with their wiues, that euerye hour they wishe for death? And what displeasure, quoth the L. Iulian, can women doe their husbandes, that is so without remedy, as those are which husbandes do their wiues? which though not for loue, yet [Page] for feare are obedient to their husbandes. Sure it is in deede, quoth the L. Gaspar, that the litle they do well other­while, commeth of feare, for fewe there are in the world yt secretlye in their minde hate not their husbandes. Nay, cleane contrarye, answered the L. Iulian: and in case you will remembre what you haue read, it is to be seene in all Histories, that alwaies (in a maner) wiues loue their hus­bandes better then they their wiues. Whan haue you euer seene or read that a husbande hath showed such a to­ken of loue towarde his wief, as did Camma towarde her husbande?Camma. I wote not, answered the L. Gaspar, what she was, nor what token she showed. Nor I, quoth Phrisio. The L. Iulian answered: Giue eare. And you (my L. Mar­garet) looke ye beare it well awaye. This Camma was a most beawtifull yonge woman,An example of the true loue of a wief toward her husbande. Plutarc. indowed with suche mo­destie and honest condicions, that no lesse for them, then for her beawty she was to be wondred at: and aboue other thinges with all her hert she loued her hus [...]and, who had to name Synattus. It happened that an other Gentilman of greater authoritie then Synattus, and (in a maner) heade ruler and Tirann of the Citie where they dwelled, fell in loue with this yonge woman: and after he had longe at­tempted by all wayes and meanes to compasse her, and all but loste labour, beethinkinge himselfe that the loue she bore her husbande, was the onlye cause that withstood his desires, he caused this Synattus to be slayne. Thus instant vpon her afterwarde continuallye, other frute coulde he neuer gete of her, then what he had beefore. Wherfore this loue daily encreasinge, he was fullye re­solued to take her to wief, for all in degree she was muche inferiour to him. So suite beeinge made to her frien­des by Sinoris (for so was the louer named) they tooke in hande to perswade her to be contented wyth it: Declaring that to agree therto, was verye profitable, and to refuse it, perilous for her and them all. She after she had a while gainsaied them, at length made answere that she [Page] was contented. Her kinsfolke brought this tidinges to Si­noris, which passing measure glad, gaue order to haue this mariage made out of hande. After they were then both come for this pourpose solemnlye into the Temple of Di­ana, Camma had caused to be brought to her a certein sweet drinke whiche she had made, and so beefore the image of Diana in the presence of Sinoris she dranke the one moitie. Afterwarde, with her owne hand (for this was the vsage in mariages) she gaue the remaine to ye bridegrome, whi­che dranke it cleane vp. Camma assone as she sawe her deuice take effect, kneeled her downe verye ioyfull before the image of Diana, and said: Oh Goddesse, thou that kno­west the bottome of my hert, be a good witnesse to me, howe hardlye after my deere husbande deceased, I haue refreined from killinge my selfe, and what peines I haue susteined to endure the greef to liue in this bitter lief, in whiche I haue felt none other ioye or pleasure, but ye hope of the reuenge whiche I perceyue nowe is come to effect. Therfore wyth gladnesse and contentation I go to finde out the sweete companye of that soule, whiche in lyef and death I haue alwayes more loued then mine owne selfe. And thou Caytif, that weeneddest to haue bine my hus­bande, in steade of a mariage bed, giue ordre to pre­pare thee a graue, for of thee do I here make a sacrifice to the shadowe of Synattus. Synoris amased at these woor­des, and alreadye feelynge the operation of the poyson within him that put him to great peine, proued many remedies, but all preuayled not. And Camma had for­tune so fauourable on her side, or what euer els, that bee­fore she died, she had knowleage that Sinoris was deade. Whan she hearde of that, with verye great contentation she layed her vpon her bed, with her eyes to heauen, con­tinuallye callynge vpon the name of Synattus, and saying. Oh most sweete mate, sins nowe I haue bestowed for the [Page] last tokens vpon thy death, both teares and reuenge, and perceiue not that I haue anye thinge yet beehinde to doe for thee here, I flee the world and this without thee a cru­ell lief, which for thy sake onlye in times past was deere to me. Come therefore and meete me (oh my Lorde) and embrace as willinglie this soule, as she willinglye com­meth to thee. And speakinge these woordes, and with her armes spred, as thoughe she woulde at that instant haue embraced him, died. Say nowe Phrisio, what thinke you by this? Phrisio answered: Me thinke you woulde make these Ladies weepe. But let vs sett case this was true, I say vnto you that we finde no more such women in the worlde.An other ex­ample of fres­sher yeeres. The L. Iulian saide: Yes, that there be, and that it is so, giue eare. In my dayes there was in Pisa a gen­tilman whose name was M. Thomas, of what house, I re­member not,Thomaso Lucchese. for all I heard my father often times tell it, which was his great friend. This M. Thomas then, pas­singe vpon a daye in a litle v [...]ssell from Pisa towarde Sici­lia about his affaires, was ouertaken with certein foistes of Moores, that were on the backe of him vnawares & bee­fore the gouernours of the vessell had espied them. And for all the men within, defended them selues well, yet bi­cause they were but fewe and the ennemies manie, the vessell with as manie as were on borde was taken by the Moores, some hurt, some whole, as fell to their lotte, and emonge them M. Thomas, whiche had played the man and slaine with his owne hande a brother of one of the Capi­taines of those foystes: For which matter the Capitain full of wrathe, as you maye coniecture by the losse of his brother, woulde haue him for his prisoner, and beatinge and buffetinge him daily, brought him into Barbary, where in great misery he determined to kepe him aliue his cap­tiue and with muche drugetye. All the rest, some one waye, some an other, within a space were at libertye, and retourned home, and brought tidinges to his wief, called M. Argentin and children,M. Argentin. of the hard lief and great afflicti­on [Page] which M. Thomas liued in, and was like without hope to liue in continuallye, onlesse God wonderfullye helped him. The which matter whan she and they vnderstoode for a certeintie, attemptinge certein other wayes for hys deliueraunce, and where he himselfe was fullye resolued to ende his lief, there happened a carefull affection and tender pitie so to quicken the witt and courage of a sonne of his called Paul, yt he had respect to no kind of daunger, & determined eyther to die or to deliuer his father. The which matter he brought to passe & with suche priuie con­u [...]iaunce, that he was first in Ligurno beefore it was kno­wen in Barbarye that he was parted thens. Here hens M. Thomas (beeinge arriued in safetye) writ to his wief, and did her to weete his settinge at libertie, & where he was, and how the next daye he hoped to see her. The honest Gentilwoman filled with so great and sodeine ioye, that she shoulde so shortlye aswell throughe the zeale as pro­wesse of her sonne,Inordinate affection. see her husbande whom she loued so much, where she once surelye beleaued neuer to haue seen him again, after she had read the letter she lifted her eyes to heauen & calling vpon the name of her husbande, fell starke dead to the grounde, and with no remedie done to her, did the departed soule retourn to the body again. A cruell sight, and inoughe to temper the willes of men and to withdrawe them from couetinge [...]o feruentlye super­fluous ioyes. Then said Phrisio smilinge: What know you whether she died for sorowe or no, vnderstanding her husbande was comminge home? The L. Iulian answered: Bicause ye rest of her lief was nothinge agreeable therto. But I weene rather ye soule could not tary the lingering to see him with the eyes of her bodye, & therfore forsooke it, and drawen out thens with couetinge, fled by and by where in readinge the letter, her thought was fled. The L. Gaspar said: it may be that this woman was ouerlouing, bicause women in euerie thinge cleaue alwayes to the extremitie, which is yll. And see, for yt she was ouerlouing [Page] [...]e did yll to herselfe, to her husbande and to her children, in whom she tourned into bitternesse the pleasure of that daungerous and desired libertie of his. Therfore you ought not to alleage her for one of the women, that haue bine the cause of so great goodnesse. The L. Iulian an­swered: I alleage her for one of them that make trial that there are wiues whiche loue their husbandes. For of such as haue bine occasion of great profittes in the world I coulde tell you of an infinite number, and reherse vnto you so auntient, that welnighe a man wolde iudge them fables. And of suche as emong men haue bine the inuen­tours of suche kinde of matters,Aspasia lo­ued and taught the eloquent Pericles Duke of Athens. Nichostrata. Hermione. Corinna. Sappho. that they haue deserued to be deemed Goddesses, as, Pallas, Ceres, ye Sybilles, by whose mouth god hath so oftentimes spoken and discouered to the world matters to come. And such as haue taught ve­rye great men, as, Aspasia, and Diotima the which also with sacrifice droue of a plague tenn yeeres that shoulde haue fallen in Athens. I coulde tell you of Nichostrata mother to E [...]ander, whiche showed the Latins their letters. And of an other woman also that was maistres to Pindarus Li­ricus. And of Corinna and Sappho, which were most excellent in Poetrie: but I wil not seeke matters so far of, I say vn­to you that leauing the rest apart, of ye greatnes of Roome perhappes women were a no lesse cause then men. This, quoth the L. Gaspar, were good to vnderstande. The L. Iu­lian answered:Women the cause of the greatnes of Roome. Herken to it then. After Troye was wonn, manye Troians, that in so great a destruction esca­ped, fled some one waye, some another: of whiche, one part, that by manye Sea stormes were tossed and tum­bled,T [...]b [...]ri [...] came into Italy in the coo [...]t where the Te [...]er entreth into the Sea: so landing to prouide for their necessaries, beegane to goe a forraginge about the Countrie. The women that taried beehinde in the shippes, imagined e­monge themselues a profitable diuise, that shoulde make an ende of their perilous and longe Sea wandringe, and [...]n steade of their lost Countrey recouer them a new. And [Page] after they had layed their heades together, in ye mens ab­sence, they sett fire on the shippes,Rom [...]. and the firste that bee­gane this woorke was called Roma. Yet standinge in feare of the mens displeasure that were retiringe backe again, they went to meete with them, and imbracing and kissing in token of good will, some their husbandes,An aun [...]n [...] custome e­monge the Roman [...] some their ne [...]t a kinn, they asswaged that first brunt: After­warde they disclosed to them quietlye the cause of their wittie enterprise. Wherfore the Troians, on the one side, for neede, and one the other for beeinge courteiouslye re­ceyued of the inhabitauntes, were very well pleased with that the women had done, and there dwelled with the La­tins in the place where afterward was Roome. And of this arrose the auntient custome emonge the Romanes, that women meetinge their kinsfolke, kissed them. Now ye see what a helpe these women were to giue the beegin­ninge to Roome. And the Sabine women were a no lesse helpe to the encrease of it,Women [...] helpe to the encrease of Roome. then were the Tro [...]ane to ye first beeginning: for whan Romulus had purchased him the ge­nerall hatred of al his neighboures, for the rauine that he made of their women, he was assayled with warre on all sides, the which for that he was a valiaunt man, he soone rid his handes of with victorie: onlye the warr with the Sabines excepted, which was verie sore, bicause Titus Tatius kinge of the Sabines was verye puissant and wise.T. Tatius, Wher­vpon after a sore bickeringe beetweene the Romanes and Sabines, with verie great losse on both sides, preparynge for a freshe and cruell battaile, the Sabine women clad in blacke, with their heare scattred and haled, weepinge, comfortlesse, without feare of weapons now bent to giue the onsett, came into the middes beetweene their fathers and husbandes, beeseachinge them not to file their han­des with the bloode of their fatherinlawes and sonnin­lawes, and in case it were so that they repined at this a­liaunce, thei should bend their weapons against them: for much better it were for them to die, then to liue widowes [Page] [...]r fatherles and brotherlesse, and to remembre that their children had bine begotten of such as had slaine their fa­thers, or they them selues of such as had slaine their hus­bandes. With these pitifull waylinges, manie of them caried in their armes their yonge babes, of whom some beegane alreadie to leuse their tunge and seemed to call and sport with their graundfathers, vnto whom the wo­men showinge furth their nephewes and weeping, said: Beehoulde youre owne bloode that in such rage ye seeke to shed with youre owne handes. Of suche force was in this case the affection and wisedome of ye women, that there was not onlye concluded beetwene the two Kinges ennemies together, an indissoluble frendship and league, but also (which was a more wonderfull matter) the Sabi­nes came to dwell in Roome, and of two peoples was made one, and so did this accorde much encrease the strength of Roome: thanked be the wise and couragious women whi­che were so rewarded of Romulus, [...]0. c [...]iae, that partinge the people into thirtie bandes, gaue them the names of the Sabine women. Here the L. Iulian pausinge a while, and per­ceyuinge that the L. Gaspar spake not, trowe you not (ꝙ he) that these women were occasion of goodnes to their men, and helped to the greatnesse of Roome? The L. Gaspar an­swered: No doubt, they were woorthie much praise. But in case you woulde aswell tell t [...]e faultes of women,Sp. Torpeius daughter corrupted with mo­ney by T. Tatius. as their well doinge, you woulde not haue kept hid, that in this warr of T. Tatius a woman betrayed Roome, & taught the ennemies the waye to take the Capitolium, wherby the Romanes were welnighe all vndone. The L. Iulian an­swered: You mention me one ill woman, and I tell you of infinite good. And beeside the afore named, I coulde applye to my pourpose a thousand other examples of the profit cone to Roome by women, and tell you whie there was once a Tem [...]le buylded to Venus armata▪ Venus armata and an other to Venus calua, Venus calua. and howe the feast of Handmaydens was instituted to Iuno, bicause the Handmaidens once deliue­red [Page] Roome from the guiles of the ennemies. But lea­uinge all these thinges a part, that couragious act for dis­coueringe the conspiracye of Catilina, for whiche Cicero is so praised, had it not cheeflye his beeginninge of a com­mune woman, which for this may be said to haue bin the occasion of al the good that Cicero boasteth he did the com­mune weale of Roome? And in case I had sufficient time,Fului [...]. I would (may happe) showe you also that women haue oftentimes corrected men of manye vices: but (I feare me) my talke hath alreadye bine ouerlong and combrous. Therfore sins I haue accordinge to my pour fulfilled the charge that these Ladies haue geuen me, I meane to giue place to him that shall speake more woorthier matters to be heard, then I can. Then the L. Emilia▪ do you not de­priue (ꝙ she) women of the true praises due vnto them. And remembre thoughe the L. Gaspar and perchaunce the L▪ Octauian to, heare you with noisomnesse, yet doe we and these other Lordes herken to you with pleasure. Not­withstanding [...] the L. Iulian wou [...]e there haue ended, but all the Lordes beegane to ent [...]eat him to speak [...], Wherfore he saide laughinge: Least I should prouoke my L. Gaspar to be mine enemy any more then he is, I will but bree [...]ly tell you of certein that come into my minde, leauinge manye that I could recite vnto you. Afterward he proceaded. Whan Philipp Demetrius sonne, was about the Citie of Scio, and had l [...]yed siege to it, he caused to be proclaymed, yt what euer bondemen woulde forsake the Citie and flee to him, he promised them liberty and their maisters wiues. The spite of wom [...]n for this so shamefull a proclimation was such, that they came to the walles with weapon, & fought so fierslye,Philippus kinge of Mac [...]doni [...] sonne to Deme [...]s. that in a smalle time they droue Philipp awaye with shame and losse, which the men could not do. T [...]ese selfe same women beeing with their husbandes. Fathe [...]s and brethren that went into banishment, [...]fter th [...]y came into Leuconia, did a no le [...]se glorious act, then this was. For the Erythreans that were there with their [...]derate [...], [Page] made warr against these Sciotis, which not able to hould [...] out, came to accorde with composition to depart onlye i [...] their doblet and shirt out of the Citie. The women hea­ringe of this so shamefull a composition, were muche of­fended, reuilinge them, that leauinge their weapons, they would issue out like naked men emonge their enne­mies. And whan they made answere that it was alreadi [...] so condicioned, they willed them to carye their shield and speare, and leaue their clothes, and answere their enne­mies that this was their arraye. And in so doinge by their womens counsell, they couered a greate part of the shame, which they coulde not cleane auoide. Likewise whan Cirus had discomfitted in a battaile the armye of the Persians, The stout hert of wo­men. as they rann a waye, in their fleeinge they mett with their women without the gates, who comminge to them, saide: Whither flee ye you cowardes? Entende ye perhappes to hide you in vs from whens ye came? These and suche like woordes the men hearinge and perceiuing howe muche in courage they were inferiour to their wo­men, were ashamed of themselues, and retourning backe again to their ennemies fought with them a freshe and gaue them the ouerthrowe. Whan the L. Iulian had hither­to spoken, he s [...]ayed, and tourning him to the Dutchesse, said: Now (Madam) you will licence me to houlde my peace. The L. Gaspar answered: It is time to houlde youre peace, whan you knowe not what to saye more. The L. Iulian saide smiling: You prouoke me so, that ye maye chaunce be oc­cupied all night in hearing the praises of women. And ye shall vnderstande of manye Spartane women that much re­ioyced at the glorious death of their children: and of them that forsooke them or slue them with their owne handes whan they hard they vsed dastardlinesse. Again how ye Sa­guntine women in ye destruction of their Countrey, tooke weapon in hand against Hanniballes souldiers. And how ye armie of the Dutch men vanquished by Marius, their women not obteininge their suite to liue free in Roome in seruice [Page] with y virgins Vestalles, killed themselues euerie one with their yonge children. And a thousand mo that al auntient Histories are full of. Then said the L. Gaspar: tushe (my L. Iulian) God woteth how these matters passed, for those ti­mes are so farr from vs, that many lyes may be toulde, & none there is that can reproue them. The L. Iulian said: In case you will measure in euerye time the woorthinesse of women with mens, ye shall finde yt they haue neuer bine nor yet presently are any whit inferiour to m [...]n. For lea­uinge apart those so auntient, if ye come to the time whā the Gothes raigned in Italy, ye shall finde that there was a queene emōg them Amalasunta yt ruled a long while wt marueilous wisdome.Amalasunta. Theodolinda Theodora. Afterward Theodolinda queene of ye Lon­gobardes, of singuler vertue. Theodora Empresse of Greece. And in Italy emong manye other was a most singuler La­dye the Countesse Matilda, Countess [...] Matilda. who prai [...]es I leaue to be toulde of Count Lewis, bicause she was of his house. Nay quoth the Count, it is youre part, for you knowe it is not meete that a man shoulde praise his owne. The L. Iulian continued on.V [...]bin. Mantua. Ferra [...]a. And how many famous in times past finde you of this most noble house of Montefeltro? Howe manye of the house of Gonzaga, of Este and Pij? In case we will then speake of ye time present, we shall not neede to seeke Examples farr fett, for we haue them in the house. But I will not serue my pourpose with them whom we see in presence, least ye should seeme for courteisie to graunt me it, that in no wise ye can denye me. And to goe oute of Italy [...], remembre ye, in oure dayes we haue seene Ann Frenche Queene a verye great Ladye,Ann french Queene. no lesse in vertue then in State: and if in iustice and mildenesse, liberalitye and holynesse of lief, ye lust to compare her to the Kynges Charles and Lewis (whyche had bine wyef to bothe of them) you shall not finde her a iott inferiour to them.L. Margaret. Beehoulde the Ladye Margaret daughter to the Emperour Maximilian, whyche wyth great wyse­dome and iustyce hitherto hath ruled and still doeth her [Page] State. But omitting all other, tell me (my L. Gaspar) what kinge or what Prince hath there bine in our dayes, or yet many yeeres beefore in Christendome, that deserueth to be compared to Queene Isabel of Spaine? [...]bel Queene of Spaine. The L. Gaspar an­swered: kinge Ferdinande her husbande. The L. Iulian saide: This will I not denie. For sins the Queene thought him a woorthie husbande for her and loued and obserued him somuch, yt can not be said nay, but he deserued to be compared to her. And I thinke well the reputacion he gote by her was a no lesse dowerie then the kingdome of Castilia. Nay, answered the L. Gaspar, I beleaue rather of manie of kinge Ferdinandes actes Queene Isabel bore the praise.Praise of her Then saide the L. Iulian: In case the people of Spaine, the Nobles, priuate persons, both men & women, poore & rich, be not al agreed together to lye in her praise, there hath not bine in our time in the world a more cleere example of true goodnesse, stoutnes of courage, wisdome, religion, honestie, courteisie, liberalitie, to be breef, of all vertue, then Queene Isabel. And where the renoume of that Ladye in euerie place and with all Nations is ve­rye great, they that liued with her and were present at all her doinges, do all affirme this renoume to be spronge of her vertue and desertes. And whoso will waye her actes, shall soone perceiue the truth to be so. For leauinge a­part infinite thinges that make triall of this, and might be toulde, if it were our pourpose, euerye man knoweth yt in the first beginninge of her reigne, she founde the grea­test part of Castilia possessed by great Astates: Yet recoue­red she the wholl again, so iustly and in such sort that they dispossessed themselues continued in a great good affecti­on, and were willing to make surrender of that they had in possession. It is also a most knowen thinge with what courage and wisedome she alwaies defended her realmes from most puissant ennemies. And likewise to her a­lone may be geuen the honour of the glorious conquest of the kingdome of Granada, whiche in so longe and sharpe a [Page] warr against stubborne ennemies, that fought [...]or their liuelode, for their lief, for their law, and to their weening in Goddes quarell, declared euermore with counsell and with her owne person somuch vertue & prowesse, as per­happes in oure time fewe Princis haue had the stomake, not onlye to folowe her steppes, but to enuie her. Bee­side this, all that knewe her, report that there was in her suche a diuine maner of gouernment, that a man woulde haue weened that her will onlye was almost inoughe to make euerye man without any more businesse, to do yt he ought: so that scase durst a man in his owne [...]ome & in se­crete commit any thinge that he suspected [...] woulde dis­please her. And of this a great part was cause the won­derfull iudgement which she had in knowinge and thou­singe ministers meete for the offices she entended to place them in. And so well could she ioigne the rigour of iustice with the mildenesse of mercye and liberalitie, that there was no good person in her dayes that coulde complaine he had bine smallye rewarded, ne any [...] yll, to sore punis­shed. Wherfore emonge her people toward her, there sprange a verie great reuerence diriued of loue and feare, which in all mens mindes remayneth still so settled, that a man woulde thinke they looked she yt should beehoulde them from heauen, and there aboue eyther praise or dys­praise them. And therfore with her name, & wt the wayes which she ordeined, those Realmes are still ruled, in wise that albeit her lief wanteth, yet her authoritie lyueth, like a whie [...]e that longe swynged about with violence, keepeth ye same course a good while after of it self, though no man moue it anye more. Consider you beeside this (my L. Gaspar) that in oure time all the great men of Spaine and renowmed in what euer thinge, haue bine made by Queene Isabel. Ferdinando. Gonsaluo. And the great Capitain Gonsalue Ferdinande was more setbye for it, then for all his famous victories and excellent and couragious actes, that in peace & warr haue made him so notable and famous, that in case fame [Page] be not vnkinde, she will for euer spred abrode to ye worlde his immortall prayses, and make proof that in oure age we haue had fewe Kynges or great Princis, that by him haue not bine surmounted in noble courage, knowleage and all vertue. To retourn therfore to Italye, I saye vn­to you that we haue not wanted here also moste excellent Ladies.Queenes of Naples. For in Naples we haue two Queenes, and not longe a go in Naples likewyse di [...]d the other Queene of Hungarye, Queen of Hungary. as excellent a Ladye as you knowe anye, and to be compared well inoughe to the mightye and glorious kinge Mathew Coruin her husbande. Likewise the Dut­chesse Isabell of Aragon most woorthie sister to kinge Ferdi­nande of Naples, Dut. Isabel of Aragon. which as golde in the fire, so in the stormes of fortune hath she showed her vertue and prowesse. If you will come into LumbardyIsabel Marq. of Mantua. you shall marke the Ladye Isabell marquesse of Mantua, whose moste excellent vertues shoulde receyue great wronge in speakinge of them so temperatelye, as whose will speake of them in this place must be driuen to do. I am sorye moreouer that you all knew not the Dutchesse Beatrice of Millane her sister, yt you might neuer again wonder at a womās wit.Dut. Beatri­ce of millane Dut. Elio­nor of Fer­ [...]ara. And y Dut­ches Elionor of Aragon Dutches of Ferrara, & mother to both these Ladies whom I haue named, was suche a one, that her moste excellent vertues gaue a good triall to all the worlde, that she was not onlye a woorthie daughter to a kinge, but also deserued to be a Queene ouer a farr grea­ter State then all her auncestours possessed. And to tell you of an other: Howe manie menne knowe you in the worlde, woulde abide the bitter strokes of fortune so pacientlye, as Queene Isabell of Naples hath done? Whiche for all the losse of her kingdome, banishment and deathe of kinge Fridericke her husbande and two sonnes,Queene I­sabel of Na­ples. and im­prisonment of the Duke of Calabria her eldest, yet still sho­weth her selfe a Queene: and so beareth out the mysera­ble inconueniences of wretched pou [...]rtie, that euery man maye see, thoughe she hath chaunged fortune, yet hathe [Page] [...]he not altered condicion. I omitt the naminge vnto you of infinite other great Ladies,Pisan [...] and also women of lowe degre, as many Pisanes that in defence of their coun­trye against Florentines, haue declared that noble courage without any feare of death, that the most inuincible cou­rages coulde doe that euer were in the worlde: Wherfore certein of them haue bine renowmed by many noble Po­etes. I coulde tell you of certein most excellent in let­ters, in musicke, in peinctinge, in caruinge, but I wil not any more go searching out emonge these examples, whi­che are most knowen to you all. It sufficeth, that if in youre myndes ye thinke vpon women whom you youre selues knowe, it shall be no harde matter for you to vn­derstande, that they are not most commonlye in prowesse or woorthinesse inferiour to their fathers, brethren and husbandes: and that manye▪ haue bine occasion of good­nesse to menne, and manie times broken them of manye of their vices. And where presentlye there are not founde in the worlde these great Queenes that go to conquer farr Countreys, and make great buildinges, Piramides & Cities, as Thomiris Queene of Scithia, Artemisia, Zenobia, Semiramis, or Cleopatra, no more are there also men like vnto Caesar, Alexander, Scipio, Lucullus, & the other no­ble Romane Capitanes. Say not so, answered then Phrisio laughing,These quee­nes gaue themselues to all their appe­tites. for presētly there are more found like Cleopatra or Semiramis, then euer there were. And thoughe they haue not so many states, poures & riches, yet there wāteth not in them good wil to counterfeit them at ye least in giuing themselues to pleasure, & satisfiyng al their lustes asmu­che as they may. The L. Iulian said: You will euer Phrisio passe your boūdes. But in case there be found some Cleo­patres, there want not for them infinit Sardanapalles, Sardanapal [...]s a king in Assiria mon­strous in all kinde of lecherie. whiche is much woorse. Make not this comparason ꝙ the L. Gaspar then, & beleaue not that men are so incontinent, as wo­men be: and where they were so, yet shoulde it not be woorse. For of the incontinencye of women arrise in­finite [Page] inconueniences, that do not of mens. And therfore (as it w [...]s well said yesterday) they haue wisely ordeined that it may be lawfull for them to be out of the way without blame in all other thinges, that they maye applye their force to kepe them selues in this one vertue of chastitie, without the which children were vncertein, and the bonde that knitteth all the world together by bloode and by ye loue that naturallye ech man hath to that is borne him, shoulde be lewsed. Therfore a wanton lief in women is lesse to be borne withall then in men, that carie not their children nine monthes in their bodye. Then answered the L. Iulian: Doubtlesse these be pretie argumentes that ye make, I merueile you put them not in writinge. But tell me. For what cause is it ordeined that a wanton lief shoulde not be so shamefull a matter in men, as in women? Consideringe if they be by nature more vertuous and of greater prowesse,The wanton lief of m [...]n make womē vnchast. they maye also the easelier kepe themselues in this vertue of continencie: & children should be no more nor lesse certein, for if women w [...]re geuen to wanton liuing, so men were continent, and consented not to the wantonnesse of wo­men, they emonge them selues and without anye other helpe could not beare children.Men haue calenged a [...]. But if you wil tel ye troth, you your self know, that we haue of our owne authority claymed a libertie, wherby we will haue selfe same of­fences in vs verye light and otherwhile woorthie praise, and in women not sufficientlye to be punished, but with a shamefull death, or at the least euerlastinge sclaunder. Therfore sins this opinion hath taken root, me thinketh it a meete matter to punish them in like maner sharpely, that with lyes bringe vp a sclaunder vpon women. And I beleaue that euerie worthie gentilman is bounde to de­fende alwaies with weapon, where n [...]ede requireth, the truth: and especially whan he knoweth any woman fals­lye reported of to be of litle honestie. And I, answered the L. Gaspar smilinge, do not onlye affirme to be euerye worthye gentilmans dutye that you saye, but also take it [Page] for great courtesy and honestie to couer some offence that by mishappe or ouermuch loue a woman is renn into. And thus you may see that I am more on womens side, where reason beareth me oute, then you be. I denie not that men haue taken a litle libertie, and that bicause they know by the commune opinion, that to them wanton li­uing is not so sclaunderous as to women, which through the weakenes of their kinde, are muche more enclined to appetites, then men: and in case they absteine otherwhile from satisfiynge their lustes, they doe it for shame, not that will is not moste readye in them, and therfore haue men layed vppon them feare of sclaunder for a bridle, to keepe them (in a maner) whether they will or no in this vertue, without the whiche (to saye the trothe) they were litle to be set bye: for the world hath no profit by women, but for gettinge of children. But the like is not of men, whiche gouerne Cities, armies, and doe so manye other waightye matters,The conti­nencie of Alexander toward Ba­rius wief and daugh­ters. Q. Cur [...] lib. iii. Ca [...]thago noua. The conti­nency of Scipio toward a yong La­dye betro­thed to Al­lucius a lord among the C [...]ltiberians▪ Xenocrates. the whiche (sins you will so haue it) I will not dispute, how women coulde do, yt sufficeth they do it not. And whan it was meete for men to make triall of their continencie, aswell howe they passed women in this vertue, as in the rest, althoughe you graunt it not. And about this, will not I reherse vnto you so many His­tories or fables, as you haue done, I remit you to the con­tinencie onlie of two most mightie personages, youthfull and vpon their victorye, whiche is wont to make haute men of lowest degree. And the one is, the great Alexan­der toward the most beawtiful women of Darius his enne­mie and discomfited. The other, Scipio, vnto whom bee­inge XXIIII yeeres of age, and hauinge wonn by force a Citie in Spaine, there was brought a most beawtiful and noble Damisell taken emonge manye other. And whan Scipio vnderstoode that she was affiansed to be a Lorde of the Countrey, he did not only absteine from all dishonest act towarde her, but vndefiled restored her to her husband and a large gift withall. I coulde tell you of Xenocrates, [Page] which was so continent, that a most beawtifull woman lyinge naked by his side and dalying with him and vsing all the wayes sh [...] coulde (in which matters she was verie well practised) she had neuer the pour to make him once showe the least signe of wantonnesse, for all she bestowed a wholl night about it. And of Pericles that did no more but heare one prayse with ouermuche earnestnesse the well fauourednesse of a boye,Pericles re­prehended Sophocles for sayinge O puerum pulchrum. and he tooke him vp sharp­lye for it. And of manye other most continent of their owne free wil, and not for shame or feare of punishment, that compelleth the greatest part of women to kepe them selues vpright in this vertue, whiche notwithstandinge deserue much praise withall: and whoso falselye bringeth vp of them a sclaunderous report of vncleannesse of ly­uinge, is worthie (as you haue said) very sore punishmēt. Then spake the L. Cesar whiche had helde his peace a good while: Iudge you in what sort the L. Gaspar speaketh in the dispraise of women, whan these are the matters that he speaketh in their praise. But if the L. Iulian will giue me leaue, that I maye in his steade answere him certein few matters, as touchinge where (in mine opinion) he hath falselye spoken against women, it shall be good for him & me bothe. For he shall rest him a while, & shall afterward the better go forwarde to speake of some other perfection of the Gentilwoman of the Palaice, and I shall haue a good tourne that I haue occasion to execute iointlye with him this dutie of a good knight, whiche is to defende the truth. Mary I beseche ye, answered the L. Iulian: for me thinke I haue alreadye fulfilled accordinge to my poure, that I ought, and this communication nowe is out of the pourpose that I went about. The L Cesar then beegane: I will not nowe speake of the profit that the worlde hath by women beeside the bearinge of children, for it is well inoughe declared howe necessarye they be, not onlye to oure beeinge, but also to oure well beeinge. But I saye (my L Gaspar) that in case they be as you affirme more in­clined [Page] to appetites, then men, and notwithstandinge ab­steine more then men (which you your selfe graunt) they are so much ye more woorthie praise, as their kinde is lesse able to withstande naturall appetites. And if you saye they do it for shame, I can not see but for one vertue you giue them two.Shame. For in case shame can doe more in them then appetite, and throughe it refraine from yll doynge, I esteame this shame (which in conclusion is nothinge els but feare of sclaunder) a moste sildome vertue and reig­ninge in verie fewe menne. And if I coulde without infinite reproche to menne, tell howe manye of them be drowned in vnshamefastnesse and impudencye (whiche is the vice contrarie to this vertue) I shoulde infect these de­uoute eares that heare me. And for moste part these kinde of iniurious persons both to god and nature, are menne wel stricken in yeeres,Iniurious persons to God and nature. which professe some preest­hoode, some Philosophye, some diuinitie, and rule Com­mune weales with suche Catoes grauitie in countenance, that it maketh an outwarde showe of all the honestye in the worlde, and alwaies alleage woman kinde to be most incontinent, where they at no time finde them selues more agreeued, then at the want of their naturall lusty­nesse, yt they may satisfie their abominable desires, whi­che still abide in the minde after nature hath taken them from their bodye, and therfore manye times finde oute wayes, where force preueyleth not. But I will not tell farther. It fuffyceth for my pourpose ye graunt ye wo­men absteine more from vncleane liuinge, then menne. And sure it is, that they are not kept short with any other bridle, then what they put vpon them selues. And that it is true, the moste part of them that be kept vnder with ouerstreict looking to, or beaten of their husbandes or fa­thers, are lesse chaste, then they that haue some libertye. But generallye a greate bridle to women, is the zeale of true vertue and the desire of good name, whyche manye that I haue knowen in my dayes more esteame,Zeale of true vertue and good report. [Page] then their owne lief. And in case you wil tell the troth, euerie one of vs hath seene most noble yonge menne, dis­creete, wise, of prowes & welfauoured spend, many yeeres in louinge, sparinge for nothinge that might entice, to­kens, suites, teares: to be short, whatsoeuer may be ima­gined, and all but lost labour. And if it might not be tould me that my condicions neuer deserued I shoulde be belo­ued, I woulde alleage my self for a witnesse, which more then once throughe the vnchaungeable and ouerstedfaste honestie of a woman was nighe deathes doore. The L. Gaspar answered: marueile you not therat for women that are suid to, alwayes refuse to fulfill his request that su­ith to them, but those that are not suid to, sue to others. The L. Cesar said: I neuer knewe them that haue bine su­id to by women, but manye there be that perceiuinge they haue attempted in vaine and spent their time fond­lye, renn to this noble reuenge, and saye that they had plentie of the thinge whiche they did but caste in their minde.Sclaunde­rous persons of womens honesties. And to their weeninge, to report yll and to stu­dye for inuentions how to bringe vp sclaunderous tales of some woorthie gentilwoman, is a kinde of Courtiers. But these kinde of persons that knauishelye make their vaunt of anye woman of price, be it true or false, deserue very sore correction & punishment. And if it be otherwhile bestowed vpon them, it can not be saide howe muche they are to be commended that do this office. For in case they tell lyes, what mischiefe can be greater then to take from a woorthy woman with guile the thinge which she more esteameth then her lief? And no other cause, but ye ought to make her renowmed with infinite prayses. If again, it be true they say, what peine can suffice so trayte­rous a person, that rendreth suche ingratitude in recom­pence to a Gentilwoman, whiche wonne with his false flattringes, feigned teares, continuall suites, bewaylin­ges, craftes, deceites, and periuries hath suffred her selfe to be lead to loue ouermuche, afterward without respect, [Page] hath giuen herselfe vnheedfullie for a praye to so wycked a spirit? But to answere you beeside to this wonderfull continencye of Alexander & Scipio which you haue alleaged, I saye, that I will not denie but eche of them did a deede woorthie much praise. Notwithstandinge least ye should saye that in rehersinge to you auntient matters, I toulde you fables, I will alleage a woman of oure time of base degree,An example of true conti­nencye. who notwithstanding showed a farr greater con­tinency then anye of these two great astates. I say vnto you therfore y. I knewe once a welfauoured and tender yonge woman, whose name I tell you not, for giuynge matter to manye leude persons to report yll, whiche as­sone as they vnderstande a woman to be in loue, make an yll descantinge vpon it. She therfore beloued of a woor­thie and faire condicioned yonge Gentilman, was bent with hert and minde to loue him. And of this not I a­lone, vnto whom of her owne accord she vttered trustful­lye the wholl matter, no otherwise then if I had bine, I will not say a brother, but an inward sister of herres, but all that beehelde herr in companye of the beloued yonge m an, were well weettinge of her passion. She thus fer­uentlye louinge, as a most louing minde coulde loue, con­tinued two yeeres in suche contynencie, that she neuer made anye token to this yonge man of the loue that she bore him, but suche as she coulde not hide from him. At no time she woulde speake with him, nor receiue any let­ters from him or tokens, where there neuer passed daye but she was tempted with both the one and the other. And howe she longed for it, that wote I well, for yf other­while she coulde priuilie gete anye thinge that had bine the yonge mans, she was so tender ouer it, that a manne woulde haue thought that of it had spronge her lief and all her ioye. Yet woulde she neuer in so long a time con­tent him with other, then to beehoulde him and be seene of him again, & somtime happening to be at open feastes, daunce with him as she did with others. And bicause [Page] there was no great difference in their degree, she and the yonge man coueted that so great a loue might haue a luc­kye ende, and be man and wief together. All the men and women in the Citie desired the same, sauinge her cruell father, which of a weywarde and straunge opinion min­ded to beestowe her vpon an other more welthie. And this was not by the vnluckye mayden otherwise gainstoode, then with most bitter teares. And after this vnfortunate mariage was cōcluded with great compassion of the peo­ple there, and despaire of the poore louers, yet did not this stroke of fortune serue to roote vp so grounded a loue in the hert of ech other, but lasted afterwarde the terme of three yeeres, albeit she full wiselye dissembled it, & sought euerye waye to cutt in sunder those desires, whiche now were past hope. And in this while she folowed on still in her set pourpose of continencye, and perceiuinge she could not honestly haue him, whom she worshipped in ye world, she chose not to haue him at all, and continued in her wont not to accept messages, tokens nor yet his lookes. And in this resolued determination the seelie soule van­quished with moste cruell affliction, and wexed through longe passion verie feint, at the three yeeres ende, died. Rather woulde she forgoo her contentacions and pleasu­res so much longed for, finally her lief, then her honestie. And yet wanted she no meanes nor wayes to fulfill her desire most secretlye, and without perill either of sclaun­der or anye other losse. And for all that, refrained she from the thinge of herselfe that she so muche coueted, and for the whiche she was so continuallye attempted by the person whom alone in the world her desire was to please. And to this was she not driuen for feare or anye other respect, but onlye for the zeale of true vertue. What will you say of an other?An other ex­ample of a mayden. yt for sixe monthes almost night­lye laye with a moste deere louer of herres, yet in a gar­dein full of most sauoury fruites, tempted with her owne most feruent longinge and with the petitions and teares [Page] of him that was moore deere to herr then her owne selfe, refrayned from tastinge of them. And for all she was wrapped and tyed in the streict chaine of those beloued armes, yet neuer yelded she herselfe as vanquished, but preserued vndefiled the floure of her honestie. Trowe you not (my L. Gaspar) that these be deedes of continency [...] alike to Alexanders? Whiche most feruentlye inamored not with the women of Darius, but with this renowme and greatnesse, that pricked him forwarde with the spurres of glorye to abide peines and daungers to make himself im­mortall, set at nought not onelie other thinges, but hys owne lief, to gete a name aboue all men? and do we mar­ueile with suche thoughtes in his hert that he refrayned from a thinge whiche he coueted not greatlye? for sins he neuer sawe those women beefore, it is not possible that he shoulde be in loue with them at a blushe, but rather perhappes abhorred them for Darius his ennemies sake. And in this case euerie wanton act of his towarde them, had bine an iniurye and not loue. And therfore no great matter if Alexander, whiche no lesse with noblenes of cou­rage then marciall prowesse subdued the world, abstained from doing iniury to women. The continency in like case of Scipio is doubtlesse much to be commēded,Scipio. yet if ye con­sider wel, not to be compared to these two womens: for he in like maner also refrayned from a thing that he coueted not, beeinge in his ennemies countrey, a fresh Capitain, in the beeginning of a most weightie enterprise, leauing beehind him in his Countrie such expecta [...]ion of himself, & hauing beeside to giue accompt to rigorous iudges, y of­ten times chastised not only ye great, but ye least offences of al, & emōg them he wist well he had enemies, knowing also if he had otherwise done, bicause she was a noble dā ­sel & espoused to a noble mā, he should haue purchased him so many enemies & in such sort, that many wold haue dri­uen of & perchaunce haue set him cleane beeside his victo­ry. Thus for so many respectes & so weighty, he absteined [Page] from a light & hurtfull appetite, in showing continency & a freeherted welmeaning, y which (as it is written) gote him all the hartes of that people: and an other armie stood him in steade with fauour to vanquish mens hertes, whi­che perhappes by force of armes had bine inuincible.Gn. Noeuius Val. Antiates. So that this maye rather be termed a warlike pollicie, then pure continencie: Albeit beeside, ye report of this matter is not all of ye purest, for some writers of authoritie affirme that this Damsell was enioyed of Scipio in the pleasures of loue: and of this I tell you ye maye depose vpon. Phrisio said: Perhappes ye haue founde it in the Gospell. I haue seene it my self, answered the L. Cesar, and therfore I haue a much more certeintye of this,Alcibiades was Socra­tes scholer the welfa­uouredst yonge boy in al Athens, then you or anye man els can haue that Alcibiades arrose no otherwise from Socrates bed then children do from their fathers beddes: for to saye the truth, a straunge place and time was bed and night to view with fired minde the pure beawty which is said So­crates loued without anye vnhonest desire, especiallye lo­uinge better the beawtie of the minde, then of the bodye: but in boyes, not in old men, for all they were wiser. And in good sooth a better example could not haue bine pyked out to praise the continencie of men,Xenocrates. then this of Xenocra­tes, which occupied in his studye fastned and bound by his profession, whiche is Philo [...]ophie, that consisteth in good maners,Lais of Corinth. & not in wordes, old, cleane spent of his natural lustinesse, nothinge able, no not in makinge profer to be able, refrayned from a commune haunted woman, which for the names sake might abhorr him. I woulde sooner haue beleaued he had bine continent, if he had declared a­ny token to haue bine come to his right senses again, and in that case haue vsed continencie: or elles abstained from the thinge which olde men couett more then the battailes of Venus, Olde men de­syrous of wine. namelye from wine. But to establishe well con­tinencie in olde age, it is written that he was full and la­den with it. And what can be saide to be more wider from the continencie of an olde man, then dronkenn [...]sse? [Page] And in case the shonning of Uenus matters in that slow and colde age deserueth so much praise, how much should it deserue in a tender mayden, as those two I haue tould you of? Of whiche the one most streic [...]lye bridlinge all her senses, not onlie deni [...]d her eyes their light, but also toke from the hart those thoughtes, whiche alone had bine a moste sweete foode a longe time to kepe him in lief. The other feruentlye in loue, beeinge so often times alone in the a [...]mes of him whom she loued more a great deale then all the world beeside, fighting [...] against her owne self and against him that was more deere to her then her owne [...]elfe, ouercame that feruent desire, that many times hath and doth ouercome so manie wise men. Trow ye not nowe (my L. Gaspar) that writers may be ashamed to make mention of Xenocrates in this case, and to recken him for chaste? where if a man coulde come bye the knowleage of it, I wold lay a wager that he slept al that night vntil the next day diner time, like a dead bodye buried in wine: and for all the stirringe that woman made, coulde not once o­pen his eyes, as though he had bine cast into a dead slepe. Here all the men and women laughed, and the L. Emilia, surelye, my L. Gaspar (quoth she) yf you will beethinke your selfe a litle better, I beleaue you shall finde out some other prety example of continencye alike vnto this. The L. Cesar an­swered: Is not this other (thinke ye Madam) a goodly ex­ample of continencye which he hath alleaged of Pericles? I muse much that he hath not aswell called to rehersall the continencie and pretie saiyng that is written of him that a woman asked to great a summ of for one night, and he answered her, that He minded not to bye repentance so deere. Demosthe­nes answ [...] to Lais of Corinth that asked him xxiiii▪ li. for one night. They ceased not laughinge, and the L. Cesar. after he had stayed a while, my L. Caspar (quoth he) perdon me, yf I tell troth. For in conclusion these be the wonderful continen­cies that men write of themselues, accusinge women for incontinent, in whom are dailye seene infinit tokens of continencie. And certe [...]e if ye ponder it aright, there is [Page] no fortresse so impringable, nor so well fensed that bee­inge assaulted with the thousandeth part of the inginnes and guyles that are practised to conquer the steadie mind of a woman, would not yelde vp at the first assault. How manye trained vp by great astates and enriched throughe them and aduaunced to great promotion, hauing in their handes their fortresses, houldes and Castles, whervpon depended their whol state, their lief and al their gooddes, without shame or care t [...] be named Traiters ▪ haue disloyal­lye giuen them to whom they ought not?Trayters. And would god in our dayes there were suche scarcitie of these kinde of persons, that we might not haue much more a do to find out some one, that in this case hath done that he ought, then to name suche as haue failed therin. See you not so many other that daily wander about to kill men in thic­kettes,Theeues. and rouinge by sea, onlye to robb mens money? Howe manye Prelates make marchaundise with the goodes of the Churche of god?Prelates. How manye Lawiers fal­sifie testaments?Lawyers, What periuries make they? How many false euidences, onlye to gete money? How manye Phisi­tiens poison the diseased,Phisitiens. onlye for it? Howe manye again for feare of death do most vile matters? And yet all these so stiff and hard battayles doeth a tender & delicate yonge woman gainstande manye times, for sundrye there haue bine, yt haue chose rather to dye then to lose their honesty: Then said the L. Gaspar: These (my L. Cesar) bee not I be­leaue, in the world nowadayes. The L. Cesar answered: And I will not alleage vnto you them of olde time. But this I say, that manye might be found out, and are daily, that in this case passe not for death. And nowe it com­meth into my mynde that whan Capua was sacked by the French m [...]n (which is not yet so longe since, but you may full well beare it in minde) a well fauoured yong gentyl­woman of Capua, beeinge lead out of her house where she had bine taken by a companye of Gascoignes, Examples of the chastitie of women. whan she came to the ryuer that renneth by Capua, she feigned to [Page] plucke on her shoe, insomuch that her leader lett her goe a litle, and she streight waye threw herselfe into the riuer.Vlturno▪ What will you saye [...]f a poore Countrey wenche, that not manye monthes ago at Gazuolo beeside Mantua gone into ye fielde a lea [...]inge with a sister of herres, sore a thirst entred into a house to drinke water, where the good man of the house, that was yonge, seeinge her meetlye welfa­uoured and alone, takynge her in his armes, firste wyth faire woordes, afterwarde with threatninges attempted to frame her to do his pleasure, and where she striued still more obstinatelye, at length with manye blowes and by force ouercame her. She thus tossed and sobbinge, re­tourned into the fielde to her sister, and for al the instance that she made vppon herr, woulde neuer disclose to herr what oultrage she receiued in that house, but still draw­inge homewarde, and showinge herselfe apeaced by litle and litle, and to speake without desturbance, she gaue her certein instructions. Afterward when she came to ye Olio, whiche is the riuer that renneth by Gazuolo, Olio▪ keapinge her somewhat a louf from her sister, that knew not nor ima­gined that she minded to do, sodeinlye cast her self into it. Her Sister sorowfull and weepinge, folowed downe by the riuers side as faste as she coulde, whiche caried her a good pace awaye, and euerye time the poore soule appea­red aboue water, her sister threw in to her a cor [...]e that she had brought with her to binde ye corne withall. And for al the corde came to her handes more then once (for she was yet nigh inoughe to the bancke) the stedfast and resolued girle alwaies refused it and pushed it from her. And thus shonninge all succour that might saue her lief, in a short space died. She was neyther stirred by noblenes of blood, nor by feare of death or sclaunder, but onlye by the greef of her lost maidenheade. Nowe by thys you may ga­ther, howe manye other women doe deedes moste woor­thye memorye, sins (as a manne maye saye) three dayes [Page] a go, this hath made such a triall of her vertue, and is not spoken of, ne yet her name knowen. But had not the death folowed at that time of the Bishop of Mantua vncle to oure Dutchesse, the bancke of the Olio in ye place where she cast herselfe in, had nowe bine garnished with a verie faire sepulture, for a memorie of so glorious a soule, that deserued somuch the more cleere renowme after death, as in lief it dwelled in an vnnoble bodye. Here the L. Cesa [...] tooke respit a while, afterward he se [...] forwarde: In my dayes also in Roome there happened a like chaunce, and it was, that a welfauoured and well borne yonge Gentilwoman of Roome, A chaunce that happe­ned to a gentilwo­man in Roome. beeinge longe folowed after of one that showed to loue her greatly, wold neuer please him with any thing, no not somuch as a looke. So that this felow by force of money corrupted a waitinge woman of herres, who desi­rous to please him to fingre more money, was in hande with her maistresse vpon a daie, no great holye day, to go visit Saint Sebastianes Church.One of the vii. Chur­ches of Roome ii. miles with out y City. And giuinge the louer in­telligence of the wholl, and instructinge him what he had to doe, lead the yonge Gentilwoman into one of the darke. Caues vnder grounde, that whoso go to Saint Se­bastianes are w [...]nt to visit. And in it was the yonge man first closely hid, whiche perceiuinge himselfe alone with her whom he loued somuche, beegane euerye waye to ex­hort her with as faire language as he could, to haue com­passion vpon him, and to chaunge her former rigour into loue. But whan he sawe all his prayers coulde take none effect, he tourned him to threatninges. And whan they preuayled not, he all to beate her. In the ende he was full and wholye bent to haue his pourpose, if not other­wise, by force, and therin vsed the helpe of the naughtye woman that had brought her thither. Yet coulde he ne­uer do so muche as make her graunt to him, but in woor­des & deedes (althoughe her force was but small) alwaies the seelye yonge woman defended herselfe in what she coulde possible. So that what for the spite he conceiued, [Page] whan he sawe he coulde not gete his will, and what fo [...] feare least the matter shoulde come to her kinsfolkes care & make him punished for it, this mischeuous person wyth the aide of the woman that doubted the same, strangled the vnluckye yonge woman, and there left her, and ren­nynge his waye prouided for himselfe for beeinge founde out again. The waiting woman blinded with her owne offence, wist not to flee, and beeinge taken vpon certeine susspitions, confessed the wholl matter, and was therfore punished accordinge to her desertes. The body of the con­stante and noble gentilwoman with great honoure was taken out of the caue and caried to buriall within Roome ▪ with a garlande of Laurell about her heade, accompanied with an infinit number of men & women: emong whiche was not one yt brought his eyes to his home again with­out teares. And thus generallye of all the people was this rare soule no lesse bee wayled then commended. But to tell you of them yt you your selfe know, remembre you not y ye haue heard tel, as the Lady Foelix della Rouere was on her iourney to Saona, Lady Foelix della Rouere. doubting least certein sailes that were descried a farr of, had bine Pope Alexanders vesselles that pursuid her, was vtterlye resolued, if they had made towarde her, and no remedie to escape, to cast herself into the Sea. And this is not to be thought that she did v­pon anye lightnesse, for you aswell as any man, do know with what a witt and wisedome the singuler beawtie of that Ladye is accompanied. I can no lenger keepe in si­lence a woorde of our Dutchesse,Praise of the Du [...]ches that lead a widowes lief with the Duke. who liuinge XV yeeres in companye with her husbande, like a widowe, hath not onlye bine stedfast in not vttringe this to anye person in the world, but also whan she was perswaded by her owne friendes to forsake this widowheade, she chose rather to suffer banishment, pouerty, and al other kinde of misery, then to agree to that, which all other men thought great fauour and prosperitie of fortune. And as he still procea­ded in talkinge of this, the Dutchesse saide: Speake of [Page] somwhat els, and no more ado in this matter, for ye haue other thinges inoughe to talke of. The L Cesar folowed on. Full well I know that you will not denie me this (my L. Gaspar) nor you Phrisio. No doubtlesse, answered Phri­sio: but One maketh no number. Then saide the L. Cesar: Truth it is that these so greate effectes and rare vertues are s [...]ene in few women. Yet are they also that resist the battailes of loue, all to be wondred at, and such as other­while be ouercome deserue muche compassion. For sure­lye the prouocations of louers, the craftes that they vse, ye snares that they laye in wa [...]te are suche and so applyed, that it is to great a wonder, that a tender girle should es­cape them. What daye, what hour passeth at anye time that the yonge woman thus layed at is not tempted by her louer with money,The carefull diligence of louers. tokens, and al thinges that he can imaginn may please her? At what time can she euer looke out at a window, but she seeth continuallye the earnest louer passe by? With silence in woordes, but with a paire of eyes that talke. With a vexed and feint countenance. With those kindled sighes. Often times with most a­bundant teares. Whan doeth she at any time yssue out at her doores to Church or any other place, but he is alwaies in ye face of her? And at euerye tourning of a lane meeteth her in ye teeth, with such heauy pas [...]ion peinted in his eies that a man wold weene yt euen at that instāt he were rea­dy to die? I omitt his precisenesse in sundrye thinges, in­uentiōs, meery conceites, vndertaking enterprises, spor­ [...]es, daunses, games, maskeries, iustes, tourneimentes, ye which thinges she knoweth al to be taken in hand for her sake. Again, in y night time she can neuer awake, but she heareth musike, or at ye least that vnquiet spirit about the walles of her house casting furth sighes & lamētable voi­ces. If by a hap she talketh wt one of her waiting women about her, she (being already corrupted with money) hath straight way in a readinesse some pretye token, a letter, a [...]ime, or some such matter to presēt her in ye louers behalf: [Page] & here entring to pourpose, maketh her to vnderstād how this selie soule burneth, how he setteth litle by his owne lief, to do her seruice, & how he seeketh nothing of her but honesty, & that only his desire is to speake with her. Here then for all hard matters are founde out remedies, coun­terfeit kayes, laders of ropes, wayes to cast into sleepe, a trifling matter is peincted out, examples are alleaged of others that do much woorse: so that euery matter is made so easy, that she hath no more trouble, but to say, I am con­tent. And in case the poore soule maketh resistaunce but a while, they plye her with suche prouocations, and finde suche meanes, that with continuall beatynge at, they breake in sunder that is a lett to her. And many there be that perceiuing they can not preuaile with faire woor­des, fall to threatninges, & say that they wil tel their hus­bandes they are, that they be not. Other bargain bould­lye with the fathers and many times with the husbandes which for money or promotions sake giue their owne daughters and wiues for a prey against their wil. Other seeke by inchauntmentes, and witchcraftes to take from them the liberty that god hath graunted to soules, wher­in are seene wonderfull conclusions. But in a thousand yeere I coulde not repeate all the craftes that men vse to frame women to their willes, which be infinit. And bee­side them which euery man of himselfe findeth out, there hath not also wanted that hath wittily made bookes, and beestowed great study to teache how in this beehalfe wo­men are to be deceiued. Now iudge you how from so ma­nye nettes these simple dooues can be safe, tempted with so sweete a bayte. And what great matter is it then, in case a woman knowinge her self somuch beeloued & wor­shipped many yeeres together, of a noble & faire condicio­ned yong man, which a thousād times a day hasardeth his lief to serue her, & neuer thinketh vpon other but to please her wt the continuall beatinge whiche the water maketh whan it perceth the most hard marble stone, at length is [Page] brought to loue him? Is this (thinke you) so haynous a trespace, that the seelye poore creature taken with so ma­nye enticementes, deserueth not, if the woorst should fal, the perdon that many times murtherers, theues, [...]ellones and traiters haue? Wil you haue this vice so vncompera­ble great, yt bicause one woman is found to r [...]nn into it, all women kinde shoulde be cleane despised for it, & gene­rallye counted v [...]ide of continencye? Not regardinge that manye are founde moste inuincible, that against the con­tinuall flickeringe pr [...]uocations of loue are made of Di­amondes, and stiff in their infinite steadinesse, more then the rockes against the surges of the Sea? Then the L. Gas­par whan the L· Cesar stayed talkinge, beegan to make him answere, but the L. Octauian smilinge: Tushe for loue of god (quoth he) graunt him the victory, for I know ye shall doe small good, and me thinke I see you shall not onlye make all the women youre ennemies, but also the more part of the menne. The L. Gaspar laughed and said: Nay, the women haue rather great cause to thanke me. For had not I contraryed the L. Iulian and the L. Cesar, they shoulde not haue come to the knowleage so manye pray­ses as they haue giuen them. Then saide the L. Cesar: The prayses whiche my L. Iulian and I haue giuen wo­men, and many mo beeside, were most knowen, therfor [...] they haue bine but superfluous. Who weteth not that without women no contentation or delite can be felt in all this lief of oures? [...] whiche (sett them aside) were rude and without all sweetenesse, and rougher then the lief of forest wilde beastes? Who knoweth not that women rid oure hartes of al vile and dastardlye imaginations, vexa­tions, miseries, and the troublesome heauinesse that so often times accompanieth them? And in case we will consider ye truth, we shall know moreouer as touchinge ye vnderstāding of great matters, that they do not stray our wittes,The [...]oc [...] [...]ions of loue. but rather quicken them, and in warr make men past fe [...]e and hardie passinge measure. And certesse [Page] it is not possible, that in the hart of man, where once is entred the flame of loue, there should at any time reigne cowardlynesse. For he that liueth, alwaies coueteth to make himself as louely as he can, and euermore dreadeth that he take no foyle, that should make him litle set by of whom he desireth to be much set by: and passeth not to go a thousande times in a daye to his death, to declare him­selfe woorthye of that loue. Therfore whoso coulde ga­ther an armie of louers, that shoulde fight in presence of the ladies they loued, shoulde subdue the wholl world, on lesse against it on the contrarie part there were an o­ther armie likewise in loue. And to abide by, the houl­dinge out of Troye X. yeeres against all Greece:Why Troy ▪ withstoode all▪ Greece [...] yeeres. proceaded of nothinge elles but of certein louers, whiche whan they entended to issue out abrode to fight, armed themselues in the presence of their Ladies, and many times they hel­ped them themselues, and at their settinge furth rounded them some certein woord, that set them on fire and made them more then men. Afterward in fightinge they wi [...] well y they were beeheld from the walles and Toures by the Ladies, wherfore they deemed euery bould enterprise that they vndertooke, was commended of them, whiche was the greatest rewarde to them that they coulde haue in the worlde. Manye there be that houlde opinion that the victorye of kinge Ferdinande and Isabell of Spaine, against the kinge of Granada was cheeflye occasioned by women,Women the cause of the conquest of the king [...]om of Granata. for the moste times whan the armye of Spaine marched to encounter with the ennemyes, Queene Isabel set furth al­ [...]o with all her Damselles: and there were manye no­ble gentilmen that were in loue, who til they came with­in sight of the ennemies, alwaies went communing with their Ladies. Afterwarde echone takinge his leaue of his, in their presence marched on to encountre with the ennemies, with that fiersenesse of courage, that loue and desire to showe their Ladies that they were serued wyth valiaunt men, gaue them. Wherupon it beefell manye [Page] times yt a very few gentilmē of Spaine put to flight & slu [...] an infinit number of Moores, thanked be the courteious and beloued women. Therfore I wote not (my L. Gaspar) what weywarde iudgement hath lead you to dispraise women.Women the cause of wor­thie [...] Do you not see that of all comelye exercises and whiche delite the worlde, the cause is to be referred to no earthlye thynge, but to women? Who learneth to daunce featlye for other, but to please women? Who applyeth the sweetenesse of musicke for other cause, but for this? Who to w [...]ite in meeter, at the least in the mother tung, but to expresse the affections caused by women? Iudge you howe manye most noble Poemes we had bine with­out both in Greeke and Latin, Francesco▪ Pe [...]rarea. had women bine smallye re­garded of Poetes. But leauinge all other a part, had it not bine a verye great losse, in case M. Francis Petrarca, that writt so diuinlye his loues in this oure tunge, had appli­ [...]d his minde onlye to Latin matters: as he woulde haue done, had not the loue of the Damsell Laura sometime strayed him from it? I name not vnto you the fine wit­tes that are nowe in the worlde, and here present, whiche dailye brynge furthe some noble frut [...], and no [...]wythstan­dynge take their grounde onlye of the vertue and bea w­ [...]ye of women. See whether Salomon myndynge to write mysticallye verye highe and heauenlye matters,S [...]lomon to couer them wyth a gracious veile, did not feigne a feruent Dialogue full of the affection of a louer with his woman, seeminge to him that he coulde not fynde here beeneth emonge vs anye lykenesse more meete and a­greeinge wyth heauenlye matters, then the loue toward women: and in that wise and maner minded to gyue vs a litle of the smacke of that diuinitye, whiche he bothe for hys vnderstandynge and for the grace aboue o­thers, had knowleage of. Therefore thys needed no disputacyon (my L, Gaspar) or at the least so manye woor­des in the matter. But you in gainsaiynge the truth haue hindred the vnderstandinge of a thousande other [Page] pretie matters and necessary for the perfection of the gen­tilwoman of the Palaice. The L. Gaspar answered: I beleaue there can no more be said. Yet if you suppose that the L. Iulian hath not garnished her throughlye with good condicions, the fault is not in him, but in him that hath so wrought that there are no [...]o vertues in the worlde: [...]or all that there be, he hath beestowed vppon her. The Dutchesse saide smilinge: Well, you shall see that the L. Iulian will yet finde out mo beeside. The L. Iulian answered: In good sooth (Madam) me seemeth I haue sufficientlye spoken. And for my part I am well plea­sed wyth this my woman. And in case these Lordes will not haue her as she is, let them leaue her to me. Here whan all was whilt, Sir Fridericke saide: My L. Iulian, to giue you occasion to saye somewhat elles, I will but aske you a question,Entertein­ment. as touchynge that you haue willed to be the principall profession of the Gentilwoman of the Pa­layce. And this it is, that I longe to knowe howe she shoulde beehaue herselfe in a point that (to my see­mynge) is moste necessarye. For albeit the excellent qualityes whiche you haue geuen her conteine in them discretion, knowleage, iudgemente, sleight, sobermoode, and so manye other vertues, wherebye of reason she ought to haue the vnderstandynge to entertein euerye manne and in all kinde of pourpose, yet thinke I not­withstandynge aboue any other thing that it is requisite for her to knowe what beelongeth to communication of loue.To tal [...]e of loue. For euen as euerye honest Gentilmanne for an instrument to obteine the good will of women, prac­tyseth those noble exercises, precise facions and good maners whyche we haue named, euen so to this pour­pose applyeth he also hys woordes, and not onlye whan he is stirred thereto by some passion, but often times also to do honour to the woman he talketh withall, see­mynge to him that to declare to loue her is a witnes that [Page] she is woorthie of it, and that her beawtie and woorthy­nesse is suche, that it enforceth euerie manne to serue her. Therfore woulde I knowe, howe this woman in suche a case shoulde beehaue herselfe vprightlye, and howe to an­swere him that loueth her in deed, and how him that ma­keth false semblant: and whether she ought to dissemble the vnderstandinge of it, or be answerable, or shonn the matter, and howe to handle herselfe. Then said the L. Iulian: It were first needefull to teach her to knowe them that make semblant to loue, and them that loue in deede: Afterward for beeinge answerable in loue or no, I bee­leaue she ought not to be guided by any other mans will, but by her owne self. Sir Fridericke saide: Teach you her then what are the moste certein and surest tokens to des­cerne false loue from true, and what triall she shal thinke sufficient to content herselfe withall, to be out of doubt of the loue shewed her. The L. Iulian answered smiling: That wote not I, bicause men be nowadayes so craftye, that they make infinite false semblantes, and sometime weepe, whan they haue in deede a greater lust to laughe. Therefore they shoulde be sent to the constant Ile vnder the Arch of faithfull louers. But least this woman of mine (which is my charge and no mans elles, bicause she is my creature) should renn into those erroures whiche I haue seene manye other renn into, I would saye that she should not be light of credence that she is beloued: nor be like vnto some, that not onlie make not wise they vnder­stande him not that communeth with them of loue, be it neuer so farr of, but also at the first woorde accept all the prayses that be giuen them: or elles denie them after such a sort, that it is rather an alluringe for them to loue them they commune withall, then a withdrawinge of them­selues. Therfore the maner of enterteinment in reaso­ninge of loue that I will haue my woman of the Palaice to vse, shall be alwaies to shonn beeleauinge that whoso talketh of loue, loueth her anye whitt the more. And in [Page] case the Gentilman be (as manye suche there are abrode) malapert, and hath smalle respect to her in his talke, she shall shape him such an answere, that he shall plainly vn­derstande she is not pleased withall. Again, if he be de­mure and vseth sober facions and woordes of loue couert­lie, in suche honest maner, as I beeleaue the Courtier whom these Lordes haue facioned will doe, the woman shall make wise not to vnderstand him, and shal draw his woordes to another sense, seekinge alwaies sobrely with the discretion and wisdome that is alreadye said becom­meth her, to stray from that pourpose. But in case the communication be such that she can not feigne not to vn­derstande it, she shall take the wholl (as it were) for a mee­rie diuise, and make wise that she knoweth it is spoken to her rather to honour her withall, then that it is so in deede, debasinge her desertes and acknowleginge at the Gentilmans courtesie the prayses which he geueth her: & in this sort she shall be counted discreete, and shall be on the surer hande for beeinge deceiued. Thus me seemeth the Gentilwoman of the Palaice ought to behaue herself in communication of loue. Then Sir Friderick, You de­bate this matter, my L. Iulian (quoth he) as though it were requisite, that all suche as speake with women of loue, shoulde tell lyes, and seeke to deceiue them, the whiche in case it were so, I woulde say your lessons were good. But if this gentilman that enterteineth, loueth in very deede, and feeleth the passion that so tourmenteth mens hertes sometime, consider you not in what peine, in what cala­mitie and death ye put him in, whan at no time you will that the woman shall beeleaue him in any thinge he saith about this pourpose? Shall othes, teares, and so many o­ther tokens then, haue no force at all? Take heede (my L. Iulian) least a manne may thinke that beeside the naturall crueltye whiche manie of these women haue in them, you teach them get more. The L. Iulian answered: I haue spo­ken, not of him that loueth, but of him that enterteineth [Page] with communication of loue, wherein one of the necessa­riest pointes is, that woordes be neuer to seeke: and true louers as they haue a burninge hart, so haue they a colde tunge, with broken talke and sodeine silence. Therfore (may happ) it were no false principle to saye: He that loueth much, speaketh litle. Howbeit in this I beleaue there can be giuē no certein rule, by reason of ye diuersity of mens ma­ners. And I wote not what I should say, but yt ye woman be good & heedfull, and alwaies beare in mynde, that men may with a great deale lesse daunger declare themselues to loue, then women. The L. Gaspar said laughinge: Why (my L. Iulian) wil not you that this your so excellent a wo­man shall loue again, at the least whan she knoweth cer­ [...]einlye she is beeloued? consideringe if the Courtier were not loued again, it is not likelye he woulde continue in louinge her: and so shoulde she want manye fauours, and [...]heefly the homage and reuerence, wherwithal louers o­bey and (in a maner) woorship the vertue of the women beloued. In this, answered the L. Iulian, I will not coun­sel her. But I say pardee to loue, as you now vnderstand, I iudge it not meete, but for vnmaried women. For whā this loue can not ende in matrimonye, the woman muste needes haue alwaies the remorse and pricking that is had of vn [...]efull matters, and she putteth in hasarde to staine the renowme of honestie, that standeth her so much vpon. Then answered Sir Fridericke smilinge: Me thinke (my L. Iulian) this opinion of yours is verie soure and crabbed, & I b [...]leaue you haue learned it of some Frier Preacher, of them that rebuke women in loue with lay men, that their part may be the more.Maried wo­men, And me seemeth you sort ouer hard lawes to maried women, for manye there be that their husbandes beare verye sore hatred vnto without cause, and [...]ipp them at the hert, sometime in louinge other wo­men, otherwhile in woorkinge them all the displeasures they can imagin. Some are compelled by their fathers to [...]ake olde men full of diseases, [...]glesome & wey warde that [Page] make them lead their lief in continual misery. And in case it were leful for such to be diuorsed and seuered from them they be ill coopled withal, perhappes it were not to be alo­wed yt they should loue any other then their husbād. But whan eyther through ye sterres, theyr enemies, or through the diuersitie of complexion, or anie other casualtie it be­falleth, that in bed, whiche ought to be the nest of agree­ment and loue, the cursed furie of hell soweth the seede of his venime, which afterwarde bryngeth furth disdeigne, susspition and the pricking thornes of hatred, that tour­menteth those vnluckie soules bound cruelly together in ye fast lincked chaine that can not be broken but by death, why will not you haue it lefull for this woman to seeke some [...]asement for so harde a scourge? and giue vnto an o­ther that which her husbande not onelye regardeth not, but rather cleane abhorreth? I houlde well, that suche as haue meete husbandes and be beloued of them, ought not to do them iniurie: but the other in not louinge him that loueth them do them selues iniurie. Nay, they do them­selues iniurie in louinge other beeside their husbande, answered the L Iulian. Yet sins not louing is not many ti­mes in our will, if this mishap chaunce to the woman of the Palaice, that ye hatred of her husbande or ye loue of an other bendeth her to loue, I will haue her to graunt her louer nothing elles but ye minde: nor at any time to make him any certein token of loue, neither in woorde nor ges­ture, nor any other way that he may be fully assured of it. Then saide M. Robert of Bari smilinge, I appeale (my L. Iu­lian) from this iudgement of youres, and I beleaue I shall haue many felowes. But sins you will teach this currishnesse (that I maye terme it so) to maried women, will ye also haue the vnmaried to be so cruell and dis­courtious? and not please their louers at the least in somewhat? In case my woman of the Palaice, answe­red the L. Iulian, be not maryed, myndinge to loue,How maidēs shoulde loue▪ I wyll haue her to loue one, whom she maye marye, [Page] neyther will I thinke it an offence if she showe him some token of loue. In which matter I will teache her one ge­nerall rule in fewe woordes, and that is, That she showe him whom she loueth all tokens of loue, A generall [...]ule. but such as may bring into the louers minde a hope to obtein of her any dishonest matter. And to this she must haue a great respect, bicause it is an er­rour that infinit women renn into, which ordinarilye co­uett nothinge somuch as to be beawtifull: and bicause to haue manye louers they suppose is a testimonye of their beawtie, they do their best to winn them as many as they can. Therfore often times they renn at rouers in beeha­uiours of small modestie, and leauinge the temperate so­bermoode that is so sightlye in them, vse certein wanton countenaunces, with baudie woordes and gestures full of vnshamefastnesse, houldinge opinion that menne marke them and giue care to them willyngly for it, & with these facions make themselues beloued, which is false: bicause the signes and tokens that be made them, sprynge of an appetite moued by an opinion of easinesse, not of loue. Therfore will not I that my woman of the Palaice with dishonest beehauiours should appeere as though she wold offre herselfe vnto whoso wyll haue her, and allure what she can the eyes and affection of who so beehouldeth her: but with her desertes and vertuous condicions, with a­miablenesse and grace driue into the mind of whoso seeth her the verye loue that is due vnto euery thinge woorthy to be beloued: and the respect that alwaies taketh awaye hope from whoso mindeth anye dishonest matter. He then that shall be beloued of such a woman,The loue of honest wo­men. ought of rea­son to houlde himselfe contented with euerye litle token, and more to esteame a looke of herres with affection of loue, then to be altogether maister of an other. And to such a woman I wote not what to ad more, but that she be beloued of so excellent a Courtier, as these Lordes haue facioned, and she likewise to loue him, that both the one and the other may haue ful and wholy his perfection. [Page] After the L. Iulian had thus spoken he helde his peace, whan the L. Gaspar laughinge, now (quoth he) you can not complaine that the L. Iulian hath not facioned this woman of the Pa­laice most excellent. And if perdee there be any suche to be found, I say yt she deserueth well to be esteamed equall with the Courtier. The L. Emilia answered: I will at all times be bounde to finde her, whan you finde the Cour­tier. M. Robert said then: Doubtlesse it can not be saide nay, but the L. Iulians woman whiche he hath facioned is most perfect. Yet in these her last properties as touching loue, me seemeth not withstanding that he hath made her somwhat ouer crabbed, & especially where he will haue her in woordes, gestures and countenance to take cleane away all hope from the louer, & settle him as nigh as she can in despaire. For (as all menne know) the desires of man stretch not to suche kinde of matters, whereof there is no hope to be had. And althoughe at times some wo­men there haue bine, that perhappes bearing themselues loftie of their beawtie and woorthinesse: the first woorde they haue said to them that communed with them of loue hath bine, that they should neuer looke to come bye anye thinge of them that liked them: yet in countenance, and daliance together they haue afterward bine more fauou­rable to them, so that with their gentle deedes they haue tempred in part their proude woordes. But if this wo­man both in woordes, deedes and beehauiours take hope quite awaye, I beeleaue our Courtier, if he be wise, will neuer loue her, and so shall she haue this imperfection, yt she shall be without a louer. Then the L. Iulian, I wyll not (quoth he) haue my woman of the Palaice to take a­way the hope of euery thinge,Honest loue. but of dishonest matters, y which, in case the Courtier be so courteious and discreete, as these Lordes haue facioned him, he will not onelye not hope for, but not once motion. For if beawtie, maners, witt, goodnesse, knowleage, sobermoode, and so manye [Page] other vertuous condicions which we haue giuen the wo­man, be the cause of the Courtiers loue towarde her, the ende also of this loue must needes be vertuous: and if no­blenesse of birth, skilfulnes in marciall feates, in letters, in musike, gentlenesse, beeing bath in speach & in beeha­uiour indowed with so many graces, be y meanes wher­withall the Courtier compaseth the womans loue, ye end of that loue must needes be of the same condicion that the meanes are by the whiche he commeth to it. Beeside that,Sundrye kindeso [...] beawtye. as there be in the world sundrie kindes of beawtye, so are there also sundrie desires of men: and therfore it is seene that manie, perceiuinge a woman of so graue a beawtie that goinge, standinge, iestinge, dalyinge, and doinge what she lusteth, so tempreth al her gestures, that it driueth a certein reuerence into whoso behouldeth her, are agast and a ferde to serue her: and rather drawn with hope, loue those garishe and enticefull women, so del [...]cate and tender, that in their woordes, gestures and counte­nance declare a certein passion somewhat feeble, that pro­miseth to be easely brought and tourned into loue. Some to be sure from deceytes, loue certein other so lauishe both of their eyes, woordes and gestures, that they do what e­uer first commeth to minde, with a certein plainesse that bideth not their thoughtes. There want not also manye other noble courages, that seeminge to them that ver­tue consisteth about hard matters (for it is ouer sweete a victorie to ouercome that seemeth to an other impringa­ble) are soone bent to loue the beawties of those women, that in their eyes, woordes and gestures declare a more churlish grauitie then the rest for a triall yt their prowesse can enforce an obstinate minde, and bende also stubborne willes & rebelles against loue, to loue. Therfore suche as haue so great affiance in themselues, bicause they recken themselues sure from deceit, loue also willinglye certein women, that with a sharpenesse of wit, & with art it see­meth in their beawtie that they hide a thousande craftes. [Page] Or elles some other, that haue accompanied with beawty a certein skornefull facion in few wordes, litle laughing, after a sort as though (in a maner) they smallye regarded whoso euer beehouldeth or serueth them. Again there are founde certein other, that vouchesafe not to loue but wo­men that in their countenaunce, in their speach and in all their gestures haue about them all hansomnesse, all faire condicions, all knowleage, and all graces heaped toge­ther, like one floure made of all the excellencies in the worlde. Therfore in case my woman of the Palaice haue scarsitie of these loues proceadinge of an yll hope, she shal not for this be without a louer: bicause she shal not want them yt shalbe prouoked through her desertes and through the affiance of ye prowesse in themselues, wherby they shal knowe themselues worthy to be beloued of her. M. Robert s [...]ill spake against him, but the Dutchesse to aide him that he was in the wronge, confirminge the L. Iulians opinion: after that she ad­ded: We haue no cause to complaine of the L. Iulian, for doubtlesse I thinke that the woman of the Palaice whom he hath facioned, maye be compared to the Courtier, and that with some auauntage: for he hath taught her to loue which these Lordes haue not done their Courtier. Then spake Vnico Aretino: It is meete to teache women to loue, bicause I neuer sawe anye that coulde doe it, for almoste continuallye all of them accompanye their beaw­tye with crueltye and vnkindnesse toward suche as serue them most faithfullye,Beawtifull women cru­ell. and whiche for noblenesse of birth, honestie and vertue deserued a rewarde for theyr good will: & yet manye times geue themselues for a prey to most blockish and cowardly men & verye assheades, and which not only loue them not, but abhor thē. Therfore to shon these so foule ouersightes, perhappes it had bin well done first to haue taught them to make a choise of him yt should deserue to be beloued, and afterward to loue him. The whiche is not necessarye in men, for they knowe it [Page] to well of themselues: and I my selfe can be a good wit­nesse of it, bicause loue was neuer taught me, but by the diuine beawty and most diuine maners of a Lady, so that it was not in my will not to woorshippe her: and therfore needed I therin no art nor teacher at all. And I beleaue that the like happeneth to as manie as loue truly. Ther­fore the Courtier hath more neede to be taught to make him beloued then to loue. Then said the L Emilia: Do you now reason of this then, M. Vnico. Vnico answe­red: Me thinke reason woulde that the good will of wo­men shoulde be gotten in seruinge and pleasinge them. But it, wherin they recken themselues serued and plea­sed, I beleaue muste be learned of women themselues, whiche oftentimes couett suche straunge matters, that there is no man yt would imagin them, & otherwhile they themselues wote not what they should longe for: therfore it were good you (Madam) that are a woman, & of right ought to know what pleaseth women, shoulde take thys peine, to do the worlde so great a profit. Then saide the L. Emilia: For somuch as you are generallye most accepta­ble to women, it is a good likelihoode that you knowe al the waies how their good will is to be gotten. Ther­fore is it pardee meete for you to teach it. Madam, answe­red Vnico, I can giue a louer no profitabler aduise then to procure that you beare no stroke with y woman whose good will he seeketh. For the smalle qualities which yet seemed to the world sometime to be in me, with as faith­full a loue as euer was, were not of suche force to make me beloued, as you to make me be hated. Then answe­red the L. Emilia: God saue me (M. Vnico) for once thinking and much more for workinge anye thinge yt should make you be hated. For beeside that I should doe that I ought not, I shoulde be thought of a sclender iudgement to at­tempt a matter vnpossible. But sins ye prouoke me in this sort to speake of that pleaseth women, I will speake of it, and if it displease you, laye the fault in your selfe. I [Page] iudge therfore, that whoso entendeth to be beloued, ought to loue and to be louely:Howe to ob­tein the good will of wo­men and these two pointes are inough to obtein the good will of women. Nowe to answere to that which you lay to my charge, I say that euerie manne knoweth and seeth that you are moste louelie. Mary whe­ther ye loue so faithfullye, as you saye ye do, I am verye doubtfull and perhappes others to. For, your beeing ouer louely, hath bine ye cause yt you haue bine beloued of many women: and great riuers diuided into manye armes bee­come smalle brookes: so loue likewise scattered into mo then one bodye hath smalle force. But these your conti­nuall complaintes and accusinge of the women whom you haue serued of vnkindenesse (which is not likely, con­sideringe so manye desertes of yours) is a certein kind of discretion, to cloke the fauours, contentations and plea­sures whyche you haue receiued in loue, and an assurance for the women that loue you and that haue giuen them­selues for a prey to you, that you will not disclose them. And therfore are they also wel pleased, yt you should thus openlye showe false loues to others, to cloke their true. Wherfore if haplye those women that you nowe make wise to loue, are not so light of beleaf, as you would they were, it happeneth bicause this your art in loue beegin­neth to be discouered, and not bicause I make you to be hated. Then said M. Vnico: I entende not to attempt to confute your wordes, bicause me seemeth it is aswell my destiny not to be beleaued in truth, as it is yours to be be­leaued in vntruth. Saye hardlye M. Vnico, answered the L. Emilia, that you loue not so, as you woulde haue belea­ued ye did. For if you did loue,The lawe of loue. all your desires should be to please the woman beloued, and to will the selfe same thinge that she willeth, for this is the lawe of loue. But your complaininge somuche of her, beetokeneth some de­ceite (as I haue said) or els it is a signe that you will that, that she willeth not. Nay (quoth M. Vnico) there is no doubt but I will that, that she willeth, which is a signe I [Page] loue her: but it greeueth me bicause she willeth not tha [...], that I will, which is a token she loueth not me, according to the verse same lawe that you haue alleaged. The L. E­milia answered: He that taketh in hande to loue, muste please and applye himself full and wholy to the appetites of the wight beloued, and accordinge to them frame hys owne: and make his owne desires, seruauntes: and hys verye soule, like an obedient handmaiden: nor at anye tyme to thynke vpon other, but to chaunge his, if it were possible, into the beloued wightes, & recken this his cheef ioy and happinesse, for so do they that loue trulye. My cheef happinesse were iumpe, answered M. Vnico, if one will alone ruled her soule and myne both. It lieth in you to do it, answered the L. Emilia. Then spake M. Ber­narde interruptinge them: Doubtlesse, who so loueth tru­lye, directeth all his thaughtes, without other mens tea­chinge, to serue and please the woman beloued. But bicause these seruices of loue are not otherwhile well knowen, I beleaue that beeside louinge and seruinge, it is necessary also to make some other showe of this loue, so manifest, that the woman may not dissemble to know that she is beloued: yet with such modesty, yt it may not ap­peere that he beareth her litle reuerence. And therfore you (Madam) that haue beegone to declare howe the soule of the louer ought to be an obedient handmayden to the be­loued, teach vs withall, I besech you, this secrete matter, which me thinke is most needefull. The L. Cesar laughed and said: If the louer be so bashfull, that he is ashamed to tell it her, let him write it her. To this the L. Emilia said: Nay, if he be so discreete, as is meete, beefore he maketh the woman to vnderstand it, he ought to be out of doubt to offende her. Then saide the L. Gaspar: All women haue a delite to be suide to in loue, althoughe they were mynded to denye the suite. The L. Iulian said, you are muche deceyued. For I woulde not counsell the Cour­ [...]er at anye time to vse this way, except he were sure not [Page] to haue a repulse. What shoulde he then do? quoth the L. Gaspar. The L. Iulian answered:Howe a ma [...] should dis­close his loue to a woman. In case you will needes write or speake to her, do it with such sobermoode, and so warilye, that the woordes maye firste attempt the minde, and so doubtfullye touch her entent and will, that they maye leaue her a way and a certein issue to feine the vnderstandinge that those woordes conteine loue: to the entent if he finde anye daunger, he maye draw backe and make wise to haue spoken or written it to an other ende, to enioye these familiar cherishinges and daliances with assuraunce, that oftentimes women showe to suche as shoulde take them for frendshippe, afterwarde denye them assone as they perceyue they are taken for tokens of loue. Wherefore suche as be to rashe and venture so sau [...]ilie with certein furies and plunges, oftentimes lose them, and woorthilie: for it dispeaseth alwaies euery ho­nest gentilwoman, to be litle regarded of whoso without respect seeketh for loue at her beefore he hath serued her. Therfore (in my minde) the way which ye Courtier ought to take, to make his loue knowen to ye woman me thinke should be to declare them in signes and tokens more then in woordes. For assuredlye there is otherwhile a grea­ter affection of loue perceyued in a sigh, in a respect, in a feare, then in a thousande woordes. Afterwarde, to make the eyes the trustye messangers, that maye carye the ambassades of the hart: bicause they oftentimes declare with a more force what passion there is inward­lye, then can the tunge, or letters, or messages, so that they not onlye disclose the thaughtes, but also manye ty­mes kendle loue in the hert of the person beloued. For those liuely spirites that issue out at ye eyes, bicause they are engendred nigh the hart, entring in like case into the eyes that they are leueled at, like a shaft to the pricke, na­turallye perce to the hart, as to their restynge place and there are at truste with those other spirites: and with the moste subtill and fine nature of bloode whyche they [Page] carie with them, infect the bloode about the hart, where they are come to, and warme it: & make it like vnto them­selues, and apt to receiue the imprintinge of the image which they haue caried away with them. Wherfore by litle and litle comminge and goinge the waye through the eyes to the hart, and bringinge backe with them the tunder and strikinge yron of beawtie & grace, these mes­sangers kendle with the puffinge of desire the fire that so burneth, [...]he [...]pes. and neuer ceaseth consuminge, for alwayes they bringe some matter of hope to nourishe it. Therfore it may full well be said, that The eyes are a guide in loue, es­peciallye if they haue a good grace & sweetenesse in them, blacke, of a cleere and sightlye blackenesse, or elles gray, meery and laughinge, and so comely and percinge in bee­houldinge, as some, in which a man thinketh verilie that the wayes that giue an issue to the spirites are so deepe, that by them he maye see as farr as the hart. The eyes therefore lye lurkinge like souldiers in warre lyinge in wayte in bushment, and if the fourme of all the bodye be welfauoured and of good proportion, it draweth vnto it and allureth whoso beehouldeth it a farr of, vntil he come nigh: and assoone as he is at hande, the eyes shoote, and like sorcerers, beewitch, and especiallie whan by a right line they sende their glisteringe beames into ye eies of the wight beloued at the time whan they do the like, bi­cause the spirites meete together, and in that sweete en­counter the one taketh the others nature and qualitye: as it is seene in a sore eye, that beehoulding steadily a sound one, giueth him his disease. Therfore me thinke oure Courtier may in this wise open a great percel of the loue to his woman. Truth it is that in case the eyes be not gouerned with art, they discouer manie times the a­morous desires more vnto whom a man woulde least: for through them (in a maner) visibly shinefurth those bur­ninge passions, whiche the louer mindinge to disclose on­lie to the wight beloued, openeth them manie times also [Page] also vnto whom he woulde most soonest hide them from. Therfore he that hath not lost the bridle of reason, hand­leth himselfe heedefullye, and obserueth the times & pla­ces: and whan it needeth, refrayneth from so stedfast bee­houldinge, for all it be a most sauourie foode,Open loue. bicause An open loue is to harde a matter. Count Lewis answered: Yet o­therwhile to be open it hurteth not: bicause in this case manye times men suppose that those loues tende not to the ende which euerie louer coueteth, whan they see there is litle heede taken to hide them, and passe not whether they be knowen or no: and therfore with denial [...] a man chalengeth him a certein libertye to talke openly and to stande without susspition with the wight beloued: Whi­che is not so in them that seke to be secrete, bicause it ap­peereth that they stande in hope of, and are nighe some great rewarde, whiche they woulde not haue other men to knowe. I haue also seene a most feruent loue springe in the hart of a woman towarde one, that seemed at the firste not to beare him the least affection in the world, on­lye for that she heard say, that the opinion of many was, that they loued together. And the cause of this (I beleaue) was, that so generall a iudgement seemed a sufficiente witnesse, that he was woorthie of her loue. And it seemed (in a maner) that report brought the ambassade on the louers beehalfe muche more truer and worthier to be be­leauen, then he himselfe coulde haue done with letters, or woordes, or any other person for him: therfore sometime this commune voice not onlye hurteth not, but far [...]hereth a mans purpose. The L. Iulian answered: Loues that haue report for their messanger, are verye perilous to make a man pointed to with a finger. And therfore who euer en­tendeth to walke this race warilye, needes must he make countenaunce to haue a great deale lesse fire in his sto­make, then in deede he hath, and content himselfe with that, that he thinketh a trifle, and dissemble his desires, [...], afflictions & pleasures, and manye times laugh [Page] with mouth whan the hart weepeth, and showe himself lauishe of that he is most couetous of▪ and these thinges are so harde to be done, that (in a maner) they are vnpos­sible. Therfore if oure Courtier would folowe my coun­sell, I would exhort him to kepe his loues secrete. Then said M. Bernarde: yo [...] must then teach [...] him, & me thinke it is muche to pourpose: for beeside priuie signes that some make otherwhile so closely, that (in a maner) with­out anye gesture, the person whom they couett, in their countenance and eyes reade what they haue in the hert, I haue sometime heard betweene two louers a long and a large discourse of loue, wherof yet ye standers by could not plainlye vnderstand any particuler point, nor be out of doubt that it was of loue, suche was the discreation & heedefulnesse of the talker: for without makinge anie maner showe that they were not willinge to be hearde, they rounded priuilye the wordes onlie that were most to pourpose, & al the rest they spake aloude, which might be applied to diuers meaninges. Then spake Sir Fride­rick: to reason thus in peecemeale of these rules of secret­nesse, were a takinge of an infinit matter in hand: ther­fore would I yt we spake somwhat rather how the louer shoulde keepe and maintein his Ladies good wil, which me thinke is muche more necessary. The L. Iulian answe­red: I beleaue the meanes that serue him to compasse it, serue him also to kepe it, & all this consisteth in pleasinge the woman beloued,To maintein good will. without offending her at any time. Therfore it were a hard matter to giue any certein rule, bicause whoso is not discrete, infinit wayes committeth ouersightes, whiche otherwhile seeme matters of no­thing, and yet offende they much the womans minde. And this happeneth more then to others, to suche as be mastred with passion: as some that whenso euer they haue opportunitie to speake with the woman they loue, lament and beewaile so bitterlye, and couett manye ti­mes thinges so vnpossible, that through this vnreasona­blenesse [Page] they are lothed of them. Other, if they be pric­ked with anye ieolosie, stomake the matter so greeuous­lye, that without stopp they burst oute in raylinge vpon him they suspect, and otherwhile it is without trespace eyther of him or yet of the woman, and will not haue her speake with him, nor once tourne her eyes on that side where he is. And with these facions manye ty­mes, they do not onlye offende the woman, but also they are the cause that she bendeth herselfe to loue him. Bi­cause the feare that a louer declareth to haue otherwhile least his Ladye forsake him for the other, beetokeneth that he acknowleageth himself inferiour in desertes and prowesse to the other, and with this opinion the wo­man is moued to loue him. And perceyuinge that to put him out of fauour he reporteth all of him, although it be true, yet she beleaueth it not, and notwythstandinge loueth him the more. Then saide the L. Cesar: I con­fesse that I am not so wise that I coulde refrayne spea­kynge yll of my felow louer, except you coulde teache me some other better waye to dispatche him. The L. Iulian answered smilinge: It is saide in a Prouerbe,An Italian prouerbe. VVhan a mans ennemye is in the vvater vppe to the middle, lette him reache him his hande, and helpe him from daunger: but whan he is vp to the chinn, set his foote on his head and drowne him out of hand. Therefore certein there be that playe so with their fe­low louers, and vntill they haue a sure meane to dis­patche them, go dissembling the matter, and rather show themselues friendes th [...]n otherwise. Afterward whan occasion serueth them so fitlye, that they know they may ouerthrowe them with a sure riddaunce, reportinge all yuell of them, be it true or false, they doe it with­out sparynge, with art,Howe a wo­mans good will is to be drawen from a mans ri­uale▪ deceite and all wayes that they can imagin. But bicause I woulde not lyke that oure Courtier shoulde a [...] anye tyme vse anye de­ceyte, I woulde haue him to withdrawe the go [...]d will of [Page] his maistresse from his felowlouer with none other arte, but with louinge, with seruinge and with beeinge vertu­ous, of prowesse, discreet, sober, in conclusion with deser­uinge more then he, and with beeinge in euerye thynge heedfull and wise, refrayninge from certein leude folies, into the which often times manye ignoraunt renn, and by sundrie wayes. For in times past I haue knowen some that in writings and speaking to women vsed euer­more the woordes of Poliphilus, and ruffled so in their sub­till pointes of Rhetoricke,Men that professe to be to louinge in woordes. that the women were oute of conceit with their owne selues, and reckened themselues most ignoraunt, and an houre seemed a thousand yeere to them, to ende that talke and to be rid of them. Other, bragg and boast to by yonde all measure. Other speake thinges manie times that redounde to the blame and da­mage of themselues, as some that I am wont to laughe at, which make profession to be louers, & otherwhile saye in the companye of women: I neuer founde woman that euer loued me, The fondnes of some lo­uers. and are not weetinge that the hearers by and by iudge that it can arrise of none other cause, but that they deserue neither to be beloued, nor yet so much as the wa­ter they drinke, and count them assheades, and would not loue them for all the good in the worlde: seeming to them that in case they should loue them, they were lesse worth, then all the rest that haue not loued them. Other, to pur­chase hatred to some felowe louer of theirs, are so fonde that in like maner in the companye of women they saye: Such a one is the luckiest man in the worlde, for once, he is neyther welfauoured, nor sober, nor of prowess, neyther can he do or say more then other menne, and yet all women loue him▪ and ren [...] after him ▪ and thus vttringe the spite they beare him for this good lucke, althoughe neyther in countenaunce nor deedes he appeereth louelye, yet make they them beleaue yt he hathe some hid matter in him, for the whiche he deserueth the loue of so manie women, wherfore the women that heare them talke of him in this wise, they also vpon this beleaf [Page] are moued to loue him muche more. Then Count Lew [...] laughed and saide: I assure you our Courtier if he be dis­creete, will neuer vse this blockishenes, to gete him the good will of women. The L. Cesar Gonzaga answered: nor yet an other that a Gentilman of reputation vsed in my dayes, who shal be namelesse for the honour of men. The Dutchesse answered: tell vs at the least what he did. The L. Cesar said: this manne beeinge beloued of a great Lady,Blockish ouer sightes▪ at her request came priuilye to the towne where she laye. And after he had seene her and communed with her, as long as they thought meete and had time and leyser ther­to, at his leaue takinge with many bitter teares & sighes in witnesse of ye extreme greef he felt for this departinge, he required her to be alwaies mindfull of him. And after­ward he added withall, That she woulde discharge his ynn, for sins he came thither at her request. he thought me [...]te yt he should not stand to ye charges of his beeing there himself. Then beegan all the Ladies to [...]augh, and said that he was most vn­woorthy of the name of a Gentilman: and many were ashamed with the selfe shame that he himselfe shoulde woorthilye haue felt, if at a­nye time he had gotten so muche vnderstandynge, that he might haue perceyued so shamefull an ouersight. Then tourned the L. Gaspar to the L. Cesar and said: Better it had bine to haue omitted the rehersal of this matter for the honour of wo­men, then the naming of him for the honour of men. For you may well imagin what a iudgement that great La­die had in louinge so vnreasonable a creature. And per­happes to, of manye that serued her, she chose him for the most discreatest, leauinge beehinde, and showinge ill wil vnto them that he was not woorthie to wayte vpon. Count Lewi [...] laughed and saide: Who woteth whether he was discreate in other thinges or no,Loue ma­keth men commit great [...]. and was out of the waye onlye about ynnes? But many times for ouermuch loue men committ great folies. And if you will tell the truth, perhappes it hath bine your chaunce to commit mo then one. The L. Cesar answered smilinge: Of good fe­lowshippe let vs not discouer oure owne ouersightes. Yet [Page] we must discouer them, answered the L. Gaspar, that we maye knowe how to amende them, then he proceaded. Now that the Courtier knoweth how to wynn and kepe the good will of his Lady, and take it from his felow lo­uer, you (my L. Iulian) are dettour to teache her to kepe her loues secrete. The L. Iulian answered: Me thinke I haue sufficientlye spoken, therefore gete ye nowe an other to talke of this secreate matter. Then M. Bernarde and all the rest beegane a freshe to be in hande with him instantlye, and the L. Iulian said: you will tempt me. Ye are all the sort of you to great Clearkes in loue. Yet if ye desire to know far­ther, goe and reade Ouid. And howe, quoth M. Bernarde, shal I hope that his lessons are any thing worth in loue, whan he counselleth & saith that it is verye good for a man in the companye of his maistresse To feigne the dronkarde? See what a goodly way it is to gete good will withall. And he alleageth for a pretie diuise to make a woman vnderstande that he is in loue with her, beeinge at a banckett, To diepe his finger in wine and write it vpon the table. The L. Iulian said smilinge: In those dayes it was no fault. And therfore, quoth M. Bernarde, seeinge so sluttishe a matter was not disalowed of men in those daies, it is to be thought that they had not so cour [...]lye beehauiours to serue women in loue, as we haue. But let vs not o­mitt oure firste pourpose to teache to keepe loue secrete. Then saide the L. Iulian: In myne aduise to keepe loue secrete, the causes are to be shonned that vttre it, whiche are manye:To kepe loue secrete. yet one principall, namelye, To be ouer s [...]ciete and to put no person in truste. Bicause euerye louer coueteth to make his passions knowen to the beloued, & [...]eeinge alone, he is driuen to make many mo signes and more euident, then if he were aided by some louinge and faithfull friende.A friende. For the signes that the louer himselfe maketh, giue a farr greater susspition, then those that he maketh by them yt go in message betwene. And forsomuch as men naturallye are greedie to vnderstand, assone as a [Page] straunger beeginneth to suspect the matter, he so applieth it, that he commeth to ye knowleage of the truth, & whan he once knoweth it, he passeth not for disclosinge it, yea sometime he hath a delite to do it. Which happeneth not of a friend, who beeside yt he is a helpe to him with fauour & counsell, doeth many times remedie yt ouersightes com­mitted by the blinde louer, & alwaies procureth secretnes. & preueteth many matters which he himself can not fore­see: beeside the great comfort yt he feeleth, whan he maye vttre his passions and greeffes, to a harty friende, & the partening of them likewise encreaseth his cōtentations. Then said the L Gaspar: there is an other cause that disco­uereth loues much more then this. What is that, answe­red the L. Iulian. The L. Gaspar said: Uaine greedinesse ioig­ned with the fondenesse and cruelty of women,What disclo­seth loue. which (as you your selfe haue saide) procure as muche as they can to gete them a great numbre of louers, and (if it were possi­ble) they would haue them al to burne and make asshes, & after death to retourn to lief, to die again. And thoughe they loue withall, yet reioice they at the tourment of lo­uers, bicause they suppose yt greef, afflictions and the cal­ling euery hour for death, is a true witnesse that they are beloued, and that with their beawtie they can make men miserable & happy, and giue them life and death, as plea­seth them. Wherfore they feede vpon this only foode, and are so gredie ouer it; yt for wanting it they neuer through­ly contet louers, nor yet put them out of hope, but to kepe them still in afflictions and in desire, they vse a certein lofty sowernesse of threatninges mingled with hope, and wold haue them to esteame a woorde, a countenance or a beck of theirs for a cheef blisse. And to make men count them chaste and honest aswel others as their louers, they finde meanes that these sharpe & discourtious maners of theirs may be in open sight, for euery mā to thinke yt they will much woorse handle ye vnwoorthy, sins they handle them so, that deserue to be beloued. And vnder this beleaf thinking themselues with this craft safe from sclaunder▪ [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page] often times they lye nightlie with most vile men & whom they scase knowe. So that to reioice at the calamitie and continuall complaintes of some woorthie gentilman, and beloued of them, they barr themselues from those pleasu­res, whiche perhappes with some excuse they might come bye, and are the cause that the poore louer by verye deba­ting of the matter is driuen to vse wayes, by the which ye thinge commeth to light, that with all diligence shoulde haue line kept most secrete. Certein other there are, whi­che if with deceite they can bringe manye in beeleaf that they are beloued of them, nourish emonge them ieolosies with cherishinge and makinge of the one in the others presence. And whan they see that he also whom they loue best is now assured and oute of doubt that he is beloued through the signes and tokens that be made him, manie times with doubtfull woordes and feigned disdeignes they put him in an vncerteintie and nippe him at the ve­rie hart, makinge wise not to passe for him and to giue themselues full and wholye to the other. Wherupon arrise malice, enimities, and infinite occasions of stryfe and vttre confusion. For needes must a man showe in that case ye extreme passion which he fealeth, althoughe it redounde to the blame and sclaunder of ye woman. O­ther, not satisfied with this onlye tourment of ieolosye, after ye louer hath declared all his tokens of loue & faith­full seruice, and they receyued the same with some signe to be answerable in good will, without pourpose & whan it is least looked for, they beegine to beethinke themsel­ues, and make wise to beleaue that he is slacked, and fei­ninge newe suspitions that they are not beloued, they make a countenaunce that they will in any wise put him out of their fauour. Wherfore throughe these inconue­niences the poore soule is constrayned of verye force to beegine a freshe, and to make her signes, as thoughe he beegane his seruice but then, and all the daye longe passe by and downe through the streete, and whan the woman [Page] goith furth of her doores to accompanye her to Churche & to euerie place where she goith, and neuer to tourne hys eyes to other place. And here he retourneth to weepinge, to sighes, to heauie countenance, and whan he can talke with her, to swearing, to blaspheminge, to desperation, & to all rages which vnhappie louers are lead to by these wielde beastes, that haue greater thirst of blood then the verie Tygres. Such sorowfull tokens as these be are to often sene and knowen, and manie times more of others then of the causer of them, & thus are they in fewe dayes so published, that a stepp can not be made, nor the leaste signe that is, but it is noted with a thousande eyes. It happeneth then, that longe before there be any pleasures of loue beetwext them, they are ghessed and iudged of all the world. For whan they see yet their louer nowe nighe deathes doore, cleane vanquished with the crueltye and tourmentes they put him to, determineth aduisedlye and in good ernest to draw backe, then beegine they to make signe that they loue him hartely, and do him al pleasures and giue themselues to him, leaste if that feruent desire should feint in him, the frute of loue shoulde withall be the lesse acceptable to him, & he ken them the lesse thanke for doinge all thinges contrarily. And in case this loue be already knowē abrode, at this same time are al ye effectes knowen in like maner abrode, that come of it, and so lose they their reputation, & the louer findeth that he hath lost time and labour and shortned his life in afflictions with­out any frute or pleasure, bicause he came by his desires, not whan they should haue bine so acceptable to him that they woulde haue made him a most happie creature, but whan he set litle or nothinge by them. For his hart was nowe so mortified with those bitter passions, that he had no more sense to taste ye delite or contentation offred him. Then said the L. Octtauian smilinge: you helde your peace a while and refrayned from speakinge yll of women, but now ye haue so wel hit them home, yt it appered ye waited [Page] a time to plucke vppe your strength, like them that retire backeward to giue a greater pushe at the encounter. And to say the truth, it is ill done of you, for nowe me thinke ye may haue done and be pacified. The L. Emilia laughed, and tourninge her to the Dutchesse she said: See Madam, [...]ure ennemies begine to breake and to square one wyth an other. Giue me not this name answered the L. Octaui­an, for I am not your aduersarie, but this contention hath displeased me, not bicause I am sorye to see the victory v­pon womens side, but bicause it hath lead the L. Gaspar to reuile them more then he ought, and the L. Iulian. & the L. Cesar to praise them perhappes somwhat more then due: beeside that through the length of the talke we haue lost the vnderstandinge of manye other pretye matters that are yet beehinde to be said of the Courtier. See, ꝙ the L. Emilia, whether you be not oure aduersarie, for the talke that is past greeueth you, and you would not that this so excellent a Gentilwoman of the Palaice had bine facio­ned: not for that you haue any more to say of the Courti­er (for these lordes haue spoken already what they know and I beleaue neither you, ne any man elles can ad ought therto) but for the malice you beare to the honour of wo­men. It is out of doubt, answered the L. Octauian, beeside that is alreadie spoken, of the Courtier, I coulde wishe muche more in him. But sins euery man is pleased that he shall be as he is, I am well pleased to, and woulde not haue him altered in anye point, sauinge in makinge him somwhat more frindlye to women, then the L. Gaspar is, yet not perhappes, so much as some of these other Lordes are. Then spake the Dutchesse: In any case we must see whether youre witt be suche that it can giue the Courtier a greater perfection, then these Lordes haue al­readye done: therefore dispose your selfe to vttre that you haue in your minde, els will we thinke that you also can not ad vnto him more then hath alreadie bine saide, but that you minded to diminish the praises and worthinesse [Page] of the gentilwoman of the Palaice, seeing ye iudge she is equall with ye Courtier, whom by this meane you would haue beleaued might be muche more perfect, then these Lordes haue facioned him. The L. Octauian laughed and said: The prayses and disprayses giuen women more then due, haue so filled the eares and minde of the hea­rers, that they haue left no voide rowme for anye thinge elles to stande in: beeside that (in mine opinion) it is very late. Then said the Dutchesse: if we tarie till to morowe, we shall haue the more time, and the prayses and disprai­ses, whiche (you saye) are giuen women on both sides passinge measure, in ye meane season will be cleane out of these Lordes mindes, and so shall they be apte to conceyue the truth that you will tell vs. Whan the Dutchesse had thus spoken, she arrose vpon her feete, and courteisly dismissing them all, withdrew her to her bedchamber, and e­uerye manne gote him to his rest.

The fourth boke ¶ THE FOVRTH BOKE OF the Courtier of Count Baldessar Casti­lio vnto. M. Alphonsus Ariosto.

THINKINGE TO VVRITE OVTE the communication that was had the fourth night after the other mentioned in the for­mer bookes, I feele emong sundry discour­ses a bitter thought that gripeth me in my minde, and maketh me to call to remembraunce worldlie miseries and our deceitfull hopes, and how fortune many times in the verie middes of our race, otherwhile nighe the ende disapointeth our fraile & vaine pourposes, some­time drowneth them beefore they can once come to haue a sight of the hauen a farr of. It causeth me therfore to re­member that not long after these reasoninges were had, cruell death bereued our house of three moste rare gentil­men, whan in their prosperous age and forwardnesse of honour they most florished,L. Gaspar Pal­l [...]uicin. and of them the first was the Lord Gaspar Pallauicin, who assaulted with a sharpe disease, and more then once brought to the last cast, although his minde was of suche courage yt for a time in spite of death he kept the soule and bodye together, yet did he ende hys naturall course longe beefore he came to his ripe age. A very great losse not in our house onlie and to his friendes and kinsfolke, but to his Countrie and to all Lumbardye. Not longe after died the L. Cesar Gonzaga, L. Cesar Gon­zaga. which to all that were acquainted with him left a bitter and sorowfull re­membraunce of his death. For sins nature so sildome times bringeth furth such kinde of men, as she doeth, meete it seemed that she shoulde not so soone haue bere­ued vs of him. For vndoubtedlye a man maye saye that the L. Cesar was taken from vs euen at the very time whā [Page] he beegane to show more then a hope of himself, and to be esteamed as his excellent qualities deserued. For with manye vertuous actes he alreadie gaue a good testimony of his worthinesse, and beeside his noblenesse of birth, he excelled also in the ornament of letters, of marciall pro­wesse, and of euerye woorthie qualitie. So that for his goodnesse, witt, nature, and knowleage, there was no­thinge so highe, that might not haue bine hoped for at his handes. Within a short while after,M. Robert of Bari. the death of M. Robert of Bari was also a great heauinesse to the wholl house: for reason seemed to perswade euerie man to take heuily the death of a yonge man of good beehauiour, pleasaunt and moste rare in the beawtie of fisnamye and in the ma­kinge of his person, with as lucky and liuely towardnes, as a man coulde haue wished. These men therfore, had they liued, I beleaue would haue come to that passe, that vnto whoso had knowen them, they woulde haue showed a manifest proof, how much the Court of Vrbin was wor­thie to be commended, and howe fournished it was with noble knightes, the whiche (in a maner) all the rest haue done that were brought vp in it. For trulye there neuer issued out of the ho [...]se of Troy so many great men and ca­pitaines,The promo­tinge of cer­tein mentio­ned in the bookē. as there haue come menne out of this house for vertue verie singular & in great estimation with al men. For as you knowe Sir Fridericke Fregoso was made arche­bishop of Salerno, Count Lewis, Bishoppe of Baious. The L. Octa­uian Fregoso, Duke of Genua, M. Bernarde Bibiena, Cardinal of San­ta Maria in Portico, M. Peter Bembo, Secretarye to Pope Leo. The L. Iulian was exalted to the Dukedome of Nemours & to the great astate he is presentlye in. The Lord Francesco­maria della Rouere Generall of Roome, he was also made Duke of Vrbin: although a muche more praise may be gi­uen to the house where he was brought vp, that in it he hath proued so rare and excellent a Lorde in all vertuous qualities (as a man may beehoulde) then that he atteined vnto the Dukedome of Vrbin: and no smalle cause thereof [Page] (I thinke) was the noble company wherin daily conuer­sation he alwaies hearde and sawe commendable nour­tour. Therfore (me thinke) whether it be by happe, or throughe the fauour of the sterres, the same cause that so longe a time hath graunted vnto Vrbin verie good gouer­nours, doth still continue & bringeth furth ye like effectes. And therefore it is to be hoped y prosperous fortune will still encrease these so vertuous doinges, that the happines of the house and of the State shall not only not diminish, but rather dailye encrease: And therof we see alreadye manye euident tokens, emonge whiche (I r [...]cken) ye cheef­fest to be, that the heauen hath graunted suche a Lady as is the Ladye Eleonor Gonzaga the newe Dutchesse. For if e­uer there were coopled in one bodye alone,L. Eleono Gonzaga Dut. of Vr­bin. knowleage, witt, grace, beawtie, sober conuersation, gentilnesse and euery other honest qualitie, in her they are so lincked together, that there is made therof a chaine, whiche fra­meth & setteth furth euerie gesture of herres with al these condicions together. Let vs therfore proceade in our rea­soninges vpon ye Courtier, with hope that after vs there shall not want suche as shall take notable and woorthye examples of vertue at the presente Court of Vrbin, as we nowe do at the former. It was thought therefore (as the L, Gaspar Pallauicin was wont to reherse) that the next daye af­ter the reasoninges conteined in the laste booke, the L. Octauian was not muche seene: for manye deemed that he had gotten himself out of comapnye to thinke well vpon that he had to saye withoute trouble. Therfore whan the companye was assembled at the accustomed houre where the Dutchesse was, they made the L, Oc­tauian to be diligentlye sought for, whiche in a good while appered not, so that manye of the Gentilmen and Damselles of the Court fell to daunsynge and to minde other pastymes, supposynge for that night they shoulde haue no more talke of the Courtier. And nowe were they all settled about one thinge or an other, whan the L. Octauian came in (almost) no more looked for: and beehouldinge the L. Cesar Gonzaga and the L. Gaspar daunsinge, after he had made his reuerence to the Dutchesse, he saide smilinge: I had well hoped we shoulde haue hearde the L. Gaspar speake some ill of women this night to, but sins I see him daūce [Page] with one, I imagin he is agreede with all. And I am glad that the controuersie, or (to terme it better) the rea­soninge of the Courtier is thus ended. Not ended, I war­rant you, answered the Dutchesse, for I am not suche an ennemye to men, as you be to women, and therfore I wil not haue the Courtier bereued from his due honour and the fournimentes whiche you youre selfe promised him yester night. And whan she had thus spoken, she commaunded them all after that daunse was ended to place themselues after the wonted maner, the which was done. And as they stoode all wyth heedfull expectation, the L. Octauian said: Madam, sins for that I wished manye other good qualities in the Cour­tier, it foloweth by promise that I muste entreate vppon them, I am well willinge to vttre my minde: not with o­pinion that I can speake all that may be said in the mat­ter, but only so much as shall suffice to roote that oute of your mind, which yester night was obiected to me: name­ly, that I spake it more to withdrawe the prayses from ye Gentilwoman of the Palaice, in doinge you falselye to beleaue that other excellent qualities might be added to the Courtier, and with that pollicie prefarre him beefore her, then for that it is so in deede. Therfore to frame my selfe also to the houre, which is later then it was wont to be whan we beegane our reasoninges at other times, I will be breef. Thus continuinge in the talke that these Lordes haue ministred, whiche I full and wholye alowe and confirme, I say, that of thinges which we call good,Thinges good. some there be that simply and of themselues are alwaies good, as temperance, valiant courage, helth, & al vertues that bring quietnesse to mens mindes. Other be good for diuerse respectes & for the ende they be applied vnto, as ye lawes, liberality, riches & other like. I thinke therfore yt ye Courtier (if he be of ye perfectiō y Count Lewis & Sir Fride­rick haue described him) maye in deede be a good thinge & woorthie praise, but for all that not simplye, nor of him­self, but for respect of the ende wherto he may be applied. [Page] For doubtlesse if ye Courtier with his noblenesse of birth, comlie beehauiour, pleasantnesse and practise in so many exercises, should bringe furth no other frute, but to be su­che a one for himself, I woulde not thinke to come by this perfect trade of Courtiership, that a man shoulde of rea­son beestowe so much studye and peynes about it, as who so will compase it must do. But I woulde say rather that manie of the qualities appointed him, as daunsing, sing­inge and sportinge, were lightnesse and vanitie, and in a a man of estimation rather to be dispraised then commen­ded: bicause those precise facions, the settinge furth ones selfe, meerie talke and such other matters belonginge to enterteinment of women and loue (althoughe perhappes manie other be of a contrary opinion) do many times no­thinge elles but womannish the mindes, corrupt youth, and bring them to a most wanton trade of liuinge:Dastardli­nesse. wher­upon afterwarde ensue these effectes, that the name of I­taly is brought into sclaunder, and few there be that haue the courage, I will not saye to [...]eoparde their lief, but to entre once into a daunger. And without perauenture there be infinite other thinges, that if a man beestow his labour and studie about them, woulde bring furth muche more profit both in peace and warr, then this trade of Courtiershipp of it self alone. But in case the Courtiers doinges be directed to the good ende they ought to be and whiche I meane: me thinke then they should not on­lye not be hurtfull or vaine,The ende of a Courtier. but most profitable & deserue infinit praise. The ende therfore of a perfect Courtier (wherof hitherto nothinge hath bine spoken) I beleaue is to purchase him, by the meane of ye qualities whiche these Lordes haue giuen him, in such wise the good will and fauour of the Prince he is in seruice withall, that he may breake his minde to him, and alwaies enfourme hym francklye of the trueth of euerie matter meete for him to vnderstande, without feare or perill to displease him. And whan [...]e knoweth his minde is bent to commit any [Page] thinge vnseemlie for him, to be bould to stande with him in it, and to take courage after an honest sort at ye fauour which he hath gotten him throughe his good qualities, to disswade him from euerie ill pourpose, and to set him in ye waye of vertue. And so shall the Courtier, if he haue the goodnesse in him that these Lordes haue geuen him ac­companied with readinesse of witt, pleasantnesse, wise­dome, knowleage in letters and so many other thinges, vnderstande how to beehaue himself readilye in all occur­rentes to driue into his Princis heade what honour and profit shall ensue to him and to his by iustice, liberalitie, val [...]auntnesse of courage, meekenesse and by the other vertues that beelong to a good Prince, and contrariwise what sclaunder and damage commeth of the vices con­trarie to them. And therfore in mine opinion, as musike, sportes, pastimes, and other pleasaunt facions,The floure of courtlines are (as a man woulde saye) the floure of Courtlines, euen so is the traininge and the helping forward of the Prince to good­nesse and the fearinge him from yuell, the frute of it.The frute of it. And bicause the praise of weldoinge consisteth cheeflye in two pointes, wherof the one is,Well doinge. in chousinge out an ende that our pourpose is directed vnto, that is good in deede: the o­ther, the knowleage to find out apt and meete meanes to bringe it to the appointed good ende: sure it is that the mind of him which thinketh to worke so, that his Prince shall not be deceiued, nor lead with flaterers, railers and lyers, but shall knowe both the good and the bad & beare loue to the one & hatred to the other, is directed to a verye good ende. Me thinke again, that ye qualities which these Lordes haue giuen ye Courtier, may be a good meanes to compasse it: and that, bicause emonge manye vices that we see now a dayes in manye of our Princis, the greatest are ignoraunce and selfe leekinge: and the [...]oote of these two mischeeues is nothing elles but lyinge,Lies en­gender ignorance and self le [...]king. which vice is worthelie abhorred of God and man, and more hurtful to Princis then any other, bicause they haue more scarsitye [Page] then of any thinge elles, of that which they neede to hau [...] more plentye of, then of any other thinge: namely, of su­che as shoulde tell them the truth and put them in minde of goodnesse:Enemies. for enemies be not driuen of loue to do these offices, but they delite rather to haue them liue wickedly and neuer to amende: on the other [...]ide, they dare not re­buke them openlye for feare they be punished. As for friendes few of them haue free passage to them,Friendes and those few haue a respect to reprehende their vices so freelye as they do priuate mens: And many times to coorie fauour and to purchase good will,Flattery. they giue themselues to no­thinge elles but to feede them with matters that may de­lite, and content their minde, thoughe they be foule and dishonest. So that of friendes they beecome flatterers, & to make a hande by that streict familiaritie, they speake and woorke alwaies to please, and for the most part open the way with lyes, which in the Princis minde engender ignorance, not of outwarde matters on [...]e, but also of his owne selfe. And this may be said to be the greatest & fow­lest lye of all other, bicause the ignorant minde deceiueth himself and inwardlie maketh lyes of himself. Of this it commeth,Great men. that great men, beeside that they neuer vnder­stande the truth of any thinge, dronken with the licenti­ous libertye that rule bringeth with it & with abundance of delicacies drowned in pleasures, a [...] so far out of ye way & their mind is so corrupted in seeing themselues alwai­es obeyed and (as it were) woorshipped with so much re­uerence, & praise, without not onlye anye reproof at all, but also gainsayinge, that through this ignoraunce they wade to an extreeme selfe leekinge, so that afterwarde they admitt no counsell nor aduise of others. And bi­cause they beleaue that the vnderstandinge howe to rule is a most easye matter, and to compasse it there needeth neyther arte nor learninge, but onlye stoutenesse, they bende their minde and all their thoughtes to the maintenance of that port they kepe, thinking it the true [Page] happynesse to do what a man lusteth. Therfore do some abhorr reason and iustice, bicause they weene it a bridle and a certeine meane to bringe them in bondage and to minishe in them the contentation and hartes ease that they haue to beare rule, if they should obserue it: and their rule were not perfect nor wholl if they shoulde be compel­led to obey vnto dutie and honestie, bicause they haue an opinion that VVhoso obeyeth, is no right Lord in deede. Ther­fore taking these principles for a president and suffering them selues to be lead with selfe leekinge, they w [...]xe lof­tie, and with a statlye countenance, with sharpe and cru­ell condicions, with pompous garmentes, golde & iewel­les, and with comminge (in a mauer) neuer abrode to be seene, they thinke to gete estimation & authoritie emong men, and to be counted (almost) Goddes: But they are (in my iudgement) like the Colosses that were made in Roome the last yeere vpon the feast day of the place of Agone, Images of horri­ble great­nesse. whi­che outwardlye declared a likenesse of great men & horses of triumph, and inwardly were full of towe and ragges. But the Princis of this sort are so muche woorse, as the Colosses by their owne waightye pese stande vpright of them selues, and they bicause they be y [...]l counterpesed and without line or leuell placed vpon vnequall grounde, throughe their owne waightinesse ouerthrowe them sel­ues, and from one errour renn into infinit. Bicause their ignoraunce beeinge annexed with this false opinion that That they can not err, & that the port they kepe commeth of their knowleage, leadeth of them euery waye by right or by wronge to lay hande vpon possessions bouldly, so they maye come bye them. But in case they woulde take aduisemente to knowe and to woorke that that they ought, they would aswell striue not to reigne as they doe to reigne, bicause they shoulde perceyue what a naughtye and daungerous matter it were for Subiectes that ought to be goue [...]ned, to be wyser then the Prin­cis that shoulde gouerne. You may see that ignorance in [Page] musike, in daunsinge, in ridinge hurteth no man, yet he that is no musitien is ashamed and aferde to singe in the presence of others, or to daunse, he that can not, or he that sitteth not wel a horse,Igno­rance of rules. to ride: but of the vnskilfulnes to gouern people arrise so manie yuelles, deathes, destructi­ons, mischeeffes and confusions, that it may be called the deadliest plagu vpon ye earth. And yet some princes most ignorant in gouernment, are not bashfull nor ashamed to take vpon them to gouern I wil not say in the presence of foure or half a dosen persons, but in the face of the world: for their degree is sett so on loft, y all eyes beehould them, & therfore not their great vices only, but their least faul­tes of all are continuallie noted. As yt is written that Cimon was yll spoken of bicause he loued wine, Scipio, sleepe, Lucullus, bancketinges. But wolde God, the Princis of these oure times wolde coople their vices wyth so manie vertues as did they of olde time: which yf they were out of the way in any point, yet refused they not the exhortations and lessons of such as they deemed meete to correct those faultes: Yea they sought with great instance to frame their lief by the rule of notable personages: As Epaminondas by Lisias of Pythagoras sect: Agesilaus by Xenophon: Scipio by Panaetius, and infinit others. But in case a graue Philosopher shoulde come beefore enie of oure Princes,Princis of olde time were refourma­ble. or who euer beeside, that wolde showe them plainlie & with­out enie circomstance the horrible face of true vertue and teache them good maners and what the lief of a good Prince ought to be, I ame assured they wolde abhorr him at the first sight, as a most venimous serpent, or elles they wolde make him a laughinge stocke, as a most vile mat­ter. I saye therfore that sins nowadayes Princis are so corrupt through yl vsages, ignorance & false self leekinge, and that yt is so harde a matter to geue them the knowe­l [...]age of the truth and to bende them to vertue, and men with lyes and flatterie and such naughtye meanes seeke to coorie fauour wyth them, the Courtier by the meane [Page] of those honeste qualities that Count Lewis and Sir Fride­rick haue giuen hym, may soone, and ought to go about so to purchase him the good will and allure vnto him the minde of his Prince, that he maye make him a free and safe passage to commune with him in euery matter with out troublinge him. And yf he be suche a one as is said, he shall compase yt with smalle peine, and so may he al­wayes open vnto him the truth of euerie matter at ease. Besyde this by litle and litle distille into his minde good­nesse, and teache him continencie, stoutnesse of courage, iustice, temperance, makinge him to taste what sweete­nesse is [...]id vnder that litle bitternesse, which at the first sight appeereth vnto him that withstandeth vices: which are alwayes hurtfull, displeasant and accompanied wyth yl report and shame, euen as vertues are profitable, plea­sant and praisable, and enflame him to them with the ex­amples of manie famous Capitanes,Images in the ho­nour of men. and of other nota­ble personages, vnto whom they of old time vsed to make ymages of mettal and marble, and sometime of gold; and to set them vp in commune haunted places, aswell for the honoure of them, as for an encouragynge of others, that with an honest enuie they might also endeuour them sel­ues to reach vnto that glorie. In this wise maye he leade him throughe the roughe way of vertue (as it were) deckynge yt about with boowes to shadowe yt and stra­winge it ouer wyth sightlye flouers, to ease the greefe of the peinfull iourney in hym that is but of a weake force. And sometyme with musike, somtime with armes, and horses, sometyme with rymes and meeter, otherwhyle wyth communication of loue, and wyth all those wayes that these Lordes haue spoken of, continuallye keepe that mynde of his occupyed in honest pleasure: imprin­tynge notwythstandynge therin alwayes beesyde (as I haue said) in cōpanie with these flickeringe prouocations some vertuous condicion, and beeguilinge him with a holsome craft, as the warie phisitiens do, who manye ti­mes [Page] whan they minister to yonge and tender children in ther sickenesse, a medicin of a bitter taste, annoint the cupp about the brimm with some sweete licour. The Courtier therfore applyinge to such a pourpose this veile of pleasure, in euerie time, in euerie place, and in euerye exercise he shall attaine to his ende, and deserue muche more praise and recompence, then for anie other good woorke that he can do in the worlde bicause there is no treasure that doeth so vniuersallie profit, as doeth a good Prince, nor anie mischeef so vniuersallie hurt, as an yll Prince. Therfore is there also in peine so bitter and cruell that were a sufficient punishment for those naugh­tie and wicked Courtiers, that make their honest and pleasant maners & their good qualities a cloke for an ill ende, and by meane of them seeke to come in fauour with their Princis for to corrupte them and to straye them from the way of vertue and to lead them to vice. For a man may say, that such as these be, do infect with deadlie poy­son, not one vessel wherof one man alone drinketh, but the commune fountain that all the people resorteth to. The L. Octauian helde his peace as t [...]ou [...]h he would haue sai [...] no [...]ore, but the L Gaspar, I can not see, my L. Octauian (said he) that this goodnesse of minde and continincie, and the o­ther vertues whiche you will haue the Courtier to showe his Lord, may be learned: but I suppose that they are giuen the men that haue them, by nature and of God. And that it is so, you may see that there is no man so wic­ked and o [...] so ill condicions in the world, nor so vntempe­rate & vniust, which if he be asked the question, will con­fesse him self such a one. But euerie man be he neuer so wicked, is glad to be counted iust, continent & good▪ which shoulde not be so, in case these vertues might be learned, bicause it is no shame not to know the thinge that a man hath not studied, but a rebuke, it is not to haue that which we ought to be indowed withal of nature. Therfore do­eth ech man seeke to couer the defaultes of nature, aswell [Page] in the minde, as also in the bodie: the which is to be se [...]ne in the blinde, lame, crooked and other mayned and defor­med creatures. For although these imperfections may be layed to nature, yet doeth it greeue ech man to haue them in him self: bicause it seemeth by the testimonie of the self same nature that a man hath that default or blemishe (as it were) for a patent and token of his ill inclination. The fable that is reported of Epimetheus doeth also confirme myne opinion,Fable of Epime­theus. whiche was so vnskilfull in diuidinge the gyftes of nature vnto men, that he left them much more needie of euerye thinge, then all other liuinge creatures. Wherupon Prometheus stole the politike wysdome from Minerua and Vulcan that men haue to gete their liuinge withall. Yet had they not for all that, ciuill wisdome to gather them selues together into Cities, & the know­leage to liue with ciuility, bicause it was kept in the Cas­tle of Iupiter by most circumspect ouerseears, whiche put Prometheus in suche feare, that he durst not approch nygh them. Wherupon Iupiter takinge pitye vpon the miserye of men, that could not felowshipp together for lacke of ci­uill vertue, but were torne in peeces by wielde beastes, he sent Mercury to the earth to carie iustice and shame, that these two thinges might fournish Cities and gather Ci­tizins together: and willed that they shoulde be giuen them, not as other artes were, wherin one counning man sufficeth for manie ignorant, as phisike, but y they should be imprinted in euerie man. And ordeyned a lawe, that all such as were without iustice and shame, should be ba­nished and put to death, as contagious to the Citie. Bee­houlde then (my L. Octauian) God hath graunted these ver­tues to mē, & are not to be learned, but be naturall. Then y L. Octauian som what smiling, will you then, my L. Gaspar (ꝙ he) haue mē to be so vnfortunate & of so peuish a iudge­mēt, yt wt policie they haue found out an art to tame ye natures of wield beastes, as beares, wolues, Liōs, & may wt ye same teach a prety bird to fle as a man lust, & retourne back from [Page] the wood and from his naturall libertye of his owne ac­cord to snares and bondage, and with the same pollicy can not, or will not finde out artes whereby they maye profit themselues, and with studie & diligence make their mind more perfect? This (in mine opinion) were like as if Phi­sitiens shoulde studie with all diligence to haue the art onlie to heale fellon [...]es in fingers and the read gumme in yonge children, and lay aside the cure of feuers, pleurisie & other sore diseases, the which how out of reason it were euerie man may consider. I beleaue therfore that the mo­rall vertues are not in vs all together by nature, bicause nothinge can at anye time be accustomed vnto it, that is naturallie his contrarie: as it is seene in a stone, the whi­che though it be cast vpward ten thousand times, yet will he neuer accustome to go vp of him selfe·Uertues may be learned. Therfore in case vertues were as natural to vs, as heauinesse to the stone, we shoulde neuer accustome our selues to vice. Nor yet are vices naturall in this sort, for then shoulde we neuer be vertuous: and a great wickednesse and folie it were, to punishe men for the faultes that came of nature without oure offence: and this errour shoulde the lawes committ, whiche appoint not punishment to the offenders for the trespace that is past, bicause it can not be brought to passe that the thinge that is done, maye not be done, but they haue a respect to the time to come, that who so hath offen­ded maye offende no more, or elles with yll president giue not a cause for others to offende. And thus yet they are in opinion that vertues maye be learned, whiche is most true, bicause we are borne apt to receiue them, and in like maner vices: and therfore there groweth a custome in vs of bothe the one and the other throughe longe vse, so that first we practise vertue or vice,A diffe­rence bee­twene that a man hath by nature and by custome. after that, we are vertuous or vitious. The contrarie is knowen in the thinges that be geuen vs of nature, for firste we haue the pour to practise them, after that, we do practise: as it is in the senses, for first we can see, heere, feele, after that, we [Page] do see, heere and feele: although notwithstandinge many of these doinges be also sett oute more sightlye with tea­chinge. Wherupon good Schoolmaist [...]rs do not only in­struct their children in letters, but also in good nourtour in eatinge, drinkinge, talking, and goinge with certein gestures meete for the pourpose. Therfore euen as in the other artes, so also in the vertues it is behouffull to haue a teacher, that with lessons and good exhortations may stirr vp & quicken in vs those morall vertues, wherof we haue the seede inclosed and buried in the soule, & like the good husbande man, till them and open the waye for them, weedinge from about them the briers and darnell of appetites, which many times so shadow and choke our mindes, that they suffre them not to budd nor to bringe furth the happie frutes, which alone ought to be wished to grow in ye hartes of men. In this sort then is naturally in euerie one of vs iustice and shame, which (you saye) Iu­piter sent to the earth for all men. But euen as a bodye without eyes, how sturdie euer he be, if he remoue to a­nie certein place, often times faileth: so the roote of these vertues that be potentiallie engendred in our mindes, yf it be not aided with teaching, doth often come to nought. Bicause if it shoulde be brought into doinge and to his perfect custome, it is not satisfied (as is said) with nature alone: but hath neede of a politike vsage & of reason, whi­che maye clense and scoure that soule, takinge away the dymm veile of ignorance, wherof arrise (in a maner) all ye erroures in men. For in case good & ill were wel knowen and perceiued, euery man would alwaies chouse the good and shonn the yl. Therfore may vertue be said to be (as it were) a wisdome & an vnderstanding to chouse the good:Uertue. and vice, a lacke of foresight & an ignorance that leadeth to iudge falsely.Uice. Bicause men neuer chouse ye il with opi­nion that it is ill, but they are deceiued through a certein likenesse of good. Then answered ye L. Gaspar: yet are there many that know plainlie they do ill, & do it notwithstan­ [...]ing, [Page] and that bicause thei more esteame the present plea­sure which they feele,True plea­sure. True sorow. then ye punishment that they doubt shall fall vpon them, as theeues, murtherers and such o­ther. The L. Octauian said: true pleasure is alwaies good, and true sorow, euell: therfore these be deceiued in taking false pleasure for true, and true sorowe for false: wheru­pon manye times through false pleasures, they reun in­to true displeasures. The art therfore that teacheth to discerne this trueth from falshood, maye in like case be learned: and the vertue by the which we chouse this good in deede,True know­leage. and not that which falsely appeereth to be, may be called true knowleage, and more auailable for mans lief, then anye other, bicause it expelleth ignorance, of the which (as I haue said) springe all euelles. Then M. Peter Bembo, I wot not, my L. Octauian (quoth he) how the L. Gas­par should graunt you, that of ignoraunce should springe all euelles, and that there be not manye which in offen­dinge knowe for certeintie that they do offende, neyther are they anye deale deceiued in the true pleasure nor yet in the true sorow: bicause it is sure that such as be incon­tinent iudge with reason & vprightly, and know it, wher vnto they are prouoked by lust contrary to due, to be ill, & therefore they make resistance and sett reason to matche greedy desire, wherupon arriseth the battaile of pleasure and sorow against iudgement.Reason, Finally reason ouercome by greedie desire far the mightier, is cleane without suc­cour, like a shippe, that for a time defendeth herself from the tempestuous Seastormes, at the end beaten with the to raginge violence of windes, her gables and tacklinges broken, yeldeth vp to be driuen at the will of fortune, wt ­out occupiyng helme or any maner help of Pilott for her safegard. Furthwith therefore commit they the offences with a certein doubtfull remorse of conscience & (in a ma­ner) whether they will or no, ye which they would not do, onlesse they knew ye thing that they do to be ill, but with­out striuing of reason would ren wholy headlonge after [Page] greedy desire, & then shoulde they not be incontinent, but vntemperate, which is much woorse. Therfore is incon­tinencie said to be a diminished vice,Incontinēcy. bicause it hath in it a part of reason,Continency. & likewise continency an vnperfect ver­tue, bicause it hath in it part of affection: therfore (me thinke) that it can not be said that the offences of the in­continent come of ignorance, or that they be deceiued and offende not, whan they know for a truth that they do of­fende. The L. Octauian answered: Certesse (M. Peter) youre argument is good, yet (in my minde) it is more apparant then true. For although the incontinent offend with that doubtfulnesse, & reason in their minde striueth againste greedye desire, & that that is yll, seemeth vnto them to be ill in deede, yet haue they no perfect knowleage of it, nor vnderstand it so throughly as nede requireth. Therfore of this, it is rather a feeble opinion in them, then certeine knowleage, wherby they agree to haue reason ouercome by affectiō: but if they had in them true knowleage, there is no doubt, but they would not offend: bicause euermore ye thinge wherby greedie desire ouercometh reason, is ig­norance neyther can true knowleage be euer ouercome by affection,Ignorance. that proceadeth from ye body & not from the mind, & in case it be wel ruled & gouerned by reason it be­commeth a vertue: yf not it beecommeth a vice.Reason. But such force reason hath, that she maketh the sense alwaies to o­bey and by wonderous meanes & wayes perceth least ig­norance shoulde possesse that, which she ought to haue: so that althoughe ye spirites and the sinewes, and the bones haue no reason in them, yet whan there springeth in vs ye motion of minde, that ye imagination (as it were) pricketh forward and shaketh the bridle to the spirites, all ye mem­bers are in a readinesse, the feete to renn, ye hands to take or to d [...]e that whiche the minde▪ thinketh vpon, and this is also manifestlye knowen in many, which vnwitting­ly otherwhile eate some lothesome and abhorring meat, but so well dressed that to their taste it appeereth moste delicate: afterwarde vnderstandinge what maner thynge [Page] it was, it doeth not only greeue them & loth them in their minde, but the bodie also agreeth with the iudgement of the minde, that of force they cast that meate vp again. The L. Octauian folowed on still in his talke, but the L. Iulian in­terruptinge him. My L. Octauian (ꝙ he (yf I haue well vnder­stoode, you haue said that cōtinencie is an vnperfect ver­tue, bicause it hath in it part of affection: and me see­meth that the vertue (where there is in oure minde a va­riance beetwene reason and greedie desyre) whiche figh­teth and giueth the victorye to reason, ought to be recke­ned more perfect, then that which ouercommeth hauinge neyther greedie desire nor anie affection to withstand it: bicause (it seemeth) that that minde absteyneth not from yll for vertues sake, but refrayenth the doing it, bicause he hath no will to it. Then the L. Octauian, which (ꝙ he) wolde you esteame the valianter Capitain, eyther he that hasardeth him selfe in open [...]ight, and notwith­standing vanquisheth his enemies, or he that by his ver­tue and knowleage weakeneth them in bringinge them in case not able to fight, and so without battaile or a­nie ieopardie discomfetethe them? He, quoth the L. Iulian, that ouercommeth with most suretie, is out of doubt most to be praised, so that this assured victorie of his proceade not through the slackenesse of the ennemies The L. Octauian answered: you haue iudged aright. And ther­fore I say vnto you, that continencio may be compared to a Capitain that fighteth manlie, and though his ennemi­es be stronge and well appointed, yet geueth he them the ouerthrowe,Temperance but for al that not without much a do & daū ­ger But temperance free from all disquietinge, is like the Capitain that without resistance ouercommeth and reigneth. And hauinge in the mynde where she is, not onlie affuaged, but cleane quenched the fire of gredie desire, euen as a good Prince in ciuill warr dispat­cheth the sedicious inward ennemies, and giueth the scep­ter and wholl rule to reason, so in like case this vertue not [Page] enforcing the mind, but powringe therinto through most quiet waies a vehement persuasion that may incline him to honestie, maketh him quiet and full of rest, in euerie part equall and of good proportion: and on euerie side framed of a certein agreement with him self, that filleth him with such a cleare caulmenesse, that he is neuer out of pacience: and becommeth full and wholy most obedient to reason, and readie to tourn vnto her all his motions, and folow her where she [...]ust to leade him, without anie resistance, like a tender lambe that renneth, standeth and goith alwaies by the ewes side, and moueth only as he se­eth her do. This vertue therefore is most perfect, and is cheeflie requisit in Princis, bicause of it arrise manie o­ther. Then the L. Cesar Gonzaga, I wott not (quoth he) what vertues requisit for Princis may arrise of this tem­perance, yf it be [...]he that riddeth the mind of affections (as you say) which perhappes were meete for some Monke or Heremite: but I can not see how it should be requisit for a Prince that is couragious, fre [...]harted and of prow­esse in marciall feates, for whatsoeuer is done to him, ne­uer to haue angre, hatred, good will, disdeigne, lust, nor a­ny affeccion in him: nor how without this he can gete him authoritie emonge the people and souldiers The L. Octauian answered: I haue not said that tēperance shoulde throughlye ridd and roote oute of mens mindes, affecti­ons: neyther shoulde it be well so to do, bicause there be yet in affections some partes good: but that which in af­fections is corrupt and striuing against honestie, she brin­geth to obey vnto reason. Therfore it is not meete, to ridd the troublesome disquietnesse of the mind, to roote vp affections cleane, for this were as if to a voide dron­kennesse, there shoulde be an act established, that no man shoulde drinke wine: or bicause otherwhile in renninge a man taketh a fall, euerie man should be forbed renning. Marke them that breake horses, they breake them not [Page] from their renninge and comminge on loft, but they will haue them to do it at the time and obedience of the rider. The affections therfore that be clensed and tried by tem­perance are assistant to vertue, as angre, that helpeth manlinesse: hatred against the wicked, helpeth iustice, and likewise the other vertues are aided by affections, which in case they were cleane taken away, they woulde leaue reason verie feeble and feint, so that it shoulde litle preuaile, like a shipp maister that is without winde in a great caulme. Maruaile ye not then (my L. Cesar) if I haue said, that of temperance arrise manie other vertues: for whan a minde is in tune with this harmonie, by the meane of reason he easely receiueth afterward true man­linesse, which maketh him boulde and safe from all daun­ger,True manli­nesse. and (in a maner) aboue wordly passions. Likewise Iustice an vndefiled virgin, friend to sobermode and goodnesse,Iustice. queene of all other vertues, bicause she teacheth to do that, which a man ought to do, and to shon that a man ought to shonn, and therfore is she most perfect, bicause through her the woorkes of the other vertues are brought to passe, and she is a helpe to him that hath her both for him selfe and for others: without the which (as it is com­manlye said) Iupiter him selfe coulde not well gouern hys kingdome.Stoutnesse of courage. Stoutnesse of courage doeth also folowe after these, and maketh them all the greater, but she can not stand alone, bicause whoso hath not other vertues can not be of a stoute courage. Of these then wisdome is guide, which consisteth in a certein iudgemēt to chouse well.Wisdome. And in this happie chayne are also lincked libe­ralitie, sumptuousnesse, the desire to saue a mans esty­mation, meekenesse, pleasantnesse, courtesie in talke, and manie other which is nowe no time to speake of. But in case oure Courtier wyll do as we haue saide, he shall finde them all in his Princis minde: and daylie he shall see springe suche beawtifull floures and frutes, as all the delicious gardeins in the world haue not the [Page] like: And he shall feele verie great contentacion with­in him [...]elf, whan he remembreth that he hath giuen him,The way to gouern well. not the thinges whiche foolish persons giue, whiche is, golde, or siluer, plate, garmētes, and such matters, wher­of he that giueth them hath him self verie great scarsitie, and he that receiueth them exceading great store: but that vertue, which perhappes among all the matters yt belong vnto man, is the cheeffest and rarest, that is to say, the maner and way to rule and to reigne in the right kinde. Which alone were sufficient to make men happie, and to bring once again into the worlde the golden age, whi­che is written to haue bine whan Saturnus reigned in the olde time.The reigne of a good Prince. Here whan the L. Octauian had paused a litle as though he woulde haue taken respite, the L. Gaspar said: Whiche recken you (my L. Octauian) the happiest gouernment and that were most to pourpose to bring into the world again that golden age whych you haue made mention of, eyther the reigne of so good a Prince, or the gouernance of a good Commune weale? The L. Octauian answered: I woulde alwayes prefarr the reigne of a good Prince, bicause it is a gouernment more agreeable to nature, and (if it be lawfull to compare small matters with infinit) more like vnto Goddes, whiche one, and alone go­uerneth the vniuersall. But leauinge this, ye see that in whatsoeuer is broug [...]te to passe with the pol­licie of man, as armies, great saylinge vesselles, buildynges and other lyke matters, the wholl is com­mitted to one alone, to dyspose ther [...]f at his will. Likewise in oure bodye all the membres trauaile and are occupied as the hart thinketh good. Beeside this it seemeth meete that people shoulde aswell be gouerned by one Prince, as manye other liuinge creatures be, whom nature teacheth this obedience, as a moste soue­raign matter. Marke ye whether deere, cranes & manye o­ther foules, whā thei take their [...]light do not alwaies set [Page] a Prince beefore, whom they folowe and obey. And bees (as it were) with discourse of reason and with such reue­rence honour their kinge, as the most obedientest people in the world can do. And therfore all this is a verie great argument that the so [...]eraigntie of a Prince is more ac­cordinge to nature, then a Commune weales. Then M. Peter Bembo, and me thinke (quoth he) that sins God hath giuen vs libertie for a soueraigne gifte,Libertye. it is not reason that it should be taken from vs: nor that one man should be partner of it more then an other, which happeneth vn­der the rule of princis, who for the most part keepe their people in most streict bondage. But in Commune wea­les well in order this libertie is well kept. Beeside that, both in iudgementes and in aduisementes it happeneth oftner that the opinion of one alone is false, then the opi­nion of many, bicause troublous affection either through anger, or throughe spite, or through lust, sooner entreth into the mind of one alone then into the multitudes, whi­ [...]he (in a maner) like a greate quantitie of water, is lesse subiect to corruption, then a smalle deale. I saye again that the example of the beastes and foules doth not make to pourpose, for both Deere and Cranes and the rest doe not alwaies sett one and the selfe formost for them to fo­lowe and obey, but they still chaunge and varie, giuinge this prefarment somtime to one, otherwhile to an other, and in this maner it beecommeth rather the fourme of a Commune weale, then of a kingdome, and this maye be called a true and equall libertie, whan they that somtime commaunde, obey again an other while. The example likewise of the bees (me thinke) is not alike, bicause that kinge of theirs is not of their owne kinde: And therefore he that will giue vnto men a w [...]rthie head in deede, must be faine to finde him of an other kinde, and of a more no­ble nature then mans, if menne (of reason) shoulde obey him, as flockes and heardes of cattell that obey, not a beast their like, but a sheppharde and a hardman, which [Page] is a man and of a more woorthie kinde, then theirs. For these respectes, I thynke (my L. Octauian) the go­uernment of a Commune weale is more to be coueted, then of a kinge. Then the L. Octauian, against your opini­on, M. Peter (quoth he) I will alleage but one reason: whi­che is, that of wayes to rule people well, there be onlye three kindes. The one a kingdome: The other,Three kindes of wayes to rule. the rule of good men, whiche they of olde tyme called Optimates, The third, the gouernance of the people. And the trans­gressinge (to terme it so) and contrarie vice that euery one of these is chaunged into beeinge apayred and corrupted, is whan the kingdome beecommeth a Tyrannie: and whan the gouernance of good men is chaunged into the handes of a few great men and not good: and whan the rule of the people is at the disposition of the cōmunaltye, whiche making a meddlie of the ordres, suffreth the gouernance of the wholl at ye wil of the multitude. Of these three yll gouernmentes (it is sure) the Tyrannie is the woorst of al, as it may be proued by many reasons. It foloweth then, that of the three good, the kingdome is the best, bicause it is contrarye to the woorste, for (as you knowe) the effectes of contrarie causes, they be also contrarye emong them selues. Nowe as touchinge it, that you haue spoken of lybertye, I answere, that true liberty ought not to be saide to liue as a manne will, but to lyue accor­dynge to good lawes. And to obey, is no lesse na­turall, profitable and necessarye, then to commaunde. And some thinges are borne and so appointed and ordey­ned by nature to commaunde, as some other to obey­sance. Truth it is, that there be two kyndes of bea­ringe rule, the one Lordlye and forsyble,Two kindes of wayes to beare swinge. as maisters o­uer slaues, and in this doeth the soule commaunde the bodye. The other more milde and tractable, as good Princis by waye of the lawes ouer their Subiectes, and in this reason commaundeth greedie desire. And ech of these two wayes is proifitable: bicause the bodye is [Page] created of nature apte to obey the soule, and so is desire, reason. There be also manye menne whose doinges be applied onlye about the vse of the body: and such as these be are so farr wide from the vertuous, as the soule from the bodye, and yet bicause they be reasonable creatures, they be so much partners of reason, as they doe no more but know it, for they possesse it not, ne yet haue they the vse of it. These therefore be naturallye bondemen, and better it is for them and more profitable to obeye, then to beare swey. Then saide the L. Gaspar: In what ma­ner wise be they then to be commaunded that be discreete and vertuous and not by nature bonde?How good men be to be ruled. The L. Octauian answered: With that tractable commaundment king­lye and ciuill. And to such it is well done otherwhile to committe the bearinge of suche offices as be meete for them, that they maye likewise beare swey and rule ouer others of lesse witt then they be, yet so that the principal gouernement maye full and wholye depende vppon the cheef Prince. And bicause you haue said, that it is an easier matter to corrupt the minde of one, then of a great sort, I saye, that it is also an easier matter to finde one good and wise,A kinge. then a great sorte. Both good and wise ought a man to suppose a kinge maye be, of a noble pr [...] ­genie, inclined to vertue of hys owne naturall motion, and throughe the famous memorye of his auncestoures, and brought vp in good condicions. And though he be not of an other kinde then man, as you haue saide is emonge the bees, yet yf he be helped forwarde with the instructi­ons, bringinge vp, and art of the Courtier, whom these Lordes haue facioned so wise and good, he shall be moste wise, moste continent, moste temperate, moste manlye, and moste iuste, full of liberalitie, maiestie, holynesse, and mercye: finallye he shall be moste glorious and moste deerlye beloued both to God and manne: throughe whose grace he shall atteine vnto that heroicall and noble ver­tue, that shall make him passe the b [...]undes of the nature [Page] of manne, and shall rather be called a Demy God,God the defendour of good Princis. then a manne mortall. For God deliteth in and is the defen­dour not of those Princis that will folowe and counter­feit him in showinge great poure, and make themselues to be woorshipped of menne, but of such as beeside poure, whereby they are mightye, endeuour themselues to re­semble him also in goodnesse and wisdome, wherby they maye haue a will and a knowleage to doe well and to be his ministers, distributinge for the beehouf of manne the benifittes and giftes that they receiue of him. Therfore euen as in the firmamente the sonne and the moone and the other sterres show to the world (as it were) in a glasse a certeine likenesse of God:A good Prince an Image of God. So vppon the earth a mu­che more liker image of God are those good Princis that loue and woorshippe him, and showe vnto the people the cleere light of his iustice, accompanied with a shadowe of the heauenlye reason and vnderstandinge: And suche as these be doeth God make partners of his true dealing, rightuousnesse, iustice and goodnesse, and of those other happy benifittes which I can not name, that disclose vn­to the worlde a much more euident proof of the Godhead, then doeth the light of the sonne, or the continuall tour­ninge of the firmamente with the sundrye course of the sterres. It is God therfore that hath appointed the peo­ple vnder ye custodie of Princis, which ought to haue a di­ligent care ouer them, that they may make him accompt of it, as good stewardes do their Lord, and loue them and thinke their owne, all the profit & losse that happeneth to them, & principally aboue all thing prouide for their good astate & welfare. Therfore ought the prince not only to be good, but also to make others good, like the Carpenters square, that is not only straight & iust it self, but also ma­keth straight & iust whatsoeuer it is occupied about. And the greatest proofe that the Prince is good,The li [...] of the kinge a [...] lawe to the [...] ­ple. is whan the people are good: bicause the lief of the Prince is a lawe and ringleader of the Citizins, and vpon the condicions [Page] of him must needes al others depende: neyther is it meete for one that is ignorant, to teach: nor for him that is out of order, to giue order: nor for him that falleth, to help vp an other. Therfore if the Prince will execute these offices aright, it is requisit that he apply all his studie and diligence to get knowleage, afterward to facion within him selfe and obserue vnchangeablye in euerye thinge the lawe of reason, not written in papers, or in me [...]tall, but grauen in his owne minde, that it maye be to him alwayes not onlie familier, but inwarde, and liue with him, as a percell of him: to the intent it may night and day, in euerye time and place admonish him & speake to him within his hart, ridding [...] him of those troublous effections that vntemperate mindes feele, whiche by­cause on the one side they be (as it were) cast into a moste deepe sleepe of ignorance, on ye other ouerwhelmed with the vnquitnesse which they feele through their weyward and blind desires, they are stirred with an vnquiet rage, as he that sleepeth otherwi [...]e with straunge and horrible visions: heaping then a greater poure vpon their nough­tie desire, there is heaped also a greater trouble withall. And whā the Prince can do what he will, then is it great ieopardie least he will the thing that he ought not. Ther­fore said Bias well, that promotions declare what men be: for euen as vesselles while they are emptie,Bias say­inge. though they haue some thinke in them, it can ill be perceiued, but if they be filled with l [...]cour, they showe by and by on what side the fault is, so corrupt and il disposed mindes syldome discouer their vices,Authoriti­es disclose vices. but whan they be filled with autho­ritie. For then they are not able to carie the heauie bur­dien of poure, but forsake them selues and scatter on eue­ry side greedie desire, pride, wrath, solemnesse & such tirā ­nicall fecions as they haue within them. Wherupō with­out regard they persecute the good & wise, & promote ye wicked.Tirānes. And they can not abide to haue frendshippes, assem­blies & cōferences among Citizins in Cities. But main­tein [Page] spies, promoters, murtherers and cutthrotes to put men in feare and to make them become feintharted. And they sowe debate and striefe to keepe them in diuisiō and weake. And of these maners insue infinit damages and the vttre vndoinge of the poore people, and often times cruell slaughter or at the least cōtinuall feare to the Tirā ­nes them selues. For good Princis feare not for them sel­ues but for their sakes whom they rule ouer: and Tyran­nes feare verie them whom they rule ouer. Therfore the more numbre of people they rule ouer and the mightier they are, the more is their feare & the more ennemies they haue. How fearefull (think you) and of what an vnquiet mind was Clearus Tirān of Pontus euery time he went into ye market place, or into the theatre, or to anie banket,Clea [...] or other haunted place? For (as it is written) he slept shutt into a chest. Or Aristodemus of Argos? which of his bed had made to him self a prison (or litle better) for in his palaice he had a litle roume hanginge in the aer, and so high that he should clime to it with a ladder, and there slept he with a woman of his, whose mother ouernight tooke away the ladder, & in the morning sett it to again. Cleane contrarie to this therfore ought the lief of a good Prince to be, free and safe & as deere to his subiectes as their owne: & so fra­med, that he may haue a parte of both the doinge and beeholdinge lief, asmuche as shall be beehouffull for the benefit of hys people. Then the L Gaspar, And whiche of the two liues, my L. Octauian (quoth he) do you thinke most meete for a Prince? The L. Octauian answered smilinge: ye thinke perhappes that I stande in mine owne conceite to be the excellent Courtier that ought to knowe so manye matters, and to applye them to the good end I haue spoken of. But remembre your selfe, that these Lordes haue facioned him with manie qualityes that be not in me: therefore let vs firste doe our best to finde him out, for I remytt me to him both in this and in al other thinges that belong to a good Prince. [Page] Then the L. Gaspar, I thinke (ꝙ he) that if anye of the qua­lities geuen the Courtier want in you, it is rather mu­sike and daunsinge and the rest of smalle accompt, then such as beelong to the instructing of a Prince and to this ende of Courtlines. The L. Octauian answered: They are not of small accompt all of them that help to purchase a man the fauour of a Prince, which is necessarie (as we haue said) before the Courtier auenture to teach him ver­tue, the which (I trowe) I haue showed you may be lear­ned, and profiteth asmuch as ignorance hurteth, whereof springe all vices, and speciallye that false leekinge a man hath of him selfe. Therefore (in mine opinion) I haue sufficientlye said, and perhappes more then my promise was. Then the dutchesse, we shal be so much the more bounde (quoth she) to your gentilnesse, as ye shall sa­tisfye vs more then promise. Therfore sticke not to speake your fansye concerninge the L. Gaspars request. And of good felowshippe showe vs beside whatsoeuer you woulde teache your Prince, if he had neede of instructi­ons: and sett the case that you haue throughlye gotten his fauour, so as it maye be lawfull for you to tell him francklye what euer commeth in your minde The L. Octauian laughed and said: Yf I had the fauour of some Prince that I knowe, and shoulde tell him franckly mine opinion (I doubt me) I shoulde soone lose it: Bee­side that, to teach hym, I should neede firste to learn [...] my selfe. Notwithstandinge sins it is youre plea­sure that I shall answere the L Gaspar in this point also, I say, that (in my minde) Princis ought to giue them selues both to the one and the other of the two lyues, but yet somewhat more to the beehouldinge:Vita con­ [...]emplati­ [...]. Bicause this in them is diuided into two partes, whereof the one consisteth in knoweynge well and iudgeinge: the o­ther in commaundinge aryght, and in suche wyse as it shoulde be done, and reasonable matters and suche as they haue authoritye in, commaunding them to hym, [Page] that of reason ought to obeye, and in time and place ac­cordingely. And of thys spake Duke Friderick, whan he said, He that can commaunde, is alwayes obeyed. And to commaunde is euermore the principall office of Princis, which notwithstandinge ought manye times also to see with their eyes and to be present at the deede doynge, and accordinge to the time and the busenesse otherwhile also be doynge them selues, and yet hath all thys a part wyth action or practise.Vita [...]i­ua. But the ende of the actyue or doinge lief ought to be the beehouldinge, as of warr, peace, and of peynes, rest.How to trade peo­ple. Therfore is it also the of­fice of a good Prince so to trade his people and with such lawes and statutes, that they maye lyue in rest and in peace, without daunger and with encrease of welth, and inioye praisablye this ende of their practises and actions, which ought to be quietn [...]sse. Bicause there haue bine of­ten times manye Commune weales and Princis, that in warr were alwayes most florishinge and mightie, and immediatlye after they haue had peace, fell in decaye and lost their puissance and brightnesse, like yron vnoccupied. And this came of nothing elles, but bicause they had no good trade of lyuing in peace, nor the knowleage to inioie the benifit of ease. And it is not a matter lawfull to be alwayes in warr without se [...]kinge at the ende t [...] come to a peace: Although some Princis suppose that their drift ought principally to be, to bringe in subiection their borderers, and therfore traine vp their people in a warlyke wyldenesse of spoyle, and murther, and suche matters: they wage them to exercise it, and call it ver­tue. Wherupon in the olde tyme it was an vsage emonge the Scyth [...]s, A custome among the Scythes. that whoso hadde not slayne some ennemie of his, could not drinke in solemne banckettes of the gobblet that was caried about to his companions.Greate high square sto­nes smal­ler and small [...]r vnto the top. In other places the maner was to reare about ones sepul­ture so manye Obeliskes, as he that laye there buryed had [Page] slain o [...] his ennemies. And all these thinges and many mo, were inu [...]nted to make men warlike, onlye to bring others in subiection, which was a matter (almost) vnpos­sible, bicause it is an infinite p [...]ece of woorke, vntill all the worlde be brought vnder obeysance: and not very rea­sonable, accordinge to the lawe of nature VVhich will not [...]aue, that in others the thinge should please vs, whiche in our selues is a greef to vs, Why Princis should make their peo­ple war­like. Therfore ought Princis to make their people warlyke, not for a greedie desire to rule, but to de­fende themselues the better and their owne people, from whoso woulde attempt to bringe them in bondage, or to do them wrong in any point. Or els to driue out Tirans, and to gouern the people well, that were yll handled. Or [...]lles to bringe into bondage them, that of nature were suche, that they deserued to be made bondmen, with en­tent to gouern them well, and to giue them case, rest and peace.The ende of the lawes. And to this ende also ought to be applied ye lawes, and al statutes of iustice, in punishing the yll, not for ma­lice, but bicause there should be no yll, and least they shoulde be a hinderaunce to the quiet liuinge of the good: Bicause in very deede it is an vncomelye matter & woor­thie blame, that in warr (which of it selfe is nought) men shoulde showe themselues stout and wi [...]e, and in peace & rest (which is good) ignoruant, and so blockishe that they wiste not howe to inioye a benifit. Euen as therfore in warr th [...]y ought to bende their people to the profitabl [...] and necessarye vertues to come by ye ende (which is, peace) so in peace, to come by the end therof also (which is, quiet­nes) they ought to bend them to honest vertues, which be the end of the profitable. And in this wise shal the subiec­tes be good, and the Prince shall haue manye mo to com­mende and to rewarde, then to chastise. And the rule both for the subiectes and for the Prince shall be most happye, not Lordly, as the maister ouer his bondeman, but soft [...] and meeke, as a good father ouer his good childe. Then the L. Gaspar, gladly (quoth he) woulde I vnderstande what [Page] maner vertues these are, that be profitable and necessa­rye in warr, and what honest in peace. The L. Octauian answered: All be good and helpe the tourne, bicause th [...]y tende to a good ende. Yet cheeflye in warr is much set by that true manlines,Manlinesse. which maketh the minde voide from all passions, so that he not onlye feareth not perilles, but passeth not vpon them. Likewise steadfastn [...]sse, and pa­cyence,Steadfast­nesse. abidinge with a quiet and vntroubled minde all the strokes of fortune. It is beehouffull likewise in warr & at all other times to haue all the vertues that beelonge to honestye, as iustice, staidnesse, sobermoode: but muche more in peace and rest, bicause often times men in pros­spiritie and rest, whan fauourable fortune fa [...]neth vpon them, were vnrighteous, vntemp [...]rate, and suffre them­sel [...]es to be corrupted with pleasures. Therfore suche as be in this state haue verie greate neede of these vertues, bicause rest bringeth yll condicyons to soone into mens mindes: Wherupon arrose a Prouerbe in olde time,Rest. that Rest is not to be giuen to bondmē. And it is thought that the Piramides of aegipt were made to kepe the people occu­pied, bicause Vnto euerie manne, Hugions [...]reat [...]ones steeple wise▪ vse to abide peynes is most pro­fitable. There be more ouer manie other vertues, all help­full, but it sufficeth for this time to haue spoken this mu­che: for if I could teach my Prince and traine him in this maner and so vertuous a bringinge vppe (as we haue sett furthe) in doinge it without anye more (I woulde bee­leaue) that I had sufficientlye well compased the ende of a good Courtier. Then the L Gaspar, My L. Octauian (quoth he) bicause you haue muche praysed good bringing vp, and seemed (in a maner) to beleaue that it is the cheef cause to make a man vertuous & good, I would knowe, whether the Courtiers instructing of hys Prince, ought to beegine firste of vse and (as it were) daylye facio [...]s, that vnawares to him may make him to accustome him­selfe to weldoinge: or elles wh [...]th [...]r he ought to beegine it himself in opening vnto him with reason the proprety [Page] of good and yll, and in makinge him to perceiue, beefore he take the matter in hand, which is the good waye and to be fo [...]owed, & which the yll, and to be shonned: finally [...] whether into that minde of his, the vertues ought to be driuen & grounded with reason and vnderstanding first, or with custome. The L. Octauian said: you bringe me in­to ouerlonge a discourse. Yet bicause you shall not thinke that I will slacke for that I am not willing to make an­swere to your requestes, I saye, that like as the soule and the bodye in vs are two thinges, so is the soule diui­ded into two partes: whereof the one hath in it reason, and the other appetite.Reason. Euen as therefore in generati­on the bodye go [...]th beefore the soule,Appetite. so doeth the vnrea­nable part of the soule go before the reasonable: the whi­che is plainlye to be descerned in yonge babes, who (in a maner) immediatlye after their birthe vttre angre and feruent appetite, but afterwarde in processe of time rea­son appeereth. Therfore first must the bodye be cherished beefore the soule: after that, the appetite beefore reason: but the cherishinge of the bodye for a respect to the soule, and of the appetite for a respect to reason. For as the vertue of the minde is made perfecte with learninge, so is the ciuill wyth custome. Therefore ought there to be a grounde made firste wyth custome, whiche maye gouerne the appetites not yet apt to conceyue reason: and wyth that good vse leade them to goodnesse: af­terwarde settle them wyth vnderstandynge, the whyche althoughe she be laste to showe her light, yet doeth she the more perfectlye make the vertues to be inioyed of whoso hathe his mynde well instructed wyth maners, wherein (in mine opinion) consisteth the wholl. The L. Gaspar saide: Beefore ye proceade anye farther, I woulde knowe howe the body should be cherished:Cherishing of the bo [...]ye. bicause you haue saide that we must cherishe it beefore the soule. The L. Octauian answered smiling: know of these mē that [Page] make much of it and are faire and rounde, as for mine (as you see) it is not half well cherished. Yet may there also be much said in this beehalf: As, the time meete for mariage, that children be neither to nigh nor to farr of from the fathers age: Exercises, and bringinge vp soone after there birth, and in the rest of their lief to make them handsome, towardlie, and liuelie. The L. Gas­par answered: The thing that woulde best please women to make their children handsome and welfauoured (in my minde) were the felowship that Plato will haue of them in his Commune weale, and in that wise. Then the Lady Emilia smilinge, It is not in the couenaunt (ꝙ she) that ye shoulde a freshe fall to speake yll of women. I suppose, answered the L. Gaspar, that I giue them a great praise, in sainge that they shoulde desire to haue a custome brought vp, which is alowed of so woorthye a man. The L. Cesar Gonzaga said laughing: Let vs see whether amonge the L. Octauians lessons (yet I wott not whether he haue spoken al or no) this may take place: and whether it were well done the Prince should establish it for a lawe or no The few that I haue spoken, an­swered the L. Octauian, may perhappes be inough to make a good Prince, as Princes go nowadayes. Although if a man would go more narrowly to woorke in the mat­ter, there were muche more for him yet to saye. Then said the Dutchesse: Sins it costeth vs nothinge but woordes, show vs of good felowshippe that, that woulde come in youre mind to teach your Prince. The L. Octauian answered: Manie other matters I woulde teache hym (madam) if I knew them my selfe: and amonge the rest, that he should pike out a certein numbre of Gentilmen e­monge his subiectes, of the noblest and wisest,A counsell o [...] noble men. wyth whom he shoulde debate all matters, and giue them au­thority and free leaue to vttre their minde francklye vn­to him with out respect: and take suche order wyth them that they maye well perceiue, that in euerie thinge he [Page] woulde know the truth and abhor [...] lyinge. And beesid [...] this Counsell of the nobilitie,A counsell of the commons I woulde perswade him to chouse out others amonge the people of a baser degree, of whom he shoulde make an honest substanciall Counsell, that shoulde debate with the Counsell of the nobilitye the affaires of the Citye beelonginge to the commune and priuate astate· And in this wise shoulde be made, of the Prince, as of the head, of the nobilite and communes, as of the membres, one bodie alone knitt together, the go­uernance wherof should cheeflie depende vpō the Prince yet shoulde the rest beare a stroke also in it: and so shoulde this state haue the fourme & maner of the three good go­uernmentes, which is, a kingdome, men of the best sorte, and the people. Afterward I would showe him, that of cares beelonging to a Prince, the cheeffest is of iustice: for maintenance wherof wise and well tryed men shoulde be chosen out for officers,Cares in a Prince. whose wisdome were verie wis­dome in deede, accompanied with goodnesse, for e [...]les is it no wisdome, but craft. And where there is a want of this goodnesse, alwayes the art and subtill practise of lawyers is nothing elles, but the vttre decay and destruc­tion of the lawes and iudgementes: and the fault of euery offence of theirs is to be layed in him that put them in of­fice.Godly affec­tio [...]s. I would tell him how that of iustice also depen­deth the zeale toward God, which beelongeth vnto all men and especiallye to Princis, who ought to loue him aboue all thinges, and to direct all their doinges vnto him, as vnto the true end: And (as Xenophon saith) to ho­noure and loue him alwayes, but much more in pros­spiritie, bicause they maye afterwarde lefullye with a more confidence call to him for assistance whan they bee in anye aduersitye: for it is not possible to gouern either himself or others well, without the help of God, who vnto the good sendeth otherwhile good fortune for his minister, to helpe them out of great daungers, some­time aduersitye leaste they shoulde slumber so much in [Page] prospirity that they myght happen to forgete him, or the wisdome of man, which manie times redresseth ill fortune as a good player, the ill chaunces of the dice, with counninge play at tables. I woulde not forgete als [...] to put the Prince in minde to be deuoute indeede, not su­perstycious, nor giuen to the vanitie of nigromancy & pro­phecies: for in case he haue accompanied with the wis­dome of manne, a godlye zeale and true religion, he shall also haue good lucke, and God his defendour, who will al­wayes encrease his prospiritie both in peace and warr. Beeside,To loue his Country and people. I woulde declare vnto him how he shoulde loue his Countrey and his people, keapinge them not in to­much bondage, for beeing hated of them wherof arrise se­dicions, conspiricies, and a thowsand mischeeues beeside: nor yet in to much libertye, lest he be set at nought, wher­of proceadeth the licencious and riotus liuinge of the peo­ple, theft, robberye and murther withoute anye feare of lawes, often tymes the decay & vttre destruction of cities and kingdoms. Moreouer how he shoulde loue them that be nighest to him from one degree to an other, obser­uinge among them all in certein matters a like equalitie,Equalitye. as in iustice & libertye,Partialitye and in some matters a reasonable partiality as in beeing liberal, in recōpensing, in [...]stow­inge promotions and honours according to the vnequal­nesse of desertes, which ought not alwaies to exceade, but to be exceaded with recompences. And yt in thus doing he should not only be beloued, but (in a maner) worshipped of his subiectes, neither should he neede to commit ye gaurde of h [...]s persō to straūgers for his own (for ye better safegard & profit of them selues) would guarde him with their own person: and ech man woulde willinglye obey the lawes, whan they shoulde see him to obey them him self, and bee (as it were) an vncorrupted keaper and minister of them: and so shall he make all men to conceiue suche an assured confidence of him, that if he shoulde happen otherwhile to go biyonde them in anye point, euerie one woulde [Page] know it were done for a good [...]ntent: the self same respect & reuerence they woulde haue to his will, as they haue to the lawes. And thus shoulde the Citizens min­des be tempered in suche sort, that the good woulde not seeke for more then is requisit, and the badd shoulde not perishe:To much welth. bicause manie times abundance of wealth is cause of great destruction, as in poore Italy, which hath bine and still is, a prey and bootie in the teeth of straunge nations, as well for the ill gouernment, as for the abun­daunce of riches that is in it. Therfore the best way were, [...]ow to ordre his citizins▪ to haue the greater part of the Citizins, neyther verye wealthie, nor verye poore: bicause the ouerweal­thy many times w [...]e stiff necked and reckl [...]sse, the poore, desperate and pikinge. But the meane sort lye not in wa [...]te for others, and liue with a quiet minde that none lye in waite for them. And where this meane sort are the greater number, they are withall the mightier. And therfore neyther the poore nor riche can woorke anie con­spiracie against the Prince, or against others, nor moue sedicion. Wherfore to auoide this euyll, the most surest way is vniuersally to maintein a meane. I would coūsell him therfore to vse these and many other remedies for the pourpose,Alteracion of [...]ate. that in the minde of the subiectes there springe not a lōging after newe matters & alteraciō of state, whi­che most cōmunly they do, either for gain, or elles for pro­motiō yt they hope vpō, or for losse, or elles for some [...]oile that they be a ferde of.Extortion of the higher powe [...]s. And these sturres in their mindes be engendred some [...]ime of hatred & despite that maketh them desperate for ye wronges & vnshameful dealing that they receiue through the couetisenesse, pride, & crueltye, or vnlefull lust of ye higher powers: Otherwhile of a contēpt & litle regard that ariseth in them through the negligēce & ill handlinge and lack of foresight in Princis.Lacke of wisdome in prin­cis. And these two faultes must be preuented with purchasing him the loue of the people, and authoritye, whiche is done in re­wardinge and promotinge the good and in finding wise­lie a remedy,That the e­uell were not great. and sometime with rigour, that the euil and [Page] sedicious were not great: the whiche thinge is easier to be stopped beefore they come to it, then to plucke theym downe againe after they are once on loft. And I would saye, to restraine the people from renning into those inconueniences, there is no better way,Il customes then to keepe them from yll custommes, and speciallye suche as be put in vse and creepe in vnawares by litle and litle, by­cause they be secrete infections that corrupte Cities bee­fore a manne can not onlye remedye them, but spie them out. With suche meanes I woulde counsell the Prince to do his best to preserue his subiectes in quiet astate, and to giue them the gooddes of the mynde,Goodes of the minde, of the bodye and of fortune. and of the bodye and of fortune: but them of the bodye and of fortune, that they maye exercise them of the minde, whiche the greater and plentier they be, so much the more profitable be they: that happeneth not in them of the bodye, nor of fortune: In case therefore the subiectes bee good and of woorthy­nesse and well bent to the ende of happynes, that Prince shall be a verye great Lorde: for that is a true and a greate gouernement, vnder the whyche the subiectes be good, well ruled and well commaunded. Then the L. Gaspar, I suppose (quoth he) that he shoulde be but a smalle Lorde, vnder whom the subiectes were all good. For in euerye place there be fewe good. The L Octauian an­swered: In case some certeine Circe shoulde iourne into wilde beastes all the Frenche Kinges subiectes,Not the mul­titude, but the woorthy. woulde not you thinke him a smalle Lorde for all he reigned ouer so manye thousande beastes? And contrarywyse yf onelye the Cattell that scattre abrode feadynge aboute oure Mountaignes here, might become wise menne, and valiaunt Gentilmen, woulde not you thinke that heard­menne that shoulde gouerne them and haue them obedi­ent to them, of heardmen were become great Lordes? you maye see then, that not the multytude of Subiectes, but the woorthynesse of them maketh Princis greate. The Dutchesse, the L. Emilia, and all the rest gaue verye diligent [Page] ear to the L. Octauians talke for a good while together, but after h [...] had here ma [...]e a litle s [...]op, as though he h [...]d made an end of his talk, the L. Cesar Gonzaga saide: Certesse (my L. Octauian) it can not be saide, but your lessons be good and profitable: yet shoulde I beleaue that if ye instructed your prince wyth them, ye deserued rather ye name of a good Schoolmaister then of a good Courtier: and he of a good gouernoure ra­ther then of a good prince. Yet my meaninge is not, but that the care of princis shoulde be to haue their people well ruled with iustice and good vsages, notwithstan­dinge it maye he sufficient for theym (in my minde) to [...]house out good ministers to execute these kinde of mat­ters, but the verie office of them is farr higher. There­fore if I thought myself to be the excellent Courtier that these Lordes haue facioned, and in my princis fauour, without parauenture I woulde neuer incline him to any vitious matter: but to atteine vnto the good ende (you speake of, and the which I confirme ought to be the f [...]ute of the Courtiers trauailes and doinges) I woulde ende­uour to put into his head a certein greatnesse, wyth that pri [...]elye sumptuousnesse, and readynes of courage, and vnconquered prowesse in armes, that shoulde make him beloued and reuerenced of all menne, in suche wise, that for this in especiall he shoulde be famous and notable to the worlde. I woulde showe him also, that he ought to ac­companye with his greatnesse a familiar gentle beehaui­our, with a soft and [...]ouelye kindenesse, and good caste to make muche of his subiectes and straungers discreatlye more and lesse accordinge to their desertes, obseruing al­waies notwithstandinge the maiestye meete for his de­gre, that shoulde not in anye point suffre him to diminish his authoritie through ouermuch abaysinge, nor yet pur­chase him hatred throughe ouer soure rigorousnesse: that he ought to be full of liberality and sumptuous, and giue vnto euerye manne without stint, for God (as they say) is the treasurer of freharted princis: make gorgious ban­kettes, [Page] feas [...]es, games, people pleasinge showes, kepe a great number of faire horses for profit in war, & for plea­sure in peace, Haukes, Houndes, and all other matters that beelong to the contentation of great Princis and the people.Markq. of mantua. As in our dayes we haue seene the L. F [...]ancis Gonza­ga marquesse of Mantua do, which in these thinges seemeth rather kinge of all Italy, then Lorde ouer one Citie. I would assay also to bring him to make great buildinges, both for his honour in lief, and to giue a memorie of him to his posteritie,S. Peters church. as did Duke Friderick in this noble Pa­laice, & nowe doeth Pope Iuly in the Temple of Saint Pe­ter, and the waye that goith from the Palaice to his house of pleasure Beluedere, and many other buildinges,Beluedere. as also the olde auntient Romanes did, wherof so many remnan­tes are to be seene about Roome, Naples, Pozzolo, Baie, Ciuita Vecchia, Porto, and also out of Italy, and so manie other pla­ces, which be a great witnes of ye prowes of those diuine courages. So did Alexander ye great in like maner,The great A­lexande [...] whiche not satisfied with the fame that he got him worthelie for subduing ye world with marcial prowesse, built Alexandria in aegipt, Bucephalia in India, and other Cities in other Coun­tries: and entended to bringe the mountaigne Athos into the shape of a man,Plutar. Athos a hill in thracia of a [...]on­derfull height. and in the left hande of him to builde a verie large Citie, and in the right a greate boule, into the whiche should gather al the riuers that rann from it, and thens shoulde fall downe towarde the Sea, a pour­pose in verie deede princelye and meete for the great Alex­ander. These thinges (thinke I) my L. Octauian, beecome a noble and a right Prince, and shall make him both in peace and warr most triumphant and not put him in the heade of such particuler and smalle matters, and haue a respect to take weapon in hande onelye to conquerr and vanquishe suche as deserue to be conquered, or to profitt his subiectes withall, or to dispossesse them that gouerne not as they ought. For in case the Romanes, Alexander, Han­niball, and ye rest had had these respectes they should neuer [Page] haue reached to the toppe of the glorye they did. The L. Octauian answered then smiliinge: Such as had not these recpectes shoulde haue done the better in case they had hadd them: althoughe if ye consider well, ye shall finde that manie had them, and especiallye those auntientest of olde time, as Theseus, and Hercules. And thinke not that Pro­custes, Scyron, Caccus, Diomedes, Antheus and Gerion were anye other then cruell and wicked Tirannes againste whom these noble couraged Demigoddes kept continual & mor­tal warr, and therfore, for ridding the world of such intol­lerable monstres (for Tyrannes ought not to be called by other name) vnto Hercules were made Temples,Tirānes monstres. and sa­crifices, and godlye honours giuen him, bicause the bene­fit to roote vp Tirannes is so profitable to the worlde, that who so doeth it, deserueth a farre greater rewarde, then whatso euer is meete for a mortall man. And of them you haue named, Do you not thinke that Alexander did profit with his victories the vanquished? sins he so traded those barbarous nations whiche he ouercame, wt such good maners, that of wylde beastes he made them men?Alexander profited the van­quished. He built manye beawtifull Cities in Countreis ill inhabited, plantinge therin ciuill kinde of liuing, and (as it were) coopled Asia and Europe together with the bonde of amitie & holye lawes, so that the vanquished by him were more happie then ye rest, bicause emong some he brought in matrimonie: emong other, husbandrie: emong other, religion: emonge other, not to sley, but to make muche of their parentes in their olde age: emong other, ye refrai­ning from bedding with their mothers, and a thousand o­ther matters, that might be said for a witnesse of ye profit which his victories brought to the world. But leauing a­side them of olde time, what enterprise were more noble, more glorious, & more profitable then if Christiās would bend their force to conquerr the infidelles. Would you not thinke that this warr, prosperously acheued, & beeing the cause of so manye a thousande to be brought from the [Page] false sec [...] of Mahumet to the light of the Christian truth, it should be a profit aswel to the vanquished, as to ye subdu­ers? And vndoubtedly, as Themistocles in times past, being banished out of his Countrey,Xer [...]e [...]. and imbraced of the king of Persia, & much made of, and honoured with infinit & moste rich giftes, said vnto his traine: Oh sirs we had bine vndone, had we not bine vndone, euen so might then ye Turkes and the Moores speake the very same with good cause, for that in their losse should consist their welfare. This happinesse therfore (I hope) we shall come to ye sight of,King Francis the first. if god graunt so long lief to Monseigneur d' Angoulesme that he may come to the Crowne of Fraunce, who showeth suche a hope of him selfe, as foure nightes ago the L. Iulian spake of. And to the Crowne of England yt L· Henry Prince of VVa­les, who presentlye groweth vnder his most noble father,Kinge Henry the VIII. in all kinde of vertue, like a tender ympe vnder the sha­dow of an excellent tree & laden with frute, to renue him much more beawtiful & plentuous whan time shal come, for as our Castilio writeth from thens, & promiseth at hys retourn to tell vs more at ye full, a man can iudge no lesse, but that nature was willing in this Prince to show her counning, planting in one body alone so many excellent vertues, as were sufficiēt to decke out infinit. Then said M. Bernard Bibiena: a very great hope of him self promiseth also the L. Cha [...]les Prince of Spaine, The Em­perour Charles the v. who not yet fullye tenn yeeres of age, declareth now such a wit, & so certein tokēs of goodnes, wisdome, mod [...]sly, noble courage and of euery vertue, that if ye Empire of Christēdome (as it is thought) come to his handes, it is to be reckened vpon, that he will darken ye name of many Emperours of olde time, & in re­nowme be compared to ye most famous that euer were in the worlde. The L. Octauian proceaded. I beeleaue there­fore that God hath sent suche and so heauenly Princis v­pon the earth, & made them one like an other in youth, in mightines of armes, in s [...]ate, in handsomnes and disposi­tion of person, [...] [...]m [...]ng Kinges. that they may also be minded alike in this [Page] good pourpose: and in case anye maner enuye or strife of matching others arrise at any time emong them, it shall be, who shall be the first, and most inclined and most cou­ragious in so glorious an enterprise. But let vs leaue this kinde of talke, and retourne vnto our owne. Unto you therfore (my L. Cesar) I say, that such thinges as you would haue the Prince to do, be very great and worthye muche praise. But you must vnderstand that if he be not skilfull in that I haue saide he ought to haue a knowleage in, and haue not framed his minde in that wise, and bent it to the waye of vertue, it shall bee harde for him to haue the knowleage to be noble couraged, liberall, iust, quicke-spirited, wise, or to haue any other of those qualities that beelong vnto him: neither would I haue him to be suche a one for anye other thinge, but to haue the vnderstan­ding to put in vre these condicions (for as they that build, be not all good woorkemen,Libera [...]i­tye. so they that giue, be not all liberall) for vertue neuer hurteth anye man: and manye there be, that laye hande on other mens gooddes to giue, and so are lauish of an other mens substance. Some giue to them they ought not, and leaue in wretchednesse and miserie such as they be bound to. Other giue with a cer­tein yll will and (as it were) with a dispite, so that it is knowen they do it, bicause they can do none other. Other do not onlye not kepe it secrete, but they call witnesse of it, and (in a maner) cause their liberalities to be cried. O­ther foolishlye at a sodeine emptye the fountain of libera­litye,Know­leage. so that afterwarde they can vse it no more. Ther­fore in this point (as in all other matters) he must haue a knowleage, and gouern him self with the wisdome that is a companion vnto all the other vertues whiche for that they are in the milde,Uertue in the middle. be nygh vnto the two extremities, that be vices. Wherefore he that hath not knowe­leage renneth soone into them. For as it is a harde matter in a circle to find out the pricke in the centre, whi­che is the middle, so is it harde to find out the pricke of [Page] vertue placed in the middle beetwene two extreme vyces, the one for the ouermuch, and the other for the ouerlitle, & vnto these we are inclined sometime to the one, some­time to the other, and this is knowen by the pleasure and greef that is felt within vs, for through the one we doe the thinge that we ought not, and through the other we leaue vndone that, which we ought to do: although plea­sure be muche more daungerous, bicause oure iudgement is soone lead by it to be corrupted. But bicause the perse­uerance how farr a man is wide from the centre of ver­tue, is a hard matter, we ought by litle and litle to draw [...] backe of oure selues to the contrarie part of this extremy­tye, whiche we know we be inclined vnto, as they do, that make straight crooked staues, for by that meane we shall draw nighe vnto vertue, which is placed (as I haue said) in that pricke of the meane: wherby it cōmeth that by manye wayes we be wide, and by one alone we do oure of­fice and dutye: like as Archers by one waye alone hitte the marke, and by manye mysse the pricke. There­fore oftentimes a Prince to be gentle and lowelye,Extremi­ties, vices doeth manye thinges contrarie to comelinesse, and so humbleth him selfe that he is nought sett by. Some other to show a graue maiestye with authoritye according, beecommeth cruell and vntollerable. Some one, to be counted elo­quente, entreth into a thowsande straunge matters and longe processes with curious woordes giuing ear to hym selfe, so that other men can not for lothsomenesse heare him. Therfore (my L Cesar) do you not call a smalle mat­ter anye thing that maye better a Prince how small so e­uer it be. Nor thinke that I iudge it to be in the reproofe of my lessons where you say,A good Prince a good go­uernour. that a good Gouernour were ther instructed therewithall, then a good Prince: for perhappes there can not be a greater praise nor more com­lye for a Prince, then to call him a good Gouernour. Therfore if it shoulde fall to my lott to instruct him, he should haue a care not only to gouern ye matters alreadye [Page] spoken of, but also farre lesser, and vnderstande in peecemeale whatsoeuer belongeth to his people, asmuch as were possible: and neuer credite nor trust any officer so muche, as to giue him the bridle wholy into his handes, and the disposinge of the wholl gou [...]nment. For no man is most apt to all thinges.Mistrus­tinge. And much more hurt commeth of the light beeleaf of Princis, then of mistrusting, whiche otherwhile doeth not onlye not hurt, but oftentimes p [...]o­fiteth exceadingly. Yet in this point a good iudgement is verye necessarye in a Prince to descern who deserueth to be put in trust, and who not. I woulde he shoulde haue a care to vnderstande the doinges and to be an ouerseear of his officers and ministers.The Prince towarde hys subiectes. To breake & to ende contro­uersies emonge his subiectes. To take vp matters bee­twene them and to knitte them together in alliance by mariage. To prouide so, that the Citye may be all ioyned together and agreeinge in amitye,Citye. lyke a priuate house, well peopled, not poore, quiet, and full of good artificers. To show fauour to marchaunt men and to helpe them al­so with stokkes.Mar­chaūt men Houskee­pinge. Superflu­ous thin­ges. To be liberall & honourable in houskee­pinge towarde straungers and religious persons. To tempre all superfluous matters, bicause throughe the of­fences committed in these thinges, albeit they appeere but small, cities manye times fall in decay: therefore it is reason that ye Prince set a stint to ye ouersumptuous buil­dinges of priuate men, bancque [...]tinges, vnmesurable do­weries of women, their riotous excesse, their pompe in iewelles and apparaile,Excesse of women. whiche is nothinge elles but a to­ken of their foly: for (beeside that throughe ambicion and malice that one of thē beareth an other, they many times lauish out there liuelode and husbandes substance, other­while for some pretye is well or other matter of fansye) sometime they sell their honestie to him that will buye it. Then said M. Bernarde Bibiena smilinge: You beegine (my L. Octauian) to take my L. Gaspars and Phrisios part. Then the L. Octauian answered in like maner smilyng: The [Page] controuersye is ended, and I entende not nowe to renue it. Therfore wil I speake no more of women, but retourn to my prince: Phrisio answered: you may now leaue him hardely, and be contented to haue him suche a one as you haue instructed him.Good Princes verye scant. For doubtles it wer an easier matter to find out a woman of the qualities the L. Iulian hath spo­ken of, then a prince of the qualities that you would haue in him. Therfore (I feare me) he is like the Commune weale of Plato, and we shall neuer see suche a one, onlesse it bee perhappes in heauen. The L. Octauian answered: thinges possible, though they be hard, yet is it to be hoped that they maye be: therefore maye we yet parhappes see him vpon the earth in oure time. For althoughe the hea­uens be so scante in bringinge furth excellent Princis, that in so manye hundreth yeeres we do scantlye see one, yet may this good lucke happen to vs. Then said Count Lewes: I haue a good hope of it. For beeside the three great ones that we haue named, of whom may be hoped it, that beelongeth to the high degree of a perfect Prince, there be also nowadayes in Italy certein Princes children, which although they be not like to haue such powre, may happe will supplye it with vertue: and he that emenge them all declareth a more towardenesse and promi­seth of him selfe a greater hope then anye of the reste (me think) is the L. Friderick Gonzaga, L. Fride­rick Gon­zaga Duke of Man­tua. sonn and heyr to the mar­quesse of Mantua, and nephewe to oure Dutchesse here. For beeside the honest inclination to good nourtour and the discreation that he declareth in these tendre yeeres, they that haue the bringing vpp of him, reporte suche wonderous thinges as touchinge his beeing wittye, desi­rous of glory, stouthearted, courteious, freeharted, frind­lye to iustice, so that of so good a beeg [...]nning, there can not be loked for but a verye good ende. Then Phrisio, well, no more of this (ꝙ he) we will pray vnto God that we may se this your hope fulfilled. Here the L. Octa­uiā tourning him toward the dutches, after a sort as though he had [Page] ended as much as he had to saye, You haue now heard, madam (quoth he) what I am able to say of the ende of the Cour­tier, wherin though I haue not satisfied in all pointes, it shall suffice me yet, that I haue showed, that some other perfection may be giuen him beside the matters whych these Lordes haue spoken of, who (I beleaue) haue lefte out both this and what so euer I am able to saye, not by­cause they knew it not better then I, but bicause they were loth to take the peynes: therfore will I giue them leaue to go forward, if they haue anye thinge elles lefte beehinde to be saide. Then said the Dutchesse: Beeside that it is late (for within a while it will be time for vs to make an ende for this night) me thinke, we ought not to mingle anye other talke with this, wherin you haue ga­thered together suche sundrye and goodlye matters, that concerninge the ende of Courtlinesse, it may be said, that you are not onlie the perfect Courtier whom we seke for, and able to instruct your Prince well, but also (if fortune be so fauourable on your side) ye maye be the good Prince your self, whiche shoulde not be withoute great profit to your Countrey. Then laughed the L. Octauian and said: Perhappes (madam) were I in that astate, it woulde be with me as it is with manye others that can better saye well, then do well. Here after a litle debatinge of the matter to an [...] fro emonge the company, with cert [...]in contentions tending to the commendacion of that that had [...]i [...]e spoken, and agreeinge on all handes not yet to be b [...]d time, the L. Iulian saide smilinge: Ma­dam, I am so verie an ennemye to crafte and guile, that needes must I speake against the L. Octauian: who for that he is (as I muche doubt him) a secrete conspiratour with the L. Gaspar againste women, hath ouershott himselfe in committing of two errours (in mine opinion) very great: wherof the one is, that meaninge to preferr this Cour­tier beefore the Gentilwoman of the Palaice, & to make him to passe those boundes that she is not able to reache to, he hath also preferred him beefore the Prince, whiche [Page] is most vnseemlye. The other, that he hath giuen him suche an ende, that it is euermore harde and otherwhile vnpossible for him to comebye it: and yet whan he doeth come by it, he ought not to haue the name of a Courti­er. I can not see: quoth the L. Emilia, howe it is harde or vnpossible for the Courtier to come bye this his ende, nor yet howe the L. Octauian hath prefarred him beefore the Prince. Graunt it him not, answered the L, Octauian ▪ for I haue not preferred the Courtier beefore the Prince. And as touchinge the ende of Courtlinesse. I dare vnder­take that I am not ouerseene in any point. Then answe­red the L. Iulian: You can not say (my L. Octauian) that al­waies the cause, by the which the effect is such as it is, is no more suche as the effect is. Therfore needes must the Courtier, by whose instruction the prince must be of such an excellencye, be more excellente then the prince: and in this wise shall he be also of a more woorthinesse then the prince himselfe, which is most vnsittinge. Then concer­ninge the ende o [...] C [...]urtlinesse, that which you haue spo­ken may folowe whan there is litle beetwene the age of the prince and the Courtiers: yet verye hardlye, for where there is smalle difference of age, it is likelye there is also smalle difference of knowleage. But in case the prince be olde and the Courtier yong: it is meete that the old prince knowe more then the yonge Courtier, and where this fo­loweth not alwaies, it foloweth somtime, and then is the ende which you haue appointed to the Courtier vnpossi­ble. In case againe the prince be yonge and the Courtier aged, muche a doe shall the Courtier haue to wynne him the good will of the prince with those qualities that you haue giuen him. For (to saye the truth) feates of ar­ [...]es and the other exercises beelonge vnto yonge menne and be not comelye in age: and musike, daunsinge, feas­tinges, sportinges, and loue, be matters to be laughed at in olde menne, and (me thinke) to an instructer of the lief and maners of a prince, who ought to be a g [...]aue person & [Page] of authoritie, ripe in yeeres and experience and (if it were p [...]ssible, a good Philosopher, a good Capitain and to haue the knowleage almost of euery thinge, they are most vn­seemly. Wherfore he that instructeth a Prince (I beleue) ought not to be called a Courtier, but deserueth a far grea­ter and a more honorable name. Therfore (my L. Octauian) perdon me in case I haue opened this your craftye conue [...] ­ance, which I thinke my self bounde to do for the honour of my woman, whom you would haue to be of lesse wor­thines then this Courtier of yours, & I wil none of that. The L. Octauian laughed and saide: A more praise it were for the Gentilwoman of the Palaice (my L. Iulian) to exalt her so muche that she maye be equall with the Courtier, then so much to debase the Courtier that he shoulde be e­quall with the Gentilwoman of the Palaice: for it were not vnfitt for the woman also to instruct her ladye,This ende of the Courtier serueth also for a Gen­til woman with her Lady. and with her to drawe to the same ende of Courtlinesse, whi­che I haue said is meete for the Courtier with his prince. But you seeke more to dispraise the Courtier, then to praise the Gentilwoman of the Palaice, therfore shall it become me also to take part with the Courtier. Now to make you answere to youre obiections, you shall vnder­stande that I haue not saide, that the instruction of the Courtier ought to be the onelye cause why the Prynce shoulde be such a one, for in case he be not inclined of na­ture and apt to be suche a one, all diligence and exhorta­cion of the Courtier were in vaine. As in like maner e­uery good husband man should labour in vaine, yt would take in hande to tyll and sowe with good graine the bar­raine sande of the Sea, bicause this barrainnesse in that place is naturall. But whan to the good seede in a frute­full s [...]le with the temperatnesse of aer and rayne meete for the season of the yeere, there is also applied the dili­gence of mans husbandinge the grounde, alwaies great abundance of corne is seene to springe plentuouslye: yet for all this, is it not to be saide, that the husbande man a­lon [...] [Page] is the [...]a [...]e of it, although without him all the other thinges do litle or nothinge helpe the pourpose. There be therfore manie Princis, that would be good, in case their myndes were well tylled, and of theym speake I, not of suche as be like the [...]arraine Countrey, and of nature so farr wide from good condicions that no teaching were a­ble to frame their minde to a right trade. And forsomuch as (as we haue already said) such custommes and proper­ties be ingendred in vs, as oure doinges are,Virtue in a [...] ­tio [...]e. and vertue consisteth in doing & practise, it is not vnpossible nor any marueile, y the Courtier should traine his Prince in ma­nye vertues, as iustice, liberality, noble courage, the prac­tisinge wherof he, through his greatnesse, maye lightlye put in vre and make it custome, whiche the Courtier can not do, bicause he hath no meanes to practise theym, and thus the Prince inclined to vertue by the Courtyer, may beecome more vertuous then the Courtier: beesyde that, you muste conceyue that the whettstone which cut­teth not a whitt, doeth yet make a toole sharpe: therefore althoughe the Courtier instructeth his Prince yet (me thinke) it is not to be said that he is of a more woorthynes then his Prince. That the en [...]e of this Courtier is harde and somtime vnpossible, and that whan the Courtier do­eth come bye it, he ought not to be named a Courtier, but deserueth a greater name, I tell you plainlye,The ende of the Courtier▪ harde. that I de­nye not this hardenesse, bicause it is no lesse harde to [...]ind out so excellent a Courtier, then to come by such an ende. Yet by reason (me thinke) the vnpossiblenes of ye matter lieth not in the point that you haue alleaged. For in case ye Courtier be so yong that he hath not vnderstanding in the thinge, which he ought to haue a knowleage in, it is not to the pourpose to speake of him, bicause he is not the Courtier that we entreate vpon, neyther is it possible for him that must haue a sight in so many thinges to be verye yonge. And if it happen moreouer the Prince to be so wise and good of him selfe, that he needeth no exhortations or counsell [Page] Aristotel, beeside the directinge him to that glorious end▪ that was to make the worlde onelye a generall countrey, & all men, as one people, that shoulde liue in amitye and agreement together, vnder one gouernment & one lawe, that (like the sonn) should generallye geue light to all, he instructed hym in the naturall sciences and in the vertues of the minde full and wholy, that he made him most wise, most manlie, moste continent, and a true morall Philoso­pher, not in woordes onelye, but in deedes. For there can not be imagined a more noble Philosophy, then to bringe to a ciuill trade of liuing such wild people as were the in­habitauntes of Bactria and Gaucasus, India and Scithia, and to teache them matrimonie, husbandrye, to honour their fa­thers, to abstaine from robbinge and killinge and from other noughty condicions, & to builde so many most noble Cities in straunge Countries, so that infinit throughe those lawes were brought from a wilde lief to liue lyke men.He rebuked Alexander for beeinge woorship­ped as a god, and therfore died vpon the rack. [...]. Curt. lib. 8. And of these thinges in Alexander the Author was Aristotel in practisinge the wayes of a good Courtier. The which Calisthenes coulde not do, for all Aristotel showed him the way of it, who bicause he was a right philosopher and so sharpe a minister of the bare truth without mynglinge it with Courtlinesse, he lost his lief and profited not, but rather gaue a sclaunder to Alexander. With the very same way of Courtlinesse Plato framed Dion the Syracusan. But whan he mett afterwarde with Dionysius the Tyrann, like a booke all full of faultes and erroures, and rather needful to be cleane blotted out, then altered or corrected, bicause it was not possible to scrape out of him that blott of tiranny wherwi [...]hall he was stained so long together,The Cour­tier oughte not to [...]rue the wicked he would not practise therein the wayes of Courtie [...]ship, for he thought they shoulde be all in vaine: The whiche our Courtier ought to do also, if his chaunce be to serue a Prince of so ill a nature, that by longe custome is gro­wen in vse with vices, as they that haue the consumption of the lunges with their desease. For in this case he [Page] ought to forsake his seruice, least he beare the blame of his Lordes yll practises, or feele the hartgreefe that all goo [...] men haue which serue the wicked. Here whan the L. Octauian had made a stay [...], the L. Gaspar sayde: I had not thought oure Courtier hadd ben [...] so woorthy a perso­nage. But sins Aristotel and Plato be his mates, I iudge no man ought to disdeigne this name anye more. Yet wett I not whether I may beleaue that Aristotel and Plato euer daunsed or were musitiens in all their lief time, or practised other feates of chiualrye. The L. Octauian an­swered: Almost it is not lawfull to thinke that these two diuine wittes were not skilfull in euerye thinge, and therfore it is to be presupposed that they practised what e­uer beelongeth to Courtlynesse. For where it commeth to pourpose they so penn the matter, that the very craftes maisters them selues know by theyr writinges that they vnderstoode the whol euen to the pith and innermost roo­tes. Wherefore to a Courtier or instructer of a Prince (howe euer ye lust to terme him) that tendeth to the good ende, which we haue spoken of, it is not to be said but that all the good qualities which these Lordes haue giuen him do beelonge, though he were neuer so graue a Philoso­pher or holie in his maners: bicause they striue not a­gainst goodnesse, discreation, knoweleage and will, in all age, and in all time and place. Then the L. Gaspar, The Courti­er a louer. I remembre (quoth he) that these Lordes yester­night reasoninge of the Courtiers qualities, did alowe him to be a louer, and in makinge rehersall of asmuche as hitherto hath bene spoken, a manne maye pike out a conclusion, That the Courtier (whiche with his worthy­nesse and credit must incline his Prince to vertue) must in maner of necessitie be aged, for knoweleage commeth verye syldome times beefore yeeres, and speciallye in mat­ters that bee learned wyth experyence: I can not see, whan hee is well drawen in yeeres, howe it wyll stande well wyth hym to be a louer, considerynge (as [Page] it hath bine said the other night) Loue framet h not with olde men, and the trickes that in yonge men be galauntnesse, courtesie and precisenesse so acceptable to women, in them are meere folies and fondnesse to be laughed at, and purchase him that vseth them hatred of women and moc­kes of others. Therfore in case this your Aristotel an old Courtier were a louer, and practised the feates that yong louers do (as some that we haue sene in our daies) I feare me, he woulde forgete to teach his Prince: and parauen­ture boyes would mocke him behinde his backe, and wo­mē would haue none other delite in him but to make him a iesting stocke. Then said the L. Octauian: Sins all the other qualities appointed to the Courtier are meete for him, althoughe he be olde, me thinke we shoulde not then barr him from this happinesse to loue. Nay ra­ther, quoth the L. Gaspar, to take this loue from him, is a perfection ouer and aboue, and a makynge him to lyue happilie out of miserie and wretchednesse. M. Peter Bembo said: Remember you not (my L Gaspar) that the L. Octaui­an declared the other nighte in his diuise of pastymes, al­though he be not skilfull in loue, to knowe yet that there be some louers, which recken the disdeignes, the angres, the debates and tourmentes whiche they receiue of their Ladies, sweete? Wherupon he required to be taught the cause of this sweetenesse. Therfore in case oure Courtier (thoughe he be olde) were kendled with those loues that be [...]weete without any bitter smacke, he should feele no miserie nor wretchednesse at all. And beeing wise, as we set case he is, he shoulde not be deceiued in thinkinge to be meete for him what so euer were meete for yong men, but in louinge shoulde perhappes loue after a sorte, that might not onlye not bringe him in sclaunder but to mu­che praise and great happinesse, without any lothsomnes at all, the which verie sildome or (in maner) neuer hap­peneth to yonge men: & so should he neyther lay aside the teachinge of his Prince, nor yet commit any thinge that [Page] should deserue the mockinge of boyes. Then spake the Dutchesse: I am glad (M. Peter) that you haue not bine mu­che troubled, in oure reasoninges this night, for now we maye be the boulder to giue you in charge to speake, and to teache the Courtier this so happie a loue, which brin­geth with it neither sclaunder, nor any inconuenience: for perhappes it shall be one of the necessariest and profita­blest qualities that hitherto hath bine giuen him, there­fore speake of good felowship asmuch as you know ther­in. M. Peter laughed and saide: I would be loth (Madam) where I say that it is lefull for olde men to loue, it should be an occasion for these Ladyes to thinke me olde: there­fore hardely giue ye this enterprise to an other. The Dut­chesse answered: You ought not to refuse to be counted olde in knowleage, thoughe ye be yonge in yeeres. Ther­fore saye on, and excuse your selfe no more. M. Peter said: Surelye (madam) if I must entreate vpon this matter, I must first go aske counsell of my Heremite Lauinello. The L. Emilia said then halfe in angre: There is neuer a one in al the company so disobedient as you be (M. Peter) therfore shoulde the Dutchesse doe well to chastice you somewhat for it. M. Peter said smilinge: for loue of God (madam) be not angrye with me, for I will say what euer you will haue me. God to, saye on then, answered the L. Emilia. Then M. Peter after a whiles silence, somewhat settlinge hym­selfe as thoughe he shoulde entreat vppon a waightie matter,Olde men may loue without sclaunder. said thus: My Lordes, to showe that olde menne maye loue not onlie without sclaunder, but otherwhile more happi­lye then yonge menne, I must be enforced to make a litle discourse to declare what loue is, and wherein consisteth the happinesse that louers maye haue. Therefore I beseche ye giue the hearynge wyth heedefulnesse, for I hope to make you vnderstand, that it were not vnsitting for anye man here to be a louer, in case he were xv. or xx. yeeres elder then M. Morello. And here after they had laughed [...] while, M. Peter proceaded. I saye therefore that accor­dinge [Page] as it is defined of the wise menn of olde time) Loue is nothinge elles but a certein couetinge to enioy beawtie:What loue is. and for­somuch as couetinge longeth for nothinge,Know­leage. but for thinges knowen, it is requisite that knowleage go euermore be­fore coueting, Coueting which of his owne nature willeth the good, but of him self is blind, & knoweth it not. Therfore hath nature so ordeined, that to euery vertue of knowleag ther is annexed a vertue of longing. And bicause in oure soule there be three maner wayes to know, namelye, by sense, reason, and vnderstandinge: of sense, there arriseth appe­tite or longinge,Sense. which is commune to vs with brute beastes:Reason. of reason arriseth election or choise, which is pro­per to man: of vnderstanding, by the which man may be partner with Aungelles,Under­standinge. arriseth will. Euen as therfore the sense knoweth not but sensible matters and that which may be felt, so the appetyte or couetinge onlye desi­reth the same: and euen as the vnderstanding is bent but to beehoulde thinges that may be vnderstoode, so is that wil only fead with spirituall gooddes. Man of nature in­dowed with reason, placed (as it were) in the middle bee­twene these two extremities, may through his choise in­clinynge to sense, or reachynge to vnderstandynge, come nigh to the couetinge sometime of the one somtime of the other part.Beawtie. In these sortes therfore may beawtie be co­ueted, the general name wherof may be applied to al thin­ges, eyther naturall or artificiall, that are framed in good proportion, and due tempre, as their nature bea­reth. But speakynge of the beawtie that we meane, which is onlie it, that appeereth in bodies, and especially in the face of mann, and moueth thys feruent couetinge which we call Loue, we will terme it an influence of the hea­uenlie bountifulness, the whiche for all it stretcheth ouer all thynges that be created (like the light of the Sonn) yet whan it findeth out a face well proportioned,The face. and framed with a certein liuelie agreement of seuerall colours, and setfurthwith lightes and shadowes, and with an orderly [Page] distaunce and limites of lines, therinto it distilleth it self and appeereth most welfauoured, and decketh out and lyghtneth the subiect where it shyneth wyth a maruey­lous grace and glistringe (like the Sonne beames that strike against beawtifull plate of fine golde wrought and sett wyth precyous iewelles) so that it draweth vnto it mens eyes with pleasure, and percing through them im­printeth him selfe in the soule, and wyth an vnwonted sweetenesse all to stirreth her and delyteth, and settynge her on fire maketh her to couett him. Whan the soule then is taken wyth: couetynge to enioye thys beawtie as a good thynge, in case she suffre her selfe to be guyded with the iudgement of sense, she falleth into most deepe er­roures, and iudgeth the bodie in whyche Beawtye is descerned, to be the principall cause thereof: wherupon to enioye it, she reckeneth it necessarye to [...]oigne as inwardlye as she can wyth that bodye, whyche is false:In pos­sessing the body beawtie is not enioied and therefore who so thynketh in possessynge the bodye to inioye beawtie, he is farr deceiued, and is moued to it, not wyth true knowleage by the choise of reason, but wyth false opinyon by the longinge of sense. Wher­upon the pleasure that foloweth it, is also false and of necessytye full of erroures.They that loue sen­suallye. And therefore into one of the two vyces renn all those louers that satisfye theyr vnhonest lustes with the women whom they loue: For eyther assone as they be come to the coue­ted ende, they not onely feels a fulnesse and lothesom­nesse, but also conceyue a hatred against the wyght belo­ued, as thoughe longinge repented hym of hys offence and acknowleaged the deceite wrought hym by the false iudgement of sense, that made hym beleaue the yll to be good: or elles they contynue in the verye same couetynge and greedynesse, as thought they were not in deede come to the ende, whyche they sought for. And albeit throughe the blynde opynyon that [Page] hath made them dronken (to their seeminge) in that in­stante they feele a contentation, as the deseased other­while, that dreame they drinke of some cleare spring, yet be they not satisfied, nor leaue of so. And bicause of possessing coueted goodnes there arriseth alwayes quiet­nesse and satisfaction in the possessors minde, in case this were the true and righte end of there couetinge, whan they possesse it they would be at quietnesse and throughlye satisfied, whiche they be not: but rather deceyued through that likenesse, they furthwith retourn again to vnbrid­led couetinge, and with the very same trouble which they felt at the first, they fall again into the raginge and most burninge thirst of the thinge, that they hope in vaine to possesse perfectlye. These kind of louers therfore loue most vnluckely, for eyther they neuer comebye their coue­tinges, whiche is a great vnluckinesse: or elles if they do comebye them, they finde they comebye their hurt, and ende their myseryes with other greater miseries, for both in the beginninge and middle of this loue, there is neuer other thing felt, but afflictions, tourmentes, greef­fes,Properti­es of lo­uers. pining, trauaile, so that to be wann, vexed with con­tinuall teares, and sighes, to lyue with a discontented minde, to be alwaies dumbe, or to lament, to couet death, in conclusion to be most vnlucky are the propreties which (they saye) beelonge to louers. The cause therfore of this wretchednesse in mens mindes, is principally sense, whi­che in youthfull age bereth moste swey, bicause the lusti­nesse of the fleshe and of the bloode, in that season addeth vnto him euē so much force, as it withdraweth from rea­son: therfore doeth it easelye traine the soule to folowe ap­petite or longinge, for when she seeth her selfe drowned in the earthly prison, bicause she is sett in the office to go­uern the body, she can not of her self vnderstand plainly at the first the truth of spirituall behouldinge. Wherfore to cōpasse the vnderstāding of thinges, she must go begg the beginning at the senses, & therfore she beleaueth them, & [Page] giueth ear to them, and is contented to be lead by them, es­peciallye whan they haue so much courage, that (in a ma­ [...]er) they enforce her & bicause they be deceitfull they fyll her with errours and false opinions. Wherupon most cō ­munlye it happeneth, that yonge men be wrapped in this sensual loue, which is a very rebell against reason, & ther­fore thei make them selues vnwoorthy to enioy the fauou­res and benifites, which loue bestoweth vpon his true sub­iectes, neither in loue feele they any other pleasures, then what beastes wtout reason do, but much more greuous af­flictions. Setting case therfore this to be so, which is most true, I say, that the contrary chaunseth to them of a more ripe age. For in case they, whan the soule is not nowe so much wayed downe with the bodyly burdein, & whan the naturall burning asswageth & draweth to a warmeth, if thei be inflamed with beawty, & to it bend their coueting guided by reasonable choise, they be not deceiued, and pos­sesse beawtye perfectly, and therefor through the posses­sing of it, alwaies goodnes ensueth to them:Beawtie bicause beau­ty is good & consequently the true loue of it is most good & holy, and euermore bringeth furth good frutes in the sou­les of them, that with the bridle of reason restraine the yll disposition of sense, the which old men can much sooner do then yong. Yt is not therfore out of reason to say, that olde men may also loue without sclaunder and more hap­pily, then yong men: taking notwithstanding this name Olde, not for the age at the pittes brincke, nor when the ca­nelles of the body be so feble, that ye soule can not through them worke her feates, but when knowleage in vs is in his right strength. And I wil not also hide this from you: namely, that I suppose, where sensuall loue in euery age is naught, yet in yonge men it deserueth excuse, & perhap­pes in some case lefull: for although it putteth them in af­flictions, daūgeres, traua [...]les, & ye vnfortunatenes that is said, yet are there many yt to winne them the good will of their Ladies practise vertuous thinges, which for all they [Page] be not bent to a good end, yet are they good of them sel­ues, and so of that much bitternesse they pike out a litle sweetnesse, and through the aduersities which they sus­teine, in the ende they acknowleage their errour. As I iudge therfore those yong men that bridle their ap­petites, and loue with reason, to be godlye: so do I houlde excused suche as yelde to sensuall loue, wherunto they be so inclined through the weakenesse and frailtie of man: so they showe therin meekenesse, courtesie: and prowesse, and the other worthie condicions that these Lordes haue spoken of, and whan those youthfull yeeres be gone and past, leaue it of cleane, keapinge alouf from this sensuall couetinge as from the lowermost steppe of the stayers, by the whiche a man may ascende to true loue. But in case after they drawe in yeeres once they reserue still in their colde hart the fire of appetites, and brynge stoute rea­son in subiection to feeble sense, it can not bee said how much they are to be blamed: for lyke men without sense they deserue with an euerlastinge shame to be put in the numbre of vnreasonable liuing creatures, bicause the thoughtes and wayes of sensuall loue be farr vnsittinge for ripe age. Here Bembo paused a while as though he woulde brethe him, and whan all thinges were whist M. Morello of Ortona saide: And in case there were some olde man more freshe and lustye and of a better complexion then manye yonge men, whie woulde you not haue it lefull for him to loue with the loue that yonge men loue? The Dutchesse laughed and said: yf the loue of yong men be so vnluckye, why would you (M. Morello) that old men should also loue with this vnluckinesse? But in case you were old (as these men say you be) you woulde not thus procure the hurt of olde men. M. Morello answered: The hurt of olde men (me seemeeh (M. Peter Bembo procureth, who will haue them to loue after a sort, that I for my part vnderstande not: and (me think) the possessing of this beawtye, whiche he pray­seth so muche, without the body, is a dreame. Do you bee­leaue [Page] M. Morello, ꝙ then Count Lewis, that beauty is al­waies so good a thing as M. Peter Bembo speaketh of? Not I in good sooth, answered M. Morello: But I remēbre rather that I haue seene manie beautifull women of a most yll inclination, cruell, and spitefull, and it seemeth that (in a maner (it happeneth alwaies so, for beawtie maketh them proude: and pride, cruell. Count Lewis said smilinge: To you perhappes they seeme cruell, bicause they cōtent you not with it, that you would haue. But cause M. Peter Bem­bo to teach you in what sort old men ought to couet beaw­tye and what to seeke at their Ladies handes, and what to content them selues withall: and in not passinge out of these boundes, ye shal se that they shal be neither proud nor cruell: and wil satisfy you with what you shal require M. Morello seemed then som what out of pacience, and said: I will not knowe the thinge that toucheth me not. But cause you to be taught how the yonge men ought to couet this beawty, that are not so fresh and lu [...]y as olde men be.

Here Sir Fridericke to pacifie M. Morello and to breake their talke, woulde not suffer Count Lewis to make answere, but inter­terrupting him said· Perhappes M, Morello is not altogether out of the way in saing that beawty is not alwayes good, for the beautye of women is manye times cause of infinit euilles in the worlde, hatred, warr, mortality, & destruc­tion, wherof the rasinge of Troye can be a good witnesse: And beawtiful women for the most part be eyther proude and cruell (as is saide) or vnchast, but M. Morello woulde finde no faulte with that. Ther [...] be also manye wicked men that haue the comelinesse of a beautifull coūtenance, & it semeth that nature hath so shaped them, bicause they may be the redier to deceiue, and that this amiable looke were like a baite that couereth the hooke. Then M. Peter Bembo, beleaue not (ꝙ he) but beautie is alwayes good. Here Count Lewis b [...]use he woulde retourn again to his former pourpose interrupted him & said: Sins M. Morello passeth not to vnderstand that, which is so necessary for him, teache it me, and showe me howe olde men may come bye [Page] this hapinesse of loue, for I will not care to be counted olde, so it may profit me. M· Peter Bembo laughed and said: first will I take ye errour out of these gentilmens minde: and afterwarde will I satisfie you also. So beeginning a fresh, my Lordes (quoth he) I would not that with spea: kynge ill of beawtie, which is a holy thinge, any of vs as prophane and wicked shoulde purchase him the wrath of God.A notable Poet whi­che lost his sight for writing a­gainst He­lena and recanting, had his sight resto­red him a­gain. Therfore to giue M. Morello and Sir Fridericke war­ninge, that they lose not their sight, as Stesichorus did, a peine most meete for who so dispraiseth beawtie, I saye, that beawtie commeth of God, and is like a circle, the goodnesse wherof is the Centre. And therefore, as there can be no circle without a centre, no more can beawty be without goodnesse. Wherupon doeth verie sildome an ill soule dwell in a beawtifull bodye. And therefore is the outwarde beawtie a true signe of the inwarde goodnes, and in bodies thys comelynesse is imprynted more and lesse (as it were) for a marke of the soule, whereby she is outwardlye knowen: as in trees, in whiche the beawtye of the buddes giueth a testimonie of the goodnesse of the frute. And the verie same happeneth in bodies, as it is seene, that Palmastrers by the visage knowe manye ty­mes the condicions, and otherwhile the thoughtes of menne.Iudgment by the face. And which is more, in beastes also a manne may descerne by the face the qualitie of the courage, whiche in the bodye declareth it selfe as muche as it can. Iudge you howe plainlye in the face of a Lion, a horse and an E­gle, a manne shall descerne anger, fiersenesse and stoute­nesse, in Lambes and Doues simplenesse and verie inno­cency [...]: the craftye subtiltye in Foxes and Wolues, and the like (in a maner) in all other liuinge creatures. The soule therfore for the most part be also yuell & the beaw­tifull, good. Therfore it maye be said that Beawtie is a face pleasant,Beawtie. meerie, comelye, and to be desired for good­nesse and Foulness a face darke,Foulnesse. vglesome, vnpleasant and to be shonned for yll. And in case you will consider all [Page] thinges, ye shall finde, that what so euer is good and pro­fitable hath also euermore the comelinesse of Beawtie. De Orat. lib. 3 Be­h [...]ulde the state of this great Inginn of the world, which god created for the helth and preseruation of euery thing that was made.The worlde. The heauen. The heauen rounde besett with so many h [...]auenly lightes: And in the middle, the Earth inuiro­ned wyth the Elementes,The earth. and vphelde wyth the ver [...]e waight of it selfe: The sonn,The sonne. that compassinge about gi­ueth light to the wholl, and in winter season draweth to the lowermost signe, afterward by litle and litle climeth again to the other part: The Moone, that of him taketh her light, accordinge as she draweth nigh,The moone. or goith farther from him: And the other fiue st [...]rres,The planet­tes. that diuersly keepe the very same course. These thinges emong them selues haue such force by the knitting together of an order so ne­cessarilye framed, that with altering them any one [...]o [...]t, they shoulde be all l [...]wsed, and the worlde would decaye. They haue also suche beawtie and comelinesse, that all the wittes men haue, can not imagin a more beawtifull matter. Thinke nowe of the shape of man, which may be called a litle world: in whom euery percell of his body is seene to be necessarily framed by art and not by happ,Man. and then the fourme all together most beawtifull,Aristo [...] so that it were a harde matter to iudge, whether the members,S. Ph [...]si [...] as the eyes, the nose, the mouth, the eares, the armes, the breast and in like maner ye other partes: giue [...]yther more profit to the countenance and the rest of the body, or come­linesse. The like may be said of all other liuinge crea­tures. Beehoulde the fethers of foules, the leaues and bowes of trees, which be giuen them of nature to keepe them in their beeinge,Foules. and yet haue [...]hey withall a verye great sightlinesse. Leaue nature, and come to art.Trees. What thinge is so necessarie in saylynge vesselles, as the fore­part, the sides, the maine [...]ardes, the mast, the sayles,Shippes. the sterne, owers, ankers, and tacklinges? all these thinges notwithstanding are so welfauoured in y eye, that vnto [Page] who so beehouldeth them they seeme to haue bine found out aswell for pleasure,Buildinges. as for profit. Pillars and great beames vphoulde high buildinges and Palaices, and yet are they no lesse pleasurfull vnto the eyes of the beehoul­ders, then profitable to the buyldinges. When men bee­gane first to build, in the middle of Temples and houses they reared the ridge of the rouffe,The rouffe of houses. not to make the wor­kes to haue a better showe, but bicause the water might the more commodiouslie auoide on both sides: yet vnto profit there was furthwith adioined a faire sightlinesse, so that if vnder the skye where there falleth neyther haile nor rayne a mann should builde a temple, without a rea­red ridge, it is to be thought, that it coulde haue neyther a sightly showe nor any beawtie. Beeside other thinges therfore, it giueth a great praise to the world, in saiynge that it is beawtifull. It is praised, in saiynge, the beaw­tifull heauen, beawtifull earth, beawtifull sea, beawti­full riuers, beawtifull wooddes, trees, gardeines, beaw­tifull Cities, beawtifull Churches, houses, armies. In conclusion this comelye and holye beawtie is a won­derous settinge out of euerie thinge. And it may be said that Good and beawtifull be after a sort one selfe thinge, es­peciallie in the bodies of men: of the beawtie wherof the nighest cause (I suppose) is the beawtie of the soule: the which as a partner of the right and heauenlye beawtie, maketh sightlye and beawtifull what euer she toucheth, and most of all, if the bodye, where she dwelleth, be not of so vile a matter, that she can not imprint in it her proper­tye. Therfore Beawtie▪ is the true monument & spoile of the victorye of the soule, whan she with heauenlye in­fluence beareth rule ouer materiall and grosse nature, and with her light ouercommeth the darkeness of the bo­dye. It is not then to be spoken that Beawtie maketh women proude or cruel, although it seeme so to M. Morello. Neyther yet ought beawtifull women to beare the blame of that hatred, mortalytie, and destruction, which the vnbridled [Page] appetites of men are the cause of. I will not nowe de­nye, but it is possible also to finde in the worlde beawti­full women vnchast, yet not bicause beawtie inclineth them to vnchast liuinge, for it rather plucketh them from it, and leadeth them into the way of vertuous con­dicions, throughe the affinitie that beawtie hath with goodnesse: But otherwhile yll bringinge vp, the conti­nuall prouocations of louers, tokens, pouertie, hope, de­ceites, feare, and a thousande other matters ouercome the steadfastnesse, yea of beawtifull and good women: and for these and like causes may also beawtifull menn bee­come wicked. Then said the L. Cesar: In case the L Gaspar [...] sayinge be true of yesternight, there is no doubt but the faire women be more chast then the foule. And what was my sayinge, quoth the L. Gaspar? The L. Cesar answe­red: If I do well beare in minde, your saiynge was, that The women that are suide to, alwaies refuse to satisfie him that su­ith to them, but those that are not suide to, sue to others. There is no doubt but the beautiful women haue alwaies more suyters, and be more instantlye laide at in loue, then the foule. Therefore the beawtifull alwayes deny, and consequentlye be more chast, then the foule, whiche not beeinge suied to, sue vnto others. M. Peter Bembo laugh­ed and said: This argument can not be answered to. Afterwarde he proceaded. It chaunseth also oftentimes, that as the other senses, so the sight is deceyued, and iud­geth a face beawtyfull, which in deede is not beawtifull. And bicause in the eyes and in the wholl countenance of some women, a mā behouldeth otherwhile a certein lauish wantonnes peincted with dishonest flickeringes, many, whom that maner deliteth bicause it promiseth them an [...]asines to come by the thing, that they couet, cal it beaw­ty: but in deed it is a cloked vnshamefastnes, vnworthy of so honorable and holy a name, M. Peter Bembo held his peace, and those Lordes [...] were [...]arnest vpon him to speake somewhat [Page] more of this loue and of the waye to enioy beautye aright, and at the last, Me thinke (quoth he) I haue showed plainly inough, that Olde men may loue more happelye then yonge, whi­che was my drift, therfore it belongeth not me to entre a­nye farther. Count Lewes answered: You haue better declared the vnluckinesse of yonge men, then the happy­nesse of olde menn, whom you haue not as yet taught, what waye they must folow in this loue of theirs: onelye you haue saide, that they must suffre them selues to bee guided by reason, and the opinion of many is, that it is vnpossible for loue to stand with reason. Bembo notwith­standing saught to make an ende of reasoning, but the Dutchesse de­sired him to say on, and he beegane thus afreshe: Too vnluckie were the nature of man, if oure soule (in the whiche this so feruent couetinge may lightlie arrise) should be driuen to nourish it with that onelye,Sense. whiche is commune to her with beastes, and coulde not tourn it to the other noble parte,Reason. whiche is propre to her. Therfore sins it is so your pleasure: I wil not refuse to reason vpon this noble mat­ter. And bicause I know my self vnworthy to talke of the most holye misteries of loue, I beseche him to leade my thought and my tunge so, that I may show this excelent Courtier how to loue contrarye to the wonted maner of the commune ignorant sort. And euen as from my child­hode I haue dedicated all my wholl lief vnto him, so also now that my wordes may be answerable to the same in­tent, and to the prayse of him: I say therfore, that sins the nature of man in youthfull age is so much inclined to sense, it may be graunted the Courtier, while he is yong, to loue sensuallye. But in case afterwarde also in hys ri­per yeres, he chaūse to be set on fire with this coueting of loue, he ought to be good & circumspect, & heedful that he beeguyle not him self, to be lead willfullye into the wret­chednesse, that in yonge men deserueth more to be pitied then blamed: and contrarywise in olde men, more to be blamed then pitied. Therfore whan an amiable [Page] countenance of a beautiful woman commeth in his sight, that is accompanied with noble condicions and honest be­hauiours, so that as one practised in loue, he wotteth well that his hewe hath an agreement with herres, assoone as he is a ware that his eyes snatch that image and carie it to the hart, and that the soule beeginneth to beehoulde it with pleasure, and feeleth within her self the influence that stirreth her and by litle and litle setteth her in heate, and that those liuelye spirites, that twinkle out throughe the eyes, put continually freshe nourishment to the fire: he ought in this beginninge to seeke a speedye remedye and to raise vp reason, and with her, to fense the fortresse of his hart, and to shutt in such wise the passages against sense and appetites, that they maye entre neyther with force nor subtill practise. T [...]us if the flame be quenched, the ieoperdye is also quenched. But in case it continue or encrease, then must the Courtier determine (when he per­ceiueth he is taken) to shonn throughlye all filthinesse of commune loue, and so entre into the holye way of loue with the guide of reason, and first consider that the body, where that beawtye shyneth, is not the fountaine frome whens beauty springeth, but rather bicause beautie is bo­dilesse and (as we haue said) an heauenlie shyning beame, she loseth much of her honoure whan she is coopled with that vile subiect and full of corruption,Beawtye seuered fro [...] the body is most perfect. bicause the lesse she is partner therof, the more perfect she is, and cleane sundred frome it, is most perfect. And as a mann heareth not with his mouth, nor smelleth with hys eares: no more can he also in anye maner wise enioye beawtye, nor satisfye the desyre that shee stirrith vp in oure myndes, with feelynge, but wyth the sense, vnto whom beawtye is the verye butt to leuell at: namelye, the vertue of seeinge. Let him laye aside therefore the blinde iudgemente of the sense, and inioye wyth his eyes the bryghtnesse, the comelynesse, the louynge sparkles, laughters, gestures and all the o­ther [Page] pleasant fournitours of beawty: especially with hea­ringe the sweetenesse of her voice, the tunablenesse of her woordes, the melodie of her singinge and playinge on in­strumētes (in case the woman beloued be a musitien) and so shall he with most d [...]intie foode feede the soule through the meanes of these two senses, which haue litle bodelye substance in them, and be the ministers of reason, with­out entringe farther towarde the bodye with couetinge vnto anye longinge otherwise then honest. Afterward let him obey, please, and honoure with all reuerence his woman, and recken her more deere to him then his owne lief, and prefarr all her commodites and pleasures beefore his owne, and loue no lesse in her the beauty of the mind, then of the bodye: Therfore let him haue a care not to suf­fer her to renn into any errour, but with lessons and good exhortations seeke alwaies to frame her to modestie, to temperance, to true honestye, and so to woorke that there maye neuer take place in her other then pure thoughtes and farr wide from all filthinesse of vices. And thus in sowinge of vertue in the gardein of that mind, he shall also gather the frutes of most beautifull condicions, and sauour them with a marueilous good relise. And this shall be the right engendringe and imprinting of beaw­tye in beawtie, the which [...] some houlde opinion to be the ende of loue. In this maner shall oure Courtier be most acceptable to his Lady, and she will alwayes showe her self towarde him tractable, lowlye and sweete in lan­guage, and as willinge to please him, as to be beloued of him: and the willes of them both shall be most honest and agreeable, and they cōsequently shall be most happy. Here M. Morello, The engendringe (quoth he) of beaw­tye in beawtye aright, were the engendringe of a b [...]aw­tyfull chylde in a beautifull woman, and I woulde thinke it a more manifest token a great deale that she lo­ued her louer, if she pleased him with this, then with the sweetenesse of language that you speake of. M. [Page] Peter Bembo laughed and said: You must not (M. Morello) passe your boundes. I may tell you, it is not a small token that a woman loueth, whan she giueth vnto her louer her beawtye, which is so precious a matter: and by the wayes that be a passage to the soule (that is to say, the sight and the hearinge) sendeth the lookes of her eyes, the image of her countenance, and the voice of her woordes, that perce into the louers hart, and giue a witnes of her loue. M. Morello said: Lookes and woordes may be, and of­tentimes are, false witnesses. Therfore whoso hath not a better pledge of loue (in my iudgement) he is in an yll assurance. And surelye I looked still that you would haue made this woman of yours somewhat more cour­teyous and free towarde the Courtier, then my L. Iulian hath made his: but (me seemeth) ye be both of the propretie of those iudges, that (to appeere wise) giue sētence against their owne. Bembo said: I am well pleased to haue this woman muche more courteyous towarde my Courtier not yonge, then the L. Iulians is to the yong: and that with good reason, bicause mine coueteth but honest matters, and therfore may the woman graunt him them all with­out blame. But my L, Iulians woman that is not so assured of the modestye of the yonge man, ought to graūt him the honest matters onlye, and denye him the disho­nest. Therefore more happye is mine, that hath graunted him whatsoeuer he requireth, then the other, that hath parte graunted and parte denyed. And bicause you may moreouer the better vnderstande, that reasonable loue is more happye then sensuall, I saye vnto you, that self same thinges in sensuall ought to be denyed otherwhile, and in reasonable, graunted: bi­cause in the one, they be honest, and in the other disho­nest. Therfore ye woman to please her good louer, beside the graunting him merie coūtenances, familiar & secret talke, iesting, dalying, hand in hand, may also lawfullye [Page] and without blame come to kissinge: whiche in sensuall loue, accordinge to the L. Iulians rules, is not lefull. For sins a kisse is a knitting together both of body and soule, [...] kisse. it is to be feared, least the sensuall louer will be more in­clined to the part of the bodye, then of the soule: but the reasonable louer woteth well, that although the mouthe be a percell of the bodye, yet is it an issue for the wordes, that be the enterpreters of the soule, and for the inwarde breth, whiche is also called the soule: and therfore hath a delite to [...]o [...]gne hys mouth with the womans beloued with a kysse: not to stirr him to anye vnhonest desire, but bicause he feeleth that, that bonde is the openynge of an entrey to the soules, whiche drawen with a cou [...]ting the one of the other, power them selues by tourn, the one in­to the others bodye, and be so mingled together, that ech of them hath two soules, and one alone so framed of them both ruleth (in a maner) two bodyes. Wheru­pon a kisse may be said to be rather a cooplinge together of the soule, then of the bodye, bicause it hath suche force in her, that it draweth her vnto it, and (as it were) sepera­teth her from the bodye. For this do all chast louers co­uett a kisse, as a cooplinge of soules together. And ther­fore Plato the diuine louer saith, that in kissing, his soule came as farr as his lippes to depart out of the body. And bicause the se­paratinge of the soule from the matters of the sense and the through coopling her with matters of vnderstanding may be beetokened by a kisse, Salomon saith in his hea­uenlye boke of Balattes, Oh that he would kisse me with a kisse of his mouth, to expresse the desire he had, that hys soule might be rauished through heauenly loue to the behoul­dinge of heauenly beawtie in such maner, that cooplyng her self inwardly with it, she might forsake the body. They s [...]oode all [...]erkeninge he [...]dfullie to Bem [...]os reasonings, and after he had s [...]aide a while and sawe that none spake, [...]e saide: Sins you haue made me to beegine to showe oure not yonge Courtier this happye loue, I will leade him yet [Page] somewhat farther forwardes, bicause to ston [...]e [...]yll at this stay were somewhat perillous for him, consideringe (as we haue often times said the soule is most inclyned to the senses, and for all reason with discourse chouseth well, and knoweth that beawtie not to spring of the bo­dye, and therfore setteth a bridle to the vnhonest desires, yet to beehould it alwaies in that body, doeth oftentimes corrupt the right iudgement. And where no other in­conuenience insueth vpon it, ones absence from the wight beloued carieth a great passion with it: bicause the influence of that beawtie whan it is present, giueth a wonderous delite to the louer, and settinge his hart on fire, quickeneth and melteth certein vertues in a traunce and congeled in the soule, the which nourished with the heat of loue, floow about and go bubbling nigh the hart, and thrust out through the eyes those spirites, whiche be most fyne vapoures made of the purest and cleerest part of the bloode, which receiue the image of beawtie, and decke it with a thousande sundrye fournitures. Wher­upon the soule taketh a delite, and with a certein won­der is agast, and yet enioyeth she it, and (as it were) asto­nied together with the pleasure, feeleth the feare and re­uerence that men accustomably haue towarde holy mat­ters, and thinketh her self to be in paradise. The louer therfore that considereth only the beawtie in the bodye, loseth this treasure and happinesse, assoone as the wo­man beloued with her departure leaueth the eyes with­out their brightnes, and consequently the soule, as a wi­dowe without her ioye. For sins beawtie is farr of, that influence of loue setteth not the hart on fire, as it did in presence. Wherupon the pores be dryed vp and wy­thered, and yet doeth the remembraunce of beawty som­what stirr those vertues of the soule in such wise, that they seeke to scattre abrode the spirites, and they fyn­dinge the wayes closed vp, haue no yssue, and still they seeke to gete out, and so with those shootinges inclosed [Page] pricke the soule, and tourment her bitterlye, as yonge chilldren, whan in their tender gummes they beegin to breede teeth. And hens come the teares, sighes, vexa­tions and tourmentes of louers: Bicause the soule is al­wayes in affliction and trauaile and (in a maner) wexeth woode, vntill the beloued beawtie commeth beefore her once again, and then is she immediatlye pacified and ta­keth breth, and throughlye bent to it, is nouryshed wyth most deintye foode, and by her will, would neuer depart from so sweete a sight. To auoide therfore the tour­ment of this absence, and to enioy beawtie without pas­sion, the Courtier by the helpe of reason muste full and wholy call backe again the coueting of the body to beaw­tye alone▪ and (in what he can) beehoulde it in it self sim­ple and pure, and frame it within in his imagination sundred from all matter, and so make it frindlye and lo­uinge to hys soule, and there enioye it, and haue it with him daye and night, in euery time and place, without mystrust euer to lose it: keapinge alwayes fast in minde, that the bodye is a most dyuerse thynge from beawtie, and not onlie not encreaseth, but diminisheth th [...] perfec­tion of it. In this wise shall our not yonge Courti [...]r be out of all bitternesse and wretchednes that yong men feele (in a maner) continuallye, as ielousies, suspicions, disdeignes, angres, desperations and certein rages full of madnesse, wherby manye times they be lead into so great errour, that some doe not only beate the women whom they loue: but rid them selues out of their lief. He shal do no wrong to the husband, father, brethren or kins­folke of the woman beloued. He shall not bringe her in s [...]launder. He shall not be in case with much a do o­therwhile to refrain [...] hys eyes and tunge from discoue­rynge his desires to others. He shall not take thought at departure or in absence, bicause he shall euer more ca­rye his precious treasure about wyth him shut fast with­in [Page] his hert. And beeside, through the vertue of ima­gination he shall facion within himself that beawty m [...] ­che more faire, then it is in deede. But emong these com­modities the louer shal finde an other yet far greater, in case he will take this loue for a stayer (as it were) to clime vp to an other farr higher then it· The whiche he shall bringe to passe, if he will go and consider with himself, what a stre [...]t bonde it is to be alwaies in the trouble to beehoulde the beawtie of one bodye alone. And ther­fore to come out of this so narrow a rowme, he shall ga­ther in his thought by litle and litle so manye ornamen­tes, that meddlinge all beawties together, he shall make an vniuersall concept, and bringe the multitude of them to the vnitye of one alone, that is generally spred ouer all the nature of man. And thus shall he beehoulde no more the particuler beawtie of one woman, but an vni­uersall, that decketh out all bodies. Wherupon beeing made dymm with this greater light, he shall not passe vpon the lesser, and burnynge in a more excellent flame, he shall litle esteame it, that he sett gr [...]at store by at the first. This stayer of loue, though it be verye noble and such, as fewe arriue at it, yet is it not in this sort to be called perfect, forsomuch as where the imagina­tion is of force to make conueiance and hath no know­leage, but through those beeginninges that the senses helpe her wythall, she is not cleane po [...]rged from grosse darkenesse: and therefore though she do consider that vniuersall beawtie in sunder and in it self alone, yet doeth she not well and cleerlye descerne it, nor without some doubtfulness, by reason of the agreement that the fansyes haue with the bodye. Wherefore suche as come to thys loue, are lyke yonge Birdes almost flushe, whyche for all they flytter a litle their ten­der wynges, yet dare they not stray farr from the neste, nor commytt theym selues to the wynde [Page] and open weather. Whan oure Courtier therfore shall be come to this point, although he maye be called a good and happye louer, in respect of them that be drowned in the miserye of sensuall loue, yet wil I not haue him to set his hart at rest, but bouldlye pr [...]ceade farther, folowinge the high way after his guyde, that leadeth him to the point of true happinesse. And thus in steade of goinge out of his witt with thought, as he must do that will con­sider the bodilye beawty, he may come into his witt, to behoulde the beawty that is seene with the eyes of the minde, which then beegin to be sharpe and tho­rough seeinge, whan the eyes of the body lose the floure of their sightlynesse. Therfore the soule rid of vices, purged with the studyes of true Philosophie, occupied in spirituall, and exercised in matters of vnderstandinge, tourninge her to the beehouldyng of her owne substance, as it were raysed out of a most deepe sleepe, openeth the eyes that all men haue, and fewe occupy, and seeth in her self a shining beame of that lyght, which is the true image of the aungelike beawtye partened with her, whereof she also partneth with the bodye a feeble shadowe: Ther­fore wered blinde about earthlye matters, is made most quicke of sight about heauenlye. And otherwhile whan the stirringe vertues of the body are withdrawen alone through earnest behouldinge, eyther fast bounde through sleepe, whan she is not hindred by them, she feeleth a cer­tein preuie smell of the right aungelike beawtie, and ra­uished with the shining of that light, beeginneth to be in­flamed, and so greedilye foloweth after, that (in a ma­ner) she wereth dronken and beeside her self, for coueting to coople her self with it, hauinge founde (to her wening) the footesteppes of God, in the beehouldinge of whom (as in her happy end) she seeketh to settle her self. And therfore burninge in this most happye flame, she arry­seth to the noblest part of her (which is the vnderstanding) [...] there no more shadowed with the darke night of earth­lye [Page] matters, seeth the heauenlye beawtye: but yet doeth she not for all that enioye it altogether perfectlye, bicause she beehouldeth it onlye in her perticular vnderstandinge, which can not conceiue the passing great vniuersall beau­tye: wherupon not throughlye satisfied with this benifit, loue giueth vnto the soule a greater happines. For like as throughe the perticular beawtye of one bodye he guydeth her to the vniuersall beawtye of all bodies: Euenso in the last degree of perfection throughe perticular vnderstan­dinge he guideth her to the vniuersall vnderstandinge. Thus the soule kindled in the most holye fire of true hea­uenlye loue, fleeth to coople her selfe with the nature of Aungelles, and not onlye cleane forsaketh sense, but hath no more neede of the discourse of reason, for being chaun­ged into an Aungell, she vnderstandeth all thinges that may be vnderstoode: and without any veile or cloude, she seeth the meine sea of the pure heauenlye beawtye and receiueth it into her, and enioyeth that soueraigne happi­nesse, that can not be comprehended of the senses. Sins therfore the beawties, which we dayly see with these our dimm eyes in bodies subiect to corruption, that neuerthe­lesse be nothinge elles but dreames and most thinne sha­dowes of beauty, seme vnto vs so wel fauoured and come­ly, that oftentimes they kendle in vs a most burning fire, and with such delite, that we recken no happinesse may be compared to it, that we feele otherwhile through the only looke which the beloued coūtenance of a woman casteth at vs: what happy wonder [...] what blessed abashement may we recken that to bee, that taketh the soules, whiche come to haue a sight of the heauenly beawty? what sweete flame? What soote incense maye a mann beleaue that to bee, whiche arriseth of the fountaine of the soueraigne and right beawtye? Whiche is the origion of all other beawtye, whiche neuer encreaseth▪ nor diminishet [...], alwayes beawtyfull, and of it selfe, aswell on the one part as on the other, most simple, onelye like it self, and [Page] partner of none other, but in suche wise beawtifull, that all other beawtifull thinges, be beawtifull, bicause they be partners of the beawtie of it.Heauenly beawtie. This is the beaw­tye vnseperable from the high bountye, whiche with her voyce calleth and draweth to her all thynges: and not onlye to the indowed with vnderstandinge giueth vnder­standinge, to the reasonable reason, to the sensuall sense and appetite to liue, but also partaketh with plantes and stones (as a print of her self) stirring, and the natural pro­uocation of their properties. So much therfore is this loue greater and happier then others, as the cause that stirreth it, is more excellent. And therefore, as commune fire trieth golde and maketh it fyne, so this most holye fire in soules destroyeth and consumeth what so euer there is mortall in them, and relieueth and ma­keth beawtyfull the heauenlye part, whyche at the first by reason of the sense was dead and buried in them. This is the great fire in the whiche (the Poetes wryte) that Hercule [...] was burned on the topp of the monntaigne Oeta: A mounteign be­tweene Thessalia and Ma­cedonia where is the sepul­chre of Hercules. and throughe that consumynge with fire, after hys death was holye and immortall. Thys is the fy­ri [...] bu [...]he of Moses: The diuided tunges of fire: The inflamed Chariot of Helias: whych doobleth grace and happynesse in their soules that be worthy to see it, whan they forsake thys earthly basenesse and flee vp vnto hea­uen. Let vs therefore bende all oure force and though­tes of soule to this most holye light, that showeth vs the waye which leadeth to heauen: and after it, puttynge of the affections we were clad withall at our commnige downe, let vs clime vp the stayers, which at the lower­most stepp haue the shadowe of sensuall beawty, to the high mansion place where the heauenlye, amiable and right beawtye dwelleth, which lyeth hid in the inner­most secretes of God, least vnhalowed eyes shoulde come to the syght of it: and there shall we fynde a most happye [Page] ende for our desires, true rest for oure trauailes, certein remedye for myseryes, a most healthfull medycin for sickenesse, a most sure hauen in the troublesome stormes of the tempestuous sea of this life. What tunge mor­tall is there then (O most holy loue) that can sufficientlye prayse thy woorthynesse? Thou most beawtifull, most good, most wise, art diriued of the vnity of heauenly beautie, goodnesse and wisedome, and therin doest thou a­bide, and vnto it through it (as in a circle) tournest about. Thou the most swee [...]e bonde of the worlde, a meane bee­twext heauenlye and earthlye thynges, wyth a bounti­full tempre bendest the high vertues to the gouernment of the lower, and tourninge backe the mindes of mortall men to their beeginning, cooplest them with it. Thou with agreement bringest the Elementes in one, stirrest nature to brynge furth, and that, which arriseth and is borne for the succession of the lief. Thou bringest se­uered matters into one, to the vnperfect giuest perfecty­on, to the vnlyke likenesse, to enimitye amitye, to the Earth frutes, to the Sea calmnesse, to the heauen lyue­lie light. Thou art the father of true pleasures, of grace, peace, lowlynesse and good will, ennemye to rude wildenesse and sluggishnesse, to be short, the begin­ninge and ende of all goodnesse. And forsomuche as thou delitest to dwell in the floure of beawtyfull bo­dyes and beawtyfull soules, I suppose that thy aby­dynge place is nowe here emonge vs, and from aboue otherwhyle showest thy selfe a litle to the eyes and min­des of them that be woorthye to see thee. Therefore vouchesafe (Lorde) to harken to oure prayers, power thy selfe into oure hartes, and wyth the bryghtnesse of thy most holye fire lyghten oure darkenesse, and like a trustie guide in thys blynde mase, showe vs the right waye: refourme the falsehoode of the senses, [Page] and after longe wandringe in vanitye gyue vs the rygh [...] and sounde ioye. Make vs to smell those spirituall sa­uoures that relieue the vertues of the vnderstandinge, & to heare the heauenlye harmonie so tunable, that no dis­corde of passion take place anye more in v [...]. Make vs dronken with the bottomelesse fountain of contentation that alwaies doeth delite, and neuer giueth fill, and that giueth a smacke of the right blisse vnto who so drinketh of the renni [...] and cleere water therof. Pourge wyth the shininge beames of thy light our eyes from mysty igno­raunce, that they maye no more set by mortall beawty, & wel perceiue that ye thinges which at ye first they thought themselues to see, be not in deede, and those that they saw not, to be in effect. Accept oure soules, that be offred vnto thee for a sacrifice. Burn them in the liuely [...] flame that wasteth al grosse filthines, that after they be cleane sundred from the body, thei may be copled with an euerlasting & most sweet bonde to the heauenly beawty. And we seuered from oure selues, may be chaunged like right louers into the beloued,The poe­tes feigne to be the meate and drinke of the God­ [...]s. and after we be drawen from the earth, admitted to the feast of the aungelles, where fed with immortall ambrosia and nectar, in the ende we maye dye a most happie and liuelye death, as in times past died the fathers of olde time, whose soules with most feruent zeale of beehouldinge thou diddest hale from the bodye and coopleddest them with God. When Bembo had hitherto spoken with such vehemencye, that a man woulde haue thought him (as it were) rauished and beeside himselfe, he stood [...] still without once moouing, houldynge his eyes towarde heauen as astonied, whan the Lady Emilia, whiche together with the rest gaue most diligent eare to this talke, tooke him by the plaite of hys garment and pluckinge hym a litle, said: Take heede (M. Peter) that these thoughtes make not your soule also to forsake the bodye. Madam, answered M. Peter, it shoulde not be the first miracle that loue hath wrought in me. Then the Dutchesse and all the rest beegan a fresh to be instant vpon M. Bembo that he woulde procc [...]de once more in his talke, and euery [Page] one thought he felt in his minde (as it were) a certein sparkle of that godlye loue that pricked him, and they all coueted to heare farther: but M. Bembo, My Lordes (quoth he) I haue spoken what the holye furie of loue hath (vnsaught for) indited to me: now that (it seemeth) he inspireth me no more, I wot not what to say. And I thinke verelie that loue will not haue his secretes discouered any farther, nor that the Courti­er shoulde passe the degree that his pleasure is I shoulde show him, and therfore it is not perhappes lefull to speak anye more in this matter. Surelye, quoth the Dut­chesse, if the not yonge Courtier be such a one that he can folowe this way which you haue showed him, of right he ought to be satisfied with so great a happines, and not to enuie the yonger. Then the L. Cesar Gonzaga, the way (ꝙ he) that leadeth to this happines is so stiepe (in my mind) that (I beleaue) it will be much a do to gete to it. The L. Gaspar said: I beleaue it be harde to gete vp for men, but vnpossible for women. The L. Emilia laughed and said: If ye fall so often to offende vs, I promise you, ye shall be no more forgiuen. The L. Gaspar answered: It is no offence to you, in saiynge, that womens soules be not so pourged from passions as mens be, nor accustomed in be­houldinges, as M. Peter hath said, is necessary for them to be, that will tast of the heauenly loue. Therefore it is not read that euer woman hath had this grace: but ma­nie men haue had it, as Plato, Socrates, Plotinus, and manie other: and a numbre of our holye fathers, as Saint Francis, in whom a feruent spirite of loue imprinted the most holie seale of the fiue woundes. And nothinge but the vertue of loue coulde hale vp Saint Paul the Apostle to the sight of those secretes, which is not lawfull for man to speake of: nor show Saint Stephan the heauens open. Here answered the L. Iulian: In this point men shall nothinge passe women, for Socrates him selfe do­eth confesse that all the misteries of loue which he knew, were oped vnto him by a woman, which was Diotima. [Page] Diotima. And the Aungell that with the fire of loue imprinted the fiue woundes in Saint Francis, hath also made some women woorthy of the same print in our age. You must remembre moreouer that S. Mari Magdalen had manye faultes forgeuen her, bicause she loued muche: and perhappes with no lesse grace then Saint Paul, was she manye times through Aungelyke loue haled vp to the thirde heauen. And manye other (as I showed you yester­daye more at large) that for loue of the name of Chryst [...] haue not passed vpon lief, nor feared tourmentes, nor any other kinde of death how terrible and cruell euer it were. And they were not (as M. Peter wyll haue his Courtier to be) aged, but soft and tender maidens, and in the age, when he saith that sensuall loue ought to be borne with­al in men. The L. Gaspar began to prepare himself to speake, but the Dutchesse, Of this (quoth shee) let M. Peter be iudge, and the matter shal stand to his verdite, whether women be not as meete for heauenlie loue▪ as men. But bicause the pleade beetweene you may happen be to longe, it shall not be a­misse to deferr it vntill to morow. Nay, to nyght, quoth the L. Cesar Gonzaga. And how can it be to night, quoth the Dutchesse? The L. Cesar answered: Bicause it is daye alreadye, and showed her the light that beegane to entre in at the cliftes of the windowes, Then euerie man arrose vpon his feete with much wonder, bicause they had not thaught that the reaso­ninges had lasted l [...]nger then the accustomed wont, sauinge onelye that they were beegon much later, and with their pleasantnesse had deceiued so the Lordes mindes, that they wist not of the going away of the houres. And not one of them felt any heauinesse of slepe in his eyes, the which often happeneth whan a man is vp after his accus­tomed houre to go to bed. Whan the windowes then were opened on the side of the Palaice that hath his prospect toward the high to [...] of Mount Catri, they saw alr [...]die risen in the East a faire morninge like vnto the coulour of roses, and all sterres void [...]d, sauinge onelye the sweete Gouernesse of the heauen▪ Uenus, whiche keapeth the boundes of the nyght and the day, from whiche appeered to blowe a sweete blast, that filling the aer with a bytinge cold, begane to quic­ken the tunable notes of the prety birdes, emong the hushing woodes [Page] of the hilles at hande. Wherupon they all, takinge their leaue with reuerence of the Dutchesse, departed toward their lodginges without torche, the light of the day sufficing. And as they were now passing out at the great chambre doore, the L. Generall tourned hym to the Dutches, and said: Madam, to take vp the variance beetweene the L. Gaspar and the L. Iulian, we will assemble this night with the iudge sooner then we did yester­daye. The Lady Emilia answered, vpon con­dicion, that in case my L. Gaspar wyll ac­cuse women, and geue them (as his wont is) some false re­porte, he wil also put vs in suretye to stand to triall, for I recken him a waueringe starter.

The ende of Castilios bookes of the Courtyer.

A letter that the Author vvritt to the Lady Victoria Columna Mar­quess of Pescara, vvhom he mentioneth in the Epi­stle before his booke.

MOST HONORABLE AND MY VERIE good Lady. I am much behouldinge to M. Thomas Tuke, bicause he was the occasion that your Ladishipp hath vouchsafed to write vnto me: which is most accep­table to me, and not without cause, consideringe I haue written so manye letters and coulde neuer receiue anye answere from you again, albeit they conteined sundrye matters. Truth it is indeede, that vnmeete it were your L. shoulde write vnto me, onlesse therewithall you vsed my seruice and commaunded me in what I am able to do for you. As touchinge M, Tuke, I will do as much for him, as shall lie in me to doe, both for your L. sake that may commaunde me, and for the brotherlye loue that I beare him. Where M. Gutteriz hath wrytten vnto you that I complayned of you, I wonder nothinge at it, for (to saye the troth) I vttred my greef a good while sins in a letter that I wrott vnto you your self, as I passed the mountaignes of Fraunce to come into Spaine. And he that toulde me the matter that caused it, was my L. Marquesse of Vasto, who showed me a letter of yours, in the which you your self confessed the stelth of the Courtyer. The whyche thynge I as then tooke in great good part, doubtynge nothynge [...]ut that it shoulde remayne in youre handes, and be well kept vntyll I my self shoulde come to demaunde it of you. [Page] At the last I was enfourmed by a Gentilman Neapolitan, who continueth still here in Spaine, that there were cer­tein Fragmentes of the poore Courtier in Naples, and he sawe them in the handes of sundrye men, and he that scattered it thus abrode reported that he had it of you. It was some greef to me, as a father that seeth hys chylde so yll handled: yet afterward yeeldyng to rea­son, I knewe he deserued not to haue anye more store made of him, but (like an vntymelye birth) to be left in the hygh waye for the benifit of nature. And so vn­doubtedly was I determined to do, consideringe yf there were any thinge in the Booke not yll, men woulde haue the woorse opinion of it, whan they shoulde see it so out of order. And no diligence shoulde preuaile any more to poolish it and to sett it furth, sins it had lost the thyng, which perhappes at the first was onlye it, that made it esteamed: that is to weete, the noueltye of the matter. And knowinge your saiynge to be true, that the cause of my complaint was verye triflynge, I resolued wyth my selfe, to leaue at the least my complaininge, though I coulde not my sorowynge. And that whyche I brake wyth M. Gutteriz (in case it be well wayed) was no com­plaint. In conclusion others, more bent of a zeale then I was, haue enforced me to write hym ouer again, as the shortnesse of tyme hath serued me, and to sende hym to Venice to be put in print, and so haue I done. But if your L. shoulde suspect that the good will whiche I beare you were any deale feinted for this, your iudge­ment shoulde deceyue you, whiche (I beleaue) it did ne­uer in all youre lief beefore: but rather I recken my selfe more bounde to you, bicause the necessity that droue me to make hast so spedilie to imprint it, hath saued me a great peece of labour, where I was once mynded to haue added manye other matters, which coulde be but of small moment as the rest are. And thus shall the reader haue the lesse labour and the Author lesse blame. [Page] Therefore it is nowe past time eyther for you or me to repent or correct. And thus I take my leaue of you.

A breef rehersall of the chiefe conditions and qualities in a Courtier.

  • TO be well borne and of a goo [...] stocke.
  • To be of a meane stature, rather with the least then [...]o high, and well made to his proportion.
  • To be portly and amiable in countenance vnto whoso beehouldeth him.
  • Not to be womanish in his sayinges or doinges.
  • Not to praise himself vnshamefully and out of reason.
  • Not to crake and boast of his actes and good qualities.
  • To shon Affectatiō or curiosity aboue al thing in al things.
  • To do his feates with a slight, as though they were ra­ther naturally in him, then learned with studye: and vse a Reckelesness to couer art, without minding great­ly what he hath in hand, to a mans seeminge.
  • Not to carie about tales and triflinge newis.
  • Not to [...]e ouerseene in speaking wordes otherwhile that may offende where he ment it not.
  • Not to be stubborne, wilfull nor full of contention: nor to contrary and ouertwhart men after a spiteful sort.
  • Not to be a babbler, brauler or chatter, nor lauish of his tunge.
  • Not to be giuen to vanitie and lightnesse, nor to haue a fantasticall head.
  • No lyer.
  • No fonde flatterer.
  • To be well spoken and faire languaged.
  • To be wise and well seene in discourses vpon states.
  • To haue a iudgement to frame himself to the maners of the Countr [...]y where euer he commeth.
  • To be able to alleage good, and probable reasons vpon euerie matter.
  • To be seen in tunges, & specially in Italian French & Spanis [...]
  • To direct all thinges to a good ende.
  • To procure where euer he goeth ye men may first cōceiue [Page] good opinion of him beefore he commeth there.
  • To felowship him self for the most part with men of the best sort and of most estimation, & with his equalies, so he be also beloued of his inferiours.
  • To play for his pastime at Dice and Cardes, not wholye for meneis sake, nor fume and chafe in his losse.
  • To be meanly seene in the play at Chestes, and not ouer-counninge.
  • To be pleasantlie disposed in commune matters and in good companie.
  • To speake and write the language that is most in vre e­monge the commune people, without inuenting new woordes, in [...]horn tearmes or straunge phrases, and such as be growen out of vse by long time.
  • To be handesome and clenly in his apparaile.
  • To make his garmentes after the facion of the most, and those to be black, or of some darkish and sad coulour, not garish.
  • To gete him an especiall and hartye friend to companye withall.
  • Not to be ill tunged, especiallie against his betters.
  • Not to vse any fonde saucinesse or presumption.
  • To be no enuious or malitious person·
  • To be an honest, a faire condicioned man, & of an vpright conscience.
  • To haue the vertues of the minde, as iustice, manlinesse, wisdome, temperance, staidenesse, noble courage, so­bermoode &c.
  • To be more then indifferentlye well seene in learninge, in the Latin and greeke tunges.
  • Not to be rash, nor perswade hymselfe to knowe the thing that he knoweth not.
  • To confesse his ignorance, whan he seeth time and place therto, in suche qualities as he knoweth him selfe to haue no maner skill in.
  • To be brought to showe his feates and qualities at the [Page] desire and request of others, and not rashlye presse to it of himself.
  • To speake alwaies of matters likely, least he be counted a lyer in reporting of wonders & straunge miracles.
  • To haue the feate of drawing and peincting.
  • To daunce well without ouer nimble footinges or to bu­sie trickes.
  • To singe well vpon the booke.
  • To play vpon the Lute, and singe to it with the ditty.
  • To play vpon the Uyole, and all other instrumentes with freates.
  • To delite and refresh the hearers mindes in being plea­sant, feat conceited, and a meerie talker, applyed to time and place.
  • Not to vse sluttish and Ruffianlike pranckes with anye man.
  • Not to beecome a iester or scoffer to put anye man out of countenance.
  • To consider whom he doth taunt and where: for he ought not to mocke poore seelie soules, nor men of authori­tie, nor commune ribaldes and persons giuen to mis­cheef, which deserue punishment.
  • To be skilfull in all kynd of marciall feates both on horsbacke and a foote, and well practised in them: whiche is his cheef profession, though his vn­derstandinge be the lesse in all other thinges.
    • To play well at fense vpon all kinde of weapons.
    • To be nimble and quicke at the play at tenise.
    • To hunt and hauke.
    • To ride and manege wel his horse.
    • To be a good horsman for euery saddle.
  • [Page] Sildome in open syght of the people but priu [...]ye with him­selfe alone, or emonge hys friendes and familiers.
    • To swimme well.
    • To leape wel.
    • To renn well.
    • To vaute well.
    • To wrastle well.
    • To cast the stone well.
    • To cast the barr well.
  • These thinges in o­pen syght to delyte the commune peo­ple withall.
    • To renn well at tilt, and at ring.
    • To tourney.
    • To fight at Barriers.
    • To kepe a passage or streict.
    • To play at Iogo di Canne.
    • To renn at Bull.
    • To fling a Speare or Dart.
  • Not to renn, wrastle, leape, nor cast the stone or barr with men of the Countrey, except he be sure to gete the victorie.
  • To sett out himself in feates of chiualrie in open showes well prouided of horse and harne [...]s, well trapped, and armed, so that he may showe himselfe nymeble on horsbacke.
  • Neuer to be of the last that appeere in the listes at iustes, or in any open showes.
  • To haue in triumphes comelie armour, bases, scarfes, trappinges, liueries, and such other thinges of sight­lie and meerie coulours, and rich to beehoulde, wyth wittie poesies and pleasant diuises, to allure vnto him chefflie the eyes of the people.
  • To disguise himself in maskerie eyther on horsbacke or a foote, and to take the shape vpon hym that shall be contrarie to the feate that he mindeth to worke.
  • To vndertake his bould feates and couragious enterpri­ses in warr, out of companye and in the sight of the most noble personages in the campe, and (if it be pos­sible) beefore his Princis eyes.
  • [Page]Not to hasarde himself in forraginge and spoiling or in enterprises of great daunger and small estimation, though he be sure to gaine by it.
  • Not to waite vpon or serue a wycked and naughtye per­son.
  • Not to seeke to come vp by any naughtie or subtill prac­tise.
  • Not to committ any mischeuous or wicked fact at the wil and commaundement of his Lorde or Prince.
  • Not to folowe his owne fansie, or alter the expresse wor­des in any point of his commission from hys Prince or Lorde, onlesse he be assured that the profit will be more, in case it haue good successe, then the damage, if it succeade yll.
  • To vse euermore toward his Prince or L. the respect that beecommeth the seruaunt toward his maister.
  • To endeuour himself to loue, please and obey his Prince in honestye.
  • Not to couett to presse into the Chambre or other secrete part where his Prince is withdrawen at any time.
  • Neuer to be sad, melanchonie or sole [...]n beefore hys Prince.
  • Sildome or neuer to sue to hys Lorde for anye thing for himself.
  • His suite to be honest and reasonable whan he suyth for others.
  • To reason of pleasaunt and meerie matters whan he is withdrawen with him into priuate & secrete places alwayes doinge him to vnderstande the truth with­out dissimulation or flatterie.
  • Not to loue promotions so, that a man shoulde thinke he coulde not liue without them, nor vnshamefastlye to begg any office.
  • To refuse them after such a comelye sort, that the Prince offrynge hym them, maye haue a cause to offre them with a more instance.
  • [Page]Not to presse to his Prince where euer he be, to hould him with a vaine tale, that others should thinke him in fauour with him.
  • To consyder well what it is that he doeth or speaketh, where, in presence of whom, what time, why, his age, his profession, the ende, and the meanes.

THE FINAL END OF A COVRTIER, VVHERTO AL HIS good condicions and honest qualities tende, is to bee­come An Instructer and Teacher of his Prince or Lorde, incli­ninge him to vertuous practises: And to be francke and free with him, after he is once in fauour in mat­ters touching his honour and estimation, alwayes puttinge him in minde to folow vertue and to flee vice, opening vnto him the commoditiess of the one and inconueniences of the other: And to shut his eares against flatterers, whiche are the first beegin­ninge of self leekinge and all ignorance.

His conuersation with women to be alwayes gentle, so­ber, meeke, lowlie, modest, seruiceable, comelie, me­rie, not bitinge or sclaundering with iestes, nippes, frumpes, or railinges, the honesty of any.

His loue towarde women, not to be sensuall or fleshlie, but honest and godlye, and more ruled with reason, then appetyte: and to loue better the beawtye of the minde, then of the bodie.

Not to withdrawe his maistresse good will from his fe­lowlouer with reuilinge or railinge at him, but with vertuous deedes, and honest condicions, and with deseruing more then he, at her handes for honest affections sake.

Of the chief conditions and qualityes in a vvaytyng gentylvvoman.

  • TO be well born and of a good house.
  • To flee affectation or curiositie.
  • To haue a good grace in all her doinges.
  • To be of good condiciōs & wel brought vp.
  • To be wittie and foreseing, not heady and of a renning witt.
  • Not to be haughtie, enuious, yltunged, lyght, contenti­ous nor vntowardlye.
  • To win and keepe her in her Ladies fauour & all others.
  • To do the exercises meete for women, comlye and with a good grace.
  • To take hede that she giue none accasion to bee yll repor­ted of.
  • To cōmit no vice, nor yet to be had in suspitiō of any vice.
  • To haue the vertues of the minde, as wisdome, iustice, noblenesse of courage, temperance, strength of the minde, continency, sobermoode. &c.
  • To be good and discreete.
  • To haue the vnderstandinge beinge maried, how fordre her husbandes substance, her house and children, and to play the good huswyef.
  • To haue a sweetenesse in language and a good vttrance to entertein all kinde of men with communication woorth the hearing, honest, applyed to time and place and to the degree and disposition of the person whiche is her principall profession.
  • To accompany sober and quiet maners and honesty with a liuelie quicknesse of wit.
  • To be esteamed no lesse chast, wise and courteious, then pleasant, feat conceited and sober.
  • Not to make wise to abhorr companie and talke, though somewhat of the wantonnest, to arrise and forsake [Page] them for it.
  • To geue the hearing of such kinde of talke with blushing and bashfulnesse.
  • Not to speake woordes of dishonestye and baudrye to showe her self pleasant, free and a good felowe.
  • Not to vse ouer much familyaritie without measure and bridle.
  • Not willinglie to giue [...]are to suche as report ill of other women.
  • To be heedefull in her talke that she offend not where she ment it not.
  • To beeware of praysinge her self vndiscreatlye, and of beeing to tedious and noysome in her talke.
  • Not to mingle with graue and sad matters, meerie iestes and laughinge matters: nor with mirth, matters of grauitie
  • To be circumspect that she offend no man in her iesting and tauntynge, to appeere therby of a readye witt.
  • Not to make wise to knowe the thing that she knoweth not, but with sobernesse gete her estimatiō with that she knoweth.
  • Not to come on loft nor vse to swift measures in her daunsinge.
  • Not to vse in singinge or playinge vpon instrumentes to muche deuision & busy pointes, that declare more cun­ning then sweetenesse.
  • To come to daunce, or to showe her musicke with suf­fringe her self to be first prayed somewhat and dra­wen to it.
  • To apparaile her self so, that she seeme not fonde and fan­tasticall.
  • To sett out her beawtye and disposition of person with meete garmentes that shall best beecome her, but as feininglye as she can, makyng semblant to bestowe no labour about it, nor yet to minde it.
  • To haue an vnderstandinge in all thinges belonginge to [Page] the Courtier, that she maye gyue her iudgemente to commend and to make of gentilmen according to their worthinesse and desertes.
  • To be learned.
  • To be seene in the most necessarie languages.
  • To drawe and peinct.
  • To daunse.
  • To deuise sportes and pastimes.
  • Not to be lyghte of creditt that she is beloued, thoughe a man commune familierlye with her of loue.
  • To shape him that is ouersaucie wyth her, or that hath small respecte in hys talke, suche an answere, that he maye well vnderstande she is offended wyth hym.
  • To take the louynge communication of a sober Gentyl­man in an other signifycatyon, seeking to straye from that pourpose.
  • To acknoweleage the prayses whyche he giueth her at the Gentylmans courtesye, in case she can not dissem­ble the vnderstandinge of them: debasynge her owne desertes.
  • To be heedefull and remembre that men may with lesse ieopardy show to be in loue, then women.
  • To geue her louer nothing but her minde, whan eyther the hatred of her husband, or the loue that he beareth to others inclineth her to loue.
  • To loue one that she may marye with all, beeinge a may­den and mindinge to loue.
  • To showe suche a one all signes and tokens of loue, sa­uynge suche as maye put hym in anye dyshonest hope.
  • [Page]To vse a somewhat more famylyar conuersation wyth men well growen in yeeres, then with yonge men.
  • To make her self beloued for her desertes, amiablenesse, and good grace, not with anie vncomelie or dishonest behauiour, or flickeringe enticement with wanton lookes, but with vertue and honest condicions.

The finall ende whereto the Courtier applieth all his good condicions, properties, feates and qualities, serueth also for a waiting Gentilwoman to grow in fa­uour with her Lady, and by that meanes so to instruct her and traine her to vertue, that she may both refraine from vice and from committing anye dishonest matter, and also abhorr flatte­rers, and giue her self to vn­derstand the full troth in euery thyng, without en­tring in­to self leeking and ignorance, either of other out­ward thinges, or yet of her owne self.

A Letter of syr I. Cheekes.

¶ To his louing frind Mayster Thoma [...] Hoby.

FOr your opinion of my gud will vnto you as you wr [...]it, you can not be deceiued: for submitting you [...] doinges to mi iudgemen [...] ▪ I thanke you: for taking this pain of your translation, you worthilie deser [...] great thankes of all sortes. I haue taken sum pain [...] your request cheflie in your preface, not in the rea­ding of it for that was pleasaunt vnto me boath for the roundnes of your saienges and welspeakinges of the saam, but in changing certein wordes which might verie well be let aloan, but that I am verie curi­ous in mi freendes matters, not to determi [...]n, but to debaat what is best. Whearin, I seek not the bestnes haplie bi truth, but bi mijn own phansie, and shew of goodnes.

I am of this opinion that our own tung shold be written cleane and pure, vnmixt and vnmangeled with borowing of other tunges▪ wherin if we take not heed bi tijm, euer borowing and neuer pay­eng, she shall be fain to keep her house as bankrupt. For then doth our tung naturallie and praisablie vtter her meaning, whan she bou­roweth no conterfeitness of other tunges to attire her self withall, but vseth plainlie her own, with such shift, as nature, craft, experiens and folowing of other excellent doth lead her vnto, and if she want at an [...] tijm [...]as being vnperfight she must) yet let her borow with su­che bashfulnes, that it mai appeer, that if e [...]t [...]er t [...]e [...]o [...]ld of our own tung could serue vs to falcion a woord of our own, or if the old denisoned wordes could content and ease this neede, we wold not boldly venture of vnknowen wordes This I say not for reproof of you, who haue scarslie and necessarily vsed whear occasion ser­ueth a strange word so, as it seemeth to grow out of the matter and not to be sought for: but for mijn own defens, w [...]o might be coun­ted ouerstraight a deemer of thinges, if I gaue not thys accomp [...] [...]o [Page] you, mi freend and wijs, of mi marring this your handiwork. But I am called aw [...]i, I prai you pardon mi shortnes, the rest of mi saienges should be but p [...]ise and exhortacion in this your doinges, which at [...] I shold do better.

Yours assured Ioan Cheek.

¶ Imprinted at London, by Wyl­lyam Seres, dwelling at the west end of Poules, at the Signe of the hedghog.

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