THE HISTORIE OF THE LIFE AND REIGNE OF THAT Famous Princesse, ELIZABETH: Containing a briefe Memoriall of the chiefest Affaires of State, that haue passed in these Kingdomes of England, Scotland, France; or Ireland, since the yeare of the Fatall Spanish Invasion, to that of her sad and ever to be deplored dissolution. Wherevnto also is annexed an Appendix, of Animadversions vpon severall passages, Corrections of sundry errours, and Additions of some remarkable matters of this History never before imprinted.

Polyd: Virg. Hist. Angl. lib. 3. pag. 53.
Ne quid falsi dicere audeat Historicus, ne quid veri non audeat:
Ne qua suspitio gratia sit, ne qua simultatis.

LONDON: Printed for William Webbe Booke-seller in Oxford. Ann. Dom. 1634.



IT was so farre from my Ambition, that it was my Feare, to make your Maiesty (who already is▪ of my Colledge) Vi­sitor of my Labours; for indeed, could the Honour of this Story have descended to the humble content of a lower Patronage, I should no more haue aduentured the Fauour of your protection, then I can deserue it. The only credit which I craue from This Inscrip­tion [Page] is, to countenance, not my Reputation, but Reason; which tells me, that to vnderua­lue the Maiesty of this Story with a Dedica­tion lesse then Princely, were to furnish, not my labours but errours, with a Patronage. Should I heere steale into a seasonable com­mendation of the Subiect of this History, I should but iniure Goodnesse with some thin applause; and not, blazon, but stifle Vertue in too straight a Panegericke: I will rather leaue still, her Name, for a terrour to the Ro­mish Faction, her Death, for a common-place of Sorrow to the English Nation, her Vertue, for an example to Your enuious Imitation, and her vnworthy Translator to the gratious acceptance and Princely pardon Of

your MAIESTIES most loyall Subiect, and humble poore Scholler THO: BROWNE.

To the Reader.

IT were well, if, what once the tongue of the Athenian Crier did to euery Orator, the lan­guage of Authority would, to euery Babbler; Inter dicere, ne praefatione & affectibus uteren­tur, & lubere, ut rem mod [...] exp [...]rent [...]; A law indeed, which not­withstanding by a necessary disobedience, I must now both approue, and violate; for I confesse, that in excusing my selfe, I had rather hazard the vncertaine censure of this o­stentation, then by concealing an indifferent truth, sit down to a certaine discredit. Know therefore Reader (for I care not who does) that when I made the first onset vpon this Exercise, it was my desire rather to see what I could doe▪ then care what I did; for with the iust expences of a moneths time & labour, I digested the whole body of this History in­to a perfect frame. I must confesse my way was hard, and my time as short; insomuch, that by the very transcribing of so compleat a Volume in such a space, my [...]and her selfe seem'd to earne a commendation. But withall I must acknowledge, that since, I was faine to adde the discretion of my second thoughts, to correct and regulate some grosse absurdities; which notwithstanding was such, as that it spo [...]e onely in interlinings, and marginall references, and not added the supplement of one sheet to encrease the former bulke. Ha­uing thus lickt it so farre, to make it worth the reading, that I made it almost impossible to be read, (as I first began it, to ease the troublesome request of a priuate friend, so now) I ren­dred it vp into his hands, to punish him with a peru [...]all. But it seemes, when the respects of loue and friendship blin [...]e the iust censure of a iudicious eie▪ there, weake endeauours may finde both entertainment and acceptance. Thus fell it out [Page] with me; for, (although the conscience of my own imper­fections could bequeath it no better light, then that that should consume it) it pleased him to thinke it worth a brigh­ter, this of the worlds; so that I, (whose conscience and duty bound me to an equall obseruance of his Desire, with other mens Commands) was forced now againe to fashion my collected errours for the Presse; desiring to publish ra­ther my obedience to my Friend, then name to the World. Then might I haue iustly and boldly said, what Erasmus once did vpon his Edition of Saint Ieromes Workes,—V­num illud & verè dic [...]m & audacter; minoris arbitror Hie­ronym [...] suos constitisse libros conditos, quàm nobis restitutos: & paucioribus vigilijs apud illum natos fuisse, quam apud nos renatos. For I may well auerre, that the very reviewing of my Paines, exceeded the Paines which I reviewed, by so much the more, as it is easier to commit a fault, then to finde it, once committed.

If this serue for an excuse, I cra [...]e acceptance at thy hands, if not, forgiuenesse; but if thou be not pleased to giue, then exchange a courtesie, which is nought but this; for my defects, let me haue thy pardon; and for my deserts, I'le dispence with thy commendation. Farewell.

T. B.
—Corrige, sodes,
Hoc, bone Lector, et Hoc.

PAge 35. Line 18. Read [...] Martigue. p. 36. l. 1. Prince [...]. p. 141. l. 5. Duke of Alua. p. 178. l. 24. which was to Feroll. p. 192. l. 3. dealt with them of Dant­zicke. p. 221. l. 25. William Peter. p. 241. l. 24. the same Hagan. p. 244. l. 34. who notwithstanding had not yet. p. 255. l. 10. Monast [...]ry of Typarary. p. 311. l. 21. Saint-Iohn [...] Bletnesho. p. 360. l. 14. Roger and Gawyn the two Harui [...]s.


  • THe practises of the Spaniard in Scotland against England. Page 1
  • A mutinie in Scotland. 2
  • The mutiny is [...]. 3
  • The Earle of Arrundel arraigned. ibid.
  • His Peeres. 4
  • Th [...] h [...]ads of his accusation. ibid.
  • His demands of the Iudges. [...]
  • The Earles answer. 7
  • The Earle condemned. 10
  • His life pardoned. ibid.
  • Drakes expedition. ibid.
  • The Groyne assaulted. 11
  • The base Towne taken. 12
  • The high Towne assaulted, but in vaine. ibid.
  • Preparation from the Spaniard. 13
  • The Spaniards driuen backe. ibid.
  • The English depart, and embarque for Portugall. ibid.
  • [Page] Peniche taken. 14
  • Lisbon assaulted. ibid.
  • The Spaniards sally forth vpon the English. 15
  • They are forced home to their very Gates. ibid.
  • The English depart. ibid.
  • Drake▪ blamed. ibid.
  • Cascay's yeelded. 16
  • Three [...] H [...]lkes taken. ibid.
  • Vigo burnt. ibid.
  • The English retur [...]e. ibid.
  • The English subiect to diseases [...] Spaine. 17
  • The Hans [...]-townes complaine. ibid.
  • The Queenes answere. 18
  • The Queene aides the King of Nauarre. ibid.
  • The Holy League in France. 19
  • The Barricadoes at Paris. ibid.
  • The Duke of Guise [...]laine. 20
  • Henry the third▪ King of France slaine. 21
  • Contention about the election of a new King. ibid.
  • The Cardinall of Bourbon proclaimed King. 22
  • The Queene [...] the French King. ibid.
  • The English [...] in France. 23
  • The English returne. 24
  • The Spaniard affecteth the Kingdome of France. ibid.
  • The Queene propoundeth a marriage to the K. of Scots. 25
  • He is betrothed to Anne of Denmarke. ibid.
  • He passeth ouer to Norway. 26
  • Tempests raised in his Voyage by Witches. ibid.
  • Bothwell accused by them. ibid.
  • The Countesse of Sussex dieth. ibid.
  • Sir Walter Mildmay dieth. ibid.
  • The Earle of Worcester dieth. 27
  • And the Lord Sturton. ibid.
  • And the Lord Compton. ibid.
  • And the Lord Paget. ibid.
  • [Page] And Doctor Humphrey. ibid.
Anno M.D.XC.
  • SVndry Hauens fortified. Pag. 29
  • Charges for the Nauy. ibid.
  • Money lent to the French King. 30
  • The rates of the Custome-house raised. 31
  • The Queenes care of the States. 32
  • She restoreth ships to the Ve [...]e [...]ians. 33
  • She procureth peace from the Turke for the Polo [...]ns and Moldauians. ibid.
  • She congratulateth the marriage of the King of Scots. 34
  • Her care of France. ibid.
  • French Hauens taken by the Spaniard. 35
  • His pretence of right to the Dutchy of Britaine. ibid.
  • Aide from England requested. 36
  • The Queene prouides for Britaine. ibid.
  • And for all France. ibid.
  • Wherefore she hea [...]neth not to the ill suggestions of some both English and French men. 37
  • Her obseruation. ibid.
  • The Earle of Warwickes death. ibid.
  • And Sir Francis Walsingham's. ibid.
  • The death of Sir Thomas Randolph. 38
  • And of Sir Iames Cro [...]. 39
  • And of the Earle of Shrewesbury. ibid.
  • The death of the Lord Wentworth. 40
  • Tir-Oen strangleth Gau [...]loc. ibid.
  • He is sent for into England, and pardoned. ibid.
  • Hugh Ro [...]-Mac-Mahon hanged by the Lord Deputy. 41
  • Whereupon Brian O-R [...]cke rebels. ibid.
Anno M.D.XC.I.
  • [Page]THe Queenes care of the French King. Pag. 43
  • She sendeth him aide. 44
  • The conditions and articles that are agreed vpon betweene them ibid.
  • A Proclamation in England against the French Leaguers. ib.
  • Sir Iohn Norris is sent into France. 45
  • La-Noue that famous warriour, dieth of a wound. ibid.
  • Sir Roger Williams behaueth himselfe brauely in the French warres. ibid.
  • Anthony Reaux sent ouer to the Queene. 46
  • He demandeth more ayde from her. ibid.
  • The Queene sendeth ouer into France the Earle of Essex. ib.
  • He is sent for presently to Noyon by the King of France. ib.
  • He knighteth many of his followers, to the great discontent of some of the English. 47
  • He is disappointed of his promise by the French men. ibid.
  • His Brother Walter dieth of a wound at his approach to Roan. ibid.
  • He is sent into Champaigne by the French King. 48
  • The French King breaketh promise with the Queene. ibid.
  • He sends the Earle of Essex ouer into England, to require more aide of the Queene. ibid.
  • Hee sends moreouer the Lord Mourney du-Pleffis, for the same purpose. ibid.
  • The education and behauiour of William Hacket. 49
  • His extraordinary calling, and Reuelations. ibid.
  • His confederates, and who they were. ibid.
  • They all seeke to accuse the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, and the Lord Treasurer of Treason. 50
  • Hackets hatred to the Queene. 51
  • His Disciples sent abroad. 52
  • [Page] They are apprehended. 53
  • Hacket condemned. ibid.
  • His blasphemy at the time of execution. ibid.
  • Coppinger starued himselfe. 54
  • Arthington recants. ibid.
  • The Queens iurisdiction in spirituall matters impugned. ibid.
  • It is defended and maintained. 56
  • Captaine Greenuile in the Reare Admirall called the Reuenge, is assailed. 56
  • He is sorely wounded. 57
  • Greenuile yeelded vpon condition. ibid.
  • The Reuenge suncke. ibid.
  • A requitall for her losse. 58
  • The East-Indie Voyage. ibid.
  • Riman drowned. ibid.
  • Their returne. 59
  • Cauendish his Voyage to the Magellane Streights. ibid▪
  • A Proclamation against transportation of the prouision into Spaine. ibid.
  • The death of Sir Christopher Hatton. 60
  • Brian O-rorke arraigned. 61
  • He is hanged at Tiburne. 62
Anno M.D.XC.II.
  • BOthwell is proclaimed traitour. Pag. 64
  • The Earle of Murray slaine. 66
  • Bothwels attempt at the Court at Falkland. ibid.
  • The zeale of the Ministers in Scotland. ibid.
  • Letters and Blanckes taken by them. 67
  • Sir Iohn Perot questioned. ibid.
  • He is accused. ibid.
  • The Articles of his accusatio [...]. ibid.
  • He is condemned, 68
  • [Page] He dieth in the Tower of a disease. 69
  • His goods are intailed vpon his Sonne. ibid.
  • The Earle of Essex returnes from France. ibid.
  • The K. of France requesteth more aide from the Queene. 70
  • She condiscendeth vpon some conditions. ibid.
  • Captaine Norris is sent ouer. 71
  • The Duke of Parma dieth. ibid.
  • Sir Walter Rawleighs expedition. 72
  • A Portugall Caracke persued by Burrough. ibid.
  • He is assaulted by the English. 73
  • The spoile taken, and the value of it. ibid.
  • The couetousnesse of some English Merchants noted. 74
  • A Proclamation about making of Ordnance. ibid.
  • The Queene going on progresse visiteth the Vniuersity of Ox­ford. ibid.
  • The Thames dried vp. 75
  • A discourse about the reason of it. ibid.
  • The death of Viscount Mountague. 76
  • And of the Lord Scroope. ibid.
  • And of Sir Christopher Wray. ibid.
Anno M.D.XC.III.
  • A Parliament assembled at Westminster. Page 77
  • What Subsidies were granted more then ordinary, and the caution about them. 78
  • The summe of the Queenes speech. ibid.
  • Henry Barow a Sectary, hanged. 79
  • The Queenes care of Scotland. ibid.
  • Her admonition to the King of Scotland. 80
  • The L. Burrough sent ouer to Scotland, on an Embassie. 81
  • What the Queene demanded▪ by him. ibid.
  • What the K. of Scotland answered to the Queens demands. ib.
  • Bothwell being demanded of the Queene by the King of Scot­land, [Page] when he lurked in England, wherefore not deliuered vp to him. 82
  • Bothwell returneth secretly into Scotland. ibid.
  • Hi [...] insolent behauiour there. 83
  • Tumults by him raised in the Court, and the Chancellour thence remooued. ibid.
  • Libels in Germany against the Queene. 84
  • Which the Queene procureth to be called in. ibid.
  • She procureth peace betweene the Turke and the Transiluani­an, and betweene the King of Sweden and the Musco [...]ian. ibid.
  • Captaine Norris his proceeding in Britaine. 85
  • His returne againe into England. ibid.
  • The King of France reconciled to the Church of Rome. ibid.
  • The reasons which he gaue for his conuersion. 86
  • The Queenes Letter written in Latine, which she sent him so soone as she heard thereof. 88
  • A Booke of Boëtius translated by her. 89
  • The French King excuseth his breaking promise with the Queene. ibid.
  • Agreements made betweene the Queene and him. ibid.
  • The Queenes care for the Protestants in France, 90
  • She fortifieth her Islands of Garnsey and Iersey, and sundry other places. 91
  • A great plague in London. ibid.
  • Hesket hanged, and wherefore. ibid.
  • The death of the Earle of Darby. ibid.
  • And of the Earle of Sussex. 92
  • And of the Lord Grey. ibid.
  • And of the Lord Cromwell. ibid.
  • And of the Lord Wentworth. ibid.
  • And of Sir Christopher Carlile. ibid.
  • Complaints of the Irish. ibid.
  • Grudges betweene Tir-Oen and Marshall Bagnall. 93
  • Mac-Guir rebelleth. ibid.
  • [Page] Ineskelline taken. 93
  • Tir-Oen vsurpeth the title of O-Neale. 94
  • Shan O-Neales Sonnes surprized by Tir-Oen. ibid.
Anno M.D.XC.IV.
  • THe Lord Zouch sent Embassador into Scotland. Pag. 96
  • The answer of the King of Scots. 97
  • Bothwell againe rebelleth. ibid.
  • The pretence and cloake of his rebellion. 98
  • Bothwell put to flight. 99
  • The Scotch Papists banished the Realme. ibid.
  • Their plots and new deuices. 100
  • The pretended right of the Infanta to the Crowne of Eng­land. 101
  • Parsons the Iesuite excuseth his Booke of Dolman. 103
  • Prince Henry borne. ibid.
  • Treason against the Queene conspired by Lopez, and others. ibid.
  • Their seuerall confessions. 104
  • The Traitors condemned. ibid.
  • Cullin executed. 105
  • Yorke and Williams apprehended. ibid.
  • The Queene informeth the Spaniard of treason. 106
  • Antonio Perez lurketh in England. ibid.
  • The strength of the Leaguers much impaired. 107
  • Norris sent ouer into Britaine. ibid.
  • Morley taken. ibid.
  • Quinpercorentine taken. 108
  • Crodon assaulted. ibid.
  • It is taken. 109
  • Fourbisher slaine. ibid.
  • Norris recalled. ibid.
  • Hawkins his Nauigations. 110
  • [Page] He reacheth the [...] Streights. 110
  • He is assaulted. 111
  • He yeeldeth vpon condi [...]on, [...] set at liberty. ibid.
  • Lancasters voyage. 112
  • Honour conferred by a forreigne Prince, [...] at home. ibid.
  • The death of Cardinall Allen. 113
  • And of Doctor Piers Archbishop of Yorke. 114
  • And of the Earle of Darby. ibid.
  • Contention about the Isle of Man. 115
  • The death of the Lord [...]. 116
  • And of the Lord E [...]ers, and of the Lord Chandoys, and the Lord Montioy. 117
  • Sir William Russell made Lord Dep [...]y of Ireland. ibid.
  • Tir-Oen submitteth to him. ibid.
  • He is accused by Marshall Bagnall. 118
  • Bu [...] for all that is dismissed. ibid.
  • The Lord Deputy prosecuteth the Rebells. [...]9
  • Tir-Oen bewrayeth his rebellious [...]. ibid.
Anno M.D.XC.V.
  • THe King of Scotland [...] Spa­niard. Page 121
  • Yorke and Williams hanged. 122
  • Warre pro [...]laimed in France against the Spaniard. 123
  • The warre [...] Luxenborough, and [...]iccardy. ibid.
  • Ayde required from England. 124
  • The Queene prouides against the sp [...]ard. ibid.
  • More ayde required [...] England. 125
  • [Page] The Queene acquitteth her selfe of [...] imputations about the taking of Cambra. 125
  • The King of France perswaded to, and disswaded from a peace with the Spaniard. 127
  • Conditions proposed to the King of France by the Pope, and [...]. 128
  • Co [...]nwall inuaded by the Spaniard. ibid.
  • Rawleighs voyage to Guiana. 12 [...]
  • Sir Iohn Hawki [...], and Sir Francis Drakes expedition into America. 130
  • The voiage to Porto-Rico. 131
  • [...] de-la-Hach fired, and [...]. 132
  • [...]. ibid.
  • The death of Sir Francis Drake. ibid.
  • [...]. ibid.
  • [...] distast betweene the Queene [...] Low Countries, the reason of [...]. [...]3
  • Sir Thomas Bodly sent ouer. ibid.
  • His message. ibid.
  • The answer of the [...]. 134
  • Some monies offered in part of paiment. ibid.
  • [...] ibid.
  • Great debating about the matter. 135
  • Conditions proposed by the States to the Queene, what they are. 136
  • The Queene accepteth of them. 137
  • [...]. ibid.
  • The Queenes answere thereunto. ibid.
  • The death of the Earle of Arundell▪ and of the Lord [...], and Sir Thomas [...], and of D. Whitaker. 14 [...]
  • Sir Iohn Norris sent into Ireland. 141
  • Tir-Oen taketh Blackwater. 14 [...]
  • He is proclaimed Traitour. ibid.
  • The strength of the Rebells [...] Ireland. 143
  • [Page] Norris sets forward toward Tir-Oen. 143
  • And the Lord Deputy ioyneth with him. ibid.
  • Tir-Oen lurketh. ibid.
  • Captaine Norris seemeth too much to [...] Tir-Oen. 1 [...]
  • He entertaineth a parley with Tir-Oen▪ 1 [...]
  • Tir-Oens counterfeit submission to Norris. ibid.
  • And of O-donells, and Feagh-Mac-Hugh [...]. 1 [...]
  • A truce made, and the danger of it. ibid.
Anno M.D.XC.VI.
  • SIr Henry Wallop, and Sir Robert Gardner, sent to par­ley with Tir-Oen, O-donell, and the rest of the Rebels, and to heare their grieuances. Page 147
  • The complaints of Tir-Oen, of O donell. 148
  • Of Shan-Mac-Brian, Mac-Phelim, and O-Neale, and [...] others. 149
  • Propositions proposed to the Rebels, they flight [...] reiect them. 150
  • The manner of the truce c [...]ncluded betweene them. ibid.
  • The Queenes opinion of the [...]. 151
  • Tir-Oen dealeth vnder-hand with the Spaniard. ibid.
  • Tir-Oen sendeth Letters of the Spaniards to the Lord Depu­ty. 152
  • He deludeth Captaine Norris and [...] from them a writ of pardon. ibid.
  • The Lord Deputy redu [...]eth O-Maden. ibid.
  • Tir-Oens dissimulation layd open. 154
  • The Lord Deputy pursueth Pheagh-Ma [...]h-Hugh. 155
  • He is slaine by [...]. ibid.
  • His head is sent to [...], and the head of Iames [...]. ib.
  • Callis assaulted by the Arch-Duke of A [...]stria, and [...]. 156
  • The Queene prepareth a Nauie of 140. ships. ibid.
  • The Earle of Essex, and Lord H [...]ard, equall Generals of the [Page] Forces. 157
  • The Prayer of Queene Elizabeth for the Nauie. 158
  • The Nauy sets forward to Cadiz. 159
  • Where it arriues the 20. of Iune. 160
  • Certaine Gallies of the Spaniards withdraw themselues into the open Sea. 161
  • The English Souldiers are set on shoare. ibid.
  • They breake downe Suaco Bridge. ibid.
  • They take the towne. 162
  • They set fire on some Spanish ships. 163
  • No man of note lost in this expedition but Captaine Wing­field. ibid.
  • The names of those that were knighted. 164
  • The English consult what to doe. 165
  • They come to the towne Pharo. ibid.
  • From thence to the [...]. 166
  • They returne home. ibid.
  • How glorious this victory was to the English, how profitable to them, and how hurtfull to the Spaniard. 167
  • Sir Francis Vere made Gouernour of Brill. 168
  • Which the Earle of Essex taketh very ill, but worse the choice of Sir Robert Cecill to be the Queenes Secretary, he hauing appointed Sir Tho. Bodley for that place. ibid.
  • The Spaniard prouides a new Fleet. ibid.
  • The greatest part whereof cast away. 169
  • Queene Elizabeth fortifies the shoare, she entreth into a new League with the French King. ibid.
  • Which they both sweare to. 170
  • The King of France made Knight of the Garter. 171
  • Counterfeit Pur [...]euants and Apparators punished. ibid.
  • Thomas Arundell Count of the sacred Empire. 172
  • The question discussed, whether a Subiect be to admit of the honour which is conferred on him by a forreigne Prince. ibid.
  • Such honours not to be admitted. 173
  • [Page] Counts and Viscounts, such as some Officers in the Court of Rome. 174
  • Count-Palatines, and who boasted themselues so to be. ibid.
  • The Queenes iudgement on that question. ibid.
  • The death of Sir Iohn Puckering, and of Richard Fletcher Bishop of London, and of the Lord Hunsdon, and Sir Francis Knolles. 175
  • The death of the Earle of Huntington, and of the Countesse of Darby. 176
Anno M.D.XC.VII.
  • THe battle of Tournhalt in Brabant. Page 177
  • The Queene furnisheth a Nauy to surprize the Spanish Nauy at Azores, returning from the Indies. 178
  • Sir Walter Rawleigh lands at Faiall. 181
  • He takes the towne. 182
  • The Earle of Essex angry for his landing. ibid.
  • Rawleigh defendeth himselfe, and at last is receiued into fa­uour againe. 183
  • The Islands Gratiosa and Flores yeeld to the Earle of Essex. ibid.
  • Villa Franca taken. 185
  • An Indian Caracke burnt. ibid.
  • The English Fleet returneth. ibid.
  • The Spanish Nauy dispersed. 186
  • Grudges betweene the Earle of Essex, and Sir Walter Raw­leigh, and betwixt the Earle of Essex, and Sir Robert Ce­cill. ibid.
  • Essex discontented at the Titles giuen to the Lord Admirall, whereupon the Queene makes him Earle Marshall of Eng­land. 187
  • [Page] Pa [...]l [...]s D'l'ali [...]e sent Embassadour from the King of Poland. 187
  • His Oration to the Queene, full of contempt. The Queenes so­daine answer made him in Latine. 188
  • The Queene le [...]es him, and answereth him by her Councellors afterwards. 189
  • The Merchant Aduenturers are forbidden traffiquing in Germany. 190
  • And those of the Hanse-townes, here in England. 191
  • The Embassie of Sir George Carew into Poland. ibid.
  • What he effecteth with those of Dantsicke. 192
  • And with the Polacke. ibid.
  • And with those of Elbing. ibid.
  • An Embassadour from Christian the fourth King of Den­marke. ibid.
  • The King of France requesteth aide from the Queene. 193
  • He recouereth Amiens. 194
  • The King of Spaine enclineth to a peace. 195
  • A Parliament assembled in England. ibid.
  • The Lord De-la-ware restored to his old place. 196
  • And also Thomas Lord Howard of Walden. 197
  • The death of the Lord Cobham. ibid.
  • And of W. Powlet Marquesse of Winchester. ibid.
  • The Lord Burrough made Deputy of Ireland. ibid.
  • Captaine Norris dyeth. 198
  • The Lord Deputy winnes the Fort at Blackwater. 199
  • The Earle of Kildare dyeth. ibid.
  • The Rebels besiege Blackwater Fort. ibid.
  • The Lord Deputy dyeth. ibid.
  • Iustices appointed in Ireland in the meane time. 200
  • Tir-Oen presents his grieuances to the Earle of Ormond, now Lieutenant of Ireland. ibid.
  • [Page]THe King of France would mediate for a peace betweene the Queene of England, and the Spaniard. Page 202
  • Embassadours sent ouer about that businesse. 203
  • Cecill Secretary to the Queene, sent ouer to France. ibid.
  • He ouertaketh the King of France at Andes. ibid.
  • The resolution of the King of France about warre. 204
  • Cecils answere in the behalfe of the Queene. ibid.
  • The Kings reply, and promise to conclude a peace shortly for the benefit of both [...]ingdomes. ibid.
  • But hee dealeth vnder hand with the Arch-Duke about the said peace; whereupon some expostulations past betweene him and the Queene. 205
  • Barneuelts Oration before the French in the behalfe of the E­states of the Low Countries. ibid.
  • A difference between Secretary Cecil, and some of the French, whereupon he is dismissed with faire words onely. 207
  • Sir Thomas Edmonds thereupon is sent ouer by the Queene with Letters, which the French King t [...]ke not very plea­santly. ibid.
  • The King of France stands sto [...]tly for the Queen in the Trea­tie at Veruins. 208
  • The order of Session amongst the Delegates. ibid.
  • The French take exceptions, that in the peace there was no mention of the Queene of England. 210
  • The Queene hath a care of her own [...] estate. ibid.
  • A disceptation about a peace with the Spaniard. ibid.
  • The reasons which were collected for peace. 211
  • The reasons that were collected against it. 213
  • The reply of those that stood for a peace. 215
  • Burghley Lord Treasurer, particularly for the peace. 217
  • The Earle of Essex much against it. ibid.
  • [Page] Whereupon he writes and publisheth his Apologie. 218
  • A kinde of contention betweene the Queene and the Earle of Essex. ibid.
  • The Earle behaues himselfe somewhat irreuerently before the Queene. 219
  • Her distast thereat. ibid.
  • His answeres full of indignation to those that gaue him good aduice or counsell. ibid.
  • The death of the Lord Burghley Treasurer of England. 220
  • His Natiuity and kindred, his education, he was Master of Requests, and Secretary to King Edward, he began to re­taine vnder Queene Elizabeth. 221
  • He is made Baron, and Treasurer of England, and Knight of the Garter. 222
  • His Issue. ibid.
  • New articles of agreement between the States and the Queene. 223
  • Sir Thomas Bodley of Councell for the Estates, he restored the publique Library of Oxford, first instituted by Hum­phrey Duke of Gloucester. 224
  • The Lord Zouch, and Christopher Perkins, sent ouer into Denmarke, by reason of some contention betweene the Danes and the English. 225
  • Isabella Daughter to Philip King of Spaine, betrothed to Al­bert of Austria. ibid.
  • The death of the King of Spaine, being aboue seuenty yeares of age. ibid.
  • Three places which he was w [...]nt to call the Keyes of the King­dome of Spaine. ibid.
  • George Clifford Earle of Cumberland returnes home from Sea. He tooke Porto-Rico, and other places; but continu­ed not there, by reason of a disease that happened amongst his Souldiers. 226
  • The treason of Edward Squire discouered; the proceedings therein; he is instigated to it by Walpole a Iesuite; he be­dawbes [Page] the pummell of the Queen [...] Saddle with poison, but to no purpose. He besmeared a Chaire of the Earle of Essex's with poison, but to no more purpose. 227
  • He is questioned, and confesseth all, and is hanged. 228
  • Rumors scattered abroad against the K. of Scots. ibid.
  • Especially by one Valentine Thomas, at the time of his execu­tion. 229
  • The Queenes admonition to the King of Scots, in behalfe of this businesse. ibid.
  • Bookes written in the behalfe of the K. of Scots. ibid.
  • The Contents of those Books about the course of kingdomes. 230
  • The K. himselfe writeth his Booke called Basilicon-doron. 231
  • The affection of the Queene towards good studies. ibid.
  • Bookes that she her selfe translated. ibid.
  • The death of D. Stapleton Professour at Doway. ibid.
  • And of D. Cosins Deane of the Arches. ibid.
  • The death of Edmund Spencer the Arch-Poet; his buriall at the cost and charges of the Earle of Essex. 232
  • Black-water Fort in Ireland besieged by the Reb [...]ls. ibid.
  • The English hau [...] the worst of it, in a battle. ibid.
  • The Fort not long after yeelded vp to the Rebels. 233
  • All the Prouince of Mounster reuolts from the Queene. ibid.
  • Protections hurtfull to the Common-wealth. 234
  • Mounster all spoil [...]d and hauockt by the Rebels. ibid.
  • Tir-Oens brags of his successe and victory. ibid.
  • Sir Richard Bingham sent ouer againe into Ireland. 235
  • Who died there, presently after his arriuall. ibid.
Anno M.D.XC.IX.
  • A Great consultation in England, about the choice of a new Lord Deputy to be sent into Ireland. Pag. 237
  • The Earle of Essex secretly desires it himselfe. ibid.
  • He is at length made Lord Deputy of Ireland. 238
  • [Page] An army allotted him, and the number, the greatest that Ire­land euer saw. 238
  • The summe of his Commission. His departure. ibid.
  • He marcheth to Mounster against some petty Rebels, and neg­lects the tenour of his Commission. ibid.
  • The Queene takes it vnkindly, and he as much, the making of Sir Robert Cecill Master of the Wards, an Office which he himselfe expected. 240
  • The Earle excuses the fault, and laies it on the Irish Councell. ibid.
  • Sir Coniers Clifford sets forward against the Rebells. ibid.
  • He is slaine in the battell, with Sir Alexander Ratcliffe. 241
  • A fresh supply sent ouer from England into Ireland. ibid.
  • Tir-Oen desires a Parly of the Earle of Essex. ibid.
  • Which is at last condiscended vnto, at Balla-Clinch Riuers Foord. ibid.
  • Tir-Oen and the Earle of Essex talke together almost an houre. 242
  • Tir-Oen desires to haue another conference with the Earle of Essex. ibid.
  • Whereupon a truce is made for sixe weekes. ibid.
  • Whereat the Queene is angry with the Lord Deputy. ibid.
  • She sends letters to him, and to the Councell of Ireland. 243
  • The Earle of Essex much discontented at the letters. ibid.
  • His secret plots to take some vnlawfull course to subdue his e­nemies at Court. 244
  • An army of 6000. men mustered in London; halfe whereof lay at watch and ward for the safety of the Queene. ibid.
  • The Earle of Essex makes an vnexpected returne into Eng­land, with some few followers. ibid.
  • He comes and kneeles before the Queene at None-such. 245
  • He is committed to custody in the Lord Keepers house. 246
  • He endeauoures to remooue the suspition of ill that was con­ceiued of him by reason of his sodaine returne. ibid.
  • When some would haue freed him by force out of custody hee [Page] would not agree to it. 247
  • The Truce broken in Ireland by Tir-Oen, in the Earles ab­sence. ibid.
  • The proud answere, and the reason thereof. ibid.
  • Tir-Oen behaues himselfe very proudly. 248
  • The feather of a Phoenix sent him from the Pope. ibid.
  • The Lord Keeper of the Seale laies open the cause of the Earle of Essex in the Starre-Chamber, to appease the people; and the Lord Treasurer, and the Lord Admirall, and Secretary Cecill. 249
  • The Earle of Essex wholly deuoted to prayer and godly medi­tation. 251
  • A peace betweene Spaine and England proposed. ibid.
  • The Spanish Gallies arriue at Flanders. 252
  • Charles King of Swethland sends ouer to excuse himselfe to the Queene of England. ibid.
  • The death of Richard Hooker. 253
Anno M.DC.
  • TItles to Crowne-Land confirmed by the Queene. 154
  • A Proclamation that no gold or siluer should be carried out of the Kingdome. 255
  • Tir-Oen conferreth honours vpon his followers. ibid.
  • Mac-Guir and Warrham Saint Leger are slaine. ibid.
  • Charles Blunt, Lord Montioy made Deputy of Ireland: who arriued there in the very midest of winter. ibid.
  • The Pope of Rome encourageth the Rebells of Ireland with his iudulgence and generall pardon. 256
  • The forme and manner of it. ibid.
  • The Rebells sound an Alarme in the very suburbs of Dublin. The Deputy neglects them, and onely sets forward after Tir-Oen. 257
  • But Tir-Oen preuents him. ibid.
  • [Page] The Deputy sends a Garrison to Vlster. 257
  • The Citie of Derry is fortified, and Tir-Oen repulsed. 258
  • Ony-Mac-Mory-Og, the chiefe of the Family of O-More, is slaine. ibid.
  • The Lord Deputy sets forwards againe towards Vlster. 259
  • He breaketh through many difficulties. ibid.
  • Mont-Norris Fort erected. ibid.
  • Henry Docwray chaseth the Rebels. ibid.
  • The Lord Deputy Montioy restraineth the furie of the Rebels in the Prouince of Leinster. 260
  • After that he returnes againe to Vlster. ibid.
  • The exploits of Sir George Carew President of Vlster, and what he did in that Prouince. 261
  • A new proposall of a peace with Spaine againe. ibid.
  • Vpon what hopes this peace was propounded. 262
  • Bononia, or Bolonia, the place appointed for the Treaty. 263
  • Obseruations about the precedency of the kingdomes of Spaine, England, and France. ibid.
  • Peeres designed for the Queenes part. 264
  • The instructions of the English for the Queenes honour. ibid.
  • Exceptions taken on both sides concerning some tearmes in the Commissions of the Delegates. 265
  • The title of Most Illustrious canuased. ibid.
  • The English challenge for the Queene the first place. 274
  • The Spaniards will not yeeld them place equall with them. ibid.
  • New instructions to the English from the Queene. 275
  • The complaint of the Archduke about the Queenes succouring the Hollanders, in the time of Truce, answered. 276
  • By reason of Priority or Equality denied to the Queene, the Treaty breakes off very abruptly, after it had continued three moneths. 277
  • The battle at Newport, with the rest of the proceedings there. 278
  • Sir Francis Vere wounded in the leg, and the thigh, and his Horse slaine vnder him. 280
  • [Page] They that were taken of the enemy; they that were wounded; and the Englishmens names that best deserued in the battle▪ 281
  • Contentions betwixt the English & French about prizes. ibid.
  • The matter of agreement betweene both parties. 282
  • Contentions betweene the English and the Danes concerning Traffique, and Fishing. 283
  • The English complaine of the exacti [...]n of tribute for passing the Sound; the Danish Delegates depart for want of victuals. 285
  • Two Breefes sent priuately by the Pope against the K. of Scots, nex [...] Heire to the Crowne of England. ibid.
  • The treason intended by the Ruthwens, the Brothers of Earle Gowry. 286
  • Great complaint in England for the scarsity of Corne. ibid.
  • The Earle of Essex commanded to keepe his house. 287
  • He appeares before the Lords Commissioners. ibid.
  • The Earle makes answere for himselfe. 288
  • The L. Keeper interrupts the Earle in his answere. 289
  • Great hopes of the Earles liberty, collected from the Queenes naturall inclination to mercy. 290
  • As also from the noblenesse & vertuous disposition of the heart of Essex himselfe. ibid.
  • Considerations in what course of life the Earle was best to im­ploy himselfe. 292
  • Great humblenesse of minde in the Earle of Essex. 293
  • The Earles message to the Queene full of humility. ibid.
  • The Queenes answere in words she would often vse. 294
  • Cu [...]e gets accesse to the Earle of Essex. ibid.
  • But the Earle is yet deafe to his bad counsell. ibid.
  • The Queen will not yeeld to Essex's petition. 295
  • Whereat the Earle grew much discontented. ibid.
  • And now begins to hearken to ill counsell. ibid.
  • He keepes open entertainment for all commers. 296
  • The death of Roger Lord North. ibid.
Anno M.DC.I.
  • [Page]EMbassadours sent from Ma [...]ritania and Russia. Pag. 297
  • Diuers Princes resort to visite the Qu [...]ne. ibid.
  • The Earle of Essex quite deafe to any good aduice. 298
  • He is m [...]re and more enraged, but especially for the Earle of Southamptons bei [...]g assa [...]l [...]ed by the Lord Grey in the o­pen street. 299
  • He e [...]deauoureth to draw the King of Scots to his party. ibid.
  • The Earle of Southampton, Sir Charles Dauers, Sir Ferdi­nando Gorge, Sir Iohn Dauis, and Iohn Littleton, made priuy to the Earle of Essex secret plots and purp [...]ses. 300
  • Their meeting in Drewry house the things proposed there: the concl [...]si [...]n of surprizing the Court. 301
  • Whereupon suspition is daily encreased of the Earles loyalty. ibid.
  • And the Earl [...] him [...]elfe, sent for to the Lord Treasurers. 302
  • B [...]t he excus [...]h himselfe by reason of ill health, and went not. ibid.
  • He beginneth to conceiue new plots. ibid.
  • A great multitude of people assemble about Essex house. 303
  • Some Lords of the Co [...]ncell sent to know the reason. 304
  • The Earle of Essex his complaint to them. ibid.
  • The open clamors of the multitude to kill the Councellours. 305
  • The Lords are lockt vp in Essex house. ibid.
  • The Earle himselfe entreth London, to the Sheriffes- [...]use. 306
  • He is presently proclaimed Traitor. ibid.
  • He thinkes which way to returne home againe. 307
  • Sir Ferdinando Gorge sets the Lords of the priuy Councell free. ibid.
  • A conflict neere the Bishop of Londons Palace. ibid.
  • [Page] The Earle takes b [...]at at Queene-hith, and f [...]rtifies his house. 308
  • The Earle of Essex commanded to yeeld, will not, but vpon some conditions. ibid.
  • The Admirall will giue none. ibid.
  • Tbe Earle determineth to issue forth vpon them. ibid.
  • But vpon better aduice begins to thinke of yeelding. 309
  • They all yeeld themselues vp to my Lord Admirall. ibid.
  • The Earles of Essex and Southampton imprisoned. ibid.
  • The care of the Citizens highly commended by the Queene in a Proclamation. 310
  • Thomas Lee taken, and executed at Tiburne. ibid.
  • A Proclamation against [...] and R [...]n-awaies. 311
  • The plots of the Conspirators are detected. ibid.
  • The Earles of Essex and Southampton arraigned. ibid.
  • The principall heads of their Inditements. ibid.
  • Laid open at length by the Queens Lawyers, [...] Yeluer­ton, and Sir Edward Coke. 312
  • The Earle of Essex's reply. 313
  • He excuseth his iniuries done to the Lords of the Councell. 314
  • The layes open the iniuries done to himselfe. ibid
  • He extenuates the testimony of Sir Ferdinando Gorge. 315
  • The Earle of Southampton defends his own [...] cau [...]e. ibid.
  • Certaine cases propounded to the Iudges. 316
  • The Earle of Essex much accuseth his aduer [...]aries. ibid.
  • Sir Francis Bacon remoues the accusation. ibid.
  • The Earle of Essex interrupteth him in his speech, and accu­seth Secretary Cecill. 317
  • Cecill comes forth out of a little Closet, where he stood to an­swer to the Earles obiections. ibid
  • His speech to the Earle of Essex. ibid.
  • The Lord Knolles sent for to the Iudges to decide the matter. 318
  • Cecill inueigheth against the Earle of Essex. ibid.
  • Southampton againe excuseth himselfe. ibid.
  • [Page] Th [...] Iudges opinion concerning the protestation of both the Earles. 319
  • The Earles are both found guilty of treason by the Peeres. 320
  • The Earle of Essex's speech at the pronunciation of sentence. ibid.
  • The sentence pronounced both against the Earle of Essex, and Southampton. 321
  • Others also are arraigned about that businesse. ibid.
  • The Earle of Essex desires to speake with some of the Lords of the pri [...]y C [...]cell. 322
  • He accuseth Cuffe as the author of all his treachery. 323
  • The Earle reueals more that knew of the conspiracy. ibid.
  • He is brought out to executiou in the Tower yard. 324
  • He is beheaded. 325
  • His commendation▪ his stocke, and Ancestors. 326
  • His Wife, and Issue. 327
  • Blunt, Danuers, Dauis, Mericke, and Cuffe arraigned. ibid.
  • Blunt's examination, and what he confessed. 328
  • Danuers, what he answered for himselfe. 329
  • And Dauis for himselfe. ibid.
  • The arraignment of Cuffe, with the particulars thereof. 330
  • Cuffe, what he a [...]swered for himselfe. 331
  • The arraignment of Sir Gill. Mericke, with the particulars thereof. 332
  • What Sir Gill. Mericke said for himselfe. ibid.
  • Sir Christopher Blunt, and Charles Danuers request to be beheaded. ibid.
  • Cuffes execution at Tiburne, and his confession there. 333
  • Merickes execution there also. 334
  • Blunt, and Danuers beheaded on Tower-hill. ibid.
  • The confession of Sir Christopher Blunt. 335
  • Sir Henry Neuill committed vpon suspition. 336
  • The punishment of Daniel an Impostor of the Earle of Essex's Letters. 337
  • The Queenes answere to the Embassadors of Scotland. ibid.
  • [Page] Gallies first prepared. 339
  • The States thinke how to subdue Flanders. ibid.
  • They are preuented by the Arch-Duke. ibid.
  • Sir Francis Vere made Gouer [...]our of Ostend. 340
  • The description and scituation of Ostend. ibid.
  • A parley with the Archduke about yeelding of Ostend. 341
  • Vere being supplied with prouision, breakes it off. ibid.
  • He resigneth vp his Office into the hands of the States. 343
  • The chiefest Englishmen that died at the Siege. ibid.
  • Marshall Birone sent ouer into England. 344
  • A Parliament assembled at Westminster. ibid.
  • Monopolies restrained. 345
  • The Queenes speech to some of the Lower House about them. ibid.
  • The death of the Earle of P [...]mbroke. 346
  • And of the Lord Norris. ibid.
  • And of the Lord Willoughby. 347
  • A Proclamation against transporting mony into Ireland. ibid.
  • Deliberation about altering the Coine in Ireland. ibid.
  • The Souldiers pay altered without any t [...]mult or mutiny. 348
  • The Lord Deputy sets on towards the Rebels. ibid.
  • And Sir Henry Docwray in other parts. 349
  • The English surprize Donegall Monastery. ibid.
  • Rumors concerning the approaching of the Spaniard at Mun­ster, drawes the Lord Deputy back [...] againe. 350
  • Ballashanon is seized on. ibid.
  • President Carew surprizeth the titular Earle of Desmond, and send both him and Florence Mac-Carty ouer into Eng­land 351
  • He makes preparation against the Spaniard. ibid.
  • He informeth the Lord Deputy of the affaires. 352
  • A consultation whether or no the Deputy sho [...]ld enter Moun­ster without his Forces. ibid.
  • The Spanish Forces land in Ireland. ibid.
  • The reasons of their comming published. 353
  • [Page] The English beset them. 353
  • The Spaniards driuen out from Rincurran Castle. ibid.
  • Tir-Oen commeth into Mounster. 354
  • The Rebels determine to bring their Forces int [...] the towne. 355
  • The English hinder them. ibid.
  • The Rebels retire: and the E [...]glish persue them. ibid.
  • An earthquake in London the 24. of December. 356
  • The Rebels p [...]t to flight. ibid.
  • The commodities of that victory. 357
  • The Spaniards desire a parley. ibid.
  • Articles about their yeelding. 358
  • They depart out of Ireland. ibid.
Anno M.DC.II.
  • DVnboy Castle assaulted by the President. 360
  • The Rebels reduced into order. ibid.
  • Bishop O-Hegan slaine. 361
  • A Nauy dispatcht to the Spanish sh [...]re. ibid.
  • The Gal [...]ies and Carackes set vpon in the Hauen of Cezimbra. ibid.
  • A Caracke and Gallies are set vpon. 362
  • The Gallies are put to flight. ibid.
  • Some of them taken. ibid.
  • A parley. ibid.
  • They yeeld. 363
  • The r [...]st of the Gallies are for Flanders. ibid.
  • They light vpon the Queenes ships. 364
  • They skirmish. ibid.
  • Their Gallies vanquished. 365
  • A treaty at Bremen with the Danes. ibid.
  • They complaine of too much Tribute paid for passing the Sounds. ibid.
  • [Page] Their demands. 365.
  • A controuersie discussed about the freenesse of the Sea. 366
  • The treaty breakes. 367
  • Disagreements betweene the Iesuites and Secular Priests. 368
  • See Watsons Quodlibets of State. 369
  • Iesuites and Secular Priests banished. 370
  • Marshall Birone beheaded. 371
  • The French King complaines of the Duke of Bullen. ibid.
  • He askes Queene Elizabeths counsell what he should doe with him. ibid.
  • The Queenes answere. 372
  • The French Kings reply. 373
  • The opinion of others concerning this matter. ibid.
  • Geneua relieued. 374
  • The death of Alexander Nowell. ibid.
  • Tir-Oen feares both his owne power and his Armies. 375
  • The Deputy persues him. ibid.
  • He builds Charlemont. ibid.
  • And Fort Montioy. 376
  • Docwray chaseth the Rebels. ibid.
  • Yet he is slightly regarded. ibid.
  • More of the Rebels submit themselues. 377
  • Tir-Oen craues pardon. ibid.
Anno M.DC.III.
  • TIr-Oen absol [...]tely submits himselfe. 378
  • The Queene fals sicke. 380
  • In the Kings Preface to the Reader in his Basilicon Doron. 384

THE LIFE AND REIGNE OF THE most famous Princesse ELIZABETH;An. Dom. 1589. With a memoriall of the chiefest matters and affayres of the States of England, Scotland, France and Ireland: and sundry other occurrences of the affayres of most part of Christendome: Which haue happened since the fatall Spanish Inuasion, to the tim [...] of her Dissolution.

AFTER that so vnexpected a successe had blasted the glory of the Spanish Inuasion, They to [...]alue their woun­ded honour▪ and to forestall in the En­glish the very thought of th [...] like in­uasion, begin now to prosecute their foreintended purpose of wounding and molesting the peace of England, The practi­ses of the Spa­niard in Scot­land against England. by the hands of her neighbour Scotland. To which purpose, the industrious villany of Robert Bruce, a Priest, with Creicton and Hay, Ie­suites working vpon the distempered Religion of the Earles [Page 2] of Huntley, Arrolle, Crawford and Bothwell (a man as fickle as his fortune, but yet the naturall sonne of Iohn Prior of Coldingham, the sonne of Iames the fifth King of Scotland) easily perswaded them into a strong mutiny. The drift and scope of their purpose was, that hauing surprised the King, they might make way for some forreigne forces to restore the decaying Romish Religion to its former perfection, and then to assayle England, in reuenge of the death of the Queene of Scots. The pretences whereby they drew the facil dis­position of the comminalty into a fauouring and following of the businesse, were, That the king was against his will constrayned to the custody of Maitland the Chancellour, and some others of the English faction; That the English men flesht, as it were, with the safe and vnreuenged death of the Queene of Scots, had now made themselues ready, e­uen to roote out the whole Scottish nobility; and that they, at the request of the King himselfe, had put themselues thus in armes to rescue Him from the strictnesse of his custody, and the Realme from ruine.A mutinie in Scotland. The King (hauing beene gone a hunting, and certified by many messengers vpon one and the same day, that on the one side Bothwell, was neere at hand with a troope of Borderers; and that Huntley and the rest, came marching towards him from the Northerne quarters, with a compleat army) by his Proclamation to and for the same purpose, declares them all Traytors; and sendeth out a presse amongst his loyall Subiects, excepting none but those whom, eyther by reason of defect of sixteene yeeres, or ex­cesse aboue threescore, not his clemency so much, as Nature exempted from seruice. Heereupon Bothwell discomfited for the very feare of an ouerthrow, forsakes his courage (as his complices did him) and betakes himselfe to his places of re­tire; But the Earle of Huntely still keepeth on his march, and by the way surpriseth Glamise, an old enemy of his, and Captaine of the Kings Guard.

The Queene of Englands discretion entertayning a iea­lous [Page 3] thought, that her owne Kingdome would share in the dolefull effects of those mischiefes that Scotland hatched,Allayed by the Queene. left nothing vnattempted which the forcible argument eyther of money or reason could effect, to spurre on the King of Scots to an immature crushing of this Spanish policy, which notwithstanding the ripenesse of his owne iudgement had already prompted him to. For being as wary to preuent, as skilfull to foreknow the storme that might follow, hee pre­sently sets forward towards Huntley. But he, whether out of a guilty feare of Maiesty imprinted in the heart of rebellion, or out of some politique distrust of his owne, or his compli­ces ability, hauing marched on as farre as Dee-bridge, no sooner vnderstood of the approach of the Kings forces, but dismissing Glamise, he betakes himselfe to the deceitfull secu­rity of his owne dwellings amongst the ragged hilles at Strathbolgie. Thither when the King (more eager of the chase, then carefull either of his age or Person, vnacquainted with labour, want and such course entertainment as those sharpe climates affoorded) had narrowly pursued him: first the Earle tendred a submission vpon the condition of safety both of life and goods; but afterwards, hee wholly and ab­solutely yeelded vp himselfe to the pleasure of the King: who at the first indeed, vouchsafing him not so much as the curtesie of conference straightway committed him to prison; but not long after released him, both from his punishment and his offence, neither only pardoned he him, but extended the same mercy to euery one of his complices, whose sober discretion could so farre dispense with their proud ambition, as to petition for it.

The same moneth that these affayres went thus harshly with the Spaniards fauorites in Scotland, was Philip Howard Earle of Arundel, The Earle of Arundel ar­raigned. now after three yeeres imprisonment in the Tower, for suspition of too good affection to the Spani­ard, arraigned at Westminster Hall, before Henry Earle of Darby, appointed Lord High Steward of England, for this [Page 4] matter, and the rest of his Peeres: William Cecil, Lord Burgheley, Hi [...] Peeres. High Treasurer of England, William Marquesse of Winchester, Edward Earle of Oxford Lord High Cham­berlayne of England, Henry Earle of Kent, Henry Earle of Sussex, Henry Earle of Pembrooke, Edward Earle of Hart­ford, Henry Earle of Lincolne: The Lord Hunsdon, The Lord Willoughby of Eresby, The Lord Morley, The Lord Cobham, The Lord Gray, The Lord Darcy of the North, The Lord Sands, The Lord Wentworth, The Lord Rich, The Lord Willoughby of Parrham, The Lord North, The Lord Saint-Iohns of Bletso, The Lord Buckhurst, The Lord La-ware, and the Lord Norrice.

The Earle being commanded to lift vp his hand, lift vp both that, and his voyce in these words: Beh [...]ld a hand cleare, and a minde syncere. The principall heads whereof hee was accused were:

First, that he was of too intimate acquaintance with Car­dinall Allan, Parsons the Iesuite,The heads of his accusati­on or indite­ment. and other Traytors, who lay in continuall wayt for the destruction both of Prince and people; and who by exciting both Forrayners abroad, and Naturall Subiects at home, plotted the reducement of the Romish Religion to its ancient vigour.

Secondly, that in letters sent by Weston, otherwise Burges, a Priest, he had ingaged his promise to the sayd Cardinall, for the promotion of the Catholique cause, and to that intent would secretly haue conueyed himselfe out of the Realme.

Thirdly, that he was priuy to the Bull of Sixtus Quintus Bishop of Rome, whereby the Queene her selfe was depo­sed, and her kingdomes bequeathed to the inuasion of the Spaniard.

Fourthly, that in the time of his imprisonment in the Tower of London, he caused Masse to be sayd for the pros­perous successe of the Spanish Fleet; and that hee himselfe had vsed diuers peculiar prayers to the same purpose.

Then being demanded whether he were guilty or not, he [Page 5] requires his fourefold ac [...]usation with a fourefold interroga­tion of the Iudges: as

First, wh [...]ther it were l [...]wfull to wrap and knead vp so many particular offences in one Inditement?

To whom they answered it lawfull.

Secondly,His demands of the Iudges. whether Coniecturall Arguments were of force or no, to convince a truth?

To whom they answered it lawfull for him to interpose exception against them.

Thirdly, whether they could lustly accuse him of things that were made treason in the thirteenth yeare of the Queene, now, after the time alotted in the very law?

To whom they promised no proceeding against, but out of the old law for treason, enacted by King Edward the third.

Lastly, he demanded whether that were a formall Indite­ment, which erred both in time and place?

To whom they returned the thing what▪ and not so much the time when, or the place where to be chiefely to be consi­dered. Then being demanded againe whether he were guil­tie or no, he pleaded not guiltie, submitting his cause to God and the iudgement of his Peeres; requesting withall, that the weakenesse of his memorie much impayred by the great indisposition of his bodie, and the long time of his imprison­ment might occasion no harme or disaduantage vnto him, [...]f he should by chance falter in such multiplicitie of matter.

Sergeant Puckering dilating vpon the former part of the Inditement, declares vnto them how that Cardinall Allan with other Iesuites had deuised and sought to accomplish plots mischieuous both to Prince and people, for which cause the said Cardinall was banisht the Realme; yet notwithstan­ding that the Earle maintained an intercourse of letters with him still, in some whereof he assured him of his vtmost indeauour for promoting the Catholique cause, which words he argued could admit of no milder exposition, than an inua­sion of England. The Earle made answere that by promo­ting [Page 6] the Catholique cause, he meant not the subuersion of the Realme, as they fancied, but onely the conuersion of as many Proselites as he could. The Queenes Atturney Popham vr­geth against this, the confessions of Sauage, Throgmorton, and Babington, out of which hee made his illation, that by those words the Earle meant an inuasion of England by force of armes.

Soutl [...]worth, Sergeant at Law hauing alleadged the Sta­tutes lately made against Iesuites and Seminary Priests, be­gins to vnfold the secret mischieuous purposes of sending Ie­suites ouer into England; concluding them to bee Traytors from a testimonie taken from the Earles owne mouth, who when Val [...]ngers case about the Libell was tried in the Starre­chamber, openly affirmed, that he that was throughly a Papist must needes bee a Traytor, aggrauating the matter with these circumstances be [...]ides, that the Earle had entertained such men notwithstanding into his familiar acquaintance, and that also he had reconciled himselfe to the Romane Church, and tendred obedience to that See.

This reconcilement the Earle earnestly denied, beseech­ing them that testimonie might be produced for confirmati­on: but they produced none but himselfe, who hauing for­merly granted them, that he had beene confessed his sinnes by Burges the Priest, gaue them occasion to vse this argument against him; he that is admitted to the vse of the Sacraments of the Church of Rome must first be reconciled to that Church: but he had beene admitted by Gratley, a Priest to the vse of the Sacraments of the Church of Rome; and there­fore they concluded his re [...]oncilement.

Heere Popham with as great vehemency of words, as mul­tip [...]icitie of matter, argueth his reconcilement, from his owne letters, from his resolution to depart the Realme, and from his continuall being thus at the Cardinals becke, thence con­cluding him guilty of treason, and afterwards producing let­ters of Gratley and Morgan to the Queene of Scots, taxed [Page 7] him as if he professed the Romish religion, not out of consci­ence, but as a colour for his discontents if they should chance to break out into open rebellion. After all this was produced a little picture foūd in the Earls casket on the one side wher­of was a handshaking a Serpent into the fire, with this inscri­ption, Si Deus n [...]biscum, quis contra nos, that is, If God be with vs, wh [...] can be against vs? On the other side a Lion rampant with his tallents cut off, but this motto, Tamen leo, that is, I am yet a Lion. To this he add [...]d that the Cardin [...]l [...] exhor­tation to the contrary diuerte [...] his [...]esolution of departing the Realme, alledging that hee might doe the Church of Rome better seruice at home, than he [...]. Like­wise that in a letter sent the Queene he had bitterly traduced and sorely calumniated the legall proceeding of the Realme, especially in the sentence of death both of his [...] and Grandfather, that the Queene of Scots had commended him to Bibington as a fit man to be the Chiefe Heade of all Catho­liques. That Cardinall Allan plainely intimated, that the Popes B [...]ll was procured by the meanes of a Great man in Eng­land, wh [...] must necessarily be the Earle himselfe, since none of all the nobilitie was guilty of that familiaritie with him, which the Earle by letters daily increased and augmented. Then were read the confessions of William and Margaret brother and sister to the Earle. Likewise some of his owne letters which he wrote, when he resolued a departure of the Realme, euery one magnifying euen to admiration the cle­mencie of the Queene, who at that time qualified his offence of treas [...]n with a triuiall imputation of a bare contempt only.

To these things the Ear [...]e heere and there mingled an an­swer;The Earles Answer. as that the picture was a small ordinary trifle, and the gift of one of his seruants. That indeed he assured Cardinall Allan of the extremity of his indeuours, but yet neither a­gainst Prince nor people. That whatsoeuer he had formerly written concerning the iudgement pronounced either against his Father or Grandfather, the Chronicle was better able to [Page 8] [...]

Then were read certaine letters of the Cardinall Allan to the Queene of S [...]ots, and others of the Bishops of Rosse since the time of his intended flight concerning a fresh inua­sion of England. After that the Bull also of Sixtus Quintus, and many sentences gleaned out of the Cardinals admoniti­ons to his Countre [...] men in England the yeere before prin­ted at Antwerpe. The Title also of Philip Duke of Norfolke found in some scattered papers was layd to his charge, by reason indeed that the Cardinall not long since, had exhor­ted him to vse a Higher Title; and a [...]l this, to prooue him guilty of Treason before his imprisonment.

But Egerton the Queenes Sollicitor hauing compendi­ously collated all the premisses, doth vndertake to conuince the Earle of Treason likewise since his imprisonment, and that at three seuerall times; as first, before the Spanish Na­uie came, by wishing a fortunate successe vnto it; then at the very time of the Nauies comming, by causing Seruices, Prayers, and the Masse of the Holy Ghost, to be sayd full foure and twenty houres without respite for the prosperity there­of: and lastly, at the time of its shamefull flight, by more then ordinary griefe bewayling the misery of so vnexpected for­tune. The testimonies to confirme these allegations were [...]a­ken [Page 9] [...]

The Earle indeed denied not the saying of Masse or pray­ers, but the end thereof, as they imagined▪ his end being only to diuert the cruelty of that slaughter, which hee [...] was threatned Catholiques. But what Gerar [...] affirmed hee constantly denied; and adiuring him by the terrour of the fearefull day of iudgement, either so distracted his memorie, or quickned his conscience, that he accused none more than himselfe of folly in speaking little or nothing to the purpose. What Bennet witnessed, the Earle sought to suppresse the be­liefe of, by producing to them palpable contradictions, which his whole confession was in a [...] clad with, and for the rest as being men partly condemned, partly dissolute in their life, and partly of small credit, he not so much estee­med of their testimonie, as traduced that courtesie which hee thought allow'd him companie the better to entangle him.

This peremptorie slighting and disreputing of the wit­nesse that came for the Queene, being [...] with some reprehension, the Queenes Sollicitor gave them notice to heare the words of the ancient law of Richard the 2. read; wherein is declared that the Crowne of England is vn­der no Iurisdiction, except onely Gods; and that the Bishop of Rome hath no right either in or ouer the same. After which time the varietie of these distracted matters hauing wasted the day to twi [...]ight, occasioned the Earle to be withdrawne: who humbly submitting himselfe to his Peeres, and prote­sting still his allegiance and dutie to the Queene, requested them to re [...]olue and determine vpon that, which might bee glory vnto God, for the safety of the Queene, and the [...]o­nor of their quiet conscience.

His Peeres withdrawing themselues, continued in consul­tation the space of an [...] of the Iudges in some points of law, they returned to their [Page 10] seats. And being demanded their sentence, all of them lay­ing their hands to their hearts,He is con­demned. thereby acquitting their Ho­nour from corruption, and their conscience from any partiall imputation, did pronounce the Earle guilty. Who being asked, what he had to say that Iudgement might not passe vpon him, vsed no other words then what his father had formerly in the same place, Fiat voluntas Dei, that is, The Lords will be done. After the pronouncing of his sentence of death, he requested that hee might speake with his wife, see his yong sonne, borne since the time of his imprisonment; make euen with his creditors, and take order for the payment of his debts. And then hauing desired that the Queene would accept his sonne into her fauour, his white wand or staffe of authority was broken by the Lord Steward, and hee dismissed to the place of his imprisonment in the Tower, with the fatall ha [...]chet carried the wrong way before him.

The immature ruine of so hopefull a blossome (for he had not yet seene three and thirty) could not more exasperate the due griefe of many, then it amplified the discretion of the Queene; who by this awaked the proud hopes of the Ro­manists to a iust [...]eare. Yet notwithstanding shee pardoned him his life,His life par­doned. esteeming it a more mercifull policy to let him and his Popish fauourites, rather know, then feele the power of her incensed Maiestie.

And now the Queene aswell to manifest her force and strength abroad, as she had done her wisedome at home, be­gan to pursue that victory which God had already giuen her against the Spaniard.Drakes ex­pedition. And therefore accounting it as ho­nourable, [...] the like from him, she gaue free licence to the courage of Sir Iohn N [...]r [...]ice and Sir Fran [...]is Drake, (who most confidently beleeued that the power of the Spaniard stood much ingaged to most mens [...] opinion, and many mens feare) to set out a Nauy for Spayne; which they did furnish with as [...] cheerefulnes, as expences, demanding nothing of the Queen, [Page 11] but some few of her men of warre. But as their valour began the motion, so their discretion prompted them to this con­dition, that all ships or other spoyles should be no farther di­stributed then amongst themselues, to the encouragement of valour, and the small recompence of their cost and charges. Yet the forces of this expeditiō reached not to tha [...] strength and quantity as was expected. For the States of the Low Countries (rather to shew their discontent at the English for Captayne Sir Iohn Wingfields fake the Gouernour vnder whom the Garrison was corrupted, and Geertrudenberg it selfe betrayed to Prince Maurice, then great affection to their proceedings in this voyage) ioyned only some few ships to them: so that in all there might be more or lesse, some eleuen thousand souldiers and about fifteene hundred mariners. To these also Don Antonio the base borne, and Prior of Crato, with some few Portugals ioyned themselues: who out of a clayme he layd to the Kingdome of Portugal (who by the Lawes of the Country accepteth base borne aswell as legiti­mate Kings) loaded the vayne expectation and beleefe of the English with empty promises of the Portugals reuolt from the seruile yoke of the Spaniard, to his iust and lawfull subiection; and of great succour which he was to haue from the free bounty of Mulley Hamet King of Moracco.

The prouisions for this enterprize being all in a readines, in April next, they put foorth from Plimmouth; and fiue dayes after they landed within a mile of the Groyne The Groyn is assaulted. with­out impeach. From thence marching towards the Base town, a great Galeon and two smaller ves [...]els that rode in the Bay, beat sorely vpon them, especially on some of the vnskilfuller sort, whom eyther their owne indiscretion, or their vnha­py fortune could not rescue from the danger. But afterwards the English planting some few peeces of Ordnance vpon the shore, made them quickly abandon the Road, and themselues a safer way.

The next day after, the Base Towne was assaulted at one [Page 12] and the same time in three places; on that part that looked toward the Continent Colonell Bret and Vnton made onset, with some three hundred more; and Richard Wingfield and Sampson with fiue hundred on the other side. These attempting it by Scalado, were forced sometime to abandon their possessions, by reason of strong resistance they found in the enemy. But the rest brake in vpon them valiantly and happily without any great losse; which made the Spaniards that inhabited there, quickly forsake the Towne and their Armes,The Base Towne taken. and conuey themselues through passages as difficult to finde out, as dangerous to passe through, to the High town. The enemy in the great Galleon, perceiuing her to be on fire and her Artillery ouercharged, came presently a shore, lea­uing her to suffer a two dayes martyrdome; and her proui­sion of all sorts, and good warlike munition (which had been stored vp there against the next inuasion) to be conueyed in­to the English ships.

Then marched the English vp to the High Towne, The High Town assaul­ted, but in vaine. which when Generall Norris obserued to be seated vpon a Rock, and onely mineable in one place, there he imployed the industry of many workemen: and the better to distract their feare, he placeth his engines at the other side of the wall, intending to make a breach at the same time. But his policy was more laudable▪ then the euent of it sutable; for the vnderminers, hauing not bedded their powder enough in the walles, the fire recoyled backe againe, frustrating both their labour and expectation. Wherefore they fell to it againe, and worked deeper into the foundation of the wall. The miners gaue fire to the trayne: whereby they blew vp great part of the To­wer, vnder which their powder was planted; but the other part thereof falling afterwards vpon many of the English that contended for their owne destruction by entring the breach, [...]lew many of them; and wounded so many, that the rest forsaking their commanders to secure their owne liues, left them to scuffle with a double enemy men and stones. [Page 13] And yet they that continued this assault at the Breach at the very same time on the other side of the wall, by reason that the inconstancy of some rubbish would not allow them sure footing, were fayne after the losse of some men, to lose their labour to and retire; their discreet valour notwithstanding being more to bee commended, then their successe vpbray­ded.

Generall Norris then hauing certayne intelligence that Conde de Andrada had assembled his forces together at Pu­ente de Burgos; Preparation from the Spaniard. and that Conde de Altemira hastned with a greater leauy, eyther with intent to succour the Groyne, or else to encampe betweene the English and the place of their imbarking, so to hinder their shipping, foorthwith resolues with ten regiments to goe visit the enemies forces. In the foreward were the Regiments of Sir Edward Norris, and Co­lonell William Sidney. In the mayne battell that of the Ge­nerall himselfe, and Colonell Medkerkes a Low Country man. In the Rereward the Regiments of Sir Henry Norris, Colonel Hantley, and Colonel Bret.

The enemy although hauing strongly entrenched him­selfe at the foot of the Bridge,The Spani­ards driuen backe. yet was by force driuen backe, and made to forsake their barricadoes of Barrels, and the Bridge which was flanked on both sides with shot, which did affoord the English an easie passage both for themselues, and for their cruelty to slaughter the enemy at pleasure, for at least three miles chase; and safely to ransacke hamlets and neighbour villages, and set the whole Country thereabouts on fire: which when they had done about two dayes after,The English depart▪ and embarque for Portugall. they tooke ship and embarqued for Portugal.

But whilest a contrary winde lengthned their intended course, Robert Earle of Essex, whether out of loue of glory, hate of the Spaniard, or pitty to Don Antonio, licenced more by his owne minde then the Queenes pleasure, hauing put foorth to sea, came into the English fleet. The Queene being as angrie, as ignorant of his voyage, and very vnlikely [Page 14] to haue seconded this his resolution with her consent; as being wary not to endanger any of her chiefe Nobility in such a kind of a priuate enterprize. [...]t is vncertaine (although many would talke it into truth) whether or no the Earle put himselfe vpon this Action with a thought of being sole Commander and Generall of the Nauy: By reason that by former preferments he had ingaged to his seruice, the hearts of most of the Colonels and Captaines there, that might by ioynt consent conferre it vpon him: yet certayne it is, that in this, if he lost his Desire, he purchased Honour.

Two dayes after, the sea being so boysterous that a dis­creet suspition might haue construed it ominous, they landed at Peniche Peniche ta­ken. in Portugal; where after the sea had defended it more valiantly then the men, by drowning many before they landed, the enemy fled and the Castle yeelded to Anto­nio. From Peniche the Army marched by land to Lisbone vnder the conduct of Generall Norris, which was some threescore miles off: Generall Drake assuring that he would follow with the fleet vp the Riuer Tagus. In their voyage at Torres Vedras, a Councell of Warre was called; whereby it was decreed most conuenient to pitch the Campe on the East side of the City, that so all hopes of succour might bee blocked vp from the Spaniard, and that so euery Portu­guesse might the more conueniently haue accesse to their King.

After six dayes marching, the Army approached the Westerne suburbes of Lisbone, Lisbon as­saulted. without so much as the hope of an encounter with the enemy; and there entring S. Ka­tharines to scoure the streets, they found none but old folks, beggars and the like, without as much as any weapon but their tongue, which they imployed in this generall acclama­tion, Viua el Rey Don Antonio. For Albert Duke of Austria, their late Gouernour had already disfurnisht the Towne of prouision both for warre and life, leauing the Portuguesse nothing but their empty allegiance.

[Page 15] The Army being now quartered in the suburbes, and the souldiers tyred with their tedious march being newly re­posed to rest,The Spani­ards sally foorth vpon the English. the Spanish Garrison sallieth forth vpon them; the mayne violence and heat whereof, Colonell Bret and his quarter bore, till such time that the English comming in to succour,But are for­ced home to their very gates. droue them to a shamefull retreat and chased them euen to their City gates. But in this charge Colonell Bret with Captayne Carsey and Carre both of his regiment, were slaine. Two dayes after this, the Portuguesse not so much as assuring them hope of the pretended reuolt to Don Antonio, the idle promises of the King of Morocco being discouered, fresh forces still crowding into Lisbone, and a disease violent­ly impouerishing the strength of the Army, besides the scar­sity of powder and victuals, and the want of the Ordnance which they expected Generall Drake should haue brought them, forcing them thereunto, the English departed the sub­urbes without eyther pillage or spoyle, although the place were very rich in outlandish merchandize;The English depart. for they forbore any violence, thinking that the winning of the hearts of the Portuguesse by so vnexpected a curtesie, would recompence that losse which they sustayned with no small difficulty.

Hauing now marched to Cascays, a little Towne situate at the mouth of the Riuer, they began to question Generall Drake Drake bla­med. for the breach of his word and promise; imputing the losse of their victory to his sloth and inconstancy, in not fol­lowing them, as he promised with the whole Nauy: Hee rather refelling the contumely, then excusing the pretended iniury, vrged that it was impossible for him to passe the Channell Alcaceue, which the multiplicity of shallow foords had made vnnauigable. That then if hee should haue come straight on by S. Iulians Fort, which was well fortified with fifty great pieces of Ordance and store of Gallies, with their fore deckes turned, hee should haue exposed the Nauy to vncertaine successe, but certaine danger. Concluding that if the Nauy should be once ouerthrowne, the whole Armie [Page 16] could not be of long subsistance.

The Castle of Cascays Cascayes yeelded. being summoned, presently yeelded vp, which for the most part was blowne vp with gunpow­der, but being not of sufficient value eyther to defray the charges of the Army, or to appease the hungry desire of the souldiers. The Fleet whilest it lay thereabouts at Roade, fet­ched in about some threescore Hulkes Threescore Hulcks taken of the Hanse Townes in Germany, laden with corne and all sorts of prouision for the furnishing of a Nauy against the next inuasion of England, who indeed had taken great paynes to bee thus surprized. For although they knew a neerer cut by farre, yet they fet­ched their circuit about, by the Ilands of Orcades and He­brides and Ireland, [...]or feare of this accident: well enough knowing, that the Queene not long since had by her Letters warned those Cities not to traffique with the Spaniard, ey­ther for prouision, or any warlike munition vpon danger of losse both of their ships and goods.

The English deafe to the intreaty of Don Antonio, who eagerly laboured their continuance a little longer there, put­ting from thence landed▪ and set fire on the Towne Vigo. Vigo burnt. And hauing spoyled and burnt the Country they returned home to England, The English returne. with a hundred and fifty pieces of Ord­nance, and a sufficient prize besides the ample content of the Commanders, able to stop the couetous Mariners from mu­tinie.

But the whole Realme rested well satisfied, in that in so short a time they had vanquished one towne, and valiantly assaulted another, in that they put to flight his Catholique Maiesties forces, the most potent Prince in Europe, landed in fowre seuerall places, marched with banners displayed in the enemies ground seuen dayes together; attempted one of their greatest cities with no small forces: lodged three nights together in the suburbes thereof, chased the enemy to their owne gates, tooke two castles by the sea side, and vnfurnisht the enemy of great store of warlike prouision. Yet wanted [Page 17] there not some discontented detractors, who by interposing the losse of six thousand souldiers and mariners, which the vi­olence of the disease swept away, sought to discredit the true glory of this noble and heroicke enterprize. But certainely▪ by it England hath learned not to feare the conceited power of the Spaniard, and is now better flesht against the next oc­casion of the like seruice.

It hath beene much controuerted concerning the originall cause of this disease amongst th [...] English,The English subiect to di­seases in Spaine. whether or no it proceeded from immoderate drinking of wine, and excessiue eating of fruit, from the naturall disproportion of theirs and our ayre, or from all of them. And it is an obseruation as worth our wonder, as our memory, that expeditions from England into Spaine, haue beene for the most part euer infor­tunate to this Nation, as was that of Iohn of Gaunt Duke of Lancaster, about the yeere of Grace MCCCLXXXVI. wherin of twenty thousand Englishmen,The number of the dead doth farre exceed the computation which Speed & Hollinshed both make in the Reigne of Rich­ard the second: for they reckon not aboue a thou­sand that died by this disease: and cite Fros­ [...]ard, for their authority. ten thousand died. And that of the Marquesse Dorset in the yeere 1512. wherin of ten thousand English a disease murthered 1000. in a short space, and that in the hithermost coasts of Spaine. But the obseruation of the learned may giue this wonder a probabi­lity of reason. For they argue, that an army comming from the South into the North is thereby the more hardened, ac­cording as the Inward heat is either remitted or intended by the outward ayre: and that, that of Vitruvius is very true: They that remooue out of cold countries into h [...]tter, cannot long continue: But they that come from hot countreyes into colder in the North, doe not impea [...]h their health by this change of ayre, but confirme it.

When that the tract of small time had acquainted those of the Hanse townes with the vnexpected surprizall of their cap­tiue Hulkes,The Hanse­townes com­plaint. they begin to fashion their discontents into a forme of complaint, seasoned with some weake [...], which they present to the Queene concerning the violations of their ancient Priuiledges and customes. The Queene re­turnes [Page 18] them this answer: That her former admonition to them,The Queenes Answer. of not transporting come or any other warlike proui­sion to the Spaniard, had made this surprizall which they complayned of, very lawfull; and that it could be thought of no otherwise, vnlesse that they would haue her preferre their Priuate commodities before the good publique of her owne common wealth; That shee ought not to auouch such Priuiledges which are onely Priuate Lawes, against the safe­ty of her Dominions whi [...]h is a Supreme Law. And that, the same Act, with which they vrge the violating of their customes, doth annihilate their complaints; for that in the Priuiledge granted to them by King Edward the First, there is this clause interweaued, That they should not transport or conuey any [...] or merchandize into the countreyes of mani­fest and notorious enemies of the Kingdome of England. That therefore in the heat of any warre, their Traffique was wont to be stayed when they furnished eyther enemy. And that not onely the English serued them so, but euen Charles the fift, the King of Sweden, and Denmarke, and Poland, and not long since the Prince of Orange, and all iustly, euen according to the Law of Nations, wishing them heereafter so to vse the benefit of their neutrality, that whilest they a [...]isted the one, they iniured not the other party. And lastly, gently admo­nishing them of their vnseemly threats, especially to a Prince who in respect of Ability, dreaded not the mightiest Mo­narch breathing, yet in respect of her Honour would im­brace a peace with the meanest; and most constantly obserue all lawes of Neighbourhood.

And of this her constancy the King of Nauarre The Queen [...] aydes the King of Na­uarre. and France was no small witnesse; one whereof shee succoured both with money and munition, to the suppressing of a dif­ficult warre▪ and the other she established in quietnesse euen vpon the very point of despayre of it. Fo [...] (to digresse yet a little in the way) the Duke of Aniou brother to the King, dying without issue, the King at that time being both with­out [Page 19] children and the very hope of euer hauing any, the king­dome of France was lineally to descend to the King of Na­uarre, and afterwards to the Prince of Conde, both zealous professours of the Reformed Religion. Whereupon the Ca­tholike Princes of France not vnknowne either to the Pope or to the Spaniard, complotted a diuellish conspiracy wherin they had onely interested the cause of Religion; and there­fore termed it the Holy League, The Holy League in France. vtterly to ouerthrowe the King, by heaping the enuie of the whole land vpon him; and so by peruerting the naturall course of succession, with that, to ruinate also the Reformed Religion.

They that impiously combined themselues in this con­spiracy, bound themselues by a strong oath, neuer to suffer any one to rule France, that eyther had euer, or was likely to professe any Religion, but the Romane Catholique, that they would neuer allow of one that being brought vp and bred in the Reformed Religion, should afterwards abso­lutely forsweare it, least hauing once gotten the Kingdome, he should change his Religion with his State.

Who could be so besotted in his iudgement, as not to see that this businesse tended onely to excluded Nauarre, and the Prince of Conde? Yet notwithstanding the mystery of this conspiracy wrought so couertly that it was long ere it could come to ripenesse. For first the Duke of Guise the chiefe Head of this villany hauing valiantly defended Poitiers, against the Protestants, and vanquished the Germane horsemen sent by the Duke of Alenzon, and scattered the mighty leauy of Ger­manes vnder the conduct of Baron D'onawe, was so infinite­ly magnified both by the Laity and the Popish Clergie of France, that to the preiudice of the King himselfe, he was e­uery where stiled the Sole defender of the Catholique Religi­on; and the Hammer of the Protestants. Vpon but his very [...] into Paris at one time there arose such an vproare amongst the inconstant people,The Barrica­does at Paris. that the King for the safety of his person was compelled to impeach his owne Honour, [Page 20] to retire from Paris, and to call a Councell a [...] Bloys; In which Councell his necessities droue him to a forced pati­ence of these inconueniences, to consent to this Holy League by his expresse Proclamation in Iulie, to root out the Refor­med Religion, to constitute the Duke of Guise the Great Ma­ster of the French Warres, and to seale to him the confirma­tion of these Articles with the receipt of the Sacrament.

The King himselfe now fearing him, whom he himselfe had made thus to be feared; and so great that no Law could question him or his proceedings, began now to a [...]gment his feare to a cautelous suspition, lest the Dukes ambitious poli­cy should lay wayt for his life; and concluding his owne life and safety out of the necessary murther of the Duke, shortly after as he was entring the Arras of his Priuy cham­ber, caused him to be run through; and his Brother the Car­dinall to be strangled;The Duke of Guyse slaine. committing the Dukes sonne, Cardi­nall Bourbon, and as many of the Leaguers, as the danger of those times would licence his enquiry for, to the safe custody of close prison.

And now began a generall confusion to ouerrun the face of all France; the disiointed limbes of a compleat Kingdome lept into a variety of rebellion. The peop [...]e began at their pleasure to disburthen themselues of their duty to Magi­strates; & to rob the Kings ve [...]y Court at Paris. Some Cities began to affect and est [...]b [...]ish Democracy; others Aristrocracie; the rest Oligarchy; few or none a Monarchie. The villany of this conspiracy hauing now growne ripe for such misery, that by striuing to make as it were many Kingdomes, they had almost reduced it to none.

At their next assembly the Leaguers cause a new Seale for the administring the affayres of the Realme to be engrauen; arrogating to their ambitious rebellion all Princely Iurisdi­ction: they share amongst it themselues the best fortified pla­ces, and sometimes whole Prouinces: They stop the Reue­newes of the Crowne; and recall the Spanish forces out of [Page 21] the Low Countries; foure whole Parliaments of France se­conding them with their vnanimous suffrages, and all the Clergie of the Realme preaching nothing but warre against their owne Souereigne. Insomuch that the King turning to the Protestants, and they turning from their allegiance,Henry 3d. of France slaine. caused one Iaques Clement a Monke to murther him.

The Leaguers (although not onely his right of Successi­on, but a [...]so the Kings option on his death bed, assured him of the Crowne) by a Proclamation banisht Nauarre, not more from the Crowne then the Kingdome; declaring him guilty of Heresie, and of drawing the enemies forces into his owne countrey. But although all of them agreed in this to exclude Nauarre, Contention a­bout the ele­ction of a new King. yet euery mans priuate engagement could not easily come to an agreement whom they should create King. Charles Duke of Maine, Brother to the slaine Duke of Guyse, thought himselfe most worthy of it, because hee had forced the Protestants many times to a great incōuenience; & most of their Cities to their ancient obedience. Likewise be­cause Cardinall Bourbon being feeble, a Priest, and now in prison, would, if he should be elected, rather exercise the wits of the French to scoffe and scorne him, than their allegiance to reuerence and obey him, yet that by making him King they might not onely acknowledge the Right of the familie of the Bourbons to the Crowne, but also recall the old Right of the Vncle against the Nephew. But the controuersie came not so neare the hope of reconcilement, for others preferred the Cardinall of Lorraine or any of his familie: that so now at length the ancient Right so long abused, by Hugh Capet at first, might be restored to the familie. Vrging that the Spa­niard greatly fauoured that House, and that hee would be­queath his daughter to any one that was chosen out thence. Others opposed against him the Duke of Sauoy, sonne of the daughter of the King of France, sonne in law to the King of Spaine, a neighbour Prince, and as truly couragious as noble. [Page 22] The rest nominated Guise, by reason of his Grandfather and Fathers seruice done the Realme and the Catholique Religion. Neither were there wanting some scattered suffrages for the Spaniard himselfe, which flattery would easily haue encrea­sed, had there beene any hope of speeding. But the maior part pretending a very forme of iustice in the height of a re­bellion, reflecteth vpon the Cardinall of Bourbon, The Cardi­nall of Bour­bon proclay­med king. as being one degree neerer to the deceased King, than his Nephew Nauarre was, and as one that had suffered much in the Ca­tholique cause; by whose meanes after an easie deliuerance, out of the prison to the Throne, they might, if not with as much speede, yet with more conuenience represse the Refor­med Religion, than by crauing forraine helps for assistance in that matter.

This conclusion was cunningly broacht by Mendoza the Spaniards Embassadour, who since he perceiued hee could not pleasure his master with his conceited hope of an Imme­diate election, thought to lay here a foundation of reducing by degrees that Kingdome vnder his Dominion. So that now amongst these Leaguers and Conspiratours Cardinall Bourbon is proclaimed King, and coynes dispersed about in traffique with his inscription of Charles the tenth. The Duke of Maine is declared to be Lieutenant Generall of the Crowne of France, who presently to bring his office into execution, musters all his forces with an intent either to surprise Na­uarre (proclaimed likewise King of France amongst his con­federates) at Deepe where he resided, or driue him by vio­lence out of France.

The French King The Queene aydes the French king. being now reduced to so great streights, hauing pitched his campe neere vnto Deepe with as good successe as speed, presently dispatched Beauore La Noe-cle, and immediatly after Buhie and Bozenuale into England, to prof­fer to the Queene an offensiue and defensiue league, and to desire some aide from her. The Queene vnwilling to be de­fectiue to his doubtfull hopes in such a courtesie, out of her [Page 23] true zeale to his Religion and fortune, mixt with a iealous feare of the reuolting of the Germans and Switzers his sti­pendiaries, who to gaine but the emptie riches of a large pro­mise were likely to endanger their fidelity, presently furnisht him with two and twenty thousand pounds of english Gold, (A somme which either somewhat to the disparagement of his owne estate, or more to the true token of his gratitude, he ingenuously acknowledged he neuer yet saw paralell'd) be­sides munition and some foure thousand men, vnder the con­duct of Peregrine Lord Willoughby, who after the departure of the Earle of Leicester out of the low countries, had in suc­ceeding him purchased no small honor. She appointed Sir Thomas Wilford, (who was also Marshall) Sir Iohn Burrough, Sir William Drury and Sir Thomas Baskeruile, Colonels: al­lotting them a moneths pay before hand; who after their arriuall in France behaued themselues both to the Kingdoms and their owne honour. The brute of their expected arriuall, mingled with the ouerthrow as much against their reason as their hopes, which the French King lately gaue the Lea­guers at Arques, so discouraged the pride of their hop [...]s, that the very day before the arriuall of the English they fled from before the King with bagge and baggage.

The King partly encouraged with this victory, the obiect of his wonder as much as ioy, and partly with the welcome arriuall of the English,The English arriue in France. began to draw his forces towards Paris, where the English and the Switzers attempting that part thereof which lies betweene Saint Marcels gate and the riuer Seine, made such a resolute breach through their ram­piers and inclosures, that hauing gotten as farre as Saint Vi­ctors, they esteemed the entrance of the mayne Citie, as the last, so the least part of the assault.

The French King whether out of feare of the disabilitie of his forces, or of hope that shortly it would yeeld, or per­swasion that the Duke of Maine would not bid him battaile, sounds presently a retreate from Paris and remoues to Estam­pes [Page 24] leauing the Lord Willoughbie and the English on the way, to blocke vp the Leaguers passage, till such time that both the Towne and Castle yeelded.

After this they took Vendosme, the same place, which with the whole country Henry the Fift of England, had formerly giuen to Robert Willoughby Gouernour of Normandy, as a sure argument of his loue and the others valour. They re­duced likewise to their due obedience Caën, Alanzon, Fa­lais, Loux, and Honfleure. After which time and trauell of a­boue fiue hundred miles,The English returne. besides the wearinesse of their Irish service, they that suruiu'd returned home to England. The chiefe of note that died either by disease or battaile, were one Captayne Hunning and Stubs, who hauing formerly lost his right hand for writing against the mariage of the Queene with the Duke of Aniou, heere lost his life: and Sir William Drury one without doubt who had enioyed a longer life, if reason could haue preuayled with his pas­sion to haue preserued it. For contending with Burroughs a Lords yonger sonne, for the vpper [...]and against the or­der of ranking Nobility in England, he was slaine by him in a single combat.

The Queene intended not so speedy a returne of the En­glish, and the French King greeued at it,The Spani­ard affecteth the King­dome of France. hauing had intelli­gence that the Spaniard lay in wayt for the Kingdome of France: for he already through the meanes of Morea Taxie and Bernardine Mendoza, got it propounded in the Coun­cell of the Leaguers, that to recompence his charges which he had beene at for their assistance, they should nominate him the Protectour of the Catholiques in France, and confer vpon him the same Prerogatiues that he enioyes in the King­dome of Naples and Sicily, of bestowing by his Delegates all Offices whether Ecclesiasticall or Ciuill. The loftinesse of this vndermining request, intermingled with the eager promoting of it by Cardinall Caietan the Popes Nuntio, came yet so short of their expectation of successe, that it occasioned great [Page 25] discontentment in the French themselues, whose riper iudge­ments prompted them to this caution, by promoting their Religion not to lose their Reason.

And as the Queene imploied no small care in establishing Nauarre in the Kingdome of France, so had she a long time sought opportunity to contriue a match betweene his sister Katharine and the King of Scotland; The Queene propoundeth a marriage to the King of Scots. wisely considering that both of them would stand her in great stead to refell the force of Catholiques and their plots against Protestants: but the euent prooued not answerable, by reason that her age was of the most, and her meanes of the least; her brother himselfe likewise being much impouerished by these neuer discontinuing warres. The King of Scotland notwithstanding being still vnmarried ceased not very often to sollicite the Queen for her aduice in the choice of a wife; who being more slow in answering him, then the desire of the Scots, although not then reason, required, gaue occasion to the Scots not only to suspect, but euen to vent this suspitiō in open clamors, that the English by their cunning trickes sought to depriue the King both of Honour and Issue, thereby conceyting an im­punity for the death of his mother, and to exclude the Scot­tish race from succession in England.

This when the Queene vnderstood, shee exhorted the King to choose himselfe a wife, and such a one, that might well please him, not displease the people, nor occasion the long amity betweene them to fall into suspition.

The King of Scots therefore hauing somewhat about a yeere before, setled his affection on Anne He is betro­thed to Anne of Denmarke. the daughter of Fredericke the Second, King of Denmarke (who was also honoured with the Queenes ample commendations:) this yeere about Iuly contracted himselfe to her by his Proxie the Earle Marshall: But shee being shipped for Scotland in the middest of her voyage was driuen backe by a tempest into Norway, which so bruised her ships, that shee could not in long time put to sea againe. The King, to the prayse of his [Page 26] Religion, as well as his loue, about October next passeth to Norway, He passeth [...] ­uer to Nor­way. (for the Sates of the Kingdome appointed, and he himselfe sealed their resolution with a vowe, to marry within the compasse of a yeare) and there celebrated the marriage, where both of them were compelled to stay till next May, be­fore their ships, necessity and a seasonable opportunitie, would licence their departure.

It was first the opinion of many, but afterwards their faith, that these tempests at sea, were raysed by the execra­ble power of sorcerers and witches; Tempest [...] rai­sed in his voyage by Witches. by reason of the violence of the waues and windes that were more turbulent and the stormes shorter, and yet oftner than ordinarie; whereupon they concluded some operati [...]e power besides nature; partly by reason that euill spirits Princes of the Ayre, may with bet­ter safety trade with the poore ignorant people in the Nor­therne clymate, from whom partly their pouerty and want of other mens industry, hath concealed the light of the Gos­pel; but especially by reason of the open confessions of some Witches, that were vpon some occasion apprehended, who confessed that they raysed those stormes on purpose to keep [...] the Queene from Scotland: and that likewise Bothwel Bothwel ac­cused by them. had beene with them to know the Kings fortune. This being denounced Treason amongst the Scots by a Law of Queene Marry, co [...]t Bothwel a strict imprisonment; yet it seemes not so strict, but that shortly he brake out, from that into worse troubles, wherewith all Scotland was annoyed.

There died this yeere Frances the Countesse of Sussex, widow of the Thomas Earle of Sussex, The Coun­tesse of Sus­sex dieth. and sister to Henry Sid­ney, who hauing giuen many precepts of vertue in her life, at her death taught it by example; in erecting Sidney Sus­sex Colledge in Cambridge. And Sir Walter Mildmay, And Sir Walter Mildmay. a man as full of variety of vertues, as euer he was of offi­ces; yet was hee chosen by Henry the Eigth, to bee ouersee [...] of the Court of Augmentation, Knighted by King Edward the Sixt, made a Priuy Counsellour by Queene Elizabeth, [Page 27] Chancellour of the Exchequer, and Subtreasurer. He foun­ded Emanuel Colledge at Cambridge in the yeere 1584. endowing it with meanes and reuenewes to mayntayne threescore and two Students, and a President. Him suc­ceeded Sir Iohn Fortescue, an excellent man, and a good Grecian, who was long time Tutor to the Queene, and Ma­ster of her Wardrobe.

Likewise there died William Somerset Earle of Worce­ster, And the Earle of Worcester. the Sonne of Henry, and Nephew of Charles, whom his onely Sonne Edward succeeded, a man so prosperous in his issue, that he might reckon more sonnes and daugh­ters, then most Noble men in England.

There died also Iohn Lord Sturton, And the Lord St [...]rton the sonne of Charles, (whom Queene Mary made an example of her iustice for murther) begotten of the body of Anne Stanley, the daugh­ter of Edward Earle of Darby, whom Edward his Brother succeeded.

Also Henry Lord Compton And the Lord Comp­ton. leauing his heyre his sonne William, begot of Francis Hastings the daughter of Fran­cis Earle of Huntingdon; and at Bruxeils there died, Tho­mas Lord Paget, And the Lord Paget. who fearing some suspition should arise out of his inward well wishing to Mary Queene of Scots, couertly dispatched himselfe out of the Land; leauing his onely [...]sonne begotten of Nazareth Newton, and named William, his Heyre.

And euen now, Learning it selfe had occasion of griefe, for the death of Lawrence Humfrey, And Doctor Humfrey. Doctour of Diuinitie in Oxford; who being banished in the dayes of persecution vnder Queene Mary, translated out of the Greeke, a Tract of Origens, concerning a Right Fayth; and Philo concerning Nobility; hauing also himselfe writ­ten three Bookes of Nobility, which hee stiled by the name of Optimates. After his returne home he was made President of Magdale [...]e Colledge in Oxford, where he was [Page 28] first brought vp. Hee was likewise the Reg [...]ous Professor of Diuinity, where, by his publike Lectures and vsuall Sermons for many yeeres together he got great credit to the Church, although but small profit to himselfe. For he was neuer pre­ferred to any higher place amongst the Clergie then to the Deanery of Winchester; the chiefest reason that was to be guessed at, being, that in matters of Ceremony or Indifferency, he altogether consen­ted not with the Church of England.

THE THREE and thirtieth Yeere OF HER REIGNE.
Anno Domini 1590.1590

THE Queene who neuer layd aside the thought of warre, because her desire was still peace, at the beginning of the Spring fearing some as [...]ault from the Spaniard,Sundry ha­uens fortified. mustereth vp her souldiers heere in England, and likewise in the South parts of Ireland. In Ireland she fortifies Duncannon, lying at the mouth of the Riuer Suire, and in Wales repayres the ruines of Milford Hauen, Charges for the Nauy. with new workes. For the mayntenance of her Nauy safe and sound, shee alotteth yeerely, eight thousand fiue hundred and seuenty pounds sterling of English money. And al­though [Page 30] about three yeeres agoe shee had lent the King of Nauarre, Money lent to the French King. an hundred and one thousand, fiue hundred and sixty French crownes to leauy an Army in Germany vnder the Baron d'Onaw, by Horatio Pallauicine; and but the last yeere, seuenty one thousand, one hundred sixty fiue more, vp­on Beauoire, Buhie, and Buzenuales bonds, and had spent twenty thousand more in sending ouer her forces to him vn­der the Lord Willoughby; yet notwithstanding first this yeere she lendeth vpon the Vicount Turenes bond, thirty three thousand, three hundred thirty and three more, to mu­ster an army in Germany vnder the conduct of the Prince of Anhault, and after that as much more vpon Beauoires bond, and Incaruilles.

Besides all these charges euery two moneths did she pay to the Garrisons in Flushing and Brill, an hundred and fiue and twenty thousand Florins, and two hundred and threescore more to three thousand horse and foot, that seru'd in the Low Countries. Shee set out many braue ships, shee was at infinite charges to preuent all clandestine machinations of the Pope or Spaniard in Scotland; and yet for all this, at this time shee repayed to her subiects monies which shee lately had borrowed, in so much that many men iustly wondred, whence this abilitie should spring, she being not in any mans debt, (a vertue which few Princes can boast of) and yet of a sufficient competency to maintaine her kingdome against the enemie, without admitting any auxiliary forces, which none of the greatest of her neighbour Kings could at that time doe.

Certaine it is, she was a most prouident Princesse, seldome entertaining any charge which was not either for the main­tenance of her Honour at home, or the Succour of her friends abroad. Besides, the Lord Treasurer Burghley, bore a prouident eye ouer those that had charge of Subsidies, or imposts; for many times by the couetousnesse of such subor­dinate ministers, monies receiued for the Queenes vse, were [Page 31] imployed to their priuate p [...]ofits, and others that should haue beene receiued, were omitted by a wilfull ouersight, and hir'd negligence.

About this time the commodity of the Custome house amounted to an vnexpected value,The rates of the Custome­house raised. For the Queene being made acquainted by the meanes of a subtile fellow, named Caermardine, with the mistery of their gaines, so enhansed the rate, that Sir Thomas Smith, Master of the Custome house, who heretofore farmed it of the Queene for fourteene thousand pounds yeerely, was now mounted to two and forty thousand pounds, and afterwards to fifty thousand pounds yeerely, which notwithstanding was valued but as an ordinary summe for such oppressing gaine. The Lord Treasurer indeed, the Earle of Leicester & Wal [...]ingham, much opposed themselues against this Caermardine, denying him entrance into the Priuy Chamber, in so much that expostula­ting with the Queene, they traduced her hearkening to such a fellowes information, to the disparagement of the iudge­ment of her Councell, and the discredite of their care. But the Queene answered them, that all Princes ought to bee (if not as fauourable, yet as iust) to the lowest, as to the highest, desiring that they, who falsely accuse her Priuy Councell of sloath or indiscretion, should be seuerely punished, but that they who iustly accused them should be heard; That she was Queene, as well to the poorest as to the proudest, and that therefore she would neuer be deafe to their iust complaints. Likewise, that shee would not suffer, that these Toole-takers like horse-lee [...]hes, should glut themselues with the riches of the Realme, and starue her Exchequer, which as shee will not endure so to bee dieted, so hateth shee to enrich it with the pouerty of the people.

Without doubt shee was a great enemy to all extortions, and vnreasonable taxes, hating to oppresse her poore subiects as many of her Predecessors had done, sweetning their owne extortions with the name of the Peoples contribution, the [Page 32] Commons liberalitie, or their free beneuolence, or the like. She would not suffer Tolling by the head of liuing creatures, once to be proposed as lawfull, although it had beene formerly proposed in the daies of Edward the sixt. And hence was it that the people paid their subsidies with such alacritie; and though that now her necessity had occasioned a greater tax than ordinary, yet it seemed onely a voluntary payment. Wherefore the Queene, by a mercifull Statute, to reward her people for their forwardnesse, would haue exempted those of the meaner sort, and multiplied their payments vpon the ri­cher, as was once done in the time of King Richard the se­cond; but the euent of this courtesie would haue beene more iniurious to her selfe, than beneficiall to the people; it being plainly demonstrated by casting vp the accounts, that the subsidies would fall far short of their expected value, if those of indifferent estates, which we call Pound-men, should be fauoured with any exception.

About this time certaine Inhabitants of the towne of Groy­ning, one of the richest in all Friezland, which neither could beare the seruile yoake of the Spaniard, nor would ad­mit of a subiection to the States,The Queenes care of the States. made a motion vnto the Queene, to receiue them into her protection; which shee ea­gerly refused, being vnwilling any way to benefit her selfe by the States discontentment. At which time likewise shee was much offended with the Zelanders, for [...]husing the King of France their Patron, and not acquainting the States of Holland with their purpose. And publikely reprooued many of those Prouinces, who vnder pretence of obedience and affection vnto her, had occasioned many discontents and dissentions at home. She was indeed, somewhat larger in this reproofe, then her ordinary displeasure would allow her, because she was giuen to vnderstand, that Richardot had been very importunate, that pardon & libertie of Religion should be granted to all Low-Countreymen, who had fled out of their Prouinces, if they would returne home againe: which [Page 33] if he brought to passe, she soone foresaw would be disaduan­tagious to the States, by reason that such kinde of men for­merly inhabited the emptiest Cities of Holland, and would contribute much to the maintenance of war.

About which time also at the mediation of the Duke of Tuscany,She restoreth Ships to the Venetians. shee commanded some ships that had beene taken by the English, to be restored to the Venetians and Floren­tines, straitly commanding, that none should offer violence to the Italian, Venetian, French, Dane, Low-Countrey­men, or those of the Hanse Townes.

But the Spaniard, as hee escaped the contents of this com­mand, so escaped hee not many onsets and affronts of the English; some in the Atlantique Ocean, and some at and about the Ilands of Azores, where his Nauies from either Indies must necessarily come for refection, and others by the Earle of Cumberland, who surprised some of his ships, de­molished to the ground his Fort of Fayoll, and brought from thence fifty eight great peeces of Ordnance; and others by some more of the English, who scouring the Gaditan Sea, much endangered the ordinary safety of his vsuall Traf­fiques.

The glory of the Queene, although it were farre spread, and almost fearfull, by reason of her prosperous successe in war, yet was it more admirable and much better'd in report, by a peace which shee obtained betweene the Great Turke and the Polonians, euen at the brinke of a terrible battell; and the Vayvode of Moldauia, She procu­reth peace from the Turke, for the Polonians and Molda­uians. whom the Great Turke sore­ly perplexed also; which courtesie of hers, the Polonian, and his Chancellour, by their letters, gratefully since acknow­ledged.

And now to confirme that inuiolable bond of amity, be­tweene her and the King of Scots, shee sent Edward Somer­set, Earle of Worcester to him, to congratulate to him his hap­py mariage, and his as happy returne home; with some ad­monitions also, that as her loue had lately beene manifested [Page 34] in honouring both him and the King of France with the or­der of S. George, so his care should bee as circumspect to choake all popish practises, euen in their birth. The King most gently entertained both the loue and care of the Queene,Shee congra­tulateth the marriage of the King of Scots. and to publish his desire of a continuation of ami­ty with England, and an vniuersall peace withall, he sent Co­lonel Steward into Germany, to treat with the King of Den­marke, and the Embassadors of the other Princes, about the renewing of a League betweene England, Spaine, and France.

France Her care of France. all this while was in a sore combustion, which as the malice of the Leaguers first kindled, so now their power as strongly fomented. The Queene, scanning all possibili­ties of quenching the same, entred into many consultations and councells, whether shee should ioyne her old English Souldiers, that serued in the Low Countries, with the for­ces that were a comming into France out of Germany, or whether shee should leauy forces, and send them ouer into the Low Countries, to detaine still the Duke of Parma from entring into France. But most of all shee controuerted this question, how shee might keepe the Spaniard from the Sea coasts of France, especially [...]ince shee vnderstood, that the Spaniard had seconded his violence by corrupt bribery, to reduce New-hauen vnto his owne power, and had also resol­ued to send a Nauy into low Britaine, or Britania Armorica.

But before the varieties of consultations could be easily ripened to any resolution, the D. of Parma entreth France▪ Parma en­treth France. For the Spaniard, after his easie perswa [...]ion to it by the Lea­guers, (who thirsted sore after some reuenge, for their shame­full discomfiture at the Battle of Yurie) straightly comman­ded the Duke this iourney by vertue of his Protectorship of the Catholikes, and the comely glosse of charity to his neigh­bours. The Duke hauing speedily runne quite thorow Pi­cardy, succoureth the fainting rebellion at Paris with variety of prouision, and hauing ransack't Corbu [...]ile and Laygnay, [Page 35] to store Paris with a larger plenty of prouision, hee retyreth with his army, which spake better of his skill in intrenching in, and delaying of battell, after the manner of the Romanes, then of his warlike discipline, which could not restraine the couetousnesse of his Souldiers, from open and shamefull sa­criledge.

On the otherside, certaine Regiments of Spaniards,French ha­uens taken by the Spaniard. vn­der the conduct of Don Iuan d'Aquila hauing ariued at low­er Britaine, about the Autumnall Aequinox, at Blawet, assault and surprize Henebon, a fortified towne, by the Sea side, by the meanes of Philip Emanuel Duke of Merceur, one of the house of Lorraine, who at that time, when the Leaguers began to distribute and quarter France into their seueral por­tions, sent for this troupe of Spaniards, to seat him for his part in the Duchie of Britaine, or in some part of it at least. This thought he easie to accomplish by the helpe of the Spa­niard, and the right of his wife, who was the onely daugh­ter of Sebastian Martigne, whose mother Caroletta was Du­chesse of Britaine, and Heire to I. Brosse, Duke of E­stampes.

This occasion the Spaniard,His pretence of right to the Duchie of Britaine. without great importunity, quick [...]y embraced, being himselfe conceited also, that Bri­taine by right, belong'd to his Daughter, being it was a Fe­minine fee, and by reason that shee descended from Elizabeth of Valois, the eldest daughter of Henry the second of France, who by reason of the death of all her Vncles without Issue, had right alsoo [...] succession to the whole Crowne of France, did not the Salique Law cut that off. And although hee, could not be ignorant, that in the reigne of Francis the first, the Duchy of Britaine was incorporated to the Crowne of France, yet would he not subscribe to the resolution of all the Lawyers in France, concluding, that Whatsoeuer is once annexed or incorporated to the Crowne of France, can neuer be dismembred or seuered from it.

Presently after the ariuall of these Spaniards, Henry Bour­bon, [Page 36] sonne to the Duke Montpensier, and Prince D [...] Beare, whom with La-Noue, the King made Gouernour of Britaine, requesteth ayde from England: but it seemed good,Aide from England re­quested. neithe [...] to the Queene, nor her Councell to second this request with a grant, because he was but a subiect; the King being busi­ed elsewhere in difficult affaires, and no more acquainted with this message, than the occasion of it. The Queene not­withstanding could not wel endure, that the Spaniard should be possessed of so rich and conuenient a place, to inuade Eng­land, Holland, or Zeland from;The Queene prouides for Britaine, In so much, that the con­tinuall meditation of this matter, wrought these words out of her, that This businesse concern'd her more than that of Ed­ward the third, who at excessive charges maintained the cause of Iohn of Montfort, to keepe the French from possessing them­selues of Britaine.

There were indeed some about the Court (to the com­mendation of their warinesse more than wisdome) that prompted the Queene to a par [...]imony;And for all France. aduising her not to be at so great charges for others good, but rather to regard her owne; wishing her not to put any confidence in French-men, as being tra [...]terous euen to their owne Kings; thence taking an occasion to returne to her memory their cruelty, in butchering one of their Kings that was a professed Catho­like, and their villany in thus persecuting another that is a Protestant; They vrged to her likewise, the vniust claime the French laid to Metz, Toul, and Verdune, formerly annex­ed to the Empire of Germany, which notwithstanding (the memory of later ages witnessing as much) they by violence haue disioynted from it; That they doe as constantly hate the English, euen now when they are friends, as others doe when they are enemies; that they doe so duely breake pro­mise in repaying of monies to the English, that they vse to Nick-name other Creditors, whom they likewise disappoint, with this by-word, Les Anglois, These are Englishmen. Last­ly, that by their homebred seditions, they haue so rent a flou­rishing [Page 37] estate into factions, that the whole Realme might ra­ther excite her neighbours pity, than occasion their feare; it being now like a grosse body, burthened with its owne weight, and so disordered by the mutable obedience of the people, that if it should chance to faile of an enemy abroad, it would soone find one at home.

The Queene (as desirous of the commendations of the French,Wherefore she hearke­neth not to the ill sugge­ [...]tions of some, both English and French­men. from the mouth of an English man, as careful of their safety from the hands of an enemy) entertained this discourse, both with disdaine and laughter; and when not onely the English, but euen some French themselues, counsel'd her to put in for her share, and ceaze vpon Picardie, or Normandie, as the Spaniard and the Leaguers had already cantonized all France, putting her in minde of the saying of Charles of Bur­gundy, that It was best for all neighbour nations, when France had twenty Kings: She heard them with a much forced pati­ence, and disdainfully putting them by,Her obserua­tion. said, That whensoe­uer France it's last day should be at hand, the euening thereof would bring in Englands ruine and destruction.

Whilst these businesses were on foot, Ambrose Dudley; Earle of W [...]rwicke, The Earle of Warwicke di [...]th, sonne of Iohn, Duke of Northumberland, and Knight of the Order of S. George, departed this life, as full of vertue, as empty of Issue. And not long after, Sir Fran­cis Walsingham And Sir Francis Wal­singham. also, the Queenes Secretary, and Chancellour of the Duchie of Lancaster, and of the Order of the Garter. He was a man as commendable for industrie, as imitable for his wisdome and piety; one that had beene employed in ma­ny honourable Embassies; a strict professour of the refor­med Religion; a curious searcher out of secrets; one that could diue into mens dispositions, and worke them to his owne ends at pleasure. His Art that way, as it was past imi­tation, so was it beyond the Queenes owne expectation; in so much that the Papists euery where traduced him as a sub­tle enginere, to screw simple Prose [...]ytes within the danger of the law. This intelligence which hee continually had of all [Page 38] plots and deuises that were hatched within the Realme, cost him such excessiue charges, that hauing spent not onely his estate, but euen his credit, which was much impeached by his abundant debts, he was in the night time buried at Pauls, without any Funerall solemnity. Hee left but one daughter, who first marrying Sir Philip Sidney, bore him a daughter, married to Roger Earle of Rutland, and then marrying her second husband, the Earle of Essex, bore him one sonne, and some daughters: and afterwards being married to the Earle of Clan-Richard, an Irish Lord, bore to him also Children of both sexes.

Not long aboue a moneth or two, Sir Thomas Randolph And Sir Thomas Randolph. ouer-liued him, yet not so neere to him in his death, as hee was in acquaintance and loue in his life. This was he whose brother Edward, a braue souldier, died victoriously in Ire­land, in the yeare 156 [...]. In the time of his youth hee liued a Ciuill Lawyer in Christ-Chuch in Oxford, and afterwards became the Principall of Broad-gates Hall, since named Pem­broke Colledge. Hee had beene imployed in many seuerall Embassies, thrice to the Peeres in Scotland, thrice to Queene Mary of Scotland, after her returne from France. Seuen times to Iames the sixt of Scotland, thrice to Iohn Basilides Em­perour of Russia, once to Charles the ninth of France, and againe to Henry the third. The Queene rewarded this his seruice with the Chamberlaines Office in the Exchequer, heretofore a place of great honour and worth, the Master­ship of the Post-horses, and some small land. Neither could ambition, or the charge of many chi [...]dren occasion any ap­petite in him of greater wealth; to the true patterne of a contented minde for all high and worldly men, whereof there are very few, but haue lesse occasion and greater desire.

And let mee not forget that which may benifit posterity with the memory of it, a letter which hee sent to Sir Francis Walsingham, a little before his death, wherein hee declared, how fitting it was, and how necessary, that the one should [Page 39] leaue of the trickes of a Secretary, and the other of an Embas­sadour, and imploy the time before their death in repentance for the sinnes of their life.

Shortly after him died Sir Iames Croft, And Sir Iames Croft. who in the dayes of Edward the sixt valiantly defended Hadington in Scot­land, against the French. He was for a while Lord Deputy of Ireland, hauing beene condemned for treason in the hot dayes of Queene Mary, was as gratiously pardoned by Queene Elizabeth, and made Gouernour of Barwicke and the Easterne borders. He likewise was Comptroller of her Maiesties houshold, and a Delegate at the Treaty of Bour­bourge. After all which hauing had the vertue to excite the very enuie of the Court against him, and yet hee, happy for­tune to ouercome it, liued and died in the loue and fauour both of Prince and people.

With the yeere also ended George Talbot his life [...]being Earle of Shropshire, And the Earle of Shropshire. the sonne of Francis, and the seuenth Earle of that House, who in the Reigne of Queene Mary, ha­uing to the number of three thousand vnder him, committed to him by his Father the Generall of the Army in the Scot­tish warres, rescued the Earle of Northumberland at Lo-wick out of most eminent danger. Hee was also Captayne of a troupe of fiue hundred horse. He was one of the appointed Guard for the Queene of Scots. Afterwards at the decease of the Duke of Norfolke, he was substituted Earle Marshall of England. For the space of fifteene yeeres he continued in such trusty loyalty, that neyther the calumny of the Court, the plots of his enemies, nor the troubles hee sustayned by his second wife, could vndermine or shake it to the glory of his wisedome as well as valour.

Hee had by Gertrude the daughter of Thomas, Earle of Rutland his first wife, Francis that died vntimely; Gilbert, that was his heire, married to Mary Cauendish the daughter of his mother in Law; Edward, married to the daughter and ioint heyre of the Lord Ogle, with Henry and Thomas; Hee [Page 40] had daughters Catharine married to Henry the sonne of the Earle of Pembroke that died issuelesse, Mary married to Sir George Sauil, and Grace to Sir Henry Cauendish. By his later wife Elizabeth the widow of William Cauend [...]sh hee had no issue.

And to make vp the Catalogue of this yeeres mortality, Thomas Lord Wentworth And the Lord Went­worth. also departed this life, being the last English Gouernour of Callice, whose second sonne Hen­ry (for the eldest died when the Father liued) succeeded.

In Ireland the last yeere Hugh Gaueloc Tyrone stran­gleth Gaue­loc. (so nicke-named by reason of his long continuance in fetters) the naturall son of Shane-Oneale had accused Hugh Earle of Tyre-Oën, for hauing had priuy conferences with some Sp aniards that in 88 were cast vpon the Irish shoares; which accusation the Earle coueting to frustrate by some speedy preuention, gaue order that he should be surprized by some tricke or other and strangled: and when the reuerence of him and his fami­lie had strucke such a conscience into the exe [...]utioner that was prescribed for this villany, that hee refused to doe his office, the Earle himselfe was reported to haue fitted the cord, and strangled him h [...]mselfe. Heereupon being cited into England, he craued the Queenes pardon for his fault, and obtayned it at her Maiesties Manour of Greenwich; Tyr Oen par­doned. where he protested a peace with all his neighbours, but espe­cially with Turlogh Lenigh, and gaue hostages for the assu­rance of the performance: also, of not assuming vpon himselfe the title of O-Neale, or the exercise of any Iurisdiction ouer the Nobility that were h [...]s neighbours; of reducing all Tyr-Oen into the compleat forme of a County; of imposing no taxations (which they call Bonaghti) vpon his poore Coun­trey men that were vnder him: Of not blocking vp the pas­sage for prouision for the English Garrison at Blacke water, or the riuer More; of not admitting Monkes, Friers, or Nunnes, or other rebels to reside within his territories or do­minions; and of performing many more such like Articles; [Page 41] yet on this condition also, that Turlogh Le [...]igh, and the rest of the Nobility neere him might bee bound to a peace also with him, lest that his necessity of quietnesse should excite their after iniuries. After his returne into Ireland he made a confirmation of his former protestation before Sir William Fitz-Williams Deputy of Ireland, and other Councellours of Estate: and indeed for some time, there was such an vnexpe­cted reformation in his outward cariage, that might pro­mise an vnquestioned loyalty of an obedient subiect; which he so coloured with the smooth pretence of vertue, that his now exemplary duty seemed vnto many, from conscience, more then the feare of disobedience.

Not long before, the Lord Deputy hauing apprehended at home Hugh Roe-Mac-Mahon, a great Noble man, in the County of Monaghan, whom his owne iudgement before had preferred before some others of the Nobility, that con­tended with him for principality caused a company of com­mon souldiers to passe Iudgement vpon him (as the Irish complayne) condemned, and hanged him for hauing displai­ed his banners after the rude custome of the Irish, and de­manded his tributes from, them. His lands were diuided a­mongst the English, and some of the Mac-Mahons; certaine reuenewes onely being alotted them which they were to hold of the English. The policy of this iustice was to wea­ken as much as might bee a House greater then the rest, and [...]tronger in the multitude of dependants, and also vtterly to extinguish both the tyranny and the name of Mac Mahon; A title, that whosoeuer could purchase eyther by might or right, seemed to priuiledge them to any iniurious tyranny.

The terrour of this seuere Iustice so amazed the guilty con­science of Brian Ororcke, O-rorkes re­bellion. a noble man in Brennie that lies next to Monaghan, that striuing to preuent such torture in himselfe, he prouoked it; and for feare of being apprehended, turned traytor, and tooke vp armes against the Queene. But being vanquished by Sir Richard Bingham President of Co­naugh, [Page 42] he fled ouer into Scotland, and was deliuered at her demand to the hands of the Queene. The King of Scotland willingly sending her both him and this answer: That hee esteemed euery one of her enemies his owne: which indeed appeared, for hee not onely sleighted his Popish Peeres in Scotland, and the Earle of Westmorland with some other fa­ctious English, who would haue incensed him against the Queene; but also caused Iames and Donald Mac-Conell to giue in caution not to nourish any sedition in Ireland, either out of the Hebrides or Scotland.

THE FOVRE and thirtieth Yeere OF HER REIGNE.
Anno Domini 1591.1591

IN all this variety of troubles,The Queenes care of the French King. there was not any more busied the whole thoughts of the Queene, then the af­fayres in Bretaigne, and the desire of succouring the distressed King of France. Wherefore in the beginning of this yeere, sending ouer to him Sir Edmund Yorke, who louingly repro­ued him for his last three months silence; she admonished him to enter into consideration, how much it stood him vp­on to secure the Dutchie of Bretaigne, and to contriue some possible meanes to preuent the second comming of the Duke [Page 44] of Parma; promising him sufficient assistance, to driue out that enemy that had alreadie possessed his Countrey, vpon condition that the King would but paralell her forces.

The French King, hauing much extolled the care and loue of the Queene, gaue her amp [...]e thankes, and larger promi­ses, requesting her for some three thousand men for his war in Britaine, and some Regiments to be forthwith transpor­ted ouer into Picardy; Her ayde. nominating Cherburge, Glanuile, or Brest, and [...] lawe [...] too (I know not whether to make a ieast, rather than an answer) for Ports for retyring for them. Here­upon hee gaue full authority to Beav [...]ire No-cle, his ordi­narie Embassadour in England, to couenant for him with the Lord Burghley Treasurer;The conditi­ons agreed vpon between them. Charles Howard Lord Admirall, and the Lord Husdon Chamberlaine, Delegates for the Queene, whom he brought to these Articles.

First, that three thousand should be sent ouer into Picardy and Britaine, re [...]dy furnished.

Secondly, that the King [...]hould repay the charges of their transportation, their payes, and the prices of their furniture, and all necessaries at London, within a whole yeare, or soo­ner, if so bee the enemy should bee remoued sooner out of the Kingdome.

The Queene indeed was the more willing to condiscend to these couenants, by reason shee had heard that the Spani­ard had admission into Paris, the greatest city in France; and that the Parisians vouchsafed their lawfull King, no other title but the King of Bearne, acknowledging the Spaniard as their Lord and King; who hereupon conceiued no small hope of reducing France vnder his gouernment, which con­ceit he not at all dissembled before Ianine the Leaguers Em­bassadour then in Spaine. Likewise, because she vnderstood, that Pope Gregory the thirteenth of that name, had leuied many forces in Italy and Switzerland, vnder the Duke Mon [...] ­martin, against the King of France, whom hee had already by his Bull excommunicated; which Bull, notwithstanding [Page 45] the Parliament at Paris, and the other at Tours, condemned, and causing it to be hung vpon a Gibbet by the Hangman, set fire to it.

Hereupon came forth a strict Proclamation in England, A proclama­tion against the French Leaguers. that no man, vpon paine of treason, into any parts or places, belonging either to the Spaniard or Leaguers, should trans­port corne, munition, or any kind of traffique. And the same also was before set forth by the King of Scots. About which time Sir Henry Palmer, being sent forth, with some few men of warre, surprized thirteene of [...]heir Ships, at their returne from Noua Francia.

And Sir Roger Williams, with some six hundred souldiers, passed ouer to Diepe, where the enemy lay roauing about, hauing expresse Commission to recide in those quarters: and Sir Iohn Norris, Sir Iohn Norris sent into France. presently after, shipt ouer with the rest of the Souldiers into Britaine, vnder whom were Sir Henry his brother, and Sir Anthony Sherley, worthy Commanders.

These hauing ioyned forces with the Kings, and in vaine hauing assaulted Lamballe (where that famous Warriour Fr. La-Noue La-Noue slaine. died of a wound) tooke Castili [...]n: the vttermost of their glory in it being stretcht,Sir Roger Williams be­haues him­selfe brauely. to a keeping vnder of the Spaniard and Leaguers, not a remouing of them. Sir Roger Williams with his forces, and Chattre, the Gouernour of Diepe, hauing broken thorow the inclosures, barricadoed with wine vessels at Cinquensanoe, scattered all the Leaguers that infested the passage by [...]remble-Court and Lounde, and vanquished them; being rewarded for his valour by a com­mendatory letter' from the King to the Queene. This re­membrance of his commendations wrought him into such a forgetfulnesse of his Commission, that he left Diepe, accom­panied the King to the suburbs of Paris, and sent a Challenge to the Spaniards, to hazard with him, two hundred Pikes, and a hundred Musketiers against so many English; which being not performed, he returned againe to Diepe, but scarce had he bin come to it, but the King sending speedily for him, [Page 46] he posts with his Army presently to Noyon, hauing no such warrant in his Commission, where being too prodigall of others blood, hee exposed many English to great danger in the assault; the Queene not knowing of it, and th [...]refore being the more angry.

At that time, the French King sent Anthony Reaux, Reaux sent ouer to the Queene; to cer­tifie the Queene, that hee had resolued to bring Roan, and New-Hauen vnder his subiection, before the Duke of Parma should set foot into France too farre; and to that effect hee craued of her foure thousand English,Demandeth ayde. to be sent ouer into Normandy, intreating her to giue them pay for two months, promising, that if they continued a longer time, hee would pay them; and presently vpon their ariuall, come and ioyne his forces with them: But that in the meane time, he would continue still at Picardy, least otherwise those of Roan should haue some inkling of his resolution.

The Queene, who desired nothing more than the remo­uall of the Enemy from the Sea coasts, willingly condiscen­ded; so that the couenants were agreed vpon in the same fa­shion as before; onely with this clause, that they should bee confirmed and authorized by Act of Parliament, within few daies after. The number being compleat, arriued at Diepe, vn­der the command of Robert Earle of Essex, E [...]le of Es­sex sent [...]er. a worthy young man, and in great fauour with the Queene. Many Noble­men of note accompanied him, amongst whom Thomas Leighton, and Henry Killegrew were appointed to be of his counsell. The Earle at his ariuall here in France, vnderstood that the King was at Noyon; hee saw not so much as any preparation for warre, neither could any man instruct him what to doe with his forces; insomuch that he greatly won­dred at the King, that hee should so sleightly esteeme of his promise.

After some small continuance there, Sir Roger Williams posteth vnto him, intreating him in the name of the King, to make all possible speed to Noyon, Sent for to the King to Noyon. there to conferre about the [Page 47] manner of the war: thither when the Earle came, the King declared vnto him, that of necessity hee must dispatch into Champagne, to ioyne forces with the Germanes, promising to send to him Marshall Byron, and the Duke Montpe [...]sier, to besiege Roan. Hereupon the Earle returned to his owne forces, who had now encamped at Arques; where, to win the hearts of warlike men, hee knighted many,He knighteth many. thinking to adde courage by this addition of Honour, but not without the enuy and anger of many that enioyed that title at home, who tooke it ill to see him lauishly prostitute that title of so great credit with the English, which the Queene was so thri [...] ­ty in bestowing, euen vpon deseruing men. Byron and Mont­pensier, after so long expectation, as yet appeare not, the one being gone into Champagne, Is deceiued by the French. to the mariage of the Vicount Turene, with the daughter of the Duke of Balloigne; and the other hauing turned out of his way, to the vnnecessary besieging of Pierre-pont Castle.

The Queene, hauing beene very vrgent by her Leagier Sir Henry Vmpton with the King for the siege of Roan, ca [...] ­sed him to send Reaux ouer into England, to certifie her the reasons, why hee prolonged the siege. Shee was likewise very earnest with him for the ratifying of his late Couenants by Act of Parliament, but being a long time delayed, was at last forced to a content with his bare Confirmation of them.

All this while lay the Earle of Essex idle, although not without discontent of minde; who afterwards, to satisfie his thirsty minde with some difficult exploit, approached Roan, where hee lost Sir Walter Looseth his brother Sir Walter. his brother, who was shot through with a bullet; the Queene indeed checkt him both for his voyage to the King, without her knowledge, and for his incon [...]iderate approaching Ro [...], but hee quickly made his peace with her by a smooth Letter▪ and in the meane time behau'd himselfe brauely in the assault, and taking of Go [...]r­nay with the Marshall Byr [...]n.

[Page 48] About which time also, the French King sent ouer Beauoir with Letters to the Queene,Is dispatched [...]to Cham­paigne. to desire her to let the Earle of Essex passe into Champaigne with his forces, as if he had not so much as thought of the besieging of Roan; which the Queene tooke so ill at his hands, that she began to expostu­late with him concerning it;The French King brea­keth his pro­mis [...]. obiecting also, that now tw [...] moneths were expired since the couenant was made, and [...] her Souldiers had not their pay; that both she and they were deluded by him, being first hurried this way, and then that way, but euery way exposed to all possible danger; vpbrai­ding him likewise with the not performance of his promise, to the discredit of his gratitude, and that hee had now made her loose all her former charges. Wherefore, that now she had resolued to recall her Souldiers out of Normandy, vn­lesse hee made some better account of his promise, and tooke better order for the Souldiers pay from hence forward. But the King, by the insinuating language of his Letters, soone appeased this distast she conceiued against him, excusing all things with the necessity hee was in, and his tumultuous throng of businesse.

But in the beginning of Nouember, hearing that the Duke of Parma was in a readinesse, hee began slowly to buckle himselfe to the siege of Roan; and sent the Earle of Essex ouer into England to muster vp more forces for him.

The Earle quickly being returned, on Christmas Eue, they set vpon the Fort of Saint Catharine, in foure places at once; in three wherof the English valour was throughly tried, who were alone exposed to the fortune of slaughter.

And at the same time hee sent ouer the Lord Mournay d [...] Plessis, Mor [...] a [...]de required. to require of the Queene a new supply, to hinder the comming of the Duke of Parma; neither did the Queene deny it, but first toucht him bitterly about his carelesnesse, in delaying the siege of Roan, and preuenting betimes the D [...]ke of Parma's comming. Shee desired him, a little [...] fauourably to deale with the English, and not stil to put them [Page 49] alone vpon all his most dangerous exploits.

But I leaue this to the French Historians, who indeed hi­therto haue either beene ignorant of it, or dissembled their knowledge. And as willingly would I leaue to the paines of our Ecclesiasticall Writers, the mad frenzie, or rather im­pious blasphemy of William Hacket, which about this time first began to peepe forth; about which I would more wil­lingly employ my memory to forget that which euen af­frights me with repetition; but lest by concealing his wic­kednesse, I might seeme either to fauour the cause, or to dis­parage the truth of it, take here briefly, the summe of his large blasphemy.

This same Hacket H [...]ket his education and behaui­our. was an ordinary Yeoman of Oundell, in the County of Northampton, an illiterate, insolent, and cru­ell natur'd fellow, so prone to reuenge for the smallest iniury, that when an ingenuous Schoole-master desired to be recon­ciled and made friends with him, as hee embraced him close, he bit off his nose, and being greatly intreated by the poore man to restore it againe, that hee might haue it sowed on whilst the wound was greene, hee like a Dog, deuoured it. He was so great an alien to all piety and deuotion, that what­soeuer by chance hee had heard at Sermons, hee would sit scoffing and gybing at ouer his pots: afterwards, hauing spent that estate which he had with his wife, in riotousnesse, on a sudden hee became a very vpright man, and one of a most holy conuersation; hee was much giuen to hearing Sermons, and reading the Scriptures, insomuch, that in a short time, he began to belye himselfe with Reuelati­onsHis reuelations. from heauen, saying, that hee was extraordinarily called by God: by which meanes hee insinuated himselfe into the acquain­tance of many Diuines, who out of a fiery pure zeale, tooke sore paines to bring the discipline of the Presbytery from Ge­neva into England.

Amongst them was one Wiginton, His confed [...] ­rates. a Minister, and a brain­sicke fellow, one that had already learn'd to contemne the [Page 50] iurisdiction of the Magistrate:1590 by this mans means he was brought acq [...]ainted with Edmund Copinger, a Gentleman of a good house, who had perswaded himselfe and one Ar­thington, a great admirer of his gifts, that hee was also e [...] ­traordinarily called by God, to the good of the Church and Common-weale, and that hee had order given him immedi­ately from heauen, to bring the Queene and her Councell to a better minde, to wit, to imbrace the discipline of Geneua. He confirmed himselfe and the rest the more in this faith, ha­uing beene instructed by some Ministers, that God both dai­ly stirre and raise up Labourers in his Church extraordinari­ly. Since that time reioycing in his spirit, hee would impart all to Hacket, willingly, who with his praying extempore, fa­sting on Sundaies, boasting how hee had beene, buffetted by Satan, and faining an ordinary talke with God, which hee would take to be true vpon his damnation, and with many bitter oathes did so sweare the people into a beleefe of him, that they esteemed him greatly beloued of God, and greater than Moses, or S. Iohn Baptist: neither did he obscurely in­timate, that he was a Prophet of Gods reuenge and iustice, wheresoeuer the people imbraced not his mercy: also pro­phecying, that from henceforth there should bee no Pope, and that this yeere England should bee sorely afflicted with famine, pestilence and warre, vnlesse the Lords discipline (for so hee cal'd it) and Reformation were admitted and practi­sed ouer and throughout the Land. And for bringing in of this said Reformation, they deuised a plot, as was found out afterwards, to accuse the Lord Archbishop of Can­terbury, They seek [...] to accuse the Archbishop and the Chancellour. and the Lord Chancellor of treason, because they cheiefly opposed themselues against this Reformation; determining besides to make both of them away, and all the rest that in the Star [...] chamber should giue sentence against the promotion of the Reformation, or against the Ministe [...] that desired it: they printed also many rithmes, whereby they thought to stir the people to sedition, amongst which [Page 51] this was a dogmaticall Tene [...], that it was lawfull for a true Christian, although hee were a countrey Swaine, or a very Clowne, to prescribe a manner of gouernment to his Prince, and euen to dispossess [...] the Queene of her Throne, if shee pro­moted not Reformation.

Indeed, Hacket Hackets ha­tred to the Queene. exceedingly hated the Queene, as appears in that he durst mutter, that she had fell from her right of suc­cession, and in that he durst offer violence to her picture, in thrusting it through the breast with a Poniard: neither was this a great wonder, for he had perswaded himselfe already, that God had made him King of Europe, and that therefore hee ought not to endure a Riuall. Likewise hee perswaded both Copinger and Arthington, that they were inspired, not onely with a Propheticall, but euen with an Angelicall spirit, and they perswaded therewith, exhibited to him all obedience and reuerence, as appointed King by God, there­by endeauoring to giue fewell to this sedition, which they longed to see on flame. About Iuly next, they came to a No­bleman of the Realme, and proffered to him the tuition of the Kingdome, vnder the Queene, to whom they dedicated the life of Hacket and Arthingtons prophesies, but hee ei­ther hauing or faining vrgent businesse to doe, sleighted both them and their courtesie.

Shortly after, they certified Wiginton, that Christ had ap­peared to them the night before, not bodily, as hee is en­thron'd in heauen, but Spiritually, by possessing Hacket in the spirit, more than any of the rest: that Hacket was that Angell that was to come before the day of iudgement, with his Fanne and his Hooke, to separate the Sheepe from the Goates, and that hee should tread downe Sathan and the Kingdome of Antichrist. Afterwards from Wiginton, they betake themselues to Hacket againe, by whose side, as he lay downe vpon his bed, they prostrated themselues in very ear­nest prayer, & Hacket rysing vp, ioyned with them in praier, oftentimes zealously requesting the Spirit to direct them to [Page 52] Gods glory, and then went to bed againe. Not long after Arthington willed Copinger in the name of Iesus Christ to annoint Hacket with the Holy Ghost, & make him King: So Copinger, hauing thrice humbly kissed the pauement, and bowed the knee with great reuerence, approached towards Hacket; but he droue him backe with his hand, saying, It is needlesse for you to annoint me, for I am already annointed by the Holy Ghost; goe ye onely and doe as I command you; Goe and preach through the City, that Iesus Christ is come with his fanne in his hand, to iudge the world; if any man aske you where he is, direct him hither; if they will not beleeue, let them come, and if they can, let them kill mee, for as sure as God is in heauen, so no lesse sure is it that Christ is now come to iudgment.

Scarce had hee ended this commandement,His disciples sent abroad. but they pr [...] ­sently flye vpon the execution of it, and running out of doores, cry vp and downe the streetes, that Christ is come, redoubling with a loud voice, that and many other things which Hacket had told them, crying, Repent, repent, &c. throughout the City, till they came to Cheapside: and when they were much pestered there with a throng of people, they got vp into a Cart, and there partly without booke, and partly by the helpe of some notes they had, they openly cryed out, that Hacket had participated of Christ, by his more peculiar Spirit a body truly glorified; and that he was now come with his Fanne, to propagate the Gospel through Eurpoe, and to constitute a new discipline and Common­wealth in England; intimating withall vnto them the place where he lodged; declaring themselues to bee two Prophets, the one of Mercy, and the other of Iudgement, that were al­lotted to him for facilitating this so difficult an enterprise, vowing, protesting, and swearing, that as they hoped to b [...] saued, all this was true.

Then they added, that Hacket was a supreame and sole Monarch, and that all the Kings and Princes of Europe were [Page 53] but his Vassals, that therefore hee must onely be obeyed, and the Queene deposed.

Lastly, they railed at bitterly, and cursed the Lord Arch­bishop of Canterbury, and the Lord Chancellour, as the sole oppugners of the true and sincere Religion, which they would haue brought in: and then hauing endeauoured to haue crowded into other quarters of the City, with like pro­clamations, but being hindred with the presse of the people, and the perswasion of some of their friends, they returned home to Hackets lodging.

Shortly after, being apprehendedThey are ap­prehended. and brought before some of the Priuy Councell, and other Magistrates, to bee exami­ned, they behaued themselues with such contempt before them, that they would not so much as stand bare, but per­emptorily answer'd those that reproued them, that they were aboue all Magistrates. Shortly after this Hacket Hacket con­demned. was accu­sed of treason, who acknowledged himselfe guilty, where­upon he was condemned: at which time he vsed many blas­phemous speeches, euen to the terrour of those that heard him; cunningly, as much thought, to bring the Iudges to thinke, that hee was distracted in his wits, but yet in all his other gestures and behauiours, there was no signe of any such matter, for they relished more of a well setled grauity, than any such distemper: afterwards was he drawne vpon a hur­dle into Cheap-side, incessantly crying all the way with a fearefull voice, Iehoua Messias, Iehoua Messias, Beh [...]ld the heauens open, beh [...]ld the Son of the most high comming downe to deliuer me.

When hee was brought to the Gallowes, and wished to confesse his sinnes against God and the Queene, he vsed ma­ny contumelious speeches against the Queene; But for God, he cryed out to him with a Stentors voice,His blasphe­my at the time of exe­cution. O heauenly God, Almighty Iehoua, Alpha and Omega, Lord of Lords, and King of Kings, O eternall God, thou knowest that I am the true Iehouah whom thou hast sent, now shew some miracle [Page 54] from the cl [...]des [...] conuert all, these infidels, and deliuer [...] from mine enemies: If thou wilt n [...]t (O how I tremble [...] the repetition) I will fire the heauens, and with these hands p [...]ll thee from thy throne, vsing sometimes speeches, if it were possible worse than these. Then turning about [...] the Hang [...] man that was [...]itting the rope to his necke, [...] Bastard, said he, wilt thou hang thy King Hacket? and after that being haltred, hee lift vp his eies to heauen, saying, I [...] this my reward for my kingdome bestowed, behold I come and will reuenge it.

The rope stopt his mouth at this blasphemy, but not all his punishment, for being immediately cut downe, accor­ding to his sentence, hee was streight way quartered. And thus we see how the enemy of mankinde besots those whom he findes affecting a counterfeit holinesse, and not contented with sobriety in knowledge.

C [...]pi [...]ger Coping [...]r steru'd him­selfe. shortly after, hauing voluntarily s [...]ru'd him­selfe, died in prison; but Arthington Arthington recants. growing wiser to re­pentance, acquitted himselfe of this folly, in a serious booke which was set out to the same purpose, by him not long after.

And indeed, not onely these, but many others, who hauing condemned the receiued discipline of the Church of Eng­land, and reprooued the calling of Bishops, had in vaine [...] with many contumelious speeches, hitherto opposed th [...] Prelates, had now drawne into their faction, many of th [...] Lawyers of the Realme, who sharpened both their tongu [...] and pens, against the Queenes iurisdiction in Ecclesiastica [...], matters, The Queenes iurisdiction in spirituall matters im­pugned. and consequently against her delegating the same to the Clergie, as being a thing most vniust, publishing [...] print, that against the law of the Realme men were vniust [...] ­ly oppressed in our Courts Ecclesiasticall, that the Quee [...] had no right residing in her selfe of such Iurisdiction, and that others therefore could not iustly exercise the same, be­ing delegated to them from her, alledging that those [...] [Page 55] Ecclesiasticall, ought not to impose vpon a guilty man an oath of Dutie, which they call Insuriandum ex officio, by reason that no man is compelled to be his owne accuser, and by rea­son that thereby a man must either wilfully condemne him­selfe, or by forswearing himselfe, for the safety of life and goods, ruine his owne soule.

Besides this, they vrged the forme of the ancient Writ, running in this manner; Wee will and command the Sheriffe of our Counties, S. N. &c. that they permit not any within their Bailife-ship to make recognizance by oath, but onely in cause of Matrimoniall, and Testamentary.

Against these men,It is defen­ded and maintained. the Professours of the Ecclesiasticall Law, maintained the Queenes Iurisdiction in spirituall mat­ters, wherein shee had beene before inuested by act of Parli­ament, alledging, that to withstand that, was onely to assault the Queenes Maiesty, and with the breach of their oathes of Alleageance, to insult ouer the sacred Prerogatiue of their Princesse.

They answered, that Ecclesiasticall Courts had authority to take notice of other causes besides Matrimoniall, and Te­stamentary, as appeares by the Statute of Circumspecte aga­tis, and by the Articles of the Clergie, vnder King Edward the first. Concerning the Writ, they much suspected the truth of it, by the reason of the variety of reading of it, and the vncertainty of the time of it's originall, being it is some­times read disiunctiuely, To make recognition, or to take oath. Besides this, they answered, that to make Recognition, did not signifie a deposition of witnesses, or answer to the par­ty conuented, but onely the confession of the debt, or hol­ding plea of debts and chattels; concluding that such taking of oaths were exacted time out of minde, to auoid Simony, Adultery, and other workes of darkenesse; especially, if the Information be (as they call it) clamorous. And although that no man be compelled to betray himselfe with his owne accusation, yet that hee is bound to bee accused by a Fame, [Page 56] and to shew whether or no hee can purge himselfe, and de­fend his innocency, by reason that such penance imposed, is not to bee esteemed a Punishment, but onely Physicke, to cure sinners, and to fright others from the like sinne, or to take away any generall scandall, according to that of the ho­ly Writ, Bee not ashamed for thy soules sake, to tell the truth, for there is a confusion that bringeth sinne, and there is [...]ne that bringeth grace and gl [...]ry.

But wherefore stand I deciding this controuersie? which if any man will iudiciously scanne, let him consult with the learned Apologie of Doctor Cosins, Doctor of Law, or of Iohn Morris, or Lancelot Andrews, whose learned writings in this matter, will soone giue the scrupulous conscience of any [...]an a speedy resolution.

By this meanes the Queene easily impeached the aduersa­ries of her Iurisdictions violence, and conserued both in her selfe, and in her Clergie, the Ecclesiasticall Iurisdiction free from blemish.

About this time was it, when Thomas Howard, the second sonne of the D. of Norfolke, with six ships of the Queenes; and as many Victuallers, had expected the Spanish Nauies returne from America this whole six moneths. And abou [...] this time lingring about the Iland Flores, amongst those of Azores, where most of his Mariners languished (as for Soul­diers he had none); where hee was suddenly ouertaken by Don Alphons [...] Bazan, that was sent out with fifty thr [...] ships, to conduct the Nauy home in safety, in so much th [...] he in the Admirall with much adoe escaped into the main [...] Ocean. Captaine Richard Greenuile Captaine Gree [...]ile in the Reare Admirall called the Reuenge. in the Reare Admirall, who was called the Reuenge, (what by reason partly of stay he made to recall his men aboard from out of the Iland, and partly out of a couragious minde, as vnhappily in successe, as inconsiderately in the enterprize,) for bad to strike saile; by which meanes he became hem'd in betweene the Iland and the Spanish Nauy,Is assailed. which was diuided into foure squadrons; [Page 57] one whereof, while hee endeauoured couragiously to make way thorow, he was so ouerburthened with the massie Spa­nish Admirall S. Philip, that it kept all the winde from him on one side, and on the other side three more did the like. Yet the Spaniards that were diuers times comming on, were either faine to recoyle againe, or were cast into the Sea, and with a continuall succession of fresh men in their places, to their great slaughter, they still maintained fight against them all the night.

And now began the English to want powder, their Pikes being broken, and euery valiant Souldier being slaine or sore wounded, the Masts of their fore-Decke, and hind [...]Decke fell downe. Their Cables cut; the Ship torne with eight hun­dred shot of great Ordnance;Sorely woun­ded. Capt. Greeneuill being grie­uously wounded, euen as he was hauing a plaister, was againe wounded in the head, and the Surgeon at the same time slaine. At the beginning of the dawning of the day, the hatches all besmeared with blood, and paued with Carkases, and men halfe dying, afforded but a sad spectacle to all the be­holders.

After this, hauing now fought fifteene houres, Greenuill seeing his case to be desperate, willed them to sinke the ship; but the Pilot forbade it, and hauing got the maior parts as­sent thereto, he was conueyed in the ship boat, and yeelded to the Spanish Admirall, vpon condition of safety and free­dome from the Gallies: but Captaine Greenuill, Greenuill y [...]lded vpon condition. languishing vnder the torments of his deaths wounds, being brought into the Spanish Admirall, within two daies after d [...]ed, be­ing sufficiently praised for his valour euen of his enemies. The ship was yeelded vp, but hauing beene board thorow in many places,The Reuenge sunke. was afterwards swallowed vp in a tempest, be­ing man'd with two hundred Spaniards at least; so that the Reuenge perished not vnreuenged.

The Lord Howard [...] more on his good courage, than ability to [...] haue put in amongst [Page 58] them, bu [...] the Pilate was so farre from iniuring them with his consent, that hee would rather haue tumbled himselfe in­to the Sea, than, not to haue hazarded, but willingly thrust the Queenes ship vpon so apparant danger: and indeed, it seemed not good to them all at last to vndergoe a skirmis [...], without hope of successe to themselues, or succour to their distressed companions, when they but once considered, that to hazard fiue ships, against three and fiftie, was nothing els [...] but inconsidera [...]ely to their owne destruction, to thrust th [...] glory of a victory vpon their enemies. Yet notwithstan­ding, both hee and the rest, especially Sir Thomas [...] (who two houres together still succour'd the Re [...]enge) d [...]d all the seruice that either the courtesie of the winde, or the con­tinuance of the day light would suffer them to doe▪

The English abundantly repaired the losse of that one ship,Are [...]itall for her losse. with the surprizall of many Spanish; in one where [...] besides other riches, were found about some twenty tho [...]sand Popish Indulgences, sent from the Pope into America▪ for they compell the [...]imple Indians, euery yeere to buy [...] remission of their sinnes at the Popes market, to their [...] aduantage and gaine.

About this time George Riman, an excellent Sea-man,The East In­dy voyage and Iames Lancaster, set forth also for the East Indie voyage: [...] hauing reach [...] the Cape of Good Hope at Cab [...] Corrient [...] the Admirall was swallowed vp in a tempest, and Riman in it. [...]. Afterwards, the heauens did thunder most fearefully, and in the rest of the Ships foure of the Mariners, hauing their neckes wreathed aside with the force of the thunder, di­ed instantly. Ninety more were taken blinde; many other [...] lamed; some stretched as it were vpon the racke; and yet all of them, sooner than their owne expectation could haue cu­red them, recouered their health againe, and yet vndaunted for all this went on their voyage.

Whilst they went to water at the Iland Comoro, the Bar­barians slew thirty of them, besides the Pilot, yet all this mi­sery [Page 59] diuerted not their resolution, but they wintered at Zan­ziber; and about they spring the surprized some Mah [...]me­tane ships of Peg [...], with wooden anchors; and other Portu­gall ships, well laden with Pepper and Rice. After that they came to Zeile, and the Iland Ni [...]ubar, plenteously inricht with Cinamon and Diamonds; but then hauing not aboue thirty men aliue, and prouision of victuals not sufficient for so few, they turned saile home againe: hauing refresht them­selues a little at S. Hellens Iland, they were tossed vpon Tri­nidado, but found small comfort there, till such time as they chanced to light vpon Charles Barbotier a French man, who relieued their necessity; and as hee did that charitably, so as discreetly did hee eschew their treachery, which it was like­ly not they, but their necessity plotted against him.

Afterwards Lancaster, hauing somewhat refreshed him­selfe in the Iland Nona, the ship being tossed with a violent tempest, returned home with seuen more as weather-beaten as it selfe.Their re­t [...]rne The rest shortly returned by the courtesie of the French, home too, rich enough in that they returned; hauing by their example taught the English Nation the manner of trading with the East Indians.

In the meane time, Captaine Thomas Cauendish, who be­fore in the yeere 1578. had incircled the whole world, and returned with as great glory as experience, now againe had made a voyage with fiue ships to the Magellan Straights;Cauendish his voyage to the Magel­lan [...] straights hi­therto when by reason of the crosse windes hee could not reach, he fell with the coast of Brasill; while, immaturely dy­ing, hee blamed much in his last Will and Testament Cap­taine Iohn Dauis, as one that per [...]diously had forsaken him.

And now the warres growing hot on euery side, there was a Proclamation set forth,A Proclama­tion against transportati­on of prouision into Spaine. forbidding any man vnder paine of treason, to transport corne, or warlike munition, either be­longing to sea or land, into the Spaniards Dominions: a rea­son thereof being expresly added, that hee had bin a pro­fessed [Page 60] enemy to this kingdome, and that hee had refused to confirme the ancient league, made by his Predecessors.

Likewise, by reason that English Seminaries had daily crept into England out from their Seminaries at Rome, France, and Spaine, (for the Spaniard had lately erected a Se­minary for English fugitiues too, at Valledolid, to withdraw the hearts of the Queenes subiects from her obedience, and to draw them to the Spanish [...]action). In October there came also another Proclamation, forbidding any man, so much as to entertaine any one, vnlesse before hand he enquire who he be, and whether or no he goe to Church, by what meanes he liues, and where he recided the last yeere, with many o­ther questions: and if any man chance not to giue ready an­swer, that then they should be sent to the Del [...]gates of seue­ral [...]hires, to preuent further mischiefe.

This Proclamation being held too sharpe and seuere, drew forth from the aduersary poysonous writings, thicke and three-fold, especially against the Lord Treasurer, as the one­ly occasioner thereof; yet amply commending Sir Christ [...] ­pher Hatton, as somewhat enclined to their side, by reason his natural cle [...]ency cou [...]d not be drawne into a perswasion▪ that in case of Rel [...]gion, men should bee burnt, hang'd, or quartered;The death of Sir Christo­pher Hatton. but hee good man died the day before the publi­cation thereof, being troubled with the Diabetes, (a dis [...]ase as vnmannerly as troublesome) & as much with the Queenes discontent, somewhat eagerly requiring the Tythes and first fruits from him, which by the priuiledge of his fauour with the Queene, he well hoped she would haue pardoned him.

Hee descended from a family more ancient that great, i [...] Northampton-shire, and being a tall handsome young man, and of a comely countenance, he came into such fauour with the Queene, that first shee made him one of her Gentlemen Pensioners; afterwards for his modest pleasant behauiour, she made him one of the Gentlemen of her priuy Chamber; then she made him Captaine of the Guard, Sub-chamber­laine, [Page 61] and one of her priuy Councell; and lastly, Lord Chan­cellour of England, and one of the Order of Saint George: hee was a man of a good [...]y disposition, and of a great pity to the poore; one very liberall towards all good Schollers, (whereupon he was chosen Chancellour of Oxford) and one that performing so weighty a calling as the Chancellorship of England, kept himselfe alwaies with an vpright consci­ence. Hee was honourably buried at Pauls, and a Tombe erected at the charge of Sir William Newport, whom, taking the name of Hatton, he made his heire. The custodie of the Great Seale, for some moneths together remained with the Treasurer, Hunsdon, Cobham, and Buckhurst, but afterwards was committed to Iohn Puckering, with the title of Lord Keeper of the Great Seale.

About this time Brian O-rorke, Brian O-rorke [...]raig­ned. a Nobleman of Brennie in Ireland, who being so zealous as hee was for the Spanish cause, was, as wee said the last yeere, sent by Iames of Scot­land into England, now was arraigned at Westminster-Hall.

The chiefe matters whereof he was indited, were

First, for stirring vp Alexander Mac-C [...]nel and others, to a rebellion against the Queene.

Secondly, for willing and commanding the Queenes pi­cture in a frame to bee drawne at a horses taile, and to the great disgrace of the Queene represe [...]ted therein, to bee he­wen and cut in pieces.

Thirdly, for hauing giuen entertainement to some ship­wrackt Spaniards, against the expresse proclamation of the Lord Deputy.

Fourthly, for hauing set most of his neighbours houses on fire, onely to wreake his owne mischi [...]uous stomacke.

Fiftly, for killing many; and offering the Kingdome of Ireland to the King of Scotland.

Hee being informed all these things by an interpreter (for hee vnderstood not a word of English) very barbarously in­solent, refused to put himselfe vpon the verdict and sentence [Page 62] of his Iury, vnlesse they would giue him longer time of re­spite, vnlesse they would allot him an Aduocate, vnlesse his accusations sent out of Ireland were deliuered into his hands; and lastly, vnlesse the Queene her selfe would sit chiefe Iudge vpon the Bench. The Lord Chiefe Iustice replying by an interpreter, that if he would not put himselfe vpon the ver­dict of his Iury, to try and examine his case, they must pro­ceede against him by Law, according to the contents of his accusation; he answered nothing againe but this, If it seeme good to be so, let it bee so.

The sentence of death being pronounced vpon him, with­in few daies he suffered a traytors death at Tyburne, but with so obstinately a resolute courage, that hee euen at that time scoft at Meilerie Chreah Archbishop of Casseils, who in Irish began to comfort and consolate him, hauing beene a wicked man in conuersation, and of a wauering faith; and besides, hauing broken his vow in refusing the order of the Fran­cisca [...]es.

This yeare the Queene in Dublin, the chiefe city of Ireland, founded a Colledge, which she dedicated to the holy and in­diuiduall Trinity, in the place where was before the Mona­stery of All-Saints; shee enricht the same with the priui­ledges of teaching, and conferring and bestowing degrees, the titles and honour of learning (which priuiledges the Bi­shop of Rome had granted to that City in 1320.) thereby ho­ping to propagate both humanity and religion throughout the whole Iland, and to ease well giuen Parents of the great cost and charges of sending their children into forraine Vniuersities.

At the same time Hugh Odonell, (whom Sir Iohn Perot, Lord Deputy, hauing by a trick inticed into a Ship, had com­mitted to prison in Dublin, for feare lest that being of a tur­bulent spirit, hee should cause some vproares,) now escaped out of prison againe, and by letters to the Lord Deputy, now certified him, that his father had resigned vnto him the au­thority [Page 63] of O-d [...]nell, that is, rule of Tir-C [...]nel [...], whereup­on he began a fresh to mutinie in Ireland, as Bothwell did in Scotland; concerning whom, although willingly I would not wea [...]e my selfe into a mixture of the affaires of Scotland, yet somewhat must bee spoken, especially since they are both so riueted together, that the one yeelds light to the others vn­derstanding, which otherwise would bee clouded in much obscurity.

Bothwell t [...]erefore, wh [...] had bee [...]e accused of trading in witchcraft, [...] had latel [...] [...]scaped [...] of prison, [...]eing most outragiously incensed against Metellane the Chancellour, (whom he suspected the greatest engineer of his accusations) altogether applieth himselfe to the bringing vnder of both him and the King himselfe to his power; and to that intent towards the end of December, he breaketh in vpon the Court which was at Edenborough, with some more of his accom­plices, and English borderers, and there assaulted the Queens Chamber with a mallet, and the Kings and Chancellors both with fire. But his plot being frustrated in successe, by the nimble obedience of the Citizens that came in against him, hee suffered a repulse, and was glad to flie; some of his attendants and Pages were thereupon hanged, and the Mallet also vpon the Queenes Cham­ber doo [...]e, in remembrance of so bold a villanie.

THE FIVE and thirtieth Yeere OF HER REIGNE.
Anno Domini 1592.1592

AT the very entrance in of the next yeere, the King by Proclamation de­clared, that Bothwell Bothwell is proclaimed traitor. was the author of this dangerous and ignominious en­terprize; that he was a fellow so moul­ded and soadred together with all vi­ces, that hauing giuen defiance to ver­t [...] and godlinesse, hee durst insult ouer God himselfe, much more vpon the authority, ordained by God. Declaring also how that after his returne from Italy, he had associated him­selfe with all manner of companies, although hee had no­thing to doe with them: that very villainously he had slaine [Page 65] Dauid Humes; [...]hic [...] off [...]nce, [...] his mercy had condoned and pardoned him; that he eschewed by all meanes possible to come to tryall for any of his [...]normious o [...]rages, because a Wizard in Italy had foretold him▪ that his destruction would come from the iust iudgement of the King: Adding, how that this iealous feare of triall greatly increased in him, at that time, when hee outragiously had slaine William Stewart of Vchiltre, the Kings seruant: and how that thereupon with all his [...] and might, with [...]is [...]loody villaines and comp [...]ices, [...] and Spaniard, the destruction of both Realmes. Then how hee had ranked himselfe to the [...] side, who a [...] the Riuer [...], at the Bridge there, [...] the Court, out of some pri­uate disco [...]ten [...], [...] downe their [...]rmes, He still marched, and [...] his Campe against Edenborough, where hee surprized some; and from whence he retreated not, till such time as he heard the King was in a readinesse [...] him.

Then was declared, how after that, hee had betooke [...] ­selfe to diuellish Arts, to [...] and Witchcraft, to [...] away the life of his King (when he was absent in Denmarke) which was onely out of hope of auoiding his desert of pu­nishment, and obtaining [...] authority [...] so much feared, to wit, the Crowne. That hereupon [...] committed to prison, from whence, euen when hee was [...] to be set out vpon some easie conditions, his [...]onscience so prickt him, that by priuate escaping, he [...] cour­tesie of his [...]awfull deliuery.

And then, how, to expiate this off [...]nce, he had [...] another more hainous, to wit, in assaulting the Court vpon no other resolution, but by making away his King, to [...]ick Iu­stice vnder feet, to dominere in his villany [...]; that he sought out for the King, & attempted the Kings and Chancellours lodgings by fire, and the Queenes with a [Page 66] [...] [Page 67] [...] [Page 68] [...]

[Page 69] [...] [...]ntailed vpon his [...] b [...]fore-hand,His g [...]ods en­tailed vpon his sonne. who had married the sister of the Earle of Essex, and afterwards the Queene confirmed also the same. [...]hus did the vnbrid­l [...]d vntoward [...]sse of a roauing tongue, cause distruction to a worthy man, and one that deserued will of the Common­wealth; leauing an admonition to all posteritie, that re­proachfull words against Princes, finde a deepe impresion in them, and commonly a very sharpe memorie.

T [...]e French King, whom wee said, had pitcht his Campe t [...]e last yeere, with the auxiliary forc [...]s of the Earle of Essex at [...], there also with his small army wintred. The spring [...], and [...]e wearied with these troubles of his [...] siedge; and finding himsel [...] vnable for the taking of so [...] into the City, hee called to him the Earle of Essex▪ and suffered it not; for the [...] of the Frenchman was such, that [...] it not good to [...] a C [...]y bee ransack't by the [...], which [...] shortly yeeld i [...] selfe into [...].

The Ea [...]le of Essex, The Earle of Essex re­t [...]rnes from France. being de [...]pri [...]ed of any hope of mat­ters to doe▪ (after he had challenged Vill [...]s, th [...] Gouernour of the City of Roan, to a single combate, and hee no [...] [...] weather beaten and w [...]ne away, [...] tooke his leaue of the [...] King, and made hast ouer, being called by the Queen [...], and aduised by his friends, that many enuious men at Court, had [...], and secretly, and craf [...]ly had set [...].


[...], [Page 70] [...]arched vp [...]ards in to Fr [...]ce, with his sonne [...], as intending to bring aide to those that lay in Garrison in Ch [...]me. He tooke Ne [...]fve-Chastel; and hauing skirmished somewhat fortunately against the King [...]t [...], hee so encreased the stomackes of those of Ro [...]a [...], that bursting forth, they inuaded the Kings Campe, and got ma­ny of his peeces of Ordnance. The Duke returnes to Abbe­uille, as if hee were going home: the King indeed thought hee had beene gone home; and vpon that dissolues the siege for want of prouision, and dismisseth a great part of his Ar­my. Vpon that, the Duke without any delay, embracing his occasion, pursues his enterprize againe; and hauing made sound the Riuer S [...]yne, for a passage for victuals, hee takes [...], and reli [...]cues the distressed City with store of pro­nision; hee strengtheneth the Rebels; and out of a cra [...]ty warlike policy, alwaies delaieth battle, yet not without great losse; and being distempered in body, returnes home.

All which time, how valiantly the English behaued them­selues in battell, when the Army of the Leaguers was van­quished at [...], the King himselfe by letters, dated at [...]is­cara-ville, to the Queene, sufficiently witnessed; extolling Sir Roger Williams likewise, as another C [...]sar, and Sir Mat­thew Morgan.

The French King, being ouer-whelm'd with these weigh­ty warres, againe flies for aide to the Queene of England, de­siring pro [...]ision for Warre, and six thousand men, for his war in Britaine. She condiscendeth to send foure thousand, and some pieces of Ordnance, and other furniture, vpon condition agreed vpon by [...], and [...], De­legates, for the King of France; That the King should not enter into a League with the Leaguers, vnlesse they had first submitted themselues, and promised assistance to driue the Spaniard out of the Kingdome; That hee should not also make a peace with the Spaniard, except shee were agreeing thereto; That he should allot some harbour and re [...]ptacle [Page 71] for the English, and ioyne to them foure thousand French footmen, and a thousand horsemen; that within a yeare hee should pay the charges of their transportations, and money for their pay; and that this agreement should bee registred amongst the Acts of the Chamber of Accounts.

Vpon this, Captaine Norris, who had beene sent for out of Britaine into France, to certifie the Queene of the procee­dings therein, was sent backe againe in October. When the English had arriued in France, there was not any French­men to ioyne forces with them ac [...]ording to the agreements. But Captaine Norris, cal'd from one place to another; some­time to warre in Normandie and Lamaine; sometimes else­where, suffering the Spaniards all this while to strengthen themselues in Britaine; at which the Queene was so discon­tented▪ that had shee not for certaine vnd [...]rstood, that the Duke of Parma was on another expedition into France, to supply the forces in Britaine, and to seize vpon some other Hauens, certainly she had recal'd her men home againe.

But whilst the Duke of Parma was in a readinesse for this expedition, hee died, hauing beene Commander of the Spa­nish forces in the Low Countries fourteene yeeres. He was a Prince most abundant in all vertues, hauing purchased lo [...]e and respect, euen amongst his enemies; whom euen the Queene neuer named, but very honourably, and with com­mendation; but [...]et so warily that his praises hurted not.

The Queene being not ignorant that the Spaniard main­tained these warres, not trusting vpon his owne strength, as the gold of America, and that by that meanes hee pierced into all secrets of States, corrupted good councell, and much impaired many mens loyalty, determined to send Sir Walter Ra [...]leigh, with fifteene men of warre into America, to seize vpon Panama, where they bring together their gold, or to surprize the Spanish Fleet; but hauing exceeding contrary windes, hee was three whole months before he strucke saile. At last, hauing out reacht the Promontory of Neri [...], hee [Page 72] vnderstood of a certaine, that the Spaniard had expresly commanded,Rauleigh's expedition to America frustrated. that none set out of America this yeare.

Not long after, a mighty tempest dispersed the English Fleet, and drowned their little Fli [...]-boates; so that now the opportunity of following his intent being lost, being about to returne againe, hee distributedd his Nauy into two parts, committing the one to Sir Iohn Borrough, second sonne to the Lord Borrough, and the other to Martin Fourbisher; hee giues [...]he one charge to [...]oaue about the Spanish coast, and hinder ships from entring, willing the other to tarry at the Ilands of Az [...]r [...]s, for the returne of the Carackes out of the East Indies. Neither did this purpose faile of a wished suc­cesse, for whilst the Spanish Admirall at sea, rests onely in ob­seruing and watching Fourbisher, hee altogether neglecte [...] his care of the Carackes. Borrough (to omit some small ships hee tooke from the Spaniard, and how valiantly hee winded himselfe out of danger, when hee was encompassed betweene the Spanish Coasts, and the enemies Nauy) hauing arriued at a little towne called Santa Cruce, in the [...]land Flo­res within a few daies after, espied a Portugall CarackeA Portugall Caracke pur­sued by Bor­rough. (which three of the Earle of Cumberlands ships lay in wait for, but by reason of a sluggish calme, they could not come neere them;) a tempest arising in the night, compelled both the English and the Portugals to take vp anchor; but on the next morning, the English might discerne the Portugal [...]s vn­lading at the Iland Flores, as fast as they could possibly; who discrying the English making after them, presently set their ship on fire.

Borrough, hauing vnderstood by one or two Captiues whom he had taken, that more and greater Carackes were to come that way, seuered all his ships to the space of two leagues distance, ouer against the Iland Flores, and thereby had [...] of viewing farre and neare the Coast about him; neither did fortune de [...]aine them long in expectation, for behold, a great Caracke, called, the Mother of God, which [Page 73] was a hundred and sixty foot long, and seuen deckes in height, laden with rich Merchandise, and manned with six hundred men, came in their sight.

The English set vpon her with many peeces of Ordnance,The English assault a great Ca­racke. in diuers places, and with as diuers successe; being indeed, more couragious than ordinary, by reason of the hope of the expected prey: but being equally amazed with the huge­nesse of it, and the multitude of Souldiers in it, they began to desist skirmishing, till such time that Robert Crosse, twhar­ting the fore-Castle of the Caracke, with the Queenes ship, called the Prouidence, maintained skirmish three whole houres together. Then the rest fell so fiercely vpon her on euery side, especially on the poope, that at the sterne no man durst appeare.

First of all, Crosse brake in, and borded, and after him all the rest; where finding a great slaughter committed, dead men being mingled with halfe dead, and the whole with the wounded, so confusedly, that pitty moued them to vse their victory mildly.

The spoileThe spoile ta­ken. that was brought home, was valued at a hun­dred and fifty thousand pounds of English money; besides those commodities which seuerall Commanders, Mariners, and Souldiers pilfered and snatched for themselues: and when there was a strict inquisition made after these men, for those goods that were stolne away in this manner, vnder pretence that they had not discharg'd the due [...]raight for ca­riage; and afterwards when a Proclamation came forth, se­uerely threatning to punish those as Robbers and Pirates, that brought these pilfred commodities not to light againe; yet did their wickednesse easily frustrate the busie industry of the Delegates in this matter, and the periury of many of them mocking the publike s [...]uerity of the Proclamation, pre [...]en [...]ed the execution of it; for they stucke not to say, That they had rather endanger their soules by periury be­fore God, that was exceeding mercifull, that their whole for­tunes [Page 74] and estates before men, that were so vnmercifull.

Not vnlike to this was the treacherous couetousnesse of many Merchants here,The coue­tousnesse of some English Merchants. who to glut their desire of wealth, euen in this time of open warre (although not proclaimed yet) betweene England and Spaine, furnished the Spaniard with Ordnance of brasse and iron both, wherewith they stored their wants in many of their vnprouided ships.

This, as soone as the Queene came to vnderstand, shee set foorth her Proclamation,A Procla­mation about making of Ordnance. forbidding any man hereafter to doe so, vnder penalty of aiding an enemy against ones owne countrey: withall commanding, that they who worke in iron, should make no greater peeces that the ordinary My­nions, and none aboue sixteene thousand pound weight.

The Queene,The Queene goeth on pro­gresse. hauing gone on progresse this sommer, tooke Oxford in her way, where shee remained some few daies, be­ing entertained with Orations, Plaies, and Disputations, and a costly banquet, prouided by the Lord Buckhurst, then Chancellour of Oxford. Visiteth the Vniuersity of Oxford. At her departure shee gaue them a Latine speech; wherein shee professed, that shee more estee­med of their true hearty loues, than of all other sports and pleasures neuer so delightfull; for which she gaue them hear­ty thankes, making a solemne vow, and giuing them sound counsell; her vow was, that as she wished nothing more than the safety of the Kingdome, the happinesse and glory there­of, so shee wished also, that especially the Vniuersity, which is one of the eies of the Kingdome, might grow famous and flourish for euer. Her counsell was, that they should wor­ship God first of all, not to sute themselues according to the curiosity of many, but to the lawes of God and the King­dome; that they should follow the lawes, and not goe be­fore them; that they should not dispute, whether or no bet­ter lawes might be, but keepe those that already were made, that they should obey their Superiours, and mutually loue each other.

This sommer, as also last sommer, there was such a great [Page 75] drought through England, that not onely the fields, but euen many fountaines were dried vp, and many cattell were choked with thirst, & perished euery where vp and downe; euen the Riuer of Thames, The Thames dryed vp. the chiefest in all England, nay, one than whom Europe hath not a longer, (for it ebbes and flowes aboue threescore miles euery day) was euen without water the fift day of September, to the great admiration of all that beheld the same; in so much, that a horseman might easily passe ouer at London-bridge. Whether or no, this fell out by reason of the great drought, or the fierce rage of the North-east winde, which had blowne vpon the water two whole daies, and either droue away the fresh water, or hin­dred the flowing of the Sea, I cannot tell; especially the Moone being then in the increase descending to the South, and the Aequinox being neere at hand; at which times sea­men obserue greater flowing in the Thames, than at any other.

There were those that searcht into the hidden secrets of Philosophy, to shew that this accident fell out by a naturall cause and direction; arguing, that as a quartane Ague comes at her due time, and as the Gout at certaine seasons, and as a Purge, if nothing hinder it, keepes it's accustomed time for working, and as a womans childe-bearing ordinarily comes within a months reckoning; so the waters haue some secret place of respite▪ whither they withdraw themselues, and whence they streame out againe: that some of them that are lesse may be the better noted; that they that are greater are yet certainely so.

And what wonder should this bee, to see Nature her selfe goe on by statutes and degrees? The heat of the Sommer comes when the time is; the alteration of the Spring and Autumne is, when it is wont to be; the Solstice and the Ae­quinox keepe their appointed seasons; then let vs not thinke but there are lawes of nature vnder earth, which may per­chance be lesse knowne to vs, but not lesse certaine in them­selues. [Page 76] Let vs beleeue to bee below, whatsoeuer wee see is aboue vs.

There died this yeere Anthony Browne, Vicount Mou [...]ta­gue, Vicount Mountague dieth. sonne to Sir Anthony Browne, master of the Horse, and Standard-bearer of England; whom Queene Mary had be­fore giuen this title to, because that his Grandmother was the Daughter and heire of Iohn Neuill, Marquisse of Moun­tague. Shee made him Knight of the Garter, and sent him to Rome in the behalfe of the whole kingdome, to yeeld obedience to that See.

Queene Elizabeth, hauing had experience of this mans loyalty, esteemed very well of him, although he were a Ro­mance Catholike; shee came moreouer and visited him; for shee well knew that he was borne and bred in that religion, which hee professed; and not embraced it as many did, one­ly to further a faction: and him, Anthony, Nephew to his sonne succeeded.And the L. Scroope. There died also, Henry Lord Scroope of Bolton, Knight of the Garter, and President of the westerne parts of the Borders of Scotland; hauing left Thomas his sonne, by Marquisse Howard, the sister of Thomas, the la [...] Duke of Norfolke, his successor.

Neither to bee passed ouer in silence, is the death of Christopher Wray, And Sir Christopher Wray. Lord Chiefe Iustice of the Kings Bench; a man of great wisdome and skill in the Law; one of sincerity, and as great constan­cy; hee had much issue, but more credit in Magdalene Colledge in Cambridge, of which he well deserued; whom [...]op [...]am the Attourney, a man of much noted seue­rity, succeeded.

THE SIXE and thirtieth Yeere OF HER REIGNE.
Anno Domini 1593.1593

IN February, this yeare the Peeres of the Kingdome assembled in Parliament at Westminster, A Parlia­ment ass [...]m­bled. where they enacted lawes about the re­straining of Schismaticks and Pa­pists that would not goe to Church, and also enticed others not to goe too: also about pos­sessions of Monasteries entailed vpon Henry the eight; about re­lieuing Souldiers and Marriners; and about not building within three miles of London, and many other matters. [Page 78] And when they had weightily considered (for I speake out of the Acts of Parliament) with what resolute malice the e­nemy raged against Englands ouerthrow, and the Confede­rates in France, to ceaze the Low Countries, or Scotland, or to surprize any conuenient place for inuading England, they adiudged it fit to grant some Subsidies to repell these dan­gers. Wherefore acknowledging and magnifying the he­roicke princely minde of their Princesse, together with her prouident care and especiall affection to her people, that had so happily waged warre against her enemy; and to that end she continually exhausted the wealth of her Treasure, and neuer offered to burden the poore comminalty with taxati­ons; and that not onely in defence of her owne Kindgome, but also in easing and relieuing her confederates according to these words, and her promise. The Clergie granted two en­tire Subsidies,Subsidies granted. and the Laity three, and six Fifteenes and Tenths, to be paid at a time, with a willing and obedient minde. But yet with submission petitioning, that since these things were so assigned ouer to Posterity in publike Records, that in expresse words there should be this caution added, that these so great (and the like neuer before heard-of) Sub­sidies being granted vnto so good a Princesse, vpon so extra­ordinary occasions, should neuer be made an example for hereafter.

The Queene being present the last day of the Parliament,The s [...]mme of the Queen [...] speech. that by her consent she might giue life to these Lawes to make them of force, hauing professed her loue to all her peo­ple, first protested, that all her care onely watched to this entent, that the glory of God and the Common-wealth might be enlarged; and that she would spend onely to that end all whatsoeuer they should bestow vpon her. After that, with her flowing [...]loquence quickly and liuely she runnes through, how farre she alwaies hath beene from a s [...]ggish want of courage; how that trusting still to God, and the buckler of her good conscience, she neuer knew how to feare, [Page 79] nay, not her greatest and her most potent enemies. Lastly, to put courage into their hearts, she discoursed very accu­rately of the valour of the English, and among other things, that euen our enemies themselues could not but acknowledge that the English, (out of a naturall & inbred valour) were al­wayes prompt to vndergoe any dangers: and that they found so much indeed by experience too, although they dissembled it; that they should yet try it more fully, if so be that the English slept not too much in security, or be not fal­len vpon being vnprouided; then concluding, with hearty thankes for Subsidie monies, she promised to dedicate all her thoughts to God, and the good of the Common­wealth.

And indeed, how she performed this promise towards God, let the Ecclesiasticall Writers tell, what punishment she inflicted vpon Henry Barowe Barowe a Sectary han­ged. and his Sectaries, who by the seed-plot of dangerous opinions, condemning the Church of England, derogating from the Queenes authority in spi­rituall matters, had not a little distempered the peace of the Church.

But as concerning her promise towards the good of the Common-wealth, certainly she amply also fulfilled that, in employing all her greatest care to weaken the strength of the Spaniard, to hinder all his proceedings, and possibly to re­moue his forces out of Britaine. And as she did this, so likewise bestowed she little lesse care and paines to keepe them from Scotland: Her care of Scotland. instly fearing, lest that a troublesome confusion of affaires (which we haue said was in Scotland) might open a doore for the Spaniard, to both Kingdomes destruction. For she had most certainly vnderstood, that the Popish Nobility of Scotland bad by the tricks and plots of the Priests, conspired to bring in the Spaniard into Scot­land, to alter the Religion there, and to set vpon England on that side; and that one Creicton a Iesuit (whom she had late­ly set at liberty) hauing passed his faith, that he would neuer [Page 80] combine against the good of England, had vnder this pre­tence passed ouer often into the Low Countries, and into Spaine. She wisely foresaw that the Comminalty of Scot­land (especially those in the west parts) would be easily cor­rupted with Spanish gold: also she weighed how full of Ha­uens the Scottish shores were, how warlike the Nation it selfe was, and how well furnished in Horsemen▪ how easi­ly then they might enter England as at a backe-doore. Be­sides all this, considering of what an vnstable loyalty the English themselues were, that are neighbours ot Scotland, most of them being Papists, and euery one desirous of inno­uations, who had their meanes and their hopes in their own hands. And lastly, that there is alwaies more courage in them that doe oppugne, then in them that defend, who as it were onely cast dice for their owne lot.

Wherefore she gaue the King of Scotland The admoni­tion to the king of Scot­land. to vnderstand these things, admonishing him to keepe vnder his Nobili­ty betimes, and willing him to exercise his Regall power o­uer such seditious persons, that hee might not seeme to reigne at their pleasure. And truely, he did that of his owne accord, by instituting seuere Lawes against the Papists, and the Abettors of them; as in that he punished Dauid Gra­ham Fentrey, for being secret to the conspirators, as also in that he persecuted the Earles of Anguise, Hu [...]tl [...]y and Aroll, whom he easily scattered a sunder.

Bothwell in the meane time, hauing laine lurking in Eng­land, collogued with the Queene by his flattering letters, promising, that if the King of Scotland would but enter him into his fauour againe, he would faithfully serue and obey him, and much weaken the Spanish faction: withall entrea­ting her to intercede with the King for his pardon.

But the Queene, assoone as she vnderstood that the King of Scotland tooke it but very i [...]l that Bothwell had beene enter­tained here in England, she detesting his impious rashnesse, that he durst offer violence to his Prince, the expresse [...]igne [Page 81] and Type of God himselfe, and put him into so great feares, sent the Lord Borough Lord Bo­rough sent Embassadour into Scotland on an Embassie into Scotland, that he might truely informe the King that Bothwell was not har­boured here, but that he secretly crept in; and that she would seuerely punish those that had entertained him: withall, she incensed the King against the Spanish faction, wishing him to procure a new Association of Protestants to keepe him­selfe in safety, and to defend Religion against all outward se­ditions, with hearts and hands knit together: and this was shortly after effected.

The Lord Borough hauing expected the Kings returne out of the Northerne quarters of Scotland, The Queens demands. demanded these things in writing from him▪ That he would certifie the Queene of all the Spanish enterprises against England that he heard of; That by his iustice he would defend his Regall authority, and if that he could not execute iustice vpon the bodies of such Traitours, that hee would haue their goods confiscated; That he would chause into his Councell men of pure and well-tried trust; That all these things he would certifie the Queene of by his owne hand, that both she and also all other Princes of the same religion might easily vn­derstand, with what a prouident care he resisted the enemies thereof. Lastly, that he would take order for a peace in the Borders of both Kingdomes. Adding withall, That if these things were done, she would not be wanting in any thing, as she lately was not, in seuerely mulcting those Englishmen that had entertained Bothwell.

To these things distinctly the King answered,The King [...] answer. that he had certified her of all the machinations of the Spaniard, as soone as he found them out; that as speedily as hee could hee had persecuted all the Rebels, punishing some with losse of goods, and others with life; That he had appointed Lieu­tenants in their Dominions; and that he would haue all of them banished by act of Parliament; and after their banish­ment, their goods should be confiscated. That he would [Page 82] admit to Councell onely men of sound iudgment, of purity in Religion and loue to their Countrey; and that he would witnesse all this to the Queene, with his owne hand-writing; that he would also take order about the Borderers. But then, that it was meet, that the Queene should furnish him with monyes to bring this to passe, both to resist the Spaniard, and his owne Rebels, that were of great wealth and strength.

Last of all hee required, that She would punish those that fauoured Bothwell; and since hee was a fellow of vnexpiable villany, detestable before all Princes, euen to example, that shee would deliuer him vp to his hands, if hee lurk't in Eng­land; since shee could not chuse but esteeme the fauourers and friends of such an enemy, as her owne enemies.

But notwithstanding, when Sir Robert Meluill came, and demanded Bothwell, and monies also for to pursue the rebel­lious Papists, some monies indeed were sent: but as for Bothwell, it was answered, that hee should bee deliuered vp, according to the couenants of the former Treatise, or bani­shed out of England.

Now the reason of this vnexpected answer to the King of Scotland, might well bee vnknowne, when indeed it was no other, but because some Scottishmen in England, had enuea­gled the Queene with conceit, that the King of Scotland dealt too fauourably with his popish Nobility.

Bothwell, Bothwell de­manded of the Queene. about the same time, hauing beene proclaimed Traitor by the States of Scotland, returneth secretly home againe, and brought into the Kings Chamber by some of his friends,He retur­neth secretly into Scotland vpon a sudden he fell downe at the Kings feet, (he little dreaming of any such matter,) and casting his sword on the ground, humbly beg'd for mercy; & by the importunate intercession of many, hee obtained it vpon certaine conditi­ons, to wit, that hee should depart from the presence of the King; that he should appeare personally in iudgment of the case of his dealing with witches; that, if he be absolu'd and quitted of that, he should depart the Kingdome, and liue any [Page 83] where, where it should please the King. Yet for all this, the day after hee was quitted from his dealing with Witches,His insolent behauiour. he by force, drew many of the Kings seruants out of the Court, till at length his faction grew so potent in the Court, that the King, for his owne safeties sake, and the peace of the Realme, was faine, not onely to pardon him, and all his Pa­ges and Attendants, but also to remooue out of the Court, the Chancellour, the Treasurer, the Lord Humes, and George Humes, whome he esteemed most loyall vnto him.

But afterwards, within a moneth, weighing with himselfe, to his great discontent, how to the indignity of his Maiesty, these things had bin extorted from him against all reason, he declared in the next assembly of the Nobility of Scotland, that they esteemed no better of him, than of a Captiue, and euen Bothwel's captiue; that hee could no longer suffer a subiect that had now thrise waged was within the walls and chamber▪ of his Prince, both to triumph ouer him, and his seruants, who had so well deserued at his hands; And hee easily had it granted by the States, that they did approoue him a free Prince, to exercise his authority, and to chuse his Councellors, and other Seruants and Officers, according to his owne discretion.

Hereupon he recals to his Court the Chancellour, and the rest againe, cancelling whatsoeuer before (against his will) he had granted to Bothwell. Yet notwithstanding, by reason of his milde nature, hee vouchsafed to pardon him, and all his complices, all their offences, and to restore them to their goods, if so bee they supplicantly sought for the same; vpon condition, that quietly they betake themselues home, and approach not to the Court, except they bee sent for; that Bothwell, within a limited and appointed time, doe depart into some place beyond Sea, and continue in set places, so long as it shall please the King. Hee makes great alteration in the Court in a short time; banisheth Bothwell, who thin­keth still of worser mischiefe towards the King and King­dome, [Page 84] and to that end lay hid, lurking still within the con­fines of the Kingdome.

Yet for all this was not Scotland yet at quiet, for the Cler­gy men and Ministers tooke it very hainously, that the King persecuted not the Papists with fire and sword: against whom they themselues made assemblies, and without antho­rity from the King, assembled together the Lords and Bur­gesses, to consultation about it, to preuent danger that might fall out to the Common-wealth.

At this time in Germany, there came out in print, many li­bels against Queene Elizabeth, calumniating her, as if shee had incensed the Turke to warre against all the Christian World: the letters came forth also which she had sent to the Turke, in many places corrupted, altered and changed, and many malicious calumnies added, and feigned on purpose.

But the Queene, hauing sent a messenger to the Emperour, so cleerely washed away these calumnies, that forthwith the bookes were called in, and the Copies of them burnt at Prague: for certainely, shee tooke all the paines she could, for remoouing the Turke from Christendome; and the Em­perour acknowledged as much. Neither surely had she any thing to doe with the Turke, but onely to secure her subiects traffique at Turkie; to which purpose she had her agent there at Constantinople, as the French, Polacke, Common-wealth of Venice, and others had: there he Agent did nothing but helpe the businesse of her Merchants traffique, and at their owne charges.

About this time also Shee procured peace betweene the King of Swedon and Muscouy; She procu­reth peace be­tweene the Turke and the Tran [...]il­ [...]anian, and betweene the K. of Swed [...]n and Musco­ [...]ia. as also between the Turke, & Sigismond Bathor, Vaiuod of Tran [...]iluania: For, when as the Turke had trespassed beyond his limited bounds, and laid taxes vpon them, not only beyond the forme and fashi­on of their league, but euen beyond their strength and ability, Sigismond, by his Embassadour Stephen Kakaze, entrea­ted her earnestly to trie what fauour shee could finde in the [Page 85] Turkes Court, and interceed for him; that nothing might be exacted beyond the ancient order, and that nothing might be detracted from his territories and Dominions. Which thing (since that euen the good of all Christians was interes­sed therein) she vndertooke, and prosecuted, according to her mercy, wherewith she was wont to succour all her distres­sed neighbours.

In lower Britaine in France, Norris Norris his proceeding in Britaine. hauing expected still Marshall D'Aumont, and also Espinay of Saint Luke, who had promised to ioyne forces, spent all the winter the last yeare to no purpose: in which time a disease consumed ma­ny of the English; and the Queene was put to the charges of paying euery weeke three thousand and two hundred pounds of English money.

Indeed about Aprill next following Espinay came and ioy­ned his forces; whereupon Ravendeers troopes were van­quished at Saint Sulpice; Guearch surrendred vp; and the forces of the Gouernour of Lauall, (amongst whom most were slaine) quite vanquished; wherein also Captaine Ran­dolph, Bourley, and Christmasse, couragious English men, were all slaine.

Marshall D'Aumont not as yet drawing downe towards Britaine, neither assigning the English a safe place of retyre, as was couenanted for, gaue the Queene such iust occasion of discontent, that she forth with recalled Sir I, Norris home againe; notwithstanding that Aumont earnestly [...]ollicited the Queene by his letters, for more forces from England, who had so discourteously entertayned these, that were so lately sent before.

But whilst the Queene onely for Religions sake, aydes the French King,The King of France vni­ted to the Church of Rome. distrusting his owne strength, at so great charges, and so great troubles of mind, as if [...]he esteemed his losse, her owne, behold a most certaine report flies ouer in­to England, spreading it out, that the French King, either had embraced, or would shortly embrace the profession of [Page 86] the Romish Religion. Hereupon Sir Thomas Wilkes is dis­spatched into France, to know the certainty, and, if as yet he had not altered his Religion, to disswade him by forceable reasons contained in writing. But before he came, the King had made a publike profession of the Roman Catholike Re­ligion at S. Dennis, although notwithstanding euen some Pa­pists at that very time lay in waight for his life. The King ingeniously layd open to Wilkes the motiues of his conuersi­on thus:

VVHen first (said he) I was chosen King of France, The reason of his conuersi­on. I tooke a solemne oath, that at a set time I would be instru­cted in the Romish Catholike Religion, neither was I admitted King vpon any other condition. I haue de­ferred this my instruction in that Religion this full foure yeares, neither (but against my will) I haue now condescended to it. The King my Predecessour being taken away, I was necessarily to retaine the same Coun­sellours and Seruants, and by their voices (being the major part) haue things so beene carried, that all my consultations against the Leaguers haue beene snatcht vp by them, and neuer came to a prosperous successe. Those that were Protestants (and of my Counsell) were seldome or neuer there; being, more then was needfull, intending onely their owne affaires; insomuch that I was quite forsaken euen of those in whom I put my con­fidence; and fearing also lest that I might be forsaken by the Papists too, I was necessarily glad to subscribe to their determinations and counsels. I doe most so­lemnly protest, that assoone as I was called to the Crowne, eight hundred Noblemen, and nine Regi­ments of Protestants returned home; neither could I detaine them by any reason; insomuch, that I had not any but euen my houshold seruants of my Bed-chamber. [Page 87] The Papists (when they saw me forsaken euen of my own side) began to domineere a little, & vrge me to an alteration of my religion, saying, that Catholikes can­not with a safe conscience obey an Heretike. Yet I still prolonging it from day to day, so delayed time, till that seeing my owne weaknesse, (who being but relieued with a few supplies from my friends, & being vnequal to the Popes, Spaniards, and the Leaguers forces) was faine to yeeld; especially finding a third faction on foot betweene the Princes of the bloud-Royall, the Of­ficers of the Kingdome, the Prelates, and most of the Nobility; who had entred into a consultation with the Gouernours of most Prouinces and Cities of my King­dome, to forsake me vtterly, as one of a most hereticall naughtinesse, and to share my Prouinces amongst them man by man. And when my necessity afforded me no meanes of preuention for this vndertaken counsell, I passed my word I would be conformed to the Roman-Catholike Religion. They allowed me one or two mo­neths to conforme my selfe, sending to Rome for my Absolution. The Leaguers to preuent this, made all possible speed to the election of another King; many vowed their endeauour to enthrone Guize in my seate, vpon condition that the places of Office that they did enioy, might be assigned to them for euer, and to their Heires. Therefore with good deliberation haue I embraced the Romish Religion; yet the Prelates refu­sed to admit me into the Church, without the aduice of the Pope of Rome, till that I hardly perswaded them to admit of my conuersion without any informa­tion, disputation, or debating. And by this meanes I haue throughly ioyned to my selfe the third faction, preuented the election of Guize, purchased the good will of my people, and bound the Duke of Tuskany to me perpetually; besides, I haue saued the Reformed [Page 88] Religion from danger of burning, which would neces­sarily haue followed, if that my conuersion had beene brought to passe by Informations, Disputations, or Debates.

These things in the meane time Morlant certifieth the Queene of, colouring what the King had done with very faire words: but she much grieuing at it, and discontented in minde, hauing snatcht her Pen, presently sent him a Letter much after this manner.

ALas!The Queens letter to the K. of France. what griefe, what flowing sorrow, what heauy groanes haue I endured in minde, in hearing this newes from Morlant? O the faith of men? Is this an age? could it be, that world­ly respects should put the feare of God from before thee? can we possibly expect an happy end of these things? couldst thou imagine that he that hath so long defen­ded thee, and preserued thee, should now forsake thee? certainly it is dangerous to doe ill that good may come thereon. Then let some better spirit put thee in a bet­ter minde. In the meane time I will not cease to com­mend thee in my prayers to God, and earnestly beseech him, that the Hands of Esau spoile not the Blessing of Iacob. That you doe esteeme so well of our friendship, I thinke I haue deserued it at a good rate: neither would it haue repented me, had you not changed your Father. Certainly, I cannot hereafter be your Sister by the Fathers-side. But I will alwaies loue mine owne Father, dearer then a counterfeit one; as God him­selfe knowes, who in his good time bring you to a better path, and a sounder iudgement.

Subscripsit: Vostre Seur, si ce soit à la vieille mode, auec [...]ouuelle je n'ay que faire. ELIZABETHA R.

[Page 89] In this her trouble she onely found ease and solace from the holy Scriptures,She transla­teth a booke of Boëtius. the writings of holy Fathers, often con­ferences with the Archbishop, and euen sometimes out of the Philosophers she drew comfort. For certainly I know, that at that time she was very conuersant in the Booke of Boëtius, Boëtius de consolatione. and that she then translated it into English.

Amongst these things, Wilkes certified the French King, that he was nothing so good as his word in the affaires of Britaine; that this lingring of Marshall D' Aumont, was very hurtfull to his Mistresse the Queene, both in regard of the losse of her Souldiers, and the expences of her money; and that it was as vnprofitable to him himselfe; that the Queene would not encrease the number of her men in Britaine, except there were some place of repose allotted for them.The F. Kings excuse of not keeping pr [...] ­mise. The King laying the fault altogether vpon the negligence of Marshall D' Aumont, promised to heale all such incommodies, and pro­uide a place for the Queenes Souldiers. Also hee gaue the Queene to vnderstand these things by Mouie a Gentleman of his Bed-chamber, commending health and happinesse vn­to her; acknowledging that hee is beholding to her for his kingly honour; promising withall, that assoone as busines­ses were compassed at home, and a truce made, that he would march with his Army into Britaine.

In the meane time there is an agreement made between the Queene and him at Mellun in August, Agreements betweene the Queene and the F. King. vnder their hands and seales, in good faith, and the word of a Prince, that with io [...]nt forces the shall warre against the Spaniard, both with offensiue and defensiue warre, as long as hee shall warre a­gainst either of them; and that there shall be no peace be­tweene him and them, without their mutuall consent there­unto.

Yet for all this, is Britaine still neglected by the French King, France in the very bowels thereof still labouring, and neitheir yet could the Englishmen get so much as Pimpol or Breac, a little Island, for their retiring place, but vpon ex­treame [Page 90] hard conditions; to wit, that they fortifie it not: nei­ther that they lodge either in the houses of Priests or Noble­men. Yet for all this the States of Britaine humbly requested the Queene not to recall her forces, which she had euen re­solued on: but euen ouer-entreated, commanded them to stay: and they dispersed and scattered vp and downe about the Country Villages, and exposed both to the malice of the Heauen, and their enemies, were [...]ain [...] to haue a lamentable wintering, when Pimpol (by reason it was so little) could not containe them all.

Neither spared she her continuall admonitions to the King of France, that he should consider how much it stood him vpon, to protect and keepe in hold the Sea coasts; which once being gotten into the power of the enemy, opens a way for further losse, and is not easily recouered againe:The Queens care for the Protestants in France. she wi­shed him by Sir Robert Sidney to protect in safety the pro­fessours of the reformed Religion. He promised againe, that as he had hitherto beene, so he would alwaies be their Pro­tector and Defendor; although that euen the chiefest No­bles of them had already forsaken him. But when Sidney would haue dealt with him about Brest, for a retyring place for the English forces, and a pawne for the monies he had al­ready had, (which indeed the Queene greatly desired) hee stopt his eares at that. For truely the Frenchmen could not indure that the English should once set foot in any other pos­sessions in France, no not so much as in their Hauens; no [...] being forgetfull how easily they a great while agoe, hauing but once beene possessed of their Hauens, victoriously ran ouer France, and how hardly they resigned vp againe their possessions. And thus miserably did the French turne the counsell of the Queene vpon her selfe, and the English, which she gaue them for a caution against the Spaniard.

The Queene that she might secure her own selfe from the Spaniard, fortified the Islands of Silley in the British Oce­an, hauing erected a Fortresse in S. Mari [...]s Island; which by [Page 91] reason of the fashion of a starre, like to which it was made, she called the Starre-Marie; she fortified that also with a set Garrison. Also she strengthened her Islands of Ga [...]nsey and Iersey, opposite against France, and other places besides, with great cost and charges, and as great courage and ala­crity, although the times then were very heauy.The Queene fortifies her Islands of Garnsey and Gersey, and other places. For in that yeare Saturne running through the end of Cancer, and the beginning of Leo, (as in the yeare 1563.) the Pestilence or Plague miserably tormented the City of London; A great plague in London. insomuch that the rigour thereof in the whole course of one yeare, mowed downe the people of the Citie and Suburbes, to the number of 17890. besides Sir William Roe the Lord Major, and three more Aldermen. Bartholomew Faire was not kept that yeare in London, and Michaelmas Terme at S. Albanes twenty miles from London. At which Terme Richard Hes­ket Hesket han­ged. was condemned and executed, because he had perswaded Henry Earle of Darby (whose Father Henry died not long before) that he should claime the Crowne of England, fet­ching his right from his great Grand-mother Mary the Daughter to Henry the seuenth; largely promising moreo­uer assistance and money from the Spaniard; withall, threat­ning the Earles sudden destruction, if hee kept it not secret, and if he put it not in practise. But the Earle fearing this to be a plot onely to bring him into danger, betrayed his conspiratour, who of his owne accord acknowledging his fault before the iudgement seat, sorely cursed those that ad­uised him thereto, and those also that hearkened to his ad­uise in it; and indeed those curses fell vpon some body in all probability: For the Earle within foure moneths after died of a miserable kinde of death, as shall be spoken of shortly.

In this yeares space,Henry Earle of Darby di­eth. two famous Earles of England died, both of the Order of the Garter; Henry Stanley (whom I now mentioned) Earle of Darby, the sonne of Edward, by Dorothy the Daughter of Thomas Howard first Duke of Nor­folke. [Page 92] He got of Margaret the Daughter of Henry Clifford Earle of Cumberland, of Elenor Brandon the Niece of Henry the eight by his Sister Mary, two sonnes, Ferdinand and William, that in order succeded him.

The other Earle that died was Henry Ratcliffe Earle of Sus­sex, And Henry Earle of Sus­sex. Gouernour of Portsmouth, hauing left onely one Sonne Robert, which he had by Honor the Daughter of Anthony Pound. At Portsmouth, Charles Blunt, afterwards Lord Montioy, succeeded him.

Three Lords accompanied these Earles also into another life; Arthur Grey And the L. Grey. of Wilton, that famous Warriour, and of the Order of the Garter, to whom succeeded Thomas his sonne by Iane Sybill Morrison. The second, Henry Lord Cromwell, The Lord Cromwell. the Nephew of that Thomas Earle of Essex so of­ten spoken of, that was the mocking-stocke of Fortune; af­ter him succeeded Edward his sonne by Mary the Daughter of Iohn Powlet Marquesse of Winchester. The third Henry Lord Wentworth, The Lord Wentworth. whom succeeded Thomas borne of Anne Hopton, his sonne and heire.

Neither will we conceale the death of worthy Christopher Carlile, And S. Chri­stopher Car­lile. whose warlike skill was sufficiently tried in the Low Countries, France, and Ireland, and in America at Car­thage, and Santo Dominico, in the yeare 1585. for he about this time accompanied the forenamed into a better life.

In Ireland O-Conor Dun, Complaints of the Irish. Mac-Da [...]y, and O-Brien Noble­man of Conaugh, and others, make complaints, that they were vniustly gone to law withall about the possessions of the Mortimers, Earles of March, which they had no colour of pretence for, but continuance of long time, wherein they had onely vsurped the same.

Also about this time the Noblemen of the Prouince of Vlster, who long before feared lest they should fal into a con­formity to English lawes, which they thought would be brought in vpon thē, (as they saw it done already in Monag­han,) and that they should loose much of their power there­by, [Page 93] whereby sometimes they did euen tyra [...]ize ouer the peo­ple, begin now to bring to light that rebellion which before long had beene conceiued; and first of all Hugh O-Donell on a sudden surpriseth Montrosse Castle. Now there had beene a grudge long betweene the Earle of Tir-Oen and Hen­ry Bagnall Grudges be­tweene Tir-Oen and Marshall Bagnall. Marshall of the Irish forces, whose Sister the Earle had stolne for his wife. The Earle he made his complaint before the Lord Deputy of Ireland, the Chancellour, and o­thers, that whatsoeuer he had brought in obedience to the Queene at Vlster, by his continuall labour, and euen hazard of his bloud, that redounded onely to the commodity of the Marshall, and not to himselfe▪ that yet the Marshall had falsly accused him of treason, and to that purpose had subor­ned base conditioned men to be his witnesses: that he had incensed the Lord Deputy himselfe to his destruction: that he had laine in wait for his life, and not truely or sincerely to haue deliuered his answers to the Queene. And truely the Marshall was altogether beleeued about the Court, till such time, as the Earle Tir-Oen▪ hauing sent Letters into England, proffered to come to his triall either in England or Ireland. Yet on the other side, certaine it is, that the Earle had made a League with the Nobility of Vlster very sec [...]etly, to defend the Romish Religion (for Religion was the onely cloa [...]e time afforded for warre and to shut out the She [...]ffes, and all that lay in Garrison within their Territories, to defend mutually their owne Rights, and propell the Englishmens iniuries.

The next after O-Donell (that encreased the rebellion) was Mac-Guir a Nobleman,Mac-Guir rebelleth. who was thrust out as farre as Fer­managh, for his more easier practise. Hee was a man of a troublesome spirit, and contentious, who much complained that he was too much molested and troubled, and vndeser­uedly by the Sheriffe of that County. Wherefore he rushed out, preying on his neighbours grounds; he enters Conaught, hauing Gaur [...]n a Priest accompanying him, whom the Pope [Page 94] had created Primate of Ireland. This Gauran still egged him on to try his fortune, and trust to the helpe of God; assu­ring him, that there could be no doubt of victorie. But yet it fell out otherwise, for by the valour of Richard Bingham Mac-Gui [...] was put to flight, and his Primate and many more slaine. Hereupon Mac-Guir breakes out into an open re­bellion; whom Tir-Oen persuing out of a counterfeit offici­ousnesse, receiued a great wound, to the praise both of his valour and loyalty. Dowdall an Englishman, and a valiant Commander,Ineskelline taken. beset & tooke I [...]eskelline neere the Lake Erne, which was Mac-guirs best and strongest fortresse; wherein he slew most that lay at Garrison in it. And at that time were the pure Irishmen first chosen to be Commanders, and put into Bands; who being alwaies disloyall to the Eng­lish, made most thinke it then most vnprouidently done, which truely they all found afterward indeed.

In the meane time the Earle of Tir-Oen (keeping a watch­full eye ouer his owne affaires) now began to challenge to himselfe the Title of O-Neale, (in comparison whereof the very Title of Caesar is base in Ireland) by reason that Turlogh Lenigh was newly dead, who before bore that Title:Tir-Oen v­surpeth the title of O-Neale. for­getting his oath and promised faith to the Queene, and paine of treason. Yet it seemes hee forgot it not, but would excuse it, that hee onely did challenge it to him­selfe, to preuent others, that likely else would doe so much. And at last hee promiseth to renounce and dis­claime all his right to it; but yet earnestly desires that he be not bound thereto by any oath.

Presently after that he surpriseth one or two of Shan O-Neales sonnes,Shan O-Neales sonnes surprised by Tir-Oen. (that either by their own craft [...]nesse, or some others con [...]iuence, had escaped out of prison,) fearing le [...]t they might be a hinderance vnto him: for he well knew in what esteeme they were amongst their owne, and how easily they might bee able to crush all his p [...]ots and pra­ctises whatsoeuer. Therefore when hee was expresly [Page 95] commanded by the Lord Deputy to set them at liber­ty, hee still refused it, onely complaining grieuously of the ill will of the Lord Deputy towards him, the trea­chery of the Marshall, and the iniuries of them that lay in Garrison: yet he so couertly bo [...] all this▪ as that as if he had forgotten it all, he came and professed obe­dience vnto the Dep [...]ty▪ gi [...]ing his faith for security thereof, and so in an humble submission returned home againe▪

THE SEVEN and thirtieth Yeere OF HER REIGNE.
Anno Domini 1594.1594

THe Queene perswaded her selfe that she could easily quench this young and modest rebellion, that scarce durst shew it selfe in Ire­land, if that once she had but weakened a little that apparant and open faction in Scotland. The Lord Zouch sent Embassadour into Scot­land. Wherefore, hauing beene asked her counsell by the King of Scot­l [...]d, what she thought of the Decrees made by the States of Scotland, for the preseruation of Religion, and the peace of the Kingdome, She sendeth Edward Lord Zouch into [Page 97] Scotland; that he might confirme the Peeres of the English partie in their obedience, and exact greater seuerity against those of the Spanish, then that which the Decree ordained. Since that it was most certainly confirmed, that they had beene at Masse; that they harboured Iesuites and Priests; that they had sent blancks ouer into Spaine, with their hands and seales thereto. And [...]ince, that euen the Spaniard was now in contemplation, and very neere practise of inuading England by Land-forces, through Scotland, which before he could not by Sea, with all his inuincible Nauy.

The King made answer thereunto,The answer of the King of Scots. that he would vse all seuerity against the Papists, that the Statutes of the kingdome could allow: and that if they being giuen warning to, shall not obey, he would pursue them, till such time that he should bring them into order, or driue them out of the kingdome, if so be that the Queene (whom it concerned as much as him­selfe) would ioyne with him.

Zouch being somewhat peremptory in vrging seuere per­secution of the Papists, (for indeed some of the zealous Mini­sters of Scotland continually suggested to the Queene, that the King dealt more fauourably with Papists, then either the necessity of the time would, or his owne conscience (if it were vpright) could suffer him to doe) the King demanded whether, or no, he were vnder any bodies authority? or, whe­ther his Queene would prescribe him a forme of gouernment that was an absolute King? But withall protesting, that he would strongly defend his Religion, and inuiolably preserue peace and amity with the Queene. Yet againe, somewhat complaining, that Bothwell a most troublesome Rebell, should be fostered vp in England, since that hee so readily had deli­uered to the Queenes hand the Irish Rebell O-Rorke, that lurked in Scotland.

But Bothwell (it seemes) staid not long lurking in England, Bothwell a­gaine rebel­leth. but againe hee bore vp his rebellious Ensignes against his King: and hauing entred Scotland with foure hundred [Page 98] Horse of Borderers of Scotland, hee came as farre as Leeth without any impediment, or resistance: and hauing come thither, (after the Art of rebellion, that colours fowlest deeds with fairest pretences) he published this in writing.

SInce that the true Religion towards God,.The pretence and cloake of his rebellion. the safety of the King, the Honour, the Iustice there­of, the Commonwealth it selfe, and that commo­dious friendship betweene the Kingdomes of Scotland and England were now in the extremity of danger, by reason of some pernitious Counsellours, who had crept into the Common-wealth; who had suffered Masse-Priests to wander from Village to Village; who had giuen ostages to the Low Countries, and sent for Spaniards ouer to oppresse both the Religion and the Common-wealth; and to breake the League with England: That therefore he, with the Nobility, the Lords, and Burgesses ioyned with him, had determi­ned (out of their feare of God, and the loue of their King) to pursue these Consulters after an hostile man­ner, till such time that they either willingly submit to come to triall, or fly out of the Kingdome. And that he made the more haste to the prosecution thereof, be­cause the Spaniard was euen vpon arriuing and lan­ding in Scotland. Wherefore he humbly entreats the King, ex [...]orts the Nobility, commands the people, that forthwith they ioyne armes with him in this so godly, iust and so necessary a cause: demanding the autho­rity (besides) of the Magistrate to further the prose­cution of this enterprise. Concluding, that whosoeuer assisted these Counsellers with helpe, should be punished with great seuerity.

To this purpose he sends his Letter to the Synod, which at that time was at Dunbarre: a [...]d also hee sends it to the [Page 99] English Embassadours; for (indeed) both these were said to fauour his designes, and not very obscurely. He on the ve­ry same day that hee had vnderstood, that the Kings forces set forwards from Edinborough, which was scarce three miles off, parted in two his Troupes, and set forth out of Leeth. But being vnequall to the Kings forces, by reason that very few flockt to him, euen since his publike Edict, hee being skilfull enough how to eschew danger (as mischieuous to intend it) seekes all by [...]places;Bothwell put to flight. and once hauing set on the Kings forces vpon a steepe hill▪ droue them backe, hauing taken some few of them, but not any man killed. Keeping his order he retreats to Dalkeeth, and from thence (being pricked with the conscience of a Rebell) he betakes himselfe to his accustomed lurking-holes in the confines of the Realme. But the Queene forbad by Proclamation, any man neere the borders of Scotland, to entertaine, succour or assist him. And this was very acceptable to the King; who on the other side (to shew his desire of requitall) assembled his Peeres in Parliament, for the banishing of these Popish Earles and Nobles of the Realme.The Scotch Papists bani­shed the Realme. The Nobility but few, being met, yet all refused to giue their voices against them, in respect, that although it were true, that they had sent such Papers into Spaine, yet nothing but onely bare conie­ctures could be gathered from thence, what their intents might be.

Yet for all that, the number of the Clergy men and Bur­gesses, making a plurality of Voices, they were all banished the Realme. Their Coats of Armes, and Badges of Genti­lity (according to the custome of Scotland) were broake, and cast out of the windowes of the Towne-house, and their ba­nishment publikely proclaimed by a Herald. Afterwards the Earle of A [...]gile was sent out with forces against those Earles, but hauing receiued of them an ouerthrow in a set battaile at Genliuet, the King himselfe (after many tedious and difficult iourneies) comes thither, and there suffereth the Ea [...]le Hunt­lies [Page 100] Houses at Strathbolgie, Slanie, and Newton, to be quite demolished. Shortly he brought the Earles to that passe, that Huntley first withdrew himselfe to his Aunt, the Coun­tesse of Sutherland, and afterwards was compelled to bee gone into France, and the rest to change their soile.

And so it came to passe, that the mutuall good will that was betwixt the Queene and the King of Scotland, his setled constancy in Religion, which could neuer be battered, by the meanes, the prayers, the promises, or the subtill practi­ses of the Papists, the seuere lawes against the Iesuites,Their plots and new de­uices. and men of that faction, the punishment maturely inflicted on Graham Fentree, one of the fauourers of the Spanish party, the supreame authority in spirituall matters conferred vpon the Prince by Parliament, and their mutuall endeauours a­gainst the growth of Papistry; all these (I say) did so shake the very hopes of restoring Romish Religion in England, and in Scotland, which the Iesuites had long conceiued, that some of them began to deuise new plots, and to try (since they could not immediately estate their Religion in its former honour) if they [...]uld at last estate some Professour of the Religion in the [...]rone of England, which so might both countenance and protect it.

But (when the disagreeing multitude of them could not meet vpon one person fit to their purpose, a great while) at last they reflected vpon the Earle of Essex: in whom, (al­though he were no Romish Catholike) yet they expected a well-qualified temper of Religion, because his clemency draue him to a perswasion, that in case of Religion men should not suffer death. The right of inheritance which they [...]eigned for him, was drawne from Thomas of Wood­stock, the Son of Edward the 3, from whom hee descended.

But the runnagates and fugitiues stood hardly for the In­fanta of Spaine, although they feared that the Queene and the Court of Parliament would preuent that, by making e­uery one take the oath of Allegiance.

[Page 101]Not long after came a booke out, dedicated to the Earle of Essex, vnder the belyed name of Dolman, but not without the notable malice of Parsons the Iesuite, against this Dol­man a Priest, but of a milder disposition, (if I may beleeue the Priests:) for the Authors of that booke were Parsons, a maine enemy to Dolman, Cardinall Allan, and Francis In­glefield. In this booke, [...]etting at nought the right of Birth, they only discourse of changing the Lawes of the Realme, allowing hereditary succession in the Kingdome of England, of bringing in a new manner of election: and lastly, that no man should be admitted King, of what neernesse in bloud soeuer he were of, except he were a Roman Catholike.

In the same, they most contumeliously traduce most of the Kings of England, that many were not Legitimate, or at least vncapable of the gouernment of the Kingdome. Be­sides, they teare to pieces the most certaine Right of the King of Scotland, and seeke to deriue the Right of succession vpon the Infanta of Spaine, because she was a Roman Catho­like. But oh, I am amazed to say how falsly it was affirmed by such as they were,The preten­ded Right of the Infan­ta to the Crowne of England. since the lips of the Priests should pre­serue knowledge, and since they should stand, hauing their loynes girt with truth. The colours that they vsed for her right, were many.

First, Because she (as the Booke saith) descended from Constance the Daughter of William the Conquerour, from whom she drawes her pedigree. This Constance was wife to Alane Fergant Earle of Britaine: yet notwithstanding, Gu­lielmus Gemeticensis (one that liued about that time) in his last Booke beareth witnesse, that this Constance died without any Issue: and so say all our Chroniclers of Britaine, with one accord.

Secondly, Because she drawes her parentage from Elenor the first-borne of King Henry the second, married to A [...] ­phonsus the ninth King of Castile. But, that not Ele [...]or, but Matilda wife to H [...]nry Leo Duke of Saxony, the Mother of [Page 102] Otho the fourth Emperour, was the first-borne to the said Henry. Pope Innocent the third will giue vs to vnderstand, as it is in Mathew Paris pag. 381. whom also Robert Abba [...] de Monte Michaelis, who was her Godfather, writes to haue beene borne in the yeare 1162.

Thirdly, Because she descends from Blanch the first-borne of the said Elenor: and this both Rodericke Archbishop of Toledo, booke nine, chapt. fiue. And Pope Innocent, who should better be beleeued, that liued in the same time, denie as false.

Fourthly, Because she was descended of Beatrice the Daughter of Henrie the third King of England; and in the meane time, they forget that she had Brothers two, Edward the first King of England, and Edmund Earle of Lancaster▪ from whom (besides those of the Royall Family) sprang a whole nation of Nobles in England.

Fiftly, They deriue this right of the Infanta, from the Portugall Familie; as also from Philip the Daughter of Iohn of G [...]unt Duke of Lancaster▪ whom they say was the first­borne by his former wife Blanch; when as for all this▪ Frossard (that liued at the same time at Court) in 169. page of the second part, demonstrates vnto vs, that Elizabeth mar­ried to Iohn Holland, who was afterwards Duke of Ex [...]t [...]r, was the first-borne.

But we haue sufficiently refelled these Genealogicall phan­tasies, which were bred out of the vaporous crudities of trea­cherie, wherewith that Booke much aboundeth. But yet cannot but wonder, that these men should be so vnmind­full of their owne profession, scorning both the authority of the Councell of Trent, concerning auoiding all secular affaires and occasions; as also of the Toletan Councell, and their own Lawes but the very last yeare at Rome newly reuiued; one­ly to curry fauour with the Spaniard, to abuse simple men, to strew the way for tumultuous insurrections, to prouid [...] Ladders for the ambitious, though to their owne ruine, and [Page 103] to offer violent ha [...]ds to the Truth, making their Religion the cloake for all their [...]reason. Nay, in the conceit of this new made Right of the Infanta, some of them went so farre on, that they compelled the English Priests in their Spanish Seminaries, to subscribe to this Right of the said Infanta; if we may euen beleeue themsel [...]es that related it.

These things,Parsons the Iesuit excu­seth his booke of Dolman. whatsoeuer Parsons the lesuite thought they would effect, yet after all failed, and that Iames of Sc [...]t­land, was proclaimed King of England after the death of the Queene; then hee stroue to excuse the matter in Letters to most of his Friends, as if so be, that those words in his Book against the right of the King of Scotland, had not beene spo­ken of him, out of any ill will, or desire any way to hurt the King; but onely out of an earnest desire he had to bring the King to the profession of the Roman Ca [...]holike Religion; also, he thought that it would serue well enough for his ex­cuse, that those iniuries hee offered the King were not preiu­diciall to him, because they tooke no effect▪

But whilest these Turne-coats faine to themselues a false H [...]ire in Spaine, God▪ that laughed at their de [...]ises, raised vp to Iames of Scotland the true Heire, a Sonne that might also haue beene his heire.Prince Hen­ry borne. For on the 19. of February was borne to him Henry Prince of Scotland, the loue and delight of Britaine: whom Queene Elizabeth in an [...]onourable Em­bassage by Robert Earle of Sussex was Godmother to.

Now as the learned sort of our English [...] stu­died to enthroane the Spanish Infanta in the [...] of Engl [...]nd by their writings: So some of them tooke the nearer way of murther; hauing sent ouer priuy murth [...]re [...]s to [...] [...] way the Queene. The Spaniards on the other side they [...] with poyson:Treason a­gainst the Queene con­spired, Lopez and others. but much suspecting the truth of the English, thinking the Nation affoorded none so cruell against [...]is Prin­cesse, they made vse of Roderike Lopez a Iewish S [...]ctary▪ and a Houshold Phisit [...]on [...]o the Queenes Court▪ and [...] of him, but also of S [...]phan F [...]rreira Gama, and Emanuel [Page 104] Lowise, Portugalls: for at that time many Portugalls vnder the pretence of their banished Anthony, Their seueral Confessions. crept here into Eng­land. They hauing beene apprehended, by reason of some of their Letters that were intercepted, and being accused to­wards the latter end of February, both confessed that they conspired to make away the Queene by poyson.

Lopez being of a well-tried honesty, and neuer suspected, confessed voluntarily that he was thereunto induced by An­drada a P [...]rtugall, to doe so much seruice to the King of Spaine; that also he had receaued from Don Christoph [...]ro de Moro one of his intimatest Counsellours, a very pretious Ie­well, who as fast as he could learne any thing from him, still enformed the Spaniard of it, till at last the agreement was made, and for 50000. Crownes he promised to poyson the Queene; and that he had certified the Conde de Fuentes, and Ibarra, Secretary to the Spaniard in the Low Countries, as much as that came too.

Stephano Ferreira confessed that the said C [...]nde de F [...] ­entes and I [...]arra▪ had certified him indeed both by Letters and Colloquies, that they were putting their counsell in pra­ctise, of taking away the Queene by poyson: that he himselfe wrote Letters, as Lopez dictated them, wherein he promise [...] to do it for 50000 Crownes; he confessed also, that Emma­nuel Lowise was sent ouer from the said Conde de Fuentes, to hasten Lopez to make an end of the matter.

Emmanuel confessed that, hauing taken oath to conceale all his counsell, Conde de Fuentes shewed him Letters which Andrada the Portugall had wrote in Lopez's name concer­ning the making of the Queene away: also that now he was sent from him, that he should deale with Ferreira and Lo­pez, about the hastning the Queenes death, also to promise both money to Lopez, and preferment to all his children.

Lopez brought forth,The Traitors condemned., said but little: but, that Ferreira and [...] were nothing but composed of deceit, & ly­ing: that he neuer thought any hurt against the Queene, but [Page 105] alwaies hated the gift of that Spanish Tyrant, that hee gaue to the Queene the Iewell sent him by the Spaniard, that hee neuer intended more then to deceiue the Spaniard, and cou­sen him of his money.

The rest said nothing for themselues, but continually ac­cused Lopez, so that they were all three condemned, and within three moneths after hanged at Tyburne, Lopez still professing that hee loued the Queene as well as Christ Iesus; which being spoken by a Iew, as it was, was but onely laughed at by the people.Cullin exe­cuted. The day after these were con­demned, one Patricke Culline an Irish Fencer also was con­demned; and one that being burdened with great promises, and hauing money for his trauaile by the way, giuen him by the turne-coats in the Low Countries, promised to kill the Queene; he, his fault being in a manner knowne, and proued by some tokens and signes, being ready to die with fainting, suffered the like punishment, as those before. Then also were apprehended Edmund Yorke, and Richard Williams, Yorke and Williams ap­prehended. both hired to kill the Queene, by Ibarra, and suborned to that also by the turne-coates in the Low Countries, and more in­cendiaries also to set the Queenes Nauie on fire with balles of wild-fire.

Thus did these miscreant English turne-coates, as well Priests as others on the one side, conspire the death of the Queene▪ out of an vngodly opinion, and almost now in­bred in them, that Princes that were excommunicated were to be rooted out: and the Spaniard on the other side, out of an inbred hate which they bare alwaies against her. But she neuer fearing, but of a manlike vertue, and wary carefulnes, relying vpon God, contemned all these trecheries and trea­sons: and euer and anon would call to minde the words of the Kingly Psalme-writer, Thou art my God, my times are in thy hand.

And as she was carefull for her owne safety, so she was di­ligent in others too: for she informed Ernest Arch-Duke of [Page 106] Austria, She infor­meth the Spaniard of those Trea­sons. Gouernour of the Prouinces vnder the Spaniard in the Low Cou [...]tries, that the like treacheries were also laid by Ibarra, and other seruants of the Spaniard, and runnagate English, intreating him besides, to signifie to the Spaniard, that he would blot out the very thought of this wickednesse from any way appertaining to him, by punishing his seruants that stroue to attempt the same: and by giuing vp into her hands againe, the English Architects and chiefe compilers of this wickednes, to wit▪ Hugh Owen, Tho. Throcmorton, Holcot a Iesuite, Giffard & Worthington Diuines, lest that otherwise hee but deceiue the good estimation and honour which hee hath among the people, whilest hee shall nourish with him such wicked creatures. And lest that hee might require also Don Antonio Perez, Antonio Perez lurk­eth in Eng­land. of late Secretary to the Spaniard, who had now flowne (by reason of vproares he raised in Arra­gon,) and lurked in England: She protested that hee was sent by the French King into England to his Embassadour a­gainst her knowledge; and that she neither did, or euer would relieue him either with her pension, or protection. And certaine it is, that neither she, nor Burghley Lord Treasure [...] would so much as speake with him, that against his oath had reuealed the secrets of his Prince: yet indeed, the Earle of Essex gaue him entertainment, and supplied him with great cost, making vse of him (as an Oracle) that was so well skil­led in the secrets of the Spanish Court, and that was a man of an excellent wit and wisedome, who notwithstanding (as most commonly such king of men alwaies are) was so tossed vp and down by fortune, that he bestowed vpon his Picture nothing but this Motto:


And now by this time in France that boisterous fury of conspiracy that had ranged through France eight yeares, a little more or lesse, began to cease a little. For when as the [Page 107] King by his forces had much much empaired the strength of the Leaguers,The strength of the Leaguers much impai­red. & seuered their forces by his sleights which he vsed, and the last yeare hauing embraced the Roman Religi­on, had his Inauguration solemnized the beginning of this yeare, many of the Nobility being reconciled by great pro­mises againe returned to a dutie to him. Others would not, but vpon condition, that they alwaies might enioy those of­fices, which now they possessed, for them and their heires, according to the courtesie of Hugh Capet King of France, who to get the good wills of all his Nobility, gaue their offi­ces hereditarily, to them and their heires.

Now many of the rebellious Cities were yeelded vp, and many sodainly seazed on: Paris it selfe (the King being pri­uily called in) yeelds to him, with the great ioy of the Citi­zens, and hence was the break-necke of the Spaniards hope of ioyning to them the French Kingdome by the marriage of the Infanta with the Duke of Guise: for now they them­selues were glad to depart out, bagge and baggage; and not without foule scoffes from the French, that now had learned a little more wit.

But when those Spaniards which had beene called in by the Duke of Merceur into Britaine, continued still in their resolutions, and strengthened the Sea-coasts, the better to maintaine their possession. Captaine Norris that had beene sent for ouer to enforme the Queene of the affaires of Bri­taine, was sent backe again with Commission,Norris sent ouer into Britaine. that he should assault the Spanish Fort at Crodon, neere to the Hauen Brest, and he arriued at Pimpole with a new Band of men, on the Kalends of September. At which time Marshall D'Aumont and Thomas Baskeruile, that in the absence of Norris com­manded the English forces, besieged Morlay, Morlay ta­ken. and vpon the returne of Captaine Norris, had it yeelded to them. Yet for all that, although it were before agreed by the French Em­bassadour in England, that if it were taken it should serue for a retyring place to the English, Marshall D'Aumont to [Page 108] preuent that, made it one of the Articles of their yeelding, that none but Roman Catholikes should be admitted into the Towne. After that the Marshall and Norris hauing ta­ken also Quinpercorentine, Quinperco­rentine taken. both French and English set for­ward to the Spaniards Fort at Crodon, on the Kalends of Nouember, and there Martin Furbisher expected them in the Bay with ten English men of warre.Crodon as­ [...]aulted. This Fort on two sides is washed round with the water; and on the Land side there are two great Fortresses, betweene which there runnes a wall that is full seuen and thirty foot broad. Within is a very thicke Countermure, and Rockes defend the Fortresses vpon the [...]ide, whereon there are placed peeces of Ordnance. The English and French men heape vp Bulwarkes, and entrench there, where the Fortresse lookes towards the Land. The Spaniards rusht out once vpon them to hinder their proceedings, but they quickly retreated in againe; there Anthony Wingfield Serieant Major of the English forces, a famous old Souldier, hauing made his Will but the day be­fore, being shot cleane through, died vpon it. Vpon the 23. day of the moneth 700. shot from their Ordnance made a small gap in the wall, and threw downe their Inclosures a­gainst the wall, which Lister an Englishman presently seazed vpon. But when the valour in the cheerefull assaulter was not greater then the firme resolution of the stubborne De­fendants, there were many slaine, Bruder, Iackson, and Bar­ker, Commanders of great note: many wounded, and ma­ny dangerously blowne vp with wild-fire.

There were many in England that accused Norris for be­ing too prodigall of the English bloud, in hazarding it euen rashly vpon all dangerous occasions. Surely, the Queene (o [...]t of her inbred mercy and fauour) commanded him by her Letters, that hee should more regard the safety of her Souldiers, then his honour. That in these assisting warres he should not put them vpon certaine destruction; that he should not prodigally waste mans bloud; that the forward [Page 109] boldnesse of some hot spirits is rather to be kept vnder, then to be cast vpon apparant danger; then should his wisedome be thought lesse wanting by many men, then should not his vnmercifulnesse be condemned by all, but both his and the Queenes loue of the English bloud, be sufficiently praised. But these Letters came too late.

The Siege growing hot, it seemed good to D'Aumont and Norris, to vndermine the Easterne part of the Fortresse, where the French men had beene dealing, and that succee­ded happily, for they made a gap in the wall big enough in conscience, and now they set vpon the Fortresse on euery side; Latham, Smith, & other English Cap [...]aines, setting vp­on the Westerne part thereof, whilest the French men set on the Easterne, and others the Wall betweene, from noone till foure of the clocke, at length the English enioyed the Westerne Fortresse, and hauing slaine Thomas de Parades, the Gouernour thereof,Is taken. entring the Fort, they snatched their Colours, and made a passage for all the rest; and there they slew about foure hundred that lay in Garrison; they razed the Fortresse to the ground, euen the very same day that Don Iuan de D'Aquila came to bring them aide.

Neither was this Victory purchased by the English with­out losse of bloud,Fourbisher slaine. for many valiant men were wanting, and Martin Fourbisher was shot in the hip with a Bullet, and ha­uing brought backe his Nauy to Plimouth, then died.

Not very long after, it being found out, that there came some Spanish Commanders into Ireland, to stirre vp a rebel­lion there, Norris Norris re­called. was recalled from Britaine, the ships that should haue brought him ouer, hauing arriued at Morlay, were forbid entrance to the Hauen, insomuch that they were compell [...]d [...]o trust to the courtesie of the Sea, and a Wintery cold Ha [...]en, and at length to arriue at Rusco, no very sa [...]e Bay for them. The Queene [...]ooke this (as she might very well) wonderous ill at Marshall D'Aumonts hands, that he should denie Morlay Hauen for her ships, when according to their [Page 110] owne conditions, he did owe the very same place to the Au­xiliaries of England, assoone as it yeelded.

And not in France onely, but euen in the most seuered part of the world, America, did the English warre against the Spaniard: for Richard Hawkins Hawkins his Nauigation. (sonne to that famous Nauigator Iohn Hawkins) hauing free leaue and license (vn­der the great Seale of England) to molest the Spaniard in those parts of the World, with three ships, and two hun­dred Sea-men, set forth for Sea the last yeare. His first lan­ding was at the Island of S. Anne, where whilest he refre­shed the fainting spirits of his Marriners, the least ship of the three was (by chance) fired. He tooke a Portugall ship; and the fame of him spreading out to Peru, the Deputy thereof [...]urnisheth his Nauie to surprize him. Afterwards (by rea­son of a great tempest) one of his two ships returned home, but not without the punishment of the Master of it.

Hawkins being now left alone, was taken away from shore by force, and carried to the latitude of fifty degrees; where he lighted on a fruitful, woodish, and a Land very full of Hauens, holding out in length some threescore Leagues from the West to the North; which he passed by, till such time that the winde blowing him backe againe, he was cast vpon the streights of Magellan, He reacheth the Magel­lan streights. about the end of Ianuary this yeare, which he found to be nothing but an Ocean full of Islands; yet he came as farre in it as to the breadth of six and fifty degrees. After that he had spent a mo [...]eth and a halfe amongst these Islands, and had wandered vp and down according to the vncertaine motions of the same Sea, not without much and great danger, with great paines at last he got into the open Sea. And now [...]ayling by the Chiline shor [...] in the Southerne Sea, at Villa-Parissa he seized on fiue ships laden with Merchandise; he tooke away one of the [...], and the Pilot; but dismissed the rest vpon the paiment of 2000. Ducke [...]s, when they indeed were valued at more then twen­ty thousand.

[Page 111]Afterwards at Arica, he was assailed by Bertrand à Ca­stro, who with eight ships was sent out by the Vice-Gerent or Deputy of Peru, to that purpose; but first his munition, furniture, and tackling for sayling being somewhat scant, he ventred on him, to his owne losse; but afterwards being bet­ter prouided,Hee is assaul­ted. he assailed him againe in the Gulfe Attacame, but with no better speed, for they fought hand to hand very fiercely, many being slaine on both sides: insomuch that the Spaniard thought it better to skirmish a farre off, and to play vpon them with their Ordnance.Yeeldeth vp­on condition. Which when they did three dayes without ceasing, Bertrand senta Gloue, and in the name of the King profered their liberty to Hawkins and his followers, if they would yeeld vp vnto him. This condition they (all being sore wounded, and vnequall for longer skirmish) did accept, which they found also fulfilled; for Bertrand vsed them very courteously. But there arose a question notwithstanding, whether (or no) this promise were to be kept, because it was questioned whether Ber­trand (who was not delegated Generall immediatly from the King, but mediately from his Deputy) could make such a promise to Hawkins, who had receiued immediately his au­thority from the Queene. But at length they all fell into this opinion, that the promise made in the Kings name should be kept, since that Hawkins was no Pirate, but a lawfull ene­my; neither would they that the Spaniard should vse any o­ther martiall Lawes in the Southerne Seas, then what were sutable to the rest elsewhere.

But yet for all this,He is sent prisoner into Spaine. (and although that Bertrand to the praise of his honesty, much endeauoured that his promise might be fulfilled) was Hawkins sent into Spaine, and kept prisoner there some few yeares; for it seemed good to the Spaniard to vse this seuerity, that hee might fright others from attempting those Seas againe.Set at liber­ty. But at last the Duke of Miranda (President of the Councell) gaue him his dismissi­on, vpon consideration, that such promises made deliberately [Page 112] by the Kings Commanders, should be kept, because that o­therwise no body would euer yeeld.

But in the other part of America, Lancasters voyage. Iames Lancaster that was sent out with three ships, and a Brigandi [...]e by the London Merchants, whose goods the Spaniard had lately laid hands vpon, had farre better fortune against them. For hee tooke 39. Spanish ships; and hauing associated to himself Venner an Englishman, some Hollanders, and some French, that lay about expecting some prey in those Seas, hee determines to set vpon Fernambuc in Brasile, where hee vnderstood there had beene vnladed great treasure out of a Caracke that shipwrack't comming from the East Indies. But when hee saw the enemy flocke in multitudes very thicke to the shore, he chose out some of the English, and put them in the ship­boates; and rowing with such violence that they brake the Oares, the Boates ran a shoare, a successe tr [...]ely as happy as the counsell was valiant. For by their valour the enemies being drouen to the vpper Towne, hee enjoyed the lower Towne and the Hauen; defending the same thirty whole dayes against all their crafty and deceitfull assaults; and re­fusing all parley, he frustrated all their fiery machinations a­gainst his ships, and at last laded some fifteene ships with the wealth of that Caracke we spake of, with Sugar-canes, Bra­fil wood, and Cottens, and then returned safe home.

I know not whether or no this may be worth remem­brance,Honour con­ferred by a forr [...]igne Prince, not to be admitted at home. except to the instructing of more ambitious mindes: at this time Sir Nicholas Clifford, and Sir Anthony Shirley de­serued so well in the warres of France at the Kings hands, that hauing giuen them their oath, he made them Knights of St. Michael: which when they somewhat gloried too much of in their owne Countrey, the Queene being discon­tented, that they had taken such honour from a forreigne Prince, without notice giuen to her, as if they had beene not hers but his Subiects, committed them both to prison. But yet (out of her mercy) she would not let the Law passe vpon [Page 113] them, both out of a respect to their youthfull folly, and her good will to the King of France that bestowed it. But shee commanded them both to resigne them vp againe, and send backe their honour againe. Which when the French King heard of, he was reported to haue merrily sayd, That the Queene may be euen with me; I wish the would make some of my ambitious subiects with her, Knights of King Ar­thurs round table. For as that Order hath beene worne a­way long since in Ballades, so hath this of S. Michael dege­nerated into a contempt: Insomuch that a Noble French man sayd, that the chayne of S. Michael was once a badge of Noblemen, but now a collar for all creatures.

About this time Cardinall Alan died at Rome, The death of Cardinall Alan. commonly called the Cardinall of England. He was borne in the Coun­ty of Lancaster, of a good family, which in some of the kin­dred, conteyned some of the nobler sort. Hee was brought vp in Oriall Colledge in Oxford, where in the time of Queene Mary he was Proctour of the Vniuersity, and afterwards made one of the Canons of the Church of Yorke. Assoone as the alteration in Religion began, hee changes his country for Doway in Flanders, where the Vniuersity beginning in the yeere of Grace 1562. hee professing of Diuinity, was made one of the Canons Regular of the Church of Cam­bray.

He tooke order that a Seminary should bee prouided for the English at Doway; and afterwards another at Rhemes; where also he was made Canon. Hee ordeyned a third at Rome for the English: besides two more in Spaine, to pre­serue the Roman Religion in England; out of zeale to which, he had put off both his loue to his country, and his obedi­ence to his Prince: he incensed the Spaniard and the Pope of Rome, to assault England. And to that purpose adioyned himselfe to all pernitious con [...]ultations about that matter, after that Pope Sixtu [...] Q [...]intus had bestowed on him the title of Cardinall of S. [...]rti [...] in Montibus, and the [...] [Page 114] gaue him an Abbacy in the Kingdome of Naples, and nomi­nated him Archbishop of Machline. When the Bull of ex­communication against the Queene, at that time that the great Nauy was prouided for England, came forth, hee brought it into the Low Countries, & caused it to be printed in English. Withall he wrote an Admonition to the Eng­lishmen, that they should sticke to the Pope and Spaniard▪ But being deceiued of all his hopes, he returned againe backe to Rome, where being wearied with the discords, hatreds, and dissentions of the English Run [...]awayes, both Schollers, and Nobles; at l [...]st he dyed, being of the age 63. yeares. He was buried in the English Church, called by the name of the Trinity. In his time hee wrote in Latine a Booke con­cerning the Eucharist; and in English, an Apology for Seminaries; and another for English Catholikes; another for William Stanley, who had betrayed [...] to the Spaniard; besides the admonition we spake of, and a book [...] about Purga [...]ory; neither haue I seene any other.

About this time too, died Iohn Piers Archbishop of Yorke, And of Do­ctor Piers Archbishop of Yorke. a great Diuine, and yet a modest one, who was long time, Almoner to the Queene. Matthew Hutton being remoued from the Bishopricke of Durham, succeeded him.

Ferdinand Stanley Earle of Derby, And of the Earle of Derby. he whom we spake of before in the last yeare, euen vpon the beginning of this yeare died in the prime of his youth, but not without suspi­tion of poyson, [...]auing beene miserably afflicted with cruell paines, and casting vp stuffe like the colour of rusty Iron. In his chamber was found a little Image made of Waxe, with the belly of it thrust through with haires, iust of the colour of those of his head▪ which was layd there (as the wiser the [...] thought) to remoue the suspition of po [...]soning him away▪ and father his death vpon the art of Wi [...]chcraft. That which in his sicknesse he cast vp by vomiting, so distayned his fee [...] with a [...] colour, that they would neuer be [...] [Page 115] were wrapt vp in Seare-cloth, and couered with Lead) did so flow with corrupted and stinking humours, that no man in a long time durst come neere his buriall place. There fell no small suspition of his death vpon his Horse-keeper, for, assoone as the Earle was once dead, he fled away with one of his best Horses.

William his Brother succeeded him in the County of Darby, A contention about the lsle of Man. betweene whom and the three daughters of the de­ceased Earle, when there arose a contention, to whom the Dominon of the Isle of Man belonged, the Queene well considering that the English run-awayes and the Spaniard, did still cast an eie towards that Island, committed the go­uernment thereof to Sir Thoma [...] Gerard, both by reason of his approued honesty, and proximity. But whilest the new Earle and the three Sisters were at law about the Right to that Island, the Queenes Lawyers (being of a most quicke­sighted craftinesse) found out of their points of the law, that the Right of that Island belonged to the Queene; and that the Stanleys, and the Earles of Derby, had without any iust right possessed the said right of that Island, this two hundred yeares. By reason that they alleaged (that we may heare all from the beginning) that assoone as Henry the fourth had seized vpon this Kingdome, William Scroope then Lord of the Isle of Man being banished, Henry the fourth gaue the same to Henry Percy Earle of Northumberland. This Hen­ry some six yeares after fell into a rebellion. Hereupon (the yeare then following) the King granted it by Letters Pa­tents to Iohn Stanley for his life time; before the Earle o [...] Northumberland had beene banished by act of Parliament, of his goods confiscated to the King. Within a moneth the King and the same Stanley agree, that those former Letters Patents for his life time, and other things granted to him by the King, should be restored againe, and cancelled, and the Island againe granted to him and his heires vnder this forme, We, for and in consideration that the said Iohn Stanley hath [Page 116] restored to Vs againe Our Letters Patents, into the Chancery, to be cancelled, haue granted vnto the foresaid Iohn, the fore­said Island, &c. Out of these words, and well obseruing the circumstances of time, that those former Letters Patents were granted for his life, before that the Earle was banished, the Lawyers pronounced that the King could not giue the Island away for his life, because as yet it was not attributed, or iudged fa [...]ne into the hands of the King: and then conse­quently, that those latter Letters Patents, which altogether consisted vpon the restoring of the former, were of no force; saying, that the King was deceiued by a false suggestion, and that therefore his grant was voide, and of no vertue. But the Queene for all this yeelded vp her Right in it, and an a­greement was made betweene the Vncle and the Nieces.

Also,And of the L. Dacres. about this time Gregory Fienis, or F [...]nis, Lord Da­cres, the last of that name, and therefore not to be forgotten, changed this life for a better, he was of no weake capacity, the Nephewes Nephew of Richard Fenis, of the ancient Fa­mily of the Earles of Bon [...]nia; to whom Henry the [...]ixt, and Edward the fourth, gaue the title of Lord Dacre, because he had married the heire female of Thomas Lord Dacre. Hee was sonne of Thomas Lord Dacre, who died in the reigne of Henry the eight, when he was scarce 24. yeares of age. For when as there was a murther committed by some of his Fa­miliars that were a going with him a hunting, (although he were not present at it) yet hee was ca [...]led into question, and being perswaded by some Courtiers (that cunningly lay ga­ping for his inheritance) that he could in no manner saue his life, vnlesse he would confesse the fault, and submit himselfe to the mercy of the King: which when he indiscreetly had done, he was forthwith condemned, and the day after exe­cuted. But yet the Courtiers that had so gone about the bush, were deceiued of their hopes, for the inheritance fell by law vnto his Sister Margaret, that was married to Sampson Len­nard, and the Lordship confirmed vpon the said Lennards sonne named Henry.

[Page 117]Neither are they to be omitted, who followed in the ex­piring of their mortality, William Lord Euers, The death of the L Euers. And the L. Chandos. And the Lord Montioy. hauing left Ralph his sonne and heire by Margery Dimocke. Giles Lord Chandos, who dying without issue male, left his Brother William his successour. Lastly, William Blunt Lord Mont­ioy, hauing too much weakened his body by his vntempe­rate youthfulnesse, to whom succeeded his brother Charles gouernour of Portsmouth.

In August next Sir William Russell Sir William Russell Lord Deputy in Ireland. the youngest Sonne of Francis Earle of Bedford, was substituted in the Lord Deputy of Irelands place, William Fitz-williams hauing beene called ouer, after that Henry Duke, and Edward Her­bert, who were sent with victualls, prouision, and auxiliary forces to succour those that lay in Garrison in I [...]iskelline, who were besieged by Mac-Guir, were vanquished with no little losse by these Rebels. And assoone as Sir William had receiued the sword of authority, Tir-Oen, Tir-Oen sub­mitteth to him. beyond all expe­ctation, hauing receiued a Protection, comes vnto him, falls downe at his knees, humbly begs pardon for his faults, in that when he was commanded he came not vnto the former Deputy; excusing it, by reason that his aduersaries lay in wait for his life, and much lamenting that he had lost his fa­uour with the Queene, not by his desert, but their false infor­mations; for the Queene he held most benigne, and most li­berall vnto him; whom, as she had raised vp to the height of honour, so she might as easily thrust him out of Ireland. He entreated that the sincerity of his cause might be paised in equall ballances, and that hee would obey whatsoeuer was commanded, hee largely promised to him▪ either in raising the [...]iege at Iniskelline, or in driuing the Scottish Islanders out. He called to witnesse both God and men, that although his forward nature had led him into some defence for his life against his enemies, yet that he would neuer take Armes a­gainst the Queenes Maiesty. Lastly, he vehemently besought the Deputy, and all the Couns [...]llours of Ireland, that they[Page 118] would make intercession to the Queene for the recouery of his lost fauour.

But Bagnall He is accused by Bag [...]all. Marshall of the Irish Army being there pre­sent, exhibited articles against him, accusing him, that by his meanes Mac-Guir, and Gauran the Priest, Primate of Ire­land made by the Pope, came into Conaught; that hee had secret consultations with Mac-Guir, O [...] Donell, and other Re­bels; that he ayded them in wasting the Countries of M [...] ­naghan, and in besieging Iniskelline, by Cormac Mac-Baron his Brother, and Cone his base-borne Sonne; that hee had withdrawen by threatnings from their loyalty towards the Queene the Capt. of Kilut, and Kilwar [...]y. Hee most reso­lutely denied all this▪ and as one much presuming on the safe­gard of his whole and vndefiled conscience, hee proffered to renounce the vertue of his Protection, if these things obie­cted against him, could be proued.

Hereupon did the Counsellours seriously canuase the mat­ter,But yet dis­missed. whither (or no) they should detaine him to make him come to triall. The Deputy iudged it fit he should be detai­ned; but the rest (either out feare to violate that priuiledge of his Protection, or out of some good will towards him) iudged that he should be now dismissed, and the matter de­ferred till another time. To which sentence there being the major part on that side, the Deputy vnwillingly condiscen­ding, he was dismissed, neither his accusers or his witnesses being heard. But it somewhat troubled the Queene, who knew that euery one knew of his wicked consultations, and more wicked offences that lay open to all mens eyes; and the more it troubled her, because shee had admonished be­fore hand, that he should be detained till he had cleared him­selfe of his obiected accusations.

The Earle Tir-Oen (at his dismission) gaue indeed great hopes to the Counsellours both of England and Ireland, that his seruice should be most faithfull to the Queene: readily promising to do whatsoeuer almost they proposed vnto him▪ [Page 119] to wit, as to hinder his Brother Corma [...] from assisting Mac-Guir, and the other Rebels; to driue out the Scottish Islan­ders, as well as he could, out of Ireland; to perswade O-Do­nell that he would doe the like; to defend the Borders with his wing of Horse in the absence of the Deputy; to see the orders fulfil [...]ed concerning prouision for victuals; to build a Gaole in Dunganon; to admit of a Sheriffe and Iustices in Tir-Oen vpon certaine conditions; and to command Tur­logh Mac-Henry vpon his oath, not to suffer any Scottish I­slanders to come into Ireland.

Not long after the DeputyThe Deputy prosecuteth the Rebels. being gone to free Iniskelline from the siege that lay at it, hauing put to flight the Rebels, furnished it with all manner of prouision, and also strengthe­ned the Garrison. Then he fiercely disquieted and troubled Feagh Mac-Hugh rebelling in Leinster, and hauing but gone out as it were a hunting, he wanted but little of taking him. He droue him from his House at Bullencure, into almost vn­accessable Valleys, which they call the Glinnes; and there he set a Garrison, and sending out some troupes to search out these desart passages, where there was no way for a man to come to them almost, they went so [...] to worke, that there seldome passed by a day, but they sent in (after the fa­shion of the Countrey) some heads cut off from the Souldi­ers of the Rebels: they tooke Rhise the wife of Feagh, more then of a womanly courage; who, [...] [...]ght the rest, was adiudged to be burnt▪ but the mercy of the Queene out [...] stript the seuerity of iustice, and her life was saued.

On the otherside Marshall Bagnall hauing beene sent by the Deputy, did raise the siege laid by Mac-Guir and Mac-Mahon, at Monaghan Castle, and he placed there a new band of Souldiers.

The Lord Deputy, hauing diuers times [...]ought to haue Tir-Oen Tir-Oen be­wrayeth his rebellious hu­mours. (whom he lately dismissed) come againe vnto him, although he sent most courteously for him; yet he could by no meanes induce him to it. For first, he made as if he stood [Page 120] in feare of the Marshall, that came on the errand; and af­terwards much vnmindfull of his dutie, hee began proud­ly to talke of truce and peace, (which indeed a King doth not willingly heare of from the mouth of his Subiect) insomuch, that men exceedingly meruailed, to see how much hee was changed and altered from that humblenesse, wherein he lately submitted himselfe to the same Lord Deputy.

THE EIGHT and thirtieth Yeere OF HER REIGNE.
Anno Domini 1595.1595

ANd now both the Queene, and all England with her, greatly reioy­ced, to heare of the well appro­ued good will of the King of Scotland, and his earnest desire and endeauour to keepe Peace: For,The King of Scotlands prouision a­gainst the Spaniard. he newly set forth a Procla­mation, whereby he commanded that there should be a Mustering throughout all Scotland, to resist the Spaniard, whom he heard had prouided a great Nauy for the destruction of all Britaine. And that they might [Page 122] with greater ease, and better successe resist him; he exhorted his especially, that aboue all things, they lay aside their pri­uate enmities and discords, and bend themselues to the pub­like good of the Commonwealth. Hee seuerely commands the Borderers (some whereof hauing beene baited and taken with Spanish gold, had burst out into England, preying all about, on purpose to breake the League betweene England and Scotland) not onely that they shew themselues not as enemies in any occasion; but moreouer, that with all their endeauours they preserue the frienship, which the neare kin­dred betweene both Princes, the profession of the same Re­ligion, and the likenesse both of Language and Manners, had vnited and conioyned.

The Queene sets forth her Proclamation, euen to the same purpose. And when any iniuries were offered on either side, it was agreed vpon, that there should be Delegates on both sides, to know the matter, that both Iustice and Peace might be still preserued.

In the second moneth of this yeare, Edmund Yorke Ne­phew to him that betrayed the Fort at Zutphen, and Richard Williams, Yorke and Williams hanged. who had beene apprehended the last yeare (as we said) now suffered at Tyburne for Treason. Yorke confessed that Holt a Iesuite, Hugh Owen, Iames de Francesco, and o­thers, proffered him an Assignement of 40000. Crownes, that was sealed by Ibarra the Spaniards hand, if he himselfe would either kill the Queene, or assist Richard Williams in the fact. That this Assignement lay in Deposito, in custody to be deliuered vp by Holt, hauing kist the holy Hoast, and swore to deliuer vp the monies, assoone as the murther was committed: that withall he bound both Yorke and Williams to commit it by receiuing the Sacrament, and confirmed it with their oaths taken.

Certainly, notable was the villany of these times, when sometimes these English runnagates would excite murthe­rers; and sometimes villaines (thirsting after gaine) would [Page 123] proffer themselues to commit that murther, and being once hired with mony, would be [...]ray it. Some vnfaithfull to them­selues, as if they were about some other matter, would bring the rest to destruction; being indeed so intangled with mu­tuall deceits, that sometimes they were faine to burthen o­thers with false lies, to make their owne storie good.

The King of France by this time had resolued to de­nounce warre against the Spaniard,Warre pro­claimed in France a­gainst the Spaniard. by reason, that hee had imployed all his endeauors to translate the Scepter of France, and had stirred such dolefull commotions in France. This thing hee certifies the Queene by Letters of, withall entrea­ting her to aduise him how they might follow the warre a­gainst him: complaining, that the recalling of the English out of Britaine, was very hurtfull to him, and would be ve­ry commodious to his enemies. The Queene, much com­mending his resolution of denouncing warre against the Spaniard, wishing him all happinesse in the prosecution of it; withall, certifying that she had so openly wa [...]ed against the Spaniard, both by Land and Sea, and that also in the Low Countries, Spaine, Portugall and America, that the whole world may beare record of it. And if so be that hee would doe as much too by offensiue warre, which he had al­ready done by defensiue, the Spaniard could not be able to hurt either of them. Answering also, that the English were necessarily recalled from Britaine, because the rebellion grew very thicke in Ireland; besides, that the English were to tarry there no longer according to the couenant, because the Spaniards were then remoued from the Fortress [...] at Brest; then complayning that they were very ill vsed, that the ayd that was promised neuer came to ioyne; and that Morlay which was promised to be a retyring place for them, was not giuen them to that purpose.

Assoone as the Spaniard and the French King had soun­ded the Alarme for warre,The warre growes hot. a dolefull warre raged about the Dutchy of Luxenburgh and Picardy; Castelet and Dourlans [Page 124] were taken by the Spaniard: and Cambray by him besieged. Cheualiere of the Kings Counsell, being sent ouer into Eng­land, Aide from England. demands auxiliary forces to be sent ouer into Picardy within 15. dayes after the date of the Letter, when as hee himselfe had spent 12. of them in his iourney, and had left but three dayes to muster them, and transport them. Yet without delay there were forces mustered, which should be sent ouer (if need were) to Calis, Bulloig [...]e, Diepe and the Sea coasts: and this the Queene certified the King of France of by Sir Roger Williams, and the Gouernours of these fore­named Townes. But when those of the Kings Councell in England vehemently vrged, that some Subsidie or ayd [...] might be sent ouer, to rescue and succour the French, there was no definitiue answer made, because they neither men­tioned what number they would haue, not to what end.

And now flew a rumour about,The Queenes prouision a­gainst the Spaniard. not secretly stealing from mouth to eare, but openly, and by the tongue of all the parts of Britaine, that the Spaniard had put from shoare with a mightier Armie then that he had before, with intent to in­uade England. Hereupon, round about the Sea coasts there was a Muster made of choyce men, that should lye at watch and ward vpon the shoare; and also two Nauies furnished, one to goe against them in the British Ocean; and the other, for America, vnder Hawkins and Drake. Euery man pro­uided himselfe, and buckled against the warre; most com­plaining, that so many valiant men, that might now haue done their own Country good seruice; and also that so much mony had bin lost in France, (for the expedition for Brest by Sea, stood the Queene in about Forty seuen thousand, two hundred forty and three Crownes of the Sunne; and her charges in sending ouer forces vnder the Earle of Essex, Two hundred thousand, sixe hundred and forty more,) both women and men mourning that their Sonnes and Brothers were slaine before, and not reserued for to lose [Page 125] their liues in the defence of their owne Country.

About this time Lomené flies ouer into England, More aide required from England. and al­though he dissembled not the taking of Cambray, yet he lies hard at the Queenes mercy to send ouer more auxiliary for­ces into Picardy, and afterwards would that there should be Delegates chosen to treate about the manner of the warre. Which when it seemed somewhat preposterous both to the Queene and her Councell, he being impatient of the ve­ry shew of a deniall imputed to the Queene the losse of Cam­bray; obiecting also, that she delighted in the miseries of his King, and would bring him to a peace with the Spani­ard assoone as possibly he could.

She forthwith answered him presently, and the King in her Letters by Sir Thomas Edmonds, who then supplyed the place of an Embassadour, that she tooke it very sorrowfully that Cambray She acquit­teth herselfe of scandalou [...] imputati­ons about the taking of Cambray. was lost, but yet more sorrowfully that Lo­mené should impute the losse thereof to her, because her as­sistance was not as ready as their expectation and necessity. Demonstrating that the narrow streights of the limited time could not produce those [...]orces: and that it was no wis­dome, the French hauing beene once or twise vanquished, to cast her Souldiers vpon the triumphing cruelty of the Spaniard, le [...]t that while she should so much esteeme his mi­sery, she might be compelled to relieue it with the losse of the liues of many of her Subiects, and the loue of the rest. Yet that she was so farre from reioycing at his vnfortunate misery, or driuing him to a peace with their common enemy, that neither he himselfe, nor any man else, without the pre­iudice of his discretion, could light vpon any suspition; espe­cially if so be he would but recall to his memory, the good Offices wherewith she honoured him, & the sacred bond of their friendship. She promised all aid, though not such as his desire, yet, such as her necessity could affoord; confessing that both their fortunes were hazarded vpon one chance. That none should need to require helpe from her against the Spa­niard, [Page 126] who, since such time that hee put on hatred against England, and (vpon no other ground, then because his en­uy should encrease on the one [...]ide, as fast as her mercy did on the other, in relieuing the distresses of her Neighbours) neuer ceased either by Sea or Land, to infringe the greatnesse of his power, or to bend it from it's proper and assigned ob­iect: euen that now all her thoughts haue beene euen bespo­ken to be employed against him, and his Nauy; and that therefore her excuse for not aiding him presently, stood war­rantable in Iustice, vnlesse that she should vncloath her own Dominions of forces, to furnish her Neighbours. And by reason that she had heard it whispered into a common talke by the French, as that she doubted of the Kings constancy in his friendship, or beheld his prosperous succeeding with the eie of enuy or sorrow, she protested, that as such thoughts should be vnworthy of the brest of a Prince, so were they of hers, and were neuer harboured there.

Besides this, she willed Edmonds to inculcate daily into the Kings memory, that it is the part of a King sometimes euen to thwart the resolution of his priuate brest, to giue some publike satisfaction to the desires of the people; because the goodwill of the people is the rocke of the Princes safety. And that since he himselfe had wisely done so, for the preseruati­on of the loue of his people, he could not value her good will by her outward performance, which she abstained from, for the loue she bare to her people, to whose duty, loue, & obedi­ence, and valour, she accounted no ordinary blessing of God. Their valour France it selfe could well testifie, where many to get credit & renowne, lost their liues: & more would haue lost them there, but that the dolefull cries of Mothers, the grones of Kindreds, and the lamentations of young children, mourning the losse of their Fathers before they knew them, had interceded a little for them: and, but that the affaires of warre at home, or at least, great rumour of warre had reprie­ued them to a longer time of execution. That if the King [Page 127] would weigh these things in an vnpartiall iudgement, she did not doubt but he would be sufficiently contented with this her answer, that he would stop vp the eares of those that for the furtherance of the greater good of the common enemy, had occupied all their endeauours to vnbinde their Peace. That this is the principall endeauour of many, that by their ill Offices they might rob the Prince of the good will of his Subiects, and the hearts of his couragious Commons.

But on the other side, the miseries of France multiplying as conti [...]ually as their warres, many men incited the King to enter into a League with the Spaniard.The King of France per­swaded to, and disswa­ded from a Peace with the Spani­ard. Perswasions were drawne from the actions of the Queene of England, who, they said, did nothing but feed his eares with empty promi­ses. Some on the other side againe, busied all their inuen­tions to deterre him from it, especially Catharine of Nauarre, Sister to the King, the D. of Bulloigne, & Vmpton the Leager there, obiecting incontinētly, that his hope of Peace with the Spaniard would relie but vpon weake grounds, if he should consider how long the Spaniard had de [...]ained from him Na­uarre, his Grandfathers Kingdome; how he had molested all France, and quartered it out into his owne possessions; how he challenged little Britaine, as the inheritance of his Daughter; and how he hired a faigned Right for her to England, against the King of Scots, in Bookes set forth to that purpose: insomuch that he seemes by the vertue of his vast conceipt, to haue swallowed vp vnder his owne gouern­ment, the huge Monarchy of all Europe.

When the King began to shut his eares against so force­able perswasions, the Queene began in her minde much to question his promise, and doubt of performance; but more especially when she vnderstood out of the Colledge of Cardinalls, that the Pope of Rome had entred him into a blessing of the Church, vpon these conditions, and these words.

[Page 128]

HE shall abiure all heresies,Conditions proposed to the King of France by the Pope, and his Conclaue of Cardinals. he shall professe the Catholique faith in that forme that shall be [...]ere done by his Embassadours: Hee shall bring in the profession of it to the Principality of Be­arne, and shall nominate all Catholike Magistrates in that Prouince: He shall vndertake within a yeare to bring the Prince of Conde out of the hands of He­retiks, and shall see him well instructed and grounded in the Catholike faith: Hee shall cause the Decrees of the Councell of Trent, to be published and recei­ued throughout all the Kingdome of France: In all Churches and Monasteries hee shall nominate per­sons of vpright conuersation, and Catholikes, being free from the very suspition of any Heresie: Hee shall employ all his endeauours that the Churches and Clergie be restored to their goods againe, without any iudiciall Processe. In disposing of all Offices and Ho­nours be shall prouide, that onely Catholikes shall bee preferred, and that as much as in him lyeth, Heretiks be driuen out. All the Concordates shalbe obserued, the abuses from them being taken away, which haue crept in against them. Absolution giuen by Bishops in France shall be condemned. Hee shall write Let­ters vnto all Princes of the Christian world, where­in he shall signifie his conuersion from his Heresie, his renouncing of it, and his profession of the Catholike Faith.

Whilest these things are in action,Cornwall in­uaded by the the Spaniard. the Spaniards (vnder the conduct of Dudac Brochar) with some foure Gallies, set­ting forth from Britaine against Cornwall in England, in Iu­ly arriued at it betimes in the morning, they burnt St. Pauls Church that stood alone in the fields, Mouse-hole, Newlin, & Pensa [...]se, little Villages for Fishermen, and neither hauing [Page 129] slaine or taken away one with them, they betake themselues home againe: being indeed the first and the last of the Spa­niards that euer made any hostile incursion vpon England.

But some Englishmen priuately, and the Queene her selfe publikely, vndertooke greater aduentures against the Spani­ard; for Sir Walter Rawleigh, Rawleighs voyage to Guiana. Captaine of the Guard, hauing deflowred one of the Queenes Maides of Honour, (whom he afterwards tooke to Wife) being put out of fauour, and for some few moneths being kept vnder custody, was now set free, but banished from the Court. He to follow the di­rections of his owne Genius, that was alwaies enclined to search out hidden Regions, and the secrets of Nature, vnder­tooke a Nauigation to Guiana, that beares Gold, which iour­ney he hop'd would proue aduantagious to his Countrey, both by getting store of wealth, and by molesting the Spa­niard, within the inward Coasts of America, which hee thought would be more profitable then on the Sea coasts, where there are neuer any Townes laden with any riches, but when they are conuayed thither to be carried ouer into Spaine.

Setting out from Plimouth the sixt of February, hee arri­ued at the Island Trinidado the 22. of March, that lies some eight degrees beneath the Aequator. There he easily tooke a little City called St. Ioseph, and the Gouernour thereof Don Antonio de Bereo, but found not so much as a piece of Siluer there.

Hauing enquired many things of this Antonio about the Mines of Gold in Guiana, he left his ship in Trinidado, and entred the vast Riuer Orenoque, with little Barkes, and some hundred Souldiers: he searched vp and downe Guiana for the space of foure miles, among the crooked and short tur­nings of the water seuerall wayes: where, being parched with the reflecting beames of the Sunne, that was iust ouer his head, and too much wet sometimes with showers; and hauing long wrastled with such like difficulties, hee yet con­tinued [Page 130] so long, till that it growing wintery cold in Aprill, the waters all ouer-spread the earth; insomuch that now he could passe away in no lesse danger of the waters, then hee came thither in danger of his enemies.

In his returne from thence, he set fire on Cumana, because the Inhabitants thereof refused to redeeme it at a set rate of monies▪ also hee fired some little Cottages in St. Mary, and Rio de la Hach. Neither gaue he ouer the pursuit of his in­tent, although the watchfull eie of the Spaniard placed a Co­lony in Trinidada.

At the same time Captaine Amias Preston, and Captaine George Somers sackt and burnt the Isle of Puerto Santo neere Madera, and Coche neere Margarita, the Towne of Coro, and the City of Iago de St. Leon: but vpon the receipt of mo [...]ney spared Cumana. And some few moneths before three ships of the Earle of Cumberland, set vpon a great Ca­racke called Cinque Lagas, or the fiue wounds of Christ, which hauing got fire, burnt it selfe and all her merchandise▪ insomuch that the English hardly escaped, whilest the Por­tugals threw themselues into the Sea.

Now the Queene hauing beene certified that there was great store of riches layd in at Porto Rico, in the Island B [...] ­riquene, or St. Iohns Island, for the Spaniards vse, she sent forth Sr. Iohn Hawkins, and Sr. Francis Drake, An expediti­on into Ame­rica. with equall authority in the Sea forces, and Sr. Thomas Baskeruile, Gouernour of the Land forces, allotting them sixe of her ships, and twenty other men of warre. They strooke saile at Plimouth the 27. of August, and the seuen and twentieth day after, they arriued at Great Canary. Drake and Basker­uile adiudged it necessary for their credit, and better conue­niency of furnishing their Nauy plentifuller with victuals, to assault the same: but Hawkins, alleaged the sufficiency o [...] prouision in the Nauy, and his vnwillingnesse to spend time any where, till the end of their Voyage had beene attained vnto; yet at length by Baskeruiles perswasion (who had be­gun [Page 131] the assault foure daies,) and by the Mariners, who had almost caused a dearth of prouision, hee condiscended there­unto. Baskeruile hauing come a shoare, and hauing espied the difficulties whereon he ventured, seeing the Townesmen on the one side in battaile array ready for him, and the Sea on the other raging at the shoare, and chiding the bounds thereof for lying in her way, gaue ouer his enterprise. And comming a boord againe, they sayled a whole moneth, and came to the Island S. Dominico; at which time fiue Spanish ships lay there, and came about as spies for the English, and chanced to light vpon a little shore ship of the English, that strayed too farre from her company. And hauing rackt both the Master and Mariners into a confession, they vnderstood that the English were in preparation for Porto Rico; The voyag [...] to Porto Rico. where­fore plying thither with all speed possible, they tell them of the Englishmens approaching: which when it was bewrayed openly, they hid all their gold and siluer, and hauing sent forth little Brigandines to all the Islands thereabouts, and the Spanish coasts, they giue notice thereof to the Spaniard, who being now forwarned, is fore-armed.

Now the English staying at Dominico to build some shore ships, delayed time so, that it was late before they could ar­riue at Porto Rico. Where assoone as they had cast anchor, it thundred out from their Bulwarkes, and at Supper time Sir Nicholas Clifford, and Brute Browne being deadly wounded with a Bullet, died within one or two dayes after: and the very same day Sir Iohn Hawkins (partly by sicknesse, and partly by reason of some discords betweene him and the o­ther Captaines) departed this life, being much lamented of the Mariners. The Spaniards forti [...]ie the mouth of the Hauen, hauing suncke a great ship, and drawne the long Masts thereof from one Castle on the one side to another Castle on the other side, which fortified the entrance. With­in those fiue ships of the Spaniards well ballanced, furnished with Gunners, and prouided of great pieces of Ordnance, [Page 132] stood opposite against them. Yet notwithstanding Basker­uile, hauing placed his Souldiers in the ship-boats, endea­uoured strongly for a passage; hee burnt one or two of the Spanish ships, but being driuen backe with a shower of bul­lets that rained about him, he listed not to renue his purpose against so stormy a violence. So that hauing put from thence towards the continent, or firme land, they set fire on Rio de la Hach, Rio de la Hach fired. And other little townes. a little Village, whose Inhabitants offered 34000. Duc­kats for their redemption. Then they set fire also on St. Mar­tha, but found not one dramme of gold or siluer there. Thence they went and tooke Nombre de Dios, as empty of riches as Inhabitants, which they burnt also. From thence going to­wards Panama Their voyage towards Pa­nama. with 750. armed Souldiers, they were so in­tangled with by-paths, & so ensnared in durty wayes, and so pelted with shot out the woods about, & so abashed to finde a Fortre [...]e iust against them in these narrow wayes, & to heare that there were two more within that blocked vp the way, that being quite tyred, they returned to their ships againe.

From thence they turned their course to Scudo And to Scu­do. an Island, and from thence to Porto Bello; in the meane time Sir Fran­cis Drake, The Death of Sir Fran­cis Drake. hauing beene sorely molested with the bloudy­fluxe, and grieued at these vntoward proceedings yeelded vp the ghost: and being let downe into the Sea, with a peale of Ordnance, after the manner of Sea Funeralls, he was bu­ried euen in the same place almost where in his prosperous Voyages he began to be famous.

And now hauing begun to returne by the South side of Cuba ouer against the Island Pinor, The Nauy returneth home. the Spanish Nauy that had tarried for them, now met them: but on the first onset, (if we may belieue them that did it) Baskeruile, and Through­ton, one in the Admirall, the other in the Vice-Admirall, so molested the Spaniards, that they offered more harme then they receiued: Afterwards, some 8. moneths being expired, they returned home, with spoile poore enough, in respect of the death of those men of worth; their greatest riches being [Page 133] that they had made their enemy poore, by burning many of his petty Townes, and more of his ships.

Whilest these things were thus in action in the Westerne world, there arose a kinde of distaste,A distast betweene the Queene and the States of the Low Countries. which indeed had but now growne vp to a controuersie, between the States con­federate, of the Low Countries, and the Queene. Which by this meanes grew vp, and as well withered away againe. Bur­leigh the Queenes Treasurer had demonstrated to her what summes of mony from the yeare 1585. had beene spent in their warres; what summes of gold and siluer had beene new stampt by them, to their great gaining aduantage; what store of English bloud had beene lost to keepe their cause vp­right; what costs and charges were necessarily to be em­ployed, to extinguish the fire of rebellion in Ireland, and the practises of the Spaniard in England. Besides, hee shewed how the States had not onely defended themselues by the helpe of the Queene, but also offended their enemies; how they had now established firmely their tottering Common­wealth; how they had encreased their wealth by traffiques, and their power by subduing more Territories to their go­uernment; and then, how that the Queene, with the long continuance of warre, and the excesse of charges, was euen tyred to a kinde of pouerty.

The Queene considering duly these things,The reason of it. sent Sir Tho­mas Bodly her Embassadour to the States, to acquaint them with all these passages, as first, that England was now euen drawne dry, both of men and money, by reason of warre against the Spaniard, who in no other matter professed him­selfe her enemy,Sir Thomas Bodley sent ouer. but for that she was their friend▪ Where­fore [...]he demanded that they would ease her of the cost of her auxiliary forces, and that they would repay some part of her charges, and chuse some Delegates, to giue account,His message. and take order how the money that had been spent in their cause, which was due indeed to Sir Horatio Pallauicine (of whome it was taken at Interest) should be repaid him.

[Page 134]The States acknowledging these infinite courtesies recei­ued from the Queene,The answer of the State [...]. professed themselues beholding to her vnder God, for all their good fortunes. But withall they protested, they had been at such charges in eighty eight last, against the Spanish Armada, and in the next yeare in the Portugall expedition, and after that in the expedition at Brest; and besides, that they had suffered such losse by vnaccu­stomed i [...]undations, that they were so brought behinde hand, that they could not discharge the debt, vnlesse they should oppresse the poore people, and vndoe their owne cause; also protesting, that by reason of those Townes and Territories which they had gotten from the enemy, their charges were not eased, but are multiplyed and encreased, by reason that now they are faine to fortifie them, and place new Garrisons in them. And for their traffiques, they shewed how equally they hung betweene losse and gaine, by reason of the Arrests in Spaine, and the Pyracies both of the Eng­lish and of the Dunkerks. Indeed they confessed that they gaue some aide to the French King, but not out of the abun­dance of their ability, or out of a fo [...]d insolent arrogancy, or any way to rob England of the glory of succo [...]ring France, or to draw France from England into their Patronage; but onely to diuert the enemy, and bring it to passe that the French made not a League with Spaine, which his neces­sity, domesticke discords, and ill counsels would quickly ad­uise him to.Some monies offered in part of paiment. Yet notwithstanding they promised her some part for the present of the monies in present paiment.

But when as the QueeneThe Queene requireth more. demanded a greater summe, the States contended out of the agreement made 1585, that there should not be present present payment of the money backe againe, till such time as the warre was ended; and that if the Queene would but take as much counsell from her royall Honour, as she did from some ill members that put this first into her head, they knew she would not fall from her agre [...] ­ment.

[Page 135] For all this, the Queene continued in the contrary opini­on, relying vpon the Oracles of her Lawyers and Politici­ans: such as were these.

THat all contracts and agreements made be­tweene Prince and Prince,Great deba­ting about the matter. are vnderstood to be interpreted bonâ fide. Neither is a Prince bound by any contract, when that contract on iust cause occasions hurt to the Common-wealth. That the Peace is not broken, when a Prince breaks the contract, when he is occasioned to doe it, by cases of contingency, or when the matter is come to a new case, which should haue otherwise beene prouided for, if the said case had beene thought vpon. That the Leagues and agree­ments of Princes ought not to be occasions of cauilling, neither ought they to be in vertue to those who breake the couenants. That in case it turne to the damage and preiudice of his Subiects, a Prince is not bound to stand to couenants made; or if it but concerne the de­triment of his owne estate. That all agreements, al­though they be sworne to, yet are they to be vnderstood: Things being in the same cases, as they then were, and not altered, as they now are. That the obligation of a Prince to the good of his Countrey & Commonwealth, is of greater force and vertue to binde him, then any outward contract; vrging besides the authority of Seneca the Philosopher. A wise man changeth not his determination, all things continuing in the same state they were when he first determined: and there­fore he neuer doth repent for it, because at that time nothing could be done better then that which was done, and nothing better appointed then that which was so appointed.

So concerning this matter there were great disputations [Page 136] and controuersies, as also, if the States were liable to the pay­ment to the Queenes successour, (in case of mortality) since that by vertue of the contract, neither one was bound to helpe them in the like distresses, neither was the other bound to repay the monies to them. Also, whether that the mo­nies borrowed of Palla [...]icine at vse, sho [...]ld not as well be ex­acted of the Brabanders, and the Flemmings, and Artesi­ans, since that agreement was made when they were confe­derates too, and before the confederacy of the now vnited Prouinces.

But Sir Thomas Bodley brought these controuersies to such a good temper,Conditio [...]s proposed by the States to the Queene. that the States fearing the anger of so mighty a Princesse, propounded these conditions, which they would oblige themselues vnto.

First, That assoone as they could they would case the Queene of all her charges for auxiliary forces of the English, which came to forty thousand pounds a yeare.

Secondly, That within some yeares they would pay her 20000. pounds sterling, and helpe her with a certaine com­pany of ships.

Thirdly, That they would not enter into League with a­ny without her consent.

Fourthly, That after a Peace concluded, they would pay her for foure yeares, euery yeare 100000. pounds. But vp­on these conditions, that they may be permitted 4000. Souldiers out of England, and all their debts raced out of her her accounts. Humbly entreating her to admit of these things, for the reasons fore-mentioned. Moreouer, they protested their estates were built vpon very fickle foundati­ons, that the people was euen astonished, at the rumour of those forces the enemies keepe, that the Prouinces were at discord about a rule concerning Lone-money, that the chie­fest of them were at discord one against another: that many had relapsed from the Religion which they lately professed with them. That the Emperour by his Embassadours had [Page 137] entised the people to a peace; inasmuch, as that if this ten yeares debt should be now rigorously exacted, it would iust­ly be feared, that a sad Catastrophe, and lamentable period would finish all the former endeauours of the confederate Prouinces.

And then the necessity and the mercy of the Queene be­gan a new controuersie; for, although the proportion of her necessity admitted not any excuse or delay of payment, yet her mercy rests satisfied; for although she wanted monies, she neuer wanted that. And indeed she was the willinger to commiserate their necessities, for feare lest otherwise shee should disioynt the Confederacie, bring them to dispaire, or giue their enemies occasion of reioycing; onely vpon con­ditions, that they furnish thirty ships, and ioyne them with her Nauy, which was a rigging for Spaine: and that they pay the monethly payments awhile to the aux [...]liary forces of the English. And so these matters of controuersie ended in a quiet peace at this time.

In the meane time there was sore complaints made to the Emperour of Germany, The com­plaints of the Hans-townes to the Empe­rour against the Queene. and the States of the Empire by the Inhabitants of the Hanse-Townes, about their Customes: that their ancient priuiledges and customes granted by the former Kings of England, were now quite abolished: that in the expedition against Portugall, their goods were taken by the English: and that Monopolies were instituted in Ger­many, by the English Merchants. To these things the Queene made answere by Christopher Perkins.

THat those antient Priuiledges by reason of some abuses,The Queenes answer. and for other good motiues and reasonable causes, were abrogated by the Court of Parliament, in the raigne of Edward the sixt; and that from thence there is no appealing. One reason was, that the said Priuiledges were not necessary for those times, and that therefore they were quite inhibited by [Page 138] Queene Mary. But yet that the Queene doth not now desire an absolute annihilation of these the said priuiledges, which indeed she could doe by the act of Parliament; but had in the former yeares of her raigne beene very indulgent to them, as the times then went, till such time that they (hauing no regard of the league and friendship) disturbed the English in Ham­borough, neither giuing them any warning of their the like vsage; and yet that for all this, she granted to them the same order of negotiation and trade, as the English vsed▪ but they refused it, except they might haue it by better right. That indeed this was in custome nowhere, neither was it to be suffered, that strangers should be preferred before home-bred Citi­zens, in the traffique for those things that are peculiar to euery Region, which indeed they would challenge by vertue of their Priuiledges. Besides this, that it could in no case stand with the good of the Common-wealth, if so be they should pay no more custome, thē that which was imposed vpon them 300. yeares ago; that Priuiled­ges that haue been granted, & afterward occasion the Damage of the Commonwealth, are not to be admit­ted of, and being once abrogated vpon iust occasions, should not be renued at any mans will or pleasure. Yet notwithstanding, that she euen esteemed of them, al­most as English, in that she willed that they should pay no more custome for the carriage of Cloth hence, or the bringing of Merchandises hither, then her naturall Subiects, vpon conditions that their Merchandise come from the Hanse-Townes. But if so be that they bring in any commodity either from Spaine, the Low-Countries, or any other place, that then also it shall be lawfull for them to bring them into England, but with paiment of one penny in the pound lesse then any For­rainer, onely excepting Cloath, which it shall not be [Page 139] lawfull for those of the Hanse-Townes to transport any whither but to their owne Cities and Townes, beyond the Riuer of Elbe, the City Embden towards the East, and the Baltique Sea. That she had permitted to them houses at London, and other places in England, for them to retaine, and in any honest manner of socie­ty to gouerne their affaires by their Alder [...]a [...], [...] ­ly vpon condition that nothing be done preiudiciall [...] the Queenes Maiesty, or the lawes of the Realme, al­though the extremities of their granted Priuiledges neuer allowed them so much, as to constitute to them­selues an Alderman, or exercise any Iurisdiction in anothers Kingdome, as she hath giuen them leaue to doe, &c.

Withall answering, that those goods which they complained were taken away, were onely warlike mu­nitions, which they were a transporting into Spaine, against England; whereas this was not lawfull for them to do, euen by the best vertue of their Priuiledges. That moreouer, it was publikely defended through their Citi [...]s, that they should not doe so, except they would be esteemed as enemies to England. Th [...]t their ships were dismissed, and that nothing was detained but their Munition and warlike prouisi [...]n, which was lawfull for her to doe by the law of Armes. And concerning Monopolies, that the Germans themselues haue testified in open writings, that the manner of the English traffique with them, is farre from Monopolie. And that therefore she did hope, that the Emperiall Edict which was by them obtained, to forbid English traffique, would be suspended; especially sin [...]e that the States of the Empire could not be well enformed of the priuiledges belonging to the Lawes and Rights of the Realme of England▪ whi [...]h being an absolute King­dome, acknowledgeth no Superiour.

[Page 140] Yet in the middest of all these, there was great store of Corne broug [...]t in by them into England, (after that they had licence to bring in without custom,) which much eased the pen [...]ry the land was almost drouen to: which by reason of con [...]inuall raine spoyling that which would haue grown, and daily priuate transportation of that which was growne, did so languish, that some of the poorer sort began to mu­tinie.

About this time died Philip Howard Earle of Arundell, The death of the Earle of Arundell. in the Tower of London, who had felt the mercifull iustice of the Queene, who did so punish his fault, that yet she spa­red his life euer since hee was condemned in 1589. since which time he wholly gaue himselfe ouer to sacred medita­tions: and being bound thereto by the institution of his streight and seuere religion, almost pined himselfe to death; hauing left onely Thomas his Sonne by Anna Parre Gille­ [...]and.

About this time also departed William Lord Vaulx, And of the L. Vaulx. one no lesse deuote to the Roman Religion, to whom succeeded Edward his Nephew by his Sonne, and Elizabeth Roper.

Also Thomas Heneage, And Sir Th. Heneage. seruant to the Queene, euen from his youth; first Treasurer of her Bed-Chamber, then Sub-Chamberlaine, and Chancellor of the Du [...]chy of Lancaster; a man borne for the Court; hauing left one Daughter, which encreased the family of the Finches both with wealth, and children.

Towards the latter end of the yeare, William Whitaker died,And of Doct. Whitaker. a famous Diuine for learning, and life: he was Regius Professor in Diuinty at Cambridge for 15. yeares, and Pre­sident of St. Iohns Colledge in Cambridge. Hauing much impouerished his weake body by continuall study, euen at that time when the question was so ri [...]e among the Diuines, whether a true and iustifying faith may be lost, he was freed from this body of flesh, and lost his life, hauing left behinde him the desire and the loue of the present times, and the en­uie [Page 141] of posterity, that cannot bring forth his paralell.

In the same moneth Sir Roger Williams (a Welch [...]man) departed this life also, being of the Family of Pen-rose in Munmouth shire. First, he was a hireling vnder the Duke of Alba; afterwards, hauing run through all the degrees of Military offices, he might haue bin sided with the best of our times, if his discretion could haue but well tempered his hot furious valour. In this certainly he out went many, that be­ing vnlearned, and onely tutor'd by experience, hee penned the History of the Low Countrey warres, with very exquisite iudgement, at which indeed he himselfe was present. Be­sides, he defended the Military Art of these dayes, against that of the former dayes, in an excellent Booke, but to the great enuie and discontent of some old-beaten Souldiers, and other louers of Archery. The Earle of Essex, and all the warlike men of the City mourned at his Funerall in Pauls. Shortly after died Sir Thomas Morgan his kinsman, some­what ancienter, of the old house of the Morgans of Pencarn, in the same Shire borne: he being nourished vp in warlike affaires, got the loue of all men, but especially of the Queen, to whom he exhibited and gaue vp the assignment of an year­ly pension of great value, proffered by the Spaniard, if he would turne to his side, onely being content with a small part thereof.

In the meane time Russell Lord Deputy of Ireland, fore­seeing that the passages of the last yeare, would breed a dole­full warre in which they were likely to end, dealt with his friends here in England, that some choise fellow and war­like Souldiers might be sent ouer, who might helpe him with their paines and counsell: and he earnestly wished that Baskeruile might be the man, although he named none. But he was sent, whom he little expected, euen Sir Iohn Norris, S. Iohn Nor­ris sent into Ireland. a man very well skilled in Martiall discipline, valiant against any danger, and very famous for that which he had already done.

[Page 142]Assoone as Earle Tir-Oen had vnderstood that hee was come with 1300. old trained Souldiers, that had beene in seruice both in Britaine in France, and in the Low Countries, besides a new supply of fresh Souldiers adioyned to them: and besides, that all these English forces were intended to march towards Ballishonon and Belicke, two Castles at the end of the Lake Earne: hee being somewhat guilty in his owne conscience, sodainly assaulted the Fortresse at Blacke-water, by which was a passage into the Countie of Tir-Oen: Tir-Oen ta­keth Blacke-water. and he as easily tooke it, as he eagerly assaulted it, Sir Ed­ward Cornwall the Gouernour thereof, being negligently ab­sent.

And in almost the very same minute, through the vncon­stancy of his vnsetled minde, on the one side he sends Letters to the Earle of Kildare, wherein he proffers his assistance a­gainst the iniuries of the Ministers of the Deputy. On the otherside to the Earle of Ormond, & Sir Henry Wallop Trea­surer of the Army, he promiseth to continue still in his loyal­ty. And in Letters sent to Sir Iohn Norris, he intreats him to deale fauourably with him, and not cause him vnwilling­ly to breake his faith and loyalty. But Marshall Bagnall sur­prised these Letters, which turned to his further harme, as the Earle afterwards complained.

For presently after, in the moneth of Iuly, he is proclaimed by Proclamation both in Irish and in English an enemy to his Countrey, and a Traytour,Tir-Oen pro­claimed Traitor. vnder the name of Hugh O▪ Neale, Sonne of Mathew Fadare [...]gh, that is, an Iron-smith, the base-borne son of Con O▪Neale. In the Proclamation first was proposed his ingratitude against the Queene, who had relieued his pouerty with a yearely pension, lifted him vp to the Title of an Earle, enriched him with possessions aboue other Irish Earles, pardoned him the iniuries done his neigh­bours, and his barbarous cr [...]eltie vsed vpon Shan O▪Neales sonne, whom he strangled before hee came euer to [...]ryall; then is declared how he vsed the rest of his sonnes, by kee­ping [Page 143] them in prison; then how per [...]idiously he enticed the Nobles of VIster in [...] [...]he company of his rebellion; and lastly, pardon is promised to all that forsake him: and eue­ry man seuerely warned not to furnish in any sort his re­bellion.

At this time the forces of the Rebels of Ireland The strength of the Rebels in Ireland. amounted to 1000. horse, 6280. foot in Vlster, 2300. in Conaugh, who were all at Tir-Oens becke: and most of these skilfull in handling Armes, being ordinarily exercised therein: elpeci­ally since that time that the Deputy Perot had prescribed such a set number for euery Nobleman of Vlster, to be exer­cised in training▪ for better re [...]isting the Scottish Islanders: or since Fitz-williams had sent for them ouer to the English warre.

Neither indeed were the English forces vnder Captaine Norris, Norris sets forwards to­wards Tir-Oen. inferiour to that number, who was now comman­ded to march forwards against the Rebels, to preuent the aid they expected daily from Spaine. To him was delegated an absolute power of pardoning any Rebell, by the Mandate of the Queene from the Deputy; also the greatest authority in Martiall affaires, with the title of Generall of the Forces in the absence of the Lord Dep [...]ty in Vlster: And the L. Deputy ioy­neth with him. by whose policy this was, I well know not, but it caused much, maruelling in many, when the whole strength of the Kingdome should now consist in one mans command; and that nothing was more dangerous then a [...]wo headed Gouernour, which in­deed is a Monster in policy as well as Nature. And [...]or all this the Deputy adioyned [...] to him besides▪ and they marcht on to Armagh, to the so great terrour of the Re­bels, tha [...] Tir-Oen hauing forsaken and abandoned his Fort at Blacke-water, fell to set fire vpon the a [...]acent Villages, and the Towne Dunganon▪ and demolisht most of his own hou­ses himselfe:Tir-Oen lur­keth. and grieuing to heare himselfe proclaimed a­gainst, hee begins to [...]eeke out lurking holes: when as the forces came not farther on, by reason of insufficiency of pro­uision, [Page 144] which indeed hath occasioned an annihilation of ma­ny venturous expeditions in Ireland, they there stood still, proclaiming Tir-Oen a Traitour in his owne Territories; and then hauing put a Garrison in the Metropolitan Church of Armagh, they returned backe againe.

As fast as they returned backward, so fast would Tir-Oen a farre off shew himselfe to them now and then; but he egg'd them not on to the renuing of his pursuit: for they placed [...] Garrison at Monaghan, and hauing euen returned to Dun­dalke, the Deputy (according to the authority that hee had receiued) committed the whole prosecution of the warre to Captain Norris, and many words of complement being ban­ded on both sides, the Deputy betooke himselfe to Dublin, wisely hauing a care of the affaires of the other three Pro­uinces, Leinster, Conaugh, and Munster.

Norris all this time continued in Vlster with a puissant ar­my; but did not anything worthy either of the power residing in him, or the expectation of things from him, whether or no it were out of an emulation of the Lord Deputy, while [...]t one endured not a fellow, the other no superiour; or whether it were out of the politike feare of most Souldiers, that are con­tented to spin out a little warre in a long twine, hauing by experience beene beaten into a truth of this axiome, That [...] Souldiers estimation lasteth no longer then there is vse of him: or whether it were out of fauour to Tir-Oen, Norris see­meth too much to fa­uour Tir-Oen. which hee see­med to shew towards him in as ample manner as the Depu­ty did his hate. For whilest that he gaue an eare to the com­plaints of Tir-Oen, and his fauourers, he stucke not to accuse the Deputy as one too vniust against Tir-Oen, by reason that his hating passion so ouer ballanc't his reason, that he adiudg­ed no peace to be made with him. Now the Deputy was alwaies perswaded, that the seruile flattering of Tir-Oen, and submissions, whatsoeuer they seemed, were nothing else but his meanes to procrastinate time a little, till such time as his aide should arriue from Spaine. Wherefore hee alwaies re­fused [Page 145] parli [...]s and truces with him▪ as most [...] and treacherous; esteeming it not to stand with the preseruation of his honor, conferred by the Maiesty of the Queene, either to receiue L [...]tters, or giue hearing to any Messengers [...]ent from one that is proclaimed Traitor.

Norris on the other side, hauing a faith very pliable to the probabilities of e [...]ents, conceiued a grea [...] hope of bringing him [...]o peacefull conditions, in as much that he entred into parley with him;He parlieth with him. but not without the worthy wonder of all men that saw or heard of it, that so great a warriour as he was should de [...]nd so low, as to parley with a publike enemie, and a Trai [...]our, before he euer came to a combate, which is the best Oratory of a Souldier.

But he was not so credulous, but the Earle Tir-Oen Tir-Oens co [...]terfeit submission [...]o Norris. was as craftie, who by all meanes possible [...] vp that hope in him continually, by counterfeiting his submission sealed with his own hand, and by falling on his knees before Captaine Nor­ris and Secretarie Fenton, and begging pardon. Besides protesting:

THat he neuer neglected his duty towards his Prince, out of any malitious humour, or an ambitious; but onely that his friends and fol­lowers had run into a rebellion only to reuenge the in­iuries vnderseruedly offered him, and to requite the plots layd so often for his life. That this was his first offence against the Queene, wh [...]h he promised to wa [...]h away with his faithfull serui [...] [...]d his best bloud: pro­mising also to renounce the title of O▪Neale, which hee had lately taken vpon him, for feare lest others should vsurpe it against his right: that from hence­forth he would haue nothing to doe with the Spani­ard (with whom, he said, be neuer had any thing to doe before last August) onely on condition, that mercy, pardon, and [...]orgetfulnesse passe by his offences past, [Page 146] and a ple [...]ary pardon be obtained both for him and his.

O▪donell And O▪do­nells. likewise submitted himselfe, so that hereupon (ha­uing giuen hostages) there was a truce madeA Truce made. till the Kalends of Ian [...]ary. A little after, vnder the same maske of dissimula­tion commeth F [...]agh Mac-Hugh, And Feagh Mac-Hugh. with a mournfull how­ling, casting himselfe at the Deputies feet, begging pardon: who being admitted into his patronage, for a while conti­nued quiet.

The wiser men of those times obserued, that these Collo­quies, Parlies, Truces,The danger of the Truce. &c. proued very preiudiciall to the Queene, and hurtfull to the Common-wealth. For in that space the Rebels enioyed free liberty, to digest all their se­cret plots & machinatio [...]s, to strengthen their sides by new con [...]ede [...]cies abroad, and to encrease them at home with new forces; whilest all this while the English lay at a costly idlenesse, feeding on the fruites of their friends and faithfull well-willers, when by reason of the truce, they might not prey vpon the enemy.

THE NINE and thirtieth Yeere OF HER REIGNE.
Anno Domini 1596.1596

IN the beginning of Ianuary, when the Truce was now expired, (and yet in the time of [...] Truce, the Rebels by thei [...] sub [...]le sleights had seized vpon [...] Castle) Sir Henry W [...]llop W [...]llop and Gardiner sent ouer to parley with the Rebells. [...] of the Army in Ireland, and Sir Robert Gardiner chiefe Iustice of the Kingdome, men of grauity, and as great wisedo [...], were sent that they might parl [...]y a little with Tir-Oen, O▪d [...]nell, and the rest of the Rebels, and perswade them to peace.

[Page 148]Now these other Rebels rendred vp their grieuances and occasions of trouble; likewise their seuerall petitions, man by man▪ Tir-Oen The com­plaints of Tir-Oen. complained that H. [...]agnall Mar [...]hall of the Irish forces, had [...] the right intent of all his labours: that with [...] defam [...] ­tions, he had thrust him out of fauour with the Queene; and almost from his ranke and degre [...] to [...]: that to his great pre­iudice also he had intercepted his Letters sent to Captaine Norris, and concealed them: that hee detained his wiues dowry that w [...]s allotted [...]. Wit [...]ll protesting▪ that be­fore hee was [...]roclai [...] T [...]aitour, [...]e neuer [...] with any forreine Prince. He humbly beg'd pardon for him and his, that they might be restored to their former estates. That he might freely exercise his Religion. (For indeed, as yet there was scarce any inquisition made about religion: Neither did the Rebels harbour any thought of that, when they first ioy­ned into a faction.) Intreating also, that Marshall Bagnall might pay him a [...]housand pounds of English [...]ony in dow­rie for his Wife decealed. That there mightlye no men in Garrison in the County of Tir-Oen, nor Sheriffe, nor any such like Officers. That he might be restord to his wing of fiftie Horse, at the Queenes pay, as before he was Leader of. That those that shall prey vpon any of his may be subiect to punishment. Which things, if they were granted, he prom [...]sed not to omit any duty of a good Subiect; & also, to [...] to the Archbishop of Armagh, and the [...], that they may vse and enioy their owne right [...] and posse [...]ions.

O▪donell, O▪donels complaints▪ hauing first re [...]urned to their memories the loy­alty of his Father▪ and his Ancestours to the Kings and Queenes of England, sorely complained, that Bome an Eng­lishman, and a Commander of Souldiers, vnder pretenc [...] of informing the people in h [...]mility and ciuility, was sent [...] [...] Deputy▪ into their Prouince, where he was courteou [...] ­ly [...] by his Father, and certaine Townes allo [...]d him; but yet for all this, that hee behaued himselfe most [Page 149] [...] [Page 150] [...] [Page 151] [...] [Page 152] [...] [Page 153] Deputy, they would not yeeld vnto them. But the misery of a few daies [...]iege soone quelled their hot courages, the Ca­stle being taken, and euery one of them slaine▪ Norris and [...]enton being gone into Conaugh, could hardly perswade the Rebels to a peace, who being hainously incensed against Bingham, did for a time nothing but dally and delay the time, and at last concluded but an vnfaithfull peace, in all probability being counselled to it by Tir-Oen.

For he began now to cast about doubtfull speeches, that he could not but suspect that he was dealt dece [...]fully with, in that the L. Deputy and Norris agreed no better togeth [...] ▪ in that, they that went to the Deputy in his name conc [...]ning a peace, were but in a manner sleighted by him, in that the Deputy was all for warre, encreasing his for [...]s daily with supplies from England: in that hee detained the Spaniards Letter, which he sent vnto him so dutifully, and in that the Marshall his greatest enemy, had newly returned with a new Commission from England. So that vpon this he began to spoile his neighbouring Lands, and di [...]ide them into preyes: but shortly afterwards, being troubled with the conscience of his villany, and being giuen to vnderstand, that there was likely to be a peace with England and Spaine, he made great shew that he earnestly desired peace with all his heart. It were too tedious to examine all the particular couerings of this his dissimulation; but to speake in a word, whensoeuer there was any danger h [...]ng ouer him from the English, he would so craftily countenance his dissimulation, both with gesture of face, and humble words, that the counterfeit re­pentance which he seemed to haue of his wickednesse, co [...]se­ned all with the beliefe of a serious one; till such time as that opportunity of persuing was lost, and his forces necessarily to be seuered and dismissed. But there was no greater reason of his so much belieued submission, and of his continuall par­don, then the sluggish gaine of the Irish Commanders: the neere parsimony of the Counsellours in England, and the [Page 154] inbred mercy of the Queene, which alwaies desired to end these rebellions, (which she neuer thought worthy the name of a warre) without warre: and rather to lose the prosecuti­on on her due iustice, then any subiect should in the passion thereof lose his life.

But how full the heart and hands of Tir-Oen Tir-Oens dissimulati­on layd open. were of per­fidious treachery doth easily hence appeare, in that the very same moneth in which he receiued his pardon, He, O-donell, [...], Mac-Williams, and the Family of Clan-shees, sent se­cretly their Letters to all the Nobility in Munster that sauou­red of the Romish Religion: wherein they most sacredly promised the assistance of their vtmost helpe, for the defence of the Roman Catholike religion; withall solemnly vowing and protesting, that they would neuer enter into any peace with the English, wherein besides all of the confederacy were not also comprehended. Also a little after Tir-Oen, when Feagh Mac-Hugh came suppliant for the like pardon as Tir-Oen had, incensed him to awaken that drowsie rebellion in Leinster, which he did presently, for forthwith he seised vpon the Fort ouer against Ballencure, demolished it, and still with a continuall preying, runnes ouer all Leinster, although the Lord Deputy followed close at the heeles. Besides this, hee stirred vp also Peter and Iames Butler Nephewes to the Earle of Ormond, to continue in their rebellion.

And these things he dealt vnder hand in and secretly, but the Winter comming on apace, displayed his villany, which so long had gone apparalled in innocency: for then he pub­likely forbad that prouision should be carried to the Garri­son at Armagh, against the expresse conditions of their a­greements, he murthered some priuily that were carrying, and others that purueyed for wood. Nay, and he himselfe so violently assaulted the Garrison, that thirty of them were slaine. He sent forth Henry Oge-Man-Shan his sonne in Law, to set fire on the Villages thereabouts, and to follow the prey about the Riuer Boyne: and he himselfe most treacherously [Page 155] attempted the surprizall of Carlingford C [...]stle.

When the Deputy, and the rest of the Counsellours, ex­postulated with him about this, admonishing him, that if he [...]eemed of the safety of his hostages, or willed not a­gaine to be proclaimed Traytor, that he should not any way molest the Garrisons, or hinder prouision to be brought vn­to them. To them he replied, that he stood to his agree­ments; but, that the Deputy, if not against his couenants, yet against his promise, had sorel [...]y molested Feagh Mac-Hugh, and that the Garrison at Kelly had slaine vnworthily Owen Mac-Coll [...], that thereupon he doubted what also might become of him and his. Wherefore he entreated that there might be a new Co [...]oqu [...]e or Parley appointed for him, ei­ther with the Deputy, or with Norris, for a better composi­tion of affaires which were troubleso [...]e on both sides. And whilest there is a consultation thereof, he suffereth prouision to be carried into the Garrison at Armagh; but O▪donell with great hostility runs ouer Conaugh, euen till the time of Par­ley, wherewith Norris had been long wearied, the hopes of which now (by long delay) were mocked into nothing.

In the mean time the Lord Deputy ceaseth not his vn­wearied persuit of Feag Mac-Hugh; Feagh Mac-Hugh slaine. till at length (hauing slaine most of his rebellious route, and put the rest to flight) Sergeant Milburne found him almost breathles in a lurking hole, and hauing wounded him in many places, at last cut off his head, which was sent to Dublin, to the great reioycing of the people, a little before the Deputy gaue ouer his Office. About which time▪ the head also of Iames Butler was sent to him by Thomas Lea; and Peter his Brother being taken by his Vncle the Earle of Ormond, although he were the neerest heire of his family, was hanged.

In the middest of all these troubles in Ireland, Albert Archduke of Austria and Cardinall, whom the Spaniard had set ouer his affaires in the Low Countries, sodainly calls away the Queenes minde from prosecution of her affaires in [Page 156] Ireland. For he▪ assoone as he had enioyed his authority, hauing vnited together all the Spanish forces, as if he had in­tended to raise the siege at La- [...]ere in Picardy, against all e [...] ­pecta [...]ion, [...]urnes his course to Callis, Callis assaul­ted. and besiegeth it▪ and in the first day hauing taken Newnha [...] Castle, possesseth him­self of the Hauen. Which so soone as the Queene vnder­stood from the fearefull message of the French, euen on Sun­day, when most were at Church, she commanded Forces to be mustered to aide the French, and the better to prouide for▪ England▪ for she could not but suspect, but that England would perish in her Neighbours fires.And tak [...]n. She makes the Earle of Essex Generall of these Forces: but before they tooke ship▪ she certainly vnderstood, that both Towne and Castle were taken by the Spaniard. For, when as Albert had so [...] shaken the Towne walls with his continuall [...] ▪ (the noise whereof we heard euen as farre as Greenwich) the Townsmen betake themselues into the Castle, which after­wards (to the great slaughter of many Frenchmen) was easi­ly vanquished. So that hereupon the Army is dismissed, and monies lent to the French, at the security of the Duke of Bulloigne, and the Lord Sancy.

Within a few dayes after, there was a greater Muster in England, of an Army wherein many Nobles and good Gen­tlemen went voluntaries: by reason that a very credible ru­mour possessed euery mans eares, that the Spaniard intended a warre against England and Ireland; which was the more belieued, because he had newly possessed himselfe of Callis, from whence is the soonest and shortest passage ouer into England; and because Hawkins and Drake's expedition did not succeed well▪ and lastly, because the Irish Rebels hastned their aide from out of Spaine, as fast as they could.

The Queene, to remoue away this tempest that hung ho­ [...]ering about her, thought it fittest to set vpon the enemy in their Hauens: wherefore she sets out a Nauy of 140. ships, out of which there were 18. of the Queenes, and 22. of the [Page 157] [...] [Page 158] that those of the Councell should freely speake what they thought fittest, and not rent themselues into faction, but ei­ther to prosecute or giue ouer a thing according to the plu­rality of voyces, giuen in that matter. And if so be that they chance to ouercome or destroy their enemies ships and pro­uision, that then they should send out some men of warre to surprize the Indie Caraques, if they chance to heare of any comming. Lastly, she added to these a forme of Prayer, which she willed to be vsed in euery ship daily, to call vpon God for his assistance in this great enterprise. The Prayer I thought fit to adde, and that was this.

MOst omnipotent Maker,Queene Eli­zabeths prai­ [...]r for the Naui [...]. and Guider of the Worlds Masse, that onely searchest and [...]a­domest the bottome of our hearts conceits, and in them seest the true Originals of all our actions intended: thou that by thy fore [...]ight doest truely dis­cerne, how no malice of reuenge, nor quittance of iniu­ry, nor desire of bloud-shed, nor greedinesse of lucre, hath bred the resolution of our n [...]w set out Armie, but a heedfull care and wary watch, that no neglect of [...]oes, nor ouer-surety of Hauen, might breed either dan­ger to vs, or glory to them: these being the grounds wherewith thou doest inspire the minde; we humbly beseech thee with bended knees, prosper the worke, and with the best fore-windes guide the iourney, speed the victory, and make the returne the aduancement of thy glory, the triumph of their fame, and surety to the Realme, with [...] losse of the English bloud. To these de [...]out [...], Lord giue thou thy blessed grant.

There were those that much disliked this expedition, as seeming loth that so many men, and so many ships, and so many Marriners should be put vpon the hazard of a warre; [Page 159] lest peraduenture the Spaniard (that is so diligent vpon all occasions, and that was growne somewhat proud with the ill successe of Drake and Hawkins,) should come in in the meane time, or vanquish the English Na [...]y, an [...] so bring England in most apparant danger.

But for all this,The Fleet weighs an­chor. in the beginning of Iune, the Nauy [...]ets forth from [...]limmouth; the first day, the winde being against it; but the next, being very prosperous: so was it carried downe farther towards the West▪ and beyond the [...] of Portugall, onely on purpose to be not espied: for if once it had beene but espied, in the hithermost coasts of Spaine, or in Portugall, presently by a sodainly crying vp to armes, their proiect had beene annihilated. For they intended in­deed to assay Cadiz, Towards Cadiz. that by the Poet is called

(When as his iourney he hath runn [...]
The welcome lodging of the weary Sunne.)

And by some ancient Geographers, the bound of the earth; which is a very famous place of Merchandise and Traffique▪ which could easily haue beene defended, and could haue as easily hurt the assaulters, if it had beene but a very little war­ned of the danger ensuing, but none or few knew of it. For that place was appointed them in their Co [...]issions, which were sealed, and giuen in seuerall ships; and not to be ope­ned, before they had out-reached the Promontory of Saint Vincent; vnlesse by necessity, if perc [...]ance they had been set vpon by the enemy, or had beene s [...]ttered from the rest of the Nauie, and that then they should [...]st them into the Sea.

As they sailed against this Promontory▪ they lighted vp­on an Irish ship, where they vnderstood that all was safe and secure at Cadiz, from whence that newly put forth; that there was not a word of any English fleet, and tha [...] there were few or none at all Souldiers, but some that lay at Gar­rison in the Island; and that in the Hauen there were now Gallions, Gallies, Men of warre, and many more ships of Merchandise, laded with traffique for the [...] voyage.

[Page 160] Vpon the twentieth of Iune which was Sunday, a [...] breake of day, they cast anchor on the Westerne part of the Island, neere vnto St. Sebastians.

Essex [...] of courage,The Nauie arriues at Cadiz. would presently haue landed the Forces, but the Admirall and Rawleigh liked it not; the Ad­mirall neuer approuing indeed any thing that was so headi­ly ventured on, without mature deliberation. But at last be­ing ouer en [...]reated, he condiscended that some few should [...]rie if they could easi [...]y come a shoare: but it was in vaine, the S [...]a was so rough at shore. Essex was very earnest againe to set vpon the ships, G [...]llies, and Men of warre, that rode in the mouth of the Hauen: but that liked not the rest also, because they lay vnder the Block-houses, out of which, as al­so out of the ships there, and fifteene other Gallies, most certaine danger would come vpon them.

The day after the Spanish men of warre, by reason of the [...] the Sea, sho [...] with the [...]ide vnto the Castle P [...]ntall, a peece of earth that [...] out further then the rest; the Merchants ships draw inwarder towards Port Reall▪ whereupon the English hauing waighed anchor, came into their places. Where they were set vpon with Ordnance on the one side from the Fort of St. Philip, and on the other side with shot from the Gallies.

And now it was decreed vpon to set vpon the Spanish ships, whereat the Earle of Essex so greatly reioyced, that he threw away his Hat. This businesse was committed to Sir Thomas Howard, Sir Walter Rawleigh, Sir Robert Southwell, Sir Francis Vere, Sir George Carew, Sir Robert Crosse, and o­ther Commanders of the smaller vessels: for it seemed not good (the Sea now [...]bbing) to hazard the greater ships in the shallow [...]reights. Wherefore Rawleigh in the middle of the Gha [...]nell, directing his Foredecke of the Warre-spite, (his ships name) towards the Spanish men of warre, caused them to retire▪ Marshall Vere thundred shot vpon the Gal­lies, out of his ship the Rai [...]bow; who being in safety vnder [Page 161]the Towne,The Gallies withdraw themselues. turned their Foredeckes vpon him, and hardly withstood him, till Essex came in to succour. And then they sought how to fly away: and creeping along by the shore, by the bridge of Suaco, by which the Island ioynes to the Continent, they got out into the open Sea, all sauing one or two which Wingfield in the ship called the Vant-Guard kept vnder him.

In the meane time the Spanish men of warre hauing cast anchor at Puntall, turned broad side vpon them. And the English, that before by reason of the too-shallow depth could not come neere them, now came in cheerefully vpon them. Essex with his ship thrust himselfe into the middle of the skirmish, and the Admirall with his Sonne. In the Mi­ranore they fought very [...]iecrely from the breake of day, till [...]oone: and by that time the Spaniards resolued either to set fire on their owne ships, that were now pittifully battered, and rent, and most in them slaine, or else to thrust into shore. Many of the fearefuller sort leapt into the Sea, willing to drowne themselues for feare of death; some whereof per­chance got to shore, others were taken, most of them drow­ned, and some that swomme still, and cryed for mercy, were by the mercy of the Admirall preserued. The Spanish Ad­mirall called St. Phillip, being a ship of 1500. tun, was burnt, and one or two besides it: the ship St. Matthew preserued by the diligence of the Admirall, and the ship St. Andrew, by the care of Sir Thomas Gerard were both taken safe.

After this Sea-fight was finished,The Souldi­ers are set on shore. Essex landeth his forces of some 800. men vnder the Blocke-house at Puntall, some league off from the City: and forthwith sendeth [...]lifford, Blunt, and Gerard to breake downe Suaco, bridge,The bridge Suaco is bro­ken downe. and the Engine whereby the Gallies escaped into the broad Sea, thereby to hinder a passage from the Continent into the I­sland: which they very prosperously performed. He makes towards the Towne in all haste, with his followers, viz. the Earle of Sussex, Count L [...]dowike of Nassau, William Herbert [Page 162] Sonne of the Earle of Worcester, the Lord Burke an Irish man, Sir Edward Wingfield, Christoper St. Lawrence, Sir Robert Drury, Sir Thomas Germin, Sir Christopher Heydon, Sir Alexander Ratcliffe, and other choyce Gallants and Nobles.

First, the Spanish horse and foot come and shew them­selues halfe a mile from the Towne, and then retreit againe. After, when more came forth, he commanded his forces to retreit a little, but yet in orderly aray and marshall manner; and hauing entised the Spaniards vpon them a little, to turne vpon them with all speed. Which indeed they did so valiantly, that they put the Spaniard to flight, and so follow­ed them at the heeles, that they scarcely could get in a [...]d shut the gates after them. The Earle gets vpon an vnperfect Fort neere to the gate, whence he views an entrance, which was so deepe, that it was a Pikes length to leape downe. Yet Euans Sussex's Lieutenant, Arthur Sauage, Captaine of the Earles band, Pole the red-Standard-bearer, Bagnall, &c. leapt downe. In the meane time Marshall Francis Vere, and the Earle burst open the gate, and rushed in. And now the skir­mish began to be very hot in the Towne, in the middest of the streets, till at length, after halfe an houre they came to the Market place, from whence the Spaniards molested the Eng­lish from the house tops, casting stones downe full vpon their heads. Captaine Iohn Wingfield (who in the first skir­mish hauing slaine a Spanish Commander) was sorely woun­ded, yet hauing got thither with his troupe, was there shot through the head with a Bullet. Many amongst them were wounded, amongst whom Samuel Bagnall hauing receiued eight wounds, and Arthur Sauage all besmeared with bloud, were for their valour knighted.

Presently vpon that the Lord Admirall, the Lord Tho­mas Howard, Sir William Paget, Sir Walter Rawleigh, Sir Robert Southwell, Leuison, Woodhouse, Mansell, and other Marriners, with Sir Edward Hobby Antient. And now the [Page 163] Spaniards gaue ouer fighting, and betooke themselues to the Castle, and the Towne-house: one whereof was forthwith yeelded; and the other, the next day after (vpon this con­dition) that the Citizens might depart safe with their cloaths on, and the rest to [...]urne prey to the English▪ 50 [...]0000. Du­cats should be payd for ransome; and that forty of the best Citizens should be giuen as Hostages to the English for per­formance of these articles. Presently after Proclamation came forth, that no man should offer violence to any Spani­ard: the woman, and all Ecclesiasticall persons were carried into P [...]rto Sanct [...] M [...]ria.

In the meane time was Rawleigh commanded with his smaller ships,The s [...]ips are burned. which found the Channell nauigable for them, to set fire on those Merchant Spanish ships, that had with­drawne themselues to P [...]rt Reall: there was offered for their ransome 200000. D [...]kats, but the Admirall in no case would heare of it, who said, his message was to destroy their ships, and not to bargaine for their liberty.

Whilest these things were so in a contro [...]ersie, the Du [...]e of Medina Sid [...]nia [...]a [...]ing vnladen many ships, commanded fire to be set on them, whereby they [...], to the great losse of the Merchan [...]s, There was great store of w [...]r­like prouision found in the City, and greater store of money, whilest euery one grew master of what he could snatch for himselfe. The wisest men of iudgement (considering the losse of the Spaniards ships that were fired, and that were ta­ken, his great pieces of Ord [...]ance that were [...], and that were taken, and his prouision of victuals th [...] was sp [...]nt) haue adiudged the dammage to amount to twenty times 1000000. Dukats. No man amongst the English of any note was lo [...]t, besides Captaine Wingfield, who was most honourably bu [...]ied in the chiefe Church there▪ with mili­tarie obsequies. For a reward for their approued [...], there were about some threescore braue men knighted, the chiefest whereof [Page 164]were

  • Robert Earle of Sussex.
  • Count Lodowicke of Nassaw.
  • Don Christoph [...]r [...] a Portu­gall,
    K [...]ights made.
    and Sonne to Don Antonio.
  • William Lord Herbert, and Sommerset.
  • The Lord Bourke an Irish­man.
  • William Howard Son to the Admirall.
  • Robert Dudley.
  • George Deuere [...]x.
  • Henry Ne [...]ill.
  • Edwi [...] Ric [...].
  • Richard Leuison.
  • Anthony Astley.
  • Henry Len [...]ard.
  • H [...]rati [...] Vere.
  • Arthur Throg [...]rton.
  • Miles Corbet.
  • Edward Conway.
  • Oliuer Lambert.
  • Anthony Cooke.
  • I. Tounsend.
  • Christopher Heydon.
  • Francis Popham.
  • Philip Woodhouse.
  • Alexander Clifford.
  • Maurice Berkley.
  • Charles Blunt.
  • George [...]ifford.
  • Robert Crosse.
  • Iames Skidmore.
  • Vrian Leigh.
  • I. Lee.
  • Richard Weston.
  • Richard Wainman.
  • Iames Wotton.
  • Richard Rudall.
  • Robert Mansell.
  • William Mounson.
  • I. Bowles.
  • Edward Bowes.
  • Humphrey Druell.
  • A [...]ias Presto [...].
  • Robert Remington.
  • Alexander Ratcliffe.
  • [...]. B [...]cke.
  • I. Morgan.
  • I. Aldridge.
  • William Ashinden.
  • Matthew Browne.
  • Thomas Acton.
  • Thomas Gates.
  • I. Stafford.
  • Gill. Mericke.
  • Thomas Smith.
  • William Pooly.
  • Th. Palmer.
  • I. Louell.
  • I. Gilbert.
  • William Heruey.
  • I. Gray.
  • Iohn van Du [...]enu [...]rd.
  • Melchior Lebben.
  • Peter Redgemort.
  • N. Medkerke.

[Page 165]Afterwards they treated of redeeming Captiues on either side,They consult what is to be do [...]. and then argued whether they should leaue Cadiz or retaine it still. Essex thought good to retaine it, because then they should be like vnto a naile vpon a sore to the Spa­niard: he himselfe vndertooke to remaine there with foure hundred Souldiers, if they would but furnish him with pro­uision for three moneths. But the rest disagreed from him; for euery man, hauing gotten wealth and credit enough, thought long till hee was at home againe: insomuch that they would not allow him prouision for one moneth, nor one ship, but vnwillingly droue him to leaue Cadiz. But before they went, they ransackt all the Island, demolished the Fortresses, set fire on most of their houses; and on the fift of Iuly (hauing bagg'd vp their spoiles) the whole Fleet set from Cadiz, with these Testimoniall from the Spa­niards:

THat the English in religious matters shew themselues Heretiques; but in all other af­faires, warlike, prouident; and truely noble.

From thence first they come to the Towne of Phar [...],Phar [...]. whence the people all fled, where a ready furnished Library fell as a prey to the Earle of Essex: and there about some Spanish Gallies that followed a farre off, began to draw neere: but being commanded by the Admirall to depart, they forthwith obey: and turning away, bid the English ioyfully, God buy.

An impetuous and violent North [...]winde hauing clearely droue the Fleet into the maine Sea, at the Promontory of S. Vincent: the Counsell sat vpon it, whether or no they should goe vnto the Islands Azores, and there expect the returne of the Indy Caraques. [...]ssex propounded to them a dimission of all the Land-forces, and ships, by reason of want of prouision of victuals, and of diseases, that had sorely [Page 166] taken the Marriners; onely desiring two of the Queenes ships, and ten other, wherewith he would go to the Islands Azores, and there expect the Carackes returne from the In­dies. This no man else assented to, but Thomas Howard, and the Low-Country men. So that when Essex could not ob­taine this, by much perswasion, he got euery man to testifie his opinion in the matter with his owne hand, if perchance the not doing of it should be obiected as a crime to any of them. At last he very hardly preuailed so much with them, that they would goe to the Gr [...]ine They come to Groyne., but there was not one ship espied, nor in the next harbour Faroll. When hee throughly vrged them that they should land their Forces, and set vpon the Groyne: or going by the shore side of Ga­litia, set vpon the ships that lay in St. Sebastians Hauen, and Sr. Andrewes; they would not so much as heare him talke thereof,They return. but euery man with full sailes hastned into England; and left him with some few more behinde, who complained much that there was nothing more done; obiecting to them many errours in the Councell of warre, which they quickly satisfied, thinking themselues masters of wealth and glory e­nough, that hauing giuen such damages to the Spaniard, they returned safe with great spoiles, and not one ship lost or cast away. If that there were any errour by reason of them, it seemed onely to be so, because all things were not at ones command. But the Admirall ioyned himselfe with the Earle of Essex with good deliberation, that thereby he might well temper his young heat and courage, and his desire of glory with his mature moderation and well aduised resolution.

Although out of this that haue beene already said, it doth sufficiently appeare, how great glory and profit redoundeth to the Queene and Kingdome by this expedition, and how great damage to the Spaniard; yet it shall not seeme amisse to reckon out of the Earle of Essex his memoriall or Iournall these things more amply.

First, For the glory of the English, England expected [Page 167] not the Spaniard (that mighty puissant Prince) threatning and preparing a most dreadfull warre against her:How glorious this victory was to the English. but chal­lenged him in his owne dunghill, they dispersed and van­quished his so readily furnished Nauy, and the very greatest ships among them; they brought home two great Galleons in triumph; and with a few of their ships put to flight fif­teene Spanish Gallies. They set many English Gally-slaues at liberty, and to the praise of the mercy of the Nation, let goe many Spanish Captiues. They ouercame one of the best fortified Cities of Spaine, almost as [...]oone as they saw it, con­tinuing 13. whole daies in the enemies ground.

Secondly,How profita­ble. For the profit of the English: besides those two great Galleons, to encrease the English Nauy, they took 100. great Brasse pieces of Ordnance, and many other spoiles: both Souldiers and Marriners returned well fleshed with spoile, to their better encouragement for the like expe­dition.

Thirdly,How h [...]rtfull to the Spani­ard. For the losse of the Spaniard, He lost thirteene of his best Men of warre, forty Merchants Indie ships, and foure other for traffique; besides he lost great store of war­like prouision both for ship and victuals, insomuch, that not vnder a long time he seemed able to furnish another Nauy. He lost all occasion of trading this yeare into Noua Hispania in America. And which is a thing of no small moment, there­by the English haue learned what an easie thing it is to sur­prize the Spanish Sea coasts at any time.

The Queene very courteously entertained them at their comming home, and gaue peculiar thankes to euery particu­lar man of any note: but especially to the Earle of Essex, and the Admirall, whom she highly magnified with her emi­nent prayses. When she had called to minde, whome of these braue Souldiers she should make Gouernour of the Hauen of Brill, which lay as a caution with her for the pay­ment of the States money, (for the Lord Sheffeld had vo­luntarily resigned ouer his place) Sr. Francis Vere Colonell [Page 168] of the English vnder the States, seemed worthiest thereof. And although many of the Nobility stood for the same; nay although Essex himselfe opposed him,Sir Francis Vere made Gouernour of the Brill. and most of the No­bility, thought the place more worthy of some nobler man; The Queene that well knew his descent, (for hee was Ne­phew to Iohn Vere the fifteenth Earle of Oxford) and be­sides found his valour and loyalty so well approued, in that hee had vanquished the Spaniard at Rheinberg, that hee had taken the Castles of Littenhouen and Buric, and that he had recouered the Fort at Zutphen; after due deliberation, not onely preferred him in the election before the rest, but withall gaue him leaue to keepe his place still amongst the States, which many others much desired; although she could confesse, it was not very fitting to make one Gouer­nour of a Towne of the States that was pawned to her for the paiment of her money; who besides, was but an hyre­ling to the States for his pay. This the Earle of Essex (who had commended many to the Queene) tooke heinously, nay very vntowardly, not hiding his anger from the simplest iudgements; but worst of all, when in his absence Sr. Ro­bert Cecill was made Secretary, to which office hee had be­fore ordained Sr. Thomas Bodley, Sir Thomas Bodley is ap­pointed Se­cretary. by reason of his well-tried wisedome in the Low Country affaires, and to the purpose had so highly extolled him to the Queene, as one most fit­ting, and bitingly calumniated Cecill, with odious compa­risons.

In the meane time the Spaniard to repaire the lost glory of Cadiz, The Spani­ard armes a Fleet for England. and to heale those incommodities which since that time daily grew vpon him, rigging vp all ships he possibly could, furnisheth his Nauy at Lisbone, hee furnisheth him­selfe with all the forreine ships that lay in the Hauen; hee mustereth vp his Forces at Faroll: from whence they were to saile into England, and Ireland: but in their voyage, as report hath giuen vs to vnderstand, a great tempest arising, most of their ships either shipwrackt vpon the rockes, or [Page 169] were suncke by the billowes, insomuch that the loyall aire seemed to fight in the defence of England, A great part of which was cast way. and her Queene: for she heard of their destruction sooner then their expediti­on. But for all that she fortifies her Castles and Forts by the Sea side,Elizabeth fortifies the the shoare. at Sandford, Portland, Hurst, Southsey, Calshot, S. Andrewes, and S. Maudite, and furnish [...]th them with munition. And that her friendship and League with the French,Enters into league with the French. against the Spaniard, might grow stronger, shee strengthened it with these additions.

ALL former Treaties and confederacies shall be confirmed, and continue in their force and vertue; vnlesse, there whereby they derogate from this present Treatie. To this League shall all Princes and States be inuited, whom it concernes to be carefull of the Spaniards practise. Assone as pos­sibly can be, an Army shall be mustered, to inuade the Spaniards. Neither the K. of France, or the Queene of England, shall haue any treatise with the Spaniard, without both's consent, because the Spaniard now be­sets the Dominions of France that are neerest to the Low Countries, the Queene shall send 4000. foot, who shall serue the King of France six moneths this yeare in any place, that shall not be aboue fiftie miles from Bononia by the Sea side. In the next yeare fol­lowing also, if the affaires of England can spare them, they shall serue the King as long; wherein they shall stand to the assertion and conscience of the Queene. When the Irish sedition shall be alayd, the King shall stand to the good will of the Queene, to haue 4000. sent ouer to him. The English shall be vnder the French Kings pay, from the time of their arriuall, to the time of their departure. The Queene shall from time to time supply the want of that number. That the Pay-masters shall be the Queenes Seruants, and her [Page 170] money, euery moneth: for which the King shall be bound within six moneths fully for to satisfie her, ha­uing resigned ouer foure Townes. If that the King shall stand in need of greater Forces, the Queene shal muster them in England, and the King shall pay them out of his owne moneyes. The English that shall serue the King, shall be subiect to the Kings officers, and punished by them; yet so, that the English Captaines also be called by the said officers, and sit with them in iudgement. If the Queene chance to be inuaded, and shall demand aide from the King, he within two mo­neths shall muster vp 4000. foot, and send them ouer into England, at his owne charges, and they shall not be drawen further then fifty miles from the shore; and the Queene shall pay them from the time of their ar­riuall in England. The said French Souldiers shall be subiect to the Queenes officers, after the aforesaid manner: the King shall also continually supply the number. The one shall furnish the other with all kind of warlike prouision, so long as it preiudiceth not the State. The Merchants shall mutually defend each o­ther in either Kingdome. The King shall not suffer the English to be troubled in cause of Religion: the pai­ments of the Captaines and Souldiers shall be set downe in a little roll. And shortly after there was another Treatie, wherein it was agreed, that in this yeare onely 2000. English should be sent ouer, which serue onely at Bononia and Monstrell; vnlesse it chanced that the King was personally present in Pi­cardy, &c.

To the performance of these Couenants the Queene took her oath in the Chappell at Greenewich, They both sweare to performe the league. the 29. of A [...]gust, deliuering them to the hands of Henry de la Tour Duke of Bulloigne, Viscount Turene, and the Marshall of France: the [Page 171] Bishop of Chichester giuing to her the holy Testament, and many Noble men encircling her round about.

In September next William Talbot Earle of Shrewesbury is sent ouer into France vpon an Embassie, that the King might make the like oath to him in the roome of the Queene: that he might present Anthony Mildmay in the place of Lea­ger in France (by reason of the death of Henry Vmpton late Leager there):The King of France made Knight of the Garter. that he might inuest the King with the Or­der of St. George: and shortly after Sir Thomas Baskeru [...]e passeth ouer with 2000. foot into Picardy, according to their last Couenants.

Amongst these warlike affaires that some what disquieted the peace of the Land,Counterfeit Pursuivants and Appari­tors are pu­nished. there was also a base sort of people, that hauing taken vpon them the authority and badges of the Queens Apparitors, wandred vp & downe England, with falsified Commissions, & the hands of the Counsell, & other Delegates in Ecclesiastical causes, searching out all poore wi­dows and Papists houses: They took away almost by way of robbery, al Vessels, Chains, Iewels, or any thing that bare vp­on it the picture of Christ, or any of the Saints. They se­uerely exacted the allowance by the way due to Apparitors, and cousened many poore silly fearefull people of their mo­ney, that they might not appeare before the Magistrates. Some of these being taken, were compelled to restore againe what they had thus robbed men of, and were set in the Pil­lory, their eares clipped off, and branded in the forehead, as cheaters and couseners. Yet for all this, this seuerity could not keepe vnder this villany that had spred abroad, vntill publique notice came, that Apparitors should not demand their Viaticum before those that were cited did appeare, and the Apparitors also with them, before the Magistrate; If that many were cited by the same Commission, vpon one and the same day, the Apparitors were also to be present; If that any man that was cited suspected his Apparitor, hee might warne him before the next Iustice of Peace, to be examined, [Page 172] that it may be knowne whether he be one or no. They who were cited vnder paine of excommunication, were not to bribe the Apparitor, that they might not appeare. Also, that the Apparitors take no such bribe, vnlesse they would lose their places, be imprisoned, and lyable to seuere punish­ments.

This yeare returned Thomas Arundell of Wadour, Thomas A­rundell Count of the Sacred Em­pire. whom the Emperour created Earle of the Holy Empire, and all and euery one of his Heires, his Posterity, and those that shall descend from him, lawfully begotten of either sex, Earles and Countesses of the Holy Empire; for because the Queene in her Letters had commended him as her kinsman: and be­cause he had deserued so great an honour in his braue beha­uiour in the Hungary warre against the Turke. This title whosoeuer is master of, are said to enioy by vertue thereof these priuiledges, that in all Imperiall Diets they haue both place and voyce, they may purchase Land in the Empire, they may muster vp Voluntaries, and need not to appeare being cited to iudgement, but onely in the Imperiall Cham­ber. When he (after his returne) grew somewhat famous a­mong the common people, by reason of this Title there arose vpon it a question presently,Whether a subiect be to admit of the honour that is conferd on him by a for­reine Prince. whether a Subiect ought to ad­mit of any such Honour or Title from a forr [...]ine Prince, his owne Prince being not acquainted with it? There were in­deed those that thought that such rewards for valour were to be allowed of, from what Prince soeuer they were besto­wed, by reason that vertue growes lanke without her re­wards of merit, vrging the example of Henry the third King of England, who very thankfully acknowledged Reginald Mohune, made Earle of Somerset by the Apostolike autho­rity of the Bishop of [...]ome. Also of Henry the eight, who did so congratulate Robert Curson, whom Maximilian the first Emperour, had created Lord of the Holy Empire, for his warlike valour, that he reckoned him amongst his Lords of England▪ and allowed him an annuall pension for the bet­ter [Page 173] maintenance of his dignity. Besides they vrged some braue Scottish Souldiers, as of Archibald Duglasse of Wig­tone, who receiued the Title of Duke of Tours from the French King: and of Iohn Steward, who was by the King of France made Earle D' Euereux, & that the Scottish kings esteemed this as an honour to the Nation. But the Lords of England imagining that this would bereaue them and their Heires of some of their prerogatiues, if so be they and their Heires were to giue place to such an vpstart Lord and his Heires for euer, argued against it thus: that such Titles of ho­nour are neither to be receiued by the Subiect,Such honours not to be ad­mitted. nor to be al­lowed of by the Prince. That it is the property of the Prince for to conferre honours vpon his owne Subiects, and not for any Forreiner to doe it, according to the words of Vale­rian the Emperour.

LEt that be onely an Honour, which is bestowed by our command.

Vrging, that there is a great detraction both from the Maiesty of the Prince, and the dutie of the Subiect, if they may be tolerated to receiue Dignities from Forreiners. For there must needs be a secret allegiance betweene him that is honoured, and the party honouring. That these kinde of Titles are nothing else but a cunning sleight, to prefer men out of the obedience to their Prince, to any strange Forrei­ner. That there may be an action of theft against him, that shall brand another mans sheepe with his marke. Also that there may be an action of cousenage and deceit against him, that shall spread abroad fodder to entice another mans sheep into his flocke. And although mighty Princes are not bound to these Lawes, yet are they by the equity of these Lawes, and the Law of Nature: As in the Citie and Com­mon-wealth of Rome no man could be a Citizen of that and any other City; whereupon Po [...]peius Attic [...] refused to [Page 174] be reckoned as a Citizen of Athens, lest he should lose his right in the Citie of Rome. So in the Common-wealth both of Venice and Genua, whosoeuer receiue a Spirituall digini­ty from the Pope, or any Temporall one from any forreine or strange Prince, is held suspected of his Loialty, and su­spended from the vndertaking of any office publike. Con­cerning the obiections they answered, that indeed it might come to passe, that Henry the third, out of his simplicity and the times iniquity, might allow of Reginald Mohune, thrust into an Earledome by the Pope, when as his Father hauing beene excommunicated, and threatned depriuation, was compelled to acknowledge himself the tributary King of the Pope of Rome: and yet it appeareth vpon Acts and Records of those times, that Mohune was not accounted as Earle of Somerset. Concerning Henry the eight, they made answer, that he therefore accounted Curson as one of his Lords, that he might obscure that shadowy title of Lord of the Holy Empire; but withall obseruing, that hee allowed him no voyce in Parliament. But as for the Scots, that it was no wonder if they receiued and allowed of honour from the French,Counts and Vicounts such as some offi­cers in the Court of Rome. when they shew themselues to bee vnder the tu­ition of the French Floure-de-luce by their Kings armes, and the Floure-de-luce therein. Many indeed esteemed an Earle of the sacred Empire of no better ranke then a publike No­tary: as they esteemed all the Counts and Viscounts of the Holy Palace at Lateran created by the Pope: or the Kings Physitians, Lawyers, Grammarians, or Rhetoricians, who hauing professed 20. yeares, boasted themselues with the title of Count Palatines: Count Pala­tines. but we know that the Count Pala­tine is an honoured title, and hath Princely iurisdiction in it's owne courts, in Fees, and fading heredities.

THe Queenes censure was,The Queenes iudgement in this question. that as a woman should not follow any man but her husband, so a Subiect should not receiue any thing but [Page 175] from his owne Prince. I would not sheepe my should be branded with anothers marke: neither would I haue them to be at anothers call or whistle.

Within the compasse of this yeare some of the greater sort, and of the Nobility,The death of Iohn Pucke­ring. departed this life. Amongst whom, the best worthy memory, were Iohn Puckering, Lord Keeper of the great Seale: who although he himselfe were a man of an vpright sincerity, yet by reason of his corrupted seruants that set to faire, Ecclesiasticall Benefices for the best price, he was but hardly spoken of by the Clergy men. Thomas Egerton the Queenes Attourney Generall, succeeded him in his place, who in the integrity of his vertues, equall [...]d the great expectation that was of him.

Richard Fletcher Bishop of London, Of Richard Fletcher Bi­shop of Lon­don. a very famous Pre­late, who being sorely troubled with the displeasure of the Queene at his marriage, (as she was at the marriage of all the Clergy) to get that away, lost his life.

Henry Cary, Lord Hunsdon, Lord Chamberlaine of the Queenes Court,Of the Lord Hunsdon. Gouernour of Berwicke, and Knight of the Order of S. George: a man of a great stomacke, but very cholericke, and somewhat discontented, that being some­what of kinne to the Queene, hee attained but meane ho­nours, and wealth, departed also; his Sonne George succee­ded him in his dignities: and the Lord Cobham in the Chamberlaines place, who continued in it but few mo­neths.

Another was Francis Knolles, Of Francis Knolles. who had married the Lord Hunsdons Sister, and for the truth of the Gospell had beene banished into Germany: first hee was Sub-Chamber­laine to the Queene, afterwards Captaine of the Guard, af­terwards Treasurer of the Queenes Houshold, and one of the Order of S. George. In his Treasurer-ship Roger Lord North succeeded him; and his Sonne William Knolles was made Comptroller of the Houshold.

[Page 176] Another, towards the end of the yeere, was Henry Ha­stings Earle of Huntingdon, [...]f the Earle of Hunting­d [...]n. the third of that stocke, Presi­dent of the Councell in the Northerne quarters: and being a man of a milde disposition, but very earnest in the purity of his religion, he spent most of his patrimony in costly succou­ring and cherishing of the more feruent sort of Ministers. He was buried in the county of Leicester: and Francis L. Ha­stings died then to. And the Presidency of the Councell com­mitted to Matthew Hutton, Archbishop of Yorke; but without the title of President.

Neither among so many men is the death of that worthy woman Margaret Clifford, And of the Countesse of Darby. Countesse of Darby, the onely daughter of Henry Clifford Earle of Cumberland, which hee had by Elenor Brandon the Niece of Henry the Eight, to bee concealed; who out of a womanish curiosity, and weakenes of her sexe, being too credulous, and somewhat ambitious of farre fetcht hopes, dealt with Southsayers, and in striuing to get the knowledge of things to come, lost the presentfauour of the Queene, and her life presently after.

Anno Domini 1597.1597

IN the beginning of this yeere,The battle at Tournholt. how great prayse of their valor Robert Sid­ney and Francis Ver [...] with the English forces in the battel at Turnholt in Bra­bant vnder the conduct of Maurice of N [...]ssaw did deserue & beare away, ha­uing slaine 2000. Neapolitanes and Germanes, the Low Countries histo­rie doeth report. I hasten and intend to greater matters.

The Queene being giuen credibly to vnderstand, that the Spaniard was prouiding a new piece of warre out of the old decayed reliques, and other ships, which he intended against [Page 178] Ireland, prepares her Nauy of ten of her owne Ships and as many Hollanders, either to diuert his proiect, or to de­lay it.

But when as this number seemed but very small, there were more added, fiue thousand Souldiers prest, besides a thousand old Souldiers whom Vere brought out of the Low-Coun­tries. So that in all in this Nauy, there were one hundred and twenty Ships. Seuenteene of the Queenes, three and forty little men of warre, the rest to carry prouision. The Nauy was diuided into three Squadrons. Essex commanded the first, who had the whole Expedition committed to his care; Thomas Howard the second: and Walter Rawleigh the third. Charles Blunt Lord Montioy was Captaine of the Souldiers vnder the Earle of Essex, and Sir Francis Vere Ser­ieant Maior. Sir George Carew master of the Ordnance and Engines, and Sir Christopher Blunt chiefe Colonell.

To this warre also went the Earles of Rutland, and South­ampton; the Lord Grey, Cromwell and Rich: with many o­ther Knights, and other Gentlemen. These with their sailes displayed, and other costly vanitie (that is peculiar to the English, when they goe to warre) set forth from Plimmouth the ninth day of luly. After two dayes, to euery Ship was deliuered her Commission signed, whither she should bend her course; which way to Feroll and the Groyne, that there they might expect the Spanish Nauy, and assault it, and sur­prize the Indy Nauy at Azores. After mature deliberation, this was thought most expedient to be done. For so should England rest in security: the Nauies of both the Indies being not defended should be easierly surprized; the Islands Azores should be surprized, where both the rich Nauies from the I [...] ­dies in their returne, arriue and water themselues. The Queen should be made absolute Commandresse of the Sea: The Spaniard dispoyled of his Nauy▪ should either bee compel­led to a peace vpon any equall tearmes; or to his great dam­mage to renue his warres againe.

[Page 179] Essex had resolued, as at least made shew, and sometimes publiquely professed; That he would either vanquish this Na­uy, that so hath threatned England the last yeare; or else sacri­fice himselfe to the good of his Countrey.

But they had scar [...]e gone forty leagues from Plimmouth, when a fearefull tempest rushes vpon them, North [...]west, and a mist takes away sight from them. The Ayre with thun­der, and the water with tumultuous waues, reflecting from the sides of the ships with a fearefull Eccho, did so rage foure dayes together, that the Mariners themselues were affraid, the Souldiers trembled, and the whole Nauy much di [...]ected, not without great danger hardly recouered Plimmouth a­gaine, and other coasts thereabouts; the Admirall it selfe, was so battered, that it was scarce of any [...]se: & some of [...] fresh-water Souldiers, were so troubled with an [...]nmannerly Stomack, that they stole home againe secretly.

The Na [...]y being againe refresht, and repayred, although to the diminishing both of the number & strength of the for­mer; forthwith puts forth againe, but found the winds so contrary, that for a whole moneth they could not get out of the Hauens. And by that time prouisiō of victuals grew very scarce among them, (whereof they could haue no supply, but out of the East part of England, and that in no little time) wherefore it seemed good vnto them to discharge all their Souldiers beside one thousand old ones, and to dismisse most of their Ships of lesser weight, and not to goe to Fer [...]ll or the Groyne. And then it fell to be deliberated on, whe­ther or no they should make their expedition to the Islands Azores; which all agreed vpon, that they should; but on­ly Vere, who said it would neither be for the profit nor the credit of the Queene; since that with so few Ships, and so small forces, nothing could possib [...]y be effected, that might satisfie their owne desires, much lesse Englands expectation; and that England in the meane time wanting her choycest Captaines; and part of the Queenes Nauy, would more easily [Page 180] be inuaded by the Spaniard. Hereupon Essex and Rawl [...]igh ride post to the Queene, to take counsell what should bee done. Essex proposed great matters, full of difficullty, fit­ting for the loftinesse of his minde, promising with part of the Nauy, and som [...] Souldiers, if they were but committed to him, to goe God knowes whither. But the Queene refu­sing any such matter, he vndertooke to ouercome the Spanish Nauy in the Bay at Fer [...]ll, if so be, that by the Queenes good leaue, he m [...]ght but lawfully venter the two great Ships ta­ken from the Spaniard, Saint Andrew and Saint Matthew; and a thousand old Souldiers, vpon some danger, and leaue the rest of the Nauy without the Bay, wilest he there tried his fortune with them. The Queene would neither allow of this▪ but vpon many good cautions. Yet at length▪ the mat­ter was le [...]t to their owne iudgements; but yet so, that they should embrace all opportunity of burning the Spanish Nauy at Feroll or surprizing the Indy Nauy: and as new oc­casions fell out, so sh [...]uld they vse the iudgemen [...] and discre­tion of the Coun [...]ell of warre.

Hauing returned to Plimmouth the seuenteenth of August, with aside wind, they euen wrested themselues out of the Hauen: but yet before they came in the sight of Spaine, they were deiected by another cruell tempest, the great Ship Saint Matthew hauing his Mast and Saile-yard broken, shipwract▪ vpon a rock, and the other Ship Saint Andrew was there­by taken away from all the company. The rest of the Na­uy in short time hauing got together againe, spread their Sailes in the sight of Ast [...]re and G [...]llece; but with little good aduise, according to the opinion of the wiser sort, since such and the like vaine-glorious o [...]entations, were very hurtfull to Drake in his two last expeditions to America; and to Norris in his expedition to Portugall. For enemies being forewarned, are quickly strengthned to a resistance. Neere the Promo [...]tory of Nereus, the Saile-yard in Rawleighs Ship by reason of the violent tempest, brake and fell downe; [Page 181] [...] [Page 182] [...] [Page 183] came Thomas Howard, and after perswasion▪ obtained the re­mission of this offence; whereupon both Rawleigh, and the other Captaines, that were put out of pay, are receiued a­gaine into fauour.Rawleigh is receiued into fauour. For as Essex was of a credulous nature to belieue any offence or iniury against him, so hee was of as milde a nature to forgiue it; but yet so, that the enimity which was on both sides, was rather lulled a sleepe for a while, then taken for euer away.

Whilest these things are in action, the Fort against▪ the Towne is forsaken by the Spaniards, that lay at Garrison in it; and in it were found two English men with their throats cut. Being sent forth to search about▪ and hauing▪ preyed round about one part of the Isla [...]d, they return [...]d as they went, but after some few days, hauing [...]aken away their Ord­nance, they quite demolished the Towne, and consumed it to ashes.

From thence they sailed to the Island of [...]ratiosa▪ the In­habitants whereof,Gratiosa and Flores yeeld to Essex. as those also of [...] referred themselues to Essex mercy, and obtained it. He resolued to haue landed at Gratiosa, and to haue viewed the place well, intending there to wait for the Ind [...] Nauie▪ But being [...]sswaded from it by [...]aue an vnlucky Master of a ship▪ thinking that no fit [...]y for the ships, from thence he b [...]nds forwards [...] St. Mi­chaels Island. But giuing command to Vere, and Nicholas Parker; that they should lye at watch betweene St. George▪ and the Island Gratiosa: and co [...]ding the Earle of Sou­thampton, and sir William Mouns [...]n▪ to w [...]tch at the Western side of the Island Gratiosa with their ships▪ and others other where.

But behold, not aboue one or two houres after tha [...] the English had vnwillingly put from the Island Gratiosa [...]nti­ced thereto by an il [...] destiny▪ the Spanish Naui [...] from A­merica, consisting of forty ships, seuen whereof were full fraught with treasure, arriues at the same place. And vnder­standing that the English were thereabouts, the Spa [...]iard [Page 184] straightway goes towards Tercera. And in the tempestuous night lights vpon Mounson, which he de [...]ies with his Ord­ [...]ance shot off: the noise whereof was heard a farre off, and receiued with an huge Mar [...]iners shout, euery one prouides for battell. Mounson, Southampton, and Vere, that were nee­rest to them, followed them, but leasurely and a farre off, ex­pecting the ayde of the rest. In the meane time the Spanish Nauie in rancke and order came into T [...]rcera Hauen: yet three of their [...]hips (rich enough) were surprised by the English. After this Southampton and Vere tryed by bigger [...]oats to enter the Hauen in the night time, and cut the Ca­bles of the our most ships, that the winde might driue them out into the Sea: but the Spaniards vigilancy preuenting the effect of this policy, made all their labour frustrated. Wherefore, forthwith they sent out a little Brigandine to certifie Essex thereof, vndertaking themselues to keepe the enemy from passing through them. Essex within one or two daies after came in with the rest of the Nauie, demanding the opinion of the Captaines in this matter, what should be done. Some Colonels and many Commanders desired to hazard the danger of so [...]ting vpon the Nauie, and the towne▪ all thinking it an easie matter, as Essex himselfe thought also▪ But the Marriners thought the contrary; as also Mo [...]tio [...] and Essex himselfe was faine to thinke too, after they had viewed the place a little neerer, and saw the Nauie close vn­der the Forts, the Hauen fortified with workes, situation, and a Garrison: the Ordnance euery where brandishing themselues against them; and the winde so crosse, that they could not vse the benefit of wild-fire.

Afterwards, hauing knighted Rutland, Southampton, William Euers, William B [...]odon, and Henry Docwray, he re­turned to S [...]. Michaels, and cast anchor, before the chiefe Ci­ty thereof, which they call Ci [...]idada▪ and that, being beau­ti [...] to behold, enti [...]ed the Souldiers very much to prey vpon it. Essex quite forgetting his authority, gets into a lit­tle [Page 185] Boat, to obserue and view where hee might get best lan­ding, but being hindred with the tempestuous waues, and the souldiers that now guarded the shoare, he thought it not good there to land his forces. Wherefore he commanded Rawleigh to continue still in the Bay with his ships, that he might keepe the enemy in an expectation of his landing and comming on shoare, whilest Essex himselfe went, and landed elsewhere. Who landing some six miles off at Villa Franca, Villa Franca is taken. an handsome Towne, rich in Merchandize, Wine, the hearbe Woad that dieth blew and corne, he tooke the same almost without any resistance. There hee tarryed six daies, and the common Souldiers found a very good booty. Rawleigh all this while in vaine expecting them at Saint Mi­chaels.

At which time they descried not farre from St. Michaels an Indian Caracke,A Caraque is burnt. comming with full saile; which when by reason of shot out of a Hollander, she perceiued her ene­mies were neere about her, violently put on shore, where hauing vnladen very rich Merchandise, and taken fire in­stead thereof, she burnt two dayes. Thus enuious fortune in this voyage thwarted the English designes. And although chances fall no where more then at Sea, yet these errours in them seemed to be willingly committed, and the frustrated enterprizes proceeded from the enuious emulation whereby one would striue to steale credit from the other.

On the ninth of October,The English fleet retur­neth. wherein the Sea was very full of daily tempests, Essex hauing giuen notice, commanded that they should waigh anchor, and turne home all for England.

But within a day or two after there arose a great tempest out of the North,The Spanish Nauy is dis­persed. which scattered all the ships vpon the Sea, euen the Spanish Nauie, with all her prouision against England that lay at Feroll: but so, that neither the English nor Spanish Nauie euer came in sight of one another. Not one of the English Nauie perished in this tempest, but many [Page 186] of the Spanish, as they re [...]ort: one of them tumbled and tossed from place to place by the tempest, at last was driuen vpon Dartmouth▪ the Souldiers and Marriners almost star­ued with hunger. These informed vs that the Spaniard had [...] to s [...]aze vpon some Port in Cornwall, whose sci­tuation might be fittest for receiuing aide from Spaine, that thereby they thought to keepe the English from warre, as also to hinder their voyages into the East Indies, and Spaine it selfe.

But so did the diuine powers (that decide such controuer­sies of warre) part the fierce quarrels betweene both Na [...]i­ons, that for this time both their expectations were very much frustrated.

At length towards the end of October, came Essex home safe to England, but his ships very weary and weather-bea­ten, but with a spoile of sufficient value.

Then concerning this Voyage,Contention growes be­twixt Essex & Rawleigh. many men seuerally spent their opinions, some out of loue to Essex, some out of ill will to Rawleigh, and the loue of the Queene, whereof both of them were very well experienced, by a strange effect encrea­sed the ill will of the people towards the one, (which indeed a sinister opinion of his impiety much encreased) and the loue of them towards the other, by reason of his affablenes [...]e, and the great conceipt of vertue and valour that was in him. Certainly none could finde a want, either of valour in dan­ger, or of wisedome in consultations, in either of them: but happy successes to either none could assure himselfe of, since they depend vpon the prouidence of the Almighty. But certainly the enmity betweene Rawleigh and Essex euery day grew vp higher, whilest one cast the misfortunes of the voy­age vpon the others negligence.

Besides,And betwixt Essex and Robert Ce­cill. Essex was much grieued to see Robert Cecill the last yeare that was made Secretary to the Queene, for all his opposition against him, now in his absence to be made Chan­cello [...]r of the [...] of [...]; to whom hee alwayes [Page 187] opposed himselfe, as emulous of his wisdome, and too great a fauourite of Rawleigh. But he was further grieued to heare Charles Howard Admirall made Earle of Nottingham, with this Testimoniall in his letters of Honour.

THat he secured England from all danger of the Spanish inuasion,Essex is an­gry at the ti­tles giuen to the Admi­rall. hauing gotten a bra [...]e victory in eighty eight. That ioyntly with our deare kinsman Robert Earle of Essex he had va­liantly and magnanimou­sly by open violence taken the Island and City of Cadiz, that was strongly fortified. That he had wholly vanquished and ouerthrowne an entire Nauie of the King of Spaine, that stood ready in the said Hauen to assault the Kingdome of Eng­land.

These things Essex (who had challenged to himselfe all the glory thereof before) now construed them as done in disgrace to him, and great preiudice to his valour; especial­ly considering that the Admirall (who being a Lord) was be­hinde him in honour, now by being made an Earle should haue the prerogatiue of superiority ouer him. For it was e­stablished in the times of K. Henry the eight, that the Lord High Chamberlaine of England, High Constable, the Mar­shall, Admirall, and Lord High Steward, and Chamber­laine, should haue preheminence about [...]ll that were but of the same degree.Essex is made Earle [...] Engl [...]d▪ But yet the Queene (which was alwaies a fauourer and an enlarger of the dignities and honours of Es­sex) to qualifie his distast, and so set him before [...]im againe, made him Earle Marshall of England; an office which had [...]aine a sleepe euer since the death of the Earle of Shrewes­burie.

This yeare came Paulus Dzialinus Embassadour from Sigismond King of Poland, An Embas­sadour fro [...] Poland. a man of greater a [...]city then ordinarily the disposition of that Nation atta [...]nes vnto: from [Page 188] whom, when the Queen expected great acknowledgment of her Fauours, and thanksgiuing for the peace wrought by her from Amurath Emperor of the Turks, He (after he had de­liuered his Letters to the Queene (sitting in her Chaire of state) wch the Nobles about her, & she, began to reade them) in a very vnseemly & vnusuall manner in England, His Oration to the Queen descends to the lower part of the Priuy Chamber, and there in a lowd tone began in a Latine Oration to complaine, that the priui­ledges Prutenick, and of the Polonians were not onely much enf [...]inged, but euen violated contrary to the Law of Nati­ons: in that their traffique with the Spaniard was made vn­lawfull, and prohibited by the Queene: and that vnder co­lour of that, that the Polonian goods were forfeited to the Queenes Exchequer. Vrging, that his Master could not beare with this without complaint, in respect of the great damage which he hath sustained; as also the affinity of him and the Spaniard, and the House of Austria. Wherefore, that [...] required of the Queene, that these things that had been [...] ­ken away should be restored againe; and that he might h [...] free traffique with the Spaniard. Which if she granted not, that his Master would take some order to prouide for the safety of his Subjects, and his owne estate, and it may [...] make those repent it that were the occasion of the first [...] offered him.

The Queene somewhat amazed at the bold speech of [...] Embassadour, in a sober rebuking Rhetoricall answer, [...] ­ded him these words:

LOrd,The Queenes answer. how was I deceiued? I expected an Em­bassadour, I found an Herold. I neuer heard such an Oration all the daies of my life. Nei­ther can I sufficiently wonder at so great [...] rashuesse: If that your King euer willed you to these speech [...]s, which I much doubt of; I doe therefore thin [...] he did it, because, being a young man, and not chos [...] [Page 189] according to the vsuall succession of bloud, but by ele­ction: he doth not vnderstand the affaires of Traf­fique, or those businesses that haue been passed, through by Vs, and his Pr [...]decessours. For your part, you seeme to Vs to be well read in many book [...], but yet to be very shallow in Policy, or matters belonging thereto. For, for asmuch as you haue so often vsed the Law of Nati­ons in your speech; you ought to haue knowne that two Kings being at warre one against another, it is lawfull for one side to seaze and surprize all aide and succour that is sent to the other side; because he is bound to prouide that no damage from thence come to his king­dome and Common-wealth. This we say is agreeable to the Law of Nations, which we not onely do, but euen the Kings of Poland & Sweden haue done the like, in the warres against the Muscouians. As concerning the neere affinity which you boast of betweene your Master and the house of Austria, you might also well remember, that some of that Family of Austria were so neere your Master, that they would haue got into his roome, and got the Kingdome from him. For o­ther matters you shall vnderstand what Our will and pleasure is by our Counsellours. And hauing spoke thus, she betooke herselfe into her Closet.

The Embassadour in conference with some of the Queenes Councell (that he might excuse himselfe) shewed vnto them his Speech written, which he said was made by others, and deliuered to him by Thelitiskius Chancellor of Sweden, Za­moske being absent,He is answe­red of her Counsellours. and not knowing of it. Shortly after the Queene sent Burghley Lord Treasurer, the Admirall, Robert Cecill, and Fortescue, of her Prluy Counsell, willing them to certifie him these things. That the priuiledges which haue beene heretofore granted to those Cities in Po­land, as also to the Hans-Townes in Germany, were abroga­ted [Page 190] in the time of Edward the [...]ixt; yet that the Queene permitted them to traffique with the English, vpon equall termes, & the like right. But that she could not giue thē leaue to traffique by a better right, vnlesse (that like a wicked mo­ther) she should neglect her owne Children, and make more of strangers. That to surprize aide that goes to her enemies, is not against the Law of Nations, since Nature her selfe al­lowes that liberty, that euery man should defend himselfe as well as he can; and that that Law is not written, but borne and bred in vs. Besides, that in the mentioned priuiledges there was a Prouiso, that those Cities should not furnish the enemies of England with any prouision, as appeares in ex­presse words.

IT shall be lawfull for the foresaid Merchants to carry their Merchandise whither they will, either within Our Realme of England, or without, pro­uided alwaies, that they carrie them not to the Lands and Kingdomes of our manifest and notorious ene­mies.

Besides all this, he was giuen to vnderstand, that but late­ly, which was fresh in their memories, the Kings of Poland, and Sweden, surprized and con [...]iscated certain English ships, and Merchandize, onely vpon suspition that they had aided the Muscouian with prouision.

The Embassadour being demanded what he could say to these things, made answer, that he had no command to an­swer any thing, but to deliuer his message, and returne an answere, and shortly after he was very courteously dismis­sed to returne home.The Mer­chants Ad­uenturers are forbidden trade in Ger­many.

By this time the importunate supplications of the Hans-Townes to the Emperour of Germany had so farre preuailed, that by Proclamation the society of Merchant Aduenturers were forbidden all traffique in Germany, by reason, that they [Page 191] traffiqued onely according to the Lawes of England in the Empire, and not according to the Lawes of the Empire. So that, when the Queene had long time dealt with the Empe­rour by Sir Iohn Wroth, and with the Princes of the Empire by Stephen Lesure, for the suspention or delaying of this Pro­clamation, and all was in vaine; the very same day that the English Merchants were warned to depart Germany, And the Hans-Towns in England. she ba­nished all the Hans-Townes men and Merchandizes out of London, commanding the Lord Major to take possession of the houses they had in the Citie of London, which we call the Stiliard. And hereupon they assembled all of the Hans-Townes at Lubecke, on purpose to hinder the traffique of the English in Poland, and Germany, by all meanes.

The Queene that she might nu [...]lifie these malicious pra­ctises,The Embas­sie of Sir George Ca­rew into Po­land. sent Sir George Carew Master of the Chancery into Prussia, to enforme the King and States of Polonia, and the Prutenic Cities, those things which she answered to Dzia­line, the last Embassadour: as also, to certifie them, that the Queene will willingly permit them to trade into Spaine, with Corne, and all kinde of Merchandize (onely except warlike Munition) although both by the Ciuill law, and the law of Nations, she might surprize any thing that is sent to her e­nemy. Also that she was contented that the Hans-Townes should enioy their ancient priuiledges in England, vpon con­dition, that they should acknowledge them as her meere fa­uours, and not as couenants lawfully and rigorously to be demanded: for those priuiledges which are granted to Sub­iects by Princes, much more to strangers, and forreiners, may be suspended, reuoked, and quite abrogated according to the diuersity of times, the good of Common-wealths, or other the like causes. Withall, that the Hans-Townes had had experience thereof in Denmarke, and Sweden, and in England, in the time of Edward the sixt, Philip and Queene Mary. Besides, that the case is not all one with Cities and Kingdomes: and that Princes ought more to haue a care to [Page 192] protect and patronize their owne honour and Maiesty, then the co [...]etousnesse of some Merchants.

C [...]rew so effectually dealt with them,Gedanenses. that they promised not to send any of there Embassadours to Lubecke, or to conioyne them with the Hans-Townes in Germany. Which hauing effected, he passed ouer into Sweden, where hee met the King of Poland at Steckburge, brought into very narrow streights by his Vnckle Charles: but he wrought but little with him;What he effe­cted with the P [...]lacke. by reason (as the King himselfe court [...]ously an­swered) that alwaies it is prouided by the Lawes of the Realme, that the King alone shall neuer enter into couenants▪ or any bargaines or conditions with any Forreiner. Hauing had other Le [...]ters deliuered to him by the Vice-Chancellour ready sealed, he refused to take them (the title of his [...] the Queene being not absolutely perfect and compleat on all sides) lest thereby he should seeme to derogate from her Ho­nour: and that is indeed the ob [...]ect of an Embassadours greatest care, although in the smallest matters, as this was onely in the superscription.

From thence he passed vnto Elbing, And those of Elbing. where he composed and ended many quarrels and contentions between the Eng­lish and the Citizens thereof; but this was in the next yeare: yet I thought it fit to forestall the narration of it, rather then to rent his owne voyage, and the readers patience into a distraction.

This yeare also came Arnold Whitfield Chancellour of Denmarke from Christian the fourth King of Denmarke; An Embas­sadour from the King of Denmarke. and with him Christian Bernick; who restored againe the Carter of the Order of St. George, wherewith the Queene had ho­noured Fredericke the Kings Father. He requested the re­newing of the ancient League betweene England and Den­marke; also that the Danish goods might not be surprized by the English at Sea. He pretended that the English vsed Fishing at Norway and the Islands, against the League: and also promised his Masters endeuours to reconcile the Queen [Page 193] and the King of Spaine. The Queene hauing courteously en­tertained them, promi [...]eth that the League should be renew­ed the goods (if any were surprized) should be restored, and that no more should be surprized; also, that the Fishing should be lawfully vsed, according to the ancient Leagues. But concerning a peace with the Spaniard, who had first brake it so treacherously, and especially to get it by a third man, that should seeme to procure such a commodity for her, she thought it not to stand with her honour, nor the weale of her Kingdome: she for her owne part being suffici­ently so enuironed by the loyalty and valour of her owne people, that she feared not any man. And last of all, would she make a Peace, or trust to it made, since that he so malici­ously at this very time did so molest his confederate the French King with a cruell warre?

For the Spaniard had now by this time (vnder the con­duct of Ferdinand Teglio a little Dwarfe,The King of France re­quires suc­cour from E­lizabeth. but of great skill and valour) taken Amiens the greatest and strongest City in Picardy, by a warlike stratageme of ouer-turning a Cart in the Port or Gate, and had now brought the French King to such distresse, that hee was faine to intreat 4000. English to aide him from the Queene. Which indeed she denied him not, vpon this condition, that he should giue them pay, when as the Nauy sent out lately to the Islands, and the Army in Ireland, had much consumed her treasure. The King solemnly protested that he was not able to pay: and that he might obtaine them without pay, certifies the Queene, that a most commodious peace was offered him by the Popes Nuncio, with an absolute restitution of all the pla­ces taken in France besides Calis and Ardes, if so be he would seperate himselfe from the Queene, and not haue League with her: and that the French Nation beg'd for peace most earnestly. The Queene made answere, that she could not belieue that so great a Prince, conioyned to her by necessi­ty, and much benefited by her especiall good will, and but [Page 194] lately bound by an oath, would admit of such faire deceitfull shewes, to draw him from the League made betweene them, and the oaths and protestations made by either parties, one­ly because she could not in this so great necessity helpe him, as otherwise she would. And Anthony Mildmay the Lea­ger there, very earnestly (and not without offence to the Kings eares) expostulated with him these things: a man truely of an open heart, and a true Englishman, who very often would accuse to their faces the French Counsellours of tergiuersation, and too much inconstancy in their answers, and lightnesse too, as if they onely mocked England. But shortly afterwards, when some men shrewdly hallucina­ted, that the purpose of the Spaniard bended onely and ai­med at this marke, that hauing broken the League betweene the French and the Queene, and retaining Calis still in his possession, he might the easier assault England from thence. The Queene thought good to send him ouer aide, and to pay the Souldiers her selfe, if so be he would onely warre in Picardy or Britains, to remoue the Spaniard farther; if so be he would ioyne greater forces to them, and allot the Eng­lish a place of retyring. For otherwise, by reason of her mo­therly loue towards her Nation, she would not send them to be butchered by the cruelty of the Spaniard, onely for the pleasure or benefit of the French. And besides, she lent him great store of monies, for the which (and all his debts besides) he pawned to her Calis, if so be the Queene at her owne cost and charges within a set time recouered it; and the better to recouer it, he allotted the English Boloigne for a retyring place.

But whilest these things are in action,He takes a­gain Ami [...]ns. the French reget Ami [...]ns from the Spaniard, after a tedious and difficult siege. For the which (as in his Letters to the Queene dated in September appeares) he was much beholding to Basker­uile that died at the siege, and Arth [...]r Sauage, two worthy Commanders, and the valour of the English Nation. But the [Page 195] happinesse of this was much bettered by the age and necessi­ty of the Spaniard,The Spani­ard inclines to peac [...]. which creeping on him very fast, excited him continually to a desire of peace. For when experience had well informed him, that his affaires consisted more in re­port, then strength, and that all his wealth was not able to represse the assaults of the English; that the warre in the Low Countries was to be prosecuted, and that the places wch he had taken in France were also to be defended, that he was now in a good old age, and that his strength failed him, that his Sonne was but of small age, and lesse experience of af­faires, that the French were very famous for warlike exploits; he thought it his best course (by the meanes of the Bishop of Rome, who should be as an arbitratour betweene them) to treate with the French King about peace, who indeed was as desirous as himselfe of it; the Spaniard adiudging it better to conclude his troubles in a well-setled peace, then to leaue them all hereditary to his Son, whose yeres were too tender, to goe through them with good successe. And truely this peace was shortly made betweene them, as we shall speake of in its proper place.

Assoone as the first suspition of this vnperfect peace came to the Queenes eares, she imagining that it was only the bet­ter to molest England and entrap it, strengthened her selfe before hand, both with monies, which she almost lacked, and the good will and loue of her people, which she much encreased. For she called a Parliament at Westminster, A Parlia­ment. where she made many very good and gracious Lawes acceptable to the people. Vid. Act.

The States presently after send ouer to congratulate the restauration of the true Religion, and the happy administra­tion of the Common-wealth; to congratulate also the deli­uery of the Realme from the hands of bloudy enemies, the defence and protection whereby Ireland was secured, the aide and assistance which she vouchsafed both the States and the French.

[Page 196]After this, that the Queene might the better be ready fur­nished with store of money, the Clergy voluntarily granted her three Subsidies: and the Lay people entreated the Queene to take of them three whole and entire Subsidies, six Fifteenes, and Tenths. Withall requesting that the necessi­ty of these her occasions might not be patterne for future ages to measure their liberality by, towards the Prince. To this Parliament was Thomas De-la-ware, The Lord La [...]ware is restored to his old place. his Father William being dead, called: who gaue vp his Petition to the Queene, to intreat her to restore him again to the ancient place of the Lord De-la-ware. The occasion was this, That his Father William, hauing an Vnckle of his, whose inheritance and honour he gaped after, prouided poison for him; and thereup­on by the authority of the Parliament in Edward the sixt his time, he was depriued and shut out from any honour and inheritance that might fall to him by his Vnckle. Yet for all this (although in the daies of Queene Mary he was be­sides condemned of treason) he was by the Queene restored to his honour againe, as if so be he had neuer been condem­ned. But, when as this Lord by the reason of the sentence of the Parliament, could not enioy his Grandfathers honour, by the especiall fauour of the Queene, he was a new created Lord Da-la-ware, and as long as he liued he enioyed his place according to the time of his creating. The Queene re­ferred this matter to the Parliament-house; who hauing found that the former sentence against the former Lord, was onely personall, and not touching his progeny; and that his banishment in the time of Queene Mary nothing hindered him from losing that honour, which he had not, and that he was restored againe shortly after; as also, that his ancient honour is not extinguished by reason of a new creation, but onely as it were lay asleepe, as long as he liued, when it was not in him, in the time of his being created, they allotted him the place of his Ancestors, betweene the Lord Willough­by and Barcley, where he was iustly placed.

[Page 197] Also Thomas Howard the second sonne of the Duke of Norfolke, who but lately before was made knight of the Gar­ter,Thomas L. Howard of Walden. was called to this Parliament by the title of Lord Howard of Walden; and he being at that time sicke, the Lord Scroope was brought into the vpper House betweene two Lords, bearing his Roll in his Parliament Robes, the King of Armes going before him. That, when the Lord Keeper had read publikely, he was seated below all the rest of the Lords: al­though that elsewhere the younger sonnes of Dukes take place of Viscounts. Since (as appeares in an act of the Parli­ament Records) in the sixt yeare of Henry the eight, when Thomas Howard Earle of Surrey being called to the Parlia­ment, challenged to himselfe the place of going or sitting be­fore the Earles, because he was the eldest sonne of a Duke. It was decreed by the Parliament, that he should sit in Parlia­ment according to the order of his creation; notwithstan­ding, that his prerogatiue of honor and worth, which is due to him as the eldest son of a Duke, should be reserued to him without the Parliament house.

This yeare died William Brookes Lord Cobham, The death of the Lord Cobham. of the Or­der of St. George, Chamberlaine to the Queene, and Const­able of Douer Castle, Gouernour of the Cinque Ports, and Chancellour, Henry his sonne begot of Frances Newton, suc­ceeded him.

Also there died William Powlet Marquesse of Winchester the third,And Willi­am Powlet. more famous for his great wealth, then for any thing else, hauing left his sonne William, which hee had of Anne Howard of Effingham.

In Ireland, The L. Bur­rough made Deputy of Ireland. when as the affaires there were very turbulent and dangerous, for all V [...]ster beyond Dundalke, besides the Garrison Castles, Newrie, Knockfergus, Carlingford, Greene-Castle, Armach, D [...]ndr [...]m, and Oldorfleet, and almost all Conaugh had reuolted from the Queene, the Lord Deputy Russell was recalled againe, and the Lord Burrough made Deputy instead of him: a man indeed of a sharpe wit and [Page 198] great courage, but scarce insighted into the very elements of warre; wherefore his election was beyond all mens opinion or expectation, and more Norrises, who by his deser [...]s and worthy skill had assured himselfe thereof. But when as hee perceiued that his enemies at Court much preuailed, and his friends as fast failed; when he saw one now whom in birth he thought himselfe almost equall to, and in honour and glo­ry, by reason of his exployts, much superiour, preferred be­fore him, and himselfe, which was worst, to be commanded vnder his authority, to continue in the Lieutenant-ship of Mounster [...] what with griefe thereof, and discontent, that Tir- [...]n by his dissembling had mock't him, out of the iudg­ment he was thought to haue had,Norris dieth he shortly after died. A man, he was certainly of great worth, and to be celebrated amongst the famous Captaines of our Nation, in his time. He was the second sonne of Henry Lord Norris, borne of the Daughter and the other heire of the Lord Williams of Tame. He first practised himselfe in warre vnder the Admirall Co­line, in the French ciuill warres: afterwards, (being but a young man) he was a Captaine in Ireland vnder Walter Earle of Essex. He was Colonell generall of the English vn­der the States of the Low Countries; Marshall of the Army of the States vnder the Earle H [...]h [...]nl [...]; He was President of Mounster twelue yeares, although absent most part thereof; Generall of the auxiliary English in Britaine in France. And to conclude, he was a man of great worth, if himselfe had not knowne it▪ and he was well rewarded for his worth, if his conceit had been so humble, as not to haue aspired aboue, if not his merits, yet his birth.

Tir-O [...]n now being warie enough to prouide for the secu­rity of his owne state, sends his Letters to the new Deputy, and very humbly desires a truce, or a cessation from Armes, or any kinde of hostility: and it seemed (indeed) at that time somewhat to concerne the good of the Kingdome, to grant this truce, although the Deputy himselfe iudged it [Page 199] very hurtfull to the State. Wherefore it was graunted for a moneth. When the moneth was expired, he assem­bles all his forces to the credit of his new authority, and sets out in batta [...]le against the Rebels: and being brought, if not into danger, yet either to the conceit or feare of danger, and some streights, hee opens himselfe a safety by valour, and valiantly winnes by assault Blacke water, The Deputy winnes the Fort at Black-water the onely Fort of the Rebels, besides the woods and bogs, whereby is the en­trance into the County of Tir-Oen: and gaue the Rebels to vnderstand how easily they might be vanquished, if hee would but insist vnpon them a little. And now on the very same day wherein the Deputy, and all his Army were gi­uing thankes vnto God for their late victory, there was a sodaine alarme, and all called to their armes, by reason the enemy shewed himselfe from a Neighbour hill. Henry Earle of Kildare with a wing of horse, and some of the No­bler sort, voluntaries, issued forth against them, and put them to flight. Of the English there was wanting Francis Vaug­han, brother in law to the Deputy, [...]. Turner Serjeant ma­ior, whose deaths the Earle of Kildare tooke so sorrowfully,The Earle of Kildare dieth. that within few dayes after he died for griefe thereof.

Tir-Oen now thought his fortune and credit quite vndone, vnlesse he recouered againe the Fort at Black-water where­fore hee strongly besieged it.The Rebels besiege the Fort at Black-water. The Deputy forthwith haste­neth thither as fast as he could, being resolued surely to passe further into Vlster. But in his full path way to great victo­ries death arrested him, leauing the great desire of him to the good and to the [...]ad longer security.The Deputy dyeth. Had [...]e but liued (in the iudgement of the wisest) he had soone weakned the hopes of the enemy, and the matters had neuer come to that dan­ger as they did.

The Rebels, hearing of the Deputies death, assault the Fort with great clamours, and as great violence, and were droue backe with as great slaughter.

They that scaled vp by Ladders, were cast downe head­long; [Page 200] and at length they distrusting their owne abili­ties, betake themselues to a consultation, relying vpon a perswasion, that they were furnished of prouision but for few dayes. But for all that the Fort was strongly main­tained by the valour of Thomas Williams the Gouernour, and the rest that lay in Garrison, who hauing suffered hunger, the sword, and all extremities, hauing eate vp their horses, [...]ed vpon the hearbes that grew vpon the trenches, and endured no small misery, to enioy their li­berty.

And now by this time, by the Queenes authority from England, was the Army in Ireland, committed to the Earle of Ormond, with the title also of Lieutenant Generall of the Army.Iusticiars ap­pointed in Ireland. The disposing and gouerning of all ciuill matters was committed to Adam L [...]fthose Archbishop of Dublin, Chan­cellour, and Robert Gardiner, with the titles of Iustices of Ireland, which office Thomas Norrris had exercised a mo­neth before.

Tir-Oen presently sends his long tedious Letters to the new Lieutenant,Tir-Oen pre­sents his grie­uances to Or­ [...]nd. wherein he exaggerates and aggrauates all his grieuances, both old and new, not omitting the least, that might be strercht to the name of an iniurie. Hee poorely excuseth his couenant breaking with Norris: But especially much complaineth, that Feogh Mac-Hugh was euen hunted to death: that his Letters to the Queene were intercepted, and suppressed: that Impositions and Compositions vntolerable, were layd vpon the Nobili­tie and the Commons. Hee added besides, that he fore­saw well enough that the territories of all the Peeres of Ireland should bed diuided amongst the English Coun­cellours, the Lawyers, the Scribes, and the Souldiers. And at the very same time, wherein hee assisted with helpe the Sonnes of Feogh Mac-Hugh to a new rebel­lion in Leinster, hee exhibited to the Lieutenant a most submissiue writing, humbly craues to be taken into fa­uour, [Page 201] not sticking to promise any thing whatsoeuer; al­though it was easily perceiued, and knowne to all men, that these rebellions were for no other end (what­soeuer else was pretended) then to dislodge the English out of Ireland.

Anno Domini 1598.1598

IN the middest of all these Irish troubles,The King of France would me­diate peace betweene the Queene and the Spaniard there came as great al­most out of France too. For the French King, although hee had lately recouered Ambiane, yet being wearied with warre, and the daily requests of his Subiects, and the intercession of the Bishop of Rome, the last yeare almost spent, sent ouer Masie to the Queene, signifying vnto her that hee had had some confe­rence with the Spanish Factors concerning a peace: but yet [Page 203] that he had determined not to prosecute the matter further, till such time that he had both her consent, and the States of the Low Countries, since that he had made a League with them both for offence and defence. Wherefore he requested that some might be sent ouer out of England, and the Low Countries, that might consult about this matter, and heare what reasonable conditions were proposed.

The Queene to satisfie the French Kings desire,Embassadors sent about this businesse. sent ouer into France, Robert Cecill Secretary to the Queene, Iohn Her­bert Master of Requests, and Thomas Wilkes, who died pre­sently after his arriuall at France. The States sent out to them Iustine Nassaw, and Iohn Olden-Barneuelt; and also to the Queene some others to dehort her from this Peace.

The English were informed by instructions before hand, to know vpon what ground the mentioned peace relied: and how farre it had gone on, and whither or no it was pro­pounded bona fide, and not deceitfully and cunningly, as in the Treaty at Borburgh: also to know what good security shall be giuen to the States, if they should condiscend to the Treaty, and also to propose the restoring of Calis to the Eng­lish, for the monies due to the Queene, were of greater va­lue by much then so smal a Town could counteruaile. Which the Queene the willinglier mentioned, because the French King had intimated that this Treaty should be for some or­der taking about the Treaty of Cambray Castle, in restoring euery man his owne: but with this prouiso or clause added to them also, that they should consent to nothing without the Hollanders confent also.

The King of France now was in iourny towards Britain, to recouer his Prouince there, for the Duke of Merc [...]eur, and the Spaniards agreed not well, by reason he denied to surren­der into their hands Nannetu.

After long trauaile, Cecill at last ouertooke them at Andes; to whom the King hauing with a thankefull minde acknow­ledged the Queenes loue and good-will, spake to him to this effect.

[Page 204]

THat although the Queene had vndertaken and waged warre against the Spaniard,The King of France speakes to them. and had had fortunate successe in the same; yet for his owne part, although he was borne a Souldier, yet being a King, and hauing people vnder him, hee held it no point of Religion, to expose his faithfull Subiects to the rage of warre, but rather a great sinne and offence, out of an irreligious ambition, to refuss Peace, &c.

Cecill made answer, that the Queene was not so much a­gainst peace, as he might imagine, who now hauing suffici­ently reuenged her selfe vpon her enemy, desires nothing but quietly to maintaine the safety of her people, and her own honour. And then (after that) he required to be infor­med, what condition of peace the Spaniard had proposed, and what order should be taken with the state of the Low Countries,The reply of the King. if they should not accept of it. The King in an­swering, acknowledged, that indeed the Queene had endam­maged the Spaniard much, but the Spaniard had as much him; that yet now the Spaniard earnestly desired a peace, and that thereupon he would also restore all places in France that he had taken, euen Call is againe. Also assuring him, that shortly he would bring the Spaniard to agreement both with the Queene, and the States, solemnly and publikely protesting, that it could not be if he should refuse this peace, but France should wrap it self againe in the fire of ciuill warre, by reason that he found the hearts of his people so prone to a rebellion.

Whilest these things are in hand, he being carefull of the maine chance, secretly agreed vpon some things concerning the peace with the Spaniard, dealing with Albert the Arch-Duke, till such time that some authority were delegated from Spaine, to the finishing and perfecting of the peace.

[Page 205] This when the Queene certainly vnderstood, she began somewhat to expostulate with the French King about it: but he excused himselfe by reason of the delay the Queene vsed in sending ouer,Expostulati­ons betweene the King and the Queene. and by reason of the vrgency of his necessi­ty, and the offered opportunity, which he could not neglect: and so as it were hauing somewhat else to doe, hee referred the matter wholly to his Counsell.

And first of all Barneuelt layes open before them in an O­ration the affaires and estates of the Low Country,Barneuelts Oration. which by the helpe of God, the fauour of the Queene, were now growne to such a perfection, that they were not onely able to defend themselues, but euen to aide France, if their neces­sity should require their assistance. Then he shewes how earnestly the French King desired a league with them, both of Offence and Defence, which they agreed vnto, onely for to pleasure the Queene, and for her sake, being certainly per­swaded that a generall peace would make all sure thence, not so much as imagining that so great a King would once so much as thinke of breaking it. After this, he largely dilated vpon this, to shew how farre the Spaniards power to the danger both of France and her Neighbours would extend, if so be those confederate Prouinces that were rich both in Armes and wealth, were subiect vnto him. Then hee ap­peales to the Kings conscience (before God) whither or no it were fit for a King to seperate himselfe from those, with whom he had so firmely conioyned himselfe, they offering him not the least occasion that was thereunto, and after ma­ny reasons, whereby they could not haue peace with the Spaniard, he concluded.

THat some Kings haue neglected their Coue­nants and Leagues, onely to encrease their po­wer, but commonly with sad successe. For the affaires of Kings, vnlesse they originally ground vpon truth and faith, cannot well consist by power.

[Page 206] And yet for all this, in the name of the States hee pro­pounded, that if so be the King would not hearken to the peace, and would besiege Callis, that the States at their own cost and charges would besiege another place, to distract and seuer the enemies forces, and to giue pay to seuen thousand Souldiers at the [...]iege at Callis, and to furnish fiue and twenty men of warre with all manner of prouision, vpon condition that the king would allow to the siege three thousand Horse, six thousand foot, and six peeces of Ordnance. The Chan­cellour of France indeed acknowledged these things to be worthy of consideration, and to be signified to the King, and he promised all his endeauours to hinder the proceedings of the peace; and yet presently after hee made answer againe, that this commodious peace, France being in such a fain [...]ing estate, was not onely to be embraced, but euen by great ne­cessity to be snatcht by all meanes.

The States thus altogether refusing the peace,A difference betweene Ce­cill and the French men. Cecill, that had onely to deale for a generall peace by his Commission, could not goe on forward in the matter: but yet shewed [...]o the said Counsellours of France that the Queene delayd not time in sending them ouer vnto thē, neither that she denied their King her assistance, if so be he would haue employed it against the common enemy to the commoditie of all the Confederates. Hee shewed also that their necessity, which they so much aggrauated beyond all beliefe, was not so great, being that all France (excepct one or two Prouinces) was redu­ced to the Kings obedience. And concerning the embra­cing of opportunity they so often spake of, he said he would not speake, especially to those that lesse esteeme of their [...]oy­all ingagement in Couenants, then of opportunities aduan­tage; and measure their loyall Honour by their profit; or thinke that the general good consists in the thri [...]ing of their particular occasions.

After his long discourse conc [...]ning these and the like mat­ters, he des [...]red a respite the better to consider of this busines. [Page 207] But they not granting him so small a courtesie▪ hee required then to returne to the Kings memory, how deeply by vowes & oaths he had ingaged himselfe before the Earle of Shrews­bury, after the confirmation of the League, and before it, by his [...]etters, signed and subscribed by his own hand; withall, he stuck not to say, that indeed the Queen neuer miscaried in the performance of any of her Couenants, but that the King had scarce kept any, producing thereupon the contents of the Couenants. And then gently he put them in mind, that they would take some order how the monies due to the Queene might be repaied her, that had now bin taught by their King hereafter better to looke to her own estate, & not bestow her benefits and good turnes so euilly, and on vngratefull men. Yet, at length, with faire speeches they dismissed him, and the King acknowledging the infinit courte [...]ies receiuted from the hands of the Queene, promised that he would doe any thing for her sake which lay in his power.

These things the Queene tooke very scuruily at his hands, and forthwith she sent Letters ouer to him, and Sir Thomas Edmonds her French Secretary, whereby she gently and yet freely admonishes him to remember his word and promise; to consider a little his conscience towards God, and his good report among the people; wishing him to take heed, that by these faire promises, and glozing consultations, he ens [...]are not himselfe in worse difficulties. Amongst these her graue admonitions, would she now and then weaue in such [...]ling­ing sentences, as,

THat if there were any sinne against the Holy Ghost, it was ingratitude. If that you get any good reasonable conditions of peace from the Spaniard, you are beholding to the English for it. For­sake not your true old friend, for your new one is not like to him, the religion of a League, and the [...]aith of Couenants, are no where snares to entrap me [...] by, but [Page 208] amongst wicked men. A bundle tied fast together is not so easily broken asunder. There is no easier way of ouercomming both, then by seuering one from an­other.

These things, although they were too true, yet the French King heard with great indignation; in that he said he brake not his promise, but vpon vrgent necessity; wherefore hee still prosecuted the pursuit of the peace, which he shortly af­ter finished to the great good of France, but not without re­proofe of the English Commonalty, that scourged him daily with biting sentences, and by-words against all vngratefull Princes.

But for all that,The King of France stands sto [...]tly for the Queene. the French, to make good his promise, and secure his honour, omitted not any thing for the perfe­cting a peace also betweene England and Spaine. To which purpose, he dealt with the Arch Duke about a Truce for some moneths, endeauouring in the meane time for to per­swade the Queene thereto, as also, that thereby, as before hee had beene a trouble vnto her, now hee would bee a sure Fortresse vnto her;The treaty at V [...]r [...]ins. and that he would neuer forsake her, his well deseruing Sister. And certainly he stood much for the Queene at the Treaty at Veruins, about the peace: for the French made reckoning of her before all, after that once there arose a contention about the more honourable place a­among the Delegates on both sides. And concerning this controuersie, I will vse a small digression, from the owne hand-writing of the Delegates to the Arch Duke, which I haue seene, to speake of some things, which hereafter may by chance benefit posterity. The French men according to the sentence giuen by Pius the fourth, challenged stifly the vpper place to themselues.The order of the session a­mongst the Delegates. The Spanish side would not ad­mit thereof, as being reiected by the King of Spaine; think­ing it also now a great preiudice to their honour, if that▪ if onely but by reason they were but guests among them, the [Page 209] chiefe place were not granted to them; by reason that they came to a towne of the French Kingdome; which they would neuer haue done, had it not beene to shew their ob­seruancy and respect to the Bishop of Rome and the Legate that represents him. At length the Popes Legates much striuing in the matter, it was agreed vpon, that he should sit at the vpper end of the board, and the Popes Nuncio should sit by him on the right hand: then this choyce was giuen to the French whither or no they would sit nearest the Nuncio on the right hand, or the Legate on the left. The French they chose the left, as nearest to the Legate. The Spanish side willingly tooke the right hand, because they thought it the best, and because the Nuncio was none of the number of the Delegates: and thereby they thought they sufficiently maintained the honour of their King. For if so be, that Ca­ligarton, the Generall of the Franciscan Friers (who had chosen the lowest part of the boord out of his humility, the badge of his profession) who tooke great paines in this busi­nesse, had beene preferred before them, and set on the lefthand neerest to the Legate, they had determined to protest publikely and aloud, that they knew well enough the place fitting for a Catholique King; also, that they would def [...]nd the same, if they had beene delegated from the Catholique King: but since they were onely Delegates for the Arch-Duke, who would not equall himselfe with the most Chri­stian King of France, and that since in their Letters of Pro­tection, which they haue receiued from the most Christian King, they were onely stiled the Delegates for the Arch-Duke, they said, they would willingly giue place to the French. For the Spaniard prouidently carefull to maintaine his owne honour, had resigned authority ouer to the Arch-Duke, whereby he might delegate others for the matter; that so the Spaniard himselfe might not immediately come to contend with the French for superiority, which was worse for him to maintaine then a warre.

[Page 210] Assoone as the businesse was composed, and the Char­ters of the Delegation on both sides exhibited,The French haue a re­spect of the Queene. the French tooke it very [...]einously, that in that of the Arch-dukes there was no mention of the Queene of England, b [...]ing that there was of the Duke of Sauoy. And the answer was, that she was comprehended vnder the number of confederates: but, when this little contented the French, they were faine to pretend this reason, that she was alwaies an enemy to the King of Spaine, and that euen at this present time she did molest him with a Nauy. And yet all their pretences could not quiet the French, till such times as they passed their faith that the Spaniard should try to make peace with her, if she gaue but any hopes thereof vnto him.

The French King,The Elogie of Henry the 4 out of Ianine. hauing how concluded this Peace, al­though he was most famous for warlike glory, yet now set­led all his desires vpon quietnesse, whereby he so rowzed vp the affaires of France, which had beene for many yeares o­uerwhelmed in ciuill warres, both by assisting the Romane Religion, and the Reformed; by restoring ancient rightes, by fostering of good learning, by recalling Traffiques, and by adorning the Kingdome with stately edifices, that he far surpassed all the Kings of France before him, as in misery lately, so now in glory: insomuch that he bare the name of Henry the great.

The Queene now more inwardly hauing a care of her own estate,The Queene hath a car [...] of her owne estate. sent Sir Francis Vere ouer to the States, to know of them whither or no they would cond [...]scend to a Treaty with Spaine; if not, what they would bestow on the warre; also, earnestly to deale with them to repay those monies, and charges,A discepta­tion of peace with the Spa­niard. which she had beene at for their sakes. And in the meane time there was great disceptation in England, whither or no, to conclude a peace with the Spaniard were commo­dious either to the Queene, or the Realme. They that were desirous of peace vsed these and the like perswasions there­to.

[Page 211] First, That a peace (besides that, that it is both pleasant and holesome) would now take away that aspersion that is cast vpon the English,For peace. as disturbers of the whole world, as if so be that they thought themselues happy in other mens ca­lamities, and secure by others dangers.

Secondly, That the Queene would be thereby more se­cure from forreigne practises.

Thirdly, That an end of the cost and charges of warre a­gainst the Spaniard and Arch [...]Duke would be thereby made.

Fourthly, That the rebellion in Ireland, would soone be lull'd asleepe, when they should once perceiue no helpe would come to them out of Spaine.

Fiftly, That Traffiques would be better and oftner vsed to the profit of Prince and people.

Sixtly, That Spaine, that lately was so fruitfull to the Eng­lish Merchants, would be open againe to them, where they might exchange away Corne for Gold and Siluer.

Seuenthly, That thereby the Emperours Proclamation a­gainst English Merchants would be reuoked.

Eightly, That the danger of tumults at home, and often taxes, tributes, and pressing of Souldiers, would be thereby taken away.

Ninthly, That the League of Burgundy would be re­newed.

Tenthly, That they need feare nothing then from the French.

Eleauenthly, That England might take breath thereby, and heape wealth together against future fortunes.

Twelfthly, That thereby the credit and estimation of the Queene would be well prouided for, in that she in An. 1585. when the States offered her the dominion of the Low Coun­tries, publikely (and in print) protested, that by ayding the Low Country-men, she meant nothing but their liberty, and the peace and security of England. For, if so be that then it [Page 212] seemed great wisedome (as the times then were) to a [...]ist them: and great equity to refuse the dominion and gouern­ment of so many Prouinces for the bearing of her charges in the warre; certainly, now would it seeme great indiscretion to pursue warre when that peace is offered on the one side by the Spaniard, and nothing by them that so greatly desire the warre.

Besides, that these things ought to be considered, whither or no England were of sufficiency enough to wage warre in Ireland, the Low Countries, and elsewhere against Spaine. Then, whither or no, by this nourishing of a warre, there would be hope of bringing the Spaniard to better and more reasonable articles and conditions then now were proposed; and that then it was most exactly to be considered, since without doubt it was most conuenient for the English to haue an offensiue warre (for woe to them that defend at home) in what place they should haue it; whither or no, in the Sea coasts of Spaine, or Portugall; and then, that indeed the Townes therein might be taken and ransacked with easie paines, but not be retained, but with great charges, and no profit; or, then whither or no, in the Azores; and, that then they truely might be brought vnder the Queenes po­wer, to the Spaniards great losse for the time, but not conti­nued therein without greater cost and charges; or, then whi­ther or no, in America; then, that there were ships euery where ready furnished, and disposed about the Sea; that the Sea coasts were better fortified with Garrisons then they we [...]e wont to be, and that not a [...]ot of Gold, Siluer, Pearles, or precious Stones, could be expected there, without great danger; that those Regions are stuft with well fortified Ci­ties, euery one whereof would hold out a long siege; and then, that the States were so weake for assistance, that with the aide of England too they could onely wage a defensive warre, till such time as the Spaniard turned from them to France; lastly, that the old axiome of policy was not to be [Page 213] neglected, Who are equally able to wage warre, let them make peace; who are not, let them neuer. Then were produced the sad examples of the Athenians, and others, that refused peace when it was offered.

Some added, but out of an ill will and hate to the men, that the States, what colour soeuer and maske of defending liber­ty and Religion they put on, yet had they taken away the pi­ety of true Religion, by suffering any but the Romish. That they did nothing but what they could to further and encrease their own commodity, by imposing heauy tributes and toles for prouision, by counterfeiting monies, by encreasing the value of them at their pleasure, and many the like trickes, whereby also, in this warre, they would cunningly nourish it, and grow rich by it, when other Nations impouerish themselues thereby. Besides, that by their Monopolies granted, almost euery where, they haue spoiled the good vse of Trading, that being Democraticall gouernours, they ex­treamely hated Monarchies. That they had droue away all of the Nobility from amongst them, besides one or two, that stood them in steed in the warres; and, that most certainly they intended nothing else, but (to an ill example against all Princes) as the Switsers against the Habspurge Family, so they against the Family of Austria, Against the peace. that is the same. They who were against the peace perswaded themselues with these and the like arguments.

First, That out of a peace the Spaniard would heape vp to himselfe such infinite store of wealth, that if perchance he should afterwards breake out into a warre, he would be too strong for all his neighbours.

Secondly, That a true and solid peace cannot be had, but by the dispensation of the Bishop of Rome, since the Spani­ard heretofore in 78. onely mocked them at Bourburgh, and thought that no faith was to be kept with Hereticks and ex­communicated men.

Thirdly, That the Spaniard is of such a nature that he ne­uer [Page 214] can digest an offered iniury, but boyles continually for a reuenge.

Fourthly, That thereby the Queene must forsake both the States of Holland and Zeland, and also lose all her mo­nies laid out for their warres, except she would offer to deli­uer those Townes that were pawned to her, into the hands of the enemy, that the one would be a disgrace to her, the o­ther a dammage.

Fiftly, That the States being forsaken of the Queene, must needs be reduced to the Spaniards gouernment, and that thereby hee will be more apt and readie to inuade England; also, that those Regions are the most fit places of warre a­gainst his Neighbour Kingdomes, for to constitute his Spa­nish vniuersall Monarchy, that can be.

Sixtly, Grant that it is very hard to wage an offensiue war in Holland, that it is dangerous and doubtfull at the Islands Azores, that it is fruitlesse in the coasts fo Spaine and Por­tugall, and that it is very chargeable in all, yet would warre very compendiously and profitably be made in Ameri­ca, which being a vast Country is peopled by the Spaniard so scarcely, and one place so farre off from another, that they cannot possibly helpe one another. So that if so be a perfect entire Armie of ten thousand English were sent out thither, hauing all determination to inhabite there, vnder any expert Commander, it could not be doubted, but that Carthageni­an Castilla Aurea, Ciagre the Riuer, that is portable of little Vessels as farre as Panama, and Panama it selfe, and Puert [...] Bella, would be all taken by assault, and consequently the wealth which by these places is sent to Spaine from Peru, and Castilla Aurea, would be surprized, or else detained there still. That hereby the Spaniards traffique would be stop [...] and bard vp, and the Custome much diminished to the great losse and dammage of the King, and that there is no feare of the Americans, that are by nature [...]lothfull, and effe­minate, by reason of the pleasant aire, much lesse of the Spa­niards [Page 215] that shall be sent thither, who being wearied with the long voyage, and a diseased stomacke, will finde it a hard matter to dislodge the old weather-beaten English out of their well fortified Forts. That they need not also feare sup­ply of Victuals, or warlike Munition, which would be as easily conu [...]ied out of England as Spaine. For assoone as once it shall be blazed about that they haue come to inha­bite there, all kinde of people will flocke thither with neces­saries, to trade with them, especially since those of Europe haue nothing more greatly desired, then to haue their Traf­fique free in America. And then, concerning the religion of the States, and the Monopolies, they say, that they were bare cal [...]mnies of those that hated the reformed Religion; affirming, that the States did liue very religiously in that Christian liberty, as their Grandfathers haue done, and that they beleeued all fundamentall points alike with the Refor­med Churches of all the Christian world; that for other in­different matters there ought to be respect had to the time, which might very well tolerate them, seeing that in the Pri­mitiue Church, the Tares were euen suffered to grow vp with the Corne. Concerning other particular obiections a­gainst the States, they answered, that a particular offence ought not to be made Epidemicall, and ascribed to the whole Nation; and that there was wickednesse euen in the Angels of God, and chiefest Apostles. Lastly, that we ought not to enuy or speake ill of a Common-wealth, that is industrious and sparing, if she haue that great happinesse, as to grow rich by warre.

They that were for the peace,The reply for the peace. endeuoured to refell these arguments by these reasons, that the Queene also and States might aswell heape riches by this peace, and as valiantly pro­uide themselues for Defence, as the Spaniard can for Offence. That now they might looke for a true and solide peace from him, who hauing sustained greater dammages, may now at length learne how much hee is mistaken by pursuing his [Page 216] warres in the administration of the Low Countrie Com­mon-wealth. That peace with the Dukes of Burgundy, and the Kings of Castile, the Spaniards Ancestors, was alwaies very sound and solide, and if euer any was, healthfull to England. Grant it, that the Spaniard treatied not for a peace at Bourburgh, which would not seeme honourable for his affaires; yet would it not hurt vs, although we are ready to fight, to treate now about it. That peace was alwaies kept with Heretiques by Popish Princes, excepting onely the Pope, ancient examples sufficiently testifie; as of Charles the fifth, and his successour in the Empire, who alwaies kept their words with the excommunicated Protestants of Ger­many, although they esteemed them as Heretiques. Of Francis the first King of France, who performed Fu [...]erall rites for Henry the eight of England, at Paris, although be­fore he had beene excommunicated by the Pope. Also of Henry the fourth now King of France, who hauing beene re­conciled to the Pope, and surnamed the eldest sonne of the Church, and his dearest Sonne; yet he entred into both an Offensiue and Defensiue League with the Queene of Eng­land. That the Spaniards heat of reuenge will be quickly cooled, when his strength and forces shall faile him. That the Queene might iustly forsake the States, being she onely bound her self to aide them till such times as the Spaniard would propose equall conditions, and a reasonable peace for their liberty; which conditons if they refuse, she is not bound to aide them. That it is not fit for to giue to them a­gaine those Townes which are pawned to her, which they in reason cannot require. And that once if there were a peace concluded, there would be a speedy course taken for recouery of her monies. That the States could not be so ea­sily reduced vnder the Spaniard againe, being that in tract of time many things fall out vnexpectedly; and if so be they were peaceably reduced, they could take no better care for themselues, then that, except they would resist their best [Page 217] commodity and profit. But howsoeuer, whatsoeuer became of them, England and France conioyned in a solide and firme league, would easily poise Spaine between them. Last­ly, they deriued their reasons for peace from the very Law of Nature, which chiefly intends the conseruation of it selfe; and from the Law of Nations, which commandeth the highest Law to be the safety of the people; and lastly, from the piety of true Christianity, that they might spare bloud, and confirme the Christian affaires against the Infidels.

The reasons for the warre against this peace, were dedu­ced onely from humane policy, to driue away dangers far­ther off; which indeed were better to be left to Gods dispo­sing, who would direct their counsels and consultations al­waies to the publike good, by meanes which might be vsed with a good conscience, and not by warres, which are neuer commendable, but when they are necessary. And thus haue wee heard the matter on both sides largely enough dis­cussed.

Burghley Lord Treasurer, weighing well what wee haue said,Burghley for the peace. enclined to the peace, by reason he knew the hazard of warre to be doubtfull, and yet of infinite charges, he knew the Treasure of the Exchequer was much impaired; also, that the disposition of the English were very prone to sediti­on, if so be they were once taxed a little more then ordinari­ly; he knew also, the in-bred malic of the Commonalty a­gainst some of the Nobility, and the poore hopes that were from Holland; that our Neighbours were suspitious to trust to on euery side; and that our owne people were hardly loyall enough at home; also, that the wealth of the Spani­ard was inexhaustible; wherefore he concluded, that by this warre there could redound nothing to England, but the tur­ning away of euill, which was but the smallest good that could be.

Essex Essex against the peace. on the other side, being bred vp in Military affaires, not allowing talke of this peace, argues for the warre, reso­lutely [Page 218] vrging it, out of the cunning sleights of the Spaniard, his desire of the vniuersall Monarchy, and his in [...]eterate hate against the Queene, and all England, the diuersitie of his re­ligion, and the Axiome, that Faith is not to be kept with Heretiques, the power of the Pope to dispence with him, if he breake the peace, with many the like reasons; insomuch that Burghley said, he nothing but breathed warre, and out of a strange presaging minde, giuing him the Psalme booke, secretly light vpon this verse:

Bloud-thirsty men shall not liue out halfe their daies.

Yet were there many that honoured much the spirit of Essex, as one that greatly aimed at the honour and securitie of his Country. But on the other side, many also that whispered it to be for nothing but to fulfill his ambition, and serue his owne turne. But Essex Essex writes his Apologie. hauing vnderstood of these calum­nies, writes his Apologie, wherein he amplifies himself in this matter; and besides shewes, that Anthony Rolsto [...] [...]n English run-away, had bin lately sent ouer by the Spanish [...] ­ction, and Creswell a Iesuite, vnder the colour of reconcilia­tion and peace; but in truth and deed (as hee did confesse himselfe) to espie what prouision there was for war, to con­firme the Papists, and both by monies and promises to se­duce from their loyalty any of the Nobility, and the Earle of Essex by name.

Concerning this businesse of peace, and the choosing of one fit to looke into the affaires of Ireland, there was a great contention betweene Essex and the Queene,Co [...]tention betweene Es­sex and the Queene. no man being present but the Admirall, Cecill the Secretary, and Wi [...]de­ba [...]cke Keeper of the Seale. The Queene she adiudged Wil­liam Knolles Vncle to the Earle of Essex most fit to be [...]ent into Ireland: Essex, to remoue him from the Court, very stoutly affirmed that George Carew was farre fitter. Which when he could not effect, or perswade the Queene to, being too much vnmindfull of his duety, very vnciuilly, as out of contempt, he turnes his backe to the Queene, in a manner [Page 219] scoffing at her. The Queene growne very impatient there­upon, gaue him a box on the eare, and bid him be gone with a vengeance.He beares himselfe to­wards her with too little reuerence. He forthwith layes his hand vpon his pum­mell: the Admirall stepping into him, he vowed and swore that he would not put vp so great an indignity, nay that he could not, euen at Henry the 8ths hand, & forthwith in a chafe flew from the Court. And afterwards being admonished by the Lord Keeper of the great Seale, in very graue Letters, that he would supplicate to the Queenes mercie, and giue place to time: that he would remember that of Seneca, That if the Law punish a man iustly, he must giue way to Iustice; if vniustly, he must giue way to his Fortune. That if hee had iustly done wrong to his Prince, he could not giue her any satisfaction; and if the Prince had done him any wrong, that both his discretion, duety, and religion would com­mand him to submit himself to so good a Queene, seeing that betweene a Prince and a Subiect there is no proportion. Essex answered all this at length, very stomackfully, (his an­swer being afterwards aduisedly diuulged about by his fol­lowers) appealing from the Queene to God Almighty, riuet­ting into his discourse these, and the like sentences:

THat no tempest rageth more then the indigna­tion of a weake Prince.He answers with indigna­tion to this counsell. That the heart of the Queene is hardened. I know what I haue to doe, as I am a Subiect; and what as I am an Earle, and Marshall of England▪ I cannot liue like a seruant, and a bond-slaue. If I should confesse my selfe guilty, I should both iniure truth, and God the authour of truth. I haue receiued a dart in my whole body. It is absolutely a sinne to serue after the receipt of so great a disgrace. Cannot Princes erre? cannot they iniure their Subiects? Is their earthly power infinite? Tis the foole in Solomon, that being strucke, laughes. They that receiue benefit by the errors of Princes, let [Page 220] them beare the iniuries of Princes. Let them thinke the Queenes power infinite, who beleeued that God is not omnipotent. As for my part, I being rent in pee­ces with iniuries, haue long e [...]ough within my brest endured the bitternesse thereof.

But yet for all this, a little while after, being more sub­misse, hee was pardoned, and receiued into fauour by the Queene, whose greatest anger at any offence could neuer be stretched to a iust hatred, except onely of the offence. Bu [...] here his Friends and Fauourers greatly began to feare a r [...] ­ine, who haue obserued, that Fortune very seldome in recon­ciled with one whom she hath cast out of her care; and that Princes are a great deale seldomer, especially to those, whom they themselues haue beene thought to haue offended and iniured.

About this time died William Cecill Lord Burghley, Cecill Lord Burghley dies the 4. of August, in the 77. yeare of his age. Trea­surer of England; who being sorely troubled with griefe of minde, and the Gout too, sent his Letters to the Queene, earnestly beseeching her, that he might lay aside the burthen of his Offices. The Queene presently vpon it came and visi­ted him, and comforted him very much: but within few daies after, hauing liued long enough to Nature, and famous enough to Glory, but onely not long enough to his Coun­try, he so quietly gaue vp the ghost, that his greatest enemy could confesse, that he hated nothing more, or enuied any thing like to such a death in so great honour, seeing that or­dinarily the ends and Catastrophes of the Administratours of such great affaires as he did, are both sad, and sometimes sodaine.

Certainly he was an excellent man, whom (besides his ve­nerable countenance, and comely visage) nature made, and learning perfected to a great fame of honesty, grauity, tem­perance, industry, and iustice. Besides these, he was a won­drous well-spoken man in his curious language; which nei­ther [Page 221] was any way affected, but plaine and easie. His wise­dome was strengthened by long experience, and seasoned with great moderation. His faith and loyalty well approued, and his religious piety aboue all, most to be commended. To speake all in a word, the Queene was most happy in such a Counsellour; and England will be beholding to his counsell for euer.His Natiui­ty and kind­red. If at any time it shall concerne posterity to know his birth, he was borne at Burne in Lincolne shire in 1521. His Father was Richard Cecill Master of the Wardrope to Henry the eight; his Mother Iane, the Heire to the Family of Ekinton, Education. and the Walcots. He, when he was a young man was student in St. Iohns College at Cambridge, where at the age of twenty yeares he tooke to wife Marie the Si­ster of Iohn Cheeke, a very learned man, who within one or two yeares after died. Afterwards hauing beene a Student at Law in Graies Inne at London, hee married Mildred a good Graecian and Latinist, the Daughter of Anthony Coke Informer to Edward the sixth.Master of Requests. Hauing got into the house of the Duke of Somerset, Protector of the Realme, he was vn­der him made Master of Requests, (being the first in Eng­land, as I haue heard of himselfe) that euer vsed that Title. Afterwards,Secretary to K. Edward. he became Secretary to Edward the sixt, and by him knighted. He found some fauour with Queene Ma­ry, but greater with Cardinall Poole, Tunstall, and William Petra, for his wisedome: the resson of his fauour with Ma­ry, was in that, (although he with the rest subscribed) hee most opposed that counterfeited pretence to Edwards king­dome, whereby both Mary and Elizabeth were excluded from any right thereto; But yet afterwards, being a very re­ligious Protestant,He betakes himself to the seruice of Elizabeth. (although hee serued the times a little) when he perceiued that his religion lay as a blocke in his way to all promotion, he betooke himselfe to the seruice of Elizabeth; she vsed his paines much in her affaires whatso­euer. Afterwards she made him one of her Priuy Councell, and in the third yeare of her Rai [...]ne, after the death of Sir [Page 222] Thomas Parry, made him Master of the Wards: which Of­fice he so well performed, prouidently to the good of the Orphans, moderately to his owne good, and liberally to the good of his Friends, Kindred, and followers, without any iniuries, that the Queene admiring his discretion, com­mitted the gouernment of all vnto him in a manner. But, as his power and fauour with the Queene encreased with him, so did hatred and enuy in many of the Nobility against him; but yet so, that (as he was wont to say) he ouer came it with patience more then frowardnesse.He is made Baron and Tr [...]asurer of England 1571. and Knight of the Garter. 1584. Afterwards, the Queene hauing well approued his wisdome and loialty this thirteen yeares, bestowed on him the title of Lord Burghley, and Lord high Treasurer of England. In which Office, alwaies hating those base trickes of heaping money together, as hee encreased the publike good, so also his own priuate estate by his paines and parsimonie. He was very vnwilling to haue any thing spent, vnlesse for the honour of the Queene, the defence of the Kingdome, or the aide of our Neighbours. He narrowly looked into, although not with the eies of secu­rity, yet of equity, the affaires of the Custome-house▪ and the Tole takers that belong thereto. He would professe that hee neuer liked that the Exchequer should like the Spleene en­crease continually, and the rest of the members wither and fade away: and truely, hee strongly endeuoured that the Prince might not grow rich by the peoples misery of taxa­tion, but that both the one and the other might want no­thing. Hee would often say, that nothing was profitable to the Prince, that was not honourable for her also to doe: and hereupon he would not suffer the Reuenews of her Lands to be encreased, or the old Tenants remoued, or Far­mers put out. As for his priuate estate, he so well managed it, that neither he euer went to Law with any man, or any man with him. Of his former wife Mary Cheeke begot hee Thomas now Earle of Exeter, His Issue. very fruitfull in his issue. Of his second wife Mildred Coke he begat Robert Earle of Salis­bury, [Page 223] his successour in the greatest Offices of the Kingdome, with the like happinesse: besides two Daughters that died before himself, Anne Countesse of Oxford (who had three Daughters, Elizabeth married to William Earle of Darby, Bridget married to the Lord Norris, and Susan to the Earle of Mountgomery,) and Elizabeth the wife of William Went­worth, that died without issue. The Ouerseers of his Will, were Gabriel Goodman, Deane of Westminster, an vpright man, and Thomas Bellot Steward of his Houshold, to whom he left great summes of money to be bestowed vpon pious vses, which was done accordingly.

Although the earnest desire which Burghely had of peace, effected not the same, yet it greatly eased the costs & charges of the warre; for in the time of sicknesse the States sent ouer I. Duuenword Admirall of Holland, I. Oldenbarneuelt Kee­per of the Seale, to whom they ioyned Natales Carrone their Agent here in England; and all they preferring warre before peace, agreed vpon these conditions in August, which Sir Thomas Egerton Lord Keeper, Essex the Admirall, George Lord Hunsdon, Buckhurst, Knolles, Cecill and Fortesc [...]e De­legated by the Queene.

First,A new a­greement with the States. That the League made in 1585. except onely some Articles concerning the administration of their Kingdome, should be still in force and vertue.

Secondly, That the States of the vnited Prouinces should pay the Queene 800000. pounds of good money of Eng­land, viz. as long as the warre lasted against the common enemy 30. thousand pounds yearely, till such time as they had payd 400. thousand pounds. But if so be the peace were concluded by the Queene and Spaniard, of that which remained they should pay twenty thousand pounds a yeare, till they had payd eight hundred thousand pounds.

Thirdly, That the States should pay one thousand, one hundred and fifty English men at Garison in Flushing, Brill, and the adioyning Forts thereto.

[Page 224] Fourthly, That they should presse English Souldiers vnder English Leaders, which they should giue pay to.

Fiftly, If it should chance that the Spaniard should inuade England, the Isle of Wight, Garnsey, Iarsey, or the Sillin I­lands, that the States should aide England with fiue thou­sand foot, and fiue hundred horse.

Sixtly, That if so be England furnished a Nauie out a­gainst Spaine, that the States should ioyne ship for ship ther­to. As also, if that any forces of the English were sent ouer into Flanders, or Br [...]bant, that they should ioyne iust as ma­ny, and as much prouision.

Lastly, That for the monies that are due to Pallauicine, from the Queene, which she borrowed for them, the Queene should write to the Prouinces of Brabant, and Flanders, and the rest that are out of the Leagues.

By these Couenants was the Queene eased of infinite char­ges, who euery yeare was at more or lesse then twenty thou­sand pounds charges with them, which now she was eased of by the discretion of Burghley, and the care of Sir Thomas Bodley, and George Gilpine, who succeeded him in the Coun­cell for the States:Bodleyes Li­brary. For Bodley being now eased of these trou­blesome affaires, wholly commended himselfe to the care & prouision for good learning, worthy indeed the care of the greatest King; for he began to restore the publike Library at Oxford, first instituted by Humphrey Duke of Glocester; but afterwards, in the daies of Edward the sixt, rob'd of all the Bookes almost. This Library hee hauing bought with his money, and other mens beneuolence, the choicest Bookes that were, so furnished it with them; and dying, left such reuenewes to it, that he is worthy to be celebrated eternally, and liue as long as Learning.

Whilest these businesses are in hand betweene England and the States, the Queene sends into Denmarke, the Lord Zouch, and Christopher Perkins, to congratulate with him, his marriage with the Daughter of the Prince Elector of [Page 225] Brandenburgh. Where with much difficul [...]y they regained the paiment backe of thirty thousand Dollers for Merchan­dizes,Contention betweene the Danes and the English. which the Danish had laid hands vpon, that were worth an hundred thousand Dollers.

And about this time also Philip the King of Spaine made sure his Daughter Isabell to Albert Cardinall of Austria, and with her as a Dowry, he bequeathed to him the Prouin­ces of the Low Countries, and the County of Burgundy. Whereupon the Cardinall, hauing duely sent backe to Rome his Cardinals Cap, and his consecrated Sword being recei­ued of the Pope, he makes haste into Spaine.

But in the meane time the King of Spaine aboue seuenty yeares of age,Philip King of Spaine di­ed in the se­uenty first yeare of his age. in September departed this troublesome life, with great patience. A Prince he was certainly, whose Do­minion extended so farre and neere, beyond all the Empe­rours, that he might truely say in his Motto, Sol mihi sem­per lucet, the Sunne, &c. he atchieued great wisedome from his fathers counsell, which he improued with long experi­ence in the affaires of this world: but commonly, as hee mannaged many warres, so was he vnfortunate in most of them, for the most part, by reason that he himselfe being of a milde weake nature, was gouerned by others wary counsels, and his warres followed by them, and not by himselfe. Whereupon it came to passe that the three keyes of the Spa­nish EmpireThe three keyes of the Spanish Em­pire. (which his Father so called, and willed him be­fore all things to keepe diligently) to wit, first Gulet in Afri­ca, Flushing in Holland, and Gadez in Spaine, were negle­cted. The first taken in by the Turkes, the second by the Low Country confederates of the vnited Prouinces, and the third much impaired, and its strength much impoueri­shed by the courage of the English; not so much to the losse, as disgrace of so great a King: which it is likely his Father foreseeing in his life time, is reported to haue admonished him to make peace with the English, and the States of the Low Countries.

[Page 226] And euen much about this time George Clifford Ear [...]e of Cumberland returned home into England, The Earle of Cumberland returned into England. who had at his proper cost and charges furnished a Nauy of eleuen ships, to surprize some Portugall Caracks, that set forth from the Riuer Tagus, to the East Indies. But it being heard that he ho­uered about the costs of Portugall, the Caracks tarried so long vnder Saint I [...]lians Fort, furnished with a hundred great Peeces of Ordnance, that they lost the opportunity of that yeares voyage. Wherefore the Earle, hee bends his course towards the Canary Island; and hauing taken and ransackt Lancerata and the towne, after that, he landed at Boriquene; and setting his troopes in order, hee assaulted Porto Ric [...], Hee tooke Porto Rico. and hauing taken by force one or two Forts; he at last got the towne, not losing hardly thirty of his men in the skirmish: although there were three or foure hundred souldiers at Garison, besides the Townesmen. And here the Earle determined to seat all his warre, by reason that it was such a fit place, that it was called by the Spaniard the Key of America: wherefore he remooued all the Inhabitants, although for ransome of that place, they offered great store of Merchandise, and Gold, and Siluer. But the bloudy [...], and the griping in the belly did so rage amongst the English, that in forty dayes (for so long he continued there) it con­sumed away seuen hundred, which compelled him necessari­ly to returne home againe, with great spoiles, but greater vi­ctory: yet in his spoiles hauing some threescore peeces of Ordnance of Brasse. Certainly, this voyage was occasion of great dammage done to the Spaniard, by reason that this yeare neither the Carackes set forth for the East Indie, nor the American Nauy returned home to Spaine.

About this time also Edward Squire was called into que­stion, a base fellow, and one that had beene a common base Scriuener: afterwards hauing gotten some office in the Queenes Stables; and after that serued vnder Drake in his last voyage, taken in the little ship that was then surprised [Page 227] by the Spaniard, hee was carried into Spaine, and there at last came vnto the knowledge of Walpole an English Iesuite; he quickly caused him to be brought into the Inquisition, as one that was an Hereticke: and at length, by continuance of punishments, drew the fellow to the faith of the Romish religion. Afterwards he dealt with him to try if that hee would dare to doe any thing for his Religions sake, that he might be sure hee truely professed it: and afterwards, after many courses of words, (as Squire himselfe confessed) hee taught him indeed, that to take the Earle of Essex away, was a meritorious act, but that it was farre more necessary to take away the Queenes life. Then he shewed what an easie mat­ter it was, and as well done as conceiued, & as free from sin in doing, so from danger after it is done, if it were, but by besmearing the pummell of the Queenes Saddle with poyson, where she should lay her hand when she takes horse.

At length Squire hauing condiscended to this villany, the Iesuite bound him by diuers solemne vowes, vnder paine of damnation to keepe it secretly, and to doe it. So that Squire being now instructed to this villany, and laden with the pro­mises of euerlasting life, tooke his blessing from him, and the poyson; and withall tooke order, that he and another should be sent ouer into Engla [...]d, concerning the ransoming of the Spanish Captiues in England, that thereby no suspition might be had of him, by reason of his returne from Spaine.

This Squire, after his returne a little into England, be­dawb'd the Queenes pummell of her Saddle with poyson, seeming to do somewhat else, and praying with a lowd voice for good successe: but by Gods mercy the poyson lost his nature, as well as Squire his loyalty, and had no power to hurt the Queene.

After all this he went for a Souldier with the Earle of Es­sex to the Island of Azores, and went with him in the same ship, to auoide all suspition, besmearing also the Earles chaire with poyson, which tooke no effect against the Earles life. [Page 228] Afterwards returning into England, he began to liue secure­ly, not suspecting that his Confessor Walpole would euer re­ueale him. But it seemes Walpole either taking it very ill that this matter tooke no effect, or else suspecting that Squire tri [...]ed out all his vowes, and mockt him; he wholly bends himselfe for a reuenge. Certainly, there was one sent ouer into England, that generally accused Squire of such an inten­ded mischiefe: which being of such a great moment, Squire being hereupon examined, at the first denied it; and after­wards, being more narrowly demanded in some circumstan­ces, and suspecting that now his Confessour had not dealt honestly with him, he confessed all concerning Walpoles pro­posals, and his consent, and about the poyson laid to the Queenes Saddle. But at the iudgment seat, & afterwards at the gallowes, he professed, that although he was suborned to this villany by Walpole, & others, that yet he neuer resolued with all his heart to doe it. After his death, Walpole (or one vn­der his name) set forth a booke, wherein hee forswore and bitterly detested all these things which Squire confessed. But howsoeuer some of our English run [...] awayes haue beene too much learned, to the destruction of many men, and their own great disgrace; for they haue nourished this dangerous opinion, that to murther excommunicated Princes is nothing else, but to root out Tares out of the Lords Garden.

Much about this time were some idle busie-bodies,R [...]mors scat­tered against the King of Scots. whose onely businesse was to stirre where there was a calme, much imployed to breed debate between the Queene and the King of Scotland, who scattered rumours that he too much fa­uoured the Papists, and was too much estranged of late from the Queene. And to giue some credit to this report, there was shewed her Letters sent to the Pope of Rome, indited by the vi [...]lany of the Kings Secretary, and counterfeitly sub­scribed by the Kings hand and Seale. But the Queene, not giuing credit to all this report, and their confirmation of it, reiected these things, as all nothing but deuices of wicked [Page 229] men, to estrange the affections of all Protestants from him, and to reconcile the Papists to him. Nay, when as this Va­lentine Thomas By Valenti [...]e Thomas. a notorious villaine, and now condemned for theft, required that he might be heard speake a little of a matter of great moment; and being set by to speake, accused the King of Scotland, as ill affected towards the Queene, the Queene was so farre from giuing heed to these whisperings, that she the more loathed this villanous wretch, onely ac­counting him a wicked calumniator, or hired by some to say so, to trouble the King of Scotland and her selfe; or at the best, as one that deuised such a lie, thereby thinking to saue his life. Yet notwithstanding, she commanded the matter to be kept secretly, and the villaines life to be repriued a while, lest thereby any blemish might be cast vpon the king of Scotlands honour.

Besides the Queene (in the height of these rumours of the King of Scotland) sent to the King, admonishing him seri­ously to consider these things.

VVHether there were any besides her that could doe him more good or more hurt then she could.The Queenes admonition to Thomas. Whether hee knew any that had beene more well-willing to him. Whether any one expected lesse from him then she did, who indeed desired nothing else, then that hee would promote the glory God, and not be wanting to him­selfe.

Neither indeed was the king any way defectiue. For to di­sperse the rumour that was raised of him, hee caused many men ouer England and Ireland to preach his constancy in Religion, his wisedome, his iustice, his mercy, and the rest of his Princely vertues;Bookes writ­ten on the King of Scots behalfe. thereby to draw the mindes of the Commonalty to a better perswasion of him. There were al­so bookes written and dispersed, that maintained his right [Page 230] of succession to the Realme of England; also to informe them, that the admittance of him would be beneficiall to both Kingdomes, and farre more good then any others intrusion, and that for these reasons. First, that he relies vp­on excellent right thereto; that he is a King; that by ioy­ning both Kingdomes, which hath beene so long desired, he will much encrease the glory of both; he will [...]ull asleepe the warre in Ireland, and in Spaine; he will cause a liberty of Traffique againe; he hath children, the props of a King­dome; he hath power and strength enough to defend both him and his, and is dearely beloued of all the Christian Princes in the world: and then were proposed the lamen­table ends, not onely of [...]surpers, but of those that stirred vp and put forward them too; as that of Richard Neuill the Earle of Warwicke, who placed Edward the fourth in his Throne; and of the Duke of Buckingham, who did so to Richard the third. Then for the declaration of his succes­sion, sentences were heere and there sprinckled, to this purpose.

THat Kings cannot depriue their kindred of the hope of the Kingdome; that Kingdomes run along in the course of bloud; that those things which by the benefit of nature fall vnto chil­dren, cannot be taken away by a Fathers disinheri­tance, neither remoued vpon any that are further off, by the States of the Kingdome; that the Lord spared not the Israelites, but gaue them as a prey vnto the enemies, because hauing despised the house of Da­uid, they chose Ieroboam the sonne of Nebat King; that to remoue the gouernment of a Kingdome from the neerer to the further off, is not onely repugnant to Humane L [...]wes, but also to Diuine. As they that en­ter in ought patiently to expect the [...] (be it neuer so tedious) of those that are comming out▪ so [Page 231] those that are on comming out, are bound to giue their Successours or commers in good ground of entrance, lest that both complaine, one being wea­ried with idle hope, and the other with daily in­treaties.

But better then all these was the booke [...],Basilicon doron. written by the King and giuen to his Sonne; wherein is the excellentest description of a Prince that can be: insomuch, that it is almost incredible to belieue, how infinitely he reconciled the peruerse mindes of the people, and what great expectation he stirred vp in euery one of future goodnesse.The Queenes affection to­wards good studies. How the Queene tooke it I know not, but sure I am, that she her selfe was so well affected to lear­ning, either alwaies reading or writing something, that she had lately translated Salust de bello Iugurthino, into Eng­lish; and about this time, the greatest part of Horace, de Arte Poëtica; and the booke of Plutarch de Curiositate; all which she wrote with her owne hands, for all the rebel­lion in Ireland grew so hot as it did; which after we haue giuen account of some of our men of note, that died this yeare, we will declare in order.

The first whereof was Thomas Stapleton Doctour of Diuinity,The death of Thomas Sta­pleton. borne in Sussex, and bred in new College in Ox­ford, hee was Ordinary Professour of Diuinity, and the Controuersies of the Vniuersity at Doway: for in the beginning of the Reigne of Queene Elizabeth, out of the good will hee bore to his Romish religion, hee went o­uer into the Low Countries, where by his publike Le­ctures, and his printed workes, hee at last grew very fa­mous.

The second was Richard Cosin a Cambridge man,Of Ri. Cosin. Do­ctour of Law, and Deane of the Arches, who by maintai­ning the Ecclesiasticall Iurisdiction, got him the report of great wisedome and learning.

[Page 232] The third was Edmund Spencer, Of E [...]mund Spencer. a Londoner borne, and a Scholler of Cambridge, who was borne to so great fa­uour of the Muses, that hee surpassed all our Poets, euen Chawcer himselfe his fellow Citizen. But labouring with the peculiar destiny of Poets, pouerty; (although hee were Secretary to Grey Lord Deputy of Ireland) for there hauing scarse time or leisure to write or pen any thing, hee was cast forth of doores by the Rebels, and robbed of his goods, and sent ouer very poore into England, where presently after hee dyed; and was buried at West­minster neere Chawcer, at the charges of the Earle of Essex, all Poets carrying his body to Church, and casting their dolefull Verses, and Pens too, into his graue.

Now all this yeare the rebellion in Ireland continued very hot on foot still, for Tir-Oen had got his pardon vn­der the great Seale of Ireland, which hee so dissembling­ly implored at the hands of Ormond the Lieutenant: yet on a sodaine dared hee to girt Black-water with a strong siege.The Fort of Black-water besieged. To remoue this siege, the Lieutenant Generall of the Irish forces (for as yet there was no Lord Deputy) sends forth his choycest bands; to wit, thirteene Regi­ments of men of Armes, vnder so many Ensignes, all vn­der Henry Bagnall the Marshall, a bitter enemy of Tir-Oen. The fourteenth day of August they marched from their Campes neere Armagh, in a threefold battalion. The first the Marshall Bagnall and Piercy led, Cosby and Thomas Mary-Wingfield led the middle, and Cuine and Billings the last. Calisthenes Brooke, Charles Montacute, and Flemmings were leaders of the Horse.

They scarce marched a mile, but too much seuered from themselues by reason of the swelling vp of some hils in their way; there being nothing but a plashie plaine of one side,The English come by the worst. and woods on the other; but I say, Tir-Oen being vehemently incensed with hatred against the Marshall, brake in vpon the first Squadron, with all his force and [Page 233] might, and presently hauing slaine him amongst the thickest crowde, put all his troupes out of order with the multitude of his forces, whilest the rest of the English, by reason of the hill between them, scarce saw any such matter: & at the very same time the powder hauing by some strange chance taken fire, blew vp many of them, and maimed more. Afterwards Cosby being sent to recollect the remnant of the dispersed Squadron, had a great ouerthrow. But Montacute (although not without great danger) reduced them to an order. Wing­field in the last Squadron, failing of powder, returned to [...] ­magh againe. And Tir-Oen got thus a pleasant victory of the English, and a more pleasant triumph ouer his enemy. And certainly, the English receiued not a greater slaughter then this, since the time that they first set foot in Ireland, ha­uing lost 13. stout and valiant Leaders, and 150. common Souldiers, that being put shamefully to flight, were slaine vp and downe about the fields. They that remained aliue, were opprobriously blamed, not their sluggishnes, but their Captaines vnskilfulnesse; neither was their complaint of that altogether friuolous, for it was no great discretion in any Captaine, to march so disioyntedly one company from ano­ther, against such barbarous people, who alwaies being hea­ped together, are more beholding to their rude violence for their good fortune, then any policy or discretion.

Not long after this slaughter of the English,The Fort yeelded vp. followed the yeelding of Black-water Fort to the Rebels, the men that lay in Garrison keeping both their loyalty and their Armes still, till such time that there was no hope of any succour.

This victory got great glory to the cause of the Rebels, and this Fort of especiall vse; for from hence they furnished themselues with all kinde of prouision of Armes; and now Tir-Oen vnder the name of the Authour of their liberty, be­ing greatly swolne with pride thereof, grew more fierce then before; insomuch that all Mounster Mounster re­uolts. reuolted from the Queene; and yet not so much out of this prosperous successe [Page 234] 1599 of the Rebels, as out of their hatred towards the English vn­dertakers, and Farmers, who were brought into the lands and possessions of Desmond, that fell to the Queene after his rebellion: and partly also, out of hope of Protections if their purposes failed. For now there had beene a most detestable custome very rife in Ireland, whereby Rebels, and the like malefactors,Protections hurtfull to the common-wealth. purchased, with monies that they had got by preying and robbing, their Protection.

Tir-Oen the better to keepe on foot and nourish this new Reuolt in Mounster, sends thither, Ouny-Mac-Rory, O-go-More, and Tirill; who though he were an Englishman ori­ginally, yet he was a great enemy to the very English name, and with them he [...]ent M. villaines and robbers. Against these came Thomas Norris as farre as Kilma [...]ocke, with an ar­my strong enough to encounter them. But when he percei­ued that the very Irish that marched vnder his banner, be­gan to thinke of reuolting from him, and that the new Far­mers that came out of England, could not furnish him with aboue two hundred, and those vnweaponed, hauing disper­sed his Forces, he betakes himselfe to Corke.

The Rebels all this while hauing their number en­creased with continuall concourse,Mounster spoiled by the Rebels. by the priuiledge of being wicked, lay wast all the ground about them, prey eue­ry where, and set fire on all the English Castles and houses they could; killing the owners most cruelly and ordinarily: which they could not haue done, if so be that they that hi­red those grounds had sent out their Farmers furnished and in that number, as by their Couenants they ought to haue done. The pride and vaine-glory of the Rebels thriuing a­long with their good successes, brought them to such a passe, that they themselues declared, that Iames Fitz. Thomas one of the Family of the Earles of Desmond, (but a most filthy fellow) Earle of Desmond; Tir-Oen brags of his victories. but yet so, that he be tributary to O-Neale, that is, the Earle of Tir-Oen. And Tir-Oen for his part, he trumpets out the glory of his fortune through­out [Page 235] all Spaine, by his boasting Letters; withall beseeching the Spaniard to giue no credit to it, if he should chance to heare that he sought after a peace with England: for certain­ly hee would stop his eares against all conditions thereof, were they neuer so reasonable. And yet in the meane time his dissembling was so palpable, that he sent both Letters and Messengers to the Lieutenant to deale about his submis­sion, although therein hee asked most vnreasonable de­mands.

First of all,Richard Bingham sent into Ire­land. to represse this his insolency, Richard Bing­ham seemed best, and fittest, who had beene valiant, and as fortunate against these Rebels heretore. But being remoued from his President ship of Conaugh, by reason of his Pro­uincials complaint of his too great seuerity, and recalled to England, he was thence committed to prison. And now a­gaine, from thence was he sent backe againe, with great ho­nour and authority, and the Title of Marshall of Ireland, and Generall of Leinster. He died pre­sently after his arriuall. But euen as soone almost as he arriued at Dublin, he died. Hee was a man of a famous house, and an ancient in Dorset-shire, but more famous was he for his Military honours and atchieuments; for he was a Souldier at S. Quintins in Britaine in France, at Leith in the Islands Hebrides in Scotland, at the Island Candy, at Chry a­gainst the Turke, in France, in the Low Coun­tries, besides what we haue heretofore said of him in Ireland.

Anno Domini 1599.1599

ANd now Ireland was somewhat in a lamentable case; for almost all the whole Nation had beene infected with this rebellion. Some by reason of the iniuries done them, by them that lay in Garrison. Some by reason of feare of the aduerse party, which was the strongest. Some by reason of the prosperous successe of the rebellion. Some perswaded thereto by the Priests; and others drawen thereto by a scan­dalous rumour scattered euery where by the Arch-Rebell, that the Queene had determined vtterly to vanquish and root out the memory of the Irish Nation.

[Page 237] In England now was there great consultation, who would be fittest to bee sent ouer to represse and extinguish this fire. The Queene,Consultation about choosing a L. Deputie of Ireland, Essex closely begs it. and most of the Councell, cast there eyes vpon Charles Blunt, Lord Montioy. But Essex closely gaue them to know, that hee was of no experience that way, onely but that he had beene a Captaine in Holland and Britaine: that he had not meanes enough, nor clients good store, and that he was giuen too much to studie. Said, that they ought to send one ouer thither, who was of great honour, and as great wealth, beloued of Souldiers, and one that had beene a Ge­nerall heretofore: and as much as if he had said, they should doe well to send him ouer. For the Queene easily perceiued it, and resolued to make him Generall of her [...] Ireland; But yet hee would seeme in a manner to refuse it, willing that so difficult an authoritie should bee rather bestowed on any one: and, yet if any man else had beene but nominated, hee would haue quickely laye [...] some rub in his way. To con­clude, the Earle bare himselfe so in this matter, that his ene­mies easily perceiued that he des [...]red nothing more, then the command of the armie, that thereby he might vnite to him­selfe the hearts of all the Souldiers; and this he went about withall so strangely, that some feared a monster would bee bred in his braine; especially, since the greater was the Queens beneficence, the greater would be his arrogance. Besides all this, his Pages and followers, would boast of great matters vp and downe, viz. That hee descended from the family of the Kings of Scotland by the eldest daughter of [...] [Page 238] Neither were they contented to extoll the glorie of his pedegree; but also euerie one exceedingly praised in him, Religion, Valour, and Wisdome. These things, some in the Court, that desired his roome more then his company, ag­grauated so much, that they put spurres to him that run be­fore, propounding vnto him glory for euer with posteritie, and the loue and good will of the present commonaltie. Ad­iuring him for the great and euerlasting good of this com­monwealth, to take this hard taske vpon him; promising to him very largely all their endeauours, and the vtmost of their good wills. Others, a more craftie kind of his enemies, vn­der the colour of friendship, by greatly extolling him, and raising vp great expectation of him, did the more vehement­ly, as more secretly, practise their old hatred and enuy against him: well knowing, that the fiercenesse of his youth, would quickly runne it selfe to destruction; and considering that there was to shew no better way of quite ouerthrowing his great popularitie, and loue of the people, then by putting him vpon a businesse, which hee would not be able to goe through withall. Indeed, what need many words? Hee, al­though a man of a most perspicuous, and quicksighted ca­pacitie, yet either perceiued it not, or would not. For first, in the conceit of his followers, and then in his owne also▪ hee seemed able to go through the difficultest matters, that were.

Hereupon,He was made L. Deputie. to the great and publike ioy of all the people, he was made Lord Deputie of Ireland, very mightie in his power, either to prosecute or conclude by composition, the warre; to pardon any offence, of treason, or any thing against the Queene, or any bodie, euen to Tir-Oen himselfe the arch­rebell. This power with great importunitie, he obtained for himselfe, although that this the said power in all the other Letters Pattents of the Lord Deputies, were formerly re­strained in these words (All Treasons, touching our owne Person, our Heires, or successours being excepted.) And ve­ry prouidently, did hee importun [...] this wide and ample au­thoritie [Page 239] of forgiuing and pardoning, by reason that the Law­yers were of opinion, that any kind of rebellion touched the Queenes person.

His armie was allotted him,His Army is allotted. as much as he would desire: neither euer saw Ireland a greater. 16000. Foot, 1300 Horse; which number afterwards in all was compleat 20000. And, to see the secret working of malice, there was nothing that the Earle desired, but the officious, and more treacherous industry of his aduersaries quickely obtained it for him. And the better to intangle him vnawares in vnknowne nots, they laid spies round about him, that should take notice of his doings, obserue his sayings, and alwayes make the worst of either. In his CommissionHis Com­mission. hee had authoritie (for I omit the ordinary priuiledges,. and that too▪ not to knight any one, but the well de [...]eruing) to omit the rest of the Rebells, and bend all his forces only against Tir-Oen, and as soone as hee could possible, for to oppresse him with the garisons at at Lake-Foyle and Balshanon. And this hee himselfe was al­wayes wont to hold very necessary to bee done; heretofore obiecting it as a great fault in the former Deputies to pro­long the warre by often parlies and colloquies.The Earle of Essex goes into Ireland.

About the end of March, the Earle departs from London, being accompanied with the chiefe flowers of the Nobilitie, the people accompanying and following him with their heartie acclamations and shouts of ioy; but the skie being cleare there was great thundering, and verie much raine vshered downe by it.

In his voyage, being tost hither and thither by a crosse tempest, at last hee arriued at Ireland: and hauing taken a sword,He marches to Mounster against some pet [...]y rebells neglecting his Commis­sion. according to the custome, although there was no such matter in his commission, he made the Earle of Southampton gouernour of the horsemen. And after that, by the perswa­sion of some of the Queenes Councell there, that too much intended the good of their priuate affaires, hee neglects the Arch-rebell Tir-Oen, and marched against some pettie rebels [Page 240] in Mounster, and there he tooke Cahir Castle, the Lord Ed­mund Butlers of Cahir, encompassed with the riuer Swire, and which was a famous receptacle to the Rebels. He spread farre the terror of his comming, by driuing away great store of the cattell; & scattering the rebels out into the woods and forrests thereabouts. Neither returned till towards the latter end of Iuly, many of the Souldiers diminished, and all sorely wearied; and he himselfe very much angred, that the Queen, hauing fed his credulous hopes with expectation of it, had now made Sir Robert Cecil Master of the Wards. The Queen taking this lossefull voyage very ill at his hands, vrged him eagerly to post to V [...]ster after Tir-Oen: The Earle in his let­ters laid the fault vpon the Irish Councell, to whom hee could not chuse but condescend, by reason of the great expe­rience in the Irish affaires; most solemnely promising that very speedily he would march into Vister. These letters be­ing scarce deliuered he sent others, wherby he signified that he must necessarily turne aside a little to Affalla neere Du­blin, against O-conore and Ol-Moyle two rebels there; and those indeed he quickely vanquished.

But returned againe, he found his armie so diminished, that by letters signed and sealed by all the Irish Councell, he re­quested more supply from England against his voyage to­wards Vlster, which he was now about. And now being fully resolued to turne all the warre vpon Tir-Oen, he com­mandeth Sir Coniers Clifford gouernor of Conaugh, to go to Belick with his bands and troupes ready furnished, thereby to distract the enemies forces, whilest he set vpon them on another side.

Clifford forthwith marching on with 1500. men, hauing wearied them sorely, and finding a great want of powder, commandeth them to come ouer the Cunlew mountaines; and hauing got ouer the greatest part of them, the Rebels vnder the conduct of O-rocke his sonne that was hanged, on a sudden rusht vpon them; But the English at the first dri­uing [Page 241] them before them, easily kept on their way. The Re­bels notwithstanding kept not far off, but vnderstanding that they wanted powder, set again vpon them; and what by rea­son of their faintnesse in the tedious way and vnequalitie of resistance, they put them to flight: hauing slaine Clifford and Alexander Ratcliffe of Orsdal, Knights, and many old Souldiers.

In the meane time the supply of Souldiers in England, that Essex craued was mustered and sent ouer. But not many daies after he sent ouer other letters, thereby signifying that all that he could doe this yeere would be with 1300. Foot, and 300. Horse to come to the borders of Vlster.

The Earle hauing come thither with these forces, he per­ceiued Tir-Oen now and then for a day or two, to shew him se [...]fe from the hils a farre off: and shortly after Hagan comes from him, and [...]ntreats of the Deputie a parley. The Depu­putie denied it, but said, that if Tir-Oen desired a par [...]ey, he would parley the next day with him in battell. The next day, there being onely a small skirmish, one of Tir-Oens horsemen, open [...]y cries out that Tir-Oen would no longer fight, but would parley with the Deputie: but yet by no meanes betweene both the armies.

The next day the Deputie Essex marching forwardes, troupe by troupe, comes the Hag [...]n and meetes him, and tells him; that Tir-Oen did earnestly desire the Queene mer­cie and peace; and onely requested that he might but be heard speake. Which if so be the Lord Deputie would but grant vnto him, that he, in all obseruancie, neere vnto Balla Clinch Riuers Foord would expect him, a place not far from Louth the chiefest towne in the Countie. Thither sent Essex some to view the place first: and they find Tir-Oen ready at the Foord, who told them that although the Riuer had ouer­flowed them a little, they might easily heare one another speake of either side.

Hereupon Essex, hauing set in order a troupe of horse on [Page 242] the next hill alone comes downe: Tir-Oen riding vp his horse to the belly,Tir Oen and and Essex talk together. comes and salutes Essex on the banke side, with great obseruancie: there hauing had many words with­out any arbitrators, they spent almost an houre.

Within an houre or two after,Tir-Oen desi­reth to haue conference a­gaine with Essex. Cone the base sonne of Tir-Oen, following after the Deputie, beseecheth him in his Fa­thers behalfe, once more to parley with him, and to haue some of the chiefest on both sides present. The Deputie therewith condescended vpon condition that they should not be aboue [...]ixe. On the day appointed Tir-Oen, with his brother Cormac, Mac-Gennys, Mac-Guir, Euere Mac-Cow­ley, Henry Ouington and O-Quin shewes himselfe at the Foord. Essex the Deputie with the Earle of Southampton, George Bourchiere, Warham S. Leger, Henry Danuerse, Ed­ward Wingfield, and William Constable Knights comes down vnto them. The Earle salutes euery one of them very courte­ously: and not many words being on all sides spent, it pleased them that the next day there should be some delegated, that should treat concerning a peace.A truce made for sixe weekes. Amongst those delegates it was agreed vpon that there should be a truce from that day for sixe weekes, and then so againe for the next sixe: But yet so that on either side, hauing giuen fourteene dayes wa [...] ­ning, they might haue leaue and libertie to renue the warre againe. And if so be any of the Earle Tir-Oens confederates shall not agree thereunto, that it should be lawfull for the Deputie to prosecute him as it shall please him.

Whilest these things are doing,The Queene is angry with the L. Deputy Henry Cuffe brings those last letters we spake of to the Queene: whereby when she vnderstood that Essex with so great an armie in so long time, and at so great charges had done nothing as yet, and sent her word that he could doe nothing, this yeare; she was greatly moued thereat, accusing all his consultations and acti­ons headlong, vnhappy, and contemptible. Nay, she doub­ted not to say but vpon what iealous suspition I know not, to some there, that he endeauoured in Ireland some what more [Page 243] then the good of his Prince and Countrey. Neither would she recall her opinion after great perswasion, alwayes estee­ming it the greatest folly that can be, to stirre vp one that is ready armed, whom once he had stirred before, and since armed.She writes backe to him. But yet she sent her letters backe to him and the Counsellours of Ireland: wherein she expressed her great ad­miration, that the Deputie should lose so much time, and im­brace all kind of occasions of delay, that he should spoyle many faire opportunities of good successe against the Rebels, when as he himselfe in England thought nothing fitter, then onely to prosecute and pursue Tir-Oen, which also in his letters since he had largely promised. She also expostulated with him about his expedition into Mounster and Affalle, a­gainst his own sober iudgement, and against her knowledge; for had he made her acquainted with his intent, she would haue hindred that hurtfull expedition. If now the army be weake and feeble, why did he not follow the enemy when it was not so? If the Spring time were not fit for his warre in Vlster, why did he neglect the Summer and Autumne? was not any time fitting enough for that warre? she did now well see that England must be consumed more then needs, and by this vnhappy successe suffer the note of infamy of all forraine nations; Nay, that they, that hereafter shall write the History of these times will instruct posteritie, that she neuer did any thing in the preseruing of Ireland, and that he neuer omitted any thing that might tend to the losse of it, except he would take some better order with his warres. Where­fore she admonished both him and the Councell, that with better aduice they would prouide for the good of the Com­mon-wealth, and not be led aside by euill suggested councels As also that they should write backe to her to what passe they haue brought the State of Ireland, The Deputy much discon­tented at the Queenes let­ters. and also to take care against the further damage thereof.

The Deputy being much mooued with these letters, and discontented that among other things, the Queene had chid [Page 244] him too, that hee remooued not the Earle of Southampton from his office which he lately bestowed vpon him, (for the Queene was displeased with Southampton, because against her knowledge as the Nobles vse not to doe, he had marri­ed Elizabeth Vernon, borne of the Aunt of the Earle of Es­sex secretly.) But most of all being discontented at the pre­ferment of his enemie Cecil, to his place of the Master of the Wards, hee began to cast himself into darke and cloudie stormes of melancholy;He plots se­cretly to take some indirect course. he secretly thought some vndirect course to take in hand, as, to returne againe into England with his choisest Bands, and so to bring vnder his power by force those his great enemies; being perswaded that great store of concourse out of loue to him, and desire of innoua­tions, would easily and quickely flocke vnto him. But Sou­thampton, and Sir Christopher Blunt, that had married his mother, frighted him from this dangerous, wicked, and hate­full enterprize. Whither or no the Queene had inckling of this matter, I know not; but at the very same time, by rea­son of vncertaine rumours of a Spanish inuasion that was willingly beleeued,An army of 6000▪ choice footmen mu­stered in London. there was mustred vp 6000. of the choy­cest and most experienced footmen of all London; 3000. whereof lay at watch and ward about the Queene; the rest commanded to be in readinesse vpon any occasion: and be­sides these, a great number was also mustered out of all the places neere abouts. Of all these, Charles Howard Earle of Nottingham, Lord Admirall of England, was made Com­mander, with authoritie both against enemies abroad, and rebels at home. But within few dayes after this armie was dissolued againe.

Within a moneth after, Essex, sooner then the least opi­nion of any one, comes ouer into England in all hast, with some of his choicest friends.Essex vn­lookt for re­turnes to England. Southampton, who now was put by his office; the Lord Dunkelline; Christopher S. Laurence, the sonne of the Lord Houth, Henry Danuerso, who yet had notwithstanding recouered himselfe of a dangerous [Page 245] wound, Henry Doc [...]ray, and other Commanders, and ma­ny others, who at his arriuall in England, went away seue­rall wayes. Essex accompanied onely with sixe, comes to None-Such where the Queene then lay, to enforme her of the affaires of Ireland. In his way, the Lord Grey of Wilton, one of his greatest enemies ouer rode him, and not once sa­luted or spake to him. The Earle fearing lest he should doe him hurt at the Court, and Sir Thomas Gerard ouertaking him, and, although in vaine, requesting him that hee would doe him no ill office there; Christopher S. Larence offered his seruice to the Earle of Essex to kill the Lord Grey in the way,He comes and kneeles before the Queene. and the Secretary at the Court. But the Earle, hating such wickednesse from his heart, would not yeeld thereto; but made such hast to the Court, that on the morning be­times he came and fell on his knees before the Queene, that not so much as thought of him, as shee was in the Priuie chamber. The Queene entertained him with a short speech, but not with that fauour she was wont; and bid him go to his chamber and continue there. For now to his other offences he added this, that without her leaue, or against her will he had left Ireland; and for that he had made such a truce, that euery fourteene dayes was violable, when as it had beene in his power, by his authoritie, to haue ended the matters with the Rebels, and pardoned their treasons. Being asked of the Councell, why he made such couenants with Tir-Oen, hee answered, That Tir-Oen being potent, proudly refused any conditions almost, except hee would forgiue all the Rebels too in Ireland: except the Irish should be restored into their possession which the English had, and except the Romish religion might bee with libertie professed through all Ire­land. But when as these things were adiudged by the Coun­cell uery heinous, and then his returne into England againe, especially with such company as he did, grew also somewhat suspicious; and the more, being aggrauated by the varietie of plots laid by his potent aduersaries: the Queene thought [Page 246] it fit to confine him to some custodie, but yet not to any prison,He is com­mitted to cu­stody. lest she might seeme thereby to cut off all her former fauours towards him; but she confined him to the Lord Keepers house, that so, not being at libertie he might not be led away with euill counsell. The Earle tooke it very vnkind­ly, that both his and his friends returne should be so miscon­strued to a suspition of ill; For I haue seene his owne hand­writing, wherein in a very faire method, he digested and hea­ped together whatsoeuer he did thinke would be obiected a­gainst him. To wit,He remoues the suspitions conceiued by his returne. that first neglecting his instruction, he delayed his expedition into Vlster, by losing fit opportuni­ties, both wasting and wearing the Queenes Forces else­where. Secondly, that he had made couenants, and a truce most beneficiall to the Rebels. Lastly, that the affaires in Ire­land, being not set in good order, that contemning the for­bidding of the Queene, hee had left Ireland, and returned with so many warlike men. To these things hee adioyned this answere:

I Before I left Ireland, set all things in that order, as now they are; that there hath beene no hurt done these nine moneths. That there was no rea­son why his companions that came with him should be suspected; they being few, and hauing good occasions of their returne; and that no more then sixe accompa­nied him to the Court. What hurt could hee doe with so small a company? It had beene an easie matter for him to haue thought or done any hurt when he had the armie and all Ireland at his command. If he were de­sirous of reuenge, that he needed not any others helpe. For he is quickely master of anothers life, that is a con­tēner of his own. But I knew (saith he) who said to me, Vengeance is mine, and I, &c. Shall so great a calum­nie fall vpon mee, that my returne should be suspected, who haue worne away my body in my Princes seruice, [Page 247] that haue spent my fortunes, that haue lyen suppliant at my Princes feet. Equitie and charitie ought to ad­mit of these things, but vpon very good grounds, a­gainst them especially, whom the profession of the same religion, and the noblenesse of birth would free from the like suspition. Shall such suspition fall vpon me? Who haue lost my father and brother in the seruice for this Land? Who for thirteene of the three and thirtie yeeres I haue seene, haue serued the Queene; and for seuen of them thirteene haue beene of her priuie Coun­cell? Who haue beene hated of all those, that either enuied the Queene or her religion? Who haue so ex­posed my selfe to euery ones reuenge, out of my dutie to her, and my paines against her enemies, that no place but this Kingdome, and no time, but while shee liues, can secure me from them?

Neither did he alone thus complaine,When some would haue freed him out of custody by force, hee would not. Tir-Oen breakes the truce. but many also eue­ry where: some of them conspiring together by violence and force to set him at libertie: but he out of his honest and true noble mind would not suffer it.

But let vs returne to Ireland, and leaue Essex that hath left it. The times of the truce are scarce gone out once or twice, but Tir-Oen with an enemies courage, assembling his Forces, prouides againe for warre.

From England was Sir William Warren sent to him by the Councell, to know wherefore he brake the truce. To whom hee loftily answered, that hee indeed brake not the truce, but gaue warning fourteene dayes before his renewing of the warre. And that the occasion of his renewing the warre was very iust, by reason he vnderstood that Essex the Deputie, in whom hee had reposed the trust of his life and goods, had beene committed in England: and that now hee would not haue to doe with the Counsellors of Ireland, who dealt but scuruily and deceitfully with him before. And that [Page 248] now, if he would, he could not renue the League againe, be­cause already he had sent forth O-Donell into Conaugh, & o­thers of his cōfederates into other quarters of the kingdom.

In the meane time there were rumours spred vp & downe ouer Ireland, Tir-Oen beares him­selfe very proudly. (not without Tir-Oen being the Authour of them) that shortly England should be vexed againe with new commotions: and truely they were prepared reasona­ble well for the matter, for the wickeder sort in Ireland, en­c [...]eased daily in number and strength, they which were of the Irish stocke, now looking after nothing but their ancient liberty and Nobility. The honester sort of the English bloud, being daily cast downe more and more, to see so great char­ges of the Queene spent in vaine; complaining also, that now they were excluded from any offices in the Common­wealth, and vsed like meere strangers and Forreigners.

But Tir-Oen he was very cheerefull and couragious, boa­sting and bragging vp and downe, that now hee wo [...]ld re­store to Ireland it's ancient liberty, and Religion. He receiues to his protection all tumultuous persons, furnisheth them with succour, confirmes the doubtfuller sort, and eagerly la­boureth to weaken the Command of the Engish in Ireland, b [...]ing lull'd on with hope of the Spaniards aide, and money, and prouision, which once or twise was sent him; and there­to also, not a little encouraged by the promises and Indul­gences of the Pope, who had now sent vnto him the Fether of a Phoenix; A Feather o [...] a Phoenix sent to Tir-Oen from the Pope. it is like because Pope Vrban the third a great while ago, sent to Iohn the Sonne of Henry the second, Lord of Ireland, a Crowne of Peacockes Feathers.

In the meane time many men that had but little to doe, and some suggested thereunto, extolled the Earle of Essex for all this,The Keeper of the Seale layes open the Earle of Essex his crimes. wounding the Councell in their disgracefull bookes, and sometimes the Queene too, through their sides, as all neglecting the good of the Kingdome, and taking no care for Ireland. Whereupon the Councell, the day before the [...]nd of Michaelmas Tearme, meeting according to their [Page 249] custome in the Starre-Chamber, the Lord Keeper hauing admonished the Nobler sort to retire into the Coun­try, and keepe good Hospitality among the poore, and wil­led the Iustices of Peace, not onely seuerely to punish the transgressours of the Peace, but by all meanes to preuent all transgressions. Then greatly accusing the [...]uill language of those back-biters and calumniators, that had traduced all the Councell, hee declares vnto them how carefull the Queene hath beene in prouiding for Ireland, and appeasing the tumults therein: and how preposterously Essex went to worke with the Rebels; and how base couenants with Tir-Oen he had condiscended vnto, that now durst euen boast vp and downe that he would come into England shortly, and here also get himselfe possessions.

The Lord Buckhurst that was made Lord Treasurer after Burghley deceased,The L. Trea­surer layes them open. much inueighing against the Penmen of those infamous Pamphlets, declared also what great armies, and what great prouision was sent into Ireland, that euery moneth the pay was sent for three moneths together; and that the Queene had in this warre within six moneths spent three hundred thousand pounds, and the E. of Essex could not deny this.

The Earle of Nottingham he shewed how the Queene had assembled her wisest Counsellours best insighted into the af­faires of Ireland, And the L. Admirall. to a consultation about this Irish rebellion, and that all or most of them, adiudged it fittest, first to reduce Vlster to obedience. That Essex also was of the same mind; who oftentimes had reiterated these words, that not the boughes of rebellion, but the root must be taken off. But that he was very sorry that he had done otherwise: withall affirming that fiue of the Queenes ships, with others, ready to be vsed in warre, had beene sent ouer to Vlster, and there lay six whole moneths without any vse.

Secretary Cecill, And Secre­tary Cecill. first declares the singular care of the Queene in her defending England and Ireland, by remouing [Page 250] [...] [Page 251] renowne and glory of her Maiesty; and which was worst of all, would puffe vp the proud mindes of the Rebels, as ap­peares by that of the arch-Rebell Tir-Oen, who the next day after the Earle of Essex came to the English Court, could not containe himselfe, but he must breake into the like speeches as these; That he did not doubt but shortly to see a greater change and alteration of things, then euer yet had beene in former ages: that he would shew himselfe there shortly, and challenge some part of it for himselfe; but professing that he could not imagine, by what diuination, or cunning, he could hope of these things, or know, within so few howers, what was become of Essex. Thus farre went Cecill: and it will be needlesse to repeat what euery one said, since all came to the same effect, and conclusion.

And now let vs leaue the Earle of Essex vnder custody with the Lord Keeper,The Earle of Essex wholly denoted to pi­ous meditati­ons. who being onely deuoted to godli­nesse, and diuinemeditations, seemed to haue beene past be­yond all the vanities of this world: he sent such godly Let­ters seasoned with such a religious contempt of worldly af­faires, to all his Friends and Familiars.

And now in the meane time Andrew of Austria, A peace with Spaine pro­pounded. the son of Cardinall Ferdinand the Arch-Duke, brother to Maxi­milian the Emperour, who in the absence of Cardinall Al­bert of Austria, at the marriage in Spaine was made Gouer­nour of the Low Countries, very diligently dealt with Charles Lanfrance, and Hierom Coeman about a peace be­tweene the Spanish King Philip the third, and the Queene of England. Neither did the Queene shew her selfe very strange from the matter, if so be the Spaniard had delegated on him sufficient authority to treat about the peace; and if so be they would take good order for the States of the vni­ted Prouinces. For to forsake those, or to doe any thing that might be disgraceful to her, or deceitful to them, she thought it vnexpiable. But yet this mention of peace did cause seue­rall suspitions & distrusts both in the Queene and the States; [Page 252] seeing that at the very same time there was a very constant rumour, that there was a Na [...]y prouiding in Spaine. But the Hollanders Nauy, that had now taken the Canary Island and the Castle, and layd wast Saint Thomas Island, was thought to haue turned out of the way.

Neither is this a bare rumour,The Spanish Gallies arri­ued at Flan­ders. for there were some Gallies prouided in Spaine, by the appointment of Fredericke Spinula of Genoa, who being exceeding rich aboue ordina­ry, hauing beene a Souldier in the Low Countries, perswa­ded the Spaniard to send out some Gallies into Flanders. And those Gallies being sent out vnder his conduct, passing by the French shore, came to the Hauen Scluse in Flanders, not being espied either by the English or Hollanders ships that tarried for them. For being carried farre to the North in the British Ocean, either by the tide, or ignorance of the places, by all aduentures, they escaped the English and Ho [...]landers, that waited for them.

These Gallies first of all caused great admiration to the English and Hollanders, who in the yeare 1545. had found the British Ocean swelling and raging with stormes, altoge­ther impatient of such plaine Vessels, when some of them were sent from the Mediterranean Sea against England. But now they did great hurt about where they went, for being made by skilfull Ship wrights according to that fashion of those that 1593. went as farre as the Islands of Azores, they scorned the anger of our Seas, and in a calme being rowed with Oares, they would doe great harme, when ships built at great charges, being destitute of winde, lay at rode closly, and exposed to their hurt.

Much about the same time Charles by the grace of God Hereditary Prince of the Kingdomes of Swecia, Charles K. of Swethland sends to ex­c [...]se himselfe to the Queen. the Gothes and Vandalls, (for these are his titles) sent Hill an English­man ouer to the Queene, that he might acquit him of calum­nies before the Queene, he being traduced out of affectati­on of innouation, for to haue wrought to himselfe the King­dome, [Page 253] against Sigismund his Nephew King of Poland, en­treated the Queene that she would not beleeue these calum­niators, and also to aide him with councell, and helpe for to defend and propugne the sincere Religion grounded on the word of God. The Queene publikely heard him, and an­swered him, wishing him to wish his Master to keepe his word better with his Nephew the King of Poland, and not to [...]inne against Iustice, Nature, and the lawes of Affinity.

In this yeare there died too many in that one Richard Hooker borne in Deuonsh [...]re, Richard Hooker died this yeare. and bred in Corp [...]s Christi College in Oxford, a Diuine v [...]ry modera [...]e, tempe [...]te, meek, and vertuous euen to the best imitation; and besides, very famous for his learned Workes, as his Bookes of Eccle­siasticall Policy, set forth in English, but wor­thy to speake Latine, doe testifie of him.


THE THREE and Fortieth Yeere OF HER REIGNE.
Anno Domini 1600.1600.

IN the beginning of this yeare the [...] being daily busied with the affaires of the Kingdome, that she might the better prouide for mony,Doubtfull law titles confirmed. amongst her so great cost and charges in the Irish warre, delegated some, who hauing re­ceiued their monies, might con­firme to them that Crowne-land which the law had called into question. Also she caused the ancient lawes of Edward the 4, Richard the 2, & Henry the 4▪ to be obserued, concerning the [Page 255] transportation of gold or sil [...]er coy [...]ed or [...]ot coyned out of England which she proclaimed vnlawfull. And she be­came more intent then euer shee had beene towards the af­faires of Ireland: A proclama­tion that no gold nor sil­uer should be carried out of the King­dome. for Tir-Oen, after the returne of Essex from Ireland, being pu [...]t vp with the ioy of his happy mis­chiefes, accounted himselfe Monarch of [...]eland; and to dis­perse that fl [...]me, which in his absence he had raised in M [...]un­ster, no by his presence he s [...]attereth it abroad, vnder a pre­tence of a religious trauell, to see a [...] Holy Crosse; which was said to bee kept in a [...] Vide Car­let. p. 192. Iourneying thither in the midst of Winter, he put on many vpon rebellion with his stately pr [...]mises and earnest exhor­tations; He makes Iames Fitz-Thomas the kinsman of the Earle of Desmo [...], whom the Rebels [...] had made Earle of Desmon. Tir-Oen con­fers honours on his fol­lowers. He exalteth also [...] to the honou­rable title of Mac-Car [...]y-More. Hee taketh pledges of those of the rebellion whom hee most suspected; and layes wast all the grounds of the faithfull subiects thereabouts, making them a prey to Mac-Guyr, the boldest [...] his fol­lowers.Mac-Guyr and Warham of S. Leger are slaine. But this Mac-Guyr by chan [...]e [...] [...]pon War­ham of St. Leger, who run him through with a speare, and was also run through himselfe by him: hauing sufficient victory without a triumph: and liuing long enough, in that he had kil'd so bold and audacious a R [...]bell.

When this flame of rebellion had beene blowne vp into so hot a fire, that Ormond Generall of the armie, nor George Carew Treasurer of the same, who were made the Iustices of Ireland, could quen [...]h the same▪ the Queene, alwayes hap­py in her owne choice▪ sent ouer in the midst of Winter Charles Blunt, Lord Montioy, Lord Depu [...]i [...] into Ireland; whom shee knew fitting to command, because shee alwayes found him readie to obey.Montioy ar­riued in Ire­land. He arriued at Ireland quietly in February, with but a small company, where [...] Ire­land in a woefull and miserable pligh [...]. [...]or Tir-Oen trium­phing-like had ouer run all Mo [...]nster, from the fa [...]thest part [Page 256] of Vlster not any resisting him. Euery honest man, either out of hope of remedie or ease, grew faint and weary almost of their liues; the wickeder sort, they hauing all things ac­cording to their owne minde, thought of loftie matters, and and certainely all the nobler sort secretly conspired to assume againe their ancient libertie, which they so tediously hereto­fore complained, as being sore oppressed. There stomackes were indeed the better whetted to the matter, by reason that Clement the eight Bishop of Rome, The Pope of Rome encou­rageth the re­bels by his Indulgence. had lately set forth his Indulgence out of the Churches treasurie, as our aduersaries speake. And in this Indulgence or Bull (to comprehend all in few words.) First hee commendeth the Prelates and Peeres of Ireland, for that they ayded Iames Geraldin, and Iohn his kinsman, and last of all, his beloued sonne Hugh Prince O-neale, and Earle of Tir-Oen, Captaine Generall of the Catholike forces in Ireland. Then hee goes on, on this manner:

VVEE, that yee, both Captaines and Souldiers might more couragiously and more cheerefully endeauour your selues hereafter, against the heretickes of these times, being willing to accompany you with all our spirituall graces and fauours, and being thereunto by the ex­ample of our predecessours, and trusting to the mercie of our omnipotent God, and the authoritie of the bles­sed Apostles S. Peter and S. Paul: Grant mercifully in the Lord, to all yee, and euery one of yee, that fol­low Hugh Earle of Tir-Oen, the Generall, his Ar­my, or any of those that are defenders of the Faith; or that shall adioyne your selues to them, or bestow your paines vpon them, either in your counsell, fauour, pro­uision, armes, or any war like thing, or any other maner of way shall helpe them in this Expedition: And also to Hugh himselfe the Generall, and to euery one, and all [Page 265] of his Army, if so bee they will truely repent and con­fesse; and if so be, if it may be conueniently done, they shall refresh their soules with the holy Eucharist, a plenary Pardon and remission of all their sinnes; and the very same Pardon that was wont to be granted by the Bishops of our Sea, to those that warred against the Turkes, or for the recouery of the Holy Land. Not­withstanding, &c.

M. Vestius Barbianus.

The Rebels,Essex most desirous to set vpō Tir-Oen. to fright their new-come Deputie, found alarume in the very Suburbes of Dublin; but for all that, the Deputie neglecting them, was onely earnest to set vpon the Arch-rebel himselfe at his returne from Mounster, where­fore hauing assembled a tumultuary Band, (for his selected Bands were in Mounster with Ormond) hee made all hast to Fereall, to stop vp the way and entertaine him with battell: But Tir-Oen being aduised of this determination of the De­puties, (for hee had alwayes some of the Queenes owne Councell,Tir-Oen pre­uents him. that were too much addicted to him) preuents him with all speed possible.

The Deputie returning againe to Dublin, bent him onely to the choice and mustering vp of his old Souldiers, whom he resolued to send by Sea vnto Logh-Foile, and Bala-shanon, neere the mouth of the lake Erne; that so he might hemme in Tir-Oen behind and before, and on each side: Also hee tooke order for the sending ayde to the Garrisons in Lease, and Ophall; which being annoyed with so many rebels, was indeed full of danger.

In the beginning of May, he marched vp towards Vlster, with resolution to turne the Rebels out of their way on that side,He sends a Garrison to Vlster. whilest Henry Docwray strengthened the Garrison at Logh-Foile, and Matthew Morgan at Bala-shanon. For they [Page 258] arriued at Culm [...] on the mouth of Logh-Foile, with foure thousand Foot, and two hundred Horse. And there hauing placed a Fort, and another at Ellogh, they afterward came to Derry a little Citie,Derry is for­tified. halfe an Iland of some fourtie acres of ground; which on one side was well walled with the Ri­uer, and on the other side vnpassable by reason of plashy grounds. In this little Citie were the halfe broken and much decayed walles of a Monastery, a Bishops Palace, two Chur­ches, and an old Castle. The Inhabitants had erected an Armory and many little cottages of oaken plankes, and had fortified the place with vnhewen stones which they got hard by, and the rubbish and remainders of old ruined houses, ha­uing made their lime of shels by the helpe of fire. And this, while they were there,Tir-Oen re­pulsed. the Deputie did so hinder Tir-Oens purposes by daily light skirmishes, which were so vnfortu­nate to him continually, that▪ finding the fortune of the war now to be altered he began to betake himselfe to his lurking holes againe.

The Garrisons thus being fortified and put in order, the Deputie returned to Dub [...]in in the midst of Iune: and then hee requested from England some more prouision, to place a Garrison in Armach on this side; that thereby hee might bring the Rebels into a narrower streight. And in the meane time hauing gone into Lease, the very refuge of the Rebels of Lagene, O-more is slaine. hee so followed O [...]y-Mac-Rory-Og, the chiefe of the Family of O-More, a bloody young man, and a bold, that had but lately caused all those troubles in Moun­ster, that hee slew him and many moe of his comrades; and hauing laid waste all his grounds and possessions, so disper­sed the rest of the Rebels, that there was scarce seene any one of them in those quarters.

And now by this time, his new supplies came from Eng­land ouer to him: and then, although there was great want of victuals and money, and although in those quarters Win­ter drew on a pace, after the Eq [...]inoxe; hee for all that set for­wards [Page 259] towards Vlster, and came as f [...]r as the Passe of Moghe­ry beyond Doudalk. The Earle of Essex sets forward a­gain towards Vlster. That passage is accounted naturally the most troublesome in all Ireland: Besides, the art of the Re­bels exercised therein, who with Inclosures with stakes fast­ned the ground with hurdles and harrowes ioyned together and stones cast betweene, and turfes betweene the moun­taines, woods, and yeelding bogs, had with great skill, and greater industry blocked vp the passage crosse: which also was made worse besides, by the ouerflowing water of the ri­uer neereby reason of too much raine. After that the wa­ters were abated a little, the English couragiously brake tho­row those Inclosures; and hauing vanquished all these great difficulties, & their enemies too the authors of them, the L. Deputy placed & erected a fort 8. miles from Armach, He breakes through ma­ny difficultis. for all neere about it by the Rebels had bin spoyled and consumed; and to the memory of Iohn Norris, vnder whom hee first ex­ercised the Military Art, hee called the place Mont-Norris; Mont-Nor­ris Fort. making one E. Blany, a lusty fellow of his hands, Gouernour thereof; who euer afterwards kept the Rebels thereabouts in some exercise, and for the most part kept them very much vnder. In the Deputies returne, (to omit ordinary and dai­ly happy skirmishes) hee gaue a great and a famous ouer­throw to the Rebels, that hee had hedged vp the way in the streight neere Carlingford. On the English side there was slaine Latwa [...]e Doctor of Diuinitie, and Chaplaine to the Deputie, and Cranmer his Secretary, both learned men, and for that much beloued of him; besides some others also.

The Deputie hauing returned, Tir-Oen directs all his for­ces and practises against Henry Docwray: and hauing a [...]aul­ted him by skirmishes,Docwray chaseth the Rebels. treacheries, periuries, and more then punicke deceits, wounded him sorely; but yet hee vn­folded himselfe valiantly and happily out of these dangers: He laid waste O-Chahans little countrey. Arthur O-Neale, the sonne of Turlogh being Captaine. Hee tooke Dunalong in the fight of Tir-Oen, and placed Iohn Bowley there in Gar­rison. [Page 268] And a little after, (which much grieued and angred Odonel) hee seized on Lisser Castle, by the helpe of Neale Garue of the Family of O donels, whom hee had perswaded and drawne to his side, promising the gouernment of Tir-Conelle to him, which hee challenged by the right of his blood.

Much about this time there arriued a Spanish ship, furni­shed with weapons and a little money, and it landed at Cale­beg: whither the Rebels flying with all speed, with hope of diuiding the prey, left those quarters they kept to the Eng­lish Garrisons thereabouts.

The Deputie on the other side,Essex re­straines the fury of the re­bels in La­gene. not to lose any time in the midst of Winter, entred the Glinnes in Lagene, where he re­ceiued to obedience Donell Spaniah, Phelim Mac-Pheogh, and the tumultuary kindred of the O-Tooles, hauing taken Hostages from them to bind them the better to perfor­mance. After that he entred into Fereal, and droue Tirel, one of the skilfullest Souldiers among them, out of his boggish Hold (they call them Fastnessi) all thickned and fortified with briars and brambles. And now hee had gone compasse victoriously through all places as farre as Vlster, and there also he laid waste Fer [...]ey, He returnes to Vlster. hauing slaine the two sonnes of E [...]ar Mac-Cowley; and sending forth Richard Morison, hee laid waste too the little Prouince Fues. He placed a Garri­son at Breny, committed to the care of Oliuer Lambard: and then bending towards Droged, he receiued into obedience Turlogh Mac-Henry, a Nobleman of Fues, Euar Mac-Cow­ley, O-Hanlon, who gloried himselfe that hee was the here­ditarie Standard bearer to the King in Vlster. Also he re­ceiued besides many more of the Mac-Mahons and O-ralls, taking Hostages of them all.

All these things did Monti [...]y the Deputie for his part the first yeere:The Exploits of George Carew. Neither did George Carew vndertake much lesse fortunate enterprises in Mounster, the Southerne parts of Ireland, being newly made President of the Prouince, that [Page 269] now was euen growen sicke by reason of the rebellion eue­ry where in it, vnder the [...]i [...]ular Earle of Desmond. And first of all he dealt so cunningly with the leaders of the mercena­ries of Conaugh (whom they vse to call Bownies) whom the Rebels had assembled and called out, that hee remooued out of the Prouince Dermitius O-Canar by a sleight, and Red­mund a Burge vpon hopes of his recouering his fathers pa­trimony, and Tirril, putting him into a great feare lest he had laid some ambush for him. Then after this hee cunningly carried the matter, that by counterfeit letters sent to them, he bred such diffidence and distrust betweene them, that none trusting one another, and euery one fearing for him­selfe, they distracted themselues. Afterwards he set on after them, hauing indiuidually accompanying him the Earle of Twomond, who many times stood him in great stead: Then he surpised the titular Earle of Desmond, whom notwithstan­ding the Rebels rescued againe from him. Logher, Crome, Gla [...] Carrigfoyle, Corage, Rathmore, and Cahir Castles, were by forces assaulted and taken by him, or fairely yeeld­ed. Charles Wilmot, Gouernour of Kerrie, brought vnder his obedience, Lixnaw, Mainy Castle, and Listwill, and Fr. Barclay, Glanemire▪ Greame one of the Commanders, did so turne the titular Earle of Desmond, that a [...] last he dro [...]e him out of the Prouince, and caused many of the affrighted Re­bels to flye to their loyaltie to the Queene. To conclude all, George Carew, that entred this Prouince but in the moneth of April, when it was vp in vproares and rebellion, brought it to passe that by December it was all ouer in quietnesse; and not so much as one Fort defended there against the Queene.

Whilst these affaires passe on thus in Ireland, A new propo­sition concer­ning a peace to be made with Spaine. there are great consultations in England concerning making a Peace with the Spaniard▪ This peace, Albert Arch-D [...]ke of [...], hauing returned with the Infant [...] his wife from Spaine, and rewarded with a consecrated sword by the Bishop of Rome, [Page 262] propounded to the Queene. And although the Queene had denied to make any de [...]ensiue league with the Spaniard, to deliuer into his hands those townes that were pawned to her, or to forbid trading with the Hollanders & Zealanders, which the Spaniard vehemently vrged her to do, or yeeld to him in the Prerogatiue of her I [...]onor; yet still both he & the French King, with their continuall messages, gaue not ouer their purpose of pursuing it. The Spaniard, being the onely occasion of it, who, by his quiet disposition, and the aduice of his Councell gaue himselfe to peace. For hee well knew that his father, hauing made a peace with France, desired no­thing more then to make one with England also,Vpon what hopes this peace was propo [...]nded: gathered out of a confe­ [...]ence held at Rome. that so hee might leaue his kingdome glorified by a firme and solid peace euery where. Moreouer hee was perswaded, that a peace with England would bee very beneficiall to the Ro­mane Religion, [...] Honour and profit too. For certainely there was at this time a great hope nurst vp at Rome, that it would come to passe that they in England would deal [...] more fauourably with the professours of Poperie, who now might returne home againe, and both preserue their Religion, and also disperse and sow it abroad also, with lesse danger then before. Also he esteemed that a conclusion of this peace, would be no lesse glorious to him, then the discouery of a new world was to his ancestors; That the inferiour Princes now should be more obser [...]eable in all respects towards him, if once he were not incumbred with any warre; and so hee might set an Arbi [...]ator ouer all the world. The profit that thereby hee expected, was, that the States of Holland and Zealand would presently then be brought to reasonable con­ditions. That hee should saue the charges of maintaining his warres there, and of con [...]eighing home his Nauie from the Indies yeerely. That they returning safe euery yeere, would shortly infinitely inrich [...]. That the English by degrees would neglect their Nauigations, when once they in [...]rea [...]ed [...] their esta [...]es with the Spaniards wealth; and [Page 263] so that at length, being rockt in a long peace, disaccustomed to warre either by sea or land, they might the easier be inua­ded on a sudden.

Although the Queene was not ignorant of these things, yet after mature deliberation, adiudging this Peace commo­dious and honourable both to England, and her credit, ha­uing been lately importuned to it by the French King, left it to his disposing, that he should appoint both the time and place of meeting. The King of France appointed May the time, and Bolonia (a sea co [...]st of France, Boull [...]n or Bullen. anciently called Bo­nonia) the place.A treatie made at Bo­nonia. But when it was foreseene that likely there would arise a contention, or question about prioritie of place in sitting or going betweene England and Spaine, some men were selected that should make enquiry into that matter. They obserued out of the booke of Ceremonies of the Court of Rome, Obseruations of the prece­dency of Eng­land & Spain (which as the Canons say, like a Ladie, Mother, and Mistresse directs others) that among the Kings Temporall, the first place was due to the King of France, the second to the King of England, and the third to the King of Casteell. That the English quietly enioyed that place in the Generall Councells of Pisa, at Constance, and at Basil too, al­though the Embassadour of Casteell somewhat vnmannerly opposed himselfe in the last.Out of Vola­teran. Besides, that Casteell, which Title the Spaniard preferreth before all his other to bee the King of, is but lately a Monarchie in respect of England: and that it had neither Earles nor Kings, before the yeere of Grace, 1017. and that those Kings are not anointed. More­ouer, they found that the King of England, is reckoned the third amongst those Kings that are titled, Most Illustrious, and the Spaniard is reckoned the fourth. Also that Pope Iulius the third, Bishop of Rome, gaue sentence for Henry the seuenth of England, against Ferdinand King of Casteele. Also, that the Queene of England is more ancient both in yeeres and Reigne, and therfore before the Spaniard, by their owne argument at the Councell at Basil, vsed by the Spaniard a­gainst [Page 272] Henry the sixt King of England. Lastly, the Lawyers with one accord generally pronounced, that, that Preceden­cie, whose Originall exceeds the memory of man, is to bee reckoned as constituted and so ordained by Right.

Besides they obserued, that in the first Session of the Councell of Trent, vnder Pope Paul the third, when there was one and the same Embassadour of Charles the fi [...]t, Em­perour, who was also King of Spaine, and that that Embas­sadour tooke place of the French, by reason of the Emperors right; that, since the Spaniards haue arrogated to themselues the prioritie, not onely by the vertue of the Emperour, but as they are Kings of Spaine, because none euer contradicted it. And at that time, the English found great want of discre­tion in the French Embassadour, because hee contradicted them not, and made no publike contesting with the Empe­rours Legate, if so be he had made, as he tooke place of him in right of the Spaniard and not the Emperour. Besides they noted, that the Spaniard by reason of his large & vast domi­nions spread far and neere, by reason of his power ouer other Princes, and his Merits from the Church of Rome, of whom hee well deserues, and by reason of prioritie before the French, stolne in the Councell of Trent, would challenge his higher place to himselfe. But let vs omit this.

On the day appointed,The Peores designed for the Queenes partie. at Bolonia, came for the Queene, Henry Neuill the Leager in France; Iohn Herbert, newly made one of the Secretaries. Robert [...]eale, Secretary to the Northren Councell, and Thomas Edmunds the Queenes French Secretary. For the Spaniard, came Balthasar Ds. de Z [...]niga Fonseca, one of the priuie Councell, and Embassa­dour in the Low-Countries, Ferdinand Carill, of the order of S. Iames, and Counsellour to the King at Casteele. For the Arch-Duke came Iohn Richardot, President of the Councell, and Lodouike Verre-Kei [...]e, The instructi­ons of the English. chiefe Secretary.

The Instructions of the English, were, that before all thing [...] they would haue great care to the kingdome, and the [Page 273] Queenes honour, safetie, and profit. As concerning the Ho­nor, that in no case they giue the more Honourable place to the Spaniard, but directly, modestly, and from the foresaid arguments challenge it themselues. If so bee the Spaniard would not condescend, that then the English should not alto­gether preferre Honour before Profit, but propose some meane and equall debatement; as this, to cast lots for the pri­oritie of going or sitting first. Then, as concerning the safety and profit of England and the Queen, that they should haue a care that no cosenage or deceit be put vpon England, or the Low-countries in their trafficks. That the English may haue libertie to trade at the Indies; by reason that was granted be­fore in the Treatie 1541. in all the dominions of Charles the fift; but especially in those places where the Spaniards are themselues seated and peopled; also to trade with all the In­dian Princes that are vnder the Spaniards gouernment. That first the Spaniard should propound their Conditions, be­cause they inuited the English thither to a Treatie. That they should not speake a word of the Rebels and Run­awayes, (who according to the ancient Leagues made with the Burgundians, were to be driuen out on both sides; and restored againe to those with the French.) But if so be, they should propose that, that they should tell them that there are no Low-countrey men in England, besides the Mer­chants and handy-crafts-man; but, that in the Low-coun­tries the English are hired with Pensions to breed stirres and commotions.

The Copies of their Delegation,Exceptions in the Com­missions of the delegates on both sides. being on both sides exhi­bited to each other; the Spaniards tooke exception at that of the Queenes, against the Epithite, Most Illustrious, in the title of the Arch-Duke, who being as they said, descended from Sacred Emperours, and was both sonne in law and brother to the King of Spaine, The title Illustrious. and was also the husband and head of the most Puissant Princesse Isabella Infanta, eldest daughter to the Spaniard, was well worthy to bee honoured [Page 272] [...] [Page 273] [...] [Page 274] by all Princes with the title of most Puissant. The English answered, that an Arch-Duke ought not to bee equalled in Honourable Titles with a King: besides, that hee was no o­therway titled then Most Illustrious, in the ancient treaties betweene Philip the Arch-Duke, the father of Charles the fift, and Henry the eight. The Spaniards answered, that it was no wonder, if that title onely were giuen to him, when the very same and no greater was also giuen to Henry the eight himselfe. On the other side the English found these faults in their King: that the forme of their subdelegation was wanting, that it was much obscured by the interming­ling of other Commissaries: that it was sealed but with a Priuate Seale, when the Queenes was sealed with the Broad Seale of England: Lastly, that this clause was wanting, that the King should ratifie whatsoeuer was concluded vpon. They answered, that their formall subdelegation was com­prehended in those words, Par trattar y hazar trattar. That there is no such name in Spaine, as the Broad Seale, and the Priuate: but that this was their Kings owne hand-wri­ting, in the presence of the Secretary, and signed with the publike Seale of the King and Kingdome; and that lastly, by these words, Estar y passar, y estare y passare, all was Ra­tified.

Within some few dayes after,The English challenge the first place. the English desired that they should meet (for as yet they had onely dealt with the Arch-Dukes Delegates, by writing) also demanding the prioritie of the place for the Queene: the Spaniards being angry somewhat with that, that the English should first challenge the first place, as if in such affaires, Le premier de­maundeur, estoit le vaincueuer. The Spanish will not yeeld them a place equall with them. They answered, that it was newes for the Kings or Queenes of England, to stand vpon the tearmes of Equalitie with the Catholike King; but that it was vnheard of to speake of Prioritie. The English an­swered, that the Precedencie of the Kingdome of England was very well knowne to all the world, and strengthened [Page 275] with good and sound reasons; and that besides, the Embassa­dour Resident for the Queene hauing a double power ought to be preferred, before him that comes onely with the bare title of a Delegate. Edmonds was very earnest, and assured them that before hand hee had informed Richardot, that the Queene would not lose her Prioritie, and when hee vrged him to answere, he indeed denied it not, but said, that he would answere him when they met together; and, that hee did not thinke that the Treatie should haue broke off for that matter. After this there were inuitations on both sides to their priuate houses, vnder the pretence of familiari­tie and talke together, but indeed to worke them out of the conceit of the Prioritie. But this effect was well enough shunned on both sides: although the Low-Countrey men had enough to doe to mollifie the Spaniards a little, who would not endure to heare, that the Catholike King should once acknowledge the Queene for his Equall; for because, that thereby he must necessarily acknowledge the French his Superiour; being it is on all sides confessed, that England yeelds prioritie to France. The English still doe continue strong in their resolution, defending their ancient priui­ledges, saying, that the Spaniard hath no cause to bee angrie thereat; For he that vseth onely his owne Right, not a whit preiudices another mans: and that there was no reason why the Spaniard should not acknowledge the Queene as his E­quall, since shee is as Absolute a Monarch as hee is, and hath as ample, if not more ample Iurisdiction in her Maiesties Kingdomes.

Afterwards Edmonds was sent ouer into England, New instruc­tions to the English from the Queene. & retur­ned with these Instructions, to their Demands: If there bee any equalitie in the Prerogatiue of honour, that is not de­ceitfull or preiudiciall to the Queene, let it be admitted; and that they should not so strictly stand vpon their first In­structions. That the Peace should be perpetuall both to the partie now contracting, as also the further Succession for [Page 276] euer. That there would be no mention of T [...]uces. That traffiques and trading should be recalled to the state where­in it was in 1567. That there should be a Couenant made, that no ships be stayed without the consent of that Prince, whose subiects those ships are. That they should no way admit of that the Spanish men of warre should come into a­ny Hauens of the Queenes. That if the traffique into Indie were denied, they should not stand vpon it but passe it ouer; as the French did at the Treatie of Cambray, and at Ve [...]uins: and so euery man should venter thither on his owne perill; for by admitting of any Restriction or Limitation, the voy­ages of many thither might much bee preiudiced. That, as the French did in the Treatie at Bloys and Veruins, they should hold their tongue in the matter of Rebels and Run­awayes: That they should promise that the English Gar­risons in the townes pawned to her, should onely defend the said townes, and not warre against the Spaniard. And that they should enforme them, that the Queene had fully resol­ued that her Subiects might haue free [...]rading in the Arch-Dukes Prouinces: and that the English seruing now the States, should not be recalled againe. Lastly, that they should fit themselues to Time and Place, and to businesses accor­dingly, which sometimes giues better counsell to the men, then the men can to them; also; that they should carefully obserue to what end this Treatie tended, whither or no, it were to keepe the Queene in suspence, whilest they either inuaded England or Ireland: or whether it were not to draw to themselues the Vnited Prouinces, and dis [...]oyne them from England.

In the meane while the Arch-Duke, being somewhat mo­lested with his great warres in Flanders, complaines, that succour and Subsidie was sent by the Queene to the States, and that ships were rigging for the Indies. The Delegates made answere, that they knew not of any such matter; but if it were true, that this was no Innouation of new stirres, [Page 277] but a continuation of those things that were begun before the Treatie; and that therefore they must bee borne withall patiently, till such time as the peace be concluded: Blaming the Spaniards againe, that publikely they had furnished the Rebels in Ireland with prouision and money; that hee had receiued of them Hostages, and promised his succour: that these things were to be seene extant in the very letters them­selues of the Spaniards, which were sent ouer to curry fauour from the Queene to the Rebels, and could presently be pro­duced. Besides, that that was a plaine innouation; For his Father neuer assisted them but secretly, if he did that. Whi­lest these things were in controuersie, and suspition on either side daily increased, that the peace indeed is propounded, but a worse thing treacherously intended, The Spaniards declare, that their Master the Catholike King, would in no case grant the Queene Prioritie; or admit of Equalitie: and that hee had peremtorily commaunded them, to dissolue the Treatie.

This indeed much troubled the Delegates both of the Queene and the Arch-Duke: and the English,The Treaty is dissolued. rather then the Treaty should be dissolued, propounded, that omitting that question of priority, they might treate with them by writing, conferences, or mess [...]ngers betweene. They againe on the other side, proposed, that if there were a meeting or­dained in Holland, and the States would also meet there, that they would treate with them in any place of Holland, so it were not vnder the Queene▪ Or, if it should please them to meet in any place of the Spanish Dominion, that they would entertaine the English thither, as euery one would a stranger, at his owne house. Besides, it was also propoun­ded, that the Treatie should be onely prorogued for three­score daies, and not absolutely dissolued, that in meane time, euery one might endeauour for this peace, if it shall please both the Princes. But this was all in vaine; for the Dele­gates of the Spaniard and Arch-Duke post home in all haste [Page 278] possible: and the Queene forthwith recalled hers againe, protesting before-hand, that out of her sincerity she did o­mit nothing to her knowledge, that was or might be requi­red in any Christian absolute Princes, which tend to a true peace, strong, and perpetuall, the better to spare the effusion of Christian bloud; as appeares in that after shroward sus­pition of no faire dealing, by reason of aide sent by the Spa­niard into Ireland, she at their request sent her Delegates to this Treatie; where, seeing no reason that she should giue priority to the Spaniard, as she before intimated to them by Edmonds, she was content with equality: and if that were denyed, she refused not to treate either by writings or Mes­fingers betweene both parties. And so expired this Treatie at Bullen, after three moneths.

The States in the meane hauing all things according to their hearts desire,The skirmish at New-port. were so farre from desiring peace with the Spaniard, that at this very time they consulted to bring to their obedience the Sea-coasts of Flanders, to secure their Sea voyages the better, for Spinola's Gallies molested their Seas sorely; and also to free Ostend, which was onely brought into distresse with Castles being planted round a­bout it. These things seemed very easie vnto them, conside­ring the weaknesse and affliction of the enemy, and the re­uolts and seditons amongst their old Souldiers. Wherefore hauing pressed fourteene thousand foot, and three thousand horse, vnder Maurice of Nassaw, to whom some of the chiefe of the States themselues adioyned them too, determi­ning to land at Ostend. But the winde being crosse, they were faine to land at Philippine in Flanders, by flat bottome boats, drouen on shore by the tide; and there they spread abroad the terrour of them so farre and neere, that those in Garrison in the way, and those in S. Alberts Fort, yeelded themselues euery where neere to Ostend, whither they also came eight daies after, hauing waded ouer an Arme of the Sea to Newport: the next day after, in their consultations a­bout [Page 279] pitching their Campes, comes newes to them, that the Arch-Duke with seuen thousand foot, and one thousand horse, came flying vpon them; who indeed, night and day following them, re-got most of their Fortresses againe, and o­uer-run eight hundred Scots, that lay in his way, and brought his weary Army almost as farre as Newport. There it see­med good to the Spaniard to pitch a little, and recouer S. Alberts Fort, and by making a trench hinder those of Nas­saw's Army from prouision of all sorts. But the Arch-duke some what couragious by reason of his late-happy successes, scorned that deuice, as vnworthy the very thought of a true Souldier.

On the otherside Maurice as quicke as he, prouideth himselfe for battaile, committing the Troupe on foot to Sir Francis Vere, (as Vere himselfe in his Commentaries and ob­seruations reports) and the Troupe of horse to Lodowicke Nassaw: but it pleased all of them to wade backe againe o­uer the arme of the Sea, as soone as they could. Vere would not suffer any of his men to put off their clothes, saying, that shortly they should not either haue need of clothes, or they should get better. Then hee chose out a fit place for battell, which was a narrow Plaine betweene the sea and the sand hills: the sand hilles on either side, being somewhat higher then ordinary. In the highest of them he placed of the Eng­lish 1500. and 2500. Musketteers of the Frisons. Then Maurice propounded, whither or no it were best to march on and meete the enemy, or expect him still there. Many thought it best to march on, that so that might fright them, and bring backe victory: and that by expecting them, they should but weaken their courages and increase their ene­mies, who had opportunitie now to stop their passages of victualls to them. But for all that, Vere was on the contrary opinion, that the enemies armies being so suddenly mustred, was not so prouided with victualls and all kind of prouision, that it could long continue in a region wasted away with [Page 280] continuall warre; That the difficultie of stopping their victu­alls was least of all to be feared, by reason that they had store enough in the Ships, and the Seas lying so open for the con­ueniance of more prouision vnto them. Also, that the enemy being wearied with the ascents and descents of hils & vallies, and with the extreame heat of the Sun, would easily be van­quished by their fresh Forces. Maurice embracing this coun­sell, there made a stand: and chose some elect Bands to stop the breaking out of the Garrison of Newport vpon them: and whilest the Arch-Duke takes one or two houres for de­liberation, whither or no hee should make a stand there, to refresh his Souldiers, and expect his troupes that were to fol­low, hee lost both opportunitie of time and place. But yet for all that, being as full of hope as courage he marches for­wards; and seeing that by reason of the tide comming in, there was but small roome for his Horsemen, and that hee must necessarily bend towards the Sand Hilles, on set pur­pose hee set foorth one of his prisoners or captiues, that to put them in a flight, cried out that the Scots were all mur­thered, and that there was no fighting now; but yet his mouth was quickely stopt. Vere, seeing the Arch-Duke drawing neere on, willed the Horsemen to be sent out vpon him, but the Master of the troupes of Horse would not suffer them. Wherefore Vere, hauing assaulted them with Shot of his great Peece of Ordnance, droue them to the mounta­nous Sandie Hilles, where they tarried for their Footmen, who comming alone by the shoare, thundred vpon the Nas­souians with their Ordnance. Vere he gets to the top of the Sand Hilles to obserue the motion of the enemy; and short­ly after, by reason of some fiue hundred Spaniards that came to assault them, the combate grew dangerous; wherein Vere was wounded first in the leg, and then in the thigh: after­wards drawing towards the shoare, his horse fell vnder him, he also lying downe vpon him till he was helped by Drury and Higame, and put vpon Drury's horse; and in good [Page 281] time, for the enemy was neere hand. Vere coming th [...] ­ther, found his Brother Horatio with three hu [...]dred foot; where he commanded the Ordnance to be discharged vpon the enemy, his Squadrons, and that of Baely to set vpon them, and his Brother Horatio to be at hand with the foot; who all so violently beat vpon the enemies with their shot, that they droue the enemy to flight. Many in the flight were slaine; in all about nine thousand. There were taken the Admirall of Arragon, Vigilare, Sapena, and many more of great note, and Nobility. The Arch-Duke him­selfe was sore wounded, Duke Aumale also, and Alphonsus Dauales Master of the Campe, Rodericke Lasso, and many more. But let the Writers of the Low Country affaires re­port these things at large. It is enough for me to speake this out of Veres owne obseruations, who hath left to vs to consi­der what the valour of the English was, amongst one thou­sand fiue hundred of them that there were but eight hundred slaine and wounded, and eight Commanders lurking, and all but two wounded.

The Spaniards were very loth to attribute their losse to the valour of the English, but were contented rather to im­pute it to the greater number of them; or to their toilesome wearinesse, by reason of their exceeding long iourney: or to the Sunne, or the winde that blew the dust and sand in their eyes: or to the lasinesse of their owne Horsemen.

Amongst the English, they that best deserued in this ser­uice were Francis and Horatius Vere brothers, Edward Ce­cill, Calisthenes Brookes, Thomas Knolles, Daniel Vere, Iohn Ogle, Yaxley, Fairfax, Valuasour, Holcroft, Denis, Tirrell, Hammund, Sutton, Foster, Garnet, Morgan, and Scot.

In this yeare also,Contentions betwixt the English and French about prizes. as in the former betweene the English and French, on both sides complaints were heard concer­ning Prizes, which were become very many by the mutuall insolence of their Pirates, but by the care of Thumer Boisisse a graue man, and then French Embassadour.

[Page 282]

IT was agreed on that the Subiects of both Prin­ces should be mutually protected in the lawfull exercising of Merchandize, according to for­mer Treaties, that sufficient heed might be taken con­cerning the sending out of Merchants ships, and o­thers, with warlike prouision and Letters of M [...]rt, to wit, with double quantity of furniture and victuals, but of the single prouision of those ships without Let­ters of Mart; also that the Officers of the Admiral­ty should be bound to answer for all iniuries happening by their fault, if they had receiued none of a lesse con­uenient charge: That care should be taken for the costs of Merchants: That if possible their cause may be dispatched within six moneths: That in actions legally [...]egun, hereafter might be pronounced soundly: That sureties shall onely discharge the stipulation, sa­tisfying the Creditor, if iustice be denied three mo­neths after the demand of the Prince or Embassadour there re [...]ident: That Letters of Mart shall be gra [...] ­ted: That no Armour or warlike munition of any sort be transported into the Spanish Dominions, if a­ny thing be taken or detained by the Kings Subiects, the randsome not payd: That care might be taken by both Princes, that in due time the iust randsome may be payed: That ships sent forth by the immedi­ate command of the Prince, or assigned by the gouer­nours of the Kings Nauie to publique warres, may be accounted the Kings ships, if any thing be by them committed, that either Prince take care for the admi­nistring of iustice: That Letters of Mart be n [...]t one­ly suspended, but on both sides called in: That Pr [...]cla­mation be made that neither diuision, transpartation, or alienation of taken goods be suffered▪ That no man may either by them receiue them, or conceale them, [Page 283] vnlesse by the I [...]dge of the Adimralty they be thought a lawfull prey: That Pyrats should not be receiued into Cities, Ports, or Villages, or suffered to tarry not laid hands on, and bound ouer: That they be present vpon paine of lawfull punishment, and make restituti­on notwithstanding, with this protestation: That these things be not otherwise construed, but if any thing be repugnant to ancient Leagues, that nothing be vnderstood derogatiue from them, but because of the iniury of these times, That there may be better heed taken against the depredation of Pirates: That this may be taken onely by the way of prouiding, vn­till a larger Treatie may be held concerning these se­uerall Articles, for the commodity of each Prince.

Controuersies also arose concerning the new impositions put on English Merchandize, contrary to the Treaties of Blois, concerning English cloath deceitfully made, not with­out the discredit of our Nation, the Queene also requiring the money she lent to the French King, and part of it was re­payed withall tokens of thankfulnesse.

Not onely in France arose a fresh controuersie, but also in Denmarke, concerning the traffique and their fishing on the shore of Norway, and by Island. In the former yeare the Danes being angry with this fishing and the English Piracy,Contentions with the Danes con­cerning traf­fique. suddenly set vpon the English of Hull, fishing not farre from Norway, confiskated their ships and goods to a great value, and put their Marriners to the racke, hauing caused this punishment to be denounced two yeares before in England, with an interdiction of fishing. These things (the cause vnknowne) the Queene tooke heinously, and as proceeding from an enemy, who neither respected her per­son, or Subiects, or his owne ancient League she mediated for the men of Hull, in Letters sent by Stephen Leisere, and Thomas Ferrar, acknowledging that Whitfield and Bernicke [Page 284] had verbally pretended, that that fishing by Island, and Norway, was vsed of the English, contrary to their League, but of this, that they had shewed no proofe; she taught al­so, that many priuiledges of fishing were granted to the Eng­lish by the ancient Kings of Norway, before the coniuncti­on of Denmarke and Norway, and that the same were con­firmed by Iohn and Christianus Kings of Denmarke, which was affirmed out of the Treatie with Iohn, that licence of fi­shing from seuen yeares to seuen was to be asked; she an­swered, that it had beene omitted many yeares of them, that the Danes were in fault, not the English; for vntill the ex­pulsion of Christierne their King, in the yeare 1521. this licence was asked; since then, that neither Fredericke the Kings great Grandfather, nor Christian the Grandfather, nor Fredericke the Father had enacted it, who in the yeare 1585 promised by his Letters, that if the English abstained from iniury, they might enioy the liberty which formerly they had without any asking leaue; wherefore that now the Eng­lish were vniustly dealt withal, since that of late they had not refused to aske licence from seuen yeares to seuen, as before also the most famous Lawyers had iudged the Sea to be common, not to be interdicted of any Prince by the Law of Nations. To let passe many words, the Queene required the whole matter should be referred either to Delegates on both sides, or to the Elector of Brandenburgh the Kings Fa­ther in Law, the Duke of Mekelburgh, Henry Iulius the D. of Brunswicke, Vncle to the Kings Sister. But when neither Stephen Leisiere, nor Ferrar, nor Nicholas Crage a learned man, the one sent into England, the other into Denmarke, could compose the matter; at length it was agreed on, that Delegates should be sent to Embda, thither the Queene sent Embassadours Richard Bancroft Bishop of London, Christo­pher Perkins, and Iohn Swale, who might parley with the Delegates of Denmarke. But when they came not at the ap­pointed day, whether hindered by the winde, or some other [Page 285] errour, the Danes alleaging, that the time of their Delegates was out, went home, or as some thought, because they wanted victuals, for the Danes giue to their Embassadours Captaine victuals, not mony as other Princes, neither could endure to heare that they should require the prolongation of that authority. Hence the English complained of the Danes, as men proposing nothing else to themselues, then that things should remaine as they were, to wit, that they might exact new tribute daily in the Oresund Sea, that by new de­crees they might confiscate their ships and merchandize, that they might hold their fishng in the Northerne Sea, and then saying through the same into Moscouia: notwithstanding about these times (for the better furtherance of Nauigation, the Trades increase, and the Kingdomes honour) the Queene instituted the Company of East Indie Merchants,The East In­dia company instituted. giuing to them great priuiledges, they sent thither with three ships, Iames Lancaster (of whom we before haue spoken) that in the yeare 1594. he ouer came Fernambucke in Brasil. Since that time (and not vnluckily) they sent euery yeare a small Nauy, and to their Kingdomes honour erected Markets in Lurat the great Maguls Country, in Mossolupatan, Bantan, Patane, Siam, Sagad, Mecassar; also in Iapan, crushing by happy victories aswell the insolent enemy, as the Turkish falsnesse: but whether so great a summe of money daily transported hence, and so many Marriners wasted be for the common good, let wise men i [...]dge, and posterity perceiue. While the Queene thus prouides for her Subiects inrich­ment, Clement the eight Pope vnderstanding her to be well in yeares,Two Breues sent pri [...]ily by the Pope of Rome against the King of Scots, next heire to the Kingdome of England. for the better restoring of the Roman Religi­on to its former height in England, sent thither two Breues, one to the Clergy, the other to the Laity, in which hee ad­monished, that they should admit no one to the Scepter af­ter her decase, how neere a kinne soeuer, vnlesse he were one who would not onely grant a toleration of the Romish Re­ligion, but also with his best indeuour further it. To the [Page 286] doing of which he must binde himselfe by an oath, after the manner of his predecessours, but the contents of these were as sparingly reuealed as they themselues closely sent, not­withstanding hence was the originall of the monstrous pow­der-plot: and as these Breues were sent from Rome to Eng­land, for the easier excluding of King Iames, from his inhe­riting England; so at the same time was prepared in Scot­land a deadly Sword by the Rethuens Brothers, who in re­uenge of the lawfull punishment inflicted on the E.The treache­rous plots of Earle Gow­ries Sons a­gainst him. of Gow­ry their Brother, in the Kings minoritie appointed the same good King to die, treacherously seducing him to their house, and they had not come short in the performing of this de­signe, had not the Protectour of Kings by these instruments, the Kings fortitude, the loyall endeauour of Iohn Ramsey, and Thomas Areskins made themselues the authours of destruction on themselues, for they were made aswell part­ners in death, as in that plot, and by decree of the State their goods confiscate, their house made leuell with the ground, themselues quartered, and the Quarters hung on stakes through the Cities, and as many as had to their surname Re­thuen were commanded to leaue it, for the better oblitera­ting both of name and memory, let it not be accounted fraud in me to relate their punishment, since other Writers in this matter haue beene profuse about this Prince:Great com­plaint in England for the scarcity of Corne. through Eng­land arose great complaint of the scarcity of victuals, which also increased by reason of the moist constitution in the hea­uens, at the end of the former yeare, the vernall cold of this, and the priuate auarice of some, who by the abuse of an ob­tained licence transported great store into other Nations. Hence the people moued no lesse with opinion, then if they had had more rationall proofes, by Libels railed on Buck­hurst the Treasurer, as if he had granted the licence, but hee not lightly regarding these things repaires to the Queene, from whom by Proclamation his innocence was testified, a fault transferred on the Hucsters of Corne, the Libellers [Page 287] apprehended and punished. But such is the querulous enuy of the people, that they complained the more, and lashed him by priuate backe-bitings, as if he had acknowled­ged it.

And now Essex hauing beene vnder the Lord Keeper of the great Seales custody this halfe yeare,The Earle of Essex begins to repent him of his former purposes and actions. began (mooued thereto by his naturall inclination to goodnesse, and by this physicall affliction, and many of his friends, especially Hen­ry Howard) began, I say, to come to a better minde; also determining to send away far from him those turbulent spi­rits that suggested him to all that was naught, Gill Mericke, and Cuffe; he himselfe putting on such piety, patience, and modest humility, that all his friends hoped well of him a­gaine, and his enemies enuied thereat.

The Queene in short time being pacified with his hum­ble and submissue Letters,Essex is com­manded to his own house commanded him to keepe onely his owne house, vnder the free custody of Richard Barckly; withall protesting, that these her punishments were not en­tended for his ouerthrow, but for his amendment.

But the common people altogether pleading for his inno­cency, & thinking him shrewdly wronged, it seemed good to the Queene to eschew all kinde of seuerity, iniustice, or preiu­dice to her or her Councel, that his cause should be heard, yet not in the Starre Chamber, lest he were too seuerely puni­shed, but onely priuately in the Lord Keepers house; the Iudges thereof were allotted, the Councell-table of the Queene, foure Earles, two Lords, and foure Iudges, that thereby he might onely be censured alike, but with no marke of treachery, or treason.

The summe of his accusation was,His appea­rance befo [...]e the Lords Commissio­ners. that hauing no such authority in his Commission he made Southampton leader of the Horse; that he knighted many; that he drew his forces from Tir-Oen, whom he should haue prosecuted into Moun­ster; that he had priuate conference with Tir-Oen, to the violation of the Maiesty of the Queene, and the honor of the [Page 288] the Deputy himselfe, and that this conference was the more suspected, because it was priuate and secret. These things the Lawyers sorely aggrauated, bringing in also abrupt sen­tences of his, out of Letters writ by himselfe some two yeres before, the Copies whereof were dispersed by his followers vp and downe England; such as these.

THat there is no tempest more raging then the indignation of an impotent Prince. That the heart of the Queene is hardened. Cannot Princes erre? Can they not iniure their Subiects? I doe know my dutie as a Subiect, and I know my du­tie as Lord Marshall of England.

Out of these sentences they argued, as if he had thought the Queene very weake, or voide of reason; that hee had compared her to Pharao's heart that was hardened; that she now cared neither for truth or iustice; and as though hee (besides his allegiance) owed neither loyalty or thankful [...]es vnto the Queene; also they obiected some petty matters vnto him, by reason of a Booke concerning the deposing of Richard the second, which was dedicated to him.

The Earle kneeling vpon one knee at the boords end,The Earle makes an­swer for himselfe. gaue great thankes to God for all his mercies bestowed vpon him, and to his most mercifull Queene, that cited him not to the Star-Chamber, but would haue that cup passe by him, (as he himselfe said) within these priuate wals. Therefore professing that he would in no case contest with h [...]r, or altogether ex­cuse the errors of his weaknesse, or his vnconsiderate youth; protesting withal, that he was alwaies a Subiect very loyal, & that he not so much as thought that, that might enfringe his loyalty; also, that in all things he meant well, although per­chance it fell out otherwise, and that now he had taken lea [...]e of the world. Then shedding many teares, he forced most of the standers by to accompany him in that dolefull colla­chrymation; [Page 289] yet he could not containe himselfe, but hee must needs excuse his errour, in making Southampton Ma­ster of the Horse; which he did, he said, being erroneously perswaded, that the Queene would admit of those reasons he could giue her for it: but that, when he saw she would not admit of them, he casheared him from that authority. The reason, he said, that he knighted so many, was to retaine with him more Voluntaries of the Nobler sort. That the war in Mounster was vndertaken by the vndiscreet opinion of the Irish Councell, but that the chiefe of them, now, O [...]mond was strucken with blindnesse, and Warham of S. Leager with a cruell death.

As he was going forwards,The L. Kee­per interrupts his answer. the Keeper interrupted him, admonishing him, that as he had begun, hee should betake himselfe to the Queenes mercy, who indeed desired not to finde him guilty of treason, but onely of Disobedience, and contempt, and that he should not carry a shew of obe­dience before him, but shew his obedience indeed. That by extenuating and lessening his offence, he would seeme the more to extenuate the Queenes mercy. That it sounded ve­ry harshly for him to shadow his disobedience, vnder a de­sire and will of obedience.

It were needlesse to repeat what euery man said, when as they said little or nothing, but what had beene before said in the Starre-Chamber. Wherefore at length the Lord Kee­per pronounceth this sentence; That he must be degraded of his office of one of the Councellours, and suspended from his office of Earle Marshall, and Master of the Ordnance, and remaine in custody during the Queenes pleasure.

These things euery one approued with his consent, and many notwithstanding conceiued great hope of his recoue­ry and restoring to the Queenes fauour, in that the Queene expresly commanded that be should not be suspended from being Master of the Horse, as if she had intended to haue vsed him againe, and withall, in that she would not haue [Page 290] this censure past vpon him registred.

These hopes,The hopes of his liberty ga­thered from the Queenes naturall in­clination to pitty. many that obserued the consequent euents and dispositions, both of the Queene, the Earle, and his ene­mies, probably encreased the same by this meanes. That the Queene was borne to clemency and quietnesse. That in her wisedome she knew that mercy was the pillar of her Kingdome. That she both would and could shew mercy, & yet with discretion. That she would not driue so great a man into despaire. That she would not, that any one should pe­rish, that was any commodity to the Common-wealth. That she had squared all her actions hitherto to the rule of iu­stice. That she intended not the ouerthrow, but the amend­ment of the Earle. That such a word of a Prince was an O­racle; and as in God nothing is that admitteth a contradi­ction, so neither in Princes. Besides, that she, like Mithri­dates, hated the malicious that raged against vertue forsaken by good fortune. That whom she loued once, she loued to the end. That many hauing more heinously offended, haue recouered, or yet not quite fell from her fauour; as Sussex, concerning the Irish treason. Norfolke not obseruing his Commission in the siege of Lethe. Bacon hauing written a Booke of the succession of the Kingdome. Henry Arundel, Henry the Father of Southampton, and Lumley, for secret conspiracies with the Q. of Scotland. And Croft for priuate conference wit [...] the Prince of Parma. Walsingham for sur­prizing the K. of Scotland by Gowry, vnknowne to her, or her Councell. And Leicester concerning the affaires in the Low Countries. These all were accused, and yet recouered a­gain her fauor. But indeed, for the Earles of Northumberland and Westmerland, that they were iustly executed, for con­spiring the destruction of this Kingdome with forreine Na­tions. As also Norfolke who sinned against his oath of al­legiance, afterwards againe, by going about a marriage with the Queene of Scots; and by concealing those things which he knew she dealt about with other Nations; and by [Page 291] ayding the Scots that were proclaimed publique enemies to England. Also that the Queene of Scots indeed died, for all she seemed safe by the priuiledge, and prerogatiue of her in­iunction, in that she tooke such sinister courses for the wor­king of her liberty, that she endangered the safety of the Kingdome: and when no better physicke could be giuen the common-wealth to maintaine its life, then her death. But then, they considered, that no such matter was obiected to the Earle, who onely hauing sinned out of ignorance, was free from treason, both by the sentence of the Queene her selfe and her Councell. The Queene all this while (to call him backe from despaire) not preferring any of his noted enemies in the time of his oppression, although they much affected higher dignities.

Then they argued from the noblenes of the Earle (for a far off he was of the bloud Royall) his vertues,Next, from t [...]e noblenesse and vertuous disposition of the Earle. and the choice of the Queene of him from amongst many into her fauour; that he suffered euen a box on the eare at her bands; that he deserued exceedingly well of his Country, at home and a­broad; that there was not any one better instructed in the arts of a Commander, or to mannage a warre, or frustrate the violence of an approaching enemy; that there was not one more beloued of the people that could appease any tumult if it were once raised, and that could discreetly gouerne the affaires of the Realme; and that he was one that was most worthy of the Queenes loue and fauour; that the seuerity of the Queene, if she should exercise it against one so well deser­uing, would also concerne the rest; that nothing doth more ioy the hearts of our enemies, then to see those ill dealt with­all, who are more famous then the rest, and indeed innocent; that the Earle had no greater enemies then his owne orna­ments; and that his aduersaries complained of nothing in him, but his greatnesse.Thirdly▪ from the diuers intents of his very aduer­sarins. Then they argued from the diuers intents of his aduersaries, who although they all meant ill, yet vsed not the same meanes. Some of them when he [Page 292] was cited in the Starre-Chamber, thinking it not best to deale rigorously with him; that then the Secretary deuised euill practises against him; that yet such euill-minded men desire more then they dare attempt. Besides, that it was wisedome to vnderstand, that affaires in Court turne not alwaies vpon the same wheele; that there are periods of hate, of loue, of iealousie, of cruelty and mercy, although we cannot define them. That no man knowes whither or no he be worthy, by to morrow, of loue or hatred. That the determinations of Princes are very intricate. That they are wont sometimes, euen to sacrifice to the people, for the re­deeming of their credit, the chiefest of their seruants, as ap­peares by the example of Empson, Dudley, Cardinall Woolsey, and Cromwell. Let men wisely deeme, that as Princes haue shewen themselues towards others, so they will towards themselues too if occesion shall serue. Therefore, that hence his aduersaries ought to be wary lest they plunge▪ themselues too deepe in this businesse, and be not able to follow it, lest thereby they doe themselues the greatest hurt, in striuing to burthen him more, that already is too much laden with hatred. Neither that they doe too much exas­perate the Queene terribly against so braue a man: for if they doe, howsoeuer men may be amazed at it, yet God will be auenged of them, who being himselfe iust, will in his best time defend those that are vniustly afflicted.

So by these perswasions many were of opiniō that the Earle would recouer fauour again with the Queen, both now busi­ing them selues in consideration how in this doubtfull & dan­gerous time he might spend his life.Considerati­ons in what course of life the Earle [...] best to imploy him­s [...]fe. First, whether it were best for to put himselfe vpon any free Embasy, and so to withdraw himselfe into some forreine Country, till such time as the weather grew a little clearer for him; secondly, whither it were better to addict himselfe wholly to a contemplatiue life, that thereby he might lift vp his heauenly minde as his fortunes grow lower and lower. Or lastly, whither or no [Page 293] he should take some mid-way betweene both, being ready prouided for either fortune.

The Earle in the meane time made [...]hew of his great hum­blenesse of minde,The great humility of the Earle. protesting that, both by words and Let­ters, he had taken his leaue of this world, that with teares he had washed away from his heart his hot ambition. And that now hee desired nothing more then that the Queene would let her seruant depart in peace, (for these were his owne his words.) These speeches so much delighted the Queene, that shee forthwith remoued him from his keeper Barckley, willing him to be his owne man, and if [...] pleased, he might goe into the Country. Admonishing him withall, that he make himselfe and his discretion his k [...]pers, and willing him not to come neere the Queene or [...] Court. Which certainly if he had done, it had fared [...]tter with him, for hee was neuer freer (to wit) from euill councels, then when he was at custody.

For no sooner had the Earle this sentence of liberty pro­nounced,Cuffe railes at the Earle. but Cuffe (that alwaies had perswaded the Earle neuer to confesse himselfe guilty, but stand in his owne de­fence, and not to impaire his honour with a submission) now comes, and so vehemently nips him for a pusillanimous Earle, and the rest that counselled him to it, for such vndis­creet Counsellours, that the Earle commanded him to be cashiered out of seruice; but yet Mericke his Steward that was of the same opinion with Cuffe, fulfilled not the Earles [...]

The Earle being now his owne man, and about to goe in­to the Country, signifies by Howard to the Queene.

[...] The Earles message to the Queene. [...] [Page 294] hers, which had been his stars wherby he sailed on hap­pily, and kept his course on at a iust measure. That now he had resolued to repent earnestly, and to say with Nebuchadonozor, That my habitation is amongst the wilde Beasts of the field, that I may eate Hay like an Oxe, & be watered with the dew of heauen, till such time as it shall please the Queene to restore my sence to me againe.

The Queene was so iocond at these words,The Queens answer. that she would say,

I Wish his deeds and words would in iumpe together; He hath long tried my patience; and I haue rea­sonable well tried his humblenesse. Sure I am my Father would not haue borne with his peruersnesse. But I will not looke backe, lest like Lots wife I am tur­ned into a pillar of salt. All is not gold that gli­sters, &c.

Shortly after,Cuffe againe intertained by the Earle. Cuffe hauing accesse againe to the Earle, more boldly rings the same things againe into his eares, ob­iecting to him, that by his confession he had betrayed his owne cause; and that thereby he had lost more credit then his dearest bloud could buy againe. That Howard and the rest, onely seeme trusty in these petty matters to him, that they might the easier deceiue him in weightier, and resigne him ouer to the prey of his enemies. That all hope of his former liberty was look't vp, and not to be purchased vnder desperation. Admonishing him that therefore hee would bethinke himselfe to take some course to redeeme his credit and liberty, and his friends from seruitude, and the whole Kingdome from the tyrannous gouernment of his notori­ous enemies. The Earle is deafe to Cuffes bad counsell.The Earle stopt his eares against any such councell being assuredly perswaded that he should recover[Page 295] his lost fauour again with the Queene, & that gainfull Farme of Sweet Wines, the time of renuing which was now almost expired. The Queene indeed by words and Letters gaue him great hope of her fauour, but concerning the Farme, she a [...]swered here and there in seuerall places,

That first she would see what it was,The Queene will not yeeld to Essex his petitions. and that such good turnes are not to be bestowed blindfold.

Then shortly after she suffered others to haue the profit thereof, saying, That they must keepe a wilde horse without fodder, that intend to bring him within compasse. Also, she much vsed to recite and commend that physicall Aphorisme,

That the more one feeds corrupt and diseased bodies, the more one hurts them.

The Earle being inwardly much discontented at the Queenes answere,The Earle is much discon­ted at his de­niall. grew exceeding angry, and giuing ouer his iudgement to the moderation and rule of his extraua­gant affections and passions, he then began to giue eare to Cuffe, and any one that would blow the coales of sedition, that now had fully perswaded him, that the Queene, the Councell, and his aduersaries, had purposely resolued to beggar him quite, to make him liue on the Almes-basket, and of the crummes that fell from their tables. And that so be­ing made poore, neglected of the Queene, and forsaken by his friends, he might become the laughing stocke to his tri­umphing enemies.

Hereupon Southampton is sent for out of the Low Coun­tries.He hearkens to bad coun­sailes. And some Diuines counsails in Oxford, demanded, but for what I know not; and the Earle he himselfe returnes to London.

And now S. Christ. Blunt being much discontented that he had brought the Earle into these troubles, (for he perswa­ded him to come ouer out of Ireland but with a few with him) hauing also vnderstood that Hen. Howard had in vaine made intercession for the Earle with his potent aduersaries, admonished him now (as he himselfe afterwards confessed) [Page 296] to make his owne way to the Queen, intimating, that besides many of the Nobility would secure him, his ingresse and re­gresse. But the Earle answered, that that would breed a scru­ple in his conscience, except he had the fauourable opinion of Preachers thereto. Yet for all that, he sent word to Blu [...]t by Cuffe, that shortly he would take some order what to do, and impart the same to him, assoone as he had resolued on it.

And now the Earle kept open house, Mericke his Steward entertaining at boord all kinde of Souldiers, audacious, and discontented persons, that would not care whom they woun­ded with their tongues. Euery day there was a Sermon by some precise Minister or other; whither all the Citizens al­most flock't daily; also Ritch the Sister of the Earle, that hauing lost the honour of her marriage-bed, found the great discontent of the Queene lying heauy vpon her, frequented thither also daily. And if any man thought ill of these things, why he is presently noted as an iniurious person, to the honour and freedome of the Earle.

In the last moneth of this yeare died Roger Lord North, Treasurer of the Queenes Court, Sonne to Edward Lord North; he was a man of a liuely disposition, and his wise­dome equall to his courage. We haue spoken of him suffici­ently in 1567. and 1574. Dudley North his Heire succeeded, being nephew by the son, and Dorothy the daughter and heire of Valentine Dale, an excellent Lawyer. In his Treasurership William Kn [...]lles succeeded him. Sir Edward Wot­t [...]n shortly after succeeded him, being a man well tried in many affaires of the Common-wealth.

THE FOVRE and Fortieth Yeere OF HER REIGNE.
Anno Domini 1601.1601

IN the beginning of this yeare the Queene was wholly taken vp with very honourable [...]mbassies;Embassadors from Mauri­tania, and Russia. from the South cam [...] Hamets King of [...] [...]ingitana; Diuers Prin­ces resorted to visit the Queene. from the North [...] Pheod [...]ri­w [...]cke the Emperour of Russia's; She also very [...] en­tertained [...] William the Sonne of [...] Count Palatine, Duke of [...] and Vir­ginius Vrsinus the Duke of [...] and the [Page 298] [...] [Page 299] [...] [Page 300] [...] [Page 301] for he was beholding to him for it. Sir Ferdinando Gorge Captaine of the Garrison at Plimmouth. Sir Iohn Dauis Su­peruisor or Ouerseer of the Engines vnder him, an excellent Mathematician; and Sir Iohn Littleton of Fra [...]kell, wise both in councell and warre;I did purpose­ly omit the ge­nuine translati­on of these words, because I vnderstand they were interserted since the body of this History was composed, as may be seene in the Manuscript of M. Cambden himselfe, which is now in the hands of that famous and worthy Scholler M. Iohn Sel­den. if so be all his other behauiours had beene correspondent thereunto.

All these (to auoid suspition) meeting couertly in Drury House; there Essex first proposed to them a Catalogue of the Nobility that were all addicted to him; wherein, of Earles, Lords, Knights, and Gentlemen, he reckoned about one hundred and twenty. After this, he willeth them to consider, and tell him, whether it were best to surprize the Queene, or the Tower, or both together; and then what they should doe with the City.

But it seemed best to them all to surprize the Court, and that after this manner: S. C. Blunt with a choice company should seize on the Gate, Dauis the Hall, Danuers the great Chamber of the Guard, (where they sit seeing who is highest amongst them) and also the Presence Chamber; and then Essex should come out of the Mues with some choice com­pany, and hauing way made for him, come humbly to the Queene, and demaund that shee would remoue from her his potent aduersaries, whom he had afterwards resolued (as was by some of them confessed) to cite to appeare before Iudgement; and hauing assembled a Parliament, to change the forme of gouernment in the State.

But whilest these Scottish [...]mbassadours,Suspition dai­ly increased of Essex his loyalty. and a seasonable time for this matter were daily expected, suspitions increa­sed daily of him, by reason of a continuall concourse of the Commonalty to Essex house, vnder pretence of hearing Sermons; as also, by reason of some words that fell from one of their Preachers, whereby he allowed that the great Magistrates of the Kingdome had power in necessity to re­straine the Princes themselues. Hereupon, at small inck­ling of the matter on the seuenth of February, came Robert [Page 302] Sack [...]ill the sonne of the Treasurer, vnder pretence of an honourable visitation, but indeed, out of a desire of infor­mation, by knowing who vsed to come thither, and what they were. Presently after that, is Essex sent for to the Lord Treasurers house, (where the Councell met) there to be ad­monished that he should moderately vse the benefit of his libertie: and the very same day, a litle note was put into his hands, (he knew not how) wherin he was warned to looke to himselfe and provide for his owne safetie. But the Earle fearing that somewhat had come to light, and so hee might perchance be committed againe, excused himselfe by reason of some distemper in his health, that he could not come to the Councell.

And by this time his resolution (which had beene foure moneths a digesting) failed: and he hasteneth againe to some new plot. Wherefore hauing assembled his intimate friends againe, and intimated to them, that some of them would shortly be imprisoned, he propounded to them, whi­ther it were best or no forthwith to seize vpon the Court, or to try what the Citizens will doe for him, and so by their helpe set vpon it: or whither or no they had rather counsell him to fly, and secure himselfe that way. For the surpri­zing of the Court,He plots new matters. they were vnprouided of Souldiers and Engines; and besides, some affirmed that there had beene lately watch and ward duly kept there; besides, that to as­sault the Court, was inexcusable treason against the Queene. Whilest they were arguing about the loue of the Citizens, and some obiected the vnsta [...] disposition of the common people, behold one comes in, as if sent from them, that pro­mised their vtmost endeauours against all their enemies. Hereupon the Earle being somewhat cheerefull, began to discourse how much hee was [...]oued in the Citie, by most that were much addicted to his [...]ame and fortune; which he beleeued absolutely to be true, by reason of their conti­nuall murmuring and crying out against his hated enemies. [Page 303] Also, by other mens speeches, he was perswaded that Tho­mas Smith then Sheriffe of London, who was then Cap­taine of a thousand trained Souldiers, would be for him vpon all occasions. Wherefore he was resolued (by reason that such lingring is as dangerous commonly as rashnesse) the next day, which was Sunday, to come through the Ci­tie with two hundred of the nobler sort, and so to passe to Pauls Crosse, iust about the end of the Sermon, and there to declare to the Aldermen and people the reasons of his comming, and demand of them aide against his aduersaries. If so be the Citizens were backward in the matter, then they would goe on further presently; but if they were willing to helpe, then with them▪ to inuade the Court presently, and make way for him to the Queene. So all that night there was nothing but running vp and downe from Essex house, and crying that the Lord Cobham, A great mul­titude assem­bled at Essex his house. and Rawleigh laid waite for the Earle of Essex life. Hereupon, on Sunday, which was the eight day of February, early in the morning, comes the Earles of Rutland, and Southampton, the Lord Sands, Parker Lord Montaquile, and almost three hundred more of the better sort. These the Earle courteously entertained, and intimated to some, that there was waite laid for his life, that therefore he had resolued to get vnto the Queene, and tell of his dangers to her, by reason she neuer heares of it from his aduersaries, who abusing her sacred eares with calumnies and false informations, haue engrossed them on­ly to their stories beliefe. To others he signified, that the Citie stood for him, and that therefore hee would betake himselfe to them, and by their assistances re [...]enge the ene­mies iniuries. All this while the g [...]tes [...] vp, and no man let in, but he that was well k [...]own [...], [...]nd no man let out that was once let in. [...]et Sir Ferdinando Gorge had leaue and licence to goe to Sir Walter Rawleigh, that expected him on the water, and sent thither for him; Blunt indeed perswaded them there to surprize Sir Walter [Page 304] Rawleigh, but they did i [...] not. Now indeed there were some that reported that Gorge made there a discouery of all the matter to Rawleigh; but that is vncertaine: yet certaine it is that Rawleigh admonished him to take heed, that his ab­sence from his Office at Plimmouth without leaue cost him not imprisonment, and that Gorge againe admonished Raw­leigh that he should haue a care to himselfe, seeing that ma­ny of the Nobility had conspired against him, and some more that abused the Queenes authority.

At this very time the Queene commanded the Lord Maior of London to see that all the Citizens were ready at their doores at her command in an instant; and to the Earle of Essex she sent the Lord Keeper,The Lords of the Priuie Councell sent to the Earle of Essex. the Earle of Worcester, William Knolles Controwier of the Queenes Houshold, Vn­cle to the Earle, and Popham Lord chiefe Iustice of Eng­land, to know of him the reason of such a concourse. They were all let in at a wicket, and their seruants shut out, onely except him that carried the Seale before the Keeper. In the yard there they found a confused multitude of people, and in the midst of those the Earles of Essex, Rutland, and South­hampton, and many more, that presently flockt about the Councell. The Lord Keeper turning himselfe to the Earle of Essex, signified to him, that he and the rest of the Lords with him, were sent newly from the Queene, to know of him the cause of this concourse; who promised, that if any iniury had beene done vnto him, he should haue Law and Equity for it.

The Earle of Essex answered him alowed in this manner;

VVAit is laid for my life;Essex his complaint. there were some hired that should murther mee in my bed; I am traiterously dealt with, and my Letters were counterfeited both with hand and Seale. Wherefore, we haue met here toge­ther to defend our selues, and preserue our liues, since [Page 305] neither my patience, nor misery, will appease the ma­lice of my aduersaries, except they drinke my bloud also.

Popham spake to him to the same purpose, that the Lord Keeper had said already before; promising, that if so be he would particularly tell what was vndertaken, or intended against him, that hee would truely and honestly tell the Queene, and he should be lawfully heard.

The Lord Keeper being very vrgent with them, that if so be they would not tell their grieuances publikely, they would retire in and tell them, the multitude interrupting him, cryes out,

LEt vs bee gone,The clam [...]ur of the multi­tude. come; they abuse your pati­ence; they betray you my Lord; the time hastens, come.

Hereupon the Lord Keeper, turning about to them, char­ged them all on the Queenes name to lay downe their wea­pons. Then the Earle of Essex goes into the house, the Lord Keeper following him, and the rest of his company, that there they might priuately talke about the matter. In the meane time these harsh [...]ounds fly about their cares.

KIll them, kill them; away with the great Seale; shut them vp fast enough.

After they had come into the middest of the house, Essex commanding the dores to be bolted, sayes vnto them,

BE patient but a little, my Lords; I must needs [...] into the Citie, to take order with the Lord Mayor and the Sheriffes, and I will returne in­stantly.

[Page 306] The Lords of the Councell being shut vp there, were kept by Iohn Dauis, Francis Tresham, and Owen Salisbury an old bold Souldier, and some Gun-men. And Essex ha­uing almost forgot his resolution by reason of their com­ming, committing his house to Gill Mericke, issues forth with some two hundred with him, who were not in battell array, or any military order, but onely running for the most part with their Cloaks wrapt about their armes, & Swords: amongst whom were the Earle of Bedford, the Lord Crom­well, and some other Nobles.

Hauing come into London he cries out euery minute,Essex enters London.

FOr the Queene, for the Queene; there is wait laid for my life.

And so going through Cheape-side, he made all haste to Smith's house the Sheriffe by Fenchurch- street. And euer where he saw Citizens without weapons, he requested them to arme themselues, or else they could doe him no good. Yet for all this, in so well trayned a Citie full of souldiers, most popular, and most addicted to him; there was not one, no not of the basest people, that tooke Armes for him in his defence.

At length he got to the Sheriffes house, almost at the fur­ther end of the Citie, so fretting and cha [...]ing in his minde, and so sweating (although the weather was not then so hot) that there he was faine to change his shirt.

The Sheriffe Smith, He is pro­claimed Traitour. in whom his too easie credulity had reposed such great confidencie, presently withdrew him­selfe out at a Posterne gate, to the Lord Mayors: and in the meane time the Lord Burghley, Dethicke Garter King at Armes entring into the Citie, proclaime Essex, and all his complices Traitours; although indeed some withstood it, and offered violence. The Earle of Cumberland, Sir Tho­mas Gerard Marshall did the like in other parts of the Citie. [Page 307] When the Earle of Essex perceiued that, hee rushes out of the Sheriffes house, and his countenance much chang­ing often, hee cryed out, that England was to be diui­ded for the Infanta of Spaine, exhorting the Citizens to take armes, but all in vaine; for the Citizens wealth, if nothing else, would keepe them loyall. But when the Earle saw that not any one tooke Armes for his defence, and that those that accompanied him withdrew themselues a­way; and heard also that the Admirall came with forces a­against him, then he began to cast away all his hopes. Wher­fore he bethinkes of returning home againe,The Earle thinkes of re­turning home againe. and by the meanes of the Lord Keeper and the rest lockt vp at home, to procure some hope of fauour from the Queene. But when as Sir I. Leuison with a Band at Ludgate denyed Gorge pas­sage for the Earle, which he demanded, Gorge being carefull of himselfe, in the care of the Councellours, comes and per­swades the Earle,Gorge sets the Councel­lours free that the Earle had lockt into a roome. that he would send him to set the Coun­cellours free, and then both hee and they might intercede with the Queene for his pardon, whilest yet there was hope, and some comfort, no blood being yet shed, and whilest the Queene might be in doubt of the successe, or the Cities minde in any vncertainty what they should doe. The Earle gaue him leaue, but onely willed that Popham might be set free; but Popham denying his owne liberty, except the Lord Keeper also were deliuered, Gorge set them all at liberty, and taking Boat with them, came by water to the Court.

The Earle now about to returne,A conflict neere the Bi­shop of Lon­dons. findes his way chained vp neerest the West gate of Pauls, and Pikemen, and Mus­kets set against him, at the appointment of the Bishop of London, vnder the command of Sir I. Leuison. Here first he drew his Sword, and commanded Blunt to assault them. Which he did very manfully, hauing slaine one Wayte, and he himselfe [...]ore wounded was taken. There was slaine also Henry Tracy a young man, and very dearely loued by the [Page 308] Earle, besides one or two Citizens. The Earles passage be­ing stopt here, [...] hauing his hat shot through with a Bullet, accompanied with a few that left him not yet,He takes Boat at Queene­hith, and gets home to fortifie his house. (for most had) making hast downe to Queene-hith, got Boats, and came home to his house againe by water.

Hauing returned, he was very angry that the Councel­lours were dismissed; so hee burnes a many papers, lest (as he said) they should blab too much, and prepares himselfe for his owne defence, fortifying his house on all sides, and and vainly expecting helpe from the Londoners.

Presently after the Lord Admirall comes,He is besie­ged. and besiegeth it on the Land-side, setting in order the Earles of Cumberland, and Lincolne, Thomas Howard, Lord Gray, Burghley, and Compton, with horse and foot. He himselfe, with his Sonne Effingham, L. Cobham, Stanhope, Robert Sidney, & Sir Fulke Greuile, on the Thames side, seized on his Garden. And now being ready to assault the house,He is com­manded to yeeld him­selfe. he commandeth them by Sidney to yeeld them vp to him. The Earle of South­hampton demands againe to whom they should yeeld it; To their enemies? that were indeed to deserue danger enough. To the Queene? that were indeed to confesse themselues guilty. But yet, saith he, if the Admirall will giue vs good pledges for our security, we will come and appeare before the Queene. But if not, that they had all resolued rather to lose their liues, then the credit of their cause. The Admirall answered againe, that there ought not to be Pledges giuen, or any conditions offered to Rebels; but yet certified [...] Essex, that he should send out the Countesse his Wife, his Sister the Lady Rich, and some other Mayd-seruants, that with [...] and [...] made a terrible noise within doores. The Earle tooke that for a great courtesie, and onely desired that he might haue an houre or two [...] respite to fortifie the place where they went out; which was granted.

But [...] houre being spent,The Earle [...]etermines to [...]ue forth. the Earle finding all his hopes come to a despaire, determined to issue forth vpon [Page 309] them; which the Lord Sands somewhat ancienter then the rest, vrged also exceedingly, saying still, that the most vali­ant Councels are the most safe; that it is farre more honou­rable to die fighting with Noble men, then by the hand of a hangman.

But Essex his minde being as vnconstant as his fortune,He begins to thinke of yeelding. began rather to thinke of yeelding; and gaue notice, that vpon certaine Articles and conditions he would yeeld. But the Admirall denying any conditions, he would not guie conditions, but onely take, and they should be but these.

First, To deal [...] ciuilly with them; which the Admirall granted.

Secondly, To let their cause be fairely and lawfully tried; To which he answered, that he ought not to doubt of that.

Lastly, That during the time of his imprisonment, hee might haue Ashton his Chaplaine with him, for his soules better comfort; The Admirall promised that he would in­tercede with the Queene for these things.

And so forth with the Nobler sort kneeling downe,They yeeld themselues. deli­liuered vp their Swords to the Admirall, and themselues, at ten of the clocke at night. In this assault there died onely Owen Salisbury, and one or two flaine within with the Muskets, and as many of the Assaulters without.

The Earles of Essex and Southampton first of all are com­mitted to the Archbishop of Canterburies house at Lam­beth, Essex and Southampton imprisoned. and not streightway to the Tower, because it was late at night, and the water not passable vnder London Bridge. But the next day, or very soone after, by commission from the Queene, they were carried by boat vnto the Tower: R [...]tland, Sands, Cromwell, M [...]taquile, and Charles Dan­uers, and Henry Bromley, were sent after in more Boats: The [...] were all committed to common gaoles. And thus within twelue houres was this commotion at rest, which some called a [...] in the Earle, some an errour, others a stubborne [...], and [...] reuenge. But they that [Page 310] made the worst of it, onely called it an inconsiderate rash­nesse, (the Citizens being as loth to acknowledge a rebelli­on, as to cause one) and scarcely was there one that thought it yet, treason.

The day after,The loyall care of the Citizens is highly com­mended. the Queene by her Herauld commended the loyall care of her Citizens, acknowledging the same with very louing words. Also, then admonishing them that they should maintaine the publike peace and tranquility, by rea­son that the infection of this new sedition was likely to lurke and breake out somewhere: also, that they should haue an especiall care to obserue if any went about any in­nouations, either by forcing the mindes of the weake and simple people thereto, or calumniating any of the Queenes Seruants.

Vpon the twelfth of February Thomas Lee, Thomas Lee is taken. Kinsman to Sir Henry Lee of the Order of Saint George, a Commander in Ireland, very intimate with Tir-Oen, and as much deuo­ted to Essex too, who the very same night, that Essex had refused (being sent for) to goe to the Priuy Councellers, profered his seruice either to surprize or kill the Earle of Es­sex, now intimated secretly to Robert Crosse a Sea Captaine, that it were a braue thing if six tall fellowes at once would set vpon the Queene, and make her by force release Essex and Southampton, and the rest out of prison. These things Crosse hauing betrayed to the Councell, & Lee being sought vp & downe for, was about twilight found about the Priuy Chamberdore, very pale, and sweating, and oftentimes ha­uing asked whither or no the Queene were ready to goe to Supper, or whether any of the Priuy Councell were there. There being taken, and then examined, the next day being condemned by Crosses witnesse,Lee is hang'd at Tiburne. and his owne confession, he was hanged at Tyburne: and there indeed he confessed that he had beene a very wicked lewd fellow, but in this cause very innocent: protesting that he neuer thought any thing in his life against the Queene. This execution indeed might [Page 311] another time haue beene longer deliberated on, but in these times necessity required such wholesome seuerity. And well was it, to shew how they would punish treason, though perchance they hanged no traitor.

And now presently after,A proclama­tion against Vagabonds and run-a­waies. all their assemblies and consul­tations at Drewry house, were reuealed by one of the con­spiratours, enticed it is likely with hope of his life: but who it was, certainly I cannot tell. And this, when the rest be­ing examined,The conspi­rators com­plots are de­tected. perceiued to be found out, thinking also that all was knowne, and counting it a foolish secrecy to con­ceale that which was already knowne, hoping for no bene­fit of concealing, reuealed all.

Hereupon Essex and Southampton, Essex and Southampton arraigned. who thought that all was safe enough, were arraigned the 19. of February at Westminster, before the Lord Buckhurst, Treasurer of Eng­land, Lord Steward for that day: Their Peeres were the Earles of Oxford, Nottingham, Shrewsbury, Darby, Wor­cester, Cumberland, Sussex, Hertford, and Lincolne, Vis­count Howard of Bindon, the Lords Hunsdon, De-la-ware, Morley, Cobham, Stafford, Grey, Lumley, Windsor, Rich, Dar­cie of Chech, Chandoys, Sir Iohn of Bletnesh, Burghley, Comp­ton, and Howard of Walden, which was then Constable of the Tower of London. Besides Popham Lord chiefe Iustice of England, Periam Lord chiefe Baron of the Exchequer, Gawdy, Fe [...]ner, Wams [...]ey, Clarke, and Kingsmill.

These all being called by name, Essex demanded if it were not lawfull for him, as it is for a priuate man in the like case, to take exception against any of them. But the Iudges made answere, that the credit and truth of the Peeres of the Kingdome of England is such, that in any Law-case, or iu­diciall causes, they can neither be put to their oath, nor yet excepted against.

Then are they ioyntly demanded,The heads of the accusati­ons. wherefore they in­tended to dispossesse the Queene of her Throne, and take a­way her life from her, which they intended in their resolu­tions [Page 312] of assaulting the Court, of breaking into an open re­bellion, and of imprisoning the Priuy Councellours, of stir­ring the Londoners to a rebellion, and of setting vpon her Maiesties trusty Subiects in the City, and by defending their houses against the Queenes forces. They being de­manded whither or no they were guilty of these crimes, de­nied: and submitted themselues to God and their Peeres.

Eluerton at large vnfolds the matter,They are vn­folded by the Queenes Lawyers. shewing that it is to be reckoned as treason, euen to thinke any thing against the Maieste of a Prince. Then he compares Essex with Catiline, by reason that he heaped together in his rebellion men of al [...] sorts, Atheists, Papists, and the wickedest that were. Then he casts in his teeth the liberality and goodnesse of the Queene towards him, that had bestowed vpon him (an vndeseruing young man) such vntimely honours, accusing him for abusing them by hunting after popularity, and the loue of Souldiers, in an vnsatiable ambition of glory, which neuer stinted, but still like the Crocodile growes as long as it liues. Then he shewes, that he much wonders that the Earles would pleade not guilty, when all the world could giue euidence of their offences.

Sir Edward Coke Solliciter, shewes them out of Fitzher­bert an English Authour among the Lawyers, that the very inward thought of any villany against the Prince, was in­deed treason; although not to be iudged so, till it brake out into Word or Act. Then he shews that they intend the de­struction of the Prince, who run into rebellion, who draw together an armed Band, who being commanded to dismisse them, refuse; or who thinke of bringing the City, the To­wer, or the Court, or the Prince vnder their owne power. Then hee runnes thorow all the graces and fauours of the Queene bestowed vpon him. That she had made him Ma­ster of the Horse, and warlike Engines. That she had cho­sen him into her Priuy Councell. That she had made him Earle Marshall of England, and Lord Deputy of Ireland; [Page 313] and that in a small time she had most munificently giuen him thirty thousand pounds of English money. Then hee reckons vp the imprisonment of the Priuy Councellours, the threatnings against them, the feares they were put in; and then he obiects his acquaintance to him with Danuers, Dauis, and Blunt, all addicted to Popery. Then shewed he, how that they chose rather to goe into the City then come to Court, because the glorious light of Maiesty glittering in the Queene, would haue so blinded the eies of their treache­ry and treason, that they would neuer haue dared to haue come neere. Then he commends their confessions, which came out voluntary, and not being wracked out; and also for the coherence of one with another: and hauing wouen into his discourse an historicall Narration of all the matter, about surprizing the Queene, and calling a Parliament, hee concluded his speech with this bitter Epiphonema:

THat it were to be wished, that this Robert should be the last of this name Earle of Es­sex, who affected to be Robert the first of that name King of England.

The Earle cheerefull in voyce and countenance,The Earles reply. answered to this, that indeed it was the propriety of Lawyers to speake well, and be good Orators; who doe thinke it a great glory in accumulated speeches, to aggrauate the offence of people in a manner innocent. But for his Peeres he intrea­ted them to consider of his case, not according to the vehe­mency of his words, but the truth of the thing: protesting that for his owne part he was most sincere in his Religion, and that he knew no otherwise by Dauis, for he went daily to Church. Concerning the threatnings to the Priuy Coun­cellours, he answered, that he heard not any, by reason of the tumultuous concourse and noise of the people, that hee vsed them there as his best and chiefest friends, but that he [Page 314] was compelled there to keepe them in custody, by reason of the people, and that he was necessarily droue thereunto in his owne defence, after that once he had heard, not by coniecturall thoughts, but by sure reason of faithfull messin­gers, that he was ready to be set vpon sodainly by his ene­mies. And concerning the Queene, hee said, that he then did (and still doth) keepe his loyalty to so well-deseruing a Prince, and that he nothing intended else, then to prostrate himselfe at the Queenes feet, and to lay open the dangers he was in, and the danger that hangs ouer all the Kingdome.

Popham Lord chiefe Iustice of England▪ He excuseth his iniuries done to the Counsellours. being asked vp­on his oath, declared how vnworthily and ill they had bin vsed at his hands. The Earle made answer, that he inten­ded no harme to those Honourable persons, but respected them with great honour; but yet he saw that the Queenes command could not keepe Southampton from iniurie, by reason that Grey durst assault him publikely with his sword; and that there he prouided some safeguard for himselfe, from his friends and Clients to withstand the violent fury of his enemies. And that there was such violence offered and in­tended against him,He layes open the iniuries done to him­selfe. would appeare, if but from that, that Gorge was admonished by Rawleigh, that assoone as hee could he should separate himselfe from him, as a ship that was now sincking. Then he complained, that some Pa­pists were accusers of him, onely being hired thereto; as also, that they had counterfeited his hand-writing, (which indeed was done by an Impostor a cheater, to get money, as we shall shew.) So that hereupon Gorges testimony was brought in, who had confessed that the Earle had determi­ned to inuade the Court, and to call a Parliament, trusting to the helpes of the Londoners, &c. And then Gorge him­selfe was sent for out of prison hard by, to witnesse this be­fore his face. The Earle assoone as he saw him, supposing, that either out of hope or [...]eare he had betrayed all, by rea­son his was the first testimony that was brought; and also, [Page 315] because he came as a witnesse of his owne accord, very pas­sionately traduces him,The Earle seekes to ex­tenuate Gor­ges testimony. Southampton defends his owne cause. esteeming his testimony of no truth, by reason of his variable countenance, which was by and by pale, and then red.

Then was obiected their meetings and consultations in Drury house, about the seizing of the Tower, or the Court. To which Southampton in a very milde speech, protesting his true heart to the Queene, made answere, that such as those things were indeed there proposed, but not determined, but onely referred to the Earle of Essex. Neither was that which was consulted put into practise, but another, to wit, his go­ing out into London, which was to no other end, then to get thereby secure accesse vnto the Queene, and complaine freely to her of his iniuries. That all the day long he drew not his sword, neither that he heard of any Proclamation, whereby he was proclaimed Traitour. That as much as he could he hindered the shooting out of Essex house. Where­fore he requested that they iudge of the matter, not accor­ding to the rigour and letter of the Law, but equity: And being demanded if he thought not, that to seize vpon the Court, and to bring the Queene vnder their power, was not Treason? Hee answered him, asking him, what hee thought in his conscience they would haue done against the Queene? The very same answered the Recorder, that Henry Duke of Lancaster did to Richard the second: who humbly came into the Kingdome, vnder pretence of remoo­uing away from the King some naughty Councellours; but hauing brought the King himselfe vnder his power, he took from him his Crowne, and shortly after his life.

The Iudges after this were demanded by the Peeres, whe­ther or no that consultation in Drury house were Treason, by reason it came not to effect. They all said it was; and the rebellion in the Citie, to be a prosecution of that their consultation: for that, if so be they could haue got aide e­nough at London amongst the Citizens, they would haue [Page 316] inuaded the Court. Then it being asked, whether Essex were the Author and occasioner of these meetings;Cases pro­pounded to the Iudges assistants. that was pro­ued by many testimonies, by the contents of their meeting, written with his owne hand, and by his casting of some pa­pers into the fire, for babling, as he said.

The Earle assoone as he heard these things,Essex accu­seth his ad­uersaries. which he ho­ped had beene concealed; hope (said hee) of getting their liues, or escaping from punishment hath wrought these te­stimonies out from some: and indeed let them enioy their liues as long as they can, or will. Death is more desired to me then life; onely the violence of Cobham, Cecill, and Rawleigh, droue mee to a necessary defence of my selfe; which was all, howsoeuer the Lawyers interprete my going out into the City, my own conscience being cleare from any treachery, is my greatest comfort.

Cobham rising vp, protested that he neuer did Essex any malicious office, but onely alwayes disallowed of his ambi­on. Essex answered, but I with all my heart, euen with the losse of my right hand, would haue remooued such a calum­niator (and tale-teller) from the Queene.

Sir Francis Bacon politely,Bacon re­moues the ac­cusations. and like an Oratour, endea­uouring to take away that colour from their rebellion, which they drew from the enmity that was betweene them, affir­med, that both Cabham, Cecill, and Rawleigh, were so true­ly honest, and of so good estates, that they would neuer ha­zard both of them in the attempt of any such wicked act. Then he shewes that those fictions of waite laid for his [...], were false, by reason of the variety of them: sometimes, in that he would cry out he should be murthered in his bed; then in the Boat; and lastly, by the Iesuites. Then he accu­sed him of great vanity, for crying out in London, that the Kingdome of England was put to sale to the Spaniard, and to be diuided for the Infanta: adding, that it was an ordinary matter with Traitours, not indeed directly to rise against their Prince, but onely obliquely, and through the [Page 317] sides of some of the Peeres: Then he checkes him for his deepe dissimulation, in that he had put on such a Vizard of godlinesse: comparing him to the Athenian Pisistratus, that would teare his owne body, that hee might shew it to the people, as if it had beene rent and torne by his enemies, and so hauing got aide of them, oppressed the whole Common­wealth. Essex interrupting him in his proceedings,Essex inter­rupts his speech. remember, how that but lately he himselfe had very efficaci­ously, and pithily written Letters for him to the Queene a­gainst these his aduersaries▪ adding besides, that he vnder­stood that Secretary Cecil had said to one of the Priuy coun­cell, that the right of the Infanta to the Realme of England, was as good and iust, as any of the rest of the Competitors. Scarce had he said these words,Cecill comes forth. but Cecill that had stood hid­den in a little Closet to heare all the proceedings, straight way comes forth, and falling downe on his knees, beseecheth the L. High Steward, that he would giue him leaue and licence to answere for himselfe to such a calumny, so foule and false. Leaue being granted, he speakes to Essex in this manner.

IN wit indeed I giue you place,Cecill speakes to Essex. wherein you are ve­ry excellent. In your Nobility I giue you place, for I am not reckoned amongst my Predecessours that were Nobles, although I my selfe am. In your military affaires I giue you place, I am no Souldier. But yet for all this, my innocence shall protect me, & in this place am I free, where you are guilty. Wherefore I challenge you, if you dare, to tell who was the Priuie Councellour, to whom I said these words.

Essex refused it. Therefore, sayes Cecill, it is but a fained tale. Essex denied that. Wherefore Cecill turning to South­hampton, entreates him by all their acquaintance, euen since their youth, by their Christian profession of the same Religi­on, and by the honour of his Family, and adiuring him by [Page 318] them all, to name the man to them. Southampton referres it all to the Councell, and Cecill himselfe, if it were fitting with reason, & safe for his honour to name him, when all thought it fit he should name him, he names William Lord Knolles, Vnckle to the Earle of Essex.

Cecill very earnestly entreating that he should be sent for, shortly after he came,Knolles is sent for. and acknowledged, that some two yeares agoe he heard Cecill say, that one Dolman in a Booke had prooued the right of the Infanta to the Crowne, but that he himselfe said no such matter. Essex replied, that the words were told him after another sence. Cecill replyed,

THe malice,Cecill in­ueighs a­gainst Essex. whereby you haue endeauoured to bring me in hatred with all men, comes from nothing else, but my desire of peace, and the good of my Country, and from your hot desire of warre, to the profit of the Souldiers, that they might be vnder your becke. And hence was it that you set forth an Apologie against the Peace. And hence was it that all that spake of peace were hated, as most ad­dicted to the Spaniard. But for my owne part, I am so farre from enclining towards the Infanta of Spaine, that I tremble euen to thinke of it.

Whilest the Lord Knolles is expected, the Recorder ac­cuseth Essex of dissembling hypocrisie, that professing pub­likely the Euangelicall Religion, yet hee promised Blunt (a Papist) a Toleration. The Earle denyed it; yet denyed he not but that he knew Blunt was a Papist, (for hee when hee was a Boy was brought vp in the Low Countries vnder Al­len, that was afterwards Cardinall) but that he desired his conuersion, and neuer indeed liked that any Christian should be tormented in case of religion.

Southampton he forth with excuseth himselfe,Southampton againe excu­seth himselfe. by reason of his deare loue to the Earle of Essex, and his ignorance of [Page 319] the Lawes. He modestly implores the mercy of the Queene, whom he alwaies knew the patterne euen of Gods mercy, and whom he protested he neuer iniured, not with an euill thought.

The Iudges Assistants being demanded,The Iudges Assistants o­pinion concer­ning the Peeres prote­stations. concerning these reiterated protestations of both the Earles, that they neuer ment any wrong to the Queene, gaue this sentence;

THat if any man shall attempt to strengthen himselfe so farre, that the Prince cannot re­sist him, he is guilty of rebellion. Also, that euery rebellion the Law construeth to be a plot against the Princes life, or a deposing of him, in as much as the Rebell will not suffer the Prince to continue, or reigne, that shall hereafter punish or reuenge such a rebellion.

This they confirmed by Law, where it is adiudged Trea­son, to doe any thing against the security of the Prince, by reason, that it cannot be, that he that once prescribeth to his King a Right, will euer suffer the King to recouer his autho­rity to himselfe againe, or to liue, lest so he might chance to recouer it. Fetching examples from our owne Chronicles, of Edward the second, and Richard the second, who being by force of Armes brought vnder their Subiects power, were after both deposed and murthered.

After that Sir Iohn Leuison standing by, describes in ma­ny words against the Earle of Essex the tumultuous fray neere Pauls Churchyard. Then was read through the con­fessions of the Earles of Rutland, the Lord Cr [...]mwell, and Sands.

Then began Essex to answere more mildly, that hee thought of nothing but onely to repell force by force, and that he would not haue gone into the Citie so inconsiderate­ly, but that he foresaw imminent danger ouer him. After­wards Sir Francis Bacon repeats the opinions and sentences [Page 320] of the Iudges, who all found both the Earles guilty of Trea­son: shewing, that they could not excuse themselues, who being commanded by the Lord Keeper, and a Herald, to lay downe their weapons, yet did it not. Essex replied, that he saw no Herald but a lame fellow, whom he tooke not for a Herald, saying, that if he had intended any thing but onely his defence against those his aduersaries, he would not haue gone out with so small a company, so vnarmed, (for they had nothing but Swords, and Daggers, and Gunnes.) Bacon re­plying that that was done out of policy by him, who indeed relyed vpon the Citizens armes, that they might furnish himselfe, and his men too, and take armes themselues for him. Imitating Guise in France, in this tricke; who not long agoe entring Paris with a few people, so stirred vp the people to take armes, that he made the King dispatch out of the City.

By and by, were both the Earles remooued aside: and the Peeres that past vpon them, rising and separating themselues from the rest, conferred amongst themselues, and weighing the matter, within an houre returned againe to their seates: euery one hauing found both the Earles guilty. The Nota­ry calls both the Earles to the Barre againe, according to the manner, and asketh them seuerally, if they had any thing to say, why sentence should not be pronounced against them. Essex intreating the Peeres, to make intercession for South­hampton to the Queene, who might hereafter well deserue at her hands, answered:

MY life, I take no care for that, there is no­thing that I more earnestly desire, then to lay downe my life in loyalty towards God and the Queene, whatsoeuer the Law make of me. Yet would I not that you should signifie to the Queene any contempt in me of her gracious mercy; which indeed all my smooth language would neuer purchase. And [Page 321] I entreat you all, that since I neuer thought ill against my Prince, ye would quit me in the Court of your Conscience, although that ye haue cast me and con­demned me in this Court of Iustice.

The Earle of Southampton most demissely and humbly craued the Queenes pardon, entreating his Peeres to inter­cede for it with the Queene, protesting againe, that he neuer conceiued any ill thought against the Queene: insomuch that with his pleasing speech, and ingenuous modestie, hee mooued all the standers by to pitty him.

The Lord High Steward hauing made now a very graue speech,Sentence pro­nounced a­gainst Essex and South­hampton. admonisheth the Earle, to request the Queenes mer­cy and pardon, pronouncing vpon him the dolefull sentence of hanging, drawing, and quartering. And now the Hat­chet being turned towards them, that before was turned from them, Essex said,

THis body might haue done the Queene better ser­uice, if she had pleased; but I reioyce that it is v­sed any way for her.

Requesting, that before his death hee might receiue the Communion, and that Ashton a Minister might be still with him, for his soules health. Then hee asked pardon of the Earle of Worcester, and the Lord Chiefe Iustice, for keeping them in hold. And of Morley, and De-la-ware, for bringing their Sonnes (that knew not of the matter) into such danger. And then, his staffe being broken, the Earle departed. These things, theMr. Camden himselfe. Authour of the originall being there present, makes worth beleefe, who, if he haue omitted any thing of note, wisheth it imputed to the fault of his memory, not of his will.

The next day Sir Robert Vernon, Others also arraigned. Sir William Constable, Sir Edmund Baynham Iohn Littleton, Henry Guffe Secreta­ry [Page 322] to the E. of Essex, and Cap. Whitlocke, Iohn and Christo­pher Wright, brothers, and Orell an old Souldier, were all ar­raigned. Assoone as (after the fashion) they had held vp their hands, the Queenes Letters came in, who being informed by Sir Fulke Greuill, that most of them were deceitfully en­ticed to this villany, commanded that onely Littleton being sicke, Bainham, who ran headlong vpon the matter, out of wantonnesse and contempt of the Magistrates, and Orell, should come to triall; the rest she willed to be sent backe to prison againe.

Bainham and Orell pleaded ignorance, in that they onely followed the Earle to testifie their obseruancy. But Littleton being cast by the witnesse of Danuers, who had brought him into the company, could not denie but that he was there at their consultation. Then in his accusation being accused of thinking some villany and sedition, by reason of some Horses and Armour that he had in his Inne; hee answered, that his meanes would allow him to doe it, and that he al­waies loued horses well. Being condemned with the rest, he said nothing, but lifting vp his eies to Heauen, Wee praise thee O God▪ we knowledge thee to be the Lord. But yet all their liues were spared: Bainham bought his of Rawleigh for mo­ney, Littleton died very shortly by reason of his sicknesse, Orell onely continued some time in prison. The E. of Essex in the mean time,Essex desires to speake with some of the Councell. whether or no out of his tender consci­ence voluntary, or whether or no he were councelled into a conscience by the Minister that was with him, was so mole­sted, that he was perswaded he should be vtterly damned if he concealed any of the truth, and betrayed not all the con­spirators. Wherefore he requested to speake vnto some of the Councell, and particularly Cecill, who came to him, with the Admirall, Treasurer, and Lord Keeper. And first he asketh forgiuenesse of the Lord Keeper, for keeping him in hold at his House; and then of Cecill, for traducing him in the case of the Infanta: So that on both sides there was made a cha­ritable [Page 323] and christian reconciliation. And then he intimates vnto them, that as long as he liued, the Queene could not be safe. Wherefore he desired to die priuately within the Tow­er. Then he greatly condemneth some of his partakers in this matter, for pernicious men, viz. Blunt, and Cuffe, whom he desired to speake with. And assoone as he saw Cuffe, hee said:

O Cuffe, aske God and the Queene pardon,He accuseth Cuffe. & God grant thou maiest deserue it▪ I am now wholly thinking vpon a better life, hauing resolued to deale plainly before God and men: neither can I choose but deale plainly with thee; thou wert the first that brought'st me to this treachery.

Cuffe being examined vpon these words, in some few words had a fling only at Essexes inconstancy, for betraying his friends, and then held his tongue.

Likewise Essex reueales Sir Henry Neuill not to be igno­rant of this conspiracy,Essex re­ueales others that knew of the conspira­cie. who was now Leager in France, and who thereupon returning about the confirming of the Trea­ty at Bloys, and forbidding robberies on either side, was at his returne committed to the Lord Admirals custody.

Likewise he reuealed some in Scotland, France, and the Low Countries, and Lord Deputy Montioy in Ireland, as no strangers to his resolution, and besides many in England: whom because they were so many, and because the Deputy prospered so fortunately in Ireland, the Queene tooke no notice of. Neither was it sufficient enough for him (as hee thought) to declare these by word of mouth, but also vnder his owne hand-writing: which being afterwards shewed to the King of Scotland by his enemies, lost him much of his credit.

The 25. of February, which was allotted the time of his death, there were sent vnto him early in the morning Thomas [Page 324] Montford, and William Barlowe, Doctors of Diuinity, be­sides Ashton the Minister, to confirme and strengthen his soule in her assurance of saluation. The Earle before these gaue the Lord great thankes from the bottome of his heart, that his purpose (that was so dangerous to the Common­wealth) tooke no effect. That now God had enlightened him to see his sinnes, it being to him a great cause now of his sorrow, that he had so strongly defended his so vniust a cause. Then he gaue hearty thankes to the Queene, that she suffered him not to die publikely, le [...]t that by the acclamati­on and noyse of the people, his setled minde might haue beene drawne from it's resolution; withall witnessing vnto them, that now he had well learned what popularity and af­fectation of it, were; confessing, that he ought indeed now to be spewed out, (for that was his word) out of the Common­wealth, by reason of his pernicious vndertakings, which he compared to a Leprosie, that had dispersed farre and neere, and had infected many.

The Queene, by reason of her good will alwaies to him, somewhat now mooued in mind, commanded that he should not die, by Sir Edward Cary. But then on the other side, weighing his contumacy and stubbornnesse, that scorned to aske her pardon; and that he had said, that as long as he li­ued, the Queene could not liue in safety; she altered her resolution, and by Darcy commanded the execution to proceed.

Wherefore on the same day was the Earle brought out betweene two Diuines vpon the scaffold,Essex brought to execution. in the Tower-yard: where sate the Earles of Cumberland, and Hartford, Viscount Howard of Bindon, the Lords Howard of Walden, Darcy of Chile, and Compton. There were also present some of the Aldermen of London, and some Knights, and Sir Walter Rawleigh, to no other end (if we may beleeue him) then to answere him, if at his death he should chance to obiect any thing to him, although many interpreted his being there to [Page 325] a worser sence, as though he had done it onely to feed his eyes with his torments, and to glut his hate with the Earles bloud: wherefore being admonished that hee should not presse on him now he was dying, which was the property of base w [...]de beasts, he withdrew himselfe, and looked out vp­on him at the Armoury.

The Earle, assoone as he had mounted the scaffold, vnco­uereth his head, & lifting vp his eyes to Heauen, confesseth, that many & grieuous were the sins of his youth, for which he earnestly begged pardon of the eternall Maiesty of God, through the mediation of Christ, but especially for this his sinne, which hee said was a bloudy, crying, and contagious sinne; whereby so many men being seduced, sinned both a­gainst God, and their Prince. Then he entreated the Queene to pardon him, wishing her a long life, and all prosperity. Protesting, he neuer meant ill towards Her. He gaue God hearty thankes, that he neuer was an Atheist, or Papist, but that alwaies he put his trust in Christs merits. He bese [...]ch­ed God to strengthen him against the terrours of death. And he entreated the standers by to accompany him in a little short prayer, which with a feruent eiaculation and hearty deuotion he made to God. Then he forgaue his executioner, and repeated his Creed, and fitting his necke to the blocke, hauing repeated the fiue first verses of the 51. Psalme, hee said: Lord, He is behea­ded. I cast my selfe downe humbly and obediently, to my deserued punishment: Thou O Lord, haue mercy vpon thy seruant that is cast downe: Into thy hands, O Lord, I commit my spirit. His head after that was stricken off at the third blow, but the first tooke away both sence and motion.

Thus (although Byron and the French scoffed at him, and this his deuotion, which they said was fitter for a Parson then a Souldier, as if the feare of Hell were not the valour of a Christian) dyed Robert D'Euereux Earle of Essex, at the age of foure and thirty yeares; very godlily, and truely [Page 326] Christianly: in as much, that his Fathers admonition pro­ued not altogether vaine, who bid him haue a care of his six and thirtieth yeare, when hee lay a dying. Hee was a man certainly very vertuous,His commen­dation. for all parts that became any Noble man. His stocke was very ancient, and Noble. His sir­name was deriued to him from Euereux, His stocke and Ance­stors. as the vulgar call it, a Citie in Normandy. His title of a Lord came by mar­riage with Cisely the Daughter of William Bourchier, whose Grandmother was Sister to Edward 4. K. of England, whose great Grandmother was Daughter to Th. of Woodstocke, the Son of Edward 3▪ borne of one of the Daughters of Hum­phrey Bohune E. of Hartford and Essex, whereupon the Ti­tle of Viscount of Hartford was bestowed vpon his great Grandfather Walter by Edward 6, and the Title of Earle of Essex bestowed vpon his Father by Queene Elizabeth.

He being a young man, was brought vp at Cambridge in the studies of learning and Religion, and afterwards com­mended by the Earle of Leicester (his Father in Law) to the Queene, and made Master of the Horse, although with much adoe he obtained it of the Queene, she being somwhat grown strange to his mother. But afterwards, when by his obser­uancy and duty, he had purchased her full fauour, she for­gaue him the debt which his Father owed; she made him one of the Order of S. George, and of her Priuie Councell, when he was scarce 23. yeares olde. He was often Com­mander of Armies, although fortune failed him in good suc­cesse, Wch I will not say was by reason of the Planet Mars, who in the 11. house of Heauen shined most afflictiuely ouer him at his Natiuity. And when as now he had not alone the shew of the Queenes fauour, but the excesse thereof, in very deed, he made all haste (as the Courtiers most did complaine) to outgoe all his Equalls, and Superiours too, to speake euilly of the praise of any man that was not wholly addicted to him; to take heinously if any man had gotten either power or fauour with the Queene; to hunt after the popular com­mendations, [Page 327] that alwaies is very short in durance, and mi­litary praises, which are as dangerous, by his meeknesse and liberality. Also he began to be somewhat selfe-willed, and stubborne towards the Queene, and rather out of his great minde, then pride; especially, after that she out of her cour­tesie had renewed her fauour to him, which he once lost, and had opened a way for new benefits to him. But this his con­tumacy & vntowardnes as it were, in wrestling out benefits from her, and his lothsome neglect of obedience towards her, with the crafty vndermining of his enuious aduersa­ries, by little and little toled him out of the Queenes fauour, and at length quite estranged him from it. Neither indeed was this noble Earle made for a Courtier, who was slow to any wickednesse, very warie in taking of offence, and very loth to forget it, and one that could not couer his minde. But as Cuffe often vsed to complaine to the Authour of the originall of this Story, hee was [...] and [...] ▪ one that could neither conceale his loue, nor his hatred, but alwaies shewed them in his countenance.His wife and issue. Hee marri­ed Frances the Daughter of Francis Walsingham, the Wi­dow of Sir Philip Sidney, (the Queenes aduice not being ta­ken, who was offended at it, as if by that affinity he had de­based Essexes family:) of whom he got Robert his Sonne, Frances and Dorothy his Daughters; and Walter by the La­dy Southwell.

On the fift day of March, S. Christopher Blunt, Others are arraigned. S. Charles Danuers, S. Iohn Dauis, S. Gill. Mericke Knights, and Cuffe were all arraigned at Westminster, before the Lord Admirall of England, Hunsdon Chamberlaine, Cecill Secretary, Sir Iohn Fortescue Chancellour of the Exchequer, the Lord chiefe Iustice, and others: where they were accused of the same faults as the Earles before were; to wit, that they inten­ded mischiefe to the Queenes Maiesty, by consulting of in­uading the Court, and by rebelling in the Citie.

The three first of them were demanded whether or no [Page 328] they could not deny one part of their accusation, and con­fesse the other: which they did, for they denied that euer they intended any thing against the Queene. Mericke and Cuffe being taken aside, the Iudges, as before, declared;

THat he that intendeth to prescribe Lawes to his King or Prince, whereby he restraineth his power, doth intend mischiefe and destruction to his Prince; and doth intend both to take the Crowne & Life from him. This they proued from the examples of silly Countrimen, that were condemned for trea­son, euen in the memory of our forefathers, for that they tooke armes and met in Oxford-shire and Kent: one, to encrease their daily pay for their worke; the other, to take away the Inclosures of pasture fields.

For confirmation of this, they brought many things be­sides, shewing also, that it could not be, but that they must needs, bring in the Queene vnder subiection; also offer vio­lence to her, because that Conquerours are alwaies insolent: and the fury of a multitude cannot be restrained, who to pro­uide for their owne security and safety, feare not the perfor­mance of any villany.

Blunt he is vrged with his owne confessions,Blunt exa­mined. and the con­fession of the Earle himselfe, who but lately accused him as the onely entiser of him to all wickednesse; when he heard it read, and signed with the Earles owne hand, as he saw it, he grew altogether amazed with admiration, and greatly requi­red, that in some other place he might talke with the Admi­rall and Cecill concerning that matter: but lifting vp his eyes, he cryed out openly,

THou, O God, knowest well from what purposes and plots I disswaded the Earle of Essex.

[Page 329] Then was read the confession of Thomas Lee, who ac­knowledged, that by the leaue of Blunt who was then Mar­shall in Ireland, he had sent to Tir-Oen, and againe from him vnderstood that Tir-Oen had said,

THat if the Earle of Essex would but hearken vnto him, that he would make him the grea­test man in England.

It was also affirmed, that Lee had said, that he knew that both Essex, Blunt, and Tir-Oen, thought all the same. Neither indeed did Blunt denie, but that he gaue leaue to Lee to goe or send to Tir-Oen, but it was by Essex's command. And then are read many other things that were sent out of Ire­land, to prooue the intimatenesse that was with Essex, with the Earle Tir-Oen.

Flemming then the Queenes Solliciter,Danuers ac­cused. turning to Dan­uers, discourseth out of the points of Law: how, that if a man be ignorant of their determination of taking armes a­gainst the Prince, and yet ioyne himselfe in action with those that doe it, he is guilty of Treason. That then Danuers was much more guilty, who (as is prooued by his owne and o­thers confession) was a partner both in the consultation, and the conspiracy acted.

He answered little or nothing to this, onely that his loue was so great to the Earle of Southampton, that for his sake he would neglect life and goods: for the Earle had before entertained, and hid this Danuers that fled for a murther, and afterwards sent him ouer into France, where he followed the Campe with great credit, till such time as the Queene being with much adoe ouer-entreated, gaue him his par [...]don.

Sir Iohn Dauis being in a manner conuicted by his owne conscience and confession, held his peace,Dauis ar­raigned. and being taunted by the way that he was a Papist, he denied not that at Oxford [Page 330] he was instructed in the Romish Religion by his Tutor, and confirmed in the same by Blunt, while he was in the Irish warres. At which words, when hee perceiued Blunt was mooued, he straight appeased him, affirming that hee was confirmed in that Religion not by Blunts perswasion, but by the example of his Christian and religious life.

After this Cuffe and Mericke were arraigned,Cuffe arraig­ned. and Cuffe is laid hard at with the confession of Essex and Danuers and Henry Neuill. Danuers had confessed, that Cuffe knew of al [...] the consultations and meetings; and that he alwaies per­swaded them to assault the Court. Essex had confessed be­fore the Councell, that hee was the instigator of him to all this treachery, and signed this truth with his owne hand. Henry Neuill had confessed, that Cuffe presently after his re­turne from France, had suggested to him, that the vnfortu­nate successe of the Treaty at Boloigne would be imputed to him; that after that, hee would diuers times come and see him, and perswade him to come and see the Earle of Essex, which he once did. Afterwards, when he returned last, that he entreated him to come to Drury house, and heare what was consulted on, protesting that he should heare of nothing there which was not beneficiall to the Kingdome, and the Earle of Essex, and what hee might heare with loyalty to­wards the Queene; that afterwards he entreated him to be present with him, and the Earle, at the inuasion of the Court; and that then he opened all the councell vnto him; which when Neuill disliked as dangerous, difficult, and wicked, and said; that they were of those kinde of purposes, that are neuer commended till they are ended; that then Cuffe extenuated both the danger and difficulty, intimating all London, and the Aldermen themselues to be for Essex altogether, and ready at a becke; and that then he would vse the verse of Lucan,

—To him that holds vp armes in sight,
He giueth all things, that denies his right.

[Page 331] Neither could Cuffe denie any of this. Whereupon the Recorder Syllogistically argues against him; and he so wit­tily and acutely answers him, that Cecill called him a subtle Sophister. And Anderson chiefe Iustice of the Common Pleas, was so angry at it, that he cried they both made foolish syllogismes; and he fell to vrging the Law against Traitors in Edward the third. But to conclude, Cuffe tooke vpon him to answere his accusation, which consisted of two parts. For that (first said he) I am accused of Treason for being in Essex house on the day of the Rebellion, you might as well haue accused one of the Lions too, for lying in his Den. All that day I sorely lamented the ill fortune of my Earle, nei­ther did I doe any thing else. I perswaded him, as I could to cry the Queene mercy, which I could not compell him to, ex­cept he pleased. And then for the consultation in Drury house, that is no more to be adiudged a piece of Treason, when it neuer tooke effect, then an Embrion, or an vnper­fect creature not full borne is to be adiudged a man. The Lawyers vrged against him, that no necessity lay vpon him to continue in Essex house at the siege of it; besides, that e­uery one had his office allotted him; some to defend the House, whereof he was one; and others to seize vpon the Citie; who all did their endeauours equally, and all were e­qually too guilty of Treason. Then they answered, that the meeting of them at Drury house was of it selfe Treason, by reason there was order taken against the Queene, which was also put in practise. Then they vrged out of the Law, That if more conspire against a Prince, and yet practise that their conspiracy diuers waies, yet is the fault of Treason one and the same in all, by reason of one and the same malice of the Conspirators. Their discreet answeres, with the confessions of Essex, Neuill, and Danuers, quite spoiled Cuffes cause so, that all his wit and sophistry could not worke it out againe, into an ambiguity.

Mericke he is accused for sending Letters to his brother [Page 332] Salisbury, Groyne, and other audacious fellowes; whom hee drew to his side: also, for vndertaking the defence of Essex house against the Queene, for giuing mony, and causing an olde obsolete Tragedy of the deposing of Richard 2. to be acted publiquely before the Conspirators, which the Law­yers did iudge of, as if he had shewen them now that vpon the stage, which he would haue them act the next day, vpon the Queene. The like iudgement spent they vpon a Booke of Sir Iohn Haywards, a learned man, that was written about the same matter, as if it had been written to encite and stirre the Earle to depose the Queene: to the ill fortune of the worthy Authour, who lay long in prison, punished for his vntimely Edition of it: and these words in his dedicatory Epistle to the Earle of Essex,

TV magnus, spe maior futuri temporis expecta­tione; that is to say, Thou art great in hope, but farre greater in the expectation of future times.

All this Mericke heard, and with a resolute silence said not any thing againe, but onely this;

ESsex lifted mee vp, and Essex hath throwne mee downe.

After this, euery one of them are found guilty by the Iu­rie of treason against the Queene, and their sorrowfull sen­tences were pronounced.The request of Sir Chri­stopher Blunt, and Sir Charles Danuers. After that, Blunt and Danuers earnestly desired, that they might die like Noblemen, (by being beheaded) and indeed they came of the Noble stocke. For Danuer's Mother was Daughter (and one of the Heires) to Neuill Lord Latimer, by the Daughter of Henry Earle of Worcester, his Grandmother the Daughter of the Lord Mor­dant, and his great Grandmother of the Family of the Court­neyes. [Page 333] The other descended from the Blunts of Kiddermin­ster, who came from the same Family that the Lords Mont­ioy do [...]. Dauis requested, that although he were no Noble­man, yet to suffer as they did; if not, not to be quartered in­to pieces, but to be buried Christianly.

On the thirtieth day of March Mericke and Cuffe were drawne to Tibourne. Cuffe Cuffes exe­cution. (to be short) at the Gallowes spake much to this purpose.

I Am brought hither to pay for my due to na­ture, my sinnes against God, my Country, and my Prince. I doe absolutely beleeue, that as I see the infinite iustice of God in beholding the multitude of my infinite sinnes; so I shall finde the infinite mercie of God, by reason of this greatnesse of my inflicted punishment. Here are we the example and patterne of mans estate. The death which we are to vnder go is in­deed terrible; and which is worse, it is ignominious: But yet it is common to the best of Gods Saints, with whom I haue great hope and certainty of rising againe in Christ. Yet let not any man think I put confidence in my own merits; away with them, I disclaime them; I put my whole trust & assurance in my Sauiour Christ. And I am absolutely perswaded, that whosoeuer is punished in this life, in the very same instant feeles great comfort from Heauen within him; and that God punisheth him not as a Iudge, but as a Father. But to come to the occasion of my execution. There is scarce any man but knowes how great a tu [...]ult was raised the eight of February, vnder the vnconside­rate Earle of Essex; yet here I call God, the Angels, and my owne conscience to witnesse, that I was not guilty of it, but that all that day I shut my selfe vp, mourning and lamenting. Now, as concerning the Plot, or their Machination, that was two-fold.

[Page 334] And here being interrupted, and aduized, not to mocke the trueth with distinctions, or few Figge-leaues ouer his fault,

I Confesse (saith he) that it is a great offence, nay, that it is treason, if so be that a Subiect (cast out of fauour) should make open his way to the Queene by force of armes; but I neuer encited a man to take armes against the Queene. But for the danger I brought that noble Lord Neuil in, I am heartily sor­rie, and I entreat him earnestly to forgiue me. As for that which I said, that of foure and twenty of the Aldermen of London, one and twenty of them were for Essex, that I meant of their good will and affecti­on towards him, and not as if they would take armes against their Queene for him.

Here againe being stopped, and interrupted, he falls to prayer vehemently, and professing faith in God, and loyalty towards hi [...] Prince, and desiring pardon of both, he died.

Sir Gill. Mericke and Mericks at Tiburne. accompanied him, in the same kindd of death; but with a great vndaunted courage; and as weary of his life, he once or twice bid Cuffe let passe his vnseasona­ble wisedome, and make an end. Yet before he died, he excu­sed Deputy Montioy as ignorant of the matter altogether, and intreated the Nobles that were by, to beg of the Queene not to proceed iudicially or rigorously with many simple people, that ou [...] of ignorance came into the company and number of the Conspiratours.

Two daies after Sir Christopher Blunt, and Sir Charles Danuers, were beheadedBlunt and Danuers be­headed. vpon Tower hill. Danuers offered ten thousand pounds to redeeme his life, and to liue in perpe­tuall imprisonment; which being refused, with a very quiet countenance, and minde, asking God and the Prince pardon, and the L. Grey, to whom he had been a great enemy, not out of hate to him, but loue to Southampton, he ended his life.

[Page 335] Blunt hauing ascended vp the Scaffold, speakes to the people much after this manner.

ALthough the time require that (setting all o­ther matters aside) I should now fall a crying for mercy at Gods hands for my sinnes;Blunts con­fession. yet by reason that I haue beene traduced as an instigator of the Earle of Essex to all this villanie, as I desire the saluation of my soule, I will speake the truth. Some three yeares agoe, and more, I beheld the minde of the Earle somewhat proane to ambitious desires; But lately in Ireland whilest I lay wounded at Rheban Ca­stle, and since at Dublin, the Earle then told me, that he had resolued to send ouer some choice bands to seize vpon Milford Hauen in Wales, and to march so vp to London with greater forces. I then well considering of the matter, throughly disswaded him from it; as a thing that was very dangerous, and that would cost England great store of bloud. Therefore (to deale truely) I perswaded him rather, with some choyce company to seize vpon the Court, and get himselfe there faire and reasonable conditions. And yet, true­ly, we neuer thought of doing any iniurie or wrong to the Queene; although I must confesse, I know not whe­ther or no, if fortune had fauoured our enterprize, the businesse would haue beene finished, with the death of the Queene. Then, after the Earle was his owne man, and at liberty againe, he began to consult with me againe about these matters; but wee neuer agreed vpon any thing determinately. Afterwards he sent for me out of the Countrie, not long before this Rebel­lion. The rest I haue confessed before the Honourable the Admirall, and the worshipfull the Secretary: to whom to remember my seruice, and salute them from me, I entreat you Sir Walter Rawleigh of whom I [Page 336] also aske pardon. Then lifting vp his eyes to heauen, hee cries, God preserue the Queenes Maiestie. And Lord, according to thy infinite mercy pardon the sins of my heart, and my lewd life. And beare you witnesse all, that I die a Catholike, but so that I put all my confidence and trust in Christs merits alone, and so good people pray for me. Then he bids the Lord Grey and Compton farewell, and hauing prayed a little softly, he giues his necke to the blocke, and his life to the executioner.

And so by the mature execution of the Earle of Essex, Cuffe, Mericke, Danuers, and Blunt, the rebellion being well laid, peace was restored to the Common-wealth: The mindes of the rest being well appeased too, the richer hauing summes for muscts laid vpon them, which very few payed, and the rest freely pardoned. Southampton being commit­ted to the Tower, and with him Thomas Smith Sheriffe of London; but hee either out of the Queenes mercy, or his owne innocency, (being indeed calumniously informed of, rather then iustly accused) within a short time he was resto­red againe to liberty.

On the eight day of Iuly Sir Henry Neuill Sir H. Neuill committed. was arraigned at Yorke house before the Priuy Councell, and some of the Iudges, and was accused for hauing been present at the mee­ting in Drury house, and for not hauing reuealed their plots; & also for reuealing to Essex the secrets of his Embassie into France. He confessed indeed that he shewed vnto Essex the whole Iournall of his Embassie, and what he did euery day at his earnest request, but that he was neuer but at one meeting, and then, that he contemned their plots as idle dreames, but that he durst not accuse such men as the Earle of Essex, fea­ring to be thought an Informer, and hoping that they would quickly change such vnconsiderate councell, or at least thin­king it would be time enough to reueale it after his returne [Page 337] from France. Yet for all this was he greatly reprehended by all their voices, and as thought worthy of a greater punish­ment, fauoured with imprisonment.

It is not to be forgotten that the Earle of Essex often complained that his Letters were forged, and counterfeited. Now concerning this matter, there was diligent enquirie made,The punish­ment of Da­niel an Im­poster. and a notable cousenage found out. The Countesse of Essex fearing the euents of this troublesome time, hauing put vp into her Cabinet some loue letters, which she had for­merly receiued of him, deliuered them to the faithful custody of a Dutch woman that liued with her, which I. Daniel her husband by meere chance lighting vpon, then read them, and obseruing somewhat to be contained therein, which might bring the Earle into some danger, and incense the Queene, he got the Letters counterfeited by a cunning Scriuener, very like the true originall. Afterwards the good woman being to lie in, he came and told her that hee would deliuer vp those Letters into the hands of her Husbands enemies, vnlesse she would forthwith giue him 3000. pounds. She straight way (to auoid all danger) gaue him 1170. pounds; and yet for all this mony, receiued not the Letters themselues, but only the counterfeited Copies: this same cousener intending to wipe the Earles aduersaries of a great deale more mony, for the ori­ginals themselues. This cousenage being found out, he was committed to perpetuall imprisonment, being fined three thousand pounds, two thousand pounds whereof was to fall to the Earle of Essex, then his eares being nailed to the Pillory, being made a spectacle to the people, hee had this inscription, A forger of writings, and a notable cousener.

Not long before the Embassadours of the King of Scot­land, The Queens answer to the Embassadors of Scotland. namely the Earle of Marre and Kinlosse, came vnto the Queene, who in the name of their King gratulated vnto her the happy and mature preuention of this vnhappy rebelli­on. They likewise somewhat expostulated with the Queene concerning her not punishing of Valentine Thomas, who had [Page 338] sorely calumniated the King of Scotland; as also, concer­ning William Eeuer, and Ashfield, two Englishmen, that had lately conueyed themselues out of Scotland; and also, that there might be made to their king an assignmēt of some Lands here in England. To whom the Queene answered, that she thanked them heartily for their congratulation con­cerning the rebellion; and wisheth withall, that none such may euer happen in Scotland, vnlesse with the like successe in the same day to be both publisht and punisht. But concer­ning this Valentine Thomas, she answered, that she therefore spared his life, le [...]t by rubbing an olde sore too much, shee should rather renue then remooue the paine and anguish which would daily accrue vnto their Master, out of viperous and slanderous tongues, who commonly when they want all shew of proofe, yet finde beleefe. Concerning that same Eeuer she made answere, that by reason of his peremptorie deniall and protestation so against the truth, he had drawen vpon himselfe the iust suspition of an euill minde. But for Ashfield she answered, that as he had cunningly put a tricke vpon the President of the borders of Scotland, and by that meanes got licence to goe into Scotland; so that by another tricke he was fetcht home againe. That for her part she was so farre from boulstering any ill disposed subiects of his in their conceited discontents, that she esteemed the fauouring of anothers subiects in such a case, to be nothing else but an enticement and occasion of causing her owne to doe the like, when they before hand iustly may expect a conniuence from the [...]ands of the other Prince. About the assignment of some Lands she answered onely what she had before in the same matter. But lastly, condescended to adde to her yeare­ly contribution towards the King of Scotlands affaires, and her owne, the summe of two thousand pounds more, besides the principall, onely vpon condition, that the King would maintaine an inuiolable vnity and concord with her, and not submit his discretion to their tuition, who vse to [Page 339] encrease their priuate Coffers with the publique losses. Much about this time was it, when (many of the Spanish GalliesGallies pre­pared. at Scluse, much in [...]esting the Sea coasts of Kent, and those opposite of Holland and Zeeland) the Queene also began to build her selfe some Gallies too, and repriued many condem­ned persons, and other malefactors, and sent them to worke in the Gallies. But although both the cost and charges of the Queene, and the honourable Citie of London (which did with great alacrity contribute much to the effecting of the businesse) were very great, yet the vse of them, and the ex­pected benefit was as little.The States thinke how to subdue Flan­ders. Notwithstanding the States of the vnited Prouinces carefully watching ouer their great af­faires, and desiring to preuent the euill which these Gallies might doe vnto them, resolue now to transport some of their forces ouer into Flanders againe, and there seize vpon some Fortresses by Ostend, that so they might with better ease & li­berty prey vpon the Countries thereabouts, & pillage them, and also reduce those parts of Flanders that lie by the Sea side, vnder their owne gouernment, lest they should become a continuall harbour for the Spanish Gallies.

Yet at the very same time, that so they might both delude the enemy from knowing their intent, and diuert him from crossing it, if he should know it, it seemed good vnto them to send Graue Maurice into Gelderland to besiege Rhein­berge: of which matter they certified the Queene by Sir Francis Vere; of whom they requested foure thousand Eng­lish to be mustered and transported at their owne charges: To which the Queene consented.

But before that Sir Francis Vere could returne againe out of England, Maurice had already set forwards towards Rheinberge on the one side;They are pre­uented by the Arch Duke. and on the other side Albert Arch-Duke of Austria had laid his siege to Ostend: which did so molest the troubled thoughts of the Sta [...]es, that they now begin rather to defend their owne Holds, then offend their enemies. To which purpose they send for twentie [Page 340] Companies of Englishmen from Reinberke, ouer whom they appoint Vere the Generall both without and within Ostend: but Maurice sent them onely eight Companies of English, and those not very willingly, hauing already begun the siege, and hourely expecting the enemy; and those eight were con­ducted to them by Sir Horatio Vere; Vere made gouernour of Ostend. yet Sir Francis Vere wanting not courage, though he did much Companies, (causing them to sweare to him that the other Companies should follow, and that he should not want prouision) about Iuly next arriued at Ostend, ouer against the old Towne, at a place euen within shot: where he had scarce no sooner got­ten, then Cecill a braue expert Souldier, euen in this very first act of his Chiualry almost, brought him both prouisi­on, and the rest of his Companies, although with as great hazard indeed, as valour.

This same Ostend (which in our forefathers memory was nothing but poore Cottages of silly fishermen that liued on the sea shore) by reason of continual tumults & insurrections was at first fortified by the States with stakes and piles, but afterwards with trenches and other workes,The descrip­tion and sci­tuation of Ostend. which the Sea entring into the Towne a pretty way, did easily affoord them matter for. At length there was an English Garrison plac'd there vnder the conduct of Sir Iohn Conway, and afterwards vnder Sir Edward Norris, which vpon occasion did so mo­lest Flanders with their diuers excursions, that both the Duke of Parma in vaine laid siege to it, to tame it a little, and Mottee also in vaine assaulted it by treachery, (although he lost his life at the businesse) and the Arch-Duke himselfe as much in vaine, although hee erected about it seuenteene strong Forts.

These Garrisons therefore being as thornes in the sides of those of Flanders, and the Hauen where they were placed, to wit Ostend, [...]eeming to the Spaniard a most commodious place for his Gallies to retire into, from whence hee might hinder the traffique both of the Zelanders, and the English; [Page 341] made the King of Spaine absolutely resolue one way or o­ther to assault and get it to himselfe; and indeed the States were as carefull to defend, and still maintaine it; neither was there euer any assault and defence of a Fort (in our age) so memorable, and so full of ouerthrowes and slaughters. But it is not my resolution to weaue together an Ephemerides, or a remembrancer of the siege euery day after day: it shall be enough for me only to note and obserue some passages there­in. Sir Francis Vere in the fifth moneth of this siege, seeing his forces much to be diminished by the continuall erupti­ons of the enemie vpon them, and skirmishes, and the pesti­lence worse then both; seeing also that part of the olde Towne was swallowed vp as it were in Fordes; conside­ring also the want of Victuals, which daily encreased, re­dresse whereof he could not hope for, by reason of crosse windes which denied him hope of succour: and now vn­derstanding that the enemy was ready to assault them on e­uery side;A parley a­bout the yeel­ding vp of Ostend. hee required a parly with the Arch-Duke about surrendring: and hauing giuen hostages on both sides, the Arch-Duke sent Delegates thither to the same purpose. But Vere▪ Vere breakes it off. by his continuall delaying time, cunningly nurst them on with hopes of yeelding, till such time as he had auxiliary Forces sent ouer to him; and then sent backe the Delegates without doing any thing concerning yeelding, excusing himselfe out of that Military axiome,

THat to delude the enemy by trickes, is not onely lawfull, but also commodious, and sometimes very fruitfull.

And wittily by [...]ing in a scoffing sort, he did entreat them to pardon him, if by reason of vrgent necessity, he should do so againe, since that with the safety of his honour he could doe no otherwise, by reason that now he had receiued aide, and other necessaries for the warre.

[Page 342] The Arch-Duke being hereupon sorely vexed, cast in Veres teeth, that he knew better how to ouercome by deceit then by valour; and the 14. day after hee thundered vpon the Fortresses before the walls with 18. great pieces of Or­dinance; about the euening the Sea ouerflowing, hee droue out 2000. olde trained Souldiers against their wills, to set vpon the olde Towne, the Horsemen following them close at the backe. But Generall Vere, and Sir Horatio his brother, who with a choice Band was euery where as occasion serued, droue them backe thrice very valiantly. They that set vpon the Easterne part, being it was somewhat late before they began, in seasonable time, and yet not without some damage retired backe againe, by reason the Tide came vio [...]ently in vpon them. They that were allotted to assault Helmont, and Erinace, the two Fortresses, and the trench of the English, easily tooke them, by reason that the Souldiers were called forth from thence to defend other places; two thousand of them being sent to the Westerne arme of the Sea (which they call Gullet) did presently take Semilunula, which was forsaken; from whence they were driuen out againe pre­sently, many of them being lost, whilest they fled confused­ly, for feare the water should rise and hemme them in. Nine great pieces of Ordnance placed against the West gate, thundering forth not single Bullets, but chained together, like a tempest, and sometimes Lead and Iron tooles, did so ouercome the Assaulters of the West gate, and the Sand hill, that they receiued a very miserable ouerthrow: and in the middest of the assault, the Sea comming in vpon them, and the Scouts shewing themselues, they were so affrighted, that casting away their Armes, Ladders, and draw bridges, they gaue themselues ouer either to the slaughter of the Garriso­ners that sallied out vpon them, or the fury of the Sea that followed closevpon them. The Arch-Duke not a whit ama­zed with this losse of his men, lay very hard still at the siege, although with very small hope of obtaining his desires, by [Page 343] reason that he could not hinder prouision, nor new supplies of Souldiers which daily came in; neither could he find any place for vndermining, there being so many Fortresses placed euery where. And now Sir Francis Vere hauing repaired the breaches that were made, being recalled by the States, who euery fiue moneths adiudg [...]d it fit to send a new Gouernour, and fresh Souldiers, resigned his place to Fredericke Dorpe, who (euen as all his Successours) for three whole yeares, and about a hundred dayes, valiantly and laboriously more de­fended himselfe against the furious assaults of the Seas, then the enemies, who but a little molested him.

Certainly, happy had it beene with that warlike Nati­on, if so be that the Sea had vtterly swallowed it vp; for whilest the most warlike Souldiers of the Low Countries, Spaine, England, France, Scotland, and Italy contended for a barren piece of Sand, it became their common Sepulchre, although to their eternall honour. But these things belong properly to the writers of the Low Country affaires; but yet it may belong to vs to know and remember those worthy Englishmen that died there: the chiefest among them were the Veres Brothers, Sir Edward Cecill, Sir Iohn Ogle, Sir Charles Fairfax, Coronell Lawrence Dutton, and Coronell Drake, Carpenter, Serieant Maior, Captaine Holcroft, Gal­fred Dutton, Greuill, Wilford, Humphreyes, Drake, Brough­ton, Herbert, Frost, Madeson, Gerard, Butler, Rogers, and Dennis Connigraue. Neither let vs forget the valour of Iohn Carew, a Cornish young man, who hauing his arme burst off by the force of a great piece of Ordnance, and shot a good way from him, with an vndaunted minde (all his fellowes sorely lamenting) he went and brought it in his other hand into the Towne, and shewing it to the Surgeon, Behold, said he, the arme that to day at dinner serued all my body.

This siege brought the King of France to Cales, from whence is a short iourney ouer into England, on purpose to prouide and strengthen the borders of his Kingdome. [Page 344] which when the Queene vnderstood, she sent ouer to him Sir Thomas Edmonds to see him, and congratulate his health with him. He againe to acknowledge this courtesie, sent o­uer into England to the Queene, Marshall Byrone, Marshall Bi­rone sent ouer to Eng­land. Aruerne, and Aumont, and many other Noblemen. These the Queene entertained at Basing with such humanity, and dismissed them so courteously, that they much blazoned forth her meeke affablenesse, seasoned both with wisdome and elo­quence. That truely which the French Writers report, that the Queene shewed to Marshall Byrone, and the rest of the French, the braines of the Earle of Essex in her priuy Chappell; or as others will haue it, fastened to a post or stake, is most ridiculous, for his braines and body were true­ly both buried together. Indeed, certaine it is, that amongst her talke with them, she very sharply blamed the Earle of Essex, concerning his vngratitude towards her, and his vn­aduised consultations, and his scornfull contumacy, in not begging pardon for his offence; and that she wished that the most Christian King of France, would rather vse towards his Subiects a milde kinde of seuerity, then a dissolute cle­mency; and that he would in time cut off the heads also of those that intend or plot any innouations in the state or di­sturbe the publique quiet.

This aduise of the Queene might haue well frighted Mar­shall Byrone from his wicked designes, which he had already plotted against his King, had he not beene bewitched: But the force of his destinie rushing on him so besotted his blind vnderstanding, that within few moneths after hee suffered the same punishment, that the Earle of Essex had lately done before him.

Shortly after, the Queene hauing returned out of the Country, assembles a Parliament,A Parlia­ment at Westminster. wherein she makes good and wholsome Lawes, concerning the poore, the weake; and lame Souldiers, and Marriners, concerning fraudulent ouer­seers of Wills and Testaments. Concerning the deceit of [Page 345] Clothiers, and the preying that were woont to be on the borders of Scotland. But when as there did come grieuous complaints into the Lower house of Parliament, against Monopolies:Monopolies restrained. (for many had bought to themselues the pow­er of selling some certaine commodities alone, confirmed by Letters Patents, vnder pretence of the publique good, but truely to the great losse of the Land) The Queene presently set forth a Proclamation, wherein she made all her formerly granted Letters Pa [...]ents voyd, partly, and of no effect, and partly to be examined according to the Law. And this was so pleasing to the Lower house, that 80. of them chosen out came vnto her, and by the Speaker of the House humbly gaue her thankes. The Queene entertaining thei [...] [...]oues ve­ry ioyfully, spake to them much after this manner▪

IOwe to you all a peculiar thankes and commenda­tions for your large good wills towards vs,The Queenes speech concer­ning them. not in silent thought conceiued, but in deeds amply and really expressed, in that ye recalled my errour, which was out of ignorance, and not wilfulnesse. These things would haue beene turned to my disgrace and infamy, if such Harpies and Horse-leaches as those had not beene made knowne by you. I had rather be maimed either in my hand, or my minde, then to giue consent with either to these priuiledges of Monopolies. The brightnesse of a Princesse Maiesty hath not so blin­ded my eies, that liberty or licentiousnesse should pre­uaile with me more then Iustice. The glorie of the ve­ry name of a King may deceiue vnskilfull and vndis­creet Kings, as guilded pills doe a sicke patient. But I am none of those, for I know that the Common-wealth ought to be gouerned for the good only of thē that are committed to it, and not of him to whom it is commit­ted; and that the King must giue account of it before another Iudgment seat. I thinke my selfe most happie, [Page 346] that by Gods helpe I haue so gouerned my Kingdome as I haue done; and that I haue such Subiects, for whose good I would leaue Kingdome, or life it selfe. I desire, that what other men haue trespassed in by false suggestion, be not imputed to me, to whom the testimony of my cleare conscience is a sufficient excuse for me. You cannot chuse but know that Princes ser­uants are alwaies most intent for the good of their owne affaires; and that truth is concealed often from Princes, neither can they looke through all things, who are continually troubled with great throngs of greater businesses.

About the beginning of this yeare died Henry Herbert Earle of Pembroke, The death of Henry Earle of Pembroke. the sonne of William, made Knight of the Garter in 1574, President of the Councell in Wales af­ter the death of Henry Sidney his Father in law. By whose Daughter Marie he begat William now Earle of Pembroke, and Philip now Earle of Montgomery, and Anne that died in the very flower of her youth.

Also there died Henry Lord Norris of Ricot, And of the Lord Norris. restored to his Lands after the death of his Father, but vpon some strict conditions about the inheritance of his Grandmother, which was one of the Heires of Viscount Louell. But the Queene made him more compleatly Lord, after his Embasie into France, finished with great commendation of his wisedome. He begat of his wife Marie, one of the Heires of Iohn Lord Williams of Tame, (who was in the time of Henry 8. Trea­surer of the Augmentation Office, and priuy Counsellour to Queene Marie) a warlike progeny. William his eldest sonne Marshall of Barwicke, that died in Ireland; to whom was borne Francis that succeeded in his Vncles honour: the se­cond was Iohn so often spoken of before: the third was Thomas President of Mounster, and sometimes Iustice of Ire­land, that died by reason of neglect of a small wound: the [Page 347] fourth Henry that died the same death, about the same time and place: the fift Maximilian, slaine in the warres of Bri­taine: and Edward Gouernour of Ostend, who alone surui­ued his Parents.

Within a few daies after died Peregrine Berty Lord Wil­loughby of Eresby, The death of the Lord Willoughby. Gouernour of Barwicke, who had vnder­gone all the Offices of a Captaine, both in the Low Coun­tries, and in France, and Robert his sonne by Mary Sister to Edward Earle of Oxford, succeeded him.

And now let vs returne a little to Ireland: A Proclama­tion against transporting money into Ireland. And then we shall obserue, that about this time there came out a Procla­mation (which also Henry 7. had forbad by Law) that no man should transport English money into Ireland, by rea­son that either the Rebels get it to themselues, and purchase their prouision with it; or the Merchants conuey it into o­ther forreigne Nations, to the great losse and detriment of this Kingdome.Deliberation about alte­ring the Irish Coine. Wherefore now there was great delibe­ration about altering the money in Ireland, and mingling some Brasse with it, by reason that the warre in Ireland stood them in yearely 160000. pounds sterling. Hereupon others thought the charge of the warre would be lesse, and that all good and lawfull money in Ireland would be put away in exchange in England; and that so the Rebells being desti­tute of good and lawfull money, would be barred of all tra­ding with forreigne Nations, and be necessarily much there­by weakened. Others argued, that this change of Coyne would be very preiudiciall to the Queenes credit, and good report, and the losse of Subiects be much thereby encreased. That the good money could not be transported ouer with­out great charges of the Queene; and that the gaine of this new Coyne in England, would not answer the charges of the very bringing ouer of it (if the account should be cast vp right) much lesse, if so be the monie were coined in Ireland, where a Mint were with great charges to be erected, and mony-makers hired at farre greater expences. Also, that [Page 348] thereby they could not hinder the Irish Traffique with Forreigners, when the Merchants know there is Siluer in the new Coyne, which they know for to separate from Brasse easily, and who care not whether they take one piece of money, or three of the same value; vrging, that besides there was a doubt whether the Souldiers would not muti­ny, for their pay would then be shortened.

But for all that Buckhurst Lord Treasurer, very skilfull in money matters, with much adoe got of the Queene, that the money might be altered for a while, but afterwards re­called to it's greatest value, which he vrged by reason of ne­cessity (for that was the Law of the time:) and which the Queene (although she was faine to grant it) yet could say, that it would be preiudiciall to her credit, but worse to her Army.The Souldi­ers pay alte­red without any tumult or mutiny. But yet for all that, it was finished without any tu­mult or commotion in all the Army, to the great happinesse of the Queene, which exercised her strict authority ouer her Souldiers, and yet lost not her loue. Certainly the Army did sustaine great losse by this alteration of Coyne, and the Queene got but very little good, if any at all: If any got, it was those that had let monies out, whose onely couetousnes was thought first to haue broacht this businesse. The Lord Deputy,The Lord Deputy sets on towards the Rebels. assoone as he had receaued this their Deliberation, the better to keep his Army from mutining, kept them from idlenesse: and at the beginning of the Spring, assembleth his Forces, and before all of them met together he marcheth to­wards Moghery, where he kept his Souldiers to hard worke, who by cutting downe a wood, had made a very difficult way easie and passageable; and then he built a Fort. He ex­pelled the vsurping Mac-Genises out of Lecall, and subdued all the Castles of the Rebels, euen as farre as to Armach, and there also he strengthened the Garrison. And he proceeded so farre this Summer, that he remoued Tir-Oen from his Fort of Blacke [...]water, where very skilfully hee had pitched his Campe.

[Page 349] In the meane time Iohn O-Doghert being dead in Tir-Co­nell, the Deputy declareth his Sonne Heire,And Henry Docwray on the other part. because his Fa­ther possessed some lands in the English right; and he deli­uered ouer his Inheritance to Hugh Boy and Phelim Reaugh, his Guardians. This so heinously molested O-Neale Garue, that forthwith he flies vpon the young mans inheritance, out of an imaginary right he thought he had, as if all the Land that was in Tir-Conell belonged to him; & he tooke it as heinously that the Deputy thought not so too, although hee promised indifferently to heare both parties. Yet at length Henry Docwray with faire promises asswageth O-Neale Garue, and at last enticeth him to the English party: and lest he should be idle, hauing assaulted Mac-Swine Fa­nagh, he droue away a braue prey: but at his earnest suite, and swearing fealty he restored it againe, and receaued Ho­stages, whom a little after, Mac-Swine breaking his faith, he hung vp. Afterwards wasting his Country, hee brought him to that passe, that hauing giuen Hostages againe, hee was glad to keepe his promise better. After that, he laid waste the Countrey of Sleugh-Art, woody and boggish, of some fifteene miles extension, O-Neale Garue being still his con­duct. Then he tooke Dery-Castle, and strengthened Newton and Ainogh with Garrisons. And now the Deputy hauing come to Black [...]water, sent for him thither: but when as by reason of necessities which he wanted, and the enemie that blockt vp his passage, he could not come to the Deputy, the Deputy checking him, admonished him that he would re­paire this his negligence with some famous exploit, which, hauing gotten opportunity, he did accordingly. For being informed by O-Neale Garue, that there were Souldiers mu­stered out of Tir-Conell against the Deputy, and that Done­gall Monastery neere Ballashanon, was peopled but with a few religious persons, he sent thither 500. English,500. English surprize Do­negall Mo­nastery. who ea­sily made themselues masters of that place.

O-Donell at the returning of the Lord Deputy comes [Page 350] with all his Forces to Donegall, fiercely armed and prouided for the destruction of the English. He eagerly besets it thir­ty whole daies, shooting continually as if they had gotten victory: The Monastery being by chance set on fire in the night: and yet for all that the English valiantly sustained the siege.

Whilst these things succeed so prosperously in these quarters, behold many write vnto the Lord Deputy,Rumours concerning the Spani­ards sailing towards Mounster, calls the De­puty backe. and daily fame confirmed it, that the Spaniard had hoised saile towards Mounster. Wherefore they intreat him that hee would leaue prosecuting the Rebels within the Realme a lit­tle, and preuent the enemy without as well.

The Deputy therefore (not to loose that which hee had gotten) strengthened the Garrisons at Vlster, and made all speed possible into Mounster with one or two wings of Horse, commanding the foot to follow; and thither also hastened Tir-Oen, and Odonell, hauing raised the siege at Donegall.

And now scarce were they sooner remooued from thence, but Docwray by land-iournies comes and relieues the Garri­sons there with prouisions: and placeth two colours in A­sherow vnder Edward Digges, after which in a short time Ballashanon Ballashanon seized on. (that was so long lookt for) was seazed on: And then did he liberally reuenge himselfe on the perfidious Irish, who had before betrayed Newton and Derry.

And now the warre being remooued into Mounster, cal­leth vs thither too. Tir-Oen, and the Rebels of Mounster, by their spies Matthew Ouied a Spaniard, the Archbishop of Dublin, made by the Pope Bishop of Clonfort, the Bishop of Killaloe, and Archer a Iesuite, had obtained of the Spani­ard, by much entreating, praying, and protesting, that hee would send ouer to them the Rebels in Mounster, some aide vnder Iohn D'Aquila, being certainly perswaded that then all Mounster would reuolt from the Queene to them, and that the titular Earle of Desmond, The Presi­dent inter­cepts the ti­tular Earle of Desmond. and Florence Mac-Carty, [Page 351] would ioyne great Forces with them. In the meane time Sir George Carew to preuent this, hauing found the titular Earle in his lurking hole, forsaken of all his followers, ar­raigned him forthwith, lest that dying vncondemned, his goods (without the authority of a Parliament) might not fall to the Exchequer. He being condemned of treason, pro­tested, that he tooke Armes out of loue to the Romish Reli­gion, and hope of recouering the Patrimony of his Grand­father; as also, by reason of the exaction of the English in Plow-land, and their Iurie of twelue men. Carew also found out, how that it had beene debated and consulted of be­tweene Tir-Oen and the Archbishop, in what part of Ireland the Spaniard could most conueniently land;He findes out their consul­tation about the Spani­ards conueni­ent landing. and that they agreed that Mounster was the fittest place; but that they a­greed not yet in what Hauen they should land. Some iudg­ed it best first to seize vpon Limricke, as neighbouring vpon Conaugh and Leinster, and not very farre from Vlster: But then he heard that Donat Mac-Cormac affirmed, that Flo­rence preferred Corke before that, as being a Hauen more op­portune, a City weaker, and therefore the easier to be assaul­ted, and that from thence the Spaniard might be ready at hand to Barry, Roch, Cormac-Macdermot, and Mac-Carty Reogh, who yet continued in loyalty; whom they might ei­ther driue into a taking of their sides, or else spoyle their goods.He makes preparation to goe against them. Hereupon Sir George Carew thought nothing bet­ter then any way to surprize Florence, although before hee had giuen him a Protection for his life; and at length sur­prizing him, he sent both him and the titular Earle too ouer into England.

And now being certified that the Spaniards were vpon comming, which before hee could by no meanes perswade the Deputy, and the English Councell to beleeue, he causeth prouision to be brought into Corke, and calls an assembly of the Prouince there. He layes hands on some turbulent per­sons whom he suspected, to keep them from doing mischiefe: [Page 352] from others he tooke Hostages: and had generally such a prouident care of his affaires, that hee abounded both in prouision, and all necessaries to sustaine a siege for many mo­neths. And besides, there came ouer a new supply of 2000. Souldiers out of England, in very good time.

The President about the midst of September,The Presi­dent informes the Deputy of the af­faires. being cer­tainly enformed, that the Spaniards had strooke saile, certi­fies the Deputie of it assoone as he could. He assoone as e­uer he came to Kilkenny, sent for the President. But behold, while he makes haste in his iourney, being recalled by Mes­sengers that enformed him that the Spa [...]ish Nauie was in sight, he made Sir Charles Wilmot President of Corke, and he himselfe makes all haste to the Deputy.A consultati­on whether the Deputy should enter Mounster without his forces. At his comming a Councell is held, whether or no the Deputy (who had scarce guard enough for his owne person) should returne, or tarry at Kilkenny, till his Forces were met together. Some thought it fittest for him to returne, because it was not for the credit of the Lord Deputy to goe forward with so small a compa­ny. President Carew contends on the other side, that hee could neither returne, nor stand still without suspition of sluggish [...]esse, and danger of defection throughout the whole Prouince; and so at length profering 200. Horse to guard him, and informing him how well Corke was furnished with all things necessary for warre, he brought him along thither with him, cheerefully, although there were some that would haue had the Lord Deputy gone no farther then Clonmell, a place bordering close vpon that Prouince.

In the meane time the Spanish Nauie, which by reason of a slacke winde could not reach Corke Hauen,The Spani­ards land in Ireland. the 23. of Sep­tember puts in at the mouth of Kinsale Hauen, and landeth their Souldiers. Presently hereupon Sir Richard Percy who with 150. Souldiers gouerned there, being vnequall for to resist, retires backe to Corke. The Spaniards with 35. displai­ed Banners hauing the Gates open, are gratefully receiued by the Inhabitants. The chiefe Magistrate going with a [Page 353] staffe before them, and disposing of their seuerall Lodgings. The President Carew commands hereupon all the Sheepe and Cattle to be driuen on this side the Riuer Auerley, and sends Flower with 400. ready furnisht Foot, to waste and depopulate the neighbouring Countries: and, which seemed very conuenient to doe, he musters vp all the Citizens and Townesmen hee could get into his Army, although they stood him in no stead, but onely so to keepe them as Hosta­ges with him, lest that hauing laine and lurkt idely at home, out of loue to the Romish Religion, and inbred fauour to the Spanish Nation (out of the opinion of being descended from the same originall) they should thinke vpon reuolting, or yeelding vp the Townes to the Spaniard.

Don Iohn D'Aquila, The reasons of their com­ming publi­shed. who was Gouernour of the Spanish Forces (with the Title of Master Generall, and Captaine of the Catholike King, in the defending of warre for God, for the maintenance of Religion in Ireland:) Hauing publisht many writings, endeauoured to perswaded the simple people, That Queene Elizabeth was deposed by the iudgement of the Pope: that her Subiects were freed from their oath of Allegi­ance; and that now the Spaniards were come to deliuer them from the iawes of the Diuell: (for those were the very words) and certainly he drew many wicked Irish to him vnder this faire pretence.

The Deputy hauing drawne together all the Forces which possibly he could,The English beset them. prepares himselfe for the siege; and ha­uing pitcht his Campe, he resolued first to reduce to obedi­ence Rincurran CastleThe Spani­ards droue aut from Rincurran Castle. by the Hauen, wherein were 150. Spaniards left: because it seemed very conuenient for them, either to protect the English Nauy there, or infest from thence the Spanish. This Carew did; (hauing set to his great Engines, and kept backe the Spaniards succour by Sea and Land both) and shortly brought it to an absolute yeelding.

And now Sir Richard Leuison Vice-Admirall of the Seas, hauing beene sent out of England to stop the passage of the [Page 354] Spaniards, and come too late, blockes vp the Spaniards in the Hauen: whereupon the English (both by Sea and Land) begin to batter the Towne, and hardly to besiege it: But it was growne a great deale more remisse after, by reason that Sir Richard Leuison with his Marriners set forth after two thousand Spaniards, who were landed at Bere Hauen, Bal­temore, and Castle Hauen, fiue ships of whose hee kept in great awe.

All the same time was Carew sent out from the Campe with some troupes, to preuent Odonell from ioyning forces with the Spaniard: but he, hauing the benefit of frosty wea­ther, got through the Desarts to thē in the night time. And within a few daies after Tir-Oen himselfe,Tir-Oen commeth into Mounster. O-Rorke, Reimond Burke, Mac-Mahon, Randall Mac-Surley, and Tirell Lord of Kerry, the choicest of all the Rebels drew neere too, to whom Alphonso Don O-Campo hauing ioyned the new come Spaniards, made in all an Army of six thousand foot, and fiue hundred horse, being triumphing in the hope of a sure victory, by reason they were more in company, and better prouided: and on the otherside, the English were sore wea­ried with a winter siege, and shut vp from prouision, and al­most spent with pouerty and hunger.

The Deputie, for all these difficulties, plies the siege as strongly as he can, and fortifies the Castles with new works. On the 21. of December Tir-Oen shewes himselfe from a Hill some mile from the Campe, and the next day againe. The night following the Spaniards rush forth of the Towne, and the Irish endeauour to get into it; but both failed of their purpose. On the 23. of December there were Letters surprized sent from Don Iohn D'Aquila to Tir-Oen, where­in he entreats him that the Spaniards newly come might be let into the Towne, that so the English Campe might be as­saulted on either side.

The Moone shining the next night, the Lord Deputy commanded Sir Henry Poore to leade forth eight troupes of [Page 355] olde Souldiers, and to set them in battle array at the West part of the Campe. Sir Henry Greames that was Master of the watch that night, early in the morning certifies the Lord Deputy that the RebellsThe R [...]bels determine to bring their forces into the Towne. would certainly march on, because he had seene their matches kind [...]ed already in a great num­ber. So that hereupon they cry to take Armes; and troupes are disposed euery where,The English hinder them. where there was any passage to the Towne.

The Lord Deputy, with President Carew, and Sir Richard Wingfield Marshal, commeth towards those that lay at watch and ward; and taking Councell with Sir Oliuer Lambert, consults of a fit place to combate with the enemy. Whe­ther afterwards were brought the Regiments of Sir Henry Folliot, and Sir Oliuer Saint-Iohns, with 600. Marriners, vnder conduct of Sir Richard Leuison. But in the meane time Tir-Oen hauing resolued, by the helpe of darknesse, to bring the fresh Spaniards, and 800. Irish into Kinsale, as he was leading them on, espied at the peeping of the day, the Marshall, and Sir H. Danuers with the regiments of Horse, and Poore lying at the bottome of the hill, with his troupes of olde Souldiers.The Rebels retire. Whereupon being quite out of hope of finishing his resolued intent, he for a while makes a stand, and presently after caused his Bagpipes to sound a retreat.

Assoone as the Lord Deputy was made acquainted with this halfe confused a retreat hee commandeth his to persue them;The English persue them. and he himselfe goes to marke the manner of their re­coiling; but there arising so great a mist, that ouer-spread the earth, he could not discerne any thing of them. Shortly af­ter the heauens being cleared a little, he obserued them to fall backe somewhat fearefully in three great troupes, hauing the Horsemen at their backes: wherefore (sending backe Ca­rew with three wings of Horse into the Campe, to hinder the Spaniards breaking out vpon them, out of the Towne) he so earnestly persued Tir-Oen, that he compelled him to make a stand on the brinke of a gul [...]ie and plashy boggish [Page 356] place, to which, but onely by wading, there was no accesse. But those Horsemen that kept this Foord being vanquished by the valour of the Marshall,They fight the 24. of December: The same day the Earth­quake was in London. and the Earle of Clan Richard, the English valiantly assault the troupes of Horse of the Ene­mie: and after Sir William Godolphine that led the Deputies wing, Henry Danuers, Minshaw, Taffe, Flemings, and Iohn Barcley Campe-Master, had ioyned themselues together, they reiterated their assault so couragiously, that they put to flight the Enemies Horse. The English thought it not good to follow them; but hauing drawne together all their for­ces, they rush into the midst of the Enemies Armie, and breake through them. Tirell yet with the Spaniards stood firmely in their places, wherefore the Deputy marcheth on towards them; and not onely to shew himselfe a Captaine in commanding, but also a Souldier in fighting, he rushes vpon them with three Regiments of Sir Oliuer Saint-Iohns, which Roe led, and forthwith so brake the Rankes of them, that the Spaniards begin to betake themselues to the Irish, who left them exposed to slaugher, prouiding for their own safety.

For Tir-Oen, The Rebels flie. Odonell, & the rest, presently betooke them­selues to flight, casting away their Armes. Don Alphonso O-Camp [...] being taken prisoner, and three other Spanish Cap­tiues, and six of theirAlferez. Standerd-bearers, 1200▪ slaine: nine Ensignes taken, whereof six were Spanish. Very few of the English being wanting, but many wounded: and amongst those Sir Henry Danuers, Sir William Godolphin, and Croft. This great victory costing them onely so little losse.

The Deputy hauing [...]ounded a retreit, and giuen thankes▪ to God for this victory, amongst the Carkasses of the slaine▪ knighted the Earle of Clan Richard for his valiant seruice; and after that returning to his Campe with great shoutes of the people, finding the Campe safe and sound from any hurt from the Spaniard. For they in the Towne finding all things so well fortified with Garrisons, and finding by experience [Page 357] that their eruption out of the Towne was very dangerous, being weary with expectation of the Irish, departed home againe, leauing behinde shame to the Irish, and victory to the English.

This victory was great, and full of various commodities;The commo­dities of the victory. for thereby Ireland that was now euen bowing vnder rebel­lion, was held vp againe: The Spaniard remoued out of it, the Arch-Rebell Tir-Oen driuen to his lurking [...]hole againe in Vlster, and Odonell into Spaine; the smaller Rebells slaine euery where. The Queenes authority restored to its former perfection, the insolency of the enemy much abated, and the mindes of honest minded men (who before were depressed much) were now confirmed againe, and peace concluded e­uery where.

The day after that, the Lord Deputy causeth Sir Iosias Bodley ouerseer of the Trenches, (who had behaued himselfe brauely both in their workes, & battell) to finish those things which he had left vnperfect, and bring his Rampiers neerer to the Army. And when six daies had beene spent in this businesse, Don Iohn D'Aquila hauing sent Letters to the Lord Deputy by his Trumpeter, requested that some No­bleman, or man of credit, might be sent to him into the Towne to parley with.The Spani­ards desire a Parley. The Deputy sent Sir William Go­dolphine; to whom D'Aquila signifies, that he much ho­noured the Lord Deputy, yea, though he were an enemy; complaining that the Irish were weake, and impotent, vnac­customed to military exercises, and (which he feared) perfi­dious. That he indeed was sent only in succour of two No­ble Earles, but by reason that he doubted what was become of them, whether they liued or no, by reason that the tempest of warre draue one, & the Sea the other, cleane out of sight▪ that therefore he would treate concerning peace, wch might onely not be deceitfull to the Spaniard, and vsefull to the English; although (if he pleased) he could endure the siege longer, lacking nothing thereto, and although he expected [Page 358] aide daily the better to performe it. But to be short, other talke had on both sides, it was at last agreed betweene the English and Spaniards, both weary, one of besieging, the o­ther of being besieged;

First,Articles con­cerning yeel­ding. That the Spaniards should yeeld to the Deputy Kinsall, the Castles and Forts at Baltamore, Berehauen, and Castlehauen, and depart with their liues, goods, and Banners displayed.

Secondly, That at a set rate the English should furnish them with ships to goe home to Spaine with, and that D'A­quila should goe out last.

Thirdly, That they should offer no violence, or take Armes against the Queene, till such time as that they had beene landed in Spaine.

Fourthly, That if they arriued at any English Hauen, they should be courteously vsed: and if they chanced to light vpon any English ships, that they should not molest them.

And lastly, That whilst they expected a winde in Ireland, they should haue prouision for their money, without any impeach; and that for those ships that were to bring them to Spaine, the Lord Deputy should choose out pledges amongst them for his security.

THE FOVRE and Fortieth Yeere OF HER REIGNE.
Anno Domini 1602.1602

THese Articles being put vpon Record the second of Ianuary, and confirmed on either side by oath, the Spaniards in fit season hauing their troupes much im­paired, put from Ireland; the I­rish greatly fretting that they had deliuered vp to the English againe the Castles and Forts. But being about to deliuer vp Dunboy, O-Suilliuant Bere, that had before resigned it to the Spaniards protection, inua­ded it sodainly, and strengthened it with workes, and with [Page 360] very suppliant Letters recalled the Spaniards. But Carew fearing lest by such a commodious Hauen,Dumboy Ca­stle assaulted by the Presi­dent. and fit receptacle for the Rebels, the warre might be awakened againe, made haste thither by Sea (for by Land the passage was most dif­ficult) and hauing assaulted the Castle with a cruell siege, razed it downe to the ground; thereby taking away the feare of the Spaniards returne againe, who were daily expe­cted at the Hauen.

Yet for all this Eugenius O-Hegan made Bishop of Rosse by the Pope, hauing brought monies and munition out of Spaine, and putting them in hope of helpe besides, so imbol­dened the well-allaied stomacke of rebellion, that the Irish still continued in the same.The Rebels reduced into order. But Sir Charles Wilmot in Kerry, Roger Gawyn, & the two Haruies in Carbery, did quickly lay it againe, by taking their Castles, drawing away their Cat­tle, and putting many to the sword. The President himselfe surprized Mac-Dermot a Nobleman of Muskerie, and of a great retinue, whom he committed to prison; although in a very short time he escaped forth. But when he saw how his Territory lay wasted by the English, and his Castles sei­zed on by them, (for Sir Charles Wilmot at the time of his escape from prison, had beset Muckron one of his chiefest seates, which by chance got fire, and tooke it:) when hee saw likewise that his Sonne was in England, his Wife in Corke, and both prisoners; and himselfe on the very edge of greater danger, he began to supplicate and beg for pardon, which (vpon good surety) he at last obtained. Marshall Bagnall in the meane time vanquished that English Rebell Tirell, who with a troupe of mercenary Rogues and Vaga­bonds, had entred Muskerry: him he spoyled of his Castles which he possessed, forcing him into the closer Mountaines of Desmond. And Sir Charles Wilmot, he did so sorely per­secute the Knight of Kerry, and some of his complices in the rebellion, that they were glad to come to him howling, and begging for admission, to sweare him fealty. Tirell by [Page 361] this time being narrowly prosecut [...]d by the Lord of Barry, and Wilmot, as secretly [...] as possibly he could, steales into Lein­ster. And presently after that William a Burgh and O-Su [...]l­liuant Beare, being oppressed and frighted with too many ensuing dangers, leaue, and render vp Beare and Bantre to the pleasure of the English.

On the other side Captaine Taffe being sent out by the President, did so molest Euge [...]y Mac [...]Car [...]y▪ and Donat Keagh in Carbery, Bishop O-He­gan slaine. that Eugeny O-Hegan the Bishop, figh­ting amidst the Rebels, was slaine, and found with a kinde of a Register in one hand, and a Sword in the other.

Although that now the Spaniards were quite remooued out of Ireland; A Nauie di­spatcht to the Spanish shore. yet notwithstanding the Queene bearing a prouident eye ouer the affaires of her Kingdomes, furnisheth a Nauy of eight of her owne great ships, with some lesser Vessels, which she sent Sir Richard Leuison, and Sir William Mounson in charge with, to roaue about the Spanish coast, and to keepe them from another Voyage towards Ireland. Leuison set forth the 19. of March, and Mounson hauing ex­pected some ships from the Hollanders, a few daies, put forth after him, when he perceiued that no Hollanders ship would come to ioyne with him. In the meane time Leuison ligh­ted vpon a Spanish Nauy of 38. ships, that brought siluer out of America; but by reason of their small number, though their stomackes were great, they set vpon them, but in vaine.

After that Mounson had come with the rest of the Nauy, for many daies together they kept out all trading from the coasts of Portugall: afterwards they certainly vnderstood, that a great Caracke of 1600. Tunne, richly laden, from the East Indies, had newly arriued at Cezimbra against Barbarū, the Promontory in Portugall▪ and that there were ele [...]uen Gallies there in the Bay,The Gallies and Caracke set vpon in the Hauen of Cezimbra. eight whereof were allotted to Spi­nola, for his warre in the Low Countries▪ and the other three Portugals.

[Page 362] Cezimbra is a little Citie within the Bay, all built with stone, and fortified with a Castle, with twelue pieces of great Ordnance.A Caracke and Gallies are set vpon. Vnder the Castle rode the Caracke; the Gallies lay in the West part of the Bay vnder a wall: tur­ning their Decke vpon them, with fiue pieces of Ordnance on a side; insomuch that from them the Caracke that see­med like a Castle, and the Castle it selfe, there was great shew of danger to the English. Yet Leuison resolued with the generall consent of the Marriners to assault them, and to set fire on the Caracke, if they could not take her.

The day after, hauing a braue gale, he in the Admirall hoised vp his Ensigne to the midst of the Mast, Mounson in the Rere [...]Admirall, to the fore-Mast; by and by with fiue of the Queenes ships, they cast anchor against the Gallies, vpon whom they so thundered, that after seuen houres the Marquesse Sancta Croce withdrew himselfe, and those Por­tugall Gallies which he gouerned.The Gallies are put to flight. But Spinola not follow­ing, he returned againe. But these Gallies being not able to withstand the violence of the English, most of them saued themselues from their enemies. Two of them were taken and burnt,Some of them taken. hauing great store of Gunpowder to be carryed into the Low Countries: the rest pittifully battered, and the Gally-slaues most slaine, got with much adoe to the mouth of the Riuer Tagus. And Mounson now began to set vpon this great Caracke,A parley. and to fire it. But Leuison forbad it, but sent to the Master of it, and certified him how that the Gal­lies wherein he trusted were all now vanquished, and two of them taken: and that now he was Master of the Island, that the Castle it selfe was not able to withstand the English for­ces, much lesse his Caracke, that relyed onely vpon it. Wherefore, if so be that they refused mercy when it was of­fered▪ that he would deale very seuerely with them.

The Master of the Caracke required, that some Noble man might be sent, with whom he might deale about it.

Mounson was the man was sent▪ to whom these conditions [Page 363] were propounded: That all that were in the Caracke (for there were 300. of the Nobler sort, that had met there to defend her) should be forthwith dismissed with their wea­pons; that their Colours should not be taken downe; that the ship and Ordnance should come to the King of Spaine againe, but all the Merchandize to the English.

Mounson condescended, that within three daies all should be dismissed: that Spanish Colours should be displayed in the sight of the English, but onely, at the Poope of the ship; but for granting the Ship and Ordnance backe to the King of Spaine, that he would not heare of.

Afterwards it came to this agreement,They yeeld. that within two dayes the Portugals there should be dismisse [...], hauing their Matches put out; their Colours should be laid downe; that the Ship, Ordnance, and Merchandize should be safely deli­uered vp to the English; and that in the meane time there should be no shooting from the Castle out, vpon, or against the English.

The same night all were dismissed out of the Caracke, ex­cept the Master, and some few more, that were set a shoare early in the morning. And the very same day the English put forth with the Caracke, hauing a good winde, brought home a lusty prey, hauing not lost aboue fiue of their Marri­ners; the prey being valued by the Portugals at 1000000. Crownes.

After their returne, Mounson being sent backe againe to­wards the coasts of Spaine continued thereabouts, till the middest of Winter, to hinder any attempt vpon Ireland. While hee launcheth out into the deepe, towards Spaine, Fredericke Spinola with six Gallies, that had gotten out safe at the skirmish, comming along by the French shore, came at last to the British Ocean on the 23. of September,The rest of the Gallies are for Flan­ders. with intent to enter at some Hauen or other in Flanders. Sir Ro­bert Mansell ley in wait for him with one or two of the Queenes ships, and foure Hollanders that were dispersed [Page 364] here and there. They resolued to set on two Gallies first espied by the Hollanders: but hauing espied one of the Queeenes ships aloofe off▪ they turne them onely the other way, so to spend the day, and by the benefit of the night put into Hauen.

Sir Robert Mansell persued them from eight of the clock [...] in the morning, till Sun set; besides two Hollanders with him: but the Gallies vpon the approaching of night, ta­king their course towards England, came so neere, that some of their Gallie sl [...]ues that were chained to their Oares, hauing shooke off their Fetters, and leaping forth, swoome to the land; the Gallies vnawares came to a place, where one of the Qu [...]nes ships▪ and some Hollanders, lay at an­chor. Hereupon [...] being sure to light vpon them, the b [...]tter to come to them, he turnes saile on purpose t [...] put himselfe betweene the shore of Flanders and the Gallies. But they light vpon one of the Queenes ships,They light vpon the Queens ships. called the An­swere. Broadgate Master of the ship, who by reason of the noyse of the Ordnance he heard a farre off▪ had prepared himselfe for battaile, gaue them 38. shot and the Hollanders forthwith thundered vpon them too.

The Gallies hauing not answered one piece of Ordnance, as speedily as they could escaped away; and fainting in a most [...]empestuous night, one of them chanced to light vpon Mansell: They skir­mish. he dischargeth all his Ordnance against it, feld the Mast, and [...]earing a lamentable noise, & comming neere, by an Interpreter he offered them mercy. But fiue other Gallies comming in to helpe, he turned his broad side, and dischar­ged all his Ordnance amongst them. What slaughter hee made, a [...]though [...]he night were a cleare one, cannot be told: neither after that was heard the noyse of a piece of Ord­nance, till such time as a Hollander fastening vpon one of the Gallies, so scoured her Sterne, that presently after she [...]ncke with all her passengers.

Another Hollander by chance driuen vpon one of the [Page 365] Gallies, sorely battered it, and almost was split it selfe. An­other of the Gallies by the negligence of the Marriners,Their Gallies va [...]quished. whilest it made hast to get to Calis, was cast away. Two of them recouered Newport. Spinola in the Admirall with great store of wealth escaped into Dunkerke: but the next yeare, bei [...]g wounded with a great piece of Ordnance in a Sea fight against the Hollanders, died with great praise.

We haue heretofore said that the Voyage of the Bishop of London, Christopher Perkins, and I. Swall Doct. of the Law, whom the Queene had delegated at Embden in 1600. to treat with the Danes Delegates, was to no purpose. And now againe are sent to Bremen by the Queene concerning the same matter,The treaty at Bremen with the Danes. Ralph Lord Euers, Sir Iohn Herbert secondary Secretary, Daniel Dun Doctor of the Law, and Master of Requests, & Stephen Leisiure adioyned Assistant. The King of Denmarke delegated Ma [...]derope Persberge, Arnold Whit­field Chancellour of the Realme, and Ionas Charise Doctor of the Law.They com­plaine of too much tribute paid for pas­sing the Sounds. The English complained, that their free sayling to M [...]sco [...]y through the Northerne Sea, and their fishing a­bout the shore, and the Islands was denied them; and that there was too great an exaction of tribute and tolls, onely for their passage of the Sound. They required that the anci­ent Leagues betweene Henry 7. King of England, and Iohn King of Denmarke in the yeare one thousand foure hundred and ninety:Th [...]ir de­mands. also, that, that betweene Henry 8 of England, and Christierne of Denmarke in 1523. should be reuiewed againe, and applied to these times: that this manifolde exaction of new tolls should either be taken away, o [...] lesse­ned: and that the set rate should bee in a booke, with a certaine reason of confiscation of goods: that then the ships should not be detained at Sea longer then was fitting & that the complaints of priuate men should be quickly composed.

After this arose a disputation whether or no it be lawfull for a Prince against ancient Leagues to encrease his toll and tribute according to his good pleasure.

[Page 366] Whether or no it be not against equity, a [...]though it be vsuall,A controuer­sie discussed about the freenesse of the Sea. since that custome ought to waite vpon truth and equity.

Whether or no those things that haue been ordained by graue councell, and for a while tolerated, can be abrogated without iniury to the Princes authority.

Then, whether or no those tolls that were imposed vpon all forreigne traders in the Raigne of Queene Mary, for brin­ging in, or carrying o [...]t of Merchandize, were not more iust then those that the Da [...]es require for a passage onely in the Sea; who for charges to secure their sayling, exact a Rose-Noble for euery ship; and one piece of money for euery hundred, besides Lastage.

Whether or no tolls ought to bee exacted for passage, which elsewhere are not payed, but onely for landing and sel­ling of merchandize.

Whether or no it be not free for the E [...]glish to fish in the North Sea, and the Islands thereabouts, or to saile to Mos­couy, since the Sea is free for all men; since that Princes haue no Dominion ouer the Sea, whi [...]h they can no more hinder men from, then from the aire; according to that of Ant [...]nin [...] the Emperour,

I Truely am Lord of all the earth: but the Law i [...] of the Sea. Wherefore i [...]dge ye according to the Law of Rhodes.

Therefore, is it not against the Law of Nations, to vsurpe such authority ouer the Sea; when Princes haue not any Iu­risdiction, vnlesse of the Sea adiacent to their coasts? and that onely, that saylings might be secured from Pyrates and enemies, since that the Kings of England did neuer hinder sayling and fishing in the Irish Sea, betweene England and Ireland, although they were Lords of those shoares, aswell as the King of Denmarke is of Norway and Island, who [Page 367] vnder no other colour challengeth this right? But yet, if the Danes will exact tolls from the English for their passage, the Queene might aswell exact as much of those Danes that saile within her Dominions, Kingdomes, or Islands.

Hereupon the Danes propounded, that since their Kings Father allowed of their Nauigations, which was very full of damage to him, for the Queenes sake; that now the Mer­chants of the English should redeeme the same for two hun­dred Rose Nobles yearely, for the life time of the Queene.

That goods surprized on each side might be restored ac­cording to equity and honesty.

They grieuously complained then of the English Pirates; requesting, that although (by reason of the heate of the war) the Pirates insolency could not well be repressed; yet, that by seuerity of punishment they might be kept vnder a little: or that otherwise they must allow of Arrests to repaire their iniuries and losses; because it should principally concerne the King, to see that his Subiects suffer no losses.

Lastly, that the English ought not to complaine of their transporting warlike munition into Spaine, by reason that they transport so little, that the Spaniard was but little the better for it, and might easily want for all their supply.

Now,The treaty breakes off. after that they had spent two moneths in these dis­putations by writings on both sides exhibited, the Danes beyond all expectation certifie the English, that they had no power to take notice of, or to reforme the Leagues, or ta­king away, or lessening the tolls; or of granting leaue for fishing in the Norway and Island Seas, without the speciall licence of the King, and some certaine conditions. Withall, (which mooued much admiration) they gaue warning to the English not to fish at the Island Fer [...]e, vnder the paine whereby other fishings haue beene heretofore inhibited.

The English on the other side made protestation in ex­presse words concerning the nullity and inualidity of this Inhibition; as also of any other declaration which should be [Page 368] made contrary to the League. Lastly, when they could no otherwise agree, then to referre to the Princes on both sides, what had beene done, and what had beene gone through with; and that the Danes had promised their diligence to intercede with the King for the publication of Tolls regi­stred in a Booke, whereby they might be certaine of mea­sure, number, and waight; and not feare to haue them al­tered according to the pleasure of the Toll-takers: And that in case of confiscation, those goods should be seized vpon, and confiscated, that were concealed, and not named: The Englishmen being content with these promises of the Danes, the whole matter (the right of the Queene, and the Realme not any way infringed) was suspended, and prorogued till another time.

Whilest these things were in controuersie betweene both Princes,Disagree­ments be­twixt the Ie­suites and Se­cular Priests. the Ecclesiasticall Papists in England are together by the eares at home: For the Iesuites against the Secular Priests, with sharpe Pens, and poisoned tongues, and con­tumelious Bookes, fought continually. For they tooke it very heinously that Blackwell of Trinity College in Oxford, sometimes fellow there, who was altogether at Garnets beck, the Generall of the Iesuites through England, was now made their Arch-Priest: insomuch that they much detracted from his authority. Hereupon hee degraded them of their faculties, and afterwards, they appealing to the Pope of Rome, he caused them in a Booke to be declared Schisma­tickes and Heretiques.

This aspersion they soone wiped off, hauing the censure of the Vni [...]ersity at Paris approuing the same. And setting forth Bookes vpon Bookes, they highly commended the Queene, in that from the very beginning of her raigne she had dealt with Catholiques very mercifully. For first they shewed, that in the first 11. yeares of her raigne there was not one brought in question of his life for matter of consci­ence or religion. And that not for whole 10. yeares toge­ther [Page 369] after the Bull of Pius Quintu [...] published against her, a­boue 12. Priests were executed: and that some of them were conuicted Traitors, euen since the yeare 1580. when the Ie­suites first crept ouer into England.

Then they shewed, that their mischieuous practises against the Common-wealth had disturbed all, and much empaired the Catholique religion, and that they were the occasion of the seuere Lawes made against Catholiques.

Then they shewed, that for all this in 10. yeares follow­ing there were but 50. Priests executed; and that out of her mercy the Queene banished fiue and fifty more, against whom she might haue proceeded Legally, and executed them too.

Then they shewed, that from that time, there were Semi­naries erected in Spaine, at the care of Parsns an English Ie­suite, to entertaine English run-awayes in: and how that from thence came yearely into England turbulent Priests.

How that Parsons incited the Spaniard to inuade England, or Ireland againe: that he confirmed the right of his Daugh­ter to the Crowne of England, in a Booke set forth to the same purpose; and that an oath was exacted of all Students in the Seminaries to approue and maintaine the same.

Then they declared, how that Holt of that society had suborned Hesket to a rebellion, and enticed C [...]llin, Yorke, and Williams to kill the Queene [...] and how that Walpole the Iesuite had perswaded Squire to make away the Queene by poison. Insomuch that the Queene, although she neuer lo­ [...]ed to offer violence to the conscience, yet could she not choose but vse necessary seuerity vpon these kinde of men, vnlesse she would betray to her [...] the safety and secu­rity of her own Realmes.

Then they abused Parsons (whom they called Cowbucke) for a bastard,See Watsons Quodlibets of Stat [...]. and one of the dregs of the Commonalty; a fellow of a most seditious disposition; a sycophant, an Aequi­uocator, and one that would set Kingdomes to sale.

[Page 370] Then they much condemned these Libells of the Ie­suites set out against the Queene, of falsities, accounting the Authours traitours both to God, and the Queene. And ha­uing discoursed and argued very solidly, that the true Religi­on was to be propagated not by the sword, but the spirit of meeknesse and mildnesse. They concluded, beseeching the English Papists not to send their children to the Iesuites Se­minaries, who vse in the very tendernesse of their yeares to infuse the poyson of Treason, euen with their elements of Learning.

In the middest of this combating with Bookes, (whether in earnest,Iesuites and Secular Priests bani­shed. or deceitfully vndertaken) the Councell came to finde out, that both the Iesuites and the Priests in this matter secretly conspired to withdraw the Subiects of the Queene from their obedience to her, and to excite the Commo­nalty to the maintenance of the Romish Religion, euen with Armes.

Hereupon the Queene by Proclamation commanded the Iesuites and Secular Priests belonging to them, to depart the Kingdome: as for the rest that seemed to be mediators be­tweene both, they had two moneths allotted to resolue whe­ther or no they would professe loyalty to the Queene; if not, to he gone; and neither of both sorts euer to returne againe, except they will hazard the punishment of the Law▪ and without doubt this Proclamation came out by the great prouidence of God, to auert a great meditated mischiefe. For amongst these affaires Thomas Winter (as hee himselfe afterwards confessed) and Tesmund a Iesuite, being sent for by some of them into Spaine, vnderwent most pernicious consultations to cut off the Queene, and to exclude Iames of Scotland from his Right of inheritance.

And not onely these in England, but also in the Low Countries, seditious Souldiers conspired against the Arch-Duke, and in France also some st [...]red vp commotions a­gainst the King▪ insomuch that a storme seemed by some [Page 371] Starre to be raised against all Christian Kings and Princes.

In France Marshall Byrone, Marshall Byron be­headed. who had practised wicked counsels against his Countrey, and with pricking words wounded the Maiesty of the King, was now beheaded.

I doe not well know whom the Marshalls confession de­tected; but amongst others, it so aymed at the D. of Bulloigne, that being commanded to shew himselfe before the King, he appeared not; but fearing the anger of the King, and the power of his aduersaries about the Court; hee with-drew himselfe into Germany.

The French King made his great complaint of him to Queene Elizabeth, The French King com­plaines of the D. of Bullen. accusing his marriage with his Sister Mary of Florence as vnlawfull, and the Popes dispensa­tion as vneffectuall, and that thereby his Sonne was illeg [...] ­timate.

That he had allotted the Prince of Conde to succeed in the Kingdome.

That he conspired the destruction of the chiefest Catho­likes in France.

That he had conspired to betray the vnited Prouinces to the Spaniards that would giue most for them.

That he detracted from the Iudgement of the Parliament at Paris, by appealing to the Court of Warre, which indeed had no Iurisdiction in such matters as those.

That he tooke exception against his accusers, which in case of Treason is not lawfull to doe.

Concluding, that these things were nothing but tergiuer­sations in detracting all Iudgements,He askes Q. Elizabeths counsell what he should doe with him. and arrogating to him­selfe the Kings authority.

Wherefore he asketh councell of the Queene what hee should doe in this matter.

She answereth him by her Leager in France, that she was exceeding sorry to heare of these things; and that she esteemed it great honour done to her, that he would impart it vnto her.

[Page 372]She much commended his moderate minde, which be­ing suggested by so great dangers, yet was rather guided by the councell of his friends, then the affection of his owne selfe.

As concerning the councell which he required, she made answer,The Queens answere. that if the proofes were as manifest against him, as the obiections were odious, he should do well to proceed legally against him; but that it was dangerous for her to councell him to any thing, till such time as the proofes were cleare a­gainst him, left perchance she should offend God, if so be he were innocent; or offend the King, if he should suspect his own safety to be neglected; wherefore, that she held it most fitting in so [...]doubtfull a case, to be silent. Yet withall, she re­questeth the King to vse both iudgement and conscience in his councell, and accurately examine both the accusations and confessions, to see whether or no they come from men of trust, vncorrupted, and no way suspected of partiality; by reason that commonly no mans innocency can protect him from others base calumny. Withall informing him, that bare assertions are but slender proofes to informe the consci­ence of a iust Iudge, against a man of so well-tried vertue and valour: As also, that those obiected crimes, being not am­ply prooued, did seeme as incredible to be fathered on such a man, as they are in their owne nature execrable. For, who would belieue (said she) that hee, being brought vp in the feare of God, and continuing so long in an vnspotted loyal­ty, euen in greatest dangers both towards his King and Countrey, should euen imagine now such mischieuous villa­ny against so well a deseruing Prince: or euer ioyne councell with men both of lost estates and hopes, with whom there was neuer any conformity of manners, or religion; and from whom hee could not but expect perfidious dealing? Wishing him rather to suspect, that these suggestions were coyned in the Spanish Mint, to set the French againe toge­ther by the [...]ares.

[Page 373] The King hea [...]d this with discontented eares, and forth­with burst out into these words,The French Kings reply.

THe Queene thinkes better of Bouillon the [...] he deserues. For he was amongst the chiefest of Essexes conspiracie: neither dissembled [...]e it, when I obiected it to him; but smiling, put me off without an answere.

Then he constantly affirmed, that those things obiec [...]ed, were most true. Then he recalls the benefits he had be bestow­ed on him, as first, that he numbred him amongst his Fa­mily; then that he procured him a rich match with the heire of the Family of Bouillon; that he had set him in the possessi­on of Sedan; that he honoured him amongst the Nobles of the Inward Admission; that he made him Duke, and Mar­shall: and that once he had resolued to shew mercy to him, if he would come aske pardon; but now, since he scorned it, and out of an ill conscience, since he fled away he saw no rea­son of shewing mercy now againe to him.

Then he added, how that in the like case he interceded with the Queene for the Earle of Essex, till hee vnderstood the [...]einousnesse of his fact, and then he gaue ouer.

The Embassador returned, that the Queene only thought well of the Duke, because hitherto he had shewen his loyal­ty and valour towards his King and Country; but that she would be very sorry if that the obiections should be found true, as it was in Essexes case; and that then she wou'd detest and hate him from her very heart. Concluding, that this her admonition proceeded from no other ground, then her minde troubled, aswell for the Kings safety and security as her owne.

If we may belieue the French Writers,The opinion of others con­cerning this matter. and the politick'st English, Byrone, Bouillon, and others, perswading them­selues, that by their loyalty and valour they had brought [Page 374] the King to the Crowne; and now perceiuing that the King was indulgent towards the Conspirators against his life, and belieued them soonest, as men best deseruing, and recom­pencing their offence by duty, and disposing of honours, gi­uing them those Offices now in peace, which before they possessed in time of warre. They (I say) tooke it very hei­nously, as if the King suspected their loyalty; and hereupon being also mooued with other suggestions, thinking them­selues to haue deserued better, they began for to conspire to [...] their Offices hereditary to them and their heires; and whe [...] they could wring out that which they would, they became [...]iercer then the very enemies.

Of this number were they, whom the King in his Letter [...] [...]o the Queene was not ashamed [...] defame very sharpe­ly, not onely as vngratefull, but of a faint courage, not hauing euer ouercome the enemy by any warlike valour, but recon­ciled them rather by pay and promises.

But the Queene being very desirous of the safety of the King▪ pittying the often and neadlesse reuolts of the French, neuer gaue ouer celebrating him, as the only preseruer of the fading French Monarchy.

These things I haue weaued into my discourse, that poste­rity may hereafter iudge of the wisedome of the Queene in councelling the King, and of her constant good will to her ancient friend and Professour of the same Religion.

Also, at this time the Queene succoured Geneua, Geneua re­lieued. the Se­minary of the Reformed Religion, which was now assaulted by trickes and open Armes by the Duke of Sauoy, and great store of money was gathered to that intent throughout all England, which was liberally bestowed both by the Clergy and Commonalty of the Land.

This yeare in February Alexander Nowell Doctor of Di­uinity,The death of Alexander Now [...]ll. and Deane of Pauls, surrendred his soule to God. In the dayes of Queene Mary hee was banished into Germany for the truth of the Gospell, which afterwards both in his