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THE FIRE OF THE SANCTVARY newly vncouered, or A Complete Tract of Zeale. by C: Burges.

‘It is good to be Zealous­ly affected alwayes in a good thinge. Galath: 4. 18.

THE FIRE OF THE SANCTVARIE newly vncouered, OR, A Compleat Tract of ZEALE.

By C. BVRGUS.

GALAT. 4.18.

It is good to bee zealously affected alwaies in a good thing.

LONDON, Printed by George Miller, and Richard Badger. 1625.

TO THE RIGHT HONORABLE WILLIAM, Earle of Pembroke, &c. Knight of the most Noble Order of the Garter; Lord Steward of his Maie­sties Royall Hou­should and one of his most Honorable Priuy Councell.

MOst Noble Lord, if shaddowes could amaze the Wise, my Title-Page [Page] might giue offence. It speakes of Fire: but such as was made onely to warme, not to burne any thing, vnles stubble. No man shall neede to call for Buckets to put it out, or Hookes to pull downe any liuing-house on whom it kindleth.

Here is no ground for an Vtopian Spirit to mould a new Common-Wealth: no warrant for Sedition to touch the Lords Annointed, so much as with her Tongue: no occasion administred to Ishmael to scoffe at Isaack: [Page] no Salamanders lodge themselues here.

But here is a Flame that will lick vp all angry Waspes, and inflamed Tongues that presump­tuously and without feare, speake euill of Dig­nities, and of things they vnderstand not; rayling on all not so free as them­selues to foame at the mouth, and to cast their froth on all that are neere, without diffe­rence.

If any thinke I thought your Lordship a cold, because I humbly [Page] offer you the cheefe place at my Fire, he shall doe mee much wrong; and your Lordship, much more. Men that are in greatest vigour of bloud and spirits, count it no shame to creepe to a Fire at Winter; not because Nature is defectiue; but oft-times their Imploy­ments deny opportunity of getting heate, & kee­ping themselues warme, by naturall agitati­on.

I bring not this as a Tutor; but as a Pupil, for Protection to pre­serue [Page] this Fire from Quench-coale. Shall you vouchsafe me the honour of your Armes vpon mine Alter, I shall bee confident that no man will dare to approach these harmelesse Flames with Spouts and Pailes.

It were a fault piacu­lar to put your wisedome (as the manner is) reade Your Selfe; I meane, to [...]ntertaine you with your owne Praises. It is enough to your Lord­ship, that you merit all that Noblenesse, Loyal­ty, Religion, and vntain­ted [Page] Honour can attend you with; although no Eccho do present her self.

And let it bee enough to mee, that in the Ge­nerall, (for if I should doe more, I should bee thought by Some, rather to boast of fauours, then to acknowledge them,) I make bold to pro­claime that the Honours you haue done, and still doe to mee, must for euer oblige,

Your Lordships most humble and thank­full Seruitor C. BVRGES.

To Iudicious and vnpreiudiced Rea­ders.

I Haue a Suite: Before you run through this Holy Fire, or giue my Booke the Peepers Censure, let me beseech you to take this Apologetick Preface in your way that neither I nor you bee wron­ged [Page] or mistaken by occasion of some passages in this Treatise.

I confesse I haue entred vpon a difficult Prouince in vndertaking this subiect, and aduentured almost be­yond Hercules Pillar in prosecution of it. Others haue landed at the shore of this Terra del Fuego, and look't into it; but I haue Coasted it and made a rude Description of euery Part. If any please to make a new Suruey, and more exact dis­couery; It will be (as the Prouerbe saith) the bet­ter for vs all.

I looked when Gray-hair'd Pensil should haue drawne this Picture. But if other mens better Colours bee fro­zen, I haue now brought a Fire to thaw them, in hope that wee may once see some exquisite Peece, from some Curious Limmer.

This Worke is intended to suppresse turbulencie and all extremities; and yet to presse vnto Duty too.

Wonder not to finde me somewhat hot: I worke at the Fire. To write of Courage like a Coward, and of Fire as if one were fro­zen, [Page] deserues the Bastinado, and the Fire to boote. My spouting of Fire among the rude multitude, is but to make way for their bet­ters.

He that will part afray, must not thinke to doe it with his Cap in his hand, but with a sowre Club. And you know, if fire bee gotten vp into a Chymny; doe but shoote a Musket after it, and this will fetch it downe with a Powder.

My sharpnesse against some Democraticall An­ti-Ceremonians, is not meant to weake Consciences [Page] ioyned with pious, sober, peaceable courses. In some cases, (if I may bee bold to speake after the Apostle,) I know, that God would haue no man to bee iudged for his [...]. Rom. 14.1. doubting; so it bee onely in smaller matters of opinion, wherein the Lear­ned differ without blame, or schisme.

But I speake to such as keepe a frantick Coyle about Ceremonies, and thinke they neuer take their leuell right, but when, with euery bolt they shoot, they strike a Bishops Cap sheere off his head; and yet are more fan­tasticall, [Page] ignorant, proud, selfe-will'd, negligent and deceitfull in their particular Callings then many whom they despise and condemne to Hell for Carnall men, for­sooth; as any obseruing eye may easily discerne.

If any condemne mee of indiscretion for writing so much of Discretion, and thinke me arrogant in this Attempt: know, that I am not yet so neere madnesse as to take the height of Discre­tion by the Instrument of mine owne Braine. I [...]aue onely collected such scat [...]e­red Rules as in the sacred [Page] Scriptures, Venerable Anti­quity, and mine owne obser­uation, I haue met withall, and put them vpon one File together.

Touching the carriage of Zeale towards Princes, my Conscience witnesseth with mee in the sight of God, that I haue spoken nothing but what in my iudgement, is the truth, without sinister or base intents.

Nor doe I touch on that, presuming to teach my Bet­ters; but rather (as men vse to doe when they go for Orders, or a Benifice,) to giue account. And yet I [Page] would teach withall; I meane the boysterous Mul­titude who euer preferre the rough Channell before the temperate shore, and thinke no man preaches well in a Prince his Court, but he that is so fiery and rude, (plaine, they call it) as with his thunder shakes the very House. And if hee cast no Squibs in a Princes face, or preach not like a Priuy Councellor, they say hee hath no Holy Fire in him.

If men dislike a Booke in this Age, their Censure is vsually this; It hath no [Page] Salt in it. A Discourse of this Nature, should haue Salt good store, for all Sa­crifices must be seasoned with Mar. 9.49. Salt: so is this; but intended to Season onely, not to fret any vnlesse by acci­dent.

If any Graine chance to fall into a Chapt singer, the best way is, not to cry out; but to wash it out, and say nothing: and no harme done.

A fire of this nature is at no time vnseasonable. With most men it is winter within doores, when it is Summer in the fields. Some [Page] are so hard frozen that they had need be set neere a good fire to thawe them; and when they are thawed, to heate them.

If any man therefore ap­proach these flames, and complaines, they are too hot for the season, the remedie against scorching of his shinnes is easy. Hee neede not put the fire out; but onely sit, or stand fur­ther off, and all will be well.

Thus haue you my Apology (if it bee one) as a small skreene to hold betweene you and the fire [Page] if you thinke it too bigg, or too neere, and that it would heate you too much.

Valete, Calete.

The Contents of the seuerall Chapters of this Treatise.

CHAP. I. pag. 1.

THe Introduction, contai­ning the inducements of the Author vnto this Worke, and the Summe of the whole.

CHAP. II. pag. 8.

Of the Nature of Zeale. The signification of the Word. pag. 9. the seuerall acceptations [Page] of it as it is by vse of speech ap­plied. pag. 10. the Definition of Zeale. pag. 14. Confutation of 2. errors. pag. 20.

CHAP. III, pag. 25.

The Obiects of Zeale, Good to be maintained, Euill to be opposed. Good things to be defended are Gods Word. pag. 27. His Worship. pag. 36. His Seruants. pag. 47. What Zeale opposeth must be certain­ly euill. pag. 56.

CHAP. IIII. pag. 70.

Of the Grounds of Zeale: A distinct Knowledge. pag. 71. A lawfull Calling. page 88.

CHAP. V. pag. 101

Of the Ends of Zeale: these are either.

1. Principall, the aduance­ment of Gods Glory. Ibid. 7. Rules to try if our Zeale ayme at this end. pag. 103.

1. Rule, Zeale must be vni­uersall. pag. 104. Triall. pag. 107. 2. Rule. It is moued one­ly by sinne, not by priuate iniu­ries, or profits. pag. 114. Triall. pag. 119. 3. Rule. It makes no difference betweene friends and foes. pag. 122. Triall. pag. 125. 4. Rule. It equally sets vpon poore and rich. pag. 128. Triall. 132. 5. Rule. It is in­flamed by difficulties. pag. 133. Triall. pag. 137. 6. Rule. It is most sharpe against a mans own corruptions. pag. 140. Triall. [Page] pag. 141. 7. Rule. It is constant. pag. 143. Triall. pag. 145.

2. Lesse Principall. Refor­mation of what is amisse. pag. 148.

CHAP. VI. pag. 161.

Of the Qualification of zeale with Boldnes free from cowar­dice and Luke-warmenesse. pag. 163. The Boldnesse which is re­quisite in a Minister. pag. 164. The Reason of the dislike of it pag. 176. True boldnesse neuer exposeth to so much danger as cowardice doth. pag. 177. Two cautions touching Boldnesse. pag. 189. 190.

CHAP. VII. pag. 196.

Of Discretion, the second thing required to the right [Page] Qualification of Zeale. The praise of it. Ibid. Discretion without Zeale, compared with Zeale without Discretion. pag. 198. The Counterfeit of Dis­cretion. pag. 199. What true Discretion is. pag. 206.

The vse of Discretion in Zeale, which is to respect Cir­cumstances of Person, Place and Time.

Discretion. 1. 1. The Cir­cumstance of Person considered either Mor­rally, or Ci­uilly. Regards the circumstance of Person. pag. 209. Directing Zealots to con­sider men in a twofold respect;

The one Morall, considering them as Good or Bad: and the bad, againe, as Priuate or Pub­licke offendors; and both these sorts, as they offend either of in­firmity, or of resolution.

2. The other Ciuill as they are ranged in their seuerall rankes among men: some being [Page] Publicke, and some Priuate Persons: some aboue vs, some below vs, some equals, some elder, some younger: and ac­cordingly directeth Zeale to treate with them.

1. Of the morall con­sideration of men.Of the Morall consideration of men, defending the good. pag. 210. reproouing the Bad. pag. 211. And herein discretion teacheth care of 2 things.

1. Be sure the fault to be re­proued be certainely committed. Ibid.

2. Make a difference be­tweene a priuate and publicke offence. pag. 216.

Priuate offences how hand­led. Ibid. that is, priuately. for 5. reasons. pag. 220. Fiue Cases of exception. pag. 222. The least faults, though priuate must bee reprooued. pag. 230. the reasons why. pag. 232.

Publick offences how reproo­ued. pag. 238. to this belong 2, things. 1. Assurance that it bee such. Ibid. What makes an of­fence to bee accounted publicke. pag. 239. 2. such offences must bee publickely reprooued. pag. 240. If they be faults of infirmi­ty, more mildly. pag. 243. if of resolution and purpose, more sharply. pag. 247. Two Cautions about sharpe Reproofes. pag. 248. Publicke Reproofes to bee often iterated. pag. 253,

Of the Ciuill Consideration of Persons as they are Publick or Priuate. pag. 261. 2. Of the Ci­uill Conside­ration of Persons.

Publicke Persons are either Magistrates in the Common-Wealth, or men of Publicke of­fice in the Church. In the Com­mon-Wealth, againe, Publicke Persons are either supreame, or subordinate.

How Zeale may handle a Prince. Princes. pag. 262. Three Rules to bee obserued. pag. 264. diffe­rence betweene temporizing and true discretion. pag. 275. Vnlawfull to censure Princes in common speech. pag. 280. to de­pose them, much more vnlaw­full. pag. 284.

Subordinate MagistratesOther Ma­gistrates. how to be handled. pag. 288. e­specially in publick.Ministers. Ecclesiastical Persons how to be hādled. p. 301. Three Rules to bee obserued in it. 1. Rule. p. 302. Some char­ged with faults that are not faults but virtues: viz. that they are not Good fellowes, that they reprooue sinne sharply. pag. 303. preach too often. pag. 306. A de­fence. herof against the concio-Mastix. Ibid. The second Rule. pag. 319. Ancient decrees and Canons to preuent the molestatiō [Page] of good Ministers. pag. 322. The third Rule, who may and who may not reprooue a Minister. pag. 330. How farre priuate Persons may go herein. pag. 331.

Priuate Persons how to bee reprooued. pag. 337. Discretion teacheth a man to consider when he vndertakes to reproue others, what he is himselfe, whether a Priuate or publick persō. p. 338.

Priuate PersonsPriuate Persons. must consi­der whether the Persons they would reprooue bee vnder their speciall charge, or not. Ibid.

Those vnder their charge are either, Elders, Equals, Infe­riors. If Elders, how to be hand­led. pag. 339. if Equalls, how. pag. 340. If Inferiors, how. viz. if a wife. pag. 342. If children or seruants. pag. 349. The De­cription of a bad Father, or Ma­ster. pag. 363. The cure of such. [Page] pag. 368. Directions how to cha­stise. pag. 374.

Those without our charge how to be dealt with. Two Rules. 1. Rule. pag. 379. Di­rection to young men. Ibid. The second Rule. pag. 383.

The Ministers duty about priuate Persons. pag. 386. If they bee erroneous in iudgement, how to be dealt with, if they bee ingenuous. pag. 388. if they bee wilfull, how. pag. 395. If they be corrupt in life, how to be hand­led. pag. 404. especially in Pub­licke. pag. 405. the danger of opposing them for it. pag. 410. How farre a Minister may goe in reproouing.Inuectiue. pag. 416. What a Personall Inuectiue is. pag. 417. & seq.

2. The Cir­cumstance of Place.Discretion in the next place regards the Circumstance of Place. pag. 439 sundry Rules a­bout [Page] this▪ first and second Rules. pag. 441. third Rule pag. 444. fourth Rule. Ibid. fifth. Rule. pag. 450.

Discretions Rules touching the Circumstance of Time. 3. The Cir­cumstance of Time. pag. 459. 1. Rule hereabout. pag. 460. the second Rule. 462. wherein a man may somewhat yeelde to the times, and yet not be a Temporizer. pag. 467. How farre euill men may in some ca­ses be tollerated. pag. 469. some indiscretion to bee pardoned to some men. pag. 478.

CHAP. VIII.

Of Compassion, the last thing with which Zeale must be qualified. page 479. False Compassion. page 482. Three sorts of Compassion. page. 485. [Page] The fruitlesnesse of Zeale without Compassion. page 490.

THE FIRE of the SANCTVARIE Vncouered. OR, A TRACT OF ZEALE.

CHAP. I.

EXCELLENT and Admirable is the Nature & Vse of the holy Fire of Zeale. No acceptable Sacrifice can [Page 2] be offered without it:Nullum omnipotenti Deo est tale Sacrificium, quale est Zelus ani­maru [...]. Greg. hom 12. in Ezek. no ob­lation it selfe so pleasing to God; yet no one Grace, so much in disgrace; what by ignorance of, and emnity a­gainst this arch enimy to sin.

Irae sua stimulum iustitiae Zelū putant; & cū vitium virtus putatur, culpa sine metu cu­mulatur. Greg de past. cura lib. 3. cap. 1. adm [...]n. 17.Some take the heate which their fiery disposition blowes vp, to be Zeale for Re­ligion; and let vice once bee thought a virtue; What a mountaine of euils will soone be cast vp without feare of ill-doing!

Others, truly zealous, are often at a losse when they set vpon the chace; which pro­phane men espying, thinke that warrant enough to pull downe the whole Fabricke of Zeale, because indiscreete Zeale hath sparkled two farre. And laying themselues in bal­lance with such zealots, sup­pose [Page 3] that of the two, them­selues (though the worst) be the wisest men. Thus is the pretious fire of Zeale blasphe­med because mistaken.

And when more then now? How few Ieremies feele that fire in their bones, Ier. 20.9. which will not be kept in! How many, ready to cut in whole riuers vpon that little sparke which is in those few! How few Da­uids that are eaten Psal. 69.9. vp with the zeale of Gods house! How ma­ny, zealous to Psal. 83.12. take to them­selues the houses of God in posse­ssion, and eate them vp!

The generall coldnesse of these last (and therfore worst) daies benūming our spirits, re­q [...]ires a fire to warme them. And the malice of the world puts a danger vpon Zeale, vn­lesse we haue wisedome so to [Page 4] guide this fire as to auoid the Snares which malice will set before vs, and endeauour to hunt vs into. The more dis­grace to be zealous, the more need to shew zeale accompa­nied with discretion to rule this heauenly flame. Fire­workes proue dangerous to the vnskilfull. Better quench that fire which is already kindled, then to kindle that which we cannot gouerne.

It cannot then but bee a needfull and gratefull worke, to shew the Nature and Qua­lities of a Fire so vsefull, that he can be no good Christian who is without it: so vn­knowne, that hardly the best know the properties of it, and how to vse it.

How little hath beene written on this Theame, a [Page 5] more able and exquisite Lyn­ceus, hath made report, and powred out a zealous com­plaint against the great in­iustice offered to zeale, for that no man hath done her the right of a iust Treatise. This, I thinke, is one maine cause that makes the world so strange to her, and her, to the world.

The Antients,Amb. in Psal. 119. Greg Naz in Laudē Hero­nis & alibi. August. tract. 10. in Iohn. nec n [...] in Psal 69. Chrisost. hom. 62. ad Sopul. Greg. Mag. Hom. 12. in Ezek. Bern. Ser. 23 & 24. & 49. super Cant. & alibi. who taught it rather by Practise then Pen, spent more lines in the praise, then in the description of it. After them, the Schoole-men (their translators) either spake lesse, or lesse to the purpose. For by that time, a thing, nick-named Discretion, had rak't out this fire. Hee now was the onely man that could chop Diuinitie into smallest shreds, and driue it nearest to­gether: [Page 6] placing Religion ra­ther in Contemplation then Action. No maruaile there­fore if Zeale got no more rome in their Voluminous Writings; and that, as if she had deserued no better then Iezabel, there is scarce so much left her as the skull, and the feete and the palmes of her hands, to know her by.

Long after the rode of Zeale had been vntrauelled, and the High way growne ouer with the Mosse of Key-coldnesse, New Zelographers arose, who like Caleb & Ioshua in coasting of Canaan, began to trauell and discouer that Region anew; setting vp way-markes, and encouraging others to go vp and possesse it.

Of which first discouery, I hope it will offend no good [Page 7] man to say, that it deserues more honour then the latter more elaborate Des­criptions of Others, who ta­king direction from those first Spyes, haue made the paths more plaine, and the way more direct.

Those first Searchers of late time, gaue a good ghesse at the Nature, and Bounds of Zeale; but drew it not in so large a Map as could bee wi­shed Their meditations and labours in this kind, are here­in like the Obseruations of se­uerall Trauellers into For­raine Countries, some obser­uing one thing; and some, a­nother; but none, all that de­serues to be noted.

It will not then bee amisse, out of the seuerall Trauells of Others, and mine owne Sur­uey, [Page 8] to compile a Compleate Treatise of Zeale. In persuite of which proiect, my cheefe aime is to set forth to life, the Nature, the Obiects, the Grounds, the Ends, and the Qualification of this Sanctua­ry Fire.

CHAP. II. Of the Nature of Zeale.

This Chapter hath 3. Sections.THE first thing to bee knowne, is the Nature of Zeale. To attaine this, wee must, first, search out the precize signification of the word: then, the seuerall accep­tations of it, as by vse of speech it is applied: and thirdly, ariue at some Definition of it.

Sect. 1.Sect. 1. Of the signi­fication of the word Zeale. The word it selfe is [Page 9] Greeke, which is therefore re­tained in the best later Lan­guages, because the most Learned could neuer finde a­nother word fully to expresse it; as heIoan. Drie­do de R [...]gul. & dogm. S. Script. lib. 3. tract. 2. Cap. 1. Augustinus autem qui­busdam in locu, & Sui­da [...], & alij vtriusque linguae periti, qui non habentes lati­num vo­cabulum quo vim verbi Zeli sufficien­ter explica­rent, &c. in­quit ille. that hath done best in explication thereof hath obserued. Zeale [...] à [...]. ferueo, bullio. Eustathius annotat vero per onomato­paeian esse fa­ctum hoc verbum à so­no literae. is a branch of that Roote, say Gramari­ans, which signifieth a hyssing noise made by burning hot mettle cast into water. Zeale then in strict acception of the word, is a fiery hissing heat fighting with some contrary.

Hence is it translated to expresse that fierie heate in the seuerall passions of the soule, vehemently extended to their seuerall obiects and proiects. Such was that bur­ning fire Ier. 20.9. [...]. in the bones of Iere­mie. Such that feruencie of spi­rit Rom. 12 11 [...]. which Saint Paul exhor­ted [Page 10] the Romanes vnto. And such those coales that Timo­thie was to blow vp. 2 Tim. 1.6. [...]. Oppo­site hereto was that Luke-warme Reuel. 3.16. temper in distempe­red Laodicea, of which she was zealously warned to repent, & to grow more hot.

Sect. 2.Sect. 2. Of the vse, of the word in Scripture We see the nature of the word: behold how it is vsed. The Scripture attributes it to God, to man.

First to God, to signifie sometimes his iust indigna­tion and direfull vengeance smoaking against sinners, and burning Deut. 32.23 vnto the lowest hell. Sometimes the extreame heate of his loue, expressed in protecting his Church affli­cted. Thus himselfe setteth it out by the Prophet Zacharie, Zach. 8.2. I was iealous for Sion with great iealousie: and I was iea­lous [Page 11] for her with great furie: that is, with a zealous affe­ction for her defence.

Secondly, the Scripture at­tributes zeale to man: and so either in a bad Aug. de Ciuit. dei. lib. 20. cap. 12. sense to de­note some euill in him; or in a good, to signifie some vertue.

Zeale taken in the bad part is vsed in a fourefold sense.

First, sometimes for enuie and spleene at anothers well­doing, or being: the disease of those pining and selfe-ma­cerating Priests and Saduces at the Apostles of our Lord.Act. 5.17. [...]. And in this sence that can­kred enuy of the Patriarckes, which moued them to that tyrannicall sale of their natu­rall brother Ioseph (in this on­ly faulty, because more loued) is stiled Zeale.

2.Act 7 9. [...]. Sometimes for Iealousy Pro. 6.34. [...]. [Page 12] of some person suspected of doing wrong to a man in something neere vnto him, and intimately loued by him.

3. Sometimes for a quarre­lous contentious disposition, Iam. 3.16. [...], &c. that vpon euery trifling oc­casion breaks out against all that are neere.

4. Lastly for counterfeit iealousie, Gal. 4.17. which some seeme to haue of others, they pre­tend great loue vnto, and care of, for feare they should doe amisse; whereas this faire shew is but a shew to hold the others the faster in their nets, for the better compassing of their owne sinister ends, and to make them more willing to stoop at their Lure.

Zeale taken in the good sense as it is attributed to Man, importeth three things, viz.

First, an emulation to ouer­take & outgo others in good­nesse, without enuying those a man striues to outstrip. Such was the zeale of many in Ma­cedonia2. Cor. 9.2. vnto liberalitie, pro­uoked thereto by those of A­chaya, and particularly of Corinth the Metropolitan Citie.

Secondly, Godly iealousie ouer some we loue, for feare they should sinne against Christ their husband. The af­fection of Saint Paul for his beloued Corinthians, and termed by himselfe (in oppo­sition to the bad)2. Cor. 11.2 [...]. godly iea­lousie.

Thirdly, an extreame heate of all the affections, for and to­wards one we esteeme, bur­ning in our loue to him; our desire of him; our ioy in him; [Page 14] our indignation against all that speake, or do any thing a­gainst the honour and good liking of him: thinking no­thing too good, too deare, too much to bestow vpon him: whether we make man,2. Cor. 7.7. Gal. 4.15. Num. 11.28.29. or GodPsal. 69 9. Ioh. 2.17. himselfe the obiect hereof.

Sect. 3.Sect. 3. Of the ac­ceptation of zeale in this Treatise. These being the chiefe acceptations of zeale that the Scriptures mention, among them all, I pitch on the last, and the definition thereof I thus expresse. Zeale Zeale defi­ned. is a spirituall fire inflaming all the affections of a Christian, for preseruation and aduancement of the glorie of God.

Zeale considered according to the rules of Art, is a Quali­tie; and such a qualitie as Lo­gicians call an Habite, which must be defined by the gene­rall [Page 15] nature, Obiect and Endes of it.

All these are expressed in this definition. Spirituall fire is in roome of the Genus, and declares the generall nature of it, (to which I adde by the way for plainnesse sake, the subiect and state in which it is; viz. all the affections of a Chri­stian.) Gods glorie is the princi­pall Obiect Obiectum cui. it lookes at: the aduancement and preseruation whereof, is the highest End it tends vnto.

First for the Genus or ge­nerall nature of it,1. The gene­rall nature of it. I tearme it a fire, a spirituall fire. A fire, not a heate onely, which is in some degrees found euen in Luke-warmenesse, wherein yet coldnesse is the predominant qualitie, and this makes it faulty. Zeale hath heate as hot [Page 16] as fire, therefore so is it called by Ieremie, in Analogie to E­lementarie or materiall fire.

And in this respect is it spirituall, which in this defini­tion is put in, not as inten­ding a specificall difference betweene this and culinarie fires, but to shew the subal­ternate generall nature of it, as the word spirituall compre­hends all analogicall fires in mans passions, which are di­uers; some lawfull; others ir­regular and vnlawfull; some holy; others impure. There is the fire of lust, Rom. 1.27. and the fire of the tongue, Iam. 3.6. as well the fire of zeale.

Adde hereunto that zeale is kindled by the Spirit, and therefore is it spirituall also. Howbeit the spiritualitie of it can be no specificall note to [Page 17] distinguish it from other gra­ces, they being all in this re­spect spirituall.

This spirituall fire hath for it hearth to burne in,Subiectum in quo. all the affections and passions of a Christian as they serue, or may be of vse for aduance­ment of the glorie of God. Nor doth zeale onely inha­bite the affections, and worke in them, but vpon them too: they are not onely the hearth to burne in, but fewell to kin­dle on.

Thus zeale set all Dauids affections on fire, which in his holy poeticall raptures we may see blazing. In his loue, Psal. 119.97 we may find him transpor­ted beyond expression. In his desire, extreamely thirsting and panting:Psal. 42.1. and this heate, by an Antiperistasis, droping [Page 18] downe teares in such plentie as if he were to make them his meate.Psal. 42.3. Yea his griefe proues a Moses rod to smite the rocke of his heart, that riuers of water gush out at his eyes. Psal. 119.136. And as for his anger, that so burned that it consu­med him vp.Ibid. ver. 139. Nay his zeale did not omit to inflame his very hatred, making him hate the enemies of God with a perfect Psal. 139.22 hatred. Thus where euer zeale commeth, it setteth the whole heart on fire, ma­king men say with those two Disciples; Did not our hearts Luke 14.32 burne within vs?

Obiectum. 2 Secondly, the Obiect of zeale, to wit, the principall and the chiefest White it le­uels at, is the glorie of God. There be, I confesse, di­uerse particulars which zeale [Page 19] shoots at: but Gods glorie is the highest, & comprehends all those vnder it as meanes to aduance it.

Some make the worship of God to be the principall Obiect of zeale, which they nominate in their Definiti­ons: but this is too low, and too narrow. Too low, because the glorie of God is aboue it, as much as the End is aboue the Meanes. Too narrow, be­cause there be other things wherein Gods glorie is as deepely interessed as in his worship. Therefore besides that which is in this place spoken by way of explication of the Definition, I haue pur­posely intended the next Chapter to declare more par­ticularly and largely, the se­uerall lesse principall Obiects [Page 20] of zeale, which could not be conueniently and artificially couched in the Definition it selfe.

3. Finis.Thirdly, the End of zeale is the end of all our Actions,1. Cor. 10.31. the preseruation and aduance­ment of the glorie of God. To proue this at large were but to ouerlade the Treatise need­lesly, and to preuent my selfe of speaking of it more copi­ously in that place,Viz in Chap. 5. to which (according to my method & proiect) it more properly per­taines.

Confutation of two errorsBut before I can go further, I must tumble aside two er­rors laid iust in my way. Error. 1 The one by some Neotericks, who for hast discerned not a sim­ple from a compound, suppo­sing vpon their first view of zeale, that it was a compoun­ded [Page 21] or mixt affection or An­ger and Loue: And so with­out more fixed inspection commended for such vnto o­thers.

Error. 2 The other, by more antique Schoolemen, who prying more curiously into the nature of this burning heate, found it (indeed) a simple: but withall simply confined it to one af­fection of Loue, Aquin. 1. 2. q. 28. ar. 4. Bonau. in Prol. sent. dub. 3. Greg. de val. super Aqui. Disp. gener. 3. q. 2. p. 3. alij (que). as if zeale had no hearth or tunnell, but this. Both which blockes I shall endeauour to remooue with one lift.

Zeale is neither any one Simple or Compounded pas­sion, or in any one onely: but a fierie temper and disposi­tion in all, differing from them as fire from mettell in a fornace. And as courage in a valiant man is no compoun­ded [Page 22] thing of his passions and spirits, but a braue temper & intention of both; so also is zeale.

This truth the Rule of con­traries will yet better cleare, if we set zeale by the opposite to it, luke-warmnesse. To be luke-warme, is not want of sufficient heate in one affe­ction onely, but all. Zeale therefore must needs put fire into so many of the affections and passions as luke-warme­nesse depriueth thereof. Here­upon it is that zealous men feele a burning in all their affections as well as in any, as obiects present themselues.

It is a wonder to see those elder exact Professors, pin Zeale to one Passion; where­as it cannot bee denied that Zeale, in one zealous action, [Page 23] shewes it selfe equally in di­uerse passions together. Mo­ses declared as much heate of indignation against those Calueish Idolaters, Exod. 32. as he did Loue, for God. The like did Phineas in the slaugh­ter of Zimri and Cosbi. As oneDriedo. l. [...]. de Reg. script. tract. 2. cap. 1. Jn zelo Phi­nees bis zelus ponitur. Se­mel pro vehementia amo­ru erga deum, zelum autem irae habuit contra pec­cantes. Eodem modo & Hugo. de S. vict. in Ioel. 2. zelus est feruor animi ad compassionem naturae, ad vltionem paenae, ad de­uotionem gratiae proni, &c. Ita August. Tract. 10 in Ioan. Quis co­meditur zelo domus? qui omnia que ibi videt peruer­sa satagit e­mendare, cu­pit corrigere; non quiescis: si emendare non potest, tollerat, gemit &c. of the faction of Schoole­men hath (to his praise) long since confessed. And in godly Iealousie (all one with Zeale,) doe not Loue, and Feare, and Anger, equally present and bestirre themselues with like feruor?

Breefly: I will no more de­nie Loue to bee the Master Passion, in setting Zeale first on worke, then I will grant Zeale to be an effect of Loue; it being rather a Consequent then an effect thereof. A true Zealot Sacrificing all his Af­fections [Page 24] to the honour of his God, hath this fire of Zeale to kindle them all, like that celestiall fire, consuming the Sacrifices of Eliah. Which Fier was no effect, flowing f [...]om the Sacrifice it selfe, but onely a meanes, by fiering it, to make it accepted.

To conclude, Zeale cannot be without Loue, Loue can­not liue without Zeale: yet is not Zeale any more partici­pant of the nature of Loue, though ioyned with it and all the the rest of the Passions to inflame them, then that thin water which runnes along with the bloud in the body of man, to temper it, is of the na­ture of bloud.

CHAP. III. The Obiects of Zeale.

HAuing vncouered this Fire by a Definition, my next worke is to discouer more largely the se­uerall subordinate Obiects, for whose sakes it burneth.

Zeale hath a double taske: the one of a Defendant, the other, of an Opponent. Accor­dingly it hath a two-fold Ob­iect; Good and Euill, main­taining that; opposing this. It euer defendeth what is tru­ly Good.This Chap­ter hath two Sections. It neuer opposeth any thing but what is certain­ly Euill.

Sect. 1.Sect. 1. Of the good things which zeale defendeth. viz. The first taske of Zeale is on the behalfe of Good to abet it. What hea­uenly wisedome counts wor­thy, [Page 26] our choyce is an honou­rable cause for Zeale to main­taine. Now what will either Grace or Nature desire, but good? It is not then for the honour of Zeale to take part with any thing else. It is good (yea comely [...].) to be zealously affected in a good thing alwaies: Gal. 1.18. that is, for that thing which is good: for euery thingEgo volo vos in omni­bus bonis re­splendere. Theodor. that is good: not onely that good which reflecteth on our selues, but all that any way concerneth the honour of him who is the Author of goodnes. If the loue of good­nesse prouoke vs to Zeale, where euer Zeale findeth goodnesse in distresse it be­comes her Champion.

But though zeale vnderta­keth the protection of euery thing that is good, yet chiefly [Page 27] it patronizeth that which commeth nearest the chiefest good, and wherein the glory of our Highest Soueraigne is more deepely interessed. Of this nature is his Word, his Worship, his Seruants.

1.1. The word of God. One particular Obiect of zeale then is the Sacred word of Truth, containing all neces­sarie rules of Faith.Zelus cum in bono acci­pitur, est qui­dam feruor animi, quo mens relicto humano ti­more, pro de­fensione veritatis accendi­tur. Alcuinus The of­fice of zeale about this is, to preserue the honour thereof vntainted from all blemishes of error, staines of heresie, & indignities of Tyrants and A­theists: striuing for the faith of the Phil. 1.27. Gospell: Holding fast Tit 1.9. the faithfull word: not quarrelling to separation for euery diffe­rence in opinion touching points not fundamentall, and vndecided. In which case no man must be iudged for his [Page 28] doubting; Rom. 14.1. See the mar­ginall note of our last Translators. nor may any doubt­ing man iudge others whoIbid. ver. 3 doubt not.

The fire of zeale must blaze highest in maintenance of capitall truths,Iude ver. 3. Earnestly con­tending for the faith once deli­uered vnto the Saints. Wise men will defend that part of a Citie most, which may occa­sion most dammage by suffe­ring a breach. And zeale will then especially be as one of the Cherubins with a flaming sword to keepe safe the word of Life, when the chiefest mysteries are corrupted, or questioned.

Saint Paul, when the ho­nour of his Gospell lay at the stake, seemeth vnable to ex­presse the heate he was in: marke his vehemency; though we, saith he, or an Angell from [Page 29] heauen should preach any other Gospell vnto you, Gal. 1.8. then that which we haue preached vnto you, let him be accursed. A heauie doome most vehe­mently denounced. And yet not satisfying himselfe in shewing so much zeale as he was able to expresse by one single pronouncing this dreadfull anathematisme, he doubles his speech, as if the fornace of his heart were now heated with zeale seauen times hotter then it was wont:Ibid. ver. 9. As we said before, so say I now againe, if any man preach vn­to you another Gospell, then that ye haue receiued, let him be ac­cursed. Thus in cases of like consequence, must we be af­fected.

But to be all on fire in de­fence of questionable truths, [Page 30] which if they were yeelded vnto vs, could adde nothing to that stocke of graces which accompanie saluation, is a thing ill beseeming those di­uine flames of holy zeale. To what profit are those hot dis­putes and sharpe contentions about the place assigned for (that maze of horror vnto vn­godly men) the Oecumeni­call Assise; the Equalitie of glorie; the Hierarchie of An­gels; and many more?

He that putteth himselfe vpon the office of a Superui­sor and Controuler of other mens opinions touching points of this nature, may breed vaine ianglings, but will edifie but a little. These things are of the nature of sauce rather then meate; dish them out as curiously as Art [Page 31] can deuise, and when all is done they nourish not. Marke such as are zealous of spirituall gifts; if they seeke not to excell to the vse of edifying; you shall be sure to finde them excel­ling in vanitie. And more quarrels arise by one such conceited Doctor, then many wise men with all their wise­dome shall be able to take vp.

This is that bloudie knife that cutteth asunder the very sinewes of Christian loue. This causeth Professors of the same faith to leade huge ar­mies of sectaries like Pigmies and Cranes one against ano­ther: so wasting their zeale in defence of trifles, that they haue none left to make a wall of fire about points of more moment.

With what heart can we ioyne against a common ene­mie, when euery little diffe­rence is prosecuted with such heate as if it were vnlawfull, or at least dangerous to vnite our forces, for feare of fiering one anothers tents by encam­ping together? He that can be so hote with his brother for a trifle, would certainly exceed the proportion of any cause with an enemie, de­stroying more by intempe­rance then he is able to build by his zeale.

Witnesse the bickerings betweene some Lutherans & Caluinists, (as they are by some nick-named,) which haue giuen RELIGION (since the last reformation thereof) a greater blow, then all the thunderbolts of [Page 33] Rome set together.

Is it not Nuts to our Ro­mish neighbours to see men belch out such bitter ray­lings, and to put out such tart volumes one against another, touching the manner of Christ discension into hell; the libertie of the Sabbath; the power of Witches; the possibilitie of Demoniacall possessions; the seate of faith; the superioritie of preaching, reading, and praying? In all which and many more the diuisions of Reuben are great thoughts of heart. Is it now a time to be diuided among our selues, when all our for­ces vnited are little enough to withstand the common aduersarie? Oh when will our eyes be opened to see, & our hearts be mollified to bewaile [Page 34] the breaches of the enemy vpon vs, by such vnbrother­ly childish contentions a­mong our selues!

Ere while wee could see nothing in S. Paul but fire, when the foundation of the Gospell began to shake by the vndermining of seducers. But in an inferiour point, wch was but as a Pinacle, not of so much necessitie as beau­tie to set out the Pile; he lay­eth his hand off the bellowes, and puts out the fire.

For being consulted tou­ching Virginitie; 1. Cor. 7. and ha­uing no particular direction therein from the Lord, he spa­ringly and mildly set downe his iudgement, and that by way of friendly aduise onely, not of command from the Lord. And as if this were not [Page 35] enough to manifest his mo­deration, he will by no means peremptorily determine the question; but giueth euery man libertie therein, that is of another mind,Ibid. ver. 36 to do what he will.

These two presidents of the Apostle may suffice to de­clare what temper our zeale must ascend vnto in defence of the Word. Maintaine we must with all our might the Principles of faith. But of infe­riour doubtful truths, we may onely gently discourse what seemes most probable; not violently hold them to dissen­tion2. Tim. 2.23. &c. & Schisme: no, though the grounds of such our opi­nions seeme neuer so solide. Herein it is as honourable to yeeld as to conquer; since euerie man must follow the [Page 36] things which Rom. 14.19. make for peace, and wherewith one may edifie another.

2. The wor­ship of God.2. Another particular which zeale must fortifie, is that Worship of God, which the Word prescribeth. The second Commandement which in­terdicts Idolatrie and false worship, doth as firmely en­ioyne zeale for preseruation of that true worship which the Lord doth appoint. Ther­fore the Apostle ioynes Zeale and Worship together: requi­ring that worshippers be zea­lous Rom. 12.11 in spirit, seruing or wor­shipping the Lord.

It is then a good and come­ly thing to be zealously affe­cted towards and for the wor­ship of God. For this our Lord was so zealous that the zeale of the very house of [Page 37] God did euen euen eate him vp: by the house no doubt vnderstanding and meaning Synecdochically the whole WorshipQuis come­ditur Zelo domus dei? qui omnia quae ibi videt peruersa cu­pa emenda­re, &c. Aug. tract. 10. in Iohn. of God there to bee performed, but by pro­phane imployments pollu­ted. A thing so prouoking his spirit, that hee could not expresse indignation enough in rescuing the honour of that place from such abuses.

This action so well besee­med Christ himselfe, that e­uen by this hee clearely de­monstrated to his Disciples the substance of that Type which Dauid once was: they then remembring that it was writtē, the Ioh. 2.17. ex Psal. 69.9. zeale of thine house hath euen eaten me vp. And what need wee any further precept; any better warrant herein?

Howbeit as in defence of the Word, the rule of wor­ship, most Zeale must bee spent for points fundamen­tall: so care must be had in maintaining the Worship it selfe, to fortifie the Substan­tialls most.

Such was the flame of Elias Zeale,1 King. 18.40. that nothing but the bloud of all Baals Prophets could quench it. But marke the obiect of it: It was no smalle matter. It was for no lesse then Gods Couenant, which by their meanes, the children of Isra­el had forsaken: Ibid. ver. 10. for his Al­ters which they had throwne downe: and for his Prophets which they had slaine with with the sword.

Thus when any Substan­tiall part of Gods Worship [Page 39] is corrupted, deteyned, remo­ued, or endangered; then is a time for Christians to quit themselues like men in vin­dicating the same.

But here a Caution touch­ing the former example. It is no warrant for our Zeale to breake out so farre as his did: it onely shewes vs where­in we must be zealous so farre as the bounds of our Calling admit. It had not been law­full for Eliah to put those Ido­laters to the sword, if hee had not been able to pleade his speciall Commission from God, as he did;Ibid. ver. 36. I haue done all these things at thy word.

The want of which war­rant made Peter liable to re­proofe of our Lord, euen when he fought in defence of our Lord, and cut off but an [Page 40] eare of the high Priests ser­uant. For this little, Christ applied vnto him that Lawe against Murtherers;Mat. 26.52 Ex Gen. 9 6. All they that take the sword shall perish by the sword. Not that this little deserued that iudge­ment; but to giue him notice, whereto his Zeale would make him obnoxious, if hee proceeded to the taking away of any mans life vpon so slen­der a ground.

It is then the duty of Christians, if priuate men, to pray zealously; if Ministers, to preach zealously in de­fence of Gods Worship: vseing no Armes but those of Ambrose to Augustus, Pray­ers, and Teares. Rogamus Auguste, non pugnamus: non timemus, sed rogamus. Hoc Christia­nos decet, vt & tranquilli­tas pacis op­tetur & fidei, veritatisque constantia. Amb. Epist. 33. ad Mar­cellinam And againe, Orat. in Auxentium: coactus repug­nare non no­ui, dolere po­tero, potero flere, po­tero gemere: aduersus ar­ma milites, Goth [...]s quo­que lachrymae meae arma sunt, &c. aliter nec debeo nec possum resi­stere. Hee that being vnder Authority, will rather resist then suffer, makes the cause suffer by his resi­stance; [Page 41] and so in steed of stan­ding zealously for it, he doth in effect raise forces against it.

It was not the prohibiti­ons and threats of the Iewish Gouernors, that could si­lence Peter, and Iohn, from preaching Iesus;Act. 4.18.19, 20. because their Commission from God must be executed against all iniunctions of Men. But on the other side, their Zeale ne­uer made them resist with hostile force, euen in their greatest affronts. If they were apprehended, they suffered with patience and reioycing; if they could, they fled.

Zeale may stand with suffe­ring and flying; but not with resistance, which is flat Re­bellion. And no good cause calles Rebellion to aide. [Page 42] Christ giues not onely liber­ty, but precept; when we are persecuted in one City, to fly in­to another: not meaning we should be lesse zealous, but spare our selues for better times and occasions.

If it were contrary to Zeale, to fly; Christ would neuer haue giuenReu. 12.14 wings of a great Eagle to the woman, that she might flie into the wilder­nesse into her place, from the face of the Serpent. And though our Sauiour makes it the trik of anIoh. 10.12. hyreling to leaue the sheepe & flee, when he seeth the Wolfe comming: yet that is when the Wolfe comes to worry and deuoure the flock principally; not when many Woules come directly a­gainst the shephard himselfe, after the best sheepe bee [Page 43] slaine or fledd, and the rest ready to ioyne with the Wolues against him.

Then, a Minister may, yea must flie if he can, when his flock, notwithstanding his best care and diligence, bee either so scattered that hee cannot draw them together, or so ouergrowne with the scab of heresie, that it is im­possible to cure them, and e­uery man ready to seeke his life to take it away; making the quarrell personall against the Shephard, rather then generall against the sheepe. In this case Eliah fled from1 King. 17.3. Ahab, and that by Gods own direction: And after, from Iezabl; when he thought that1 King 19.10. hee onely was left alone; though at that time there were seauen thousand that ne­uer [Page 44] bowed knee vnto Baal; yet so scattered, that he knew not where to finde them. So also Paul fled from Tessalonica toAct 17.13.15. Athens: and from the Go­uernor of Damascus, desirous to apprehend him,2 Cor. 11.32.33. being let downe through a window in a basket by the wall and so esca­ped his hands. So did Athana­sius often flie from the Arri­ans.

Nor is any man debarred this benefit, if the case bee a­like. Herein, if in any thing, the Prouerbe is true; One paire of heeles is worth too paire of hands: which any man may vse without disparagement to his Zeale, or danger to be branded with the opprobri­ous Marke of an Hireling.

But in matter of Circum­stance or Ceremonies, which [Page 45] are not parts, but onely ap­purtenances of Worship;Non partes cultus, sed ad cultum cere­moniae. no neede, no warrant to be so hot, as for defence there­of to incurre such perills. In Substantiall duties of Wor­ship, hee that is not with God in a zealous defence, is against him. Luk. 11.23. And yet in things of lesse moment, he that is not against him, by an open cros­sing, is with him, Mark 9.40. by holding the maine.

Zeale therefore must not spit fire at such as are not foes but friends: nor be at defiance with those who holding the head, doe not putrifie the members.

I thinke no wise man doubts that euen in the purer times of the Old Church in Israel, corruptions grew in Ceremonies as well as in the [Page 46] substance of Gods worship. And yet, pry into the Scrip­tures neuer so carefully, wee shall not finde any of the most zealous Saints fall on fire for Ceremonies. Which is worth obseruation, and the rather because Saint Paule saith that, euen in the Chur­ches of the Gospell there was, then,1 Cor. 11.16. no such custome.

Now what comfort can any man reape of that Zeale which makes him seperate, for not hauing his will follo­wed in Ceremonies; when such Zeale was neuer practi­sed or commanded in Scrip­ture?

Liberty is giuen to euery Church to vse what Cere­monies they will, that agree to the generall rule, and tend to edification and decency. Yet [Page 47] liberty is not lest to euery one in the Church that hee may set vp or pull downe what hee will. This is in the power of the Gouernors one­ly, who being dispensers of the Mysteries of God 1 Cor. 4 1. are best able to iudge of conuenien­cie and decencie.

If euery one in the Church of Creete might set vp what they would, Paul might haue set Titus about some other businesse, and not for this ve­rie cause haue left him there, to setTit. 1 5. in order the things that were wanting.

3. The last particular which zeale must maintaine, be the Seruants of God. 3. T [...]e ser­uants of God. He that held himselfe despised, when hisMat. 10.40. Seruants were; intended thereby the defence of them as well as of himselfe. And it [Page 48] is one part of Eliahs quarrell against the Prophets of Baal and their followers, that they had slain Gods 1 King. 19.10. Prophets with the Sword.

When wee see the Ser­uants of God reproached, scandalized, and oppressed, then is a time for zeale to ap­peare in their defence: and such as by their place and Greatnes are able to giue countenance to good men in good causes, should then hold it an honorable dutie to shew themselues. Thus did Ionathan for Dauid 1 Sam. 20.32., euen when Saul himselfe was enra­ged:Hest. 7.3. Hester for the Iewes, when Haman plotted their Destruction: And Nicode­mus for Christ;Ioh. 7.51. though the Pharises boyled in malice a­gainst him.

What Zeale is in that Person that can bee content to see a good man perish be­fore his eyes, and vnder his nose, neuer opening his mouth in his defence, for feare of offending such as care not for offending of any; but practise the ruines of all that crosse their humors?

The Lord, to teach men their duty herein, doth some­times vouchsafe himselfe to pleade the cause of his ser­uants, as he did in the parti­cular of Moses, against Aaron and Miriam Num. 12.4.. A remarkable example, to shew how the Lord takes to heart the in­dignities that are put vpon his Seruants, especially when they are busyed in his owne Seruice. He will not allow it euen vnto Kings to doe [Page 50] them any harme:Psal. 105.14. but hath re­proued, and will reproue kings for their sakes.

Yea further such as be able to doe no good by speaking for them, must yet mourne for their distresse. It is recor­ded to the shame of Israel, that such as were at ease, themselues tooke their fill of voluptuousnesse, but did not remember with compassio­nate griefeAmos. 6.6. the affl [...]ctions of Ioseph.

When Ierusalem was laid wast, how did zealousLamen. Ieremy take on! When Herod had cast Peter into Prison, how in­cessant were the faithfull in their prayers,Act. 12. till he was de­liuered!

Obserue the plagues that come on such men as are ne­uer touched with the mise­ries [Page 51] of Others. They com­monly fall vnder the same iudgement, which others vn­pittied, haue tasted before. They that would bee at their banquets, not remembring the afflictions of Ioseph in captiui­ty, therefore shall goe captiue with the first that goe captiue, Amos 6.7. and the banquet of them that stretched themselues, shall bee taken away.

On the other side, such as in Zeale for Gods Seruants doe but mourne for their af­flictions shall be sure to share with them in the comforts of their deliuerance, and to bee kindly inuited by the Lord himselfe, to their mirth. Re­ioyce yee with Ierusalem all yee that loue her: reioyce for ioy with her, all yee that mourne for her, Isay. 66.10, 11. that yee may suck and [Page 52] be satisfied with the brests of her consolations.

But yet because the purest mettals haue some drosse, & the best men, some imperfe­ctions that cannot bee defen­ded; Zeale may not vnder­take their defence in all they doe, or hold. Moses, a man zealous and louing enough, would not maintaine, could not but check his owne bro­ther for making the people na­ked, by Idols,Exod. 32.25. before their ene­mies. A thing which if either Zeale, might haue past ouer, or loue couered, his meeknes had neuer so sharpely repro­ued.

The Actions of the chee­fest Apostles are not alwaies warrantable, because done by Apostles: for euen they also, when they follow not Christ, [Page 53] must be forsakē. If they do any thing contrary to the rule of the Gospell,Gal. 2.11. they are to bee blamed; but if they teach men so, Gal. 1.8, 9. they must be accursed.

Paul was not to learne his duty of defending good men; nor ignorant of his rule to guide him therein: yet when Peter was at Antioch and had offended, Saint Paul withstood him, euen to his face. Now, what confusion?Ibid. Gal. 1.11. what a maze of error had Pe­ters Schollers been cast into, if they should with heate haue vowed the maintaining their Masters Action, which no doubt they disclaimedChrisost. in hunc loc. [...]. on Pauls reproofe? neither loue, nor reuerence, but Iudge­ment must leade our troopes to the aide of Good men.

If such, or such a good man, [Page 54] held for a Scholler, dislike a Ceremonie, this is to many, ground enough to cōdemn it to the pit of hel, because they are strong in opinion, that so worthy a man would ne­uer find fault without cause.

But was not this the Mo­ther of all that mischiefe now befallen, that once famousRom. 1.8. Church of Rome; where, the high respect and immodest admiration which some Ve­nerable Pastors were raised vnto, (either by the dotage or flattery of their people, re­ceiuing all for Gospel, which proceeded out of their mouthes;) at first conceiued, and at length brought forth that prodigious blasphemy ofNot that I grant this Tenent to bee in being of ancient times: but only that the high respect of the B [...]. of Rome so long as they had virtue, drew so much reue­rence to that Sea, as af [...]er, the brood of Iesuites made vse of it, by wre­sti [...]g some speeches of the Fathers, to [...]et [...]b [...]h this poyson. Albert Pig­hius Hierar. Eccle. lib. 4. cap. 6, 7 was the first Di­uine that e­uer vnder­took expres­ly and pro­fessedly to maintaine the infallibi­litie of the Popes iudgement, which he professeth to vnder­take, against the consent of all the Diuines and Canonists. A thing wherof Paul 4. was ashamed, and condemned Pighius for it. In Epist. ad Groper Cardinall. Impossibility to erre.

A Doctrine abhorred by vs. And yet, alas! How often is it vnawares maintained by such as would bee thought our greatest zealots? Many of them being in Argument) brought to a Non-plus; for their last reply and strongest refuge, they flie to this; ‘and I know this to be the iudge­ment of able, sound, wor­thy, Reuerend Diuines; and therefore, all the world shall neuer driue me from it while I liue. Which is no better then the last Argu­ment of Scaligers foole, who thinkes, by a wager to maintaine that, which by reason he cannot.’

Is not this to set men vp in the Infallible Chaire; and to create Popes at home, while we defie them abroade; yea, [Page 56] to hold the faith of our Lord Ie­sus Christ, as we affect and re­spect the Persons wee choose to follow therein?

The Apostles rule is, to fol­low men as they follow Christ. When they step out of his paths, let vs (if we can) reduce them, if wee cannot doe this, let them wander without vs. It is more gainefull and safe to trauell alone, in the high way of Christ; then by fol­lowing the best company out of the common Rode, to be set fast in a slough.

Sect. 2.Sect. 2. Shewing what Zeale must oppose. One Taske of Zeale hath been shewed, wherein it must be a Defendant: the other followeth, wherein it must be an Opponent.

Zeale must neuer fly on the throate of any thing but what is certainly euill. Whiles [Page 57] it is but suspected, Zeale must be countermanded from dis­charging against it, least shame sound a retraite to our furious marching, and dis­grace retort that bullet which was too hastily shot into the Aduerse Campe.

The Israelites beyond Ior­dan thought there had beene great cause of a zealous quar­rell at the Alter Iosh 22.11, 12. erected by the Tribes of Reuben, Gad, and part of Manasseh, on this side the Riuer. But when better information declared it to be built onely for a Memorial vnto Posterity, of their same­nesse of bloud and Religion with those within Canaan; they saw cause to iustifie what before they condem­ned,Ibid. ver. 31, 32. and to blame them­selues for blaming their Bre­thren.

Saul was a zealous perse­cutor of Dauid as of a dange­rous Traytor to his Crowne:1 Sam. 20.31. But which of the two was more righteous,Chap. 24.17 Sauls after-confession declared.

The Iewes wanted no heate against the Doctrine of our Sauiour, and the rest of the Apostles. But whosoeuer shall reade those stories, may from them for euer take war­ning not to set against that which onely their owne fro­wardnesse, fancies, or humors haue made odious to them; no sound euidence being found among the sacred Re­cords to condemne it.

The beleeuing Iewes of the Circ [...]mcision, thought Peter Act. 11.2, 3 a prophane offender for going to the Gentiles, and sharpely rebuked him for [Page 59] it. Yet was not as they ima­gined: for after his defence,Ver. 18. they glorified God, for that which before with great heat they condemned.

The like violence haue I knowne in Some, against some things in our Church, which, better vnderstood, they admired. Yea I am per­swaded that ignorance of the originall causes and true vse of diuers things amongst vs, doth breed a lo [...]thing of that which deserues good accep­tance. Some stomakes loath vnknowne meats, which if they tooke downe, would do them no hurt: yet out of a peeuish humor, chuse rather to cast away their meate, then their ignorance of it.

Many inueigh against Partiality, that are them­selues [Page 60] the greatest Partialists to their owne Gamaliels. It becomes euery sober Christi­an to doubt rather of the iudgement of few, especially of his own, then of a Whole Church. It is more easy to quarrell, then to finde cause: to contradict, then to dis­proue.

Where silly ignorance, wilfull preiudice, and affected partiality sit as Triumuirate Officers to iudge of the soundnesse, lawfulnesse, and conueniency of what they do not, or will not, or cannot vnderstand; it will be easy for them to affirme that any thing maintained by others (though sound, lawfull, and fit,) doth hit againe Scripture.

It is then our safest course to Submit to euery ordinance of [Page 61] man for the Lords sake 1. Pet. 2, so farre as they disanull not the Ordinances of God. Nor may we take vp an opinion vpon trust from any man liuing against euen humane Ordi­nances, nor go about to op­pose them, till our owne vn­derstandings discrie in them some contrariety to the writ­ten word.

Our libertie must not bee confined to the close prison of another mans1. Cor. 10.29. conscience: nor his to ours. Let vs not therefore iudge one another any more, but iudge this rather, that no man put a stumbling blocke, or an occasion to fall, into his brothers Rom. 14.13. way. Cast not scruples into mens minds touching the vnlaw­fulnesse of that, which for the most part, such as be most [Page 62] violent and bitter against, are least able to infringe.

On the other side, such, as, to feed other mens humours, wil turne Ithacius, (Who migh­tily bending himselfe by all meanes against the Heresie of Priscilian, the hatred of which one euill, was all the vertue he had, became so wise in the end, that euery man carefull of ver­tuous conuersation, studious of Scripture, and giuen to any ab­stinence in diet, was set downe in his Calender of suspected Priscillianists; for whom it should be expedient to approue their soundnesse of faith, by a more licentious and loose beha­uiour M.R. Hoo­ker, ex Sulpit. se [...].:) such, I say, are but base clawbacks, that so their owne turnes be serued, care not whom they wrong by false accusations, nor how much [Page 63] they abuse them whom they flatter by misinformations.

And here an Item to such as it concerneth to punish the sinnes of the people, (I speake not now of the lawes & con­stitutions themselues; but onely to preuent corruption in such to whom the execu­tion of them is committed by superior Gouernors:) if they shal for gaine or other respect make the vnwitting or vnwil­ling omissiō of an inferior du­ty, to be as bad as a breach of any substantiall part of Gods worship; some small indiscre­tion and weakenesse, either of iudgement or conscience, with odious whoredome, ree­ling gogle-eyed drunkennes, and blasphemous swearing, &c. winking at these, & pro­secuting the other with ex­treamest [Page 64] rigour: this is vp & downe to act a Pharisies part. Wo to suchMat 23.23 tything of Mint, Annise, and Cumen, when the weightiest matters of the Law, mercie, iudgement, and faith are omittedMat 23.23. They are butVer. 24. Blind guides, who straine at gnats, and swallow Camels.

Nor is it onely Pettie­larcenie, but euen a capitall crime against zeale it selfe, to driue it at the head of things not simply euill, or to make vse of the sharpest edge of se­uere iustice to hew downe lesser faults, whilest greater sinnes be rather stroaked, then so much as stricken with her scabberd. This brings vp an euil report vpō the best zeale, and among such as are not able or willing to discerne of things that differ, takes away [Page 65] all difference betweene a zea­lous Christian, and a head­strong headlong Aiax. Some certainly in all places will be found that will be glad to take occasion to lay on Rutilius for Aemilius his fault.

Let Authoritie consider how great wrong it were to a common-wealth, to punish Felons, and to passe by Trai­tors. The scandall is no lesse to the Gouernment of the Church, to vse seueritie a­gainst peccadilloes, and make a gaine of more scandalous courses.

Samuel neuer acknowledged Sauls diligence in killing the meaner Amalakites, to smell of any coale from the Alter, so long as Agag and the best of the Prey were spared aliue.

It were a foule blot to Is­rael, [Page 66] that Tamar hauing plaid the incestuous whore should escape the fire; yet most vn­reasonable that guiltie Iudah should pronounce that sen­tence: for though she de­serued death by the Law of God, yet was she in the con­science of her Iudge more righteous Gen. 38.26. then himselfe; so that he must needs condemne himselfe first, in condemning of her.

Againe, let such as be zea­lous sticklers for Democrati­call or Aristocraticall discipline, consider how ill the Church can be gouerned by one po­litie, & the Commonwealth by another. Let them take notice of that woe which stic­keth as close to the ribs of such as call good, euill; and sweete, sowre: as of such who [Page 67] call euill, good, and sowre, sweete Isai. 5.20..

The terror whereof should asswage the heate they are in, against things not yet de­cided to their liking: and keepe them from that vio­lent pelting at Ceremonies, and crying away with that which themselues are not a­ble from good grounds to condemne.

It were ridiculous to the world, scandalous to the Church, dangerous to a mans owne selfe to be obserued more afraid of a Ceremonie in a Church, then of worldli­nesse, pride, malice, and selfe-loue in his owne bowels.

Poore Vzzah was smitten dead but for touching the Arke, when it was not lawfull for any to touch the body of [Page 68] the Arke: and when, if in that case of necessitie it might be thought a tollerable offence, yet it pertained to others more neare about it to per­forme that office. And yet men now count it an high peece of zeale to direct their Directors, and like Clocke­makers to take the Church all in peeces at their plea­sure.

But what should the sheepe do with the shepheards crooke? what, the foote, in turning the body topsy-tur­uey, to become the head? and what the common souldier, in leading theGreg Naz. in Orat. de moderatio­ne seruand. in disput. [...]. armie?

It was long since the zea­lous complaint of an holy man, that men could no soo­ner get vp their names in the world, and be able readily & [Page 69] confidently to muster vp a few places of Scripture no­thing to the purpose, but they thought themselues sufficient to encounter Moses himselfe, setting vpon him as furiously asIdem ibid. Dathan and Abiram euer did.

Happie were this age, had it none of that temper. To such as these, it is in vaine to say any thing, therefore dire­cting my speech to them whom moderation hath yet a better hand ouer, I will say but this of that same ancient Father; their cōtumacie, I be­seech you, let vs flie from, their madnesse let vs abhorre, lest we perish with them in the same vengeance.

If there be any thing amisse, let our zeale set vs to praying, not to rayling, which be­comes [Page 70] neither men nor An­gels toward the Diuell him­selfe. If the Church be foule, the struglings of priuate persons will but raise the dust. If any thing be faultie, our Sauiours rule in another case will fit inferiors passing well; Let him that is without sinne cast the first stone at it. If wee cannot do this, the next way we can possibly take to the best reformation is by prayers Psal. 83. and teares Psal. 119.136..

CHAP. IIII. Of the Grounds of Zeale.

VVE haue seene the Obiects for which, and against which our zeale must giue fire. Next [Page 71] I must shew, on what Grounds we must plant it.This Chap­ter hath two Sections cō taining the two grounds of zeale.

Our zeale cannot but bee naught, be the Obiect neuer so good, vnlesse wee go to worke vpon Grounds as good. The grounds be generally two: A distinct knowledge; and a lawfull calling.

Sect. 1Sect. 1. Shewing the first ground of zeale know­ledge. One Ground of zeale is, a distinct knowledge of the cause we take vp. The good­nesse of any thing is not of it selfe warrant enough to vs, till in our apprehension wee know it to be good. A Lawyer may haue a good cause brought him; but it were nei­ther safe for his Clyent nor wisedome for himselfe, to pleade it till he fully vnder­stand it from one end to the other, because of the many turnings and windings which [Page 72] a subtill aduersarie will make aduantages of.

It is Satans policie not to cast any quench-coale into an ignorant Zelots fire, but ra­ther helpe him with bellowes to blow it vp. The Diuell sees that such an one will not proue so dangerous to any as vnto himselfe; vnlesse it be vnto God and Religion, who many times receiue greater blowes from such fresh water souldiers, then from a profes­sed enemie. For though they haue an heart willing to stand for good things, yet they are like a second, that fighting in the darke, many times knocks downe his friend in stead of his foe.

This ignis fatuus or fooles fire haunted those Iewes, who by the Apostles testimonie, [Page 73] were zealous enough, but it was not according to Rom. 10.2. know­ledge. This want led them so much astray, that when they thought themselues in the best & straightest course, and most zealous for God; Phaeton-like they did what they could to set the world on fire, and became most sa­crilegious against the Sonne ofQuid pro­dest habere zelū Dei, & non hábere scientiā Dei? Iudei putan­tes se zelum Dei habere, sacrilegi exti­terunt in fi­lium Dei, quia non se­cundum sci­entiam zelati sunt. Origen. God.

So then, zeale is worth no­thing without knowledge to guide it: yea ignorant zeale is an intollerable Importabi­lis absque sci­entià zelus est Bern Sup. Cant. ser. 49. euill. Who would endure a Commander setting or directing a battell when his eves be put out? Who would trust a head­strong blind horse with the raines? Would he not more often run his head against a post, then keepe his way? and [Page 74] if he come at a dangerous bridge, choose rather to go beside it then ouer it.

It is as naturall to error to draw ignorance after it, as for the load-stone to attract Iron. An ignorant man being euer suspitious that others will de­ceiue him, preuents them by doing it himselfe: and then proues more confident then before he was suspitious. And though he may haue an Item, that he hath abused himselfe, yet this will but adde passion to error; fire to tow; making him more mad: as once the constancie of Christians in the truth, made Paul inAct. 26.11. per­secuting them euen to strange Cities.

Nor is it strange to see men more violent in a wrong way, then in the right, since in a [Page 75] wrong course, they haue wind and tide with them; but in a good, both against them. Their corruptions will easily hoyse saile to their irregular passions, and the Diuels sug­gestions like strong gales of wind, will set them a running in a headlong voyage.

But all these will oppose them when the ship is more carefully steered in a straight course by a true compasse, by reason of the naturall enmi­tie and crosse disposition that is in them, against all that is good.

Violence therefore is dan­gerous in wayes vnknowne; because after entrance into a by-way, direction comes (for the most part) too late. Then, either shame, or choller at their owne mistaking makes [Page 76] men more violent: as they that in a iourney hauing lost their way, out of very anger post harder in by-paths, then they did in the Roade.

An absolute necessitie of distinct knowledge is therefore layd vpon euery Zealot. And this knowledge must be had from the Law and the Testi­monies Isai. 8.20.; beyond which if zeale go, it wanders in the darke without warrant, but not without sinne. Whatsoeuer is not of faith is Rom. 14.23 sin. And that cannot be of faith, which is not cut out by the patterne of the word. Faith will not build vpon humane founda­tions, or credit of man; but the vnderstanding and iudge­ment must haue immediate information and satisfaction frō the Diuine word of truth.

It is then an extreame rashnesse and folly for any man to suffer his zeale to run before and beyond his know­ledge, relying vpon the iudge­ment or practise of other good men, as if it were war­rant enough for him to sweare, what a good man will say: and to defend what a goo [...] man hath done.

That is zeale ill spent which wasteth it selfe in cry­ing downe other mens opi­nions, not as iudgement, but as affection kindles it; being able oft times, to say no more against them, then the chiefe Priests and Officers could al­ledge against Christ vnto Pi­late; If he were not an euill doer we would not haue deliuered him vp vnto thee: yet seeme to take it ill that their bare [Page 80] [...] [Page 81] [...] [Page 78] clamor, without any either euidence or particular accu­sation, should preuaile with him to put an Innocent to death.

Many good (but weake) Christians expose themselues and their Zeale to much re­proach and disaduantage, by standing out in some things which they haue onely recei­ued by Tradition. There are some whom they will rely vpon without all doubt or gainesaying, or so much as searching to the bottome of their Opinions. And yet these people would thinke much to subscribe to another man whom they loue not so well, without requiring many rea­sons more then enough.

Is not this one of our iust quarrels against the Papists [Page 79] at this day, as it was formerly of Christ himselfe against the old Pharisies, for their Traditions? Yet when many people are demāded their rea­sons of diuers opinions which they stand stoutly vnto, is not their answer this? Because the contrarie is against Gods word. Being pressed to shew wherein, they reply; ‘We are but ignorant people, we can­not dispute with you: but so we are taught by Reuerend men, if you talke with them, they will bee able to satisfie you to the full.’

Vpon this ground they stand so firme, that none is a­ble to remoue them. Their heart, they would you should know, is as good as yours, though they cannot main­taine their Tenents as others [Page 80] can: and therefore they are resolued to continue their course.

If this be not blind zeale, I know not what is. Let them suppose what they will: such good meaning is naught, and their zeale too. For without knowledge the mind is not good; and he that hasteth with his feet Pro. 15.2. sinneth.

Such a zealous man is like one that being blind or hood winkt, should hastly runne in an vncoth and dangerous way full of blocks, rockes, dit­ches, brookes, quagmires, or pits, and neuer giue ouer till destruction her selfe put a period to his desperate race.

This is the reason why men become Sectaries and Schis­maticks so fast: they suffer themselues to be seduced be­fore [Page 81] they discerne the traps into which they are trained. And commonly such as be most zealous in this kinde, change Religion as often as yong shoo-makers and taylors do masters, running ouer all the Sects that be in the world, vnlesse their course be interrupted by authoritie, and themselues constrained to informe themselues bet­ter.

But if they may runne on, what errour or heresie will they not in time swallow downe like Gulls and Cor­morants, and digest like Ostri­ges? The best things corrup­ted, proue to bee the worst. And zeale that giues luster to all graces, if it once exceed the circle of knowledge, be­comes most pernitious.

Who derides not the mad­nesse of those hare brained EphesiansActs 19.32., that vpon meere instigation of Demetrius a­gainst Paul, filled a whole Citie with an vproare, some crying one thing; and some a nother in great confusion, the more part not knowing where­fore they were come toge­ther?

I wish it were breach of charitie to compare the stirs of our Brownists, Anabap­tists, Familists, and all the rab­ble of such schismaticall Se­ctaries, (who may truly bee termed Puritanes,) with this inconsiderate action of those rude Ephesians. If there bee any difference, it is onely in this, that these mad-Martin mar-Prelates professe in their words that they know God, [Page 83] but in their workes they denie him.

What then remaineth but that we all learne to make knowledge and humilitie, Vshers to our zeale. Beware of Ignorance and Arrogan­cie; they are birds of a feather; seldome asunder: for who so bold as blind Bayard? Put not the raynes of zeale into their hands; for they will cer­tainely set all on fire; and if it proue not so, it shall not be their fault.

Zealous Dauid thought it a good argument to prooue his heart free from pride, that his zeale had bene confined to the Region of his know­ledge and capacitie. Marke his plea: Lord mine heart is not haughtie, nor mine eyes lof­tie; neither do I exercise my [Page 84] selfe in great matters, nor in things too wonderfull for Psal 131.1.2. [...] me. And it is a ruled case; he that will be super wise Rom. 12 3., busie and earnest beyond sobrietie and the measure of faith dispensed to him; and thinketh he doth well: setteth an higher price vpon himselfe then euer any man, but some foole like him­selfe, will giue for him.

This, lamentable experi­ence hath in all ages taught to be too dangerous: it being ordinary with selfe-conceited Zealots, rather to defend schisme, heresie, blasphemie, then by an ingenious retra­ctation of errour, (which would honour them more,) to confesse their ignorance and temeritie.

An euill which the whole Christian world had once [Page 85] ruefull cause to obserue and bewaile in that Great Wit, Arrius. This man out of a vaine glorious emulation to excell Alexander Bishop of Alexandria, (where himselfe was also aNiceph. lib. 8. cap. 5. Minister,) diued so farre into curious Questi­ons beyond his reach, that at length he went as low as hell it selfe, & brought vp thence that Heresie, which, to his e­uerlasting reproach, beareth his name denying the God­head of Christ.

After him, Nestorius, out of Zeale maintaining the rashnesse of his much admi­red friend Anastasius; Socratt. li. 1 cap. 32. Niceph. lib. 14 cap. 31, 32 33. fell into as grosse an Heresie. The occasion, this. Anasta­sius hauing in a Sermon bit­terly railed against that Anti­ent Title (which hee vnder­stood [Page 86] not, saith Nicephorus,) giuen to the Virgine Mary, Maria [...]. The mother of God. Vide Origen. tom. 3. in Rom. Euseb lib. 3. de vit. Con­stant. by the Fathers: and that sharpe Censure of his being distasted by them, Nestorius would needs vndertake in fa­uour of his Anastasius to iusti­fie, spending whole Sermons in protesting against that Phrase of speech.

Afterwards, being by that Reuerēd Alexandrian Cyril in sundry letters shewed the law­fulnesse of that which he with much heate had publikely condemned: And his shal­low braines not able to hold it vp any longer without ad­mitting many grosse absurdi­ties against the Person of Christ; and Lastly his proud heart disdaining submission and recantation, made choise in maintaining thereof (for [Page 87] want of other arguments out of which he had been beaten by disputation) to fall into that most execrable Heresie which denieth the Vnion of the two Natures of Christ in one Person.

It were tedious to particu­larize the detriments of blind Zeale; since this hath been the wall by which the Iuy of Heresie, error and schisme hath euer got vp to that vn­happy height which oft they mount vnto. Great reason then it is, that wee should euer build our Zeale on the sure foundation of a distinct knowledge: and rather stand in doubt and suspence touch­ing things vnknowne;Melius est dubitare de occultis, quam litiga­re de incer [...]is. August. de Trin. li. 8. Cap. 5. then contentiously bicker for things vncertaine, or beyond our Ken.

Sect. 2. Shewing the other ground of Zeale, a lawfull Calling. Sect. 2. The other Ground of Zeale no lesse necessary, is a Lawfull Calling. If Infe­riour Magistrates may not execute any part of Iustice without Authority deriued from Superiour Power: how much doth it concerne Chri­stians to attend vpon God for a Calling and Commissi­on to warrant their procee­dings?

Once haue a Calling, and spare for no Zeale which that Calling will admit. It is not for Saul himselfe, but for Samuel to offer Sacrifice. It is not for euery Per­son to mount the Magistrates Chaire, or the Prophets Pul­pit, but for such as are called of God, as Moses Exod. 3.10. to the one, andHeb. 5 4 Aaron to the other.

How often haue the Lords [Page 89] Messengers powred out bitter complaints and heauy woes against such as runne before they were sent? Did they onely touch such as in those times vsurped the Propheticall O­ffice, as their Successors the Anabaptists doe now? Doth not the Gospel also confine men to their proper stations, which they may not goe from, or beyond?

It is true, that in times of general Eclipses, and corrup­tion of Gods Word and Worship, Elisha haue been from the Plowe,1 Kin. 19.19 and Amos from the Heard, Amos 7.14, 15. Hooker, in his Preface to his Eccl. Polity. aduanced to the function of Prophets. Caluin left the Profession of Ciuill Law in France, to professe Diuinity at Geneua, forsaken of her Bishop, and impatient of longer bondage in Popery.

But where the Word and Worship is truly taught by able Professors, and when a man is set & setled in a lawful Calling already, and not for­ced out of it; then to suppose that Zeale for God moueth him to abandon his former function, and to become a Preacher, (vnlesse he be vna­ble or vnfit for his former Calling, and extraordinarily fitted for the function hee would now imbrace,) is to suppose without ground, and against that Rule,1 Cor. 7.23. Let euery man abide in the same Calling wherein he was called. And a­gaine,Ibid. ver. 24. Let euery man wherein hee is called therein abide with God.

If God in his Prouidence haue set a man in a Calling of vse, fitted him for it, and gi­uen [Page 91] him comfortable im­ployment in it; abide in it he must, though he imagine he could be more vsefull in another course, or else he abides not with God. Leaue that, and he leaueth God. Go be­yond that, and he goes with­out God. His vtmost tether, is,1 Thes. 4.11 Studie to bee quiet, and meddle with your owne busi­nesse. Euery one must bee a Labourer 2 Thes. 3.11 no Loyterer, no Wanderer; a Workeman no idle Person; watchfull in his owne charge,1 Pet 4.15. [...]. no Bishop in another mans Diocesse.

It is not for euery man to punish or magisterially re­proue sinne in all that com­mit it. No man could haue better cause to draw sword, then Peter for Christ, if our Lord had giuen him as good a [Page 92] calling, as the Iews did, occa­sion: but both not cōcurring, his zeale proued but rashnes,Mat. 26. and incurred his reproofe whose cause he defended.

Dauid would not fall vpon sinners, nor bee speaking of good things in companies knowne to bee desperately wicked; accounting it a duty to keepe his mouth close shut whiles the wicked were before him: Psal. 39.1, 2, 3. and saith of himselfe, I was dumbe with silence, I held my peace euen from good, and my sorrow was stirred, my heart was hot within me, while I was museing, the fire burned. Here was zeale, but no speech. And when hee did speake, it was not to them, but to God; and that no doubt in such a tone as they descerned not: for o­therwise it had been as good [Page 93] to haue spoken vnto them, as in their hearing.

If any doubt whether Da­uid did well, they may be re­solued by comparing this action to the rules of Salomon and Christ: the one counsel­ling not to rebuke a scorner: the other aduising not to cast Pearles before swine, least they turne againe, and all to rend you.

It is then a cleare case that a Christian is not bound to reproue, or discourse of Reli­gion to knowne or suspected Scoffers. If hee testify in se­cret vnto his God, his dislike of such Varlets, auoid need­lesse society, and vnnecessary Commerce with them, and in his soule secretly mourne for their dishonoring of God; he hath done his duty.

To leade the Reader in circuite to the particular bounds of each mans calling were too long a Walke, and it would tyre vs both. Breefly therefore, it may suffice for the present, to know that e­uery mans Zeale must bee principally spent within his owne proper and distinct charge.

Were it equall that a Iu­stice of Peace should be as bu­sie and peremptory in execu­tion of his Office in another County, as where he is Au­thorised by Commission, and when hee is within his owne Diuision? Can it be requisite that a Christian should be as zealous beyond his Charge, as in his speciall precincts? In no wise.

Dauid in his owne house [Page 95] will be peremptory in driue­ing from him all that be wic­ked.Psal. 101. But when he is abroad and meets with company that like him not, his Zeale will shew it selfe not so much in thundring on them, as lea­uing of them.Psal. 26.

Howbeit as a Iustice seeing disorders though out of his reach, may friendly aduise, direct, and mildly admonish the disordered; so may a Pri­uate man, his brother offen­ding, although hee haue no particular charge of him. In performance whereof a mans age, place, and esteeme is a great aduantage, or preiu­dice.

Young men, and such as are not of eminent respect must be more sparing, as Eli­hu was till his Elders had spo­ken. [Page 96] That will not bee well taken from them, which would bee receiued with thankes from some other. Herein euery mans wisdome must foresee what is fit, be­fore hee aduenture on that thanklesse office which by his place and calling he is not tyed vnto

And this in proportion must be the Ministers Line. In his owne Cure he must be re­solute; otherwise, more spa­ring in particulars. In ano­ther mans station he must do what hee may; in his owne, what is needfull, whether he be old or young, whether they will heare, Ezek. 2.5. or whether they will forbeare.

The want of a Commission the Deuill will soone espy, and make contemptible what [Page 97] was well meant, for want of Authority to countenance the action.Act. 19. The Sonnes of Sce­ua seemed to vndertake a charitable worke in casting out Deuills in the name of Iesus: but the Deuills were not such fooles as not to dis­cerne their want of Commis­sion, and therefore leapt vpon them and ouercame them, and preuailed against them, Ibid. ver. 16 so that they fled away naked and wounded.

The former alledged ex­ample of Vzzah, but stepping out of his ranke to stay vp the tottering Arke by touching the body of it, which hee ought not to haue done, should make men tremble to exceede their Callings though in Zeale for God, since what they therein may [Page 98] account deuotion, hee may condemne for rash presump­tion.

Such fires then as cannot bee kept within their owne Chimnies, but like sparkes of greene wood will bee conti­nually flying out vpon all that stand neere them, and like squibbs runne sputtering without difference or order til they be quenched or spent, are but wildfires, that some­times doe hurt, but neuer do good.

If men know not their bounds, their Zeale will bee best imployed in learning them, and waiting till they haue a Calling from God, who will then imploy them when they are fit for imploy­ment.

A Soldier out of ranke, the [Page 99] more hee bussles and laies a­bout him, the more he disor­dereth the whole Army, and exposeth it to greater danger; so doth a Zelot, out of his Calling. He euer failes in dis­charge of his owne duty, that intrudeth vpon another mans Calling.

Saul while he seemed very deuout in offering sacrifice, therein being out of his cal­ling offended, and neglected his owne, in sparing of Agag, manifesting in both so much rebellion as was worse then Witchcraft▪ and so much stub­bornnesse as was in Gods ac­count whose seruice hee pre­pretended,1 Sam. 15.23. as bad as Idolatry.

Nor is this all. Hee that aduentures beyond his Cal­ling, euer exceedes the pro­portion of the cause he med­leth [Page 100] with, as Simeon and Leui who destroyed a whole CityGen. 34.27. for one mans offence, and that after termes of satis­faction were both profer'd, and accepted.

The Apostle chargeth that no man suffer as a busy body in other mens matters. 1 Pet. 4. They therefore that lash out beyond their Callings, do of­ten suffer, but neuer haue comfort in suffering; because they suffer for that they should haue let alone; and so they bring themselues to shame; and Zeale, to re­proach.

CHAP. V. Of the Ends of Zeale.

THE End, in intention,The ends of Zeale are 1. Principall, or 2. lesse Principall. euer precedeth a Wise mans Action. A true zealous man neuer kindles a fire till his ends bee resolued vpon.

Zeale hath Two maine ends at which it aymeth. The One, Principall, and that is the aduancement of the Glory of God. The Other, Seconda­ry, and that is, Reformation of what is a misse.

Sect. 1.Sect. 1. Shewing the Prin­pall end. The maine and and top End of Zeale is the aduancement of Gods Glory. At this euery true zealot must truely and sincerely Leuel, else, let his knowledge be ne­uer [Page 102] so exact, his Calling ne­uer so warrantable, his Zeale cannot be iustifiable.

Moses commanded those that were on the Lords side a­gainst Aarons Calfe, to slay euery man his brother, and euery man his companion, Exod. 32.27. and euery man his neighbour. But marke: he first charged them to goe about this bloudy seruice for the Glory of God, which was then laid in the dust by Idolatry. For Moses had said;Ver. 29. consecrate your selues to day to the Lord, euen euery man vpon his sonne, and vpon his brother, that hee may bestow vpon you a blessing this day.

He therefore that in that slaughter slew his owne Fa­ther in Zeale for God, offen­ded not; because in that case Father and mother must bee [Page 203] hated. Whereas on the con­trary, hee that put to the sword his very enemy, vpon this occasion taking reuenge on him, vnder colour of exe­cution of Iustice for God, was a murtherer.

It was not the affection it selfe that Saint Paul condem­ned in those seducing Zelots among the Galathians, but their sinister ends. Gal. 4. They zea­lously affect you, but not well. That is, their ends bee cor­rupt. And the same Apostle hath set downe,1 Cor. 10. elsewhere, this End, to which all our Actions must directly point as the needle to the Pole: Whatsoeuer yee doe, doe all to the glory of God.

The heart of man is deceit­ful aboue all things, 7. Markes to know that Zeale which armes at the glory of God. sometimes perswading him that hee [Page 104] aymes at this end, when in­deed he doth not, other times putting him into needlesse feares that hee shoots wide, when yet his ayme is well enough taken. It will bee therefore needfull to insert some Rules & markes where­by euery man may be able to know whether he steereth his course to land his Zeale at the Port of Gods Glory.

The first Rule is this; True Zeale is entire and vniuersall. 1 Rule. Zeale is vniuersall It makes a man as carefull to approue the inside to God, as the outside to men. It pro­uokes to a conscionable obe­dience in all things, as well as in that particular wee seeme sometimes to be so zealous in.

Holy Dauid by this Rule, was a sound Zealot indeed. [Page 105] Hee often burned in spirit when he suppressed the flame from the view of man. God onely discerned the vent hee gaue it. I was dumbe with si­lence, I held my peace euen from good, and my sorrow was stir­red. My heart was hot within me; while I was musing the fire burned. Then spake I with my tongue, Lord make mee to know mine end, &c. His heart was first on fire before the flame was in his tongue▪ and when hee opened the tunnel, it did, after the nature of fire, ascend, and shewed it selfe first vnto God. This Zeale of his did not make him fiery onely in a point or two: for he saith of himselfe;Psal. 119 128. I esteeme all thy precepts concerning all things to be right, and I hate e­uery false way.

On the other side we may see the Zeale of the Pharises dis­couered for counterfeit. They tooke great paines to set out a glorious outside and a pain­ted face of Profession: but within were no better then painted Sepulchers, or the Sumpters ofSee Speeds Chron. Cardinal Wolsey.

If you looke vpon their outward carriage, it is with as much austerity and rigour as may be. Behold their very pots and platters; Math. 23. you shall see them bright without: but looke not within, least the filthinesse annoy you, they being filled to the brim with extortion & excesse. Outward­ly they appeare righteous vnto men, but within they are full of hypocrisie and iniquity.

To this must bee added, that euen in their outward [Page 107] Actions their Zeale is not vniuersall. They are more carefull for Mint, and Annis, and Cummin, then for the weightier matters of the Law, iudgement, mercy, and faith. For these haultings, our Sa­uiour brands them with the Hypocrites marke, ouer and ouer, three times together. Hypocrites in graine.

If then a Minister set him­self in great heat against some sins and not against all:The Triall. If he presse many duties on his flock and performe few or none himselfe; denounce ter­rors with a thundring tone, but not comfort the broken spirit; inueigh against Con­formers on the one side, or Puritans on the other, and yet liue like an Atheist: let his pretence bee what it will, [Page 108] his End is not Gods glory, for then his Zeale would be Vni­uersall.

I do not say that he should at the same time do all things at once. There is a time to launce and cut, as well as to bind vp and heale. All Texts afford not al points, al sorts of applicatiō: All Anditories re­quire them not. But I speake this onely to this end that a constāt zealous temper must bee shewed in performance of euery particular duty throughout so oft as oppor­tunity and occasion are offe­red; and that as well in life, as in Preaching or any other Ministeriall Seruice. If he be not thus proportionable in all, he is not truly zealous in any.

So for a Magistrate to be [Page 109] very sharpe against some out­rages committed by meane and contemptible persons, but letting alone such as of­fend as highly in other kinds, & perhaps in the same kinds too, if they be persons of Qualitie, or otherwise can make him by friends. To bee hot against strangers, but cold enough in punishing such as are vnder his owne roofe: to seeme zealous for God and the King onely to prosecute with more violence, such as they beare a secret grudge vn­to: to boast of impartialitie, and yet giue no countenance to Religious men; but rather for this very cause, that they labour to liue strictly, in the sense of the Apostle,Ephe. 5.15. (al­though they bee euery way conformable to the Lawes of [Page 110] God, the Church, and Com­mon-wealth) to haue a preiu­dicate opinion of them, and a secret heart-burning against them: this is not zeale, but furious passion, blazing onely that way which the wind driues it, and flaming as the base affectation of windie po­pularitie which God abhor­reth, shall happen to blow it vp.

Iehu was so sicke of this dis­ease, that he was not asha­med to be his owne Herald to proclaime it vnder the name of zeale; fathering his bastard furie vpon zeale for the 2. King. 10.16. Lord, when none but the base ambition of his owne false heart begat it. He must needs call Iehonadab to wit­nesse his zeale, when Gods Spirit discouered it to be but [Page 111] an hypocriticall ladder to as­cend the Throne.

Could that be zeale to grub vp Ahabs stocke by the roots for his sinne against God, that could yet suffer those monuments of Idolatry in Dan and Bethel to remaine as quiet, as much esteemed, as much adored, as euer be­fore in Ahabs life, and that by Iehu himselfe?

How is it that the Lord complaines; Iehu tooke no heed to walke in the Law of the Lord God of Israel with all his heart, Ibid. ver. 31 &c? Here is euidence e­nough to proue his zeale to be counterfeit, and to giue all men notice how little the Lord cares for such flashes of lightning in stead of a solid fire of heauenly zeale.

Such also who being in in­feriour [Page 112] offices, take occasion then to crie quit with some that heretofore did offend them; and present a few poore snakes, let [...]ing more escape vnobserued that deserue pu­nishment more; cannot so bleare the eyes of the world, as to be taken for zealous. They will be discouered by the most blincking drunkards to be malitious reuengers of their owne priuate passions, and that it is not conscience of an Oath, but other respects that make them so busie.

Finally, by this all ciuill Professors and formall hypo­cr [...]tes may find themselues empty of zeale for Gods glo­rie, in the best actions they performe. What shall the zealous fastings Isai. 58.3.4., and sacri­ficesCap. 66.3. of hollow hearted [Page 113] Christians, who want zeale to kindle them, gaine at Gods hand but reproofe and loa­thing?

That is not zeale that brings men to Church on the Lords day, and yet suffereth them to liue like Diuels all the weeke after; that will make a man pray in the Church, or in his familie in the morning, and yet neuer put him in mind (to any pur­pose) of God all the day after, vnlesse to blaspheme his ter­rible Name: that will make men seeme deuout in the du­ties of the first Table, and yet suffer them to be very deceit­full, couetous, and corrupt in their dealings with men: that will carrie them with vio­lence against an oath, but not against iugling and lying for [Page 214] their owne aduantage.

2. Rule, zeale is moued by sinne, not by priuate iniu­ries or pro­fits.2. True zeale is set on worke by the consideration of sinne against God, and not by iniuries or profits of our owne. Zealous Lot, doubtles, suffered much, and long vnder the vncleane, vnnaturall, barbarous Sodo­mites. Yet we heare of no fretting or impatience at their vnneighborly dealing. Nay when he was in perill of his life, & they readie to offer violence vnto him, and to pull his house downe about his eares: he answered with mildnesse and prayers; I pray you brethren do not so Gen. 19.7. wic­kedly.

Yet the dishonours of God he tooke deepely to heart, and feared not to declare how much he was vexed with the filthy conuersation of the wicked. [Page 115] For that righteous man dwelling among them, in seeing and hearing vexed his righte­ous soule from day to day with their vnlawfull 2. Pet. 2.7.8 deeds. He that could contemne all iniu­ries done to himselfe, could not digest any that was done to his God.

When Moses was perso­nally abused in a high degree, not onely by the skumme of the Congregation, but by his owne Brother &Num. 12. Sister; he was not stirred a whit. The holy Ghost notes of him, euen at that very time, that he was very meeke aboue all the men that were vpon the face of the Ibid. ver. 3. earth. Howbeit when God was abused, he could then send forth great flames of sire. Witnesse his zeale in the matter of theExod 32.19 Calfe; and [Page 116] after, in the businesse of Co­rah Num. 16.15. He that before, could neglect his honour to retaine his meeknesse; now forgets his meeknesse to shew his zeale for the Lord.

Let it not seeme tedious that I adde the example of our Lord himselfe. Neuer any suffered so many, and such contradictions of Heb. 12.3. sinners: yet at priuate wrongs he was ne­uer troubled. When he was re­uiled, he reuiled not againe; when he suffered, he threatened 1. Pet. 2.23. not. Nay, not so much as opened his Isai. 53.7. mouth. Neuerthe­lesse, when he saw the Tem­ple prophaned, Gods wor­ship polluted, whereby the honour of God was layd in the dust; so great a fire was kindled within him, that the flame was readie to wast and [Page 117] eate himselfeIoh. 2.17. vp.

And as zeale is not stirred with the apprehension of in­iuries offered; no more is it blowne vp by the bellowes of profit expected. He, that was so zealous that no man was in labours so abundant, vnder stripes so much, in prisons so frequent, in deaths so often, in iourneyes so painefull, in perils of waters, of robbers, by his owne Country men, by the hea­thens, in the Citie, in the wil­dernesse, in the sea, among false brethren, &c. in zeale so much exceeding others, that when they were but offended, he bur­ned 2 Cor. 11.: not counting his life deare vnto himselfe, so that he might finish his course with ioy, and the Ministrie which he had receiued of the Lord Iesus, to testifie the Gospell of the grace [Page 118] of Acts 20.24 God; he, I say, that aduen­tured and endured so much, vndertooke none of all this for his priuate aduantage.

To the Ephesians he appea­led, that he had coueted none of their siluer, or gold, or appa­rell; but they well knew his owne hands had ministred to his necessities, and to them that were with Ibid. ver. 33.34. him.

To the Corinthians he pro­testeth, that he sought not his owne profit, but the profit of many that they might be 1. Cor. 10.33. sa­ued. And when he was so iea­lous ouer them with godly 2. Cor. 11.2 iealousie, it was not for feare he should loose their exhibi­tion: for he preached vnto them the Gospell of God Ibid. ver 7. freely. He sought not theirs but2. Cor. 12.14. them. All this did abundant­ly demonstrate his zeale to [Page 119] ayme at the glorie of God.

Now then,Triall. if men can see God dishonoured, and their brethren abused, yet lie still and be as quiet as Lambes, till some personall wrongs a­rouze and enrage them, and then play the Bedlams, and Tygers vnder a pretence of zeale; this is certainly no fire from heauen, nor kindled for God.

The heate of Simeon and Leui was great for the defi­ling of Dinah theirGen 34.7. Sister: but because it was not the consideration of sinne against God, but the apprehension of an indignitie put vpon themselues; it was iustly cen­sured and accursed by their owne father, for no better then cruell Gen. 49.7. wrath; though Shechē could not be excused.

If men make zeale a meanes to discharge their gaule a­gainst such as are faithfull in the Land, and to be as Gun­shot to reuenge their priuate quarrells vpon the Seruants of Christ, making a man a transgressor for a word, pic­king quarrells for trifles, and taking malitious aduan­tage from the omission of of some small thing (for which they care as little as for the dust of their feet, yet) to make this for want of a better, the cudgell to giue him whom they hate the Ba­stinado: If all this I say, or a­ny of this may passe for zeale towards God; then, bloudy Doeg (glad of an opportuni­ty to murther the Priests of the Lord,)1. Sam. 22. and the Butcher­ly Iewes who persecuted to [Page 121] death the Lord of life, may be accounted good Zealots. Yea the Diuell himselfe would put in for a roome among Zealots, as high as the best of them all.

So also if men shall make zeale their drudging Asse to bring in gaine to themselues; make deuotion the cummin to towle customers to their shops; and profession, a pain­ted cloth to cozen them with a false light when they haue gotten them thither; and in all these pretend zeale, and the glory of God; they excee­dingly gull & deceiue them­selues.

This is, with Ziba, to accuse Mephihesh [...]th to Saul, in hope of his estate. It is like Iezabels Fast, for Naboths Vineyard; like Iudas his Sermon, for the [Page 122] cramming of his bag; like Fe­lix his hearing, in hope of money from Paul; like Deme­trius his practise, to keepe vp his trade; like the zeale of Ie­hu, to obtaine the kingdome; and like the preaching of the Diuell, to perswade our Saui­our to swallow his baite.

3.3. Rule. zeale makes no difference betweene friends and foes. True zeale is as violent a­gainst sin in the dearest friend, as in the greatest enemy. It sets against euery one that setteth against God. It takes them for enemies that are enemies to God, be they father, bro­thers, sisters, or any others neuer soAmbros in Psal 119. zelū Dei qui ha­bent, omnes si­bi inimicos putant, qui sunt hostes Dei, quamuis patrem, fra­tres, sorores, &c. neare. Do not I hate them, saith a zealous sparke, that hate thee, and am not I grieued with those that rise vp against thee? I hate them with a perfect hatred: I count them mine Psal. 139.21.22. enemies.

In this case and sense our Sauiour speaketh, If any man come to me, and hate not his fa­ther, and mother, and wife, and children, and brethren, and sisters, yea and his owne life also, he cannot be my Luke 14.26 disciple. It was Leui his commendation in re­uenge of GodsExod. 32.27, 28. quarrell, to know neither father nor mo­ther, brethren nor children, so as to pittie or spare when God bad killDeut 33.9. them.

Memorable also is that of good King Asa, who for Ido­latrie deposed his owne mo­ther, M [...]acha his mother, Euen her, saith the text, he remoued from being Queene, because she had made an Idoll That ob­scene Idoll Priapus. in a groue, 1 Kings 15 13. afterwards, he cut downe her Idol, and stampt it and burnt it at the brooke 2 Chron. 15.16. Kidron, that the very place of execution [Page 124] might further expresse his heate and hatred against that sinne, and disgrace that fact of his mother the more.

And left any should thinke this a worke of superirroga­tion, let him obserue that in­iunction in the case of falseZach 13.3. Prophecie; When any shall prophecie (falsly or without commission) then his father and mother that begat him, shall say vnto him, thou shalt not liue: for thou speakest lies in the name of the Lord: and his father and mother that be­gate him: (marke how hee purposely repeates the rela­tion) shall thrust him through when he prophecieth. No com­bination so neare must smoo­ther the zeale we ought to expresse against such as of­fend against God in so high a degree.

When a man therefore is like a Lion awaked out of sleepe,Triall. if his enemie do but looke or set a foote awry, and seeme in his passion deepely affected with the wrong offe­red to God; and with those hypocriticall Malice-Pits, cry, away with such a fellow from the earth: But on the other side, no such taking on when a friend doth as bad, or worse by tearing Gods name in his mouth, prophaning the Lords day, keeping of whores, delighting in drunkennesse, & taking a pride in boasting of his filthinesse, &c. This is but franticke passion in the one, and partiall affection in the other; both differing as farre from zeale, as kitchin fire from the Celestiall. Loue is blind, they say: It appeares in [Page 126] nothing so much as in this. It cannot see any faults in our speciall friends, till God finde them out, and leade vs vnto them by the markes of his vengeance.

How many parents and husbands now adayes thinke euery thing done or spoken by wiues, or children, to be prettie, and wittie; which they condemne in others, as bold and scurrilous; and others, in them? Dauid had cause to rue this, in Adoniah, and let all doting parents that can be so indulgent to children, (whiles they are curst enough & too much to their seruants) remember what bitter fruites both Dauid and Ely reapt of their cockering folly.

How many are there that can terme that, thrift in a [Page 127] friend, which they would call, couetousnesse in an enemie; call that, handsomnesse in one they affect, which they would condemne for pride in ano­ther, esteeme that, salt, and smartnesse, of wit in him whom they loue, which they would call rayling in him they hate; call that but a tricke of youth in their companions, which they would make another stand in a white sheete for?

Let all such be admoni­shed, that true zeale, ayming at Gods glorie, as it loueth goodnesse in an enemie as well as a friend; so it hateth vice as much in a friend as in an enemie. It affecteth euery one, as they affect God. It cannot but loue pietie in a professed enemie. It cannot [Page 128] but set fire on sin in the bo­some of the dearest friend. It offers violence to the heart, as powder to the bullet, that the heart cannot but offer vi­olence to sinne where euer it be found.

4.4. Rule, zeale equally set vpon rich & poore. True zeale opposeth sinne in the rich, as well as the poore, in great persons as well as in meane. Celestiall fire catcheth in the highest turrets, rather then in the lowest houels: melteth the hardest mettle, rather then more yeelding matter: zeale telleth them their owne, that if they be so diuellishly minded, may bee able to do vs a mischiefe; as well as it is plaine with such, as we are sure can do vs no harme. Fire will burne the houses of rich men, as well as of beggers. Zeale, so long as [Page 129] it keepes within those bounds which God hath set downe, feares not the proudest Hee that can swell in his passions as big as Beh [...]moth who thin­keth to drinke vp Iob 40.23. Iordan at a draught, or that can cast fire out of his mouth, & towers of smoake at his nostrels enough to darken the heauens, as fast asIob 41.19. Leuiathan himselfe.

If greatnesse attempt to ring Cour-feu to zeale at mid­day, and to couer it with the ashes of thunder, when God would haue it to flame; Zeale will not so be kept in, but ra­ther flie in their faces that seeke to suppresse it. Ieroboams presence shall not hinder the man of God from prophecying against his Idolatrous Alter, and of the ruines of those that offered1 King. 13.2 thereon.

Let Ahab resolue to chop Eliah into gobbets, the Pro­phet will not be afraid to look him in the face, and roundly to tell him, that Hee is the troubler of 1 Kin. 18. Israel. Micaiah will not baulke him a whit; though he know too well the hatred of the Tyrant, and be sure to kisse the iayle for his1. Kin. 22. labour.

The Nobles of Iudah shall not escape Nehemiahs check, no more then the rest that trod in the steps of their god­lesse example in the breach of the Neh. 13.17. Sabbath. What cared the three children for great Nebuchadnezzers wrath, bur­ning 7. times hotter then his seauen-fold hot fierie Dan. 3. fornace.

Proud Agag shall speede no better in a Samuels hands, then the basest1. Sam. 15 33. Amalakite. [Page 131] The great Iewish Sanedrim shall not go without re­proofe of Peter and Iohn, The Sane­drim was their great Iudiciarie Councel, con­sisting of 72. persons. if they shall forbid them the seruice ofActs 4.19.20. God.

And why not? Is the great God of heauen and earth, whose seruice zeale vnderta­keth, a respecter of Persons? If great men offend, must they not know that there is a grea­ter then they, who will tram­ple on the necks of Kings that dare trample on his word? Are not they worthy of so many deaths ouer andGreg. Mag. lib. 3. Past [...]. 1 admon. 5. Scire etenim praelau de­bent, quia si p [...]ru [...]s [...] [...]n­quam perpe­trant, tot mo [...] ­tibus digni sunt, quot a [...] su [...] ditos [...]uo [...] p rditio [...]is e [...]e [...]pla transmitiunt. ouer, as they giue leud examples to subiects that are more apt to imitate the euils of bad Princes, then the vertues of good?

It is not a more thanklesse then perillous taske to per­forme: but the danger of this [Page 132] is nothing to that of letting it alone. To do it may offend men that shall die; but to o­mit it, when God calleth vs to it, is to run vpon the rocks of his displeasure, who is Lord both of vs and them, and can cast both into hell. Better suffer on earth for do­ing our dutie, then frie in hell for fearing the faces of men.

Triall.If then our courage go no higher, then the beating of curres, not daring to looke a Lion in the face: If our zeale do loue to runne vpon the ground, and dares not fasten vpon the high places of sinne: if we set our foote vpon silly wormes, that if they turne a­gaine can do vs no hurt; but are afraid so much as to touch the hole of the Aspe; and to put [Page 133] our hand on the cockatrice den; this is as farre from zeale for the glorie of God, as cowar­dise from the noblest valour. None so tyrannicall ouer in­feriors as the basest Cowards. True valour counts nothing so base, as medling with such as are not very well able, if they list, to resist.

5. True zeale not beaten downe, but more inflamed by difficulties. 5 Rule. Zeale is inflamed by difficul­ties. It deuoureth the briars and thornes, prick they neuer so sharply. It kindles in the thickets of the forrest, bee they neuer so greene and sap­pie to quench it. It will not onely burne when it hath au­thoritie to countenance it, but blazeth aloft when great­nesse it selfe seekes to bucket it out.

Wee may see it in Nehe­miah [Page 134] counselled by Shemaiah to leaue worke and take San­ctuarie for feare of Sanballet conspiring to surprize and slay him in the night. Should such a man, as I, flee? and who is there that being, as I am, would goe into the Temple to saue his life? Neh. 6.11. I will not go in, saith that burning Lampe.

As fire leapeth from one house to another, burning the ayre as it goes; so Zeale, from one duty to another, notwithstanding all opposi­tions; and it causeth a Chri­stian to be among difficulties, as a man made of fire, wal­king in stubble.

Much puddle water may be cast vpon it, but fire from heauen not bee so quen­ched. Yea as water causeth the fire in the forge to flame [Page 135] the higher; so difficulties in­crease the feruor of Zeale.

Paul being disswaded from going to Ierusalem, because of the dangers waiting him there, grew into a passion, which made him more hot on the iourney, not without anger at them who out of the heate of their entire affecti­on desired toAct. 21.13. preserue him in peace.

Luther feares not his Eni­mies at Wormes, though hee haue timely intelligence of their conspiracy to cut him off. The news rather ani­mates then abates his reso­lution, and thither hee will, though he were sure to meet with as many Deuils in that place, as there are tyles on the houses.

Yea in very Horses that [Page 136] haue mettle, we may discerne most courage to the Battle, when the Instruments of Warre sound loudest in the enemies Campe. Let diffi­culties daunt Fooles that ne­uer expect them, nor know how to breake through them. A true zealot hath fire­balles enough to fire the strongest Fort of the Enimy. Hee knowes the Kingdome of heauen suffers violence, and there is no taking of it, but by force. Nothing befalls him which he looked not for.

Seneca's enemies could not faster learne to raile; then he, to contemne it. Will the Christian Zealot then bee to seeke, how to keepe off the boyish squibbs of scorne and disgrace? Nay; if any man will hurt Gods faithfull wit­nesses [Page 137] that vexe those that dwel on the earth, they haue fire enough in their mouthes to de­uoure Reu. 11.5. them. Nay; Antichrist himselfe with all his forces & Armies cannot stand before them: for Zeale in them is thatReu. 20.9. fire (if Saint Augustine mistakeDe ciuit. Dei. lib. 20. cap. 12. per totum. not,) that came down from heauen and consumed them all that compassed the Campe of the Saints aboue, and the beloued Citie.

Such Zeale then as goes out by euery drop of water cast on it by a flouting San­ballat, or a gybeing Tobiah; and by euery glimmering Sun-shine of persecution ari­sing: such as make a great blaze when prosperity, credit, peace, and preferment are bellowes to blow it: but are so carried about as hay in a [Page 139] whirle-wind with the blast of the Time, that they will bee ready to fire that which be­fore they maintained, if the wind turne neuer so little about; and through feares or hopes will bee of any Reli­gion and temper, that the strongest Faction imbraceth; resoluing to goe no further then a faire wind & weather and a calme tide will carry them; and, and if any storme arise presently to make to the shore, to preuent perill of life and goods: Such Zealots I say, as these neuer had any coale from the Alter to kin­dle their Sacrifices; they ne­uer knew what it was to ayme at the Glory of God.

If they did, they would not like sheepes-heads fall a run­ning at the sight of euery [Page 138] dog that offereth to put his nose ouer the hedge. They would not bee such cowardly cu [...]res, as to runne in at doores, so oft as they see one stoope for a stone.

If their Zeale were true, they would make all time ser­uing-Monkies afraid to play with their fires, or to come neere them: and the world should soone know that it were better to anger all the Waspes in the Countrey, all the Witches in the world, all the Deuils in hell, then one of these Sparkes, by sin against God.

The right Zealot dreads no weather, feares no colors: he takes Christs Crosse on his shoulders, a fagot in his armes, and his life in his hand, and so resolues to goe [Page 140] through fire and water, prison and sword, or any thing else that stands in his way vnto God.

Reproaches for Christ, hee laies vp as his Treasures. The greatest difficulties oppo­sing, are not so much as vn­welcome to this Herculean Christian. Ioshua will not loose Canaan for the Iebusites Towre: euen the children of Anak are butNum. 14.9. bread for his teeth.

6. Rule. Zeale is most sharp against a mans owne corruptions.6. True Zeale Prosecutes not sinne in any, so much as in our selues, wee are so well ac­quainted with our owne cor­ruptions, that impartiall Zeale cannot finde so much cause of fury against others as our selues: nor will it allow vs that liberty which wee de­nieChrisost. hom. 18. in Matth. vnto others.

When Paul was a Saul, who but hee against others with neglect of himselfe, bin­ding and deliuering into Pri­sons both men and women, for Christ, and persecuting this way to the death. Act. 22.4. But when Saul was a Paul, then he laies the traine to his owne heart, and giues fire cheefly to the Canon planted against him­selfe: iudging himselfe the greatest of sinners, 1 Tim. 1.15. and the leastEphes. 3.8. of Saints.

Zeale will make a man tie himselfe to as much or more strictnesse, then hee requires of another. Paul did not en­ioyne Timothy to beate downe his body, while himselfe drunk wine; but allowed Timothy the1 Tim. 5.23. wine, and tooke the blowes1 Cor. 9.27. [...]. Triall. himselfe.

If then we can be like Bed­lams [Page 142] at other mens sinnes, and defend or suffer the same, or as bad, in our selues: pull moates out of other mens eyes, and neuer complaine of beames, in our owne: take li­berty from others, and giue it to our selues:Gal. 2.4. force o­thers to circumcision, whiles we breake the Law:Gal. 6.13. be in a rage at that man that eateth our sheepe, but neuer take offence at the sheepe that eates vp the man:Depopula­tors execu­ting Lawes against sheep stea­lers. let vs blush to say wee ayme at Gods Glory be we neuer so hot against o­ther mens sinnes.

If the Apostle espy such fire breaking out, hee will soone suppresse it with that cold water; Thou that teachest ano­ther, teachest thou not thy selfe? Thou that preachest a man should not steale, dost thou [Page 143] steale? Thou that saiest a man should not commit adultery, dost thou commit adultery? Rom. 2.21, 22. Thou that abhorrest Idols, dost thou commit Sacriledge?

Canst thou lash another mans back, and not thinke to be lashed thy self, when thou layest thy back open vnto him, and puttest a whip in his hand? Either bee sure to bee more righteous then Iu­dah, or else forbeare to sit in iudgement on Tamar, least shee though bad enough, be the better of the two; thine owne conscience drag thee to the Barre, lift her to the Bench; and thou proue the Felon; she, the Iudge.

7. True Zeale is constant. 7. Rule. Zeale is constant. No estate, persons, places, or time can either put it out, or abate it. True Zeale will not [Page 144] onely shew it self in a zealous beginning either to preach or professe the Gospell, while Ministers want Liuings, and the People somewhat, that a zealous profession may bring them in; but also when they are at the topp of prefer­ment, and the greatest glut of outward prosperity.

Looke vpon Dauid, and you shall finde him no lesse zealous with the Crowne on his head, then when God humbled and kept him low, by the Persecution of Saul: no lesse frequent and feruent in religious duties, at Court, then any where else. Good old Samuel, as free from Bribes and neglect of duty when hee was Primate of all Israel, as when he was but an inferiour Minister at Ierusa­lem.

Behold Daniel a Fauorite in an Idolaters Court, when al the Grandees of Babilon had vowed and plotted his ruine for obseruing the Law of his God; yet euen then and there, when Daniel knew that the writing was signed which would cost him his life, he went into his house; and his windowes being open in his chamber towards Ierusalem, he kneeled vpon his knees three times a day, and prayed, Dan. 6.10. and gau [...] thankes before God, as hee did afore time. Yea true Zeale the higher it is listed, the more it will flame, the brigh­ter it shines, and the further it will be discerned. No fire is seene so farre as that of the Beacon.

If then wee can be religi­giousTriall. and zealous when wee [Page 146] are young or poore; and thinke Zeale a cumber, when we are growne wealthy and great: if we can be good only during the life and gouer­ment of some Iehoiadah; Kin­dle a great fire when a Mini­ster commeth, and put it out in whole or in part so soone as hee is gone; reproue a swearer when hee that ab­horres it is present, & sweare (like Deuills) our selues, when he is away: If a cramm'd bel­ly will allay our heate for God; and like those cursed Priests, wee can cry, Peace; so long as men giue vs where­on to gnawe:Mic. 3.5. And if some preferment can stop our mouthes, and we can be con­tent to bee silent, out of Pol­licy to keepe that, and hope to get more: If we can tune [Page 147] our fidles to the Base of the Time: and iust like Fidlers, who are said to haue Psalmes for Puritans & obscene Songs for Good fellowes, & resolue to play nothing but what the company call for: Bee Pro­testants in the Morning, and Papists at Euen-Songe: If wee carry this candle in a darke Lanthorne so as with the turne of a hand it may bee quite shut in, if any ap­proach to whom wee would not bee knowne by our light, or are loath to be obserued to haue any such about vs; All this is but horrible Parasiti­call basenesse that holds a candle to the Time; no fire, to kindle a Sacrifice for God.

The fire of the Sanctuary neuer went out: that, therfore, [Page 148] which the most haue in their Censers, is no better then that of Nadab and Abihu, who, offering strange fire before the Lord, by a fire that went out from the Lord, Leuit. 10.1, 2. were deuou­red.

Sect. 2.Sect. 2. Shewing the subordi­nate end of Zeale, Re­formation. Thus farre the Prin­cipall end of Zeale, the ad­uancement of Gods Glory; and the Rules to try if our Leuell bee right. I come now to point at the other which is subordinate, the Reformation of what is amisse.

To be on fire at disorder is a commendable temper, if our aime be as right, as our passion is strong. It is not our heate but our end that com­mendeth the Action.

When the God of Israel and his Worship were forsa­ken, and the flames of Idola­try [Page 149] horribly breaking out in all parts of the Church; some bringing fire; some, fewell; others, laying it on; and all the rest repairing thither to warme themselues at it; vn­lesse some that could not Go, for halting betweene two opini­ons, whether God or Baal were the better:1 King. 18 Eliah then bestirred himselfe, and be­stowed the fire balls of Zeale vpon such as had been Prin­cipall Actors in this disor­der.

But that which iustified his action, was his end, the remouing of Idolatry, and re-establishing the truth and true worship of God. This appeares by his owne words vnto God himselfe, I haue beene very iealous for the Lord God of Hosts: for the children [Page 150] of Israel haue forsaken thy co­uenant, throwne downe thine Alters, 1 Kin. 19.10. and slaine thy Prophets with the sword.

When Nehemiah saw the Iewes that had taken wiues of Ashdod, Ammon, and Moab, and their children speake halfe in the speech of Ashdod, and could not speake in the Iewes Language, but according to the Language of each people, (A hodg-potch of both;) he con­tended with them, and cursed them, and smote certaine of them, and pluckt of their haire, and made them sweare by God saying, yee shall not giue your daughters to their sonnes, Neh. 13.23, 24, 25. nor take their daughters for your sonnes or your selues.

A strong and strange heate; yet no other then Seraphicall: for Zeale was his [Page 151] Line; a lawfull calling, his circumference; and reformati­on, his Center.

Paul was not afraid some­times to vse the dreadful Axe of Excommunication, to cut off scandalous sinners from the Visible body of Christ, for a time: but hee neuer durst medle with that edge-toole, but for Reformation.

Writing to the Church of Corinth he coniured them in the name of the Lord Iesus to deliuer vnto Satan the Ince­stuous Malefactor. Hee meant, by a solemne Excom­munication publikely de­nounced in the face of the whole Congregation: But to what end? for the destructi­on of the flesh, that the spirit may bee saued in the day of the 1 Cor. 5.5. Lord Iesus. Thus also hee [Page 152] handled Hymeneus and Alex­ander, that they might learne 1 Tim. 1.20. not to blaspheme.

To Parents also the Wis­dome of God saith,Prou. correct thy sonne while there is hope. Therefore hee must doe it in hope of his childes amend­ment; not onely for preuen­ting his own greife or shame, but Gods dishonor, and his childs destruction. And if this be his aime, Let not his soule spare for his crying.

Magistrates then both may and must punish; Pa­rents, and Masters chastise delinquents vnder their Charge. And a zealous pu­nishment of sinne (so hee that vndertakes it, thirst not after reueng, but profitable correction)Ansel. in Mat. 18. Non cupidus vin­di [...]tae, sed cor­rectionis fra­ternae. Alex. Hales. par. 3. q. 59. m. 5. ar. 3. Bonus magis cupitinimi­cum corrigi quam puniri. is not onely a needfull but a pious, yea a [Page 153] mercifull worke of him to whom that Power is com­mitted of God.

When discipline sleepes, sinne playes Rex.Aust. de verb. domini Ser. 15. Si seueritas disciplinae dormiat, re­pressa disci­plina saeuit impunita iniquitia. What can bee more mercifull in a Chyrurgian then to Launce a tumorous soare, or to search a festered wound to the bot­tome? He angers the wound to cure the man, who would otherwise perish by sparing hisQuid tam [...]ium quam n [...]dicus ferēs ferramentū? plorat secan d [...]s & seca­tur. Pl [...]rat vren [...]us & vitur. Non e [...]t illa cru­d [...]litas, absit vt s [...]tutia [...] dicatu [...] Saeuit in vu [...]s vt h [...]mo s [...]n [...] ­tur, qu [...]a si vuln [...] pal­ [...]tur homo [...]e [...]ditur. Jdem ibid. wound.

But if they shall abuse their Authority, onely to shew their Masterhood, to vent their frantique passions, and and to reuenge themselues, not ayming at the reforma­tion of such as they punish; this is not Zeale, but tyranny and oppression which God will neuer put vp at their hands, but owe them a shame [Page 154] for it, and at one time or o­ther, early or late will be sure to pay them home in their owne coyne.

God hath often in all Ages sold his People into the hands of cruel Tyrants whom hee hath vsed as rodds in his hand to scourge them. Yet when these Executioners haue vn­dertaken to doe execution vpon them, aymeing at their owne Ends, he hath euer pla­gued the Tormentors with greater Wrath.

Israel had few Neighbours whose hands at one time or other were not heauy vpon them but marke the Conclu­sion, and we shall euer finde the rod cast into the fire.

Ashur had a large Com­mission to make hauocke of Iudah. The Prophet Isaiah sets [Page 155] out to life the Power which God gaue the Assirian, ouer his people; his abuse of that power; and the wofull Cata­strophe of thatIsay 10.5.6 abuse.

O Assirian, the rod of mine anger, and the staffe in their hand is mine indignation. I will send him against an hypo­criticall nation, and against the people of my wrath will I giue him a charge to take the spoile and the prey, and to tread them down like the mire in the streets.

Here is a Commission as firme as might be, which, no doubt, he would bee carefull to execute to the vtmost. But obserue his ayme; Howbeit he meaneth not so, neither doth his heart thinke so: that is he meaneth not to goe against Gods People in Gods [Page 156] strength, but his owne; nor to Gods end which was to refine them from the drosse of their sinne; but it is in his heart onely to destroy, and to cut off Nations not Ver. 7. a few, to make himselfe the Catholick King, and the onely Monarch of the World.

But behold the euent; wherefore it shall come to passe that whē the Lord hath perfor­med his whole work on Mount Zion, and on Ierusalem, hee will punish the fruite of the stout heart of the King of Assi­ria,Ver. 12. and the glory of his high Lookes, &c. The Lord taketh reuenge vpon the reuenger, and destroyes the destroyer. And so let all the Churches enemies perish, O Lord.

Yea, which is more re­markable, consider the hand [Page 157] of God vpon furious Iehu. How fierce hee was against the house of wicked Ahab, his master, wee know. How God had a purpose to cut off euery branch of Ahabs house, and to roote him out as an enemie, wee cannot be igno­rant; that he meant to do all this by the sword of Iehu, whom he had annointed for this very purpose the Scrip­ture2. Chron. 22 7. 2. Kin 9.7. declares.

After he had done it, the Lord commends and rewards him for it to the fourth gene­ration, though Iehu were o­therwise a most wicked man; Because thou hast done well, and executed that which was right in mine eyes, and hast done vn­to the house of Ahab according to all that was in mine heart, thy children of the fourth gene­ration [Page 158] shall sit vpon the throne of 2. Kin. 10.30. Israel.

Would any man imagine there were any flaw in this peece; and that Iehu, or any of his, should euer heare ill for this act? yet lo, aboue sixtie yeares after, euen in the dayes of Ieroboam, his great Grand-child, and the last but one of his race that swayed the Scepter; God calleth Iehu to the barre, indites him of murther, and vowes to auenge vpon Iehues house the bloud of Hos. 1.4. Iezreel: that is, as Exposi­tors interpret, that very stocke of Ahab which God had put in his hand to plucke vp by the rootes: and that ve­ry house which hee was to sweepe with the besome of destruction.

Why was this, but because [Page 159] Iehu though hee did Gods worke, yet he did it with a bloudie and ambitious mind, not desiring or seeking either Ahabs repentance, or the re­formation of the people, who were as grosse Idolaters vn­der Iehu, as euer they were vnder Ahab? When he had the kingdome his worke was at an end, saue onely that hee changed Iezabels Baal, for Ie­roboams 2. Kin. 10.28.29. Calues.

Thus doth God turne the point of his sword in the Magistrates hand, into his owne bowels, when he di­recteth it against others, not for God, but for himselfe.

And as the case stands thus with Magistrates, so, in pro­portion, with Parents and Masters; they may chastise, but not for their pleasure, as [Page 160] fathers of the flesh vse toHeb. 12.9. do, (and therfore shall pay deare for their Nabal-like 1. Sam 25.16. cari­age,) but they must do it, as God doth it to them, for the profit of those theyIbid. ver. 10 correct.

And that their corrections may proue [...]. instructions, they must lay aside all thoughts of reuenge and furious passion; doing it in zeale for God, & as performing his worke, not theirAlex. Hales, p. 3 q. 59. m. 5. ar. 3. A­liud est di­mittere ranco­rem qui co­mitatur vin­dictam: aliud dimittere p [...] ­nitionem quā comitatur ze­lus iustitiae. owne: adding withall, instructions to their corre­ctions, and prayers to all their reproofes; as Samuel, for Saul euen after he had resol­ued to see his face no more all the dayes of his1. Sam. 15.35. life.

Thus if they do, they shall breake the hearts of their children more with one blow, then otherwise with a thousand. Then shall men dis­cerne [Page 161] it to bee an holy zeale that makes them so sharpe; if notwithstanding their pas­sion of anger, they can ex­presse so much bowels of compassion, as to teach them to mourne, and to pray for them, when their hands are most heauy vpon them.

CHAP. VI. Of the Qualification of Zeale.

IN euery created being there is a Substance, and there are Accidents: among which, the chiefe are, Quali­ties: Euery thing is accounted excellent, or base, by these. Mans Substance, and Facul­ties of his soule are not so [Page 162] much esteemed of God, as good Qualities in those facul­ties: when these were lost, God abhorred him, though the other remained.

Thus is it in Zeale: the substanceI meane, Analogicall. whereof I haue shewed in the Definition; the Vse, in the rest. But the Qua­lification which is the chiefe thing in it, without which zeale is worth nothing, is yet vntouched. And this taske, as it is most necessarie, so most difficult; and therefore will take vp more time, and re­quire more labour then all the rest.

Zeale is like a blade, which though it be made of neuer so good mettle, yet if the workman want skill to giue it a right temper, will neuer be good. The Qualification [Page 163] of zeale is therefore our next worke:The expression of zeale must be with 1. Boldnesse.2. Discretion.3. Compassion. and this is nothing else but the due seasoning and tempering of it with these three things; Boldnesse, Discre­tion, and Compassion, in the manifestation of it.

Sect. 1. The first thing re­quisite in the manner of ex­pressing our zeale is Boldnes, Of Boldnes. free from cowardise and luke­warmnesse. If there be fire within, there will bee bold­nesse without. Fire will bee feared, but cannot be feare­full. It is neuer in iest, or dis­posed to a luke-warme tem­per; but where euer it cometh it burnes, vnlesse it be quite extinguished.

Of Boldnesse I spake some­what before in the former Chapter: but there, onely vp­pon the By, and briefly, shew­ing [Page 164] what a true Zealot will do, in case of difficulty: Here I must treate of it more large­ly, and shew what he must do in all cases; and the reasons why.

This courage and bold­nesse of spirit is requisite in All, but most eminent in Ma­gistrates and Ministers, who being publicke persons haue most vse of zeale: and for this cause is boldnesse most neces­sarie in them. Howbeit, (the Magistrates sword being able enough of it selfe to sharpen and make him as bold as a Lion,) I will apply my selfe chiefly to the heartening and emboldening of the Minister; not excluding others that ex­clude not themselues.

Princes when they send forth Ambassadors, intend [Page 165] they should deliuer their mes­sage to greatest Potentates, like Princes, not slaues, Mini­sters are Ambassadors for 2 Cor. 5.20. Christ: they therefore must take vpon them all that bold­nesse which becomes the ser­uants of so Great a Lord, so oft as they haue audience: especially considering that he sends them not to his Supe­riors or Equals; but to his In­feriors, yea to his subiects or slaues.

When God sent Ezekiel to Rebellious Iudah, with a sharpe message, this was part of his instruction; Be not afraid of them, neither be afraid of their words, though briars and thornes be with thee, and thou dwell among Scorpions: be not afraid of their words, neither be dismayed at their Ezeck. 1.6. lookes.

Impudent sinners thinke to outface Gods Ambassadors, sometimes by their power & multitude, sometimes by their threats, and sometimes with their fierce and furious lookes. God armes his Pro­phet against all, making his face strong against their faces, and his forehead against their foreheads; yea as an Adamant harder then Ezek 3.8.9 flint.

God doth not onely charge his seruants to bee stout and bold in his seruice, but also workes an holy boldnesse in them when he sendeth themGreg. Mag. hom. 10. in Ezek. Ille e­nim esse veri­tatis defensor debet, qui quod rectè sentit, loqui nec metuit, nec erubescit. out. He onely is meete to bee a Champion of Truth, that neither feareth nor blusheth to speake any thing for it, which on good ground he iudgeth conuenient. ToErubescere malum sapi­entiae est; bo­num, fatuita­tis, idem ibid. blush at sinne is wisedome; [Page 167] but to bee shamefac't when we are doing of good, is the tricke of a foole, and God neuer sent message by the hand of a foole.

When the Lord sent the Prophet Isaiah to rebuke hy­pocrites, the beginning of his Commission runneth thus; Crie aloud, spare not, lift vp thy voyce like a Isay 58.1. trumpet.

He doth not onely bid him speake, but crie, cry out aloud, euen with a full throate, as the Hebrew word [...]. signifieth; (And he had need of a wide throate indeed, that shall vn­dertake some men:) He must go boldly to worke, fearing noApertè ab­iecto omni timore Gloss. Interlin. colours. He must crie with all his might. He must not spare either himselfe by not straining; or them by not reprouing. He must bee the [Page 168] shrill and loud voyce of a Trumpet, summoning them to battell with terror. HeeCyril. Alex. Com. in Isai. lib. 5. tom. 3. Non occultè nec in abscon. dito loquere aliquibus: sed intensa & e­lata voce, po­tius vtere, & omni libertate redargue de­linquentes. must not whisper his mes­sage, or speake it in a corner; but hee must deliuer it with great extension and eleua­tion of voyce, with all free­dome reproouing transgres­sors in publicke; as speaketh S. Cyril.

Nor is this meant alone, saithQuanquam non de sola comentione vocis loqui­tur, sed vehe­mentiam ver­bi & seueri­tatem intelli­git, ac si Deus fulmina è coelo ciacula retur. Cal in hunc locum. Caluine, of a loud and thundring tone, but of the sharpnesse of the matter, so vehemently vttered, as if God himselfe with his mightie arme should dart thunder­bolts from heauen, to wound the hairie scalpe of all hypo­crites that go on in their ini­quitie.

And this latter he must do, that cannot do the former. [Page 169] Euery man cannot speake like thunder; but euery faith­full Minister must be, for the subiect of his discourse, a Boa­narges to refractary sinners.

Nor lastly, is it any pecu­liar charge giuen to this Pro­phetQuod au­tem Isaiae hic dicitur, scia­mus Apostolis Episcopis om­nibus ac mi­nistris verbi esse dictum, &c. alone; but it reacheth also to all Apostles, Bishops, and Ministers of the word, who must crie aloud with a full throate; not coldly, but with sharpnesse and seueritie, reproouing such as flatter themselues in their owne de­uices; not obscurely, and in riddles, but so plainly as all may vnderstand: as Oecolom­padius noteth vpon this place.

Pauls charge to Titus is in effect no lesse, when hee bid­deth him rebuke with all Tit. 2.15. au­thoritie. It behoues a Minister [Page 170] to do his dutie, not sluggishly and remisly, or with any feare; but to teach, and thun­der out reproofes freely, when need requireth, saithTheod. in hunc loc O­portet eum no ignauè ac re­missè nec cum vlla timidi­tate hoc facere; sed cum libertate do­cere & increpare vbi opus est. Theodoret.

There are some sins quothChrysost. hom. 5. in Tit. [...], &c. [...]. Chrysostome, which must be expressed, euen with a kinde of commanding authoritie? The Adulterer, the Fornica­tor, the couetous Mammo­nist must thus bee handled. Nor doth the Apostle say simply, rebuke with authoritie, but, with all authority: to shew that he would haue Titus to exercise authority ouer these, with libertie and freedome.

To Precepts of this kind, we may adde a cloud of witnesses. The time would faile me to tell of Phinehas, Eliah, Mi­chaiah, Nehemiah, Ieremiah, [Page 171] and all the seruants of God of old, of whose seruice in this kinde done vpon rebellious sinners, himselfe saith,Hos. 6.5. I haue hewen them by the Prophets: I haue slaine them by the words of my mouth.

What boldnesse our Lord himself vsed towards the Pha­risies and others, when need required, the holy Euange­lists plentifully shew. How oft did hee rebuke the Phari­sies to their heads, charging them with dunsticall blind­nesse, deepe and cursed hypo­crisie; denouncing many woes against them; calling them, hypocrites, a generation of Vi­pers, children of hell, and of the Diuell.

Zealous Paule was neuer more mad in persecuting the Church from Christ, then af­ter [Page 172] his conuersion, hee was bold and fierce in a godly māner, against all that would seeke to turne men frō Christ. Obserue his carriage towards Elimas the Sorcerer, labouring to turne Sergius Paulus, Depu­tie of Paphos, from the Acts 13. faith.

The Text noteth of Paul that he was filled with the holy Ghost; Verse 9. (meaning with zeale, euen as a vessell filled with strong liquor, till it be readie to burst againe:) that he set his eyes vpon him, with so much fiercenesse, (as if hee meant to run through him.) And then after this lightning he addeth that terrible thun­der;Verse 10. O full of all subtiltie and mischiefe, thou child of the di­uell, thou enemie of all righte­ousnesse, wilt thou not ceasse to peruert the right wayes of the Lord?

Nor was he thus full of the Spirit of the Lord, and of iudge­ment, to declare vnto cursed Elimas his transgressions one­ly, but euen to reproue Peter himselfe; withstanding him to the face, and blaming him be­fore a great multitude of Pe­ters owne Disciples, when hee saw and found that he walked not vprightly according to the truth of the Gal. 2.10. Baronius withstands Paul as stifly, as Paul doth Peter: and dares main­taine that Peter was not to bee blamed. An­nal. tom. 1. Anno Chri. 51 num 39. And in his Index to that Tome, it is said of Pe­ter, Ab omni culpa redditur immunu in contentione quam habuit cum Paulo. Meaning in that dis­course in the place before cited. Gospell.

Indeed I confesse that S. Paul did cunningly watch his time to do it, when none of the Colledge of Cardinals could be by to resist him. But yet for all this, it was well for Paul that he died before Ba­ronius liued; or else the Car­dinall would haue schooled him, and taught him better manners; although it should haue bene with putting the [Page 174] lie vpon the holy Ghost him­selfe, for being so bold with their god Peter.

It was the resolution of an Heathen Diuine;Seneca. Audebo pec­canti mala sua ostendere; vitia eius, si non excidero, inhibebe. I will be so bold to tell an offender his faults; if I lop not his vices, I will yet inhihite them. And shall this bee thought too much for a Christian, and a Diuine too, to attempt?

If thou loue the Lord Iesus with all thine heart, saith de­uout S. Bernard Sup. Cant. Ser. 44 Ete­nim si amas Dominum Ie­sum toto corde, nunquid si videris eius iniurias contemptum (que) ferre vllate­nus aequo animo poteru [...] &c.; canst thou possibly beare the iniuries and contempts put vpon him with any patience? wilt thou not rather, as one rapt with the spirit of reuenge & heate, and like a mightie man that shouteth by reason of wine, bestirre thy selfe, and say with Dauid; Psal. 119.139 My zeale hath con­sumed me, because mine ene­mies [Page 175] haue forgotten thy word.

Good Dauid, if he espied any that were enemies to God, hee would neuer make daintie vpon any politique respects to proclaime him­selfe an enemie to them. Do not I, saith he, hate them, ô Lord, that hate thee, Psal. 139. and am not I grieued with those that rise vp against thee? Yea I hate them with a perfect ha­tred: I count them mine ene­mies.

As if hee should say, saithHom. 9. in Ezek. Pensa quantum te diligo, qui tuorum hostiū contra me excitare inimicitias non pertimesco, &c. Gregorie; Consider ô Lord how much I loue thee, that am not afraid for thy sake to stirre vp all the emnitie of thine enemies against my selfe, by hating them for ha­ting thee. And is it now the part of a foole to do the like?

If we more seriously think [Page 176] on this dutie, Who, or what should hinder any seruant of God from such a boldnesse? Good men, they will not dis­like, but praise him for it. Wicked men themselues loue to see the whip cling close to other mens backs: and can applaud, oft times, that boldnesse which draw­eth bloud at euery stroake, so themselues bee not tou­ched.

This conuinceth the world that boldnesse of it selfe is good, and would be relished of all, if some were not too bad. It is onely mens bad­nesse that maketh boldnesse bad. Corrupt stomacks turne the best meate into ill hu­mours. The Cooke cannot helpe this, but the Physi­tian.

As for such as without cause take offence hereat, why should they be feared? What, for their power of hurting? Nay: God will pro­tect his seruants, till they haue done their worke, from all the fat bulls of Basan, be their necks neuer so strong; their rage and furie, neuer so great. Witnesse his pro­tection of Eliah from Ieza­bel; of Christ, and the A­postles, from the bloudie Pha­risies, and so of all his ser­uants, till his counsell was fulfilled, and their taske per­formed.

Till then, there is no way to let in enemies vpon a man, but by his owne cowardise. If he stand it out, he is safe; if he yeeld, he perisheth. That of the Lord toIer. 1. Ieremie is a [Page 178] pregnant proofe of this see­ming Paradox.

When the Lord sent him to thunder out heauy plagues against a rebellious people that were come to that height of impietie, that they durst oppose the Prophets, and persecute them for telling them of their sinnes, and de­nouncing iudgements a­gainst them; God forewarnes and armes him thus.

Verse 17. Thou therefore gird vp thy loines, and arise and speake vn­to them all that I command thee: be not dismayed at their faces, lest I confound thee before them.

Verse 18. For behold I haue made thee this day a defenced Citie, and an iron pillar and brazen walls against the whole land, against the Kings of Iudah, against the [Page 179] Princes thereof, against the Priests thereof, and against the people of the land.

And they shall fight against thee, Verse 19. but they shall not preuaile against thee: for I am with thee, saith the Lord, to deliuer thee.

It is a certaine truth that neuer faileth; all the malice of men can neuer stop the mouth of any seruant of God, till God himselfe conclude him; and till the euent make it appeare that God biddeth him leaue worke. Then,Act. 18.9.10. ma­lice may remoue him, when God hath discharged him; but yet then also God rewar­deth his seruice out of the very malice of his enemies. Their malice shall bee made his stirrope, by which he get­teth vp to a greater good, [Page 180] then they tooke away from him.

Should the Lords seruant refraine from boldnesse, to please men? Nay, if he once seeke to please men, farewell the seruice of Christ. And it is a most foolish part to go about to please them, who please notGreg. ibid. vt supra, val. de est stultum si illis placere quaerimus, quos non pla­cere domino scimus. God. Nor doth he pay so deare commonly for any indiscretion, as for his affecting and studie to please men, by blanching their faults, and soothing them vp.

Is a man afraid of purcha­sing their ill opinion and dis­pleasure? It is indeed an vn­deniable truth, that Truth be­gets hatred: but if we there­fore refraine reprouing, be­cause wee feare the rising of mens passions and hatred to [Page 181] scoffe, and deride vs, we seeke onely our selues, not God.Greg. mo­ral. lib. 2 [...]. Si ab incre­patione idcir­co reticemus, quia contra nos insurgere derisionis odia formida­mus; non iam lucra dei, sed nostra quaerimus. Such toyes as these are no more able to moue a true Zealot, then the barking of euery curre, the Lion-like Mastiue as hee passeth the street.

It was one speciall Indite­ment of Ierusalem, that they bent their tongues like bowes for lies; but they were not vali­ant for the truth; Ier. 9.3. And well it might. Men commend boldnesse in a Souldier, met­tle in a horse, eagernesse in doggs, spirit in any thing; and shall they themselues be cōmended for Cowards? Co­wards for the truth? Cowards for Gods truth? O damnable sheepishnesse! Such dull Asses Exod. 13.13. deserue rather to haue their necks broken, then [Page 182] to bee consecrated as holy to the Lord.

Fearefulnesse, Bashfulnesse, and Luke-warmnesse the op­posites to true boldnesse are all most odious to God. How hath hee forbidden and threatned fearefulnesse in his cause euen in case of life it selfe,Luk. 12.4. and vowed to turne such white-liuer'd Christians out among doggs andReu. 21 8. hel­hounds!

Bashfulnesse is condemned as a detestable offence, for which the Sauiour of the world will then bee ashamed of such as are now ashamed of him, when they expect grea­test Grace andLuk 9.26. honour from him.

And more ouer this, such Vespertilian Professors (in the meane time) commonly [Page 183] susteyne most shame on all sides: and such night-birds do more prouoke others to won­der at, and chatter against, and prey vpon them. None receiue more discourage­ments from others, then they that are most timorous themselues. None in more danger; none more liable to what they feare, then they who step back and giue ground to their feares.

And as for Lukewarme Gospellers let Laodicea speak for all, what entertainment they are like to find at the hands of Christ, they are sure to beReu 3 15.16. spewed out of his mouth, as too loathsome a morsell for his stomacke to beare.

I know that it is hard for a man truely bold not to bee censured for a peeuish, cho­lerique, [Page 184] harsh, intollerable fellow scarce well in his wits. But if this may deterre him, Christ should haue left work when the Pharisees thought he stood in need of an exor­cist or Diuel-Catcher, ac­counting him mad, and that he spake in his fury he knew not what; and were so confi­dent in their mad opinion that they thought they dealt wisely in appealing to him­selfe; Say wee not well that thou art a Samaritane, Ioh. 8. [...]8. and hast a Diuell.

For Good men to bee cal­led mad, and their doctrine, madnesse, among mad men, is no strange thing. He that is giddy thinkes euery thing runs round. And they that haue changed piety for pol­licy, God for gould, can easily [Page 185] giue sentence that a zealous reprouer is out of his wits; least the world conclude them guilty of what they are as loath to be known, as they are vnwilling to forgoe.

It becomes Gods Seruants not to thinke what wicked men will say, if they be bold; as what God will say, if they be cold. Mad mens tongues are no slander. With mee it is a small matter to bee iudged of you, or of mans iudgement; saith one that was accused of this disgraced1 Cor. 4.3. Grace.

To such let vs answer with the Apostle,2 Cor. 5.13, 14. whether we be beside our selues it is to God: or whether we be sober, it is for your cause: for the loue of Christ constreyneth vs. A true zealot is neuer in his perfect tem­per, till mad men and fooles,Omnes mali, stulti; Omnes stulti insaniunt. [Page 186] (that is, all wicked men) say of him, he is mad.

If any thinke sharpnesse naught, because it makes bad men worse: I answer, that in­deed it sometimes falls out that the Anuile-like hearts of hypocrites and desperate sin­ners grow harder by the blowes of reproofe; so that wee may say of them in this respect, as the Lord of his people,Esay 1.5. why should yee bee smitten any more? yee will re­uolt more and more. But yet in the meane time, others are kept in awe, while these are soundly whipt before their eyes; and the mischiefe of taking heart from a lewd ex­ample, preuented.

Seuere executions are as much for terror to beholders, as for smart to the Malefac­tors [Page 187] on whom they are done. And there is a necessity of thundring against such sin­ners as are outragiously wic­ked, and aptest by their con­tagious breath to infect more,1 Tim. 5.20 that others may feare.

The feare of making a young theefe, a compleate rogue, deterres not the Ma­gistrate from sending him to the Goale: nor from whip­ping or burning him before the face of the country, when hee is there. And shall that which is thought wisedome in the Magistrate, be counted madnesse in the Minister, when in his way and kind he takes the same course?

Our account shall be hea­uy if we shall forbeare to ap­ply Causticks to a soare that needs it, till some foolish Pa­tient [Page 188] of himself call for them. And woe to that forbearance and remissnesse, whereby o­thers are tainted by the bad examples of him whom wee feare to reproue.

Touching vs that are men, saith Saint Austin, De Correp. & Grae. cap. vlt. vi [...]e Lo­cum. who can­not distinguish betweene Elect and Reprobates, wee ought to desire the saluation of each person alike. And least any should perish, or cause others to perish; a sharpe reprehension must be applied to all offendors pro­miscuously, leauing the issue to God, who can make it pro­profitable to his owne. AndSi enim ali­quando timo­re non corri­pimus, ne ali­quis inde pe reat: cur non etiam timore non corripi­mus, ne ali­quis inde plus pereat? Idem Ibid. if sometimes through feare, we reproue not, lest some one become worse; why should wee not much more feare, not to reproue, least another [Page 189] should, by his example, more fearefully perish?

And yet least any should thinke that any kinde of boldnesse may hence bee thought warrantable,2. Cautions touching Boldnesse. I must bound this poynt with two limits or Cautions.

The first is this;1. Caution. Boldnesse must not spring from a spirit of ostentation and popularity to bee obserued and praysed by men, for a very boldman, and that they may point after him, and say, this is hee. Iehu was troubled much with this itch:2 King. 10.16. so also the Phari­sees: they did all their workes to be seene Mat. 23.5. of men, and there­fore this is all they haue for their workes.

The End commendeth or condemneth our boldnesse. If our end bee the Glory of [Page 191] God, not our owne praise; then, not more bold, then welcome. He that said, Let your light so shine among men that they may see your good Mat. 5.16. workes, allowes the pub­lique performance of good duties; and so to doe them that men may see them if they will: but he condemnes the doing of them for this end that they may see themMat. 5.16. Videri ab ho­minibus non est nefas; sed ideo agere vt ab homini­bus videaris. August. de Ser. Dom. lib 2 cap. 16. 2. Caution. as the trick of an hypocriticall Pharisie.

The other Caution is, that Boldnesse bee free from di­stempered choller, and raue­ing passion. A Bishop must not be selfe willed: not soone Tit. 1.7. angry. Hee must not bee so suddenly ouercome of his passions, as to neglect due eare of all circumstances per­teyning to the successe of [Page 190] that good action he is labou­ring in.

Wee count those moti­ons of the mind most safe and vsefull, which are dispo­sed at our pleasure, and not asSenec. de tra lib. 2. cap. 35. they list. When a man is tossed like a Pinnace in a tempest by his passion, if he performe any more, then to saue himselfe, we may write it downe for a miracle. Such Anger euer dwells at the Signe of the Foole, and a good zealot must refrain that Ordinary.

But, as Fiery dispositions must not mistake cholerike passions for zeale? so on the other side, a holy and iust in­dignation against sinne must not be censured and condem­ned as an vnseemely passion.

Moses though a meeke [Page 192] man could yet be angry and very wroth when Israell had sinned.Exod. 32.19. Num. 16.15 Saint Paul, ye will thinke, was moued indeed, when he called the vniust hy­pocriticall high Priest, a pain­ted Act. 23.3. Vide Caluin in hunc lo­cum. wall. Yea Christ him­selfe was angry at the Iewes, when he saw theMar. 3.5. hardnesse of their hearts. And such anger at wrong done vnto God wel becommeth zealous bold­nesse either in speaking or preaching.

Hee that gaue Titus an Item against hastie anger, doth yet in the same Chap­ter, not onely allow, but strictly charge him to rebuke some personsTit. 2.13. sharpely.

A man may loue when he seemes to be angry; as well as hate when he seemeth to loue. AndAugust. de v [...]rb. dom. ser, 16 Vsque a­deo non omnis qui irascitur o [...]it; vt ali­quando ma­gis odisse con­uincatur qui non irascitur. Idem. Epist. 48. vincentio. Non omnis qui partit a­micus est: nec omnis qui verberat ini­micus. so farre should [Page 193] we be from iudging anger in some men, to be hatred, that wee should rather conuince them of hatred, if they should not be angry.

The Austerity of Phinehas, saith a Father, Hierom. ad Ripar. aduer­sus Vigilan­tium. the fiery temper of Eliah the Seuerity of Peter against Ananias and Saphira: the fury of Paul a­gainst Elimas, is not to bee thought cruelty, but piety for God.

When that worthy Na­zianzene, pressing to mode­ration in disputatiō, had cast some water vpon the tumul­tuous feruor of some conten­tious spirits, he withal solem­nely protested, that he was neuer of that numberGreg. Naz. Orat. de mo­derat. in dis­p [...]t. Seruan­d [...]. [...]. which account vigor of spirit and and sharpnesse, a fault; for as much as no man, without [Page 194] this, can easily vndertake any action with any great praise, or virtue. He therefore con­dēned only such fiery tēpers as with the shew of a gene­rous spirit had also temerity and imprudence the mother of impudence ioyned with it.

And now because rash Passion, and holy fury are so like one another in the face, it is a very difficult and pe­remptory taske for any be­holder to distinguish them by that; and therefore very vncharitable it were to bee hasty in censuring such as are bold, and stout, and in some degree passionate in the Ser­uice of God, to bee cholerick men, hauing no other shew of ground to cōdemn them.In istis, quae vtrum bono an malo ani­mo fiant sci­re non possu­mus, melius est vt ad par­tem dextram nostrum ani­mum decli­nemus: quia tollerabilius est nos in hoc praefiniri, & eos qui mali sunt bonos esse credamus quam ex con­st [...]tudine in dicandi etiam de bonis quod malum est suspicemur. Aug. Ser. de Temp 202. Calian in Iob. 32.2. conc. [...] 119. Quid primū nobis ex hoc loco discendū est? Primum non omnem iram condē ­nandam esse: Quum vide mus aliquem irasci▪ & ex­cādescere, id non semper vitio imputandum esse; vt videas contemptores dei qui dicant, Numquid vero sic tumu tu an [...]ū? Numquid sic irascen [...]ū est? nonne placida & quicta ratione agi potest? &c. vide locum.

If their outward heat pro­ceed from any false fire, God and their owne hearts onely are priuy to that; and they stand or fall to their owne Ma­ster. In this case it is safest to iudge nothing before the time, If wee obserue in such men a constancy of temper against all sinne, as well as a­gainst any, especialy in them­selues, as well as in others: it were breach of iustice to deny them the praise of true zealous men.

To conclu [...]e this caution, and this point. We may bee angry, so we sinne not. And if our anger bee onely against sinne, we sinne not to be an­gry. The rule of Gregory Greg. Mag. moral 6. In correctione vitiorum subesse debet tracundia nō praesse, vt executionem iustitiae do minando non praeueniat, sed stimulan do subsequa­tur. in this case is excellent. In the punishment of sinne, anger must not rule, but serue; that [Page 196] it may not run before Iustice as a furious Lord to preuent it; but come behinde as an humble Seruant to excite and stirre it vp to a due execu­tion.

CHAP. VII. Of Discretion.

Sect. 2. THe second Parti­cular wherewith Zeale must bee perfectly tempered, is Dis­cretion, Of Discreti­on. the safest Chariot for a man to ride in through the rough waies of this dan­gerous world.

The praise of it.A Grace transcendent, and more fitly stiled the Soue­raigne of Virtues, then a pri­uate [Page 197] Virtue.Discretio non tam virtus est quam moderatrix virtutumitol­le hanc & virtui vitiū erit. Bern. Sup Cant Ser. 24. Take away this, and virtue will turne vice; as the best flesh without Salt will soone putrifie and stinke. What we doe with discretion is a virtuous action: but in­discretion euer sends Virtue away with a scratcht face,Virtus enim indiscreta pro vitio de­putatur Isa­dor. & a blot.

Lawes in generall giue bounds to actions to make them good, but Discretion giues Lawes euen to good actions to make them better. Our Passions be like wild horses; discretion, is a Miner­ua's bridle for her winged Pegasus, to curbe and guide them.

Without this, sorrow would turne into despaire, feare into terror, loue into blindnesse, hope into pre­sumption, anger into fury, [Page 198] mirth into madnesse; and the whole houses of our soules would bee nothing else but kennells of disorder and con­fusion.

And as this is of vse in all graces, so in Zeale especially.Caluin. in Iob 32. Conc. 119. Quamuis ze­lus dei in no­bis domine­tur, possemus tamen pecca­re modum excedentes, nisi Deus nos inhiberet. Prudētia igi­tur & mode­ratio in eo Zelo adsit oportet. Our crasty Aduersary, when our Zeale would make warre vpon him, hath no better stratagem then to bereaue vs of this little Vlisses, of whom he is more afraid then of the Greatest Cyclops that we can imploy against him.

Vnderstand this of Discre­tion mingled with Zeale. Dis­cretion and Zeale do well, to­gether; but ill, asunder. Zeale without discretion, is but frantick fury. Discretion without zeale is but moathy-pollicy that eates out the heart of all true piety. An ex­ample [Page 199] of the former we haue in S [...]neon and Leui: of the lat­ter, in wretched Gallio, who tooke it to be a high point of discretion to make light ofAct. 18.14, 15.10. Religion.

And to say truth, in their natures they are both so bad, as it is hard to say, which of the two is the worse. Yet, (if we desire to compare two bad things together) in e­uent, discretion without Zeale, proues the greatest Cut-throate to Religion.

This, carries a shew of wisdome,The coun­terfeit of Discretion moderat [...]on and an admirable temper; and say­ling vn [...]er these Colours, it secretly conueyes away all life and power of Godlinesse out of the Land, faster then some crasty Dutch men, our Gold and Siluer.

Ahabs Chaplaines were very discreete in this kind. They, seeing him a passionate violent man apt to warre and cumbustion, held it a very dis­creet part to speake nothing that might distaste or crosse his humor. Michaiah, they thought, was booke enough to instruct them, and teach them more wit then to vex their Master. They easily discerned Michaiahs plainesse neuer did good: but euer pull'd the Kings displeasure and hatred vpon himselfe.

Of this meale-mouth'd temper was the Messenger, sent to call Michaiah to the King. Hee thought hee had taught him a trimme peece of Wisedome, when he said vnto him1 King. 22 13. The words of the Prophets declare good vnto the [Page 201] King with one mouth: Let thy word, I pray thee, be like theirs, and speake that which is good: meaning that which might please.

But Michaiah knew well that this selfe-loue discretion tended to the ruine of Ahab and his Kingdome, and there­fore he earnestly protested a­gainst it, & resolued to speake that, and that onely which the Lord should command him;Verse 14. let the King take it as he would.

Such gentlenesse seemes for a time to bee without teeth: but in the conclusion it will bite like a Serpent. This discreet indiscretion cost Ahab his life; and many, their bloud. Michaiahs down-right counsell and indiscreet dis­cretion would haue saued all.

Such a messe of Discreti­on was that also of tempori­zing Amaziah the Priest of Bethel. When Amos began to Prophecy there, against the high places of Amos 7.9. Isaak, the Sanctuaries of Israel, and the house of Ieroboam great Grandchilde to Iehu; Amazi­ah accused Amos to the King of no lesse then high treason, and that hee had spoken such words as the Land was not a­ble to beare them. Verse 10.

In his opinion, doubtlesse, it was great indiscretion in Amos to choose such a Theam for the Court: and therefore thought he vsed him kindly when he gaue him this coun­sell;Verse 12. O thou [...]ee [...], goe, flee thee away into the Land of Iudah, and there eate bread, and Pro­phecy there, But Prophecie not [Page 203] any more at Bethel for it is the Kings Chappell, Verse 13. and it is the Kings Court.

It seemes by Amaziah that Amos his fault was a great one indeed; that it was not safe to exercise his mini­stry any more, nor so much as to abide within any of the Kings Dominions.

But I pray, what was it? Why, Amos had said, Iero­boam shall die by the sword, and Israell shall surely bee led away captiue out of their Land. A great ouer-sight I promise you. What had Amos so little discretion as in the Kings owne Court to tell wicked Ieroboam what was comming vpon himselfe and his Kingdome, and so trouble him with a puleing Tragedy of repentance and [Page 204] humiliation to preuent the mischiefe? Nay thrust such a mad man out at the Gates by head and shoulders, and exile him for euer.

More discreet, in their owne opinions, was Iolly Amaziah, and the rest of Ieroboams Trencher-Chaplaines, who would haue suffered this gulfe to haue swallowed vp both Prince and State, without giuing them the least inck­ling of any such danger, vn­till it were too late to auert, or auoid it.

Such Temperate men, or rather spaniel-like Para­sites are but secret Traytors, that so they may get into the Chaire of preferment, they can bee content to betray their Masters into the hands of the Diuell, whose Agents [Page 205] they are, to strengthen the hand of iniquitie, and to leade Princes blind-fold to hell. It is a wonder, if a flatterers Ser­mon haue no Treason in it.

This is as far from the discre­tion ere while commended, as the foulest vice from the fairest vertue: as the basest pibble, from the choycest ie­well. It is separated from zeale, this is enough to dis­grace it to all good men, since it can be no other,Rom. 8.7. but the wisedome of the world which is emnitie against God.

Grauely,Ser. 23. in Cant. Virtus discretionis abs (que) charita­tis feruore tacet: & feruor vehemens abs (que) discre­tionis tempe ramento prae­cipitat: ideo (que) laudabilis est, cui neutrum deest; qu [...]te­nus & feruor discretionem erigat, & discretio feruo­rem regat. Bernard. Dis­cretion without the feruor of loue, lyeth still without action, and vehement heate without the temper of discre­tion, tumbleth Phaethon head­long. Therefore he onely de­serueth praise that possesseth [Page 206] both; to the end his heate may stirre vp discretion; and discretion moderate heate.

But this, I confesse, is a bird that sits not on euery bush: it is rara auis, as rare as a Phe­nix. This is it which maketh the world such a Buzzard that it cannot know it, when it seeth it, but takes all for gold that glisters; worldly pollicie, for holy discretion; which differ as much, as hell and heauen.

But after all this, what is that discretionWhat Dis­cretion is. so much admi­red? The same in effect with that which Philosophers and Schoolmen call Prudence. And this,6. Ethic. c. 5 Aristotle describes to be a skill rightly to per­forme and mannage all actions.

I cannot discerne wherein [Page 207] Prudence and Discretion dif­fer; vnlesse in the extent. For whereas two things concurre to the exact performance of a good action (viz. a good end, first intended; & an appli­catiue knowledge of meanes aptly conducing thereto;) Prudence doth equally looke at both: but Discretion is but the [...], or that peece of Prudence which respecteth the meanes and method of our actions, and maketh vsProu. 23.19. wise to guide our heart in the way.

The want of this cost Mo­ses deare at the waters of Me­ribah, where though he were zealous for God, yet his pas­sion stirred vp by the rebels of Israel, made him speake vn­aduisedly with his Psal. 106.32.33. lips.

It is the wisdome of a man [Page 208] to vnderstand his Prou 14.8. way. And one of the chiefest praises of a vertuous woman was this; She openeth her mouth with Prou. 31.26. discretion. This therefore is that which is chiefly required in zeale, to regulate and go­uerne that holy fire so oft as it flames.

The vse of discretion in zeale, which is to respect the circum­stances of Person, Place, and Time.This Discretion is nothing else but that rule and temper which a Christian in shewing of his zeale must euer ob­serue. It tempereth zeale; as leauen the meale: and it ru­leth zeale, as a plumbe line the building.

Prudence and discretion is a rule that properly hath for it Obiect the circumstances of Action. And the circum­stances of all voluntarie and deliberate actions are vsually three; Person, Place, and Time. [Page 209] All these Discretion conside­reth, and accordingly guideth our zeale.

The first circumstance which Discretion directeth zeale to regard,1. Circum­stance of Persons, who are conside­red Morally and Ciuilly. is that of the Persons we meddle with.

And these, Discretion loo­keth vpon with a twofold re­spect: the one Morall; the o­ther Ciuill.

By the first, shee conside­reth them as Good or Bad; and the bad, againe, as Priuate or Publicke offenders; and both these sorts, as they of­fend, e [...]ther of infirmitie, or resolution and malice.

By the second, she regar­deth them as they are ranged in their seuerall and different Rankes: some being Publicke, and some Priuate: some aboue vs, some below vs, and some [Page 210] equals: some rich, some poore; some elder, some yonger: and according to all these respects she directeth zeale to handle and vse them.

The first consideration of Persons is morall; 1. Of the mo­rall conside­ration of Persons. that if they be good, zeale may wisely de­fend them: if they bee euill, zeale may wisely reproue and seeke to reforme them.

Defending the good.Touching the defence of good men, I shall not need to speake more then that I haue spoken alreadie in the third Chapter, where I haue large­ly shewed, wherein, and how farre, they must be main­tained.

The principall peece of my Proiect remaining is, to shew how Discretion should man­nage our zeale in dealing with such as bee bad; espe­cially [Page 211] in the point of reproofe, for this is most vsefull, and most hard to be done.

In reprouing a vitious Per­son,Reprouing the bad. And herein Discretion would teach a Zealot two things. First, to be sure that the fault hee would reproue is committed by him, to whom he directs a reproofe. Secondly, to make a difference betweene a Pri­uate and a Publicke offence.

In the first place, Be sure the fault be indeed committed 1. Be sure the fault bee committed. before we begin to Quando tis s [...]is quia pec­cauit. Ansel. in 1. Tim. 5. Aegid Car­ler. in Orat. Tria ex parte corripientis debent esse, &c. prima est certa peccati cognitio, &c. reprooue. Otherwise, as we reprooue without ground, so without fruite; vnlesse this, that wee find the arrow sticking in our owne faces.

A wicked man who deser­ueth reprofe for many things, will yet beate off all, if he be charged with any thing vn­iustly. [Page 212] How will he flie in a mans face, and crie out, you wrong me. And as glad of the occasion to be put out of his Patience; with incessant cla­mors, how will he stop your mouth, that you shall not possibly fasten any reproofe vpon him for other things, whereof he cannot deny him­selfe to be guiltie? How will he insult and raile after he is gone? How will he trample vpon the face of all zeale and religious rebukes?

Nor will it enrage wicked men onely, but vexe good men also to bee thus vsed. When Iacob priuily stole a­way by night from Laban; vpon which occasion Labans Idols were missing, (for Ra­chel had stolen them away:) Laban had some cause to [Page 213] ghesse that Iacob was priuie to, if not guiltie of this hor­rible sacriledge (as Laban esteemed it) because hee was the contriuer of the plot, and first in the fact of running a­way in so vnkind and vnnatu­rall a manner.

When seruants run away, we presently looke vp our things. If any thing be mis­sing, wee lay it to the run­awayes charge. Laban did no more in a case which most nearely concerned him, as he foolishly thought. Iacob confi­dent of his innocencie, allow­eth Laban a seuerer Inquisi­tion then would haue stood with the safetie of his fairest Iewell, if she had not bene more subtill then innocent.

But when through Rachels cunning, the fault obiected [Page 214] could not be proued, though done; what a heate Iacob was in, towards his father in Law, the storie declareth. Iacob was so wroth, that he chode with Laban Gen. 31.36 himselfe.

I denie not, but we may vpon some strong presump­tions, charge a fault on him we suspect. But then we must be sure that the partie be ve­ry ingenious to confesse it, if guiltie, and not to denie with a lie. If they be brasen face sin­ners, or otherwise cunning, and do know or suspect that we do but suspect them, they will make no bones to adde more sinnes to the first; and desperately fault in swearing, to sweare out a fault; be they guiltie or not.

And further, we must also then be very wary and mild, [Page 215] dealing by way of question, or supposition, & compassio­nate griefe to heare, or feare such things by them, as we charge them with; and ap­plying admonitions & coun­sels in stead of reproofes.

Let vs seriously think with our selues, how we could pos­sibly brooke it from any man liuing, that he should be so light of beliefe, as by and by to kill vs in his heart vpon the hearing of euery flim­flam tale brought vnto him by some malitious Doeg, or backbiting Ziba.

Would it not enrage our spirits to see our good names hanged vp in chaines in the places where we liue, and as malefactors rotting before our eyes; when many times the thing obiected and belee­ued, [Page 216] is either vtterly vntrue in whole, or in part, or (though perhaps true,) insufficiently proued? That, then, which we would not haue done, let vs not do.

2. Make a difference betweene offences.In the second place, Dis­cretion requireth that a diffe­rence be put betweene that of­fence which is priuate, and that which is publicke.

Priuate of­fences how handled.In Priuate offences the Rule is; Go, and tell thy brother his fault betweene him and thee Mat. 18.15 alone. If thy brother offend; hate him not so much, as not to reprooue himLeuit. 19.17.: but shew thy selfe a brother in rebu­king him plainly, and coue­ring his shame.

He that forbad thee the blazing of thy brothers na­kednesse, did not leaue to thy choyce the duty of priuate [Page 217] admonition, if thou know he hath failed: He onely directed thee to the manner, and en­ioyned thee to do it as he bad thee. If thou neglect it, thou art worse then he; if S. Austin Ser. 16. de verb. Dom Si neglexeris, peior es. Jlle iniuriam fe­cit▪ & graui se ipsum vul­nere percussit, tu vulnus fratris tui contemn [...]? Tu eum vides perire & negli­gis? Peior es tacendo quam ille conuitian­do. can iudge.

Thy brother by sinning hath wounded himselfe, and wilt thou despise to put thy hand to the cure? He perish­eth before thine eyes, and canst thou neglect him? If thou canst; thou art more in fault by thy silence, then hee by that fault which should haue opened thy mouth. Re­uiling is bad, but silence is worse.

But yet remember the rule: it must be as the fault was, Secret. And as it is done in se­cret, so it must be kept, with­out blazing after it be done. [Page 218] A man were as good to re­proue publickly, as publish a priuate reproofe.

The same FatherAugust. ibid brings for instance the dealing of Io­seph with the blessed Virgine Marie, his espoused wife. He suspected her of vncleannesse, because he saw her with child; and yet because he onely sus­pected her (at that time) hee would not proclaime her shame to the world, But was minded priuily to put her Mat. 1.19. away.

It is true, that Adulterie by the Law of God, was death. And as true, that Ioseph did not thus fauour his wife, as seeking to abuse the Law, or allow of her supposed trans­gression: for the holy Ghost beares him witnesse, that he was a iust man.

What was it then which moued him to study so secret a course? many things: his Loue, that he would not bee the first that should pro­claime her shame, whom he had prized at so deare a rate; his moderation, that he would not put her to the vtmost ex­tremitie, though she abused his loue; his wisedome, that he would not for taking re­uenge on her priuate fault, be occasion of opening the mouthes of such as would be too apt, for her sake, to dis­grace Religion which they both zealously professed.

But the chiefe cause (as I conceiue) was, that as yet the fault was not diuulged, nor taken notice of abroad; and if it did come afterwards to publicke obseruation, the [Page 220] discouery should be not from him, but from the fault it selfe, which would disclose it selfe, though he concealed it.

The reprouing or reuea­ling of a sinne, to, or before more then such as are priuie to it as Actors, patients, or abettors in it, is not onely vn­charitable, but vnsafe.

For, first if thou onely know thy brothers fault, and yet shalt seeke to rebuke him be­fore others, thou dost not so much reproue his sinne as be­tray his u fame.Aug. ibid. Si solus nosti, & eum vis coram alijs arguere; non es corrector, sed proditor.

Secondly, if he haue onely ciuilitie of nature, and no worke of grace to force a par­don from him, this is enough to make an irreparable breach betwixt him and thee. Vpbraiding and disclosing of [Page 221] secrets, are of those things for which euery friend will Ecclus. 22.22. de­part. Nothing but grace will fetch them backe againe.

Thirdly, oft times by ma­king a fault knowne, the scan­dall proues greater to the de­linquent partie, then the wrong to thee; and sometimes greater then thy selfe did meaneAegid. Car­ler. Orat. in Concil. Basil. de punitione peccat publ. Si culpa est le­uis, & time­tur ne turba grauior se­quatur, non tenetur corri­gere quia pe­ius subseque­tur. Extat haec oratio tom. 4. Concil. vlt. Edit. Binij. it. Faults will runne further then repentance, in the mouthes of men. Euery man will take notice of the offence; but few, of his satis­faction made.

Fourthly, if the partie bee eminent for a zealous profes­sion of religion, then to pro­claime his priuate slips and failings, would not so much stop his course of sinne, as open the mouthes of drun­kards, vngodly raylers and [Page 222] scoffers to peale vpon all carefull and studious of holy life: and so Religion it selfe shall beare the greatest blow.

Fiftly, and Lastly, It most vsually happeneth, that a Per­son thus shamed studies de­fence to impudence;Aug. ibid. Corripe inter te & ipsum solum, intuens correctioni, parcens pudo­ri: fortè enim prae verecun­dia incipit de­fendere pec­catum suum, & quem vis correctiorem, facis petorem. and now that he thinkes himselfe irre­couerably wounded in his re­putation (the onely bounds which keepe many in) hee becomes desperate. And so, he that before was badd, by this meanes will bee worse: Shame once found is euer lost.

Fiue Cases wherin faults must be dis­couered.Wee see the Rule of Dis­cretion touching priuate of­fenses, and the reasons on which it is grounded. We shall do well to obserue it; but with these exceptions.

Case. 1 First, all treasons and trea­sonable [Page 223] practises, against ei­ther Prince or State, be they neuer so closely kept and car­ryed, must be discouered, al­though we be sure the reuea­ling of it will cost the offen­der his life. Better one perish then many.

That God who is so tender of the honour and safetie of his annointed, that rather then so much as a cursing or reuiling speech vttered a­gainst him, or any in autho­ritie vnder him, shall escape vnpunished, will cause the very birds of the ayre to carrie the voyce, and that which hath wings to tell the Eccles. 10.20. matter; will neuer allow it vnto men, to subiects, especially Christian subiects, to conceale higher offences against their Soue­raigne, without seuere re­uenge.

He that can be content to conceale a Traitor, though but vnder pretēce of a vow, or keeping secret a priuate Con­fession, is one of hels-Com­monwealth, and by his pro­fession a Butcher to the Pope.

Case. 2 Secondly, when we know or heare of any plot against the life of but a priuate person, we must do as Pauls kins-man, to him, and as Paul by his kins-man to the chiefe CaptaineAct. 23.16.17. in the same case.

Howbeit if wee can re­claime the offender by pri­uate counsell & instructions, and be sure we haue drawne him from his bloudy resolu­tion, and into charity againe; by S. Austins rule we should conceale him, because wee haue wonne him, and preuen­ted the mischiefe intended.

Otherwise we must disclose him, or bee guiltie of bloud. He that said, Thou shalt not kill, will arraigne thee at his Barre as a murtherer, if thou endeauour not to preuent it in others to the vtmost of thy power.

Case. 3 Thirdly, when the offence is done by him who will not take a reproofe at our hands; or if he would, yet we haue no opportunitie to bestow it on him; we may reueale it, so it be to such as it concerneth to performe that which we cannot.

Eliah would neuer vouch­safe Iezabel (for ought we can find) a priuate admonition; because he knew too well her pride and hatred against him.

It was wise Salomons ob­seruation; [Page 226] He that reproueth a scorner getteth to himselfe shame: and he that rebuketh a wicked man getteth himselfe a Prou. 9.7. In correctione frater ia requiritur ex parte peccantis spes de cor­rectione, alias non oblig [...]tur qui [...] tale [...] corripere. Aegid. Car­lerius in O­rat. ante cita­ [...]a. blot. Scorners will be sure to abuse him to his face that vndertakes to reforme them: and behind his backe will ex­treamely traduce and belie him to others, as if he had of­fered them some great abuse, or otherwise carried himselfe ridiculously towards them.

This is all that Swine will returne him that casteth pearles before them. Therefore the holy Ghosts counsell is, Not to reproue a scorne lest he hate Verse 8. thee. And Christ forbids to cast pearles before such a swine. Neuerthelesse we shall do well to complaine of his rooting, to him that is able to put a ring in his nose.

Ioseph knew well the ha­tred of his brethren against him, and how much they would haue scorned a re­proofe at his hand. Therefore, (though hee omitted that which hee had wisedome enough to foresee would haue bene in vaine, yet) when he saw them disordered, he brought vnto his father their euill Gen. 37.2. report.

Case. 4 Fourthly, when a priuate admonition hath been giuen, and it doth no good, but that the partie offending goeth on still in his sinne; then the rule is, to Take with thee one, or two more: And if hee shall neglect to heare them, to tell it to the Mat. 18.16.17. Church.

In a desperate disease, when one Phisitian hath tryed his skill, we commonly ioyne [Page 228] one, or more with him: So here. HeQui admo­nitus secretè de peccato corrigi negligit, publicè arguendus est▪ & vulnus quod occultè sanari nescit, manifestè debeat emen­dari Isador. that hath been se­cretly admonished and neg­lecteth to reforme, is to bee rebuked in publicke; that so that wound which could not be closed vp in secret, may be more publickly handled and healed.

Case. 5 Fiftly, when the offender is not immediatly vnder our selues, but some other, it is no offence to reueale him to him who (by vertue of his more immediate power) is likely with more authoritie, and better successe to reproue him.

None so fit to admonish the wife as the husband; therefore Eliah goes to Ahab, not Iezabel. And though the woman were first in the 1. Tim 3 14 transgression, yet God be­gan [Page 229] to reckon first with theGen. 3.9. man.

None so proper to chastise a childe as the father; there­fore God sends Samuel vnto Ely, not to his Sonnes. Nor is any so meete to reproue a Seruant, as the Gouernor of the family; and therefore A­braham repaires to Lot, Gen. 13 8. and not to his Seruants.

It is no back-biting to re­ueale to a man (if hee be wise, religious, and louing) the er­rors of his neerest a [...]d deerest friends; nor of a Seruant, to his Master; nor of children, to their father; if there bee need of reformation, and that there be either no oportuni­ty, or else no hope of doing them so much good by our selues, as might bee done by taking this course.

These cases excepted, wee may bound the taxation and shame of a priuate fault with­in the circle of a priuate re­proofe.

I haue yet one thing more to adde, before I leaue this point. As offences of these kinds must not be concealed; so the least peccadillo's, the smallest aberrations must not be suffered without secret re­buke.

The least faults must be reproo­ued.It is an error in that discre­tion which thinkes men shall do well to wink at small faults. And it is a great fault in him that will not beare a reproofe for the smallest offence.

It is common with men to thinke themselues iolly fel­lowes, if they be free from the grosse out-rages of the world, which ciuill men cry shame [Page 231] on: and as common, to think him very busie and malepert that shall taxe them for such small matters as are lesser oathes, rash speeches, wanton talk, lasciuious imbraces, idle­nesse, vanitie, carelesnesse in frequenting Gods house so oft as they might, slacknesse in comming with the first when they come at all, vnpro­fitablenesse in hearing when they are there, and a thousand such little bodkins that yet will kil Caesar as surely, though perhaps not so sodainly, as the Sword or Pistoll.

Men are ready to cast wa­ter in the zealots face as be­ing in these ouer busie, strict, and precise, and no way for their turne,Wisd. 2. because hee vp­braideth them with offending the law in such petty matters. [Page 232] Euery one almost is of Lots minde; though Sodome bee burned, yet thinke they Zoar may be spared, because it is a little one: And when a man followes them with a re­proofe for such trifles, they are ready to say as Abner to Asahel, turne thee aside from following me, let mee and my sinne alone.2 Sam. 2.22. Wherefore should Ismite thee to the ground?

The reasons why.But let such men know that the Law of God admits not the least imperfectiō, nor tolerates the least disobedie­ence, but makes the least trās­gression of the least Commā ­dement, death; yea eternall death, vnlesse vpon our vn­feyned confession and repen­tance we sue out our Pardon.

And though a sparke of fire, in a strong chimney [Page 232] would be contemned, yet, in straw, no wise man would neglect it, because the matter in which it is, is so apt to kin­dle: therfore we quench it in hast, and are afraid of the least delay; nor can we be quiet vn­til it be throughly extinct.

Now there is no dry straw so apt to take fire from a fla­ming fire-brand, as our hearts are to bee all in a flame with the least coale of sinne that sparkles on it. And what dan­gerous proceedings small be­ginnings haue had, too woful experience hath taught euen the best of men too often to know, and bewaile.

Small sinnes grow great ones almost in an instant: And like Ionahs gourd, will be able to shadow and couer them all ouer in a night. Such [Page 234] sorry weeds grow a pace. Though no man bee at his worst presently; yet on the sudden, he growes too bad.

Nor is it so easy to beate a theefe out of doores, as to keepe him out of the house; nor to defend a breach, as to maintaine the Citty after the Enemie hath entred; nor to shake off sinne, as to preuent it.Greg. Naz. in Orat. de moder. in disput. [...]. Bruite Cattell will with more difficultie bee kept in their owne pasture, after they haue once broken the hedge.

An easy Bull will tosse the strongest dogg so high that he will be in danger to breake his bones in the fall, so long as the dogg is loose, and hath taken no hold; but let the dogg once come within him and fasten on his lip or nose, then (though the dogg were [Page 235] none of the strongest) he will easily hold the fiercest Bull that hee shall not bee able to stirre. And a weake Christian may with more ease keepe his heart in order, then the strongest Champion with greatest labour can recouer his heart from the least disor­der.

The wildest horses after some vse to the stable and sad­dle will seeme so tame, as if they meāt not to stir though you should not tie them or hold them. But let them once out of your hand, and you will finde worke more then enough to take, and tame them againe; whereas before you let them loose, a little childe might haue ledd them.

Yet this is nothing to the [Page 632] danger and difficulty which the best man aliue shall finde in mastering his passions and affections a second time, if af­ter once subduing them, hee shall aduenture to pull the bridle off their heads to let them fetch but a Careir or two either in their old or new pastures of sinne:

Yea hee shall finde it an Herculean Labour, to lay hold on his heart and to take it vp from the grossest sinne, if hee happen but vnawares to let the reynes fall out of his hand, though neuer so little, and he striue instantly to catch them againe, before one would thinke his heart could possibly feele it selfe loose.

Againe, motes in the eyes of a zealous Professor of piety [Page 237] appeare as beames in the Worlds Perspectiue glasse. Men will be ready to let fly a great volly of scoffes and bit­terreuilings at a godly mans smallest frailties: Why then should the Gallant, the swea­rer, the scoffer thinke much to be reproued himselfe? But es­pecially why should the god­lie man take it ill to be told of his lesser faults?

The least slip of such a man as takes vpon him to bee a guide to the blinde, and a light to them which are in darknesse, will open the mouthes of Gods enemies to blaspheme his Name. A vaine word, a little passion, a little coue­tousnesse, a little niggardli­nesse, a little lightnesse, a little liberty in him, will weigh heauier in the prophane mans [Page 238] ballance then his own impie­ties of the largest size.

And though it be true that such as haue greatest beames in their owne eyes will make the least mote, a beame in a­nother mans; yet our Sauiour counselleth toMat. 7.5. pull out the mote, as well as the beame.

Publique of­fences.Hauing thus declared the taske which Discretion set­teth out vnto Zeale touching priuate offences; come, now, to the handling of those that are publique. To this belong two things. An Assurance that the fault be publique: A Direction how to handle it when wee know it to bee such.

1. Be sure that they be such.First, bee sure the fault bee publique. Be not too hasty in thy decision, make a diligent inquisition, and when it is [Page 239] manifest vnto thee that the fault is indeed such as it see­meth; then reproue, and spare not, saithChrisost. in 1 Tim. 5.20. hom. 15. [...] &c. Chrysostome.

There are foure waies by which an Offence may bee made publique, and so accoun­ted:

First, by the euidence of the fact, either when the of­fendor is taken in the very act, or when otherwise the fault proclaimes it selfe after it is done, because it cannot be hidd.

Secondly, by a common rumor and publique fame rai­sed by Persons of credit, either out of knowledge, or some strong presumptions.

Thirdly, by the Confessi­on, or impudent boasting of the offender himselfe. Many such shamelesse beasts vnfit [Page 240] and vnworthy to liue among men, there are, who like the the Deuill himselfe,Iob 1.7. glory in their shame.

Fourthly, by the entring and prosecuting of it in any publique Court of Iustice.

2. How such an offence must bee handled.When a fault by any of these waies becomes pub­lique, Zeale may safely pro­ceede in a publique manner a­gainst it, so as others who haue taken notice of the fault, and taken offence at it, may also be witnesses of the re­proofe, and receiue satisfacti­on.

This is Saint Pauls owne rule to Timothy: Those that sinne, 1. Tim. 5.20. rebuke before all, that others may feare That is, those that sinne before all, rebuke before all, as SaintDe verb. dom. Ser. 15. Si peccatum, publicum est & apertum, publice cor­ripe, &c. Austin, [Page 241] Chrisost. hom. 15 in 1 Tim. Chrisostome, and others ex­pound the place.

In what Place and forme this is to be done shall be de­clared hereafter. Meane while, for the thing it selfe, Publique reproofes must bee directed to publique offences for these Reasons:

First, Iustice wills that sin should there receiue death, where it receiued life,August. de verb. de. Ser. 16. Vbi con­tingi [...]. and gaue offence. Notorious Malefactors doe vsually suf­fer in the place they offended, that so the People wronged may [...]ceiue more ample sa­tisfaction.

Secondly, the humiliation of the offendor requires it too. Hee whom no man checks for his offence, will hardly blame himselfe, or thinke hee hath deseru'dNon enim sibi videtur peccare quā do a nullo corrip [...]tur. Idem. it.

Thirdly, the preuenting of greater and more outragious sinnes. He that reproues not open faults, opens a gapp to more desperate attempts.Chrisost. Ibid. vt supra [...]. And he that when hee may, forbids not sinne, commandsSenec. Trag. Qui non vetat peccare, cum possit, iubet. it.

Vpon these grounds the Apostle chargeth, and euen coniureth Timothy before God, and the Lord Iesus Christ, and the elect Angels, to obserue (among, other things) this, without preiudice or 1 Tim. 5.11 partiali­ty.

But it will bee obiected, saithIbid. vt su­pra. Chrisostome, that Christ bids vs to goe and tell our bro­ther betweene him & our selues alone. Yea but he permits him also to bee rebuked in tho ChurchIdem. Ibid. [...]. too. If neede require.

But is not that a greater [Page 243] scandall to reproue him so openly? No surely. If the fault be publique, It were a greater offence to the beholders that such a sinne should escape a­way without any blow at all. Indulgence to the bad, is op­pression to theBonù nocet qu [...] malis par [...]it. Senec. Philos. Vide [...]tia Aquin. 2. 2. quest. 33. artic. 7. in corpore. Good.

Zeale then is warranted by discretion her selfe to giue re­proofes in publique. Howbeit that Zeale may make no error in a lawfull thing, Discretion requireth a man to consider the dispositions of the Parties offending, whether they did offend out of infirmity and by occasion of some sudden ten­tation; or rather out of pur­pose and setled resolution: and accordingly to temper hisGreg. mo­ral. lib. 25. ca. 11. Aliud est precipitatio­ne, aliud de­liberatione peccare. Sape enim peccatum pr [...]cipitatio­ne commuti­tur, quod tamen concilio & delibera­tione damnatur. Ex infir­mitate enim plerumque solet accidere amare bonis; sed implere non posse. Ex st [...]to v [...]ro peccare, est bonum nec sacere nec amare. reproofes.

If it be a sinne of infirmity, the party must bee handled [Page 244] with all compassion. If any, saith the Apostle,Gal. 6.1. bee ouertaken in a fault, yee which are spirituall restore such an one in the spi­rit of meeknesse, considering thy selfe least thou also be temp­ted.

The same fault may be far worse in one man then in a­nother, by reason of their dif­ferent dispositions;Sicut non­unquam grauius est diligere quā perpetraretita nequius est odisse iustiti­am, quam non fecisse. Greg. Ibid. vt supra. the one offending of weaknesse; the o­ther of malice. It is therefore a point of Iustice to temper the reproofe of a weake bro­ther, with all lenity and mo­deration.

Hee is vnmeete to vnder­take a Cure that knowes not to distinguish betweene the anguish of a wound, & proud flesh growing vp in it. To ap­ply corroding Allum or other corrosiues, when a soare hath [Page 245] need of healing plaisters, may make the orifice bigger, and put the patient to greater torture; but cannot heale it vp.

A man shall meete with some poore sinners that will whippe themselues so much,I speake not of hypocri­ticall po­pish whip­ping of the body. that they need no help, vnles to hold their hands, & powre in oyle. There are, who will aggrauate their own failings so farre, that they rather want a staffe to stay them vp, then a club to beate them downe. To these, a wise Physition will administer Cordials, not strong purging medicines. Consolations, not tart re­bukes; least they should bee swallowed vp of sorrow, and strangled in the bloudy teares which plentifully issue from that inward wound.

[...]
[...]

Such as either out of want of iudgement to discerne, or bowels of mercy to com­miserate the vnwilling falls of weake Christians; and that make no difference of offen­dors, are like some furious Stepdame laying on a poore childe as much for falling in the dirt against his will, going in her errand, as if he purpose­ly should run out of the house when shee forbids him, and wilfully wallow in the mire.

Such vnmercifull and vn­naturall Satyres are fit for no imployment, but to whipp mad men in Bedlam: or ra­ther they deserue to bee so seru'd themselues. Yea many times God lets them fall into as deepe a mire, as others vn­pitied by them, haue done before them: And then, with [Page 247] what measure they measured to others, shall surely be measured to them againe; yea good mea­sure, pressed downe, and shaken together shall men giue into their bosomes. Then shall they know the equity of Iudes in­struction;Iude. 22. Of some haue compassion, making a diffe­rence.

But if on the otherside it shall appeare that the fault proceedeth fromObstinate offences willingly committed how to be handled. a deliberate purpose of one that makes a trade of sinne, refractarily breaking downe and tram­pling vpon all rules & bounds of Piety; then the rule is, re­buke them Tit. 1.13. sharply. Thus Peter dealt withAct. 8.20, 21, [...]c. Simon Magus; And Paul, with Elimas, and many moe.

WiselyGreg. mag [...] Pa [...]t [...]cur. [...]i. [...]. adm [...]on [...] 8. Aliter admonend sa [...]t [...] dura co [...]p s­cit: i [...]tos au­tem plerum­que ad me­lius exhorta­tio modesta compo [...]it: il­los melius corrigit qui inuehendo reprehendit, istos qui ex latere redar­guit. Gregory. Impu­dent persons must be handled [Page 248] in one manner; and such as are more bashful, in another. Nothing but a seuere thun­dring reproofe will worke on those; but a modest gentle exhortation will bee enough to these: Hee best correcteth those that makes inuectiues (hee meanes, against their sinnes;) but these, hee that mildly and couertly toucheth them vpon the By, and aloofe off, that so they may rather smell, then feele him.

Thus may a Minister vse the rod, as well as the spirit of 1 Cor 1.2 [...]. [...] [...]ions [...] sharp reproof [...]s. meeknesse: alwaies prouided that in his sharpnes too Cau­tions bee obserued.

1 First, euen with the most notorious it is wisedome to beginne mildly, that they may see our loue and desire of their reformation and sal­uation, [Page 249] rather then of their shame.

At first wee must gently warne those that are 1 Thes. 5.1 [...] vnruly. Afterwards, if need require, wee may proceede to sharpnes according to the power which the Lord hath giuen vs to edifi­cation and not to 2 Cor 13.10. destructi­on.

To this effect,Ad Eugen. de consid. lib. 3. Qui blan­do verbo ca­stigatus non corrigitur, a [...]rius necess [...] est vt arguatur. Cum dolo­re sint abscin­denda quae l [...]citer s [...]n [...] ­ri non po [...]si [...]. Bernard: Hee that is not reformed with a mild reproofe, must be sha­ken vp more roughly. Hee whose wounds will not with gentle lenitiues bee healed, must endure the sharpe Launce, and causticks with more paine and torture.

2 Secondly, reproofes of this kinde must bee repeated and iterated although to the Parties to whom they are di­rected, they doe no good. [Page 250] Greg. Mag. moral. lib. 23. cap. 20. Charitatis Zelus mala que corrigere non valet, increpare non desinat.Priuate rebukes and admo­nitions may bee forborne, when they produce not their expected fruit. A Scorner must not alwaies looke to bee vsed to this friendly course.

If this Wilde Asse so long vsed to the wildernesse of Sin shall in scorne of him that comes to take him, snuffe vp the winde at his pleasure, dis­daining to bee turned out of his way and course: All they that seeke him will not weary themselues; in his moneth they shall finde Ier. 2.24. him.

But in discharge of pub­lique duty, no obstinacy must tyre vs out In this we must go on, whether men reforme or not. Sonne of man, saith the Lord to Ezekiel, goe, get thee vnto the house of Israel, and speake with my words vnto [Page 251] them. Ezek. 3 4. But will they heare them? Noe. The house of Isra­el will not harken vnto thee, for they will not harken vnto mee. Ibid. ver. 7.The Prophet must preach, whether the people will heare, or whether they will forbeare. Yea though the Lord tell him before hand that they will not heare.

Wee must not saith Saint Hierome Hieron. in Ezek. Non est cessandum, licet mali sunt quibus loquimur, quia, secun­dum Apostolum oportu [...] importunè verbum prae­dicem [...]. Potesi enim fieri vt & durus corrigatur ad molit [...]m. giue ouer preaching though they bee wicked to whom we preach; but accor­ding to that of the Apostle we should preach the word in season and out of season. It may so fall out at length that the hardiest sinner may bee mollified. In the morning sow thy seede, and in the euening slack not thine hand: for thou knowest not whether shall prosper, either this or [Page 252] that, or whether they both shall be alike Eccles. 11.6. good.

Zealous Ieremy notes it as a blemish in himselfe; that, seeing his labours tooke con­trary effect to his desire, hee resolued not to make mention of the Lord, nor to speake any more in his Ier. 20 9. name. Howbeit at length, for all this passionate resolution hee found the word as fire in his bones, and that it would haue vent againe, so that he was weary with forbea­ring, and he could not stay.

Paul after he had preached Iesus to the Iewes at Corinth, and they opposing and blas­pheming; he shooke his garment as a witnesse against Act. 18.5, 6. them, and in a passion, resolued to preach no more in that place. Yet for all that, the Lord set him to worke againe in the [Page 253] very same place, telling him that (notwithstanding all their frowardnesse) Hee had much people in that Ibid. ver. 9.10. Citie.

If the husbandman haue but a thin haruest this yeare, he must not despaire; but sow againe in hope of a better, another time.Publicke reprofes often iterated for foure rea­sons. And so must we, for these ensuing Rea­sons.

Reason. 1 First, because our labours take not effect when wee would, but when God will vouchsafe to blow vpon his garden, that the spices thereof may flow out. If men hearken not yet, it is because the time appointed by God, wherein they that are dead shall heare the voyce of the Sonne of God and liue, is not yet come. As this wind bloweth where it listeth, so when it listeth.

The seruant of the Lord must not 2 Tim. 2.24.25. &c. striue: he must not be on fire if all be not instant­ly of his mind, though he bee sure that he is in the right, and they in the wrong: But hee must be gentle vnto all, apt to teach, patient. Gentle in dea­ling with them; [...] apt, in re­gard of stooping to their ca­pacities, doubling and redou­bling his instructions on them, and patient in forbea­ring rage, and resolution to leaue worke, if they bee not presently such as hee would haue them.

And thus in all meekenesse must he instruct those that for the present oppose themselues, if God peraduenture at any time will giue them repentance from their double error of iudgement, and of life; as wor­thy [Page 255] In 2. Tim. hom. 6. [...]. Chrysostome expoundeth the place.

Although we cannot fasten any thing on common sin­ners, so oft as we desire, yet our labours do more often take hold of their hearts, then they will be knowne of. And when wee haue taken some paines, we may loose all, for want of a littleIdem ibid. [...], &c more, which we refuse to adde, because we see no fruite appearing yet.

This is as if an vnskilfull husbandman should bestow great cost and paines to plant and dresse a vineyard, and if it yeeld no fruite the first, se­cond or third yeare, then to plucke vp the hedge and lay it wast, the fourth. And thus he looseth all his labour and cost before bestowed for want of patience, and some further [Page 256] paines vntill his vines bee growne.

Fishers when they haue spent the day and taken no­thing, will yet with patience tarrie it out a little longer, till they haue gotten something: they can say; now I haue been abroad all this while, I will not home till I haue taken somewhat.

Much more should we that are fishers of men do thus. What though we haue fished all night and caught nothing; yet if Christ requireth vs to make another draught, let vs not refuse the labour at his command, and we shall find it was not labour lost, though we were out of hope.

Reason. 2 Secondly, because such re­fractary persons are in the Di­uels net, the seruant of the [Page 257] Lord must hold out with pa­tient diligence, that they may recouer themselues out of the snare.

It is an hard thing to per­swade them that they are in the snare, & that it is so good to be loosed from it. It is with sinners as with some bank­rupts in Ludgate, or the Kings Bench, who choose rather to lie in durance all their dayes, then take a course to redeeme their libertie. And if they can be induced to thinke of free­dome, yet then shall they find it a long and tedious worke to wind themselues out, or breake through Satans toyles.

Reason. 3 Thirdly, because it was long ere we our selues could be brought out of our sinfull courses. So well we liked So­dome, that till the Lord him­selfe [Page 258] thrust vs out by head and shoulders, we would not depart.

Doth this make vs vnwil­ling to take further paines, because we see others vnwil­ling and wilfull? what then had become of vs, if God had not stirred vp some to haue followed vs, when wee our selues were like aIob 11.12. wilde Asse Colt.

How long did wee conti­nue foolish, disobedient, decei­ued, and seruing diuers lusts and Tit. 3.3. pleasures. How many admonitions, reproofes, ex­cellent instructions, and fer­uent prayers did we neglect, contemne, deride, and cast at our heeles, till the Lord by the power of his might sub­dued vs and our strong cor­ruptions! yet after all this re­bellion, [Page 259] how maruellous and miraculous haue we seene his grace effecting our conuer­sion!

Why then may wee not hope the like of others, if we continue vnwearied in our dutie towards their poore soules, so strongly chained to the Diuels blocke?

Reason. 4 Fourthly, if we neuer do good on them, yet our la­bours shall bee crowned as much, as if those gracelesse men had been conuerted by vs. We are a sweete sauour vnto God, euen in them that 2. Cor. 2.15 perish. He liketh well the odour of that seruice, which wee thought had been cast quite away. They to whom wee preached, repented not; there­fore they perish. Wee that preached to them, did our du­tie; [Page 260] therefore God accepteth and rewards our paines.

Euery faithfull Minister in his proportion, may say with Christ, in regard of the grea­ter part of such as heare him:Isay 49.4.5 I haue laboured in vaine, I haue spent my strength for nought and in vaine: yet sure­ly my iudgement is with the Lord, and my worke with my God: And though Israel be not gathered, yet shall I be glorious in the eyes of the Lord, and my God shall be my strength.

I will wind vp this point with that of Bernard toDe consid. lib. 4 c. 2. Noli dissidere; cu­ram exigeris, non curatio­nom. Eu­genius. Despaire not; God re­quires thy care, not the cure; this is his worke; that, thine. The good Samaritan desires no more but carefull looking to the wounded man, which he will recompence, and [Page 261] heale the wounds himselfe. It was a Poets speech.

Tis not in the Physitians skill,
To cure a Patient, when he
Non est in medico sem­per releuetur vt ager.
will.

Saint Paul was not so arro­gant to say, hee had profited more then all: yet he had been so diligent as without arro­gancie he might well say, hee had laboured more abundantly then they all. And in his labour he reioyced, and comforted himselfe, knowing well that euery oneVnusquis (que) secundum suum labo rem accipiet, non secundū prouentum. Bern. ibid. 2. Of the Ci­uill conside­ration of per­sons. shall receiue, ac­cording to his paines, not the successe.

Thus of the Office of Dis­cretion towards men conside­ring them Morally as Good or Bad. In the next place it teacheth Zeale to looke vpon them in a Ciuil respect as they [Page 262] are marshalled into their seue­rall rankes among men.

In this consideration of men, Discretion teacheth vs to deuide all into two maine sorts and companies; the one consisting of Publique Persons; and the other of Pri­uate; and accordingly it di­recteth and gouerneth Zeale in dealing with them, duely obseruing euery mans Place.

Publique Persons are such as are of eminent Place and Respect, in the Common-Wealth, or in the Church.

In the Common-Wealth, Publique Persons may againe bee distinguished into Su­preame, and Subordinate Ma­gistrates.

How Princes may be dealt with.The Supreame and Soue­raigne Prince who hath none betweene him and God, re­presenting [Page 263] the Person of God, executing his office, and in this respect bearing hisExod. 22.28. Psal 82.6. Ioh 10.34.35 Name, to whom onely he is accountable for all his acti­ons,Psal. 51.4. by way of Summons and command; this Person, I say, must in all things and at all times be handled with all humilitie and due respect of that high place he holdeth, so as all may be taught, not to despise, but to honour him the more by the carriage of those that are, in case of ne­cessitie, to treate with him in the name and businesse of his God.

If such a person, should by occasion, transgres the Lawes of his Maker, to which he is as subiect as his Subiects, for so much thereof as concerneth him in common with all o­thers [Page 264] as Christians; Discre­tion will allow zeale humbly to admonish him, so it con­taine it selfe within these bounds, which must be to all, as the rayles about Mount Sinai.

Rule. 1 1. Hee who vndertaketh this office must bee sure of a lawfull calling, to deale with persons of that Qualitie, in the generall, that so his au­thoritie from God may both warrant, and countenance the action, with hope of good successe.

Such a calling, a priuate man hath not. The Lord euer employed Prophets in this seruice; as Samuel to treate with Saul; Nathan with Dauid; E­liah with Ahab; Isaiah with Ahaz: and so generally throughout the Scripture.

Since the Prophets, the Ministers of the Gospell whō God employeth to beare his Name, and performe his ser­uice before Kings, are the onely men in Commission, ex officio, to performe this dutie vnto their Soueraigne. In their hands are those spiri­tuall weapons which are migh­tie through God to pull downe the strong holds of sinne, euen in the greatest, and euery high thing that exalteth it selfe against the knowledge of 2. Cor. 10.4.5. God; whichCaluin. in Iob 34.18. Id­ (que) non solu Prophetis di­ctum fuit, sed D Paulus ostendit nos idem obserua­re d [...]bere in praedicando Euangelio, vt nimirum om­nem sublimi tatem, quae, inquit, ad­uers [...] Domi­num nestrum Jesum Chri­stum, vol [...]t ins [...]rgere, de­pr [...]namu [...]. Qui igitur, qui [...] authorit [...]t su [...]t praediti, volunt sibi parci, nec su [...] vitia attingi, sibi no­uum Euan­gelium quae­rant. Thus he al­so interprets that place of Paul, in his 120. Ser [...]on vpon Iob. Caluine applyeth to this present purpose.

The Minister hath the of­fice of an Ambassador of 2. Cor 5.20. God: and such wee know are mee­test to treate with Princes in affaires of high importance from other Potentates equal, or superior to themselues.

If a King should be chal­lenged for breach of faith vn­to his Confederates, he would disdaine to brooke it from a­ny man aliue, but their Am­bassadours: them he would with patience heare, because he knowes their Commission from the [...]r Masters, require it of them. I need not to apply.

Howbeit I doubt not but persons neare in place, and fauour to great Princes, may aduenture, at times seasona­ble, to speake vnto them by way of humble aduice and prayers, as Ionathan to1. Sam. 19.4.5. Saul; and the graue Counsellors of Salomon, to yong King1. Kin. 12.7.8. Re­hoboam.

Yea further, they may if need be, testifie their dislike of any euill the Prince should liue in, or driue at, (so farre [Page 267] forth as it sauoureth not in them of sedition, malepert­nesse, or forgetfulnesse of their owne obedience and his Supremacie) when he admi­nisters a faire occasion and opportunitie.

Thus Ioab, being required by Dauid to number the peo­ple, and no doubt, discerning the pride of his heart in this proiect; durst not denie the seruice, because commanded; yet so f [...]rre as was meete, he shewed his dislike in an hum­ble prayer, and submissiue ex­postulation: The Lord make his people an hundred times so many moe as they be: but my Lord the King, are they not all my Lords seruants? Why then doth my Lord require this thing? Why will he be a cause of trespasse vnto 1. Chro 21.3. Israel?

When Mordecay discerned the intended ruine of the Iewes, by a tricke of Haman abusing the king to ratifie the plot; he ran not rudely to the King, nor yet transgressed any priuate orders or customes of his Court, so much as by en­tring within the gates in sack­cloth, Ester 4.2. although in a case of such importance.

But this he did: He came euen before the Kings gate with his sackcloth and ashes, approa­ching so neare that he might well bee taken notice of, as perplexed, and yet obedient; and as the businesse might at length be brought vnto the King himselfe by Her that was in all likelihood meetest to breake with him about it, for the preuention of that Mas­sacre.

Yea Hester her selfe, al­though the King loued her a­boue all women, and she obtai­ned grace and fauour in his sight, more then all the Virgins, so that he set the Royall Crowne vpon her head, and made her Queene in stead of Ester 2.17. Vasti. Yet in all her treaties with the King her husband, she vsed the greatest humilitie shee couldEster 5.4. & ver. 8. cap 7.3 4. expresse: Insomuch that after she had receiued ample testimonie of his ex­traordinarie grace and fauor, yet she growes not insolent or saucie; but being to con­tinue her suite for her peo­ple, Shee fell downe at his feete, and besought him with teares, to put away the mischiefe of Haman the Ester 8.3. Agagite.

Thus, true loyaltie, reli­gion, and wisdome will deale [Page 270] with Maiestie, not by way of challenge or seditious daring; but with thrice humble Peti­tion and submissiue carriage; knowing well, that greatnesse yeel [...]s to none that yeeld not first to it.

Rule. 2 2. In the next place, this seruice requires a speciall cal­ling and Commission to treate with this or that Prince in speciall. Euery one that is a Minister may not flie vpon his Soueraignes face, or back, when his supposed zeale would egge him to it.

Eliah stayed till God had set the time, and bad him go to1. King. 21 17.18. Ahab. And it is like that some speciall word of the Lord euer directed all the Prophets thus employed. By this, A­mos excused himselfe to Ama­ziah for preaching so sharply [Page 271] Ieroboams Court: The Lord said vnto me, Go Prophesie vn­to my people Amos 7.15 Israel.

And in these latter times, wherein those extraordinarie & immediate warrants from heauen come no more a­broad: Then a man may ac­count himselfe to be specially called to this seruice, when such as are in authoritie a­bout Princes do orderly ap­point him to waite at Court, for the seruice of God and his Gospell. If Ahab giue order that Michaiah should be sent for, it is as much to Michaiah as if God himselfe had bid him go.

To these, if to any, it speci­ally pertaines to apply them­selues with all faithfulnesse, according as their place and opportunitie will admit, to [Page 272] procure the reformation (if need be) and saluation of their Lord and Master. And woe vnto them if they then neg­lect it.

If God send Ieremiah to the Kings of Iudah, and to the Princes thereof, he must not faile to do his errand, but boldly speake all that the Lord commandeth, vpon paine of confusion before Ier. 1.17.18 them.

Rule. 3 3. Great wisedome and moderation is required in the manner of doing such a ser­uice. It must not be with checks, nor any harsh and contumelious language.

God made a Law to all, Not to reuile the gods, nor curse the Ruler of the people Exod 22.28.. Which Law, not onely prohibiteth imprecations, and seditious railings, (which is a hellish [Page 273] impietie,Ʋide Tosta [...]. in Exod. 22. quest. 17. in calce. though it be but in word onely, be the Prince ne­uer so impious) but euen all rude, bitter, and vnseemely speeches, although in secret to himselfe alone, much more in publicke, or in other pla­ces behind his backe.

It is not lawfull thus to vse a Prince, so much as in our thoughts; and rather then transgressors of this Law should go vnpunished, The birds of the ayre shall carrie the voyce, and that which hath wings shall tell out the Eccles. 10.20. matter.

Is it meete for a child to snap vp his naturall Parents, although they should deserue a sharpe reproofe? Doth not the Apostle forbid seruants so much as saucily to answer their master againe, al­though prouoked? Saith he [Page 274] it onely to such as haue good and gentle masters? Doubt­lesse he saith it to such also as are vnder froward 1. Pet. 2.18. and wic­ked tyrants. And is it fit, then to say to a King, thou art wic­ked; and to Princes, ye are Iob 34.18. vn­godly?

Princes may not, before o­thers, be discouered to be so wicked, as perhaps they bee. Care must bee had of their honour and fame, saith wise and iudiciousCaluin. in Iob 34.18. Conc. 131. Principes ve­ro & Guber­natores quum improbi sunt, & pessimè suo officio fun­guntur, ni­hilominus ta­men propter dignit [...]tem qua praediti sunt, ipsorum nomini, & famae parci­tur, &c. Caluine, what euer their conuersation bee, their place requires it, though their actions should not de­serue it.

God hath engrauen so large and faire a Character of his imperiall ImageAug. in lib. Quest. v [...]t & noui Test. Dei imaginem habet rex si­cut Epis [...]opus Christi, &c. in their foreheads, as must be sacred in the hearts of all, and bind not their hands onely, but [Page 275] tongues also to the good be­hauiour, and that for euer. Nor is this carriage onely due to good Princes, but vni­uersally to all.

What then? must Mini­sters be meale-mouth'd? No neither. This is as euill as the other. If Princes grow sicke of sinne, they must abide a vomit, what euer become of him that giues it. There is no reason Physitians of their bo­dies should take more liber­tie then the Physitians of their soules, when cases bee alike.

Yet this must so be done, that they may see the faith­full religious obseruance of an humble seruant, and a loy­all subiect that studies their honour, next to their salua­tion. And though his message [Page 276] be from his Princes Master, yet still he must remember that himselfe who brings it, is seruant vntoAlbert. magnus in 4. Sent. Si status altus est per­son [...], cum re­uerentia & excusatione delicti debet potius admo­nere quam corripere, & rogare quam increpare. both.

Fauning flatterie is an oc­cupation fitter for a dog then a man: and Princes haue no Traitors like to flatterers, if treacherie against the soule be more perillous, then that against the body. No sinne in the Prophet hath greater woes attending it thenIob 32.21.22. Ier. 23.14.15 Eze. 13. & a­libi. this.

But yet there is a difference betweene base flatterie and Christian pollicie which closely winds vp, and secretly conueyes an admonition, so as (if possible) no creature may be able to discerne it, but he to whom it was intended. If hee apprehend it, it is e­nough; if moe, too much.

When Saul had sinned a sin as bad, in Gods account, as witchcraft, or idolatry, so that God sent him this heauy mes­sage by the Prophet Samuel; because thou hast reiected the word of the Lord, hee also hath reiected thee from being 1 Sam. 15.23. King: yet euen then Samuel iudg'd it but a reasonable request of Saul, to honour him before the Elders of his people, and before Ibid. ver. 30. Israel; least they obseruing Samuels sleighting of him, should happen to despise him while hee held the Throne.

Inuectiues (though but a­gainst an Equall, or Inferior) are euer odious; but against a Prince, intollerable.

The man of God who pro­phecied greeuous things a­gainst Ieroboams Alter at Be­thel, no doubt intended a re­proofe [Page 278] to Ieroboam himselfe: yet onely cryed out against the Alter in Ieroboams pre­sence, without directing one word at all to him that set it vp.1 King. 13.2. An indefinite reproofe of sinne, in publique is enough: if this serue not to reforme a Prince, forbeare: more, will make him worse.

And though Nathan grap­pled more closly with2 Sam. 12.7. Da­uid; and Eliah, with1 King 18.18. Ahab: yet all Circumstances of the Texts euince, that this was done in priuate, so as in all probability, none did take notice of it, but themselues. And in secret, some men may do so still.

And although further, some Prophets haue pub­liquely reproued Kings by name, yet we must obserue a [Page 279] difference betweene speciall extraordinary messages vpon extraordinary occasions, and the ordinary publique Ser­mons of the Prophets.

The former were most what Personall, as Ambassa­ges directed only to a Prince himselfe, though others, (wai­ting) stand by, and heare it: and the Scripture records the speciall Commission of euery Prophet, to goe, and carry them to such or such a Per­son.

But the latter, though they containe sharpe, and heauy tidings for particular sinnes of Priests, Prophets, Rulers, or Princes, yet they are for the most part (if not all) indefini­tely v [...]tered; at most, but a­gainst men of such or such Callings, without instance or [Page 280] denotation of indiuidual Per­sons, so as it might be applica­ble to many, as well as vnto any.

If then we would f [...]om the Prophets take out a copy for our ordinary vse, it must not bee out of one of their extra­ordinary Ambassages, but out of their vsuall Sermons to, or before the People.

If this become not a Mini­ster, no not him that hath a speciall Calling to deale with Princes; how ill wil it become those that haue no Calling at all!

What shall they answer vn­to God, who, being but pri­uate Persons discontented, shall take vpon them Shemei-like to reuile & traduce their Soueraigne, behinde his backe; and presume to make [Page 281] euery Tauerne, and Ale-bench, a Tribunall whereat to accuse, araigne, and con­demne the Sacred and dread­full Person of the Lords An­nointed (whom they ought not to mention without a ho­ly reuerence;) and to censure all his Actions before their Companions as confidently, as if he were the Vassal, and they the Monarch! Hath not former experience told vs, this is the high-way to all Treasons and Rebellions?

It is not lawfull for such as may in secret admonish Prin­ces, to speake thereof to any Creature, after they haue done it. If God made a Sta­tute against Tale-bearing, (yet in force) that none should goe vp and downe as a tale-bearer among his people: Leuit. 19.16 to preuent [Page 282] carrying of tales euen of Or­dinary Persons; because such offendors commit that vn­pardonable sinne against hu­mane society; to wit, the re­uealing Pro. 11.13. of secrets: How m [...]ch more did hee or [...]aine that this Law should for euer bind all, imployed about Princes, aboue all to keepe secret euen the faylings of a Prince, the discouery, and blabbing whereof will but make worse both Prince, and Subiect.

If Good people should dis­cerne some errors, and those not small, in Princes, the best patterne they can propound to themselues, is that of Sa­muel mourning and praying for1 Sam. 15.35. Saul; not for forme only, but heartily and feruently in­deed: and the worst they can [Page 283] pitch vpon (vnlesse they pro­ceede to open Treason) is that of common Newse-mongers and seditious spirits, who can­not make a meale, spen [...] a fire, drinke a pinte, or driue a­way one houre, without some pragmaticall discourse and censure of Princes and their State affaires.

Let such Prying busy peo­ple go learne what that mea­neth;1 Thess. 4.11. study to be quiet and meddle with your owne busi­nesse: and againe,2 Thess. 3.11. we heare that there be some which walke disorderly, working not at all, but are busy bodies; and a­gaine,1 Pet. 4.15. let no man suffer as a busy body in another mans mat­ters. Learne these; and Pro­clamations need not: these from heauen, would serue the turne.

As for such as will not take out this Lesson, let their eyes, their tongues, their teares, their coates, their sighes, their Prayers bee what they will bee; Their carriage sauo­reth not of Zeale for God, which thus casteth dirt & mire in his Vice-Gerents face, and tendeth to the taking away of the life of his life in his sub­iects hearts, in which al good princes desire as much to liue, as to enioy their Crownes.

And if it be not lawfull thus to smite at their Persons with the tongue onely; shall that bee thought Zeale for God, which seekes their Depositi­on from that Crowne which once a iust, free, and absolute title of inheritance hath set vpon their Heads?Aegid. Carler. in Orat. de Pu­nit Peccat. public. Caesar erat iniustus iniustitia fidei, tamen Dominus Dominium suum confir­mauit, [...]um ait, reddite quae sunt Caesaris Caesari

A thing which holy Da­uid would neuer suffer against [Page 285] wicked Saul himselfe. Dauid knew the wickednesse of Saul against the Lord; h [...]s malice against himselfe; and long felt his bloud-thirsty persecution. He knew withall, that the Lord had reiected Saul from being King; and that God had anointed him in his roome.

And yet for all this, when Saul cruelly hunted him as a Partridge vpon the mountains, and that, though he were an­nointed by the same hand that Saul was, he was sure to die, if he fell into Sauls Power; and euen then, when Saul was in his power, so that he could as easily haue slain Saul, as Saul was willing to slay him; yet euen then but for cutting off a skirt of Sauls garment, al­though it were onely to this end that Saul might after­wards [Page 286] see Dauids fidelity and loya [...]ty, in that hee tooke no more but a skirt, when hee might as well haue taken life, and all away; his heart smote him. And he said vnto his men the Lord forbid that I should doe this thing vnto my Master the Lords annointed, to stretch forth mine hand a­gainst h [...]m, SEEING HE IS THE ANNOIN­TED OF THE 1 Sam. 24.5, 6. LORD.

To this must be added, that so long as God suffered Saul on earth, Dauid neuer [...]t­tempted to pull the Crowne off his head, nor suffered o­thers to doe it forIbid. ver. 7. him.

Yea when Saul in a pitcht Battell against the Philistines receiued such a deadly wound as he was neither able to liue, or escape with honour vnta­ken [Page 287] by the Enemy, so that he required an Amalakite that was next him, (as hee repor­ted) to fall vpon him and slay h [...]m, euen out of point of ho­nour:2 Sam. 1.9. Dauid was so farre from approuing this fact, that he and all that were with him rent their cloathes, and mour­ned, and fasted and wept vntill Euen.

And then, (supposing that Nature it se fe had taught this lesson vnto all, that the very name, or sight, or thought of the LORDS ANNOINTED, had been such an eternall Prohibition to the whole world, as would make the most bloudy but­cher tremble, and abhor from touching him;) hee thus ex­postulates with his pretended executioner; How wast thou [Page 288] not afraid to stretch forth thine hand to destroy the LORDS ANNOINTED?

In fine, Dauid thought him worthy of no reward but death; and of this, so worthy, that instantly hee gaue order for his execution; with this sharpe sentence vttered, Thy bloud be vpon thine owne head; for thine own mouth hath testi­fied against thee, saying, I HAVE SLAINE THE LORDS ANNOIN­TED. Ibid. Ver [...]e 16. A memorable ex­ample and an Argument vn­answerable against all King-killers, and Deposers of Ab­solute Princes absolutely an­nointed, by iust Title, as here with vs.

How Subor­dinate Ma­gistrates should bee handled.From Supreame Magistrates descend wee to Subordinate, who are, so, men of Authori­ty, [Page 289] as yet with the Centurion, they are vnder Authoritie too.

Discretion teacheth all due respect to these also, in their places: and although so much be not due to them, as to him they serue, (which gaue the Prophets occasion to vse the greater liberty in speaking to, or ofIsay 1.10. Hos 4.18. Et alibi pas­sim. them;) yet they must be honoured as much, in their proportion, for their Soueraignes sake: Nor may any man take liberty to take them downe in the way of contempt and scorne.

Care therefore must bee vsed to distinguish their Office from their Person; and their sinnes, from both; as al­so their Personall faults as men, from their corruptions and errors in matter of Iu­stice [Page 290] as they are Magistrates.

Authority is euer one of Enuies eye-soares; Subiection, a yoke that humane nature loaths, although inferiors cannot helpe it, nor durst complaine. Liberty, liberty is euery mans desire; though, most mens ruine.

Hereupon it is that people are tickled to see Magistrates squib'd, controuled and lasht, whether men know them to deserue it, or not. Either they are guilty, or men would haue them so, when the whip lyes by; And if they be not whipt, some people bee not pleased.

But, what good comes of it? Superiors are despised; Authority it selfe, brought in­to as base esteeme as tyran­ny; Inferiors cast off the yoke of due subiection from their [Page 291] hearts, euen when they weare it (but, as a clogg) about their necks; & open their mouthes to scoffe, reuile, and curse the Rulers of the people, whom they ought onely to reue­rence, blesse, and pray for, from their hearts.

For this cause, These must bee gently handled; and yet more plainely, then a Soue­raigne Prince; they being oft times more imperious, sowre, vnmercifull, partiall in their affections, preiudicate in their opinions, more oppres­sing, more corrupt in particu­lar cases, then Princes be, and many times for their owne ends, perswading, entising and euen enforcing Princes to bee farre worse, then of themselues they would bee.

Yea sometimes also abu­sing the Princes Name to his Subiects, and exacting that on his behalfe which hee nei­ther commanded nor shall bee one penny better for; but in his reputation shall loose much with his Subiects for al that oppression, which vn­knowne and vnliked by him, passeth vnder his name, asTacitus, in his life. Galba did, by meanes of Vi­nius and Laco, and Icelus his man, whereby a way was o­pened to his owne destructi­on.

Now because this often happeneth in the World; and that some, who are in place of Gouernment, behaue themselues cruelly and proud­ly, trusting by this meanes to hold men in awe of them, as though Authority were their [Page 293] Phil. de Comin. lib. 3. cap. 18. inheritance; these may well brooke a more speciall taxe of corrupt Magistrates (inde­finitely) euen vnder that very Title.

For though a man fall vp­on the reproofe of particular sinnes sometimes committed by some men in that Calling, and call it the Magistrates sin, not naming any Person, or applying it to any present; (the number of them being so great, and so many of that number sometimes thought so guilty;) this can bee no more then a dish of Vineger in common, wherein euery one may dipp his sopp indif­ferently. It cannot hurt any particular mans mawe or sto­macke, whose guilt doth not enforce him to take the dish, vnbidden, and drinke off all.

This, for the generall. But if a speech in publique should be directed to some particu­lar Magistrate about things touching his Office, it ought rather to bee done by way of exhortation, then reprehen­sion; of insinuation, then ac­cusation, so as by forcing vp­on them the name and fame of Graue, Religious, Vigilant and able Gouernors, their ve­ry commendation may euen force from them a faithfull execution of Iustice beyond expectation of the Common People.

Good King Iehoshaphat, who vsed to make a Speech vnto his Iudges before they went their Circuites, would not frowne vpon them, nor snapp them vp like Slaues; but in a graue, fatherly, wise, milde [Page 295] and godly manner, speake on­ly by way of gracious exhor­tation, and holy admonition:2 Chron. 19 6.7. Take heed what yee doe; for yee iudge not for man, but for the Lord, who is with you in the iudgement. Wherefore now let the feare of the Lord, be vpon you: take heede and doe it, for there is no iniquity with the Lord our God, nor respect of Per­sons, nor taking of Bribes.

Shall so great a King thinke it wisedome to speake, not with bitternesse, but with en­treaties rather, to his inferi­ors, his Seruants; and shall inferior subiects count it zeale and discretion to shake vp their superiors, their Gouer­nors, and rub their eares with bitter taunts and checkes?

Fie on that Zeale that takes pleasure in such discoueries of [Page 296] the Politicall Fathers naked­nesse, as may prouoke laugh­ter, derision, and contempt in those that stand and heare it. Saint Paul would neuer haue endured such a practice, much lesse haue practiz'd it himself: for his Rule is,1 Tim. 5 1. Rebuke not an Elder, but intreat him as a Father.

And yet when Magistrates stand in the Crowd of Com­mon Christians, vnder this name of Christians they may be indefinitely handled toge­ther with the meanest, as their life and conuersation (considered as men) deser­ueth.

Ministers are not to spare reproofe of ordinary & com­mon sinnes, whereof Magi­strates as well as others may be knowne, or suspected to [Page 297] be eminently guilty, because they are present so they be not denoted by their speciall Cal­ling or by personall descripti­on.

The Minister hath equall Care and charge of All, with­in his owne Diuision; as the Magistrate, of those, in his. And if he must answer for all that perish by his default of silence, shall he be though to fault because hee giueth war­ning; and after admonition which hath done no good, doth adde reproofes?

The Prophets, we know, in their ordinary Sermons, did no more spare Magistrates then other men; and though they plaid with no mans name or Person, yet they sharply taxed Magistrates by the name ofHos. 4.18. Rulers, say 1.0. Princes, [Page 298] Ier. 5.5. Great men, &c. nor was this, then thought a fault by any but the faulty.

When the Man of God was to prophecy against the1 King. 13. Before al­ledged. Alter at Bethel, hee spared not, for Ieroboams presence. And yet there was no man so silly in that assembly, but knew well enough that Iero­boam who set the Alter vp, was more deeply touched then any of the companie, although hee were not na­med.

That Congregation might safely sweare that they belee­ued the man of God aymed at Ieroboam: but how? not be­cause his words in, and of themselues, either did, or could paint out Ieroboams Person; but because Ieroboams hand was so deepe in the [Page 299] Action then condemned, that all, or most of the hearers could not but apply the accu­sation to Ieroboams sinne, and consequently vnto his person also, as he was a sinner.

So then, Ieroboam was ob­serued to bee reprooued, and yet the Prophet in no fault, but only Ieroboam: his guilt drew him within the reach of this reprehension, which o­therwise had neuer toucht him.

Thus, that Prophet did, and did no more then duty, as ap­peared by the countenance which God himselfe gaue to that action, when Ieroboam stormed. Angry hee was, but who could helpe it? and smitten he was: his fury did deserue it.

And, me thinkes, the iudge­ment [Page 300] following him vpon his rage at the hearing of his sin reprooued, should bee war­ning enough to all Persons, for euer to beware of being angry with Gods Messengers, vpon so weake a ground. For although the same doome do not instantly seaze on them, which did on him; yet it is a debt, as sure as if 'twere paid. God truly paies his debts, though men goe hence vn­paid.

Wherefore, if any such there be (andCaluin. in Iob. concio. 131. It qui nihil sunt, vt ita dicam, si exigua ali­qua dignitate sunt praedus, vide [...]tu [...] sibi Idola esse, & seipsos ado­rant, &c. Caluin saith, there be,) who being moun­ted a Region or two, aboue the Vulgar, (and yet, God wot, as farre below the High­est, as Luna vnder Saturne;) begin, for want of helpe, to Idolize themselues, and fur­ther think that now the Gn [...]t, [Page 301] being gotten vp to sit vpon the wheele, maketh such a noise, and raiseth such a dust, as shall be able to fright or choake him vp that dares ad­uenture neare it with an ad­monition; or else, to driue the wheele it selfe vpon his face: Let such, saith Caluine, know, that for as much as this snuf­fing insultation is an insurre­ction against God himselfe, and denies due honour to our greatest King; that libertie which the Lord hath giuen his seruants to be sharpe a­gainst them, must and shall be put in execution.

Thus of Publicke personsPublicke persons in the Church. in the Common wealth. There is yet another sort Publicke, and they are Ecclesiasticall; as Bishops, Pastors, and other Ministers. In dealing with [Page 302] these, zeale must be directed by Discretion, to obserue three rules.

1. Rule tou­ching ministers.1. A man must be able to iudge what especially deserueth reproofe in a Minister. A Bi­shop must be 1. Tim. 3.2. blamelesse, saith Saint Paul: that is, he must giue no iust occasion of re­prehension; saithNullam da­re occasionem iusta repre­hensionis. Illud enim irreprehensibilē, non idem di­cit quod ca­lumnia non obnoxium, aut in quem non potest in­tendi calum­nia: nam ipse etiam Apo­stolus omnis, &c. Theodor. in 1. Tim. 3. Theodoret. The Apostle doth not re­quire a Bishop to be without reproach: for no man can so behaue himselfe, as not to be obnoxious to the sharpe and venomous teeth of that Ser­pent, Calumnie. This Apostle himselfe could not escape any kinde of reproach. But such must bee despised, not fled from.

And when he nameth Bi­shops, he meaneth all the Cler­gie should bee so too, al­though [Page 233] they be not Bishops. Yet with all it is cleare, that this chieflyTheod. ibid. Clarum est quod has le­ges oportet primos seruare Episcopos, vt qui sunt maiorem dignitatem asse­qu [...]ti. concerneth Bi­shops, because their dignitie, as it maketh them more emi­nent, so it causeth expecta­tion of exemplary circum­spection, and piousEphes 5.15 [...]. conuer­sation.

If he, or any Minister shall make a notorious fault, they must not thinke to slip away without an admonition. But many times it happeneth that the best men are hardly taxed, and sharply censured for things which are no faults, but vertues in them.

It is fault enough in some that they are no good fellowes: In others, that they sharply re­prooue their hearers sinnes; that they denounce iudgements to the rebellious; that they [Page 304] tell the staring gallants and impenitent sinners of hell & damnation, they taking it for certaine, that the word Dam­nation, or Hell, cannot be­come a pulpit; though Christ himselfe did vseMath. 23.14.15. & ver. 33. them.

If Amos prophesie against the sins of Ieroboam, Amaziah will crieAmos 7.10. Treason: if he pro­phesie of grieuous plagues approaching for outragious transgressions; then he hath spoken such words as the land is not able to beare them.

If Paul preach Iesus truly, and anger the Iewes; they will haue a Tertullus for their mo­ney that shall paint him out in Folio, for sedition against the State, heresie against the Truth, and prophanation of the veryAct 24 5.6. Temple.

If Stephen Act. 7. tell the stiffe-necked [Page 305] and vncircumcised in heart and eares, of their conti­nuall resisting of the holy Ghost. This will so cut them to the ve­ry heart, that they will gnash vpon him with their teeth, and with a loud voyce stopping their eares, run vpon him and stone him with one accord.

If our Lord himselfe tell the Pharisies, they are not of God, because they heare not his word; and that they are the children of the Diuell, because his lusts they do: they will not feare to retort the Diuell vp­ponIoh. 8.48. himselfe, and thinke it meete to prouide him a place in Bedlam.

Yea, let him but speake any thing, be it neuer so true and necessarie, if they distaste it, he hath made fault enough to haue his necke broken [Page 306] from aLuke 4.29. mountaine, or his braines beaten out withIoh. 8.59. stones.

What Prophet had a tombe erected in his honour, by the sonne, whose father or an­cestors did not persecute him with deadly malice, as a per­nitious intollerable malefa­ctor in his life? And why? for hauing no more discretion then to tread vpon the Waspes nest, although built so right in his way that hee could not auoyd it.

Nay, sometimes, though a Minister do not preach Vine­gar and Gaule, but oyle and butter; at least tollerable mat­ter, yet his more then ordina­rie diligence and painfulnesse in his place, shall bee ill thought of by some, who are loath to weare out their [Page 307] ploughes in tilling their own ground.

Christ indeed called his house, the house of prayer; yes. But let me tell you, that he preached, when he said so. And when he sent out his Apo­stles and Disciples, hee bad them go Preach. The same charge was giuen by the A­postles to Ministers whom they ordained and set ouer particularMat. 10 6.28.19.20. Mar. 16.15. Luke 10. Ioh. 21.15.16 17. 1 Cor. 9.14 & ver 16. Gal. 6.6. 1. Thes. 5.12. 2. Tim 4.12. Tit 1.9. 1. Pet. 5.2. Churches.

For my part, I am so farre from taking away prayer, for preaching; that I could wish not onely more Preaching in some places, but more prayer also in other places; and I meane onely that prayer which is allowed too: In per­formance whereof (if the fault be not in them who vn­dertake it) much more good [Page 308] might be done then will bee acknowledged by some, who magnifie preaching rather thē adorne it; yea, I will adde, more then by some mens preaching admired by too many.

But yet I desire leaue to maintaine the honour of the one as well as of the other, and to obserue that though our Lord came often to the Temple, yet he neuer came but when he preached there. So, also the Apostles.

This stands vpon Record, and I can proue it. Now let any man shew me any eui­dence, to proue that either Christ or his Apostles, after their entrance into their offi­ces, did euer go and onely pray in the Temple. To me then it is cleare, that diligent [Page 309] preaching is one principall dutie inseparably annexed to our calling, and therefore was worthily called for and en­ioyned by expresse iniun­ction of Supreame authority, for the great good of our Church, and to the high ho­nor of our late graciousThe late Kings Maie­stie thought not cateche­ticall prea­ching (which for one part of the day is simply the best) too much to be vsed euerie Sonday and Holy day, beside the morning Ser­mon, but en­ioyned it, to his perpetuall honour. So­ueraigne.

Is it then credible that any, especially of our owne cal­ling should condemne the di­ligence of others thereby to palliate or excuse their owne negligence?

Is not this because some (who are otherwise censori­ous Critticks) will not distin­guish betweene men and men. If they can picke out some bold-faced mercinarie Empericke, that by the helpe of a Polyanthea, or some En­glish [Page 310] Treatise, can make a shift fiue or sixe times a week, with his tongue and his teeth to throw ouer the Pulpit a packe of stolne wares, which sometimes the Iudicious hea­rer knowes by the marke, and sends it home to the right owner againe:

If an Angell appeare at a Christning, Funerall, or wed­ding, for a Sermon preached at an houres warning, if need be, euery day:

Or if the man haue been a drinking, feasting, or a riding, that so, no time is left him to search so farre as a naked Commentary, Postil, or some Catechisme, yet aduentures on the sacred businesse of preaching, carrying to the pulpit a bold face in stead of sauoury prouision, and thinks [Page 311] it sufficient that the people heare thunder, though they see no raine, and that loud­nesse will serue for once, in stead of matter; because if he be earnest, silly women and some ninnies more will count him a very zealous Preacher; and impute his want of mat­ter to his wisedome and de­sire of edifying, not to his want of studie or abilitie; and say, He preaches to the con­science, He stands not vpon deepe learning, He repro­ueth sinne boldly;’ that is to say, other mens, (therefore they loue him;) not theirs, for then they would abhorre him.

If I say, such as desire to abate the number of Sermons, can produce some such Wild­fowle, this shall bee enough [Page 312] for them, to crie downe the Iudicious and profitable of­ten preaching of godly, lear­ned, experienced Ministers, who can hardly fall vpon that point of moment, which they haue not long before throughly studied, for the sub­stance of it.

Haue wee not young Ar­tists in the Vniuersities that read learned Lectures twice or thrice a weeke? Haue we not Lawyers that are able with praise to plead at the Barre in ordinarie Cases eue­ry day, after some experience added to their learning?

Did not iudicious Caluine, and Beza after him, read Di­uinitie Lecture (which is more painfull then vulgar preaching,) more often then any man in England prea­cheth? [Page 313] Did not Saint Austin and diuers of the Fathers preach euerySee the Deane of Paules Ser­mon at the Crosse, prea­ched on Iudg. 5.20. day?

Did not many godly men in England (though not halfe so well furnished, as many now) in the beginning of Queene Elizabeths reigne, do so here?

Is there no difference be­tweene a child and a man; a Nouice, and an old standard? Because some men haue a mind to play, must all men leaue worke? Because some cannot do so much worke, must another that can do it forbeare?

Gregorie complaines that he was troubled with some such euill beasts, for all the world like Aesops dog, by his description.

There are, saith he, in the [Page 314] Moral. lib. 25. cap. 11. Sunt e [...]go nonnulli in Ecclesia qui non solum no bona faciunt, sed etiam per sequuntur: & quae ipsi face­re negligunt, etiam in alijs detestantur. Horum pec­catum scilicet non ex infir­mitate vel ignorantia, sed ex solo studio perpe­tratu [...]: quia videlicet si vell [...]m im­plere bona, nec tamen possent, ea quae in se negligunt, saltem in alijs amarent. Si enim e [...] ipsi vel solo voto appeterent, facta ab a [...]ijs n [...]n odissent: s [...] quia bona eadem audiendo cognoscunt, viuendo despiciunt, animaduertendo persequuntur, recte dicitur: Qui ex industria recesserunt ab eo. Ʋnde & aptè subiungitur: Et omnes vias eius intell [...]gere nolu­erant Non enim auinfirmit [...]te non intelligunt; sed intelligere noluerunt; quia s [...]pè quae facere despiciunt, [...]escire contemnunt. Church, who not onely do no good, but persecu [...]e it: and those things which they neglect themselues, they de­test it in others: for if they did but onely desire to do good, they could not thus hate it, being done by others.

But after all this, what be the faults indeed for which a Clergy man deserues taxing? Let vs but reade Saint Pauls Character of a good Bishop, and wee shall soone by the Rule of Contraries, find out the faults of a bad, that deser­ueth reproofe. What nearer way to search a darke roome then to open the windowes, and let in the light? What better course to trie such [Page 315] light siluer then to carrie it to the ballance of the San­ctuarie?

In the generall, A Bishop, saith Saint Paul, must be 1. Tim. 3.2. Tit 1.7. blamelesse; yea [...]. vnblamea­ble. Do you aske wherein? The same Apostle sheweth. He must be the husband of one wife, vigilant, sober, of good behauiour, giuen to But then he must haue wherwithall. hospitality, [...]pt to teach, not giuen to wine, no striker, not greedie of filthy lucre; but patient, not a brauler, nor couetous; one that ruleth well his owne house, hauing his children in subie­ction, with all grauitie; For if a man know not how to rule his owne house, how shall he take c [...]re of the Church of God? Not [...] Nouice, A nouice in Christianity, a plant [...]et but yester­day, Theod. lest being lifted vp with pride he fall into the con­demnation of the Diuell.

Moreouer, he must haue a good report of them which are without, lest he fall into re­proach, and into the snare of the Diuell.

Afterwards he addeth, in the Character of a Deacon, (which also agreeth vnto all) that he must not be double tongued, but graue. The same Apostle writing toTit. 1.7. Titus touching the same argument, besides mention of diuers of the former, hee speaketh of more, requiring that He be not accused of riot, or vnruly, not selfe willed, not soone an­grie, a louer of good men, [...]. and good things. Iust, holy, tempe­rate; holding fast the faithfull word, as he hath been taught; that so he may be able by sound doctrine, both to exhort and to conuince the gaine-sayers.

In his preaching, he vseth not entising words of mans 1. Cor. 2.4. wisdome; that is, though he may make vse of humane learning or eloquence; yet he doth not set Hagar in Sa­rahs place. Hagar may be in the house with her mistris, so long as shee insult not a­gainst her mistris. (Quota­tions of Fathers and other au­thors may stand in his Ser­mon, as well as of Poets, in Saint Pauls Act. 17.28. Tit. 1.12. Sermons and E­pistles.) He must preach the word, and be instant in season, and out of season, reproue, re­buke, exhort with all long suffe­ring and 2. Tim. 4.2. doctrine.

His ayme is not to corrupt the word of God, but as of God, in the sight of God, he speaketh in 2. Cor. 2.17. Christ. He renounceth the hidden things of dishonestie, [Page 318] not walking in craftinesse, nor handling the word of God de­ceitfully, but by the mani­festation of the truth commen­deth himselfe to euery mans 2. Cor. 4.2. conscience in the sight of God.

He doth not beguile with any hypocriticall shew of zeale, or desire to please men, further then to edification, not seeking his owne profit, but the profit of many that they may bee 1. Cor. 10.33. saued. As he is allowed of God to be put in trust with the Gos­pell, euen so he speaketh, not as pleasing men, but God which tryeth the 1. Thes. 4.2 heart.

Finally, in all things he must shew himselfe a patterne of good workes: in doctrine, shew­ing vncorruptnesse, grauitie, sinceritie, sound speech, that cannot be condemned, that he [Page 319] that is of the contrary part may be ashamed, hauing no euill thing to say of Tit. 2.8.9. him.

Now take this rule, and lay it to a Clergie man, and if he be not according hereun­to, but crooked and sweruing from it, then he that hath au­thoritie, and a calling to it, may iustly blame him, if he were Saint Peter Gal. 2.11. himselfe, because he walketh not vp­rightly, according to the truth of the Gospell.

2. A man that will accuse a Minister,2. Rule tou­ching ministers. or reproue him vpon another mans accusa­tion, must be certaine that the fault not onely be committed, but also that it is or may bee soundly proued.

God made a Law that eue­ry word of an accusation should be established by two or [Page 320] three Deut. 17. witnesses. This Law is reuiued by the Apostle in the Gospell, and applyed to the case of Ministers. Against an Elder receiue not an accusa­tion but vnder two or three 1. Tim. 5.19 witnesses: by Elder, mea­ning a Minister as SaintAmbros. in hunc locum. Am­brose, Epiphan. Haeres. 75. Epiphanius, and o­thers rightly do expound it.

And great reason such a Law should be in force, saithTheod. in 1. Tim. 5. Vel maxime inquit hoc facere in Pres­bytero [...] accidit enim vt cum Ecclesiae ei sit praefectura credita, non­nullos ex ijs qui peccant, offendat, illi (que) infesto sint animo, & calumniam in eum ma­chinentur; est ergo numerus testium exi­gendus. Theodoret, especially in the case of Ministers: for it often happens that a Pastor offen­deth some persons that are of­fenders, who thereupon grow into an hatred of him, and sticke not to load him with lyes and slanders: therefore a competent number of wit­nesses against him, is very re­quisite.

No faithfull Minister euer was so cleane throughout, that no spot could be found about him, or cast vpon his cloathes by malitious tongs. Which of the Prophets, which of the Apostles, which of the Fathers hath not been loaden with false reports? yea could Christ himselfe escape? and what? were all to blame? what, Christ himselfe too?

The experience of former ages hath therefore caused many Lawes and Constitu­tions against the common ac­cusations of Ministers in pub­licke Courts, as also for disa­bling of their accusers and witnesses; for requiring a great number of witnesses that might bee admitted for sufficient persons; yea for the qualitie and number of their [Page 322] Iudges also, euen vnto too much.

My purpose is not to tum­ble all the Decretals and An­cient Canons; which is the profession of Ciuilians; yet something I will obserue out of the Councels to satisfie my Readers.

Eutichianus an ancientCirca annū. 276. Bi­shop grauely admonished his Sicilian Eutich. Epist. 2. Episco. Syciliae. Si quis Clerico­rum in crimine impeditur, &c. extat tom 1. Concil. par. 1. brethren, that if any Clergie man should be accu­sed, he should not presently be condemned in their hearts as guiltie, because accused, lest innocency should suffer by vniust suspitions. And indeed, as a very bad man (Iulian by name) once spake very well, & like a good Gouernor, If ac­cusations alone, would make any man guiltie, who should be innocent?

The former Bishop religi­ouslyIdem ibid. addeth;Nō enim pas­sim vage (que) sacerdotum accusatio de­bet fieri: nam si facile ad­mitteretur, per pauci ni­mis inueni­rentur: quia omnes qui piè volunt viuere in Christo per­sequutionem patiu [...]or. the accusa­tions of Ministers ought not to be common, and at ran­dome admitted of; for if they should, there would very few be found to shew their heads, because all that will liue god­ly in Christ, must suffer perse­cution.

He further chargeth,Simi [...]iter prohibemus vt nullae causae à Iudi [...]i­bus Ecclesiasticis audi­audi­antur, quae legib [...]s [...]on continent [...]r, vel qua pro­hib tae [...]sse noscunt [...]. that no Iudges admit of trifles, and things vpon the by, which are not expresly against some precept, or which are known to be prohibited.

He also goeth on to shew what witnesses are not to be admitted, as namely all here­tickes, or suspect of heresie, excōmunicate persons, man­slayers, malefactors, theeues, sacrilegians, adulterers, false accusers of other men, all that [Page 324] seeke to any Witches or Coniurers, all infamous per­sons, whose testimonie shall not onely not be admitted a­gainst a Minister, but also not so much as against the mea­nest Christian. Yea licence of accusing or witnessing a­gainst a Minister, shall be vt­terly denyed to all, who in any degree neglect the dignitie of Christian religion, or of their owne good name, or of any thing else required of them by theirExtat etiam in Epist. 1. Clem. ad Jacob. nec non in Epist. 1. Ana­cleti. Concil. tom. 1. par. 1. profession.

In a Councell holden at Car­thage, Concil. Car­thag. 7. Vt vo­catur à Gra­tiano, cele­brat. circa annum 419. (commonly called the seuenth Councell of Carthage,) it was ordained, that besides exclusion of the former sorts of insufficient witnesses, all seruants, all that wander vp and downe as libertines, all that are stained with any [Page 325] brand of infamy, as Players and persons prostituted to vn­cleannesse,Cap. 2. vide locum. all that come vnforced, all that the accuser brings from home with him; and all vnder 14. yeares of age shall be reiected in the case ofCap. 4. Ministers.

The same Councell, Cap. 3. Item placuit, quotiescun (que) clericis ab accusatoribus mu [...]ta crimi­na obijciūtur, & vnum ex his, de quo prius egeris, probare non valuerit, ad caetera iam non admit­tantur. de­creed that when so euer many crimes are obiected against a Minister, and the accuser faile in his proofe of any one of them, he shall not bee admit­ted to obiect the rest.

The same is repeated a­gaine in the Councell of Afri­ca Cap 95.; and so in the booke of Canons of the Africane Church, inCan 130. Tit. [...]. Greeke.

Another DecreeDecret. Anaclet. prohi­biteth the accuser himselfe to be a witnesse, as also all that are, or lately haue beene ene­mies, [Page 326] least being angry they desire the vndoing of him that is accused, or being wronged, they should seeke by this meanes to be reuen­ged: yea the accuser himselfe should not be such; and the affection of the witnesses must bee enquired after, and found without Suspition.

And as the Fathers were carefull of the Quality, so of the number of witnesses they were euen too curious. In so much that in a Synod holden at Rome, Synod. Rom. 2. Sub Syl­uest. inquit Bonius, Con­cel Tom 1. par. 1. pag. 258. vlt edit. about the time of Constantines Raigne, it was ordained, that no Bishop should be condemned vnder 72. witnesses; no Priest, vnder 44. no Deacon vnder 36. no Subdeacon or inferior officer about the Church, vnder 7. witnesses of good account.

Hadrianus 1. made 72. Ca­nonsC [...]ncil. [...]m. 3. for the preuenting of molestations and accusations of the Clergy, mentioning and ratifying all the former Constitutions. The same also were againe confirmed by another Councell of Mentz Concil. Mo­gu [...]t cir [...]a. an 888 ex­tat Tom. 3. Concil. aboue 700. yeeres now past, and gon.

When afterwards the testi­monies of a lesser number, were accepted, yet they re­quired 20. or 16. at least.

In the Third Councell of La­terane Vide Apēd. Concil. Lat. 3. par. 50. ca. 67. it was decreed, that if any accusation brought a­gainst a Clerick, did faile in proofe, the single oath of the accused, should set him free.

Lastly, for the Quality and Number of the Iudges, it was agreed in the 2. Councell of Carthage, Concil Car­thag. 2. cap. 10 extat. Tom. 1. Concil par. 1. pag. 570. that a Bishop [Page 328] should not be condemned by any, vnder the number of 12. Bishops: 6. Priests; 3. Dea­cons, together with his owneThe word is, Episcopu [...], which there­fore must so be vnder­stood, that the Bishop to be tried was any Mi­nister, or e se that he that was to iudge him with the rest was some Bishop aboue him that way ac­cused. Bishop: and this number was onely admitted in case of ne­cessity for quick dispatch: o­therwise his triall was to bee more solemne, as this Decree implyeth.

What should I heape vp more? I alledge not these Canons, as disliking the Lawes in force among our selues, or to bring in the vse of all these againe, though some of them be very conuenient, and some of these wee doe also re­taine.

I onely mention them to let the world see how tender our Fathers were of Mini­sters, knowing wel how much honour is euer due vnto that [Page 329] Sacred Function, and how ill such as haue bin faithful, haue euer bin brooked by corrupt men; which hath occasioned those many fauourable Con­stitutions in behalfe of Mini­sters, for the preuenting of often causelesse molestati­ons.

It were therefore, a most vncharitable and vnchristian course, vpon a bare accusation of an Enimy to condemne a Minister before himselfe bee heard, and a competent num­ber of witnesses of worth pro­duced against him.

So long as any wicked man remaines aliue, a faithfull Mi­nister shall neuer want an enemy. The execution of his office will make offendors hate him;Ier. 15.10. Mat. 10.22. Mat 24.9. and, if they may be suffered, they will soone [Page 330] vndoe him, vnder pretence of Zeale against aAct. 24.5, 6 Malefactor.

3. Rule tou­ching ministers.3. Consideration must bee had of the Quality and Autho­rity of the Persons that vnder­take a Minister; as also of the manner how they doe per­forme a Zealous office to him.

It is not for euery one to reprooue a Minister, (no not in priuate) though he may bee faulty. This is no Lay-mans worke, but a Bishops office. It is for Timothy to rebuke, and punish Elders: 1 Tim. 5.15, 20. Saint Paul appropriates this taske to him.

Nay an Elder himselfe, sin­gle, may not vndertake the office of a Iudge against his fellow Elder of equall ranke; vnlesse he be deputed by Au­thority. Among Equalls [Page 331] there is no Power saith theInter pares non est pote­stas. Law. They may admonish, but not reproue: intreat, as Brethren; but not rebuke, as Iudges.

Much lesse then will this become a Priuate Persons Zeale. I deny not but Priuate Persons may by way of mo­dest admonition, and respe­ctiue exhortation, aduise, ad­monish, and excite a Min [...]ster, in priuate, vnto his d [...]ty, and (due respect obserued) tell him of his saylings; especially if many of them ioyne toge­ther louingly and discreetly, as Paul appointed the Church of Colosse to doe in stirring vpCol 4.17. [...]ult ipsum Paul [...] totius Eccl [...]siae co­hortatione anima [...]i in meliu [...]. Caluin. Archippus.

Which place doth not al­low euery siery spirit, and hu­morous darer to fly vpon the Minister, how, and when, and [Page 332] where they please. They may speake vnto him, not saucily traduce him; or shake him vp as if he were their seruant, or their fellow. Vnreuerently to reproue him, or dispraise him is vnlawfull, asAquin. in Col. 4 Irreue­renter argue­re, & viti [...] ­perare prohi­bitum est; sed monere cha­ritatiue po­test. Aquinas no­teth.

Israel no doubt was bad enough, and somewhat the worse for this, that they presu­med toHos. 4.4. rebuke the Priest. Which the Lord obserues in them, not without a kinde of holy sarcasme at such intolle­rable pride.

He meanes it, I confesse, of such as rebuked good Mini­sters for doing of their duty. But what, is euery Talking Basketmaker, or Butcher, or mincing Shee, a sit iudge of his Doctrine, and meete to reprooue, and confute him [Page 333] for it? Is that Zeale, which catches at peeces of Senten­ces, and then runnes away, and giues out that hee prea­ches false Doctrine, contra­dictions or inuectiues; to shame him to his flock?

Saucy Pride, pluck off thy Vizar, looke in the glasse of true Discretion, and be asha­med. Is this, to try the spirits? is this, to shew thy Zeale? Hath cursed Cham no sport to make, no tales to tell, but that of Noah's nakednesse? was he cursed for speaking but the truth of his drunken Father, to none but to his owne sonnes, who presently did the duty of good children by couering him, going back­ward; And shall they be bles­sed, who maliciously tra­duce and load with lies their [Page 334] spirituall Fathers, and that to those that vpon the newse wil make them naked, though they were not so, and seeke their vtmost disgrace?

Saint Ambrose would haue disdained that such vp­starting Mushromes should dare to censure him in mat­ters of his office: And so would these busy spirits themselues, to see a Minister offer to controule or direct them in their Mechanick Trades.

That Father made this a matter worthy hooting at, euen in his writing to anEpist. 31. ad Valenti nian. Quando audisti Clemētissime Imperator, in causa fidei Laicos de Epis [...]po iu­dicasse? &c. Si docendus est Episcopus a Lai [...]o, quid sequatur? Laicus dis­putet, Episco­pus au [...]iat: Episcopus d [...]s­cata Laico, &c. Ibid. Emperour. Nor is he aba­shed to appeale vnto him, whether euer he heard Laicks to iudge of Bishops in the point of Faith. And if Bishops must once be taught of them; [Page 335] what must follow next? Why, the Lay-man must dis­pute, and the Bishop sit by and heare: The Lay-man should be the Master, an [...] the Bishop, the boy to goe to schoole.

I neither enuy nor disparage abilities in priuate men; I know there bee some whose knowledge and wisedome ioyned with it, deserueth ad­miration: And all good Mi­nisters will loue them, and blesse God for them, and so doe I. Such as these will ne­uer smite a Minister, to breake his head: their very blowes are healing Plaisters toPsal 141.5. him.

But I write this to clip the wings of those Batts & Rere­mice, that are ready to fly in the Ministers face, vpon all [Page 336] occasions with false accu­sations, saucy reproofes, and proud censures of his Ministry, desiring to bee teachers of the Law, vnder­standing neither what they say, nor whereof they 1 Tim. 1.7. affirme.

Wherefore, to draw this point to a Period; let all those that vndertake this office take that aduice of a Lear­nedAegid. Carler. Orat. habit. in Con­cil. Basil. de punitione pecc. man, which hee once deliuered to the Councell of Basil, touching this very case.

A Minister may be told of his fayling, by an Inferior; but alwaies remember that it be a brotherly admonition, with all due circumstan­ces obserued in it; as name­ly that hee is a Publique Person, a Brother, a Father, [Page 337] and a Superior, all, in one.

Because hee is a Publique Person and a Superior, an In­ferior owes him reuerence and honour; because a Fa­ther, owes him Loue; and be­cause a Brother, he owes him a helping hand, and in case of any fayling, his admonition too; which must so be giuen that his honour may bee pre­serued, as well as his fault amended. TheAlex. de Hales. p. 3. q. 33. mem. 4. ar. 5 Malo Praelato quà diu ab Eccle­sia tolleratur, debetur ho­nor, &c. Personall fai­lings of such a Person is no warrant for Inferiors to des­pise him; so long as the Church allowes him, the people must doe him ho­nour, for his Place and Cal­ling.

Thus farre the Rules to be obserued by our Zeale in dea­ling with Publique Persons. I [Page 338] am now come to the other maine company, which in the Ciuill consideration of men, Discretion accounteth Priuate Persons, and teacheth Zeale accordingly to vse them.

In dealing with a Priuate Person, Discretion doth first require the Zealot to consider what he is himselfe, whether a Priuate Person, or a Mini­ster.

If a Priuate Person, then he must consider whether the Party he would deale withall, bee one vnder his speciall Charge, as he is a Father, a Master of a Family, or hath otherwise some speciall inte­rest in the Party as a friend, or Tutor; or not vnder his Charge.

Those vnder his Charge, hee must diuide into three [Page 339] rankes; Elders, Equalls, Infe­riors.

First, if they bee Elders Elders. by age onely, as old Persons inde­finitely, or with some further addition of naturall relation, as Parents, or other kinred; to­wards these he must reuerently and humbly behaue him­selfe Aegid. Carler. Orat. ante cit. Ex parto incre­pantis distin­guendum est. Aut enim in­crepates sunt iuuenes, aut senes. Si iu­uenes debent corripere aut monere hu­militer. and speake with Pray­ers.

It is the Apostles rule to Timothy himselfe, Rebuke not an Elder but intreate him as a 1 Tim. 5.1. Father: by an Elder, mea­ning an aged Person, not a Minister, asNon dicit hic sacerdo­tem, sed cum qui cosenuit: hoc enim ea sign [...]ficant quae subiun­ [...]untur, lut [...] nes & fra­tres, &c. Theodoret ob­serues. And this Elder, hee must euen beseech, [...] or speake comfortably to him, and as it were with a holy flattery seeke to win him from his er­rors, as SaintTract. 10. in Ioh. qui­bus potes, blandire. Austin, andPastor. cur­li. 3. blanda deprecatione. Gregory doe well aduise.

Age is crabbed, and must be flattered rather then strug­gled with. The Gray-haire will (and well may) looke for honour, though he be poore that weares it, yea though his folly make it neuer so disho­norable.

Reproofe is grieuous and harsh to any that haue no­thing but nature in them; especially to Age; and then most of all, when youth doth vndertake it.Chrysost. hom. 13. in 1 Tim. 5. [...]. Therefore youth must bee very carefull in such a businesse. Old men and children may well be ser­ued with the same spoone. Checks and threatnings will but make them froward, and more vntractable.

Secondly, if they be Equals, Equals. as a friend, or Brother, Gods owne rule is, rebuke them [Page 341] plainely, and not suffer sinne vpon Leuit. 19.16. them. Howbeit, Loue & moderation must euidently appeare in all reproofes and admonitions giuen them, not without expression of thy greefe that thou shouldest be forced to entertaine them with such discourse.

If he be a friend, saith Au­stin, Ibid. tract. 10. Si fra­ter, prolube, mone, con­tristare, &c. Si amicus est admoneatur leuiter. handle him gently: And Paul doth warrant it; intreate the younger men as 1 Tim. 5.1. Brethren. Where note withall; Hee must be a Brother, not onely in regard of Common Profe­ssion, but of Ciuill behauior at least, if not of any particu­lar and entire affection also to him that doth admonish, that so he may hope to doe some good vpon him.

If he be a Scorner let him goe. Salomon Prou 9.8. and Christ [Page 342] Mat. 7.6. himselfe shall bee thy war­rant. Giue not that which is holy vnto doggs. They will not be taken by the eares by strangers: therefore beware of doggs, Phil 3.2. beware of euill wor­kers. Mourne with Ieremy, in secret for their sins; let them haue thy Prayers for their re­formation; and goe thy way.

Thirdly, if they be Inferiors Inseriors. within thy family; they are either thy Wife, thy Children, or thy Seruants.

First, touching the Wife, The wife. shee must not take it ill, in difference from her husband, to be set among Inferiors: for God himselfe hath put her there,Gen. 3.16. and bound her to sub­iection vnto her husband as vn­to her 1 Cor. 11 3 1 Cor. 14.34 head, and that in euery thing as to the Ephes. 5.22 & ver. 24 Lord, so it bee [Page 343] no sinne: and all this, not sul­lenly, or with a carelesse scorne of his Authority, but euen with feare and awfullEphes. 5.33 1 Pet. 3.5.6. reuerence.

These pills shee must swal­low willingly; If they seeme to bigg or bitter; take them in some of that Syrup in the Margent, and they will downe with ease.

If shee offend, (and in ma­ny things we offend, Iam. 3.2. all) shee must euen out of the loue her husband owes her, be reproo­ued in a louing manner, that she may reforme. And if it be in Gods account, an hating of our Brother, not to reprooue Leuit. 19.17 him: can it be a fruit of loue to her that is so neere, to let her alone in sinne? O Cruell husband for his doting si­lence! O wretched woman, [Page 344] hauing such a husband, that will let his shoulders grow a­boue his head!

But yet I dare not say with Austin, Aust. tract. 10. in Ioan. vxor seuerissimè refrene­tur. let her withall se­uerity bee curbed if shee doe offend; because Saint Paul himselfe giues a better rule; Husbands loue your wiues, and be not bitter against Colos. 3.29 them.

Chrisost. in Col. 3. hom. 10And this he vrgeth to pre­uent all rigide, vnciuil, vn­christian, and vnnaturall scor­ning, controling, beating of them, euen when they haue offended. Rebuke her, after entreaties and admonitions the husband may, in loue; but not in Passion, or before the family, so long as shee is tractable to heare in secret, and amend in publique

Shee is no otherwise infe­rior then a part of thy selfe, [Page 345] O husband; not as thy Ser­uant, Saith Worthy Chryso­stome, Hom. 20. in Ephes. 5. Speaking of the wiues feare or re­uerence due to the hus­band; hee saith, [...], &c but as a free Princesse within thy Empire. Shee is thine owne body; If thou make her thy slaue, thou dis­honourest and abasest, not so much thy wife, as thine owne selfe.

Her subiection consisteth in this that shee contradict not, insult not, nor vsurpe au­thority ouer the man;Chrisost. Jbid. not in this, that shee should bee a trembling slaue subiect to taunts and blowes.

The maine duty of the wife is not loue, but Subiection. The maine duty of the hus­band, is not rule, but loue. Though he must rule as well as loue; and shee must loue, as well as yeeld subiecti­on.

Let not the husband think he hath preheminence to do­mineere tyrannously, because his wife is subiect:Chrisost. in Coloss. 3. hom 10. [...], &c. nor must the wife thinke shee may vsurpe, because her husbands duty is to shew such loue. Let not the loue of the hus­band lift vp the wife; nor her subiection puffe vp the hus­band.

Therefore did God subiect the wife, that she might more be loued; aduance the hus­band, that he might more bee feared; yet bound his hands from souldiers Logick, and his heart to Loue, that shee might performe with ease and readinesse the law of her subiection.

Subiection to him wee loue is thought no yoke; and loue vnto a Subiect [Page 347] can yeeld no cause of feare.

Therefore in this point I say vnto all husbands, Shee who is the companion of thy life to helpe thee beare the yoke in all estates: shee who bare the so [...]row of bearing all thy Children: shee whom God ordained to bee thine eyes delight, the cheefest matter of all thy earthly ioyes, the fairest Iewell of thy happiest life: and she who now is made thy selfe, and thou made her in all, but bearing children, (the greatest sor­row;) and loosing thine au­thority, (her greatest yoke:) shee, I say, who is all these things, and many more in one, must not bee forced and subdued by slauish feare and threats, but compassed with [Page 348] loue, and taken in the Toyles of deere affection.

Oh hellish Common­wealth where tyranny makes nothing so much abhorred by the wife as her husban [...]s presence! Oh hellish pleasure to content a husband in see­ing his wife dwell with him as a boughten slaue!

Therefore let not the hus­band be on fire for euery straw the wife lets fall before him; The kindling of one small mote, often endangers the burning of the house. Nor let the wife delight in shatte­ring; especially when shee knowes that wild-fire is at hand. If the house bee burnt through her default: she can­not hope for comfort, if she be burned with it.

Let wiues beware how [Page 349] they iostle their husbands be­side the Kings high way. If an Action of trespasse be entred against the husband for it: What gets the wife by that? Wisdome findeth it better to preuent a Trespasse, then to recouer trebble dammage & the greatest costs.

2. The next inferior obiect of a Zealots zeale within his family are children and ser­uants. Children & Seruants. Of this I will not write much, because it is a subiect more easie and lesse difficult, then that which went before. Nor is there any controuer­sie that I know in it.

Children must be brought vp in the nurture and admoni­tion of the Ephes. 6 4. Lord. Seruants must also walke in the same trade and way. Both these of­fending must abide rebuke [Page 350] from him who is aboue them as a father or as a maister, be­cause he is a Gouernor equal­ly to both.

If a brother offending must be reproued; a child and a ser­uant must not think to scape. These are not onely vnder the tongue, but the hand of correction too. Withhold not correction from the child: for if thou beatest him with the rod he shall not die. Thou shalt beate him with the rod, and deliuer his soule from Prou 23.13 14. hell.

Nor is this, hatred, and want of naturall affection: but cockering is. He that spareth the rod, hateth his sonne, but he that loueth him chasteneth him Prou. 13.24. betimes Zeale therefore must set vpon this irkesome office, although the father be as vn­willing to it, as euer Zippora [Page 351] to circumcise her sonne.

Foolishnesse is bound in the heart of a Prou 22.15 child, and the rod of correction is the onely Be­zoar to driue it out. Nor must he be let alone till he bee growne vp: or till he will ac­cept it, without an out-crie. Weeds will easily come vp, if they be taken yong: but let them grow a while, and wee know what followes. There­fore as this worke must bee done; so it requires hast. Cha­sten thy sonne while there is hope: and let not thy soule spare for his Prou. 19.18. crying.

The mother also may do this worke, although the fa­ther hath the charge imme­diatly giuen him. That God bids him do it, and not the mother; is not to forbid her, but to double his diligence. If [Page 352] all were left to her, she would do too little.

The father is, or should be wiser of the two, therefore fittest to take the charge vp­pon him. The mothers ten­dernesse may bee too much: the fathers wisedome must supply that failing. And though he may forbeare the execution, when the mothers moderation will serue the turne: yet when she bestowes too little, his dutie is, with more seueritie to make it vp.

Seruants are vnder the yoke as much as children; yea more, vnlesse they will bee men of Vnyoked. Belial. Their stub­bornes and leudnesse is not to be endured if it were but for the bad example. Chil­dren learne more euill from [Page 353] their ill carriage, then they will get good, from their pa­rents goodnesse.

Fodder, a wand and a bur­den are for the Asse; and bread, correction and worke for a Eccl. 33.24 seruant. Not that all need all these, but onely euill ser­uants. Let not them thinke this counsell to be onely Apo­cryphall. The sacred Canon will allow a rod for the backes of fooles.

Nor doth this allow mai­sters to be tyrants, as oft they be. Many maisters thinke they may do any thing vnto a ser­uant: but Paul saith no. As maisters looke for seruice and obedience, so they must giue loue, as well as wages: for­bearing, Ephes. 6.9. (that is to say, mode­rating, [...].) threatnings; know­ing that they also haue a mai­ster [Page 354] in heauen, neither is there respect of persons with him.

When thy seruant worketh truly, entreate him not euill: nor the hireling that bestoweth himselfe wholly vpon thee: let thy soule loue a good seruant, and defraud him not of Ecclus. 7.20.21. liber­tie. Make him not a slaue: but giue him some encourage­ment, if he do not abuse it.

And euen in his failings, he must not be too much lookt after; if they be but failings of an honest heart. As a maister must not make a seruant his fellow, for this is the way to let him at length to become his Prou. 29.21 sonne: that is, to wrong his sonne in carrying away that, which should be the sonnes inheritance: So he must not stand and hearken at euery doore & corner, to tyrannize [Page 355] ouer a faithfull seruant; and to take notice of euery word that is spoken; lest he get a curse for his labour.

Although God hath gi­uen the maister power to cor­rect the seruant, when hee hath made a wilfull fault yet he must know, that if hee wrong his seruant, God will set it vp in skore: and he him­selfe will auenge the seruant on his maister forCol. 3.25. him.

Men must not fight, nor women neither, for euery fault of infirmitie, when wee take seruants, we do not take Angels, but men and women as bad our selues, and that for the most part is bad enough. Do wee looke God should beare with vs for all faults, euen of the highest nature; and yet thinke that vnder pre­tence [Page 356] of zeale, wee should beare with no faults at all in a seruant?

I dare boldly say, no man hath more sinnes vpon the skore then a dogged maister, or curst mistresse: They will forgiue nothing; if they do, they will nose a poore seruant (that maketh more faults out of feare then purpose) with their mercy a weeke af­ter. Now can they looke to speed better at the hands of God? ChristMat. 18.35. I am sure said, that his Father hath another purpose.

Not that I meane to re­straine iust seueritie; but one­ly tyrannie: and that Gouer­nours should wisely consider and distinguish betweene fault and fault, seruant and seruant.

I know some seruants make shew of much religion: but looke vpon them better, and you shall find that this is ta­ken vp to become more sau­cie, to get vnto themselues a greater libertie, and to serue as a buckler to beare off all blowes, and all reproofes. As if Religion brought some pri­uiledge to seruants, not onely to bee indocible, (for they must be taught nothing, crost in nothing;) but incor­rigible; for they must not haue a blow, or a sharpe word offered to them.

Such Religion would bee brusht off the coate; and some better beaten into the heart, in stead of that which onely hung without. Such seruants are of all others the worst to be endured, and most [Page 358] dangerous in any familie. For a while they will bee deuout in a religious house: for none else will fit them, but giue them libertie, and they often put all their Religion into a Babie.

I did not vrge the former moderation, to pleade the cause of such proud selfe-wil­led hypocrites, (who haue nothing to boast of, but a de­mure looke, and carrying of a Bible; being otherwise nei­ther good seruants; nor wil­ling to bee better;) no more then I would teach prophane scoffers, and persecuting Ish­maels to call good euill; and light darknesse.

I know there be many gra­cious and worthy men and maids, that bring in more blessings to the familie, then [Page 359] all the house besides.Gen. 39.5. Ioseph was diligent in his maisters seruice; but his hands were nothing to his heart, his la­bour nothing to his grace, for the aduancement of his maisters gaine.

Such a seruant would be intreated as a Ecclus 33.31. brother: loued aboue gold, and praised to the heauens, and for nothing so much, as for his Religion expressed in his diligence and humble dutie.

But some may take aduan­tage from my former words, and make his conclusion lar­ger then my premisses. And when they see a seruant zea­lous in Religion, begin to say; ‘Here is one of those hypo­crites I read of the other day▪ you are so bookish, so holy, and so pure, that I [Page 360] doubt all will prooue starke naught ere long, &c.’

To stop their mouthes; I must enforme them, that Re­ligion is not to blame, if hy­pocrites abuse it. The wine is not in fault, because the drun­kard reeles. Therefore be­ware how you blaspheme re­ligion and religious duties.

If he that seemes religious, will yet be idle, false, vnduti­full, and stubborne, raile at Ceremonies, Bishops, and Common Prayer; disdaine to be corrected, and maintaine his faults; that man or wo­man will neuer haue any true Religion in him, till with a cudgell all these counterfeits be beaten off.

But if he reade, and pray, fall into good discourses to his fellowes, talke of what he [Page 361] reades and heares, to edifie himselfe and others: And to this deuotion, and humble diligence and care to please: this man or woman is a pre­cious Iewell. What though he sometimes fault: was it with his will? did he study for it? and now it is made, doth he m [...]intaine himselfe or it? doth he not confesse it? doth he not bewaile it? doth hee not submit to checkes and blowes, if they be giuen? doth he not endeauour to do bet­ter? doth not his former fault make him to double his fu­ture diligence? Let no man thinke Religion can keepe backe all faults, that none shall passe her bay: but this she doth; those that by force leape through her hands, she fetcheth backe againe.

If thus they do; He is a true Israelite in whom there is no guile. Blessed that family who doth enioy him. Blessed that Master that hath such a Trea­sure.

If such a Iacob meet with a hoggish Laban, hee hath a hard condition: but Laban shall haue a harder, if Iacob goe away. And though La­ban cannot frame his tongue to giue him one good word; yet he were better mend his wages, then loose his seruant, since he cannot but learne by experience that the Lord hath blest him for that SeruantsGen. 30.27 sake.

So then; if men delight in fighting, it must not bee with those that seeke to please, al­though they sometimes faile: but those that seeke to sinne, [Page 363] although they sometimes please.

And yet with these, Zeale must not bee a Bedlam al­waies. Though they prouoke his passion, his passion must not fight. His wisedome must doe this, when that is ouer: And execution daies must haue their euenings, and their prorogations.

If thou hast a bad Seruant, said a wise man, set him to worke that is fit for him: if hee be not obedient put on more hea­uy fetters: But be not excessiue towards any: and without dis­cretion doe Ecclus 33.28.29. nothing. The Ma­gistrate must put in mercy to his song, as well asPsal. 101.2. iudge­ment: and thou much more.

There is a kind of sowernes in some fathers and maisters, which makes them vnable to [Page 364] frame themselues to kind­nesse, euen when their chil­dren and seruants do deserue it.

Such a soure peece was Laban vnto Iacob, & such are many now, who thinke their frowning browes, and lookes as sowre as meale a weeke in leauen, should be interpreted their grauity, and fatherly au­thoritie: but this the world expounds another way: and they must mend their looke, or looke for little loue. They may be feared, because they will enforce it: but neuer lo­ued, because they loue to feare.

There is another wind-gaule, worse then this: and that is Nabals boysterous-furious—chiding—roaring—tone.

Nabal himselfe may count his loudnesse zeale: but none about him are of his opinion. Hee may make a shift to charme his tongue abroad: because if hee neglect it, o­thers would do it for him. But aske his seruants how they would describe him: and they with readinesse will giue him this description;1. Sam. 25 17. He is such a sonne of Belial that a man can­not speake to him.

If we shall doubt his ser­uants were partiall to them­selues, and spake in passion what he deserued not: yet let the holy Ghost himselfe bee heard to speake, and he will giue this censure of him, The man was churlish and euill in his 1. Sam 25.3 doings. Therefore euill because churlish.

Find me a bedlam furious [Page 366] man that is alwaies chiding, skoulding, finding fault, or fighting; and proue that man to be no wicked person, and hee may well bee called the wonder of his age.

Neuer tell me, thy people are too bad, and that with all thy stirre thou canst not make them good: this I will be­leeue without thy telling: and tell thee backe againe; if they were good, thou wouldst but make them bad.

He was no foole that said, Be not as a Lion in thine house, nor franticke among thy Ecclus 4.30. seruants: therefore take his counsell; and be assured, He that trou­bleth his owne house, shall inhe­rit the Prou 11 29 wind. How can hee looke for more, who blowes so strongly euery time hee breathes, that with his very [Page 367] breath hee blowes the rest away?

His rage is such as sets his wife on fire; and if she be not moued, his rage is much the more. Let children and ser­uants do what they can to tame him by their musicke; their best reward from him is but the Fidlers liuerie, which hee may claime byRogues 39. Elizab. cap. 4 Statute.

But now me thinkes the Grumbol comes to parle ‘Why, what would you haue me do? I cannot turne my backe but all is out of order, children and seruants are so idle, and so false that I cannot trust them with a straw. One lies a bed, ano­ther runneth to the Ale­house; a third keepes idle company, a fourth spends [Page 368] my estate; and shee that should looke to them, cares for nothing but to helpe wast my goods, & to main­taine the rest in all their vil­lanie? What, should not a man speake? Should hee not giue his children due correction? Doth not God himselfe require him to vse seueritie, when gentle meanes suffice not? Why then do you taxe me as if I did amisse?’

And is this so indeed? Then search the cause; when this is found, I will helpe thee to some remedy.

Do children and seruants thus abuse thee when thou turnest thy backe? What then dost thou make from them? Hast thou a calling here, and will no place hold [Page 369] thee but some Ale-bench, Tauerne, Bowling-alley, Cock-pit, or worse then all these?

And dost thou wonder that others looke not to thy busi­nesse, when thou thy selfe so often leauest all? Thou wilt runne abroad and spend a moneths reuenue in an after­noone; or by occasion of some Vsurers lime-twig set to catch the Gallant, bring thy selfe in snares that none but fooles go into, and hazard the greatest part of thine estate by thine owne Act and deed, at halfe an houres war­ning.

And when thou feelest the gin begin to gird thee, canst thou haue the face to runne home with the snare at thy heeles, and chide, chide, [Page 370] chide, for halfe an inch of candle, that one of thy chil­dren, thy seruants, or thy wife did burne too much; and crie out on them. Oh! these wast­full spend-thrifts will neuer leaue me till they haue vn­done me?

Thy familie be bad: when didst thou teach them better? Or if thou didst in anger thunder out their duty, once in seuen yeares; didst thou not imagine thy thunder would but maze them? where was thy good example to driue home thy instruction?

Canst thou imagine how they should beleeue that they haue better beere at home, then any Ale-wife hath; when thou drinkest not a drop, but in an Ale-house? Canst thou blame them for following, [Page 371] when thou didst leade the way?

And if they be vnwilling to stay within, when thou art in the house; canst thou bee angry that they runne from the Beare? Will any beasts be in the Lions den when he ap­proacheth?

Canst thou blame them, if they bee wilde abroad? If thou do make thy house a Bridewell, or a Bedlam; canst thou imagine thy people will not be willing and study to breake thy prison?

But all this while my pur­pose is not to pleade for them, but against thee, to shew the cause of this heauie plague of God vpon thee and thy familie. Let them for euer lay their hand vpon their mouth; and neuer say, The [Page 372] father hath eaten sower grapes and the childrens teeth are set on edge.

Thy negligence hath cau­sed this iudgement to thy selfe; and occasioned that sin in them. The cause of this, as sinne, was in themselues: but this occasion did set abroach that cause. They had the li­quor in them, thou didst pull out the tap: And so, both are deepe in fault that so much gaule is now drawne out vn­to thee: thou, for giuing vent; and they, for giuing issue of no better liquor. If God giue not repentance, they shall die for their owne sinnes; but thou for both.

If after all, thou aske a re­medie: accept of this. Leaue thy gaming and thy gadding, and with them thy madnesse: [Page 373] get thee home; confesse thy fault, reforme thy selfe; and then set thy house in better order.

Be no more as a Bird that forsaketh her nest to let her young ones perish. Dwell with thy wife as a man of know­ledge: Loue her yet at last, and be no more bitter, now, bring vp thy children in the feare and nurture of the Lord, though thou hast neglected it: doe that which is equall vnto thy seruants: shew the loue of a Father, as well as the seueritie of a Ma­ster.

Then mayst thou begin to chastise the vnruly, if they wil not reforme: and because thou didst it so ill before; take with thee some Cautions to doe it better now.

First, euer ioyne some good instruction with it: or rather, let instruction goe before. There are two waies, saithClem. Alex. strom. 4. [...]. Clement, vnto Reformation, instruction and chastisement: and he that will reforme another must walke in both these paths. Both must be vsed; both must be knit in one another.

By this the peccant party is made to know his fault, and better prepared to accept the punishment of his iniquity; and taught his duty better for the time to come.

Secondly, to both these, hee must add Loue; this golden leafe must lap the pill about. His fury and his passion must not beare the sway in his corrections, but loue must moderate his angry Passi­ons.

Loue must not take them quite away, but guide them in an euen pace; and stop them, when they would, run out too far. We know who said, let all your things bee done in 1 Cor. 16.14. Charity.

These three, Instruction, Correction, and Loue, make the best rod to beate a childe or seruant. If either of these twiggs, be wanting the rod is naught. Loue without in­struction doth make but Clownes: instruction with­out correction doth make but saucy wantons: correction without instruction, makes fooles, or desperate dul­lards: and instruction with­out loue doth make but tyred Iades.

Dauid shewed Loue, but added no instruction, or cor­rection: [Page 376] 1 King. 1.6 Adoniah to requite him, vsurpt his Throne. Eli shewed loue & gaue instructi­on too;1 Sam. 2.23, 24, 25. but vsed no correcti­on: therefore his Sons went on till God destroyed them, and brake his neck, vpon the sudden newes of loosing Gods owne Arke in iudgement for their sinnes, which hee by sea­sonable seuerity preuented not. Nabal shewed seuerity too much; but neither in­struction nor loue, at all: ther­fore his whole houshold were in some contention whether they should hate him, or de­spise him most.

Wherefore in all thy rods let these three spriggs bee found, and then lay on the stubborne, whether childe, or seruant: these two must be vnto thee indifferent in cha­stisements. [Page 377] Galat. 4.1. The childe must not bee beaten, and the ser­uant scape when both are guilty. Nor must the seruant suffer for that fault, wherein the childe is suffered.

Allow thy childe thy loue aboue thy seruant: but if thou shalt allow him in the smal­lest fault; he will prick thee more with that small thorne, then any seruant could, with a greater weapon.

If any difference bee; let children feele the rod more often then thy seruants; for that will better these besides the good to those. Exam­ples of seuerity on them wee loue, doe terrify and teach them most who are further off.

And though the roote doe yeeld more sapp and sweetnes [Page 378] vnto the seuerall branches that doe issue from it; then to the stakes or props that stand about it; yet these must bee preserued, or else the tree and branches too, will suf­fer.

Seruants are stakes and props to families, (though sometimes very rotten:) ther­fore, if of vse, they must bee well maintained. And though they may not looke for so much inward or outward loue, as children haue: yet some, they must haue: or thou dost them wrong.

Yea, I dare to adde; in case of reformation, as loue should shew it selfe to benefit their soules, and bring them vnto heauen (where is no diffe­rence of Master, Seruant, Hus­band, childe, or wife;) a Ma­ster [Page 379] must expresse as much affection to a hyred Seruant within his roofe and care, as to his deerest child.

Touching those within our Charge Zeale hath his Lesson; and longer then I meant it, when I did begin it. Now if a Zealot will meddle any further; he must bee fur­ther guided by Discretion how to handle Persons beyond his Gouerment.Persōs with­out our Charge.

If cause of admonition be administred, by any without his Charge; and, if he will giue it, he must obserue two Rules.

Rule. 1 First, if any Elder, Better, Fitter, then himself be present, Elihu must hold his peace till they haue done, or till hee doth perceiue they will doe no­thing.

It was a Wise mans Coun­sell: Speake thou that art El­der for it becommeth thee; but with sound iudgement, and hinder not the Ecclus. 32.3 musick of a bet­ter discourse, (hee meanes) if any be on foot: and this, hee comes ouer againe, to make the Elder carefull. Powre not out words where there is a Ibid. ver 4. Musitian: Hee doth not meane a Fidler, but a Wiser Speaker.

To the young man he ad­deth;Ibid. ver. 7, 8, 9. Speake young man if there bee need of thee; and yet scarcely when thou art twice as­ked. Let thy speech bee short, comprehend much in a little: be as one that knoweth, and yet holdeth his tongue. But when comes his turne about? ‘When ancient men are in place vse not manyIbid. ver. 9. words.’

These Rules, I know, are generall; and being so, they may bee well applied to the point in hand. Elihu may be a patterne of the former pre­cept, without exception or more adoe.

When humbled Iob had long handled a good cause ill, and his three cruell and cen­sorious friends (void of all compassion) hath handled a bad, as well; and after run­ning of themselues quite out of breath, so that they answe­red no more, but left off spea­king: and Iob continuing in his error (of iustifying himselfe rather then Iob 32.2. God,) vnconuin­ced, Elihu begins to speake; but with a long Apology to them, and for himselfe, before his speech to Iob: because they were hisIbid. ver. 4. Elders.

‘I am young, and ye are old, wherefore I was afraid and durst not shew you mine opini­on.’ I said, daies should speake, and multitude of yeeres should teach wisedome. But there is a Spirit in man, and the inspira­tion of the Almighty giueth vnderstanding. Great men are not alwaies wise, neither doth the aged vnderstand iudge­ment. Therefore I said, harken vnto me, I will also shew you my opinion, &c.

Now from this humility and modesty (not Arrogancie, as Gregory wrongly iudged) of Elihu, Iudicious Caluin would haue all young men take out thisCaluin in Iob conc. 120 Notemus igi­tur vbi non adsit mode­stia, illic Ze­lum esse prae­cipitem qui (que) spiritu dei no regatur. lesson. Where Modesty is wanting, there Zeale is rash and foole-hardy, refusing to be gouerned by the spirit of God.

Secondly,2. Rule. when a man doth speake in his order, he must do it wisely, gently, and euen with submissiue entreaties though they to whom hee speakes should be his Inferiors.

It was a Graue obseruati­on, He that vseth many words shall be hated; and hee that ta­keth to himself authority there­in shall be Ecclus. 20.8. abhorred.

When holy Lot had suffe­red much and long among the Sodomites, so that his righteous soule was daily vexed with their vngodly deeds: yet he did not in heate of passion with a commanding accent check their rudenesse, euen when in barbarous manner they did abuse him most: but rather with friendly entrea­ties and humble prayers hee thus bespeakes them, I pray [Page 384] you brethren doe not so Gen. 19 7. wicked­ly.

When Paul directed his Instructions to Titus an aged Minister, touching rebuking of some in Creete with sharp­nesse;Tit. 1.3. hee onely meant the Persons within the Charge of Titus. AsHic aut [...]m non alienos sed proprios adeoque do­mesticos opor­tere adserit arguere, Theophil. Theophilact, and, be­fore him,Chrisost in Tit. hom. 3. [...]. Chrysostome ex­pound the place. For well he knew that others must bee wonne with prayers, not with threats.

If then a Minister (whose Function seemes to back him, yet) hath no authority to vse such freedome beyond his Cure: Much lesse haue Pri­uate Persons; their Language must be entreaties, not com­mands. They must serue in no vineger with butter, vnto a stranger: least hee distast the [Page 385] sauce, and him that brought it to him.

Euen boyes disdaine a check from him that hath no power: and yet the stoutest stateliest heart wil bend with an entrea­ty; or if they doe not, it is be­yond the reach of any Pri­uate Persons to doe them any good.

Zeale must be wary alwaies, because it is distastfull when it hath best Commission: but then, most cautious when it enters, only vpon sufferance, into a house, or any compa­ny.

A Zealous Reproouer (what euer hee may promise of, or to himselfe) shall hard­ly meete with such a foole as will not finde, or at least pre­tend some flaw or other in his Zeale, doe hee what hee can. [Page 386] And if he hap to spy a fault in­deed; woe to the Reproo­uer.

The other may bee faulty, but will not be amended; nor did hee euer meane it. Hee huggs himselfe in priuate for such a good occasion to beate off the Zealot from his belo­ued Sinne. Yet aske him a Reason, why he is incorrigi­ble? his answer will be ready, he knowes none but one; the Zealots indiscretion. The Mini­sters duty; not so much taught, as rendred to satisfie the world that doe mi­stake it.

The Priuate Person, (with whom, for this time, I haue done) may now be gone. The Taske of Ministers about Pri­uate Persons comes next to hand.

A Minister, dealing with any of his Charge, knowes how, I hope, without my helpe, to doe it. And yet of [Page 387] him, rather then to him I must say something (as those men vse to doe that goe for Orders or a Benefice,) not so much to teach, as giue account.

The Patients this Physitian hath in Cure are most com­monly affected with the Mi­gram, or the Hectick Feauer. Hee is to deale with erroneous persons, and such are cor­rupt in life. They haue either giddy braines in point of iudgement; or else the very substance of their immortall hearts are ta­ken, lesse or more, with a con­suming heat of sin that shewes it selfe in hands, and face, and all their conuersation. And according to the Quality of the Disease must be his Phy­sicke.

When he is to deale with Hemicranicall Persons to cure them of their giddinesse,How with erroneous. two rules are needfull, for the [Page 388] manner of it. The one, for those that yet are not trans­formed quite into a Wind­mill; yet somewhat touched; but capeable, and glad, of Cure. The other for such as need some Dutch-dull-house, and will not take their Phy­sicke without a horne. I meane plainely, the Ingenious, and the Refractary; the one, vn­wittingly led into; the other gladly dauncing in darke er­rors Labyrinth.

Rule. 1 First, With the Ingenious other then ingenuous dealing is most Vnciuil and Pernitious.

Vnciuill, first, because hee hath not in his hand, a stub­borne rugged dogged disposi­tion that runnes out of the way, of malice; but a free ca­pacious, yeelding Nature that by loue and sweetnesse would [Page 389] be drawne too farre, if one would put him to it.

Now, to teare a Lambe that prostitutes himselfe, a Lion would disdaine. What need he be tied to a Bed, or chaire that lies down of him­selfe and bids you cut and Launce, or what you will, and spare not, so you meane to Cure him?

Pernitious too: for com­monly when a gentle Nature is wildly handled, it makes him fearefull not onely of the Satyre, but of all others in his likenesse. It puts also a kinde of fiercenesse in Him, by acci­dent, that had it not by na­ture; but being there 'tis like to proue as bad, yea aduentiti­ous heates are worse then Na­turall.

He willingly imbraced the [Page 390] Apostles1 Cor. 3.18. Counsell, and was content to yeeld himselfe a foole that thou mightst make him wise. But if two fooles, the one tame, the other mad meete together, they are like to make a mad meeting. The tame foole is like to get but little; and the mad one, lesse. This may make the other as mad as himselfe, but cannot hope to make him what him­selfe is not.

That Preaching King makes this obseruation tou­ching Preachers. The more wise the Preacher was, the more hee taught the people Eccles. 12.9. know­ledge. And if you aske where­in his wisedome lay? he saith, in this. The Preacher sought to finde out acceptable Ibid. Verse 10. words, or words that might [...] Verba volū ­tatis. please.

He meanes not easy Cra­dles to rock their sins asleepe, nor soothing Pillowes to lay those Bratts vpon; but gentle familiar friendly plain expres­sions of himselfe, with loue and kindnesse, in points of In­struction whereof his Flock was ignorant, yet willing to be informed.

To this especially is that to be applied;2 Tim. 2.24, 25. The seruant of the Lord must not striue, but be gen­tle vnto all men, apt to teach, patient, in meeknes instructing those that oppose themselues, if God peraduenture will giue them repentance to the acknow­ledgement of the truth.

If a Fore-horse lead, and pull the rest that follow out of the common tracke, should he that guides them, beate and pound the Thiller, whose [Page 392] backe is almost broken by be­ing led aside? would not any man thinke that hare-brained Bedlam fitter for the Lash-horse, then a Carter. The com­parison is homely, but it fits my purpose.

If a man should see a poore seduced Papist, Brownist, or other ill sodered Separatist in England, London, or in Pauls it selfe; and could no sooner see him, but flies vpon him like a Tigar, and (euen in pri­uate betwixt them two a­lone) cry out, ‘What you? I'st possible? Can this Age yeeld a damned Papist or foule-mouth'd Schismatick in such a Sun-shine of the Gospell as we haue now? What, liue vnder such a Mi­nistry, and be so ignorant? nay worse; a very Sea of hel­lish [Page 393] errors? Ah miserable wretch! canst thou escape damnation? Away to Hell: thy Pope is gone before, and thou wilt after, as sure as God's in Heauen.’

Would you imagine, thun­der could perswade trem­bling Caligula to creepe out from his Bed? Or that this poore seduced worme is not ere this, distracted; or else be­gins to feele about for holes to creepe into from such an heauy foot?

‘If he had met some White-Booted, guilt-spurrd Iesuites skulking for their Prey; then he might well haue cryed, Oh the Froggs! the Reuel. 16.13, 14. Froggs that creepe out of the mouth of the Dragon, and out of the mouth of the Beast, and out of the mouth of the false Pro­phet, [Page 394] the spirits of Di­uels, &c.

‘This would haue beene but well, vnlesse the Holy Ghost did ill, in giuing these names to such Arch-seducers.’

But he mistooke, 'twas not the Froggs, he met; but one­ly the Snaile that those foule Froggs had suckt. This silly Snaile might haue been won, if he had had the patience to let her creepe her owne pace: she was offering her selfe to come vpon his hand; but he, most cruelly, shak't her off a­gaine, and lifteth vp his foot to crush her all to pee­ces.

Why; here's Mad Tom in­deed; giue him but a Clubb, you need not add a Horne; his Throat will serue the turn. [Page 395] He that euer knewHe denied all pardon and repen­tance for sinnes com­mitted after Baptisme: e [...]pecially to such as once forsooke the True faith, though with teares they returned to it. Therefore was cōdem­ned for an Hereticke. Euseb. lib. 6. ca. 35. Epiph. haeres. 59. Nouatus, would almost sweareHee held that the soules of mē passed out of one body into another at death. Vide Aug. de Trin. lib. 12. Cap. 15. Zanch. de oper. dei lib. 1. cap 3. Pytha­goras said true; and that No­uatus soule had entred this mans Body.

When this man makes a Proselyte, we may all turne Papists: and I had almost wisht any man, He meets, to be of any Religion rather then of his, were it not his Re­ligion, and his Raueing, are two things.

A Lambe will hardly take meate from a Lion, be his meate, and meaning what it will. Truth is ill attended when it borrowes Errors Vsher, Violence, to man her Inne.

Rule. 2 Secondly, To such as are refractary, sharpnesse doth best agree. Knotty blocks require more Wedges, and harder [Page 396] blowes to driue them. If he that vndertakes them shall dally, and not stricke home with all his might, hee shall finde the Wedge about his shinnes. Bodies whom gen­tle Physicke will not moue, must haue stronger.

The same Apostle who, ere while, taught Timothy to be so gentle, bids Titus to bee more sharpe to obstinate offenders; Rebuke them sharp­ly that they may be sound in the Tit. 1.13. Faith. Hard hearts, heauyDura eorū corda pene­tret in crepa­tio. dura. Anselm. in Tit. Hammers.Theoph. in Tit. 1. Nam apud eos mā ­s [...]etudo nihil promouet. Qu [...]mad mo­dum enim qui initem & moderatum acrius feriat, perdit eum; sic qui impu­denit adula­tur eum cor­rumpit, ne se ipsum agnos­cat. Theophilact giues the reason: Impudent men will not bee moued by mildnesse, vnlesse to laughter, and scorne. As he that smites a tender disposition with hea­uy blowes destroies him: so hee that stroakes a brazen-face, marres him, that hee [Page 397] will neuer come to know himselfe.

Wilfulnesse doth vsually waite on erro [...]r; especially when it growes to the scab of heresie. Heresie is but a great errour translated into obsti­nacie. An Hereticke is but a doting tree set on fire. When an erronious opinion is once taken vp, a corrupt heart will hold that faster, and struggle more for it, then for the truth: because like to like best a­grees.

Heresie is like a Leprosie, it frets as it spreads, & spreads as it frets; and at length spoyles all, and infects others. Hence it is that Saint Paul willeth Timothie and Titus his Schollers, to shunne he­resie, and re [...]ect Hereticks with as much detestation as speed.

First Heresie, because it will eate like a Canker, or2. Tim. 2.17 Gan­grene, let Physitians squabbleƲide Marlor. in hunc locum. whether these two words signifie one, or two things, I care not. Sure I am the best is naught; and heresie as bad as the worst.Theod. ibid. Cancer est morb [...]s ser­pens, &c. Theodoret and Chrysostome Chrysost. ib. [...], &c. call it a Can­ker: which is a poysonous and horrible disease, that vnlesse it be taken suddendy, and cut off sharply, no Physicke can cure it, therefore the Apostle willeth him to shun such bab­ling: that is, to lop off those twigs, and with all vehemen­cie to cut them downe, as Chrysostome expoundes it.

Secondly Heretickes, who are alwayes stiffe as a Ca­ble: so that a man had need throw himselfe vpon them with all his might to make [Page 399] them bow; and yet all will not do, they must be cashei­red with all seueritie. Their error is like pitch in a Cable, there is no getting of it out, but with casting them often into the sea, or into a fire. Therefore, a man that is an Hereticke, after the first and second admonition Tit. 3.11. Hugo de sci. viol. in Tit. Elucid. haere­ticum vocat qui per legem logem impugnat: scienter pec­cat & verita­tem nouit: & tamen erro­rem laudat & veritatem vituper [...]t. reiect.

An Hereticke he calls him, that vnder colour of law, be­comes lawlesse; sinning and knowing well enough what he doth: he is no babe; hee knowes truth when he seeth it: yet commends error with truths praise, and besmeares truth with errors filth: such a Viper is not a play-game for Christians, but to bee shak't off in haste into the fire; and kept there-too, or else he will leape in your face.

Now if a man should meet with such an Elephant that would not bow without a cudgell about his leg-posts; doth he amisse that lends him a sound blow to force him to it? Must we do nothing but fill his trunke with Cher­ries, and thinke that this will do it?

A man shall meete with some persons euen in euerie Parish, who though they bee farre enough from heresie; as gaule from rats-bane, yet are of such a sullen stubborne dis­position, that vnlesse he pull out that stubbornesse with Pauls rod, he shall neuer drop one scruple of liuing waters into these narrow-mouth-stiffe—leather—thicke—furred-bottels.

But once master them, and [Page 401] they will prooue good Pro­ficients quickly. Softnesse would harden these, as water doth the stone: and hard­nesse will onely make them soft, as fire doth the iron.

They that know this, will not alwayes count seueritie, tyrannie; nor mildnesse, mer­cie. Discretion calls for both, and doth apply them as the persons with whom wee are to deale shall need them.

It is Gregories Greg Mag. de Past. cur. par 2 cap. 6. obserua­tion of Peter. Act. 20.25. When Corne­lius out of ignorant or super­stitious humilitie made a fault by offering him Diuine worship, Peter did not nayle him to the ground while hee had him downe, for such a sinne; but gently tooke him vp; as we would, a great per­son casually stumbling, rather [Page 402] then as a shrewd boy, to whip him. Stand vp, saith he, I my selfe also am a man: here was no harshnesse and bitternesse vnder pretence of zeale, hee knew well, Cornelius was no obstinate man-worshiper.

But when demure Ananias, the charitable Hypocrite, see­med to make a far lesse fault; yet because hee did it with a farre worse heart, Peter of a Lambe turned Lion, & smote him dead with a word. In both he did well, and we must imi­tate him.

It is not enough to say, he is seuere and terrible; there­fore harsh; vnlesse the parties disposition bee duly weighed and found of a gentle temper, and he know it too. If no­thing can perswade the sullen Patient to take his physicke, [Page 403] (which hee must take or pe­rish,) is that crueltie not to be borne, which wrings him by the throate, till the halfe-mad-man gape, and he powre it downe whether hee will or not?

I thinke it hardly possible for a man, now to thunder with more terror, then Peter did atAct 8.20. &c Symon Magus; or Paul atAct. 13.9.10.11. Elimas. Yet Paul gi­ueth other counsell.2. Tim. 2.24 What then? Did Paul teach others, and not himselfe? prescribe a Cordiall, and giue a Vomit? nothing lesse. He prescribed both the one and the other: and if men had a will as well as eyes they might see it plaineTit. 1.13.15. enough.

If hee had not prescribed both; yet enioyning the one, and doing the other, would [Page 404] teach reasonable men that both must be done. One rule serues not all cases: for then, what need two? He that must bee gentle to the Lambe, should be much to blame to be so to the slie Foxe; and he as much, who thinkes in do­ing more, hee doth too much.

Thus the Cure of errour, which is cōmonly in the Phy­sitians studie, not the Col­ledge Hall: Now to that of manners.

How a Mi­nister must cure bad liues.In matters of conuersation he is to deale with his flocke either in Priuate, or in Pub­licke.

Of Priuate admonitions I haue said enough before. I could adde more, but I need not. WorthyIn Apolo­getico. Gregorie Na­zianzene, and after him Gre­gorie [Page 405] the In Past. cur. par. 5. per totum. Great, haue done this so fully, and so excel­lently, that any man would laugh at my candle, when their sunne shines so glori­ously.

The latter of the two hath done so excellently, that oneConcil. To­letan. Councell enioyned all Bi­shops to reade it as a Disci­plinarie Catechisme, and a­notherSynod. A­quisgran. Councell made it their onely Law to guide them in matters of this nature. This is enough to commend that, and saue me a labour.

In Publicke, he must be a­ble to turne his hand to any Cure, to speake pertinently to the condition of many Pa­tients at once, whose consti­tutions and degrees of sick­nesse, as well as diseases, do often varie. Hee must haue [Page 406] Purges, Vomits, (strong and gentle,) Cordials, Electua­ries, Iuleps, Fomentations, an instrument to let some Pati­ents bloud, and all in rea­dinesse.

Nor must he spare (inde­finitely) to open the nature of any disease, the state of any sicke person, the often Pa­roxismes and returnes of fea­uourish fits. He must reade a Lecture, not out of Galen, but the Physitian of Israel; where­in he must speake of health too, as well as sicknesse.

And touching sicknesse he must lay downe some Apho­rismes to be obserued, after those generall rules, he must descend to the Names, Na­ture, Symptomes, Causes, Cures of each disease. Nor can hee discontent a wise [Page 407] hearer more, then not to goe to the bottome of each Dis­ease he handleth; especially if hee bee troubled with the same himselfe that heares.

When Paul had charged Timothy to Preach the Word; he also tells him, how. Be in­stant in season and out of sea­son, reprooue, rebuke exhort with all long-suffering and 2. Tim. 4.2. doctrine. Reprooue the stub­borne that being conuinced by sound reason they may yeeld. Rebuke the disobe­dient, that they being made ashamed, may reforme them­selues, and exhort or entreate such as do well that they go on, and striue vnto perfe­ction, saithAnselm. in 2. Tim. 4. Ar­gue resisten­tes vt ratio­nibus conuicti cedant. incre­pa delin­quentes vt confusi se cor­rigant: obse­cra bene a­gentes vt in melius profi­ciant. Anselmus.

The same Apostle giueth the same instruction to Titus; Tit. 2 15. These things speake and ex­hort, [Page 408] and rebuke with all Tit. 2.15. au­thoritie: that is, saithAnsel ibid. in Tit id est, imp [...]riosa au­thoritate, im­perij nomine, non domina­tionem poten­tiae, sed authoritatem sua dei vitae. An­selme, with imperious autho­ritie, not out of a desire of do­minering, but of necessarie power to presse men to good life. And soDe past. cur. par. 2. cap. 6. Gregory.

If any obstinate sinners should long to haue these Precepts of reprouing and re­buking, pulld out of the Bible as Puritanicall: As pooreAristoph. de Nub. Strepsiades who would hire a Witch to pull the Moone out of heauen, that so the V­surers moneths might neuer come about; for my part, let them; so he repeale the Sta­tutes who did first enact them. But vntill then, we that are Gods Ministers are bound to execute all Lawes within Gods Statute Booke.

If any man do well, he need [Page 409] not be afraid: we will do no more but praise and comfort him. But if ill, then feare: for we beare not the Spirituall sword in vaine: We also are the Ministers of God, Reuen­gers, to execute wrath vpon him that doth Hos. 6.5. euill.

The 2. Cor. 10.4 5.6. weapons of our war­fare are not carnall, but mighty through God to the pulling downe of strong holds; casting downe imaginations with eue­ry high thing that exalteth it selfe against the knowledge of God and bringing into captiui­tie euery thought to the obe­dience of Christ; and hauing in readinesse to reuenge all diso­bedience.

Wee must sometimes wound deepe where we loue dearely; yea wound them (not with the wounds of an ene­mie) [Page 410] because wee loue them; although for our loue they be­come our enemies: yea though our enemies should be they of our owne houshold.

If any should attempt to beate the sword about our eares who beare it, because without mercie we hew and wound their sinnes to death, we must beare that too, ra­ther then smite one blow the lesse. So long as wee are in Commission, we must endure afflictions (if any come) doe the worke of Euangelists, and make full proofe of the 2. Tim 4.5. mi­nisterie.

But yet let all men know, when Christs seruants are a­bused, he himselfe accounts himselfe despised also. If Saul persecute the Bodie here on earth, the Head will crie out [Page 411] in heauen, Why persecutest thou Act. 9. me? The foote cannot be pricked, but the head com­plaines. And if Kings make it Treason to abuse or hinder Iustices in their place and doing their 23 Edw. 3 cap. 2. offices; The King of heauen will count it more then Pettie-larcenie, to abuse his seruants for execution of their place and office which he sets them in.

Gods Prophets, though they be Oliue Reu. 11.4. trees that haue no corroding qualitie, if yet they be his faithfull Ibid 3. witnes­ses, they shall be thought Tormentors of them that dwell in the Ibid. ver. 10 earth. And it is no maruell: euen oyle smarts in a [...]aw angry wound.

Therefore the world will neuer be quiet so long as any of that packe remaine, but [Page 412] will be making warre vpon them, till they haue ouercome and killed them. This done; they that dwell on the earth will reioyce ouer them, and make merrie, and send gifts one to another, because those Prophets are now gone, that did vexe them that dwell on the earth.

Howbeit, the end of that mirth will be bitter griese, the shot will come to more then they can pay with ease. If any man will hurt the faith­full witnesses, fire proceedeth out of their mouthes, and deuou­reth their Ibid. ver. 5. enemies. What fire, but that of theIer. 23.29. Word. This fire wil enter into their soules, not as it did into Ieremies bones, onely to come forth with greater force againe, without doing any hurt with­in; [Page 413] but a fire that doth deuoure them, saith the Text.

Happily it doth not make such speede (although Ce­lestiall) as the fire from hea­uen which lickt vp Ahabs Captaines and their fifties, two companies one after ano­ther, when they came to at­tach Eliah to carrie him be­fore enraged2. Kin. 1. Ahab. Or as it did Ananias andAct. 5. Saphira: but most vsually as it didAct. 8. Symon Magus, who at first made some profession of Religion.

When he discouered him­selfe by seeking a Patent to make a Mart of the holy Ghost, that so the Diuell might haue the buying and selling of God Almightie; then Peter cast a fire-ball at him that en­tred, scorched and quite dried vp all radicall moysture of [Page 414] his seeming graces, and set all on fire.

From that time forth hee began to waste; he left off all profession, set abroach here­sies,Epiphan haeres. 20. liued leudly, kept a strumpet, persecuted good men, and (because belike he kept the countrey in awe by coniuring) sought to be wor­shipped as a God, at Rome & other places. And at length he receiued the wages of his iniquit [...]e.

Thus is it with many, who abuse the Prophets. If any man will hurt them, he may feare in this manner to bee Reu. 11.5. killed. Though they may yet liue, and laugh, sure they will ne­uer be fat, I meane in soule. It is a poore comfort that they are aliue.

The Bucke may stand a [Page 415] while with the arrow in his side, and while he is hote not feele it much: but yet ere long, if he be wounded and well hunted hee will surely fall.

If there be a fire that hath taken the inside of the house, what gets the owner by kee­ping downe the flame that others may not see it yet?

These men are no better then walking fire-brands, if yet the wood be greene, the fire will dry vp the sap at last, and then it must burne them vp as well as others. They neuer go but with a fire a­bout them; they burne, though they do not com­plaine.

It is a poore choyse to him that must die, to choose Saint Anthonies fire rather then [Page 416] gun-powder; though this hath more terror, that hath longer smart, and prooueth more loathsome, and kils as surely, though not on such a sudden.

How farre a minister m [...]y go in reprouing.If any aske, how farre may a Minister go with warrant in publicke reprouing? I will not answer much; but some thing must bee said to make the worke compleate. And because my yeares and parts may rather learne then teach, I will take my Rules from graue Antiquitie, and shew you what the Fathers, and some others speake to this point. Publicke sinnes may bee publickly particularized by the names of the sins, but not by the name or any per­sonall circumstances of the sinner. If it come to handy-gripes [Page 417] with his person, this is a fault. He is thus onely to be rebuked alone: vnlesse Law passed on him, do o­therwise authorize the re­prouer.

The person of the sinner must be spared in publicke, lest being there thus shamed, hee become desperate and leaue his shame behind with the reproofe, and so cleaue to his sinnes for euer, saith SaintHieron. in Mat. 18. Can. 54. Corripi­endus est enim scorsum fra­ter, ne si semel pudorem at [...] verecundiam amiserit, semper r [...]m [...]neat in pec [...]ato. Hierome.

A man doth then best per­forme his duty, when he that is in authoritie domineires o­uer his brethrens sinnes, ra­ther then their persons, saithPast. Cur. par. 2. cap. 6. Summus ita locus bene regitur, [...]um is qui pr [...]est, vit [...]js potius quam frat [...]ibus domina­tu [...]. Gregory: Among hypocrites it is taken for a law, to turne the authoritie of reprouing into the power of dominei­ring: and yet sometimes [Page 418] (saith he)Ibid. Paulo post, &c. Et tamen non. nunquam grauius de linquitur, si inter peruer­sos, plus ae­qualit [...]s quae disciplina. custoditur. on the other side he offends more, that among obstinate sinners, studies more for such an equall bal­lance that none be offended, then to keep necessary sharp­nesse on foote.

He afterwardsIbid. cap. 10. I forbeare to set his words in the margent, be­cause I one­ly take the summe of his speech; and not his words at large, which would proue too tedious. addeth. Some mens sinnes are to bee dissembled and cunningly in­sinuated: and euen then hee would haue it so done too, that the party offending may haue some signes and tokens to ghesse that a reproofe was meant him: and that the Preacher could say more to him, if the place would beare it.

In this there is no Personall Inuectiue, yet a personall re­proofe; that is, an ayme and a meaning that such a person should apply it to himselfe. [Page 419] And thus the Preacher meant him, and wished in his heart that the other would take it to himselfe.

In Gregories learning, if I vnderstand him, this is no fault to haue such a particular man in his mind, when he re­proued sinne, because that man is such a sinner as deser­ueth a reproofe.

If vpon his indefinite speech, the guilt of the party be such, as like a loadstone drew the reproofe vnto him: and all men knowing his guilt, and the reproofe fitted to it (as such a sinne, though not as this mans sin,) should sweare they verily beleeue that this man was meant and shot at: shall this be an Inuectiue de­seruing reproofe? That Father thought no.

It was the hitting of his sinne so right, that made the people say, the Preacher tooke his ayme at that man. The bullet going point-blanke into the very heart of his sinne, in killing the sinne hir the man by chance; which could not be holpen, because this sinne and this man stood so neare together.

When Amphialus layd on with such might vpon a sup­posed Knight that gaue him the encounter: and lent him a great wound vpon the necke, closed with him, ouerthrew him, and in the fall thrust him mortally into the body, hee thought hee had done as be­came his valour.

But when he came to view his Conquest, it prooued Parthenia Argalus his Wife. [Page 421] If any present, had knowne what treasure that Armour inclosed, would he not haue said, looke how cruelly hee laies on Parthenia: when all this while hewist not of her, saue only that he fought with her as with a Knight of the Tombe that had sent him the Challenge (which he could not refuse;) and not as the faire desolate Pallace of late-slaine Argalus? was he too blame for fighting; or shee, for comming vnder his wea­pons, in a place of Com­bate? Wise men can ap­ply.

Yea further, to returne toGreg. Ibid. cap. 10. Non nu [...]la autem sunt v [...]he­m [...]nter increpanda: vt cum cu [...]pa ab aut [...]re non cognoscitur quanti sit p [...]nd [...]ris, ab increpantis ore seruiatur: & cum sibi quis malum quod perpe­t [...]auit leui­gat, hoc con­tra se graui­ter ex corris [...]ntu asperi­t [...] pertim [...]s­cat. Gregory, some mens sinnes are with vehemency to be re­prooued: as namely theirs who take no notice of the greatnesse of their offence, [Page 422] but by such a reproofe; and theirs, who seeke to lessen their faults. These would be made to tremble by the thun­der of reproofe.

But what is this onely in Generalls, not naming the particular sins of such Per­sons, as sinners; for feare the very naming of the sinnes would bewray the Persons, and make the Congregation point at them, and say, Such Persons were payd to day?

Nay, saith theGreg. Ibid. Sed cuncta haec licet sub­tiliter rector insin [...]et, nisi cotra delicta singulorum, aemulationis spiritu ferue­at, nullam sibi in perpe­tuum absolu­tionem parat. Father. For although a man should insinuate neuer so subtilely and closely, yet vnlesse by the spirit of Zeale he wax hot against the sins of euery per­son, God would neuer for­giue him for this neglect. And Gregory speakes now, not of priuate admoni­tions, [Page 423] but of Preaching.

Voluminous Tostatus makes a Question, how this should be done; And demaunds, Whe­ther it bee lawfull, after the Example of Christ, for a Prea­cher to tax any mans Person personally in publicke reprouing of [...]l [...]hon. T [...]at. in M [...]tth. 15. quest. 30. sinnes?

The Summe of his Answer amounts to this much. It is not lawfull in p [...]blick to re­proue any but publick faults; nor yet these, by adding any personall description of the Party to whom it is intended, so much as by his Particular Trade: as if one should say, there is a man of such a State or Calling hath made such a a fault; thinking that no man being nominated in expresse termes, al are reproued, no mā particularized but he that de­serues [Page 424] it; This he seemes to dislike.

Howbeit he afterwards granteth that Christ did thus, and he alledgeth his example as a President. When Christ Preached, saith he, he expres­sed no one mans sinne in par­ticular: but those sinnes which many of the same Profession might be guilty of. As, Woe be vnto you Scribes and Pha­rises Hypocrites. Meaning men of that calling; not you, or you of this company pre­sent.

His Conclusion is yet lar­ger; Notwithstanding if any mans sinnes should be so no­torious, that it is impossible to baulke, palliate or excuse them, it seemes not inconue­nient to name them, if hee iudge it profitable for the re­formation [Page 425] either of them or others, vnlesse some scandall should happen by it.Si tamen peccata ali­cuius ita essent notoria quod nulla tergiu [...]rsatio­ne occultari, aut palliari possunt, nec excusari▪ non vid [...]tur in­conueniens quod illa prae­dicando dice­ret, &c. Scan­dall not (as I conceaue) to the Persons; for theirs cannot be greater then it is, when their sinnes are so notorious, as he supposeth them to be: but he meanes the Scandall of Religion it selfe as I inter­pret.

For my part, I would re­straine reproofes somewhat more then hee doth. I doe not thinke that if a Prea­cher should take liberty to play with any mans Per on in any other kind, then by vsing his Name, or his Profession, hee should bee free from blame.

But I willingly grant that if a Preacher should attempt to point the Congregation [Page 427] to any mans Person by his Complexion, cloathes, sta­ture, gate in going, speciall marke of his habitation, allu­sions to his name though but a farre off: this were a Perso­nall Inuectiue, and an indis­creet part.

But still by personall de­scription, I meane a resolued purpose and endeuour to let the Congregation see, not that such a sinne is commit­ted by some in the Church, but that this man, and not that, this man or this woman onely is now reproued, and that he would insinuate at least, vnto the People; Now I will pay this particular Per­son.

Howbeit as the rules of Gregory and Tostatus runne, a man may in reproofe of sinne [Page 426] giue instance in any speciall publicke sin of any man pre­sent, so he stay there without going about to let the peo­ple know that such a sinne is committed and This man hath done it.

Suppose a man were to preach vpon that Text; Wher­fore putting away lying, speake euery man truth with his neighbour: for we are members one of Ephes. 4.25 another. On this Text he must needs shew and ag­grauate the sinne of lying in Generall Termes: Then, be­cause all Scripture is not one­ly profitable for doctrine, but also for reproofe, for correction, and for instruction in 2 Tim. 3.16 righte­ousnesse; if he should by way of deduction or application, inferre, that then it is a foule shame for any man bearing [Page 428] the name of a Christian, so grossely to staine that holy profession, as to make a trade of lying in his ordinary dis­course, especially when hee would seem to be more then ordinarily deuout and pre­cise.

But if such a man should doe it when he takes occasion to speake of good men; of his Pastor, whom he should re­uerence as his Father, and whose nakednesse hee should rather couer, then discouer; this were such an impiety as God would neuer putReuel. 21.8 22. [...]5. vp.

To this if he should adde; therefore if there be any here that yet make a great shew of Religion who are not asha­med thus to traduce their neighbours and busy them­selues [Page 429] to inuent and vtter dis­gracefull reports and slanders of them euen to drunkards, and pot companions who make no other vse hereof but to scandalize Religion, to re­ioyce in the faylings of the Godly; and to condemne the Generation of the righteous, for hypocrites, &c. how doe such men remember and ob­serue the Apostles precept? how can they haue any hope that they be of the fellowship and society of the Saints?

Now suppose further, that though many may be to blame herein, yet, some Per­son in the Congregation should be knowne to the rest to be more eminently guilty of this sinne, then any of the rest; so that as soone as euer such a speech is vttered, they [Page 430] begin to looke towards such a man, or otherwise thinke in their hearts that he was now whipt, because they know him so guilty; doth this speech come within the compasse of a Personall Inuectiue? Q [...]ae­re.

If he had beene no more guilty then the rest, no man could possibly haue said, this man was more pointed at, then the most innocent party in all the Church: Nor could they possibly apply it to him, no more then to themselues; nor he distast it, because the reproofe was ge­nerall, and necessarily war­ranted from the Text in hand.

This doctrine is not mine, but Saint Austins: and if it bee an error, Aetatem habet. [Page 431] That Father was taken for a wise man in his daies; and he that doth not reuerence him now, deserues the Cap, and the Bable to boote. His course in preaching wasDe verb. Dom. Ser. 16 Palam loquor & in secreto arguo. Aures omnium pul­so, sed consci­entias quorū ­dam couenio. Non dico Tu adulter, cor­rige te; sed dico quisquis in hoc populo adulter es, corrige te. Publica est correctio, sed secreta cor­reptio. this.

I speake openly, saith he, but reprooue secretly. I strick all mens eares alike, but I conuent the consciences of some more particularly.

If there be an Adulterer in the Congregation, I doe not single him out, and say, THOV Adulterer reforme thy selfe: but yet this I say; who euer thou be in this Company that art an Adul­terer, reforme thy selfe. This reproofe is publique, because all heare it: and yet secret, be­cause none but thine own sin can apply it.

If a man diuulge himselfe [Page 432] first by his sinne, is the Prea­cher in fault for taking vp what the other had laid in hisSaluian. de Gubern. dei lib 4. Non longè à prin­cipio. post re­prehensionem Diuitum, haec habet verba, viz. Nequè ego nunc de vllo dico, nisi de eo tantum, qui in se id quod dico esse cognoscit. Si enim extra conscientiam suam sunt quecun (que) di­co, nequaquā ad iniurian [...] eius spectant cuncta quae dico. Si autem in se esse no­u [...]t que lo­quor, non à mea sibi hoc lingua dici aestimet, sed à conscientia sua. way? Because thou hast made thy selfe publicke by thy fault: is that a prohibition to him not to meddle with that sinne by way of vse and reproofe?

Blame not the Preacher, if thy neighbours lay thee vn­der his Bucket which might haue washt any man there as well as thee, if thy sinne had not brought thee so neere while he was powring out the water.

If a Physition should reade a Lecture in Physicke touching the nature and Symptomes of the Neopolitan Morbus Italico-hispae­nico-gallico-anglico cos­micus. in plaine En­glish the G. Pox. Buttons (as they vse to speake) which the French got from the Italians at the Seige [Page 433] of Naples; and some English, from them: and should with­all bewaile the loosenesse of the times, and cry shame on such as trade in that ware; would any man but hee that were buttoned with them take snuffe in the nose?

So in case of Adultery re­proued, would any man but the guilty, goe challenge the Preacher, and say; Sir, you Preacht against me, because you speake so much and so particularly of the sinne of Adultery? This were, as if a True man standing neere a Theefe at the Barre when Sentence of Death is pro­nounced, should presently prouide himselfe of an Halter, because he was sure that some of the company were con­demned.

I deny not but (as Gregory Ibid. past. cur. par. 2. cap. 10. speakes) it may happen that in a reproofe Zeale may goe too farre: but such faults are pardonable when it is cer­taine the fault reprooued de­serued as much, although the manner of doing it cannot be defended.

A man may by chance let fall a bitter word too many, as he that went to the wood to cut downe a bow, let fall his hatchet & kil'd his neigh­bour. But there wereDeut. 19. Cities of refuge for such an offendor, whether flying hee was not only not kil'd, but not toucht. I will not apply, but Gregory doth.

When such a fault is made; who is offended? most com­monly the guilty. And it often happens, the deeper pit hee is [Page 435] fallen into, the lowder he hal­lowes. The more peccant the more querelous.

But what gets he? Hee is content to be guilty that the other may not be thought in­nocent. For if there be no guilt, it is a Slander, not an Inuectiue. And if he proue it to be an inuectiue, the other shal bee punished, but yet in the meane time he also is recor­ded for a Sinner: whereas, not taking notice of the reproofe, would serue some men in steed of innocency.

This is, in proportion, as if one Malefactor should thinke it no disgrace to stand vpon record for a theefe, so he scape without punishment; if by that meanes hee can procure his fellow to bee hang'd.

His fault is not expiated by the others suffering, but rather increased, in that hee can draw another to executi­on for a bare indiscretion, and yet remaine impenitent him­self in a greater transgression. He displayed thee to the company, that was his fault. But thou gauest occasion: was not this thine?

Doth his mistake of the dublet in steed of the shirt, proue there was nothing in the dublet, when thou hadst it on? He hath made a sinne by mistaking thy Person for thy sinne (because they were so neere hee knew not well how to distinguish) doth that sinne of his, acquit thee from thine?

Well, well; there is no­thing gotten by throwing [Page 437] stones in at thine enimies window, when thine owne children looke out at the Casement.

I speake not this to deny any man that is really wron­ged, a course of proceeding against him that hath done it. Lawes were made to make crooked things straight, and tis meet they should be exe­cuted as offences wittingly committed, and wilfully con­tinued, deserue.

But yet I aduise, that the accuser be innocent, And then, too; if he thinke meet to shoote a huge Dunghill vpon a frog, for hopping too neere him; he may doe well to consider, whether the smell may not happen to annoy him more, then the frogg could haue hurt him.

Men often feare Salt, but neuer, Honey: and yet Wise­dome saith; to eate much Hony is not Prou. 25.27. good. Men that loue their sinnes will thinke the bluntest teeth bite too deepe: But when they come to hate them, they change nature and opinion together: suppo­sing the sharpest teeth to be too blunt.

‘Worthy inuitation is that honourableSir A. C. K. & B. Mr. R H. in Epist. to the Reader, be­fore his Ser­mon of Sam. Fun. Knight, who as he much respected, and greatly countenanced, euery learned and vnscanda­lous Preacher; so most of al those that least fauoured his corruptions: often blessing God for such Teachers as would giue him no rest in his sinnes, and not seldome prouoking them, (especial­ly his owne Pastor) with [Page 439] such like words: Goe on, spare vs not; though corrup­tion may bustle awhile, yet God will giue vs hearts to come in at length; and to submit to the Scepter of his Word: Howsoeuer, it shall be a Prea­chers Crowne to bee faithfull, and to balke none.

I haue now at length run through the first maine part of Discretion in Zeale, as it teacheth men to consider and obserue the Circumstance of Persons.

The Second, Followeth which is the Circumstance of Place: 2. Circum­stances of Place. I spake before, of Pri­uate, and Publicke Reproofes; yet that discourse differeth from that I am now vpon. There, I shewed what faults deserue a priuate rebuke; and what, a Publicke. Here, I de­clare [Page 440] what place is to be cho­sen either priuate, or publick to doe it in. There, of the quality of the offence, and na­ture of the reproofe; here, of the definite place fittest for the performance of such a worke.

Wisedome teacheth that all places are not meet for all Actions that are lawfull, yea necessary. And Discretion will instruct vs that very few places are meete to be wit­nesses of a Reproofe. Great choyce must be made of a conuenient place to admini­ster such a strong Purge to a Patient, least that follow, which may annoy both.

I will not, I neede not be long in this point. Sufficeth to set downe a few rules to di­rect the Simple who haue [Page 441] more affection then Discreti­on herein.

Rule. 1 First, All Places to be taken vp in this Seruice are to bee chosen according to the quality of the Persons that vndertake this Worke.

Rule. 2 Secondly, Priuate men as Priuate men are restrained only to priuate Places when they giue a Reproofe.

I deny not but a Priuate Person in his owne family may rebuke and reprooue sharply, and before the Fa­mily too, if need require, and the person rebuked be vnder his power. But here hee doth it as a publicke person. In his owne house, he is a Lord and a Magistrate.

He may also doe it in pub­licke when any Authority is deriued vnto him from a pub­licke [Page 442] person, in this or that place, at this, or that time: for in this case hee executeth the office of a publicke person, although he bee none him­selfe, but onely a Substitute for this speciall occasion, and time.

I grant further that in any company where a man sees or heares the dishonors of God, he may testify his dislike; not as a Lion tearing the offen­der in peeces with his pawe; but as a wise Subiect would do to his Prince, vsing entrea­ties and prayers, to preuent further and greater rage, and transgression.

And this also is allowable onely then, when a man is to deale with a Person hopefull and tractable. If he be a Scor­ner, the way is to forsake his [Page 443] company, or exclude him thine, so soone as thou canst fairely and without iust of­fence giuen, lest not only he, but others fall vpon thee for indiscretion.

Euen Fidlers when they are derided will scarce stay for their Wages, but put vp their Pipes and be gone. They well know that if the company be­gins to tune discords to their Musick, the last straine of the lesson is like to proue harsh: and perhaps the Fidles may proue but fidle-stickes, and and their pates the instru­ments for their roaring Ma­sters to practice vpon.

One obiection presenteth it selfe, crauing audience and answer; but it shall stand by and wait for a while; after­wards it shall bee admitted, [Page 444] and receiue satisfaction.

Rule. 3 Thirdly, places are to be ac­counted Publicke or Priuate not according to their prime in­stitution, and ordinary vse, but according to their fulnes or va­cancy of company when a re­proofe is giuen. It is not the Streete, or the Church, or the Feilds that make a reproofe to be publicke, but the com­pany that were witnesses of it. Nor is it the house, the chamber, the closet, that ar­gues a reproofe to be priuate; vnlesse all other company were out of the hearing when the rebuke is vttered.

Fourthly, places for reproofe must so be chosen that the very choise of the place, as well as the manner of doing it, may argue the good affection of the Repro­uer.

There is a reproofe that is not seasonable, said a wise man; and some man holdeth his tongue, and is wise, because hee doth it till he see an op­portunitie of place, as well as of time.

To a soole all places and companies are alike, and there is nothing that disco­uereth an indiscreete Zealot, more then this indiscretion. This thing alone may well make all wise men to yeeld him the gay coate for his hire. The heart of a foole is in his mouth, but the mouth of the wise is in his heart.

In reprouing and admo­nishing our ayme must be re­formation, (as before hath beene said,) which cannot be hoped but much hindered when the partie reproued is [Page 446] put to any needlesse shame and disgrace.

The Spirit of Wisedome giues this for a rule; Debate thy cause with thy neighbour himselfe, and discouer not a se­cret to another, lest hee that heare it, put thee to shame, and thine infamie turne not Prou. 25 9.10. away. Neuer do that before a multi­tude, which would as well bee done without any wit­nesse.

An vpbraider is like a da­shing horse, that casteth some spots on his neighbour, but most dirt on himselfe and his rider: And although fooles may take him for a wise man, because hee hath tongue at will; yet all wise men will ac­count him a perfidious foole, because his tongue is so free.

If his neighbour had bene wisely dealt withall in a place conuenient, happly hee had bene gained; but now by oc­casion of his publicke dis­grace, it is a thousand to one but that his faults alreadie made, be defended, and more mitted.

The nature of man is such, that being despised it growes obstinate, and studies de­fences of that for which it is trampled vpon; and proceeds to worse, euen vnto conten­tion and heresie, asLib. 6. cap. 25. eccl. hist. Zozo­men obserues in the case of Apollinarius the Hereticke, who in all likelihood had ne­uer runne out so farre, had not he beene so shamefully and scornefully entreated by one George an Arrian Bishop onely, for companying with [Page 448] Athanasius the mirrour of his time.

Whether it bee to friend or foe talke not of other mens liues, and if thou canst without of­fence, reueale them not: for he heard and obserued thee, and when time commeth hee will hate Ecclus 19.8.9. thee. Rebuking in Pub­licke, by priuate persons is counted but railing; and such vnfaithfulnesse, a greater of­fence then the greatest in him that is thus ripped vp.

If any obiect that of Paul to Timothie; Them that sinne rebuke before all, that they also may 1. Tim. 5.20 feare; the answer is ea­sie, if wee vnderstand the place. The meaning is, that persons publickly offending should be publickly rebuked by publicke persons in places appointed for publicke re­proofes.

To make it appeare that this place makes not for pub­licke reproofes giuen by pri­uate persons, will not be diffi­cult, if wee consider to what person the Apostle giues this Commission. It was to Ti­mothy a Minister, not to a pri­uate man.

Timothie was to reproue publickly by vertue of his of­fice; so were none else, if pri­uate persons. The Apostle herein instructeth him as a Minister, not as a priuate Christian in common with others: and it is direction pe­culiar to the Ministerie, not common to all professing Christianitie.

I know no example in Scripture of any priuate mans publicke reproofe which is warranted and commended [Page 450] by the Spirit of God. God saith indeed; Rebuke thy bro­ther Leuit. 19.17. plainly; but take with you Christs exposition; let it first be done betweene him and thee Mat. 18. alone: then if he will not heare thee, call witnesses; o­therwise not.

No discretion therefore can warrant that zeale in a priuate person that chooseth or vseth such a place to giue a reproofe to his brother (espe­cially at first) so as others may heare and obserue it. This is well termed a Pastorall neces­sitie,De correp. & gra. cap. 13. as is also the power of excommunicating scanda­lous and obstinate sinners.

Rule. 5 5. All places are not fit for publicke reproofes when offen­ders deserue them, and persons in authoritie ready at hand to reproue.

If the sinner be taken in his sinne, the place of his sinne should bee the place of his shame, and they who either tooke him in the manner, or beare a share in the wrong should be witnesses of it. And thi [...] is to be done when a man is particularly singled out in case of some speciall offence.

In common sinnes, a man, yea a Minister is not so bound to reproue, as that he should openly rebuke any man at a table so oft as he sweareth, or otherwise offendeth. Let him shew what dislike he can, (ci­uilitie obserued) so he keepe his lips together. If he should not testifie his dislike he were guiltie of the other mans sin; if hee should expresse it at an vnseasonable time by a sharpe reproofe, he wanteth [Page 452] discretion, vnlesse his power▪ and command bee such as may not onely giue counte­nance to the action, but al­so gaine good acceptance from the whole companie present.

If a man will rebuke to do good and not hurt, hee must obserue the wise mans rule; Rebuke not thy neighbour at the wine, and despise him not in his Ecclus 31.31. mirth.

Nor is a Minister tyed to runne vp and downe the streets to rebuke wheresoeuer he may (in likelihood) meete with offenders. The Church is his proper place to reproue in, where it is granted to all to censure mens actions as in a Court, saithDe serendis reprehens. & conuers. Pauli. Chrysostome, that is, to reproue all sorts of sinnes indefinitely, without [Page 453] pointing men out by perso­nall description, as is before shewed.

And yet in this case it can­not be denied, that the Disci­pline of old, euen for ordina­rie offences, was, firstMath. 18.15.16.17. an ad­monition in priuate: then, the same was repeated before witnesses; at length, if the partie persisted, he was repro­ued by name in the Church, by the Minister, and after all excommunicated; if the Glosse Glass. in­terlin & Or­din. in Math. 18. deceiue not.

Thus Theodotus Bishop ofZozom. lib. 6. hist eccl. cap. 25. Laodicea, first publickly re­prehended the two Apollina­rij, the father, and the sonne for the onely hearing of an Hymne which Epiphanius a Sophister had curiously com­posed in the honour of Bac­chus; and then afterwards ex­communicated [Page 454] them both for the same offence.

To this custome Saint Hie­rome Epist. ad Demetriad. de virginit. seruanda. Quos Eccle­sia ipsa repre­hen [...]it, quos interdum ab­iecit; in quos nonnumquā Episcoporum, & Presby­terorum censurae desaeuiit. hath reference, spea­king of some loose Monkes that had bene too bold with wanton Virgins, and saying; whom the Church her selfe reprehends, whom sometimes she excludeth (meaning by suspension,) and whom now and then the censure of the Bishops & Priests hath bene sharpe against, &c.

By this it appeares, that notorious offenders were first shamed in the Congrega­tion, before the Bishops and others in authoritie, exer­cised their power in casting him out of the Church by the sentence of excommuni­cation.

And this is yet more eui­dent [Page 455] by that of the same Fa­therHieron. in Math. 18. can. 54. Sin autem audire nolue­rit, adhibea­tur frater. quod si nec illum audie­rit, adhibea­tur & tertius, vel corrigen­di studio, vel conueniendi sub testibus. porro si nec illos audire volueru, hunc multu dicen­dum est, vt detestationi eum habeant, & qui non potuit pudore saluari, sa­luetur oppro­brijs, &c. on the words of our Sa­uiour; If thy brother will not heare thee, then take with thee one or two more, &c. If he will not heare thee, then, let another brother bee taken, saith he; if yet hee will not heare, adde a third, either out of desire to reforme him yet, without further trouble; or otherwise to make them wit­nesses for his conuention. If further, he will heare none of these, then his fault is to bee published to many, that he may bee had in detestation, and that he whom priuate shame could not cure, might be cured with open reproach. And if all this serue not, then let him bee vnto thee as an Heathen or a Publican, &c.

Sozomen Eccl. hist. lib 7. cap 16. Quoniam pae­nitentibus De­us etiamsi sae­penumero deliquerint ignos [...]i prae­cepit, & illu qui peccata sua detrectāt, delicta, vt credibile est, aggrauantur: inde ab ini­tio sacerdoti­bus placuit vt velut in The­atro, teste multitudine Ecclesiae, pec­cata manife­starentur, &c also relates an ancient forme of Pennance and Absolution, obserued in most Churches, especially in those of the West, and it is this; because, saith hee, God hath commanded Absolution to be pronounced to sinners so oft as they repent, although they sinne often; and because also they who shift off, and delay the confession of sinne, do augment their offence, therefore from the beginning it pleased the Ministers that mens sinnes should bee layd open as vpon a stage, the whole multitude of the Church being witnesses of it, &c.

And although this seeme to crosse that of Saint Austin, formerly cited, wherein hee washeth his hands of perso­nal [Page 457] denotations of men in the publicke; yet indeed it doth not; for he speakes of such as haue priuately sinned, so as none but the Minister and the offender is priuie to theVide Au­gust. ser. de verbalom 16. offence, (although it seemes by SaintAmb. de Paenitent lib. 1. cap. 16. Ambrose, that the seueritie of Discipline euen a­gainst pri [...]ate offences was very great.)

But in case of publicke faults, Ministers handled the delinquents in another man­ner, in those ancient times whiles the Primitiue Disci­pline was not yet extinct, al­though in Saint Austins dayes it lay a bleeding.

I speake not this in a Puri­tane Pett, as disliking the Constitutions of our owne Church, but onely to let the world (especially that part of [Page 458] it which knowes not experi­mentally what belongs to a Pastorall necessitie) see that the pulpit is the proper place of reproofe giuen by a Mi­nister to offenders vnder his charge.

And if he should proceed to a personall taxation of some obstinate sinners, I thinke he should not exceed the practise of the Primitiue Church.

Notwithstanding I willing­ly grant that, as things now stand, it would argue a shame­full indiscretion in him that would thinke the same liber­tie in all respects may bee ta­ken now, which once was al­lowed in the Primitiue Church, when both Bishops, Pastors, and people were, ge­nerally better; and when Pa­gans [Page 459] swarmed among Chri­stians like the flies of Egypt, to obserue their actions, and vpbraide their Religion.

The third and last Circum­stance 3. Circum­stance of Time. which zeale gouerned by Discretion, considereth, is that of Time. Good meate serued vp at an vnseasonable time, is not onely vnsauorie, but to a queasie stomacke in­tollerable. A wise sentence shall be reiected when it comes out of the mouth of a foole, for he will not speake it in a due Ecclus 20.20. season.

Therefore Discretion is as choyce of the Time, as of the Place, and Wisedo [...]e tea­cheth, not to shew wisedome out of his due time. Howbeit two rules will be sufficient to guide vs herein: the one dire­cting vs in priuate occasions; [Page 460] the other in publicke re­bukes.

Rule. 1 1. Sinnes notoriously shame­full, wherein the passions and affections of the mind are set deeper in the mire then the bo­die it selfe, will not be reproued with profit when they are acting, and the offenders taken in the manner. It is no time to reproue a furious man when he rayles; nor a drunken beast when he reeles.

When Abigal returned from pacifying Dauid whom that noddie her husband had highly incensed, and found Nabal drunke with his guests, 1. Sam. 25. although she had now dou­ble cause to play the very wo­man, yet she said nothing vn­to him, lesse or more vntill the morning light.

But when the wine was [Page 461] out, and hee come to him­self, she beginneth to tell him his owne, as became his of­fence. The issue was, hee was pierced to the heart, as coue­tous Cowards vsually are at ill newes; whereas before in his wine, her speeches would not haue penetrated the vt­most roome of his eares.

When mens passions ex­ceed their owne reason, and trample vpon it, so that it dare not to hold vp a finger a­gainst them, they are in ill case to heare reason from o­thers. They are then like a vessell turned vpside-downe, whatsoeuer you powre on them is spilt on the ground, or in your shooes.

The best time to giue a priuate reproofe, is when men are most free and calme [Page 462] in their mindes from passion, and somewhat disposed to a pensiue fit; then they begin to soften and relent, as the earth after a frost: then if euer a word of reproofe will runne vpon wheeles and come in dueProu. 25.11 time.

Rule. 2 2. In Publicke reproofes, some respect must be had to the violent sway of the Times: not to temporize, as the word is vsually taken; but to walke with more wisdome and mo­deration, that the times which will not be bettered by vehe­ment opposition, may not for our violence swallow vs vp.

When a man rowes with the Tide, hee will go in the channell to choose: but when Tide is against him, hee will not struggle with the strength [Page 463] of the streame, but let that go by him, and make towards the shore, that so he may yet creepe vp the Riuer by the bankes, when both Tide and wind are against him.

He that attempts to stop the proud passage of a floud by a bay, the harder hee la­bours, the sooner he will bee wearie, and when all is done, the water will carrie away both him and his Bay, in spight of his heart.

Eliah, a zealous man, (as al men will grant me) thought it no wisedome too long to contest with Iezabels Chap­laines against Idolatrie, when once he saw that she had pre­uailed to procure an esta­blishment of it by Ahabs au­thoritie.

It is true, that when God [Page 464] gaue him speciall command and Commission, hee cut off foure hundred and fiftie Pro­phets of Baal at a1. King. 18. time. How­beit, afterwards when Iezabel vowed his death, his wisdome told him, that although hee had done but well; yet then was no time to stay and iusti­fie the act to Iezabels head.

We reade of Paul, who though he abode two yeares at Act. 19.10 Ephesus, where Diana was worshipped of most by pub­lickeIbid. ver. 27.28. allowance; yet he did not openly oppose that Idoll, in Pulpits, or Theaters: onely in generall he spake against false gods, Saying they are no gods which are made with hands. Demetrius was not a­ble to charge him with more, when hee vomited vp the ve­ry bottome of his stomacke [Page 465] into hisIbid. ver. 26. face.

And when the people would haue laid violent hands on him and his companions, the Towne Clerke publickly cleareth him of speaking a­gainst Diana, and confidently defended him and his com­panie, as being innocent of blaspheming their Ibid. ver. 37. goddesse.

He well saw what strong footing Idolatrie had taken in that Citie; that he was not to proceed by open batterie a­gainst it, but by prudent pol­licie; that his violent and fu­rious pealing at that diuellish Idoll at that time, would but exasperate the Idolaters to raze vp the foundation which he had begun to lay; that in steed of gaining more, hee should see those whom he had alreadie wonne, perse­cuted [Page 466] or lost before his eyes.

We know further how the same Paul was at another time put to his shifts, and for­ced to shaue himselfe to saue himselfeAct. 21.26.: and yet hee was in times more conuenient, to preach against such Iewish rites, and vehemently to cry down those beggerly elements, as afterwards he alsoGal. 4.9. Col. 2.16. &c did. But at the present, when it was come to this, that he must giue way to the weaknesse of his brethren, or by withstan­ding impeach the course of the Gospell, the choyce of shauing was at that time ea­sie, though irksome enough in it selfe.

The like he did in circum­cising of Timothie for feare of the Iewes; and yet no wise man is ignorant, that from the [Page 467] time wherein our Lord was baptized, Circumcision was to be abolished with as much speed as might stand with safetie of the Gospell, and such as professed the same.

I mention these instances not to make any man meale-mouthed, but to allay the heate of such tongues as are troubled with inflammati­ons, & to stop their mouthes who thinke that he is but a base temporizer, that for­beares to be violent in some things, wherein authoritie enioyneth silence for a time, for some causes and secrets of State, which must not bee knowne, or disputed, till the effects discouer them.

If it be not lawfull to strike the top-saile, and (sometimes) maine saile and all, and lie at [Page 468] hull, when a storme is vp that in all probabilitie would en­danger the lading, the ship, or the men, what meane those Items of God to his Prophets when Israel was quite out of frame, and bent against all that were bold and dili­gent to set them in order a­gaine?

Marke what God saith byHos. 4.4. Hosea; Let no man striue nor reproue another; for this people are as they that striue with the Priest. When a people begin to turne head against a Mini­ster, & that with the strength of authoritie to beare him downe; It is time for him to abate of his former vehemen­cie, and somewhat to giue way to their violence which else would blow him away before it.

In euill times, to bee vio­lent for, or against smaller matters, when strugling will not better, but make things worse, and blow vp the fire to a greater flame; is a great in­discretion, and an error in Zeale; especial [...]y when sun­dry Precedents of bad successe in like attempts, daily pre­sent themselues to teach vs more wisedome.

There is a meane, and way of tollerating euill men, at sometimes, in the Church; as there is, of correcting, eie­cting, and remouing them thence at other times more conuenient and safe, as SaintDe fid & operib. cap. 3. Est ratio dis­simulandi & tollerandi malos in Ec­clesi [...], & est rursus ratio castigandi, & corripien­di, non ad­mittendi vel a communio­ne remou [...]n­di, &c. Austin wisely affir­meth.

Therefore they erre, saith the sameJbid. cap. 4. Father, who obser­uing no meane but running [Page 470] headlong in one extreame, consider not the Authorities of Scripture which may mitti­gate that rigour, and lead them in a middle way be­tweene both, with more com­fort, and better successe. An error vsuall among men, and in no one thing more then in turbulent Zeale.

Some, daring onely vpon such Scriptures as call for se­uerity, to correct the vnruly; not to giue holy things to doggs; to excommunicate the refractary, and contemp­tuous; and to separate from Christs body euery scanda­lous member; doth so disturbe the peace of the Church that endeuouring to pluck vp the tares too soone, themselues being blinde with error, they separate from the vnity of Christ.

Thus, as hee sheweth, it fell out in the case of rigid Donatus and his peeuish Dis­ciples. And thus may I say it hath happened to our hot headed Brownists, dreaming Anabaptists, and to all the crew of Schismaticall Sepera­tists, who are in this point the right heyres of Donatus, and in whom he liueth againe, as if he had neuer beene dead.

To these I may say with Saint Austin; although they bee wicked for whose sakes you separated, yet yee ought by enduring those whom you were not able to reforme or cast out of the Church, to haue continued in the church yourIbid Etiam si mal [...] fuisse [...] propter quos in Ecclesia non est [...]; vo [...] tamen eo [...] so­rendo, quos emēdare aut segregare minime pose­rati [...], in Ec­clesiae perma­nere debui­stis selues.

On the other hand, as per­nitious is their opinion, saith he,Jbid. vide locum; & etiam cap. 5. who from some other [Page 472] Scriptures which in case of danger, allow some tempora­ry tolleration of dangerous spirits, thinke no seuerity at all to bee needfull; leading those in Authority to a most peruerse security, as if they neede doe no more but tell men their duty, without fur­ther care what any man doth.

The middle way, in his opinion, is simply the best; which is, sometimes to tolle­rate some snarling doggs, for the peace of the Church, when the beating of them out would make them fly on the throate of Religion: and againe, sometimes to giue no holy things to them, when we are able to master and driue them out of doores without danger to the Church.

It is a difficult task (as he wel [Page 473] sheweth in anotherAugust. de Ciuit. dei. lib. 1. cap. 4. place,) for a man to carry himselfe. Zealously, and discreetly too, among prophane men that thirst for the last drop of bloud in the power of Godlinesse.

And though it must needs be confessed to be vnlawfull, out of feare to offend, or out of hope to mount the chaire of preferment, to forbeare re­proouing, and to sooth men vp in their sins: yet if a man therefore forbeare, for a time, because either he seekes for a better season, or otherwise feares that seuerity would make them worse, who are too bad already, or hinder such weaklings as haue a minde to bee good, or oppresse and turne backe such as are com­ming on to the faith; this cannot be thought to spring [Page 474] from couetousnesse, or base intents, but from a wise con­sideration of charity for a greater good.

Some man holdeth his tongue, because he hath not to answer: and some keepeth silence, know­ing his time. A wise man will hold his tongue, till he see oppor­tunity; but a babler and a foole will regard no Ecclus. 20.6, 7. time.

In cases of dangerAug. Epist, 50. ad Benif. Com. Ʋerum in huiusmodi causis, vbi per graues dissē tionum scis­suras, non huius aut il­lius hominis est peri­culum; sed populorum strages iacēt, detrahendum est aliquid seueritati, vt maioribus malu sanan­dis sincera charitas subueniat. by rents and dissentions, (whereby not onely particulars, but whole multitudes are endamaged,) somewhat of seuerity must be abated, and sincere loue must interpose her selfe for the preuenting of greater mis­cheefes likely to follow the extremity of Discipline.

Euill men are sometimes to be winked at for quietnesse sake, nor may they be corpo­rally [Page 475] separated from at all times, but onely spiritual­ly. And to goe out from them spiritually is to doe all may be for their reformation, so farre forth as euery mans degree, and peace willAugust. de verb dom. ser. 18. Toll [...]ran­di sum mali pro pace, nec corporaliter ab eis receda­tur, s [...]d spiri­tualiter. Spi­ritualiter au­tem exire est fac [...]re quod pertinet ad correctionem malorum, quantum li­cet pro gradu cuius (que) salua pace. admit.

To this SaintAmb in Luk. 9. Non enim semp [...]r in eo [...] qui peccauerum est vindican­dum, quia nonnunquā amplius pro­dest clemen­tia tibi ad pa­tientiam; lap­so ad cor­rectionem. Ambrose accordeth, for hee, commen­ting on that speech of our Sa­uiour; yee know not of what spirit yee are: teacheth that reuenge must not alwaies be taken on offendors, because sometimes clemency may proue more profitable to thy selfe for exercise of thy pati­ence, & somtimes to the offē ­dor also for his reformation.

Againe, if (saith he)Amb. in 1 Cor. 5. Si quis P [...]testatem non habet, quem scit reū abijcere, vel probare non valet, immunis est, & iudicis non est sine accusatore damnare sicut nec Christus Iudam abieci [...] a man want power to cast him out of the Church, whom hee knowes to deserue it; or other [Page 476] wise, is not able to proue the offence by sufficient testimo­ny, hee is free from blame, though he let the guilty a­lone. It is not the part of a Iudge to condemne without an accuser though hee know him guilty whom hee would sentence. Christ did not ex­communicate Iudas whom he knew to bee a notorious hypocrite, and a reprobate.

I might be almost infinite in Quotations out of SaintDe vnic. bapt. serm. de verb. Apost. ser. 24. Item cont. Epist. Parmē. lib. 2. cap. 11. Tract. 33 in Ioan Epist. 64. ad Aurel. Austin, Hieron. in Mat. 13 & Epist. ad Dar­dai [...]. Hierom, Chrisost. in Mat. 13. Chriso­stome, Amb ad Studium Epist. 76. Ambrose, Greg. mag Hom. 11. in Euang. Gregory, Bed in Luk. 9. Bede, and others to prooue this to be no new Doctrine: but a word to wise men is enough: and a thousand ar­guments and testimonies, to a foole, will not suffice.

I will therefore conclude these with that of the Canon [Page 477] Li. di. 1. q. 6. cap Quotiens di [...]it Innocē ti [...]. Epist 22. Quoti [...]ns à po [...]ulu aut à turb [...] pecca­ti [...] quia, in omnes propter m [...] [...]d [...]nē vindicar [...] [...] po [...]st, [...]ul­tum sol [...]t t [...]asire: priora ergo d [...]m [...]tē ­d [...] dico dei iudicio, & de reliquo maxima sol­licitudine praecauendū. Law. So often as a whole multitude offend, because re­uenge cannot be taken on all, by reason of the multitude of offendors, they vsually escape without punishment: those faults must be left to God to punish, and such as are in place of Authority must with all care preuent the like for the time to come.

Men shall in all ages meete with some Leuiathans that will breake through the Net; some, whom they cannot re­forme in all things by the spi­rit of Zeale: but they must of necessity bewaile them with greefe in secret, and beare them with patience: least stri­uing ouer hastily to make them exactly good, they grow out of loue with all goodnesse, and become per­secutors [Page 478] of it, as malt too ha­stily dried, is often fiered.

There is no man but may, and doth, sometimes, faile in his choice of times; and that not so much out of head­long passion, as want of expe­rience.

And in this case, a wise man will rather make a submissiue satisfaction vpon discoue­rie of his error, then vnder­take the defence of such in­discretion: Which Sub­mission must bee accepted, and the party offending must bee no longer accounted an offendor.

He that in this case will not forgiue, gets nothing but the translation of the fault to himselfe. HereinAug. de Ser. dom in monte lib. 2. cap. 30. Facile re [...]rehēdu [...]t, qui magis amant vitu­perare & d [...]mnare, quam emen­dare at (que) cor­rigere, quod v [...]titum vel superbi [...]e est, vel inuiden­ti [...]e. he shewes a proud, mercilesse heart, and giues men cause to beleeue [Page 479] that he is more glad of the occasion to vpbraid his bro­ther, then greeued at the wrong which is done to him­selfe. To prosecute a man with rayling, is an easy, but poore reuenge. He that cannot doe this, can doe little: and he that doth this, is no better then a horse-fly sucking a dunge­hill.

CHAP. VIII. Of Compassion.

I Am now come at length to the last particular wher­with Zeale must be tempe­red: to wit, Compassion. This, saithBern. de resur. dom. Ser. 2. Quae­rat igitur mens aroma­ta sua, ante omnia, com­p [...]ssionis af­fectum, &c. Bernard, is one of the sweetest perfumes, or pretious oyntments of the Soule. [Page 480] Therefore aboue all, let the soule seeke to shore her selfe with this affection.

So often as thou seest thy Brother offend, thy compassi­on should presently discouer it selfe, measuring him by thy selfe, as the Apostle willeth;Gal. 6.1. If any man be ouertaken with a fault, yee which are spirituall, restore such an one with the spi­rit of meekenesse, considering thy selfe, least thou also be temp­ted.

The same Father sends vs to that Good old Man, who hearing that one of his bre­thren was fallen into a sinne, fell into a bitter passion of weeping, and vttered these words; He is fallen to day; and I may, tomor [...]ow The iniquity of the other made him to shed teares ouer his owne frailty: [Page 481] And his owne frailty made him condole his brothers ini­quity.

This affection is of great vse: it cannot but wound an ingenious minde, and make him ashamed to see another mourne ouer his sin, though happily before, hee did not bewaile it himselfe.

Much better is a sweete and brotherly compassion, then a sowre and sterne affection of a passionate minde, saithGilb. sup. Cant ser. 32. Metior est d [...] is & fra­terna c [...]m­passio, quam indignantis animi durus & immitis affectus. Gilbert in his continuati­on of Bernard vpon Salomons Song.

Compassion shewes that a man knowes himselfe, he that shewes no compassion makes no acknowledgement of his owne sinfull condition: but proudly carries himselfe as if sinne and he had neuer beene [Page 482] acquainted: where as, in truth, none commonly, is more intimate with that strumpet, then himselfe.

And yet with all, let men beware of false compassion. There are (as some say) in the the Sea, fishes of so many different shapes, as may para­lel, for outward resemblance, all the beasts vpon earth. Sure I am, there are in the hearts of hypocrites so many coun­terfeit graces as may match, in shew, all that are true in the Godly.

Among other, they haue (some of them) a counterfeit of true Compassion, whereby they seeme to condole with o­thers, and to extenuate their faults to any that speake of them, not out of loue to their brethren whom they seeme [Page 483] to bewaile; but out of deere affection to the like sinnes in themselues, which hereby they would palliate and de­fend from blowes.

When a man falls into dis­course of such or such a mans faults, and begins to aggra­uate them, perhaps with a minde bad enough, these cōpassionate selfe-louers will be ready to say; ‘Oh Sir, be not too rash, and cruell; it was but a fruite of humane weaknesse; the best may of­fend; and it is not good to iudge too hardly; we are all men; you shew little com­passion,’ &c. whereas all this fluttering and crying of the crafty Lap-wing, is but to draw you from her owne nest.

He hath a hellish brood of [Page 484] the same kinde: and that you may fauour him, and his sin, he will stoutly pleade his fel­low offendors cause without a Fee.

Doe you not thinke, that, if the iudge should bee as piti­full to the theefe at the Barre, as another would bee that is guilty of the same offence, the Countrey would soone swarme with theeues like Bees in summer; and the Hangman might go practise vpon himselfe, if hee should stand in neede of vsing his Trade?

This therfore is, of al other, the most cunning defence of a mans owne iniquity, which while it goes masked vnder the name of Compassion to others, doubles his own trans­gressions.

Compassion is like to Iere­mies figgs, whereof some were good; and some, naught: both sorts excelled;Ier. 24.3. the good figgs, very good; and the euill very euill, that they could not bee ea­ten, they were so euill.

Compassion, saithHugo. de sc vict erud. Theol. Libello de 4. volunt in Christo. Triplex com­passionis mo­dus est. Alia ex natura, alia ex vir­tute, &c. Hugo, is of three sorts: the one is from Vice, the other from Nature; and the third from Grace. The first is when a man is touched with an euill greefe, because he is touched in that wherewith he was for­merly held by the bonds of an vnlawfull loue.

The second is that where­by a man out of naturall piety (which is all one with natu­rall affection to superiors) condoleth the miseries of such as are neere him, when hee seeth nature afflicted and op­pressed [Page 486] with euills, beyond the bounds of humane strength, and contrary to na­turall piety.

The third is that whereby, for Gods sake we sympathize, with others in their greefes, when wee see righteousnesse oppressed, & innocency suffer. The first of these he pronoun­ceth, culpable; the second vn­blameable; and the third commendable.

He might well haue added, that compassiō which comes from grace, extends it selfe to the falls of our brethren into sinne, who ought to be resto­red with bowels of compassi­on yearning vpon them, and forcing vs to giue them the best helpe we can, to set them againe on their feet.

This is more then a com­mon [Page 487] loue: it is indeed the Quintessence of it, which makes our very hearts to drop at the sinnes of our bre­thren, as marble with raine, though it lie in the dry.

Compassion makes a man to put his brothers soule into his owne body; and his owne soule, into his brother, (asGreg. mor. cap 26. Afflicti in se animum sumit, vt prius in se dolentis passionem trauiserat, nunc contra dolorem illius ministerium concurrat. Gregory speakes in another case) and to make it his owne case; and so to deale with his brother as with himselfe: which if he doe, hee will not exceede nor yet omit any thing to recouer the o­ther.

He that bestowes teares of compassion vpon his neigh­bour, giues him somewhat of himself, as well as of his good­nesse: and it is impossible that he who hath this, should bee [Page 488] wanting in any thing to his power for his neighbours good.

Then doe we shew com­passion indeed, when we be­waile his fall, as if we had fal­len our selues, and seeke to wash away his sinne (if it were possible) by our owne teares.

This, if wee doe, though we doe much for him, yet more for our selues. He that hath such a tender heart for the offences of others, shall finde it more tender, & more ready to mourne when him­selfe offendeth.

Compassion therefore must declare it selfe whensoe­uer wee declare our Zeale for God.Hugo de S. Ʋict. in Ioel. 2 Zelus est feruor animi ad cō ­passionem na­tura pronus, &c. Hugo saith well that Zeale is such a heate as is prone to compassion of na­ture.

The Lord when he sharp­ly reprooued, and iustly disin­herited Adam did yet make himGen. 3.21. a coate of skinnes to co­uer his nakednesse which sin made shamefull.

When Christ denounced woes vnto Ierusalem, hee Luk 19 41. wept ouer it. When Samuel in Zeale departed from Saul, and saw him no more all the daies of his life; yet he mourned 1 Sam. 15. for him.

Saint Paul calls for meek­nesse to such as by sudden temptation are ouertaken with aGal. 6.1. fault. Saint Iude re­quires vs, of some to haue com­passion, making a Iude 20. difference. And Saint Paul pronouncing a curse on inordinate walkers, he did itPhil. 3 18. weeping.

The ground of Compassion is loue, which, being expres­sed, [Page 490] will temper the sharpnes of reproofe, and make it more medicinable. Reprehension of it selfe is hardly tollerable, vnlesse mixed with friendly intreaties; euen as the laun­cing of a wound though it be necessary, yet will not be en­dured by the Patient, vnlesse all meanes to mitigate the paine be applyed toChrisost in 2 Tim. 4.2. hom. 9. [...] him.

VVhatsoeuer a man doth with a heart rent in peeces by Passion, is rather an effect of violence seeking reuenge, then a fruite of charity study­ing reformation. He that can reioyce and be glad and take pleasure to torture his bro­ther by turning his finger in his wounds is a cruell tyrant, no true Zealot.

It is impossible that any soule needing instruction, [Page 491] should receiue any benefit, if hee bee taught in a brawling and a chiding tone, although the lesson bee neuer so need­full, let him apply himselfe to learne with all his might, yet hee will carry away nothing but greefe and sorrow, as Chri­sostome Chrisost. in 2 Tim. 2.24. hom. 6. [...]. speakes.

Howbeit he speaketh this of such as he supposeth to be ingenious and tractable; not of obstinate stiff-necked bulls that will not be tamed but by the fiercest Mastiues, and vp­on whom mildnes will worke no other effect, but scorne and contempt of him that is so milde.

This obserued a man may take all liberty hee can in re­proouing, as occasion is offe­red, and his calling admitteth. And when this course is takē, [Page 492] such as are reproued must not with Plutarcks Parasite thinke to iest or laugh out any thing that is pressed on them: they must not grow angry without a cause, or neglect amend­ment when neede requireth.

See Caluin vpon Iob 31.1 Serm. 123.Then shall we finde by ex­perience the truth and benefit of that heauenly Prouerbe;Prou. 25.12. As an earering of Gold, and as an ornament of fine gold, so is a wise reproouer on obedient eares.

It is good to be zealously af­fected alwaies in a good thing. Gal. 4.18.

FINIS.

Errata.

PAge 9. reade a sono literae ζ. p. 15. for state, read, seate. p. 21. line 1. for or r. [...]f line. 4. r. commended it. p 59. l. 1. r. yet it was. p. 63. l. 17. r. equalize some small. p. 27 [...]. l. 19. blot out, it is like that p. 309. l. 4, 5. blot out, and enioyned. p. 321. l. 5. r. tongues. p. 355. l. 19. r as bad as out. p. 361. l. 3. for and, r. addes p 395 for Inne, r. in p. 430 dele, Quere. p. 438 for inuitation, r. imitation. p. 447. for mitted r committed. p. 470. l. 19. for doth r. doe. p. 480. for shore, r. store.

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