PROBLEMES OF BEAVTIE and all humane affections.

Written in Italian by Tho: Buoni, cittizen of Lucca.

With a discourse of Beauty, by the same Author.

Translated into English, by S. L. Gent.

AT LONDON Printed by G. Eld, for Edward Blount, and William Aspley. 1606.

To the right wor­thy, and my honora­ble friend, Maister Samson Lennard, Esquire.

AMongst those many duties that are re­quired in a man any way obliged for a benefit receaued, Seneca setteth this downe for one, Caue ne clam gratiam referas, Take heed least thou smoother thy [Page] thankfulnesse in such a manner as if thou were ashamed, either of him from whom thou recei­uest, or of thy selfe that thou shouldest receiue; for, Ingratus est qüi remotis arbitris grati­as agit. This is the reason (right worshipfull) that hath made me bold at this time to dedi­cate these my simple labours vnto your selfe, not because I thinke them any way worthy your worthinesse, or sufficient in the smallest proportion that may be, to requite those infinite bounties. I haue receiued from you: but to make knowne vnto the world that I am not asha­med to acknowledge how much [Page] I am bound to bee thankfull, and how little I am able to ex­presse my thankfulnesse as I should, that haue no better meanes to requite, then by cra­uing more, that is, by humbly intreating that you will bee pleased, as a full recompence of your former goodnesse in sup­plying my wants, in this little worke, to protect my infirmi­ties: you shall thereby not onely adde much vnto your former kindnesses, but giue quickning and spirit to my future studies, and make me bold, by your fa­uourable acceptance of this, to vndertake matter of farre greater consequence, and better [Page] befitting your worthy patro­nage. Which I doe the more wil­lingly promise, because I want not will to performe it. For pity it were but I should euer liue in wants, if I should euer liue to want will, euer to loue and honour him that hath euer sup­plied my wants. And though this be reason enough to binde me to more then I can either doe or promise, yet Nature, and Name, and bloud, and neere al­liance, challenge a greater dutie at my hands: and if none of these were, yet forasmuch as I know not any vpon whom it hath pleased God with a more bountifull hand to poure down [Page] his earthly blessings in this life, then vpon your selfe, it cannot but be wisdome in me, to make choise of him to blesse this worke, whom God hath so bles­sed in this world. Pardon me (Good Sir) if out of a true ac­knowledgment of Gods goodnes towards you, and by you to­wards me and mine, and not from any the least touch of vaine glory, or flatterie, or doubt of the like acknowledge­ment in your selfe, I be bold to tell you (for to my owne com­fort I speake it) that God hath from time to time, euen from your cradle vnto this day, chee­red you vp with a bountifull [Page] change, and variety of his bles­sings. First, with a Father whose prouident care for your educa­tion when you could not pro­uide for your selfe, made you a man before you came to mans estate, and layd a foundation so firme, not onely for your owne future benefit, but for the ensu­ing felicity both of yours, and his posterity in this world, as that I cannot but ioy in the re­membrance of his wisedome, and carefull foresight, and con­gratulate the happy successe thereof in your selfe. I meane in prouiding for you in your riper yeares, and his declining time, a better comfort to supply his [Page] want, euen that honorable La­dy your deare and louing wife, who hath not onely multiplyed your happinesse in this life by her many vertues, and euen v [...]speakable affection towards you, but by her large and law­full patrimony, the reuenewes and honour of an ancient Baro­nie, to yours and her heires for euer, lineally d [...]scending from so many noble Lords her parents and honourable Progenitors. From both whose loynes hath sprong a third blessing not much inferiour to the rest, not onely numerosa proles, many chil­dren, but many good: and a­mong the rest, your worthy [Page] sonne Sir Henry Lennard, (whose name and nature I must alwayes loue and honour) as heire both to your honours and honourable vertues. Thus hath God euer blest you, a child, a husband, and a father, and thus God euer blesse you, and adde vnto these his blessings a long life, that you may long liue to be a blessing to other men, and to patronage this, and my future labours in this kinde. Touching which worke so vn­worthy your acceptance, let me intreate you not to sticke in the title, or to thinke it a subiect vnworthy your grauitie, being grauely handled. It is one thing [Page] to write of passion, and another to bee subiect to passion. The best and grauest writers haue writte thereof, and it vnbe­fittes not any man to reade what they haue written. The Author I will not commend: let the worke commend the Author. The translation I must not commend, onely I wish the volume had beene farre grea­ter, so lesse Philosophicall. How­soeuer, if it finde fauour in your eye, I haue my desire, and I shall thinke it the grea­test happinesse that euer be­fell me in this life, to haue done any thing that may content him by whom I liue. And so I end, [Page] wishing you all happinesse in this life, and after this life, that which neuer hath end.

Your Worships in all duty to be commanded, Sams: Lennard.

A discourse of the Author, vpon Beauty.

AMongst those cleare lights, which in the middest of the darknesse of ignorance, can direct the minde of man to the knowledge of the magnificence of our great God, the clearest, and most resplendant seemeth to be that of Beauty, which shineth not in one only part of the vniuersall, but in the whole: appeareth not only in things animate, but inanimate: sheweth her greatnesse, not onely in the accidents but in the substance: layeth open her riches, not onely in the Elements, but in the compoundes: not onely in the su­perficiall part of the earth, but euen within the bowels thereof (as within a safe treasury) hideth her manifold beau­ties, extendeth her golden rayes, not onely to things visible, but inuisible: manifesteth her sparkling lustres, not onely to things earthly, but heauenly. So that ascending euen from the lowest things that are, vnto the highest, we do still discouer the greater wonders of this so great a God, communicated vn­to vs by the Arch-figure of al beauties. [Page] Hence it is that the Platonists would, that passing by the creatures as it were by so many steps, or degrees of nature, we should ascende to the knowledge of that supreme Monarch, who with his infinite power, and vnspeakeable wisedome, causeth that ornament of Beauty to shine in euery part, which to no other ende, benigne nature hath framed an ingin so heigh and so won­derful, then to direct vs to the know­ledge of those attributes, which in truth are dew vnto him. And therefore saith the father of all Romaine eloquence. Quid potest esse tam [...]pertum, tam (que) perspicuü, cùm coelum suspeximus, &c. What can be more plaine, and manifest when we behold the heauens, and cō ­template the celestiall bodyes, then that there is some kinde of Godhead where­by they are gouerned? The creatures of God are the footesteps of the great God, which shew vnto vs his greatnes: they are the looking glasse, which a far off represēteth vnto vs the rich colours of his immesurable Beauty. they are a booke of artificiall notes, written in let­ters of gold, which instruct the simple minds of mē: they are the finger of that diuine wisdome, which discouers vnto [Page] [...]s the greatest treasures of the greatest [...]ood: they are so many learned tongs [...]mute I must confesse) but yet more [...]loquent then all humane eloquence, which in a still tongue instruct our ig­norance, and perswade vs to the ser­ [...]ice, and worshippe of the true God. And lastly, they are so many goades, which by a sweete kind of inuitation pricke vs forwarde to the knowledge of the originall fountaine of all good. And to say the truth, what clearer foot­step, what brighter Looking glasse, what easier booke, what readier finger, what wiser tongue, and what more ea­sie spurre can any mortall eye discouer then Beauty? It shines in the east, is ad­mirable at noone, is pleasant euen at night, but most resplendant in the day. It is white in the snow, red in the rose, gratious in the violet, delightfull in the flowers, rich among the plantes, wōderfull among the beasts of the field & glorious amongst mē? Who beholds & rests not astōished at the cleare light of the Moone, the bright beams of the sun the whitenes of siluer, the splēdor of gold, the purity of the marble, the spark­lings of the diamōd, & ye high prise of al other precious stones, & artificial Iu­els? [Page] What eie can rest satisfied in beholding the variety of the formes, and colours of the rainebow, the great riches of the spring, which in all things, in all pla­ces, euen the most solitary in holes, & caues, vpon high hils, the craggy rocks, hollowe mountaines, desert corners, and in all other places most remote, & abādoned, displayeth the maiesty of her mother Venus? who is not astonished to behold the rich garments of the beasts of the field, & the birds of the ayre, rich in their proud mantles, their glorious maynes, their beautifull backes, their soft feathers, their comely spottes, their glittering wi [...]gs? who wondereth not at the haire of the Lion, the spotted gar­ment of the Panther, the excellent fea­ture of the horse, the backe, of the Leo­pard, the no lesse delightfull, then allu­ring skin of some little dogges, which furnished with a thousand strange de­lights, attend vs euery howre in our houses? who can sufficiently display the Beauty of the Cocke, the rich tayle of the Peacocke, the innumerable colours of the Pigeon, the glorious feathers of the Fesant? who can describe the siluer scales of the fish, their slippery backes, their ruddy, and hyacinthian purple [Page] [...]olours, their diuers purflings, in man­ [...]er of litle drops of gold, their formes, [...]heir finnes, their barbes, their armes, [...]nd their innumerable fashions? Who can by speech sufficiently set downe the whitenesse of the Lilly, the rednesse of the rose, the purple of the violet, & the multitude of those excellent beauties, which we behold with singular delight and admiration in euery flower? Who can describe the colours of the Apple, his red, & white, & yellow, and medley of al colours, the forme sphericall, oual, piramidall thereof, with a thousand o­ther wonders, which vpon their plants we see in them? who is so wise as by his speech to adde beauty to the beauty of the plants, to their barkes, their tall trankes, their strong bases, their sprea­ding boughes, to the delicatenes of their leaues, the prise of their gummes: the diuersity of their flowers, the mag­nificence of their fruite, the beauty of their toppes, and the diuersity of their kindes? who doth not admire the com­lines of the Mirre tree, the noblenesse of the Cedar, the height of the Pine, the strength of the Oke, the beauty of th [...] Cypres, the fecundity of the Oliue, the rarity of Agnus castus? who can suffie­ciently [Page] celebrate the amenity of the medowes, the fertility of the [...]eldes, the height of the hilles, the greatnesse of the mountaines, the beauty of the I­lands, and the stately bounds of sun­dry prouinces, fauored with a thousand sundry properties, by the celestiall in­fluence? who can sufficiently commend the clearnes of the water, the swift cur­rent of the channells, the sweete mur­mur of the fountaines, the treasures of the riuers, the strange wonders which the Mediterran, Hiberian, and Ocean sea, yea euery go [...]fe, euery depth doth hide in it? What stile so graue, as to set downe the riches of the raine, the Beauty of the clouds, the strange grace of the falling snowe, the twinkling of the starres, the flaming of the cometts, the motion of vapors inflamed, and the sweete breathinges of the celestial aire.

Alas these, and a thousand the like can neuer be expressed, nay the beauties of Gods creatures cannot be considered of without wonder, without astonishment. If then such be the visible things of na­ture, what shall wee thinke the inuisi­ble are? for we cannot but knowe, that those things that are most excellent, nature hath hidden, & kept most close. [Page] [...]old so much esteemed in the world, it [...]ath hid in the bowels of the earth pre­ [...]ous stones, & pearles of greatest prise, [...] the bed of the sea: the seede, in which [...] preserued the life of euery plant vnder thousand barks: the sweetnes of euery [...]uit, with the marowe therof, and euery [...]hing of greatest prise, it hath hidden [...]om our eyes. If then we are but as it [...]ere stammering children in expres­ [...]ng the beauties of corporall things, as of the colde marble, the dead stone, and other things insensible, how should we [...]e able to expresse the Beauty of an an­gell, an Archangell, a Seraphin, a Che­ [...]ubin? Alas too dul is the minde of mā, [...]oo vncapable of so excellent a know­ [...]edge, too dead is euery stile, to silent all eloquence, too slowe are al pennes, and too rude are all tongues. Al we can do, is but to passe by these mortall beauties, as it were by so many shadowes, which doe weakly guide vs to knowe in parte the incomprehensible beauties of inuisi­ble creatures, and from thence to pro­ceede with strange astonishment, to the contemplation of the first Fayre, which is the inuisible God, who, to no o­ther ende, hath framed these out­ward beauties, then to direct vs to the [Page] inward, the visible, to stirre vs vp to the inuisible, the corruptible, to inflame our desires to the incorruptible, the terrestriall, to rayse vs vp to the celesti­all. But man hauing forgotten both himselfe, and his duty, as if he were meerely earthly, fasteneth his thoughts vpon earthly things, vnthankfull vnto God the Author of so great a good, and to himselfe the cause of his vtter ruine. But to passe from nature vnto arte. It was onely Beauty that did first minister the occasion vnto arte, to finde out the knowledge of Caruing, painting, buil­ding, to finde out the modells, prospec­tiues, and rich furniture of so many proud, and wonderful edifices: and from hence haue our Poets taken occasion to celebrate not only naturall Beauty, but artificiall: not onely the Beauty of the body, but of the minde too: in so much that many times with the sweetnesse of their verse they leaue the reader full of wonder, & astonishment. As amongest others, saith Politian of artificial Beauty.

The princely house diuides the terrene aire,
more bright with gems of gold then I can tel
VVhich maks the darkest night then day more faire,
the workmāship the maker doth excel.
[Page] [...]n Adamantine pillers hangeth there.
[...] floore of Emralds, that doth fit full wel,
[...]heir harts to comfort that doe pant with care
to mount vp Sterop, Bront, or Mongibell.

And Ariosto following the description of another proud building, sayth.

[...]he high pillers and the Capitels of gold,
[...]heron those thrise faire gemed floors did stād
Those strāg marbles which such art did vnfold
grauen in sundry formes by learned hand.

And Hugoni colouring the Beauty of the spring, vttereth these verses.

The earth that her due ornament had lost,
and nothing brings but horror to the eye
VVith thousand colours of farre greater cost.
doth, once againe reuiude, adorned lie,
The n [...]ghtingale renewes her warbling plaint
& they renew the fire in frozen heart.
And wanton loue growes strong which thē did faint,
the ayre, and water laugh in euery part.

And Veniero to the like purpose.

The woods & medows euery wher grow green
the waters are in euery fountaine cleare.
The southern wind that neuer blowes too keene
so moues the leaues as motion none appeere.

But all these passing from this Beauty, to the Beauty of man (whereof it seemeth that al our Tuscan poets haue delighted to write) could neuer thinke themselues satisfied with the commendations therof [Page] and therefore saith Petrark.

I thought perhaps to number all the starres,
And to inclose all fountaines in a glasse:
VVhen first I thought within these paper bars,
to praise that Beauty which al pens doth passe
Or to cōmend that flowre which is the rarest,
because it giueth Beauty to the fayrest.

And Ariosto, following the same subiect, saith.

He that commends Phillis or Nerea,
or Amarillis or Galatea,
Tytirus and Melibe, by your leaue,
Let him be mute, my loue the prayses haue.

And Sanazzaro

My Phillida whiter then the Lilly,
more louely then the feelds in midst Aprile.

And of the Beauty of the minde saith Mattelli.

Princely spirit whose fame all limits scornes,
whose name no pen sufficiently adornes.

And lastly Caro.

And thē they cald him wise, & strong, & iust,
Miters, and garlands they put on his head,
And termd him great Father, King August.

Here I passe ouer with silence the descrip­tion of those pleasant places, delightfull situations, hills, citties, temples: neyther will I speake of those affections of the minde, of ioy laughter, glory, hope, loue, modesty, comlines shamefastnesse, ci­uility, [Page] affability, wisdome, valour, patience eloquence, and whatsoeuer else that concurreth to the forming of the inward Beauty of the minde, which by dayly speculation, and frequent acti­on is obtayned: for whosoeuer atten­tiuely readeth those wise and sage Po­ets, not so carefull to describe lasciuious Beauty, as that which is ioyned with true shamefastnes, modesty, tēperance, and vertue, shall finde in them, not only those excelleat poeticall figures, which giue a kinde of lustre, and Beauty to their sententious speech, but that grea­ter Beauty of the minde, beautified by their learned pens. Let it not therefore seeme strange, if I in this little worke haue bin bolde, by way of Problemes to handle this subiect of Beauty, & thereby to passe to the matter of Affectiōs which by beauty are especially & most strong­ly stirred vp: for if it be true (as among al philosophers it is held most true) that loue is the rule, and measure of all o­ther affections, and that loue is moued by that which is faire, as by her pro­per obiect, I could not with any con­ueniency haue written of Beauty, if I had not passed to that affection, which especially (as the proper obiect [Page] and matter belonging therevnto) co [...] ­templateth that which is fayre, neyth [...] could I well haue followed this subie [...] of loue, if I had not likewise written [...] al other affections, among which lo [...] is the predominant, and from whic [...] the rest receiue thir originall, beeing, confesse, it was beyond my skil exqui­sitely to handle a matter of this worth and therefore following only a proble­maticall stile, vnder probable reason & briefe conceites, I haue briefely [...] vp this whole discourse, perswading m [...] selfe thereby, both to haue done tha [...] which was answerable to my own strength, and this present subiect. An [...] therefore to conclude, let ingenious m [...] conuert their studies to the contempla­tion of the Beauty of Gods creatures, [...] thereby learne to direct their loues, t [...] the loue of that chiefe, and suprem [...] fayre, which can onely make them happye and giue them perpetuall fe­licity. And as the beauty of the minde is of higher prise, then that of th [...] body, so let them remember that the inuisible beauty is more worthy o [...] Loue, then the visible, because that en­dureth for e [...]er, and this euen with wings passeth away.

Problemes of Beau­tie written by Thomas Buonie, Cittizen of Lucca.

Why is Beauty so vniuersal? Probleme. 1.

PErhaps bycause it is a kinde of good, which being by na­ture communica­ble, doth therfore shine in euery part [...]f the vniuersall world. Or Perhaps [...]ecause all thinges being the effects of [...]ne and the same Nature, which is a [...]enigne mother vnto all, it was not [...]onuenient, that any thing should bee [...]n his degree deformed: but that all [...]hinges according to their due formes [...]hould haue some perfection of Beauty; [...]nd as the Pecocke is faire, the Eagle [...]aire, the Swan, the Lyon, faire, so [...]hould the Serpent be faire, the Croco­dile, the Aspe, in their kindes: from [Page 2] which Beauty is framed that vniuersal Beauty of this inferiour created world which is a kinde of foote steppe of the diuine Beauty. Or Perhaps for the conseruation of the kindes, the which by generation are preserued: vnto which action of generation, it was not requisite, that the Agents should be violently drawne: but being gentle­ly allured by the Beauty of their kindes they should willingly frame them­selues to the acte of generation. O [...] Perhaps that soueraigne creator of al thinges beeing the Supreme Essence which hath in it al kind of perfectiōs i [...] an infinite degree: and consequent­ly al Beautyes, and being the first Faire, in a degree that is infinite too, he [...] would likewise in his great bounty v­niuersally impart a kind of perfection to all Nature.

VVherefore is Beauty impar­ted to euery particular Creature? Probleme. 2.

PErhaps because man shold not only consider it by the diuers kinds: but [Page 3] [...]y the particulars of the vniuersall, and [...]om thence should passe with the [...]inges of his cogitations, to the con­ [...]emplation of the highest Fayre, from [...]hence, as from a fountaine all smaller [...]uers deriue their Beauties. Or Perhaps [...]ecause benigne Nature intendeth also [...]he conseruation of euery particular [...]eature: which by nothing can be bet­ [...]r performed then by vnion, which v­ [...]on, ariseth from Loue, and Loue by [...]othing but Beauty can be ingendred. [...]r Perhaps because the vniuersall can­ [...]ot be faire, except the particulars bee [...]kewise so: and therefore to the end [...]is vniuersall Theater of the world [...]ight appeare more beautifull: the [...]reator of things did not only adorne, [...]e vniuersall partes, with beautiful co­ [...]urs, which are the general kindes, but [...]e particulars also, to the end, that ther­ [...] the vniuersall Beauty might shine [...]ore cleare. Or Perhaps because euery [...]nd should be admired for the Beauty [...]f their particulars, and so being setled [...]ithin the bounds of the Beauty of [...]eir indiuidualls, should rest conten­ [...]d, and satisfied.

VVherefore doeth Beauty shine es­pecially in women. Probleme. 3.

PErhaps because such is the order of nature, that what it wanteth in one, it supplieth in the other, and there­fore hauing indewed man with a wit, and iudgement farre more excellent, and more fit for the contemplation, and speculation of things, and framed him in respect of his minde, in a man­ner diuine, she would supply this want, and giue a full recompence vnto wo­men with bodily Beauty, whereby she should be in some degree superiour vn­to man. Or Perhaps because women knowing their bodily Beauty, should by their studious endeauours, seeke to attaine that of the minde, and should endeauour to bee that in their mindes, in their spirituall part, which in their bodies, nature hath framed them. Or Perhaps because shee should not by man be contemned; but rather for he [...] Beauty be reuerenced, admired, and on­ly loued. Or Perhaps to the end she ta­king knowledge of these her perfecti­ons, should the rather bee guided by [Page 5] [...]he zeale of honour, and the bridle of [...]hamfastnesse, not to violate so vn­ [...]eakable a treasure, being assured that [...]o great a grace was neuer giuen her [...]om heauen, to defile with Luxury, but [...]ther to bee a Bridle to that heate of [...]oncupiscence, which in her weake na­ [...]ure would gather strength. Or Perhaps [...]ecause hauing receaued so great a [...]lessing, shee should learne of her mo­ [...]her nature, to hide it, which couereth [...]uery faire, and pretious thing, vnder a [...]housand shells, and barks: yea in hard [...]ocks and bottomles depthes, and not [...]o lay it open as a thing common.

VVhy doth Beauty so soone decay? Probleme. 4.

PErhaps because Nature admitteth no permanent estate in these infe­ [...]iour things; but giueth onely the be­ [...]ng, and the increase: to the full wher­of, they are no sooner arriued, but pre­ [...]ently they tend vnto their declination, [...]or no state perfect, is permanent, but [...]ike brickle glasse is broken with euery [...]alle Or Perhaps because discret Na­ [...]ure hath assigned to euery age some [Page 6] especiall good, to infancy the comfort of the dugge: to Child-hood childish recreations: to youth a desire of ciuill conuersation: to riper yeares the frui­tion of that Beauty, which stirreth vp a desire of generation, to perfect man a delight in honorable actions, whereby hee aspireth to immortailitie: to old men the gift of counsell, to decrepite a delightful remembrance of things past. Whereby according to those offices, especially necessary vnto Nature, ei­ther particular, or vniuersall, was giuen the excellencie of some good, to eue­ry particular age, which beeing ex­pired) men gaue ouer their delight in that gift, as no longer necessarie, and betoke themselues to that which was more fit. Or Perhaps because wee may knowe that earthly Beauty is like a flying shadowe, and therefore wee are not to fasten our eyes vpon it, but to turne them to that soueraigne Light, that is free from all change, from all passion. Or Perhaps because loue is proper to young men (Beauty beeing onely found in that age) the which lasting but a short time, suddenly doth the flower of that fading good vanish, [Page 7] which adorneth their youthfull mem­ [...]ers.

VVhy is Beauty especiall apprehended by the sight? Probleme. 5.

PErhaps because Beauty is a certaine diuine splendour which is shewed [...]nto vs in thinges naturall, and [...]hat doth most participate of the di­uine Nature, which is least earthly, and [...]uch is the eye (among other senses) [...]n apprehending thinges, and therefore the fittest meane to discerne so great a good. Or Perhaps because the eye is, as [...]t were the cleare looking glasse of the soule, in which are descried all the af­fections of the minde, as Anger, Dis­daine, Passion, Loue, and so forth, a­mong which the principall is Loue: the eye therefore longes after Beauty, (and whilest it contemplateth the co­lours, the formes, the features, the cari­age, the complection, the comlines, the grace, the laughter, & whatsoeuer excel­lēt quality belōgs vnto Beauty) is deem'd [Page 8] fittest to be the principall iudge therof. Or Perhaps because the first obiect of the eye, is the light, without which all Beauty (as being buried in the darke) is made vaine, and therefore no maruaile, if the eye being in it selfe so cleare, and transparent, seeke the light of Beauty in euery darke bodie with such delight. Or Perhaps bycause many thinges con­curre to the framing of a perfect Beauty, and therefore the sight beeing that (a­mong the other senses) which appre­hendeth most things, by this organ, a louer doth best discerne the perfection of all those principall parts, which are required to the framing of a compleate Beauty. And therefore wee see that lo­uers by the bare report of vertue, in a­ny honorable breast loue imperfectly, but if report be once confirmed by an interuiewe, and the eye be made iudge as well as the eare, it gathereth strength, and groweth wonderfully, which proceedeth from no other cause, then from the great force that the eye hath in the true iudgement of sensible things, besides the power thereof ex­tending it selfe, more then all the other senses to the multitude of obiects, and more speedily apprehending them.

VVherefore doth Beauty al­waies delight? Probleme. 6.

PErhaps because whatsoeuer hath any thing in it, that is diuine (such [...]s Beauty is) doth alwaies bring with it some Ioye: In so much that wee see, [...]hat many thinges according to the portion of that treasure of diuine great­nesse, which they participate, doe yeeld [...]s pleasure, and delight, more, or lesse. As a meadowe decked with a thousand [...]arieties of flowres, breathing as it were vnto vs refreshing odours; a fountaine abounding with Christaline waters, and adorned with many ten­der sprouts, and bowing shoots; a magnanimious horse strong of bodie, plesant in countenance, maiesticall in [...]ase, dapled in coulour, bold in nature, [...] glorious Pecock, beautifull in his golden feathers; a glittering Diamond, an Orient Pearle, a shining Carbuncle, and euery other rich and precious Gemme, bringeth alwaies delight and pleasure with it. Or Perhaps because di­uers coulours wel placed and artificially inlightned, are apt alwaies to bring de­light [Page 10] vnto the eye, as also a tuneable voyce vnto the eare. For among those things that giue greatest grace, and Beauty to a woman, the principall are, the gratious colours of her well featu­red members, and her hony wordes, which being sweetly vttered, make ex­cellent harmony, and yeeld vnspeakea­ble delight. Or Perhaps because that, which perfecteth not onely the out­ward powers, but the inward also, brings alwayes delight, and therefore the corporall Beauty reducing in to act the senses, and the incorporal, inuiting vs to contemplation, and inuesting vs (as it were) into all vertues, both the one, and the other, must necessari­ly yeeld delight, and pleasure, for this is the propertie of the naturall powers, that in the presence of those obiects that serue them, and belong vnto them, be­ing inuited vnto action (which they naturally delight in) they take great Ioy, and contentation, and the reason is, because by their obiects they are fed, terminated, and perfected, and therefore the vnderstanding at the pre­sence of an intelligible, Species, the will in the presence of any kinde of good, the memorie of any Image presented [Page 11] [...]nto it, and the sense at the presence of [...] sensible obiect, receiueth ioy, and [...]ontent. So that the corp [...]rall Beauty, [...]eing gazed on by the outward sen­ [...]es, and the incorporall Beauty, that is, [...]he Beauty of the minde, being appre­ [...]ended by the inward senses, and that [...]y the helpe of the eare, cannot but [...]ringe vnto either sense, great plea­ [...]ure, and delight. Or Perhaps because [...]he comfort which the other sensible obiects doe giue, endes in some speciall [...]ense, as the pleasure which a coulour [...]iues, is onely the pleasure of the eye, [...]nd the delight which a good sauour [...]rings, is onely of the Nose, but the [...]elight of Beauty is a content common [...]o all the senses, which falleth out, be­ [...]ause Beauty dependeth vpon many [...]nd diuers goods, they which delight [...]ow this sense, now that: So that there [...]s no time, in which Beauty bestrowe [...]h [...]ot vpon man, some kind of delight, [...]nd contentation.

VVhy is Beauty worthy of Loue? Probleme. 7.

PErhaps because bodyly Beauty is a cleare signe (if Malignity bee not hidden vnder it) of a faire (that is) of a vertuous minde. The which by those rich doweryes, which it gathereth vnto it selfe, deserueth to be knowne, cele­brated, & accounted worthy of honor, which honour that it may duely re­ceaue, loue is the best guide, which best knoweth, the merit of the thing belo­ued, and therefore this man it honoreth, that it admireth, this in priuate dis­course it prayseth, and that both in prose, and verse it extolleth, which are all effects of loue. Or Perhaps because Beauty either true, or seeming, is also a good, either true, or seeming, & what­soeuer is such, cannot but be worthy of reward, and a more acceptable reward cannot be giuen, to make manifest the merit thereof, then the heart where­with Loue is giuen. Or Perhaps because that which bringeth solace, and recre­ation to the minde, delight to the in­ward powers, pleasure to the senses, [Page 13] deserueth recompence, and such effects doth Beauty produce in vs. So that the pleasure that we take, being great, it is fit that the recompence be answerable therevnto, and sure a greater then Loue cannot be giuen, Beauty is wor­thy of the greatest. Or Perhaps because the Excellencie of Good, deserueth the excellencie of the affections, and the greater Good, the greater affection. Hence it is that greater courage is sho­wen in the defence of a great personage iniured, then of an other of base degree, and condition. As a learned man is more carefully garded, and defended then an Idiott, a Queene then a com­mon woman, a Nobleman, then a Commoner, a Cittizen then a Slaue. And therefore Beauty beeing a Good, which conteyneth in it the excellencie of many other Goods, as well naturall, as acquired, it followeth necessarily, that the excellencie thereof must bee verie great, as beeing that which is fra­med of a multitude of al other excellent things, whereby, it likewise followeth, that it challengeth the greatest affecti­on which is loue, & the supreme Beauty, the supreme Loue.

VVhy are not all men delighted with one and the same Beauty? Probleme. 8.

PErhaps because that is fayre which to euery man so seemeth, little con­sidering the reason of true Beauty, but onely that which is ministred by the sense, wherein delighting themselues, they sticke fast. Or Perhap [...] the diuer­sitie of mens complections, breeds a diuersitie in their desi [...]es: wherby they iudge diuersly of things present, & fol­low those which doe best agree with their constitutions, whereby wee see that in the Election of any thing what­soeuer, the Appetite doth accommo­date it selfe to the tēperature of the body, and it hold [...]th not onely in things naturall, but mortall also: for we see that as the country Swaine desireth grosse meates, such as agree best with the grossenesse of his nature, labours, & education, as Onions, Leekes, Garlike, Beefe, Bacon, and such like: and these meates to him are sweete, and sauory. So we see that men fitting themselues in their customes, and carriages to their [Page 15] bodily temperatures, do euer desire to conuerse with their like, and therefore no maruell if the same happen in the election of Beauty. Or Perhaps be­cause Nature would haue it so, to the ende that euery one should bee estee­med, and beloued, and they that are not absolutely faire in euery part, should not be despised, but being receaued in­to grace, and fauour with their louers, might liue honestly, and in good e­steeme with them. That so the profit of the vnion of the whole vniuerse, the be­nefit of Peace, mutual society, and safe custodie of all earthly blessings, might supply all other defects, and losses.

VVhy is Beauty enioyed, least esteemed? Probleme. 9.

PErhaps because the Agent posses­sing his end, in it resteth contented and satisfied▪ and the Louer enioying that Beauty which he loueth, queales in his affection, by the fruition of that he desired, which wee may easily obserue in euery thing else. The fire being moū ­ted to his natural spheare their rest­eth: Euery heauy body descēding to the [Page 16] Center, ceaseth motion. A Captaine when he hath gotten the victorie, lay­eth aside his armes. A shippmaster be­ing entred the hauen gathereth vp his sayles. Hee that thirsteth hauing with water alaied his thirst, desires water no more, and the traueller beeing come to his wished home, hath ended his tra­uells: whereby wee may likewise vn­derstand, why a Louer possessing his treasure of Beauty, expresseth not so much delight in the hauing, as desire in the getting. Or Perhaps because there is no earthly thing whatsoeuer, that hath not some imperfection annexed vnto it, the which a Louer in the certaine possession of that hee loueth finding, presently, fainteth in his desires: which to be true, our Sense and experience teacheth, in as much as wee are many times either for want of due care, and foresight in our selues, or the dissimula­tion, and coloured arte of others, de­ceaued; For (not to speake of those ma­nifolde imperfections, that many euen from their cradle bringes with them) Howe many vices are often times hid­den vnder long garments? What pride, intemperance, Luxury, Immodesty, Gluttony, Sloth, Enuy, Lyeng, Decipt, [Page 17] [...]olating of honour? How often is [...]e loyall heart found to bee disloyall; [...]e chast minde vnchast, the modest [...]oūtenance lasciuious, the soūd affectiō [...]orrupted, the honorable hād theeuish, [...] the honorable mā infamous? how of­ [...]n vnder the cristaline Ise, lies hidden a [...]tinking dunghill: vnder a white tooth a [...]oysome worme vnder a faire gloue, a [...]oule hād; vnder a rich garmēt, a croked [...]odie, and in a straight body, a croo­ [...]ed minde? Howe often are wee with [...]ained colours, outward resemblances, with words, garments, arte vpon arte deceaued, and abused? So that it is no maruell if the affections of men, bee sometimes altered and chaunged. Or Perhaps because Beauty when it i [...] pos­sessed, it still declineth, and decayes in her perfections, not continuing in that florishing state it was first in. Or Per­haps because euery thing, as it is more frequent, and common, so more con­temptible, and lesse esteemed. Or Per­haps because the possessor vnderstand­ing not his owne good, because hee knoweth it not, esteemes it not.

VVhy is the Beauty of a light woman lesse esteemed? Probleme. 10.

PErhaps because shee hath wronged that naturall gift of hers, and dark­ned the light thereof by her deformed actions, for it is great reason, that shee that for a little, and that dishonest plea­sure, tooke delight to satisfie her vnbrid­led desires, euen to the dishonour of her owne name, should by the selfesame in­strument, wherwith she foolishy offen­ded, bee not onely despised, but with shame and infamie abhorred. Or Per­haps because that is no perfect faire, which is only bodily, and that dishono­red too, nay neither can it be called a bodily Beauty in thē, who hauing torne the sanctified vailes of shamefastnesse, haue offered the vse of their bodies to common prostitution: much lesse is the Beauty of the minde found in them, ha­uing alreadie by the choise of a disho­nest life, made knowne the foule defor­mitie thereof. Or Perhaps because vn­true & deceitful thinges neuer pleased, and therefore the Beauty of the bodie [Page 19] [...]ing an outward signe of the inward [...]auty of the minde, but in such a wo­ [...]an made a cloke for sinne, she belieth [...]er bodily Beauty. Or Perhaps because [...]ings common in this kinde, yeeld not [...]fects of Loue: but rather of disdaine, [...]nd hatred: which simple nature doth [...]ctate vnto vs, who as a zealous nourse flawefull bir [...]hes, hath alwaies in ha­ [...]ed the adulterous, who bringing no­ [...]hing with them but confusion (because [...]heir certen fathers are neuer knowne) [...]hey are no sooner borne, but as soone [...]bandoned, and their eyes are shut, be­ [...]ore they see the light of the sunne, and [...]o it comes to passe, that both by the [...]ght of nature, and that deare respect [...]hat euery man should haue vnto his owne honour, that those women doe neuer please, who though they be faire, yet by their lasciuious behauiour haue made their bodies common to euerie man.

VVhy doth euery man desire to be faire? Probleme. 11.

PErhaps because whatsoeuer hath a shewe of good, is desired of [Page 20] euery man, and such is Beauty: For e­uery thing that is Good pleaseth our appetite, As when we heare any sweet harmony, either of Instrumēt or voice, any eloquent tongue to speake, when we see any strang, or ingenious worke­manshippe, or excellent qualitie, or a­ny thing that is exquisite, their ariseth presently in vs a desire of the same ex­cellencies and perfections: and so for­asmuch as Beauty is an excellent per­fection, wee desire that too. Or Perhaps because the outward Beauty of the bo­dye, is a token of the inward Beauty of the minde, and therefore is not onely desired, but admired, forasmuch there­fore as all men doe affect admiration, and a vaine-glorious applause, amonge the people, they desire Beauty to bee wondered at. Or Perhaps because the fairer a man is, the nearer he cometh to the diuine Nature: For the Essence, or being to euery creature was not equal­ly communicated, but according to the excellency of their Nature, whereby one is more perfect then another, and so likewise in their qualities. Or Per­haps because thinges highly prized in the world, are highly desired, and most honored. Or Perhaps because (as it is [Page 21] [...] the prouerbe) he that is borne faire, [...] borne fortunate. For we see that ma­ [...] faire women by the excellencie of [...]eir Beauty attaine to high estate, and [...]omen of basest condition by the ma­ [...]age of great Lords haue enobled their [...]milies. Or Perhaps because thinges [...]re, do more participate of that which [...] excellent in Nature: As wee see a­ [...]ong the Planetts, one onely sunne, [...]mong the mettalls, one onely gold, [...]nd therefore thinges faire being rare, [...]re most desired, and wee desire to bee [...]hat which is most desired.

VVhy is he that is faire inclined to Loue? Probleme. 12.

PErhaps because the Cause of Loue is Beauty, and he that hath the cause in Potentia, doeth easely produce the effect; And therefore saieth diuine Pla­to, that Loue raigneth most in the hearts of those yong men, that are honorably borne, and tenderly brought vp, who as apt subiects receaue into them that pas­sion which Perhaps refineth their in­ward [Page 22] part, and adornes them with th [...] Beauty of the minde, whereby they are made totally faire: And therefore from hence it is, that Beautifull women, e­uen for the Loue of vertue, which ador­neth Beauty, endeauour to furnish them selues with vertuous qualities, as skill in musick, historie, curious needle-works, embroderings, and the like womanly exercises. Or Perhaps because he that is faire, is for the most parte beloued, and Loue (according to Seneca) must be requited with loue, as the loue of friendshippe is to be answered with the like louing affection, ciuill Loue with the zeale of our Country, matrimonial Loue with faith, honest Loue with ver­tue, diuine Loue with religion. Or Per­haps because they that are faire, are thought to be borne vnder Ʋenus, which being the Planet of Loue, incli­neth those to Loue whom the celestial planets with their influēces haue made beautifull. Or Perhaps because it is the property of those that are faire to be moderate in their affections, as hauing a true tēperature in their cōplections, and therefore Loue being the mode­rator of al affections, it should seeme to build her ne [...]st in those that are Beau­tifull. [Page 23] Or Perhaps because it seldome [...]leth out, that Beauty is separated [...]om the force of Loue, and therefore [...]rasmuch as custome in all things hath [...]e force of a lawe, they that are beau­ [...]full following custome, cannot but [...]oue.

VVhy are there borne in some Prouinces, [...]tties, Castells, and Ʋillages, Beautifull women, in others Beautifull men, in some Countries men of tale sta­ture, fat, and white, in others leane of bodye and of a sallowe complec­tion? Probleme. 13.

PErhaps because to the generation of euery kind, the good qualitie, and [...]emperature of the generating partes, [...]oeth much import, which doth plain­ [...]y appeare in them which are defectiue [...]n any of their members, who cōmonly get children like themselues. As we s [...] [...]athers that are purblind, crokebacked, [...]quay footed, get children like them­ [...]elues in those imperfections, inso­much that the children doe not one­ [...]y in the feature of their bodies [Page 24] proue like the principall Agent, which is the father, but like the principall pa­tient too, which is the mother, yea and sometimes like to their causes more re­mote, as the Grandfather, and grea [...] Grandfather both by Fathers side and the Mothers. Or whether it be by reason of the strong imagination, o [...] the operation of the seede, or the con­currence of the bloud, or any othe [...] cause that worketh in the act of gene­ration, wee must conclude howsoeuer that the first women of those prouinces Citties Castells, villages, hauing been of a right excellent complection, and due proportion of members, with o­ther circumstances that conferre any thing to the perfection of a bodily Beauty, were the first originall causes, of the Beauty of the women in those places, vnto which wee may likewise adde, the influence of the heauens vp­on those territories, the fitnes, and tem­perature of the Climats, with the con­currence of meates, and drinkes, be [...] befitting those celestiall operations, which doth plainely appeare in Gaeta, Beneuento, the hilles of Pisto [...]a, and in o­ther places: The like may be said of those men who in the beginning by [Page 25] [...]eason of their tale stature, bigge bone, [...]leasant aspect, accompanied with a [...]nde of Lordlike maiestie, by vertue [...]f their actiue seede, and the climate [...]isposed to the like temperature, haue [...]ade their progeny admirable, and [...]eautiful. But as touching fattnesse, and [...]eanenesse, accompanied with a certain [...]inde of whitnesse, or blacknesse, per [...]aps the one is caused by the coldnesse [...]f the Climat, which being far distant [...]rom the force of the sunne, makes the [...]ugestion more strong, whereby much of the nutriment is conuerted to the be­ [...]ifit of nature, and consequently the [...]arty made more fat, and more faire, [...]s doth plainely appeare in our women of high, and lowe Germany, whereas [...]he contrarie cause, workes the contra­ [...]ie effect, that is, makes women leane, [...]nd of a sallow complection, which we may easily see in the women of Spaine, [...]nd forasmuch as the Italian, is neither so neare the North as the German, nor [...]he South as the Spaniard, hee partici­pateth of both their natures, and flies both their extreames. Or Perhaps the frequent aspect, and interuiew of the Beauty of each Sex, offering it selfe of­tentimes to the windowes of the sen­ses, [Page 26] imprinteth a dayly imagination of Beauty in the mindes both of the man, and the woman, by which meanes Beauty aboundeth in those places. And contrarywise, great plenty of deformed countenances, and bodies il featured, make these blemishes, and vnpleasing defects by imagination to passe into nature▪

VVhy doth the Beauty of women consist sometimes in one colour, somtimes in the variety of colours? Probleme. 14.

PErhaps because corporall Beauty is not onely placed in the due pro­portion, or site, or quantitie, or quality of the members, but much more in the appetite, which by reason of the di­uersitie of the complection where it resideth, willeth and desireth diuersly. And therefore to the eye of the Moore, the blacke, or tawny countenance of his Moorish damosell pleaseth best, to the eye of another, a colour as white as the Lilly, or the driuen snowe, to ano­ther the colour neither simply white, nor black, but that well medled Beauty betwixt [Page 27] [...]em both, like the red rose in pure [...]ilke, or the purple violet amongst the [...]hite Lillyes, for an absolute Beauty [...]arieth away the bell. Or Perhaps be­ [...]ause euery like desireth and loueth his [...]ke, wherby euen for the publick good, [...]here remaineth nothing despised, be­ [...]ause there is nothing but hath his like. [...]nd therefore wee see that a man na­ [...]urally giuen to sport, and delights, de­ [...]ghteth most in the company of inge­ [...]ious, and pleasant wittes, a souldier in [...]he company of him that is warlike; and [...]alorous, a Saturnist in one like vnto [...]imselfe, which falleth out no o­ [...]herwise in the appetite and desire [...]f Beauty, and therefore the Moore, Loues the Moore, and so of the rest. Or Perhaps because Beauty consisteth [...]ot so much in the coulour as in the [...]lumination, or illustration of those [...]oulours, which giueth grace, and [...]ustre to euery countenance, and without which all Beauties are lan­guishing: So that this illumination which giueth such splendour, and ma­ [...]estie to some countenances, being ioy­ [...]ed to one only colour, formeth, a true, [...]nd an excellent Beauty, which we may [Page 28] plainely see in the faces of those Moores which though they are blacke, doe ma­ny times bewray a strange kinde of Beauty in them, and therefore no mar­uell though many praise the Beauty of one onely colour, as some one onely sunne, one onely Moone, one onely hea­uen, one onely light, notwithstanding being common vnto al Or Perhaps be­cause (as I haue already saide) Nature by loue being made saciable, stirreth vp and awaketh in the heart of man, what­soeuer hiddē, or least appearing Beauty.

VVhy doth the sweetnesse of Speach, & comely cariage of the bodie giue grea­ter grace vnto Beauty then any other parte? Probleme. 15.

PErhaps because Beauty without that grace, which is discouered, ei­ther in the tongue or in the motion of the body, seemeth the Beauty of an Im­age, drawen in dead coulours, or rather a figure which either in marble, or bras, layeth open the worthy actes of Hercu­les, or Achilles, without any motion of [Page 29] [...]he members, so that it seemeth to be a [...]ead Beauty in a liue bodie, yet lang­ [...]ishing in his powers. Or Perhaps be­ [...]ause as without the happie influence [...]f the vitall spirits (which giue life to [...]he powers, and organes, in their strong [...]perations) the body remaineth colde, [...]nliuely, and vnfit for action and exer­ [...]ise, so Beauty without grace, causeth e­ [...]ery part and qualitie belonging there­ [...]nto to languish, whereby it worketh [...]n the field of Loue without life. Or Perhaps because Beauty being in it selfe [...]ltogether earthly is little esteemed: but [...]he grace thereof being a certaine ce­ [...]estiall beame, issuing from the bright [...]pheare of the Beauty of the minde, is dispersed through all the members of [...]he body, and accompanieth them in all [...]heir motions, and therefore is deemed [...]he first qualitie, necessarie to the fra­ming of a compleat Beauty. Or Perhaps because it is not the simple speach that perswadeth vs: nor the onely motion [...]hat makes the worke perfect, but the grace in speaking and the grace in the cariage, is that that kindleth the heart, and inflameth the minde of man; And so likewise, if to bodily Beauty, there be added that grace, which manifesteth it [Page 30] selfe in all the motions both of the bo­dy and of the minde, it presently worketh in euery man an opinion, of perfect Beauty, and perswadeth to loue and honour it. And therefore from hence it is, that euen teares accompa­nied with I know not what celestiall grace, falling from the cristaline eyes of a Beautifull face, do draw the heart of man with such force to compassion, that he thinketh euery teare, a droppe of bloud fallen from his owne heart. And euen the like force hath a gratious laughter, a kissing of the hand, a plea­sāt deliuery, a modest courting, a sweete songe, or any other cariage of the bo­dy, or manifestation of the mind. Or Perhaps because the Beauty of the body by it selfe moueth the bodily sense, but the minde which is more noble then the body is not easily moued with such an obiect, if Beauty it selfe be not Beau­tified with some thing more excellent, which is grace, which shineth thorow the Spheare of the body.

VVhy is the Beauty of women especially seene in the face? Probleme. 16.

PErhaps because the face is the true resemblance both of the Beauty of [...]he body, and of the minde, for in the [...]ace as in a liuing figure are seene, those [...]uelie coulours with their apparant [...]ghtnings, the proportion, Quantities, Qualieties of the members, and what­ [...]oeuer is besids necessary to the Beauty [...]f the body. And as for the Beauty of [...]he minde it is manifest in the face, as [...] were in a cleare looking glasse: For [...]n it are seene the vales of shamfast­ [...]esse, the true ornaments of an honest minde, the treasures of chastitie, the [...]plendours of Clemency, the riches of Silence, the crowne of Honor, the ma­ [...]esty of all Ʋertue, the Lodge of Loue, [...]he neast of Grace, the center of Ioye, [...]nd the inestimable prise of honored Fidelity. So that very deseruedly doth [...]he face challenge the first seate of true Beauty in all women. Or Perhaps be­ [...]ause the face (among all the other [Page 32] bodily parts) is the more Noble, where the minde by those senses that are in it, exerciseth his effectes and operations, and therefore a qualitie so supreme and excellent as Beauty is, could not be pla­ced in any place more conuenient for contemplation, more Noble for situa­tion and all other respects then in the face: And therefore wee see that al­though the vertuous life of a woman, the excellent feature of her bodie, or whatsoeuer can be more excellent, bee highly esteemed and honored, yet the first thing that is contemplated, and ap­proued, is the face, as that part which of all other is most noble. Or Perhaps be­cause Beauty is best liked laide open, not vailed, apparant not masked, cleare not darkned, and the face (among all the partes of the body) is such, as at all times presenteth it selfe vnto the eye, as it were to enlighten the heart of man, when any passion or Melancholike thoughts do trouble him: And there­fore it commeth to passe many times, that the Beautifull lookes of a faire wife, rays [...]th vp and comforteth the heart of her afflicted husband, when he returneth vnto his house from his la­bors, as it were to the hauen of rest, [Page 33] [...]fter the trouble, and turmoyle of his [...]oushold busines: which Beauty if it [...]ad beene hidden had neuer yeelded [...]o comfortable an effect.

VVhy doe women which are not borne fayre attempte with artificiall Beauty to seeme faire? Probleme. 17.

PErhaps because they knowing that those women are of highest ac­ [...]ompt in the world, which excell the [...]est in bodily Beauty, and being natu­ [...]ally addicted to affect honor, and to [...]e highly accompted of, they are en­ [...]orced to adde those colours to their [...]aturall Beauty, whereby they may be­ [...]ome famous in the like grace, and fa­ [...]our of the heauens. Or Perhaps be­ [...]ause women being for the most parte [...]ubiect vnto that pleasing rednes, which [...]riseth of shamfastnesse, being no other [...]ing then a tender care, or rather feare [...]f the losse of their owne honours, and [...]nowing that this Beautifull bashfull­ [...]esse, giueth splendour and ornament [...]o all women, it seemeth to their vn­ [...]erstandings a great note of infamy to [Page 34] be depriued thereof; and therefore to auoyde so great a blotte, they feare not with a thousand artes and inuenti­ons to giue the like Beauty to their fa­ces. Or Perhaps because their desires are so inflamed with the multitude of Beautifull thinges, which present them selues vnto their viewe, especially of those, which are best befitting their soft, and delicate natures, that being desirous to participate of the greatest excellencies of them, from some they take their coulours, from others their odours, from others their artes, from others their golden ornaments, from others their attires. Or Perhaps because there is not any woman (except shee be very rare) which desireth not to please some eye, and therefore being well assured that they cannot please a­ny without some speciall Beauty, they desire at the least to be adorned with­some appearing Beauty, wherein they sometimes proceed so farre, that they doe not onely exceede their hability, but worke in themselues a contrary effect, and in steede of making them­selues louely, they many times become odious euen to those, whome they de­sire [Page 35] most to satisfie and content. Or Per­haps because they being quit from those buesinesse, both priuate, and pub­ [...]ike, which doe many times afflict the hearts of their miserable husbands, and so passe their dayes in Idlenesse, with­out care, without trouble, either of bo­dy or minde, they apply all their studies, & indeauours to the adorning of their bodily Beauty, with a thousand colours and deuises, as if they were onely made, [...]o make themselues appeare Beautifull [...]nto their husbands, and to procure [...]n opinion in the common people of [...]inguler Beauty: Of all which the rea­ [...]on is, because they iudge it a treasure of singuler prise to be faire, or at least­wise to seeme such in the eyes of euery man.

VVhy doeth the Arte, and multitude of Beauties, which women vse being dis­couered, breede a kinde of loa­thing and disdaine in the hearts of men? Probleme. 18.

PErhaps because as the first Faire by created Beauty, inclineth our hearts to Loue; So he being the first Truth, by the inestimable prise of Truth, win­neth vs to followe the truth with inui­sible Loue, whereby the deceipt of such Beauties or abilliments, which ma­ny times tie, and entangle the mindes of vnaduised yonge men, being disco­uered, their ariseth a strang kinde of scorne and disdaine euen against those whome before they admired. Or Per­haps because that besides the hatred of that foule, which is hidden vnder those faire, though false Beautyes, the very art, and skilfull workemanshippe that is vsed about the bodily Beauty pleaseth not, wheras cōtrariwise in the Beauty of the mind, arte, & exercise of wit is much approued. And therefore a man louing a Beautifull countenance by the gift of [Page 37] nature adorned with that qualitie, and [...] Beautiful minde by arte, made won­derfull, finding this order confounded, by little and little, hee repents and tur­neth his loue into disdaine. Or Perhaps because euery obiect being altered from his naturall Essence, as being out of his naturall seate, doth presently decay and corrupt; as it doth plainly appeare in euery naturall thing: Now then that gift of nature, which in women they call Beauty; being by arte remoued from his first state, is suddenly extin­guished; which wee may easily see in many women, who hauing with mul­titude of colours, and to studious ende­uours hidden from the world their na­turall Beauty, presently they decay in that smale portion of faire, which it hath pleased the heauens to impart vn­to them: whereby it commeth to passe, that they are not onely little esteemed, but loathed and detested, as being such as haue sinned against the liberallitie, and bountie of Nature it selfe. Or Per­haps because men from those outward deceipts, gather the inward vntruth and deceipt of the minde: For she that fea­reth not to falsifie these exterior parts, may with more ease and lesse feare ad­ulterate [Page 38] the inward Beautyes of the minde, and so much the rather, because the sense, or corporall organe cannot act any thing that is false, except the minde be first made false, hauing first consented therevnto, whereby it com­meth to passe, that men taking know­ledge at the last, of this so great a blurre, both of the body and the minde, they cannot, if they be not ouer vicious loue such women, but rather as falsifiers of themselues, and mockers of others, flie, dispraise, and detest them, and as much as in them lieth, forget them, and ba­nish them the confines of their me­mory.

VVhy doth the Beauty of the body with greater celeritie wound the hearts of men, then that of the minde? Probleme. 19.

PErhaps because the bodily senses are more apt and more speedy by nature, without the helpe of any arte to apprehend their obiects, and especi­ally the sense of seeing, which is so [Page 39] powerfull in loue, by presenting the Beautyfull features, and liniaments to the common sense, that from it to the other inferiour powers, loue with ad­mirable celeritie, nussels it selfe in the breast of mortall men, the which thing falleth not out in the Beauty of the minde, which besides that it requireth a longer time to manifest it selfe (because it lieth hidden vnder the bodily vailes) doth not imprint her image with those liuely colours in the outward sense, as the bodily Beauty doth▪ Or Perhaps because the Beauty of the minde is inui­sible, and therefore doth slowly moue the powers, & that onely by the meanes of that which is corporally visible, whereas the visible Beauty is by it selfe made manifest. Or Perhaps because mortall man being ouerladen with the bodily spoiles, doth more quietly in­cline himselfe to corporall things then to spirituall. Or Perhaps because that which doth most often wound the senses, and commeth neerest vnto na­ture, worketh likewise a more speedy effect in Loue, as in the other senses.

VVhy doe wise men more esteeme the Beauty of the minde, then of the Body? Probleme. 20.

PErhaps because the colours which doe forme the inuisible Beauty, are of higher prise then those of the bodily: For the Beauty of the minde ariseth from the rich colours of all the morall vertues, as from Temperancy, Shamfastnesse, Chastity, Modesty, Cle­mency, Sufferance, Fortitude, Wisdom and the like, and is also made more glo­rious, by other colours more noble, as the Liberall Sciences, the sweetnesse of vtterance, the knowledge of high misteries, the vse of studies, the happy remembrance of times past, and the studious search of diuine thinges, whereas the Corporall Beauty is restrai­ned to a fewe colours of smale prise, which doe speedily vanish and decay. Or Perhaps because the Beauty of the minde is of a more high and Sublime order, because in some resemblance it commeth neare vnto the angelicall [Page 41] spirits, who as by nature they excell all [...]nferior things, so do they likewise in [...]heir qualities vpon which their Beau­ [...]y depends. Or Perhaps because corpo­rall Beauty is the simple gift of nature, which as it is more common, so lesse esteemed. But the Beauty of the minde, not by simple nature, but by arte, and studie, and industry, and watchings is hardly after a long time discouered, and therefore of better esteeme, because more rare, and with more difficultie attayned.

VVhy do young men preferre the Beauty of the bodie before that of the minde? Probleme. 21.

PErhaps because being prouoked therevnto by nature, as being more apt to generation then old men, they follow their like (for Beauty is proper vnto youth) and no other thing can sa­tisfie them, then the present, visible, and sensible obiect, but old men who con­template the inuisible Beauty of the minde (which by reason of their great [Page 42] experience is commonly found in them) themselues growing as it were to nature inuisible, by contemplating this spirituall Beauty, inamour them­selues therewith. Or Perhaps because young men are strongly moued by bo­dily delight, as being great well-willers to the pleasures of the sense, but old men hauing often times quenched their thirst at the like fountaines, with the great hurt and impeachment both of their persons and honours, do no more esteeme those floating vanities, and therefore resting themselues content with the bare remembrance of those times, they doe willingly embrace that Beauty, which dependeth vpon the ma­ny and deare experiences of things past. Or Perhaps, because young men in eue­ry thing shew themselues too credu­lous; wherby they turne their thoughts to euery appearing Beauty that presen­teth it selfe vnto the eye, neither caring for, or dreaming of any greater, but old men being more slowe in their iudge­ment, and alwayes hardly perswaded to giue credit to outward things, ha­uing found the inward Beautie, doe better accoumpt of it, as knowing it by [Page 43] [...]xperince to be more rare, and hardly [...]ttayned.

VVhy is the Beautie of the minde more often seene in olde men then in young? Probleme. 22.

PErhaps because the Beautie of the minde being framed of many diffi­cult, and ingenious habits, it falleth out, [...]hat young men being distracted with [...]heir youthfull cares, and affections (at­tending more to the pleasure of the sense, then the delight of the minde) doe little or not at all endeuour by la­bour and industry to attaine to those vertues and knowledges, which are ne­cessarily required to so precious a ta­lent, to the obteyning whereof, men of riper yeares, imploying all their thoughts, studies, and endeauours (the sea of their affections being calmed by the constitution of their bodies) at­taine vnto this pretious Gemme, which shineth, and sheweth it selfe in the grauitie of theyr speach. Or per­haps because olde men wanting the [Page 44] flower of all bodily Beauty, which raigneth onely in yonger yeares, they desire at the least to be in some ac­compt, and reputation in the world by their internall Beauty, which alwayes accompanieth their nature both in their priuat, and publick gouerment. Or Per­haps because multitude of yeares bring­eth with them sage and graue Counsel, to haue heard much inricheth know­ledge, to haue read much, increaseth iudgement, and the frequent conuersa­tion with men of diuers qualities, and countries giueth a perfect knowledge of humane affaires, the which not hap­ning to young men, they want those graue partes that concurre to the fra­ming of the Beauty of the minde.

VVhy is the Beauty of the minde ac­companied with that of the body in the breastes of young men, so much esteemed? Problemes. 23.

PErhaps because that, which by more then ordinarie arte, and vertue, sel­ [...]ome comes to passe, deserues both [...]lory and admiration, as it falleth out [...]n the Beauty of the minde, for young [...]en being no friends vnto labour, but [...]ather to sloath, and idlenesse, it see­meth to be a thing out of order to see a young man adorned with so noble a qualitie, and consequently winnes him [...]oner and estimation Or Perhaps be­cause a young man besides the fruition of the Beauty of the bodie (a thing per­haps of it selfe sufficiently esteemed of many) possessing that of the minde too, is in an order more honorable, yea ac­compted in a manner diuine, and es­teemed accordingly. Or Perhaps be­cause that which is Faire shineth more splendantly being accompanied with that grace, and pleasant comlinesse, [Page 46] which as a thing that bringeth vnspeak­able delight with it, smileth (as it were) in the countenances of young men. Or perhaps because an intire good i [...] best esteemed; and therefore perfect Beautie consisting of a minde made rich by vertue, and other honorable abilliments, and a bodie accompanied with a due proportion of the parts, a true illumination of the colours, and a pleasing grace in the cariage of them both, which is onely seene in young men, no maruell if they which enioy this Beautie be accoumpted fortunate, both by the gift of grace and nature.

Ʋ Ʋhy doth the Beautie of the minde al­wayes helpe, and that of the body often times hurt? Probleme. 24.

PErhaps because the Beautie of the minde is alwayes ioyned to the wit or vnderstanding; and that of the body oftentimes violently enforced by the affections; and as wit and iudge­ment moderateth vs in our willes, so [Page 47] [...]ontrarily the affections doe blind vs, [...] that we are many times deceiued by [...]em. Or perhaps because the Gods of [...]e minde, which frame the Beautie [...]ereof, being communicated to others be not darken the minde, but rather [...]erfect themselues: but the goods of [...]e body, which giue colour to the [...]eauty thereof, being imparted vnto [...]thers, besides the corrupting of a chast [...]ody, they make the minde infamous, [...]nd dishonour their whole families. Or [...]erhaps because there is a farre greater [...]umber of those, which hauing their [...]ppetites vnbridled, follow their owne [...]ense, in oppugning the chast breasts [...]f the feminine Sex; then of those who [...]s louers of honesty endeuour to pre­ [...]erue it: And from hence come those [...]ommon murders, poysonings, open [...]reacheries, violated faithes, and all [...]inde of infamous enterprises: To which reason wee may likewise adde [...]he inconstancie of a womā, her facili­ [...]e to bee perswaded, and the small re­ [...]stance shee maketh against her vn­ [...]ridled appetite, which together [...]eade her to her vtter ruine. Or [...]erhappes because the Beautye of [Page 48] the minde doth alwaies bring forth good fruite, and makes men temperate, iust, valiant, wise, but that of the body guideth vs to luxury, wantonnesse, and all kind of infamous intemperancy.

VVhy doth the Beauty of the minde make vs like vnto things hea­uenly, and that of the bo­dy many times like vnto earthly? Probleme. 25.

PErhaps because that Chiefe good, which is the first Fayre, is inuisible like a fayre minde, and the Beauty of the bodie earthly, as depending vpon earthly coulours, earthly qualities, and quantities, as all other things vnder the Moone are Or Perhaps because the Ar­chitip of euery Fayre, good immortal) being the first wisdome in vnderstan­ding, the fi [...]st power in forming, good­nesse in communicating; and the first rule in directing, causeth likewise, that they, which are beautifull in wisdome, power, goodnesse; and discipline should approch so much the nearer vnto him, by how much more they are adorned [Page 49] with so excellent qualities; But bodi­ [...]y Beauty many times blotting her glo­rie by affections altogether earthly, is made like to the most abiect, and basest things of nature, euen to brute beasts. Or Perhaps because the weight of our bodily lumpe presseth vs downe to the center of our earthly thoughts, and [...]ransformeth vs into a nature altoge­ [...]her earthly, but the minde being crea­ [...]ed by heauen, aspireth to heauen (for a spirit desireth spirituall things) and as being aboue all earthly, with winges ascendeth to things heauenly.

VVhy would the Platonists, that the Beauty of corporall things should be as a Lader to ascend vnto the first Faire? Probleme. 26.

PErhaps because such is the order of nature, which proceedeth from the lowest things vnto the highest, from imperfect, to perfect things. Or Perhaps because such is the order of our knowledge, which taketh begin­ning from things sensible, and procee­deth [Page 50] to intellectuall, from particular things to vniuersall; from accidents to substances; from the effects to their causes, from compounds to their sim­ples, from things visible to inuisible, from corruptible to eternall. Or perhaps because it is not conuenient that the vnderstanding should tye it selfe vnto the sense in any created Beauty, eyther more generall, or indiuiduall, when it mounteth it selfe to that knowledge of the first faire, which as yet is confused: but rather necessary with the eye of contemplation, to passe through that vniuersall chaine of all the creatures. As by the Beauty of the precious stones, mettalls, plants, beasts: of the heauen the Starres, the Planets, the morning, the day, the night: of herbes, flowers, fruites, and the like excellencies: wee passe in a confused manner to the spe­culation of the chiefe soueraigne Beau­ty. Or Perhaps because it so falleth out sometimes in the knowledge of the Beauty of the minde, that (at the least) it is confusedly knowne by the faire fi­gure of the body.

VVhy did the Platonists vnder two spe­ciall senses of seeing and hearing comprehend all Beauty? Probleme. 27.

PErhaps because euery fayre is either visible, or inuisible: if it be visible [...]t is corporall, and falleth vnder the [...]ense of seeing: if it be inuisible, either [...]t is knowne by some other corporall [...]pecies, or by proportion, or by simili­ [...]ude, and so it is acquired by the sense [...]f seeing too, or it is inuisible in it selfe, [...]ut visible by the helpe of another [...]ense, and so it is attayned by the power [...]f Hearing. By the first kinde, that is [...]he visible Faire, we come to the know­ [...]dge of the Beauty of all corporall [...]ings. By the second we arriue to the [...]nowledge of the Beauty of intellectu­ [...]l things, euen God himselfe, and [...]e third layeth open vnto vs by the [...]ngue, the Beauty of the minde: and [...] by these two aforesayde senses [Page 52] euery Beauty commeth to the know­ledge of man. Or Perhaps because the sense of feeling being very earthly, and the sense of taste transforming the ac­cidents of the obiect into his organ, they excluded the one from the know­ledge of Beauty, as being too bolde, the other as being lesse continent. Or Perhaps because they would not that the operations of the vnderstanding should be blotted, or altered by the sense, and therefore they appointed to such speculation those senses, which were farthest off from being defiled by the pleasures of Venus. Or Perhaps be­cause it is sufficient that a Louer know both the inward Beauty of that which he loueth, which he doth by the helpe of the eare, and the outward corpo­rall Beauty, which he knoweth by the eye.

VVhy would that famous Philosopher, that his disciples should oftentimes take a view of their owne Beauties in a glasse? Probleme. 28.

PErhaps because the Beauty of their members being knowne, they should be the more inflamed, with those colours of Nature, to stirre vp the colours of vertue, and indeuour to adde vnto their outward Beauty, the Beauty of the minde. Or Perhaps because they being enflamed with their owne Beauty, should endeauour by the purity of their manners, and conuersation to preserue it in her chiefe flower: that so it may be made a spurre to vertuous & honourable attempts, and not a snare to entangle the liberty of vertue. Or Per­haps to the end that if they should not finde that exquisite Beauty in them­selues which they saw in others, they should endeuour to awaken themselues to all honourable exercises, and by their inward vertues supply their out­ward defects. Or Perhaps that they [Page 54] might thereby learne to follow the dis­cipline of truth, which as a glasse what­soeuer presenteth it selfe before it, with­out respect of degree, or qualitie of any person, sheweth openly either the Beauty, or deformity thereof, so they knowing in whatsoeuer person the Beauty of vertue, they should commend it, or the deformity of Sin, they should reprehend it. For there is nothing more hurtfull and daungerous to an noble mind, thē a lye in the opē field of truth.

VVhy doe Princes and women of honou­rable birth proue for the most part fayrer both in body and mind, then women of ba­ser condition. Probleme. 29.

PErhaps because their delicate, and exquisite diet, both in their meates, & drinks, make their bloud more pure, their vitall spirits more liuely, their cō ­plection more Beautifull, and their na­ture more noble, so that passing their time without interruption of any trou­blesome, or disorderly molestations, they become by their high thoughts, and honourable imaginations, both [Page 55] Beautifull and gentle in aspect, about other women of inferiour condition, who by reason of their base estate, tak­ing a contrary course in whatsoeuer be­longeth vnto their life, they participate contrary effects. And forasmuch as the inward powers of the minde do depend vpon the excellencie of their actions, & bodily organs, and much more the wit vpon the complection of the body, and these bodily parts being in women of high linage, most exquisitly perfect, it must necessarily follow, that euen by nature they proue admirable, in the gifts of the minde, wherby it cometh to passe, that we doe not admire so much the singular Beauty of their bodies, as their gratious cariage, their sweete speach, their diuine iudgmēt, their chast thoughts, Beautified with a strange kind of maiesty in al their actions. Or perhaps because their education being euen frō their infancie vnder a discipline more noble, & excellēt (to omit the generous bloud of their parents from whom they descend, & the pure milke which they draw frō the dugs of women of a most temperate constitution) they cannot in common iudgment but proue admira­ble in the world.

VVhy doe faire women preuaile much in obtayning grace and fauour with Princes? Probleme. 30.

PErhaps because it seldome comes to passe, that women that excell in Beauty, doe not likewise excell in the sweete deliuery of their speech, which doth so much the more inflame the heart of man, by how much the more they haue commonly ioyned therevn­to a pleasing cariage, and heauenly grace, in the other parts of the body, which deseruedly winneth vnto them so much fauour, especially with men of highest state and condition (who by their nobilitie are made more facill and gentle) that whatsoeuer the cause be, they thinke they haue sinned a­gainst the rule of Iustice, if they con­discend not to their desires. Or Per­haps because by a beautifull face be­dewed with teares trickling downe her cheekes, and accompanied with amo­rous flames of honest and chaste loue, the greatest Princes without any other supplication vttered by the tongue (euen out of the generositie of their [Page 57] owne hearts made to pitty, doe feele themselues to be wounded with the darte of true clemencie, and commise­ration, and therefore doe endeauour in what possibly they may, though per­haps not in all, to satisfie their desires, and to giue comfort to that appaled countenance, which hath lost the co­lour, though not the Beautie. Or perhaps because women adorned with such a qualitie, doe either loue or hate beyond measure, & so much the more, by how much they are higher in estate and con­dition. And therefore if their supplica­tion be for loue and fauour, they assaile with those darts that are most effectuall to moue vnto pitty and clemencie, and to make a breach into the will, and af­fection of the hearer; As the miserie of their present estates, their greatnesse [...]n former times, their little desert of [...]hese their miserable fortunes, the dan­ger that is yet behinde, both of their honours, and their fortunes, the great confidence that they haue euer had in his Crowne and Scepter, as hauing no other friend vnder heauen, to whom [...]hey may lay open their griefes & lastly [...]heir promises of all manner of bands of thankfulnesse, and recompence that [Page 58] may be made. I omit their teares, their interrupted sighes, and all other their passionate actions, and cariage of the body, whereby they so hide, and couer their arte, that they binde, and ensnare, and as it were violently inforce the hearer. But if for hatred they haue made themselues suppliants, they change their tune, and betake themselues to new artes, new protestations, new de­sires of Iustice accompanied with a fy­erie tongue, which clearely layeth open the iniurie that they haue receiued, the troubles they vniustly suffer, & to con­clude, what with their modest blush­ings, & their iust zeale of honour, their honest requests, & their scalding teares, the greatest personages are soonest per­swaded to do their pleasure, & to grant their desires. Or Perhaps because womē being by nature fall of pitty & compas­sion, and soonest moued to a feeling commiseration of the miseries of other men, they are worthy of the like pitty & compassion, when in the like case of misery they are suppliants to other mē. Or Perhaps because the inuisyble Beauty of the minde, adorning the outward semblance, with I know not what di­uine grace, doth inuisybly wound the [Page 59] hearts of great Princes, & with a sweet kinde of violence, stirreth vp their wils to grant vnto them whatsoeuer they shall demaund.

VVhy is onely the Beautie of women amongst all other Beauties, na­med, praised, and esteemed. Probleme. 31.

PErhaps because Beauty is the onely ornament of women, their onely dowerye, their diuine gift, their riche pledge, and their highest glory, & ther­fore no other creature may iustly chal­ [...]enge it but by speciall priuiledge. Or [...]erhaps because notwithstanding Beau­ty may be giuen to a young child, a to­wardly youth, a handsome man, an ho­norable knight, a venerable old man, a magnanimious Prince, neuerthelesse man being borne vnto labour, their cō ­mendations must not take roote from [...]he simple gift of nature, but the childe [...] commended for his towardlines, the [...]outh for his dexterity. & readinesse in [...]erformance, the man for his wisdome [...] matters of importance, the knight [...]or his valour in dangerous seruices, the [...]ld man for his sufficiencie in giuing [...]ounsell, and the Prince for his iustice. [Page 60] Or Perhaps because women are not to glorie in any other gift then in the li­berality, and bounty of nature, who hath adorned them with so precious a quality, that they might preserue it as a crowne to their other feminine vertues, as temperance, modestie, shamfastnesse, chastitie, zeale of honour, Clemency, Religion, Taciturnity and the like. For it becometh not a woman (but for spe­ciall cause) to weare armour, to exercise the feates of warre, to apply her selfe to those actions, which doe better befit a Senator or a Souldier, then the tender, and delicate nature of a woman. Or Perhaps because men may certainely know, that the heauens haue imparted a speciall raye of the first Fayre vnto women, that whilest they with their tongues commend it as diuine, and with their deedes deforme it, they might endeauour to better them selues by the imitation thereof.

VVhy is the Beauty of women serued and adorned with the excellency of whatsoeuer things are Beautifull in the world? Probleme. 32.

PEerhaps because the Beauty of a woman is the touchstone where­by al other Beautyes are tried: the wor­thiest and most noble qualitie of the body, the first Spheare of all corporall Beauty, wherein are descried the grea­test perfections of all other Beauties. And therefore hence it is, that all other things (though most faire in their kinds) by the iust lawe of Nature ought to do seruice, and homage to that prin­cipall bodily Beauty, which in their a­spects, & countenances is adorned with those colours, enlightned with those splendours, endued with those graces which procure vnto thē honor & admi­ration. And therefore as being the La­dies of all other Beauties, they adorne [...]hemselues, with the Beauty of the flow­ers, the Rose, the Violet, and the Hia­ [...]r [...]th, and a thousand colours, deuises, [Page 62] and sweete smelling odours, with the inestimable riches of precious stones, of Rubies, Margarites, Amatists, Tur­keys, Pearles, Diamonds, Emraulds, and a thousand the like Iewells of highest price: They crowne themselues with golde, and siluer, decke themselues with pendants, braselets, Embroderinges, chaines, girdells, rings, and a thousand tires of sundry fassions: They make a glorious shew with their feathers, and fannes, and pearles, and silkes, and crestes, with their hanging sleeues, their furres of Sable, their garments of satine, silke, damaske, veluet, tinsell, cloath of golde, and a thousand the like. So that as if they were the ru­lers, and commaunders of all Beautyes, they will haue the coulours of the heauens, the light of the Planets, the puritie of the Elements, the strength of the mettalls, the prise of precious stones, the adours of flowers, the va­rietie of fruits, the ornaments of beastes, the wit of a thousand arts, the nouelties of as many inuentions, and the broade Ocean of all manner of delights. Or Perhaps because a wo­man being by nature gentle, and of [Page 63] complection delicate, as following her like, desireth the things that are most noble, most daintie & delicate: And from hence it likewise proceedeth that being by nature fearefull, shee loueth her solitary house, flyeth all vnhappy desasters, as hauing little strength to re­sist them, so that in euery thing she de­sireth ease, and comfort, and pleasure, and recreations, as daunsing, musicke, feastes, Beautifull spectacles, pleasant places, houses richly hanged, goodly Pallaces adorned with al kinde of cost­ly furniture, that may content the eye.

VVhy is the Beautie of women of such force that it many times ouercommeth the grea­test personages of the world? Probleme. 33.

PErhaps because the sense being too much fastned in that supreme hu­mane Beauty, doth not onely (as if it, gazed vpō an obiect aboue his strēgth) remaine dazeled with the raies ther­of, but reason it selfe is darkened, [Page 64] the heart is fettered, and the will by loue made a prisoner. Or Perhaps be­cause too much boldnesse in beholding the highest things, (being instigated thereunto by our corrupt appetite) and the vnaduised counsell of our blinde sense (which in the best sorte of men doth many times, though not openly, yet secreatly run riot) doth carry euen the wisest, and the strongest men that are to their vtter ruine, let Salomon make good this truth vnto vs, who amongest all the men of the world for wisdome wore the Diademe, yet by this snate of Beauty was drawne to commit adulte­ry. Let Sampson auerre the same, who being the strongest man that euer was, was yet ouercome by the Beauty of Dalida: Let Dauid proue it true, who though hee were a man framed after Gods owne heart, yet by one onely viewe of Bershaba he was inflamed with dishonest loue, and feared not to com­mit both adultery, and murder: yea all histories both diuine, and humaine, an­cient, and moderne, speake of thousands that haue beene famous in the world both for valure, and wisdome, who by gazing either too much, or too vnadui­sedly vpon these Beautiful obiects, haue [Page 65] fallen into many dangerous and enor­mous sinnes.

VVhy doth the Beauty of a women be­ing violated, bring infamy and dis­honour not onely to her selfe, but to her whole family? Probleme. 34.

PErhaps because the body being vio­lated, the minde is likewise corrup­ted: and the first action in such a case by Election being infamous in the minde, and from thence passing to the act of the body, and so to the notice of the world, both the election, and the action being vnlawfull cannot but be likewise infamous, and dishonorable. So that the woman being totally dis­honored both in body, and minde, she disperseth this her infamy euen to those that haue begotten her, as if they that first gaue her her being, gaue therwith her corruptions, and the first occasion of this her infamy. Or Perhaps because Beauty being not only for it selfe highly esteemed, but also much more for those vertues that doe accompany it, [Page 66] being robbed, and spoyled of these excellent ornaments, it remayneth na­ked, both in prise, and honour. And forasmuch as by Election she fell into this folly, notwithstanding she knewe that shee thereby should offend her whole stocke, and Progeny, it follow­eth that she likewise makes them par­takers of her infamy. Or Perhaps be­cause that fayth, which passeth be­twixt a man, and his wife, being viola­ted, doth not onely offend the minde of those that breake it, but the body al­so, and not only both these, but the pos­terity that shall arise out of so corrupte a seede, and vnlawfull copulation, and not onely that neather, but forasmuch as the husbande, and the wife, are held to be one body, and he one flesh, and bloud, with his progenitors, they are not altogither cleare from this infamy.

VVhy is it the custome to hange Beauti­full pictures in the chambers of those women that are with childe? Probleme. 35.

PErhaps because those strang occur­rents that in former times haue fal­ [...]en out, are an instruction to men in [...]hese dayes to preuent the like euents: For great women by contemplating, [...]nd gazing on serpents, and Moores in [...]heir chambers in the act of generation, haue brought forth monstrous birthes, [...]n some figure, and proportion like vn­ [...]o them: By which strange euents men [...]eing terrified, to the ende they may preuent the like dangerous issues, they hange their Chambers with Beau­ [...]ifull images, and pictures. Or Perhaps [...]ecause the desire of parents to haue Beautifull children is so great (for Beau­ty being powerfull to incline the hearts of men) promiseth (as it were) a future felicitie, that knowing the great force of imagination and con­ceipt in the act of generation they are [Page 68] carefull to furnish their Chambers with fayre, and Beautifull pictures: to the end that their children may come into the light in some sorte answerable to their desires. Or Perhaps because men not being content with the nobilitie of their owne bloud, and Beauty, they desire likewise the outward helpes of those princely Beauties of the most fa­mous women in all Countries, to the ende their children may likewise proue admirable in that qualitie, and they winne vnto themselues greater honor. Or Perhaps because as they vse with a thousand restoritiues to comfort the fearefull hearts of their afflicted wiues being neare their la­bour, so they are no way backeward by these present figures adorned with diuers coulours, and strang Beauties to make them comfortable.

VVhy doe they make Ʋe­nus the mother of Beauty? Probleme. 36.

PEerhaps because they make her the mother of Loue, and Beauty is that [...]hich (by meanes of that content, and [...]easingnesse which is in it) ingendreth [...]oue in the hearts of men. Or Perhaps [...]ecause Beauty is the proper ornament [...]f women, and Ʋenus is sayd to haue [...]eene the fayrest woman that euer [...]as. Or Perhaps because among the [...]elestiall Planets their is none more [...]elightfull, more blith and bucksome: [...]r by reason of her siluer lightes more [...]anton, then the planet of Ʋenus, which [...]ualities doe all concurre to the for­ [...]ing of the Beauty of a woman. Or [...]erhaps because this planet by her hap­ [...]y influences worketh much to the [...]aming of euery woman gratious, [...]ayre, and louely, therfore she hath de­ [...]erued the name and title of the mother [...]f all Beauty.

VVhy is onely the Beauty of heauen amongest other Corporall thinges of it selfe permanent? Probleme. 37.

PErhaps because a body vnchange­able, incorruptible, and no waye subiect to the voracitie of consuming time, such a qualitie best befitteth, as is answearable to such a subiect. And notwithstanding the Celestiall mantell doe not alwayes shine, and therefore sometimes the golden raies of the Sunne, & siluer beames of the Moone, the glorious light of the Starres, the noble compartiments of the celesti­all signes, the illustrious splendour of all that region, and to conclude a faire night, a beautifull morning, a glorious day may not be seene. Yet neuerthe­lesse the darkenesse of the Element, the fury of the winds, the pitchy ob­scuritie of the whirle-winds, the thick­nesse of the cloudes, and all other dark­some oppositions being takē away, the heauens doe alwayes shine in their [Page 71] [...]reatest Beauty, appeare glorious in [...]eir supreme Monarchie, and display [...]emselues adorned in euery parte, [...]ith a thousād Beautyes Or Perhaps be­ [...]use the eyes of those that contem­ [...]ate the heauens, seeing so supreme a [...]eauty, in so supreme, and celestiall a [...]ody, with the eyes of the minde they [...]ould thinke, and consider that vn­ [...]hangeable Beauty, is onely found in [...]e celestiall partes, and that no Beau­ [...] in this inferior world lasteth longe: [...]d so with heauenly desires, and in­ [...]eauours they should aspire to the ce­ [...]stiall Beauty. Or Perhaps because men [...]owing so noble a Beauty, and so [...]nstant, to be in a body so soueraigne, [...]ey should from thence learne in their [...]inds created immortall, to place the [...]auty of vertue, of wisdome, and of [...]ery noble art, and science, that, that [...]hich is inclosed within a mortall sub­ [...]ct, may by glory, and honor be made [...]mortall. Or Perhaps because the [...]st inuisible Fayre, being willing to [...]awe vnto the knowledge of his [...]auty all mortall men, partely by the [...]iuersall Fabricke of the world, and [...]rtly by some speciall visible [Page 72] creature, he hath placed (as it were in a throne) this his Beauty, and there made it permanent, that all eyes might see and behold it, and so beholding it, he might draw the hearts of all from time to time vnto him, that there might be no reason of excuse, left euen to the slowest eye, and all such as are most backward in the search of highest my­steries. Or perhaps because such is the order of euery thing, that the more they are parted, and separated from the ori­ginall fountaine of all Beauty, the more they decline in their owne, which doth plainly appeare, if we descend from the Heauens, to the Elements, and from them to their com [...]ounds, and from the perfect compounds, to the lesse perfect, and so forth.

VVhy is the first faire to mortall eyes inuisible? Probleme. 23.

PErhaps because the Spheare of his infinite light is so high, that it is past the power of any created Organe to pierce so high, as to behold euen the [Page 73] darknesse of the outward entry or lob­bie thereof; much lesse to discerne the immensitie, and exceeding greatnesse of that soueraigne obiect, in the presence whereof, the glittering rayes of the Sunne are darkned; the Starres lose their light; the sparkling Diamond is defased, the flashing Ruby shineth not, the white Lilly is black, the Spring not beautifull, Laughter not pleasant, Mu­sick not delightfull, Iuceus not odorife­rous, Nectar not sweet, golde not rich, and the highest Monarchies base and contemptible; And therefore the An­gels in heauen lay downe their crownes at the feete of so infinite a Beautie, and all creatures are altogether impotent, yea vnwotthy to consider the incom­prehensible greatnesse thereof. Or per­haps because things most rare and ex­cellent, doe alwayes bot [...] by Nature, and Arte lye hidden, and therefore we see, that the deepest, and most impor­tant matters in the Scripture, lye coue­red and vailed vnder a thousand fi­gures, similitudes, mysteries, parables, and the like, which doth likewise ap­peare in nature, who hideth things of greatest prise in g [...]eatest darknesse, and maketh those things seeme inuisible [Page 74] that were framed visible, as we see in the seede of euery plant, which lieth hidden in a thousand rinds, skinnes, and shelles, in the inward powers, which are made inuisible by the outward or­gans, in the substanciall formes, which lurke vnder their matter, in precious stones, which shee hath buried in the sandy bed of the sea, in gold, and siluer, which she hath hid in the bowells of the earth, in the Angelicall spirits, who by the curtine of heauē placed betwixt their sight, and ours, are separated from our sense, and in all other Beautiful, and excellent qualities whatsoeuer: & ther­fore no maruell if the first Fayre like­wise be hidded from our eyes. Or Per­haps because it is not fitte that so high, so supreme, yea so infinite a Beauty should bee gazed one by mortall eye, but onely in the other life by the helpe and assistance of the light of glory: In the meane time let it suffice that it is not altogither inuisible, but by the light of that Beauty, that shineth in al creatures we may discerne at the least a shadowe thereof.

VVhy doe many men little regard the first fayre? Probleme. 39.

PErhaps because man being ouer­laden, and pressed downe by the [...]ense, by reason of that ancient sinne [...]f his first father Adam, knoweth not [...]owe to raise vp himselfe to so great a [...]ood, without the speciall helpe of him [...]hat framed him immortall, for being weake in himselfe he cannot by his [...]wne strength ascend to so great a ma­ [...]sty. Or Perhaps because he being [...]aced in the middle of the Theater of [...] many Beauties, created both in things [...]enerall, and more speciall, and indi­ [...]duall, and as it were dazeled, and [...]inded with the light of them, doth [...]ot know howe to discerne the better [...]om the worse. Not considering that [...] was created to vnderstand, and vn­ [...]rstanding the excellency of the crea­ [...]res of God, by them to passe to the [...]owledge of the Creator, and so from [...]e inferior Beauties to the supreme. Or [...]rhaps because hauing fastned the [Page 76] eye of his sense vpon some earthly Beau­ty, pleaseth himselfe so much with the present delight thereof, that forgetting the greater Beautie, and not knowing any greater delight, he placeth therein his last end and chiefest felicity, offend­ing thereby both the law of reason, and of God. Or perhaps because man be­ing made blinde by sense, and loue of a momentary delight, he desireth not by contemplation to enioy the Beauty of God For neither can the sense, or any other powers, exercise their operations in any degree of excellencie, if not in one onely obiect, and at one only time, and therefore the eye being fastned in an earthly Beauty, with an earthly loue, how can he by contemplation behold the celestiall Beautie, with angelicall loue? How should a man that hath a­based his lips, by inordinate lust to the standing, and stinking poole of a rotten Beauty, dippe them in the pure foun­taine of the onely fayre, by a regular and orderly desire? How should he ga­zing, by a sensuall, and brutish loue, vp­on a corporall, and corruptible Beauty, fasten the subtilitie of his vnderstand­ing, vpon the first fayre, who is meere­ly spirituall, and heauenly? what pro­portion [Page 77] hath the Sunne with darke­nesse; the day with night, truth with a [...]ye, a Prince with a slaue, fire with Ise, snowe with durte, golde with Iron, honour with infamie, diuine with earthly, treasure with pouertie, vertue with vice, order with confusion, infi­nite with finite, immortall with mor­tall? so long therefore as he fasteneth his eye vpon an inferiour Beauty, he cannot possibly ascend by contempla­ [...]ion to the first fayre. Or perhaps be­cause the sense being debased to a thou­sand concupiscences, the Appetite drowned with the lasciuious billowes of intemperancie, the taste glutted with the honie of Cupids appearing [...]ainties, the will placed vpon fraile ob­ [...]ects, and willing nothing but to satis­ [...]ie the desires of the flesh, the body more then furiously and inconsiderate­ [...]y accustomed to Ʋenus beddes, the [...]oynes alwayes walking to the com­mon forge of euery brothelhouse, the [...]yes open to nothing but the spectacles [...]f Sardanapalus, the thoughts ascend­ [...]ng no higher then the contriuing of [...]dulteries, and wanton sports, Religion [...]anished, the vailes of chastitie broken, [...]he bridle of the law nothing regarded, [Page 78] All good counsell, and ciuill discipline set at naught, and man being made more then an enemy to himselfe, hee cannot euen by the lawe of custome (which is conuerted into an other na­ture, yea a necessitie) lift vp the eye of his vnderstanding to heauen, and to the contemplation of the first Fayre.

Problemes of the Affections. Where at full are set downe: Their Causes, properties, offices, vses, and endes,

Of Loue.

VVhy hath nature ordayned that their should be affections in the world? Probleme. 40.

PErhaps because the world being a kinde of well ordered Common­weale, where beholdicg the Beautifull [...]i [...]position of all visible bodies, both [...]ght, and heauy, & neither light, nor [...]eauy, and contemplating the power­ [...]al workmāship of the celestial Speares, which for the perpetuall generation of [...] things, are perpetually caried about [...]hat great shop of those first Elements, [...]y them framing, and fashioning all [...]ompound natures, and beholding in [...]his Elementall, and lower world, [...]he Citizens thereof, which are all [Page 80] liuing creatures, and among them the chiefe and principall which is man; who is Lord and gouernour of the rest: it was fit, & necessarie that there should be assigned vnto his perfection some order for his military strength, which could not otherwise be done, then by placing in the minde of man these af­fections, which for the benefit of the whole world, by Loue might defend, by Hate might offend, by Desire of vic­torie might attempt, in the presence of greater forces by counterfeit flights might retire, by Delight might reioyce in the benefit of peace, by the death of the conquered be stirred vp to Griefe, by Hope might willingly offer their neckes to the yoake of labour, by Des­paire might fight couragiously, and not in vaine, by Feare might learne to pro­uide for future wants, either of victuall, or munition, by Boldnesse might not feare to vndergoe any danger, for pub­licke honour and benefit, by Anger might be enflamed to shed their bloud, and to lose their liues for a generall peace. And so all the workes of na­ture might remaine safely defended from their enemies, and quietly enioy that benefit which nature hath bestow­ed [Page 81] on them. Or Perhaps because it be­ing impossible to preserue nature w [...]th­out generation, and generation not to be had without loue, and Loue not working without desire, and Desire not moued without hope, and Hope not ob­tayning his wished end without auda­citie, and Audacitie not doing the vtter­most without Anger, nay without the violent motion of all the irascible pa [...]t, and the irascible part not being tho­roughly stirred, and quickned, without some feeling griefe, and Griefes being not perfected without feare of greater, and Feare being n [...]t cleared without the certaine delight of a present good, [...]t followeth that all the Affections are necessary for the preseruation of the whole.

VVhy is some speciall affection predomi­nant ouer euery age? Probleme. 41.

PErhaps because Nature seeketh in euery thing, both the vniuersall be­ [...]efit and priuate good: and therefore [...] hath ordained that feare should be [Page 80] the predominant in all mothers ouer their tender infants, to the ende that the vniuersall generation of hu­mane kind might be preserued, & their owne children thereby, to their owne benefit carefully guarded & attended, which by reason of their owne weaknes they cannot doe. And for this cause it hath likewise giuen to Childhood de­light in childish sports, and pastimes, & Shame to be a bridle (as it were) to that age, to withhold them from dishonest, & vntowardly actions. To youth, Loue & desire of generation, to men of riper yeares, hope, and courage to the perfor­mance of acts worthy glory, & immor­tallity, to olde men, pitty, & compassion in iudging, and censuring humāe acci­dents, & feare to make thē circumspect, and wary in that smale remnant of their life which is behinde, to decrepite olde age, paine, & griefe, & sorowes, as fore­runners, and messengers of appoching death: And that to the ende they may therby be driuen to despaire of all hu­mane helpes, and in god alone put their whole trust, and confidence. Or Perhaps to the end that man in the change, and alteration of his life, might likewise change his wil, & desires, passing alwaies [Page 81] to that which may be most worthy, and best befitting his yeares, for hence it is that men desiring thinges contrary to their age, & with an earnest desire follo­wing thē, purchase to thēselues Shame, & dishonour. As for example, it is not fit and conuenient that a man of perfect yeares should take delight in the toyes, and sportes of little children, or that an olde man should follow the fansies of Loue, which are proper vnto young men, or that women should exercise armes, & chiualry, which is proper vn­to man, or that a Prince should feare the clattering of his enimies Squadrons, which is the property of women, and therfore wise nature by these affect [...]ons seeketh a certaine kinde of decent com­ [...]ines in all humane actions Or Perhaps to the end that humane nature by this meanes might be made more louely, & sociable, for a modest young man doth much p [...]ease, and content with his mo­desty, and bashfullnesse, and so doth a breast adorned with chast and inter­ [...]hangeable loue: we do much cōmend [...]he valour of men of riper yeares in the [...]erformance of difficult, & dangerous [...]nterprises: Wee reuerence the piety, [...]nd pitty of olde men, & embrace their [...]ounsells, when by their owne feares [Page 84] they withhold vs from the executi­on of our rash, and inconsiderate furies. And hereby appeareth the great pro­fit, and commoditie to this com­munity, and decent proportion of euery affection to euery age. In that feare vniteth the parents to their chil­dren, the delight of friendship breedes ciuillity in conuersation: the kindled desire of Loue, knitteth the hearts, and the bodies, and the mindes in one, and the same will: manly courage by defen­ding the weale publicke, makes ciuill vnion more perfect, and counsell which dependeth vpon the wise and fearefull tongues of old men, draweth young men to a true vnity in all their desires. Whereby it plainly appeareth that the Affections of the minde make the life of man both pleasant, and sociable.

VVhy would Nature that in euery thing in the world there should be Loue? Probleme. 42.

PErhaps because the first Creator, and vniuersall formor of all Nature, [Page 85] hauing wrought out of that confused Chaos, or rather nothing, so noble, and so rich a fabricke of the inferiour, and superior worlds, not mooued thereun­to by any necessity, but stirred vp by his owne wil, would of his infinit Loue, communicate the Essence, or being to all creatures; By which his loue, it likewise pleased him to giue vnto his creatures this pretious affection of Loue, to the ende that imitating their Creator, they likewise might worke to the common benefit of nature. Or Per­haps because the Soueraigne Monarch, and chiefe good being an infinite Loue, would likewise that all the Crea­tures, which by his infinite Power hee hath framed, should cary the same badge, with in their bowelles as an open signe, and cleare seale, of their true Archytect and Creator. Or Perhaps be­cause that he hauing formed the whole Ʋniuerse, vnited in him selfe, and for him selfe, would likewise haue it con­tinued by an amorous chaine of Loue, to the end that such vnion by length of time, and many succeeding ages, should not growe tedious, but rather th [...]t all things in generall, with their speciall, and particular kindes, being recomfor­ted [Page 84] by the sweetenesse of Loue, should much more desire to continue there­in Or Perhaps because hee hauing fra­med al things in the world in an excel­lent order, for the continuall conserua­tion of that order, gaue such an affecti­on to all his creatures, as might spurre them forward, with sweete desire to follow, and affect their naturall places, to procure, vnto themselues whatsoeuer might be profitable for their healthes, and preseruation, to fly the contrarie, to engender their like, and to preserue themselues, and their kinds, with the whole vniuerse.

VVhy is Loue so potent? Probleme. 43.

PErhaps because it hath beginning from an infinite Power, and euery effect hath some resemblance, or at least carieth with it some kinde of footesteppe of the Excellency of his cause, and thereby maketh knowne the power of that, which hath framed it so powerfull and excellent. Or Perhaps because it hath the Empire & rule of all other affections, and as a soueraigne [Page 85] Lord hath the whole multitude of them (as well of the concupiscible parte, as the [...]irascible) at her com­maund, and seruice. O [...] Perhaps be­cause it relieth and resteth it selfe vpon powerfull natures, as Angells, who for Loue wherle about the superiour Spheares in continuall motion. As the heauens, which for Loue working by influence as a father, and first beget­tor, distill a seminall kinde of vertue in­to all earthly things: as the Elements, which for Loue are vnited, and mingled together to forme a compound body: as liuing creatures, who for Loue diue into the bottomlesse depths of the wa­ter, dominere ouer the earth, and at their pleasure flye hether, and thether in the Ayre: As men who for Loue of their Countrie sweate in their armour, for the Loue of God, suffer martir­dome, for the Loue of society, honour fidelity, for Loue of mariage, effect ho­nesty, for Platonicall Loue, contem­plate, for reasonable Loue, esteeme of vertue, for zealous Loue, feare no dan­gers, no times, fly not the horrour of [...]ēpests, are not cōfoūded with a thou­ [...]and deathes & to conclude accompt al [Page 88] labours light, all losse gaine, all difficul­ty facillity, al miserie pleasure, all crosses comforts, all sower sweete, all sorrowe Ioye, and death life. Or Perhaps because Loue is of so great force and authority, that it subiugateth vnto her will, the greatest power of the minde, that is the will, which ruleth and gouerneth al the other, both interior and exterior po­wers, and yet the will is many times constrained for the better pleasing, and content of Loue, to follow those things which it doth altogither abhorre, and detest, so that hauing so wonderfull an Empire, and commaund ouer all the powers, both inward, and outward of the body, and of the minde, no maruell if Loue both will, and can doe what it will. Or Perhaps because Loue aspi­ring to a good that is great, and won­derfully delightfull, (whereto nature giueth a friendly assistance, and incou­ragement) euen from the obiect that is loued, gathereth strength, with more ease to attaine vnto it, whereby the po­wers irascible doe runne at her com­maund with those greater forces that are wont to expugne, and ouercome things most hard, and d [...]fficult: the motiue powers with all the members [Page 89] of the body growe stronge, and nimble in her seruice, and the heart it selfe be­ing incited, and stirred forward by her pricking go [...]ds, doth their settle it selfe where Desire though with much diffi­culty carieth it. Or Perhaps because e­uery first thing, and more excellent, is in his order more potent. As it appea­reth in God, the first of al other things, who is onely saide to be omnipotent, in the Seraphins, who in knowledge are more noble, and more powerfull then all other angells, as in heauen, which among all other bodies is the mightiest, and worketh with greatest power, vpon these inferior parts, as in the fire, which is the strongest amonge the Elyments; as in gold which is the purest of all other mettalls, and so in the rest: adde therefore Loue being the first amongest all the effections, no maruell if it worke more strongly, and effectu­ally.

VVhy are there so many kindes of Loue vnder the commaunde and Empire of Loue? Probleme. 44.

PErhaps bycause the vniuersal vnion of the world depending vpon the vnion of the parts, with the whole and the special common globe of the world, vpon the vnited assembly of the vni­uersalls, and this by the meanes, and oc­casion of the power of Loue, it was fit, and conuenient likewise to giue vnto euery special nature his Loue. And ther­fore the Angels haue that angelicall Loue, which being farre from the rage of Sensual passion, continueth alwayes pure and cleare. Things inanimate, as the heauens, the Elements, and their Compounds, haue for their Loue that inuisible appetite, prouoked by an inui­sible force, and directed by a kinde of knowledge to attaine their determinate endes, their seates, their sites and their best meanes for their best preseruati­on. Although they haue likewise that [Page 89] Sociable Loue whereby they desire to approche neare vnto their like, vnto their beginnings, their begettors, their preseruers. As the planets haue in them that Loue, which the causes haue to­ward their effectes, the Elements to their Compounds, the Begettors to their partes, and therefore besides the preseruation of themselues, they giue Sappe, and humour to their fruits, as milke from the duggs of their rootes, they couer them, they defend them with leaues, and with boughes, and beare, and sustaine them (as it were) with indefaticable armes. The Beasts of the field, besids a Sociable Loue, haue a sēsual, so called because notwith­standing it be accommpanied with a kinde of knowledge, yet for as much as it is guided by the simple Sense, it taketh name thereof. Men haue a reasonable Loue, by which with the discourse of reason, they vnite them selues vnto that which is fayre, they haue a Platonicall Loue, whereby they loue by comtemplation, a Ciuill Loue, by the force whereof they defend their Country, an honest Loue, by the spurre whereof they followe vertue, a friend­ly Loue, by the gift whereof they [Page 92] are vnited, and knit togither, a diuine Loue, whereby they are inflamed to the Loue of God aboue all things, and to the Loue of their neighbour for Gods sake. Or Perhaps because to diuers natures diuers loues shold be accōmo­dated, corespondēt to the degree, & me­rit of their perfection: For excellent e­ffects best befit excellent natures, wher­by they may best maintayne their ex­cellencies.

VVhy are the outward signes of hu­mane Loue the vncertayne pas­sions that they suffer, who Loue? Probleme. 45.

PErhaps because it is onely proper to Angelicall, and diuine Loue, to be freed from the tempestious, and tur­bulent Sea of passions, for the An­gells in heauen being neuer absent from their chiefe good, and felicity, cannot fall into that discontent, and vexation of spirit, which they that are in loue suffer, when for a time they [Page 93] are depriued of their best beloued ob­iect: much lesse are they tormented with that feare which men call Iealou­sie; or with any the like passion, which commonly afflict the mindes of those men who by louing, follow Loue, as with griefe, false suspitions, accidentall brawles, compassionate teares, throb­bing of the heart, distracted cogitati­ons, frequent blushinges, deepe sighes, inconstant desires, and a thousand the like launsing razors that cut, and wound the hearts of men: for those blessed spirits, inioye all manner of de­light, perpetuity of estate, and whatso­euer good besides, in that first Faire, whose presence they eternally enioye. Or Perhaps because humane Loue en­tring into humane heartes, by the win­dowes of the senses, the which often times are deceiued, by the diuers ac­cidents of their obiects, doth many times present a false appearing Beauty to the minde, the which in tract of time being descried, the mind grow­eth sadde, and heauy, and melancho­licke, and by that humour openeth the vaine to all those passions which make bitter the Sea of Cupid. Or Perhaps [Page 92] bycause humane Loue being mingled with reason, and sense, and the sense for the most parte by the diuers appe­tits thereof, and much mo [...]e by a kinde of ouerboldnes grounded vpon smale knowledge, darkninge the faire light of the superior part of the soule, bringeth such discontent & ruine to the minde of man, as greater cannot be wrought by the hand of his greatest enemye, whereby he yeeldeth such strange ef­fects of passion, as many times the fame thereof ascendeth vp, euen to the heauens. Or Perhaps because euery thing in this inferiour world, beeing subiect vnto a thousand mischaunces, and as many chaunges, and alterati­ons, eyther of nature, or chaunce, or the will of the heauens: loue it selfe is not freed from the same vnconstan­cy of Estate. For the mind of man vn­der this outward garment of the body, is no other thing, then a Sea gouer­ned by the rage, and fury of the af­fections, whereby it appeareth tu­multuous, hauty, foaming, inconstant, tempestuous, and sometimes wi [...]h the pleasant gale of reason, calme, and faire, and quiet, whereby it is made altogether amiable, friendly, [Page 93] cleare, and comfortable. So that as our senses doe sometimes enioye a mea [...]y tyde, and season, sometimes a trouble­some, and turbulent, so falleth it out in our Loue, which forasmuch as it is humane, is sometimes cleared by rea­son, somtimes darkened by affections, and for one droppe of sweet, yeeldeth a whole Sea of sower, and bitter discontent.

VVhy is Loue called a flame, a fire, and the like? Probleme. 46.

PErhaps because that as the fire hath alwayes neede of some nourish­ment, without the which it vanisheth into nothing. So Loue without the nutriment of Hope, to possesse the thing beloued, decayeth and growes lesse, and lesse: for if euery thing that worketh or endeuoureth the acchieu­ment of any thing, must bee nou­rished with the confidence and assu­rance of his wished ende, without which it will neuer endure the [Page 72] greatnes of these labours, which a thou­sand sweating accidents bring with them, much more hath the kingdome of Loue (being molested by the dayly assaults of humane passion, not those that it would, but those that are most strong, & powerfull in assaulting) need of this speciall comfort of hope, and as­surance. Or Perhaps because Loue awa­keneth, and inflameth the heart of a louer, with an inuisible Fire, within which he liueth like another Salaman­der of Egipt: for to say the truth, a lo­uer findeth & feeleth within his breast as it were the forges of a certaine fire, which by the many passions of ardent zeale, enkindled desires, scalding sighes, enflamed teares, feruent emulations, ruddie bashfulnesse, fretting feare, and iealous thoughts, doe burne, and yet maintaine the inuisible flames of Loue, and therefore hence it is, that for the most part Louers are leane of body, pale of countenance, spent in their spirits, and much altered from their first estate and former Beauty. Or Perhaps because the Beautifull obiect, from which loue taketh greatest force being present, a louer by reason of that great ioye that he feeleth in the presence thereof, sen­deth [Page 97] forth those liuely flames, which being plainely descried in the superfici­all parte of the face, doe many times giue such a vermilion tincture, that the whole countenance seemeth to be co­ [...]ered with a flashing kinde of Ardour, [...]nd that by reason of the great store of [...]pirits gathered into that place. Or [...]erhaps because, as the fire amongest [...]he Elements is the most noble, so a­mongest the affections, Loue is the most [...]xcellent, as being the rule, and mea­ [...]re of all the rest: and therefore [...]oue is saide to haue the Empire, and [...]ominion ouer all the other affecti­ [...]ns, and to rule, and to gouerne them [...] it pleaseth her. For, for no other [...]use is griefe or sorrowe great in [...]me, but because the Loue is great for [...]hich that sorrowe is vndergone: and [...]r no other cause in others is the va­ [...]ur great, but because the Loue is [...]eat which spurreth them forward to [...]ngerous attempts. Or, Perhaps be­ [...]use the fire is the most actiue Ele­ [...]ent, and so Loue pricking vs forward [...] all honorable enterprises bee they [...]uer so difficult, is not in actiuity in­ [...]ior thereunto, and therefore, besides [Page 98] those aboue saide metaphorical names and titles, by the greatnesse of her ver­tue, property, and strength she challen­geth likewise other names both Me­taphoricall and proper: And therefore to speake onely of her proper names which sufficiently manifest her power, Loue is a word of honour, whereby ho­norable enterprises are atchiued: It is a word of maiesty, which gouerneth all the interior and exterior powers: Loue is a word of comfort which mitigateth by a hidden and powerfull kinde of ver­tue, all labors whatsoeuer. It is a ri [...] word, which by diligent endeauors [...] ­uer affecteth treasures of highest pris [...] as friendship, ciuill community, our Country, our children, and of all others the chiefest good, which is God. So that no man can deny but that Loue [...] of singular force and power.

VVhy do Poetts faine Loue a Childe? Probleme. 47.

PErhaps by reason of the diuers ap­petits, that reigne in children, [...]hich likewise appeare in them, which [...]e inflamed with Loue, who some­ [...]mes desire that thing, which at ano­ [...]er time they abhorre, sometime ac­ [...]mpt that for good, and excellent [...]hich at another seemes vgly, and [...]athsome vnto them, insomuch that [...]ey are as changeable in their opinio­ [...]s, as the Camelion in his colours, or [...]e moone in her figures; which aris­ [...] not from any other cause, then, [...]m the multitude of those affections [...]hich in louing they suffer, being [...]metimes mooued with feares, some­ [...]es with gelosies, sometimes vio­ [...]tly enforced with sorrowes, blinded [...]h anger, vexed with melancholy, [...]priued of counsell, robbed of [...]anes, pricked and pierced through [...]th desire of honour, and so by [...]nging their affections, they do [Page 100] change their willes. Or Perhaps, because Loue as if it were alwayes a childe in the heart of him that Loueth, is alwaies growing and neuer waxeth olde, be­cause the desire of the possession of his wished good is alwayes renewed in him, and notwithstanding it seeme som­times after the lawfull fruition thereof to decay, or at least-wise to lose some part of his first vigour, which in respect of the extension, and outward mani­festation may be graunted true: that is in asmuch as those outward figures of Loue, which Louers vse to shew, doe not so commonly appeare, yet in re­spect of the internall force, and ver­tue thereof, it doth euery day increase: which doth often appeare by those dangerous attempts which men for their enioyed Loues do many times vn­dergo. Or Perhaps because Loue makes wise men children, and many times depriueth them of true discourse and reason, whereby they fall into such er­rours as children doe, who by their apish imitation, which is prop­per vnto children, doe no sooner see any thing doone, but presently (as farre forth as their wit will giue them [Page 101] leaue) they seeke to imitate it And euen so euery Louer studieth, & indeuoreth in euery thing to imitate that which is Loued, and doth his best endeuours (to the end he may winne grace, and fa­uour) to be like vnto it.

VVhy naked? Probleme. 48.

PErhaps because he that followeth the schoole of Loue must not be loathed with the garment of simula­ [...]ion, but simplicity: for there is not a­ [...]y thing, that more offendeth the [...]awe of Loue, then a lie, which as it dis­ [...]leaseth all, so especially those which [...]oue: neither is the force of Loue any [...]onger sweete, and pleasant, then that it [...] found true, and faithfull, and from [...]is truth it is, that euery part thereof, [...]ecomes so amiable, and euery vertue, [...]ade as it were handmaid vnto Loue, [...] Confidence, which maketh vs secure [...]f things most precious: Faith by which [...]e beleeue without doubting: Truth [...]hich alwayes helpes, and delighteth: [...]ommunity of counsells, which maketh [Page 102] vs wise in all out actions, and as euery good thing whatsoeuer Or Perhaps be­cause Loue cannot long behidden, but must necessarilie be manifested, and made knowne both to the obiecte beloued, and strangers too, and if not by other meanes, yet by passions, and sighes, and teares, and palenes, vnwon­ted blushings, vnquiet sleepes, change of manners, and many the like. And perhaps this was some cause too, why it was called fire, because as the fire ma­infesteth it selfe by ye smoke that ascen­deth from it, So Loue by those passions that arise from it, And therefore it is saide in the prouerbe, that Loue, and a laugh will not be hidden Or Perhaps because nakednes for the most part bringeth with it a ruddy kinde of bash­fullnes, & so he that is in Loue, his Loue being descried, commonly blusheth, which is not the faulte of loue but ra­ther of those that lyuing intemperate­ly, Loue intemperatly, whereby i [...] commeth to passe that the very name of Loue being made by lasciuious action [...] infamous, painteth the face with a ver­m [...]ion kinde of tincture, wh [...]ch we c [...] bashfullnes, although there be no such effect in Loue as may deserue it.

VVhy winged? Probleme. 49.

PEerhaps because, As wings though they be made of light feathers, yet raise, and mounte vppe things of weight into the ayre, So Loue, though setled in a base subiect, doth yet awa­ken, & stirre vp their hearts that Loue to the attempt of high, & honorable enter­prises: For Loue is an enimye to flowe and slowthfull spirits, and a frend to [...]uch as are quicke, & industrious, who not like earthly, and marrish, or moorish Angells, fly downewardes to the center of the earth, but like the lofty eagle, as­pire with swifte flight to immortalitie. [...]t is therefore an errour to thinke that Loue taketh pleasure in bedds of down, [...]leasant fields, dainty and delitious [...]ardines, in idlenes, and wantonnes, [...]ut desireth to seate her selfe rather in [...] temperate and well setled heart, [...]amed to endure al hardnes & to passe [Page 104] all difficulties, then in those mischie­uous inconueniences, that lasciuious wantonnes, longe sleepes, Bacchus ble­mishes, the sensual pleasures of Ʋenus, and the flatterings of blinde appetite brings with them, which being all, al­together earthly, belong vnto vnchast Loue, which neuer rayseth her flight to things high, and excellent. Or Perhaps because Loue doth swiftly rooste her selfe in the hearts of Louers, sometimes by a bare looke, darting her selfe in (as it were) at the windowes; sometimes with pleasant laughter vndermining: somtimes with simple words assay­linge, sometimes by a gracious, and comlie carriage of the body: and ma­ny wayes besids attempting the hearts of vnhiddy young men, of whome shee maketh a large praye. And therefore Loue is saide to haue many branches, many netts, many snares, by which diuerse inst [...]uments, she diuersly hunteth, nay forages, and prayes vpon all natures, taking some by delight, some by commodity, some by ho­nesty, some by grace, some by the goodnes of nature, others by the giftes of the minde, some by hope, some by courage, and others by appear [...]ng [Page 105] goods. Or Perhaps, because wee may thereby vnderstand how swift the thoughts of those are, which are in Loue, who howe distante soeuer they are in place, from that they Loue, yet by their thoughts they are alwayes pre­sent attending, and discoursing, as it were, with their best beloued.

VVhy with Bowe and arrowes? Probleme. 50.

PErhaps because that as an arrow being shotte pierceth thorow the flesh into the bowells, so Loue, first by Beauty assayling the bodily part, giueth afterwards a deadly wounde vnto the heart. For Beauty first presenteth it selfe vnto the sense, either to the eye, or to the eare, and afterwards to the [...]easonable appetite, and so first by Beautifull colours it delighteth the eye, [...]nd by the sweetnesse, and eloquence of speeche the eare, and from them, [...]he delight passeth vnto the minde, the which consenting thereunto yeeldeth [...] selfe to the force of Loue. Or Perhaps, [Page 106] because as an arrowe pricketh, and woundeth that body which it hitteth, so Loue with her passions, pricketh, and gawleth the heart of him that lo­ueth. And yet this is no reason why Loue should therefore be accounted cruell, because by these her goades shee maketh her Louers valiant, hardy, and vigilant, pitifull, patient, bolde, and con­stant against the inconstant violence of fortune, whereas without these pas­sions, these vertues would die and lan­guish. Or Perhaps, because as an arrowe being but parted from the Bowe, doth neither hurt, nor offend, vntill it hit the marke whereat it was shott, and then it woundeth and teares. So like­wise Loue in the beginning manifest­eth not her passions; vntill it bee set­led in the heart, and then it worketh strange, and wonderful effects Or Per­haps because by carying armes of­fensiue wee should knowe that she is alwaies prepared to offend, whomeso­euer shall goe aboute to wrong her. For as euery creature is naturally ar­med with some thing to defend it selfe against outward violence; So it was fit that Loue should not be altogither vn­armed.

Ʋ Ʋhy Blind? Probleme. 51.

PErhaps because it makes Louers blinde, not knowing many times what losses, and dangers, and mischiefes they are thereby falling into. For such is the force of Loue, (and it is strange) that for the thing beloued they neg­lect their owne good, feare not to ex­pose their bodies to the edge of the sword, deny vnto themselues, what­soeuer is profitable to themselues, sleepe to their eyes, quietnesse to their mindes, rest to their members, ease to [...]heir bodies, yea and more then all this, they glorie in those inglorious attempts, [...]hose labors, and sweatings, and watch­ [...]ngs, and freesings, yea and wounds [...]oo; which for their Loues they haue [...]ndergone, and indured. Or Perhaps, [...]ecause it seldome falleth out, that he [...]hat is a seruant vnto Loue, doth knowe [...]he imperfectiōs of his loued obiect, but [...]ther couers them, & accōptes them [...]ertues. For this is the property of [Page 108] Louers highly to esteeme of whatsoe­uer belonges to that they Loue, inso­much that they cannot endure that a­ny man should oppugne their iudge­ments herein, and from hence proceede many times those their resolute chal­lenges, and valorous defences. Or Per­haps, because Loue for the most parte respecteth not persons, discerneth not the worth, and merit of her Louers, but as it is best pleasing to her selfe, (not respecting gentility, or nobility, or principalities, or Beauty,) taketh de­light to sollace her selfe amongest the baseste sorte of people, and doth many times place them in the highest seates: and therefore wee may reade, and in our owne times haue obserued, that great, and mighty personages haue lo­ued women of base estate, and condi­cion, and contrariwise, some of lowest degree, to haue dared to make Loue to the greatest and mightiest Princes of the world. Or Perhaps, to the end wee should knowe, and vnderstand, that earthly Loue being blinde is rather an imperfection, then a perfection, if by the light of vertue it be not enlighted. And therefore it may bee that our ancestours did not vainely in payn­ting [Page 109] Loue blinde, if they ment thereby wanton, and vicious Loue: because that is properly saide to be blinde, which followeth blinde Sense, which carieth a man to blinde desires, blinde sinnes, and the palpable darknesse of blacke infamy.

VVhy ruddy, or high coloured? Probleme. 52.

PErhaps because a liuely coulour be­ing accompanied with an outward comely grace, doth with greater force stirre vp, and awaken Loue. For, for no other cause would nature that in euery thing there should be accidental signes, whereby the agents should be mooued to worke those effects which might be best pleasing vnto her: And therefore, when wee see a Beautifull face, of a vermilion, and sanguine complection, adorned with a comely grace in the cariage therof, we presently con­clude that Beauty worthy of all Loue. Or Perhaps, because Loue alwaies affecteth [...]ife, which the Sanguine red best ex­presseth, [Page 110] as contrarily Palenes death: for it is manifest, that Loue was orda [...]ned for generation, wherein life consisteth, yea the life of those that giue life vnto otheres, I meane the begetters, the race, or ofspring of mans bodie, being no­thing else then a certaine patterne of the life of their fathers, who for Loue, euen out of the bones, and bloud, and flesh, and all other their outward, and inward powers, beget the bones, and the bloud and the flesh, and the powers of their children. And therefore no maruell if Loue be described to be a ruddie and cheerfull tutor, and preseruer of life. Or Perhaps because he that foloweth Loue, maketh alwayes shew of a Cheerfull heart, if he be not assayled by some in­ward passion, and therefore we com­monly see Loue [...]s (I meane such as pros­per, and speede in their Loues) full of spirit, pleasant of countenaunce, quick in their eyes, eloquent of tongue, and in their whole carriage full of ioye and comfort.

VVhy sometimes languishing? Probleme. 53.

PErhaps by reason of the languish­ing faintnes of those that Loue, who alwayes following with an ouer ear­nest desire that which they Loue (in so much as euery day of absence see­meth an age) doe many times in their solitarie chambers, cast downe their [...]weried members vpon their lothed beds, filling the ayre, with a thousand [...]nterrupted sighes, which may the lesse seeme strange, bec [...]use there is no arti­ficer that dayly, and hourely busieth his head, and bendeth all his endeuors to [...]he perfecting of some speciall worke, which wholy dependeth vpon the skill of his hand, that is not enforced, either [...]y the continuance of labour, or his [...]any watchings, or some other incon­ [...]enient accidents, not only to rest his [...]oyled bodie, but to send out many a [...]lent sighe, and inuisible teare. Or Per­ [...]aps, that we may thereby vnderstand, [...]hat a Louer is alwayes accompanied with a thousand other passions: Som­times [Page 112] troubled with feares, and doubts of little Loue, or affection in his Louer, towards him, sometimes quelled in his hopes, by those many difficulties that withstande his quiet possession of that he loueth, somtimes disturbed by the ri­ualitie of others, sometimes afflicted with the pangs of the heart, and feare of those manifolde mischaunces, that may befall the person beloued: So that the many passions, that multiply in the heart of a Louer doe bring with them an extenuacion, and impayring of the complexion, a palenes in the face, a wearisomnes in the members, & some­times a strange kinde of alteration in the indiuiduall Essence, frō whence do a rise those furies of Loue, and potent frensies, and insensible astonishments, which happen many times to those that Loue, either because they make not reason the forerunner of their sence or because before they loued, they loued not temperancy, or because they direct not their Loues by the rule of wisdome, and discretion, which onely teacheth the only meanes to the attay­ning of all other vertues.

Ʋ Ʋhy doe Louers delight in flowres? Probleme. 54.

PEerhaps, because in them they see the colours of the things beloued. For their is not any thing that wants his like, or that hath not something that carieth some resemblance in na­ture vnto it selfe, and therefore in those flowers they contemplate those liuely colours which they see to shine both in the flesh, and habit of their best be­loued. Or Perhaps because the colours, & names of flowers are apt to display those passiōs that they feele who are subiect to this passiō of [...]oue: for euery colour hath his proper signification. As white signifieth innocencie, Blacke vnchang­able grauitie, Purple a heauenly minde, Red, boldnes of Spirit, Carnation life, yellowe Empire, or [...]elowsie; Greene hope, Ash colour multitude of vertues, Sea water greene the riches of fortune, Blew magnanimitie, Lion Tawny strength, and the like: which may also be verie well saide of flowers, As the [Page 114] lilly signifieth chastity: the rose virgi­nall integrity, the violet a languishing life, the Hiacinth vertue. Furse genero­sity, the white daffadill piety, Gesmme small comfort: and so of the rest. And therefore not vnfitly to discouer their passions doe Louers delight in flowers. Or Perhaps because in that diuersity of flowers, and colours they seeme to con­template the large field of the vertues of their beloued. Or Perhaps, because Loue like a wanton, taketh delight in delicate things, and to rolle, and en­wrappe it selfe in sweete odours, taking from thence some comforte in her passions. And this is the reason why we many times see Loue painted in a pleasant fielde, sitting vpon a multitude of flowers mery, and iocund, crowned with garlands, lying vpon a bedde co­uered with a thousand roses and vio­le [...]ts, fast by a fountaines side, compas­sed with many rich verdures & Beau­tifull plants.

VVhy doe not Louers in the presence of those they Loue knowe how to frame their speech? Probleme. 55.

PErhaps, because the Senses of a Lo­uer being too much setled by an ouer earnest intention in the contempla­tion of the Beauty of his best beloued, he doth as it were altogither forgette himselfe, and being lulde a sleepe in his beloued obiect, the ouer vehement in­tention of the minde taketh away the outward vse of the tongue: which is not vnlikely, because euery man by experience findeth, that whilest hee at­tentiuely heareth any sweete or plea­sant sounde, hee hath little vse of any other of his senses, all the powers be­ing hindered from their due operati­on, by the concurse of the vitall spi­rits to that onely power, which so at­tentiuely worketh, & therfore no mar­uel if men stand mute in the presence of their Loues, when they should speake. [Page 116] Or Perhaps, a Louer fearing that he shall not speake so as may please, and con­tent the eares of his mistris, chuseth ra­ther to be mute, and silent, then to vtter his conceit imperfectly, And if he dare proceede so farre as to open his mouth, for as much as he still feareth that he cannot sp [...]ake as he should, he vttereth his minde stammeringly, and intercep­tedly. Or Perhaps, because from the I­mage of that vertue and worth which they know to be in the thing they Loue, they frame in them selues a conceipt thereof as of a thing diuine, and from hence they gather great matter of feare and it commonly falleth out with them as with those that are to speake before great Princes, who being accompanied with the selfe same imagination, trem­ble, and growe pale when they speake, and vtter their conceipts many times both brokenly, and vnaduisedly.

Ʋ Ʋhy do Louers blush in the presence of their mistresses? Probleme. 56.

PErhaps because the heart dilating it selfe in things pleasant, sendeth forth great aboundance of the spirits [...]o the superficiall parte of the face, which by that outward rednes are made aparent, and the Louer filled with [...] kinde of ioy by the sence of his best beloued, such being the propertie of all men, that enioying the presence of [...]hat good which they so much desire, [...]hey become merry, and iocunde, and by reason of that great ioy they feele, they appeare fresh, & fragrant, as con­ [...]rariwise, pale, and wan in the presence of that they hate. Or Perhaps, because Louers do many times blushe of mo­destie (a thing proper vnto that age as being carefull, and ielous of each others honour, for Loue is proper vnto yong men, who are naturally gouerned by the bridle of shame, and bashfull­nes, especially in the presence of those whose good opinion of them [Page 118] they especially desire: and therefore they are very carefull not to doe any thing in their sight that is not fitte, and conuenient. Or Perhaps, because by those amorous glaunces they are more inflamed with the Loue of each other, and so laying open their inward fire to one an other, they are neuer satisfied with the lookes of one an other.

VVhy doe Louers take pleasure in the teares of their beloued? Probleme. 57.

PErhaps because Louers are then meriest, when they are assured of the Loue of their beloued: and better assurance thereof they cannot haue, then when they see them for their Loue to languish, sigh, and shed teares: For notwithstanding teares, in their owne natures, cannot be without some bitternesse, yet forasmuch as they arise from a pleasing cause, though the roote be sower, the fruit is sweete. For there is no greater felicity in the whole Empire of Loue, then the certaine as­surance of the true heart of his best [Page 119] [...]eloued, which contenteth so much [...]e more, by howe much the greater [...]e signes thereof are, that doe yeelde [...]ch strange effects. Or perhaps, because [...]y such signes they discry, that it wil­ [...]e no difficult matter for them to bee [...]ossessed of their Loues, & from thence [...]ey conceaue ioye, and rest conten­ [...]d. Or Perhaps they take comfort, in [...]at by teares they knowe that it [...]eth in their power to make their [...]eloued happy in the seruice of Loue, [...]d therefore knowing the meanes [...]hereby they may shorten their mour­ [...]ng, and wipe awaye their teares, [...]ey are not grieued with the sight of [...]em, as otherwise they would bee, [...]t rather conceaue an inward ioye, [...]d comfort in them.

VVhy doe Louers, whither soeuer they goe, carry with them their amorous passions? Probleme. 58.

PErhaps because to whatsoeuer parte they turne their faces, and whereso­euer they bestowe themselues, they do alwayes carry with them imprinted in their mindes, the Image of the thing beloued, and consequently those pas­sions that arise from it. For he that ca­rieth with him the cause, proueth like­wise the effect, as he that carieth fire in his bosome must needes feele the heate thereof: And therefore Louers hauing alwayes with them in their mindes the Idea of that they Loue, which they ne­uer cease to contemplate, they must ne­cessarily by contempl [...]tion fall into those passions, which the present ob­iect bringeth with it: yea farre more violently do they feele the force of thē, because imagination by absence wor­keth more violently, by the power whereof, the gesture, and grace, and Beauty, and lineaments, and all the [Page 121] parts of the party beloued are made present. Or Perhaps, because they fin­ding themselues as it were hanted with a continuall desire of seeing, and contemplating that which they Loue, [...]nd so long as they finde themselues [...]bsent from it, liuing an vnquiet, nay [...] dying life, they multiply their pas­ [...]ions with the dayes, nay howers of [...]heir absence, and as time encreaseth, [...]o doe passions. Or Perhaps because [...]othing can content a Louer in his [...]iolent absence, not sweete musicke, [...]ot Beautifull gardens, not Louely [...]ompany, not eloquent tongues, not [...]uill intertaynment, but euery sweete [...] turned into sower and nothing can [...]ontent but the wished obiect, which [...]eing farre distant from their infla­ [...]ed desires, doth engender that griefe [...] the heart, which can hardly bee ex­ [...]essed by themselues that proue it, [...]uch lesse by those that are not ac­ [...]ainted with the like miseries.

Ʋ Ʋhy doe Louers so much delight in in the neatnesse of their appa­rell, and bodies? Probleme. 59.

PErhaps because there is nothing more naturall vnto young men, then to desire alwayes to seeme beau­tifull, and therefore if nature haue not made them such, they endeuour by a [...] to seeme that they are not. And from this cause proceedeth their exquisitenes their art, their diligence, their care [...] their apparell, their gate, their speech, and in euery thing else, their endea­uour to seeme nimble of Body, strong in forces, subtile in wit, wise in speech, wary in dangers, honorable in condi­tions. Or Perhaps, because such Ele­gancy, and Neatenesse purchase grace, and fauour from their beloued, and therefore they vse these meanes as a pleasant baite to possesse them of that which they so earnestly desire. Or Per­haps, because to make manifest the pu­rity of their mindes, they desire to trim and polishe their bodies, and to wi [...] [Page 123] [...]n opinion in the world of great plen­ [...]y of the goods of fortune, they adorne [...]heir bodies with sumptuous attire, e­ [...]er endeuoring with themselues to set­ [...]le a beleefe in the minds of their be­ [...]oued, that they want not much of the [...]ull fruition of all humane felicity, which consisteth of the goods of the minde, of the body, and of fortune. And therfore it contenteth them much [...]o heare that any hath related vnto their [...]oues the vertue of their minds, know­ [...]ng thereby that hee layeth open the [...]rincipall part of the felicity, and orna­ [...]ent of man. As for the goods of the [...]ody, and of fortune, they vndertake [...]hat taske themselues: the goodes of [...]he body they make knowne by pre­ [...]nting to the eye of their mistres, the [...]earnesse of their complections, the [...]ood proportion of their members, [...]eir comely cariage, their readinesse [...] the performance of honorable ex­ [...]oyts: the goodnesse of fortune, by [...]eir rich apparell, their Rings, their [...]iamonds, their Rubies, their Chaines, [...]eir golde, their Iewells, their horses, [...]eir seruants, their multitude of friends, [...]eir liberality, and bounty, and their [Page 124] honorable progenitors. And all this they doe to giue their best beloued to vnderstand, that if by the lawefull band of mariage she wilbe his, she shall par­ticipate of that felicity, which all men by all their best endeauors striue and study to attaine. Or Perhaps to the end that thereby they may drawe the eyes of their Loues to beholde, and contemplate both the richnesse of their attire, the variety of their fashions, and their comely cariage both in their gate and other gestures of the body. For it pleaseth a Louer, to see that which he loueth, loue to see him.

Ʋ Ʋhy doe louers so much es­teeme the giftes of their beloued? Probleme. 60.

PErhaps because they see, I knowe not what kinde of grace to shine, and shewe it selfe in that gift which cometh from that they best Loue, the which they esteeme so much the more, by howe much it seemeth to present, the excellent, and honorable [Page 125] qualities of the giuer. Or Perhaps, be­cause those gifts are as rich pledges of that grace, and fauour, whereby they may easely obtaine to the pos­session of that they Loue: And there­fore, as they that haue any thing in their custody, either in value, or Beau­ty extraordinary, with an extraordina­rie heede, and care looke vnto it, so they prizing these giftes aboue al their earthly riches, doe likewise aboue all take care to keepe them. Or Perhaps that they might thereby shewe and giue testimony, that if they haue that thing in so high esteeme that commeth from their beloued, in howe much more the person that sent it, who doth as farre exceede the gift in value, as the substance the shadow, and a per­fect, an appearing good.

VVhy doe Louers so often vse the simi­litudes of things most excellent, to display the Beauty of her they Loue? [Page 126] Probleme. 61.

PErhaps because they haue a singu­lar conceite of their beloued, inso­much that being vnable in the least degree that may be, to expresse it, they are inforced to make vse of the simi­tude of things most high and excellent: Somtimes comparing her to the light, sometimes to starres, sometimes to the Sunne, sometimes to the morning, somtimes to the snowe, milke, the lilly, the rose, somtimes to the mirtle, the marble, the alablaster. Somtimes to gold, rubies, diamonds, somtimes to the heauens, the spring, paradise and what­soeuer is in any degree excellent. Or Perhaps because they thinke their be­loued to bee the receptacle or store­house of all the beautifull things of the world, in whome all perfections are vnited, and gathered togither, and therefore they thinke themselues suf­ficiently warranted to vse the white­nesse of the Swanne, to expresse her hew, the vnspotted purity of the snowe, the cristall, the diamond, to shew her purity: the light, the starres, the sunne, to signifie howe cleare her [Page 127] eyes are, how bright her countenance, and a thousand other things of highest excellency, to make knowne the Beau­ty of those partes, with the Loue wher­of their hearts are so enflamed. Or Perhaps, to the end that all the world may know in how high esteeme they hold their Loues, when they extol them aboue things most excellent, and of humane creatures doe their best endeuors to make them diuine.

VVhy are Louers many times troubled with iealosie, & griefe of the heart? Probleme. 62.

PErhaps because both the one, and the other doe most feare to loose that which they most desire to keepe, and hath cost most labour the get­ting, and therefore their feare doth ma­ny times breed an inward distempera­ture at the hart, though they outwardly [Page 128] dissemble it. For this is the custome of Louers, that though their hearts be violently assaulted with greefes, and false suspitions, in so much as they can neuer rest in quiet, yet neuerthe­lesse they make shew outwardly of a happy life, and a carelesse neglect of their best beloued, though in despight of themselues, and their best endeuors, they cannot long dissemble it. Or Per­haps, they did little dreame to haue found that in their Loue which by deare experience and many wrongs they finde true: and therefore their hearts be­ing ouerladen with abundance of griefe, they vent the anguish thereof sometimes with disdainefull speeches, somtimes with passionate glaunses, with absence, with threatnings, and fayning the Loue of another. But this warre endureth not long, but procu­reth rather peace, and greater content in the field of Loue.

VVhy do louers many times dreame of horrible things? Probleme. 63.

PErhaps because it is the property of Louers, by reason of those continu­all passions they are subiect vnto, to be melancholicke, and they that are go­uerned by that humour, are accusto­med to dreame of horrible and feare­full things. Which doth the more com­monly fall out, because they are vsually subiect vnto feares: and forasmuch as this affection of all others doth most disturbe, and afflict the spirits, from this disturbance, and perturbation, these monstrous, and horrible dreames do a­rise. Or Perhaps because Louers with­drawe their mindes, and their senses from al things whatsoeuer, except from that they loue aboue all, so that though they see others, they see imperfectly, and though they heare, they heare im­perfectly, and therefore those shapes, and nightly visions make an imperfect presentation to the inward discerning [Page 130] powers, & breed such inquietnes in the minde, that many times by reason of the greatnesse of the passion that they suffer in their sleepe, they bewray a strange kinde of horrour and astonish­ment in their countenances.

Ʋ Ʋhy doe Louers delight in mor­ning musicke? Probleme. 64.

PErhaps because they desire not on­ly to honout their mistresses in the day time with Cappings, and congees, and courtesies, but also with musicall instruments, and pleasant voyces. Or Perhaps because musicke being fit to manifest affections, either of Ioye, or of sorrowe, they make vse thereof, to displaye their inward griefes or delights, and therefore they commonly make choyse of such mu­sicke as doth best fitt the time, and their owne affections. Or Perhaps, to the end that by meanes of that delight, which is in musicke, either vocall, or [Page 131] instrumentall, and that willingnesse they expresse thereby to please, and content, they may stir vp the affections of those they Loue, to requite them a­gaine with reciprocall affection, which many times doth happely succeede. For a mans owne vertue, and a diligent care to be ouer indulgent in honoring those that are mighty, are the best meanes to, purchase to themselues grace and fauour. Or Perhaps, to the ende they may imprinte the selfe same affections, in the hearts of those they Loue, that themselues feele, and suffer. Or Perhaps because there is not a thing that doth better expresse an angelicall minde, then an angelicall voyce, which hauing somthing in it, though I knowe not what, that is diuine, they desire, by the worth thereof, to expresse their owne worthinesse. For euery action of a Louer should bee such, as by the vertue, and valour thereof, may stirre affection.

VVhy do Louers desire to be thought Ʋaliant? Probleme. 65.

PErhaps, because Loue ministreth strēgth & heart, And for as much as they faine Loue armed, to expresse the power thereof, they that are Loues fol­lowers, must be armed as loue is, & yeld the like effects. Or Perhaps, because Lo­uers, fearing to lose that they so much desire & so highly esteeme of, do little accompt of their owne liues, without the fruition of their desire, for there is nothing more odious, then basenes of minde, and little zeale of honour, and not to follow an iniust, [...]niurye, with a iust reuenge, is pusillanimitie, & brings with it nothing but shame, and dis­honor. Or Perhaps, because they feare, that their fearefull hearts being descri­ed, they should neuer afterwardes be able to make way (by reason of their many riuales) to the quiet possession of that they Loue, for fortune alwaies fauo­reth those that are valiant, and resolute.

VVhy do Louers defend their beloued euen in a wrong and vniust cause? Probleme. 66.

PErhaps because that thing which they doe once loue with an earnest intent and affection, they thinke them selues, in duty, and in requitall of that pleasure they haue enioyed by their Loues, bounde to defend them from dishonour, & infamie. For if it become any man to be thankfull, and mindfull of any kindenes, or curtesie recei­ued, doubtles it becommeth none more then a Louer. Or Perhaps because from the first day that they first fastened their affection vpon that obiect, they prise it aboue their owne proper Essence, or being: and therefore howe iustly soeuer an iniurie or violence may be offered vnto it, they thinke it no iniustice in themselues to defend it. Or Perhaps be­cause a rigorous censure of that wee Loue, is neuer commendable, and a [Page 134] man doth sildome offend by too much Clemencie, and Loue especially it least becommeth to be a seuere iudge, that hath alwayes beene by nature a compassionate father. Or perhaps, be­cause by winking at the wrongs that are offred their Loues, they make them­selues vnworthy of their grace, and fa­uour. Or perhaps, because by not de­fending their Loues, they confesse the wrong to be no wrong, and the iniu­rie to be iust, and so drawe a kinde of dishonour vpon themselues, by lo­uing that which deseruedly is disho­noured.

Ʋ Ʋhy doe Louers take so much delight in the contemplation of the eye? Probleme. 67.

PErhaps, because the eyes are many times by reason of their Beauty the true cause of Loue, and therefore they take delight to contemplate that noble [Page 135] part, which by the Beauty thereof, hath enchained them in the fetters of Loue: for if euery well featured part of the body be apt enough to stirre vp Loue in the hearts of men, much more the eye, wherein we first of all contemplate the grace and dignitie of the minde. Or perhaps, because among all the other partes of the body, the eye is most wonderfull, and therefore doth first drawe the eyes of others to beholde it. For this is the property of those which contemplate, that whilest they beholde the curious workmanship of a thing that hath any thing in it wor­thy admiration, to cast theyr eyes first vpon that, that hath most maie­stie, and meanes of allurement, to drawe the eye vnto it. Or perhaps be­cause the eye is as a Looking-glasse, wherein all humaine affections are discerned, so that looking vpon them, as vpon a cleare Fountaine, they behold the minde of their best be­loued, and so haue a gesse at their pre­sent inclination, and affection, whe­ther they be inclining to clemencie, or seueritie, pitty, or cruelty, myrthe, [Page 136] or melancholy, Loue, or hatred, and ac­cording to that disposition they finde in them, they take counsell, and aduise, in those things that appertaine vnto them. Or Perhaps, because there is no other sense, that taketh that delight in his like sense, that this doth, insomuch that the eies of two Louers being fast­ned vpon each other, by their amorous glances, and silent noddes, they enioy not only the fruition of each others eies but vnderstand the verie inward thoughts of each others heart.

VVhy is the anger of a louer soone alayed? Probleme. 68.

PErhaps because wrongs offered by Louers, & friends are more vnkindly taken, and stirre vp the passions, for the time with greater force, but presently the furie of them being ouer-blowne, they growe calme, and quiet. For what soeuer thing, either in nature, or arte is engendred, or framed, with greater [Page 137] force, and lesse time then is fitte, as monstrous birthes, they vanish and cannot long endure. Or perhaps, because the fire of Loue cannot long endure the waters of passion. Or Per­haps, because the meanes of recon­cilement is easie betwixt them, both parties being willing to aske pardon, willing to forgiue: for euery amorous breache hath a thousand silent defen­ces, and as many kinde acknowledge­ments of the fault. Or Perhaps, because there is a kinde of magnanimity in par­doning wrongs, and therefore to the end they may be so accounted, they ea­sily and speedily forgiue. Or Perhaps, because the lawe of Loue doth not ad­mit crueltie, for it is neuer seene that two truely vnited hearts should [...]ong continue at iarre, for light occa­sions (for great will not be offered) but as such ho [...] should brawles doe easily arise, so they are as easily pacified. Or [...]erhaps, because to those that are most deare vnto vs, the least repentance beg­geth pardon for the greatest offences, which doth manifestly appeare in the Loue of Fathers.

Ʋ Ʋhy cannot Louers hide their passions? Probleme. 69.

PErhaps, because amorous cares ouercharging and oppressing the heart, are hardly endured, and there­fore they doe endeuour, hauing found a friend fit for that purpose, by com­municating their griefes vnto him, to ease themselues of that burthen. Or Perhaps, because amorous passions doe pricke and wound the hearts of Lo­uers, and therefore prouoked by the sharpnesse of such a spurre, they can­not but manifest their griefes vnto those, who though they cannot ease, may yet pitty them: for it is some comfort to him that is assailed with griefe, to vent it at the mouth by the helpe of his tongue. Or Perhaps, be­cause in relating them to others they feele their afflicted hearts to be com­forted, for euery passion communica­ted is lessned. Or Perhaps, because by laying open their passions, they make [Page 139] knowne their owne faith, and the dis­loyaltie and falshood of their beloued. Or Perhaps, because the least wrongs that proceed from that, that hath least cause to offer them, are accounted greater, then the greatest, and con­found the minde of a Louer, with such a kinde of astonishment, as nothing but vtterance, can either ease, or take away.

VVhy cannot Louers conceale the fauours of their best beloued? Probleme. 70.

PErhaps because the benefits of those we Loue make a deepe impression in the memory, and so being often cal­ [...]ed to remembrance, they thinke they should wrong both their Loues and [...]heir owne memories not to vtter them. Or Perhaps, because Louers de­sire in euery thing to shew themselues [...]hankfull, especially towards those whom they Loue, by displaying whose bountifull fauours they seeme both to [...]equite what is past, and to craue more. [Page 140] Or Perhaps because Louers do highly esteeme of those things which they re­ceiue from those they loue, and there­fore thinking it not fit that things of worth should alwayes lye hidden, they reueale them: For by the law of nature wee are taught to commend good turnes receiued, especially when they are such as carry a proportion to the worth, and excellencie of the giuer.

VVhy do louers put their fauours they receiue from their Mistresses in the most noble parts of the body? Probleme. 71.

PErhaps thereby to signifie, that those things they receiue from them, they preferre aboue all other, and therefore they commonly make choise either of the head, as the high­est, or of the heart, as the dearest parte of the body. Or Perhaps, because the heart signifieth life, and the head vnderstanding, and both perfection, [Page 141] and therefore in those places, they place their fauours that are most per­fect, and most deare vnto them, to giue them to vnderstand how dearely they Loue, and how honourable a conceit they haue of them. Or Perhaps, to the end the giuers should vnderstand, that they haue the full possession both of the best parts that are in them, and their whole body.


Ʋ Ʋhy is hatred ordayned by Nature? Probleme. 72.

PErhaps, because prouident nature being willing to remoue all those contrarieties, that might eyther [...]lter, or offend her workes, she thought [...]t not amisse to giue vnto all creatures, [...]uen from their first natiuity and be­ [...]ng, such an affection as might be fittest or such a seruice And therefore we see [...]hat the Lambe doth naturally hate the [Page 142] Wolfe, the Wolfe the Dogge, the Crab, the Serpent, the Weazell the Toade, the Lion the Cocke, man the Crocodile, yea a man borne vnder Iupiter a Satur­nist, a valiant man a coward, a tempe­rate man a lasciuious, a religious an ir­religious, a faithfull a disloyal, & an ho­nourable man a base and dishonoura­ble▪ neither is this naturall hatred seene onely in things animate, reasonable or sensible, men, or beasts, but also in those things that are farre from sense or vn­derstanding, as in hearbes, and plants, and mettals, and compounds, which by a hidden hatred, and contrarietie in na­ture cannot brooke and indure one an­other. Or Perhaps, because that though Nature flie her extreames, as being ve­rie dangerous to her workemanship, neuerthelesse she admitteth contraries for the benefit of the whole. Which doth plainly appeare in heate, and cold, fire, and water, in corruptible things, and incorruptible, mortall and immor­tall, earthly, and heauenly. Neither would the day shine so cleare, if the night were not darke, nor laughter be so acceptable, if it were not sometimes mingled with teares. And therefore no maruell, if as we see a begetting Loue in [Page 143] the Ʋniuerse, for the benefit of nature, so from the selfe same Nature, we haue a conseruing hate, the better to attaine the wished end.

VVhy doth Loue somtimes ingender Hate, being by nature contrary vnto it? Probleme. 73.

PErhaps because euery cause that (eyther by reason of the matter, or qualitie, or place, or temperature, or concourse of contrary causes, or by in­ordinate suggestion, or any other ob­ [...]tacle to the true generation of things) [...]s altered and changed, bringeth forth [...]n steed of lawfull birthes, monsters, [...]nd prodigious compositions; and [...]uen so Loue whilest it contemplateth [...]n the person beloued those vertues, whereby it is enkindled with an hono­ [...]able desire, to serue, and honour him, [...] breedeth and bringeth forth Loue, a [...]uite like to it selfe: but those vices be­ [...]ng discouered that are opposite vnto [...]ertue, to chastitie, temperancie, shame­ [...]stnesse, and the holy lawes of Loue, [Page 144] euen from the obiect beloued, it is en­forsed to conceiue h [...]te, & bring forth a horrible monster, farre different from the nobilitie, and generosity of it owne nature. Or perhaps, because time, the first changer and corrupter of euery thing, not alwayes permitting one and the same estate in humaine things, as another destroying nature, interrupteth, deuoureth, consumeth, and changeth euery thing, and in alte­ring the complection, altereth the de­sires too; and therefore it many times falleth out, that, that which a man lo­ueth being young, he hateth when he is old, and what he hated when he was young, he loueth when he is olde, and what he loathed being at libertie, he loued being a prisoner: the reason whereof is, because that which he con­ceiued by the simple knowledge of the sense to be good, reason increasing with time, he knew, and vnderstood to be wicked, and euill. Or perhaps, the affections may be a cause, that we of­tentimes change our iudgement of things, and therefore a father iudgeth otherwise of his sonne, when in his fu­rie he considereth the qualitie of his offence, then when out of a quiet, and [Page 145] peaceable minde he frameth an opini­on thereof: which likewise appeareth plainly in those that Loue, who accor­ding to those affections that are predo­minant in them, do either Loue, or hate.

VVhy is the hatred of men against things generall, and vniuersall, their an­ger against things more particular? Probleme. 74.

PErhaps because as Loue (which is contrary to Hate) spreadeth his wings to all helpfull things what­ [...]oeuer: So Hatred to all hurtfull. Or Perhaps, because the cause of Hate which is vice, and common to many, more vniuersall, then the cause of [...]oue, which is vertue, and Beauty, and [...]und in fewe. Or Perhaps, because [...]e hatred of a nature in generall, [...]akes no exception of any particular [...]f that nature, but vnder the vni­ [...]rsall all particulars are conteyned. [...]or that Hatred which a sheepe beareth [...]gainst a woolfe, excepteth no particu­lar [Page 146] woolfe, but extendeth it selfe to all wolfes, as being all enimies to his na­ture, and so likewise a vertuous man, in that Hatred that he beareth against vice and vitious men, excepteth no man as he is vicious, but as so qualified hates them all, but anger being a suddayne disdaine arising from a suddaine, and present Iniurie offered, and that by some particular person, extendeth it selfe no farther then that particular, which by that particular act hath of­fended. Or Perhaps, because Anger ariseth from an offence committed by some particular person, either agains [...] our selues, or those things tha [...] appertaine vnto vs, but Hatred ariseth from a wrong offered neither to ou [...] selues, nor what belongs vnto vs, bu [...] hath a cause more vniuersall, an [...] though perhaps we hate any particula [...] man for his vice, yet wee seeke [...] reuenge against him, which ange [...] doth.

VVhy is Hatred conceiued euerlasting. But anger soone allayed? Probleme. 75.

PErhaps because Hatred ariseth from a setled, and appeased reason, and a certaine assured knowledge of vice, but Anger from an offence, that ariseth from suddaine affection, and blind knowledge. So that there being in the first right iudgement, and in the second blind passion, it is no maruell if the one continue, and the other by a true ac­knowledgement of the offence be easi­ [...]y alayed. Or Perhaps, because that [...]orasmuch as Hatred looketh only to [...]he vniuersal benefit, and good, the care whereof should neuer haue end, it is [...]kewise necessary, that Hatred which [...]eeldeth that care, should likewise be [...]ndlesse: but Anger tending onely to [...]e ruine of one particular by a parti­ [...]lar affection, the party being pacified, [...]ere is no reason why Anger should [...]ntinue.

VVhy doe men sildome hate either their countrie or their parents? Probleme. 76.

PErhaps, because the benefits they receiue both from Countrie and Parents, are great and excellent. Our Country giueth vs honour, ciuill edu­cation, and many honourable priui­ledges, defendeth vs in time of warre, and in time of peace feedeth and cheri­sheth vs with a thousand delights and delicacies, adorneth vs with excellent Artes and Sciences, watcheth ouer vs whilest we sleepe, being beaten downe by fortune, recomforteth vs, and lastly sweetneth the whole course of this our pilgrimage. Parents being prouoked by their particular Loue, which they beare towards their particular children, doe not onely giue them life and being, by that seminall vertue they receiue from them, but welcome them into the world, with such ioy, and content, that so long as they liue, it sweetneth all that bitternesse they haue endured for them, which doth plainly appeare by those [Page 149] many labours and afflictions, that ma­ny miserable mothers endure for their children, who besides the bearing of them so many moneths in their owne wombes, with so much paine, so many bitter throngs, and that dangerous tra­uell they endure at their birches, in the whole time of their infancie and child­hood, they doe neuer abandon them, but with their milke they feede them, with their songs they still them, with their armes they embrace them, with their eyes they gaze on them, and with tongue, and armes, and eyes, & all with [...]ndefatigable toyle, and affliction, they neuer cease day nor night, to defend, & comfort them Neither are the labours of the father in disciplining them, when [...]hey come to riper yeares, in nourish­ [...]ng them, in defending them, in proui­ [...]ing for them whatsoeuer is necessarie, [...]ither for the enriching of their minds, [...]r the maintenance of their liues, any way inferior to those of the mother: [...]o that the heape of those manifold be­ [...]efits receiued from our Country and [...]om our Parents being so high, and so [...]finit great, it is no maruell if nature as [...] louer of vertue, and an enimy to vice, [...]oth not permit (if the wickednesse of [Page 150] their owne natures withstand it not) that either Cittizens should Hate their Country, or Children their progeni­tors: And therefore we see that the Loue of a mans owne country is of such force, that men of base parentage, borne in places as base, and obscure, arising by their valour and vertues, to honour, and dignity in their countrie, and common weale, do neuerthelesse nothing disdaine the memorie of their Countries, and parentage, but desire to honour them with their often vi­sitations, and presence, their armes, their impreses, and magnificent e­difices. Nay the verie beastes of the field that haue beene bredde in rockes, desert places, and obscure dennes, are content for them to leaue the plea­sant fields, the sweete medowes, the delightfull groues, and fertile territories of the world. Or Perhaps, because those things that are giuen vs of Na­ture, and are neare vnto vs, as our fa­thers that begotte vs, our mothers that bare vs, and our countrie that hath preserued vs, we cannot Hate, not one­ly because they are neare, and deare vnto vs, but because they are ministred, and giuen vnto vs, euen before wee [Page 151] came into the world, by that first pro­uident Cause that prouideth all things necessary for them, and vs.

VVhy is the Hatred of great Princes, and noble men inexorable? Probleme. 77.

PErhaps because the height of their minds being wonderfull, and yet they abasing themselues to vouchsafe [...]he company, and familiarity of their vassalls, and subiects: when there a­ [...]iseth from this familiarity a kinde of [...]ontempt, and carelesse respect of that honour that is due vnto them, as their Loue worketh this vnnaturall effect [...]n those they Loued, so it turnes their Loue into an vnnaturall Hatred, which makes their offence irremissible. Or Perhaps because the mindes of great Princes for the most part, being en­ [...]ued with a knowledg of things more [...]hen humane, and so better discer­ [...]ing the ill deserts, and with a more [...]earcing eye looking into the wicked [...]onditions of any man, the Hatred [Page 152] they conceiue against such qualities, and manners, is so much the greater, by howe much the better they are a­ble to iudge of such inconueniences as follow such conditions. And therefore no maruell since as yeares encrease, so iudgment, if their Hatred against that doe still continewe, which they still iudge worthy of hate. Or Perhaps be­cause in natures more noble, and ho­norable, and in minds more diuine, the affections making deeper impressions, are of greater force, and therefore great Lords, and princes hauing bodies more disposed to affections, and to greater alterations in affection, it is no maruell if Hatred once seated at the heart, sit too fast to be easily remooued. Or Perhaps because it becommeth not great Lords to be inconstant, becaus [...] inconstancy argueth a kinde of leuity in minde, and manners, and therefore they iudging it a note of infamy, and dishonor to bee ouer mutable in opinion touching those they hate, they harden them­selues like a Diamond in their hard conceypts. Or Perhaps because great Princes, being for the most part of hap­py memories, of all others they doe least forget those which in any respect [Page 153] crosse their desires, or oppose them­selues against their pleasures, and de­lights. And therefore a certaine great Prince, being by nature verie liberall, and bountifull, was wont to say to a familiar friend of his, that it was more possible for a man to forget a thousand iniuries, then one good turne. Infer­ring thereby that as it is impossible to forget one offence, without a lawfull defence, much more to forget a thou­sand: so most impossible to forget a benefit receaued.

VVhy is the Hatred of wo­men without end or measure? Probleme. 78.

PErhaps because as in their Loues they are accustomed to exceede, & Loue without rule, or measure, in so­much that they passe many times be­yond affection, euen to the frensye of Loue, so in their Hatred, they are ouer violent, and no way able to bridle them­selues, and therefore as in their mad vnbridled loues, there can be nothing [Page 154] found that may moderate that passiō, in so much that they run headlong to the vtter ruine of their owne chastity, and honors: So in their headstrong Hatred, there is no tongue, that can perswade, or pacifie them, no force, that can ouer­rule them. Or Perhaps because wo­men louing with a strong, and earnest affection, and therefore not fearing to communicate vnto those they Loue, not onely their most secret cogitati­ons, but whatsoeuer they enioy of best esteeme and highest prise, and after­wards discouering either a false heart, or a minde vnthankfull, or whatsoe­uer else that may bee opposite to ver­tue, they presently change their Loue into Hate, which continueth as long as their dissimulation without honest excuse. Or Perhaps because women being alwayes carefull, and studious to please the sense, and altogether care­lesse to satisfie reason, they doe for the most part apply themselues vnto the extreames leauing the meane where­in the seate of vertue is placed, where­by they being miserably deceaued by a false appearing truth, too late bewayle their losses, and harde for­tunes, [Page 155] and seeke to ease themselues by the continual Hatred and reuenge, that many times brings miserie and mis­fortune vpon themselues, and their whole families.


VVhy hath nature geuen to euery thing a Desire? Probleme. 79.

PErhaps because these inferior bo­dies, hauing neede of a thousand helpes for their preseruation, as of place, nutriment, rest, delight, gene­ration, and other things healthfull, and helpefull to their benefit which being not alwayes present, and if pre­sent, yet not befitting their natures, and though not befitting, yet willing to haue them present, and in their owne possession, it was necessarie that these things should bee followed, and [Page 156] forasmuch as that could not be doone without a Loue, and a longing after them, wise and prouident nature would first giue Loue, and thereby desire, whereby euery thing being spurred forward to his owne benefit and good, they might follow those places that doe best befit their owne natures, finde out meats answerable to their complections, and attaine that perpe­tuity by speciall generation which is proper vnto them. And for this cause nature hath giuen to some things lightnesse of body, to some weight, and heauines, as fit meanes whereby to attaine their naturall places, vnto o­thers, members fit for the motion of themselues from one place to ano­ther, with apt sinowes, and bones, which being subiect vnto the moo­uing vertue, and this to the appetite, doe expresse vnto vs the great care and wisdome of nature, in giuing to euery thing their fittest meanes to at­taine their fittest end. Or Perhaps, be­cause Nature not allowing of idle­nesse in any thing, as being very hurtfull to all things both generall, and particular, shee gaue vnto them [Page 157] Desire, whereby they might exercise themselues in honest, and honorable actions. For we see, and by experience finde in our selues, that except wee be kindled, and stirred vp by a certaine Desire, wee knowe not how to shake of that idle rest, and quietnesse, which doth rather deuoure the goodes of the minde, then adde any thing to the perfection thereof. And therefore hence it is, that being caried awaye with that delight we take in hunting, we are not able to containe, or bridle our selues, but whatsoeuer the wea­ther be, colde, or hote, wet, or drie, we bouldly betake our selues to the open fields, we trauell vp the highest rockes, and mountaines, runne thorow the thickest forrests, flie neither waters, nor Ise, nor snowe, nor whatsoeuer in­conuenients may follow those sports. So likewise we are caried with the like Desire to the delight of fishing, wherein we refuse neither by night, nor by day, with nettes, and a thou­sand other deuises, rather to aduenture our bodies, nay our liues to the mer­cilesse sea, then not to enrich our selues by whatsoeuer shall come vnto our [Page 158] hands. Here I passe with silence those benefits that arise vnto al liuing creatu­res being pricked forward by the spurre of Desire to exercise that strength, and agility of their members, that nature hath giuen vnto them, and therefore no maruell if vigilant Nature alwayes working without wearinesse, haue bestowed so excellent an affection vp­on all creatures to keepe them from idlenesse.

VVhy is Desire the first lawfull birth, or first borne of Loue? Probleme. 80.

PErhaps because humane Loue not setling it selfe in that pleasing con­tent which it hath from the Beauty of the aspect, or countenance beloued, which to the nature of Loue is intrin­sicall, yea formally loue it selfe, but as being accompanied with sense, and reason passeth likewise to the Desire thereof, as it is delightfull in it selfe, and possible to bee attayned, and with all earnest endeuour seeketh the [Page 159] fruition thereof. Or Perhaps, be­cause it is natural, that Desire should be kindled in the hearts of those that Loue, because delight by the meanes of Beauty touching the sense, mooueth the sensible appetite, at which motion the figure or Image of some excellent thing being framed to the inward sense, the reasonable Desire maketh knowne his force by a willingnesse to possesse the thing that is framed. And from hence it ariseth that Louers be­ing prouoked by this inflamed Desire, become bolde, and venturous to any attempts, prompt, and ready, to vnder­go labour, and toyle, fly no dangers, no cares to attaine their desired ende. For the office of the mouing vertue is to serue that ready Desire, which ex­tendeth it selfe to all the members. Or Perhaps, because Desire is as it were a property which ariseth from his sub­iect Loue, and therefore Desire is as the effect, and Loue as the cause.

VVhy is Desire infinite and endlesse? Probleme. 81.

PErhaps because the minde is of such excellencie, that being made like vnto our great God, it hath an appetite (at least) enclining to infinitenesse, which alwayes searching, alwaies seek­eth with earnest desire; which may plainly appeare in man, who ascending by the creatures of God, as by a Lad­der, to the contemplation of all scien­ces, doth neuer by all the excellent knowledges that are, rest fully satisfied, but in his riper yeares hauing already tasted the sweetnesse of both humane, and diuine wisdome, he doth euery day more and more, desire to clime higher, and not contented to haue passed the highest Spheares of the heauens, and all visible nature, with a thousand spe­culations, he attempteth the knowledge of visible nature, euen the chiefest good which is God himselfe. And foras­much as euery nature is infinite, and all knowledge thereof like vnto it selfe, [Page 161] yea the very nature of the first Essens, or being, as it is comprehended by a created vnderstanding, is also infinite, it can neuer in this inferiour world, by any length of time rest satisfied, vntill it vnite it selfe to the chiefe Creator of all things, and that by grace in another life. And from hence likewise it com­meth to passe, that men being mocked by their sense, and caryed by the force of that appetite, and desire, which they call reasonable, desiring golde with an vnquenchable thirst, they attempt the getting, and possession of it, and hauing obteined a full fruition thereof, their desires are nothing alayde, but as ri­ches encrease, so desires encrease with them, for that which is capable of God himselfe, whatsoeuer is lesse then God can neuer satisfie. So likewise others bring spurred forward by a desire of delight in some subiect or other, are strangely enflamed with a greedy kind of longing after it, which they doe no sooner enioy, but allured by the corrupt sense, they are as much enflamed with the desire of new pleasures, and assaye new meanes be they neuer so vnlawfull to attaine vnto it, little dreaming in the meane time, that that delight, which [Page 162] can satisfie our desires, no man hath e­uer found in those lower partes, nor e­uer shall. For it is God alone, who in this life cannot be discerned by mortall eye, that in the other life can giue vs ab­solute and eternall happinesse. Or Per­haps the variety of things in the variety of interchangeable time, being adorned with like variety of vnspeakable Beau­ties, either of the parts, or of the whole, with the diuers states of the Bodily cō ­plexions, which beeing moued from their naturall, and wonted seates carry men to diuers and sundry appetites, may be a strong, and mighty cause of this vnsatiable desire in man For euery thing presented vnto the sense, whe­ther it be truely fayre, and good, or ap­pearingly (like another Adamant, which by a hidden vertue draweth the iron vnto it) allureth the sense, moueth the affection, and being moued by a present intentiall delight, it knowes not how to desire it, that it may enioy it. And for­asmuch as the variety of beautyfull ob­iects, fit to allure the sense, is infinite, no maruell if man in his desires be as in­finite.

VVhy do diuers men desire diuersly. Probleme. 82.

PErhaps, because men beeing infla­med by the inuisible fire of wise & [...]rouident nature, which especially wil­ [...]eth and desireth (in humane kind) a so­ [...]iable life, by that commodity which [...]he vnion of hearts bringeth with it, [...]hey are likewise inflamed to a feruent [...]esire of some particular good, to the [...]nde, that, that beeing gotten by the [...]weate both of their own, & other mēs [...]rowes, they may prise it accordingly, & yet (if honesty forbid it not, nor coue­ [...]se thereof) they might gently, & libe­ [...]ally communicate it vnto those who [...]or the supply of their necessities desire [...], So that both the one, and the other [...]hewing themselues prompt, and ready [...]t al occasiōs, there might arise a greate [...]ond of amity, & friendship, and a fa­ [...]ter knot of good fellowship And ther­fore hath nature ordained that some de­siring the knowledge both of diuine & humane Sciences, by dayly labours and [Page 164] nightly watchings, should endeuour to attaine vnto them, that hauing possest themselues of so riche a treasure, they might impart some portion of their knowledge vnto others: That others thirsting after golde, and transitory ri­ches, by a thousand trickes and deuises, they might heape vp mountaines of treasure, that when they were possessed of them, or rather glutted with them, they might employ them both to the publicke good of the common weale, and priuate benefit of as many as stand in need of them, that others puffed vp with a desire of glory, should follow the field, and by their armes, and valiant seruice, mount themselues vp to the thrones of Kings and Emperours, & so communicate their honours to their whole families, their trophies to their countries, and drawe others by an ho­nourable immitation to immortallitie. That others drawne by the amiable chaine of vertue, might by the helpe of good discipline, adorne themselues with honourable conditions, that ther­by they might be an ornament to their Citty, and Cittizens, a light vnto the Court, a glory vnto themselues, & to all honourable mindes an excellent pat­terne, [Page 165] and example: That women mooued with the zeale of honour, should highly esteeme of their femi­nine vertue, to encrease their glorie, and so might leaue it as a rich treasure, to [...]heir children, and their Countrie: That the common sort of people, spur­ [...]ed with a Desire of gaine, and com­modity, should endeuour to attaine skil, [...]nd knowledge in mechanicall arts, [...]hat thereby they might, both enrich [...]hemselues, and serue others, and last­ [...]y that countrimen following the de­ [...]ights of the countrie, might attend no other thing then their pick axe, & their [...]pade, & that for the ease of other men. Or Perhaps because by this diuersity of Desires, the desires of euery mā are more easily satisfied, then if al men should De­sire one, & the same thing, which foras­much as it could not bee deuided vnto all: some, nay the greatest part, must needs continew thirstie in their Desires, without any one droppe to quench, & [...]lay the thirst thereof. And therefore al men desiring diuersly, the appetite of al [...]n some sort remaines satisfied, & peace, and quietnesse, (which in this difference of Desires could not otherwise be) is procured, and maintained.

VVhy are the desires of the father more noble, then those of the mother. Probleme. 83.

PErhaps, because the minds of men are more generous, and strong then those of women, who following the temperature of their owne bodies which are altogether soft, and delicate, and fit for ease and idlenesse, doe al­wayes proue fearefull, flexible, incon­stant, altogether vnapt for Hercules la­bours, yea are alwayes wallowing in the filth of wanton pleasures, and amo­rous allurements, whereby it cometh to passe that fathers beeing directed by that knowledge, and vnderstanding, that time and experience brings with it, & not by the blessings of nature, or delight of the sense, and beauty of their children, doe rather wish vnto their children those honors that are gotte [...] in the field, by the strength of their im­brued hands, and wonne with the dan­ger, nay the losse of their owne liues, then that they should liue in the world idlye, with infamy, and dishonour, [Page 167] whereas mothers on the otherside, [...]eeing alwayes idle, and wanton, [...]nd tender, and fearefull, doe [...]lwayes admit those things as most it and commodious for their children, [...]hat do quit them most from all occasi­ [...]ns of feare: and therefore they cannot [...]ndure to heare any speech of warres, [...]f the dangers that followe them, both [...]y sea, and land, and of those valiant a­ [...]hieuements, that bring same and ho­ [...]our to valorous hearts. Or Perhaps, [...]ecause the Loue of fathers is more [...]rong, and vehement then the Loue [...]f Mothers, & therefore they wish vn­ [...]o their children those appearing goods which are weake, and tender, like their [...]oues. But the desires of fathers are wholy bēt to that firme felicity which [...] purchased by honourable and glori­ [...]us actions.

VVhy is the desire of those that Loue towards the thing beloued so fiery and ardent? Probleme. 84.

PErhaps because Loue from whence Desire riseth, is an inuisible fire, [Page 168] which within the hidden forges of their brests, burneth, and consumeth their miserable hearts, and blazing in the flames of Desire, yeeldeth no other signe, or testimony thereof then an ar­dent Desire of the thing beloued. Or Perhaps, because this Desire, springeth from the force and strength of Loue, which forasmuch as it doth best befit the first encounter of a matrimoniall bedde, it was wont to be expressed by those burning tapers of blushing Hime­neus. Or Perhaps because such a will, or Desire, fostring, and nourishing it selfe, by speciall priuilege in the hearts of young men, who abounding with much bloud, and consequently with great store of vitall spirits, are wont to be more ardent, and firy in their Desires, especially in matters of Loue, the de­light whereof giueth best relish to the pallats of young men. Or Perhaps, be­cause colde is a signe of death, and heate of life, and louers enflamed with the Desire of their best beloued, think [...] by the fruition thereof, they enioyes happy life, whereof they giue a mani­fest testimony, by that ardent Desire that maketh them nimble, and va­lorous, and reddy, and ruddy, and full [Page 169] [...]f wanton, and youthfull ardour.

Ʋ Ʋhy doe the Desires of children ende in matters of small weight? Probleme. 85.

PErhaps because they are but the new births of Nature, which is best [...]ontented with a little, and hath al­wayes beene offended with too much: [...]nd therefore being directed by so [...]ise a mistresse, they know not how [...] desire things aboue the reach of their [...]wne natures, but content themselues [...]ith childish sports, as fayned warres, [...]d such pastimes as do minister grea­ [...]st delight vnto their mindes. Or Per­ [...]ps, because children exercising the [...]owers of the minde but weakely (the [...]ractise wherof dependeth vpon much [...]te, gotten with much paines, and la­ [...]our) but vsing the outward discerning [...]wers, which are the senses, which are [...]uer moued but by corporall things [...]ed, & vnited to matter, subiect to cor­ [...]ption, and only present, and besides [...]at beeing led by no kinde of experi­ [...]ce, but giuing credit to deceiuing [...]dgement, and to that onely de­ [...]ght which is present, nothing [Page 170] respecting that which is most noble, most honest, most honourable, being all full of solace, and delight, they desire nothing else, but sports and pastimes, as Beautifull spectacles, maskes, and meriments, birds, dogges, hoby-horses, and a thousand the like ridiculous toyes and inuentions Or Perhaps, our great grandmother Nature, seeing the simplicitie of their nature (for wisdome is gotten by the vse, and experience of of humane things) altogether caryed with a sweete kinde of forgetfulnesse of things of greater weight, and better be­fitting riper yeares, was willing to en­flame their minds with a desire of light, and friuilous things, to the end they might passe their tender age without tint tediousnesse, that idlenesse brings with it. Or Perhaps because the powers doe neuer worke vpon their subiects aboue their owne force, but more or lesse strongly, according to their owne power, and excellencie, & therfore chil­dren being by nature weake & tender, soft and delicate, and little or nothing accustomed to matters aboue their owne reache, what maruell is it if they esteeme most of those things that are most agreeable to their natures? as the [Page 171] sappe, and sweete of euery sweetnesse, of milke, hony, fruite, drinks, and what­soeuer may giue best delight vnto their pallats: as olde wiues tales, childish sportes, apish imitations of euery art, euery inuention. As the melodie of e­uery sound, euery instrument, and what­soeuer else may bring delight without labour.

VVhy doth the Desire of immortali­ty make men bold, and resolute, in vndergoing labors, and dangers? Probleme. 86.

PErhaps because the ende or reward being great, and excellent, it requi­ [...]eth great hearts, great labours, great meanes, and if neede be, great dangers [...]oo. For a victorie gotten without fight, without danger, without strata­geme, is neuer celebrated, and com­mended but for a gift of fortune. And [...]herefore he that desireth to be excel­ [...]ent, let him frame his endeauors [...]o the thing hee desires, for Hercules without his greate Labours, had [Page 172] beene without his honors. Or Perhaps, to the end that wise men being mortal, yet desirous to make thēselues immor­tall (a worke that passeth our weake strength) might bee giuen to vnder­stand, that that cannot bee done by or­dinary labours, but onely by those that come neerer the nature of things diuine then humane, And therfore, for as much as it is a worke of diuine vn­derstanding, to vnderstand all things without error, hence it is that they to the vttermost of their power doe ende­uour to attaine to the knowledge, not onely of as much as is hidden vnder the curtaines of heauen, but whatsoeuer was created aboue the heauens, yea their speculations ascend euen to God himselfe, neither made, nor created. And forasmuch as it is a worke of di­uine vnderstanding, to be profitable and helpfull to the whole vniuerse, they endeuour to bee such vpon earth, as may helpe by their wisdome, and iu­stice, in gouerning kingdomes, and commonweales, forasmuch as it is a worke of diuine vnderstanding, to beat downe the proud, and tyrannous, they nothing feare to assaile barbarous, and vntamed people, who liue without [Page 173] lawe, according to their owne lusts, and being by iust warre ouercome and vanquished, they rule, and make tame their wilde affections, with the bridle of iust, holy, and religious lawes: for­as much as it is a worke of diuine vn­derstanding, to be gentle, and mercifull vnto those that are penitent, and begge mercy at their hands: they endeuour likewise to make themselues pittifull, and compassionate, euen to their ene­mies: and lastly, they refuse no paines, no labours, no studies, be they neuer so difficult, and dangerous, to make themselues in some sort worthy of im­mortalitie. Or Perhaps, because not the report, or brute of a few common base people, who commonly admire base and obscure actions, not the voice of one onely Village, or Towne, or Castle, which being rude, and igno­rant of honourable actions, cannot but confusedly iudge of whatsoeuer is done, or vndertaken, not the commen­dations of persons knit, and vnited by bloud and alliance, or bewitched by passion, who many times by too much praysing, doe but enlarge the field of their owne shames: but the common fame, and report of great kingdomes, [Page 174] spred thorow many regions and coun­tries, by the cleare light of their vn­daunted spirits, and valiant actes, vn­dertaken with much labour, and many dangers for the common good, and that glorie that is atteyned by dayly studie, and nightly watchings for the enriching of mans vnderstanding, and euery other trumpet of more honou­rable fame, eyther of magnanimitie, or wisdome, or iustice, doe raise and exalt noble and valorous hearts, to the high temple of immortalitie.


Ʋ Ʋhy hath Nature giuen flight to things created? Probleme. 87.

PErhaps because things naturall, as by desire they follow those things that doe nourish and giue life vnto them, so by flight they auoide their contraries, which may any way either offend, or alter, or corrupt, or altogether take away their liues. For to say the truth, how should the whole vniuerse be preserued, if Flight were not? wher­by the benefit of life for the time pre­sent, is preserued free from all violent mishap, & reserued for that time, which by our mother Nature was first deter­mined and set downe? And therefore of such force is this affection, that we see and finde it in euery sensible crea­ture whatsoeuer. In the heauens, wher­in it falleth out sometimes, that from [Page 176] the lowe center of the earth descrying some light or other ecclipsed, we may likewise discerne with what celeritie, and hast they are carryed about by the vpper Spheares, as it were to free them from that trouble and disturbance, which that noysome darkenesse bring­eth with it. In the Elements, where we see, that the deuouring fire appro­ching neare to the colde Element of water, the water being onely by pro­uident nature instructed, doth no sooner feele the violent force of the fire, which conuerteth into his owne nature whatsoeuer comes neere vnto it, but it presently withdraweth it selfe from one part to another, with a swift flight to auoyde that which by no a­uoydance must needs destroy it: And as the water the fire, so the fire feeling the approache of the water, which by the colde moysture thereof, quelleth and quencheth, the violent heate of the fire, for the preseruation of it selfe, striueth to auoyde it. The force of this affection, wee may likewise see in compoundes, as in golde, and siluer, which being cast with Iron into one and the same furnace, doe in such sorte flye the base nature of the Iron, that [Page 177] by the force of fire, they are sooner con­sumed, then mingled together. In flowers, and Plants, which with a kinde of inuisible flight, by little and little, turne their bodies and branches, to the Spheare of the sunne, flying all vn­pleasant shades, and darkenesse: In all liuing creatures, who being assayled by other natures stronger then them­selues, with flight, and running, and swimming, and creeping, and shutting their shelles, and gathering their bo­dyes and backes together, doe flye the force of those their enemies that seeke to take away their liues. And lastly in man, who feeling, or seeing, or fore­seeing, any thing that is contrarie to his owne nature, or may any way of­fend him, eyther fire, or inundation by waters, or ruine of buildings, or poysonings, or hidden treacheries, or open violence, or whatsoeuer the like, doth presently by all meanes possi­ble seeke to auoyde it. Or perhaps, to the end, that hereby the force and power of all natures, might the better bee knowne, which bee they neuer so little, doe many times strike a feare, and terrour into the strongest hearts: which doth plainely appeare in the [Page 160] [...] [Page 161] [...] [Page 162] [...] [Page 163] [...] [Page 164] [...] [Page 165] [...] [Page 166] [...] [Page 167] [...] [Page 168] [...] [Page 169] [...] [Page 170] [...] [Page 171] [...] [Page 172] [...] [Page 173] [...] [Page 174] [...] [Page 175] [...] [Page 176] [...] [Page 177] [...] [Page 178] serpent, the scorpion, the Efte, who though their bodies be but small, doe yet sufficiently make knowne their power, by that inward venom that lies hidden in their natures. So likewise the Sparrow hauke, the falcon, the Eagle, with their talents, and armed beakes, and a subtile kinde of bold­nesse withall, dare to seise vpon euery prey, though greater then themselues▪ to giue vs to vnderstand, that it is not the huge bulke of the body, or the strength of the arme, or long life, or whatsoeuer besides that is strongest, or greatest, but that inuisible force, that many times lieth in a weake bo­dy, that is especially to be feared.

VVhy doth it bring safety and honor, not onely to particular men, but to whole Citties, to fly some­times the commodi­tyes of Na­ture? [Page 179] Probleme. 88.

PErhaps because, though nature as a liberall mother hath giuen vnto vs many treasuries of delights, assigned many restoritiues, and comforts, and fitted euery thing, for the best ease of euery Nature, yet she hath not t [...]ught vs the true vse, and iust end of them, but hath left open vnto vs that gate which (at our owne liberty) leadeth vs to these her riches, and treasures: and therefore she will, that wisdome gotten by study, and experience, should bee our guide, and direction, to the best, & most regular vse of them: for it is not [...]he purpose or meaning of nature, be­cause she hath bestowed on vs great plēty of precious wines, that we should be drunke, or because shee hath giuen [...]s great store of delicate meates, that we should therefore be gluttonous, or because she hath beene bountifull [...]n her manifold Beauties both of beastes, and flowers, and all other creatures, that we should therefore [...]e wanton and lasciuious: but she gaue [Page 180] much, to accommodate her treasures vnto all, and to satisfie the diuersity of appetits, with a regular desire. And therefore wise men being aduised that the vertue of temperance, is a rule, or direction to the appetite, whereby vice, which alwaies imbraceth the extreames is auoyded, they thought it not the least poynt of their wisdome, to fly super­fluous commodities, and those proud fortunes that many indiscreat men fly after. Or Perhaps, because both the vertue of temperance, and the end for which men that follow the warres doe accustome themselues to that hardnesse, and those dangerous inconueniences, which either for their Country, or de­sire of honour, beyond all credit they endure, doth inure their bodies to suf­fer, and indure all manner of troubles and molestations. And therefore wee reade that in former times, both the Grecians, and the Romans, did accus­tome their children to fly all manner of ease, and delicacies, and to that ende there were Censors ordeined, whose office tended no farther then to main­taine Temperance, and good discipline in the common wealth: whereby it came to passe, that their bodies from [Page 181] their tender yeares, were made as a but, or marke, to receiue all iniuries of heauen, and earth, of heate, and cold, of ise, and snowe, of winde, and wea­ther, of famine, and nakednesse, and whatsoeuer hard, and vnhappie for­tune, either in the field, or in the warres, or in the waters, or in the earth, could lay vpon them. From hence therefore it was, that Alixander the great, indu­red so much thirst, and hunger, yea many times when he needed not. That Caesar feared not to passe the high, and craggie mountaines, and snowye cliffes, and that in the deadest time of win­ter, that he doubted not, to commit his bodie to the mercilesse seas, euen in his greatest pride of fortune. That Fabritius in great pouertie maintai­tained his life a long time against the enimy, feeding basely, and taking his drinke out of a woodden cuppe. For which their resolute minds, their me­mories are consecrated to immortality, and they made glorious thoroughout the whole world.

VVhy is it commendable, sometimes to fly honour, the Citty it selfe, and Ciuil con­uersation? Probleme. 89.

PErhaps because, that man sheweth himselfe to be truely magnanini­mous, who despising the fleeting, and slipperie honours of this life, casteth vp the eye of his reason, to those that are high, and heauenly: and therefore forasmuch as he sheweth himselfe to be wise in choosing that which is e­ternall, and not transitorie, he that by flieng the earth, gaines heauen, can­not but deserue honour, and commen­dations. Or Perhaps, because a man flying the companie of men, doth like­wise forsake those appearing goods, that are commonly seene amongest men, as dissembled friendshippes, se­crete treasons, flattering speeches in­temperate actions, vnciuill sportes, and laughters, vaine thoughts, affected ce­remonies, and, in ciuill conuersation in­ciuility. And to speake the truth, what are honours, but appearing goods? A crowne is often enuied, and by mighty [Page 183] competitors being beaten downe, fal­leth to the ground: The scepter of ius­ [...]ice, doth many times stoope, & incline [...]t selfe, either to the passions of Loue, or Feare, or the force of a golden bribe. The purple robe doth somtimes adorne the body of a prince, & leaues his minde naked of those princly vertues that best adorne so royall a personage: ma­ny attendants, are so many domesticall [...]heeues, and bosome enimies. The bright splendour of nobilitie, by the base idlenesse of those that are nobly borne, is no occasion of light, but darke obscurity to their posterities. So that we may easely be perswaded, that they [...]re but appearing goods, and if there be [...]ny thing in them that is to be desired, [...]t is so borne downe by many euill cir­cumstances, and a thousand other vn­happy accidents, that it can hardly ap­peare, euen to the quickest eye.

VVhy is it sometimes infamous, and dishonorable to fly, and especi­ally to Soldiers? Probleme. 90.

PErhaps, because it is the office of him, that takes vpon him to in­struct [Page 184] others in the arte militarie, not onely to tell others, what they should doe, but in his owne person to incoun­ter the enimies force, and by his owne valour, either to resist the enimy, or to ouercome. For there is nothing more necessarie to the obteyning of a future victorie, then the vndaunted spirit, and couragious heart of a resolute leader, in the heate of fight and on the other [...] side, nothing brings greater ruine vnto an armie, then the cowardly basenesse of those that take more care, how they should fly in the time of fight, then how they should, either defend them selues, or vanquish the enemy: such a one therefore, hauing hereby offended the excellencie of so honorable a pro­fession, and discipline, and discouered the inward spotted basenesse of his minde, it is no maruell, if such a soul­dier blush for shame, and neuer dare afterwards to shew his face in the feld, or in any honorable assembly where the glorious light of Mars doth shine, & appeare. Or Perhaps because he that flieth vertue, which is onely worthy the reward of honour, vniteth himselfe vnto vice, from which, as from his proper fountaine all infamie, and dis­honour [Page 185] doth spring, and arise. And [...]herefore from hence it is likewise, that [...]hey that fly the company of those that [...]e vertuous, and in conditions more [...]onorable then other men, declare [...]ore and more the foule deformitie of [...]eir mindes, and heape vp vnto them­ [...]lues, whole mountaines of infamy, [...]nd dishonour. As it plainely appea­ [...]th in those, that fly the louers of truth, [...]e principall vertue to winne, and to [...]cline both the hearts of men, and [...]od himselfe vnto vs. And in those [...]ewise, that doe so much despise both [...]uine, and humane wisdome, that hea­ [...]ng any learned man to discourse, of [...]atters appertaining either to pub­ [...]ke, or priuate gouernment, or of those [...]arninges, that inrich the vnderstan­ [...]ng with much knowledge, as enimies [...]all learning, and discipline, no lesse [...]amfully, then basely, they fly from [...]em. The like errour is likewise in those [...]ung men, who seeing their elders, or [...]ntients, (the best Censors, and Iudges [...] their youthfull deameanors) by all [...]ssible meanes they can, either auoyd [...]e sight of them, or with much griefe [...]d sorrowe lend their eares to their [...]herly instructions, making knowne [Page 186] thereby, the corruption of their desires, more inclinable to a licentious life, which bringeth nothing with it but shame & dishonour, then to those hol­some admonitions, which proceeding from much study, and many deare ex­periences, are as a loadstone, to direct their heares through the dangerous sea of this world. And therefore saith the first Truth whilest he conuersed vpon the earth, cloathed with the garment of our mortality, he that hateth the light walketh in darknesse The reason wher­of is, because wicked and ignorant men (beeing blinde in the light of that rea­son, which with an incomparable kind of comlines, at all times laieth open vn­to vs, the way of Iustice, and equity, o­peneth the gates vnto honesty, discoue­reth the footesteps of vertue, and in­structeth vs in all holy, and religious lawes) will not lift vp their eyes to behold the cleare light of the wise­dome of those, who by their learning, and vertuous conuersation can instruct them in all manner of discipline, but according to the darkenesse of their owne vnbridled affections they fol­low their owne immoderate desires, be they neuer so dishonourable: and [Page 187] therefore no maruel, if infamy, and dis­honour to themselues, and incredi­ble losse vnto their whole fami­lies, follow such loose, and vnbridled affections.

VVhy are not all to be blamed that flie their countries? Probleme. 91.

PErhaps because he that flyeth the fury of the common people (who many times moued by particular affections, and hatred suddenly concea­ued, run headlong to the ruine of other men) flyeth likewise an vnlawfull vio­lence, and an vniust sentence. Or per­haps, because, as a Sonne hateth not his Father, because hee heareth him in the fit of his burning feuer to raue, and to talke idly, yea otherwise then besee­meth his fatherly grauity, but rather mooued with a filiall loue, and dutifull compassion of so great a chaunge, hateth the cause of this his distem­perature, and giueth place to the dis­ease: so many sonnes, of many famous [Page 188] common weales, seeing their countries ouerladen with ambition, & couetous­nes, and oppression, and many other the like disorders, compassionating the mi­serable estate thereof, and hating the occasion of so dangerous a disease, by staying, not being able to redresse them by flight, haue bin cōtent both to yeeld vnto them, & to auoid them; yet not with a purpose for euer to abandō their countries (which were a sin of great im­piety) but forasmuch as they finde thē ­selues too weake a medicine, to cure so great a malady, not being able to helpe, they remoue from their eyes those mis­chiefes, which in publike perturbations and disorders, good cittizens with much griefe, and anguish of heart are accusto­med to behold; and this was a thing very common both in Athens, Rome, and diuerse other cōmonweales, where forasmuch as this their flight was grounded vpon good, and lawfull rea­sons, there was little reason, why they should be stayned thereby with any note of infamie, but rather by men of soundest iudgements, thought worthy of honour, and commendations.


VVhy hath nature giuen delight vnto creatures? Probleme. 92.

PErhaps because the end of euery worke, being the first moouer of e­uery agent vnto his worke, it was not conuenient, that it should be done by any violent force, for that were the way to make euery worke odious, or at leastwise lesse pleasing, and euery work­man beeing wearied with the tedious­nesse thereof, either to set at naught euery enterprise be it neuer so waighty, or at leastwise following it, with a more vnhappy end to accomplish it▪ For the end of euery worke, hauing in it (at the least) a shew of good, and especially of a good that is pleasant, and delightful doth with a kind of sweetnes, inuite, & stirre vp euery thing to follow it. ma­king euery motion pleasant, euery la­bour easie, euery difficulty plaine and o­pen, and euery heauy thing light, e­uery age short, euery discommodity co­modious, [Page 190] and euery sowre, sweet and acceptable. And therefore hence it is that all the motions, and workes of all things naturall whatsoeuer, being con­formable to their nature, are acted, and exercised with delight. The heauens with their swift, and indefatigable mo­tion do they not from far make known to as many as contemplate them, that delight which they hide vnder those rich curtaines? and do not the Elements by their swift, and direct motions shew as much? The fire taketh pleasure in those twinkling sparkles, that expresseth the force therof: the aire feeleth the like delight, when all the regions therof, are freed from those turbulent motions that arise frō the rage, and fury of the winds. The water running by her channels, & riuers, & pores, & aqueducts, and foū ­taines, vnto her common mother the Sea, with hir siluer surges, giueth sol­lace euen to the heauens, and with a calme & quiet delight setleth it selfe. The earth by those manifolde riches, that it bringeth forth, makes knowne that inward delight which it cōtayneth within the bowels thereof. The plants with their fecundity, All liuing crea­tures with their generation: men with [Page 191] [...]eir artes, & ingenious industries, make [...]anifest the delight and pleasure they [...]ioy vpon the earth: yea the Angels [...] their vnderstanding, the heauens by [...]eir circular motion, the night by the [...]riety of lights, the day by the great­ [...]sse of that one light of the sunne, the [...] by the flames thereof, the ayre by [...]e pleasant, and pleasing flowers of [...]ne, the water by her christalline foū ­ [...]nes, the earth by her riches, the spring [...]her flowers, the summer by the heat, [...]e autumne by the fruites, the winter [...] the snow therof, birds by their flight, [...]es by their swimming, all creeping [...]atures by their crawling, wild beasts [...] their free walkes in the spacious, and [...]asant woodes, Domesticall, by their [...]ightfull pastures, and lastly man by [...] daily endeauors to attaine immorta­ [...], feeleth that ioy and solace, & con­ [...]t that cannot be expressed by any [...]gue, be it neuer so learned, & elo­ [...]t. Or Perhaps to the end that delight [...]ght be that sweet sawce, that princely [...]ion, that Nectar of the gods, that a­ [...]ble paterne of pleasure, which nature [...] liberally diuided to hir parts, for the [...]ort & recreation of their works, the [...]ard of their labours, the wages of [...]r sweatings, the ease of their motiōs. [Page 129] For how should any man after long labour, and trauell, bee desirous to re­turne vnto it, if after his labour, he bee not by some delightfull nourishment strengthened, and recomforted? And therefore the Seaman, though he bee tumbled and tossed by the dangerous, and tumultuous waues of the sea, yet hauing tasted that Delight that follow these dangers when he commeth to the shore, forgerting all that is past, he lan­cheth his shippe againe into the sea. And euen so euery agent being allured by some delight or other, is encouraged to his action, and after ease returneth to his labour.

VVhy hath Nature giuen such di­uersity Delights vnto man? Probleme. 93.

PErhaps because man is the Epilogue and end, or rather receptacle of all natures, as hauing in him the degrees of that perfection, which is in euery o­ther kinde: and therefore he is likewise called the Horizon of all creatures, be­cause representeth the superior, and [Page 193] inuisible creatures with his minde, and the inferior with his body, and therefore whatsoeuer is delightfull in euery kinde must necessarily in some sorte belong vnto him. Or Perhaps, because Nature hauing giuen Delights vnto euery thing conformable vnto their Natures, and to the diuers consti­tutions of diuers creatures, diuersity of foode, and sustenance, as to the swine acornes, to the woolfe flesh, to the fer­ret bloud, to the horse haye, to the goate leaues, to the sheepe grasse, to the bee flowers, and the like: and hauing fra­med and fashioned man, of a more no­ble, and excellent complection then a­ny other creatures, in touch delicate, in caste temperate [...], and in all the other senses more perfect, and excellent, as being (also) more apte to iudge of [...]h [...]se sensible obiectes that appertaine vnto him, it was likewise fit, and ne­ [...]essary, that she should giue vnto him, [...]he excellency of euery Delight, which [...]hould not onely shine in their rare and [...]ingular qualities, but bee answerable likewise) in respect of their multitude, [...]o her many, and naturall prerogatiues. And therefore with a bountifull hand [Page 194] she hath bestowed vpon him all those Delights, which are proportionable, either to his owne greatnesse, or the magnificence of his maker. And there­fore she hath not giuen vnto man one onely foode, and sustenance, but many, and those most delicate: she hath not giuen him water to drinke, as to other vnreasonable creatures, but precious liquors, and holsome beuerages: yea all other Delights whatsoeuer, belong­ing vnto the other speciall senses, were especially graunted vnto man, and though happely they may appertaine vnto other creatures, they are rather appropriated vnto them as signes, and differences of their natures, then as a­ny way delightfull vnto themselues. For the variety of colours, the Beauty of the heauens, the goodly feature of bests, and birdes, the glorious splen­dour of precious stones, the diuersity of mettalles, and the incomparable Delights of the Spring, were all made, and ordeyned, to please, and content the eye of man. The fragrancy, and sweete smelling odour of so many flowers, the Hiacinth, the Gesmine, the Rose, the violet, with other inume­rable, [Page 195] were onely made to Delight, and satisfie the smell of man. The sweete­nesse of so many voices so many musi­call accents, so many instruments, was made, and ordeyned for the onely benefit of man, to Delight, and com­forte his eare: for we haue neuer heard of any creature besides man, were he by the gift of nature neuer so wise, that for Delight onely, doth contemplate the Beauty of the hea­uens, or any thing else: that for plea­sure and Delight smelleth to any flo­wer, or harkneth to the harmony of a­ny other Creature, as a musitian to the notes, and compositions of an other. So, that as man is superior to all other creatures, so hee excel­leth them all in the variety of his Delights, and pleasures. Or Perhaps, because onely man hauing beene created, among other inferior crea­tures, for that pleasant and delight­full place of Paradise, where those pleasures are found, and tasted, that man canne neather conceaue, nor imagine, GOD would likewise giue vnto him, the choyce aboue all other Creatures, of all the plea­sures, [Page 196] and Delights of this life, that being drawne by the sweetnesse of them, he should so much the more as­pire euery day to that prime, and prin­cipall Delight, that doth neuer alter, nor decay.

VVhy doth man, being not content with such variety of Delight as nature affords, procure o­ther vnto himselfe by art and inuen­tion? Probleme. 94.

PErhaps because this is the diffe­rence betwixt man, and other li­uing Creatures, that he receaueth from Nature his inferior powers, rude, and simple, and vnwrought, as it were seeds to be sowed, tilled, and manu­red, by the sharpe plough share of his penetrating wit, whereas vnrea­sonable creatures, as being created by nature for themselues, in the workes and effects of their owne powers rest and settle themselues, and though [Page 197] some of them being holpen by out­ward discipline, may appeare more apt, and actiue in bettering that which na­ture hath bestowed on them, yet it is euer without knowledge, or Delight, and therefore man hauing receaued from the selfe same nature, that two­fold desire, of knowledge, and of good, as two spurres, accompanied (besides) with an inclination, both of witte ac­commodated to speculation, and of hands the fittest instruments of all o­thers to act any thing, and being more­ouer inuited, by the perfection of so many Beautifull works of nature, which make rich the Theater of this world, hee would with a sweete kinde of Culture, and tillage of his vnderstan­ding powers, habituate, and accus­tome himselfe to vertuous actions, De­light himselfe with a thousand actes, a thousand ingenious inuentions, make himselfe amiable by his gracious ca­riage, and by his high courage, and va­lour purchase vnto himselfe honour, and felicity: And therefore hence it is, that we see him diligent, and indus­trious (and that with an vnspeakable Delight) in the attayning vnto vertue, to temperance, iustice, fortitude, wisdome, [Page 198] Chastity, Clemency, Vrbanity, Truth, and to euery other vertuous habit: that we see him (according to that full measure of wit, and vnderstanding that he hath) followe with pleasure, and Delight, the Princely sportes of of hunting, pleasant comedies, pasto­rall compositions, graue tragedies, ce­lestiall Harmonyes: that we see him al­togither giuen to magnificence, to the the Beauty of rare figures, excellent pictures, rich statues, artificiall perspec­tiues, ancient monuments, proud e­difices, and the like: that we see him zelous of honour, and with equall valour to passe the seas, the mountaines, the craggie Rockes, to enter into battell with barbarous people, and by many victories to winne honour, and immortalitie: that we may see him painfull, and vigilant in contem­plating the heauens, in pearcing into the Elementes, in searching euery Nature, euery cause, euery effect, e­uery propertie, euery substance, e­uery accident, euery power, euery act, euery simple, euery compound, euery alteration, generation, moti­on, rest, quantity, qualitie, body, place, action, passion, habit, priuation, [Page 199] matter, forme, kindes generall and speciall, sense, and sensible, intellect, and intelligible things: and whatso­euer besides he seeketh, and search­eth to minister vnto him selfe Delight, and pleasure. Or Perhaps, because man being of a noble, and generous minde, and obseruing those many ex­cellent qualities, which in the variety of kindes, in the world doe manifestly shine, and appeare, and finding the imitation (euen) of things most dif­ficult, to bee but easye vnto him, the nobility of his nature would not suffer him to yeeld vnto them, but rather spurred him forward with a desire of glory, both by art, and labour, and in­dustrie, to excell them all, and to make himselfe Lord, and chiefe comman­der ouer them And therefore man con­sidering the liberalitie of the heauens, the confederation of the Elements, the fecundity [...] of the plants, the maiestie of the Lion, the fidelity of the Dogge, the strength of the Panther, the wis­dome of the Ante, the meekenes of the Lamb, the vigilancy of the Crane, the patience of the asse, the tēperance of the Cameliō, the prouidence of the bee, the [Page 200] subtiltie of the Foxe, the boldnesse of the Swanne, the force of the Elephant, the courage of the horse, the musick of the Nightingale, the grammer of the Parret, the arithmetick of the Tunnie, the Astronomie of the Cock, the Lo­gick of the Dogge, the sollid firmnesse of mettals, the price of precious stones, and the vertue of the herbes, he could not containe himselfe, in this noble Theater of all the creatures of the world, adorned with so many and so excellent qualities, but that he must, not onely imitate them, but farre excell them. The heauens are liberall by mi­nistring vnto vs, (by their influence, motion, and light) euery good thing whatsoeuer: The Elements are confe­derated, for being bound with a band of Loue, they hold the whole world in vnitie and concord: the Plants are fer­tile, for they yeeld vnto vs the delight of their fruite: the Lion is maiesticall, for he is King of all other beasts: the Dogge is faithfull, for he neuer forsa­keth his Lord and maister: the Panther is strong, for with his strength he fea­reth not to encounter the strongest beasts of the field: the Ante is wise, for within her little celles shee hideth [Page 201] her necessary victuall, vntill time of neede: the Lambe is gentle, for he of­fendeth not, though he be offended: the Crane is vigilant, for whilest his company sleepeth he standeth Senti­nell: the Asse is patient, for though he endure, many blowes, he strikes not againe: The Camelion is temperate, for he liues by the ayre: the Bee is pro­uident for with an excellent order she appointeth her troupes vnto their la­bour. The Fox is subtill, for with won­derfull arte he obteyneth his prey: the Swanne is bolde, for he feares not to enter combate with the Eagle: the Elephant is strong, for he carieth vpon his backe a tower of armed men: the the horsse is valiant, for at the sound of the trumpet, being thirsty of glory, he feareth not to runne into the enemies squadrons. The Parret is a Gramari­an, for he vttereth an articulate voyce: The Nightingall is a Musitian, for with a thousand tunes he delighteth the eare: the Tunnie is an Arithmeti­cian, for hauing counted his troupes, he gathereth them together into a for­mall squadron in the waters: The Cocke is an Astronomer, for with his morning song he foretelleth the qua­litie [Page 202] of the times. The Dogge is a Logi­tian, for not finding his maister in one place, he seeketh him in another, and so in a third, framing thereby an argu­ment from the whole to the parts, that is, that his maister being in the house, hee must necessarily bee in some part thereof, and therefore not finding him in the first, nor in the second, he con­cludeth that he must necessarily be in one of the rest: Mettalles are solide, and permanent, for time can hardly corrupt them: Stones are precious, for in price they exceed gold, and herbes haue many hidden vertues in them, for they cure all diseases: so that man lear­ning from euery thing, and taking sin­gular delight in them, would not, being monarch of this inferiour world, be in­feriour vnto it, but gathering vnto him­selfe by his owne artes and industries, all those excellencies, which he obser­ueth to be diuided in the multitude of things through out the whole vniuerse, enioye them for his vnspeakable de­light and comfort.

VVhy do women, and young men especi­ally loue things pleasant and Delightfull? Probleme. 95.

PErhaps because women and young men, are of all others best friends vnto their senses, and therfore in euery thing most intemperate, the reason whereof doth arise from no other ground, then that they are nouelists to nature, and therefore thirsting after euery delightfull thing, they desire to proue all, and yet withall be neuer sa­tisfied; and women by reason of that tender and delicate softe nature we see in them, are more inclinable to the flat­tering allurements of euery pleasing & pleasant obiect. Or Perhaps, because they naturally louing meriment and laughter, desiring sports and pastimes, thirsting after solace and content, and beeing free to attempt (if their mindes bee not ruled by the bridle of shamefastnesse) whatsoeuer they wishe or desire, and not finding that [Page 204] their desire, but in those things that either by nature, or arte haue Delight in them, with all their strength and studie, and by all meanes both open and secret, they endeuour to possesse themselues of those delights, which do best befit their owne willes: And therefore wee doe plainly see among other senses, how much they are cari­ed away with the delight of those dain­ties, that doe best please their taste and pallates, they Loue sweete meates, de­light in banquetings, desire nouelties, follow delicacies, and are common gests at rich and bountifull tables. Or Perhaps, because women and young men, being more drawne by the force of Loue, which affection (according to Plato) doth especially raigne intender brests) and Loue leading all Louers to a chiefe and principall delight, they cannot endure to bee depriued of all other delights, but rather direct all o­ther vnto that, as the partes vnto the whole, and as riuers vnto their foun­taine. Or Perhaps, because young men abounding with much naturall heate, and women being weake, nature pro­uoketh them to refresh, and strengthen themselues, with the comfort of those [Page 205] things that are pleasant and Delightfull.

VVhy doth the multitude of those de­lightfull things that especially apper­taine to the sense of feeling, taste, and smelling, make vs many times intemperate? Probleme. 96.

PErhaps because those senses partici­pate much of that which is earthly, and therefore hauing an earthly appre­hension of their sensible obiects, the senses doe not onely vnite, but drowne and ouerwhelme themselues with their obiects, and so being altered by the sweetnesse of them, become intempe­rate, to the hurt of themselues and o­thers. For the sense of Feeling, beeing ouermuch accustomed to things, ey­ther by nature, or arte ouer soft & deli­cate, and the sense of Taste to sweete and pleasant meates, and the sense of Smelling, to the sweete fragrancie of odoriferous smels, the vitall spirits grow and increase about the heart, the De­sires are awaked, concupiscence infla­med, the appetite enclined, and the will [Page 206] (amongst the darke flames of corrupt sense) giueth consent, and so the euill habit of the sinne of intemperancie groweth in vs. Or perhaps, because the force of concupiscence spreading it selfe from the heart (as from the foun­taine of all heate, and with that heate, the aboundance of vitall spirits to the whole body, euen to the superficiall part thereof, where the sense of feeling especially hath place, and that beeing much more awakened by the excel­lencie of those obiects that are pre­sented vnto it, and likewise strengthe­ned by that heate which the sense of Taste, by the diuersitie of whote drinks, and nourishing meates, brings with it, and yet more encreased by sweete and exquisite odours, it carieth vs headlong to the highest degree of intemperance. For where the sense beareth rule, and without the curbe, or bridle of vertue, is made the predominant, reason in despite of our selues is made a slaue, and quite ouercome. Or Perhaps, be­cause these senses doe so throughly make proofe of the delight of their obiects, that they are in such sorte be­witched with them, that with a sweete kinde of forgetfulnesse of themselues, [Page 207] they carie the Empire and rule of rea­son, in a kinde of delightfull Lethargie, to the end it should not discerne that error, which by their greedinesse to their common losse they commit: and by so much the more are they therein burthened and ouercharged, by how much accustoming themselues thereto, they doe not afterwards in the like af­faires so much obey their owne willes, as that necessitie, which by frequent practise they haue brought vpon them­selues: So that being all, and altoge­ther intemperate, they know not or seeme not to know, how to better themselues.

Ʋ Ʋhy did Athens glory in the delight of wisdome, and Rome of armes. Probleme. 97.

PErhaps because Athens loued more the long robe of peace (an out­ward badge of that wisdome and gra­uity, which in peaceable times gaue life and strength to the whole state, but especially to those which willingly employed rhēselues to the speculatiō of [Page 208] naturall causes, seuering themselues from all rumour of warres) then the helmet, & curasse, or compleat armour: for military exercises are neuer without losse, and hurt, both to the assaylants, and assailed, But Rome, as being more enclined to the glory of labour and paynes, and valor, then to that idle life, which peace commonly brings with it, did wholy addict it selfe to the labours of Hercules, the honours of Mars, the valiant incouragements of Bellona: and as the Athenians tooke delight in wise­dome, in the attayning whereof, they placed their whole studies, and indea­uors, so the Romans in that strength & fortitude (which made manifest the va­lour of their hearts) tasted that pleasure, and delight, which cannot be expressed. Or Perhaps, because Athens did more attend the tillage, and manuring of the minde by discipline, & study, as know­ing that man was borne to contemplate, and therefore for no other cause hath wise Nature giuen him the force of wit, but to penetrate: of vnderstanding, but to conceiue, and a countenance looking vpward, but to cōtemplate. But Rome did more attend the outward glory and ornament of the body, then [Page 209] that of the minde, as knowing that man was borne to labour, and therefore hath Nature giuen vnto him euery instru­ment, apt, and necessary thereunto, as bodily strength, to sustaine himselfe, to beate downe others, to darte from him, to draw vnto him, to run, to leape to breake in peeces, to beate downe, to shake, to ruinate, agility of members, swiftnesse of pase, strength of the arme, cunning of the hand, courage of the heart, heate of blood, plenty of spirits, readinesse of the sense, the knitting of the sinowes, a firme setling of the bones, and the vigor of life, whereunto she hath added, the inflamed desire of the part concupiscible, the ready helpe of the irascible, the moouing vertues, & the rich treasury of all the powers out­ward, and inward: whereby those gene­rous champions of Rome (not altoge­ther abandoning the wisdome of Mi­nerua) gaue themselues wholy to mili­tary exercises, and by the strength of their armes, and valour of their hearts, woon both to themselues, and to their country immortal honour, and re­nowne. Or Perhaps, because Athens was alwayes moued with that difficult inuisible good, which is the gift of wis­dome, [Page 210] for the inuisible power of the vn­derstanding doth likewise learne, al­though it attaine thereunto by visible creatures, & visible sences: which good, by how much more difficult, by so much the more pleasant it is, after it is obtained, and of inuisible, is made visi­ble, by the helpe, and communication of the tongue And therefore they ha­uing had in their possession so great a treasure, to all others (yet) inuisible and vnknowne, it was no maruaile if they gloried so much in those whose hono­rable fame did spread it selfe to the vt­termost confines of the world. But Rome being mooued with a difficult visible good, such as is a Monarchie, the supreame and highest honour of all o­thers, which is gotten by fight, & warres and visible conflicts in a field, open to the eye of the world, made it farre more visible by the conquest of so manye crownes, so many Kingdomes, so many triumphes ouer barbarous nations, which set the flashing lightning of their glory to the most vnknowne parts of the world, and the eternity of all times. Or Perhaps, because the Athenians lay­ed the foundation of their state, & com­monweale, in a time of peace, and ther­fore [Page 211] Idlenesse best befitting the specula­tion of all creatures, they applied them­selues so much the more willingly to the contemplation of diuine wisedome, by howe much the more they perceiued it to shine in the creatures, both by the order and disposition of the partes to the whole, and in euery kinde, both vni­uersall, and particular. So that euery day encreasing their labours herein, they became famous for wisedome through the whole world, But Rome taking her beginning from that warre that Romu­lus made, when vppon iust cause hee draue his vncle Aemulius out of his kingdome, and thereby the common weale being hardly begun, much lesse setled, he was enforced presently to take armes against the Sabines, & other countries, and so by little and little the glory of the Romanes encreasing, being allured, partly by the valour of their armes, partly by the greatnesse of their Monarchy, and partly awaked by the ge­nerosity & magnanimity of their harts, they wonne honour, and glory in the world, and in all future ages immor­tality.

VVhy doe Kings and Princes, contrary to the opinion of the common people tast least of pleasure and Delight? Probleme. 98.

PErhaps because they want that li­berty that other men haue, beeing commonly shut vp in imprennable for­tresses, and stately pallaces, compassed with many walles, kept with guard vp­on guard by day, and watched by sen­tinells at night, for which debarment of liberty they may thanke those suspi­tions, & enuies, & emulations that they endure: & if all these were not, yet the regall respect & maiestie of great perso­nages permits thē not to walke abroad at their pleasure, much lesse doth it be­come them to shew themselues, either in publike spectacles, or priuate assem­blies, so that being detained by the bri­dle of comly decēcie, they are depriued of the sight of many delightfull things, which if it vsually happen within their owne lande, or citty where they make aboad, much more in strange countries, which are farre distant from them, and [Page 213] most of all in those that are vnder the empire of another crowne: for to those places they cannot goe without great suspition, and danger to their states, and persons: and if sometimes it do fall out, that they do goe, it is seldome graunted vnto them, and neuer without incon­uenience. And therefore they liue de­priued of all those wonderments, that are seene in so many strange citties, and prouinces; and kingdomes. And if it fall out that by reason of their greatnesse, and bountie, any Beautifull, or strange thing bee brought from farre to their own pallaces, this hapneth but seldom, and the reward (thereof) must carry a proportion to their owne greatnesse, though there be no proportion betwixt that one thing they see, and those thou­sands that are in other countries, and cannot be brought vnto them. So that the poorest creature that is, in this cōdi­tion, excelleth the greatest princes on the earth: for euery common person be­ing a free man borne, hath liberty to dis­pose of himselfe, and at his owne plea­sure, without the feare, & suspition of a­ny: he goeth forth off his simple cottage or pastorall cell, and visiteth the Cittie, gazeth, and glutteth himselfe, with the [Page 214] strange wonders thereof, is present at euery publike spectacle, euery priuate pastime, euery show, euery recreation, yea and with little charge, he passeth o­uer the highest mountaines, from king­dome to kingdome, from prouince to prouince, and glutteth his eyes with de­lightfull obiects, proud magnificences, inestimable treasures, princely statues, sumptuous edifices, and enricheth his knowledge with variety of manners, & complections, and languages, and the hidden vertue of euery hearbe, & plant, delighteth himselfe with the beautie of euery beast, with their colours, their strength, their discipline, and therefore who can denye but this man (hauing this liberty of his body, whilest at his owne pleasure hee wandereth through the spacious Element of the earth, and of the sea, viewing the most noble parts of Nature, and contempla­ting the manners, and customes of na­tions, and the strange artes of mans inuention) farre excelleth the little ex­perience of the greatest Potentates, who spend their time within the small circuit of their walled Pallaces. And therefore it consequently fol­loweth, [Page 215] that they taste lesse of the de­lights of this world, then men of base estate and condition Or Perhaps, great Princes alwayes abounding in euery good thing that bringeth delight with it, want, by the continuall fru [...]tion of them, that pleasure, and content, which the lacke of them procureth vnto o­thers. Wherby we see (to speake of the sense of Taste, for in the sense of Seeing it doth already appeare) that their ta­bles beeing alwayes furnished, with exquisite meates of all sorts, and that in great aboundance, and those so dressed and seasoned, and sauced by the arte of a skilfull hande, with a thousand trickes, and inuentions that euery daye ingenious gluttony findeth out, they ne­uer sit downe to the table with hungry appetites, but being alwaies accustomed to haue the selfe same dishes, of flesh, and fish (for variety cannot alwayes be, had) their diet (were it Nectar it selfe) growes loathsome vnto them: wherby it commeth to passe, that they relish nor the dainties of their sumptu­ous tables, but somtimes they con­demne nature as imperfect, in not prouiding better variety of viands: sometimes their Cooke, as not skilfull [Page 216] enough to deuise sawces, and quelques­ehoses to Delight their pallats, yea such is their infelicity, that those sol­lemne times of meetings, and meri­ments, wherein euery appetite glut­teth it selfe to the full, (as Shrouetide, mariages, gossiping feasts, and the like, where no dainty dishes are wanting, that either nature can yeeld, or arte can deuise) are no meriments to them, be­cause being alwayes accustomed to them, they prise them not as things new, euery day being a festiuall day to them, and euery daintie their ordinary diet. And that which is worst of all, and doth most expresse their infelicity, is, that many times, especially forth off their owne houses, in cuppes of gold, in fruit meerly naturall, not artificiall, in precious drinkes, and broathes, in sweete, and sumptuous banquets, they meete with mortall poyson: and in those viands that are prouided to main­taine life, they feare, and finde the cause of death: So that fewe are the De­lights that Princes finde in the sense of taste, and those fewe not without iust cause of suspitions, and danger to their owne persons: whereas men of lowe degree, and estate, yea the countrie [Page 217] swaine, plucking an apple from his tree, and allaying his thirste, with a cuppe of colde water, his stomacke being whetted therevnto by his dayly labour, feeleth that sweete relish, and pleasant delight, which great persona­ges in their greatest plentie, and varie­tie of dyet, are neuer acquainted with. And in solemne times of the yeare, ap­pointed to feastings, and ciuill recrea­tion, a small dyet, but little more then ordinary, bringeth with it that admi­rable content, that delight to the pa­lat, that pleasure to the minde, which by their free and pleasant discourses, and friendly communication of each others thoughts, is made knowne to all that behold them, and they like­wise made mery with their meriments. So that it cannot but bee plaine and manifest, that the pleasure that princes and great personages take in the de­light of Taste, is no way comparable to that of men of farre inferiour estate and condition. Or Perhaps, because the powers are offended with the ouer-excellencie of their obiects, as we see the excessiue light of the Sunne of­fendeth the eye: and therefore it is no maruell, if in Princes and great perso­nages, [Page 218] the senses of Taste and Smelling, are alwayes languishing, as of Taste it already appeareth, and of Smelling we may say, that by the great and dayly fragrancie that all the odours, and ci­uets, and muskes, and spices, and wa­ters, and a thousand the like precious oyntments doe make, the organe of their Smelling (which is the nose) be­ing ouer-glutted and weakned, they cannot possibly giue any true iudge­ment of any odours, nor consequently take any true delight in them. But the simple and silly swaine of the countrie, being not onely not acquainted with the variety of sweete smelles, but some­times with sauours very vnpleasing, re­ceiueth greater content and comfort in the smell of one onely flower, one onely Rose, then the greatest Princes of the earth, in the greatest variety of sweet smelling odours. Or Perhaps, be­cause great Princes and Potentates, by flattery and dissimulation (a sinne too common amongst them) are to com­monly deceiued. For the feare that e­uery man hath of the power of great personages, which holdeth euery man (bee he neuer so bold) from vtter­ing any thing vnto them that may [Page 219] any way discontent them: so that they heare nothing but pleasing newes, their owne praises and commenda­tions, and the vaine glorious bragges of those that attend them, which foras­much as they are for the most part vn­true (for then are praises onely true, when they are vttered by a free tongue, with much knowledge, and little af­fection) bring with them rather a noysome tediousnesse, then any de­light, and darke ignorance in discer­ning a true friend from a false. But a man of lower degree, and farre mea­ner fortunes, as hee wanteth power to giue cause of feare, so because he knowes men speake not for feare, hee takes more delight to heare other men speake well of him. And though Princes sometymes in their priuate Chambers, enioy the delight of Mu­sicke, yet the common people haue it more common, and when they wante that which arte can affoorde them, the byrdes of the fields, with their pleasant notes are neuer wan­ting vnto them. Or Perhappes, be­cause it often commeth to passe by the corruption of Nature, that the delights of the sense of Touching are [Page 220] sildome exercised without danger of intemperance, which falling out in the person of great Princes, especially in the act of Luxurie, the infamie and dishonour thereof, is so much the greater, by how much they are higher and greater then other men. For a Prince can neuer commit any sinne, but it is presently censured by his peo­ple, and therefore the infamie depend­ing vpō many tongues, must necessarily spred farther, and grow greater, so that they can safely enioy onely the honest delight, which all men (besides) by lawfull matrimonie may bee possessed of. Or Perhaps because great Princes doe commonly want those goods, espe­cially of the minde, which can onely make them truely happy in this life: For Peace is an excellent good, and this they can neuer wholy enioy eyther with forraine Princes, or their owne subiects: warre is a great euill, threat­ning vnto vs the losse both of life and goods, and whilest it beareth swaye, the Princes themselues are not secure, euen within the walles of their Citties, and when it beareth not swaye, they still endure the effects thereof, secret hates and treacherous vnderminings: [Page 221] The sweete band of friendship is an excellent good, the very shadow wher­of (by reason of those continuall flat­terers they haue about them) they cannot promise themselues; It is a great benefit to make proofe of the faith and fidelitie of those they loue, before deare experience bewray their infidelitie, being many times flame by their owne children, their bre­thren, their wiues, their neighbours: for which they may thanke their vn­bridled desire of bearing rule. The peace and quiet of the minde, is an excellent good, whereof they are in such sort depriued by publicke busi­nesse, and the many and dayly com­plaints of their subiects wrongfully op­pressed, that they passe ouer whole nights with watchful eyes, and trou­blesome thoughts, exceeding therein the vnfortunate condition of the ba­sest slaues, who after their wearisome trauels in the day, in the middest of their chaines and fetters, sleepe sound­ly and securely at night. And lastly, the felicitye and prosperous estate of children is a singular good, but the chil­dren of great Princes grow thereby in­temperate, proud, and insolent: which [Page 222] blessings meaner men do many times enioy, with greater pleasure and con­tent, then the greatest potentates of the earth.


VVhy hath Nature giuen Sorrow vnto Creatures? Probleme. 99.

PErhaps, because the presence of con­traries which are wont to corrupt euery particular thing, by offending, & altering the parts thereof, being by the flownesse of the powers of the other senses vnknowne, and by the a­wakened sence of Touching, being with much griefe and martyrdome ap­prehended, Nature is stirred vp by flight and all possible meanes to saue it selfe. Or Perhaps, because that which the concupiscible part could not do with the irascible, that is, what desire and anger together cannot ef­fect, might bee supplyed by the helpe [Page 223] of Sorrow: for we see a beast being prouoked by the Huntesman that fol­loweth him in chase, flyes with all the possible speed he can make: but if by chance there be added to this his feare, some blowe, or wound, he doubleth his force in flying, runnes thorow eue­rie thicket, leapes euery ditch, euery mound, yea casteth himselfe headlong from the highest rocke to the lowest valleyes, the paine and griefe, that hee feeleth by his late receiued hurt, still encreasing his strength. Or Perhaps, because though Nature especially in­tend Delight in euery creature: yet by accident it intendeth Sorrow too, that is, to giue notice to euery creature, by such sensible griefe and torment, their approching ruine and decaye, and that therefore it is necessarie they giue what ayde and assistance they can to the part offended. Or Perhaps, because the excellencye of euerye thing, is better knowne by the op­position of his contrary: and there­fore light would be nothing so preci­ous, if there were not darknesse, nor the Spring so pleasant, if there were not Winter, nor laughter so grate­full and acceptable, if it were not [Page 224] mingled with some teares, and there­fore, besids delight which is so sweete and louely to nature, she hath likewise added griefe and sorrow to make de­light more amiable. Or Perhaps, to the end that man should be farre the more ready and willing to aspire to the true felicity of that other life, where onely there is delight without sorrow, and ioye without feare of melancholy, which in this life (where there is an e­uerlasting combat betwixt a thousand contrarieties) cannot be found.

VVhy the sense of feeling most subiect to griefe? Probleme. 100.

PErhaps, because the Nature of eue­ry particular creature, being subiect to that ruyne which the contraries thereof from all the partes of the bo­dy, as well behind as before, on the right side, as the left, aboue as beneath, doe present vnto it, benigne nature hath prouided the sense of Touching: which dispersing it selfe through the whole body and life of euery creature, [Page 225] doth presently finde, and feele euery contrarie, and enimy, from what parte soeuer it shall come: And therefore, the sense of Touching, by reason of the Organ thereof (which is the flesh with the sinowes, and veynes of the whole body) is most subiect vnto griefe. Or Perhaps, because no sense is more sen­sible of offence then Touch, as hauing an Organ very gentle, and soft, and quick to apprehend euery impression of heate, or colde, softe, or hard, prick­ing, or cutting, or the like: and there­fore, though it fall out somtime that the sense of Hearing, Smelling, See­ing, Tasting, haue lost their force and operation, yet the Touch is not onely the last that loseth his vertue: but when it seemeth to be lost by the languishing, or rather insensible weakenesse of the body: yet in some parte or other it manifesteth it selfe: and if by no other meane, yet by ap­plying bandes, or any other offensiue instrument, it is presently awakened and reuiued. Which commeth to passe because the sense of feeling is verie strong, and quick in apprehending con­trarie obiects, for the health and preser­uation of euery creature. Or Perhaps, [Page 226] because the sense of Feeling is more in exercise then the other senses: for the eye doth not alwayes See, the eare doth not alwayes heare. The pallat doth not alwayes Tast: the nostrelles do not alwayes Smell: but the sense of Feeling is alwayes in action, & alwayes feele some sensible quality, being euer compassed, if with no other body, yet with the ayre, which by the diuers im­pressions thereof, being many times al­tered, comunicateth vnto, the body which it compasseth, her changes, and alterations, of cold, and heate, drith, & moisture: whereby it followeth, that though the other senses do sometimes take some breathing, & rest themselues from their worke: yet the sense of Fee­ling is alwayes vigilant, in so much that whatsoeuer do approch that is any way contrary, or hurtfull to any creature at rest, and in his dead sleepe, as fire, or the like, he presently awaketh and star­teth vp vpon his feete, because the touch by that griefe, which is caused by an approching enimy, standeth Sentinel, and giues warning of defence.

VVhy are griefes of the body com­municated vnto the minde, and those of the minde vnto the body? Probleme. 101.

PErhaps because the vnion of the forme with the matter, is a sweete ligament of nature, or rather an amiable chaine of Loue, so that the forme louing her naturall matter, by it perfected, and brought into action, and ability to exercise her works, it cannot but greeue with it, when sorrowes af­fflict it, or contraries any way deforme it: and therefore no maruell, if the sor­rowes of the body are communicated vnto the minde. Or Perhaps, because the reasonable soule, for the time is ty­ed, and vnited to the body, dependeth vpon it, as vpon her organe, or instru­ment to exercise her natural powers: for the inward discerning faculties, in their operations, depend vpō the outward dis­cerning powers, which do carry the sen­sible kindes to the inward sēses: wherby it cometh to passe, that the body be­ing martyred, & consequētly the senses [Page 228] altered, which in that masse of the bo­dy are conteyned, they present those corporall kindes or species very imper­fectly to the inward powers: and therefore remaine likewise in their workes very confused, and impotent, whereby followeth that griefe, and heauinesse of heart, and affection of the minde, which euery man findeth in himselfe by the passions, and suf­ferings of the body. Or Perhaps, be­cause in the composition of man there is a kinde of order or marshalling of the powers among themselues, which hath the similitude, or resemblance of a Monarchy: all the parts in due place, and order obeying the Empire, and commaund of the first moouing power, which is the will. And there­fore if the body, and euery member thereof be well disposed to their worke, it is all to doe seruice vnto the will, and if by the power, and puissance of the bodily forces it come to passe, that any thing be acted worthy comendations, worthy a crowne, the honour is the willes, which gaue in charge to the handes, and other partes of the body to attempt so honorable an enterprise. And so likewise, if it come to passe, [Page 229] that the hand cannot worke, the foote cannot go, the eye is dazeled, the eare obserueth not, and all the mem­bers of the body be weake, and the whole body languishing, it is a token that the Monarchy of the will is depri­ued of that traine of the vniuersall po­wers, which shewed themselues so prompt, and ready at her seruice and commaund. And therefore no mar­uell, if the minde be sorry for the griefe of the body, because she seeth by the ill disposition thereof a greate part of her glory extinguished. Or Perhaps, because the minde, by a kinde of fore­knowledge, seeth that the griefes of the body are but as precedent forerun­ners to the ruine, and corruption of the whole, by which ruine there follow­eth the seperation of the soule from the body: which is so much more gree­uous then any other, by howe much the minde of all other substantiall formes is the more noble: and this griefe contineweth so much the lon­ger, by how much longer it hath bin vnited vnto the body, and therefore the minde seeing the naturall strength of the body by the extremity of [Page 230] griefe to decay, and fearing a future ru­ine of all, is many times opressed, nay ouerwhelmed with melancholy and griefe. The like may likewise be sayde of the griefes and sorrowes of the minde, which the body doth so partici­pate, as if they were proper vnto it self. For the body seing his naturall force, the exercise of his powers, his acti­on, and life to be placed in his Forme, from which it taketh his beeing, po­wers, operations, name, and distincti­on, it is no maruell, the minde being Melancholike, and full of heauinesse and griefe, if the body likewise doe decay and languish. For the soule being separated, the eye seeth not, the hand mooueth not, the tongue spea­keth not, the eare harkneth not, the foote goeth not, the shoulder sustey­neth not, and the whole body, as vnapt to do any thing, like an earthly burthen falleth to the earth.

VVhy are the griefes of the body more sensible and violent in softe and de­licate bodies, as of women & honorable personages, then of those that are strong and valiant? Probleme. 102.

PErhap [...], because the senses, by how much more pure & noble they are, by so much the more excellently doe they apprehend those sensible kinds, & obiects that belong vnto thē. Now the flesh being the organe, or instrument of the sense of Feeling, and that Organe in noble men (their bodies being framed of purer bloud, by reason of a purer di­et) & in women (by reason of a their thin & delicate skin, and excellent tempera­ture of body) most pure and noble, it could not otherwise be, but that womē, & noble men should more sensibly, and strongly feele the bitternesse of any bo­dily griefe. Which may likewise appeare in the Oxe, and the Asse, who stir more slowly with the pricke of the goad, or spur, then either the dog, or the horse, because they, abounding with a nature very earthly, & melancholike, receiue not the blowe with that feeling griefe [Page 232] that the dogge, or the horse doth, being beastes of a more noble, and generous nature. Or Perhaps, because noble men, being much giuen to the commodities of Nature, and women to the delights of Bacchus, and the wanton alluring pleasures of Venus: they passe they whole time in ioy, and pleasant recre­ations: in so much that if it fall out, that they are inforced, eyther by chaunce, or defect of Nature, or violence, to suffer any griefe of body, they are farre more afflicted with it, then men of baser e­state, & conditiō, who besides that they haue bodies, eyther by nature, or educa­tion of a harder temper, & consequently are lesse apt to feele the griefe and vexa­tions of the body, they are cōmonly ac­customed to much variety of misfor­tunes, and to suffer the discommodities of nature, and the iniuries of all times.

VVhy are the griefes of the minde farre greater then those of the Body? Probleme. 103.

PErhaps, because the iudgement of the reasonable, or intellectiue part, [Page 233] is more perfect, as hauing knowledge of causes remote, and neare at hand, then that of the sense, which manye times erreth about his present sensible obiect, whereby that griefe, which the sense feeleth by the alteration of the bodily partes, is ioyned to the confused iudgement of his owne passion, & doth only grieue without reason & discourse: but reason, which seeketh all thinges by subtilty of wit, vnderstandeth and iudg­eth all things with equity and iustice, doth not so much consider the offence of the sense, as the iniury of that hand that offereth it, the iniquity of that minde, the vnhappy chaunce, blind fu­ry or whatsoeuer besides that offēdeth. Or Perhaps, because the sorrowes and griefs of the soule, haue a more potent and effectuall obiect in their martyr­domes, then the sense hath. For, the griefes of the body do many times pro­ceede from those things that are con­trary to nature, from the violent assaults of bruit beasts, from humane chaunces and the like, which vse to change, and alter the body: but the sorrowes of the minde, from those great, and strange occurrents, that happen eyther to our selues, or to any thing that is ours: espe­cially [Page 234] from iniuries, losse of honour, or goods, death of friends, iniust persecuti­on of mighty Princes, treachery of friends, iniust iudgments, losse of chil­dren, senses: and (that which maketh vp the heape of all these griefes) from the vnkindnesse of those that in the middest of them do abandon vs. Which occasi­ons of sorrow, of how great importance they are, the weakest iudgment may ea­sily conceiue. Or Perhaps, because the remedies for the griefes of the minde are not so easily found, as those of the body, and therefore we see that a Chi­rurgian, or a Phisician (many times) with a small plaster healeth a deepe wound, whereas the griefe of the mind, by no manner of means can be so much as comforted, much lesse throughly cu­red. And therfore hence it is that these griefes beeing remedilesse, they that should endeuor to cure them, are soone discomforted, and by surceasing their comfortes, increase the malady. Or Per­haps, because the griefes of the body, be they neuer so great, in time are cured, or at the leastwise lessened: but in the griefes of the minde, the length of time doth rather euery daye discouer our greater losses, & consequently doth ra­ther [Page 235] encrease our greater griefes, then any way mittigate the fiersnes of them. Whereby we see, that that losse which hath happened, eyther by shipwracke, or other casualty, to any family, doth e­uery day grow greater in the future po­sterity: insomuch that we neuer behold men subiect to such miseries, but they drawe from vs a speciall kind of com­passion, and commiseration. But especi­ally, that deepe wound of infamye, which killeth the ciuill life, and many times the vitall too, pierceth (like a sharpe razor) euen to the inward closets of the heart, and can neuer bee remoued. So that we see, that the causes of this inward griefe of the minde, are strong, and mighty, and the remedies eyther none at all, or verye fewe, and slender: and therefore it sufficiently ap­peareth, that the griefes of the minde are far greater, then those which pearce no farther then the outward sense.

VVhy are great Princes commonly afflicted with the griefes of the mind, and men of baser con­dition with those of the body. [Page 236] Probleme. 104.

PErhaps, because princely priuiledge or the dignity of dominion, and so­ueraignty, carrieth with it plenty of all those things which especially procure the health and welfare of the body. As to liue in howses holesomely situated, to vse a dainty and delicate diet, to drinke pure wines, to take their repasts at dewe times, to cloath themselues ac­cording to the seasons of the yeare, to apply themselues to those exercises that are not ouer-violent, which altogether with a iust temperance, and moderatiō of their whole life, maintaine the health and prosperity of the body. In so much that they are seldome, or neuer assayled with the griefes of the body by any accident of Nature, and much lesse by the hand of their enemy, their strength and powers being so farre from fearing any such force, as that they alwayes strike a feare, and terror into the hearts of others. But men of meaner state and condition, that haue scarce a cottage to couer their heads, much lesse Lord­ships, [Page 237] and rich reuenewes to maintaine their state, are enforced to dwell where they may, to feede vpon such as they haue: yea many times to kill hunger with that which kills thē. Neither can they obserue howres of repast, nor vse the benefit of seasons: but are constrai­ned to laye open themselues to all manner of inconueniences, and to will that which their owne necessityes re­quire. And that which is more, they are enforced by their businesse, and ma­ny occasions, to vndergo labours in­supportable: whereby it commeth to passe: that men of base condition, are commonly assayled with grieuous dis­eases, and a thousand paynes, and aches of the body: and by reason of their slē ­der ability, are subiect to contempt, and the many oppressions of the mightye. But contrariwise Princes, and great personages, as hauing the prerogatiue of blood, the greatnesse of honour and state, the height of fortune, are verye much afflicted with the griefes of the minde, whether it be, because the least wrongs that may be, to thē seeme great, or because feares, & suspitiōs more then any other affectiō affright them, or be­cause the disobedience of subiects, or [Page 238] enuye of their competitors inflame thē, or because hatred and malice doth ma­ny times macerate them, or whatsoe­uer be the occasions, they are alwaies assayled with much variety of passion: whereas men of low degree, who ney­ther haue their estates so entyre, not those offices which by the greatnes and grauity of their businesse, presse downe those with heauinesse and griefe that beare them, after their labours are en­ded, passe their houres, & dayes in peace and tranquillity, sleepe soundly without molestations, are freed from the enuye of others, as possessing nothing that a­nother should enuy. Anger deuoures them not, but all brawles, and contenti­ons with a word or a blow, are conclu­ded, and ended. Feare afflicts them not because they want the many occasions of iealousies, & suspitions, & lastly their owne affections and desires consume, and spend them not, because they neuer passe those bounds that they may not easily be obtayned: and therefore they are little disquieted with the griefes and vexatiō of the mind. Or Perhaps, because the little liberty of great princes makes them continent, and therefore healthful of body, and the great freedome of in­feriour [Page 239] persons makes them licentious, and intemperate, and therefore subiect to the griefes of the body. So likewise this debarment of liberty, and too fre­quent retyrings of great personages, as they are an occasion of bodily health, so they bring many passions, and tor­ments, and melancholike discontents vnto the minde which then worke their force with greatest violence, when their thoughts may wander without distur­bance. Which falleth not out with cō ­mon persons, who by reason of their liberty go forth of their lodgings, de­light themselues with variety of fights, and company, passe away the time in pleasant discourse, sometimes with one, sometimes with another, whereby hee quitteth himselfe of his worldly cares and discontents, and either grieues not at all, or mittigates that little that hee hath.

Ʋ Ʋhy are the griefes of women in labour of all other bodily griefes the greatest? Probleme. 105.

PErhaps, because women being wil­ling [Page 240] with their labours to giue life and light vnto their children, they cannot doe it but by passing the darke gates of death, by those grieuous and bitter tor­ments they endure in their labours: for to speake Philosophically, the gene­ration of the one, must be the corrup­tion of the other. Or Perhaps, because the parts of the Matrice being enlar­ged, and the gate of Nature being ope­ned beyond the wonted bounds, there is a kinde of commotion or distortion made of all the other parts answerable vnto it: from whence arise those fierce and bitter sorrowes which threaten death it selfe: for wee all know how great that alteration is which we feele in the dislocation of any one member or bone, which troubleth the whole minde, and tormenteth the whole bo­dy, the parts thereof being in such sort tyed and intangled together in an ex­cellent order, that from the violent re­moue of any one member from his naturall place, all the rest are strangely affected with paine and griefe. But in so great a mutation, and dislocation of the chiefe maister bones, and in so great an vndoing, and dissoluing of the rest, what incredible paine and torment is [Page 241] endured, they onely can best tell, who vpon their bed of death haue made ex­perience thereof. Or perhaps, because the woman was no sooner created, but bytasting the forbidden fruit, & deliue­ring it to our Grandfather Adam, brought death vnto her selfe, vnto A­dam, and to all his posteritie as yet vn­borne: So that by the iust iudgment of God, euen in the gates or entrance of life, whereby her childe first entreth this life, shee is constrained to passe through the gate of death.

VVhy would Plato, that children from their tender yeares should be accu­stomed both to delight and Sorrow? Probleme. 106.

PErhaps because these two affecti­ons, are the end of all other, all be­ing ordained to follow Delight, and flie griefe and Sorrow, which being well vnderstood by young men, they easily know afterwards how to discerne for what causes a man should reioyce, and for what he should grieue, which is a great cause of their good educati­on, [Page 242] and their future seruice for the good of the common-weale. Or Perhaps, to the end they should learne the true discipline of that honestie, wherewith a wise man is delighted, and the hatred of that sinne, which bringeth Sorrow to honest minded men; and conse­quently be mooued to follow the ho­nestie of vertue, and to flie the hatred of sinne, being allured to the one by delight, and terrified from the other by griefe. Or Perhaps, to the end that being instructed by publicke Iustice, which ministreth vnto the wicked in­famie with corporall punishment, and to the good a crowne of honour and immortalitie, they should flye disho­nour and infamie, and follow vertuous and valorous enterprises.

VVhy do many dye with too great an apprehension of ioye, others with too much griefe and sorrow of the minde? Probleme. 107.

PErhaps because in great ioyes and delights, (that are either new, or [Page 243] long expected, or very soodaine, and bring much felicitie with them) the store and plentie of vitall spirits, enlar­ging and spreding themselues at that new and sudaine delight, to the super­ficiall part of the body, and the heart the fountaine of life, being thereby forsaken, it is no maruell if the heart faint, and the man perish. So contrary­wise in great and vnspeakable griefes, which arise from strange and sudaine occasions, Nature being willing to suc­cour the part offended, the vitall spirits which are dispersed through the whole body, gather themselues vnto the heart, as the part most noble and most neces­sary to be releeued: the plenty of which spirits being ouer-great, the miserable heart, by the aboundant heate of them, is not succoured, but smothered, and ouerwhelmed, and so dyeth. Or Per­haps, because euery superfluous ouer­much, is alwayes hurtfull, and there­fore though delight doe helpe Na­ture, yet it is onely when delight is in his iust temperature: for meate hel­peth that creature which it nourisheth, [...]ut yet too much doth not only offend, [...]ut killeth him: and if griefe be mode­ [...]ate, though it be alwayes offensiue, [Page 244] yet if it be not ouer-great, and patient­ly borne, it ouerthroweth not.


VVhy hath Nature giuen Hope? Probleme. 108.

PErhaps to the end that Hope might be an especiall helpe to giue heart and courage to those, who haue newly vndertaken difficult and dangerous en­terprises, for without the sweete and pleasant pasture of assured hope, they that are wearied & weakned with their labours, can neuer attaine their desired end. And therefore Hope is termed an Anchor, because, as when it falleth out that a tempest ariseth at Sea, by casting the Anchor into it, the vessell is secured from the assaults of contrarie fortunes, the Anchor not suffering it to floate a [...] the pleasure of the raging windes: S [...] they that are actors and labourers i [...] the world, being tumbled and tossed sometime with one difficulty, somtim [...] [Page 254] with another, they are many times in the sea of their actions and operati­ons, in such sort ouerwhelmed with doubts and dangers, that were they not stayed and strengthned with the An­chor of Hope, doubtlesse the worthiest and most excellent enterprises would be drowned in the raging tempest of dispaire, and neuer attaine the hauen of light, or come to the knowledge of mortall men. For to say the truth, how could the husbandman endure frost, and snowe, colde, and heat, wet, and drouth? how could he go through his labours, in plowing and digging, and deluing and dunging, and a thousand the like, yea and as many losses, and hinderances, if he were not recomfor­ted by the sweetnesse of Hope? How could the Artificer amongst so many labours, so many inconueniencies, cares, dangers, and hard occurrents of fortune, gouerne his estate, and passe through his trauells without the sweet entisements of some hoped good? How could students and learned men spend their solitarie dayes and nightly watchings, in deepe studie and con­templation, in much reading, frequent obseruations, long disputes, continuall [Page 246] speculation, multitude of bookes, vari­etie of authors, diuersities of opinions, in the search of hidden causes, strange effects in the difficultie of artes, the the darknesse of a thousand doubts, and contrariety of textes, if Hope did not still giue comfort vnto them in the search of the truth? The husbandman therefore hopes in his plough, the arti­ficer in his instrument, the Notary in his Pen, the Sayler in his ship, the Soul­dier in his sword, the Courtier in his courtly cariage; the Nobleman in his bloud, the Philosopher in his specula­lation, the wiseman in his discreet go­uernment, the Prince in his iustice and fortitude, and the whole world liues and is susteined by Hope. And there­fore it was not without good cause, that they haue fained this onely goddesse Hope to be remaining vpon the earth, and the other diuine powers to be tran­slated into heauen. Or Perhaps, be­cause it was not sufficient, that Nature hath giuen Loue, which is the first plea­sing content of that good wee see and desire, which is that kindled thirst to possesse it, but least dispaire should quench the heate of eyther, she ad­ded the Spurre of Hope, that notwith­standing [Page 247] there bee many difficulties in obtayning that good wee seeke, wee should neuerthelesse with all di­ligence and patience, leaue no way vnattempted to winne the possession thereof.

Ʋ Ʋhy do rich men, noble men, and young men hope much? Probleme. 109.

PErhaps, because golde (especially in these dayes) seemes to be the measure or rule, nay the prise of euery good and temporall honour: for wee see magistracies, publicke offices and dignities, and euery great place to bee sold for money, and therefore riche men knowing they haue those riches lying by them, that excell in prise the rarest things, it is no maruell if they doe not onely hope after great mat­ters, but (as times now are) obtaine them. Or perhaps, because noble men and mighty, knowing that the opini­on conceiued of them among their followers, and others, is very great, [Page 248] and presuming withall, of their power and blood, there is not any thing so high and so difficult, that can limit their hopes: and so much the rather, if to their power and nobility there bee added aboundance of wealth, which corrupteth euen Balsame it selfe. But yong men, by reason of their youthfull heate, being carried by the store, and plenty of those spirits which abound in them, and wanting that great experi­ence which makes men wise, and de­pending rather vppon that which is to come, then what is past, full of boldnes they hope all things, though farre aboue their owne strength: whereas old men contrarily ruling, and directing them­selues rather by that which is past, then that which is to come, from that expe­rience they haue had in being often de­ceaued in their hopes, they feare to hope any more. Or perhaps, because ri­ches, and power, and nobility, being three principall worldy excellencies vpon the bright splendor whereof a [...] eyes do gaze, as all men desire them: so they desire to follow those that ha [...] them: which rich & honorable personages being well aduised of, they ima­gin they haue with them their heart [Page 249] too, nay the loue, & affection of as ma­ny as for their riches loue them, & ther­fore they feare not to hope, for as much as they imagin to be worth the hoping, be it neuer so hard, and difficult. And yong men hauing multitude of friends, & delighting to please themselues with vaine and strange imaginations, hope in the strength of their own armes, which forasmuch as it is groūded vpon a weak foundation is many times deceiued.

VVhy doth Hope deceiue many? Probleme. 110.

PEerhaps because fewe followe that morall discipline, which trayneth men vp to knowledge & wise­dome: fewe that consider the times, weigh the accidents, know the qualities of persōs, truely esteeme of euery force, iudge of euery place, euery end, set iust and true limits to their owne desires. Whereby it cometh to passe, that many hoping much, but not hoping with knowledge and discretion, hop with­out their hopes, as they doe who seeke the ende by vniust meanes. Or Perhaps, [Page 250] because many beeing rather friends to idlenesse and delicacy, then labour and watchings, and yet willing either out of bold simplicity, or ignorant presumpti­on, to Hope for better effects then idle­nesse is accustomed to produce, they faile as much in the fruition of their hopes, as they erre in the meanes to at­taine them. For it much more becom­eth a wise man, to take much paynes, and to hope little, then to labour slow­ly, and yet to bee puffed vp with vaine hopes. Or Perhaps, because men for the most part chusing the ende, not withall considering their owne forces to attaine that ende, and that which is worse, not consulting with fit, & oportune meanes, but being indiffetently carried with a kind of plebeian fury, they indure ma­ny strange encounters, and vnexpected crosses in their promised hopes. And therefore, if they did consider hereof a­right, they would not complaine so much of Fortune, as of their own indis­cretion: for what proportion is there betwixt the plough and the sword, that he that is accustomed to the tillage of his land, and the keeping of his flockes, should presently betake himselfe to the warres, vndertake the managing of [Page 251] his weapon without any premeditated militarie discipline? What resem­blance is there betwixt the sword and the setled witte of Minerua, that hee that is accustomed to the warres, should without the knowledge of the lawes, vndertake the gouernement of a state? For though his ende bee gouernement, yet the fruite is feare, or rather the hatred of those hee would gouerne: if therefore they find them­selues frustrated in their hopes, let them lament their false perswasions, and with true repentance chastice their owne foolish forwardenesse, whereby they shall giue better testimony of their discretion, then in feeding them­selues with those vaine hopes that are no way befitting them. Or Perhaps, because fewe they are that hearken to the graue admonitions of olde men, who beeing furnished with plentye of wisedome and experience, are excellent helpes to indiscreet and heedlesse young men: and therefore al­wayes giuing credit vnto those that ra­ther flatter them, then speake the truth, whether they be friends, or strā ­gers, they wander out of the true path of humane wisedome, and are [Page 252] euer deceiued in those hopes they pro­mise vnto themselues. Or Perhaps be­cause most men being giuen to plea­sure, and to please their sense, desiring without knowledge, and endeauoring without persuerāce, though they sweat litle for it, yet they promise enough, and glorying thēselues in their vaine hopes, being depriued of them, with much laughter of all that behold them, they lament their owne follies when it is too late-For it is absurd to thinke, that the appetite should doe his office without reason, or the will chuse, without the knowledge of the vnderstanding, or wil his ende without counsell, or that coun­sell should bee without wisedome, or wisedome, without experience, or experience without time, or time without motion. Many therefore thre are, that are deceiued of their hopes, not because Hope doth deceiue, but because their Hope is tyed vnto a will without reason, their discourse to an ende without meanes, and to flesh without the eyes of vnderstanding, and therefore the fault is not in their hope, but in the want of discretion in attain­ing their Hopes.


VVhy hath Nature giuen Despaire? Probleme. 111.

PErhaps because euery agent labou­ring to an end aboue his strength, and not deteyned by this affection, would fall into the sinne of folly and ignorāce: which bringeth with it much shame & dishonour vnto a man that is gouerned by reason, and by counsell: and wisdom should attempt only those enterprises that are answerable to his owne forces. And therfore prudent na­ture very opportunely hath prouided this affection, to the end that the diffi­culty, and impossibility of any eter­prise beeing sufficiently knowne, wee might easily abstaine from the labours thereof, and turne our endeauors to that which is within our powers, and better befitting our owne studies. Or Perhaps, because by this affection, Arte and the merit, & exquisite skil of euery skilfull hand might bee knowne, that what one dispaireth to performe, ano­ther [Page 254] vndertaking, and perfecting in lau­dable manner, the one for his arte and ingenie, might receiue his dew cōmen­dations, and the other be likewise commended for his wisdome, in yeel­ding that to the sufficiency of another, which he knew to bee aboue his owne strength to performe.


VVhy hath nature giuen Feare? Probleme. 112.

PEerhaps because as Nature, for a fu­ture difficult good, was willing to giue the helpe and assistance of Hope, which might carrie vs merrily through our labours vnto the end: so she would likewise arme vs against a future diffi­cult euill, with this passion of Feare, whereby we might with better speed & prepared force, flie the presence of that euill, which bringeth ruine & destructi­on with it, if it bee not auoyded. And therefore wee see, that bruite beasts being taught by this affection in [Page 255] whatsoeuer imminent danger, that may bring eyther griefe, or death with it, though the avoydance thereof seeme neuer so hard, yet with trembling of the members, and beating of the heart, and losse of sight, and faltering of the tongue, and disorderly gronings and gast countenance, as much as in them lyeth, they helpe themselues to a­uoid the fierce cruelty thereof. Or per­hap, because an iminent danger beeing foreseene, feare by the very conceipt, and apprehension thereof maketh so strong an impression in the imagina­tion, that the danger beeing auoyded, they neuer afterwards forget to flye & eschewe the like: which wee may ob­serue in the Asse, who if hee chance to fall into a ditch where he hath made some proofe of perill vnto himselfe, his danger past is an instruction vnto him to auoide the like to come: and as much as in him lyeth, hee will not come neere the place. So likewise, if a Dogge bee stricken by a man, in such sorte that it sticke by him, he euer af­terwards feareth and flyeth his pre­sence, neyther will hee bee wonne by all the flattering alluring spee­ches that may be vsed, to trust him [Page 256] any more: which proceedeth from the remembrance of what is past, and the Feare of that which may be to come. So that we see that Feare helpeth the basest creatures, euen the asse himselfe, much more man, who is furnished with the rarest excellencies of all the affections. For by Naturall Feare he flyeth & auoydeth the iniury of times, of tempest, of famines, of pestilence, and the like miseries that vsually fall out in the world, and all this by that in­dustrie, and diligence that proceedeth from Feare. By ciuil Feare he flyeth those punishments that the lawes im­pose, which concerne either the losse of [...]onour, or of the goods of fortune, or of the person it selfe: and this by that careful obseruance of Iustice which Feare stirreth vp. By supernaturall Feare he flyeth eternall death and dam­nation: and that by the Loue of God and his neighbours. So that by the first Feare he saueth his body, by the second his honour, by the third his Soule: and therefore no man can deny but that Feare is necessarie, nay benefi­ciall in Nature, because it doth not one­ly instruct, but preserue too.

VVhy doe Louers alwayes feare? Probleme. 113.

PErhaps because it is the property of louers to be alwayes vigilant ouer that they loue, and of Sentinelles that watch and guarde, alwayes to Feare, and therefore louers being imployed in the same kinde, are subiect to the same passion. Or Perhaps, because they that loue, do not so much Feare, least that good which they loue be taken a­way by other louers (which kinde of Feare, men call ielowsye) as least any euill, or hard mischaunce should befall it, or that they should be any way infe­rior in vertue to those that emulate them in their loues. Or Perhaps, be­cause Feare is a certaine kinde of pro­uidence. And therefore we see, that fathers, who are strongly mooued by the excellency of that Feare, which is full of amorous zeale, by such affection are stirred to prouide against whatsoe­uer dangers shal any way threaten their children. And therefore wise and pro­uident Nature would, that Louers [Page 258] should be in continuall Feare of that they Loue, to the ende, that at euery neede they may prouide for their ne­cessityes: For Feare is as a spurre to make men fly what dangers soeuer ge­nerall, or particular, and especially in reasonable creatures. Or Perhaps, be­cause humane loue being alwayes full of the swelling inflamation of some affection (for neuer was the sea of loue free from the furious windes of such like cares) Nature would that the hearts of louers should alwayes be accompai­ned with Feare, for the perfection, not corruption therof: for by Feare, euill is foreseene, danger auoyded, things necessary are acquired, and vertue in­creased.


VVhy hath Nature giuen Courage? Probleme. 114.

PErhaps, because that Courage which we see in al creatures, is the strength or bulwarke of nature, which then with much honour appeareth in euery par­ticular kinde, when they cannot attaine without speciall danger their purposed end. For then they arme themselues with new forces, and with all their powers abandoning all feares, they make strange and incredible proofes of their strength, and courage, runne through all dangers, beate downe all forces: which if they should not doe, they could neuer attayne that ende which is compassed with so many dan­gers, so many difficulties: for loue and desire are not sufficient, as being both imployed about those things that bring only pleasure, & ease, and delight [Page 260] with them without danger, much lesse doth hope suffice, which hopeth one­ly that which is simply good: nor Feare, which flyeth, and dares not incounter a danger. And therfore courage which is the fortresse which nature hath gi­uen to her workes, was most necessary amongest other affections to serue the irascible part. Or Perhaps, because euery agent willeth his end, as his good: but many being by nature we [...]ke, seeing some difficultie in the end, are comforted by hope, but finding not on­ly difficulty, but danger too, if by this other affection of Boldnesse, and Cou­rage, they were not strengthned, they would neuer stirre farther to attayne their desired end. For such, and so greate are dangers many times, that men are hardly stirred vp by this affectiō to vndergo them. And therefore we reade of one only Horatius in all Rome, that durst oppose himselfe against the Thuscane armies, of one only Curtius, that cast himselfe into the firy gulfe, to free his country, of one onely Mutius, that passing to his enimies camp, durst in the middest thereof assault the per­son of the king, of onely three Hora­tij that committed their liues to the [Page 261] danger of a single combat, to quit their countrie of their enimies forces: Of one onely Caesar that durst commit his body to the mercylesse seas in the dead time of winter, and that to fight with his enemie. So that, to the atchieuing of dangerous enterprises, an vndaunted courage is alwayes necessary.

VVhy are yong men common­ly bold and coura­gious? Probleme. 115.

PErhaps because young men a­bound with much bloud & heate, by the vigor of Nature, and con­sequently with much vitall spirits. Whereby they are made strong, and hardy in vndergoing dangerous enter­prises, insomuch that neither fearing death, nor the dangers thereof, euery thing to their ardency seemes casye. Or Perhaps, because young men are commonly ambitious, and caried with a feruent zeale, and desire of honour, whereby being spurred forward, there is not any enterprise so difficult or dan­gerous, [Page 262] which can strike feare into them: or they dare not vndertake. Or Perhaps because being strangely pos­sessed of an opinion of that shame, and dishonour which feare and cowardly dastardlines bringes with it, they will rather chuse to lose their liues with ho­nour, then liue with infamy. Or Per­haps, because young men by reason of the multitude of those affections which abound in them, and those the most headlong and dangerous, as Anger, a feruent desire of things delightfull, Fury, and a thousand the like vnbrid­led affections, whereby they many times fall into great, and vnauoydable dangers, they are inforced to the ende they may free themselues from those perilous chaunces, to gather heart, and spirit, and courage, to sustayne and in­counter whatsoeuer shall happen vnto them.


VVhy would Nature giue Anger vnto all liuing Creatures? Probleme. 116.

PErhaps because by such meanes the Cholericke humour easily awake­ning those forces that in our quietter moods are fallen a sleepe, and stirring [...]hem forward against those dangers [...]hat shall any way incounter them, [...]hey might arme themselues with a de­ [...]ence answerable to those dangers [...]hat doe assayle them. For if a dogge [...]eing assaulted by any other beast, [...]ere not caried by the violence of this Anger to his owne defence, he would [...]either shew that courage that he doth [...] his fight, nor indure the combat, [...]ut rather loose his owne life. And [...] horse so magnanimous a beast, at the [...]und of the trumpet, would neuer be so [...]eady, and hardy to assayle the enimies quadrons, if he were not spurred for­ward by the force of this affectiō, which [Page 264] by the great concurse of bloud about the heart, inflameth the spirits, and mi­nistreth new vigour vnto the mem­bers. Or Perhaps, because there is no Nature vnder the heauens that hath not some contrarie and opposite nature vnto it, as the water to the fire, the Lambe to the Wolfe, the Wolfe to the Dogge, and the like haue all other creatures. From which contrarietie of Natures there ariseth plentifull occasi­on of wrongs, and violences, to the vt­ter ruine of one another: and therefore it was necessary, to the conseruation of euery particular Nature, that it be fur­nished with the strength and vigour of this angry affection, whereby such of­fences might bee remoued as shall any way assaile or encounter it. And there­fore we see that nature hath not onely giuen this potent affection to this ne­cessary end, but hath likewise furnished euery creature with outward armes for his better defence: as with hornes, tuskes, teeth, beakes, tallants, heeles, prickles, poyson, and a thousand the like forces, both to offend their assailants, and to defend themselues. And if shee haue giuen none of these, yet she hath giuen flight, swiftnesse of running, [Page 265] agilitie of body to succour themselues: for in vaine had that force of courage beene, which Anger ministreth against a present iniurie, if it were not for that assistance that it hath from those out­ward armes, wherby Anger being kind­led in the brest of any creature, he be­commeth hardy and bolde, to defend, and offend, to enter combate with his aduersary, to beat downe his forces, to wound, to teare, to kill, whatsoeuer shall make resistance, or seeke to of­fend him.

VVhy is Anger in the brest of men easily turned into a sinne? Probleme. 117.

PErhaps, because such is the proper­tie of humane affections that they are alwayes ingendred with some al­teration of the body, as it plainely ap­peareth in Sorrow, which afflicteth the sense; in Feare, which maketh pale the countenance: in bashfulnesse, which adorneth the face with a chaste and crimsin hew; in Delight, which disperseth the spirits through all the [Page 266] members: and in euery other affection more or lesse sensibly: from whence it followeth, that those affections that do most change and alter the body, doe likewise most distemper the minde, which in many operations doth com­municate with it: and therefore Anger, by reason of the great store of bloud, which gathereth if selfe to the foun­taine of life, ingendereth a strange kind of commotion throughout the whole body, and consequently a great pertur­bation and distemperature in the mind, or reasonable part: and therefore it is no maruell, if a man that is Angry, be vnfit for counsell, which requireth a speciall and principall vse of reason. And therefore it is wisely said, that Anger is blind, because it maketh men blind in their iudgment and common discourse: whereby it comes to passe, that Anger doth sildome times conteine it selfe within the bounds of vertue, because furie, and blind desire of reuenge, cau­seth defence to passe into offence, and offence to iniury, and iniurie to iniu­stice, and iniustice to vice. Or Perhaps, because the arme of Anger is too hea­uie, and with too great a violence pres­seth downe his patient, and of a helpe is [Page 267] made a hinderance, and by exceeding his iust measure, of a vertue, is made a sinne, and therefore from hence pro­ceed those many graue and wise ad­uertisements of ancient Philosophers, which are as a bridle to this rash and inconsiderate affection, which with such celeritie depriueth vs of all wis­dome, and counsell, and vse of reason: which taketh away all light of vnder­standing, robbeth the will of that wise choise which deserueth commendati­ons, and bringeth greater danger to the minde of man, then all the other affec­tions.

VVhy is the Anger of Princes, and great gouernours commendable? Probleme. 118.

PErhaps, because by office and right it apperteineth vnto them to chastise and punish the wrongs, and misdemea­nours of those their subiects, which by violating the law take from a peaceable estate all felicity; & therefore that anger is much cōmēded in their brests, which according to the law giueth condigne punishment to the wicked: & therefore [Page 268] they carry the Scepter in their hands, as alwayes seeming to threaten wicked men. Or Perhaps, because the Anger of Princes, which hath his beginning from zeale and publike benefit, is not directed by those furies of particular persons, who are moued to anger for their priuate benefit: but hauing al­wayes, before their eyes the true end, which is publike felicitie (a good be­yond measure esteemed of all noble and generous hearts) it cannot but be commendable in them, so it passe not the rigour of iustice: in so much that those iudges, that in hearing causes, and censuring controuersies betwixt party and party, are nothing moued with such iust affection, deserue rather blame then commendations. Or Per­haps, because great Princes are wonte to represent (as the heads of their peo­ple) the publike, person of their states, and therefore when a wrong is offered to any priuate person, it is offered to a member of the Prince, whereby it standeth him vpon to withstand and reuenge such iniuries, wherevnto he is moued by the violation of those lawes which he hath established, and by Anger stirred vp to execute iustice, [Page 269] eyther against the goods or persons of the offenders: which so long as he doth according to equitie and iustice, cannot but increase his honour and reputation. Or Perhaps, because the actions of prin­ces (being subiect to the view and cen­sure of common people) are alwayes accompanied with a gracious kinde of decencie and reason, which conferreth much to the confirmation of their e­states: and therefore their anger for priuate offences is farre from furie, and alwayes tempered with that grauitie which best befitteth their royall per­sons.

VVhy do many exercise their Anger against themselues? Probleme. 119.

PErhaps, because they doing that they should not, doe many times finde and feele that they would not, and therefore they learning by deare experience, that they haue offended the inward rule of reason, with strange repentance they fall out with them­selues, reprehending their owne errors, [Page 270] and many times bestow vpon them­selues condige punishment. Or Per­haps, because it sometimes falleth out, that men being ouerladen and pressed downe with griefe and melancholie, by the remembrance of their passed er­rors, whereby they are fallen into ma­ny miseries, many infirmities, foras­much as they finde the cause of all this to proceed from themselues, they know not vpon whom to practise their furie, but themselues: like those, that eyther by too brutish a desire of fleshly plea­sures; or want of discretion and gouer­ment, haue misspent their talent of Na­ture, and the inestimable treasure of their good names. Or Perhaps, because men many times entring into a loath­ing and detestation of themselues, by reason of those many cares and crosses, and molestations, and in maladies, small helpe of friends, and dispaires that doe accompanie them, they stirre vp against themselues (like mad men) that little of diuine Nature which is remaining in them, and with their owne furie consume their owne hearts, which for­asmuch as it is a matter of iniustice in them to execute, how iustly soeuer they deserue it, they are not to be pittied by [Page 271] others, that pittie not themselues: but the sinne is to bee hated: For humane actions though they be ouerladen with mountaines of miseries, must yet neuer exceed the limits of reason: which euen out of the craggy mineralls of tribula­lation, knowes how to worke out the purified gold of vertue.


VVhy hath man onely obteyned of Na­ture the gift of Shamefastnesse? Probleme. 120.

PErhaps, because all other creatures, euen from the day of their creation, were made and ordained to one onely end, which they could neuer alter, be­ing prouoked and directed therevnto by nature: but man being created free in his will, to put his hand to the fire, or to the water, to follow vertue, or vice, it was necessarie that he should bee tempered and gouerned in his [Page 272] will with some bridle, to the ende hee might not runne ryot, and be vtterly o­uerwhelmed with intemperancie: and this bridle or restraint, is Shamefastnesse, which (forasmuch as that freedome of will to sin, doth still continue after the fall) doth still remaine both as a bridle to sinne, and a treasurie of all feminine and youthfull vertues. Or Perhaps, be­cause other creatures cannot haue any matter of shame, or shamfastnesse, there beeing in them no such zeale of ho­nour, as is in men, and therefore, to whatsoeuer part is deformed in them, or hath but the least showe of indecen­cie in it, Nature hath prouided a couer, least it should offend the eies of the be­holders: for our wise and prouident mo­ther Nature, would that in euery thing there should be comlines, honesty, vtili­ty, and beauty: but man, who by wit, & art, and industry, and labours, & watch­ings, ought to aspire to honour, glory & immortality, hath a large fielde, yea ma­ny occasions of Shame, that being mo­ued thereby, he might imitate the mag­nanimous, and studious Caesars, Alexan­ders, Aristotles, and the like.

VVhy do women and young men especially blush? Probleme. 121.

PErhaps, because the zeale of honour which is placed in a good name (ei­ther already purchased by that good which is already done, or is now in do­ing, or may be hereafter) maketh them to feare, especially those things that may offend that treasure, that by vertue and temperate actions is preserued: and because women, by reason of the weak­nesse of their nature, and yong men by reason of their little experience, and great store of blood, may easily fall into those intemperate errors, that defile their owne good names, and dishonor their whole families, yea citties where they dwell, Nature hath prouided them this bridle, to withhold them from all vnchast, dishonest, and dishonourable actions: yea it moderates theyr thoughts, makes them modest in their speech, temperate in their actions, and wary in al their deliberatiōs. Or Perhaps [Page 274] because a woman allured by that Beau­ty that shineth in her face, and a young man carried by the aboundant heate of his nature, being neither of them go­uerned by this affection, we see them presently in such sort made a prey to their sense, that there is not any lust & luxury so dishonest, and shamefull, which they feare to commit: yea those manifold inconueniences, & mischiefes doe euery day appeare, which they bring both vnto themselues, and to o­ther, who wanting the bridle, and rule of this affection, teare in peeces the precious vaile of modesty, and minister great cause of Sorrow, and lamentatiō, not onely to themselues, but to whole Citties.

VVhy is the seat of shamefastnesse in the forehead? Probleme. 122.

PErhaps, because as Nature hath as­signed to all other the affections their seate in some speciall parte of [Page 275] the face: as to Ioy, a merry Semblance, or outward appearāce, to Laughter the Countenāce, to Sorrow the eie: to feare palenesse of face, trembling of the voice and the like, so to this affection of Shamefastnesse, shee hath giuen that place which did best befit the office thereof, and hath placed it in the high­est part of the face, which we call the forehead, because it is most visible and apparant to the eye of man. And it was fit and conuenient it should be so, be­cause that crimson ruddines that doth there reside, was ordayned as a signe of that chast and honourable minde, which for iust cause feareth to loose his good name, by those vnchast, eyt [...]er speeches, or actions, that are presented vnto the sense, eyther to himselfe, or a­ny other in presence. Or Perhaps be­cause Nature would by such open place, and change of colour make ma­nifest to him, that feareth not to vnder­take any dishonourable enterprise, that shee approoueth not intempe­rate actions, or speeches, and whe­ther they be past, or present, or to come, shee doth not onely not commend them, but hath made her [Page 276] selfe a displayer of that infamy, which by their dishonest desires at their plea­sures they would commit. Or Perhaps, because men placing their honour in that publike fame and report, which by the mouthes of wise and honourable personages, is made manifest to Citties and Countries, Nature would likewise be correspondent, by a publike, and o­pen signe thereof in the forehead.


VVhy hath Nature giuen Compassion? Probleme. 123.

PErhaps, because it especially be­comes a man to be kinde, & cour­teous, gentle, and pittiful. For ther­fore hath Nature giuen him a nature so noble, so cōpassionate, & so apt & fit to performe whatsoeuer ciuill and curte­ous duties. For to be inhumane, sauage, violent, bloudy & cruel, befits sauage & cruell creatures, which liue in moun­tainous and wild thickets, darke caues, [Page 277] craggy rockes, and thicke forrests, and not man, who inhabiteth delightful pla­ces, conuerseth with gentle and gene­rous spirits, amiable aspects, compassio­nate hearts, and true and vertuous friends. And therfore when we behold the hard mischances and desastres of those that are our friends, and are deare vnto vs, that are wise and industrious, that employ themselues in honourable seruices, both for their priuate and the publike good, that refuse no labours to quitte vs from dangers, it is iust, and honourable, ciuill and religious too, that in the ruine of their declining for­tunes, and vndeserued miseries, wee should expresse this affection of compa­ssion, and with teares of pittie, and offi­ces of humanity, and a fellowlike fee­ling, euen in the bowels of mercy, and commiseration, condole, nay suffer with them: for we cannot but know how welcome and oportune these com­fortes are, which are ministred in the losse of children, death of Parents, ship­wracke of fortunes, weakinesse of Sen­ses, decay of strength, eyther of the minde, or of the body, losse of friendes, and when, in the multitude of our me­rits, [Page 278] and good deseruings, we bee rob­bed of that honour, which iustice and the common applause of the people doth put vpon vs Or Perhaps, to the end that men afflicted with miseries (especially by the inconstant course of humane things made miserable) should not by the multitude of their afflictions dispayre of helpe and comfort, but satis­fie themselues with the compassion of iust men, the releefe of their friends, the condolings of the common people, and so, euery feare, euery inconuenience, e­uery calamity, and hard fortune should be recomforted by the offices of com­passion.

VVhy are women and old men most piti­full? Probleme. 124.

PErhaps, because benigne Nature hath giuen vnto women a more be­nigne heart, which may partly appeare by their more delicate, soft, and amia­ble [Page 279] complections, and therfore the acti­ons of women are neuer cruell: (ex­cept some speciall wrongs vrge them vnto it) for we seldome or neuer see them to embrew their hands in the blood of any, to delight in armes, or the clattering of armour, but meeke and gentle, willing to pardon iniuries, con­tent with slight and slender chastise­ments, and alwayes pittifull: whereas contrariwise, men are commonly hard harted, not easily perswaded to forgiue, greedy of reuenge, swifte to shed blood no way enclyning to that compassion whereunto women are by reason of their more humane, and pittifull Na­tures: So likewise old men beeing such as haue passed diuers fortunes, and ex­perience hath taught howe grieuous the losse of things most deare is, what the worth of vertue, the prise of ho­nour, the force of misery, the falshod of friends is, seeing honest and ingeni­ous men, that deserue honour and re­warde, rewarded with the losse of for­tunes, and miseries, both of body and mind, they cannot but with a fellow-like feeling condole their losses, and afflictions, to which compas­sion young men are little disposed, [Page 280] by reason of the little experience they haue in the changes, and chaunces of this world, but are rather giuen by the feruour and heate of their bloud, to im­placable furyes, little considering their owne good, much lesse that of other men whereby it commeth to passe, that either they know not, or doe seldome put in practise this compassionate pas­sion. Or Perhaps, because women are little accustomed to cruell and lamen­table spectacles, as the firing of houses, ruinating of Citties, murthering of in­nocents, and the like extremities of fortune, because they seldome go forth of their owne houses, and therefore the very report of these things strikes a ter­rour into their heartes, and a bare dis­grace without any farther dāmage stir­reth vp compassion in them: whereas men on the other side, by the dayly custome of the world, and the greatnes of their heartes, forget these greater miseries, and no calamity seeming new to them, and they fearing none, they knowe not how to pitty other men. But olde men by experience knowing the heauy and bitter blowes of mortall miseries, cannot so soone forget them, but rather calling to minde their owne [Page 281] forepassed calamities, they cannot but pitty those that imitate them in the deare experience of the like fortunes: which young men hauing not yet tast­ed, knowe not how to commiserate.

VVhy are they that are angry, or in misery, not merciful? Probleme. 125.

PErhaps because they that are infla­med with Anger being wholy giuen to reuenge, which admitteth no pit­ty, and hauing forgotten all kinde of compassion, apply themselues onely to cruelty, and are seldome satisfied with­out bloud, yea being blind and con­founded with the fury of this passion, they care not how farre they proceede in their slaughters, and butcheries, har­kening to no submission, no entreaties of their aduersaries, but so much the rather embrew their handes, in the bloud of their enimies, as if it were ab­surd that any pitty should appeare in the acts and execution of reuenge. So likewise they that are in miserie, and want ability at their owne pleasures [Page 282] to free themselues from it, attending only their owne proper euill, which much afflicteth them, and little remem­bring bring the losses, and crosses of other men, they growe not so pittifull to­wards themselues, as pittiles, nay cruell towards other men. Or Perhaps, be­cause they that are angry, being depri­ued by the fury of that affection, of that reason which ruleth and directeth e­uery vertue, they either cannot, or know not how to performe any vertuous act, much lesse keepe their affectons within bounds. And they that are subiect to any crosse or affliction, doe first pitty their owne miseries as being next vn­to themselues: and in this selfe compas­sion they are so much busied, that they forget those troubles, and inconueni­ences that other men, no way inferior vnto them in their fortunes, doindure,


Why hath Nature giuen to man Emulation. Probleme. 126.

PErhaps to the end that euen from his infancy, he should delight to follow (being spurred on by the desire of glorie) those interprises that depend vpon wisdom, valour, iustice, and all o­ther morall habits, that are any way assistant either to priuate, or publicke felicity: And therefore we see children, euen from their tender yeares (the vse of reason being scarce awaked in them) to imitate those things which in the day time (out of their little experience) they see acted by others, and in such sorte they please themselues in them, that neither with threatnings nor stripes, they will be disswaded, or be made to forget them: but with new meanes, and a thousand artes, and in­uentions, they indeuour to imitate those things, which they haue obserued to be done by a skilful hand: & therfore hence [Page 284] it is that we see them imitate hunting with their runnings, & cries, & coun­terfeit voyces, and snares, and tramells, and the like apish imitations. Hence it is, that seeing the ordering of great armies, skirmishes, fightes, and other military exercises, they inforce them­selues (as much as in them lyeth) to i­mitate them, by making weapons of woode, and canes, and other matter, and ensignes painted, and adorned ac­cording to their childish manner. Hence it is, that we see them counter­feite grauity in their paces, audacity in in their countenances, brauery in their bodies, with their swordes by their sides, their poynardes prepared, their gunnes on their shoulders, with drum and trumpet, incountring one another, discharging their peeces, making shew with their handes, but noyse with their mouthes, letting fall their pikes, ioy­ning their battells, taking prisoners, and ransoming them againe, and what not, that any way apperteyneth to military profession. Hence it is, that we see them imitate eloquent men, their acti­on, their pronuntiation, their manner of speech: that we see them build them­selues [Page 285] houses, and gardens: yea that they imitate the very publike iustice, and execution euen to the axe, and the halter. Or Perhaps, because man being alured by the delight of imitation, might knowe, that he is borne vnto labour, and hereby euen from his ten­der yeares accustoming himselfe to the habit of vertue, by those frequent actions, which imitation ministreth vnto him, it might not seeme strange vnto him, being growne in yeares to follow with generous courage, and hardinesse, those valiant actes, that crowne their actors with honour and glory: those iust actions that mainteine states: wise actions, that makes vs wary and prouident: and studious actions, that makes vs immortall.

VVhy doe men emulate thinges most noble? Probleme. 127.

PErhaps because we finde that those things onely make men honorable, and of better esteeme in the world, which in their owne natures are prin­cipally [Page 286] good, and of highest accompt: and therefore we desiring those things, that may innoble our natures, and make vs in quality like themselues, we seeke to excell in things supreme and excel­lent, and by this enuious affection con­temne things of lowest value, and esti­mation. And therefore we emulate, and seeke to excell other men in lear­ning, which feedeth the vnderstanding with the foode of truth, the end of all speculatiue knowledge: In eloquence, which is the publisher of those things which with much study, and many watchings we haue gathered togither, and that with a golden stile, stirring vp the affections of the hearers in wis­dome, which is the perfect knowledge of things high and lowe, heauenly and earthly. In riches, which are wont to be the prise of mortall things, and the aptest, and most noble instrument to at­taine the happy treasure of all vertues and sciences. In power, which by the maiesty of a Crowne, & Scepter which gouerneth the whole world, bringeth honor and splendor to as many as pos­sesse it: & in any other thing rare & ex­celent, which may any way increase our honor, renowne and reputation Or Per­haps, because we emulate glory, which is [Page 287] awakned by things of worth, & singu­lar greatnesse: for by such an affection we are only spurred forward, when we see our equalls, and such as are like vnto our selues, to excell vs in those things that are in repute, & honor in the world: which seeming to our owne strength no way impossible to be attayned, we imploy all our studies, and endeuors, not only to equall, but excell our corri­ualles. Or Perhaps, because whatsoeuer is little or base, as little vnderstanding, little knowledg in matters of small mo­ment, little store of earthly possessions, little authority ouer the people, and whatsoeuer is lesse, then that opposite which carieth vs vnto glory, seemeth rather priuations, then habits of good things, wherby we ascend to immortall fame. For little knowledge is rather presented vnto vs by the name of ignor­ance, then knowledge: little valour in military affayres, rather by the name of Cowardise, then fortitude: little skill in humane businesse, rather by the name of Simplicity, then proui­dēce: little eloquence, rather by the name of rude speech, then eloquence: little store of possessions, rather by the name of pouerty, then dominion: and euery [Page 288] other thing that is lesse excellent, see­meth rather vnto vs to bee basenesse, then (in the least degree that may be) height of state and condition: where­by it followeth, that as men borne free, and sprung from a generous and mag­nanimous offpring, we are not to la­bour and weary our selues in emulating things of small worth and estimation, but we must turne our mindes with all our wittes, and best endeuours vnto those things, which are of highest e­steeme with the best and wisest sort of men: as discipline, which instructeth vs in those things that concerne God and Nature: as fortitude, which crow­neth vs with glory and honour: wis­dome, which teacheth and directeth vs in the whole course of our liues eloquence, which maketh vs admira­ble: Riches, which helpe to adorn [...] vs: and lastly, power and authoritie which mounteth vs vp to the high­est pitche of honour and immortalitie.


The Table of the Problemes.

And first of Beautie.
  • 1. VVhy is Beautie so vniuer­sall? pag. 1.
  • 2. Wherefore is Beautie im­parted to euery particular cre­ature? pag. 2.
  • 3. Wherefore doth Beauty shine especially in women? pag. 4
  • 4. Why doth Beautie so soone decaye? pag. 5
  • 5, Why is Beautie especially ap­prehended by the sight? pag. 7
  • 6. Wherefore doth Beautie al­wayes delight? pag. 9
  • 7. Why is Beautie worthy of Loue? pag. 12
  • [Page] 8. Why are not all men deligh­ted with one, and the same Beautie? pag. 14.
  • 9. VVhy is Beautie enioyed, lesse esteemed. pag. 15.
  • 10. VVhy is the Beautie of a light woman lesse esteemed. pag. 19
  • 11. Ʋ Ʋhy doth euery man desire to be faire. pag. 21.
  • 12. Ʋ Ʋhy is he that is faire in­clined to Loue. pag. 19
  • 13. Why are there borne in some Prouinces, Citties, Castels, and Villages, beautifull women, in others beautifull men, in some Countries men of tall stature, fatte, and white, in others leane of body, and of a sallow com­plection. pag. 23
  • 14. VVhy doth the Beautye of women consist, sometimes in one colour, sometimes in the variety of colours. pag. 26
  • 15. VVhy doth the sweatnesse of [Page] speach, and comely cariage of the body, giue greater grace vnto Beautie, then any other part. pag. 28.
  • 16. Ʋ Ʋhy is the Beautie of wo­men men especially seene in the face. pag. 31
  • 17. Why doe women which are not borne faire, attempt with artificiall Beauties to seeme faire. pag. 33
  • 18. Why doth the arte and mul­titude of beauties which women vse, being discouered, breed a kinde of loathing & disdaine in the hearts of men. pag. 36
  • 19. Why doth the Beautie of the body with greater celeritie wound the hearts of men, then that of the minde. pag. 38
  • 20. Why do wise men more esteeme the Beautie of the minde, then of the body. pag. 40
  • 21. Why do young men preferre [Page] the Beauty of the body before that of the minde. pag. 41
  • 22. Why is the Beautie of the minde more often seene in old men then in young. pag. 43
  • 23. Why is the Beautie of the minde accompanied with that of the body in the brests of young men so much esteemed. pag. 45.
  • 24. Why doth the Beauty of the minde alwayes helpe, and that of the body often times hurt. pag. 46
  • 25. Why doth the Beauty of the minde make vs like vnto things heauenly, and that of the body many times like vnto earthly. pag. 48
  • 26. Why would the Platonists, that the Beautie of corporall things should be as a ladder to ascend vnto the first Fayre­nesse. pag. 49
  • [Page] 27. Why did the Platonists, vn­der two speciall senses of seeing and hearing, comprehend all Beautie? pag. 51
  • 28. Why would that famous Phi­losopher, that his disciples should oftentimes take a view of their owne Beauties in a glasse. pag. 53
  • 29. Why do Princes, and women of honourable birth, proue for the most part fairer, both in body and minde, then women of baser condition. pag. 54
  • 30. Why do faire women preuaile much in obteyning grace and fauour with Princes. pag. 56
  • 31. Why is onely the Beautie of women, amongst all other beau­ties, praised and esteemed. pag. 59
  • 32. Why is the Beautie of women serued and adorned, with the excellency of whatsoeuer things [Page] are Beautifull in the world. pag. 61
  • 33. VVhy is the Beautie of wo­men of such force, that it many times ouercommeth the grea­test personages of the world. pag. 63
  • 34. VVhy doth the Beautie of a woman being violated bring in­famie and dishonour, not onely to her selfe, but to her whole fa­mily. pag. 65
  • 35. VVhy is it the custome to hang beautifull pictures, in the cham­bers of those women that are with child. pag. 67
  • 36. VVhy doe they make Ve­nus the mother of Beautie. pag. 69
  • 37. VVhy is onely the beautie o [...] heauen amongst other corpo­rall things, of it selfe perma­nent. pag. 7 [...]
  • 38. Ʋ Ʋhy is the first faire to mor­tall [Page] eyes inuisible. pag. 72
  • 39. VVhy doe many men little re­gard the first faire. pag. 75
Of Loue.
  • 40. VVhy hath nature ordained that there should be affections in the world. pag. 79
  • 41. Why is some speciall affection predomināt ouer euery age. p. 81
  • 42. Why would Nature that in euery thing in the world there should be loue. pag. 84
  • 43. Why is Loue so potent. pag. 86
  • 44. Why are there so many kindes of Loue, vnder the command and empire of Loue. pag. 88
  • 45. Why are the outward signes of humane Loue, the vncertaine passions, that they suffer who Loue. pag. 90
  • 46. Why is Loue called a flame, a fire, and the like. pag 93
  • [Page] 47. Why do Poets fayne Loue a Childe. pag. 99
  • 48 Why naked. pag. 101
  • 49 Why winged. pag. 103
  • 50 VVhy with Bowe and ar­rowes. pag. 105
  • 51 VVhy Blinde. pag. 107
  • 52 Why ruddy, or high coloures. pag. 109
  • 53. Why somtimes languish­ing. pag. 111
Of Louers.
  • 54. Why do Louers delight in flowers. pag. 113
  • 55. Why doe not Louers in the presence of those they loue know howe to frame their speech. pag. 115
  • 56. Why doe Louers blush in the presence of their mistrisses. pag. 117
  • 57. Why doe Louers take plea­sure [Page] in the teares of their Be­loued. pag. 118
  • 58 Why doe Louers whether so­euer they go carry with them their amorous passions. pag. 120
  • 59. Why do Louers so much de­light in the neatenesse of their apparell, and bodies. pag. 122
  • 60. Why do Louers so much es­teeme the giftes of their belo­loued. pag. 124
  • 61. Why do Louers so often vse the similituds of things most ex­cellent, to display the Beauty of her they Loue. pag. 126
  • 62. Why are Louers many times troubled with iealosie, & griefe of the heart. pag. 127
  • 63 VVhy doe Louers many times dreame of horrible things. pag. 129
  • 64 Why doe louers delight in morning musicke. pag. 130
  • 65. VVhy doe louers desire to bee [Page] thought valiant. pag. 132
  • 66. VVhy do louers defend their beloued, euen in a wrong, and vniust cause. pag. 133
  • 67. VVhy do louers take so much delight in the contemplation of the eye. pag. 134
  • 68. VVhy is the anger of a louer soone alayed. pag. 136
  • 96 VVhy cannot louers hide their passions. pag. 138
  • 70 VVhy cannot louers conceale the fauors of their best beloued. pag. 139
  • 71 Why do louers put their fauors they receaue from their mistris­ses in the most noble parts of the body. pag. 140
Of Hatred.
  • 72. Why is Hatred ordayned by nature. pag. 141
  • 73. Why doth loue sometimes in­gender hate, being by nature [Page] contrary vnto it. pag. 143
  • 74. Why is the hatred of men a­gainst things generall, and vni­uersall, their anger against things more particular. pag. 145
  • 75. Why is hatred conceyued, e­uerlasting, but anger soone al­layed. pag. 147
  • 76 Why doe men seldome hate, ei­ther their countrie, or their pa­rents. pag. 148
  • 77. Why is the hatred of great princes, and noble men inexo­rable. pag 151
  • 78. Why is the hatred of women without end, or measure. pa. 153
  • 79. Why hath nature giuen to e­uery thing a desire. pag. 155
  • 80. Why is desire the first lawfull birth, or first borne of loue. p. 158
  • 81 Why is desire infinite, & end­les. pag. 160
  • 82. Why doe diuers men desire [Page] diuersly. pag. 163
  • 83. VVhy are the Desires of the father more noble then those of the mother. pag. 166
  • 84. VVhy is the Desire of those that loue, towards the thing be­loued, so fiery, & ardent. pa. 167
  • 85 Why doe the Desires of chil­dren ende in matters of small weight. pag. 169
  • 86 Why doth the Desire of im­mortality make men bold, and resolute in vndergoing labours, and dangers. pag. 171
Of Flight.
  • 87. Why hath nature giuen flight to things created. pag. 175
  • 88 Why doth it bring safety and honor, not onely to particular men, but to whole Citties to flye sometimes the commodities of Nature. pag. 179
  • [Page] 89. Why is it commendable some­times to flye honour, the Citty it selfe, and ciuill conuersation. pag. 182
  • 90 VVhy is it somtimes infamous, and dishonorable to flye, and es­pecially to soldiers. pag. 183
  • 91. VVhy are not al to be blamed that flie their countries. pag. 185
Of Delight.
  • 92. Why hath nature giuen de­light vnto Creatures. pag. 189
  • 93. VVhy hath nature giuen such diuersity of Delights vnto man. pag. 192
  • 94. Why doth man being not con­tent with such variety of De­lights as nature affordes, pocure other vnto himselfe, by arte, and inuention. pag. 196
  • 95 VVhy doe women, and young men especially loue things plea­sant, and delightfull. pag. 203
  • [Page] 96. Why doth the multitude of those delightfull things that es­pecially appertaine to the sense of feeling, tast, and smelling, make vs many times intempe­rate. pag. 205
  • 97 Why did Athens glory in the delight of wisdome, and Rome of armes. pag. 207
  • 98. Why doe kings, and Princes, contrary to the opinion of the common people, tast least plea­sure & delight. pag. 212
Of Sorrow.
  • 99. Why hath nature giuen sor­row vnto creatures. pag. 222
  • 100. Why is the sense of feeling most subiect to griefe. pag. 224
  • 101. Why are griefes of the body communicated vnto the minde, and those of the minde vnto the body. pag. 227
  • [Page] 102. Why are the griefes of the bodie more sensible, and violent, in softe, and delicate bodies, as of women, and honorable per­sonages, then of those that are strong, and valiant. pag. 231
  • 103. Why are the griefes of the minde farre greater then those of the bodie. pag. 232
  • 104. Why are great Princes com­monlie afflicted with the griefes of the minde, and men of baser condition with those of the body. pag. 235
  • 105 Why are the griefes of wo­men in labour, of all other bodi­lie griefes the greatest. pag. 239
  • 106. Why would Plato that Children from their tender yeares should bee accustomed both to delight, and Sorrowe. pag. 241
  • 107. Why do many die with too great an apprehensiō of ioy, others [Page] with too much griefe and sor­row of the minde. pag. 242
Of Hope.
  • 108. Why hath Nature giuen Hope. pag. 244
  • 109. Why doe rich men, noble men, and young men Hope much, pag. 247
  • 110. Why doth hope deceiue ma­nie. pag. 249
Of Despaire.
  • 111. Why hath Nature giuen Despaire. pag. 253
Of Feare.
  • 112. Why hath Nature giuen Feare. pag. 254
  • 113. Why doe Louers alwayes Feare. pag. 257
Of Boldnesse, or Courage.
  • 114. Why hath Nature giuen courage. pag. 259
  • 115. Why are young men com­monly bolde and couragious. pag. 261
  • 116. Why would Nature giue Anger vnto all liuing crea­tures. pag. 263
  • 117. Why is Anger in the brest of men easily turned into a sinne. pag. 265
  • 118. Why is the Anger of Prin­ces and great gouernours com­mendable. pag. 267
  • 119. Why do many exercise their Anger against themselues. pag. 269
Of Shamefast­nesse.
  • 120. Why hath man onely obtey­ned of Nature the gift of Sham­fastnesse. pag. 271
  • 121. Why doe women, and young men especiallie blush. pag. 273
  • 122. VVhy is the seate of Shame­fastnesse in the forehead. pag. 274.
Of Compassion.
  • 123. Why hath Nature giuen compassion. pag. 276
  • 124. Why are women and olde men most pittifull. pag. 278
  • 125. Why are they that are an­grie, or in miserie not merci­full. pag. 281
Of Emulation.
  • [Page]126 Why hath Nature giuen to man Emulation. pag. 283
  • 127 Why do men Emulate things most noble. pag. 285.


In pag. 3 line. 18 for creator of things, creator of all things. pag. 11. line 2 [...]. for bestroweth, bestoweth. pag. 13 line 5 for sure, since, pag. 28. line 11. for saciable sociable, pag 47 line. 3. for gods goods. pag. 73. line 11. for Iuceus Incens. pag. 81. line 23 for pease please. pag. 89. line 20 for adde and, pag. 79. line 4. for diposition disposition. pag. 102. line. 17. for laugh cough. pag. 160 line. 20. for visible inuisible. pag. 162. line. 23. for intentiall intentionall.

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