A newe booke Entituled the Gouerne­ment of Healthe, wherein is vt­tered manye notable Rules for mannes preseruacion, with son­dry symples and other matters, no lesse fruiteful then profitable: colect out of many approued au­thours. Reduced into the forme of a Dialogue, for the better vn­derstanding of thunlearned. Wherunto is added a suf­ferain Regiment a­gainst the pesti­lence.

By VVilliam Bulleyn.

¶ Imprinted at Londō by Iohn Day, dwellyng ouer Aldersgate beneth saint Martins. Cum priuilegio ad imprimen­dum solum.

[Page]

QVE TANT IE PVYS

T. H.

[Page]To the right vvor­shypfull Sir Thomas Hilton, Knyght, Baron of Hilton, and Cap­taine of the King and Quenes maie­sties castell of Tinmoth. VVil­liam Bulleyn, wisheth en­crease of worshyp and health.

QVINTVS Curcius, ye famous wryter of the greate Battayles that Kyng Alexāder, the sōne of Phillippe of Macedone, had a­gainst the moost noble, and ritch Kyng of the Medes and Persi­ans, called Darius (ryght wor­shipfull sir) declareth that when one Philippe the Phisicion vnto [Page] the sayde Kyng Alexander, and his moste trusty subiecte. By so­dayne chaunce, the kyng fell sore sicke, to the great heauines of all his royall armie, at whiche tyme with al speade, this phisicion did prepare a medicine, moste excel­lente for his soueraine Lorde, whome he so dearly loued, to this ende, that the great vertue therof might preuent his present sicke­nes, & imenint daūger: but mali­cious spite, that wretched enemie whiche neuer slepeth but wat­cheth euer, to bringe vertue and good fame to destructiō [...] Imme­diatly before this gentle Philip did presente him selfe vnto the kyng with his medicine: Letters were sent to king Alexander cō ­teining, that the said Philip wa [...] corrupted so with money from king Darius, that he hadde [...] [Page] moste deadly poyson and vncu­rable venyme into Alexanders medicine. The king perusing the letters, kept theim secrete vntyll he had dronke his medicine, and immediatly he toke his phisicion by the hande, and deliuered hym the letters, that he might rede thē hauing in him so great cōfidence, that he did in no maner of case mistruste him. The cause why I haue alledged this most worthy prince kyng Alexāder, & his excellent phisiciō Philip, is to declare the great truste in the one, & the fidelitie in the other, not forget­ting the shameles condicions of the flattryng Parisites, whiche euer wrlketh with two faces in one hood, bearing fier in the one hande, and water in the other: so­wers of discorde, reapers of mis­chief: which be alwaies enemies [Page] vnto the disciples of Philippe, whose venemous stynges can not hurte them, which euer haue in store the precious Iewel of pacience, and arme them selues to do good to euerye good man, for the preseruation of their lyues, by the trewe rules of the gouer­ment of health, whiche here I am so bold to present vnto your worship. For where as there lacketh gouernement in a common wealth, the people dooe eftsones fall into ruyne. The shippes that lacketh good gouernaunce, oftē ­times be cast awaie vpon sandes and rockes. And therefore there is nothinge vnder heauen, that hath lyfe, but if it lacke good go­uernemēt it wil quickly fal into vtter decaie. For like as the crea­ture of all thinges, haue formed the bodies of al mē into the good­liest [Page] shapes of euery liuing thing that euer was, or euer shalbe: Euē so he hath ordeined for mā: herbes, frutes, rootes, seedes, plantes, gūmes, oyles, precious stones, beasts, foules, fishes, for the preseruation of health, to be moderatly vsed with discretion, whiche preserueth the bodye in good estate, without whose ver­tues the bodies can not lyue, for they be the noryshers of life. But misusing or abusing them, brin­geth to the body many diseases, as rumes, catores, dropsies, im­postumes, gowtes, flixes, opela­tions, vertigos, blyndnes, rup­tures, fransies, with many moonoysome diseases, which cometh thorowe the corruptiō of meates and ill aire. For what auaileth ryches, honoures, costly buyl­dinges, faire apparell, with all [Page] the pompe of this worlde, and to be honoured of the people, and in the meane time to be eaten with wormes in the breaste or in the belly, consumed with agues, turmented with gowtes, sorenes, boneache. &c. Well I thinke, an hole Codrus is better than a sicke Mydas. Codrus. Midas. And seing that to possesse health is better then to gouerne golde, in so much that health ma­keth men more happier, stronger and quieter then all maner of ri­ches, lacking health: as exāple. Great princes, noble mē, men of great substaunce, when they bee wrapped & enclosed with many & sundry sickenesses, and in dailye daungers of death, in their ex­treme paynes and passions, they do more greatly coueit one drope of health then a whole tunne of gold, criyng out for the helpe and [Page] counseile of the phisicion. Whom Iesus Sirack, Cap. 38. in his godlie boke did counsell allwyse men to honour, and whome the almghtie God, did create and ordeine for the in­firmitie of mankinde, and also medicine for his helpe, and that no wyse man should despise thē. Therfore yet againe (right wor­thie Knight) I shall moste hum­bly desire you, to except the good will of him, whiche wyssheth the yeares of your prosperous lyfe & health,Nestor. Galen. Argantō. to be equall to Nestor, Ar­ganton, and Galen. Whose lyues were long, healthful and happy. And thus wyshing the daily en­crease of your worship, with con­tinuall health, to gods pleasure: who euer be your guide and go­uernour, Amen. Your worships alwaies to commaunde.

VVilliam Bulleyn.
CVrsed be Bachus, the father of dronkenes,
Founder of lothelie luste and lecherie,
Thy seruaūtes twain, be intēperaūce & idlenes
Whiche gentle diet and sobernes do defie,
but sobernes, doth liue, when glotony doth die.
Though bākettes doth abounde, eyes for to please,
Ouercharging the stomake, bringeth small ease.
THe aboundaunce of wine, and luste of meate,
Feasting in the daie, and riot in the night,
Inflameth the bodie with vnnaturall heate.
Corrupteth the bloud, and abateth the sight,
The synewes wil relaxe, the Artears haue no might
Apoploxia and Vertigo, will neuer fro the starte,
Vntill the vitall blode, be killed in the harte.
O Happy is pouertie, with good gouernaunce,
Whiche of fine fode hath no great plentie,
Nature is suffised, with thinges suffisaunce
But poysoned, with floodes of superfluitie,
Consider your foode, in the time of pouertie,
Example to Diogmes, sitting in his tonne,
Was well pleased, with reflexcion of the sunne.
BEastes and foules, of nature rauenous,
Infieldes and forestes, seke their aduenture,
Vpon their praies deuouring moste odious,
Consuming by glottonie, many a creature,
Yet eche of theim, according to their nature.
Can purge their Cruditie, with casting venomous
Man through replecion, is in daunger parelous.
Mans nature doth wekē, as this world doth wast
As thinges ingendred, corrupting by time,
Your lyfe is present, but death maketh haste,
Festinate by surfite, I tell you in ryme,
Example to the epicures, rotten into slime,
As gods worde and storis, the treuth to tell,
That vnsatiat glottons shall faste in hell.
TRuly to wyse men, this is the chief medicine,
Moderate diet, with temperat trauell,
good ayr in swete fields, whē ye son doth shine,
Fliyng stinging mistes, that the life will expell,
Digestion of stomake, they shall fele full well.
And to shake of anger and passions of the mynde,
Thus quietnes of cōscience the happy mā shal finde
VVe knowe eche one, and se by experience,
That men shall waste and phisicke fade,
What is man? when he is in moste excellence,
[...]one fallen to duste, and sleapeth stil in shad,
[...]lowers, leaues, & fruts, groweth ī somer most glad,
[...]ut from their braunches, as it is daily sene,
[...]re beatē down wt winde whē thei are fresh & grene
SOnne mone & starres, with heauenly influence,
The earth doth garnishe wt flowers fresh of hew,
The trees spring, wt frute of their beneuolence,
[...]e rain norisheth, ye swete felds wt siluer drops new
[...]e lelie, read rose, and flowers pale & blewe.
[...]orue and cattelle and euery thing temporall,
[...]e not these gods giftts? for these our liues mortal
BVt to know these creaturs is a gift most excellēt
Complexions hote or colde, moist or drie,
And to whate nature they be conuenient.
Hippocrates and Gallene, in their time did trie.
Dioscorides and Auicen, with Plini wold not lye.
Aristotle the philosopher in learning moste excellent
So be many men now in this life present.
TO them I bend my knee with dewe reuerence,
As one vnworthy their fotesteppes for to kisse,
Iacking no good will confessing my negligence,
Though many will iudge, my entent amisse.
Powring water in the sea, where aye plentie is.
But of your worship to whome I present this gift,
Except it better thē nothing to make a simple shift.
I pray you rede this gouernmēt short I wil it make
Betwene one called Iohn, & Humfrey the wise,
When you are at leasure in your hand it take.
Though it lacke eloquence, yet do it not despise,
I will assite no authour, which haue writen lies.
And stil wil submitte my self vnto the lerned iudge
And forse not of the ignorant whiche at my traue [...] grudge
Esse cupis sanus sit tibi parca manus,
Pone gule metus, etas vt sit tibi longa.
FINIS.

To the gentle Reader.

HEre I doe present vnto thee (gentle Rea­der) a symple Gouerne mēt of helth, beseching thee moste heartely for to except it as an argu­ment of my good wyll, as one vnfay­ēdly that greatly dooe couit the good [...]ate and happy health of mankynde. Whiche by dayly casualtis, surfaites & [...]: do decay, and fall into many gre­ [...]us & painful sickenesses. For whiche cause although perhappes I can not in [...] pointes aunswere to thy request, in [...]is litle regement: yet I shall desire [...]ee to except me amonge the felowe­shyp of the botchers, which do helpe to [...]paire thinges that fall into ruine or [...]ecay. Euen so bee the pratiscio [...]ers of [...]isicke, no makers of men, but when [...]en dooe decaye throughe sickenesse, [...]en the counsell of the Phisicion, and [...] vertue of medicine, is not to be re­ [...]sed, but moste louingly to be embra­ced [Page] as a chief friende in the tyme of a [...] ­uersitie, if thou readest this litle hoo [...] and obserue it, I trust it wyll paye muche as it doeth promyse. And be­cause I am a yong man I woulde [...] presume to take suche a matter in [...] although the wordes be fewe, but [...] consiliat and gather thinges together which of my selfe I haue practised and also read and noted in the workes Hy­pocrates, Galen, Auicen, Plinii, H [...] ­lyabas, VVenzoar, Rasis, Dioscorid Leonhardus Fucchius, Conradus Gesnerus. &c. And thus I leue the to the company of this my litle booke, wisshyng thee health, and all them that shall reade it. ⸫

VVilliam Bulleyn.

❧The contentes of this boke of the gouernment of healthe.

  • THe Epistle. Verses in Meter a­gainst surfeting, cōmending moderate diet.
  • Verses in the prayse of the boke.
  • A preface to the Reader. Of the Epi [...]urs life. Fo. i.
  • [...]eliogabalꝰ court fit for Epicures. Fo. ibid.
  • [...]aly gods plaged. Fo. ii.
  • [...]utes of inordinate banquets. Fol. eod
  • [...]arietie of opiniōs, fo. iii
  • [...] obiectiō against phi [...]cke. fol. eod.
  • [...]od, autour of phi. fo. eo
  • [...]od ordeined herbes for [...]elth of men. fol. eod
  • [...]he praise of phi. fo. iiii.
  • [...]diffinition of phi. fo. v
  • [...]ndry sectes of phisiti­ [...]ns. fo. vi.
  • Phisike deuided into v. partes. fol. vii
  • The discription of the.4 complexions. fo. ix
  • The discription of the.4 Elementes. fol. x
  • Creatures cōpoūd of mo elements thē one. fo. eo
  • Elementes fel [...]e and not sene. fo. xi
  • The.4. complexions de­uided into.4. quarters of the yere. fo. eod
  • Metals and medicines be knovven. fol. xii
  • The bringing vp of chil­dren. fo. xi [...]i [...]
  • Best time to prouide for age. fol. xv
  • The discription of the.4 humours. fol. xvi
  • Men hoat, but vvomens tongues hoater. fo. xix
  • [Page] Al things bringeth their apparell vvith him, mā onely except. fo. eod
  • A diffinicion of mem­bers. fo. xx
  • Muskels and glandens fleshe. fo. eod
  • A part, called by the nāe of the vvhole. fo. xxi
  • Vvhat anotomy is. fo. eo
  • Foure thinges conside red in the bodye of man. fol. eod
  • Of openyng the vaines, and blud letting. fo. xxiii
  • Agaīst dropsy. fo. xxiiii
  • Helping the Eme. fo. eo.
  • Thernia excellent Tria­cle. fol. eod
  • Capers good. fo. xxv
  • Miracle healpeth vvhen phisike faileth. fo. eod
  • Time for al thinges fo. 27
  • Of bloud letting. fo. 28.
  • Vsurpation. fo. xxviii
  • Morning best to let blud fol. eod
  • Of meats and medicin [...] fo. eod
  • Best time to purg. fol. 3 [...]
  • Vomites and their pro­fites. fo. eo [...]
  • Custome in vomityng euill. fol. eo [...]
  • Of bathinges and their properties. fo. eo [...]
  • Discommodities by cō ­mon hot houses. fo. xxx [...]
  • Afore bathing vse goo [...] oyntments. fol. eo [...]
  • Perilous to bath vpon a [...] empty stomack. fo. eo [...]
  • Of nesynge. fo. [...]o [...]
  • Of suppositers. fol. eo [...]
  • Boxing good for the bodye. fo. eo [...]
  • Of glisters. fol. eo [...]
  • Manipracticioners. fo. 3 [...]
  • Beastes and birds vse pr [...] ­ning. &c. fol. eo [...]
  • Hot vvater vnholesom [...] fol. xxxi [...]
  • Frication holesom. fo. e [...]
  • [Page] Combing the head. fo. eo
  • Cutting of heere and pa­rynge nayles. fo. eod
  • Consideration to be had in eating. fo. eod
  • A cause vvhy the soul de parteth from the body. fo. 34.
  • To eate bothe fleshe and fishe together hurteth the flegmatike. fol. eod
  • Diuerse sortes of meates corruptes the body. fo. 35
  • Good dyet prolongeth life. fol. eod
  • Vvhat meats doth cause good bloud. fol. 36
  • To go to bed vvith emp­ty stomack hurts. fo. eo
  • An order in dieting. fo. 37
  • An order for them that the sicke. fo 38
  • Of syrrops and drinkes. fol. eod
  • [...] the complexion is, so [...] desireth. fol. 39
  • Moderate vvalke after meat profiteth. fo. eod
  • To healpe disgestion by diuers vvaies. fol. xl.
  • A note vvhiche bee the most holesomest ayres to dvvel in. fo. xli
  • Vvhat ayres corrupteth the bloude. fol. eod
  • Corrupte ayre bringeth sundry diseases. fo. xlii
  • Feruent praier vnto god doth mitigate his vvrath fo. eod
  • Svvete aires to be made in time of sicknes. fo. eo
  • Vvhat sitation is best for an house. fol. 43
  • Pleasant people. fo. eod
  • Moderate exercise a so­uerain thing. fol. 44
  • Vvhat profit cometh by exercise. fo. eod
  • Vse maketh labour ea­sye. fol. eod
  • Idlenesse the mother of [Page] mischief. fo. 45
  • Of exercise before meat. fol. eod
  • Of slepe and vvakinge. fo. 46
  • To sleepe after dynner hurteth. fo. eod
  • To sleepe on the righte side best. fo. 47
  • Lodgynge to bee kepte clene. fol. eod
  • To slepe in felds is hurt­full. fo. 48
  • The cause of the stone. fo. eod
  • Remedies for the stone. fol. eod
  • Of vrines vvith the co­lours thereof, and the iudgementes. fol. 49
  • Contents in vrin be the chief things to knovve diseases by. fo. 50
  • Of stoles and the iudge­mente of the coulours therof. fo. eod
  • Of doctor dyet, quiet, & meriman. fo. 51
  • Better to lacke riches thē to vvant quietnes and mirth. fo. eod
  • Many apt similituds for the same. fol. eod
  • Pore mens plesure. fo. 52
  • The tormentes of the minde. fo. eod
  • Thought killeth many fol. eod
  • Ire is a greuous passion Fol. 5 [...]
  • Deuils incarnat. fol. eod
  • A good face in a glasse fo. eod
  • Better to bee spited the pitied in some case. fo. e [...]
  • The vertues of vvorme vvode. fol. 5 [...]
  • The propertie of Ann­sede. fo. eo [...]
  • The vertue of mouse-eare fo. 5 [...]
  • Of chikvvede. fo. eo [...]
  • [Page] The properties of sorell. fo. eod
  • The properties of plan­tayne. fo. 57
  • Of camomel and his propertie. fo. 58
  • Of sage and his property fol. eod
  • Of Polipodio and hys propertie. fol. 59
  • Of horehounde and hys properties. fol. eod
  • Of veruen and hys pro­perties. fol. 60
  • Of Revv or herbe grace. fol. eod
  • The properties of Bur­net. fol 61
  • The properties of Dan­delion. fol. eod
  • Of spinage. fol. 62
  • Of covvcumbers. fo. eod
  • Garlyke and his proper­tye. fol. 63
  • Of oynions. fol. eod
  • [...]ettyse and his property fol. 64
  • Myntes and their pro­pertyes. fol. 65
  • Fennell and hys proper­ties. fol. 66
  • Isope and his operation. fol. eod
  • Sencion and hys opera­ration. fol. eod
  • Percelye and hys opera­tion. fol. 68
  • Mugvvorte and his pro­pertye. fol. eod
  • Of Cabbage. Fo. ibid
  • Philopendula and hys operation. fo. eod
  • Agremoni and his ope­ration. fol. eod
  • Of Dragon. fol. eod
  • The vertu of violets. fo. e
  • Of the vvhite lillye and his operation. fol. 70
  • Centorye and of hys vertue. fol. eod
  • Rosemary & of his. fo. eo
  • Peniroyall and hys ope­ration. fol. eod
  • [Page] Of Mustarde and hys o­peration. fol. eod
  • The veru of buglas. fo. eo
  • The ver. of Basil. fol. eod
  • Roses and his vert. fo. 73
  • Sauery and his ver. fo. eo
  • Time and his ver. fol. 74
  • Persely, saxifrage, and their operations. fo. eod
  • Lyuervvorte and his o­peration. fo. eod
  • Bitonye and of his ver­tue. fol. eod
  • Betes and his vertue. fo. 75
  • Maydenheere and hys vertue. fo. eod
  • Melilot & his vert. fo. 76
  • Peas and beans, and their operation. fol. eod
  • Of hutles & tares. fo. eo
  • Lekes and their proper­tyes. fol. 77
  • Of Radyshe and other rotes. fol. eod
  • Herbes ingendreth me­lancholye. fol. eod
  • Good thinges to disgest cholere. fo. eod
  • To purge choler. fol. eod
  • To disgest fleum, fo. eod
  • To purge fleume. fo. e [...]d
  • To purge melancholye. fo. eod
  • To prouoke vrine. fo. eo
  • Cōfortes for the braynes to smel on. Fo. ibid
  • Thinges good to stoppe the flixe. Fo. ibid
  • Good thynges to pro­uoke nesyng. Fo. ibi.
  • Good thinges to comfort the heart. Fo. 18.
  • Fygges and dates. Fo. ibi
  • Of Peares. Fo. ibid
  • The Fryers pear. Fo. ibi
  • Of Appels. Fo. ibi
  • A medicine for the smal pockes. Fo. ibi
  • Of peaches. Fo. ibi
  • Of quinces. Fo. ibid
  • Of Chyries. Fo. 83
  • Of Grapes. Fo. ibid
  • [Page] Svvete prunes laxatyue. Fo. 84
  • Of Barbaries and Med­ [...]ers. Fol. eodem
  • Of Capers. Fol. eodem
  • Of Biefe. Fo. 85.
  • Remedye for the flix. Fol. ibi
  • Hovve to healpe Disge­stion. Fo. ibid
  • A medicine for the eyes. Eo. 87
  • Porke and his operati­on. Fo. 87
  • The discriptiō of svvine Fo. ibi
  • Beastes haue no reason. Fo. ibid
  • Buddynges of Svvine. Fol. 88.
  • A plaister for. s. Antho­nies fyre. Fo. ibid
  • Of Rammes, vveathers, and lambes. Fo. ibid
  • Of Redde and Falovve deares fleshe. Fo. 89
  • Of hares and conyes, and their properties. Fo. 91
  • A medicine for bluddye eyes. Fo. ibid
  • Of Cockes, hennes, and capons. Fo. ibi
  • Of Geese. Fo. 92
  • The properties of greate Foules. Fo. ibid
  • Of the flesh of Duckes. Fol. 94
  • Of Pygeons and Doues. Fo. ibidem
  • Of the flesh of Pecocks. Fo. 95
  • Rosted Pygeons. Fo. ibid
  • Of the fleshe of Cranes. Fo. ibid
  • O [...] Svvannes fleshe. Fo. 9,
  • Of Herons, Bitters, or shouels. Fo. eod
  • Of Partriches, Fesantes, and Quayles. &c. Fo. eo
  • The properties of small byrdes. Fo. 98
  • [Page] The operation of fishes. fol. eod
  • The beste feadynge for fishe. fol. 99
  • Sone labour after eatyng fishe hurterh. fol. 100
  • Fat fishe grose. fol. eod
  • The electiō of fish. fo. eo
  • Crauises and crabs. fo. eo
  • Of oyle. fol. 101
  • Of Vvater. fol. 102
  • Vvhat kynde of vvater is best. fol. eod
  • Of Vineger. fol. 103
  • Of common salt. fo. eod
  • Of honye. fo. 104
  • Bees exāple to vs. fo. 105
  • Of milke. fo. 106
  • Milke not good for full stomackes. fol. eod
  • Of Butter and Cheese. fo. 107
  • Of Egges. fo. 108
  • Of Vvine. fol. 109
  • Heat of excesse in dryn­kynge. fo. eod
  • Of beere and ale. fo. 1 [...]
  • Bread of all sorts. fo. 11 [...]
  • Of Rysse. fol. 1 [...]
  • Of Almonds. fo. eo [...]
  • Of VValnuts. fol. 11 [...].
  • Of phylberdes fo. eo [...]
  • Of Nutmegs. fo. eo [...]
  • Of Cloues, galingale, an [...] Peper. fo. eo [...]
  • A practice. fo. 1 [...]
  • Of Calamus. fo. eo [...]
  • Of triacle. fo. 12 [...]
  • Of Methridatum. fo. 1 [...]
  • Of Safron. Fo. 1 [...]
  • A regiment of the pesti [...]lence. fo. 12 [...]
  • Good ayre. fo. eo [...]
  • None slepe. Fo. eo [...]
  • Of slepe. Fo. eo [...]
  • Exercise. Fo eo [...]
  • Of myrth. Fo. 12 [...]
  • Sygnes of the pestilenc [...] Fo. eo [...]
  • Methridatum androm [...]chi. Fo. eo [...]
FINIS.
¶ Iohn.

OF all pleasures & pastymes my thynke there is none like vn­to good chere,The epi­cure desi­reth too liue al together in belly chere. wh [...]t should mā do but passe a waye the tyme with [...]ood felowes and make mery, seynge [...]e haue but a tyme to liue, cast away [...]re, wherfore is meate and bellies or­ [...]eined but the one to serue the other▪ [...]e fleshe that we dayly increase is our [...]wn. Abstinence & fasting, is a mighty [...]emy and nothing pleasaunt to me, [...]d be vsed of very fewe that loue thē [...]lues, but only of beggers, and coue­ [...]us sparers, whiche dooe spare muche [...]d spende litle.

¶ Humfrey.

Knowe well youre goodly ex­pence of tyme, I wys it is no [...]eruayle, althoughe you make [...]ur belly your God: and boste of [...] You se that al lusty reuilers, & [...]ntinuall banket makers, come [Page] to great estimacion, as example to Varius Haelyogabalus, which was daily fedde with many hundreth fisshes and foules, and was ac­cōpanied with manye brothels, baudes, harlottes, and glottons, and thus it doth apeare by your abhorring vertue, that of ryght you might haue cleamed a great office in Haeliogabalus court,Helioga­balꝰ court [...]it for belly gods. if you had been in those daies, but you haue an infinite number of your conuersacion in these daies, the more pitty.

¶ Iohn.

VVhat good sir, I require not you [...] counsell, I pray you be your own [...] caruer, and geue me leaue to serue my fantasy. I wyll not charge you, you ar [...] very auncient and graue, and I ar [...] but yonge, we be no matchis.

¶ Humfrey.

GOod counsell is a treasure [...] wyse mē, but a very trifle to [...] [Page ii] foole, if thou haddest sene those thinges whiche I haue seene, I know, thou wouldest not be such a man, nor thus spend thy tyme.

¶ Iohn.

VVhat haste thou sene, that I haue not seen?

¶ Humfrey.

I Haue seene many notable and greuous plages, whiche haue fallen vpon greddy gluttons, as [...]asting their substaunce,The iust rewarde of belly gods. disfor­ [...]ing their bodies, shorting their [...]leasaūt daies, and in this point [...]o conclude with thee, where as [...]lotony remaineth, from thence [...] moderate diat banyshed: and [...]ose bellies that folowe the lust [...]f the eyes (in meates) in youthe, [...]all lacke the health of all their [...]odies, in age if they liue so long.

Iohn.

My thinke thou canste geue good [Page] counsell, thou semest to be seen in ph [...]sicke. I praye thee is it so great hurt [...] delight in plenty of bankettes?

¶ Humfrey.

SIr,The fru­tes of in­ordinate bāquets. if it will please you to be somewhat attentiue, I wyl te [...] you. It is ye very grayne whero [...] cōmith stinking vomettes, saue faces, dropsies, vertigo, palseis obstructiōs, blindnes, flixes, applexis, caters and rewmes. &c.

¶ Iohn.

IS it trewe that you haue sayde to mee?

¶ Humfrey.

VVOulde to God dayly ex [...]perience did not trie i [...] I dooe perfectly knowe it. An [...] once thou shalt be a witnes ther [...] of, if thou come to age.

¶ Iohn.

THen I beseche thee gentle fren [...] Humfrey, declare to me, why the [...] is suche diuision among phisicions?

¶ Humfrey.
[Page iii]

THou seest,Varietie of opi­nions a­mōg mē. amōg the Theolo­giās there is much varietie, [...]nd yet but one troth. Discordes [...]e soone knowen of Musicians, [...]nd the Phisicions bee not igno­ [...]aunt of the generall natures of [...]inges. No diuision is although [...] do so apeare: for regēts, place, [...]ge, time, and the present state of [...]ans nature must bee obserued, not the olde rules in al pointes. [...]or mans nature is sore altered [...]nd chaunged, into a vyler sorte [...]an it was wonte to bee.

¶ Iohn.

[...]Ome dooe report that men of great estimaciō,Anobie [...] ­tion a­gainst phisicke. say: what nedeth phisicke, [...]is but an inuention only for money, [...]e see (say they) who liueth so wel, as [...]ey whiche neuer knew phisicke, and [...]euill as these pothicary men?

¶ Humfrey.

[Page] MAny men bee more riche the [...] wyse, & more estemed, for ti­tles of their honours & worships, then for any other vertue or cun­ning, suche men in some pointes bee more ingratifull to naturall remedies then dogges: whiche can electe or choose their vomit­ting gras, or birdes, whiche ca [...] chose grauell or stones for their casting. But to cōclude with the [...] in this matter.God the author of phisicke. Plini the great [...] clarke, haue a thousand reasons to proue them folishe that wil ob­iecte against Phisicke.The ine­s [...]imable goodnes of god or­deined herbes for the healh of man. And th [...] author of al thinges did wel fors [...] and knowe, what was good fo [...] mans nature, whan he stretchi [...] out so large a cōpas roūd abou [...] the earth with ye noble planette [...] and signes, and their courses, in [...]fluences and heauēly qualities and garnisshed the earth wit [...] [Page iiii] fruites, herbes, flowers, leaues graines, oyles, gums, stones, for mans comfort and helpe, and or­deined the phisicion for to helpe man. Thus the almyghtye haue done saith Salomon.Salomon And in re­compēce, God hath not apointed the phisicions to be rayled vpō,Eccle. 36. or dispised, but honoured & rewar­ded: yea, estemed of princes. And seing good nature and wise men be on my side: I forse not of other mens phantasies, with whome neither good wisdome, nor good nature is guyde.

¶ Iohn.

VVhy is phiscke of suche great au­thoritie? or hath it ben in estimatiō among olde fathers? May that be pro­ued of thy parte?

¶ Humfrey.

Yes that I can.

¶ Iohn.

[Page] IF thou canst bringe in any reueren [...] fathers that loued phisick: I wil no [...] despise, but greately esteme it, & desyr [...] counseile in demaūding of a few que [...]stions.The praise & exelē ­cie of phisicke.

¶Humfrey.

PHisicke hath ben in so hye an estimaciō, that ye gentilles did all consent, it came from the im­mortall goddes.Moises. The Hebrues did well knowe it, as Moises in the moste auncient boke, called Gene­sis primo, doth discribe the worke of the almighty God:Adam. of herbes, fruites, and plantes, that Adam might teache the vertues of thē to his children.Iesus Si­rack. cap. xxxviii. Iesus Sirack which was endued with ye spirit of god, haue lefte a laude behinde him greatlie commendinge Physick amongest the diuines of the He­brues. Diodoro. Test. Ouid. Metamor Mercuri amōgst the Egiptians, Ouide doeth greately commende Apollo, the inuenter of herbes, [Page v] when they were almoste oute of [...]emory, he reuiued their ver­tes, and taught their nature to [...]hers that folowed him. After [...]at came in Aesculapius, whiche [...]d many moste excellent cures. [...]nd chiron, Chiron centaurꝰ. the instructer of Achil whose name can neuer die as [...]ge as the herbe centauri, gro­ [...]eth vpon the earth, whiche is [...]led after his name.Podaliriꝰ Podalirius & [...]echaon, Machaō. were twoo brethren in [...] time of the battell of Troy, [...]iche were excellent phisiciōs, [...]d be greatly commended of Ho [...]re, who was more excellēt thē [...]ppocrates, Hippo­crates. in the Ile of Coose: [...]ose workes will neuer die, for brought in phisicke, and dige­ [...] it into faire bokes, for mans [...]at health.Gallenus. Then came Gallene, [...] vnknowen to all wyse and [...]ned phisicions. I coulde re­herse [Page] many moo, but this sha [...] suffise to proue phisicke to bee [...] greate authoritie amonge old [...] fathers.

¶Iohn.

I Pray thee frende Humfrey, what phisicke: I would bee glad to learn some of thy knowledge, for thou hast good order in talking, & seme to be g [...] ­ded of authoritie. Therfore I am so that I haue cōtended with thee: I pr [...] y be not angry, with my former tal [...]

¶Humfrey.

HIppocrates in his booke of wi [...] ­des or blastes,Hippo­crates in lib. defla. saith yt phisic [...] or medecine, is but a putting the body whiche it lacketh, or [...] king from the bodie thinges [...] perfluous.A diffini­tiō of physicke. And althoughe o [...] life be shorte, yet the arte of [...] sicke is long, because great n [...] bres of thinges be in it, and [...] quireth muche study, labour a [...] [Page vi] [...]actise,Hippo­crates in primo and first of all, it requi­ [...]th much contēplacion or know [...]dge, in studying good bookes, [...]hich is called Theoricha. Aphoris. Secōd­ [...] the very effect of contempla­ [...]on or study,Theori­cha. is practica or actiua, whiche is doing of the thinges, at learninge haue taughte as [...]pairing, amending, or preser­ [...]ing, the bodies of men, women and children. &c.

¶Iohn.

It semeth to be a goodly science.

¶Humfrey.

HErodotus saieth:Herodotꝰ they greately erre that call it a science, for is an excellēt art in doing of no [...]ble things. And science is but [...] knowe thinges. There is also this excellēt art sundry sectes [...] phisicions,Emperici some be called Em [...]rici, who suppose that onely ex­ [...]rience doeth suffise, and so by [Page] vse and experience dooe take i [...] hande to heale diseases, not kno­wing the cause of the said diseas [...] or sickenes.Philinus Philinus was one [...] that secte at the first beginning Then folowed Serapion, serapion. & after that ye Apolonis. Apolonii. And then cam [...] Glaucius Menadotus Sextus. &c. An­other kinde of phisicions, be cal­led Methodici, Metho­dici. whiche neither ob­serue tyme, place, age, state, no [...] cōdicion: & thinke theim thinges of small profite, but onely the [...] respecte is to their disease: the [...] loue not longe study in phisicke and are greatly deceyued, be­cause they would builde withou [...] foundacion: and haue the frute [...] before thei haue planted ye trees These mennes cures be but b [...] chaunce medly. One Sirus bega [...] this,Asclepia­des. whiche receyued certayn rules of Asclepiades. The chief [Page vii] [...]este secte of Phisitions called Dogmatici. Dogma­tici. These be the wyse mē [...]hiche sette not the carte before [...]e horse, nor the rootes of the [...]ees vpwarde. They dooe pru­ [...]ently consider the chaunge of [...]ans nature, ye dwellyng place, [...]e alteration of ye ayre, the time [...] the yeare, the custome of peo­ [...]e, the maners of diseases, the [...]shion of mens diete. And this [...]ey will prous by trewe argu­ [...]entes and reasons, and will be [...]ry careful for their patientes. [...]he disciples of those mē, be the [...]st scollers, therfore I counsell [...]ee Ihon to loue wel Hippocrates [...]e prince of Phisicions,Hippo­crates. whiche [...]gan the best maner to geue ru­ [...]s to all the louers of phisicke. [...]f this writeth Gallen, much lau [...]g Hippocrates & his followers, [...]d in these daies Leonhardus Fut­chius, [Page] Matheolus. &c.

¶Iohn.

SEinge thou hast spooken of sondrie partes of Phisicions, I praye thee what partes be there of phisicke?

¶Humfrey.

TRuly there be fyue thinges to be noted in phisicke,Gallen de elemen. de temp. de facul. as. v. principall partes, as Gallen saith: in lib. de Elementis. The first is to consider the nature of mans bo­die.Phisicke deuided into fyue partes. The seconde is, to kepe the bodie in health, and to defende it from sickenes and infirmities. The thirde is, to knowe all the causes, rules, and sedes, wherof the sicknes doth growe. The .iiii is Crises or iudgemēt of the di­sease of thinges present, past & to come. The fifth is the beste and moste excellēt, for it sheweth the maner of healing, dietinge, fas­shion, order, & waye to helpe the [Page viii] sicke bodie, & preserue the same, as longe as man doth remayne in the state of lyfe.

¶Iohn.

THou hast spoken of the partes of phisicke, what is the forme maner or distribucion thereof?

¶Humfrey.

IT is distributed in thre formes one is natural,Gal. lib. 3. de temp. cap. 4. another vnnatural, ye .iii. agaīst nature. The first is, by those things wherof ye bo­die is cōpact, cōstituted or made, as Gallen saith: in his .iii. boke of his Tēpramentis. Cap. 4. The secōd is called not natural, as meates or thinges to preserue the bodie in health, they be not called vnnaturall, because they be againste the body, but because the rasshe [...]akynge, or glotonus vsinge of [...]hem, may bryng many thinges [...]o the vtter destruction of the bo­die. [Page] The thirde, bee thinges a­gainst nature, whiche doeth cor­rupt the bodie or poisone nature, wherof Gallen writeth.Galle. in lib. 2. The rap. me­tho.

¶Iohn.

NOwe thou hast taughte me short rules of the partes & formes phisi­call, I pray the shewe me some pretie rules of the complexions of men, and that I may aptelie knowe theim with their properties, elementes, tempera­mentes and humors.

¶Humfrey.

VPon my lute some time, to recreate my selfe, I ioyne with my simple armonie, manie playne verses. Among all other one smal songe of the foure com­plexions, wilte thou heare it take that chaire and sitte downe and I will teache thee my song

¶Iohn.

I thanke thee.

¶Humfrey.
[Page ix]
The bodies where heat & moister dwel,
Be sanguen folkes as Galen tell,
With visage faire & chekes rose ruddy:
The slepes is much,
The di­scription of the sa [...] guene pe [...]sons.
& dreames be bluddy.
Puls great and full, with digestion fine,
Pleasauntlie concocting, fleshe and wyne,
Excremētes aboūdant, with anger short,
[...]aughing very much and finding sport,
Drine grose, with couler read:
Pleasaunt folkes at bord and bead.
Where cold wt moistur preuaileth much
Fleumatike folkes be alway suche,
Fatues,
The di­scription of the sle [...] matil [...]e persons.
softnes here plaine and ryght,
Narrowe vaines and coller whyt.
Dull of wyt, no hart to bold,
Pules very slowe, disgestion cold.
Sleping ouer much, vryne grose & pale,
Spittell whit & thick, thus endes the tale.
Coller is hoot, and drie as fyre,
[...]enis of limmes and puffed with yre.
Costisse belles, with litte slepe,
Dreames of fier,
The di­scription of the co­lericke.
or woundes depe.
Sallowe coulered, or tawnie read,
Feding on salt meates, & crustes of bread,
Voyce sharpe, and quickenes of wit,
Vryne yellowe and saltnes of spit.
Pulses swyft, and very strong,
Cruell countenance, not anger long.
[Page] Melancoly is cold, and very drye.
As here in ryme his signes will trye,
Heare playne,
The di­scription of Melā ­coly.
and veray thyn,
A leane wretche, with hardnes of skyn.
Coller whitlie, or like to leade,
Muche watthe, and dreames of dreade,
And stif in folyshe fantasie,
Disgestion slowe, and long angrie.
Feareful of minde, with watrie spitle,
Seldome laughing, and puls litle.
Vryne waterie, and very thyn,
The colde earth, to hym is kyn.
¶ Iohn.

THis is a good song, and I wil learne it, for though it seme not verye plea­saūt, yet I perceiue it is profitable. Now thou hast spoken of the singes of the .iiii. complexions, I pray the teache me shortlie, howe to knowe the elementes.

¶ Humfrey.

THey be ye foure beginners vn­mingled and vntempored,Hippo­crates de Element. Auic. in cauteca. frō whose mixtures euerye corporall thynge hath his substaunce.

¶ Iohn.

What be ye partes? I pray the tel me▪

¶ Humfrey.
[Page x]

FOure, the one is earth the he­uiest matter & grossest,The di­scription of the .iiii. Elemēts. whiche is colde and drie, and melancoly. And the other is water, whiche is lighter & moste subtil then the earth, & of nature is colde, moist, and flegmatike.Galen. in li. 8. decr. Then is ayre more purer and lighter then wa­ter, and if it bee not altered with any other straunge cause, it is hote and moiste and sanguen: Then fyer is moste lyghte, pure and cleare, a clarifier and a clen­ser of all the other elemētes, whē they are corrupted, and is of his owne nature hoot, drie, and col­lericke. And of these foure Ele­mentes, both man, beaste, fysshe, foule, herbe, stone, mettall, haue their propre workyng, not of one of the Elementes alone, but of al: some more and some lesse, accor­dyng [Page] to their natures.

Hippocrates saieth:Hippo­crates in lib. de na. after the soule is gone from the bodie, the body doeth returne to the first matter wherof it was made: And to cō ­clude, all thinges that be made vpon earth, shal returne vnto the earth againe in tyme.

¶ Iohn.

VVhy might not men, beastes, fyshe, or foule, herbe, or tree, be of one element aswell as of foure? I praye you tell me.

¶ Humfrey.

NOo, for Aristotel sayth: Deus et natura nihil agunt frustra. God & nature hathe doone nothinge in vaine. [...]turs com­ [...]ded [...]ore e­ [...]eutes [...] one. And if any thing vpon the earth sencible were of one ele­ment: no sickenesse coulde hurte it, nor disease corrupt it, but eue­ry thing liuing vppon the earth, seing it hath had beginninge, it [Page xi] must nedes haue ending, to whō these foure complexiōs doeth be­longe, if they do greatly abounde or disminish, or withdrawe their vertues with quantities or qua­lities.

¶ Iohn.

MAy a man see anye of the Ele­mentes.

¶ Humfrey.

THe thing whiche men do see, be none of ye foure Elemēts: not earth, but earthie, not water but waterie, not ayre, but airie, not fire, but firie. But the things whiche man do fele,Elen felt & seen. be the foure Elementes, as earth, aire, fier, & water. And these be ye vttermost simples of complexions, diuersly & specially, alone of theim selues, or mingled with other, takinge sundrie and diuers effectes, ma­ners, condicions, formes & qua­lities, [Page] both in man and beast, and euery liuing thinge, sensible and insensible.

¶ Iohn.

VVhat is the cōplexions of the foure quarters of the yeare, and names of the signes?

¶ Humfrey.

THe spryng time when bloud doth increase:Hippocr. in lib. de Natura humana. Sommer whē read coller doeth rewle: Heruest when coller aduste, or melancoly doth reigne. Wynter when fleme doth abounde in full strengthe.Wynter. Spryng. Sommer Haruest. It is called wynter from the .xii. day of December, vnto the tenth daie of Marche. This season is colde & moiste, it is called spring time, frō the .xii. day of Marche, and endeth about the .xii. day of Iune. Sōmer beginneth about the .xii. day of Iune, and endeth about the .xii. day of Septēber. [Page xii] Autumne or Heruest, beginneth about the .xiii. daie of Septem­ber, and endeth about the .xi. daie of December. Capricornus, Aquarius, and Pisces, be winter signes. Aries, Taurus, and Ge­mini, be signes for the springe. Cancer, Leo, and virgo, beo the signes for Sōmer. Libra, Scor­pio, and Sagitari, be the signes for Haruest. And ye sunne goeth through all these .xii. signes in xii. monethes. And the Moone goeth .xii. times through eche of the forsayde signes ones in the yeare, and do take sondry effectes in man, beates, and frutes, in the sayd signes: hote or cold, moist or drye.

¶ Iohn.

VVhat bee the complexions of me­dicines?

¶ Humfrey.

[Page] THose thynges that ouercom­meth and gouerne the bodye, as purgacions, expulciues. &c. These be called medicines,Auic. in pri. can. and those thinges that norysheth and augmenteth the bodye, be called meates. For the complexions of meates & medicines, be knowen by their tastes, as coldnes, hoot­nes,Meates and medicine bee knowen by tasting moistnes, Drynes, bitter­nes, saltnes, swetenes, fatnes, sharpenes, stiptick, and clammy. And because thy requeste is, to haue prescribed vnto thee, but only a litle gouernement of health: I wyll showe vnto thee another of my litle songs in plain metre, howe thou shalt knowe meates and medicines, by their tastes.

¶ Iohn.

THat is my chiefe desire, I wyll beare thee, saye on.

¶ Humfrey.
[Page xiii]
COlde quencheth the collers pride,
Moist humecteth,
Cold. Moiste. Salte.
yt whiche is dried,
The flowing moister, be proffe I trie,
Is wasted of humors, hote and drie,
The subtill fode, that is persing quicke,
The clammy meates, maketh it thicke,
Bitter thinges, clense and wypith ofte,
And expelslem, and maketh softe.
Salt drieth, and resolueth fleme tough,
Fat norisheth, and make subtil inough.
Stiptick or rough taste on the tonge,
Bindeth and cōfouteth appetite long.
Swete things in clensing, is very good
[...]t desolueth much, & norisheth blod.
These things wel vsed, nature wilplease
But abusing thē beastly, brīgeth disease.
¶ Iohn.

[...]N good faithe, me thinke thou sayest [...] wel, for there apere perfit reasons in [...]hese thy prety rules. Nowe thou hast declared vnto mee, the signes of com­plexions of men: with the waye and [...]pte knowledge of meates by theyr astes, I would fayne learne, shortelye [...]he tempramentis and complexions of mankynde.

¶ Humfrey.
[Page]

THere was neuer no discrete, nor wyse phisiciō, that either feared God or pitied mankynde, or loued his own honestie: wold take in hande either to prescribe diet, or to minister medicine to any body, before be well did con­sider, and wysely weye with him selfe, the temprament, mixture or complexion of mankinde. Fyrste whether he were hoote or colde, moist or drie, fat or leane, or in­different betwene them bothe.

Tempored by health, or distem­pored by sickenesse,Auic. in pri. tract. cantico. Gal. lib. 1. cap. 2. li. 2. cap. 3. li. 4 cap. vlti. Sim. med. as the extre­mities of hootnes, coldnes, moi­stnes, and drienes. Therefore Iohn, these thinges may not bee forgottē, you must note also the foure ages of mankinde, & fyrst the tender state of childrē, which beginneth at the birth, and so cō ­tinueth [Page xiiii] vntill fiftene yeares next after their said byrth: Their tempramentes or complexions, bee hoote and moiste, very like vnto the seede wherof they be procea­ [...]ed, then next vnto childhode or innocent age. Youth which is the seconde part of life, beginneth to [...]eigne, his temprament or com­plexion hathe rather more fyrie [...]eate, then perfite naturall heat, and this second age, continueth or tenne yeares,Gal. lib. 5. Aphor. cōmen. 9. as Galen saieth: [...]ell, in this two firste states of yfe, let al natural fathers & mo­ [...]ers bring vp their youth, sette GOD before their eyes,An ernest brief ex­hortacion for ye brin­gyng vp of youth. for they [...]aue no small charge committed [...]nto theim, that muste geue ac­ [...]mpte to God, howe they haue brought vp their children: & they [...] in these yeares do spare cor­ [...]ction, truely be greuous ene­mies [Page] vnto their children, and at laste shalbe recompensed with shame, when they shall se misfor­tune and wretchednes, fall vpon the frutes of their owne seedes. For mē haue smal profit of their corne, whiche bee choked & ouer­come with thistels, bryeres, and brakes, whiche were not weeded in time, muche lesse of their chil­dren, whiche haue receaued ney­ther correction nor honest lear­nyng in due season. If ye kepers of gardeins be careful ouer their late sowē sedes, & tender herbes, whiche are in daunger to bee de­stroied of euerye froste: What shoulde good fathers & mothers do for their children, whose ten­der and youthfull yeares bee ca­ried away, & ouercōmed of euery foolishe fantasie, and it is no me [...]uayle. But this shall suffise for [Page xv] the wyse, and smally profite the fooles, but to my matter whiche I toke in hande, I will returne vnto the thirde age of mankynd, which is called the lusty state of [...]yfe, and beginneth at .xxv. yeres and continueth vnto, xxxv. This age is hoote and drie, and verye collericke,Galen. in lib. Simp. as Galene saieth: This parte of life is subiect, to manye burnyng and extreme feuers, & [...]oote vlcers: therfore it is neces­sary to knowe this temprament or cōplexion, which is called col­lericke, as plainely may appeare by age, strength, diet, vrine. &c. This is the beste tyme for man­kynde to trauell in, with godlye exercise in science, arte, and pro­fitable trauelles in his vocatiō, puttinge in practise, the vertues whiche he hath learned in youth, for this is the sommer parte of [Page] life, wherin all goodlye frutes [...] florishe in euery good ocupaciō ▪ This is the very heruest,The beste tyme to prouide for age. to ga [...] the precious corne, and frute [...] their labours againste the colde stormes & cloudie daies of their aged wynter, wherein the bodie shalbe weake, and the eies sygh [...] decaye, and the handes trimble and therfore it is not comelye [...] see the state of age, without rest whiche in the tyme of youth, di [...] honestly trauell. For there is [...] grace geuen to many creature [...] vnreasonable, bothe beastes and foules, to make prouision be­fore hande, what is then to be re­quired of men reasonable, as fo­loweth in these verses.

THe bird in time her nest can make,
The bee will buyld his house ful [...]
The Crane with stone in fote wil wake,
The Cony will carue vnder the myne,
[Page xvi] The Squirel in trees her nuts can kepe,
Against colde winter to feede and slepe,
And should not man well foresee,
In youth to know his old degree.

THen from .xxxv. or few yeres folowing, the lusty braūches of youth, begin to abate his pleasaunt leues, flowers and fruite by litle & litle will decaye, rawe [...]humers, crampes, dropsies, quaterns, melācoly, will then drawe nere. The riots, surfittes, sore la­bours, bearing of extreme bur­dens, wrestlings, actes venerus with the abuse of youth, wil then spring forth, to the detriment of age nad sodaine decaye of lyfe, in especiall of drunkardes.

¶ Iohn.

VVhat be the places of blend, Col­ler, Fleume, and Melancoly? Natu­rall or vnnaturall. Thou haste not made a particular distinction of their [Page] proper places, but generally thou hast spoken well in thy songe.

¶ Humfrey.

THere are also other discirp­tions of the foure humors, very necessary to be knowē, and their places where as they dwel within the body, & first of bloud, as Galen saieth: in his first booke of effected places, bloude (saieth he) that is in the pulsis, doeth greatly differ from the bloude of the vaynes, for the bloude of the pulsis is thinner, yeallower and hotter, and this bloud, maye bee called the gouernour of life. The spring & fountayne of the bloud generall is in the lyuer, [...]. whiche serueth euery vayne of bloude, & this bloud in culler is very read. Flewme. is whyte, and is ingen­dred in the stomake, and at lēgth by the vertue of naturall heate, [Page xvii] pure fleaine is turned into blod. There be also watry, slimy glas­sy, grosse, salte, sower, thicke, harde, binding, and extreme cold fleames, whiche in dede be vnna­turall, that bee engendred tho­rowe surphets, coldnes or idel­nes, bringing to the bodie many noisome diseases. There is also coller, whiche is yellowe, whose place in the body is ye gall, which commeth of the clensing or pury­fying of bloud: and this coller is cleare, hote and drie, and the cō ­forter of decoction. Grene coller, or coller myngled with fleame, be vnnaturall, melancoly natu­rall, in the splene is nothing but the sex degrees, or heauie resi­dentes of the bloud, the naturall melācoly is knowen by his blacknes, the vnnatural cometh of the burning of coller, and is lighter [Page] & hoter, browne of couler, sower of taste, and putteth the bodie in great daūger: as madnes, blacke gaunders, continual feuers, and sodaine deadly diseases. There­fore my frende Iohn, remember this short discriptiō of humors, as the wordes of Galen & Auicen, saye.Auicen. in li. can.

¶ Iohn.

Thus I haue heard thy seueral pla­cinge of the foure complexions of bloud, Choler, Fleume, and Melanco­ly, and is there any distincte hootnes, coldnes, moistnes, and drienes, in anye other creature besides man: tel me.

¶ Humfrey.

NOt onely in manne, but in beastes, fyshe, foule, serpēts, trees, herbes, mettels. And eue­ry thyng sensible and insensible, according to their natures, & be equally myngled or tempered to­geter, whiche is called meane tē ­peraunce, or els exceadeth in de­grees, [Page xviii] whiche is called intempe­raunce, hote and moiste, may be compounded together, so maye colde and drie, hote and drie, cold and moiste,Galen. in lib. 4. de tempor. example. A cholerick man, hote & drie: a Fleumaticke man, cold & moist. &c. Of herbes, as hisope and rewe, hote and dry, purssen and coucumbers, cold & moist. &c. But tempramentes or complexiōs of men, beastes, and trees, be some hoter, some colder, according to their natures. As a lion is hooter then a cholericke man: pepper is hoter thē cloues. And though there bee degrees in more hotnes or more coldnes, yet they are called but hote or colde, as men after labour or trauell, they will saye they are hoote, but the fier which people warme thē at, is hotter. Also there be things repugnaunt to tempramentes, [Page] as moiste and drienes together, heate and coldnes together, as fier to bee colde, or the water of his own nature to be hote, which water peraccidence of the fier is made hote: and fier quenched by the water. And euery thynge ex­ceading greatly with distempe­raunce or wanting temperaunce or complexion, do eftsones come to an end, as men by extreme sic­kenesses, surphets or woundes, or finally age, lackinge naturall vertue. Of heate and moistnes of trees and herbes, from whome iuce and sappe is withdrawen, these thinges of necessitie muste nedes die,Galen. in lib. 4. de tempor. and come to corrup­tion, as Galen and Aristotel sayeth.

¶ Iohn.

VVhether be men or women of col­dex complexion?Arist. de Gene.

¶ Humfrey.

[Page xix] AVicen saieth:Auicen. like as menne be hote & drie, so be wemen colde and moiste.

¶ Iohn.

YEa but Lucian saieth: they be pere­lous hote of their tonges and ful of venim: though I am no phisicion, yet can I make a dissciption of that mem­ber, for I am oftentimes stinged with it,Whether this bee true let y maryed iudge. I would to God they had been wor­med when they were yong, but when they are olde, they are past all cure, but the best medicine y I haue, is a gentle herbe called rewe, whiche I am neuer without great store.

¶ Humfrey.

MAnkinde was borne naked to this ende,eueri thīg bringyng his aparel with him sauīg mā. that he mighte clothe him selfe with other crea­tures: whiche he brought not in to this world with him, as cloth, lether, harnes made of iron, for his defence, because he is ye chief creature. But horses of nature [Page] haue harde ho [...]es, lyons sharpe teeth, purpintyns sharpe prickes whiche is their cōtinual and na­tural armour, as things euer prepared to debate & strife &, by no art can scant be tamed. The Rose as pleasauntly as she doeth ap­peare,Muskels and glan­dens flesh and as swetely as she doth smel, spring not further without a great nōber of sharpe prickes. Therfore it is tollerable for men to beare with them whome na­ture hath sealed and marked for his owne. With that humor most chollerick, disgresse from this thy communicacion, and let vs talke of thinges more profitable, for in deade this is pleasaunt to no mā.

¶ Iohn.

SEyng thou wilt not discribe me thi [...] particuler members, of whiche w [...] haue spokē, I would be glad to know the partes of mankinde, with a short [...] discription of his members.

¶ Humfrey.
[Page xx]

MEmbers be simple and also compounde, the simples bee tenne in nomber, the cartilages, the gristels, the bones, veynes, & synewes arteries, pannicles, ly­gamentes, cordes, and the skyn. Members compounded,A diffi [...] ­cion of members be those that be ioyned and builded toge­ther of simple members as the handes, face, fete, lyuer, & harte, and so compounded members, be made of simple. Some of the compounded members be called principalles: as the harte from whence the arteries springes, the brain, frō whēce the sinewes springes, the liuer whiche is the well of the bloud, from whence ye veynes do spring, & the stones of generacion from whence the sede of lyfe dooe spring: but those compounded members that bee [Page] principall. Be all the other mem­bers except the simple as ye nose, the eares, the eies, the face, the necke, the armes and legges, & the braynes and chief substance of our fleshe, be compounded mē bers of sinowes,Muskels and glan­dens flesh & couered with panackles, whiche be of a synue nature, but that sinewes geue fe­lyng to all the whole body: euen as the artiers geueth spirituall bloud frō the heart to euery mē ­ber. The whole body is couered with filmes and skynnes. Out the head springeth harde matter issuing from the places called ye pores, to pourge vapors & smoke from the braine, which ascēdeth out of the stomake into the head, and is clensed through Pia mater, called the tender coueringe of the brayne or spirites animall. And therfore as som partes of ye body [Page xxi] being deuided in sonder, be eche like vnto the other, and yet called by the name of the whole, as for example. When the bones be broken in sonder, or the fleshe cut in to diuers peces, or ye bloude pou­red into sondrie vessels.A parte is called by the name of ye whol and not ye whole by the part. A peece of fleshe is styll called fleshe, a fragmente of a bone, is called a bone, and a drop of bloud is cal­led bloud: Euen so an hāde, arme veyne, or suche lyke vnseparate partes being deuided into peces or called by the name of peces, & not by the name of ye whole parte (as is before.) But my frende Iohn, to make a large discriptiō of Anatomie, it were to longe for [...]e, but shortly I will saye some thing. And first of the definition therof is, whā the body of a dead man or woman, is cut & opened & the mēbers deuided, or for thē [Page] wāt of dead bodies to reade good bokes as Galen, What an­nothomie is. Auicen. &c. And it behoueth thē that cutteth a dead corps,Foure thinges cōsidered in the bo­dy of mā. to note foure things. First the nutramentall members, as the liuer with the vaines: the se­conde is, the members spiritual, as the harte with ye artiries, the thirde is the animall members,Example. as the head, braines, & sinewes. The fourth & last, be exeremētes of the bodye, as armes, legges, skyn, heere. &c. Of these sayd mē ­bers, with the boones, is all the body compounded. And like as euery tree and herbe, haue their rootes in the earth, & their braū ­ches springeth vpwarde, euen so the rootes of mankinde, haue the beginning in the brayne, and the senewe and braunches groweth downward: in the which braine, dwelleth the vertues of imagination, [Page xxii] fantasie, memory. &c. And these animall vertues, be placed as it were heauenly aboue al the members, communicating their heauenly influences, downe vn­to the hart, as to a prince, or chefe reuler within the bodye, whiche geueth lyfe to euery part therof. Thou shalt cōsider, that the hart was the first yt receiued life from the spirites, and shalbe the last yt shall die. Note also, that as, there be noble sences geuē to the body, as seyng, hearing smellynge ta­stinge, feling: euē so nature hath foure principall vertues. First Attractiue, the second Retētiue, the thirde Disgestiue, the fourth Expulsiue. Attractiue is that by the whiche euery part of the body draweth the fode of life, and ser­ueth the vertue disgestiue, and ye Retentiue dooe holde the meate [Page] vntill it be ready to be altered & chaunged. Disgestiue do alter, & maketh the foode like vnto the thing ye it nourisheth, as fleme, bloud. &c. Expulsiue do separate them from the other, the good frō ye bad. Thou oughtest also moste chiefly to learne the knowledge of the vaynes, and for what sick­nesse, they muste bee opened, and what medicines, either in sirops or pilles thou must vse. And first marke this figure of the Anato­mie here presēt before thee, with the heauenly signes, because I haue not painted at large the seuerall partes of the sayde Anato­mie.

[Page xxiii]

[figure]

THe middle vayne of the fore­head is good to be opened a­gainst Megrim, forgetfulnes, and passions of the head. And [Page] they that be leaten bloud of this, or any other vayne, muste firste haue their head purged with pil­lule Chochi Rasis, or some purga­tion, but first vse thinges to exte­nuate matter, as syrruppe of Buglosse. &c.

Against Leprosy & deafnes. Let bloud the two vaines behind the eartes, and vse the sayde pil­les or els pillule Aurea Nicholai or Arabice, or confectio Hameth mi­nor.

Against replexion or to much bloude, or bloude in the eies, flo­wyng in the head, open the tem­ple vaines called Artiers, for they bee euer beatynge. And vse too pourge with pillule Artritice, Ni­cholai or puluis ad epithema Hepatis.

Against Squināce, stopping the throte, and stoppynge of the breath: Let bloud the vaynes vn­der [Page xxiiii] the tounge. And for this vse Philoniūmaiꝰ Necholai. & Gargarismes, pillule Bechie, and oximel Simplex.

Vaines called Originales, open not without great coūsaile of a learned Physicion, or cun­nyng Chirurgiō. They be in the necke, and haue a great course of bloud, that gouerneth the head, & the whole body.

Against short winde, and euyl bloud, aproching to the hart, and spitting bloude. Open the vayne called Cordiaca, or harte vayne, in the arme. Vse thinges to ex­tenuate, as Aromaticum, Chario­phillatum Mesue, serapium ex Absin­ [...]hii in colde time, serapium Boraginis [...]hote time, and pillule stomochi.

Against palsy, yellow Iaun­dies, burning heats, & apostimations of y liuer. Opē ye liuer vain [Page] vpon the right arme. Take Sera­pium ex endiue. Diamargariton frigid [...] Auicenni.

Against dropsy,Dropsy. open the vain betwene the belly & the braunch, the right side against the sayde dropsy. And the left syde against the passions of the milte, but bee not rashe, onlesse ye haue the coū sayle of one wel seen in the An­nothomie. Vse pillule Hiere cum Agarico.

Against the stoppinge the se­crete termes or fluxions of we­men,Helpyng the Emo­rodes. or helpinge the Emorodes and purging fores. Open the vaine called Sophane vnder the ancle.Theriaca is an excelent tria­cle. Theriaca Andromachi. Pillule Mastichine, Petri de Ebano.

Within .xx houres after one is infected wt the pestilence cōming sodenly. Open the vain betwene the wrest of the foote, & the great [Page xxv] to. Vse Serapi [...] Cichorii, and Pil­lule pestilentialis Ruffi.

Against stinking breath. Opē the vaine betwene the lippe and the chin. Vse for this Catharicum imperialie. Nicho. Alexandri.

Against the toothake. Open the vaine in the rofe of ye mouth. And first purge with pillule Cho­ci Rasis, or with pilles of Mastike.

Against quartens,Vse to eate Ca­pers, and take Pil­lule Iude Haly or pilluled [...]. lapide Lazule. tercions, & paines of the leftside. Open the splene vaine, commonly called ye lowe vaine, with a wide cutte, & not depe: For Chirurgiōs nisely pricking or opening vayns, with litle Scarisfa [...]ons, doth let out good pure bloud, and still retain, grosse, cold, and drie earthly matter, to the great hurt of their pa­cientes. And albeit, many more vaines might heare be spokē of: and their vtilities, yet this shall [Page] well suffice by Gods grace to kepe al people in health, that vpō iuste cause, haue these vaines o­pened. Except olde men, wemen with childe, and children vnder xiiii. yeares of age, or men after diuers agues. For bloud letting, will then engendre perillous palsies, as very excellent phisicions haue well declared. And after one be infected with the pestilēce xxiiii. houres, before he haue re­ceiued medicine,Miracle helpeth, but no medicen in this case. or blod letting, miracle helpeth him, but truely no medicine haue vertue to do it.

¶Iohn.

THis same figure although it ape­reth in many bokes. Yet very fewe do vnderstand it in al pointes, such be y secret workes of nature. And where as thou hast wel spokē of some vaines, & apte medicens for the body: I wolde fayne se the trewe forme and shape of the bones.

¶Humfrey.
[Page xxvi]

OH Iohn, it were a long time to declare ye singuler mēbers with the compoundes, as Galen do in his boke of the partes and boones. It requireth onlye one worke, but I haue taken in hād to teach the but a Gouerment of helth: Not withstandinge at thy request, I wyll showe vnto the a proportion of the boones, no lesse trewe, than newe, which is the very timber, or postes, wher­vpon oure frayle fleshe is buyl­dyd, beginninge in our mothers wombes, and endinge in earth the mother of all thinges. And as the noble Prince Auicen affirmith, ye nomber of al y bones, be CC.xliiii. beside Sisamina, & Os Laude.

[Page]

[figure]
¶Iohn.
[Page xxvii]

THou haste spoken of the opening of vaines, and medicins conuenient to clense the bloude, with the figure of boones, but thou hast not spoken of cō ­uenient tyme when to let bloude, nor of the state or adge of thē whose vaines should be opened. Therfore I wold be glad to learne not onely time of bloode lettinge, but also, of purging the belly vomites, bathinges: ne [...]inges, and rubbinge of the bodie. &c.

¶Humfrey.

EVery thinge haithe his tyme conueniente & must be donne with sobber discression,Time for althinges and not with rashe ignorācie, which kil­lethe an infinit nōber. Therfore the cause muste be knowen and the time obserued, as Gallen wri­teth in the cōmentary of the Affo­rismes, Hipp. in. 1. Affor. 3. of Hippocrites, many bodies be extinguished by sodeyn death in whome is extreme fulnes, or [Page] aboundance. For aboundance [...] bloode or any other humer sayth A [...]ristotle, Aristo. in pri. prob. 56. is the cause of manye sickenessis, and those menne that vseth muche glottonie in winter shalbe apte to receaue manye di­seases in the spring time.Auice. in 2. pri. doc. 2. Cap. 6. Ther­fore when the body haue extreme heate, fulnes of vaines, flushing with sodaine redenes in the face, grose and rede vryne, and suche burninge heat in the nighte that lette the slepe. &c: then it is time to euacuate the bodie, with some purgation, bloude letting, or ab­stinence as the strengthe & adge of the paciente will serue. For many diseases, he helped by dis­crete bloude lettinge, as Plurice [...], hoote feuers.Gallen. in lib. de [...]lo­botho­mia. Frenyces, reple­tion, or surphytes taken wt ouer­muche eatynge or drinkinge, as Gallen sayth, The letting of blode [Page xxviii] dryethe vppe the superfluous moister of the belly, helpeth me­morye, purgeth the blader quie­teth the braine, warmeth the marie, openeth the orgās of hering, helpeth disgestiō inducith slepe, &c.Rasi. in 4. alman. cap. 14. Vnto this agreeth Rasis, saing it helpeth greatly against lepro­sies squinancis. Appoplexis, pestilencis. &c. But old men, children or women with childe, ought not to be lette bloode, nor also those people that dwell in colde regi­ons maye not be lette bloude, because the bloode is the chiefe warmer of nature: ye people that dwel in hoote regions, if they be letten bloude, it wyll drye there bodies, for bloode is the cheife moister of nature. Therfore, is ye heate of somer, and the coldnes of winter, forbiddē to opē vains, or let bloud, exept for a stripe, or [Page] sodain chaunce,Rasi in 4. alimē. Ca. 14. as Rasis sayth th [...] spring of ye yere is ye chief tyme t [...] let bloud in ye right arme, or right fote,the midle vayne. in the vayne called Median [...] Which vayne must be opened as [...] well at other times in the begin­nīg of sicknesses, as hote feuers, & pleurices, &c. As basilica shold be opened in ye midle or towarde thende of a sicknes. Purgations ought to be ministred with great discrecion, and not rashely to be taken, for euerye trifle as thou haste hard me speake of blood lettinge. So obserue the selfe same rules in purgation, as time, per­son,Hip. in. 3. [...]ri. doct. [...]. cap. qualitie, or quātitie. For Hip­pocrates sayth, withoute doubte it is nedefull to purge the super­fluitie of ye bodie. As if bloud do aboūde to take thinges to purge bloud. If steame be superfluous, then take thinges to clense hys [Page xxix] superfluitie. If coller be to ardēt hote, vse thinges to extinguishe, If melācoly be to extreme then taste thinges to bringe him into a meane.Vsurpa­tiō in me­dicin be euill. And not to purge one humer with the medicins of an other, but to take them in dewe [...]rder and aptenes. For the sayde humers as Valarius cordus, Mesue, and Nicholas, teacheth the maner of making of the moste excellent purgations with ther quātities. And as in bloode lettinge slepe muste be auoyded for viii. or xii.In the mornyng is beste to let bloud, euell to­warde night. [...]oures after them: so when your [...]urgations be taken, ayre is to [...]e auoyded and to be kepte close [...]or ii. or iii. dayes or more, as the [...]alice of the disease, or power of he purgations be, and the coun­ [...]yll of Rasis muste be followed.Rasi in 4. alman. ca. 15. Whiche sayth oftentimes to take [...]urgations or lax [...]tiue medicēs [Page] doth make the bodie weake, and apt to the feuer ethicke, and spe­cialye in verye leane or weake persons they yt be very fat haue smal gutes and vaynes, purga­tiōs be verye noysome vnto thē But strong bodies hauing large vesselles, maye susteine purga­tiōs without any hurt, but strōg purgations, either in pilles or potiōs, if thei any thing do excede be very hurtful: therfore, y doces or quantities, may not exceade. And also they must bee made as pleasaunt as arte can dooe them, onles they offende the stomake.Meates & medi­cēs [...]eith not ex­cepte pil­les before supper. Hippocrates geueth counsaile that men should not mingle medicins with meate, but to take them thre or foure houres before meate, or els so long after. Onles they be pilles called Antecibum, which [...] may be taken at the beginning o [...] [Page xxxii] supper, or els Pilli chochi, a litle before slepe, two houres after sup­per.Tyme to purge. The best tyme of purgaciōs is in the spring tyme, as the doc­ters doth affirme: the apt daies & signes are commonly knowen in the Englishe Almanackes, cal­culated into english? As in the writinges of maister Leonarde Digges,Digges Kenningham. & of William Kēnyng­ham, a learned student bothe in Astronomy and Phisicke, with many mō good men that taketh paines to profite ye cōmon welth. There is another maner of purging of the body by vomet,Vomites and there profites. for it clenseth from ye midrife vpward, if they haue large brestes, and be collericke persones. It is good against dropsies and leprosies, & better in sommer thē in winter,Hip. Sēt­in. 4. A­phoris. as Hippocrates saith: and holsomer one houre before supper then at [Page] any other time, and not to be vsed as a custome:Costome to vomit weake­neth the stomack. for the custome of of vomittes hurteth greately the head and eies, and make the sto­macke so feble, that it wil scant bere any meates or drinkes, but estsones caste them vp agayne. They which haue narrow thro­tes and brestes, and lōg neckes, vomites be neither apt nor good for theim.Auicen. in. 4. pri. cap. 13. And Auicen sayeth: that vomites ought to be twyse in the moneth for the conseruacion of health, but that whiche is more doth hurte the bodye.Of ba­thes and there pro­pertes. There is an other kinde of the clensing of the body by sweeting, as with hoote drinkes, warme clothes, perfumes made of Olibalū brimstone, niter. &c. There is also bathes and sweetinge in hoote houses for the pockes, scurffe, scabbes, hemerodes, piles, which [Page xxxi] hoote houses hathe the vertue of helping the sayd diseases.The dis­cōmoditie of cōmon hote hou­ses. But if any that be of an whole tempe­rat complexion do sweete in drie hoote houses, it doth them muche harme: as hyndrynge their eie [...]ightes, decaying their tethe, hur [...]ing memory. The best bathing [...]s in a great vessel, or a litle close place with the euapuration of di­uers sweate herbes well sodden [...]n water, whiche haue vertue to [...]pen the poores softly, letting out feble and grosse vapers, whiche [...]ieth betwene the skinne and the [...]eshe.To vse oyntemē ­tes after bathings is good. This kinde of bathinge is good in the time of Pestilence, or feuer quartein: in the ende of the [...]athes, it is good to anointe the [...]ody with some swete oyle, to mo [...]ifie and make soft the synewes. And thus to cōclude of bathing, [...]t is very holsome, so that it bee [Page] not doone vppon an emptie sto­macke,To bathe vpon an empty stomalie is perilous. palseis maye come there by, or to take sodaine colde after it, there foloweth an other pur­gacion, called nesing or sternutacion whiche is benificiall for the bodie if it be vsed vpon an empty stomacke.Of nesing Twyse or thrise in a morning with a lefe of Bittony, put into thy nose, it helpeth me­mory, good againste opilation, stopping, & obstructions: Suspo­siters be good for weake people or childrē,Of suppositers. made with Hieria Picr [...] & hony, made in the length of a finger:Soringe doth mu­che good to the bo­dye. Scarifiyng or boxing, as Gallen saieth: applied vnto the ex­treme partes, as the legges, and the armes, doth great helpe vnto the body, in drawing watery hu­mour away from the bodye, but boxing is not good for the breste, applied therto in hote feuers, is [Page xxx] [...]aungerous.I will speake more of Glisters in my boke of healthful medicins Glisters made ac­ [...]ording to arte, be good for them [...]hiche be to weake to take pur­ [...]ations. The maner of the sayd Clisters, because they be not here [...] be spoken of at large, I entend [...]y Gods grace to set forth in my [...]ext boke of Helthful medicins. Purgacions venerus,Manye practicio­ners of actes ve­nerus. there be [...] many practicioners thereof, [...]hat I neede to wryte no rules: [...]ut this, that effectiō, lust, & fan­ [...]asie, haue banished chastitie, tē ­ [...]raunce, and honestie.

¶ Iohn.

[...]Laine people in the countrey, as carters thresshers, ditchers, colliers, & [...]owmen, vse seldome tymes to washe [...]eir hādes, as appereth by their filthy [...]s, & as very fewe tymes combe their [...]ads, as it is sene by floxe, neites, [...]ese, fethers, strawe, and suche like, [...]hich hangeth in their [...]eares. Whe­ [...]er is wasshing or cōbing thinges to [Page] decorate or garnishe the body, or [...] bryng health to the same?

¶ Humfrey.

THou seest that ye deare, [...]es [...]es & birdes, vse fricti­ous and pruninge thē selues horse, or cowe, will vse friction or rubbing thē selues against trees both for their ease and healthe. Birdes and haukes, after their bathing will prune & rouse them selues vpon their braūches and perkes,The pro­fit whiche cometh in washing, the hādes with cold water. and al for healthe. What should man do, whiche is reaso­nable but to kepe hym self clene, & often to washe ye hādes, which is a thinge moste comfortable to coole the heate of the liuer, if it b [...] done often, the handes be also the instrumentes to the mouthe and eies, with manye other thinges cōmōly to serue ye body. To was [...] the handes in cold water is very holsome for the stomake and ly­uer, but to wash with hote wate [...] [Page xxxiii] engendreth rumes,Hote wa­ter is vn­holsome to washe hands in wormes and corruption, in the stomacke, be­cause it pulleth awaye naturall heate vnto the warmed place, whiche is washed.Fricatiō is holsom for the body. Frication or rubbing the bodye, is good to bee done a morninges after the pur­gation of the belly with warme clothes, frō the head to the brest, then to the belly, from the belly to the thighes, legges, & so furth. So that it be done downwarde, it is good. And in drie folkes to be rubbed with the oyle of camo­myll.Comyng the head Coming of the headde is good a morninges, and doth cō ­forte memorie, it is euill at night and open the pores.Cuttinge of heare & paring of nayles be comly for men The cutting of the heer, and the paring of the nailes, cleane keping of ye eares, and teathe, be not onely thynges comely and honest, but also hol­some rules of Phisicke for to [Page] be superfluous thinges of thex­crementes.

¶ Iohn.

THe chief thing that I had thought to haue demaunded, and the verie marke that I would haue the to shote at, is to tell me some thing of dietinge my self with meate & drinke, in health and sicknes.

¶ Humfrey.

THere is to bee considered in eating and drinking,A consideration to he had in eatinge & drinking the time of hunger or custome, the place of eatynge and drinkinge, whe­it be colde or hoote, also the time of the yeare, whether it be Wyn­ter or Sommer: Also the age or complexion of the eater, and whether he be hoole or sicke: also the thinges which be eaten, whether they be fishe or fleshe, frutes or herbes. Note also the cōplexions and tempramentes of the sayde [Page xxxiiii] meates, hoote or colde, drie or moist, and moste chiefly, marke the quantitie & so furth. And like as lampes doth cōsume the oyle, whiche is put vnto them, for the preseruaciō of the light, although it cannot continue for euer: so is the naturall heate which is with in vs preserued by humiditie & moistnes of bloude and fleame, whose chiefe engenderer be good meates and drinkes. As Auicen saieth deethica. When naturall heat is quēched in ye body, thē of necessitie, the soule must departe from the body. For the worcke­man can not worke when his in­strumente is gone.A cause why the soule de­parteth from the body. So the spi­rites of life, can haue no exercise in the body when there is no na­tural heate to worke vpon. Without meate saieth Galen: it is not possible for any mā to liue, either [Page] whole or sicke, and thus to con­clude, no vital thing liueth with out refection and sustenaunce, whether it be animall reasona­ble, or animale sensible, without reason or any vital thing in sen­sible, both man, beast fisshe, and worme, tree, or herbe. All these thinges be newtrified with the influence or substaunce of the foure Elementes or any of thē.

¶Iohn.

VVell Humfrey thou knowest well my cōplexion & disorder of my diat, what remedy for me? that haue liued lyke a riyotter.

¶Humfrey.

I Know it wel thou arte flegmatike,To eate both fishe & fleashe together hurteh y flematick and therfore it is longe or thy meate is disgested. When thou doste eat fyshe and fleshe to­gether, it dothe corrupte in thy stomack and stinke, euen so doth [Page xxxv] harde chese and cold frutes. And olde poudred meates, and rawe herbes ingender euil humers, so y diuersitie of qualitie, and quā ­titie of dyuers meates, dothe bringe muche payne to the sto­mack, and doth engendre many diseasses, as thou maste rede in the firste booke of Galen: Galen. iuuemētis membrorum. c .iiii. And the Prince hym selfe sayth in iii. pri. Hipocri­tes. doc. ii. Ca. vii. Saing nothing is more hurt ful then diuers meates to be ioyned together. For whyle as the laste is receauing, the first begin to disgeste. And when the table is garnished wt diuers meates, some rosted, some fried & baken, some warme, some colde, some fyshe, some fleshe, with sundrye frutes and salletes of dyuers herbes to plese thyne eye, remē ­ber with thy selfe that the sighte [Page] of them all is better,To fede of diuers sortes of meates corrup­teth the bodye. then the fe­ding of them all. Consider wyth thy selfe thou arte a man and no beaste, therfore be tēparet in thy feding and remember the wyse wordes of Salomō. Be not gredie sayth he in euery eating,Eccl. 37. and be not hastie vpon all meates. For excesse of meates, bringeth sick­nes, and glottonie cometh at the last into an vnmeasurable heat. Through surphite haue manye one perished,A good diet pro­longeth lyfe. but he that diateth himselfe temperatly prolongeth his lyfe. Therfore grose fyshe, lambes flesh, the in meates of beastes, rawe herbes, pygges braynes, and all slimie meates, be euyll for the: but late suppers is worste of all: But speciallye if they be long, for it causeth payn­ful nightes to folowe. But Galen saythe in his boke De ethimia the [Page xxxvi] meates whyche be withoute all blame, be those whiche be be­twene subtyll and grose. Good bread of clene wheate, fleshe of capons or hēnes, phesantes and patriches, pigions, and turtill doues, black birdes, and small fielde birdes, rosted veale, or boyled motton:What kindes of meates dothe cause good bloud. These dooe en­gender good bloude sayth Galen. Note also that any other meate that thou doest eate at supper, although it seme repugnant to a­flegmatike stomack, if thou slepe well after it, and fele no payne, thou mayeste vse it as a meate necessary. And when thou canste not slepe wel, if the defaute came through meate, marke yt meate or drinke, althoughe it appere plesāt, refuse it as an enemi. And wheras thou hast vsed euil diete as a custome in abusinge time, [Page] quantitie & qualitie, be litle, and litle, bring thy self into good or­der & to time, bothe for thy brek­fastes, dinner and supper. Pro­uided alwaye to eate good thin­ges, but not many thinges. For like as repletiō or aboūdaūce of meate is an enemy vnto the bo­die, and the soule, and bringeth sodayne death:What hurt commeth of an emty stomacke when ye go to bed euen so is empti­nes a shorter of time, aweker of ye brayne, a hinderer of memorye an increaser of wind, coller, and melancolye. And oftentimes to manye, bringeth sodayne death also excepte nature haue some thing to worke vpō, as I did tel the before: vse some light things at breckfast of perfite disgestion within iiii. houres after that receaue thy dinner, obseruinge the good order of diete, drinkinge wine or beere oftentymes, & litle [Page xxxvii] attōs,A order of dieting eschewing great draugh­tes of drinke, whiche is vsed amōgst beastes, and mingle thy meate with mirth, which is euer the beste dishe, at the borde, & be thankfull to God. And so leue wt an appetite, passinge the time wyslie betwene dinner & supper, with exercyse, laboure, studie or pastime, vnto thēde of vi. houres and then begin thy supper, pro­uided that it be shorter then thy dinner, eating thy meate be lytle and litle: for gredye and sodayne eatinge is hurtfull to nature, as Galen saythe in his diatory,Galen me trite. Note also, that thou mayst eate more meate in winter then in so­ [...]er, because thy naturall heate is enclosed wt thy bodie in win­ter, but vniuersalie sprede in so­ [...]er. Also Collericke men maye as lightely disgeste biefe, baken, [Page] venison. &c. With asmuch speade and litle hurte as the flegmatike mā may eate, rabit, chekē & par­triche,The me­lancoly. &c. But the melancoly mā throughe the coldnes of the sto­macke haue not that strength in the stomacke as he haue prōpt­nes in wil, to eate things warm and moiste be good for him.The san­guine. The sanguine man is not so swyfte in this disgestion, as the hoote collerike man is. But notwith­stāding, he hath good disgestion through the humiditie & warm­nes of bloud, and coueteth to eat swete thinges, whiche greatlye agment yt bloud: therfore sharpe saucis made with vineger, on­nions, & barbaries be holesome. Purslen, sorrell, smal fishes that fedith vppon the stones in fayre running waters, cucombers and pure frech wine partely delayed [Page xxxviii] [...]ith water, be good for the saide [...]anguine men: to kepe them frō [...]uch encrease of fleshe.

¶Iohn.

THou hast shewed vnto me, a verye discrete and wholsome order of diet [...]articular to my selfe, and partly to o­ [...]her complexiōs: but what rule or pre­ [...]y Gouerment is for sicke folkes?

¶Humfrey.

THey that be sodeinlye vexed with sharpe sicknesses,An order for the di [...] tinge of such as be sicke of sharpe fe­uers. must [...]aue thinne dietes, with water [...]ruell, thyn mutton or chickens [...]ottage without any fat or thick [...]es, violet leues, endiue leaues, [...]nd suche lyke cooling herbes, & [...]t their drinkes be made of Te­ [...]ntes, thus do to them that haue [...]ote harpe sickenesses, occasio­ [...]ed of choller. And also colde si­ [...]pes of endiue, violets, suger, [...]ater, and vineger, sodden toge­ther [Page] be very holsome. But if sicknesses be long of continuaunce, their diet must be the thicker, & their meates made the stronger, specially if their diseases be cold: with the fleshe of cockes, capōs, temperate wyne, stewed brothe, with holsom herbes, as buglos, burrage, basel, parcely, and fyn­cle rootes, with some maces, daits, damaske prunes, raysins of the sunne,Of sirop­pes and drynkes and suche like. Si­ropes of Isope and siterion, pro­uided yt they neither take meate nor medicine immediatly before or sone after their fittes. Possitale with clarified herbes, excep­ted, whiche they maye take, for their comforte, accordinge to the estate of their disease, for such as be sicke, must haue meate, con­trary to their complexion. For they that be cold, must haue hote [Page xxxix] meat, and medicines. And they that be drie, muste haue moiste thinges. But they that be hoote must haue colde thinges, for the ardent heate of the fier is quen­ched with the moistnes of ye wa­ter, & so the quātitie of one quali­tie, ouercommeth the qualitie of an other. And in deede, phisicke saith, the bodies that bee hoote, must be fed with thinges lyke, as they that be moist, with moist thynges to preserue their moist­nes. They that bee hoote, with hoote thynges to preserue their heate, and suche lyke. But when they dooe exceade in heate, colde, moist or drie, then let the quali­ties of moistnes, be tēpered with [...]rienes,As the cō plexion is so man requireth. & the coldnes wt warm­ [...]es. For like as man deliteth in [...]hinges of like, as the collericke man, collericke thinges, euen so [Page] do beastes, & frutes, as the Col­loquintida, which is bitter, deli­teth in bitter ground. Hote spices deliteth to growe in hote groūd, and euery frute and herbe dothe delite in the thing that is of likes euen so doth man in his foode. But in al things let him beware of distemperaunce, surfites or replecion, reare suppers & dron­kenes.

¶Iohn.

BVt if a man feleth great grief after meates or drinkes, what waye is there then for to helpe him?

¶Humfrey.

VSe walking vp and down,The. iii. doctrine, The. vii. chap. Moderat walke af­ter meat profiteth. and perhappes that wyl dis­geste, as Auicen saieth: And Ras [...] sayeth, to walke a hundreth pa­ces after meate, is holsome, for it comforteth disgestion, prouo­keth vryne, and geueth one po­wer [Page xl] and strengthe of stomacke [...] eate his supper. But the coun­ [...]aill of Galene, Gallen. in, 6. de accedenti & morbo. 1. cap. must here be obser­ [...]ed. Whiche saieth: there is no [...]eate but it wyll corrupte or [...]inke, if the body be cast into a [...]dayne heate, by stronge trauel [...]ne after meate, whiche corrup­ [...]on of disgestion, is the mother [...]f all diseases, and the beginner [...]f all infirmities,Auice. in 13. theo. 3. tracte. 3. cap. as Auicen re­ [...]orteth: And if you se this wyll [...]ot helpe to disgeste your ingor­ [...]ed full stomake, then prouoke our selfe to sleepe liyng vppon our ryght side, leaning toward our brest and belly, laiyng your [...]arine hande vpō your brest, as [...]uerois saith:To healp disgestion by diuers wayes. the power of disge­ [...]ion is made strōg whē a mā sle [...]eth. For natural heat yt is dra­ [...]ē inwardly with warmnes, or [...]eat hath power to disgest. But [Page] slepe ease you not, prouoke vo [...]mit or fast it out, and this is th [...] counsell of many learned men For it is no meruaile althoug [...] manye meates corrupteth one man,Hipo. in secondo prim. doc. 3. ca. 6 Hec signa declar [...]nt. whiche be of sundry and d [...]uers workinges in the stomake, liuer, & vaines, for the qualities doth hinder nature as muche as the quantities. And take hede, these signes and euill tokens, be not founde in you. The paines of all your members with idel­nes & wearines, to go or moue your bodie. Sodayne greate blusshynge or readnes in your face, vaynes swelled and puffed vp, read vryue, and grosse skine, extended or stretched out with fulnes, like a blowen bladder & full pulses, small desire to meat, ill reste and grief in slepe, seming in slepe to beare some intollera­ble [Page xli] burdeyne, or dreamyng to be specheles, these be the euill and daungerous tokens of repletiō. And of this I geue you war­ning, for it hath slayne as manie by aboundance, as hunger hath killed through scarcitie.

¶Iohn.

I Haue hearde saye that holsome ayre is a great comforte to mans nature, but corrupt ayre doth muche harme. I shall require you therfore to tell me of the good and the bad ayre, that I may learne to vse the good, & refuse y bad.

¶Humfrey.

GAlen in lib. de Sectis. sayeth: A wyse phisiciō ought to know the natures of men, of waters, of aire, of regions and dwellings, generally, particulerly to thy self, being a natural English man of birth and education: this lande is very temporat. How be it, our [Page] dwellinges in this lād, be varia­ble as fennes, marisses, wodes, heythes, valleis, playnes, and rockie places, and neare the sea syde.Note which be the most holsomst ayers to dwell in. But the sayde Galen geueth counsail in his regimēt of helth, saiyng: a good aire which is pure and holsome is that, whiche is not troubled in standing waters, pooles. Therfore maris groūds & places, where hempe & flaxe, is rotten, & dead carions be cast, or multitudes of people dwelling to together, or houses inuironed wt stāding waters, wherinto iakes or sinkes, haue issues, or wallo­wing of swine,what airs corrup­teth the bloud. or cariō vnbruied or foull houses, or such like pla­ces be daūgerous, corrupteth the bloud, whiche is worse then en­fectiō of meate, for ye prince saith, that al places of concauetes, as fellers, voltes, holes of minerals where mettels be digged, or hou­ses, [Page xlii] or walles, ioyned together, where as ye sunne with reflexion beateth in wt sodain heate, whose absence bryngeth colde. This aire is distempered, but ple­saunt clere aire, swete gardens, goodlye hilles, in daies tēperat when one may se far of.Corrupte aire brin­geth son­dry disea­ses. These be good also, there be certain stars called infortunates, in their exal [...]acion, whose influence bringeth corruptiō to creatures, rot & pesti [...]ence to men & beasts, poisoning waters, & killing of fish, blasting of frute in trees, and corne in the [...]ields, infecting mē with diuers [...]iseases, feuers, palses, dropsis, [...]ranses, falling sickenesses, and eprosis.Feruent praier vnto God, doth mi [...] ­tigate h [...] wrath. Agaīst ye said influēces [...]l christen men must pray to god [...] be their defēce, for thei be gods [...]strumētes to punisheth earth. Example, we haue of mortall [Page] pestilence, horrible feuers, and sweeting sickenes, and of late a generall feuer, that this lande is oftē greatly plaged withal. Thē one muste make a fier in euerye chymnay within thy house,Sweete aire to be made in ye tyme of sicknes and burne swete perfumes to purge this foule aire, and nowe in con­clusion to aunswere thy questiō, for the health of dwelling. Auicen saith: to dwell vpō hilles is cold. And in valleis comprised with hilles, is hote. Vpon a hyll syde against the north, is cold & drie. Towarde ye west, grose, & moist, verie subtill towardes the East. And cleare and warme towards the South. And Rasis saieth: in his first boke Afforien. A mā dwelling nere the Sea side, or greate waters, can not liue lōg, nor can not be without weakenes of mē ­bers, or blindnes, but the best [...] [Page xliii] building of a house,Situaciō best for a house. is vpō a drie ground, and a hill towardes the west side, and south west. dores, and windowes opē towards the east, and north east, hauing nere vnto ye said house, swete springs of running waters. From stony or chaukye grounde, whiche is both pleasaunt and profitable to the house. For Hippocrates saieth in his boke of aire and water: the second chapter. Cities & townes, which is placed toward the east, be more surer, then the townes builded towardes the north, for temperat aire or wynde, and sic­kenesses be les. And in the sayde boke, Auicen greatly commēdeth pleasant riuers rūning towards the rising of the sunne, the dwel­lers in suche places sayeth he,Pleasaunt people. be fayre and well fauored: smothe skynned, cleare & sharpe voyces, [Page] and thus to conclude with thee, this shal suffise at this time, what and where, good & pleasant dwelling is. Note also, that thou must obserue aire in sickenes, as thou must do meate in sickenes, colde sicknessis, warme aire, drie sick­nessis, moiste ayre, and so in the contraries to them that be sicke, and they that be hole, aire of like qualitie is moste holsome, they that haue lōg sickeness is, chaūge of aire is a great helpe, bothe in feuers, dropsies, fallyng sycke­nesses and rumes.

¶Iohn.

I Haue founde very muche disquiet­nes in my body, when my seruaunts and labouryng familie, haue founde ease, & yet we are partakers of one aire.

¶Humfrey.

THe cause why thy labouring seruauntes in the fielde at [Page xliiii] plough,moderate exercise a souera [...] thing. pastures, or woode, haue such good health, is exercise and labour, & thy disquietnes cometh partly of Idlenes, and lacke of trauel, which moderatly vsed, is a thing most soueraint to nature.

¶Iohn.

I pray yt tel me some thing of exercise.

¶Humfrey.

THe well learned man Fulgen­tius, Fulgen. in lib. 2. saith: that exercise is afile and chaufer of the heate natural, whiche chasseth away slepe,What profit cō ­meth by exercise. and cōsumeth superfluous strength. Of the naturall vertues, redea­mynge of tyme, enemye vnto Idlenes, dewe vnto yong men, ioy of old mē, and to say ye truthe: he which doth abstein frō exercise shal lacke ye ioyes of helth, & quietnes, both of body & mynde. And Galen saieth: in his regiment of health, if we wil kepe ꝑfit health, [Page] We muste begin of laborrs and moderat trauell and then to our meate and drinke, and so for the to slepe, & this is the cause whye haukers, shooters, hunters, and plowmen, and gardeners, &c. haue so good dysgestyon and strength of bodie. Who be stron­ger armed men then Smithes, because of the exercise of there armes: stronger boddyed, then carpenters, which lifteth greate blockes, and masons which bea­reth greate stones, not onely in there youth, but suche men will take meruelous traueles in age which to Idle people semeth ve­rye paynefull,Vse me­keth la­bour esy. but vnto them selues that trauell no paine but pleasure, because of custome. These people can disgeste grose meates, eating them with much pleasure, and slepinge soundlye [Page xlv] after them, wheras the idle mul­titudes in Cities & noble mens houses, great nombers for lacke of exercise doth abhorre meates of lighte disgestion and dantye disshes, marye in deade thei may be very profitable to phisicions. But if trauell be one of the beste preseruer of helth, so is Idlenes the distroyer of life,Apho. as Auerdis writeth, and Hippocrates saynge euery contrarie is remoued and helped by his cōtrarie, as health helpeth sicknes, exercise putteth away Idlenes,Idelnes the mo­ther of al mischiefe &c. But euery [...]ight mouinge or softe walking maye not be called an exercise [...]s Galen saythe, therfore tennis, [...]ansinge, runninge, wrastlinge [...]idinge vppon great horsses, or­ [...]eyned, aswell for the state of [...]ennes health, as for pleasure, wherunto it is nowe conuerted, [Page] rather to the hurte of many then the profyte of fewe, exercise doth occupye euery parte of the bo­dye, quycken the sprytes, purge the excrenentes boythe by the raynes, and gutes, therfore it muste be vsed before meate,Exercise before meate. for if stronge exercise be vsed inme­diatlie after meate, it conueyeth corruption to eche parte of the bodye, because the meate is not disgested, but when thou seste thy water, After meate appea­reth some what citiene or yellow then mayste thou beginne exer­cise, for disgestion is then well. But sicke folkes, leene persons, yong childrē, women with childe may not much trauel. The exer­cise of dice, cardes, fighting, drinking, knauishe raling, of baude­rye, and such lyke: rather may be called an exercise of deuels, then [Page xlvi] of men. And thus to cōclud with Salomō, quam pretiosus sit sanitas the­sa [...]s.

¶Iohn.

AFter paynfull labor and exercise, or disquietnes of the minde, there was neuer thinge that haue done me so much comfort as slepe haue doone.

¶Humfrey.

AVicen sayth,Auicen in can. Of slepe and wa­king. that slepe is the reste and quietnes of the po­wers of the soule, of mouinges and of sensis, wythout the which man can not liue. And trewly slepe is nothinge else but an I­mage or brother to death,Tulli. in lib. de sene. as Tulli saith. And if by imaginatiō thou [...]idest perseue sleping & waking wayed in the balance together, there thou should see them equal in waight,Arist. in lib. de so. for Aristotle sayth that man do slepe as muche as he do [Page] wake. But this is to be conside­reth in slepe, that naturall heate is drawen inwardely and dis­gestion made perfyte, the sprites quieted and all the bodye com­forted, if the trew order of slepe be obserued in sixe pointes. First a quiat minde without y whiche ether there is no slepe, or else dredfull dremes, turmentinge the sprittes. Secondly the tyme of slepe, whyche is the nyghte, or tyme of moste quyat sylens, for the daye slepes be not good, moste chieflye soone after din­ner, excepte to sicke persons or yonge Children, in there tymes conuenient. Thyrdly, the maner of slepe,Slepe after din­ner not helhtful. that is to eschewe the lyinge on the backe, which brin­geth manye grenous passions, and killeth the sleper wyth sod­den death. To lye vppon the left [Page xlvii] syde is very euell in the fyrste slepe, but tollerable in the se­conde, but the most suerest waye to make the digestion perfite, is to lye vpon the righte syde, with one of the handes vpon the brest Forthly slepe haue the quantety which must be meene,Slepe on the right syde is best. for super­flous slepe maketh the sprytes grosse and dul, and decayeth me­morye, sixe or eyght houres wyll suffice nature. For lyke asmuche watche dryeth the bodye, and is perilous for fallinge sicknes,Gal. sen. 1. terap. ca. 6. & blindnes: euen so to muche slepe is as perilous, for extremes be euer yll. Fyftlye in the tyme of cold feuers, the patient must not slepe vntill the trimbling fyt be paste, for then the hote fitte that foloweth wyll be extremer than any other fit, and harde to helpe, note forthermore yt those bodies [Page] that be ful of hote inflamations slepe not wel, therfore thye must vse thinges to extenuat and to make colde, as Tizantes and cold Siruppes, or gētle purging frō the belly and lyuer, or finallye to haue the median vayne opened according to time, state, and age. Sixtly the chamber muste be considered that it be clene, swete comly, clothes fyt for the time of the yere, & the age of the people and to kepe the hedde warme, is very holsom, for in slepe natural heat is drawen into the bodie for the brayne of nature is cold and moyste.Thy lod­ging muste be kepte clene. Windowes in the south parte of the chāber, be not good, it is beste for them whiche haue cold reumes, dropses, &c. To lye in close loftes, and for drye bo­dies to lye in lewe chambers, & in ye tyme of the Pestilence, often [Page xlviii] chyfte chambers is healthfull, [...]yinge vppon the ground in gar­dens,Note that slea­peers in fildes in harueste shalbe in dannger of quar­tens in winter. vnder trees, or nere vnto stinking pryuies be hurtefull to the bodye, and this shall suffice for thyne instructiō of slepe, pro­uided that thou duste not longe [...]etayne thyne vryn. For feare of the stone, and payne in thy [...]aynes.

¶Iohn.

THere is nothinge whiche I more feare then the slone, for my father was sore vexed therewith, what shall [...] marke in mine vryne.

¶Humfrey.

AMong all mortall diseases, ye stone is the greatest, a pre­ [...]enter of time, a deformer of mā, and the chief wekener of the bo­ [...]y, and a greuous enemy to the [...]ommon wealth. How many no­ble [Page] men and worshipfull personages hathe it slayne in this re­alme:The cause of ye stone many one, whiche comet [...] of hote wynes, spices, long ban [...] quettes, repletiōs, fulnes, costi [...] ­nes, warme kepinge of ye backe salte meates. &c. The remedy wherof is in al pointes contrary to these causes,remedies for y stone smal wines, tēperat beer, or ale, no spices, but hol [...] some herbes, as tyme, percilly faxifrage. &c. Light meales, mo [...] chiefly the supper, no baken, no [...] rostid thinge, but onely sodde [...] meates, and often times to rela [...] the belly with Cassia fistula, new drawen from the Cane, with su­ger and to eschewe salt meates and not to kepeth ye back warm the stone is often found in yong children, whiche commeth of th [...] parentes, and oftentimes in old folke. Whiche stones be engen­gendred [Page xlix] as I haue saide: besides milke, frutes, herbes, saltfyshe, & flesh, hard chese. &c. Now marke well this lesson followyng, for thyne vrine.

¶Iohn.

THat shall I gladly, reade but softly and I wyll wryte thy wordes.

¶Humfrey.
FIrst in vrine .iiii. thinges Marke
Thus said Actuarii the good clarke,
Foure thīgs no­ted in v­rines.
[...]uller regentes and contentes therein.
Substaunce grosse, thicke or thyn.
[...] faire light, an vrinall puer,
Then of thy sight, thou shalt be suer.
[...]uller of bright gold or gilte,
Golden vrine.
[...]s health of liuer, harte and mylte.
[...]ead as chery,
Read v­rine.
or safron drie,
[...]xcesse of meat in him I spie.
[...]uller grene, or like darke read wyne,
[...]r resembling the liuer of a swyne.
Grene vrine.
[...]s adustion with fiery heate
[...]urning the lyuer and stinking sweate
[...]addy culler or black as incke,
Couller like lead.
[...]eath draweth neere as I do thinke.
[...]xcept the termes which women haue,
[Page] Or purging black coller, which many do saue
Culler grey as horne,
[...]
or clere as water,
Is lacke of disgestion sayth mine auther.
Vrin like fleshe broth is very good,
[...] like [...] be [...]h.
Beginneth disgestion and norishe blood.
Subcitrine and yellow be vrins next best,
Bread and fleshe will well disgest.
The vrin that is whyte and thicke,
[...] [...]ite & [...] v [...]in [...]ite & [...] vrin. [...] [...]we [...].
Is euer Called flegmaticke.
Melancholy water is whyte and thin,
The redde and grosse is Sanguin.
Yellow and thyn, springe from the gall,
Wherin holler ruleth all.
The swelling lyuer and braynes blouddy,
Causes Circle thicke with culler ruddy.
But whan Circles be thyn and red,
[...]esar [...] no­ [...]
Choller graue the right syde of the head.
If ledden Circles swim on the brink,
It is falling sicknes as I do think.
When Oyle in vrin dothe apeer,
[...] in [...].
Resolutio pinguis draweth neer.
When Oyle apeere in feuers hote,
Dissoluinge the body,
[...] [...]oti­ [...] [...]s ter [...] [...]rcit. [...] [...]ravel [...] [...]n.
causeth ablote.
But of Periotides, thou felst no paynes,
This Oyle Pronogstick, consuming raynes.
The grauell red declareth for euer,
In drye backyd men duble tertian feuer.
Whan golden grauell aperyth alone,
[Page l] It hurt the raines but is no stone.
Whan grauel is of couller whight,
Stone in the bladder worketh spight.
Contentes like smale thrides or heers,
Through heate & drienes y body weers.
Cōtents in vrin be the chiefe things to know di­seases.
Consumtion, scabbe, small sport & lust,
Is whā many heers be mingled wt dust.
In the bottom of vains, or vessels great,
[...]ieth stoppīg matter like bran of wheat.
Wherin contentes are, like skales of fish
As apereth in the chamber dishe.
These signifie feuers, and ethickes olde,
Or skabs, which the bladder do infolde.
Whight froth swymīg, cometh of wind,
The yelow froth, is of Iaunders kynd.
Thus of vrins I do conclude,
With wordes of truthe, but meter rude.

¶ Here is also a litle of ye signes of the excrementes of the belly.

OVr filthy dunge, and fex moste vile,
The dregges of natures fode,
Many cullers in one stole be euill.
Whan thei be diuers coullerid made
The singnes be neuer good.
If the siege be like vnto the meat,
Newe drawen into the mawe,
singns of Crudite & wynde.
Or fleting with flem or burbles great.
The body is wyndy and rawe.
[Page] The yelowe doth from choller cum,
Collerick signes.
The grene is burnt adust,
The black and leady,
Signes deadly.
be deadly signes,
That fleshe wyll turne to duste.
The excremēt that is in ye iackes cast,
Oile ex­crements signify cō sumsion except the cause be of fatte meates.
If it haue oyle or fatte,
Consuption of body than begin,
The chiefest signe is that.
The priue soft well compacte,
Made in the acusiomed time,
Is euer good and the hard is ill,
And thus I ende my ryme.
Stooles soft and hard.
¶ Iohn.

ONs I fel into a great sicknes, and hetherto I am skant recouered of it, the surfite was so great, but cousaill was geuen me, that I should not staye my selfe vpon the opinion of any one phisicion, but rather vpon three, then sayd I: to retayne thre at once, requi­quireth great charge, for those men to whome lyues be committed, ought li­berall rewardes to be geuen. Then sayd my frende, they are good gentle­men [Page li] and no great takers. What bee their names said I? he aunswered sai­yng: The first was called doctor diet,Diet. Quiet. Meximā the seconde doctor quiet, the thirde doc­tor mery mā. I did wryte their names, but yet I could not speake with them.

¶ Humfrey.

HEtherunto I haue sayd somthing that shall well suffice for the to knowe doctor diat, as for quiet, and mery man, they lie in no phisicions handes, to giue, but onlye in Goddes.It were better to lacke ry­ches, thē to wante quietnes & mirth. For small it helpeth to any man, to haue honour, riches, fame, conning. &c. And in the meane time, to wante quietnes, and mirth, whiche bee the chief frendes. Tendrist nu­ryshes, holsomest phisiciōs, moste plesaunt musicions, & friendliest cōpanions, to nature, pleasaunt birdes singing in the branches, be more happier then rauening [Page] Cormerantes, and gready hau­kes, whiche with paines incha­seth their prais. The quiet lābes be euer happier in their kynde, then ye gredy rauining foxes, wolues and lions,Many apt similitudes or metto­phers. which neuer cese, vexing them selues, to kil liuing things for their fode. The poore oyster, lurking vnder the rock, or sande, whiche is neuer remoued of stronge ebbes nor fluddes, is farder from trauell & continuall paynes, then the horrible whale, most feareful to fishes. The low shrubs, or bushes growyng nere to the ground, be euer in more sauegarde then the lusty highe flo­rishyng trees, spred with pleasāt braunches, whiche be subiect to euery strong wynde. The poore bootes in harbor, be in lesse peryl then the fikle riche ships, tossed vp & downe on the cruel fluddes. [Page lii] What shal I say: but this, that ye miserable ragged begger called Irus, was more happier in his pouertie with quietnes & mirth, then was the glotonus beaste, & mōsterous man king Sardanapalꝰ, with all his goldē glory court of ruffians, & Curticens with Cam to an end moste shamefull. Diogenes, I warrant you was not inferor to Alexander, in the state of Happi­nes, and haue left as great a fame behind him, sauing that Alexāder, was a more cruel murderer then Diogenes a chast liuer.The plea­sure of poore mē. In dede ye poore sylly shepehard, doth plea­santly pipe with his shepe, whan mighty princes do fight amonge their subiectes, & breake manye slepes in goldē beds, whā bakers in bags, & brewers in bottels, do snorte vpō hard strawe, fearing no sodaine mishappe. The great [Page] paynes and secrete grieues that disquieted myndes, dooe daylye susteyne, bee not muche vnlike vnto the infernall turmentes,The tur­ments of the mind that the wicked dooe fele: Phy­sicke vnto an extreme troubled mynde (saye what they lyste:) helpeth as lyttell, as to aplye a playster to the breaste, or head, of a dead bodye, to reuocate the spirites of lyfe or soule agayne. The syckenes of the body muste haue medicine, the passions of the mynde, must haue good coū ­sel. What pleasure hath a condē ­ned man in musicke, or a dead man in phisicke?Through thought many are [...]ylled. Nothyng at all God knoweth. Oh howe many men haue bene caste awaye by thoughte, and moste for losse of estimacion, and some of other af­fections of the mynde, as inor­dinate loue, or couetyng thynges [Page liii] that they can not gette,Ire is a greuous passion. or optay­nynge those thynges that they can not kepe, or ire of other mēs prosperitie or. good happe.Tul. in tuscū. li. 3 Ouid. in lib. 2. me­tha. As Tully sayeth: Ouide, as fyne in Poetrie, as Apelles was in pain­tyng, discribeth this vyle pas­sion of Ire, with a pale face, lene body, skoulyng looke, gnasshing teeth, venym tounge, collericke [...]tomacke, tounge full of poyson, [...]ngratefull, seldome smylynge, [...]ut at mischiefe, outwardly ap­ [...]earynge as it were quiet, in­ [...]ardly the serpent gnaweth, fret [...]eth & deuoureth. &c These mē be euils incarnat,Deuils incarnat. begīning hel in his lyfe, moste enemies to them [...]lues, & if they did beholde them [...]lues in a glasse in the tyme of [...]eir tempestes,A good face in a glasse. shoulde nottheir [...]untenaunces, bee more feare­ [...]ll to thē selues then their Ire, [Page] hurteful to others? yes, and per­haps make thē staring made, in seing such a diuels image, ther­fore let wise mē be of this mind. Firste to thinke that they wolde heue no man be Irefull against them or disdayne them, euen so let them do to others. Secondly let them thinke, [...]eter to be spited then piti­ed in som casis. it is better to be spited, then pittied, for euery prosperus felicite, hathe hys enemy wating vpon him. The fole ha­teth the wise. The wise man, pit­tieth the fole: wel couit rather to be spyted then pittied, the wrech enuieth the worthy man, and so forth: Onlye excepte aduersite, & extreme misery, al prosperus mē haue enimies, let this suffice, & consider what Galen sayth,Galen. de regē sani libr. 1. that immoderat I reful motions, cast the body into a cholericke heate, whereof cometh feuers, and all [Page liii] hote diseases dangerous to the body,In comē. 32 septi. problem. of this writeth Petrus de eba­ [...]o. The passion of the mind cal­led dread or feare, is whan the bloud and sprites be drawen in­wardlye, and maketh the out­warde partes pale & trimblinge [...]o this, by sides pitiful experiēs, Haliabas, Galen, and Aristotel do wit­ [...]es the same.Hali. in. 5 theo. ca. vltimo. Ga. 1. qui. de acc. & morbo. c. 6. Ari. 10. proble. The suddayn pas­sion of ioye, or gladnes, is clene contrary to feare. For the harte [...]endeth fourth ye spiritual bloud, [...]hyche in weake persons, the arte can neuer recouer agayne [...]ut death incontinent, as Galen [...]yth, and as we maye se by ex­ [...]erience: As in the metinge of [...]en, and there wyues, Childrē [...]nd there parentes, which ether [...]y pryson, or banyshment, were [...]ythoute al hope, euer to se eche [...]ther, and in ioye of metynge [Page] the delating, & spreding of ye hart bloud, haue caste the bodye into swoninge. And thus my frende Iohn I do cōclude vpon certeyn affections of the mind, wisshing doctor diat, quiat & mery man to helpe the, whan thou shalt nede. For mirth is beloued of musici­ons,Hudson. plesante birdes & fisshes as the Dolphin. What is mirth ho­nestly vsed? an image of heuē. A great lordshippe to a poore mā, and preseruer of nature, & Salo­mon sayth.Eccl. c. 30 Non est oblectatio super cordis gaudium, &c. And yet I saie.

THe Ireful man is euer a thall,
The ioyful minde is happest of al.
Zele burne lyke flames of fiere,
Whan honest mirth, haue his desyre.
Loue well mirth but wrath dispise:
This is the counsell of all the wyse.
¶ Iohn.

I Wold very fayne knowe the natu­res of sorten simples, and first what is worme wood.

¶ Humfrey.
[Page lv]

A Cōmon knowen herbe it is of diuers kindes as Pōticum. Romanum, &c. It is hote in the first, & drye in the seconde degre, and it is very bitter, and beinge [...]ried, kepeth clothes frome wor­ [...]es and mothes, and the sirope [...]hereof,The ver­tues of worme­wood. eaten before wyne, pre­ [...]erueth men frome dronkennes, [...]f it be sodden in vineger it will [...]elpe ye sores that bredes in the [...]ares, being laid warme vppon [...]t, is good to be dronke agaynste Appoplexia, & Opthalmia. Which is [...] sicknes of the eye, is greatlye [...]elped with the wormwood,Auic. li. 2. Sim. 2. if it [...]e stamped & made luke warme [...]yth rosewater, and layed vpon [...]he eye, and couered with a clene [...]yked walnut shel, the sirope hel [...]eth the bloudie flixe, it doeth [...]elp a cold stomack if it be drōke [Page] tenne daies together, euery mor­ninge two sponfull of the sirope, is good against the dropsie, eue­ry daye dronke, two ounces fas­tinge, and thus saythe Auicen, figges, cocle, wormwood, nitur, stamped together, and made in a plaister, is good agaynst the di­sease of the splen, and also killeth wormes in the bellye, vsed in the foresayde maner, one drame of the powder maye be dronke at once in wine, it haith many moo godlie vertues.

¶ Iohn.

What is yt propeties of Anes seedes.

¶ Humfrey.

IT is much like vnto fenel sede, and is called Romane fenel, that is warme and swete, and hote in the seconde,Gal. de sim. and drye in the third degre, the newe sedes is ye beste. It ingendereth vitall sede, ope­neth [Page lvi] the stoppinge of the raynes and matrixe, being dronke with Tysantes, or clene temperate vine.

¶ Iohn.

What thinkest thou of mouse eare?

¶ Humfrey.

AN herbe comenlye knowen, colde and moiste in the firste [...]egre, as Gallen sayth, the decoc­ [...]ion of this herbe sodden in wa­ [...]er with suger, is good againste [...]he falling sickenes, being often [...]imes dronke, & put a lefe therof [...]nto the nose it wil prouoke ster­ [...]utation, or nesinge which won­ [...]erfullie doth clense the vayns.

¶ Iohn.

[...] wold fayne knowe what is Chyken [...]ede?

¶ Humfrey.

ALmoste euery ignorant wo­man doth knowe this herbe, [Page] but theyr be of it diuers kindes, they bee verye good to keepe woūdes from impostumations,The ope­ration of chiekin wede. stamped, and applied vnto them, and draweth corruption out of woūdes, and sodden with vine­ger, doth draue fleume out of the head, if it be often warme put in­to the mouthe and spit it oute agayne. In this same maner it helpeth the teath, and soden in wine and so dronke, it will clense the reignes of the backe.

¶ Iohn.

VVhat is Sorrell, might I knowe of the and the propertie therof?

¶ Humfrey.

THy Coke dothe righte well knowe it,The pro­perties of Sorrell. and all they that make grene sauce, but ye discrip­tion I leue to Dioscorides, and Leo­nard futchius, not onlye in thys herbe, but in al other, and to tell [Page lvii] tell thee the vertue I will, it is colde and drie in the seconde de­gree, it also stoppeth: it is like on diue in propertie, because it ouer commeth choler, and is muche commended, it helpeth the yelow iaundis, if it be drōke with small wyne or ale, and also quencheth burning feuers: to eate of the le­ues euery morning, in a pestilēce time is moste holsome, it they be eaten fasting. This herbe doeth Dioscorides, Galen, and Auicen, greatly commende, besides the greate learned men of this tyme.

¶ Iohn.

What is Planten, or Waybrede?

¶ Humfrey.

THe greater Planten is the better,The pro­perties of plantain [...] it hathe seuen greate vaynes, it is cold & drie, the seede of it, drōke with read wyne, stop­peth the bloudie flixe: the rootes [Page] sodden and dronke in wyne, stop­peth the bloudy Flixe: the rootes and leaues beinge sodden with sweate water, and with Suger or borage water, and geuen to hym that hath an Ague, either tertian or quartaine, two houres afore his fitte: proue this, for thus haue I helped many, it is verye comfortable for chyldren that haue great Flixes & Agues and is a friende vnto the lyuer, this herbe is greatlye praysed of the Doctours.

¶ Iohn.

VVhat is Camomill, and the opera­tion thereof?

¶ Humfrey.

THis herbe is very hoat, it is dronke against cold windes, and rawe matter beinge in the guttes, the Egiptians did sup­pose [Page lviii] it woulde helpe all colde Agues, and did consecrate it to the sunne,To what purpose camomell serueth. as Galen saieth: Also if it be tempered and streined into white wyne, and dronke of wo­men, hauing ye childe dead with­in the body, it will cause present deliuerance, it dooeth mightelie clense the bladder, and is excel­lent to be soddē in water to wash the feete: the oyle is precious as is declared hereafter.

¶ Iohn.

HOppes be well beloued of the beer brewers, howe dooe the Phisi­ [...]ions saye to them?

¶ Humfrey.

THere be whiche doth coole, be called Lupilum, those that we haue be hote and drie,Fucchi. bitter, so­wer, hote, saith old herbals. And [...]ucchius saith: thei clense fleume & [...]holer, and ye water betwene the [Page] skin and fleshe, the sirupes wyll clense grosse rawe fleume from ye guttes, and is good agaynst ob­structiōs sodden. If the iuice be dropped in the eare, it taketh the stinke away of rotten sores, the rootes will helpe the lyuer and splene, beyng sodden, and drōke: the beer is very good for flegma­tike men.

¶ Iohn.

What is Sage, for that I loue well?

¶ Humfrey.

THere be two kindes of sage:A wōder­full gift geuen to Sage. they be herbes of health, and therfore they be called Saluia, this herbe is hote & dry, & prouoketh vrine, clenseth ye matrix, stoppeth the bloud in a woūde. If it be put in a pigge, it drieth the humours, that would engēder fleume, it is good againste the palsie: oftenti­mes eaten, or sodden in wyne, it [Page lix] wyll helpe & clense ytche, scabs, and fylth from the pudent and secret mēbers. Aetius doth great­lye commende this herbe, and the excellent regiment of Salern, where it sayeth Cur moritur homo, cui saluia crescit in horto, enquiryng why men do die that haue Sage growyng in gardens. But trew­lye,An. in. 3. 1 cap. sing. neyther Phisicke, herbe, nor running, can make man immor­tall: but assuredlye Sage is hol­some for olde folkes, to be put in to their meates, for it clenseth fleame from the senewes, which fleame will relaxe the synewes: The wyne of Sage dronke vpō an empty stomake, is holsome for flegmatike persones, or them whiche haue the fallynge sicke­nes or dropsie.

¶ Iohn.
[Page] [...][Page lix] [...]

[Page] VVhat is Pilopodie, that groweth vpon the Oke tree?

¶Humfrey.

IF this herbe bee sodden with Beetes and Malowes,Of polo­podie. in the broth of a henne, and dronke, it will loose the belly, and clense fleume: the roote of this herbe being drie, and beaten into fyne pouder, and drawē into the nose thrilles, helpeth a disease called Polipus.

¶Iohn.

I Haue heard talke of Hoorhounde, I would fayne heare of his workyng.

¶Humfrey.

IT is a herbe hoat and drie, if it be sodden with fayre water,What de [...]eases hor [...]und [...]peth. su­ger or hony, and streyne it, this drynke doeth clense the stomake from stynkynge fleume, it is an excellent herbe for women, to clense their moneth tearmes, the [Page lx] water of this, is good to helpe them which haue a moist reume fallyng from the head, vpon the lunges, being often dronke: but it is hurtfull to the bladder and raynes, the sirope therof dooeth clense the kynges euill: and also put into the eares, doth greatlye comforte the hearing if the eares be troubled: and stamped with hony, and applied into the eies, it clenseth the syght.

Iohn.

What is Verben?

¶Humfrey.

IT is called the holy herbe,Of verb [...] & his pro­perties. it drieth and byndeth, if it be sod­den with vineger, it helpeth a disease called saint Anthonies fier, oftentymes washynge the pained place, the leues of Verbē [Page] and Roses, and freshe swynes grease stamped together, wyll seace payne and griefe in euerye wounde, and wyll keepe woun­des from corruption: it is good for people, that haue the tercian, or quartaine Agues. And thus sayeth Dioscorides: Dioscori­des. moreouer, he sayeth, the weyght of a Dram of this herbe, with three halfe pe­nyes weyght of Olibbulom, and put in nine ounces of olde wyne, tempered together, and dronke fourtie daies of this quantitie fastyng, it wyll helpe a disease, called the kynges euyll, or paine in the throte.

¶Iohn.

What is Rewe, or herbe Grace?

¶Humfrey.

I Tell thee, this herbe is verie hote and bitter, and doth burne [Page lxi] because of his hotenes in ye third degree: if a litle of this rewe be stamped, and sodden wyth wine, and dronke, it is an excellēt me­dicine, agaynst poysone and pes­tilence, wyth roses, and vineger, and rewe stamped together,Rue good against poyson. and put in forred clothe or biggen, applied vnto the temples of the heade or forehead, do seace gre­uous paynes in the head. And in lyke mauer it healeth ye bitinges of serpentes or dogges, stamped with vineger: many nyce people cannot abide it, cryinge fie, it stinkes: The seade of thys herbe beaten in pouder, & put in freshe clarified butter, & pitche melted together, is good for thē to drink [...]hat are brused.

¶Iohn.

What is burnet.

¶Humfrey.
[Page]

IT is of the nature of fyue fyn­ger,The pro­perties of Gurnet. drie and byndyng, and not moist, as many saith: stampe it & put it to the eies, doth take away the dropping and prickyng, and doth heale woundes, and is good to drinke for the tercian Ague.

¶Iohn.

What is Dandilion?

¶Humfrey.

IT is temperat,The ver­tues of Dandeliō colde and drie: with Roses and vineger, tem­pered together, it helpeth ye head in hoat diseases. The sowthistle called Soncus, hath the same ver­tue, and so hath Suckery: if they be sodden, they lose the belly, and quencheth heate whiche burneth in the stomake, and defendeth the head frō hote smoking vapours, and purgeth yelow chouller, and rebateth venerous and fleshelye [Page lxii] heate, and is good to be sodden and dronke in hoate burnynge Agues, though this herbe be cō ­monly knowen, and compted of many as a vyle weede, yet it is reported of Dioscorides, to be an ex­cellent herbe.

¶Iohn.

What is Spynnage?

¶Humfrey.

AN herbe much vsed in meat, colde and moiste, in the firste degree, it mollifieth and maketh softe the belly, it is good for them that be hoat and drie, and yll for flegmatike men.

¶Iohn.

What is Cowcumbers?

¶Humfrey.

THey be trewly in the seconde degree, very moist and colde: The seedes be good to be geuen [Page] in hotte sicknesses: the pouder of the sayde seedes,For what purposes cō ­cōber serueth. dronke in clene wyne, is good agaynste dyuers passions of the harte: this frute wil cause one to make water wel the roote dryed in pouder therof dronken in water and honye, prouoketh vomite: if they be mo­derately eaten, they bringe good bloude, tempered wyth honie, and anointe the eyes, that hel­peth a disease called Epinictidas, Epinicti­das. which troubleth mē with strāge sightes in the nightes: the best of this frute is, whiche beareth the beste seedes the sauoure of that is not holsome: mellons, citrons, pampans, and this kinde of pe­pons or great apples be muche vsed in Englād, and is more cō ­mon, then profitable, because they vse to eat them rawe. En­glishe men being borne in a tem­pered [Page lxiii] region, enclining to colde, may not without hurte eat rawe herbes, rootes and frutes plen­tifull, as manye men, whiche be borne farre in the south partes of the worlde, whych be moste hote of stomake, therefore lette them eat these frutes boyled or baken with hony and pepper, and fencle seedes or suche lyke, there be an other hote kinde of bitter cucom­bers, which doo purge.

¶Iohn.

What is Garlicke.

¶Humfrey.

GArlicke is very hote and drie in ye fourth degre:The pro­perties of Garlicke & his operation. it troubles the stomacke, it is hurtfull to the eyes & heade, it increaseth drie­ [...]ies, but it will prouoke vrine, & is good to be layd vppon the by­ [...]inge of a snake, or edder, it is good for the emeroides applied [Page] to the sore place, being first stamped, if it be sodden, the stinke is taken from it, but the vertue re­mayneth to be eaten against the coughes, & paines in the lunges, it cutteth and consumeth corrupt fleume, and bringeth slepe. It is not good for hoat men, nor wo­men with childe, or Norces, ge­uing milke to children: but Galen calleth it the cōmon peoples treacle, if sanguin men do eate much of it, it will make them to haue read faces, but it is a speciall re­medy against poyson.

¶Iohn.

What is Onions?

¶Humfrey.

THey do make thin the bloud,The di­uersitie of Onions & their pro­perties. and bringe slepe, they be not good for collericke men, the long [Page lxiiii] onion is more behemēter then ye [...]ounde, and the read more then [...]he whyte, the drie more then the grene, and the rawe more then the sodden, or preserued in salte although they cause sleepe, verie paynfull and troublous hoat in the thirde degree, and warme in [...]he stomake, clenseth the sto­make, and bryngeth good coul­er to the face, and helpeth the grene sickenes, prouoketh vrine, [...]pened the emoroides. If they [...]e sodden in vineger, and layde [...]arme to them: pele of the rind [...]nd cutte it at both the endes, [...]nd cast it into fayre warme wa­ [...]er, and let it lie an houre or two, [...]nd then slice it, this takes away [...]e veamēt sharpnes of it. Rew, [...]alte, hony, & one onion stāped to [...]ether, is a goodly plaister to lay [Page] vpon y biting of a dogge: leekes purgeth the bloud in march, and payneth the heed, and be not greatly praised, for their i [...] iuice Adoge saythe, Dioscorides, the head beinge anoynted with the iuice thereof kepeth heare frome fal­linge: thereis muche varietie of this onyon amongest wryters sayth Plini, but this shall suffise

¶Iohn.

What is Lettise.

¶Humfrey.

IT doothe mightylye encrease milke in womens breastes,The pro­perties of Lettise. and therfore is called lettisse, as Mar­tial saithe, firste shalbe geuen to the vertue and power to increas [...] milke in the breasts euery hour [...] lettis is an hearb cold and mois [...] and is comfortable for a hoate stomake, bringeth sleepe, molli­fieth the belly: the drier it be eat [Page lxv] the better it is, I meane if it be not muche wasshed in water, ad­ding cleane sallet Oile, Suger, and vineger to it, it abateth car­nall luste: and much vse of it, dul­leth the sight, the seede is preci­ous against hoat diseases drōke with tisans: There is an herbe called Rocked gentle, which par­tely smelleth like a Foxe, whiche is very hoat, an increaser of sede, whiche herbe must alwayes bee eatē with Lettis. The roote ther of sodden in water, will drawe broken boones, and will helpe the cough in yonge children.

¶Iohn.

What he Myntes?

¶Humfrey.

MYntes be of two kindes,The pro­perties of mintes. gar­den and wylde Myntes, thei be hoat vnto the thirde: & dooeth drie in the second degre. Garden [Page] Mintes is best: ye pouder of this with the iuice of Pomgarnites, stoppeth vomits, helpeth sighīg, clenseth hoate choller. Three braunches of this sodden with wine, doth helpe repletiō dronke fasting. This iuice tēpered with good triacle, & eaten of childrē a morninges, wil kil wormes, and stamped with salte, applie it to yt biting of a dogge, it will heale it: It is holsome sodde with wyndy meates, and sodden in posset al [...] with fenill, it helpeth collike, it encreaseth vital sede. It is not best for chollericke complexions, but good for flegmatike, and indiffe­rent for melancoly: and it wyll stoppe bloude, stamped and ap­plied to the place. The iuice of Mintes is best to mengle in me­dicine against poison: the pounder of Mintes is good in pottage [Page lxvi] fleshe, sodden with Oximel, it clen­seth fleume.

¶Iohn.

What is Sention?

¶Humfrey.

IT is of a mixt temprament, it coleth and partly clēseth if it be chopped and soddē in water, and drinke it with your potage, it wil heale ye griefe of the stomacke, & purge it from hoate choller: his downe with saffron & colde wa­ter, stamped & put in the eies, it wyll drie the running droppes, & stamped plaister wyse, it helpeth many greuous woundes.

¶Iohn.

What is Pursleyn?

¶Humfrey.

COlde in the third,The ope­ration of Purslein and moiste in the seconde, if it be stamped with steped Barly, it maketh a goodly plaister to coole the head, [Page] eyes, and lyuer, in agues bur­ninge heate. To eate of it, stop­peth Flixes, and quencheth bur­ning choller, and extingwysh ve­nerus luste, and greatly helpeth the raynes and bladder, and will kill rounde wormes in the belly, and comforte the matrix against muche fleume: And the iuice is good to drinke in hoate Feuers, it may be preserued with salt, & then it is very good with rosted meates. Plini sayeth: it is suppo­sed to make the sight blunte and weake, further he saieth: that in Spayne a great noble manne, whome he did knowe, did hang this Pursleyn roote in a threede cōmonly about his necke, which was muche troubled, of a longe sicknesse and was healed.

¶Iohn.

What is Mugwort.

¶Humfrey.
[Page lxviii]

MVgworte and Fetherfoy,The ope­ration of Mug­worte. & Tansey, be verye hoate and drie in the seconde degree: Mugwort, sporge and oyle of Almon­des, tempered plaister wise, and applied cold to the sick pained stomake, wyll brynge health. It is good in bathes saieth Galen: it is holsome for women, it clenseth & warmeth and comfort, and bre­keth the stone. Plini saieth: it is good against serpentes, and hol­some for trauelyng men, if they carye it, it comforteth them from wormes. Tansey doth myghtely cast wormes frō children, drōke wt wyne: A cold plaister stāped & layde vpon the belly of a womā whose childe is dead within her, it will seperate the dead chylde from the liuing mother, causing her to niese with Betony leues.

¶Iohn.
[Page]

THere is an herbe commonly vsed to the great relief of many called Ca­bage, is it so good as it is reported of?

¶Humfrey.

CAbage is of twoo properties,The ope­ration of Cabage. of bynding the belly, and ma­king laxatiue: the iuice of Caba­ges lightly boyled in freshe bief broth, is laxatiue, but the sub­staunce of this herbe is harde of digestiō, but if it be twyse soddē, the broth of it will also bynde the belly, if it be tempred with Allū. This herbe hath vertue to clense a newe read Leprosie, laid vpon the sore place in the maner of a plaister.Aristo. 3. perproble Auecen. 2 can. Rasis. 3. [...]lman. But to conclude of this herbe, the broth of it hath vertue to preserue from dronkenes, as Aristotle, Rasis, and Auicen, doth re­port, eaten before drinking time.

¶Iohn.

[Page lxviii] What is Philopendula?

¶Humfrey.

IT is an herbe hoate and drie,Of philo­pendula. if it be sodden in white wyne & dronke, it drieth vp windy places in the guttes, & clēseth the raines in the backe and bladder.

¶Iohn.

What is Agremonie?

DIoscorides saieth:The ope­ration of Agremo­nie. that if this herbe with swynes greace be stamped together, and laid vpon an olde rotten sore being hoat, it hath vertue to heale it: the sede of this herbe dronke with wyne, is good against the biting of Ser­ [...]entes, stopping of the liuer, and bloudy flixe.

Iohn.

SOme men saie that the herbe Dra­gon is of great vertue.

Humfrey.

THe iuice of it saith Dioscorides: The ver­tue of dragon. dropped into ye eie, doth clense [Page] it, and geueth much might vnto the eyes of them whiche haue darke sightes, the water of this herbe hathe vertue againste the pestilence. If it be dronke blud warme, wt venis triacle, ye sauor of this herbe is hurtful to a wo­mā newly conceiued with child. Plenij saith, that who so beareth this herbe vpon them, no veno­mous Serpente will do them harme. This herbe is hote and drye.

Ihon.

THere is a verye swete flower, cal­led a violet, is it so profitable, as it is pleasaunt?

Humfrey.

SImeon Sethi reporteth,The ver­tue of Violet that it doth helpe against hote infla­mations of the guts, heade and stomacke, if the cause be of bur­ning choller. Either the water [Page lxx] sirrope, or concerue of the saide violets, either eaten or dronke, in the time of any hote passion. But vndoubtedly, it offendeth the hart, because of the coldnes, the sauour of the flowers be plesaunte, the oyle that is made of this herbe, haue vertue to bring quiet slepes to them which haue greuous hote paine in the hed.

Ihon.

VVhat is the vertue of the pleasant white Lilly?

Humfray.

DIoscorides saith, that the Oyle of Lillies doothe mollifye the Sinnewes and the mouthe of the Matrixe,Of white lilie & of his operation. the Iuse of Lillies, vineger and Honnye, sodden in a brasen Vessell, doth make an ointment to heale both newe aud olde woundes. If the roote be rosted and stamped [Page] with Roses, it maketh a healing plaister against burning of fier: the same rote rosted, hath vertue to breake a Pestilence sore, ap­plied hoate vnto the sore place, & is drie in ye first degre. The oile of water Lilies be moiste, suffe­rent against all hoate diseases, to anointe the ardent places, and doth reconcile quiet sleepe, if the forehead be anoynted therewith.

Iohn.

IN the time of the pestilence, my wyfe maketh me a medicine, of an herbe called Centauri, doth she well or not?

Humfrey.

PLini saieth:Of y ver­tue of Cē ­taurye. that the Sirupe of this herbe dronke with a litle vineger and salte, doth clense the body: The leaues and flowers, be of great vertue, to be sodden & dronke against al rawe humors of grose sieume, watry or windy: [Page lxx] it doeth clense, cruent, or bloudy matter within the bodies of men or women. The pouder of this herbe is good in pessaries, for women, causing the dead childe to departe from the mother, and is holsome against the pestilence, in the time of wynter, and is hoat and drie.

Iohn.

VVe beutifie and make pleasaunte our wyndowes with Rosemary, vsyng it for small other purposes.

Humfrey.

ROsemary is an herbe of gret vertue,Of Rose­marye. hoate and drie, soddē in wyne, and drōke before meat, it doth heale the kinges euill, or paynes in the throte, as Dioscori­des and Galen sayeth: the sauour of it doth comforte the brayne and harte: y flowers of Rosemary is an excellēt cordial called Anthos.

Ihon.
[Page]

IS pulial royal, an herbe of anye va­lewe, or a wede of contemption?

Humfrey.

IT is an herbe of muche vertue and profite:The ope­ration of Puliall royal. hote and dry in the thirde degre. Diascorides saithe, if this herbe be sodden with hon­nye and Aloes and droncke, it wil clense the liuer, and pourge the bloud: most chiefly it helpeth the lunges. Simeon Sethi saithe, if womē drinke it with white wine It wil prouoke and cleanse the termes menstrual, and is a very holsome pot herbe.

Ihon.

What saist thou vnto Muslarde.

Humfrey.

PLinius dothe greatlye lawd it,The ope­ration of Muster saiyng, that there is nothing, that dothe pearse more swiftlier into the braine then it doth. Ho­ny, [Page lxxii] vineger, and mustarde, tem­pered together is an excellente gargarisma to purge the head, teethe, and throte. Mustarde is good, againste al the diseases of the stomacke or lunges, winde, [...]leume, and rawnes of the guts, and conduceth meat into the bo­dy: prouoketh vrine, helpeth the [...]alsye, waisteth the quartaine, [...]rieth vp moiste rumes: applied plaster wise vnto ye head. Hony and mustard helpeth the cough, and is good for them that haue [...]he fallinge sicknesse, notwith­standinge the cōmon vse of mu­stard is an enemy to ye eie. Ma­ny more vertues haue I reade of mustarde, but the occasion of [...]ime hathe vnhappilye preuen­ed, not onlye my large discriptiō [...] this: but also in manye other [...]mples, whyche heareafter, [Page] I entende largely to wryte vpon if, it please God to permit me.

Iohn.

Thei say that Buglos is very holsom.

Humfrey.

IT is an herbe moste temperate betwene hoate and colde,The ver­tues of [...]uglos. of an excellent vertue, a comforter of yt harte, a purger of Melancoly, a quieter of the Frencie, a purger of the vrine, holsome to be drōk [...] in wyne, but moste effectuall in sit [...]. Dioscorides and Galen, doet greatly commende this herbe, & that doth dayly experience wel proue.

Iohn.

What is thy mynde of swete Basell▪

Humfrey.

THis herbe is warme in the sconde degre,The ver­tues of [...]asell. hauing the vertue of moistues, and if it be sodd [...] in wyne with Spicenarde, & drōke [Page lxxiii] it is good agaynste dropsyes, windes, fleume, coldnesse of the hart, hardnesse of the stomacke, the sauoure of Basill, doth com­fort the braine, and hart, the vse of this herbe in meates, doth de­cay the sight.

Ihon.

The plaine people of the country will say, that those flowers which be plea­saunt in smellinge, be oftentimes vn­holesome in working, the rose is plea­saunte in sence, what is it in vertue?

Humfray.

IT hath an odour most plesāt & hath vertue to cole and binde.The ver­tue of Roses. The water is good to make Ma­nus Christe, & many other good­ly cordialles, Roses and vineger applied vnto the foreheade, do bringe slepe: conserue of Roses, haue vertue to quench burning choller, and to stay the rage of a [Page] a hoote feuer, oyle of Roses, Vi­neger, and the white of an egge, beaten together, doth not onlye quenche sacra igms, but also bring a madde man into quietnesse, if hys foreheade be well annoin­ted therwith, after the recept of Pilles of chochi, in the time of the pestilence, there is nothinge more cōfortable then the sauor of Roses.

¶ Iohn.

What saist thou of Sauery.

¶ Humfrey.

IT is hote and dry in the thirde degree,The ver­tue of Sauery. if the greene hearbe be sodden in water or white wine and dronke, these be his vertues to make the liuer soft, to cleanse dropsies, coulde choughes, clen­seth womens diseases, and sepe­rateth the deade childe from the mother, as Diascorides and Galen▪ [Page lxxiiii] saith, also Germander is not much vnlike the vertue of this herbe.

Iohn.

BVt for troublinge of you, I woulde be glad to knowe youre minde of Time, and a fewe of other hearbes.

Humfrey.

IT is vehamente of heat with drinesse in the thirde degree.The ver­tue of time. Diascorides saith, if it be dronke with vineger and salte, it pour­geth fleume, sodden with honny or meide, it hathe vertue to cleanse the lunges, breaste, ma­trix, rains and bladder, & killeth wormes.

Iohn.

VVhat saiste thou of Parslye and Saxifrage?

Humfrey.

THey haue vertue to breake the stone, Parslye is hote in the seconde degree, and drye in [Page] the middest of ye third.The ver­tue of Persly & saxifrage The sede dronke with whyte wine, pro­uoketh the menstruall termes, as Diascorides saithe: also smal­ledge hathe the like vertue.

¶ Iohn.

VVhat is thy iudgemente of Li­uerworte?

¶ Humfrey.

IT hathe vertue to cleanse and coole.The ver­tue of li­uerwort. Dioscorides saithe, it dothe heale the woundes of the liuer, and quencheth the extreme heat thereof, tempered with honnye and eaten, dothe healpe a disease called regius morbus, and pains of the throte and lunges.

Iohn.

What is Bettony.

¶ Humfrey.

THey be of diuers kindes Leo­nardus futchius doothe call the sweete Gilliuers by the namesThe ver­tue of Betony. [Page lxxv] of Bettonye, but the one semeth to talcke of that, whiche is com­monlye knowne of the people, called the lande Bettony, which hathe the vertue to kill wormes within the bellye, and healpeth the quarteine, cleanseth the ma­trixe, and hathe the vertue to heale the bodye within. If it be brused, it is of greate effecte, if it be sodden with worme wodde in white wine, to purge fleume, and is hote in the first degre, dri in the seconde.

¶ Iohn.

I Haue harde small commendations of Beetes.

Humfrey.

THey be of two kindes, and be bothe prayse worthye,The ver­tue of Betes. Si­meon Sethi, wryteth that they be hoate and drye in the thirde de­gre, [Page] ye white Beete is ye best, they haue vertue to cleause, as niter hathe but hathe euill Iuse, the iuse of this herbe with honnye applied into the nose, do pourge the head, it is a holesome hearbe in pottage, if it be well sodden, or elsse it is noysome to thee Sto­macke. If it be parboyled and eaten with Vineger, it is good againste the stoppinge of the li­uer. Notwithstandinge the iuse of this hearbe, do stop the belly, being simply taken.

Iohn.

What is Maiden heare?

Humfrey.

IT is an hearbe betwene hoote and dry,The ver­tue of maiden heare if it be sodden in wine, it breaketh the stone, it cleanseth the Matrixe, bryngeth downe the secondes, as Diascorides and [Page lxxvi] Galen saith, the best dothe growe vpon harde rockes.

Ihon.

What is Mellil [...]t?

Humfrey.

IT hathe vertue to ripe,The ver▪ of melilot and is more hotter then cold, Mel­lilot, flex seede, Rose leaues, Cā ­pher and womans milke tempe­red together, doth make a good­lye medicine against the hote in­flammation of the eyes. If this herbe be droncke wyth wine, it dothe molifye the hardnesse of the stomacke and liuer, the most excellente plaister agaynste the paines of the splen, dothe Mesue discribe, which is made of Mel­lilotte.

Ihon.

BE pease and Beanes, anye thinge beneficial to nature?

¶ Humfrey.
[Page]

BEanes be more groaser and fuller of wind then pease be,Thopera­tion of pease and Beanes. & maketh euel matter, except they be wel sodden and buttered, and so eaten, with the whitest & swe­test Onions that maye be got­ten. Because they be harde of disgestion: howe be it, they doe make fatte, and partlye clense, yet they are not to be compared wyth tender white peasen well sodden and buttred, or els made in pottage with gardein mintes and grose pepper, whiche haue vertue to cleanse the raines of the,But Hu­ [...]tels and [...]tares be Melan­choly. backe and bledder. Liu­telles bee of the same vertue. Barlye beynge cleane hulled and sodden wyth mylcke cleane water & suger, maketh a very comfortable & holsome pottage, [Page lxxvii] for hoate chollericke persones or younge people. And of this is [...] [...]che vsed in the North partes of Englande, and is called bigg [...]ele.

Iohn.

VVhat be the vertues of the leekes & rootes of Radishe, Turneps, Par­ [...]neps, Rapes or Naues?

Humfrey.

LEekes be euil,Leekes & and their proper­ties. engender painfull sleepe: but eaten with ho­ny, then they purge bloude, but rootes eaten rawe, breadeth yll [...]uice, therfore being first sodden, and the water cast away,Of the vertues of radish with o­ther rotes. & then sodden with fatte mutton, or ten­der fatte bief, these rootes nory­sheth muche. Rapes, & Naues, be wyndy: Turneps, causeth one to spitte easely that haue corrupt stomakes, but maketh raw iuce. Carettes do expulse wynde: Ra­dish [Page] rootes prouoketh vryne, but be very euill for flegmaticke per­sons, hauing greif in their bones or ioyntes, and must be eaten, in the beginnyng of the meale, as Galen sayth,Galen de alimen. but many do vse thē in thende of meales, & fynde ease as sir Thomas Eliot that wor­thy knyght and learned man re­porteth in hys good booke called the Castel of health. And thus I doo conclude of those herbes and rootes that I haue writtē vppō.Herbes in gēdereth melancholy. Admonisshyng thee, that herbes puls, and rootes bee all wyndye, engēderers of melancholly, & in grossers of the bloude, eccept let­tis, bourage, & purslen. Therfore the grose binding togither & see­thing of herbes in brothes & pot­tage, bee more holsomer then the fyne choppynge of them. Thus Iohn I haue declared vnto the, [Page lxxviii] [...] vertues of certayne herbes, which if thou wylte followe, and [...]serue my rules in thē, I doubt [...], but thou shalt receiue mutch [...]rofyt therby. I would haue al­ [...] taught the some pretie wayes or Distillation of Waters, but [...]n preuented therein,Vulstadi­us. and I am [...]ad therof. Forasmuch as thou [...]alt se very shortly,Thesau­rus Euo­no mij. booth The­ [...]urus Eu [...]nomi and Vlstadius [...]hich be exelent learned men in [...] yt Science, wherin I am sure you wylt much delite. For I en­sure the, the lyke bookes neuer were setfurth in our mother tounge, with the lyuelye fashion of the furna­sses, and also of the Stillitories.

¶ Iohn.

VHat will disgest and purge choller, Fleume, and Melancoly, prouoke ernutaciō, and stoppe Flixes, tel me?

¶ Hūfry.
[Page]
  • Thinges to disgest choller.
    • ENdsue,
    • Purslein,
    • Poppy,
    • Sorrell,
    • Mercury,
    • Lyuerwort
    • Whaye,
    • Tesantes,
    • Tarmeryndes
    • The foure cold seedes of gour­des and Cucū bers.
    • Sanders,
    • Buttermilke, or the milke which cometh of the pressing of the chese.
  • Topurge choller.
    • MAanna. 6. orāmes.
    • Rubarbe .ii. drāmes or .iii. but put into in fusion from .v. to .vii.
    • Pilles of aloe
    • Wylde hops,
    • Syrrup of wormwode.
    • Syrrupe of s [...] ­mitory.
    • Diaprunes.
  • The dis­gester of fleume.
    • PVulyall,
    • Myntes,
    • Betony,
    • Egrymony,
    • Mugw [...]rt,
    • Hony,
    • Pepper,
    • Hysoppe,
    • Pimpernel,
    • Ieniper berri [...]
    • Neppe.
    • Finkel,
    • Persely rotes,
    • Smallage.
  • [Page]Purgers [...] fleume
    • A Garick in­fused frō .ii to .v. drammes
    • Sticaus,
    • The myrabo­lanes of al the kyndes.
    • Polipody of y oke.
    • Centory.
    • Horhound,
    • Mayden here.
  • [...]ood [...]rgers Melā ­choly.
    • ELeberus
    • Niger.
    • Capers,
    • Lapis Lazule.
    • Sene of Alexā der.
    • Borage,
    • Hartes tonge,
    • Hony sodden in swete wine
    • Sauory,
    • Tyme,
    • Trosses of cappers, of Colo­quintida, and of wormwod.
  • Good things to prouoke drine.
    • PEruye,
    • Tyme,
    • Saxifrage,
    • Cassa fistula.
    • Rammes
    • Radix,
    • The fleshe of an hare,
    • Pilles of Ty­ribenthen.
    • Mayden heare
    • The beris of the Eglentyn.
    • Bromseede.
  • Comfor­ters for ye brayne to smell vpō
    • ROses,
    • Violettes,
    • Iellouers, in sommer, but in winter Cloues
    • Spike,
    • Muske.
    • Amber gres [...]e.
  • Thynges good to stope flire
    • [Page] Sinaber called dragons blud.
    • Sloes or there decoction.
    • Sinamom.
    • Boolearmoni­ak.
    • Red wine.
    • Planton.
    • Olibanum.
    • Hard egges.
    • Hard chese scraped in red wine and drinke.
  • Thinges good to prouoke starnutation or [...]eesing.
    • Belony le [...] primrose ro [...] moderately [...] [...]sed.
    • Eleborus al [...] and Ginge [...]
  • Good cō fortters for ye hart
    • Muscke.
    • Ambergre [...] Rosis, Per [...] Maces.
    • Diamuschicis diambra.
    • The floure [...] Rosemary [...] Nutmegge Spiknard.
    • Galanga.
Iohn.

VVHat be the vertue of Dates Figges.

Humfrey.

SEraphio saithe,Of figges and dates that the Da [...] whiche be preserued with su [...] [Page lxxx] [...]ee good. The crude rawe Date [...]othe califie the body, and dothe [...]onuert quickly into choller, it is not good for the hedes of the hot people,Rases in. 3 alman. Halia in. 5 Theori. Ra. Moy­ses. ill for the throte and stop­peth the lyuer, and maketh the [...]eeth rotten, but if they bee cleane [...]illed and the inward rynde takē away, they do greatly norrishe, & [...]estore, beeyng sodden in stewed [...]rothe they bee of dyuers kindes [...] quantitie and qualitie, but ge­ [...]erally hoote & moyste in the se­ [...]ond degree.Hi. 2. can. c. ccviii. Figges as Hippocra­ [...]es sayeth, the best be white the se­ [...]ond be red, the third be black, the [...]ipest be the best & amongest all [...]rutes doth most norishe, prouo­ [...]eth sweat, because it doth purge superfluitie of humers through skinne, it doth engēder lice, they [...]e hot in the firste degre, and the [...]ew figes be moist in ye secōd, the [Page] seedes and the skyn of the Fyg, be not greatly cōmēded: Figges and Almōdes, eaten of a fasting stomake, be veri holsom to make the way of good disgestion, but best if they be eaten with nuttes. Figges and herbe grace, stam­ped together, be very holsome to be eaten against the pestilence: Rosted Figges beaten together, and hote applied vpon the pesti­lence sore, doth drawe, molifie, & make rype the sore. And to the lunges,Galen de Alimen. liuer, & stomake, figges be very cōfortable, as Galē saith.

¶Iohn.

What be Peares?

¶Humfrey.

THey be of diuers kyndes he­uier then Appels,The ope­ration of Peares. not good vntill they bee verye rype, onles they be tenderly rosted or baken, and eaten after meales.

[Page lxxxi] there is a kind of peares, grow­ing in the City of Norwich, cal­led the blacke friers peare,Blacke friers peare. very delicious and pleasaunt, and no lesse profitable vnto a hoote sto­macke, as I hard it reported by a right worshipful Phisition of the same Citye, called doctoure Māfeilde, which said he thought those Peares without all com­parison, were the best that grew in any place of Englande.

Iohn.

What saist thou of Appels.

¶Humfrey.

APples be very cold & wine­dy,The ope­ration of Apples. hard to disgest ingende­rers of euill bloude, hurtfull to flegmaticke people: good to cho­lericke stomackes, if they be through ripe, but best if they be rosted or baken, and eaten with grose pepper to bedwarde, they [Page] be of many kyndes, as the Co­stard, the grene coate, the pippē, the quene apple, & so furth: The distilled water of apples, Cam­pher, vineger, & milke, is a good medicine to anointe the faces of children yt haue the smal pockes: when the said pockes be ripe, to kepe their faces from eres: prouided that the saide chyldren haue geuen them in their milke, saffrō or Methridatum, A medy­cin for the small poc­kes. to expell the ve­nim and kepe them frō the aire, during the saide sickenesse.

Ihon.

What be Pechis?

Humfrey.

THe leaues he hoate, for if thei [...] be stamped in plaisterwyse and applied vnto the belly,The ope­ration of Peache [...] they kil wormes: The fruite is cold, & very good to the stomake, they be [Page lxxxii] good to be eaten of thē that haue stinking brethes of hoat causes: eatē of an emptie stomake which is Galens counsell, whiche saieth if they be eaten after meate, they dooe corrupte bothe in them sel­ues and the meates lately eatē: and they be bynders of the belly. But Quinces be moste comfor­table after meate, for they do en­close the stomacke, and letteth vapers to ascende into ye braine, and stoppeth vometes: They be holsome for sicke folkes that be swelled in the bodies. Eaten with the grose pouders of Gal­langa, Spickanarde, Callamus, and Ginger, and maye be eaten before meate of the sayde sicke pacientes, as well as after meat But muche vse of them, be not so profitable as delectable, to the [...]aters of them.

¶Iohn.
[Page]

What be Quinces?

Humfrey.

IF thy stomacke be verye hoate or moist,The ope­ration of Quinces. or thy bellye laxatiue then Quinces be good to be ea­ten before meate, beinge rosted or eaten cold, and in this case the tarter be the better, and Pom­granets be of the same vertue, as Isaac saithe:Isaac in. perticu. die. but eaten after meate they do enclose ye stomack, and moist the belly, they oughte not to be vsed in commō meates the custome of them hurteth the sinnewes, but in the way of me­dicine they be excellente, and the cores being taken oute and pre­serued in honnye, or kepte theyr musse lege. Then they may long continue to the vse of rosting or baking, for they be perelous to the stomack eaten raw. But pre­serued [Page lxxxiii] they do mightely preuail againste drouckennesse, they be colde in the first degree, and dry in the beginninge of the second.

¶Iohn.

What be Cherris?

¶Humfrey.

THe tart cheries vndubtedly be more holesomer then the swete,The operation of Cheries. and eaten before meat, do mollify the belly, prepare disge­stion, and they be most excellent againste hote burninge choller, thei be good also after meat, and be of manye kindes, as blacke, red, & pale. The red chery part­ly tarte,Galen de alimen. Ra. lib. 23 cap. is beste. Galen and Rasis, greatly commend this frute. In the country of Kent be growing great plentye of this frute. So are there in a towne neare vnto Norwich called Ketrein­ham, this frute is colde & moiste [Page] in the first degree.

¶Iohn.

VVhat be the vertue of Grapes, Rasins, Prunes, Barberies, Orin­ges, and Medlers?

¶Humfrey.

HIppocrates saith:The goodnes of Grapes. that the white Grapes be better then the blacke, and holsomer when they are twoo or thre daies gathered from the vine, then presently pulled from it:Galen de alimen. 2. Rasis in. 4. alman. 20 cap. And if they be sweete, they bee partely nutratiue, and warme the body. And vnto this agreeth Galen and Rasis, semeth to commende swete grapes aboue Daites, saiyng: although they be not so warme, yet they dooe not stoppe the body, or make opilatiō as Daites do. They be holsome to be eaten before meate, euen as nuttes be good after fisshe. To­warde the southe, and southeaste [Page lxxxiiii] partes of the world, there be ma­ny growing in diuers regions, wherof the wynes be made. The farther frō vs, the hoater wyne: There be very good grapes gro­wyng here in England in many places, as partely I haue seene at Blaxhall in Suffolke,Blaxhall in suffolk where sometime I was nere kinsman vnto ye chefest house of that toun. Raisins of the sunne be very hol­some, and cōforte disgestion, but the stones & rindes would be re­fused, & then they be good for the splene & liuer. So be aligantes, Rasis doth muche cōmend thē,Sweete Prunes be laxa­tiue but tarte pru­nes be bindinge. but vndoubtedly the small rasins be hurtfull to the splene. Prunes or damasins haue vertue to relaxe the belly, if they be sweete & rype, but they do norysh very litle, but quenche choller. Grapes, rasyns & Prunes, Plūmes, & Sloes, if [Page] they be sower, be all bineders of the belly, and so is the barbarye called oxiacātha and Oringes,Oxiacan­tha. called the Barbery. except the said oringes be condi­ted with suger, and then they be good coolers against hoate choller, whose rindes he hote & drye of nature. The frute called the medler,Mespila. called the Medler. is vsed for medicine and not for meat, and must be taken before meate prouoketh vrine, & of nature is stipticke.

¶ Iohn.

What be Capers and Oliues?

¶ Humfrey.

FReshe Capers he hote & drye in the seconde degree,The ope­ration of Capers. and ea­ten before meates do greatly cō ­forte disgestion, and be the best thinges for the splene, or to clēse melancholye that can be taken. preserued Olifes in salt eatē at ye beginning of meales, do greatli [Page lxxxv] fortify the stomack and relaxeth the belly, cleanseth the liuer and [...]e hoate and drye in the seconde degree.

¶ Iohn.

I Beseche the show the opinion of the natures of some kinde of fleshe, and firste of the properties of Beefe.

Humfrey.

I Wyll not vndertake to shewe mine opinion: to thy request, but I wil declare the mindes, of some wise and learned men: and first of Simeon Sethi, Simeon Sethi. which saith, that the fleshe of Oxen that be yonge, dō much nourish & make them stronge that be fed with them, but it bringeth melancho­ly, and Melancholius diseases, it is cold and dry of nature, and hard to disgest, excepte it be of cholericke persones: but beinge tenderlly sodden, it nourisheth [Page] Much biefe customably eatē of idle persons, and nice folks that laboure not, bringeth many dis­eases,Ra [...]in lib. 2 cap. 3. as Rasis saithe. And Auicen saithe that the fleshe of Oxen or Kine,Auicen in 2. lib. pri. cap. 15. be very grose, ingendringe ill iuse in the body. Wherof oftē ­times come to scabbes, cankers, biles, but vnto hote strong, chol­lericke stomacks it is tollerable, and may be vsed as we haue the dailye experience thereof.Flixe. The broth wherein beife hathe bene soddē, is good to be supped halfe a pint euery morning against ye flixe of the bellye, and runninge forthe of yellowe choller. If the said broth be tēpered with salte: Mustard, vineger or garlicke &c. Be commonlye vsed for the sawses to disgest biefe withall, [...]isges [...]iō for the said sauces do not onlye helpe disgestion, but also defen­defendeth [Page lxxxvi] the body from sundry inconueniēces, and diuers si [...]k­ne [...]ises, as drop [...]ies, quartens, le­proses,A medi­cine for y eyes. and suche like. The gall of an Oxe or a cowe, distilled in the monthe of Iune, and kept in a close glasse, doth helpe to clēse the eyes frō spottes, if you put [...] droppe of thys water wyth a fe­ther into thy eyes, when ye go to bed. The milte of a Bul dryed, & the powder therof droncke with redde wine, wil stoppe the blou­dy flixe. Lighte poudered yonge Beefe, is better then eyther freshe or muche powdered. In speciallye those Cattell that be fed in fayre and drye Pastures, and not in stinckinge fennes.

The greate learned manne Gesnerus, in hys discriptyon of Beastes,Conradus Gesnerus▪ dothe wryte moore of [Page] the vertues of bulles, oxen, kine and calues, then any other hath done. And thus to conclude, the fleshe of the male beastes, is more better then the female, and the gelded beasts be more com­modyous to nature, then any of them. And the yong flesh more commendable then tholde, for it is more moist, and a frend to the bloud,Hali. in. 5 The. ca. 4. as Haliabas saith, Roasted fleshe, dothe nourishe the bodye much, for it is warm and moist. Bakē meats be very dry: Clene boylde meates, wyth holsome herbes and frutes, be excellent to comforte the bodye, if they be nutramental flesh. Calues flesh do greatlye nourrish and make good bloud.

Ihon.

THou haste saide well of Biefe, but what goodnesse maye be reported [Page lxxxvii] [...]f Porke, I thincke verye little or no­ [...]hinge.

Humfray.

THere be manye goodly com­modities in ye flesh of bores. [...]elded swine and pigges, for [...]hey be good for mans nature.

Ihon.

FOr mans nature? that is maruel [...] For howe can those be good for [...]anues nature,The de­scriptiō of swyne. whiche be so vile of their own nature. There soule feding [...] most stinking filth and carion. The [...]oysome wallo winge in the mire and [...]urt, the eating of their owne pigges, and oftentimes pulling children oute [...] the Cradle, for there dinners, if the [...]ood wife be not at home. Who is a­ [...]le to beholde suche noisome spirites, [...]r hel houndes: did not almighty God [...]ommaund the Iewes to eate none of them? and the Machomites at this [...]aye, wil kil that man that eateth of their fleshe, why should we then com­ [...]ēd them? for they are most vile.

Humfrey.
[Page]

ALl the aunciente and wisest phisicions that euer were in this world, [...]oriba Corona did all consente, that of all flesh, the flesh of yong gel­ded swine, partly saulted or pou­dered, was euer a meate of the best norishinge moister, and col­der then other fleshe,Isacke Galen in sec. comp Cap. ii. for Isaacke saith, it is a flesh very moiste, ex­cept it be the flesh of lambes, as Galen reporteth. Yet it is not good to euery complexion, nor euerye age, but vnto youth and middle age. Whereas thou haste spoken againste ye vile nature of swine, calling them vnresonable, thou dost vse more wordes then wit [...] for ther is no beast,Beastes haue no reason. yt may be cal­led reasonable? but man onlye. And wheras God did prohibite the Iewes to eate swines flesh? it was a figure to absteine from [Page lxxxviii] vncleane things: which I leaue to thee Theologians. The Mahu­mites abhorre swines fleshe, be­cause there droncken false pro­phet, and Psevvdo Apostle was [...]orne and rente in peeces wyth wine, being dronken & fallen in the mire. So the one must geue [...]redence to time, and to learned Phisicions. The bloud of swine [...]othe nourrishe muche,puddyng of swine. as it is [...]eene in puddinges, made wyth [...]reate Otmeale, swete sewet, & [...]nnel, or Annes sedes. Pigges [...]e verye moist, therefore Sage▪ Pepper and Salte, do drye vp [...]e superfluous humoures of [...]hem, when they be rosted. Thei [...]e not holsom to be eaten before [...]hey be three weekes olde.of swine. The [...]ipes and guttes be holesomer, [...]nd doth nourish better then ani [...]ther beastes guts, or in meats. [Page] Bakon is very hard of disgesti­on, and much discommēded, and is hurtfull. Onlye vnto a hoate chollericke labouringe body, the fleshe of a Boore, is more holso­mer then the fleshe of any sowe▪ The braines of a Bore, and his stones, or any part of thē stāped together, & laide warme vpon a pestilence sore, in the manner of a plaister,A play­ster. it wil breake it incon­tinent. Swines grease is verye colde, and good to annointe bur­ninge hote places of the bodye, or a disease called sancte Antho­nies fier, and thus muche haue I spoken of swine.

¶ Iohn.

I Pray you tell me of the fleshe of th [...] Rammes, weathers, and Lambes and how profitable they are to man [...] nature.

Humfrey.
[Page lxxxix]

SImeon Sethi saith, Lābes fleshe is partlye warme,Simeon Sethi. but super­fluous moist, and euill for [...]eg­matick persons, and doth much harme to the [...] that haue the [...], bonache, or a disease called Epiolus, whiche is [...] of fleame like glasse. Therefore if lambes flesh were sodden; as it is rosted, it would bringe ma­ny diseases vnto the body, with­oute it were sodden with wine, & some hote grosseries, herbes, or [...]ootes. When a weather is two yeares old, which is fed vpon a good ground, the fleshe thereof, shalbe temperate and nourrishe much.Hip. in. [...] pri. doc. cap. 1 [...]. Hippocrates saithe, that the lambe of a yeare olde, dothe no­ [...]rishe muche. Galen semeth not greatlye to commende Motton▪ but that whiche is tender, swete [Page] and not olde, is very profitable, as experience and custome, doth dailye teache vs. The dounge Tallowe and woll be very pro­fitable in Medicines, as Plinii saythe: And Conradus Gesnerus, de animalibus, De ali. lib tertio. 3. and Galen in his third boke, de alimentis,

Iohn.

What is the fleshe of Gotes or kids.

¶Humfrey

THey be beastes verye hurt­ful vnto yong trees & plāts, but Simeon Sethi saithe, that kid [...] fleshe is of easye disgestion, in healthe and sickenesse, they be verye good meate. They be drye of nature.in ter. xii. doc. sec [...]. Capi. vii. Hipocrates saith. It be­houeth that the conceruers and kepers of healthe, do study that his meate be such, as the flesh [...] of kiddes, yonge calues, that be suckinge, and Lambes of o [...] [Page lxxxix] yeare olde. For they be good for them that be sicke,Hali in quincte theori. Capit. 2. or haue eue [...] complexions. Haliabas dothe saye, that the flesh of Kiddes do engender good bloude, and is not so [...]legmaticke, watery, and moiste, as the flesh of Lambes. They remaine Kiddes for six monethes, and afterwarde co­meth into a greaser, and hotter nature, and be called Goates. The fleshe of them that be gel­ [...]ed. .ias holsom to eate, the l [...]ngs of them eaten before a man doe [...]inke, dothe defende hym that daye from dronkennesse, as I haue red in the reportes of lear­ned men. But the flesh of the old [...] or male gotes be il, and in­ [...]ender the Agues or feuers, I [...] [...]he vrine of goates be stilled in May with sorrel,A good [...]medicen▪ the water di­ [...]illed is not hurtful nor noy [...]ō, [Page] but whomesoeuer vse to drin [...]ke therof two drammes morn and eueninge, it will preserue hym from the pestilence. The milcke of Goates I wil describe in the place of milke.

Iohn.

VVhat is the flesshes of Read and fallowe Deare?

Humfrey.

MOre pleasaunte to some, th [...] profitable to manye, as ap­peareth once a yeare in the cor [...] fieldes,Hippo. Simeon Sethi. the more it is to be la­mented. Hippocrates and Simeon Sethi, do plainelye affyrme th [...] fleshe of them to engender euill iuse, and Melancholye cold dis­eases and quarteins, the fleshe of winter deare,Ras [...]. ala. Cap. 3. do lesse hurt the bodye, then that which is eaten in Sommer. For in Wynter [Page xci] mans disgestion is more stron­ger, and the inwarde partes of the bodye warmer, and may ea­serlye consume groose meates, then in Sommer, as we see by experience. In colde weather & frostes healful people, be moste hungriest. The lunges of a dere sodden in barlye water, and ta­ken fourthe and stamped with penedice and Honye of equall quantitye to the saide lunges, and eaten a mornynges, dothe greatlye healpe olde coughes, and drinesse in the lunges.

There be many goodly vertues of theyr hornes, bones, bloude and tallowe.

Ihon.

VVhat is the properties of Hares and Conies fleshe?Aui. in. [...]. Can. cap. [...]46.

Humfrey.
[Page]

AVisen saiethe, the fleshe, of Hares,Aui. in. 2. Can. cap. 46. be hoote and dry [...] ingenderers of Melancholye not praised in Phisicke for me [...] but rather for medicine. For indede, if a Hare be dryed in the moneth of Marche in an Ouen or furneyse, and beaten into pouder, and kept close, & dronke a morninges in Beare, Ale, or white Wine: it wyll breake the stoane in the bledder, if the pa­ciente be not olde. If childrens gummes be annointed with the braines of an Hare, their teethe wyll easelye come foorthe and growe. The gall of an Hare mingled with cleane hony,A medicē for bloudi eyes. doth cleanse waterye eyes, or redde bloudye eyes. The fleshe of Hares muste be tenderly rosted, and well larded and spiced, be­cause [Page xci] of the grosenesse, but it is better sodden. The fleshe of Co­nies are better then hares flesh, & easyer of disgestion. But rab­bets be holsomer. And thus to conclude of Connies, experience teacheth vs, that they are good, they be could and dry of nature, and small mention is made of them, amonge the auncient phi­sitions,Galen in. iii. de ali. Capi. [...]. as Galen saythe. I neede not to speake verye longe of e­uerye kinde of beastes as some of the beastes that be in Hiberia like little Hares whyche be cal­led Conies.

Iohn.

If the olde and ignoraunte menne of Connyes, whyche were seene in the nature of manye other beastes, that hadde dwelte in diuers places [Page] places of Englande then should haue knowne them righte well: And per­happes receyued of theym as small pleasure, as manye husbande menne haue founde profite by them in theyr Corne. Nowe thou haste well satis­fied me of the fo [...]r foted beastes, whi­che commenlye Englishe menne se­deth vppon. Nowe I praye thee tell mee, some of the vertues of soules and firste of Cockes, Capones and Hennes.

Humfrey.

CHickens of Hennes, saithe Auenzoar, Auenz. lib. pri. is mooste commen­ded, and mooste laudable of any fleshe, & nourrisheth good bloud It is lighte of disgestion, and dothe comfort the appetite, cock [...] chickens, be better then hennes, the capō is better then the cock, [Page xciii] [...] dooe augmente good bloud and feede,Rasis in lib. 4. Afforis. as Rasis reporteth, and [...]xperience proueth in men, both [...]ole and sicke. An olde Cocke whiche is well beaten after his [...]ethers be pulled of vntill he be [...]ll bloudy, and then cutte of his [...]ead and drawe him, and sethe [...]im in a close potte with fayre [...]ater, and whyte wyne, Fenyll [...]ootes, Burrage rootes, Violet, [...]lanten, Succory, and Buglos [...]aues, Dates, Prunes, greate Raysins, Mates, and Suger, & [...]ut in the mary of a Calfe, and [...]anders. This is a moste excel­ [...]nt broth to them that be sicke, [...]eake, or cōsumed. The braines [...]hennes, capons or chekens, be [...]olsome to eate, to comforte the [...]raine and memory. And thus to [...]onclude these forsaide fowles, [...] better for idle folkes that la­bour. [Page] not, then for them that vse exercise or trauel, to whom grose meates are more profitable.

¶ Iohn.

What is the properties of Gese?

Humfrey.

VVylde gyse and tame, their flesh be veri grose and hard of disgestion,Auicen. in 2. Cano. Cap. 46. Auicen saieth▪ The fleshe of great foules and of gese, be slowe and hard of disge­stion: for their humiditie, they do breade feuers quickly, but their gooslynges or yonge gese, being fatte, are good and much cōmended in meates. And Galen saieth that the fleshe of foules be better then the fleshe of beastes.Galen in lib. 3. de alimen.

But vndoubtedly gose, mallard pecocke,Of great foules. swane, and euery foul hauing a long necke, be all har [...] of disgestion, and of no good cō ­plexions. But if gese be well ro­ [...]ted [Page xciii] and stopped with salte, sage, [...]epper, and onions, they will not [...]urte the eaters therof. There be great gese in Scotlād, which [...]redeth vpon a place called the Basse. Ther be also Bernacles, whiche haue a straunge genera­ [...]ion as Ges [...]erus saith:Gesnerus. and as the [...]eople of the Northe partes of Scotlande knoweth, & because [...] should seme incredible to mani I wil geue none occasiō to any, [...]ither to mocke or to meruayle. And thus I geue warninge to [...]hem whiche loue their healthe, [...] haue these forsayd foules somwhat poudred or stopped with [...]alte, all the night, before they be rosted.

Iohn.

I pray the tel me of y flesh of Duckes?

¶Humfrey.

THey be the hoatest of all do­mestical, or yard foules, and [Page] vncleane of feeding: notwithstā ­ding, though it be harde of disge­stion and marueilous hoate, yet it doth greatly norrishe the body and maketh it fatte.Hip. in 2. can. ca. 46 Hippocrate saieth: they that be fedde in pud­dels & foule places, be hurtfull: but they that be fedde in houses, pennes or coopes,Isack. in. vni. ca. 16. be neutratiue, but yet grose, as Isack saith.

Ihon.

What he Pigiōs, Turtles or Doues?

Humfrey.

THe flesh of Turtles be mer­uailous good, and equall to to the beste as Auicen saith:Auicen. in can. de ca. Thei be best when they be yonge and holsome for flegmaticke people. Simeon Sethi saieth: the house doue is hoater then the field doue, and doth engender grose bloud. The common eating of them is ill for chollericke persones with read [Page xcv] faces, for feare of Leprosie: ther­fore cut of the feete, wynges, and head, of your Pigiōs or Doues, for their bloud, is that whiche is [...]o venemous: they be best in the spring tyme, and heruest. And Isaack saieth,Isaac. in lib. dicta: Cap. 16. because they are so [...]yghtly conuerted into choller. They did commaunde in the old [...]ime, that they shoulde be eaten with sharpe Vineger, Pur­ [...]leyn, Coucombers, or Sitron. Roosted Pigions be beste.Rosted pigions be beste. The bloud that commeth out of the ryght wynge, dropped into ones [...]ye, doth mightely help the eie, if it swelleth or prieketh. And thus much haue I spoken of Pigeōs, or Doues.

Ihon.

What is the flesh of Peacoches?

Humfrey.

SImeon Sethi saieth: it is a rawe flesh, and harde of disgestion, [Page] onles it be very fatte. But if it b [...] fatte, it helpeth the Pluresie. Haliabas saith:Hali. in. 5. Retho. cap. 23. that both Swannes Cranes, Pecockes, and any great foules, muste after they b [...] killed, be hanged vp by ye necks two or thre daies, with a stoon [...] waiyng at their feete, as ye wea­ther will serue, and then dressed and eaten. Prouided that good wyne be dronken after them.

Iohn.

What is the fleshe of Cranes?

Humfrey.

SImeon Sethi saieth:Simeon Sethi. their flesshe is hoate and drie, the young be good, but the old encreaseth me­lancoly, they dooe engender seed of generation, and being tender­ly rosted, doth helpe to cleare the voice, and clense the pype of the lunges.

¶ Iohn.

[Page xcv] What is Swan?

¶ Humfrey.

EVery grose foule is cholle­ricke, harde of disgestion: the Signetes be better then the old Swānes, if their Galantines be [...]ell made, it helpeth to disgeste [...]heir fleshe.

¶ Iohn.

[...]Hat is the fleshe of Herons, Byt­ters, and Shouellers?

Humfrey.

THese foules be fisshers, and be very rawe, and flegma­ [...]icke, like vnto the meate wherof [...]hey are fedde: the young be best, and ought to be eaten with pep­per, Synnamon, Suger, and [...]inger, & to drinke wyne after yu [...]or good disgestion: And thus do for all water foules.

¶ Iohn.

What be partriches, Fesants quails, [Page] Larkes, Sparrowes, Plouer, and bla [...] Eirdes?

¶ Humfrey.

PArtriches doth bynde she bely,Auicen. and doth norryshe milch [...] The Cockes be better then t [...] Henne birdes,Rasis in. 3. alm. c. 10. they dooe dry [...] ffeume and corruption in the sto [...]macke. Feesantes, is the best o [...] al flesh for his swetnes, is equa [...] vnto the Capō or Partriche, b [...] he is somewhat drier.Ra. in lib. 4. affo. And Ra [...] sayeth: Feasantes fleshe is goo [...] for the that haue ye feuer Ethik [...] for it is not only a meate, but medicine, and doth clense corru [...] humers it the stomake. Quaile altough they be eaten of man [...] yet they are not to be comende for they do engender aguwes, be euill for the falling sickenesse [...] For as Conciliatur saieth: of al [...] foules that be vsed for meates [Page xcviii] it is the worste.Diosco. Dioscorides saieth: that Larkes rosted, be holsome to be eaten of them that be trou­bled with the chollicke. Blacke birdes taken in the time of frost, be holsom and good of disgestiō:The pro­perties of small birdes. The donge of Black birdes tempered with vineger, and applied to any place that haue the blacke Morphewe, or black Leprosie, often tymes annointed with a sponge doth helpe thē. The flesh of Plouers doeth engender me­lancoly. Sparrowes be hoote, & prouoketh venus or lust:Plinii. lib ii. Cap. 36. Plinii doeth discribe their properties: [...]he braines be the beste parte of [...]hem. Woodcockes be of good di­ [...]gestion and temperate to feede vpon. All smal birdes of ye field, [...]s Robbin read brest, Lynettes, Finches, red Sparrowes, Gold wynges, and suche like, if thei be [Page] fatte, they be marueilous good, and doth greatly cōforte nature, either rosted or boyled, and thus do I cōclude with the of birdes.

¶ Iohn.

I Hartely thanke thee, gentle maister Humfrey: for thy paines takinge in these thy rules vnto me, concerning the proper vse of beastes, and foules, in meates. I would be glad to knowe the vertues of some fyshes?

¶ Humfrey.

IN many Ilādes of this world, nere adiacent vnto the occiente seas, the people liue there, moste chiefly by fishe, and be right strōg and sound people of complexion, as Aristotel saieth:Aristo in proble. Consuetudo est tā ­quam altra natura. Custome is like vnto another nature, but because I speake of fishe, I will deuide them in thre partes. First of the fisshes of the sea, secōdly the fishe [Page xcix] of freshe running riuers,Of sea Eishe. thirdly of the fishes in poles & standinge waters. The Sea hath manye grose and fatte fysshes, which be noysome to the stomacke, but the smaler kind of fishes yt fede about rockes & cleare stony places, bee more drier and lesse of moistnes, then the fresh water fishe, & doth engenderles fleume and winde, by the reason of their salt feding as Galen saieth:Galen d [...] tuen, they be the beste fishes that feede in the pure sea: and chiefest of all fisshes for the [...]se of mankinde.Hali. in quin, the [...] Capit. 25. But Haliabas saieth: new fishe lately taken, is [...]olde and moist, and flegmatick, but leste of all the Sea fysshe. Fysshe that swymmeth in freshe [...]leare Ryuers, or stoony places, where as the water is sweate, [...]eynge fysshes that beare scal­es, hee meruaylous good.

[Page] If they feede neare vnto places where muche filthe is daily caste out, there the fisshe be very cor­rupt and vnholsome, as the said Haliabas saieth: Fyshe that fedeth in fennes, marisces, diches, and moddie pooles, be very vnhol­some, and do corrupt the bloude, they be grosse & slymy, corrupt & wyndie. But those fisshes that be fed in fayre pondes, wherein two running waters may ensue,Best fe­ding for fishe. and where as sweate herbes, rootes, weedes, that groweth about the bankes, doth feed the fisshe: those fisshe be holsome. Galen saieth [...] Fisshe yt is whyte skalled, harde. As perches, Cheuiens, Ruffes, Carpes, Breimes, Roches, Troutes &c. be al good. But vn­skaled fisshes, as Eales, Ten­ches, Lampreis, and suche like, be daungerous, onles they bee [Page c] well baken or rosted, and eaten with pepper, ginger, & vineger: And note this,To labor sone after theatyng of fishe, is hurtfull. Galen. that it is not hol­some traueling, or labourynge, immediatly after the eatinge of fysshe, for it doeth greately cor­rupte the stomacke, and as Galen saieth: the nourryshementes of fleshe is better then the nourris­mentes of fyshe: And thus much generallie I haue spoken of fish.

Ihon.

ANd thus it semeth by thy wordes that great fisshe that be deuourers in sea,Oyle far, fishe be groos [...] fode. as Seale and Purpos, and such like, be vnholsome, and that the smal­ler fisshes, as Codlinges, Whitinges, Places, Smeltes, Buttes, Solles, pike Perche, Breime, Roche, Carpe, and such as fedeth in cleane stony waters: thou sayste they be holsome, Eales, Lampreis, and other muddy fysshes, [...]hou doest not greatly commend.

[Page] There be some kyndes of fysh soft and harde, whiche be the beste?

¶ Humfrey.

If fysshe be softe, the eldest fyshe is the be best:The elec­tiū of fish. If fyshe be harde the yongest is best, for it is either soft or hard. Of harde fishe take the smallest, of softe fysshe take the greatest: Prouided that your fyshe be not very slimy, and thus sayeth Auicen in hys booke of fysshes.Auicen cap. de piscibus.

Ihon.

I pray the tell me some thynge of shell fysshes?

Humfrey.

CRauises and Crabbes, be ve­ry good fysshes,Creuises and crabs the meate of them doth helpe the lunges, but they be hurtfull for the bladder, yet they wyll engender seade. If Crabbes of the freshe water bee sodden in pure grene Oyle oliue: this Oyle dropped into the eare [Page ci] luke warme, dooeth heale hoate burning obstructions, and stop­pinge matter that hindreth the hearynge. As for lempetes, Coc­kles,Galen in libra de a limento. Scallapes as Galen saieth: they be harde of disgestion, mus­kels & oisters wold be wel boiled rosted, or baken with onions, wine, butter, suger, ginger, & pepper, or els they be very wyndy & flegmatike. Chollerick, stomaks may wel disgest raw oisters, but they haue cast many one away.

Ihon.

What is the vertue of Oyle?

Humfrey.

GReene oile of oliues, is ye mo­ther of all oiles, which doeth drawe into her owne nature the vertues of herbes, buddes, flo­wers, frutes, and rootes. Swete sallet oyle is holsome to disgeste colde herbes, and sallets, tēpered [Page] with sharpe Vineger and Su­ger.Auerdies commeth oyle in quinto de ouis. Newe Oyle doth moist, and warme the stomacke, but olde Oile, corrupteth the stomacke, & cleueth to the lunges, and ma­heth one horse. Oyle of Roses & sharpe vineger, tempered toge­ther, is good to anointe the fore heades of them that be troubled with extreme heate or fransie, so that Blugose be sodden in their posset ale, or els drinke the syr­rupes of Endiue, or Buglos.

There be many goodlie vertues in compounded oiles, both to ca­life and make hote: And also to coole the body whē it is extreme hoote, as the great learned man Iohn Mesua, hath decribed in his Antidorarii.

Ihon.

VVilt thou be so good as to tell me the properties of water?

¶ Humfrey.

[Page cii] VVater is one of the four ele­mentes,Galli. 3. de uic. in. aui. li. 1. fen. 2. more lighter then earth, heuier then fire and ayre. But this water which is here a­mongest vs in Riuers, Pondes, springes,What kinde of waters is best. floudes, and seas: be no pure waters, for thei be mingled with sundry ayres, corruptions, grosenesse, and saltnes: notwith­standynge in all our meates and drinkes water is vsed, & amon­gest all liuyng creatures can not be forborn, both man, beast, fish, foule,Auice. lib 1. fen. 3. de dispositi­onibus a­quarum. herbe, and grasse. And as Auicen saieth, the claye water is pure, for cley clenseth the water, and is better then water that rū ­neth ouer grauell, or stones, so that it be pure cley, voyde of cor­ruption. Also waters runnynge toward the east, be pure, cōmyng oute of harde stonye rockes, and a Pinte of that water is lighter [Page] then a pynte of the standyng wa­ter of welles, or pooles. The lighter the water, the better it is. Al­so waters that is put in wine. &c ought first to be soddē or it be oc­cupied cold, and so the fire dothe clense it from corruption. Stan­ding waters and water running neare vnto cities and townes, or marish ground, wodes, & fennes be euer ful of corruption, because there is so much filthe in them of carions & rotten dunge. &c. The hyer it water dothe faule, then the water is. Yse and snowe wa­ters be verygrose, and be hurt­full to the bodies of menne and Beastes. To drincke colde wa­ter is euyll, for it wyll stoppe the bodye, and engender melancho­lye. Salte water helpeth a man from scabbes, iche, and moiste humoures, it killeth lice, and [Page ciii] wasteth bloude betwene the skin and the flesshe, but it is mooste hurteful to the stomacke, but the vapoure and smoke of it is good for them that haue the dropsy.

¶ Iohn.

What is Vineger?

Humfrey.

VIneger is colde and drye,The pro­perties of Vineger. and is hurtefull for theim that be melancholye, but when it is dronke, or poured vpon a out­ward wound stoppeth the bloud It also kylleth hot apostumati­ons of erisipilus, it is an enemi to the sinowes. Vineger & brim­stone sodden together, is good for the Goute, to wasshe it with­all. Vyneger tempered wyth oyle Olyfe, or oyle of Roses, and sodē with vnwashed wol, helpeth [Page] a disease called Soda in the heade, applied warme vnto the place, it dothe helpe hoate diseases in the hed called Soda, it is good in sauce for al warm and moist men. Vi­neger with clene clarified honye penidies and faire water sodden together, doth greatly helpe the paines in the throte, or lunges, or stoppyng the winde, & quencheth hoat diseases. And sharpe vyne­ger mingled with salt, and put v­pon the biting of a dog, doth heal it: and against poyson it is excel­lent, chiefly to drinke a litle ther­of against the pestilence in a mornynge.

¶ Iohn.

What vertue hath our common salt?

Humfrey.

RAsis saith,Rasis in. 3. alman. Capit. 17. salt is hoat and dry, Dioscorides saith, salt hath ver­tue to stop, to scoure, and mundi­fie, [Page ciiii] and of that minde is Oribasius, The ver­tue of falt saiyng: salt is compoūded of matter abstersiue and stiptik, whiche [...]atters be both binding and dri­yng moist humours, and is good to powder fat flesh, both bief and porke, and other fat meate: for it hath vertue to drye vp superflu­ous humours, as water & bloud. &c. But it is not good for leane bodies, or hoat cōplexcioned peo­ple, for the much vse of it maketh the body cholerike, appere aged, and to be angry. The very vse of it is onelye to season meates, but not to be meate. Much good salt is made here in Englande, as at [...]itch, Hollond in Lincholnshire and in the Shiles nere vnto new [...]astell.

Ihon.

What is honye, or the vertue thereof?

Humfrey.

[Page] AVerrois sayeth,Auerrois in. 5. honye is hoa [...] and drye in the seconde de­gree, and dooeth cleanse verye much, and is a medicinable mea [...] moste chiefliest for olde men and women. For it doth warme them & conuert thē into good blud.Simeon Sethi. I [...] is not good for cholerick persons because of the heat and drynesse. Thei do greatly erre that say ho­ny is hoat and moiste: but if it be clarified from his wax and drosse and kept in a close vessel, there is nothinge that is liquid vpon the earth that remaineth lēger. And this precious iewel hony, hath e­uer bene more praysed aboue su­ger, for it wil cōserue & kepe anye frute, herb, rote, or ani other thīg that is put into it an exceadynge longe time. Marueilous is the worke of God in honye, beyng a heauenlye dewe, that falleth vppon [Page cv] flowers and leues as Auicen [...]aieth,Auen in. 2. Cano. Cap. 504. and is neither the iuice of [...]eaues nor fruite, but onelye the [...]eauenlye dewe. Whereunto the Sees commeth in due time, and [...]ather the said honye, and laye it [...]p in store in their curious buil­ [...]ed houses, whereas they dwell [...]gether in most goodly order.god hath ordeyned ye Sees to bee an ex­āple vnto vs, bothe for loue & worcking in the common wealthe. Virgilius O Sees bees, how happyer are you more then many wretched men, [...]hyche dwelleth neuer together [...] vnitye and peace, but in con­ [...]nuall discorde, and disquietnes [...]s Virgill sayeth. En quo discor­ [...]a ciues produxerit miseros. Be­ [...]olde what discorde wretched Citizins haue broughte foorth. But nowe to make an ende of [...]e moste excellente vertues of [...]onye, it is good in the meates [...] theim whyche be flegmatike. [Page] Hony newely taken out of their combes, be partlye laxatiue, but clarified hony doth binde and dry vp fleum, and kepeth the bodyes of flegnatike and old persons frō corruption. The best hony is ga­thered in the springe time, the se­conde in somer, but that which is gathered in winter, is yll & hurt­ful. One parte of hony, and some part of water sodden together vntil the sroth be all scomde of, and when it is colde kepte in a close stone pot,Galen de tuen, sani Libra. 4. this drinke saieth Galen is holesome for sommer, clenseth the lunges, & preserueth the bo­dye in health. Oximel simplex and compositum be made wyth honye, and so be many mo thinges whi­che be of greate vertue. Suger which is called Mel canne, hony of the reed, beyng clene, & not ful of grose pannell, doth clense, and is [Page cvi] not so hoate as Bees honye, and doth agree with the stomacks of cholericke persons.Haliabas in. 5. theo. Capi. 27. Haliabas saith it moueth not the stomacke to drynes, and that the clene white suger not adulbrated, dothe nou­rishe more then honye. Of Rose­water, Pearles, & suger is made a goodly comforter for the harte, called Manus Christi.

Ihon.

What is the propertie of milke?

Humfrey.

SImeon Sethi saieth that milke is of three partes:Simeon Sethi. whay, curdes, and creme. Whay is holesome to drinke, in Sommer, specially of cholericke persons, it clenseth the body. Milke of fat beastes dothe nourish more then the leane bea­stes, and the mylke of yong bea­stes is better then of the olde. And the newe mylke is holeso­mer [Page] then that whych hath stand in the ayre,Rasis in. 3 alman. Capit. 15. as Rasis sayeth. And also those beastes that feadeth in drye Pastures amongest sweet Hearbes, grasse, and flowers hauynge conueniente Water their mylke is very good. Milk in the begynnynge of Somer is verye holesome.Milke not good for foule stomakes In winter it is vnholesome for flegmaticke persones, or them whyche haue corrupte and foule stomackes. Fo [...] if the mylke be sower, it dooet engender the stone in the raynes or bladder. Cowes mylke is th [...] thyckest mylcke, and vnctius or full of butter. But the beste mylcke that healpeth agaynst [...] Consumptions,Hip. in. li de air. et aqua. is womannes mylcke. The nexte is Goates mylke, whych Goates mylke rather nourisheth to muche, if it bee taken commonely.

[Page cvii] Shepes milke is not very plea­saunte to the stomacke. And note thys, that Mylcke is not holesome to theim whyche haue payns in the Head or teeth. But the people that bee broughte vp wyth mylcke, bee fayre colou­red, and healthfull bodyes.

Isaac sayeth, if Honye and a lit­tle salte bee sodden in the mylke [...]hen it is wholesome, and is not wyndye nor flegmatycke.

If mynts, burrage leaues, rose­marye flowers, honye suckles, and a little Suger bee layed in [...] Basone, and couered wyth a [...]ayre lynnen clothe, and mylke he sayed Bason full throughe he clothe, and let it stande all [...]yghte. Thys is pleasaunt to [...]rynke in the mornynge vppon [...]n empty stomacke, two houres [Page] before anye other meate, it clen­seth the rage of hoate burnyng Chollere,Galen de alimen. and thus I leaue o [...] mylke.

Ihon.

What is butter?

Humfrey.

BVtter is hoate and moyste freshe butter is vsed in many medicines.The ope­ration of butter & Cheese. Newe made butte [...] meanelye salted, is good wyt breade, flesshe, and fisshe, it healpeth the lunges, and purgeth th [...] drynesse of the throate, and helpeth coughes moste chieflyest if [...] be mingled wyth honie or suger. It is good for younge children when their teeth dothe growe o [...] ake. Buttermilke if ye crumm [...] newe whyte breade into it, an [...] suppe it of, there is no mylke norisheth so muche, Goates mylk excepted. Cheese if it be new [Page cviii] it is indifferentlye well commen­ded, but harde salte Cheese doth drye the bodye, and engendereth [...]he Stone,Isaac in. 5 doc. ca. 15. Auicen in secun. capitulo. cxxviii. as Isaac and Auicene sayth, and manye other doctours mooe doe discommende it then prayse it. When pottes or stones [...]ee broken, if harde Cheese bee steped in water and made softe, and grounde vppon a Paynters Stone, it wyll ioyne the broken Pottes or Stones together a­gayne. By this I gather, that Cheese wil engender the Stone before anye other meates. Ther­fore Cheese shoulde be made in Somer when the creame is not taken from the milke. And Bit­tony, Saxifrage, and Parcelye, [...]hopped together, be holesome to be mingled amongest the cu [...]ds, and thus I conclude wyth Halia­ [...]as, that olde chese is vnholesome.

¶Iohn.
[Page]

What be Egges.

Humfrey.

GAlen sayeth in hys boke of Symples, that Egges is n [...] parte of the fowles, but a porci­on of the thynge frome whence it came. Simeon Sethi wrytynge of the diuersitye of Egges, say­eth, the fyrste propertyes is [...] their substaunce, and the se­conde is in their tyme, either newe layed or olde. The thyrde is in the maner of their rosting, potchynge, or seethinge. Newe layed Egges of Hennes pot­ched and supped, vppon an emp­tye Stomacke, dooeth clense the Lunges and the raynes of the backe. Harde Egges bee great­lye discommended, vnlesse it be to stoppe flixes, but it were bet­ter to seath Egges harde in vy­neger, [Page cix] and then vndoubtedlye it wyll drye vppe the Flyxe of the beallye. Fryed Egges bee verye hurtefull for Cholericke people, and theim whiche haue the Stone. Duckes and Gees Egges bee grose and noysome, but Partriche, Feasauntes, and Hennes egges, ingendreth good bloude.

Iohn.

What is the propertie of wyne.

Humfrey.

HIpocrates saith of a customable thinge commeth lesse hurte,Hipp. in ii. aphori where of I gather, that they that drynke wine customablye wyth mesure, it doth profit them much, and maketh good disgestion. But those people that vse to dryncke wine seldome times, be distemperated. [Page] White wyne if it be cleare,Auero in 6. colig. Rasis in libra, 26. [...]on. ca. 1. it is holesome to be dronk before meat, for it pearseth quickely to the bladder: but if it be dronke v­pon a full stomacke, it wil rather make opilation and stoppynge of the meserates, because it dothe swiftlye driue fode doune, before nature hath of hym self disgested it. And ye nature of white Wyne is of least warmenesse. The se­conde Wyne is pure Claret, of a clere Iacinct, or yelow colour. This wine doth greatly nourry­she and warme the body, and is a holsome wyne with meate, and is good for flegmatike folke, but very vnholsome for younge chil­dren, or them whiche haue hoate liuers, or paines in their heade, occasioned of hoate vapours, or smokes, for it is like vnto fier, & flaxe. The thirde is blacke, or [Page cx] deepe read wyne, which is thick, a stopper of the belly, a corrupter of the bloud, a breader of ye stone, hurtfull to olde men, and profi­table to fewe menne, except they haue the flixe. And for the elec­tion of wyne saieth Auicen: that wine is best that is betwene new and olde,Auicē in 3. prim. 2. doc. ca. 8. cleare, declining some­what to read of good odoure, neither sharpe nor swete, but equall betwene two, for it hathe vertue not onlye to make humoures tē ­perate, warme, & moist, but also to expell euil matter, whiche cor­rupted the stomacke and bloude. In somer it oughte to be delayed with pure cleare water, as Aristotle sayth in his problemes. And note this, that in driyeres, wines be beste and most holesome, but in watry yeres, the grapes be corrupted, whiche wine doth bringe [Page] to the body many euill diseases, as dropsies, tympanes, flixes, reumes, wyndes and suche lyke, as Galen sayeth. And thus to cō ­clude of wyne,Galen in. reg. a [...]. almighty god did ordeine it for the great comforte of mankinde, to bee taken mode­ratly, but to be dronken with ex­cesse,The heat of excesse in drin­king. it is a poyson mooste vene­mous, it relaxeth the senewes, bryngeth palsey, fallyng sycknes in colde persones, hoate feuers, fransies, fyghtinge, lecherie, and a consuming of the lyuer, to chol­lerycke persones. And gene­rallye there is no credence to be geuen to dronkards, although they be myghty men. It maketh men lyke vnto monsters, with cō tinaunces, like vnto burnynge cooles: It dishonoureth noble men, and beggereth poore men: and generally kylleth as many [Page cxi] as be slayne in cruell battailles, the more it is to be lamented.

¶ Iohn.

What is Beere or Ale?

¶ Humfrey.

ALe doth engendre grose hu­mors in the body, but if it be made of good barly malte, and of holsome water, and verye well sodden, and stande fyue or syxe daies, vntyll it bee cleare. It is verye holsome, especiallye for hoate chollerycke folkes, hauing hoate burning feuers. But if ale be very swete and not well soddē in the brewing, it bringe thin fla­mation of wind and choller in to the belly: If it bee very sower, it fretteth and nepeth the guttes, & is euil for the eies. To them that be very flegmaticke, ale is very grose, but to temperat bodies it [Page] encreaseth bloude: It is partely laxatiue, and prouoketh vrine. Cleane brewed Beare if it be not very strong, brewed with good hoppes, doeth clense the body frō corruption, & is very holsom for the liuer, it is an vsual or cōmon drinke in moste places of Eng­lande, whiche in deade is hurt & made worse with many rotten hoppes, or hoppes dried like dust whiche commeth from beyonde the sea. But although there com­meth manye good hoppes from thence, yet it is knowen that the goodly stilles, & fruteful groūds of englād, do bring furth to mās vse, as good hoppes as groweth in any place of this worlde, as by profe I know in many places of the countrey of Suffolke: Where as they brewe their beare with the hoppes that groweth vppon [Page cxii] their owne groundes: And thus to conclude of ale and beere, they haue no suche vertue nor good­nes as wyne haue, and the sur­phetes whiche be taken of them, through dronkenes: be worse thē the surphetes taken of wyne.

Knowe this that to drinke ale or beere of an empty stomacke mo­deratly hurteth not, but dooeth good.Auicen. [...]ter tra. ii. capitu. 8. Auero in comen. Rasis in. 4. alman. Capitu. [...]. But if one be fasting hun­gry or empty and drinke muche wine, it will hurte the synewes, & bringeth crāpe, sharpe agues, & palseis, as Auicen, Auerois and Ra­sis saieth.

¶ Iohn.

What is bread?

Humfrey.

THe beste Bread is made of cleane swete wheate whiche groweth in claie grounde, and maketh but litle brēne when it is [Page] groūd, light leuened, meanelye salted, and the bread to be baken in an ouen not extremely hoate, for burning of the bread, nor les then meane hoat, for causyng the bread to be heauy and rawe, the lyghter the bread is, & the more full of holes, it is y holsomer, as Auerrois and Rasis saieth.Auerrois in quint. Col. And also bread must neither be eaten new baken, nor very staile or olde, for thone causeth drienesse thirst & smoking into ye head,Rasis in. 30. Almā cap. 3. troubling the braines and eies through the heate thereof: The other drieth the body and bringeth melācoly, humers, hurting memory. The best bread is that whiche is of a daie olde, and the loues or man­chets, may neither be great nor litle, but meane, for the fier in smal loues dryeth vp the moist­nes or vertue of the bread, and in [Page cxiii] great loues it leueth rawenes and grosenes.Galen. 1. aliment. Cap. 2. Reade Galen in the properties of bread: Sodden bread, whiche be called symnels or cracknelles, bee very vnhol­some, and hurteth many one: Rie bread is wyndy and hurtefull to many, therfore it shoulde be well salted & bakē with Annis sedes, and cōmonly crustes of bread be very dri & burneth, thei do engē ­der melancoly humers. Therfor in great mens houses the bread is chipped and largeli pared and ordynarely is made in brewes, and sosse for dogges, whiche wyl helpe to feede a great nomber of poore people, but that manye be more affectionat to dogges then men: Barly bread do clense, coole and make the body leane.

Iohn.

What is Rise.

Humfrey.

[Page] THere be many opiniōs in the vertue therof, but I shal stay my selfe with the iudgement of Auicen: Aui. in. 2. Can. cap. 500. lxxviii. Ryse saith he, is hot & dry & hath vertue to stop the belly, it doth nourrishe much, if it be sod­den with milke, but it oughte to be steped in water a whole night before: if blaunched Almondes be stamped and with Rose water streined into them, and sodden with cowes milke, it is very nu­tramentall.

Iohn.

What be Almondes?

Humfrey.

THe bitter Almondes be hoat­ter then the swete Almōdes. Drie Almondes be hurtfull, the milke of moiste Almondes, wher in burning stele is quēched, stop­peth the flix: To eate Almondes before meate, preserueth against [Page cxiiii] drinkenes.Of Wal­nuttes. Walnuts be holsom when they be newe, to bee eaten after fishe, for they hinder engendring of fleume. Simeon Sethi saith they are hote in the first, and drie in the seconde degre, not holsome before meate,Plinii in Liber. 22. Capitu, 8. Plinii speakinge of Metridatis the greate kynge that Pompius, founde of his own hand writinge, that two nuttes & two figges, and twenty rewe leaues stāped together with a litle sail, and eaten fasting, doth defende a mam both from poyson and pe­stilence that daie. Philberdes and haste nuttes,Of Phil­bardes. be hard of dis­gestion, ill before meate, hurte­full to the head and lūges, if they be rosted and eaten with a litle pepper, they will helpe the run­ning and distillation of rumes. Chestnuttes if they bee rosted & eaten with a litle hony fastynge,Of chest­nuttes. [Page] they healpe the coughe, if they be eaten rawe, althoughe they greatelye nourryshe the boedy, yet they be hurtful for the splene and filleth the bellyful of winde. Nutmegges bee very good for colde persones,Of nut­megges. comforteth the sight & memory,Auicen Capit. de nuce, as Auicen saieth but without doubte Nutmegges doth combuste or burne sangwin men, and drie their bloude: and thus much haue I spoken short­ly of Nuttes.

Iohn.

VVhat be Cloues, Galangell, and Pepper?

Humfrey.

THey be hoate and drie, and as Rasis saieth:Rasis in li. 4. acho doth comforte cold stomakes: and make sweate breth, and is good in the meates of them that hath ill disgestion▪ Black pepper is hoater then lōg [Page cxv] pepper, & doth mightely warme the body, the grosser it is eaten, with fisshe or frute, the better it prouoketh vrine, it is hoate and drie,Isaac in parti die­bus. in the fourth degre, therfore they do erre that saie pepper is hoate in the mouthe and colde in the stomacke. Although pepper be good to them that vse it well, yet vnto artificiall women that haue more beastlines then beuty and cannot be content with their natural complexions, but would fayne be fayre: they eate peper, dried corne, and drinke vineger, with suche like bagage, to drye vp their bloude,A practise and this is the very cause that a great nomber though not all, fal into weake­nes, greene sickenes, stinkinge brethes, and oftentimes sodaine death.

Ihon.
[Page]

What is swete Callamus odoratus?

Humfrey.

AN excellent sweete roote and profitable for men, if the po­ticaries keepe it not vntill it bee rotten, it is hote and drie in the beginning to the middes of the se­cond degre, it hath poore to clēse, to drie, to waste all windes with in the body without hurte. Galen doth greatly cōmend the sauoure of it. They yt drinke of this roote sodden in wyne, shal haue reme­dy of the white morphew, and re­couer good collers. And this haue I proued, it helpeth cram­pes & sickenessis in the senewes, beinge dronke in wyne, sodden with sage, it helpeth the splene, ye liuer and raynes, and will clense the secrete termes of womē, and agmenteth naturall seede.

Ihon.
[Page cxvi]

What is Ginger?

Humfrey.

IT is hoote in the thirde degre,Auerrois in. 5. coll. and moiste in thende of the first if it be vncollered. White and not rotten it is very good, most chief­ly if it be conserued. And grene as Mesua saith:Mesua in 4. distin. it maketh warme a colde stomacke, and consumeth windes, helpeth euill disgestion, and maketh meate gooe easelye downe into the stomacke.

Iohn.

What is Setwall?

Humfrey.

HOate and drie in the seconde degree, and is good, the pou­der therof to be dronke is moste of effect against the pestilence ex­cepte: Methredatum: It is good a­gainst poyson, winde chollericke and colde passions of the harts, [Page] and doth restrain vometes. The weight of eight granes doth suf­fice to be dronke in ale or wyne vpon an empty stomacke.

¶Iohn.

What is Sinamon?

Humfrey.

DIoscorides dooeth saie: there be many kindes of Sinamon, but generally their vertue is this to helpe dropsies, windes or stopping of the lyuer, and is hoate & drie in the thirde degre. Ihon. VVhat is Cassia fistula, Seneca, and Rewbarbe?

Humfrey.

CAssia fistula, if the Caane be he­uie & the cassia within blacke and shining that is good cassia, if this be drawen new out of the caane halfe an ounce or more at one time, & mingled with suger, and eaten of a fastinge stomacke [Page cxvii] in the morning it hath power to purge choller, to clēse the raines of the backe it will frete and con­sume the stone, it purgeth verye easely, and is pleasant in taking, & may be taken of children, weke women, and sicke mē, in the time of their feuers, ye accesse of their fyttes,Of [...] ­barbe and his operation. eccepted. Rhabarbe do purge yellowe coller by him self, two or thre drames may be takē or a litle more, so that there be a drame of spicanarde or sinamon, put vnto it. In sommer to drinke it with whay. In wynter with white wine: but ye cleane yellowe rubarbe sliced, and put into infu­tion all the nighte with whaye, whyte wyne, or Endiue water, and streyne it in the mornynge, doth greately purge the bloude and lyuer, three or foure drames with spicanarde a dram or more. [Page] Seene Alexandria, if it bee sodden in the broth of a cocke or a henne doeth purge the bloude and me­lancoly, very gently and comfort the hart. One oūce of the cleane small leaues of seene withoute codes or stalkes, halfe a quarter of one ounce of ginger, twelue cloues, finkle seede two drames, or els twoo drames of sinamon tartar, halfe a drame, beaten all together in pouder: These dooe purge the head mightely to bee taken before supper, ye weighte of one drame in a litle white wine.

¶Iohn.

I woulde bee glad to learne the ver­tue of Aloes?

Humfrey.

THere be two kindes of aloes, one is named Succotrina, which is lyke a lyuer, cleare, brittle bitter, collered betwene read and [Page cxviii] yellowe, this is best for medicines [...] little of this beinge tempered with Rose water, being put vnto the eyes, helpeth the droppyng & watery eies. Also it is put in ma­ny excellent medicines laxatiue, as safron, myrre, aloes, mingled together. In the forme of pilles, is the most excellent medicine a­gainst the pestilēce, as it is writ­ten in this book folowing. Honye and aloes mingled together, doe take away the markes of stripes and also doth mundify sores and vlcers, it doth clense the aboun­daunce of cholere, & fleume from the stomacke. It is not good to be taken in winter,Auicē in li. de sim. for Auicen dothe forbid it, but in the springe time, or haruest the pouder ther­of. The weight of a frēch crown mingled with the water of honie or meade, and so droncke in the [Page] morninge it dothe clense bothe choller and flewme.Aloes ca­balin. There is an other grose aloes which is good for horse tempored with ale; and ministred aswell to other great beastes as horses, the weight of halfe Anounce, and thus muche haue I said of Aloes, but if aloes be clene washed, it is the holso­mer, manye vnwasshed Aloes wil cause emeroydes.

Iohn.

IS the Safron that growe in Eng­land as good as that, that come from the other syde of the Sea?

Humfrey.

OVr English hony, & Safron is beter thē any that cometh frō aniother strang or foren lād. But to thy question of Safron, it haue vertue, ether in bread or potage, to make the hearte glad, it warme the body, it preserueth frō drōknes, drōke in ale or wine [Page cxix] prouoketh actes venerus, indu­cith slepe,Pillule [...]uffe. purgeth vryn. Mirh a loes & saffrō, maketh an excelent pil against yt pestilens, two peny waght of safron powder roosted with the yolke of an egge very hard, and the sayd yoke beaten in powder, twelf graynes drinke a morninges is good agaynst the pestilēce, Safron, planten, & I­uiry soddē. The dicoction drinke helpeth the yellow Iaunders, it is drye in the firste degre & haue vertue to restrayne.

Iohn.

VVe playne men in yt countrie dwel far from great Cities, our wyues and children be often sicke, & at deaths dore, we can not tell what shifte to make we haue no acquantance with y a apothicaris, comonly we send for a­quātitie or mamsey what so euer out diseases be, these be our comō medicine or else we send for a boxe of triakle, & when these medicines faile vs we cause [Page] a great posset to be made, and drynke vp the drinke: thinkest thou these medi­cines be not good?

¶Humfrey

FOr lacke of medicine God hel­peth the people oftentimes by myracle, or els a great number of men should pearish. But because the almightye God hath couered the whole face of the earth wyth many precious simples, wherof riche cōpossions be made. Ther­fore be nether so rude nor barba­rous to thincke these medicines good that thou hast rehersed, for al diseases, although not hurtful to some: but because many do re­ceiue more mischiefe then medi­cine in counterfaite treacles. I shal rehearse vnto thee what Va­lerius Cordus and other, doth write vppon the vertue of the precious triacle called Metridatum.

Iohn.
[Page cxx]

I Woulde be glad to heare of that pre­cious triacle, and his vertues.

¶Humfrey.

THis excellent triacle Methrid [...]tum is nexte in qualitye and vertue to Theriaca & do differ but little, but onely Theriacha is a lit­tle hotter and stronger againste venyme of Snakes, edders, and serpentes. It helpeth all paines of the head of men or women if it come of colde, most chiefly of me­lancholye and feare. It helpeth megreme, fallynge sickenes, and all paines of the forehead, drop­pynge of eyes. It helpeth tothe-ach, paines of the mouth, chekes, if it be put in maner of a plaister, or els anointe the pained place. It helpeth pains of the throte called Squinance, and also coughe, appoplextia, and passion of the [Page] lunges, and many greuous dol­lers and paynes within the bo­dy, dronk with the decoction of the flowers of pomgranetes or planten it helpeth and stoppeth flixes in the Ilias & long gutes windes or collick. The extention or cramps be helped very much with this Metridatū drōken wyth stilled watters. Palses, sicke­nessis in the midriffe, the liuer­rayns & bledder, be clensed therby, it prouoketh the menstruall termes in women being dronke with possit ale. If Isope or ier­māder be sodden in the sayd ale it is excellent agaynste the pesti­lence, or poysone. If it be dronke but a litle quātitie therof, accor­dinge to the disease, strength or adge of the persone. It is verye good against the stone, or for we­men which haue a newe disease [Page cxxi] peraccidentes called the grene syckenes, there is nothinge bet­ter against the bitinge of a mad dogge then to drink of this, and to annoynt the wound. If it be geuen in drinke to any sicke bo­dy a litle before the accesse or cominge of the colde fyttes of coti­dians, tercians or quartens, so that it be dronke with wyne tē ­peratly warmed,Of the exsilent treacle called Methri­datum. this Methridatū is a medicine of no small pryce, Democrates hath a godlie compo­sition of it, an other excellent cō ­position is of Cleopatre as Galen wryteth. An other and the most excellent is the dyscryption of Andromachus phisicion vnto king Nero, but the cheife father of this acte, was kinge Methridatus the noble king of Pōthus after whose name it is called.

Ihon.

[Page] In dede this is an excellent medicin, but I pray thee where shall I buye it▪

Humfrey.

THe blinde (felowe Iohn) doe eate many af [...]ye, & the plaine meanynge man is oft disceiued. There is no trust in some of the Poticaries, for althoughe the v­surpacion of quid pro quo is tolle­rable, for their Succidanes yet to abuse their simples or compoū des, it is not onely theft to robbe simple men: but also murther to kyll the hurtlesse.

Iohn.

OF late time we haue bene so affli­cted with sondrye sickenesses and straung diseases that in many places we could get no phisicions to help vs, and when men be sodainly sicke CC. miles from London, Cambridge or Oxforde, it is to late for the paciente to send for helpe, being infected with the pestilence. I pray the tel me some good [Page cxxii] regiment for me and my family, if it please God that it may take place.

Humfrey.

I Shalbe glad forasmuche as thou hast takē paynes to heare me al this while, to teache thee a prety regiment for the pestilēce.

Iohn.

REade it faire and softly, and I will take my yenne and write it.

¶ Humfrey.

CErtainly the occasion of this moste fearefull sickenes commeth many waies:Oiffinici [...] ̄ epidimi [...] Gall. as the chaūge of the aire from a good vnto an euill qualitie, taking his venemous effect of the vitall spirites, whiche incontinent with al speede, cor­rupteth the spirituall bloud. And sodēly (as it were) an vnmerciful fire, it quic­kely cōsumeth the whole body euen to death, vnlesse the holsome medicine do preuent and come to the heart, before the pestilent humour. And because it is a very strong sickenes, it is requisite to haue a strong curing medicine. For [Page] weake thinges wyll not preuayle a­gainst so strong a matter. Therfore I pray you note these six saiyngs, as aire, diet, slepe, or watche, quietnes or trou­ble,Good air and finally medicine. First walke not in stinking mistes, nor by corrupte marris ground, nor in extreme hoate wether, but in faire cleare aire vppon high ground in swete fields or gardēs, hauing fire in your chāber, with swete perfumes, of yt smoke of Olibanium, or Beniamen Frankensence, beinge colde wether. And in hoate wether, Roses, willowe braunches sprinkled with vi­neger, and often shiftinge the chamber is holsome, fleing the South wynde. Secondly, diat, moderate eating meate of good disgestiō, as all that haue pure white flesh, bothe of beastes & foules, good bread of wheate, partly leuened. Eate no raw herbes,Yōg lettis Pursten, Lettis, yong Lettis, or sorrell, except with vi­neger. Drinke of cleare thine wine, not chaunged and vse oft times vineiger with your meates, and myngle not fish and fleshe together in your stomacke, & [Page cxxiii] to drinke a tisant of barley water, rose water, & sorrell water, betwene meales is good, eighte sponefulles at ones.

Thirdly,Noone slepe. beware you slepe not at none it bringeth many sicknesses, & geueth place to the pestilence, and abateth memorye. For as y marigold is spred by the daye, and closed by the nighte: euen so is man of nature disposed, al­though through custom otherwyse al­tered vnto great domage and hurte of body.Slepe. Eight hours slepe, suffyseth wel to nature, but euery complexion hath his proper qualities, to slepe vpon the right side is best, euell vpon the lefte, and worse vpō the back.Exercise. Fourthly, vse moderat exercise and labor for the euacuation of the excrementes, as swyfte going vp hilles, stretching forth ar­mes and legges,De [...]uēda sanitate. Gall. lifting wayghtes, not verye ponderous, forby labour the first and second digestion is made per­fit, and the bodye strengthened, & this is a mighty defence, agaynst the pesti­lēce, and many mo infirmities, where­as through idlenes bee engendred all [Page] diseases bothe of the soule, and bodie, where of mā is compounded & made. Fifthlye,Mirth. aboue all earthlye thinges, mirth is moste excellent and the beste companion of lyfe, putter awaye of all diseases: the contrary in plage tyme bringeth on the pestilence, through painful melācolike: which maketh the body heauy and earthlye. Companye Musike, honest gaming, or any other vertues exercise doth helpe agaynste heauines of minde. Sixtly medicine, the partie beyng chaunged in nature and condicion, trimbling or burning, vomiting wyth extreme payne in the daye,Designis destilenci [...]lis. colde in the night, and straunge imaginacions. &c. Apte to slepe, when these signes do appeare, geue him me­dicine before .xii. houres, or else it will be his death. Take therfore withall spede, Sorel, one handful stāped with Rewe, Enulacampana, Oringe rindes, Sitron seedes: the great thistle rotes, Geneper beries, walnuttes cleane pi­ked, of eche one ounce, stampe them all together, then take pure sharpe vi­neger, [Page cxxiiii] a quarter of a pinte, as muche [...]uglosse water, as much whyte wine, and temper your sayd receites wyth these licoures. Then put in two oun­ces of pure Methridatum andromachi, Methridatū andro­machi. which is an excellent triacle, and two drams waight of the powder of pure Bole armein, mingle them al together in a verye close vessell, and geue the pacient a sponefull or more nexte hys heart, and eftsones asmuch more, & let them that take this slepe not durynge twēty hours: or else take pure Triacle and set wel mingled in possit ale made with white wine, wherin sorrel haue boyled a good draught, and let an ex­pert Chirurgion let the pacient bloud vpon the midle vayne called Mediana, Mediana Basilica. or the hart vayne: Basilica a good quā ­tity according to the strength and age of the paciente, excepte women with childe, and children. For the retaining the sayde bloud, would all turne to ve­nym and incurable poyson: And note this, that bloud be letten vpō the same side that yt sore doth appere. If any ap­pere [Page] for many causes, & slepe not .viii. hours after, & vse this most excelēt pillē often times.Pillule Pestilen­cialis. Ruffi. Take pure aloes epatik & myrre, wel washed in cleane water, or Rosewater, of eche two drammes, and one dramme of the powder of Saffrō, mingled with litle of swete wine, and tempered in a very smal vessel vppon yt coles, vntil it be partly thicke, or els incorporat al together in a morter, thē rol them vp in smal round pils, vse to swalowe half a dram of these pilles two times a weke in yt pestilence time a morninges .iii. houres before meate. An other medicen, tormentil gentian setwell of eche one dram, spicenarde drams .ii. nastick drammes three, bole armen drams, viii. geue two drames to yt patiēt or any that feare the plage in the water of Skabeas, or Cardus Be­nedictus, then drinke the brothe of a chicken, or pure wine, to ripe the sore, roste a great onion, take out the core, put in triacle, and warme apply it to the place thre or foure tymes renued warme. And oyle Oliue, blacke sope, [Page cxxv] soure leauen, Lilly rootes, of eche lyke quantitye boyled together, put in the ioyse of Rew, and make a plaster, this wil breake the sayd sore, Capōs grese, yolkes of egges, swines grease, barlie floure, linsede in pouder, encorporated together, wil make a good heling pla­ster. Emplastrum diachilon, magnum discriptione filii Zacharia doth resolue: and quence the hote vlcer. But in the time of the plage trust not vrins.

¶ Agayne to the gentle Reader.

THe swift (runner in his rase, gentle Reader) in a stobby or rockye groūd is in daunger ef [...]sones to stumble or faule, where as the goer faire and soft­ly in the smothe path is safe. Euen so, because I haue had no cōferrence with others, nor longe tyme of premeditatiō in studie, but with speade haue cōcilia­ted this smal intitled Gouernement of health, it can not be, but many things [Page] haue missed in the print, as in folio .iii. the .xviii. line, reade sighe for fight, i [...]. fol. lx. the seconde page .xi. line, reade Olibanum for Olibulom: and in the ende of the Epistle to the reader, there is imprinted Wenzoar, for Auenzoer, & in fol. lxvi. line .xv. leaue out because. And thus to conclude, I will by Gods grace ioyne another booke, called the Healthfull medicins vnto this Gouer­nement, and at the next impressiō such amendes shalbe made, that both silable and sentence shalbe diligently kept in trew order to thy contentacion, God willing, who euer kepe the in health. The first of March, the yeare of our saluacion. 1558.

VVilliam Bulleyn.

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