[Page] AN HISTORICALL NARRATION OF THE IVDGEMENT OF some most Learned and Godly English Bishops, Holy Martyrs, and Others: (Whereof III; viz. Archbishop CRANMER, B. LATIMER, and Bishop HOOPER, Suffred Martyrdome, in the Dayes of Q. MARY, for the Truth and Gospell of CHRIST IESVS) Concerning GODS Election, and the Merit of CHRIST his Death, &c.

LONDON. Printed by B. A. and T. F for Samuel Nealand, and are to be sold at his shop at the Signe of the Crowne in Duck. Lane. 1631.

Archbishop CRANMER his Booke, of the Sacra­ment of CHRIST his Body and Blood, against STEPHEN GARDINER, B. of Winche­ster, was written by that most Reverend Father; Anno 1551. in the Raigne of K. EDVVARD the 6. And Reprinted by Iohn Day, Anno 1580. Cum Privilegio.

B. HOOPER his Booke, upon the Commandements (together with the Preface, which is heere presen­ted) was Written by him, An. 1549. Novemb. 5. and Printed first, in the said Kings raigne, Anno 1550. And afterwards reprinted by Robert Wal­grave, in Queene Elizabeths Time: but the yeare is not specified.

B. LATIMER, is Printed by Divers, and at divers Times, and is in every mans hands: But the Copie here-alledged; is that which was Printed by Iohn Day, Anno 1571.

TO THE IMPARTIALL Christian Reader, (Whether He bee Laick, or Ecclesiastick) Grace, Mercy, Truth and Peace, bee Multiplyed.


ALbeit, I am no Professed Scholler, nor am able to brangle Sophistically about the niceties of Schoole-Quod-libets; yet, by the Blessing of GOD, and Tender care of my Parents, I have beene trayned up to such a little Measure of Learning, as hath enabled mee (though not to conceive the STRONG LINES of these Times, yet) to understand Plaine English, And some Easie-latine Authors. Wherefore, when I can steale any Vacancie from mine Ordinary Imployments, I doe betake my selfe to converse with such Bookes, as speake to my [Page] Simple capacity in a Stile Intelligible. And happe­ning by Chance upon a Booke, written some Foure­score yeares agone, by an excellently-learned By­shop, and a most holy Martyr. Iohn Hooper, upon the Ten Commandements, I perused it with Dili­gence; and received no small comfort to my Soule, and instruction to my understanding, by It: Especially, by the Perface. In which (to my simple Iudgement) The Author discourseth very learnedly and consci­onably, about the Points of Gods Election, and the Merit of our Blessed Saviour, Iesus Christ-his Death and Passion. I had also read, in the Booke of English Martyrs, That the great learned and Ho­ly Arch-Byshop, Doctor Cranmer, and Byshop Latimer, and Byshop Hooper, did (All of them) suffer Martyrdome, and shed their dearest Hearts bloud, in the blacke dayes of Persecution under Queene Marie, for the Truth and Gospell of Christ Iesus: And, that None of Them could iustly bee Charged, or Branded, with any Hereticall, or dam­nably-Erroneous Doctrine. More-over, I was in­formed, That All of Them were worthy Instruments of God in the First Reformation of Religion, from Popish Errours and Superstition, in the Raigne of King Edward the sixt of ever-Blessed Memory: And, that Some of them were imployed in the Ma­king and Ordering of our Booke of Common-Prayer (as it was THEN set out) and in Compo­sing the Confession of the Church of England, in the Booke of Articles of Religion. That These were Persons, as cleare and Free from all Taint of [Page] Poperie, Pelagianisme, Superstition, or Heresie, as Any that lived in Those Times, or Since; I thinke the Booke of Acts and Monuments will fully per­swade any honest man, that shall There reade their Stories without preiudice. Besides, (Though I will not take upon Me to give you the Sence and Meaning of the Confession of our owne Church; yet). This wee may say without offence to Any: That such learned Men, and Holy Bishops, as were Principall Agents, inframing the Confession and Doctrine thereof, in the Booke of Articles, and in the Booke of Com­mon Prayer, did well and throughly understand, and know, the True-sense and meaning of their owne Conclusions: and neither did, nor would, eyther write, or preach, any thing against or Contrarie to the Same. Neither is it possible, or any wayes pro­bable, that These Holy Martyrs, and learned Bi­shops (who sacrific'd their lives for the Gospell of Iesus Christ, Almost fourescore yeares agone) should derive and borrow Their Tenents, touching these matters, from Iames Harmin, or the Remonstrants in Leyden; Considering, These did first begin pub­likely to write of such Things, not much above Twenty yeares since. Wherefore, It seemes to me, that it is against Reason, that very Many Consci­entious & learned Divines amongst us (which doe now teach the selfe-same Doctrine, that was long agone de­livered by These Holy Mirtyrs and Fathers of our Church) should be uncharitably, Falsely, and Ig­nominiously Branded with Odious and Abhorred Nick-names, fetcht from Leyden: Whereas, in [Page] Truth, I know They disdaine to become Sectatours' to Any Sectaries of any Countrey: But (Contrari­wise) doe strive to preserve the Purity of the same Doctrine, which They received from the First Fathers of the Reformation in England: and neede not to straggle beyond the Seas into Belgia, to learne Instructions from thence. For which Cause, I thought I should doe God, and my Holy Mother (the Church of England) no Evill seruice, in giving Notice to the world, of what These Holy Fathers and Martyrs did hold, and Teach touching these Matters of Gods Election, and the Merit of our Blessed Saviours Death, in a meere Narrative and historicall way, (which onely will stand with my profession:) not in any Argu­ment or so much as in a Bare-word, Interposing or Engaging my selfe. For my End and scope is, not at all to Debate or Determine such points; to Meddle with the sacred Doctrine of the Church; to wrest the sense or Meaning of the Articles; or indeed any way to State the Trueth on eyther side; (For this would not sute with my poore Abilities,) But mine Ear­nest Endeavour and desire is for Peace and quiet­nesse-sake among Those of our owne [whose Consecra­ted Mouthes, especially in consecrated places, cannot without Sacriledge) bee imployed by the Houre, in ray lings and evill speakings] to give such, as are wil­ling to reade it, onely a sight and view, what Pro­positions concerning These matters (Opinions, or Doctrines, call them what you will) were agitated and Maintained, by Many ancient Fathers of our [Page] Church, and Principall Authors in our Reforma­tion; who were all Dead, before Leyden was so much, as For Ieyden was made an Vniversity not past 56. yeares agone, by Wil­ [...] Prince of Orange. Anno 1574. an Vniversity; and concerning whom no mem­ber of any Reformed Church in Christendome can make any scruple, but that they might bee saved.

To the Intent, that if such Positions (as we Here shall find) were by them tollerated, and Approved in those Times, by One or other, without Breach of Cha­rity, or Bandying of Nick-names; We also, in these Times; (notwithstanding the like private Differences in unnecessary Controversies) may, (as They hercto­fore did) beare with one Another; and unanimously, orderly, and silently submit our Pennes and Tongues unto Gods sacred, and our Dread Soveraignes Roy­all and Christian Ordinance in this Church, which onely bids us, to keepe the VNITY of the Spirit, in The Bond of Peace. And I am perswaded, that (upon the deliberate and considerate Reading of these following passages) Many, who are not too-much Byaced in Iudgment and Affection, will (as I my selfe have done) out of meere Conscience forbeare, uncharitably and contumeliously to stander, and con­demne (as Broachers of NEW Doctrine) Those Men who labour faithfully to preserve (as They concerve) the OLD DOCTRINE; and which, I am sure, was anciently taught by These first Fathers in the First times of the Blessed Reformation. So desiring God, by his Holy and blessed Spirit, to increase his Graces of Illumination, and Sanctisication in every One of us, I commend These Following Pages to thy Christian [Page] Consideration; and Thy selfe, Body and Soule, to GODS most gracious Protection and di­rection in the Trueth; resting

Thine in CHRIST IESVS, [...]
Courteous Reader.

In some places of this Copie, the right Pointings are missed (by reason of the Collectors absence:) which the Prin­ter requests thy Gentlenesse to pardon, and to mend these places following with thy Pen.

PAge 13, Line 31, 32, blot out, H [...]i [...] peccatum vitare non posse, quam i [...]os, quieum Io [...]iniano, asseru [...]. Pag. 50. l. 24. read, Ado [...]ai. From pag. 66, to pag. 89, in the Title, read, The Iudgement of B. Hooper [...] Pag. 71. l. 10. blot out, as, & read, By whose Passion we are made whole. Pag. 73. l. 5. read, Though, by the Scriptures. Page 73. l. 26. r. Not in the persons themselves. Pag. 74. l. 20. read, That Epistle. Pag. 76. line 10. read, Cleane delivered. Pag. 76. l. 14. read, His owne Body. Page 79, l. 3. read, They that be led; and line 10. blot out, Yet. Pag. 82, l. 1. read, Poore creature. Pag. 86, In the Margin, blot out, First. Pag. 86, line 24. read, Except it be Helped Pag. 87, line 12, read, Simple, and plainly; and line 14, read, The same neere unto us. Pag, 88. l. 27. read Others that be Learned. Pag. 95. l. 13. read, Then to hearken. Page [...]8. l. 17. blot out, H [...]. Pag. 100, l. 16. read, For there are None.

THE Copie of an Answere unto a Cer­taine Letter;

Wherein the Answerer purgeth him­selfe, and others, from Pelagius Errours, and from the Errour of Free-will, or Iustification of Workes; wherewithall He seemeth to be Charged, by the said Letter: And further, He sheweth wherein, he differeth in Judgement, from certaine English Writers and Preachers; whom he chargeth with Teaching of False Doctrine, vnder the Name of Predestination.

Published about the Second or Third yeare of Q. ELIZABETH, by a Protestant Divine, who florished both in the time of K. EDVVARD and Q. ELIZABETH, and in the time of Q. MARY for his Conscience endured voluntary exile.

I desire of GOD, by his Grace and Mercie, to settle, strengthen, and establish you, in the Truth of his holy Word for ever.

Dearely Beloved:

WHere, you write vnto Mee, that you haue often heard, that I and others should hold the Errours of Pelagius, (whose errors, you say, are almost vnknowne vnto you, what they are [...]) and whereas, further, it is reported of us, (as you say) that we should deny the Prede [...]ina­ [...]ion of GOD, and seeke a Iustification by Free-will and by * Deserving of workes, (which mat­ter Merit. you doe both understand, and also have found good proofe [as you suppose] that wee are guilty in the same;) laying the whole Foundation of your Proofe upon this saying, set forth in Print. viz.

Although there bee but Few on Earth,
That Rightly They * Deserve;
Yet Thou, ô LORD, for their good life,
The Residue Preserve.

With which Filthy saying, to burthen Mee, and others, whom you Name; I marvaile greatly [Page 3] that you could be so much abused▪ not conside­ring by whom it was written and se [...] forth in Print. For, by the Intituling, you see, it was Printed be­yond the Seas in Q. MARIES time: For that it is entituled, A Prayer to GOD for hi [...] Affli­cted Church in England: and, as it there appeareth manifestly, it is the worke of one WILIIAM SAMV [...]L; which is a Man, to Mee, of very small acquaintance. But a Preacher Hee is: And as for his saying [that a Man may Deserve God, &c.] which you des [...] mee to proove, if I can▪ It is a Doctrine so Abominable and Blasp [...]s, as I am sure, Neyther Papist, nor Pelag [...], nor any o­ther Heretique, eyther Old or New, hath ever written, or maintained, a more filthy and execra­ble saying. For it is the flat and manifest Deny­ing, both of GOD the Father, and of his Sonne CHRIST IESUS: Neyther doth it require any Confutation to him that doth but Confesse, that there is a GOD. And as for My selfe, I doe not love my Life so dearely, as I Hate this vile Saying, Deadly.

But wonder it is, that such a Sentence, contai­ning the very filthiest Dregs of all Pelagius Errors, could so long stand printed, and neither bee for­bidden, nor by any man Written against. And al­though I deny not, but some other there are, which (maintayning the power of Mans F [...] will, and the Meritorious worthinesse of Mans deseruings doe de­ny the Free gift of Gods Grace in Christ Iesus, and For his sake onely, comprehended in the Eternall [Page 4] Predestination and Fore-ordinance of God; and De­clared vnto us, in his most-Holy word: Yet, be­cause I see, there be many in these Dayes, wrong­fully and falsly, accused to be the Enemies of that Blessed Predestination; to bee Pelagians; Iustisiers of themselves; and such like; and, with Those bitter Termes, are, in Open-Auditories, defaced, and brought into Contempt among the Multitude; who (being deceived with giving over-has [...]y Cre­d [...]t unto such men, not throughly-understanding the Matter) doe use to giue Sentence, before the Cause bee heard: I have thought it good there­fore, (Most-dearely Beloved) [Not to Them, which take more Delight in the Defamation of o­ther, than in knowing the Truth themselves; but to Thee, which art willing to vnderstand the Matter, before Thou Condemne or Iustifie eyther partie] in as Few words, as I possibly can, to shew what shamefull Doctrine (under the Name and colour of Gods Predestination) is Now-a-dayes set forth and taught of Many, which both I and many others mis­like; and have divers times with some of them, in Private and Friendly talke, perswaded to leaue: Both because wee Iudge the Doctrine to be False; and also, the Destruction of all vertue to Follow thereupon.

For which Cause, (as the Manner is, of Them that Feare not so much the Shipwracke of a good Conscience, as they doe the losse of worldly estimati­on, least any such Disfavourers of their Fantasie should hap to have some credit among the People) [Page 5] with boisterous breath, they blow abr [...]ad, That the Mislikers of this their Doctrine are Enemies of Gods holy Predestination. But, right well they know, that those, whom they now so specially accuse to be such Haters of Gods Predestination, are indeed Most intire lovers of the same; and Many of Those, whom They accuse to bee Popish Pelagians, and Iustifiers of themselves, have bestowed both their Goods and their Lives against that Fil [...]y and detestable Sect.

And, as for those Errours, which Pelagius the old Hereticke, with Calestinus and Iulianus his Ad­herents, did hold, and also Revoked the same in the Iudiciall Councell of Palestine, I thinke it good to Rehearse them; First, in Latine [...] and after, in English, as they are gathered together by St. Au­gustine; And then to shew (according to your re­quest) what part of their Doctrine, which they teach under the name of Predestination, My selfe and others doe mislike. To the end, that you and others may the better Iudge, who are indeed wor­thy to bee called Pelagians; and whether some part of their Doctrine be not for just cause mis­liked.

The words of St. Augustine are These.

Ob­iectum Epist 100. Tom. 2. est, Eum dicere: 1. Quia Adam, sive pec­caret, sive non peccaret, Moriturus esset. The Errours which [...]el [...]g [...] held, and [...]. [...]a [...]ted in [...]he [...]ounc [...]il of Pal [...]s [...].

2. Et, quòd Peccatum ejus, Ipsum solum [...]ese­rit, Non & genus Humanum.

3. Et. quòd Infantes in Illo statu sunt, quo A­dam fuit ante praevaricationem.

[Page 6] 4. Et, quòd, ne (que) per Mortem, vel praevericatio­nem. Adae, Omne Genus humanum moriatur; ne (que) per Resurrectionem Christi, Omne Genus Huma­num resurgat.

5. Et, Divites Baptizatos, nisi Omnibus abre­nuncient, si quid Boni [...]s [...] fuerint facere, non Re­putari illis, nec cos habere posse Regnum Dei.

6. Et, Gratiam Dei & Adjutorium non ad Singulos Actus dari; sed, in Libero Arbitrio esse, vel in Lege at (que) in Doctrinâ.

7. Et, Dei Gratiam, secundùm merita nostra, dari.

8. Et, Filios Dei non posse vocari, Nisi omni­nò abs (que) peccato fuerint effecti.

9. Et, Non esse Liberum Arbitrium, si Dei indiget Auxilio; quoniam in propriâ voluntate habet vnusquis (que), facere aliquid, vel non facere.

10. Et, victoriam nostram Non ex De [...] adjuto­rio esse, sed ex libero Arbitrio.

11. Et, quòd Poenitentibus venia non Detur, secundùm Gratiam & Misericordiam Dei, sed se­cundùm Meritum & Laborem eorum, qui per Poeni­tentiam Digni fuerint misericordiâ.

Haec omnia Pelagius Anathematizavit.

The First of Pelagius's Errors, which St. Au­gustine PELAGIVS his first Er­rour. heere citeth, is: That ADAM should have Dyed, whether hee had Sinned, or not Sin­ned.

This is, as you heare, One of Pelagius his wicked Errors: That Sinne is not the Cause of Reprobation, [Page 7] or casting away; Death sprung out of Gods Ordi­nance, or some other way; and came not of Mans Sinne. For, (saith Hee) Whether Man had Sinned, or Not sinned, yet Hee should have Dyed: Contrary to the Manifest Scripture; which sayth; That, By One man Sinne entred into the world; and Death, by the Meanes of Sinne. And the Wiseman Rom. 5. saith: That GOD Created man to bee undestroyed. And, againe hee saith: God hath [...] made Death, Wisdom. 1. 13. neyther hath Hee pleasure in the Destruction of the living. Hee created All things, that They might have their Beeing: yea, All the people of the Earth hath Hee made, that they should have Health; That 14. there should bee no Destruction in Tlum: And that the Kingdome of Hell should not bee upon the Earth. For Righteousnesse in everlasting. But Vnrighteous­nesse 15, 16. bringeth Death.

Wicked therefore and abominable was This Error of Pelagius, which affirmed; That whether Man had Sinned, or not Sinned, Hee should have Dyed.

And heere, in the very Beginning of Pelagius's errours, I report me to Themselves; even, to Them (I say) that blow the Trumpet of Defamation a­gainst others, (with the Tearmes of pestilent Pelagi­ans!) whether Those, whom they so accuse now to bee Pelagians, doe hold this Errour? Or, whe­ther they Themselves (which would take some Mote of Errour out of other mens Eyes) have not this Pelagius Beame sticking fast in their owne? Let they-themselves be Iudges; or, [...]et their owne Do­ctrine [Page 8] Iudge, both in Print, and Preaching, whereof some part shall bee hereafter rehearsed. Ye [...], let All the world judge, (which haue heard the Doctrine of both parties) who they are, which in this point, ought worthily to bee called Pelagi­ans.

The Second Errour, which St. Augustine re­hearseth, I he Second Errour. is: That ADAMS Sinne did onely hurt Himselfe, and not the whole generation of Man.

This is another vile and Detestable errour, which Pelagius held. That the Sinne of Adam brought not Misery and Death upon all his Posteritie: Contra­ry to the open Scripture, which sayth: That, By the sinne of One, condemnation came upon All men. Rom. 5. 18. And the Holy man Esdras sayth: O Adam! what [...]. Esdras, 6. hast th [...]n done? For though it was Thou that sinned, yet Thou art not fallen alone, but All wee that come of thee.

The Third, depending also upon the Second, The Third. is this: Thas Infants, being new borne are in that state that Adam was in, before his Transgression.

Which Errour seemeth onely, or chiefly, to ex­tend to the Innocencie of Children. For, if his mind were, that, in All points, Infants were in A­dams state, then should it bee over-Brutish, For, who seeth not, that. Babes new-borne suffer often­times Paine and Griefe? Which Adam did not before his Transgression. But, to affirme, that Infants, are not Borne and Conceived in si [...]ne, is to deny Originall sinne; which is an old ard a Dive­ [...]sh errour, and utterly against the Scripture; [Page 9] which sayth plainely: Behold, I was borne in wis­kednesse; Psal. 51. and in sinne, hath my Mother conceived Mee.

The Fourth errour is: That, Neyther, by the The Fourth Death and Transgression of Adam, All the Genera­tion of Man dyeth; nor, that, by the Resurrection of CHRIST, All the Generation of Man doth rise againe.

I doe no [...] understand, that Felagius here, spake of the last Resurrection at the Day of Iudgement; as though hee had (after the manner of the Saddu­ces) C. denyed the Resurrection of our Soules and Bodies at the last Day. [For, then, were all their Disputation in vaine, of the Manner, how wee should bee saved? Whether, by the Grace of GOD; or, by the Deserving of Man; if Salvati­on, or Resurrection had, of eyther part, beene denied altogether. Neyther doth the Scripture attribute the last Resurrection unto CHRIST, as though the Soules and Bodies of Men should have dyed, like Beasts, and not have rison againe unto Iudgement, if CHRIST had Not come; yea, no Doubt all men should have risen againe; and That, unto the Iudgement of everlasting Damnation, if CHRIST had not come.] But, I understand, that Pelagius, in N. P. this Article, denyed the Genera [...]tie of Redemption by the Death of CHRIST; by which, wee [...] (as it were) arise from Death, because of the State of Life and Salvation, whereunto we are brought in Christ, by Redemption: like as wee were in the state of Death and Damnation in ADAM, by sinne. [Page 10] Not that any Man is purged from the Corrup­tion of Sinne, unto the Innocency of ADAM: but, because the Sinne is covered in Christ, and pardoned, for His sake. And further; there is to bee Noted, that the First part of this Errour is manifestly the very same, which is the Second, and Third Errour, before rehearsed; and by the same Scriptures plainly condemned. But to make the Latter part of this Errour more Plaine, it was Necessary, and thought good of St. Augustine, to rehearse the First againe. That, by the compa­rison of Condemnation in ADAM, and Redemption in CHRIST, it might the more plainly bee per­ceived, that Christ was not inferiour to Adam; nor Grace, inferiour to Sinne: And, that, as All the generation of Man is condemned in Adam; so, is All the generation of Man redeemed in Christ: And; as generall a Saviour is Christ by Redempti­on; as Adam is a Condemner by Transgression. Which comparison is taken out of St. Paul his Epi­stle to the Romanes; where hee saith: Likewise then, [...] by the Sinne of ONE, Condemnation came Rom. 5. upon All men; even so, by the Iustifying of ONE, commeth the Righteousnesse, which bringeth Life up­pon All men.

Yet s [...]all not All men bee Condemned, by A­dam, Eternally: For, there is, ordained of GOD againe a way to Life; which way, is Christ. Ney­ther, shall All be eternally saved by Christ: For, there is, of GOD declared a way, againe unto Death; which way, is Sinne; and the wilfull [Page 11] Consempt of GODS Mercy in CHRIST.

But this appeareth to bee oa [...] of Pelagius's dam­nable N. B. Errours; That Christ was not a generall Sa­viour; That Christ offered not [...]p the Sacrifice of Redemption, for All the whole World. Contrary to the manifest Scripture, which saith: Hee it is, that obtayned Grace for our sinnes; and not for our Sinnes onely; but also, for the sinnes of the whole 1. Iohn, 2. world. The same is also manifestly declared in these Scriptures following, and many other. [Iohn, 1. a. b. f. and 12. g. Rom. 5. d. 1. Cor. 8. d. 2. Cor. 5. c. Heb. 2. c. and 2. Pet. 2. a.]

And, heere, it is worthy to bee noted againe, how iustly this Errour of Pelagius reboundeth a­gaine into the Bosomes of those, which so falsely ac­cuse Others to be guilty of the Pelagian Errours. Be indifferent (dearely Beloved in the Lord) I beseech thee; and weigh the matter, as it is; I desire No more.

The Fift, of Pelagius Errours, was: That R [...]h The [...]. men, being baptised, except they did vtterly ren [...]nce and for sake all their Riches, Though they seemed to doe some good, Yet it is not Acceped: neyther can they have the kingdome of God.

A filthy and Abominable Errour; directly re­pugnant, both to the State of a Common wealth; and also, to the word of God; which [...]aith: Charge 1 Timotl. 6. them that be Rich in this world, that they bee not ex­ceeding wise, &c. and that they d [...]e good and bee r [...]h in good workes, &c.

The Sixt Errour, is: That the grace of GOD and The Siat. [Page 12] the Helpe of God, is not given to euery One of our workes, but that it is in Free choyce, or by the law, and [...]. [...] Doctrine.

This Errour is exceeding wicked, and execrable: That Man, by the law, by Doctrine, or by Free choyce is able to doe any Manner of good worke (whatsoever it be) without the Grace and Helpe of God. For, as St. Paul saith: Wee are not sufficient of our selves, to Thinke Any thing, as of our selves; 2. Cor. 3 5. but, our Ablenesse commeth of God. And, Againe; It is God that worketh in us, both the Will, and Deed, even of his good will.

The seuenth Errour, is: That the Grace of God The Seventh is given, according vnto our Deserving.

Vile and Abominable is this Errour, Also; and Contrary to the Manifest Mind and words of the Apostle; which saith: If it bee of workes, then Rom. 11. 6. it is no more of Grace. For then were Deserving, no more Deserving.

The eight Errour is: That, None can bee called The Eight Errour. the Children of God, except they are altogether made without sinne.

This Errour is alike-wicked with the rest; di­rectly repugnant to the open Scripture; where it is written: If we say, we haue no sinne; we deceive 1. Iohn 1. our selves, and the Trueth is not in us. For, as St. Iames saith, of Himselfe, and of all others: In many Iames 3. things we sinne All.

The Ninth Errour, is: That there is no Free The Ninth. Choyce; if so be, a Man have need of Gods Helpe: See­ing it is in a Mans owne will, to Doe a thing, or Not to Doe it.

[Page 13] This was, also, the wicked opinion of Pelagius: That, if it be granted, that a Man hath need of Gods Helpe; then, it must needs follow (saith Pelagius) that Hee hath no Choyce, in Doing of things; but whatsoeuer a Man doth, that must Hee needs doe, and cannot Choose, but Doe. This is the Devils onely way (above all other) to leade men to De­struction; not to suffer them to walke in the plaine-path of the Lord; but, to Tur [...]e them to some Extremity: eyther, on the left hand, or else on the Right; eyther, into the wide way of Lewd Liberty, or into the Blind path of crooked Super­stition; eyther to seeke Iustification by Deserving of workes, or by an Onely-Faith, not-mighty in Love by Operation.

Such like Extremity doth the Devill use in this point of Doctrine, Driving Men, eyther into the Doating Dreames of Destinie, or into the Absolute Free will of Papistrie: eyther, Affirming All things So to be Ordayned of God, that whatsoever a Man doth (bee it Good or Evill) He must Needs, and cannot choose, but of Meere Necessity, by the Ordinance of God, Commit the same: or else affir­ming, that Man by Free-will, or Naturall strength, can doe the will of God, and walke in his lawes, without the Continuall helpe and Grace of God: which two Extremities St. Augustine doth very plainly Con­demne, in these words following. Liber [...]m sic confi­temur arbitriū, vt Dicamus Nos semper De [...] indigere Aug. de verb. Apost, Se [...]. 192. auxilio; & tàm Illos errare qui, cum Manichaeo, di­cunt, Hominem peccatū vitare non posse; quam Illos qui, Cum Ioviniano, asserunt, [Page 14] Hominem non posse peccare.

We doe (sayth Hee) So confesse * Free Choic [...], That wee say, A Man hath alwayes Need of the Or, Free-will. helpe of GOD: And, That, as well they erre, which say (with Manichaeus) that a man Can not esche [...] Sinne; as also; They, which say (with Iovinian) that a Man can not Commit sinne.

Thus saith St. Augustine.

To conclude therefore: This is Numbred a­mong the wicked Errours of Pelagius: That if a Man have Free Choice, then He hath no Need of the [...]race, or Helpe of God. Contrary to the Ma­nifest and open Scripture; which saith, by the Mouth of St. Paul: I c [...] doe All things, by the Helpe Philip. 4. of Christ, which strengthneth mee. And Esdra [...] saith: They that have abhorred my law, while they 4. Esd [...]a [...], 9. had yet Freedome, and Open roome of Amendment and Conversion; and vnderstood Not, but despised it; The same must know it after Death in paine.

And heere, yet once againe, I desire Thee to Marke who they are, which (with Pelagius) fall into this Extremity, to asfirme, That if a Man have Free Choice, Then he hath no Need of Gods Helpe; or N. B. if hee have Need of Gods helpe, Then Hee hath no Free Choice at all. And, who they are, which, on the other Side, (with St. Austin against Pelagius) doe asfirme and confesse; That Man, So, hath Freedome, or Choice; that, Neverthelesse, he hath continually need of the Helpe and Grace of God. Who they are (I say) which in This point also, ought [Page 15] worthily to be called Pelagians, let All men Iudge. The Case is so cleare, that No lacke of knowledge, but onely wilfull Blindnesse, may helpe to Cloake the Matter.

There followeth the Tenth and Eleuenth Er­rours; The tenth and element i [...] Errour. which are these: That our Victory com­meth not of Gods-Helpe; but of Free-Choice: And, that Remission of sinnes is not given, to them that re­pent, according to the grace and Mercy of God; but, according to the Deserving and labour of them, which, by Repentance, are worthy of Gods Mercy.

O Blasphemie Intolerable! O Filthy Puddle! and Sincke most Execrable! full of stinking Errours; full of Damnable Presumption, like to the Pride of Lucifer, most Abominable! The de­testable vilenesse whereofis such; that rather, by Exclamation, I thought it Good to Re [...]unce it; Than, with Scripture, or Reason, to Confute it. Seeing, All Reason, and All Scripture, giveth All glory vnto GOD; and this Blasphemous Errour ra­keth away all the glory of all Goodnesse, from the Father of all Mercy, and GOD of all Consolation, and giveth it unto vile and wretched Man; which hath, of Himselfe, Nothing that is Good; but doth, altogether, receive it from the mercy and goodnesse of GOD.

Heere concludeth St Augustin, with the Er­rours The Con­clusion of the first part of this Trea [...]ise. of Pelagius; and saith, That All these Er­rours He Revoked, and Renounced, in the generall Councell of Palestine.

[Page 16] Thus have I set forth, in English, these Errours of Pelagius together; That thou, which art willing to know the Trueth, and understand the Matter, even as it is, mayest bee Able to Iudge, who they are, that hold Any of these Errours; and, not credit the Malice of certaine, which (to cloake their owne False Opinions) accuse Other to bee Pelagi­aus, who, indeed (from their very Heart and Soule) abhorre All these wicked Opinions; and have beene, many yeares, willing to bestow their lives, against all these Abominable Errours.

Yet there is One thing, whereunto Pelagius was Compelled to Subscribe, which I haue not rehear­sed among the Errours aforesaid: because, the De­niall thereof is, of all our Gospellers (as I suppose) received for no Errour. The Article is This: Quòd Infantes non baptisati, non solùm Regnum Ca­lorum, verùm etiam vitam aeternam, habere non pos­sint. N. [...]. Hereunto did Pelagius subscribe: That In­fants, which are not Baptized, cannot have the King­dome of GOD, nor Eternall life.

Which cruell Opinion, [That All un-baptized Children are damned] St. Austin, in many places of his workes, doth boldly and vehemently main­taine. But Calvin saith; Explodendam esse Illorum Glossam, palàm est; qui Omnes non-Baptizatos aeter­nae morti adiudicant. It is cleare (saith hee) that their Glosse is worthy (with hissing and clapping of Hands) to bee driven out of Doores, which Condemne unto everlasting Death all those, which are not Baptized.

[Page 17] And because Calvin is with so Many of us, which are Gospellers, in Authority fully-sufficient to encounter with Augustine; I thinke it good (for shortnesse) in this Article, to say no further.

There remaineth then, (as before I promised) The Second Part of this Treatise. briefly to Note those things, which I thinke worthy to be reprooved, about the Doctrine of Predestination, as it is (Now-a-dayes) taught of many.

VVHerein, lest I should seeme to speake without assured Ground; and, because wordes in Preaching, in Talke, or Disputation (wher­of I have heard great abundance in this Matter,) may rashly passe with small advisement; and ey­ther, easily bee Denyed; or, soone forgotten; I am determined to touch Nothing, but their very words, which are set forth in Print. And, because the ta­king and answering of their whole Bookes were a matter long and tedious, (Being commonly stuf­fed, on the oneside, with an heape of Opprobrious and outragious wordes, against such Private persons, as they tooke in hand to write: And, on the o­ther side, filled, rather with obscure Subtilties, than with plaine Affirmations:) I have thought it best, therefore, to take certaine Sentences, which contayne manifest Affirmations out of Divers late Printed English Bookes; wherin the Summe & effect of this Doctrine (which Many doe for iust cause mislike:) is Fully, plainely, and simply declared.

[Page 18] I reade in an English Booke, set forth by Robert Crowly, and entituted; THE CONFVTATI­ON OF 13. ARTICLES, &c. These words. viz.

Adam therefore being so perfect a Creature, that there was in Him no lust to Sinne; and yet, so weake, that of himselfe, hee was not Able to withstand the assault of the subtile Serpent; No Remedy, the onely Cause of his Fall must needs bee the Predestination of GOD.

Thou seest (Dearely beloved!) in the Conclusi­on of this Sentence, one Point declared, wherein the Contreversie doth consist. For, where Hee plainely affirmeth; That GODS Predestination is the onely Cause of Adams Fall: (which is the Fountaine of All sinne;) Others (having much more Reverend opinion of GOD, and of his Holy Predestination) 1. God is not the Author of Sinne. doe set their Foot, or rather, their Heart and Soule, against their said Conclusion: Esteeming it farre better to bee Tor [...]e in many thousand pieces, than to thinke or say, that Gods fore-Ordinance, or Predesti­nation, is the Cause of any Sinne, or Evill.

I beseech Thee; Let not thine Eyes bee blinded, nor thy Mind muffled with malice, eyther against the One party, or the Other: but, in the Ballan [...]e of an upright Iudgement weigh the Difference.

The One saith, (as, in this Conclusion, manifestly appeareth; And, as afterward yet more plainely hee affirmeth;) That the Predestination of GOD is [Page 19] the onely Cause of Adams sinne; and so (Conse­quently) of All evill.

The other affirmeth directly Contrary: that GOD or his predestination is the Cause of No Sinne, or E­vill; but the onely Cause of all Goodnesse and Vertue.

And Herewith agreeth the Holy and Divine Apostle S. Iohn in his Epistle; saying: All that is in the world (as the Concupiscence of the Flesh, the 1. Ioh. 2. lust of the Eyes, and the Pride of life,) is Not of the Father.

All Good things, that are in the world, are (no doubt) of GOD, our Heavenly Father: But, what soever in the world, is Concupiscence, Lust, Sinne, Evill, or Wickednesse, That same it not of GOD our Heavenly Father; as S. Iohn doth plain­ly and precisely affirme. The like plainnesse useth also the holy Man Iesus, the Sonne of Syrack; in these words: Say not Thou, It is the Lords Fault that I am gone by; For, thou shouldest not doe the Ecclus. 15. thing that GOD hateth. Say not Thou; Hee hath caused me to goe wrong: For, He hath no Need of the Vngodly.

The very same thing is plainly declared in these Scriptures following, and in other places al­most innumerable. [Psal. 5. a. Prov. 19. a. Ierem. 7. c. & 19. B. Ose. 13. c. Iob. 34. b. & 36. B. Rom. 7. b. &c. 1. Cor. 4. F. Iam. 1. c. Exod. 34. A. Deut. 5. D. 2. King. 14. b. Psal. 81. c. & 144. b. Prov. 1. c. Wisd. 1. c. 2. D. 11. D. 12. B. C D. 15. A. Eccl. 2. D. & 18. B. Esa. 5. A. & 3. D. & 55. B. & 65. A. Lament. Ier. 3. Cap. Ezek. 18. c. D. & 24. b. [Page 20] & 33. c. Ioel. 2. A. 4. Esdr. 1. c. & 2. a. & 7. c. & 8. c. Math. 23. E. Act. 17. G. 1. Tim. 2. A. & 4. c. 2. Pet. 3. B.]

The same saith St. Augustine also plainely, in these words: Non ergo Casu [...] Ruentium, ne [...] Ma­lignitatem iniquorum, ne (que) Cupiditates Peccantium, Predestinatio Dei aut EXCITAVIT, aut SV ASIT, aut IMPVLIT; sed planè pradestinavit IV DICIV M suum, quo unicui (que) retributurus est, prout gessit; si­ve Bonum, sive Malum: Quod IV DICIV M futu­rum Non esset; Si Homines, Dei VO LVNT A­TE peccarent. Neither the Falls, of them that Fall; nor the wickednesse, of them that are wicked; Nor the Lusts, of them that offend, hath the predestination of God, either PROVOKED, MOOVED, or COMPEL­LED: but, without doubt, He hath Fore-Ordain [...]d his IV DGMENT; whereby He will recompense eve­ry man, according as He hath done, whether it bee Good, or evill: The which should bee no Iudgement, if Men did sinne, by the WILL of God. Note.

And although There bee some places of Scrip­ture, whereupon They would ground this Opinion, [That Men should sinne, By the WILL of GOD; or, that GOD should predestinate, or ordaine men to sinne;] as where it is said: That God hardened the Heart of Pharaoh; and such like: yet pertay­neth August. [...]. [...]. [...]. it Nothing to that purpose, if it bee weighed with the Rest of the Scripture. For as St. Augustine saith: Ipse, quasi eos indurat; quia Iusto Iudicio indu­rari sinit. He doth (saith St. Austin) as it were, Harden Them; because that, with his Iust Iudg­ment, [Page 21] he suffereth them to be hardned. And in his Booke De lib. arbitr. & gra. C. 21. He saith: Where, at any time, we reade in the Scripture, That Men bee SEDVCED, or Their Hearts HARDNED of GOD; There, may we not doubt, but that Their wicked DESERVINGS went BE­FORE: Lest, ye run (saith he) into the say­ing of Salomon. Insipientia viri violat vias eius, Deum autem causatur in corde suo. The Foolish­nesse, of a Man, Defileth his wayes: but hee saith in his heart; GOD is the CAVSE.

Of this HARDNING of Heart, Melancthon, in his Common-places, speaketh very plainely; say­ing: Nee Figurae illae verborum offendunt, &c. Ney­ther (saith he) do these figurative speeches offend, [as, I will HARDEN the Heart of Pharao; and such like:] For, it is Certaine; that, in the HE­BREW Phrase, they signifie a PERMISSION, or Suffering; and not an Effectuall WILL of GOD. As, [Leade us not into Temptation:] That is to say; SVFFER us not, to bee lead into Tempta­tion.

These are Melancthons words: And Marke what Hee sayth of the HEBREW Phrase: For, All Men know Him to be a Man Learned. But, (to bee short;) It is surely to bee marvailed at, that although They doe thus accuse Gods predestination to be the onely Cause of of ADAMS FALL, (which is, indeed, Not onely Sinne: but also the very Well-spring of All wickednesse;) And the Filthy-Fountaine of all our Vncleannesse:) That yet [Page 22] THEY dare affirme THEMSELVES to bee the N. B. ONELY Friends and Lovers of Gods Predestinati­on; and All Others to be the Enemies of GODS Holy Predestination, who doe not subscribe un­to This their fantasticall Imagination.

Moreover, if it should be said, That They make GOD the Author of Sinne; They would cry, Nay; and say, They were slandered.

But, whether GOD be not the Author of That, whereof He is the onely Cause, Let the un-corrupted Heart Iudge.

Also (to say the Truth) when They see their Time and Place, They are Bould-enough, yea even, to use the Terme, Author; (in that same manifest sense:) as in a Booke set forth by Iohn Knoxe, A­gainst an Adversarie of Gods Predestination (as He calleth Him:) Wherein Hee, (Page. 158.) sayth thus: viz.

Therefore whatsoever the Ethnicks and Igno­rant did attribute unto Fortune, WEE assigne to the PROVIDENCE of GOD.

And straight w [...]y, he saith:

Wee shall Iudge nothing to come of Fortune; but that All commeth by the Determination of His Counsell; And, further; It Displea­seth him, when we esteeme Any thing to pro­ceed from Any other: So that wee doe Not behold and know him, Not-onely the Principall Cause of All Things; but Also, [Page 23] The AVTHOR appointing All things, to the One-part, Or, to the Other, by his Coun­sell.

Marke well his wordes, and the very Sense thereof. All commeth from God (saith Hee:) GOD is the principall Cause; and, God is the Author of it, whatsoever it be; God appointeth All things, both to the One part; and to the Other; both to the wic­ked, and to the Godly. All THINGS; Nothing is excepted; As well DAMNATION, as Salva­tion; as well Sinne, as Vertue; as well Wickednesse, as Holinesse; yea, if it hap to bee MVRTHER it selfe. (For, THAT (a little before) by Name Hee rehearseth:) Whatsoever it be, it Proceedeth from None other (saith Hee) but from GOD. GOD so hath appointed it: God is the Principall cause of it: Yea, not onely the principall Cause, but also the Author of it.

Here thou seest, those Plaine-termes, which sometime (for a little nice lisping) they Cannot, or will not Speake. [Sc. That God is the Author of all MV [...]THER and Mischiefe.]

As for Fortune, I know it to bee an Heathenish-Fable. But, where He saith, that God is not onely the Principall Cause, but Also the Author of all things, without any exception: and that whatsoever the Ethnicks attributed to Fortune, That same wee ought to ascribe unto the Providence of God; It is such a Wide WANDRING, and Large BLASPHEMY, as hath not beene lightly heard.

[Page 24] For, who knoweth not, that unto FORTVNE, the Ethnickes ascribed Treason and crafty Conspira­cie? As where they call Her, Insidiosa, perfida, & Malefida. Vnto Fortune they ascribed cruell Murder, and tyrannicall Mischiefe: As when they call Her, Aspera, Dura, Sava, Truculenta. Vn­to Fortune, they ascribed filthy Lust, and impu­dent Bawdry: as when they call her; Lenocinans, Bruta, and Impudens. Vnto Fortune, they ascribed scornefull Pride and Vaine-glory: calling her, Im­periosa, Procax, and Superba. Vnto Fortune they ascribed beastly Blindnesse, and rude Ignorance: calling her, Caeca, and Exoculata. To conclude; unto Fortune, the Ethnickes ascribed All perverse and Pestilent wickednesse, and all abhomination Dete­stable: calling her, Nefaria, Abominanda, and Improba. Yet say these Professours of Destinie, [whatsoever the Ethnickes ascribed unto Fortune, That same ought wee to attribute to the Providence of GOD.] Yea, and GOD is the very Author; the Principall cause; and the Onely cause there­of.

But, now to returne againe to Mr. CROVVLY. After that hee hath written, that GODS Prede­stination is the Onely cause of Adams Fall: Then goeth hee forth in the same Booke, and the same Article, unto the NEXT execrable Wickednesse committed in the world; saying:

Now, what say wee of CAINE? Was Hee not Predestinate to slay his Brother? No, say the Free-will men.

[Page 25] Here, thou seest (Dearely Beloved) Who they are, that so Odiously are noted with the Name of Free-will-men: not onely the Papist (against whom Hee pretendeth, there to write;) but Name­ly all Those, that say GOD Hath not predestinate any Manto commit Murther, or such-like wicked Ab­homination. These, They call FREE-Will-Men, These, They call Pelagians.

Indeed, Such as So maintaine Free-will, That a Man by Free-will, without the Grace and Helpe of GOD, may absteine from Evill, or doe Good [As the blind Papists doe, and (as before is proved) that Pelagius did hold: or as (before rehearsed) William Samuel saith: That men may Deserve God:] Those, I say, might worthily bee called Pelagians; because They hold, eyther All, or Some part of His Errours.

But, Those, which Teach that all Murth [...] and Mischiefe springeth out of GODS Fredestination; or, That Any Man-slayer is predestinate of GOD to kill his Neighbour; or, any Adulterer, to lye with his Neighbours wife; or, any Traitor, predestinate of God to Conspire against his Prince; or, any Rebell, to Rise against his Soveraigne; (as These men most plainely affirme;) They hold in this poynt the Error of the Manicheans. Which was (as yee heard before, by the words of Saint Augustine;) Hominem peccatum vitare non posse. That a Man cannot eschew Evill; or, cannot choose but commit sinne.

These Men (I say) which affirme, That Cain was predestinate to murther his Innocent Brother [Page 26] Abel; and (as, in the same Booke and same Article also, he saith) that

The most wicked Persons, that have beene, were of GOD Appointed to be Wicked, even as They were.

They hold the Errour both of the Stoicks, and also of the Mani [...]heans.

That is to say, (as AVGVSTIN [...] declareth) August. retra [...]. l. 1. c. 9. & 16. That evill hath his Originall of Gods Ordinance; and not of mans Free-will, For if Murtherers, Adul­terers, Theeves, Traytors, and Rebels, be of GOD Predestinate and Appointed to be Wicked, (even as they are,) and cannot choose, but, of meere Neces­sity, by the Ordinance of GOD, commit all such wickednesse, even as they doe: Then, what is our life, but a meere Destiny? All our Doings, Gods Ordinances; and All our Imaginations, Branches of Gods Predestination?

And I doubt not, but the Stoicks and Mani­chaeans, would also Temper the matter with great Discretion of words: (as These men will say, that wee must speake more Reverently of the Matter;) But, seeing they plainely hold these Principles, and (when they see their Time) speake plainely there­of Themselves [as you may well perceive, by that which hath beene already, and shall yet, more at large, be rehearsed;] I see no cause, why it should not of All men be plainly declared. Againe; if it be a Truth, why should it not bee plainely spoken? [Page 27] If it bee a Truth, that Traytors are predestinate of GOD to Conspire the Destruction of their Princes; and, Rebels, predestinate of God, to make insurrecti­on against their Soveraignes; If, I say, it bee a Truth, that GOD hath so Predestinate them; and, that They must of Necessitie; and cannot choose but commit such wickednesse; why should it not bee plainely spoken? Except, a man should bee ashamed to speake the Truth.

But in what Scripture is That written? Or, is it not rather written? For thy life, shame not to say Eccl. 4. d. the Truth. And surely (to say as it is) I see not well, How any man can speake more plainely, in this matter, than they themselves doe. For, what can bee more plainely spoken, than that Gods Predesti­nation, is the onely cause of Adams Fall? And, That Cain was predestinate to slay his Brother? And, That God is both the principall Cause, and also the Author of All things, both on the One side, and / on the Other; appointing all things to All men? And, whatsoever Ethnicks ascribed to Fortune, that same wee ought to attribute unto the Providence of GOD? And, That that the most wicked persons, that have beene, were of GOD appointed to bee wicked, even as they were.

And further, in the same Booke, and same Ar­ticle, hee sayth:

Yea, I am sure, that you will grant; that if God doe Predestinate a man, to doe things rashly, and without any deliberation, He shall not Deli­berate at all; but runne headlong upon it; [Page 28] bee it Good or Evill, that hee, doth.

He makes also an argument, after this sort; saying:

  • Maior. What soever God foreseeth and prede­stinateth, must Necessarily come to passe: (for his Prescience and Prede­stination are infallible.)
  • Minor. But He Fore-seeth and Predestinateth all Things.
  • Conclusio. Ergo. All things must come to passe, of Necessitie.

The Minor of which Argument, is apparantly false. For, Though GOD fore-seeth all Things; yet, doth hee not predestinate all things. For, His Fore-sight doth extend, Both to Good and Evill: But, His Predestination is ONELY of things, that bee Good: As the Scriptures, and all ancient Wri­ters, prove.

And, here againe, it is to bee noted also, how plainely they make GOD the Author of Sinne. For, if this Maior be True (viz. That GOD doth not one­ly fore-see, but also predestinate all things; yea, even Sinne and Evill: As the fall of Adam, the Mur­ther of Cain; and the wickednesse of all them, that have beene most wicked:) Then may this Minor be truely annexed: [viz. That GOD is the Author of all that he predestinateth:] And so, must this Conclusion needes follow: (viz. That GOD is the Author of all Sinne and Evill.

[Page 29] The First Part, [viz. That GDD predestinateth all Things; Or, all that hee Fore-seeth;] is a Proposition of their owne Assertion, without any Ambiguity, or doubtfull meaning.

The Second Part, [viz. That GOD is the Au­thor of all that he predestinateth;] is My affirma­tion: which is so True and Manifest, that they have scarce any manner of Colour to Deny it. For, what is it to predestinate any thing? But, First, to Purpose, Decree, Appoint, and Ordaine it to bee done? Now, Hee which First Purposeth, De­creeth, Appointeth, Ordaineth or Inventeth a Thing to be done, is not Hee The Author of the same? Or is not Hee rightly called; Causa, Origo, Fons, Radix, Principium, Author? The Cause, O­riginall, Fountaine, Roote, Beginning, or Author of the same?

He which first Purposeth, Decreeth, Appoin­teth, and Ordaineth an Insurrection, or Rebellion to be made against his Prince, is not he to be Ap­prehended, as the very Author of all the Sedition? And worthily, or Rightly, so to be judged, and cal­led? What man can bee so Ignorant, as not to perceive it? For all the world knoweth, that, for None other Cause, One is sayd to bee the Author of any thing, but onely for that, eyther Hee is the first Inventor; or else, the first Purposer, Appoin­ter, and Ordainer of the same. And also, whoso­ever is the first Inventor, or else the first Ordainer of any Thing; most properly, Hee is said to bee the Author of the same.

  • [Page 30]Maior. Now, marke, againe, the Argument; and see, how the Conclusion followeth. God Predestina­teth All things; yea, even Sinne, and Evill.
  • Minor. And, God is the Author of all that he prede­stinateth; as hath beene plainely prooved. Ergo.
  • Conclusio. He is the Author of Sinne.

This must needs follow; if the first Proposition be granted: [viz. That GOD predestinateth, or ordaineth all things: or, All that he Fore-seeth.]

Wherefore the old Writers, in Confutation of the Manichaeans, laboured in nothing somuch, as to prove, that although God did fore-see all things (Both good and evill:) yet did hee onely-Fore-see, and Not Predestinate, those things which are evill: As, by an Infinite Number of places, out of the ancient Writers (if shortnesse would suffer) I could ea­sily prove. But one place of St. Augustine I will rehearse: which doth not onely resolve clearly this matter, (Betweene Fore-sight, and Fore-ordinance; or, betweene the Praescience and Predestination;) but also most plainely teacheth all Prospor. ad Object, Vinc. that is to be said of Predestination. Prosper, rehear­sing the words, and defending the Opinion of Augu­stine, [where he prooveth, that the Divell can scarce be called the Author of Sinne; because it came of Mans owne Will: and asketh, by what Madnesse and Frensie Men doe attribute that unto God, which canot be, altogether, ascribed to the [Page 31] Divell?] at the last, hee concludeth with these words of AVGVSTINE.

Nihil ergo Talium Negotiorum Deus praedestina­vit, ut fieret: Nec illam animam nequiter turpiter (que) victuram, ad hoc, ut taliter viveret, praeparavit. Sed Talem futur am non ignoravit: & de Tali, Se Iustè Iudicaturum esse, praescrvit: At (que) ita, ad praedesti­nationem, eius nihil aliud referri potest, nisi quod aut ad debitam Iusticia Retributionem, aut ad indebi­tam pertinet gratiae largitatem. Therefore (saith he) God hath predestinate no Part of any such Do­ings: neyther the Soule, which afterwards lived wickedly, and filthily, hath he prepared to that end, that it should so live: but, Hee was not ignorant, that such a One it would bee; and of such Hee fore­knew, that he himselfe would [...]ustly iudge. And so Nothing may bee referred to the Predestination of GOD, but onely that, which pertaineth to the due recompense of his Righteousnesse, or to the undeserved guift of his Grace.

These are the words of S. Augustine: which, surely are marvailous full of pyth; containing the whole Summe, of that which may bee said, in this matter of Gods predestination: and are therefore most worthy to be noted; yea, and to bee committed to memorie. For, being thorowly weighed, They doe plainely set forth, the full resolution of all this Question.

But, to returne againe unto Those, that (Contra­ry to the Scripture, and all ancient Writers) doe teach, that GOD doth not onely Fore-see, but [Page 32] also Predestinate both Good and evill; as well, the Murder of Cain, as the Holinesse of Abel, (and thereby make God plainely the Author of Sinne:) when they perceive the outragious Blasphemy, to be over-much Apparant and manifest, Then doe they (Sometime) closly rowle it vp in a Riddle again; which, for the Darke speach thereof, may serve, at the least, to Blinde the eyes of some. As, where (among many other wayes) they plainely make God the Author of Sinne [Saying; that God is not onely the Principall Cause, but also the Author of All Things, without Exception, both on the One Side and on the Other;] if they be then urged with the Consequence, [That God is the Author of sinne:] They will Answere: That in All Abomi­nation, God is the Author of the Fact; but, Not N. B. of the Crime. As, of the Fact, Deede, or worke, of Adulterie, Sodomitry, Murther, and Idolatry; God is the Author (Say They:) but, not of the Fault, or Crime.

This Aenigma, have I heard some men use: and it is also written in a Booke, intitled, [A Briefe Treatise of Election and Reprobation;] lately set forth, and printed in the English Tongue; where He saith thus.

Though we be Compelled to say, that God is the Author of the Fact; yet, wee must answere; but Not of the Crime.

Areade, Areade; what is that? God is the Au­thor [Page 33] of the very Fact and Deede of Adultery, Theft, Murther, Treason: and yet, he is not the Author of Sinne. And why? The subtilty of the Riddle is This: viz. Tha [...] Sinne is No-thing. The theife is not hanged for the Deed, which he hath commit­ted; [For GOD is the author thereof:] but he is hanged for the sinne: and that is, For No-thing. For, when they say, God is the author of all things: Then Nothing is excepted; but, sinne, is Nothing: And, therefore he is not the Author of sinne. The thiefe, is hanged, for nothing: The Murtherer, is put to death, for nothing: The traytour looseth his Head, for nothing: The wicked are punished in everlasting fire, for nothing. A Marvelous Sophisti­cation! a strange Paradox; and cautelous Riddle.

But (to be short) though, many wayes, this subtilty might be answered, I will take only the Defini­tion of Sin; as I find it written in the same booke: where he saith, very Truely:

The Nature of Sinne is Defined, by the authority of Scripture, to bee, a Thought, Word, or DEEDE, Contrary to the will of GOD.

Now, because They say, that God is the Autho­of all evill DEEDES, though not of the CRIMES; Let us passe over the evill Thoughts, and evill WORDS, and speake onely of the Deede it selfe, (which He himselfe Defineth, to be Sinne, and con­trary to Gods will.)

If God then be the Author of that FACT or DEEDE, which Deede is Sinne, and contrary to Gods will; How can Hee then say, that GOD is the Author of the FACT, but, not of the [Page 34] FAVLT? Seeing hee himselfe setteth forth, not onely a Thought, or a Word; but also, a DEEDE to be Sinne. And, if God be the Author of that SAME DEEDE (which DEEDE is Sinne) Is it not a thing most plaine, that God is the Author of Sinne?

And All this their Travell is to prove, That the Ordinance and Predestination of GOD, doe so carry men, even Headlong, unto all actions (bee they never so Mischievous) That, of Necessity they must Needs, and Cannot Choose but commit the same. As though Gods Predestination were like a Tempest of winde, [...]o blowing, in the Sayles of Mans heart, That, by It, He is carried Headlong to all things whatsoever he doth. According to the saying of the Poet:

Iam magis at (que) magis Pr [...]ceps agit Omnia FATVM.
Now more and more, DESTINY hurleth all things headlong.

But surely, This STOICALL Necessity maketh such a Confusion of all things; That, (let them colour up the matter with as much cunning, as they can; and Qualifie it with as Faire words, as may bee;) yet shall there never the State of a Common wealth in England stand, if this pers [...]a­sion may once take Perfect Roote among the PEOPLE: besides, that it is vtterly repugnant to the Holy Scripture; and, against all ANCIENT Writers: a [...] shall bee, hereafter, briefely proo­ved.

[Page 35] And whereas They deny this Doctrine, of Theirs, to be the Stoicall Opinion: [because the STOICKS (say they) fained, that Nature, with such Order of Causes, as she hath Tyed together, doth bring all things to passe By Necessity: But, They affirme, that GOD by his Fore-ordinance, aternall Predesti­nation and Providence, bringeth all things to passe, By a like Necessity.] Thus, the Best-learned of them make the Difference.

But a plaine Delusion it is to blinde the eyes of men withall. For, (as Priscia [...]s saith) FATVM (which we call Destiny) is derived of the Participle Fatus; which is, as much to say, as spoken: Be­cause it is Nothing else (saith he [...]) but that, which is spoken or appointed of GOD. As if a man should say; It must Needes be SO; For God hath spoken the word. Eusebius also, citing the Definition of Chrysippus, saith: Fatum is nothing else, but a Cer­taine Decree, Ordinance, and Determination of God. Which thing (To make no more Rehcarsall of many mens sayings) St. AVGVSTINE plainely De­clared. Aug. de. Civ▪ Dei lib. 5. Cap. 1. Thus (saith he) it is proved, that they did call the Will of the High-God, FATVM: Gods-Will (saith St. AVGVSTINE) they (Stoicks) called Fa­tum, or Destiny.

It is manifest therefore, that the Stoicks did not imagine, that Nature, by an order of Causes, brought all things to passe by a Necessity: But rather, that God, Fore-ordaining and appointing in order all cau­ses in Nature, (or, otherwise) brought all things to passe by a Necessity.

[Page 36] Which thing, together with the Order of Cau­ses, Tully speaketh of, plainely; saying: Fati Ne­cessitas, &c. The Necessity of Destiny (saith Tully) is That, which of GOD is Ordained and appointed, that it come to passe by an Everlasting Order of Causes.

The SAME ORDER of Causes also is not-For­gotten of OVR MEN; That, in All points, Their Doctrine might agree with the Stoicall Doctrine: as in an English booke, translated out of French, late­ly set forth in print, and Entitled [A Briefe Decla­ration of the Table of Predestination.] Where he saith:

Seeing God hath appointed the End, it is Neces­sary also that He should appoint the Causes, which Leade vnto the same End.

As if he should say: Like as God hath appointed some Man to be hanged; so, hath he appointed him also to STEALE; as a cause leading him to the same End, whereunto hee hath appointed him Or else; It was his Destiny to be hanged. Ergo; it was not his Desti­ny to steale. Or Thus; (which is all one) He was appoin­ted, by GODS Predestination, to be hanged. Ergo; He was appointed, by Gods Predestination to steale.

For, seeing God hath appointed the end (saith He;) it is Necessary also, that he appoint the Causes, which leade to the same end. As for example: If this bee true which they say: (viz. That God doth Predesti­nate all things; or, That God doth both appoint the end of all Things; and also the Causes which leade to the same end:) Then doth it follow, and may truely be said; That Martin Swarth with his men was appoin­ted [Page 37] and Predestinate of God to be slaine at the Battell of Stoke. And further it followeth; As God ap­pointed Martin and his Fellowes to This end: So was Sr. Richard Symon, the Priest, Appointed and Pre­destinate of GOD, to powre in the pestilent Poyson of privie Conspiracy, and Traiterous mischiefe of vaine-glory, into the heart of Lambert; (his scholler) as a Cause, leading vnto the same end. Item; that He (the said Lambert) was appointed and predestinate of GOD, to consent and agree unto the pestiferous perswasion of his Master (Sr. Richard) in the Pride of Lucifer, to aspire to the High type of Honour, in Deposing (if Possible it were) the Right & most Noble Heire of England; and Elevating himselfe (like a Traiterous villaine) into the Royall throne of the same. And, that, Thus, he was appointed of God to do, as Another Cause, leading to the same end, which God Ordained. Item; that the Irish men were Ap­pointed vix. K. Henry the sea [...]enth. of God to be Rebellious Traytors, against their Soveraigne Lord, the King of England; and, to maintaine the False and filthy Quarrell of the said Lambert, As Another Cause, leading unto the same end. Item; that the Lady Margaret, (Sister to K. Ed­ward the 4.) was appointed and predestinate of God, to be a Traitoresse to England; and, to employ all her Wits, Forces, and Power, to the utter Destruction of her naturall Countrey, as Another Cause leading to the same end. Item; that the said Lady Margaret was appointed of God, to conduct and hyre the said Martin Swarth and his men, to Invade the Realme of Eng­land, as Another Cause leading to the same end. [Page 38] Item; That the said Martin Swarth; The Earle of Lincolne; The Lord Lovell; the Lord Gerard; and Divers other Captaines of the Rebels, were Appointed or Predestinate of GOD to bee of such valiant Courage, in maintaining the False quarrell, of Traiterous Lambert, that They were slaine, (and, On the Other side, that many a True English mans Blood was shed,) at the Battaile of Stoke: which was the end of this woefull Tragedy; And (By this Their Manifest forme of Doctrine) was Altoge­ther, and every part, appointed and Ordained of God. Both the end and also the causes above rehearsed, and others Innumerable, which did leade to that same end.

Alas! who seeth not the Destruction of England to follow This Doctrine? who seeth not, the Confusion of All Common-wealthes to depend here­upon? what Prince may sit safely in the seate of his Kingdome? what Subiect may live quietly, possessing his owne? what Man shall be ruled by Right of a Law; If this opinion may bee perfectly placed in the hearts of the People?

But (to be short) Thou seest here, by Example; The same which Tullie calleth (Series Causarum) the Continuall order of Causes appointed of God: and Our Men (even in like manner) call it, the Causes appointed of God, to leade vnto the same end, which he hath ordained: whereupon followeth the Force of CANNOT-Choose; which is called, Fati Necessitas, Fatall Necessity: or, the Necessity of Gods Ordi­nance. For, (as you have heard) Fatum, is [Page 39] Nothing else but a Decree, or Ordinance of God.

Which Necessity is set forth of some Men, vn­der the Name of Gods Predestination: and Now of­tentimes the same thing is set forth also, by This word, Providence. Which Name of PROVI­DENCE Likewise, the Heathen Stoicks used for the same purpose; as Cicero saith, Pronoea, Anus Fatidica Stoicorum, quam latinè licet Providenti­am dicere. Pronoea in Greeke, (saith He) the Old wife of the Stoickes, that setteth forth their Destiny, which in latine may be called Providentia, the pro­vidence of GOD.

But, let them call it Providence, Predestination, Pre-Ordinance, or what they will: This is, no doubt, the very Stoickes opinion; [viz. That God hath so appointed and pre-ordained All things, That, of Meere Necessity, they come to passe: And, whatsoe­ver men doe (whether it bee good or evill) they CANNOT CHOOSE but doe it.] Which Neces­sity, Seneca also manifestly declareth, in these words: Necessitates omnium Rerum, quas Nulla vis rumpat, Fatum existime. The Necessities of all things (saith he) which no Force, or violence can breake, That same I hold to be Destiny.

And, as for that, which the Heathen did attri­bute to the Starres or Planets, They meane none Other, but that God ordained the Planets, in Nature, to worke such things, as Hee, before, had decreed and appointed. Even as we also Iudge, That GOD useth the Operations of the Planets, in sending [Page 40] such Raine and Tempest; faire weather, or [...]oule, as his pleasure is.

Let them say; therefore, what they can, or will: This meere Necessitie, which our Men doe [...]each: is the very Same, which the Stoickes did hold. Which opinion, because it destroyed the State of a Common-wealth, It was banished out of Rome as St. Augustine declareth, Lib. Quast. vet. & Nov. Testam. Where, Hee notably refelleth that Opinion, in these few words; saying:

Quâ ratione Nati dicuntur, &c. By what reason (saith Augustine) were they borne, which bani­shed Math [...], is often taken, as S. Augustine useth it heere, for Ge [...]thlia­cus: whose pro­fession was to declare mens Fortune or De­stiny, by the Time of Nati­vitie. Which in Esa. 2. The translation of Zurich calleth Mathematicos: and our Trans­lator calleth it: Talkers of mens [...]. (MATHEMATICOS) the setters forth of Destinie out of Rome [...] Which law was kept; and they were but Heathen. How were these Things done by Destinie, which make against Destinie? But surely if there bee a Destinie, it doth nothing a­gainst It selfe; saith St. Augustine. For so were Destinie, no Destinie: Of, at the least, Destinie fighting against it selfe.

Or, (to speake the Same, in those words, which Our Men (by abuse) taken out of Scripture, to maintaine the very same Matter:) If it bee GODS Predestination, that men should write and speake against his Predestination, (as, they say, some doe:) Then is GODS Predestination, a Kingdome, not onely divided; but also fiercely Fighting against it selfe. O miserable Absurdity! which any Child may perceive must needs follow; If All thinges come to passe, with absolute Necessitie, by GODS Predestination; as They teach.

[Page 41] This same Doctrine also [That all [...] sprin­geth out of GOD [...] ordinance: Or, that Gods Prede­stination was the Cause of [...] fall, and of All wickednesse:] is plainly maintained in an English Booke, la [...]ely set forth and [...]led (Against a Pr [...] ­vie Papist, &c.) Where, among many Open and plaine Sentences upon this matter, I finde an Ar­gument made; in these wordes:

  • Major. Whatsoever [...] in Adam, was in Him by Gods will and Ordinance.
  • Minor, But, Sinne was in Adam.
  • Conclusio, Ergo, Sinne was in Him by Gods will and Ordinance.

The Maior of which Argument (being under­stood of Adam, after his [...]all) is manifestly false: and therefore the Conclusion also is false. For if it may be said of Ad [...] [...]fter his Fall; (as, by the Mi­nor, you well perceive, that he so understands it;) Then may it also bee sayd, [...]ow, of any Man; [That, what execrable wickednesse soever is in Any man, that same is in him, by GODS Will and Ordi­nance.] Hee goeth about also to proove the same, by another Argument, which hee maketh, speaking of the lying Spirit; saying:

  • Major, God commanded him to Sinne:
  • Minor, But, God commanded nothing, which hee ordayned not.
  • Conclusio, Ergo: So hee ordayned him to Sinne.

[Page 42] Which argument, it is [...]vayle, that Any man could be so Blinde, is not to see, how it might (with much more Strength, and Force, and much more manifest Trueth) be Turned against Himselfe; in This sort; (speaking of Adam, yea, and of all men): saying.

  • Major, God commanded Adam; and doth command all men, to Absteyne from Sinne.
  • Minor, But, He commandeth Nothing which Hee ordaineth not.
  • Conclusio, Ergo, God Ordained Adam, and all men to absteyne from Sinne.

If GOD, then, Ordained ADAM, and all men, to absteyne from Sinne; Then did He not Ordeyne Adam, or any man, to commit Sin: So, was not Sinne in Adam, or in any man, by Gods will, and Ordinance; Not, GODS Ordinance the Cause of Adams Fall, or of any Mans Sinne. And, Therefore, Their Opinion is vtterly False.

Also, if GOD, in his SECRET COVN­SELL, doe predestinate, appoint, and or­daine man to Sinne; and, yet, give unto Him a strict law, and commandement, Not to sinne; is not then His SECRET WILL contrary to his Open WORD? And, his Eternall Ordinance repugnant to his WRITTEN LAW? All Their Faire words, and Fine framed fetches cannot avoide it.

[Page 43] Yet would I further aske them a Question: Seeing it is the Decree, Ordinance, and Will of GOD expressed in his word, That man should not sinne; How crept they into That SECRET COVNSELL, where God Ordai­ned, Decreed, and Willed the Contrarie? That is to say, That man should Sinne?

But I heare their Answere, already published in Print, standing in the Third leafe, and second page, of the First Blast of that Traiterous Trumpet, set forth, against the REGIMENT of weomen. Where, (fol. 2. pag. 2.) he, briefely and covert­ly, toucheth this Close and Privie Counsell of God; in these words.

The SECRET COVNSELL of God excepted.

But (in fol. 3. pag. 2.) he saith:

I am assured, than God hath Reveiled to some, in this our Age, that it is More, than a Mon­ster in Nature, That a WOMAN shall Reigne, and have Empire above Man.

This may be the Apocalyps of some men in Our Age: But, sure I am, it is not in the Revelation of St. Iohn the Evangelist, nor of Any Other old Apostle, or Prophet. THESE NEW REVE­LATIONS (which are reveyled to Men of our Age, out of a SECRET COVNSELL, Decree, and Ordinance of God, CONTRARY to the OPEN word and commandement of God) [Page 44] are meete for Those which delight in Damnable Dreames of some doating Destinie; and may well bee called the Inspirations of old Arians; Reve­lations of blind Anabaptists; or, un-written Veri­ties of Superstitious Papists; rather than the se­cret Counsell of GOD, revealed to Men of our Age.

But, to conclude: That Angell, or Spirit, which (contrary to the manifest WORD of GOD) hath revealed unto Men of our age, that a WOMAN, (being Right Inheritour to the Crowne of a Realme) ought not to bee Ruler thereof; That same Spirit and Angell of Darknesse, hath Revealed unto Men of our Age, that Caine was Predestinate to Mur­ther his Brother Abel; and that the most wic­ked. Traytors, Murtherers, and Theeves, that live, are Ordayned of GOD, in his SECRET Coun­sell, contrary to his Open Word, to bee wicked, even as they are; and, to commit such Murther, Theft, and Treason, even as they doe.

The same Conclusion, and New Revelation, is also plainly set foorth, in the other late-printed English Booke, before Named, translated out of French into English: Where, anon after the Be­ginning, speaking of GODS Will, he saith:

By vertue whereof, All thinges are Made: yea, even those Thinges, which are Evill and Ex­ecrable.

Yet, when hee hath plainly affirmed; that, by [Page 45] vertue of GODS Will, evill and execrable Thinges are made: lest the Horrible face of Sathan should be perceived in the Burning flame of Those terri­ble Wordes; The matter is, afterwards, trimly co­vered with a cloake of unsavorie Subtiltie. For, hee declareth his mind to be; That those evill and execrable Thinges, which are wrought by the ver­tue of GODS will, are not Evill and Execrable. Sc.

In That they are wrought, by his Divine Counsell.

As if hee should say; Though they bee indeed E­vill and execrable thinges, which the Counsell of GOD worketh: yet are they not Evill in that re­spect; or, Therefore evill, because GOD worketh Them.

But for as much (saith hee) as They proceed from the Prince of the Ayre, &c.

Or, (to speake it in more usuall termes) because the Divell, or wicked Men, doe worke It; which neverthelesse (as they plainly hold and affirme,) are but the Instruments of GOD appointed there­unto; and, in doing the Same, doe nothing else, but that which GOD hath Ordained them to doe: and, SO ordayned, that they Cannot choose, but Doe it, Even as they doe.

Which opinion, Prosper, (defending the Sen­tence Prosp. Respons. ad Object. Gall. cap. 6. of St. Augustine) writeth against: in these wordes. Pradestinationem Dei, sive ad Malum, sive [Page 46] ad Bonum, &c. That the Predestination of GOD (saith he) doth worke in All men, ey [...]her unto Good, or unto Evill, is most foolishly said: As though a Certaine NECESSITY should DRIVE men unto BOTH: Seeing, in good Things, the Will is to be un­derstood not-with-out-Grate, And, in evill Things, the Will is to bee understood with-out-Grace.

But that, which PROSPER and AVGVSTINE doe (Heere) most truely call a most-Foolish say­ing; The same doe These men call the most High, and profound Wisedome. For, GOD (say They) predestinateth all things: Ergo, All Things must come to passe of Necessitie.

And further; M. Crowly, in the said booke of Confutation before named, and in the same Ar­ticle, using the very same Terme of [DRIVING] He saith;

That Gods Predestination hath DRIVEN them unto it.

And yet, not therewith content; anon after he sayeth: Wee are compelled by the Necessity of Gods Predestination, to doe those Things, for which wee are Damned. But, To repeate the whole sentence.

To This must wee Answer (saith Hee) in This wise. If God were an Inferiour, to any Su­perior Power, To the which Hee ought to ren­der [Page 47] an Accompt of his Doings; or, if any of us were not his Creatures; but of another Creation besides his workemanship; Then might wee charge him with Tyranny: because Hee con­demneth us, and appointed us to be punished, for the Things wee doe by Compulsion, through the necessity of his Predestination.

Marke heere [...] by the way) How all Rulers are charged with Tyranny; for punishing Malefactors. First, grant this Proposition, which Hee affir­meth: [Sc. That all offenders (as Murtherers, Theeves and Traytors) doe commit their offen­ces, by the compulsion of Predestination.] Secondly, This assumpted Minor, (which he also affirmeth.) [viz. That it is Tyranny, for one that is an Inferi­our Power, (and not their Creatour) to punish Them, which doe commit Crimes, by such Com­pulsion. Then must it Needs follow; that all Ru­lers are Tyrants, which punish Malefactors, and are no Creators, but Inferior powers. Because All Malefactors could not choose, but commit such wicked offences, beeing DRIVEN thereunto by Compulsion, thorough the Necessity of Predestina­tion. Woe worth the Sinfull Generation of our age! Which hath bred and brought forth such a Noysome Novelty and strange Paradoxe: To whom the hands of GODS mercy are stretched out all the Day long; and yet, They are ever defying him to the Face; as the Prophet saith. Esa. 65.

[Page 48] Consider (I beseech Thee) not the Persons of them that Speake, (bee they never so High, never so Wise, never so Many:) but Marke the Opinion it selfe; (even in thy Conscience, and in the sight of GOD;) whether Any thing may be spoken more Repugnant to the Nature of GOD? More con­trary to the Word of GOD? More defacing the Iustice and Mercy of GOD? Than, to say; That GOD punisheth man with the Torments of Hell in everlasting Fire, for doing Those thinges, which Hee himselfe hath Predestinate, Ordained, De­creed, determined, appointed, willed, and Compelled him to Doe: and That, which A man Cannot choose, but hee must needes doe, by the Force and Compul­sion of his Predestination: All which Thinges, in those plaine Tearmes, THEY most-evidently Teach in divers parts of Their writings. But, of all other, This is most-odious and horrible; where they affirme; that Men Sinne by Compulsion, thorough the Necessity of GODS Predestination.

And, the very same, saith Knoxe, in the 317. side of his Booke, before-named: Affirming likewise in Those plaine tearmes:

That, the Wicked are not onely left, by GODS Suffering: but Compelled to Sinne, by his Power. And hee citeth it as the Saying of St. AVGVSTINE against IVLIAN. Lib. 3. Cap. 5.

But very falsely (as I suppose:) For I haue [Page 49] sought the same place in Saint Augustine: and He hath, neyther those wordes, nor any such like, that import the same, or the like Matter. Where­fore, till such time, as they make better proofe: I must thinke they have forged a lye, in AVGVS­TINES name; supposing thereby to give autho­rity to falshood: But to Conclude; whether it were the saying of Augustine, or not; you see, it is plainely their Opinion; not onely that men can­not choose, but doe what wickednesse, or mischiefe soever they doe; but also, they are Compelled with the power, force, or compulsion of GODS Prede­stination, to commit all those evils and wicked Crimes, for the which they are executed with the Temporall sword, or demned with Everlasting torments. Against which Errour, cryeth out the Wordof GOD in a multitude of places; manifest­ly prooving, that through the Grace, and helpe of GOD, men may choose, and are neyther driven by absolute necessity, nor compelled by GOD [...] Pre­destination, to commit Murther, Theft, Treason, or any such Flagitious offence; nor any manner of Sinne, or evill whatsoever it bee.

As for Example: MOSES sayth; Therefore Deut. 30. choose Life, Deut. 30. And IOS [...]AH sayth; Choose whom you will serve; And after, when the People promised to serve the Lord onely, hee sayth unto them, You are witnesses unto your selves, that yee have chosen the Lord to serve him; But after­ward, Iosuah, 24. when the people forsooke the Lord againe, and chose other Gods: The Lord sayth unto them; [Page 50] Go, cry unto the Gods which yee have chosen. Iud. 10. CHRIST sayth, MARY hath chosen her that Iud. 10. good part, which shall not be taken from her. DAVID Luke 10. sayth, I have chosen the way of trueth: and againe Psalm. 119. in the same Psalme: I have chosen thy Commande­ments: But the Lord saith by his Prophet Isaiah: They did wickednesse before mine eyes, and chose the thing, Esay. 65. that pleased mee not. And in the next Chapter, hee sayth; Et Elegerunt, quae Ego Nolui: And Esay. 66. they have chosen those thinges, which I would not. Thus it is plaine that, as choo [...]e, and cannot-choose agree together; so doth their opinion agree with the Scripture.

For such direct contrariety, is betweene Cho [...]se, and meere Necessitie, betweene violent Compulsion, and Christian liberty, that Blacke, and White, may with more Possibilitie, be coupled in a subiect.

But it is marvaile to see, how scrupulous some men are in these words of Choyce. I doubt whe­ther they dare reade these and many such like pla­ces of Scripture, which so plainely speake of Choyce: But perhaps they alwayes skip over that Word, or reade some other in stead thereof, (as the Iewes doe ADONAY in stead of IEHO­VAH:) For surely, many are so afraid of Free-will; that they fall (as the Proverbe sayth) Out [...]f the Lyme-keele, into the Cole-pit; from high Pre­sumption, into deepe Desperation, fiercely follow­ing that old Spirit of wicked PELAGIVS; as before it is touched in the Ninth of his Divellish N. [...]. Errours. Where hee affirmeth; That if a Man [Page 51] have need of GODS helpe, then hath hee no free­dome, or choyce at all. Thus doe they breake theyr Ship, upon the perilous Rocke, seeking to escape the dangerous Whirle-poole. For an horrible Pre­sumption it was of Pelagius, to thinke that a man by Nature, had such Power to choose Good, and re­fuse Evill; That hee needed not the Grace, and helpe of GOD; and a Desperate opinion is this of Others; to say, That the Predestination of GOD, worketh all thinges in Man, whether it bee Good, or Evill: And that a man cannot-choose, but doe whatsoever hee doth: For, no doubt, this Opinion, maketh a very disordered Chaos, and an utter Con­fusion of all thinges; (as it were) mixing and thru­sting together, both Heaven, Earth, and Hell, ma­king one confused lumpe of GOD, the Divell, and the World: of Sinne, Grace, and Nature; turning all doings into Dreames, all Truth into Traunces; all Verity into Fables; all Prayer, and Meditation, into vaine Imagination. For, if GODS Predesti­nation be the onely Cause of Adams fall, and filthy Sinne; and, consequently, the onely Cause, and worker of all Evill; yea, even with compulsion, and force, (as they shamefully, and plainely affirme;) then, will no man deny, that (on the other side) GODS Predestination, worketh as violently in all thinges, that are Good: So then, if Gods Predesti­nation worke All, without all exception, both in Evill, and Good; then, all other thinges, whatsoe­ver they be, although they appeare to worke, and doe some thing; yet, doe they indeed utterly nothing: [Page 52] So that, the Divell doth nothing; Man doth no­thing; Lawes doe nothing; Doctrine dath nothing; Prayer doth nothing: But GODS Predestination doth altogether, and is the efficient Cause; yea, and the onely cause of all Thinges.

Against this Opinion, the Word of GOD is exceeding plaine, and manifest; not onely in the places before rehearsed, but also in these follow­ing, here briefly noted (in the Margine:) yea, and Gen. 4. a. [...]. King. 24. b. 1. Para. 21. b. Prov. 3. d. Ecel [...]s. 25. [...]. 4. [...]s [...]r. 7. b, d, & g, [...]. & 9. 2. Luk, 10. d, & f. Iohn, 1. b. Acts, 5. a. 1 Cor. 7. g. & 9. a. & 10. c. & 14. f. 2 Cor. 13. [...]. Phil. 4. c. Heb. 14. abundantly, throughout the whole Scripture.

Against this evill opinion, also doe All the an­cient Doctors, with one consent vehemently write; (as they themselves cannot deny;) except onely Augustine; which, because of his exceeding obscu­rity, and darknesse, in divers places, liee is often al­ledged of both parts.

Also, against this opinion, writeth earnestly Phillip Melanchton, the chiefest, and best learned of all the Germans.

In like manner, doth Bullinger, the chiefest, and most excellent of all the Switzers.

The same doth also Erasmus Sarcerius, and ma­ny other of the best learned Protestants: whose say­ings were profitable beere to rehearse; but that their Iudgement in this matter, is well knowne, to all the Learned: and my determination is, at this pre­sent, rather briefly, and simply, to declare what part of Doctrine, I, and many other mistike; than, with long discourses, and many Authorities to disproove the same.

Wherefore, to conclude: Take this one Note [Page 53] in this matter of Cannot choose, or of Necessity; both, for the better understanding of the thing it selfe; and also, of those which write thereupon.

They commonly speake of two kindes of Neces­sitie: The One, is of Necessity absolute; and the other, of Necessity of consequence: or, Meere neces­sitie; and necessity upon Condition. Which divi­sion, all Learned, and good Authors doe use: and it is very profitable to be considered. For, tou­ching the One; there is neyther Reason, Law, Counsell, or Doctrine, neyther Faire promise, nor Sharpe threatning, nor any other thing, whatsoever it bee, which may h [...]lpe, or kinder: adde, or take away; hurt, or profit; wherefore there is never any of all the aforesayd wayes, or meanes used, in any of all those thinges, which came to passe by Absolute necessitie.

As for Example; It is of meere Necessity, that the Divell is, and ever shall be Damned. That, the Soule of man shall be Everlasting, and not come to an End, like to the Life of Beasts: nor, the life of Beasts, bee Immortall, as the soule of Man; and such like. Wherein, it were more than madnesse, to en­deavour eyther by Reason, Law, or Counsell, or a­ny other way, whatsoever it were, to alter, change, with-stand, or remove, any of those thinges: see­ing of Meere necessity, they must needes bee so, and cannot be altered. For, as Augustine sayth; Aug. Quast [...]e. & Nov. [...]est [...]n. Quaest. 115. Omne enim, quod prohibetur, ideo prohibetur, ne (quia potest fieri) fiat. Si autem Fati esset, non posset fieri, neque prohiberetur. Whatsoever is [Page 54] forbidden (sayth AVGVSTINE) therefore it is forbidden, because it might be done, and yet ought not to bee done: But, if it were of Destinie, then could it not be done, nor should not be forbidden. These wordes of Augustine, being few, containe much matter, if they be truly weighed.

Now to the necessity of Consequence, or necessi­ty of Condition; whereof Melancthon sayth: Ne­que enim haec consequentia libertatem voluntatis tol­lit. Neyther doth this Consequence, take away the liberty of the will. And this necessity is not-repug­nant to diligence, Prayer, Lawes, or Doctrine. For, therefore, (that I may use againe the words of AVGVSTINE) things are forbidden to bee done, because they might be done, but ought not to be done. And this necessity, groweth upon former causes, granted, or wrought: As; it is of necessity, or needs must bee, that Sects and Heresies shall grow in the Church; because the wicked seeke their owne glory; and Sathan stirreth their hearts, to imagine, and set forth abominable Errors; wherein, they serve the Devill, with all the diligence of their power: Wherefore it must follow, that Sects, and Heresies shall grow. Neither doth This necessity proove, that they could-not-chuse, but commit such Evills: But, seeing they doe refuse the Light, and embrace the Darknesse, this must necessarily follow; this must needs be the end; that, Heresie, and much mischiefe shall spring: or, As when a man Present­ly beholdeth with his eyes, Murther, Theft, Drun­kennesse, or any other wickednesse; it must needs [Page 55] be true, that such things are committed, according to that which a man doth see plainely before his eyes. Yet doth not follow, that those wicked doers, could-not-chuse but commit those outragious Crimes: but seeing that they doe commit such things, it must needs be true by the necessity of Con­sequence, that such things are committed of them. These two kinds of necessity, doth AVGVSTINE notably declare, how, and in what sort, they spring out of GODS Predestination. Lib. de Pradest. Cap. 2.

First of all, faith AVGVSTINE, it is horrible iniquity to say, that GOD doth Predestinate any thing, saving onely, that which is good. But of Predestinations, some be of binding, or of bon­dage; and others be of condition. These are of Iu­stice; and Those, of Power. And, that it may be the more manifest, it shall be declared (saith he) by Example, which are of binding, and Power, and which are of condition, and Iustice. GOD crea­ted Heaven, and Earth, and Sunne, and Moone: Further, he did Fore-ordaine, or Predestinate, that the Heaven should ever bee turned, and the im­movable Earth, should be in place of a Center unto the turning heaven. The Sunne, and Moone should rule the day, and Night; the day, and night should succeede one another, in certaine times ap­pointed. These Predestinations are of power, and of binding; for, Every one of these things a­foresaid is so bound unto his worke, by the Pre­destination of GOD, that it cannot be mooved from the same.

[Page 56] But GOD created Man, and did Predestinate him, That if hee were obedient, and did abstaine from the taste of the forbidden Apple, hee should Live; but, if hee were disobedient, he should a­bide the sentence of Death. This Predestination is of Condition, and of Iustice: For GOD (before the Fall of man) did not by power of bin­ding, so Predestinate him to Dye, that of necessity, hee must needs dye; but under that condition, if hee Sinned. Because therefore Man did Sinne; it was a righteous thing, that he should Dye: If he sinned not, hee should not be bound to Death by any chaine of GODS Predestination.’

All these are the wordes of AVGVSTINE. And this division is often repeated, and commen­ded by the best learned of the Protestants.

Many thinges doe offer themselves in this mat­ter to bee spoken; but, my purpose of briefenesse, causeth mee to grow to an End. I have thought good therefore in few wordes, to note one point II. Sin, the Cause of Reprobati­on. more of evill Doctrine; which, now adayes, is taught: and it springeth also cut of this aforesaid Proposition: That GOD's Predestination, causeth all sinne, and wickednesse. And this it is; That N. B. Sinne is not the cause of Reprobation; nor of GODS hatred towards the wicked, which are Damned: Which thing indeed (to bee short) I grant must needs follow; if the former Conclusion bee true; [That Sinne commeth of GODS Predestination; or, that GODS Predestination, was the cause of Adams Fall; which was the Originall of Sinne:] For, if [Page 57] Sinne, or the Originall thereof came of GOD; or, of his Ordinance: and, from GOD commeth nothing, but that which is Holy, Iust, and Good; then, is Sinne, no sinne; and cannot bee the cause of GODS hatred towards them, that perish: Ex­cept, wee should say, that GOD hateth them, for that thing, which is Holy, Iust, and good.

And, lest I should bee thought (through pre­tence of brevitie) to passe over, without plaine proofe, of that which I say; that, this part of Do­ctrine is also set foorth, and taught: I will rehearse One sentence of theirs, published in Print; which is so open, and manifest, that it may serve as well as a Thousand.

I reade, in the fore-named Booke, translated out of French into English, towards the latter end of the Booke, upon this place, thus noted in Figures, and these very Wordes follow. Rom. 9. c. 11, 12, 13. Rom. 9. c. 11, 12, 13.

Hee sayth, not onely that Esau was ordayned to bee hated, Before hee did any Evill: [For, in so saying, hee should not seeme to Exclude any thing, but actuall Sinne, and Increduli­tie.] But hee sayth, Expresly; [before hee was Borne:] Whereby, hee excludeth Origi­nall Sinne; and all that which might bee con­sidered in the Person of Esau, by his Birth, from the cause of Hate.

Touching the Text, whereupon it is spoken; assuredly, Inke serveth not [...], to make Ivorie [Page 58] white; than, these Wordes, to open the minde, and sence of the Apostle: as, it were easie to proove, if shortnesse would suffer to make a digr [...]s [...]i­on.

But, touching that part of Doctrine a tho [...]se [...] ­est that hee speaketh of two Opinions. The one, that Actuall Sinne, or Incredulitie, should bee the cause of GODS hatred, towards the wicked. The other; that Originall Sinne, is the cause of GODS hate towards them.

This man (against them both,) taketh occasion, upon this example of ESAU, To Exclude all that is in Man; eyther outward Sinne, or inward, ey­ther originall Sinne, or actuall; from the cause of GOD [...] hate. So, that (if it bee true which they say) GOD doth hate men, neyther for their outward wicked Life; not, for their inward D [...] ­vellish lust; but, for his owne pleasure onely.

The very same thing, sayth KNOXE; in the 14 [...]. Page, of his aforesaid Booke: where his words are those:

Further I say▪ That if ESAU was Hated for his Evill deserving, then must needes follow, That IACOB was Loved for his Well-de­serving; by the Argument following of the nature of Contraries.

As well, it might be sayd: It must needs follow, by the contraries That if a King, or Prince, hate one man, which hath Well-deserved his hate, by [Page 59] stealing from him his Ring, his Chaine, or some great Iewell: then, doth hee not love, any other man, but hee which hath well deserved his Love, by giving to him a Ring, a Chayne, or some great Treasure. As though hee should say: because Iustice worketh on the one side; therefore, Mercy hath nothing to doe on the other side: or, as though GOD, were not both Iust, and Mercifull. Iust; in Damning for theyr offence; those, which are dam­ned: and Mercifull, in saving (without their de­sert,) those which are Saved. And who seeth not, that (neyther Simile, nor Dis [...]imile,) neyther like thinges, nor thinges contrary, doe hold in all points? For, nothing is So like, which in some thing is not unlike; neyther, any thing, so contrary, which doth in all thinges vary. CHRIST is likened to a Lyon; but did hee ever Ravish, Devoure, and shed any Innocent blood? Latimer wisheth, That All the Byshops, were like Byshop Devill in diligence: then, ought not the Devill, and a Byshop to differ in any thing. And most especially, and plainely, doth the Scripture beate in our heads, (above all other thinges,) That the natures of Contraries doe not hold in both sides, of GODS reward, and Mans deserving. For, as they are inseparable Relatives in the one part; so, on the other side, the one hath never any relation to the other.

For, as GODS Hatred, and Vengeance, hath ever Relation to Mans ill-deserving: So, hath GODS Love, and Mercy, never any relation to Mans merit: Yea, all the Scripture teacheth us; [Page 60] That GOD never Hateth, or punisheth Man, without his owne Deserving. For, as the Wise man sayth; Et eum, qui nullam poenam commerit [...]s sit, condemnasse, à tuâ potentiâ indic as alienum. And Sap. 12. c. thou Lord (saith hee) esteemest it a thing contrary to thy Power, to have condemned him, which hath not deserved, Punishment. What should bee sayd of the Caananites, and the Israelites? (If the nature of Contraries doe alwayes hold, and have such re­lation of the one to the other:) Must it not then, necessarily follow, (as hee sayth) by the nature of Contraries: That, if the Caananites, were cast out of the fortunate-Land, that flowed with Milke and Honey, for theyr Evill-deserving: That, on the other side, the Israelites, were brought, and Plan­ted into that same happie, and blessed rest, for theyr Well deserving? But, what sayth the Scripture? Speake not in thy heart, after that the Lord, thy GOD, hath cast them out before thee, saying; For my Righteousnesse, the Lord hath brought mee in, to possesse this Land: Nay; but, for the wicked­nesse of those Nations, the Lord hath cast them out before thee. D [...]t. 9.

So plainly speaketh the Holy Ghost here; that thou mayest easily perceive, how grosse, and vaine their saying is, which affirme. That, if GOD Hate an Evill man, for his owne Evill deserving; then, must it needes follow, that, hee Loveth a good man, for his owne Well-deserving. For, the hatred of GOD, and Everlasting damnation, are Iust re­wards of Mans Evill-deserving: But, the Love [Page 61] of GOD, and Everlasting life, are free guifts of GOD, for CHRIST'S sake; without any part of Mans owne deserving.

Take therefore this Saying of theirs, [No Sinne, (neyther Originall, nor Actuall,) is the Cause of Gods hate, or Eternall death;] and put the same into the one side of the Ballance; then, take, and put into the other side, this saying of Saint PAVL, to the Romans: Was that then which was good, made Rom. 7. 13. Death unto me? GOD forbid! but, Sinne was made Death unto me: Then, weigh both these Sayings together, with the hand of good advise­ment, in the indifferent Ballance of upright Iudge­ment; and put not in, above three graines, of wil­full Partiality; thus shalt thou plainly see, that the Apostle agreeth farre better, with the Maie­sty of GOD, and hath a much more Reverend opi­nion of his Iudgements, than these men have: yea, thou shalt easily perceive (whatsoever they say) that neyther GODS Pleasure, nor GODs Ordi­nance, or Predestination, nor none other thing that is good, is made Death, or the Cause of Gods ha­tred, against any man: But, Sinne is the very groun­ded Cause, why God hateth, taketh vengeance, and punisheth Man by Death, and destruction. Ac­cording to that which the same Apostle sayeth: Death is the reward of Sinne. And, the wordes of Rom. 6. HOSEA, are also manifestly plaine, where hee sayth: O Israel, thou doest destroy thy selfe, but in Ose. 13. c. Mee onely is thy helpe. In which wordes of the [Page 62] Holy Ghost, thou seest how manifestly God doth, (as it were) purge himselfe, from being the Cause, or worker of Mans destruction; so that, the Perdi­tion, and destruction of Man, is altogether to bee attributed unto Himselfe: And GOD (beeing cleere) neyther accessary, nor partaker thereof, as the chiefe, and high Iudge of Heaven, and Earth, unspotted, and without blame giveth sentence of Everlasting death upon Man, for his owne wicked deserving, and offence.

But (on the other side) sayeth God unto Man; In Me, onely, is thy helpe. In GOD onely, onely in God, is our helpe, and Salvation: In him onely, and of him altogether; and not of our selves commeth our Salvation, and all whatsoever belongeth there­unto. The same is also set forth, by all those Scrip­tures, which are before rehearsed to proove, [that Sinne, and Evill, commeth not of Gods Predestina­tion;] For, upon that Conclusion, dependeth also this Proposition; [That Sinne is not the cause of Re­probation; or, of GODS hatred towards Man.]

And, upon the same Article, dependeth also ano­ther part of Doctrine, which they Teach, worthy to N. B. be misliked of All men; as well, for that it impor­teth a Sophisticall search of bottomlesse Secrets, in the very Essence, and Nature of GOD: as also, for that it clearely withdraweth us from CHRIST, the onely stay, and comfort of our weake Conscience, delivered unto us in the Word of GOD.

For, that they might bee surer to hold fast the former Principle, [That All thinges come of GODS [Page 63] Predestination; as Running streames, out of a deepe III. GODS Free Mercy, in CHRIST, the Chiefe cause of Electi­on. N. B. Fountaine:] They affirme, that the free Mercy of GOD in Christ, is but an Inferiour cause of E­lection; and, that wee are taught to ascend unto a higher Cause: as, unto the Eternall Purpose, and Predestination of GOD, which hee determined one­ly in Himselfe. So sayth the Printed Booke be­fore named, Translated out of French into Eng­lish. That same thing wee reade also, late set foorth in English Print, in the Glosse of the last Translated Bible, Rom. Cap. 9. With these Words: Genera Bible. Rom. 9.

AS The onely Will, and Purpose of GOD, is The chiefe Cause of Election, and Repro­bation; So, his Free Mercy in CHRIST is an Inferiour cause of Salvation, &c.

But (for my part) I trust, in minde never to as­cend unto that high cause of Election; and, in Heart, never to taste of that Eternall Purpose, or Prede­stination, which GOD hath determined onely in Himselfe, without, or above his Free-mercy, which is in CHRIST.

For, surely, That Eternall Purpose (which com­meth not of GODS free Mercy in Christ,) is to Destroy, and not to Save. Againe; if that Eter­nall Purpose spring out of Gods Free-mercy; then is that Free-mercy of GOD, the Chiefe cause; and not an Inferiour cause, why hee purposeth to save us.

For, a great dishonour it were to the Mercy of GOD: To bee put in an Inferiour place, tou­ching [Page 64] Election, and Salvation of Man: For, if E­ver GODS Mercy bee above all, it is in the Saving of miserable Man. And, Mercy there is not in God towards Man; but, onely in Christ. Therefore, St. PAVL calleth it, the Eternall Purpose, which [...]s. 3. b. hee purposed in CHRIST IESU our Lord: In CHRIST therefore, was this Eternall Purpose; and, For his onely sake, GOD the Father Eternally purposed, to Elect, and save us.

Consider, and marke it well; whence commeth this Purpose, or Will of GOD to save us: But of his free Mercy? If his Purpose to save us, spring out of his Free mercy, why is then his Mercy infe­riour to his Purpose? Or, how is the Fountaine, inferiour to the Springs that come thereof?

Also, what may bee sayd in GOD at any time, or in any respect to bee higher, or greater, than his Mercy? Seeing it is written, That his mercy is as Eccl. 2. d. great, as Himselfe. Yea, and most especially it is so to bee sayd, That his Mercy passeth All; when we speake of this matter. For, of this, it is written: That mercy reioyceth against Iudgement; and why? Iam 2. b. All the Iudgements of God, in this behalfe, are not to be compared unto his Mercy. For though it were not true, which DAVID sayth; That his mercy is above all his workes: Yet were in cleare, that Psal. 149. b. in Election, Redemption, and Salvation of man, GODS mercy in Christ hath Ever the highest place. And, Those (which in the Salvation of our Soules, make the Free mercy of GOD, an Inferiour cause;) how base a Roome, will they assigne [...] [...] [Page 65] mercy, in nourishing, and preserving our bodyes? Let them reach as high, as they can; I trust to goe no further, but to hold me fast by the Everlasting Mercy of GOD; and by the Hemme of CHRIST's garment.

For the Scripture describeth GOD unto me, (without Christ) as a wrathfull, and most terrible Iudge; but (in Christ, and, for his sake,) as a Father; whose wrath is pacified, and Hee well pleased, recon­ciled, agreed, and at one: And, to speake of a high­er cause, or purpose, to Elect, and Save, (onely in GOD) beside, or without this Free-mercy in Christ; or, that Christ, and Gods free-mercy in him, is not the chiefest Cause, which worketh, and obtayneth the decree, and purpose of God, to Elect, and save; it is plainly nothing else, but to deny the mercy of God in Election, Reconciliation, Redemption, and Salvation by Christ, in Christ, and for Christ: As, easily it may be perceived, if a man doe but weigh and consider, what Eternall purpose, an Election, and a Reconciliation is; Seeing, Christ is our Ad­vocate, Mediator, Peace, Reconciliation, and Attone­ment: as, in these Scriptures following, and many other, it doth plainely appeare, Psal. 84. a. &c. Psal. 84. a. Math. 1. a. Ephes. 1. a. 2, b. Rom. 5. a, b. Colos. 1. c. 2, Cor. 5. d. 1, Iohn, 2. a. Heb. 5. b, c. & [...]. a, b, c, d, c. 2, Tim. 1. c.

And, although it be true, according to the Scrip­tures, That God, so loved the world that he gaue his onely begotten Sonne, &c. Yet did he, neyther love the World, nor give his Sonne, without the interoes­sion, and mediation of his Sonne. For, if God loved the world, without the Reconciliation, and Mediati­on; or, before he was reconciled, intreated, and pa­cified [Page 66] by Christ: then, is Christ in vayne, come too late to be out Mediator; seeing God the Father is (without him) already reconciled.

But horrible false is this Opinion: for like as the Sonne of a King might intreat his Father for the Servant, whom (for his offences) the King in his displeasure, were ready to cast, not onely out of his service, but also into perpetuall Prison: Even so, Christ our onely Saviour, and GODs onely Sonne, did offer up Himselfe, as a Ransome unto his Fa­ther for Vs: whereby hee pacified the wrath of his Father, and adioyned us with himselfe, to be Sonnes, and Heyres of his Fathers glory.

And, this hath Christ done, not onely now in time, but also, Everlastingly in the most high and Eternall purpose of God, before the Foundation of the World was layd.

Thus I end: thinking it sufficient for this pre­sent, that I have in these few wordes, [...]urged my selfe of those thinges, which you lay to my Charge; and set forth unto your Iudgement, the Errours of Pelagius; that you may the better discerne who they are, which are worthy to be called after that Sect: and also, plainely declared in what points my Con­science differeth, from certaine Teachers of our time: and upon what ground I am mooved, so to mislike some part of their Doctrine; which things if you diligently weigh, and consider, reading the same without Partiality; then have I my desire.


Vnto the Christian Reader.

I Commend heere unto thy Charity and Godly love (Christian Reader) the tenne Commandements of Almigh­ty GOD, Exod. 20, and Deut. 5. the which were given to this Vse and End, dili­gently Why the Law was given: Deut. 4. 13. Math. 7. 12. to bee learned, and religiously observed. My minde and commentaries in them I beseech thee to reade with Iudgement, and give sentence with Knowledge; as I doubt nothing at all of thy Charity, or good willing heart towards mee, and all well meaning persons. But forasmuch as there can bee no Contract, Peace, Alliance, or Confederacy betweene two persons or more, except first the per­sons that will contract, agree within themselves upon such thinges, as shall bee contracted; (as thou right well knowest:) also, seeing these tenne Com­mandements, What the ten Commande­ments con­taine. are nothing else, but the Tables, or Writings that conteyne the conditions of the peace betweene GOD and Man; and declared at large, how, and to what, the persons named in the writings [Page 68] are bound unto the other: Gen. 17. 22. Ierem. 7. Gen. 17, 7. & 22, 16. Ierem. [...] 7, 23. I [...] be your GOD, and you shall be my People. GOD and Man are knit together, and united in one. It is necessary to know, how GOD and Man was made at one: That such conditions could bee a­greed upon, and confirmed with such solemne, and publike evidences, as these Tables bee, written with the finger of GOD. The contents whereof binde The condition on Gods be­halfe. God to ayde, and succour, keepe, and preserve, war­rant, and defend man from all evill, both of body and soule; and, at the last, to give him Eternall E [...]od. 19, 56. Deut. 4, 20. Math. 11, 28. blisse and everlasting felicitie. Man is bound, of the other part, to obey, serve, and keepe GODS The condition on mans part. Commandements, to love him, honour him, and feare him above all things. Were there not love and amity betweene GOD and Man first; the one would not binde himselfe to be Master; neyther, the other, to bee Servant in such a friendly, and blessed society, and fellowship, as these Tables con­taine.

Before therefore they were given, GOD commanded MOSES to goe downe from the mount Sinai to the people, to know of them, whe­ther they would confederate, and enter alliance with him, or not: Exod. 19. Moses did the message, as GOD bade him; Whereunto the people all to­gether Exod. 19, 3. &c consented. So that it was fully agreed upon, that GOD should be their God; and they, his ser­vants; with certaine conditions, contayning the Office of them both: GOD, to make them a peculiar People, to preferre them above all Nations [Page 69] of the Earth, to make them a Princely Priesthood, and a Holy people.

Their Office; to Obey, and observe his Holy will and pleasure.

Heere, see wee the alliance and confederacie made betweene GOD and Man; and the writings given: likewise, how it was made. But, where­fore, For whom the Law was made and given. it was made, and for whose merites, yet, by these Texts, wee see not: why GOD should love Man, that so neglected his Commandements, favoured and loved, beleeved and trusted bet­ter the Divell, than GOD: so farre offended Gen. 3. the divine Majestie of GOD, and degenerated from grace, and Godlinesse by custome of Sinne, and Contempt of GOD, that hee bewayled, and repented, that ever He made Man: and Decreed to destroy the creature Man, that hee Gen. 6, 6. Created: as hee did indeed. Not onely thus destroying Man; but also protested openly, that better it had beene IUDAS never to have beene borne. And in the 25.th of Mathew, the dis­pleasure of GOD is declared so great; that, hee appointeth Man to another end, than hee was Crea­ted for: saying; Depart yee dooers of iniquity from Math. 25, 24. me, unto Eternall fire; prepared, not for Man; but, for the Divell, and his Angels. What is now more contrary one to the other, and farther at debate, than GOD and Man? Whom, now, wee see bound in league together, as very friends. Deut. 9, 5. 7, 8. Onely Mercy provoked God to the cove­nant. MOSES sheweth, That onely Mercy provoked GOD unto this alliance, to receive them into Grace, [Page 70] deliver them out of Egypt, and to possesse the plen­teous land of Canaan: further, that God found iust matter and occasion to expulse the inhabitants of that Land, and found no merites in the Israelites, to give it them: for they were a stifnecked people, and intractable; as Moses layeth to theyr charge. Howbeit, GOD having respect onely unto his Promises (made unto Adam, Abraham, and his Deut. 9, 6. posterity) measured not his Mercy according to the merites of Man, who was nothing, but Sinne; looked alwayes upon the Iustice, and deservings, Gen. 3, 15. 12. 3. 15, 5. 1 [...], 4. The Death of Christ the meanes. Heb. 9, 28. Innocency and perfection of the blessed seed promi­sed unto Adam, and unto Abraham: GOD, put the Death of CHRIST, as a meanes and arbiter of this Peace. For the Testament availeth not, except it bee confirmed by the Death of him, that maketh the testament: the which Death, in the iudgement of GOD, was accepted, as a satisfaction Heb. 7. 1. for sinne from the beginning of Adams fall: as Paul sayth; CHRISTS Priesthood was, and is, like unto Melchisedeeh, that had neither beginning, nor ending; bound neyther to time nor place; as the Priesthood of Aaron: but, as God accounted in A­dams sinne, all Mankind (beeing in his loynes) wor­thy Death: so hee accounted, in Christ, all to be Apoc. 13 8. Gen. 3, [...]0. All the prom [...] se [...] made in and for Christ. saved from death: as Adam declareth by the name of his Wife, calling her HEVA; the Mother of the Living, and not of the Dead. All these promi­ses, and other that appertained unto the salvation of Adam and his Posterity, were made in Christ, and for Christ onely, and appertained to our Fathers and [Page 71] vs; as, wee appertained to Christ. Hee is the doore, Iohn, 10. 9. Iohn. 14. 6. Iohn, 1. 12. 3. 16. &c. 6. 32. &c. the way and the Life: Hee onely is the Mediator betweene GOD and Man; without whom no man can come to the Father celestiall Ioh. 1. 3. 6. Because the Promises of GOD appertained to our Fathers, forasmuch as they likewise to Christ; Hitherto, and for ever, they were preserved from Hell and the paines due to Adams sinne, in him, for whose sake the Promise was made. The meanes of our Peace and reconciliation with GOD, is onely in Christ, as by whose Passion, we are made holy. Therefore Esa. 53. 4. 5. CHRIST is called by Iohn the Baptist, The Lambe that taketh away the Sinnes of the world. And Iohn, 1, 29. Iohn, 14, 30. as the Divell found nothing in Christ, that he could condemne: likewise so now, hee hath nothing in us worthy damnation; because wee be compre­hended, and fully inclosed in him: for we bee his by Faith. All these, that be comprehended under the Promise, belong unto CHRIST. And, as farre extendeth the vertue, and strength of GODS Promise to save Man: as the rigour and Iustice of the Law for sinne to damne man. For as by the of­fence Rom, 5, 17, 18. and sinne of one man, Death was extended and made common unto all men unto condemnation, as Paul sayth: So by the Iustice of one, is derived life into all men to Iustification. The wordes of the pro­mise made unto Adam and Abraham, confirmeth the same. They are these. I will put enmity and hatred betweene thee and the Woman, betweene thy Gen 3, 15. seed, and the womans seed, and her seed shall breake thy h [...]d. For, as wee were in Adam, before his

[Page 72] Fall; and, should, if hee had not sinned, beene of the same Innocencie, and perfection, that hee was created in: So, were we in his loynes, when he sinned, and participated of his sinne. And, as we were in him, and partakers of the ill: So, were we in him, when GOD made him a promise of Grace, and partakers of the same grace: Not, as the chil­dren of Adam; but, as the children of the Promise. And the sinnes of Adam, without priviledge or exception, extended, and appertained unto all A­dams, and every of Adams posteritie: So, did this promise of Grace generally appertaine, as well to e­very and singular of Adams posterity, as to Adam: as it is more plainly expressed. Where GOD promiseth to blesse in the seed of Abraham, all the Gen. 15. 4, 5. & 17. 1. people of the world. And Paul maketh no diversity in Christ, of Iew, nor Gentile. Further, it was ne­ver Galat. 3, 28. Colos. 3, 11. forbid, but that all sorts of people, and of every progeny in the world, to bee made partakers of the Iewes Religion and Ceremonies. Further, St. Paul doth, by collation of Adam and Christ, Sinne and Rom. 5, 15. Grace, thus interpret GODs promise; and I [...]a­keth not Christ inferior to Adam; nor grace, un­to sinne. If all then shall be saved; what is to bee sayd of those, that St. Peter speaketh of; That shall perish for their false Doctrine. And likewise Christ 2, Pet. 2, 1. 3. sayth; That the gate is straight that teadeth to Life, and few enter. Thus the Scripture answereth: [...] the promise of Grace appermineth to every sort of men in the world, and comprehendeth them all, howbeit within certaine limits and bound [...] the [Page 73] which, if men neglect, or passe over, they exclude themselves from the Promise in CHRIST: as Caine was no more excluded, till hee excluded himselfe, than Abell; Saul, than David; Iudas, Malac. 1. 2. 3. Rom. 9, 13. than Peter; Esau, than Iacob. By the Scripture, it seemeth, that the sentence of GOD was given to save the one, and to damne the other; before the one loved GOD, or the other hared GOD. How­beit See B. Iati [...], part, 2. fol. [...]2. Christ shed as much blood for Iudas, as for Peter, &c. these threatnings of GOD against Esau (if hee had not of his wilfull malice excluded himselfe from the promise of Grace) should no more have hin­dered his Salvation, than GODS threatnings a­gainst Ninivie, (which notwithstanding that GOD sayd should be destroyed within 40. dayes) Ionas, 1, 2. stood a great time after, and did Penance. Esau was Circumcised and presented unto the Church of GOD by his Father Isaac in all externall ceremo­nies, as well as Iacob. And, that his life and con­versati [...]n was not as agreeable unto justice and equitie, as Iacobs: the sentence of GOD unto Re­beced Gen. 25. 23. was not in the fault; but his owne malice. Forthere is mentioned nothing at all, in that place, that Esau was disinherited of eternall life: but, that hee should be inferiour to his brother Iacob in this world. Which Prophecy was fulfilled in their Posteri­ties; and not the persons themselves. Of this accep­tation of the one, and reprobation of the other, (con­cerning the promise of the earth) speaketh Malachy the Mal. 1. 2, 3. Prophet; as, the beginning of his booke declareth, speaking in this wise: I have loved you (saith the Lord,) & yee say: Wherein hast thou loved us? God [Page 74] answereth: Was not Esau Iacobs brother? (saith the Lord) Not withstanding, I loved Iacob and hated E­sau. Wherein hated GOD Esau? The Prophet sheweth: I have made his possession, that was the mount Seir, desolate; as a desert, or wilder nesse of Dragons: the which happened in the time of Na­bucho donozor. Wherein hee loved Iacob, the Text declareth; God transferred the right and tytle that appertained unto Esau the elder Brother, to Iacob the younger. Likewise, the Laad that was promi­sed unto Abraham and Isaac, was by legacy and testament, given unto Iacob and his Posterities. St. Gen. 25. 23. & 27, 28, 29. Rom. 9, 11, &c. Paul useth this example of Iacob and Esau, for none other purpose, but to take away from the Iewes, the thing that they most put their trust in: to say; The vayne hope they had in the carnall Linage, and na­turall descent from the family and houshold of A­braham; and likewise their false considence, they had in the keeping of the Law of Mose [...]. Pauls whole purpose is in the Epistle, to bring Man unto a knowledge of his Sinne, and to shew him how it may bee remitted, and with many testimonies and examples of the Scripture, hee proveth Man to be saved, onely by Mercy, for the merites of Christ: which is apprehended and received by Faith, as he at large sheweth in the 3, 4, and 5, Chapters of the same Epistle.

In the understanding, of the which three Chap­ter aright, is required a singular and exact ailigence: For it seemeth, by those places, that Paul conclu­deth, and in a manner includeth the divine Grace, [Page 75] and promise of GOD, within [...]ertaine tearmes and limits, that onely CHRIST should bee efficati­ous and profitable in those, that apprehend and re­ceive this abundant grace by Faith: and to such, as have not the use of Faith, neyther CHRIST, nor Gods grace to appertaine. Now seeing no Rom. 11. 32. man, by reason of this natur all I [...]redulity borne, and begotten with us, can beleeve and put such confi­dence Galat. 3, 22: in God, as he requireth by his Law, as ex­perience of our owne weakenesse declareth, though Man have yeares and time to beleeve, the promise of GOD in CHRIST appertaineth to no man. This sentence is plaine in the last Chapter of Marke; Hee that beleeveth not, shall be damned. Mark. 16, 16. Howbeit, wee know by the Scripture, that not­withstanding this imperfection of Faith, many shall be saved: And likewise, notwithstanding that Gods promise be generall unto all people of the World: yet many shall be damned. These two Points therefore must be diligently discussed. First, how this faith, Math. 11. 28. Rom. 11. 32. being unperfect, is accepted of GOD. Then, how we be excluded from the promise of Grace, that ex­tendeth 1. Tim. 2. 4. to all men.

I will not rehearse now the mindes of other, but as briefly, and as simply, as I can, declare the minde of the Scripture in this matter. Saint Paul calleth How Faith b [...] ­ing unperfect is accepted of God. this servitude of Sinne, naturally remaining in our Nature corrupted, some times Apeitheian; then Amartian; at another time Asthenian. The first word signifieth an Impersuability, diffidence, incre­dulity, contumacy or inobedience. The second, sig­nifieth [Page 76] Errour, sinne, or deceit. The third, betoke­neth Weaknesse, imbecility, or imperfection. So wri­teth Paul: Mans body to be first borne in imbecili­ty. Also, that God concludeth all men under infi­delity. Rom. 11. 32. In another place, That the Scripture doth conclude All men under Sinne. In those three pla­ces Galat. 3; 20. thou mayest see the three wordes that I rehear­sed before: By which PAVL describes the infirmi­ties of Man: which infirmities, are translated into Esa 53. 4, 5. Iohn, 1. 29. CHRIST. Not so, that wee should be delivered from them, as though they were dead in our nature, or our nature changed, or should not provoke vs a­ny more to ill; but, that they should not damne us, because Christ satisfied for them in his Body. And Paul sayth; That Christ dyed for Sinners that were infirme, and calleth those sinners, the Enemies of Rom. 5, 8. [...]. God. Howbeit, he calleth not them, Theostygas in the Scriptures; to wit, Vid. Melanet. 2. part. Operum. pag. 268. Quanto magis Pater vester da­bit sp: Sanctum petentibus cum? Non ait, Cantem­nentibus. Contemners of GOD. How wee are called the ene­mies of God. Every man is called, in the Scripture, Wicked, and the enemy of God; for the privation and lacke of Faith and love that hee oweth to GOD. Et impij vocantur qui non omninò sunt pij; That is, they are called wicked, that in all thinges honour not GOD, beleeve not in God, and observe not his Comman­dements; as they should doe: which wee cannot doe, by reason of this naturall infirmity or hatred of the Flesh, as Paul calleth it, against God. In this sence Rom 8, 7. taketh Paul this word Wicked, when he saith; that Christ dyed for the wicked. So, must we interpret St. Paul, and take his wordes; or else no man should bee Rom. 5, 8. damned. Now we know, that Paul himselfe, Saint [Page 77] Iohn, and Christ, damneth the Contemners of GOD, or such as willingly continue in sinne, and will not Repent. Those the Scripture excludeth from the generall promise of Grace. Thou seest by the pla­ces afore rehearsed, that though we cannot beleeve in God, as undoubtedly, as is required, by reason of this our naturall sicknesse and disease: yet for Christs sake, in the iudgement of God, we are accoun­ted as faithfull beleevers: for whose sake this natu­rall disease and sicknesse is pardoned, by what name soever St. Paul calleth the Naturall infirmity, or ori­ginall sinne in Man. And this imperfection or na­turall How wee are excluded from the promise of Grace that is extended to all. sicknesse taken of Adam, excludeth not the person from the promise of God in Christ, except we transgresse the limits, and bounds of this Originall sinne, by our owne folly and malice, and eyther of a contempt or hate of Gods word we fall into sinne & transforme our selves into the Image of the Divel. Then [...]ee exclude, by this meanes, our selves from Christ received our infirmities but not the contempt of the Law, and of God. the promises and merites of Christ: who, onely, received our infirmities, and originall disease: and not the contempt of him and his Law. Further the Promises appertaine to such as Repent. Therefore Esay sayd without exception; That the infirmities of all Men were cast upon his blessed shoulders. It is our office therefore to see, wee exclude not our selves from the generall Grace, promised to all men. It is not a Christian mans part to attribute his salvation to his owne free-will, with the Pelagian, & extenuate originall Sin. Nor to make God the author of ill, and our damnatiō; wth the Manichee. Nor yet to say, God [Page 78] hath written fatall Lawes, as the Stoicke, and with necessity of Destiny, violently pulleth one by the haire into Heaven; and thrusteth the other head­long into Hell. But assertaine thy selfe, by the Scrip­ture, what be the causes of Reprobation; and what, of Election. The cause of Reiection, or damnation, is Sinne in Man; which will not heare, neyther The cause of Damnation in man. receive the Promise of the Gospell; or else, after he hath received it, by accustomed doing of ill, fal­leth eyther into a contempt of the Gospell, and will not study to live thereafter, or else hateth the Gos­pell, because it condemneth his ungodly life: and would there were neyther God, nor Gospell to pu­nish him, for doing of ill. This sentence is true; howsoever Man judge of Predestination. God is not the cause of Sinne; nor would not have Man to sinne. Thou art not the GOD that willeth sinne. Psal. 5, 4. And it is sayd: Thy perdition, O Israel, is of thy selfe, and thy succour onely of me. The cause of our Ose, 1 3, 9. Election is the Mercy of God in Christ. Howbeit, The cause of mans Election, Rom. 9, 16. he that will be partaker of this Election, must re­ceive the Promise in Christ by faith; for therefore wee be elected, because afterward we are made the members of Christ. Therefore, as in the justification or remission of Sinne, there is a cause, though no dig­nity Ephes. 1, 5. Rom. 8, 29. at all, in the receiver of his justification; and so we judge him by the Scripture to bee Iustified, and hath remission of his sinne, because he received the Grace promised in CHRIST. So wee iudge of Election, by the event or successe, that hapneth in the life of Man: those onely to be elected, that by [Page 79] Faith apprehend the mercy promised in Christ: o­therwise, wee should not judge of Election. For Paul sayth plainly: That they that beleeve by the spirit of God, are the Children of God, and that the Rom. 8, 15. 15, 16. spirit of God doth testifie with our spirits, that wee are the children of God; being admonished therefore by Scripture, wee must leave sinne, and doe the workes commanded of God, or else it is a carnall o­pinion that we have blinded our selves withall, of fatall Destinie, and yet will not save us. And, in What decla­reth a lively Faith. Iohn, 6. 44. How God draweth unto Christ. case there follow not in our knowledge of Christ, amendment of life, it is not lively Faith that wee have, but rather a vaine knowledge and meere pre­sumption. Iohn sayth; No man commeth to me ex­cept my Father draw him: Many men understand these wordes in a wrong sence: as though, God re­quired in a reasonable man, no more Nec tamen ha­beut se Mens & voluntas vt sta­tua: ideo diue­rūt [...]eteres, Prae­cedente gratia, comitante vo­luntate, bona opera fieri. Melau [...]th. part. 2. Operū. p. 268. & pag. 248. than in a dead poast: and marketh not the wordes that follow; Every man In illo loco Ie­annis decitur. Omnis qui aud [...]t a Patre et discit. veniet ad me: Discere iubet, id est, Audire vocem Doctrinae traditaem a [...] ipso & assentiri, non indulgere di [...]e­dentia. Melan [...]h. ibid. that heareth and learneth of my Father commeth to me. GOD draweth with his Word, and the Holy Ghost, but Mans duty is to heare, & learne; That is to say, Receive the grace offered, consent to the Promise, and not repugne the God that calleth. GOD doth promise the Holy Ghost unto them that aske him, and not to them that contemne him.

We have the Scripture daily in our hands, reade it, and heare it Preached, Gods mercy ever conti­nue the same. Let us thinke verily that now God calleth, and convert our lives to it. Let us obey it, and beware, we suffer not our foolish iudgements to wander after the flesh, least the Divell wrap us in [Page 80] darknesse, and teach us to seeke the Election of God, out of the Scripture. Although webe of our selves bondmen unto sinne, and can doe no good by rea­son our Originall and race is vicious, yet hath not the Divell induced wholly his similitude into any of Adams posterity, but onely into those that contemne, and of a set purpose, and a destinyed malice hate God, as Pharao, and Saul. The one gathered all his men of warre, and would fight with GOD and his Exod. 14. Church, rather than obey his Commandement. The other, would against GODS expresse will, and 1. Sa [...]. 18. 11. See B Latimer, part. 2. fol. 54. Math. 12, 32. Mark. 3, 29. Luk. 12, 10. 1. Iohn, 5, 16. Heb. 10, 26. Gen. 3, 45. D. F. Handum. pag 214. pleasure, kill David, that God had ordained to bee King. These sinnes Christ calleth, The Sinnes of Infirmity are committed a­gainst the Po­wer of the Fa­ther. Sinnes of Ignorance, a­gainst the Wis­dome of the Soun [...]: Sins of Malice, against the goodnesse and grace of the Holy Ghost. Sinne against the Holy Ghost. St. Iohn, Sinne unto Death. St. Paul, Voluntarie, or willing sinne. Wee must therefore judge by the Scripture, and beleeve all things there spoken. Know thereby the will of God, and search not to know the thing that appertaineth nothing to thine office. Remember how craftie a workeman the Divell is, and what practise hee hath used with other. Chiefly, and before all thinges, he goeth about to take this perswasion, that Gods word is true, out of mans heart: as he did with Adam; that thought nothing lesse than to Dye, as God said. Then thought hee wholly to have printed his owne Image in Adam, for the Image of GOD: and to bring him to an utter contempt, and hatred of God for ever, as hee had brought him to diffidence and doubt of his Word. Here let us all take [...]eed of our selves, which daily by the word of GOD, being ad­monished of ill, yet amend not.

[Page 81] Wee shall find at length, God to bee iust in his word, and will punish with eternall fire our contu­macy and in obedience: which fire shall be no lesse hot, than his word speaketh of. So did he also with Saul perswade that God was so good, that though he offended, he would not punish him, as he said: But 1. Sam. 15, 15. be pleased with a fa [...]e sacrifice againe. This do­ctrine is therefore necessary to be knowne of all men: that God is iust and true, and requireth of us feare and obedience; as Saint Iohn faith, He that sent Iohn 8. 26. Psal. 145. 17. The iustice of God intendeth it selfe to two divers ends. [...]o is true! DAVID speaketh thus of his Iustice, The Lord is iust in all his wayes. And understand, that his iustice extendeth to two divers ends: the one is, that he would all men to be saved, the other and, to give every man according to his acts.

To obtaine the first end of his justice, as many as be not utterly wicked, and may be holpe: partly, with threatnings, and partly, with promises he allu­reth; and provoketh them unto amendment of life. The other part of his justice, rewardeth the obedi­ence of the good, and punisheth the inobedience and contempt of the ill. These two justices the elders doe call correctivam, and retributivam. Io­nas Ionas, 2. Mat. 25. 31, &c. the Prophet speaketh of the first: and, Christ, of the second. God would all men to bee saved: and therefore provoketh, now by faire meanes, now by foule, that the sinner should satisfie his just and righteous pleasure: not, that the promises of GOD appertaine unto such as will not repent; or his Threatnings, unto him that doth repent: but, those meanes [Page 82] hee useth to save his creature. This way useth he to nurture vs, untill such time as his Holy spirit 1. Cor. 11. 32. worke such a perfection in us, that wee will obey him, though there were no paine nor ioy mentioned at all.

Therfore looke not onely upon the promise of God, but also, what diligence and obedience he requireth of thee, least thou doe exclude thy selfe from the Promise. There was promised unto all these that departed out of Egypt with Moses the land of Cana­an: howbeit, for disobedience of Gods Comman­dements, there was but one or two that entered. Of the other part, thou seest that, of the menaces and horrible threatnings of God, that Ninivie the great Citie should be destroyed within forty dayes, no­thing appertained unto the Ninivites, because they did Penance, and returned to God. In them seest thou (Christian Reader) the Mercy of God, and gene­rall Promise of salvation performed in Christ; for whose sake onely, GOD and Man was set at one. So that they received the Preaching of the Prophet, and tooke God for their God, and God tooke them to be his people, and for a certainty thereof, revoked his Sentence, that gave them but forty dayes of life. They likewise promised Obedience unto his holy Lawes and Commandements, as God give us all grace to doe. That though wee be infirme and weake to all vertues, wee exclude not our selves by contempt or negligence from the Grace promised to all men. Thus farewell in CHRIST.

CHAP. 17. 4. Curiositie.

THe fourth let or Impediment (of keeping The fourth impediment. GODS law) is Curiositie and overmuch searching the Privities and secrets of GOD, when men of an ill and licentious life re­turne not to Repentance, as the Scripture biddeth, but mount straight way into Gods providence and Predestination; contemning the will of God that is made open unto him in the Scripture; that God would have him now to Repent, and to receive Grace; and search to know the thing that never was made open to Man or Angell: the event and end of things to come. Thus rea­soneth Man with himselfe: Who knoweth what his last houre shall be? Wherefore favoureth God the one, and not the other? Sometime the good maketh an ill end; and the ill a good. In this opinion and inscrutable mysterie he weareth all his wits, and, at the end of his cogitations, findeth more hidden and doubtfull objections, than at the beginning; so that hee commeth from this Schoole neyther wiser nor better. Moses remooveth this ungodly Deut. 19. 29. let and impediment, saying: The secrets of the Lord our God are made open unto us, and unto our children for ever, that we doe all the precepts of this law. The which words plainely condemne our foolish and audacious presumpti­on; that seeke to know what shall happen unto us in the houre of death; and will not know the thing that should be done in all our lives; to wit, that God would have us know the thing that is opened unto vs, in the Scripture; [Page 84] or Gods mercy promised in Christ Iesu, and follow him in all vertue. If we offend, and repent, and leave sinne, then hath he promised mercy and will give it. Moses saith: Doe the thing that thou art bid to doe; and follow the will of Deut. 30 19. God made open to thee in his word. As for the disputation of Gods providence, is a curiosity and no relig [...] [...] pre­sumption, and no faith; a le [...] of vertue, and furtherance of vice. When thou hearest repon [...]ance spoken of, learne that lesson out of hand: lest per adventure tho [...] be never good scholler in divinity of Gods lawes. It fareth many times with us, that we goe long to schoole in divinity, and yet never good divines, as it fareth in the schoole of retho­rike: whereas, if at the beginning, the scholler profit not, (as Aristotle saith) he shall never be good orator. There­fore Moses saith: God gaue you not a heart to understand, eyes to see, nor eares to heare, untill this present day. Deut. 29. 4. Here doth Moses speake ironice, and seemeth to deny the thing, he would affirme. As Aristotle or Cicero might say, (when they haue applyed all their labour, and done the best they can, to make their schollers learned, yet profit nothing, then depart out of the schoole; & say unto their audience:) I never opened unto you the science that I taught you. Not, that the fault was in him, but in the auditors, that neglected their diligence and Doctrine. So doth Moses now speake of God; not that the fault was in him, that those unkind people understood not the doctrine, hee taught, but in themselues: as it appeareth in the text; for, he useth now the rod of persecution; punisheth them; beateth them, yea and killeth them; because they would not learne the thing he taught them: yea further, he she­weth that his pleasure was, they should choose the good, Deut. 30. 19. and leave the ill, to be in wealth, and avoid the woe. This [Page 85] argument he proveth, of his owne nature; which is ami­able, loving, and holy; inclined to doe well unto man, and to be at peace with him. But because man, of his owne ma­lice, contemneth the word and doctrine of God; he is not onely rigorous and severe against man, but also hee waxeth so angry for sinne, as he that chafeth and moveth himselfe; that all men may perceive by his countenance he is offended; therefore (saith the text) the fury of God Deut. 29. 27. shall smoake against the sinner. Our gospellers be better learned than the Holy ghost; for they wickedly attribute the cause of punishment and adversity to Gods providence: which is the cause of no ill; as he himselfe can do no ill: and of every mischiefe that is done they say it was Gods will. The Holy ghost putteth another cause: that is to say: Sinne in man, and contempt of his holy word. Fur­ther, the paine is not inflicted by predestination to lose man; but both predestination and the affliction extend to call man from damnation. The blinde southsayers, that Ezech. 33. 1. Cor. 11, Psalm. 119. Reuel. 3. Esay 26. Hebr. 12. writ of things to come, are more to bee esteemed, than these curious and high climing wits; for they attribute the cause of ill to the ill aspects, and sinister coniunctions of the planets. Refuse not therefore the grace offered, not once received banish it not with ill conversation. If wee fall, let us heare almighty God, that calleth us to repen­tance with his word, and returne; let us not continue in sinne, nor heape one sinne vpon another, lest at last, wee come to a contempt of God and his word: for, remission is promised to as many as repent: as Moses sheweth; and likewise all the scripture and examples thereof. But re­member Deut. 30. 1. 2, what the text saith, that thou must convert un­to God; and that by the meanes and mediation of Christ, and that with all thy heart; and then thou maist finde [Page 86] remedy. Convert not to superstition, and buy not a masse for thy sinnes; nor loke for helpe of any Saint; but onely of God; as his word teacheth: for he that strooke thee for sinne, can heale thee againe: say not in aduersity, as Cicero Iohn, 15. did: Except God, or some good hap doe save vs, wee cannot Cic. lib Epist. 16. escape. For there is nothing in Heaven nor Earth that saveth, but God alone.

CHAP. 19. 6. Ignorance.

THe sixt let, or impediment wherewith men excuse themselues from the obedience of the law of GOD, is the pretence of ignorance, the which they doe thinke shall excuse them. Thus they say; the Scripture hath so many mysteries in it selfe, and is too hard for our capaci­ty. Sometime the letter; sometime the spirit; and some­time both, must be understood. Further, they say the Doctors braule and chide between themselves; and how should the unlearned understand it aright? Who can tell, saith another, whether this be the true law, or not? If it were the true law of God, then should it containe all verities, & haue no need of mans lawes. Now First, they of the Church of Rome. the grea­test part of such as have the name of Christianity, say, Gods lawes save no man, instruct no man aright; no, it is not wholesome for man, except it be held and ayded by the law of the Meaning the Popes of Rome. Bishops. This the world owes to the Bishops decrees, that have called the authority of the holy Testament that containeth all trueth (whose sufficiency and verity is scaled with the precious bloud of Christ) in­to doubt: and not into doubt onely, but cleane abrogated [Page 87] it, and preferred their owne lawes. Conferre their prea­chings, and ministration of the Sacramints with the ho­ly word and law of God, and see. Other say, I have no wit to understand the Word of GOD; and if I had; yet have I no leasure to learne it. Against this obiection, Moses answereth, and saith this law is sufficient, is simple, and plaint, easie to be understood, a perfit doctrine, and required of all men. Thus he proueth it; the Commande­ment that I prescribe unto thee to day, is not farr above thee, Deut. 30, 1 [...]. nor put farre from thee; reade the last halfe of the chapter. By the which words it appeareth, that GOD hath made his will, and pleasure, simply and plainely open unto his people, with apt sentences and open words, and also put the same to us, that we should not seeke it with great danger of our life, to saile into the Indies for it, or looke it in Heaven above; as those that receive all things by re­velation, Enthusiasts. or apparitions of Angels, or other such meanes. But Moses saith, it is no need of any such ambassadors, and so saith Abraham. For man may learne out of the Scripture, what is to be done, and what not to bee done, Luk. 16, 29. what is the condition of the good and of the bad. No need to seeke the knowledge thereof in Aegypt, Athens, or Rome. But the word is present, and at hand with thee in thy mouth, and in thy heart, that thou shouldest doe it. By these words we see, that in the greatest sinner that is, is a certaine rule and knowledge to live well thereby, if he did follow it. So confounded St. Paul the Gentiles of Rom. 1. 21. sinne: because they knew the evill, they did, was condem­ned by the testimony of their owne conscience. For, the law of God to doe well by, is naturally written in the heart of every man. Hee, that will diligently search himselfe, shall soone find the same; and, in case, man [Page 88] should behold his owne Image both in body and in soule, although there were no law written, nor Heavens over our heads to testifie the goodnesse and the iustice of God, and the equity of an honest life: mans conscience would Rom. 2, 15. tell him, when he doth well; and when evill. Further, the iudgement and discourse of reason desireth not onely to live iustly in this world, but also to live for ever in eternall felicity without end: and that commeth by the similitude of God, wch yet remaineth in the soule after the sinne of Adam. Whereby, we see plainely, that those excuses of ignorance be damnable when man seeth hee could doe well, if he followed the iudgement of his owne conscience. So that, we see, that the law of God is eyther outwardly or inwardly, or both wayes, opened unto man; and by Gods grace yee might doe the good, and leaue the evill; if it were not of malice and accustomed doing of sinne. The which excuseth the mercy and goodnesse of God; and maketh that no man shall be excused in the lat­ter judgement, how subtilly soever they now excuse the matter, and put their evill doings from them, and lay it up­pon the predestination of GOD, and would excuse it by ignorance; or say, he cannot be good, because he is other­wise destinied. This Stoicall opinion reprehended Horace: Nemo adeo fe­rus est, vt non mitoscere possit, Simodo, &c. No man is so cruell (saith he) but may waxe meeke, so that he give a willing care to Discipline. Although thou canst not come to so farre knowledge in the Scripture, as other that beleeved, by reason thou art unlearned, or else thy vocation will not suffer thee all dayes of thy life to be a student, yet maiest thou know, and upon paine of damnation art bound to know, the Articles of thy faith, to know God in Christ, and the holy Catholike Church, by the word of God written; the tenne Commandements, [Page 89] to know what workes thou shouldest doe; and what to leave undone; the Pater Noster, Christs prayer, which is an abridgement, epitome, or compendious collection of all the Psalmes and prayers written in the whole Scripture. In the which thou prayest for the remission of sinne, as well for thy selfe as for all other; desirest the grace of the holy Ghost to preserve thee in vertue, givest thankes for the goodnesse of God towards thee and all o­ther. Hee that knoweth lesse than this cannot be saved; and he that knoweth no more than this, if hee follow his knowledge, cannot be damned. There be two common verses that all men in manner know, and doubtlesse worthy, that teach us that to know Christ, though we know no more, is sufficient.

That is to say; Hoc est nes [...]ire, sine Christlo plu­rimas [...]ir [...]. To be ignorant, is to know many things without Christ. If thou know Christ well, it is sufficient, though thou be ignorant of all other things.

Thus farre the Iudgement of B. HOOPER.


B. LATIMER Sermons, Part. 3. Fol. 213. In his Sermon upon Septuagesima.

MVlti sunt vocati, pauci verò Electi; That is; Many are called, and few are chosen. These wordes of our Saviours are very hard to understand; and therefore it is not good to bee too Curious in them, Curious inter­pretations of Scriptures, are wicked and odious. as some vaine fellowes doe; who see­king Carnall liberty, pervert, tosse, and turne the Word of GOD, after their owne mind, and purpose. Such (I say) when they reade these wordes, make theyr Reckoning thus, saying; What need I to mortifie my body with ab­staining from all sinne, and wickedneis; I perceive God hath Chosen some, and some are reiected; now if I bee in the number of the Chosen, I cannot be Damned: But if I bee accompted among the condemned number, then I cannot be Saved. For GODS Iudgements are immu­table. Such foolish, and wicked reasons some have; which bringeth them eyther to Desperation, or else to carnall Liberty. Therefore it is as needfull, to beware of such reasons, or Expositions of the Scriptures; as it is to beware of the Divell himselfe. But if thou art desirous to know whether thou art chosen to Everlasting life: [Page 91] Thou mayest not begin with God; for God is too high; thou canst not comprehend him: the Iudgements of God, are unknowne to Man; therefore thou mayest not begin there. But begin with Christ, and learne to know Christ; Enter not into the inscrutable Mysteries of God. and wherefore that hee came; namely, that hee came to save Sinners; and made himselfe a Subiect to the Law; and a fulfiller of the same, to deliver us from the wrath, and danger thereof: and therefore was Crucified for our Enter into Christ, and there seeke thy Sal­vation. Sinnes, and rose againe, to shew, and teach us the way to Heaven; and by his Resurrection; to teach us to arise from sinne. So also his Resurrection, teacheth, and admo­nisheth us of the generall Resurrection. Hee sitteth at the right hand of God, and maketh intercession for us, and giveth us the Holy Ghost, that comforteth, and strength­neth our Faith, and daily assureth us of our Salvation.

Consider I say Christ, and his comming; and then begin Christ, is the Booke of Life, wherein our Names be writ­ten, if we be­le [...]ve in him. to try thy selfe whether thou art in the booke of life, or not. If thou findest thy selfe in Christ; then thou art sure of everlasting life. If thou be without him; then thou art in evill case. For it is written: Nemo venit ad patrem, nisi per me, that is: No man commeth unto the Fa­ther, Iohn, 6. but through me. Therefore, if thou knowest Christ; then thou mayest know further of thy Election. But when we are about this matter, and Troubled within our selves, whether we be elect, or no; wee must ever have this Maxime, or principall Rule before our eyes; namely, that GOD beareth a good will towards vs. God loveth us; God beareth a fatherly heart towards us: But you will say; how shall I know that? or how shall I Iohn, 1, 3. beleeve that? We may know Gods will towards us through Christ: God hath opened himselfe unto us by his Sonne Christ. For so saith Iohn the Evangelist: Filius, [Page 92] qui est in sinu Patris, ipse revelavit; that is, The Sonne which is in the bosome of the Father, he hath revealed. Therefore we may perceive his good will, and love to­wards us, hee hath sent the same his Sonne into this world, which hath suffered most painefull death for us. Shall I now thinke that God hateth me? or shall I doubt of his love towards me? Here you see how you shall avoyd the scrupulous, and most dangerous question of the Predestination of God. For, if thou wilt inquire his counsayles, and enter into his consistory, thy wit will deceive thee; for thou shalt not be able to search the counsailes of God. But if thou beginne with Christ; and consider his comming into the world; and doest beleeve, that God hath sent him for thy sake, to suffer for thee; and to deliver thee from sinnz, death, the Devill, and Hell. Then, when thou art so armed with the know­ledge of Christ; then (I say) this simple question cannot How you shall know, when you are in the Booke of life. hurt thee: for thou art in the booke of life, which is Christ himselfe.

Also wee learne by this sentence, (Multi sunt vocati, That many are called, &c.) That the Preaching of the Gospell is universall; that it appertaineth to All mankind; that it is written, In omnem terram exivit sonus corum, Psal. 19. Rom, 10, 18. Through the whole earth, their sound is heard. Now seeing that the Gospell is universall, it appeareth that hee would have all Mankind saved; and that the fault is not in him, if wee be Damned. For it is written thus: Deus vult owmnes homines salvos fieri; God would have all men 1, Tim. 2, 4. God would, that All should be saved. to bee saved; his salvation is sufficient to save all Man­kind; But wee are so wicked of our selves, that wee refuse the same; and we will not take it, when it is offered unto us, and therefore he sayth: Pauci verò electi; Few are [Page 93] chosen; That is, few have pleasure & delight in it. For the most part are weary of it; & cannot abide it; and there are some that heare it, but they will abide no danger for it; they love more their riches, & possessions, than the word of God; & therfore, Pauci sunt electi, there are but a few, that sticke heartily unto it; and can finde in their hearts to forgoe this world for Gods sake, and his holy word. There are some now adayes, that will not be reprehen­ded by the Gospell, they thinke themselves better, than it. Some againe are so stubborne, that they will rather for­sweare Our stubborn­nesse and lacke of Faith, is the Cause of our Damnation. themselves, than confesse their sinnes, and wic­kednesse: Such men are cause of their owne Damnation; for God would have them saved; but they refuse it; like as did Iudas the Traytor; whom Christ would have had to be saved; but hee refused his salvation. Hee refused to follow the Doctrine of his Master Christ. And so, whosoever heareth the Word of God, and followeth it, the same is Elect by him. And againe, whosoever refuseth to heare the word of God, and to follow the same, is Dam­ned. So that our Election is sure, if we follow the word of God. Here is now taught you how to try out your E­lection: A right Do­ctrine to try our Election. namely, in Christ. For Christ is the accompting booke, and Register of God. Even in the same Booke, that is Christ, are written all the names of the Elect: There­fore wee cannot find our Election in our selves, neyther yet in the high Counsell of God: for Inscrutabilia sunt iudi Iob, 34. cia altissimi; where then shall I find my Election? In the counting booke of GOD, which is Christ: For thus it is written: Sic Deus dilexit mundum; that is, God so intire­ly loved the World, that hee gave his onely begotten Sonne, Ioh. 3, 10. to that end, that all that beleeve in him should not perish, but haue life Everlasting. Whereby appeareth most [Page 94] plainely, that Christ is the Booke of Life; and that all that beleeve in him, are in the same Booke, & so are chosen to E­verlasting life; for only those are ordained, which beleeve.

Therefore, when thou hast faith in Christ, then thou art in the booke of Life, and so art thou sure of thy E­lection: Christ is the Booke of Life. And againe, If thou bee without Christ, and have no Faith in him; neyther art sory for thy wicked­nesse; nor have a minde, and purpose to leave, and for­sake Sinne, but rather exercise, and use the same; then The unbelee­vers are not in the booke of Life. thou art not in the booke of Life, as long as thou art in such a case; and therefore shalt thou goe into Everla­sting fire; namely, if thou dye in thy wickednesse, and finne without Repentance. But there are none so wicked but hee may have a Remedy; what is that? Enter into thine owne heart, and search the secrets of the same. Con­sider thine owne life, and how thou hast spent thy dayes. And if thou find in thy selfe all manner of uncleannesse, and abhominable sinnes, and so seest thy Damnation be­fore thine eyes, what shalt thou then doe? Confesse the same unto thy Lord GOD, be sory that thou hast of­fended so loving a Father, and aske mercy of him in the name of Christ, and beleeve stedfastly that hee will bee mercifull unto thee, in the respect of his onely Sonne which suffered Death for thee; and then have a good purpose to leave all sinne and wickednesse, and to with-stand The right way, how thou maist be assured of everlasting life. and resist the affections of thine owne flesh, (which ever fight against the spirit,) and to live uprightly, and godly, after the will, and Commandement of thy hea­venly Father. If thou goe thus to worke, surely thou shalt be heard, thy sinnes shall bee forgiven thee, God will shew himselfe true in his Promise. For, to that end, hee hath sent his onely Sonne into this world, that hee [Page 95] might save Sinners. Consider therefore, I say, Wherefore Christ came into this world; Consider also, the great Hatred, and wrath, that God beareth against Sinne; and againe, consider his great Love shewed unto thee, in that hee sent his onely Sonne to suffer most cruell Death, rather than that thou shouldst be damned Everlastingly.

Thus speaketh that Learned B. and Blessed Martyr, in that place. And in another place, hee saith:

O What a pittifull thing is it; That a man will not Idem. Part. 3. sol. 207. In his Sermon, on the First Sunday after Epiphani [...]. consider this, and leave Sinne, and Pleasure of this world, and live godly, but is so blind, and so mad, that he will rather have a momentary and a very short, and smll pleasure, han to hearken to the Will and pleasure of Alnighty God; that might avoyd Everlasting paine, and [...]oe, and give unto him Everlasting felicitie. For that a [...]reat many of us are Damned, the fault is not in God; 1, Tim. 2. 5. for Deis vult omnes homines salvos fieri; GOD would have all men to bee saved: But the fault is in our selves, We ourselves are causes of our owne dam­tion. and in o [...] owne madnesse, that had rather have Dam­nation, th [...] Salvation.

And fu [...]her, in another passage, the same Holy Marty, writeth in this manner: viz.

VVEe rode in the Actes of the Apostles; That I' [...]m. Part. 3. fol. 198. In his Sermon, on the third Sunday after Epiphanic. Act. 13, 48. when Saint Paul had made a long Sermon, at Antioch, then beleeve (sayth the Evangelist) as many as were ordaind to life Everlasting. With the which say­ing, [...] great nu [...]ber of people have beene offended: and have sayd; We perceive that onely those shall come to be­leeve, and so to everlasting life, which are chosen of God [Page 96] vnto it; therefore it is no matter whatsoever wee doe. A lewd opini­on of Predesti. nation. For if we be Chosen to Everlasting life, we shall have it: And so they have opened a doore unto themselues, of all Wickednesse, and carnall liberty, against the true meaning of the Scripture. For, if the most part bee damned, the fault is not in God; but in themselves. For it is written, Deus vult omnes homines salvos fieri: God would that 1, Tim. 2. all men should be saved: But they themselves procure their owne damnation; and despise the passion of Christ, by their We our selves procure our owne Damna­tion. owne wicked, and inordinate living. Heere wee ma [...] learne to keepe us, from all curious and dangerous questi­ons. When we heare that some bee chosen, and some [...]ee damned, let us have good hope, that we shall be among he chosen; and live after this hope; that is, uprightly, and godly, then thou shalt not be deceived. Thinke that God hath chosen those that beleeve in Christ; and Christi the Christ, the Booke of Life. booke of life. If thou beleevest in him, then thou ar [...]rit­ten in the booke of life, and shalt be saved: So wee need not to goe about to trouble our selves with curios questi­ons of the Predestination of God. But let us rater endea­vour our selves, that we may be in Christ; for [...]hen wee be in him, then are we well, and then we my bee sure, that we are ordained to Everlasting life. But you will say; How shall I know that I am in the bookof life? How shall I try my selfe to be Elect of God to evelasting Life? I answere; First, we may kn [...]w, that wee may and time be in the booke, and another time come [...]t againe; as it appeareth by DAVID: which was writen in the booke of life: But when he sinned, hee, at that same time was How we may know, when we are in the state of Salvation, and when Not. out of the booke of the favour of God; until hee had repen­ted, and was sory for his faults. So we [...]ay bee in the booke, one time; and afterward, when we [...]rget God, and [Page 97] his word, and doe wickedly, we come out of the booke; that is, out of Christ, which is the booke. And in that Booke, are written all beleevers. But I will tell you how you shall know, when you are in the booke. And there are Three markes, whereby wee may know, whether we be in the booke of Life, or no. The first. three especiall notes, whereby wee may know the same. The first note is, if you know your sinne and feele your owne wretchednesse, and filthinesse; which is a great matter; for the most part of people, are so drowned in sinne, that they no more feele the same; for sinne gree­veth them no more. According to the saying of Salo­mon: Impius quum in medium peccatorum venit, contem­nit; That is, The ungodly man, when he entreth into the middest of all sinne, and mischiefe, despiseth the same; he regardeth Sin nothing at all, neither is he sory for it; But, as I said, the first note is, when you know your sinne, and feele the same; then are they heavy unto you and greeve you. Then followeth the second point, which is faith in The second. Christ; that is, when you beleeve most stedfastly, and un­doubtedly, that God the Heavenly father, through his Sonne, will deliver you from your sinnes. When you beleeve, I say, that the bloud of our Saviour is shed for you, for the cleansing, and putting away of your sinnes; and beleeving this most stedfastly, with an unfained heart, then you have the second Point. The third point is, The third. when you have an earnest desire to amendment, and ha­tred against Sinne, study to live after Gods will and Com­mandements, as much as is possible for you to doe; then have you the third Point. And when you finde these three Points to bee in you: Namely, first when you know your sinne, and be sory for the same, and afterwards beleeve to bee saved, through the passion of Iesu Christ: [Page 98] And Thirdly; have an earnest desire to leave sinne, and to fly the same: when you find these three things in your hearts, then you may be sure that your names are written in the booke, and you may be sure also, that you are elect and predestinate to everlasting life.

And againe, when you see not your wickednesse, and that sinne grieveth you not; neither have you faith, or hope in our Saviour, and therefore are Carelesse, and study not for amendment of life; then you are in a heavy An evident and plaine Doctrine that sheweth you when you are out of the [...]or of God. case; and then you have cause to cry, and lament your wretchednesse; For truely, you are not in the booke of life; but the Devill hath power over you, as long as yee are in such a state. Here you see now, how you shall try your selves, whether you be in the booke of life, or no, &c.

And, againe.

THe Evangelist, saith hee, when Iesus was borne. Idem. Part. 3. fol. 183. In his Sermon, on the first Sunday after Epiphani [...]. What is Iesus? Iesus is an Hebrew word, and signi­fieth in our English tongue, a Saviour, and Redeemer of all Mankind, borne into this world. This title, and name to save, appertaineth properly, and principally unto him; for, he saved us; else had we beene lost for ever. Notwithstanding the name of Saviour is used in com­mon speech; as the King, is called a Saviour; for The terme (Sa­viour) is used in sundry com­mon speeches. he saveth his subiects, from all danger, and harme, that may ensue of the Enemies. Likewise, the Physiti­an, is accompted a Saviour; for hee saveth the sicke man from the danger of his disease; with good and wholesome medicines. So Fathers and Mothers are [Page 99] Saviours; for they save their Children from bodily harme, that may happen unto them; So Bridges, lea­ding over the waters. Likewise, Ships and Boates, great and small Vessels upon the Seas, are Saviours; for they save us from the fury, rage, and tempest of the Sea. So Iudges, are Saviours; for they save, or at least should save the people from wrong, and oppression. But all this is not perfect saving; for, what availeth it to bee saved from Sicknesse, Calamities, and Oppression, when wee shall bee condemned after our death, both body and soule for ever, to remaine with the Devill and his Angels? Wee must therefore come to Iesus which is the right, and true Saviour; And, he it is, that Iesus Christ is our onely Sa­viour. hath saved us from sinne. Whom hath hee saved? His people; how saved hee them? First, by Magi­strates, he saveth the poore from oppression, and wrong: The Children hee saveth, through the Tuition of the How many wayes Christ saveth us. Parents from danger, and perill: by Physitians, hee saveth from sicknesse, and diseases: but from sinne hee saveth onely through his Passion and bloudshed­ding. Therefore he may be called and is the very Christs Death is onely our Sal­vation. right Saviour: for it is hee, that saveth from all in­felicitie all his faithfull people; and his salvation is sufficient, to satisfie for all the world, as concerning it selfe; but, as concerning us, hee saved no more, but such as put their trust in him. And as many as beleeve in him shall bee saved; The other shall be cast out, as Infidels, into everlasting damna­tion. Not for lacke of Salvation; but for Infidelitie, Si is the onely cause of Dam▪ and lacke of Faith; which is the onely cause of their damnation.

[Page 100] He saved us from what? even from sinne? Now, when he saved us from sinne, then hee saved us from the wrath of God; from affliction, and calamities; from Hell, and Death, and from Damnation, and everlasting paine: for Sin is the cause, and fountaine of all mischiefe: Take away sinne, then all other Calamities, wherein man­kind is wrapped, are taken away and cleane gone, and dispersed: Therefore, hee saving us from sinne, saved us from all affliction. But how doth he save us from sinne? In this manner; that sinne shall not condemne us; Sinne How wee be saved from Sinne. shall not have the victory over us. He saved us not so, that we should be without sinne; that no sinne should be left in our hearts: No, he saved us not so. For all manner of imperfections, remaine in us, yea in the best of us; so that if God should enter into Iudgement with us, wee should all be damned. For there are more, nor ever was any man borne into this world, which could say, I am cleane from sinne, except, Iesus Christ. Therefore he sa­ved Christ onely, is [...]oyd of sinne. us not from sinne, in taking cleane away the same; that wee should not be inclined unto it; but rather, the power, and strength of the same sinne, he hath so vanqui­shed, that it shall not be able to condemne those, which beleeve in him: for sinne is remitted, and not imputed unto the beleevers.

So likewise he saved us from sinne, not taking it cleane away, but rather, the strength, and force of the same. So The Power and Force of Sinne is taken away by Christ. he saved vs from other Calamities, not taking the same cleane away; but rather the power of the same: So that no Calamity nor misery, should be able to hurt us, that are in Christ Iesu. And likewise, he saved us from Death; not that we should not dye; but that Death should have [Page 101] no victory over vs, nor condemne us; but rather, to be a way, and entrance unto Salvation, and everlasting Life: for death is a gate to enter into everlasting life. No man can come to everlasting life, but he must first dye bodily: But this death cannot hurt the faithfull, for they are ex­empted from all danger, through the death, and passion of Iesus Christ our Saviour, who with his death, hath over­come our death.

And in another place, the same Father writeth, as followeth: viz.

THe Holy Scripture maketh mention of a Sinne a­gainst Idem. Part. 2. fol. 64. In his First Sermon preached in Lincolushire, An­no 1553. upon These words. The Kingdome of Heaven is like unto a certaine King. Math. 22. the Holy Ghost; which Sinne cannot bee forgi­ven, neyther in this world, nor in the world to come. And this maketh many men unquiet in their hearts, and consciences. For, some there be, which ever bee afraid, least they have committed that same sinne against the Holy Ghost, which is irremissible. Therefore some say, I cannot tell whether I have sinned against the Holy Ghost or not: If I have committed that sinne I know I shall be damned. But, I tell you, what yee shall doe; Despaire There is a Sin against the Ho­ly Ghost. not of the Mercy of GOD; for it is immeasurable. I can­not deny, but there is a Sinne against the Holy Ghost, which is irremissible; But wee cannot iudge of it afore-hand; we cannot tell which man hath committed that sinne, or not, So long, as men are alive, wee cannot Iudge whether they have commit­ted the Sinne against the Ho­ly Ghost, or not. as long, as he is alive: But, when he is once gone, then I can Iudge whether hee sinned against the Holy Ghost, or not. As now I can judge that Nero, Saul, and Iudas, and such like (that dyed in sinnes and wickednesse) did com­mit this sinne against the Holy Ghost: for they were wic­ked [Page 102] and continued in their wickednesse still, to the very end. They made no end in their wickednesse. But we can­not judge, whether one of us sinne this sinne against the Holy Ghost, or not. For though a man bee wicked at this Christ knew the hearts of the Pharisees and therefore iudged of them time, yet he may repent, and leave his wickednsse to morrow; and so not commit that sinne against the Holy Ghost. Our Saviour Christ pronounced against the Scribes, and Pharises, that they had committed that sinne against the Holy Ghost: because Hee knew their hearts, he knew that they would still abide in their wickednesse to the very end of their lives.

Further the promises of Christ our Saviour are gene­rall, they pertaine to all Mankinde: hee made a generall Christs pro­mises are gene­rall, to All Mankind. Ioh. 6, 47. Rom. 5, 20. & 15, v. Proclamation, saying: Qui credit in me, habet vitam aeternam; Whosoever beleeveth in mee, hath everlasting life. Likewise, St. Paul saith: Gratia exuperat super peccatum. The Grace and Mercies of God, exceedeth farre our sinnes. Therefore let us ever thinke, and beleeve, that the grace of God, his mercy, and goodnesse, excedeth our sinnes. Item, consider what Christ saith, with his owne mouth; Venite ad me omnes qui laboratis &c. Come unto me All yee, that labour, and are laden, and I Mat. [...], 28. will ease you. Marke here, hee saith; Come all yee: Wherefore then should any body despaire, or shut out himselfe from these promises of Christ, which be generall, and appertaine to the whole world? For he saith, Come all unto me: and then againe, he saith, Refo­cillabo vos; I will refresh you, you shall be eased from the burdens of your sinnes.

Therefore, as I said before, he that is blasphemous and obstinately wicked, and abideth in his wickednesse, [Page 103] still to the very end, he sinneth against the Holy Ghost: as St. Augustine, and all other godly writers doe affirme, But he that leaveth his wickednesse, and sinnes, and is content to amend his life, and then, beleeving in Christ, seeketh Salvation, and everlasting life by him: No doubt that man, or woman, Whosoever they be shall bee saved; For, they feed upon Christ, upon that meate that God the Father this Feastmaker hath prepared for all his guests.

Such another passage. to This same purpose, you may Reade in his sixt Sermon, upon the Lords Prayer, Some two passages before the End of the Sermon; Spea­king against Novatus the Hereticke.

CHrist onely, and no man else, merited Remission, Idem. Part. 2. fol. 92. In his fourth Sermon preached in Lincolnshire, up­on Philipp, 3. Iustification, and eternall felicity for as many as will beleeve the same; They, that will not beleeve it, shall not have it. For it is no more, but beleeve and have: For Christ shed as much bloud for Iudas, as for Peter. Pe­ter beleeved it, and therefore he was saved: Iudas would Iudas lacked beleefe, and therefore was not saved. not beleeve; and therefore he was condemned. The Fault being in him onely, and in no body else.

Againe, The same blessed Father, writeth Thus; as followeth.

SIc Deus dilexit mundum; So entirely hath GOD Idem. Part: 2. fol. 132. In his eight Sermon in Line: upon Luke 21, 25. Erunt Signa. Iohn, 3. loved the world, that hee sent his onely begotten Sonne, to that end, that all that beleeve in him, should not perish, but have life Everlasting: [Page 104] this is now a Comfortable thing, and a great promise, which GOD maketh unto the whole world; and no doubt he is as able to fulfill that promise of Grace, as hee was able to fulfill His wrathfull word against V [...]. In the de­struction of Ie­rusalem, &c. the Iewes. So likewise hee saith: Vivo ego, dicit Dominus, nolo mortem Peccatoris, sed ut convertatur, & vivat: As truely as I live (sayth the Lord God) I willBzech. 33, 11.not the death of a Sinner, but rather that hee shall turne, and live. It is not his pleasure, when wee be damned; there­fore, hee sweareth on Oath: wee ought to beleeve himThe Cause, why God sware.without an Oath; yet to satisfie our mindes, and to the in­tent, that wee should beleeve him, and be the better assu­red of his goodwill towards Vs, hee sweareth this Oath. Now therefore, if wee will follow him, and leave our wicked living, convert, and turne our selves unto him, be sory for that which is past, and intend to amend our life now forward: If wee doe so; no doubt, we shall live with him everlastingly without end. Therefore let e­very one of us goe into his owne heart, and when he fin­deth that hee hath beene a Wicked man, an Irefull man, a Covetous, or a sloathfull man: Let him Repent, and be sory for it, and take a good purpose to leave that same sinne, wherein he hath lyen before. Let us not doe, as the Iewes did, which were stiffe-necked; they would not The reward of the Obstinate, and sti [...]uecked People. leave their Sinnes, they had a pleasure in the same; they would follow their old Traditions, refusing the Word of GOD: Therefore their Destruction came worthily upon them: And therefore (I say) let us not follow them, least we receive such a Reward, as they had; least everla­sting destruction come upon us, and so we be cast out of the favour of GOD, and finally lost, world without end.

Furthermore, in another Sermon, hee saith; as heere followeth:

I Say, there be two manner of Men: Some there be, that Idem. Pag. 114. In a Sermon preached on Rom. 13. 11. are not Iustified, not Regenerate; nor yet in State of Sal­vation: That is to say, not GODS Servants: They lacke the renovation, or Regeneration; they be not come yet to CHRIST. Now these persons that bee not come yet to Christ, or if they were come to Christ, be fal­len againe from him: and so lost theyr Iustification (as there bee many of us, which when wee fall willingly into Sinne against Conscience, wee lose the favour of GOD, our Salvation, and finally the Holy Ghost:) all they now, that bee out of the favour of GOD, and are not sory for it; Sinne grieveth them not, they purpose to goe for­ward in it; All those that intend not to leave theyr Sinnes, are out of the Favour of GOD; and so all their workes, whatsoever they doe, bee deadly sinnes: For, as long as they bee in purpose to sinne, they sinne deadly in all their doings. Therefore, when wee will speake of the diversity of Sinnes, wee must speake of those that bee Faithfull, that bee regenerated and made new, and cleane from theyr Sinnes through Christ.

To these two Holy Martyrs and learned Bishops, I adde a third, who (when hee lived) was, in place, the First; and in Grace not inferiour to any. It is Archbishop CRANMER. Hee, speaking of the merit of Christs Death, writeth on this wise. viz.


Archbishop CRNMER'S Preface to the Reader, in his Answere to Doctor GARDINER Bishop of Win­chester: Touching the Holy Sacrament. Printed by Iohn Day, 1580. and written by the said Father, Anno 1551.

OVr Saviour CHRIST IESUS, ac­cording to the Will of his Eternall Father, when the time thereto was fully accomplished, taking our Nature upon him, came into this World, from the high Throne of his Father; to declare unto miserable sinners good newes; to Heale them that were sieke; to make the Blinde to see; the Deafe to heare; and the Dumbe to speake; to set Prisoners at libertie; to shew that the time of Grace and Mercy was come; to give Light to them that were in darknesse, and in the shadow of [Page 107] Death, and to preach and give Pardon, and full remissi­on of Sinne to all his Elected; And to performe the same, hee made a Sacrifice and oblation of his owne. Bo­dy upon the Crosse, which was a full Redemption, satis­faction, and propitiation for the Sinnes of the whole world.

And in another place.

CHRIST was such an high Bishop, that hee once of­fering Idem. lib. 51. pag. 372. himselfe, was sufficient by once effusion of his blood to abolish Sinne unto the worlds end. He was so perfect a Priest, that by One oblation hee purged an in­finite heape of Sinnes, leaving an easie and a ready Reme­dy A plaine de­claration of the Sacrifice of CHRIST. for all Sinners; that his One sacrifice should suffice for many yeares unto all Men, that should not shew them­selves unworthy. And he tooke unto himselfe not onely their sinnes, that many yeares before were dead, and put their trust in him; but also, the sinnes of those that un­till his comming againe should truely beleeve in his Gos­pell. So that, now; wee may looke for none other Priest, nor Sacrifice, to take away our Sinnes, but onely him and his Sacrifice. And, as hee, Dying once, was offered for All, so as much as pertained to him, hee tooke all mens sinnes unto himselfe.

To which we ioyne B. Iewel, in his Apologie, towards B. Iewel. De [...]eus. Apolog. Cap. 19. Devis. 1. the End thereof. Certò Animis nostris persuademus, Illum (id est, Christum) esse propitiatorem pro peccatis nostris: Eius Sanguine, Omnes Labes nostras deletas esse: Illum pacificasse Omnia Sanguine Crucis suae: Illum [Page 108] unicā illâ Hostiâ quam semel obtulit in Cruce, OM­NIA perfecisse, & Eâ causa, cum Animam ageret, dix­isse: CONSVMMATVM Est: Quasi Significare vellet, Persolutum jam esse Pretium, pro Peccato Huma­ni [...] Oenus: [...]. Mankind, that is, All that haue the Na­ture and Kind of Man in them: all that are [...]ted of Men. Generis. That is;

Wee doe assuredly perswade our Mindes, That Hee [Christ] is the obtainer of forgivenesse for our sinnes: And, that by his Bloud, ALL our spots of Sinnes be washed Cleane: That he hath Pacified and set at One All things, by the Bloud of his Crosse, That he, by the same One Onely sacrifice, which hee Once offered upon the Crosse hath brought to effect and fulfilled ALL thinges; And that, for that Cause, Hee said; It is Finished; as though hee would Signifie; That the Price, or Ransome, was Now Fully-paid, for the sinne of Mankind.

To this GOD the Sonne, together with GOD the Father, and GOD the Holy Ghost, bee ascribed all Honour, Worship, Praise, and Glory for ever.


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