BROWNE his fiftie yeares practice.

Or an exact Discourse concerning Snafflle-riding, for Trotting and Ambling of all manner of Horses whatsoeuer, from one degree to another, till they be perfit both for the Trot and Amble. A Subiect, neuer as yet pubished by any heretofore.



Printed by NICCHOLAS OKES, and [...]

TO THE RIGHT HONORABLE, AND MOST NOBLE, THOMAS Lord WINDESOR, of Bra­denham, his Lordships humble seruant William Browne wisheth all increase of VERTVE and HONOR.

My Honoured LORD:

WITH much industry, and many yeeres experience I haue gathered a few collections, which I humbly beseech your Lordship to accept vnder your protection, they are notes that will teach a young Rider, the certaine and infallible way how to ride and mannage any Colt, from the first haltering, till he be a perfect riden horse of the Snaffle: I acknowledge a great vnfitnesse in my selfe, to set forth a booke in Print, being an old Northerne man, wanting fit language, and method for these times, and in nothing more vnexperienced then in the way of writing: Yet because I know that my owne long practise in this businesse, hath taught me [Page] many wayes to bring a Colt to this perfection, which hath not yet beene divulged abroad, by such as haue written in the same kinde: I thought it better to send this poore booke forth, cloathed with my owne simple language, before death shut vp the euening of my dayes, then to wrong my selfe or this arte so much, as to conceale any thing that may doe other young men good in it. And because I know that reading without practise doth but a very little helpe such, who are of the meaner apprehensions.

I haue laboured with my best endeauour to furnish my Booke with pictures of examples, both of the chiefe way how to worke the horses, and the best instruments to worke withall: I am encouraged to present my Booke, and seruice to your Lorship, because I perceiue that a­mongst other your recreations, you are most addicted to haue good horses for your pleasure, and excellent gal­loping horses for your exercise. Moreouer, your Lordship hath seene some proofe of my practise, and I am so much bound vnto your Lorship, for many your noble courtesies and fauours towards me, that I would willingly pay a better thankfulnesse then this to your Honour, if it rested in my abillity: I onely entreate your Lorship to suffer this to rest vnder your Patronage; and I will spend the remainder of my poore life, in studdying how to be

Your Lorships humblest to command in all Seruice, WILLIAM BROVVNE.


CHAPTER I. A true and vnfallable way how to Ride and Man­nage any Colt, from the haltering of him, from one degree to another; till he be a perfect ridden Horse of the Snaffle, of what nature or disposition so­euer he is of.

YOV must haue first in a readi­nesse a strong rope about foure Fatham in length, made with a running noose at the one end: Then cause the Colte to be driuen into some large house, where he may haue some suffi­cient roome to turne himselfe at his pleasure, and to make him the more gentle to deale withall: Let him haue the company of some [Page 2] old Horse haltered, which you must keepe euer be­twixt you and him, to shadow you, in such sort as they vse to stalke at foule; vntill such time as with a long pole for the purpose, then open the noose wider and lap one side thereof about the pole, then with ease you may put the same ouer his head, then pre­sently put a good strong halter, that well be sure to hold him; and let there be tyed to it a chasing rope of foure Fatham long, with a turnell in the one end, tie the harter end to the turnell, then let there be strength enough to hold him, then put him forth of the house gently, and bring him into the stable, and there tye him fast to the manger, then within one houre or two, you may take him forth into some faire place, and be sure you haue strength enough to hold him, that he may know that hee is mastered: then let one hauing a long repell in his hand, trot him about you faire and gently, both wayes, which being done, let him stand still to take his winde, and goe faire and gently to him, and cherrish him with faire words during that time, stroaking your pole ouer him in many places of his body, and if he refuse at the first, doe not leaue him till he will suffer you to touch him therewith. Then leade him into the stable againe, and tie him fast as you did be­fore, then you must get a sticke of a yard and a halfe long, and slit him in the one end, some quarter of a yard long, then take as much straw as the slit will hold, and wrap it about fast, and tye it fast with a packe-threed to keepe it in, with the which you must stroake him gently, first vpon the necke and brest, and then to his body, and so to his [Page 3] legges, and so by degrees ouer all the parts of him, till he will suffer you gently to touch him in any part of his body and legges: then you may with the sticke in one hand, and a good long wispe in the o­ther, first touch him with the sticke, and then after with the wispe in the other hand; and so you may make him let you touch him with the wispe, by of­ten touching him about the head, that he will suf­fer you to touch him in any place about his head, both about his cares, and his mouth, that when you come to bridle him, he will suffer you gently to put the mouthing-brake into his mouth. Then go and finde out some euen and firme ground, as neere the stable as you can, then get a pile or stoupe stake, and driue it fast into the ground, and that it may be one yard and a halfe aboue the ground: let the ground where you meane to practise him be euen and firme, that hee may take fast foote-hold, then tye your chasing rope to the haiter, I meane to the turnel, and bring him forth, and make a good large noose in the end of the chasing rope: then bring him to the stoupe, and put the noose ouer the stoupe, then let some one take the rope in the middest to hold it vp from his feete, and another with a good long pole in his hand to put him about the ring, and when you beginne to put him about, let it be on the left hand, for that will make Him leade with his right legge, which he must doe both in his pace, trot, and gal­lop, you must put him at the first very gently about, till he know something what to doe, then you may trot him, but in any case doe not change him on the right hand, till you see that he doth set his right leg [Page 4] before, and when you perceiue he doth it in his trot, then you may venter to change him: But where you put him once about on the right hand, put him three times on the left, for if you doe not make him leade with his right legge before at the beginning, it will be a great hinderance to you, when you come to gallop him.

Now when you haue practised a little, that hee doth know what hee doth, then take him into the Stable againe, and if he worke to your hand toward­ly, make much of him, and giue him some reward that hee will eate, either hay or Oates, that hee may vnderstand that hee doth that you would haue him. Then lead him into the stable againe, and be exerci­sing him as you did before, till you haue made him so gentle that he will suffer you to touch him in any place, with the wispe in your hand: That being done, then beginne with his feete in this manner, take any fursingle that is strong; and put the end through the buckle, to make a little noose to put his neere fore­legge in, then get vp his foote as gentle as you can, and when you haue it vp, presently slip the noose ouer his foot, and let it rest betwixt his hoofe and his fet-locke.

Then with a good strength pull his foote vp, and hold it a pretty while, then let it downe againe, and make much of him, then take it vp againe, and euer giue him this word, lift, and so exercise him till hee will lift when you bid him. Then take a good stiffe sticke in your hand, and euer when you bid him lift, pull vp the sursingle, and strike him be­neath the knee with your sticke. And with a little [Page 5] exercise when you knocke him on the legge, hee will take vp his legge, and then you may bring him to your hand, that when you offer him your hand, hee will presently take vp his foote if you bid him lift; and so you must practise him in all his legges, that when you bring him in from riding, you may easily picke the grauell out of his feete, and will be the gentlier to shooe: Now when you haue brought all these things to good perfection, then I would haue you to take a good stirrop Leather, and make it full of holes, to take vp and let out at your plea­sure, then take vp his neere fore-foote, and buckle it vp so fast, as he cannot let it downe, then take a sticke and stirre him vp and downe, that he may feele that he doth lacke the vse of one of his legges.


[Page 7]Then haue a saddle in a readinesse, and let one be at his head, then come and offer him the saddle gent­ly, and rubbe it vp and downe his sides, and let him see it, then set it on his backe, and gird the girthes slacke at the first, least he take a distaste at them; then take away the knee band, and let him settle himselfe, and stirre him vp and downe, that he may feele the saddle on his backe: This being done, then make the mouthing brake fit, which must be done in this manner. The benefit of this fashion brake, is to this effect, being made all of one peece, the roules being loose about it doth make your Colte worke with a merry mouth, and will not gall his lippes as the snafflle will do that is of two peeces.

Louing sonne, I would haue you be very circum­spect in this point, for it is one of the chiefest grounds belonging to a snaffle man, for if you cānot obtaine to that knowledge to make your Colts mouth firme and true in all points, it will be a great hinderance to your practise, for it is a secret, that I haue been this 50 yeares plodding about, and now (I thanke God) I haue attained to it.

CHAP. 2.

LOving sonne, I will beginne to let you know how many wayes I haue practi­sed this secret of mouthing a Colte. First in my beginning, I was taught to gird a strong sursingle about his flanke behind, then put the bridle raynes into the sursingle so strait as in your discretion shall fit: then let him [Page 8] striue mightely, and lye downe for anger. This way will bring in his head, but sinke it downe cleane be­twixt his legges, and make him mouth false. To let you vnderstand what is a true mouth, and what is a false mouth. A true mouth is this, your Colt must let his vpper chap fall euen with his nether chap, and let his tongue rest vnder his snaffle, and worke with his mouth pleasantly, and yeelde to your hand wil­lingly, that is a true mouth.

And the false mouth is, that he doth wry his vp­per chap cleane awry from his nether chap, and get his tongue aboue the snaffle, this is a false mouth, and what horse soeuer is thus [...]outhed [...] will assure you, he will neuer beare light of your hand, but will tyre your armes.

Now the second way I did vse to gird a sursingle before, and put two wisps vnder [...]he sursingle, and so rayne him vp, and turne him loose into [...]me Court, and so let him striue with himselfe; that was better then the other: but neither of them good, for that way did make a false mouth also, and set the rayne too low.

But louing so [...]ne, I haue two wayes I would haue you practise, if you will follow my directions: The first is this, to put your mouthing-brake vpon your Colts head, and at the first tye it easely to the racke, so that he may ease to put downe his head, and let him stand so a pretty while, then loose it and put the reynes ouer his head, and take one of your armes, and lay it ouer the Colts necke, and the other hand to be on the neere side, then take the one reyne in the right hand, and the other in your left hand, and let [Page 9] your right hand not stirre a whit, but let the other hand worke his mouth, with your left hand with easie and gentle motions, and by a little and a little, you shall so winne his mouth, that he will yeeld to your hand willingly, and euer when hee doth yeelde to your hand, then slacke your hand, and so hee will perceiue your intention presently, and worke to your content: You must euer marke as hee doth yeeld to your hands to worke his head vp still, and in no case let it sincke, and euer bee looking to his mouth, that he mouth true.

I would haue you practise this way of mouthing your Colt, for many a fine mouthed horse I haue made in this manner, but I would haue you vtterly renounce all manner of wayes to set your Colt vp­on any manner of rest, for I haue had to much triall of that, to my great griefe.

CHAP. 3.

BVT louing Sonne, I will let you see a­nother fashion of mouthing your Colt that d [...]th passe them all, that is in this manner following; First, put your mouthing Brake on his head, then marke this Picture:

This round peece of wood must bee made with a hollow Slit round about it, with a Carpenter, for the Coard to ride in, and be t [...]ed to the Iuyce of the Chamber aboue the Stable. And as you set it, so you must settle your Colt in the Stable, as hee stan­deth, you must begin with him very gently, and draw [Page]


[Page 11] him vp by little and little, and euer as he commeth vp to your hand, raising his head, you must present­ly slacke your hand, and giue him ease, then draw vp your hand againe, and still worke him till hee bee at the highest you would haue him, where you meane to place his raine.

Then let him stay there, and as often as you worke him vp, ease him, and let his head downe, and so in short time he wil clyme so easily to your hand as you would desire, and cary exceeding light of the hand: and that is a principall to make his tongue rest vnder the Snaffle, for that he can in no case get it vp aboue the Snaffle.

Louing Sonne, though I set you downe a strange kinde of mouthing your Colt, if you thinke good to put it in practice, and be very circumspect in the businesse, you shall truly finde it will worke to a very good perfection; for I would bee very loath to set you on worke to practise, but that I haue made full tryall thereof my selfe. And if I should haue a Colt of great worth to ride, I would beginne him in this manner. Now when you haue brought him to that perfection, as you thinke it fitting. Then I would haue you to proceede in your former practise at the stoope: I would haue you make in a readi­nesse against you backe him, a musroule of Lea­ther, made one this fashion. You may make it either of red Leather or white, and set six very small Leather buttons on the in­side, and a small chaine in his mouth, as you see here, that when




[Page 13] you come to ride him, he may bea [...]e both vpon the nose, and the mouth: this being done, I would haue you to take him forth to practise him at the stoope, as you did before, and at the first I would haue you beginne fairely with him, then trot him fairely three or foure times about the ring on the left hand, then change him, and put him on once or twice on the right hand.

Then when he is well setled, and doth go gently, then take your knee-band, and put it on his neere fore-legge, and let one leade him fast by the head, and let another put him forward, and goe round about the ring of three leggs, that he may be perfect in going.

The next day when you backe him, I would haue you keepe him forth a good space, and exercise him well of the left hand, and be sure he le [...]e with the right legge before.

CHAP. 4.

LOuing Sonne, the cause why I would haue you to practise your Colt on the firme hard ground, is, for that I would haue you vtterly renounce all deepe grounds, for I haue had too much triall of it to my great griefe, and [...]scredit: the discommodity that doth come thereof is this, If you bring your Colt in any deepe ground to [Page 14] chase him about you, if he be a high metled Colt, and being fat at the heart, and full of his body, que­stionlesse he will go very fiercely about you, and so in a short time, he will be of a great heat before you haue brought him so weary that you may take his backe. The inconuenience is this. First, you put him in great danger of breaking his winde. Secondly, the danger of the great heate is, hee after two or three of these heates, will presently fall into one di­sease or other, which will [...]ither prooue to be mor­tall, or to get some tent in his body, that will proue to an extreame cold, that will prooue either to the Glaunders, or else the cough of the Lunges, which either of them in short time will end their liues. Now to come to the chasing about the stoope a­gaine, when you take him forth the next day, I would haue you make all things fit that you shall occupy a­bout him. First, make a good strong plat of the longest haire of his Tayle, then take a small peece of Leather or Corde, and tye it fast to the plat, then put it betweene his hinder leggs, and bring it off the out side of his body; and tye it fast to his mayne, and so let it rest both day and night, this will keep him that he cannot stirre his tayle: This I would haue you doe at the beginning, then the next put your knee-band about his legge, then put the mu [...] ­roule on, and the chayne in his mouth: then put on his bridle, then the saddle, then get helpe enough, one good strong man to be at his head: when you do take his backe, and another to put him forward, when you are on.

Then tye your chasing rope to the halter, and [Page 15] bring him foorth to the place where you meane to take his backe, then put him about the ring faire and easily at the first, till he be setled, then you may put him on faster vppon his swift trot, and often giue him his winde, and goe to his head and make much of him. Then take your knee-band, and put it on, then let one take him by the head and lead him; and the other put him once round about the ring, then stay him and cherrish him, then come to him, and offer your foote to the stirrop, and if he will suffer you to put your foot into the stirrop, the make much of him, and if hee refuse to suffer you, then leade him faster about the ring then you did before, vntill he be willing to suffer you to put your foote into the stirrop: Which if he do, as there is no doubt but he will, then let it rest in a pritty while; and take it foorth againe, and make very much of him, then take the knee-band of his legge, and lead him round about the ring, and cherrish him, that he may haue vnderstanding, that he doth please you, then put on his knee-band againe, and leade him a­bout the ring, then put your foote into the stirrop and rise vp and leane ouer the saddle, and put your arme ouer where your legge should be, and leane o­uer a pritty while, and if he suffer you to do all this cherrish him, then light and take off the knee-band, and lead him about the ring againe, to giue him ease, and then put on the knee-band againe, and lead him about the ring, then come to him as you did before, and put your foote into the stirrop, and bid him at his head hold fast, then rayse your selfe vp, as you did before, and leane ouer him a pritty while, then [Page 16] venture on Gods name to put ouer your leg, and bid him hold very fast at his head: you must sit very gent­ly and stir not, but sit still a pretty while, then light and cherish him: then take off the Knee-band, and lead him about the ring loose: then put on the Knee­band againe: then put your foot gently, and get vp very leasurely, and sit a pretty while: then let him that hath a rod in his hand put him on gently, and if he goe gently but twenty paces, then light for good and all, and make very much of him, and take off the Knee-band, and haue a few Oates in a Scuttle, and let him eare of them to giue him comfort against the next time: this being done, lead him home to the stable, and let him rest two or three houres: but i [...] any case giue him no maunger meat: but in the racke for one weeke or more, but what you giue him out of your hand, for that will keepe him in obedience. Then take him out againe to the practising place, and your company with you: then begin to put him a­bout as you did before at the first very gently, till he hath got the reake of his wind, then you may put him forth into a swift trot, and then put him into an easie hand gallop, that he may learne to deale his feet: and euer haue a care that he lead with his right leg, and also haue a care often to giue him his winde: this be­ing done, then let one goe to his head, and put on his knee band, and lead him about the ring, then you may come to him as before, and offer to take his back gently, and get vp leasurely, and sit still a pretty while and settle your selfe, then let him with the long rod in his hand put him on, and let him goe round about the ring, and if he goe gently, then make much [Page 17] of him: then take off the Knee-band, and let him haue his legs, and goe once or twice about the ring, and if he doe it gently, then make very much of him, and lead him into the Stable. In any case giue him but a very little at once if he worke towardly, for that will encourage him much. I would not haue him in any case to know what did belong to a plunge, or any kinde of Iades tricke, but to haue a care to haue him as cleane ridden as possible may be, and if he chance to take any toy, to reclaim him before you leaue him at that present, otherwise you spoyle all, and hee will be worse the next time, where it is easily done at the first. Now when you haue set him vp, let him rest as long as he did before, then take him out againe, and put him about the ring, as you did before: then gallop him softly twice or thrice about the ring, that will make him deale his legs finely: then let one goe to his head, and go you to him: then put on his Knee­band, then faite and quietly get on: then as soone as you are setled, take off the knee-band, then put him forward and goe gently about the ring, which if he doe quietly, make much of him, and goe on still two or three times about the ring, then let him stand still, and light off him, and doe not forget to cherish him: then let him lead him quietly about the ring loose to giue hime ease: then let him stand, and come to him, and get gently on him againe, without the knee-band on: and if he stand gently, let the man lead him on as before, and so lead him two or three times about the ring, then if hee doe that quietly make much of him, and then slacke your hand from his head, and goe a yard or more from him, but not [Page 18] too far for feare he take any toy, that you may be rea­dy to clap to his head againe, for I would not in any case he should haue any tast of plunging: then if hee doe goe on gently once or twice about the ring, you may venture to goe further off him to the midst of the rope.

All this while I would haue you let him goe of himselfe, without any medling with his head at all, but drawing his head to and fro with the musroule: then when he will go gently in this manner, you may light from his backe, then take him into the Stable as before. I would haue you to exercise him thus three or foure times on a day by a little at once, and that will bring him to obedience and quietnesse the soonest of any way that euer I tried, then take him forth againe and bring him to the ring, and then put him about as before, some three or foure times, halfe trotting halfe galloping, then come to him and offer to get on, and if hee will stand gently, then goe on as before: and if he offer to stir, then clap the knee­band on, and then he cannot resist, for that is a sure way at all times to make him gentle to get on; now being mounted, goe gently about, let your footman guide him by the head once about till he bee setled, then he may goe from his head to the middest of the rope, and you may put him foreward your selfe, and settle him gently, and take both the musroule reynes, and the bridle reynes in both your hands, but beare him all of the musroule, and the helpe of the chaine in his mouth: and beare him very lightly of the mouth till he be something setled, that he will goe foreward gently and quietly, and euer be working vp [Page 19] his head, and neuer care for his nose bearing out, but still cary your hand aloft, to get his head so high as you had it when you did mouth him in the Stable, now when you haue wrought him in the ring so long as you thinke fitting, then you may light and make much of him: But by the way be sure euer to giue him ouer in his willingnesse, and that you leaue him not in any disorder; so shall you find him the next time very willing and obedient to you: then lead him into the Stable againe, and set him vp well. If he bee any thing hot, then you may loose the formost girth, and bring it about his breast, and fill it round with good dry wispes, then when you take him forth the next time, you must haue some old sober horse in a readinesse, that when you haue brought him forth to the ring and setled him well, then let the old horse bee brought forth, then you may let the foot man take his backe, and lead him from the stoops, and tye a rope of two yards long to the halter, then let the footman of the old horse goe before you, and lead your Colt, and let him follow the old horse. This way will boulden your Colt, and make him goe wil­lingly without any stopping. I would haue you goe into some large field of some twenty or thirty acres in compasse, and euer as you goe be working vp his head, and goe round about the field gently, and euer as you goe put him foreward with your sticke, and make him goe against the other horse: let him of the other horse haue a good long rod in his hand, then when you haue gone once about the field, then you may vntye the rope from the halter, and let him haue the rope in his hand, then let your Colt goe against [Page 20] the old horse, and goe a pretty way off, then let him goe before the old horse, and let the other follow, and if he stay at any time, the other man may helpe to put hin on. And as soone as he doth go gently on, then light off him and cherish him, & lead him home to the Stable, and set him vp well. Now when you haue him to lead the other horse, then twice a day is enough to exercise him. When you haue brought him to that perfection as he will go willingly of him­selfe, th [...]n you may venture to lead the way before the other horse: but be sure you doe not take your Colt forth at any time, but let one be with you for the space of a weeke, till he be well weaned, and will goe willingly of himselfe; and then when you haue brought him to that perfection, you may begin to frame his mouth, and I would haue you very circum­spect to attain to that secret, it being one of the chie­fest grounds that belongs to a perfect Snaffle-man.

CHAP. 5.

LOuing Sonne, be carefull to vnderstand my rules, and I will (by Gods helpe) deliuer you truly all my experience that I haue attained this 50 yeares practice. To come to the matter: first, I would haue you walke him faire and easily, and euer be wor­king vp his head gently, carying your bridle reynes, and the reynes of your musroule, two in one hand, & two in the other: for a day or two cary him most of the nose, the chaine in his mouth, let him feele the sn [...]sfle with the reynes thereof, let him feele both as you finde his mouth frame to your hand: within ten or twelue score stay him, and forget not to raise your [Page 21] hand, it will make him climbe to your hand lightly.

Also I would haue you carry in either hand a good smart rod, with the great end in your hand, and the small end along by his sides as you carry your sword, that if hee beare out his end of eyther side, you may be ready to set him vp straight, and in any case doe not worke him too long, but when you doe finde that hee doth worke to your content giue him ouer with his willingnesse, and cleane with­out any disorder.

Then when you take him forth the next mor­ning, let your man with the old horse be ready, and if he doe offer to stirre when you doe get vp, then put one the knee-band, and that will make him stand gently, then when you are mounted take the reynes in your hand, and goe gently forward and worke him as you did before, and carry him more on the mouth, till you haue brought him that he will obey to your hand gently, and carry light on the hand, and sometimes carry him on the snaffle reynes, and that will make him carry light both of the mouth and the nose, and when you haue brought his head into that place, where you meane to place his reyne then you may put to your martingale; and I would haue you make your martingale with a buckle, and not with buttons, and broad betwixt the vpper side of the breast and the foremost girth, then draw the mar­tingale not too straite at the first, till he be a little set­led therewith.

Then you may draw it so straight, as his head shall stand euen as his head stood against a Wall. Then proceede forward, and walke him on as you did before, still obseruing the rules I did tell you be­fore [Page 22] and euer haue a speciall care that you doe not carry a pressing hand of him, for that will dull and harden his mouth, and vtterly marre all you go a­bout: but be euer working easily and gently, first with one raine, and then with the other, and you shall see that within a short time he will worke so firmely, and pleasantly, that it will encourage you to worke of his mouth, and euer haue a care that hee mouth true. And now that you haue set him on the martingale, I would haue you to let your mus­roule raines alone, and not meddle with them, but cary him all of the mouth, and worke him well of the snaffle reynes, for I haue tried many a yeare, that the false reine maketh a false mouthed horse, and now when you haue begunne to worke him of the mouth altogether, then let your hand worke his mouth, and the martingale and musroule worke his nose: so you shall finde in a short time that they will agree both together, and then you shall see his necke rise and beginne to shewe a comely reyne: For it is one of the chiefest secrets belonging to a perfect Snaffle man.

Now, hauing brought your horse, that hee will yeelde louingly to your hand, and that your martin­gale is slacke, then you may put him on faster, and beginne to put him on a gentle soft trot, sometimes of a trot, and then of a walke, and so change from one to another, as you shall feele him worke to your hand, still remembring often to stay him gently of your hand, and be sure you let not his head sinke downe, but still keepe it vp in the place you haue it. Then as you doe exercise him, I would haue you to [Page]


[Page 24] draw him first of one hand, and then of the other, and euer helpe him with your rod, and so you may exer­cise him till he will run perfectly of either hand, then you may bring him about of either hand, very large in the figure of eight in as large a compasse as shall containe fourescore paces at the least about.

I would haue the ring very large, for that you may bring your horse about, euen so that your horse may come about with his head, necke, and bo­dy iust and euen, for in no case his head may not come one way, and his body another way, for that is naught. Now when you are working him in both these rings, you may first pace him, then trot him, first of one hand and then of the other, so long as you shall finde his mettle hold, and that hee will goe freely and metledly vnder you. But be sure you giue him ouer in his willingnesse, and cleane with­out any way of disorder.

And louing sonne, I will tell you one principall rule more (that is at the first) when you beginne with him vnderstand his nature, whether he be of a high spirit, and full of mettle, or he be dull, and of a dogged condition, for according to his nature you must worke him, for if you worke both condi­tions of one fashion, you will marre more then you will make, the high metled Colt, must be wrought gently with easie helpes, and little correction, for if you deale roughly with him, you will driue him out of all; but for the dull metled Colt, you must needs be sharpe with him, and often quicken him vp, or else he will do nothing.

Now to proceede, I would haue you exercise [Page 29] your horse in this large figure of eight, till hee will treade it, and trot it willingly, and euer when you meane to stop him vpon the hand, let it be in the midst thereof, betweene the rings, and in your exer­cise you may put him sometimes into his swift trot; and prancke him vp and make him goe franckly vn­der you, still hauing a speciall care hee cary light of the hand; and when you put him into his swift trot, if at any time he beare hard of the hand, then stay him and retire him two or three stepps, and that will make him presently to yeeld willingly to your hand, and be sure you faile not, as often as you feele him presse hard of your hand, that you stay him and re­tire him till he yeelde to your hand, and within a short time you shall finde him, that assoone as you offer to stay your hand, he will presently yeeld and goe gently and lightly of your hand, and so I would haue you bring him to that perfectnesse of your hand, that he will cary his head so stedfast­ly, and his reynes so round, and stately, that he will not disorded it at any time; and I would haue you haue a care of carrying your hand, that is to cary it a lost aboue your saddle pomell, and in no case stirre it vp and downe, but cary it still and firme.

CHAP. 6.

ALSO Louing sonne, there is another principall rule, that I do meane to set you downe, and I would haue you be very carefull to get the vnderstanding thereof; and that is this, to know how [Page 30] and when to helpe your horse, and how and when to correct your horse, and how and when to cher­rish your horse, which things must be done all either in due time, or else they will preuaile nothing, for if you helpe him not in the very instant when hee should haue it, it is to no purpose, nor giue correcti­on at the vnfit time, it preuailes nothing at all, and if you cherrish when there is no cause, it is to no purpose neither.

Therefore you must worke diligently to get the knowledge thereof, for when you are in practising your horse, and doth perceiue that he doth stand in neede of helpe, then let him haue it euen in due time, and that will preuaile; which helpe may bee giuen him three wayes; with your rod, with your heele, and with your mouth: with giuing a small ierke, with doubling your tongue in the roofe of your mouth, and you may correct him in all these three manner of wayes.

That is with your rod in his flanke, with the sharpe stroake of your spurre, or giuing him some fearefull word with your mouth: but you can cher­rish him but two wayes, that is, with clapping him on the necke with your hand, and giuing him faire words that will please him; and thus in your practise you must obserue all these helpes, and doe them in due time, for in time being done, doth set all right, and out of time will set all wrong.

Therefore I would haue you euer when you are in practising of your horse, and working him in his lessons, to remember in time, and out of time, and there will be do doubt, but all your businesse will [Page 31] come to good effect, if you doe alwayes remember and carry it in your minde, that in time setteth all right and forward, and out of time doth set more wrong in a day, then you shall set right in a weeke. But now to come to your practise againe, I would haue you practise your horse still in the figure of eight, till you haue him so perfect in both the rings, as is sitting.

Both vpon his soft trot, and his swift trot, alwaies carrying light of your hand, with his head in the right place, and his reyne lofty and staitly, then you may begin to set him of a proud trot, and to goe statelie, which in my opinion is the onelie shewe that any snaffle horse can be for vpon, both for the shewe of the Rider, and the horse for to goe of a statelie trot a long a streete, and to take vp his fore­feete comely, and round; and now and then to beat three or foure low curvets, will grace his trot much, so as hee be made so perfect, as hee will make his changes willingly and perfectly, without working on, for it is an vnseemely sight for the Rider to worke vpon his horse in the streets.

And now louing sonne, I will heere with Gods helpe, set you downe a perfect and vnfalliable way how to teach him without heating, or chasing him: First I would haue you put on his musroule and martingale, and then his bridle, then put a sursingle about him, then put your martingale to the sursin­gle, as you did when you rode him.

Then take two good strong lines, so long as will reach so farre behind the horse, as you may be in safety from his heeles, then make fast first the one [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page]


[Page 33] corde to the one side of the snaffle, and the other corde to the other side of the snaffle, then take the other ends thereof in either of your hands one, and a rod in your right hand, also then bring your horse into some large court, that is either walled or paled, and there let one lead him by the head round about the court, and come you after him in this manner, as this Picture doth shewe you: Then let him that doth lead him goe from him, then put him forward vpon a foote pace, and guide him with your long reines, and bring him to and fro, that he may know your hand, then begin to put him forward with your rod and make him trot faire and gently at the first.

Then you may carry him something harder of your hand, and put him into an euen trot, and you shall see him presently begin to goe proudlie before you, then as soone as you see him settle himselfe ne­uer so little to set his feete to your liking, then staie him presentlie, and make much of him, giue him some reward, and giue him ouer for that time, and feede him well with oates, and let him rest one houre at the least, and then take him out againe, and exer­cise him as you did before, and you shall see present­ly, if you sharpe him vp, and shake your rod, that hee will fall into a proud trot presently, and euer bee sure that assoone as you see him set but fiue or sixe strokes true, then presently staie him, and make much of him: Now you shall see presently at his first set­ting, whether he will haue a loftie trot, or a low trot, and if he begin with a loftie trot, as no doubt if he be a metled horse he will, then you neede not vse [Page 34] anie other helps to him but the reines and rod.

But if he be of a slow mettle, and set his feet thicke and short, and low withall, then you must vse these helpes as you see here proportioned, and then you must put them on, and buckle them on euery foot vn­der his foot locke, and you must buckle them straite as you can, that they doe not goe round about his legs, then you may bring him to the practising place againe, and you shall see him take vp his feet finely to your liking: and thus you may practice him still vntill he be so well acquainted with them, that he will take vp his feet so lofty and comely as shall be to your liking: and when you haue him so perfect going on the one hand, then you may change him on the o­ther hand, and that will set his body euen that way he came. Now, when you haue him perfect on ei­ther hand, and doth set his trot comely and stately, and that you haue his mouth at command, then you may venture to set a Saddle on him, and the next time you take him forth, let one that hath some vn­derstanding take the reynes of you, and the rod in his hand, and let him see how you did cary the reynes in your hand, and if he can make him set as you did, then you may take his backe, and take the bridle reines in your hand, but let him scarcely feele your hand; but let the other man carie him vpon his long reynes, as you did before: then if he doe performe his trot as he did before, then you may cary him all of the reynes: and if hee doe performe his trot of your reynes, yet let the other man follow you still, that if he breake with your hand at any time, he may helpe you; and so you may exercise him till hee be so [Page 35] perfect as you shall thinke fitting, and you may cut his trot shorter and shorter, till you haue brought him that he will stand vpon his trot, and trot both foreward and backward. You may not let the foot­man goe from you, but still carie your long reines af­ter you, till you haue him so perfect as you desire.

Then before you leaue your foot-man, I would haue you let him stand still, and bid the foot man shake his rod and set him foreward, then lay your rod on his left shoulder, and close your legges close to his shoulders, and carie your hand something hard of his mouth, and say to him, Vp, vp, and let the footman helps you with his reines, and it is verie like hee will raise himselfe and aduance cleare vp before, which if he doe, then make much of him, and goe foreward still vpon a foot pace: but if he will not raise himself with the helps you giue him, then deale not roughly with him, but goe on forward a little, then stay him againe, and offer to him as you did before, and if he refuse the second time, then offer it to him the third time, which if he refuse, then trouble him no more that waie, but walke him once about the Court and set him vp, and get a good stout rod of a yeard in length, or there about, and get a peece of a naile and knocke into the one [...]nd thereof, then goe to a Grin­dle stone, and grinde it iust of that fashion that the prickle of a goad is, then take your horse forth again, then let him goe once about the Court, without anie man on his backe, and trot him proudly, then get on his backe, and let the foot-man come behinde with the long reines, and goe once about againe, then let the foot-man set him vp to you, and giue him the [Page 36] same helps as before, and if hee refuse to aduance and rise before, then let the foot-man come vp to him and stand by his shoulder, and pricke him in the middest of his brisket, and say, Vp, vp, and pricke him hard and you shall see that he will raise himselfe presently without faile, which being done make much of him, and goe on vpon a foot pace still about the Court, then when you come to the place where you did of­fer him his lesson, let the foot-man come and pricke him as before, and he will aduance presently, and euer when he doth prick him on the breast you must help him with the rod, and close your feet fast to the hind­most part of his shoulder, and bid him, Vp, vp, and so practice him till hee be perfect, and euer as you walke him round about, let the foot-man come and giue him the prickle and he will rise presently; and so so exercise him till he will rise of himselfe willingly, which when he will doe, with the helpe of your rod and foot, then be assured that you haue wonne him, and that with good and discreet riding, he will pro­ceed and goe forward to your liking, and euer haue a care that you doe not dull him, but still giue him ouer in his willingnesse, and a little at once and of­ten. Now, the next morning take his backe at the first, and put him to his trot, and when he hath gone once about the Court, then make him aduance with giuing him the helps I tould you of before, and then when you haue brought him to that perfectnesse that he will aduance easily, at euerie time you offer it him, giue him the helpe of your rod and heele, and when hee is so perfect as you thinke fitting, then you may teach him to make his changes, that is, when [Page 37] he is in his proud trot, you may make him to beat three or foure aduances, which will be very grace­full in his going, and you may teach any horse that shall be proud trotting for a Coach for the streets in this manner: for I assure you, doe but worke directly after these rules, and you shall hit all, and misse none.

Now, louing Son, I haue another way that I haue practised very often, and that is this: First, set a sad­dle on the horse, and put the musroule, and martin­gale, and bridle on him, then take two small coards or slips, and put about either footlocke one, and let them be with nooses to come strait to his legs and let the slippes bee so long, as you may hold in either hand one, and in either hand a bridle reyne, and also in either hand a switch rod, then get vpon his backe, and first draw the one leg vp, and hit that leg with the rod, and then doe the like with the other leg and as you take vp the one, so let the other fall, and so continue still, taking vp one leg, and letting downe another, till he will take them vp one after another verie easily and willingly, and then let him rest for that time, and doe not forget to make much of him, and giue him some reward, and let him rest a pretty while, and then goe to him againe, for this exercise is so easie, as you may euery houre bee working of him, and so you shall in short time bring him that hee will take vp his feet to your hands easily and willingly, with a little helpe of the slips. But with the helpe of the rod then, you may take him forth of the Sta­ble to some wall side or pale, and there put him to take vp his feet as he did in the Stable, and then you may put him forward a little, and still take vp his [Page]


[Page 39] feet, and so by degrees, and a little at once you may bring him to set his trot foreward: and if he will not take vp his hinder feet answerably, then put him on a pare of balls on his hinder feet, and they will helpe him very much to set his trot true and iust: and then exercise him till he will take vp his fore feet with the helpe of the rod, without any other helpe: and when you haue brought him that he will set his trot stately and proud, then teach him to aduance as he did before.

And thus, louing Sonne, did I practice at the be­ginning, till I came to that skill, that now I will vn­dertake, with Gods helpe, to make any horse to set a proud trot, onely with the hand, heele, and mouth, without any engine.

And now, louing Sonne, that I haue brought you thus far vpon your walke and trot, I will begin, with Gods helpe, to teach you to make your horse to gal­lop truly and right, from one degree to another. First, I would haue you the next morning, to bring him to the double ring againe, and let it bee rather larger then before, and then put him about it a foot pace, to settle him a little, then put him forth into a swift trot, euer hauing a speciall care that hee cary his reyne as he did before, then hauing trotted him twice or thrice about the ring, stay him, and retire him a little, then put him to his swift trot againe, and put him vp to his gallop as softly as you can pos­sibly make him strike his gallop, and let him goe but once about one ring, ere you put him to his trot a­gaine, and so let him trot about the other ring, and so I would haue you exercise him trotting about the [Page 40] one ring, and galloping about the other ring, till you haue brought him, that as soone as hee hath trotted about the one ring, at the entring into the other, he will fall into an easie gallop of himselfe: and so I would haue you exercise him in trotting the one ring, and galloping the other, till he be so perfect, that as soone as you but bend your body forward, and giue him the flat of your heele, hee will presently fall into an easie gallop: and euer when you feele him presse forward of your hand, and would goe faster then you would haue him, then stay him a little and let him trot againe, and that will bring him to gallop at a certaine.

I would haue you euer cary a faster hand of him in his trot, then in his gallop: for that wil make him cary light of your hand, which is one of the chiefest things belonging to his gallop. For that horse that doth tide chasing and pressing vpon the hand, doth weary the armes and tire himselfe. But louing sonne, giue me that horse, that will ride of an easie gallop from the hand, and so to the middle of his spende▪ and so to the very height of his speede: alwayes carying light of your hande, and euer yeeld willingly to your hand whensoeuer you see occasion to take him vp to giue him a sobe, for that horse I hold to bee per­fectly and truly mouthed, and rightly mannaged from the begining.

All this is easily to bee done if he be rightly mou­thed at the begining: but if you doe thrust him forth at the first, to gallop him furiously to the very height of his speed, and so continue him but one weeke you [Page 41] will vtterly spoil him for euer for being at command: Therefore good louing Son marke this course well, and cary it in your memory, and beleeue mee it will doe you much good in your practice. And so I will come to the point where I left, that is, as often as he doth presse hard of your hand in his gallop from the hand, that so often you stay him gently, and put him to his trot againe, and that in short time, that hee will seldome or neuer presse hard of your hand, but will euer cary an easie mouth and light vpon your hand, and when he is brought to his perfection, then I woud haue you to practice him to gallop from the hand as easily & softly as you can possible make him strike his gallop, going round both the rings, al­waies carying a gentle hand of him, for that will make him settle his fore feet, and make him slip them foreward both comely and easily, and bring his hin­der legs close and round after him, for as the Colt that must be made for the bit and great saddle, must be made to gallop high and lofty, so must the hunting horse be brought to a slow and easie swimming gal­lop, as arte can afford, for commonly that horse that is short knit, and High filleted, doth prooue the best hunter, for the strength of the backe doth carie it a­way at length: and so the horse that is long and loosly knit, will commonly gallop with his fore feet slubbe­ring and stamping, and bring his hinder legs high and vnseemly after him, and will neuer prooue good galloper.

And now to come to the matter againe, I would haue you exercise your horse still as you did before, in the large rings, till you haue brought him so per­fect, [Page 42] that he will fall into his gallop at the first set­ting forth, and go so comely and easily as shall be to your liking, then you may take him into some plaine ground, of some ten or twelue acres, and there begin at a side to gallop him round about, as large as you can; and when you haue setled him in­to his truestroake, then you may thrust him vp into the middle of his speede, and so continue him a pretty while, and that will make him gather himselfe vp roundly, and gather spirit into him, then checke him vp againe, and bring him into his easie and soft gallop, and so make an end at this time. Prouided alwayes, that you leaue him with an easie mouth and light reine, now when you take him forth the next morning, then bring him into the same ground you had him before, then put him into his swift trot a little, to settle his mouth to your hand, then put him into his easie gallop, and fetch a large com­passe, and make as large a double ring as you can, see that you bring him about of either hand, for the larger he doth gallop, the better may you set his legs and giue him his true stroake; and if at any time he do fall out of his stroake, then presently put him into his trot, but halfe a dozen trots, and then put him into his gallop againe, and hee will presently fall into his true stroake againe; and euer haue a speciall care that you keepe him large enough, for when hee doth grow perfect in his gallop, hee will desire to come in too fast; and if you gallop him any long time, be sure to giue him winde in due time, and giue him an easie hancke: when you thinke he hath done well, then light of him, and make much of [Page 43] him, and walke him vp and downe a little, then take his backe againe, and put him to his gallop. And when he is setled in his right stroake, then looke downe, and see whether his right legge lead or no, and if hee leade on the left legge, and not on the right; then the next morning take with you one of the slips you had to make him trot, and when you begin to gallop him, begin on the right hand, and first put the slip one his left set-locke, and take it in your left hand; and if in his gallop hee lead with his left legge, then you may marke when hee doth set his left legge before, then you may euen in that very time when hee doth set his legge forth, giue him a little twich with your hand, and helpe him with your rod of the right shoulder, and presently hee will set the right legge before, and so you may continue that helpe till he will lead with his right leg before, both of the right hand; and of the left, and so when you haue brought him to his perfect stroake of his gallop, from the hand to the middle of his speede, and that hee will performe it readily, and willingly, then you may put him to gallop roundly of either hand, in and out as you please, as shall come into your minde when you are galloping. And when you haue brought him to his voluntary gallop, and that he willingly giue you leaue to hancke and loose at your pleasure, then you may bein good hope that you haue won his mouth for euer, and then you may take him the next morning into some vnplow'd fallow field, that is redge and furrow, and there be­gin to gallop him, and doe not goe euen ouer them at the beginning, for that will breake his stroake [Page 44] mightily, but sloope him ouer side-way, till he haue gotten his true stroake, and that hee will strike his furrow euen and iust, and that hee will set his fore­foote [...]ust in the furrow, for that you must bring him [...] if euer you bring him to goe ouer a field with a [...]. for if hee set ouer the furrow [...] his backe, and be a great deale [...] to him then to set his fore-foote euen [...] [...]ow.

And when you haue galloped him ouer so sloo­ping, a quarter of a mile, then you may turne him backe againe, and sloope him as much of the other hand, and when hee will strike his furrow euen of ei­ther hand, then you may put him ouer the lands, euen forward; and when you haue made him perfect in all these wayes, then I thinke you haue finisht his gallop for the field all manner of wayes.

But louing Sonne, there is another round gallop­ing lesson that I haue practised much with three horses all at once, which I will by Gods leaue teach you the manner thereof; and about some thirty yeeres agone, I and two of my eldest sonnes, of three fine yong horses, did gallop it on Malton Hill, and it was highly commended, for it was neuer done in that place before.

First you must make three figures of eight, about ten paces of length, and of a reasonable com­passe for the horses to turne in at the end thereof, and you must crosse these three figures one ouer another, as these figures doth shew you: and you must set your horses one euen against another all on a row, where these horses shooes is set: then [Page]


[Page 46] you must set one forward of a foot pace, and when he is in the midst, then let another set forward whilst he is going about the other ringe, then let the third set forward, whilst he is going about the second ring, and let the third goe about his ring, then let euery one keepe his time vpon a soft walke, and as one goeth out, so let an other come in: and keep time one after an other; and presently you shall hit it for it is iust as you doe dance the hay; the old name of it is called the hedge dance, and so you must exercise it of a soft pace till your horses will hit euen one after an other: as they will soone be perfect in the walke, then you may put them to their trot, and make them trot it roundly and swift­ly, and when they are perfect in that, they will gallop it presently, both roundly, and readily. This is a pretty pleasing lesson for three horses to exercise; and it is very good for Gentlemen when they are met in the field in a cold morning, before the Hare bee a foote, to practise it to get them h [...]ate, and also in a morning when you water your horses three toge­ther, when they haue drunke to exercise it in some plaine ground, it is very good to warme their water in them.

Now good louing sonne, I pray you if you please to practise it, that you will giue it the name of Brownes Round, for that I thinke I was the first that euer did practise it of the Snaffle.

Now louing sonne, that you haue brought your horse to be perfect in all these lessons heretofore set downe vpon the Snaffle, Musronle, and Martingale: I would haue you to take off the musroule, and mar­tingale, [Page]


[Page 48] and ride him with a loose martingale, made in this manner as this figure doth shew you, and you must cary it in your left hand, and bring it vnder your horses neere fore-legge, as this Picture doth shew of the other side: You must put these loopes to the checke of your snaffle, and you must cary it so loose, that hee scarcely feele it, vnlesse hee do offer to put out his nose, and if hee doe cary his head close enough, you may take it from vnder his fore-legges, and cary it in your left hand, as a false reyne and so vse it at your pleasure.

CHAP. 7.

NOW louing Sonne, that I haue here set downe all the skill and know­ledge that I haue gotten in fifty yeares practise, from the first hal­tering a Colt, from on degree to another, till he be brought to gal­lop this round heretofore set downe. Now I will by Gods helpe set you downe another, as true and vn­fallible away to pace and amble any horse sufficient­ly, and well, of what nature and disposition soeuer he be of, and if you will diligently and carefully ob­serue these rules heretofore set downe by me, you shal by Gods helpe, hit all and misse none.

First, louing sonne I will begin to let you vnder­stand of all the wayes that I haue practised from the first beginning till this day.

First, I did practise to lead him downe the hill, and checke him vnder the chin, that will make him [Page 49] set to an amble presently, but it will make him totter with his end, and stampe with his fore-feete, and will make him set hard.

And I haue vsed another way with long shooes with pikes before of three inches long, that way will make him catch vp his hinder legges vnseemely as though he had the wild Mares hinch.

I haue vsed another way that is to wispe them of their hinder feete, aboue the fet-locke, that way will make him straddle and go wide behind. I haue vsed another way, that is to worke him in some deepe ploughed ground, that way wil giue him sore heates, and toyle him and take of his mettle mightily.

But, louing Sonne, I haue set downe two waies that I haue practised this thirty yeares, and I will ne­uer vse other whilest I liue, neither to my selfe, nor to any that I shall teach, and these be the two waies.

First, I would haue you take his backe and try him how he is enclined, and goe to some rysing ground and there thrust him vp to the height betwixt his trot and his gallop, and you shall presently see him fall into a shuffle, betwixt an amble and a gallop, and if he will doe so, then I would haue you vse no other way with him but the hand and the heele, if you haue any vnderstanding to know how to helpe him with the hand and heele, you may giue him his pace so without any other helpe. But if in trying him so, he will not make any offer or shew of a pace, then giue him ouer and toyle him no more, but goe to him in this manner:

First, goe and finde out some euen ground that is as [...]eare the Stable as you can, then bring him thither, [Page 50] and haue a paire of Traues ready: I need not tell the fashion of them for they are common in euery town. I doe vse good strong girth-w [...]b, and lyne it with broad-cloath list▪ but by the way, I would tell you one secret, though knowne to some, yet most do not know it, and that is this, when a horse doth trot, he doth euer take vp his feet crosse, that is, the far foot before, and the neare foot behinde: and so the neare fore foot, and the far foot behind now is cleane con­contrary in the amble, for he must take vp both his feet of one side together: and now hauing brought your horse to the euen ground, you must first take vp his fore foot, and put on one traue, and make it fast a little aboue his foot locke, and then put another on his hinder leg in the same place, and tye it also fast for slipping downe, then take a good strong coard of two fathom in length, and put it into the loops of your traues, then measure some yeard or therea­bouts, and double your coard, & tye it to the middle girth of your saddle, then let there b [...] some one with you with a good long rod in his hand to put him for­ward to your hand, and to set him streight to you, then take and lead him forward euen as softly as you can possible make him set his feet, and beare vp his head hard with your hand, and you shall see him lift both his legs together presently; by th [...]n you haue gone the length of your road, and seen him lift both his legs together, then presently stay him, and make much of him: then lead him home againe, in any case, as softly as may be, till he hath gotten the vse of lifting both legs together: then you shall see him [...]t his amble of one side, and let him stand at euery end [Page]




[Page] [Page 51] of his rod to rest him, and cherish him, and giue him some reward euer when hee doth well: Then when he will goe well on the one side, you may put the trauers on the other side in the same manner that the other is put on, but you must make it a good deale longer then the other is, so long as hee shall scarcely feele it, and then lead him vp and downe a pretty while, then you may take them vp shorter and shorter by a little and a little, till he will set his amble of that side also; then let out the far trane, a hand­full or there about and make them euen, so as hee set ouer both his hinder feet alike: then you may exer­cise him so long till he be perfect, and will goe fast in your hand, then I would haue you take an old horse, or any sober horse that will go quietly by the other, and then take him and get on his backe, and take the other horse you are ambling by the reines loose in your hand, and get him to goe by you, euen against you, and so you may exercise him without running by him to toyle you, for you must ply him till he be perfect in your hand, and that hee will amble by the horse you ride on after three miles an houre, and when you haue brought him to that perfectnes, then you may set an other on the old horse, and you may get on the ambling horse, and you may put on a paire of false reynes to the snaffle, and take them in your hands, and let him that doth ride on the old horse, lead him as you did before, and so you may goe vp and downe the road with him till hee goe willingly of himselfe. Then you may take the reynes the other man caried in his hand, and hold them in your left hand loose, and beare him all of your reines, and let [Page 52] the other man go by still till he be something setled to goe of himselfe, then you may venture to put him forward to goe by himselfe, and let the other man go from you, and so practice him till he will goe willing­ly, and then haue a speciall care that hee strike his pace true and long; then begin to worke vp his head with your hand in this manner: When you draw the right reine, make it bring the left side on, and when you draw the left reine, it must bring the right side on, and euer when you draw the right reine, helpe him with your left heele, and when you draw the left reine, then help him with your right heele, and that will make him set his pace long, and bring ouer his hinder legs further, for the further hee setteth ouer, the fleighter will his pace be: you must labour him to get him to as long a pace as you can, and when you haue brought him that your hand and his legs agree together, that is, that the right reine and the left leg, with helpe of the left heele will come all toge­ther, and likewise the left reine and the right leg, with helpe of the right heele come all together, then you may be in good hope that you haue got the true vse of your hand to set his legs at your pleasure.

CHAP. 8.

THen, louing Sonne, you may be in good hope that you may prooue a sufficient ambler: when you haue brought you [...] horse to that perfection, then I would haue you shift your traues from be­neath the knee, and beneath the hough, and put them aboue the knee and aboue the hough, then goe to some vp-rise (as we tearme it in Yorke-shire) or some climing ground that doth rise reasonable high, there put him vp very softly, and vse your hand to guid his legs as you did before of the euen ground, and when he is a little acquainted with the ground, you may put him faster to it, and euer haue a care to keepe him long and true in his place, for they be two prin­cipall rules; and euer when he doth well, then faile not to make much of him, and giue him some re­ward, and you shall see that within two or three daies hee will worke so finely and comely vp the hill, that it will doe you good to ride him: but alwaies haue a care to leaue him when he hath done well, and in his willingnesse: and so when you haue practised him in that manner with the Traues, and that you finde him to goe perfectly and well, then take off one of them, and let him goe with the other on, and when you haue him perfect, you may take off the o­ther: and when you haue taken off the other, I would haue you make in a readinesse one paire of hough­bands, made as this figure doth shew you, and buckle [Page 54] them hard aboue the hough behinde, then take his backe and put him vp the road faire and softly, and if your hand and heele will serue you to keepe him in his true stroake, then you may proceed with him and worke him on: but if your hand will not serue to keepe him where he was, then I would haue you presently to clap on the single Traue againe, and so practice him till he be so perfect as he will go wil­lingly and true.

And if he doth set ouer further of that side that the Traue is on, then he doth of the other, then shift the Traue on the other side, and that will helpe him of that fault: And when you haue brought him that he will goe perfectly and well, then take it off again; but before you take the traue off, you must put him vp to the height of his pace, and make him strike it out, a [...] euer as you see him to grow vpon your hand, and come on faster, when you come to the end of your road, light off his backe and lead him down and make much of him, and when you haue him so perfect that hee will strike out to the height of his pace, then venture to take it off, and say him loose with his hough-bands on.

In any case remember to giue him but short roads, if hee worke to your hand well when you begin to try him loose, put him to it very softly, and so pro­ceed faster as hee doth grow in perfectnesse. And when you haue him that your hand and his legs doe agree altogether, then there is no doubt of your pro­ceeding; and then you may ease his hough-bands a little till he will goe without them▪ and when you assay him without them, put him vp the road very [Page 55] softly, as you did with his engins on. Now louing Son, to let you vnderstand the benefit of the hough-bands, is this; They doe make him bring in his hin­der legs close and low after him, and will make him goe comely in his pace, and also set forward his hin­der legs: and now when you haue him working vp the road loose, and that he will set true and right, then put him on faster as you see him grow in per­fectnesse: but you must not thrust him vp the road euerie time to the height of his pace, but pace him softly three or foure times, and the fift time thrust him vp to the verie height; for if you should put him vp euerie time to the height of his pace it would dull him and make him wearie.

And you must not in any case, shift his road, vn­till he be so perfect, that when you offer to put him vp to the height of his pace, he will flie vp with it so lightly and comely as you desire.

And louing Sonne, I would haue you to be very carefull and circumspect in this point, for it is one of the chiefest principalls which belongeth to the pace: for there is small art in bringing any horse to the middest of his pace, but there is great art and skill to bring a horse to his full pace, and that he wil goe with it in any company: For, louing Sonne, I my selfe was but halfe a pacer for the space of twen­yeares, and had as many horses as I could turne me to, with the helpe of two of my Sonnes, and was well paid for them: and I haue met them within a month after, and haue seene them goe of such a hiffe haffe, as hath beene neither amble nor trot, which hath grieued me much [...] and I could neuer mend it [Page 56] vntill I got the skill to worke them vp the hill: for, louing sonne, I will assure you, it is not to be done any way so well as that way: nor to bring him to his changes, that is, from the height of his pace to his gallop, and from his gallop to his pace againe, and to shift from the one to the other truely at your pleasure; for I would not giue a pinne for that pace that will not keepe company with any horse that he shall meet with, and to make his change at your pleasure, that is, to goe in his amble, in his gallop, and in his trot at your pleasure: when you will haue him shift from one to another, then is hee fit for any company: for the horse that is perfect in all these three paces, the rider may say, Now I will ride of an ambling horse one mile, and of a trotting horse another mile, and of a galloping horse the third mile.

And now louing sonne, when your horse will make his change from one to another in his first roade, then you may take him into another road that is something lower rising then the first, and when you haue him perfect in that, then you may take him from that to another roade, that is something lower then the second, and when hee is perfect in that, then you may bring him to the euen ground, and so perfect him in that, and then you haue brought him to goe on all grounds: but you may not in any case shift him from the first road, to the euen ground at the first, for then you marre all, but you must bring him downe by degrees to the euen ground, and that you haue him perfect on the euen ground, you may take him to the highway, and [Page 57] ride him the first day one mile, and home againe, and the next two miles; and so as you see him grow in perfectnesse, so you may take him further and fur­ther, till you haue him so perfect that he will goe a dayes iourney.

And when you doe begin to trauell him out a dayes iourney, you must light downe often, and ease him so that hee will tall to his pace againe very wil­lingly, but if you keepe him alwayes at his pace, you will so tyre him in it, that hee will haue no desire to keep it, and you must as you are trauelling, euer when you come to some faire grauell ground for the pur­pose, something rising, and of a good length, you may put him vp to the height of his pace, and so make him change truely to his gallop, and so keepe him in his gallop some twelue score, or there a­bouts, and then you must helpe him with your hands, and bring him backe to his amble againe, and so you may exercise him as you trauell on the high way, to make him perfect of those two things, and for his trot you need not trouble your selfe, for he will goe to that of himselfe, but you must not in any case put him out of his trot, into his gallop, but you must bring him out of his trot, into his pace againe, then you may put him into his gallop, and so change him from his pace to his gallop at your pleasure; and when you haue brought him that hee will performe all these changes at your pleasure, then I thinke you haue made him fit for the hye way, and now that you haue brought your horse from one de­gree to another till hee be perfect on the hye way. I will make hold to call you backe againe to your [Page 58] first lesson where you began: And good louing son marke this poynt well, that is, to haue a speciall care of your horse at the first putting on of your single traue that it be of a due length, neither too long nor too short, let it not be aboue a yard at the most, and be very carefull in leading of him with his head vp, and as softly as possibly you may make him goe: For all the skill that belong to the traue, is to giue him a long stroake, and to vnderstand how to giue him his helpes in due time: I would haue you practice this way till you be very perfect herein, and obserue the rules heretofore set downe careful­ly, and when you are perfect in this way, and that you finde you grow perfect to lead his legges right, and true, then I would haue you begin to practise to worke him vp the hill, with the traues aboue the knee, and aboue the hough; and practising so in short time your hand and heele will serue you to worke any horse with the traue on in that place, and when you finde your hand serue you so well, then you may venter to practise him loose vp the hill with the hough bands of his hinder legs, and so to come to worke him loose without any engine, for now I thanke God my hand doth serue me so well, that I do not traue one amongst seuen.

But louing sonne, there is two lessons more, that I will teach you, which be the cunningest lessons be­long to an ambler; and the first is to be done in this manner hereafter mentioned.

CHAP. 9.

FIrst louing sonne, I would haue you bring your horse into some large ring, of foure or fiue score paces about, and put him into as fine and comely an amble, as you possible can make him goe in, then let him goe two or three times about the ring, then put him vp to his fine hand Gallop, out of his pace, and let him goe other three times about, then take him vp from his Gallop, and put him to his proud and stately trot, that you made him before going loose before you, as your Picture doth shew you, & that (as I tearme it) is the going of three changes, and all in one round compasse; and I thinke, if you haue brought him to ride all those three changes in that round compasse, as often as you please to put him to it, you haue done as much to him of the snaffle as arte can affoord.

CHAP. 10.

LOuing sonne, the other lesson is this, hauing brought your horse to this per­fectnesse, and that hee is truely paced rightly coloured, and finely made, and stately, and that hee be for an Honora­ble mans Saddle, and that you must set him on a Pad, and a Bit, you must begin with him in this [Page 60] manner: First, when you haue him at the length of his pace, that must be that hee set his hinder foote ouer his fore-foote three quarters of a yard at the least, then you must begin to set him proud of your hand; and euer set him forward with your rod, heele, and mouth, and you shall see him presently begin to cut his pace, and to goe proudly: you must make your roade but short that you doe ride him in, that you may giue him rest at euery roades end; and you must haue a speciall care, that as you cut his pace short, that you make him set true, or else you marre all: For you must bring him from three quarters of a yard ouer, so farre short till hee come to set but one foote iust ouer another, and must set his pace as true as hee did, when he set ouer the furthest, and when you haue cut his pace so short, you must let him rest there, for it is not possible to cut it any shor­ter, and make him set true withall.

Now when you haue brought him to his short­nesse of his pace, I would haue you you perfect him in that stately going till he will willingly, when you haue him at the length of his pace, if you but take vp your reynes, and thrust him forward with your heele, and mouth, that hee will goe as proudly and as stately as you will desire to haue him; and now when you haue brought him to this perfectnesse, and that hee must be set vpon a Bit to beare a foot cloth in the streetes, it is fit you doe bit him, for that you know how to keepe him in his true stroake with your hand, and you must bit him in this manner; If hee be a short fore-handed horse, the cheeke of his Bit must be the longer, and if hee be long fore-han­ded, [Page 53] it must be the shorter, and when you doe put the Bit into his mouth, first you must take as small a hunting snaffle as you can get, and put into his mouth first, and then you may put one the Bit, and let the curbe be at the full length at the first, and beare him at the first all of the snaffle, that you may helpe him when neede is: and so you may by a little at once let him feele the curbe, and so you may exer­cise him till hee be perfect, and when he doth [...]now the curbe, you may take it vp shorter, as you see cause.

And so louing sonne, when you haue brought him that hee will goe of his proud and stately am­ble, and shift to his proud and stately trot, and shift from one to another at your pleasure, then I thinke you haue performed as much as is possible to bee done.

Now louing sonne, I will teach you to make your horse beat a curuet in the stable: you must begin in this manner: You must first turne him backward in his Stall, and set him vpon two false reynes, the [...] [...] a paire of Pastornes on his fore-feete, then take your prickle you had before, and prick him on the breast, and he will presently rise vp before, as you taught him in his proud trot, then you must put on a paire of traues, as you see here, aboue the knee, and aboue the hough, then turne him forward againe, then let one be at his shoulder, and giue him the pricke, and stand you behind him with another long pricke, and pricke him on the side of his buttocke, and hee will present rise behind, and so you may take both the pricke in your hands, and first thrust it to his shoul­ders, [Page 62] and then to his buttockes, and he will present­ly rise before, and behinde, and beat it euen.

The traues will make him keepe his hinder legs close, and not yerke out this lesson is good to exer­cise him in the stable when you bring him in from ri­ding, and after his water.

There is another lesson I will teach you, that is as needfull, that is to make your horse kneele downe when you would haue him. You must begin in this manner, you must turne him backe in the stall, and strow litter enough vnder him, then put a long slip to his foot-locke on his farre-foote, then put an o­ther on his neere foote, then take the slip on the far side, and bring it ouer his wythers, then with your right hand draw his legge vp a good way from the ground, then hold it fast, then draw the other leg vp withall your strength, and bid him couch, and he will presently kneel downe on both his knees, then when he is downe, make him kneele a good pretty while, then let him rise againe, and make much of him, then you may exercise him so still, till hee be so perfect that hee will kneele downe when you strike him one the knees with your rod, and bid him couch: this lesson is good for a high way horse, when the Rider is weary, to light.

Now there is another lesson to teach your horse, that is this, to make him follow you any manner of way you goe; you must teach it him in this manner. First, you must keep him very sharpe for one day, and a night, and giue him nothing but straw in his racke, then come to him the next morning, and tye a long slip to his coller, then take a good quantity [Page 63] of oates in your prouand-dish, and goe to him and let him feele them, and then goe a good pretty way from him, and shake the oates in the dish, and bid him, Come, come, and if he will not come, then goe neere him, and draw a little from him, and hee will come presently; and so you must practise him, till when you loose him from the manger, and shake your oates, he will come to you.

Then you may goe out off the doore, and let him follow you loose in some Court, where he can­not get out, and so you may make him follow you any way wheresoeuer you goe, and then you may put a peece of bread in your boote, or shooe, and the taste of it will make him loue you exceedingly, and blowing into his nostrills will helpe much.

CHAP. 11.

AND now, loving Sonne, for Farrier­ship I haue no skill, neither will I set downe any thing, but what I haue tri­ed by my owne experience, and sore paines taken this fifty yeares.

But I will set downe three serets, that is very fit­ting for either Rider or Groome to know, and these be they.

To make a Starre in any darke coloured horses forehead, or sneepe in his nose, or in any part of his face and body.

The second is, to make roules to get a cold from any horse that is new taken.

[Page 56]The the third is, to kill any scratches, or sore heeles whatsoeuer.

For the first, you must make a bodkin in this man­ner heretofore set downe, and two prickes in the same manner, and where you would haue the starre, there you must thrust in your bodkin, and bring it forth againe some quarter of an inch aboue where you put it in, then you must take your bodkin forth, and put in one of your prickes; then you must make another hole crosse ouer the other pricke, then take foure yeards of fine two-peny-bredth Inkle, and wrap it about in this manner, as you see this sample, and when you haue wrapped the one halfe, then crosse it as you see this figure, some twice or thrice about all the foure ends, and then goe on still and wrap as you did before, and tye it fast at one end, and let it be on foure and twenty houres, and then vnwrap the In­kle and take out the prickes, and close the skin with the ball of your hand, and annoint it with hot butter once when you take them out, and again within two or three daies after: and so doe no more to it, for the skin will come on it, and it will bee a very faire white.

You must make your medicine for the cold in this manner:

You must get a handfull of Box, a handfull of Rue, a handfull of Rosemary, and a Garlicke head, and chop all these small together, and take so much fresh butter as will serue to roule them in, then make nine small roules thereof, a little bigger then a Wall-nut, and giue him three in a morning, and so euery other morning three, and warm him lightly after you haue [Page]


[Page 66] giuen him them, and set him vp very warme, and cast a warme blanket vpon him.

For the killing of the Scratches, you must take foure penny-worth of white Copperis, one handfull of bay-salt, and boyle them in small beare wort, till it be something thicke, then put it in a pot, and clip the hayre bare, that the water may goe in, and when you dresse him, rub it in well that it may goe to the bottome, and dresse him morning and euenining, and keepe his legges dry, and it will presently kill the disease.

I haue one secret more, which shewes how you may haue a Horse-coult, or a Mare-coult at your pleasure.

When you would haue a Horse-colt of your Mare, obserue this rule: There are twelue signes, six Male, and six Female; and if you would haue a horse Colt, you must put your Mare to the Horse in one of the male Signes and it will bee a horse Coult. So like­wise for a Mare Coult, you must obserue it by the o­six Signes which are contrary.

CHAP. 12.

SO now (louing Sonne) I haue troubled you with a great deale of reading, for a small deale of matter, but I must de­sire you to beare with an old memory, for the old saying is, as age comes on, so memory decayes. I will now onely set you downe [Page 67] a briefe of all the principall rules, in order, as I haue obserued them in this booke.

The first is, To make a true and perfect mouth.

The second is, to make a proud, stately, and come­ly reyne.

The third is, to make a proud and stately trot, which must be done with round balls of wood, six or seauen inches in compasse, and made fast vnder his fetlocke, as is shewed in his place.

The fourth is, to make a full sufficient high-way pace.

The fift is, to make a proud stately short pace for a street.

The sixt is, to make a fine comely and easie gallop, either for hunting, or for the high-way, and that he will make all his three changes in a large ringe, that is vpon his pace, trot, and gallop, and that he will performe all these changes in those rings heretofore set downe, and that he will doe them all without any disorder.

Then louing Son, if you will practice to get all these grounds here by me set downe, you shall be ac­counted as sufficient a Snaffle-man as most is in England.


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