An Apologicall Epistle: Directed to the right honorable Lords, and others of her Maiesties pri­uie Counsell. Seruing aswell for a Praeface to a Booke entituled, A Resolution of Religion: as also, containing the Authors most law­full Defence to all estates, for publishing the same.

The Argument of that Worke is set downe in the page fol­lowing.

Printed at Antwerp with licence, the fiue and twenty day of March, 1601. Stilo novo.

The Argument of the booke intituled, A Resolution of Religion, promised, and defended in this Epistle.

THe Resolution of Religion being deui­ded into two parts, entreateth in the first, of the absolute Necessitie of a Diuine worship, against all Atheists, Epicures, Doub­ters, or Deniers thereof: proouing aswell the most infallible certainty and preeminences of this supernaturall Reuerence, as the mani­fold grosse absurdities of that vnnaturall and prophane People. Secondly, it demonstrateth against Iewes, Pagans, Mahumetanes, and all externall Enemies of Christ, that onely the Religion which he taught is true, and all o­thers, blasphemous, and ouerwhelmed with manifest and intollerable errours. In the se­cond part it sheweth by aboue an hundred vnanswerable Arguments, against all Here­tikes, and internall Aduersaries, that among so many professions of Christ, onely Catholike Romane Religion is true, and deliuered by him, and all others, especially the Protestan­cie of England, not onely by all those Rea­sons, but by their owne grounds and procee­dings, false and damnable.

IHS MAR

To the right honourable Lordes and others of her Maiesties priuie Counsell.

RIght Honorable and renowmed Regents: If the first created Ruler in earth, had not broken the Rule of his Creator and su­preame Ruler in Heauen, vnrulinesse had not en­tred, Superiours had not found so many disorders to reforme; Inferiors had wanted so greeuous causes of complaint. For when by that infinite, and inerrable power of God,Gen. c. [...]. eccle. [...] 39. Marc 7. Ge [...] 2 Gen. 3. Eccles. Iraen. li. 3. Haer. Chrysost hom. 1 [...] in Gen. Basil. in psal 48. Gregor. Nazian. 4. de pasch. Hilar. hom [...] de Iob. Ambro [...] lib 6. exam. c. 7. [...] Gregor. in c. 10. Luc. Ang. lib. 14 [...] ciuit c 26. lib. d [...] quaest. vet. & nou [...] testam. q. 19. all creatures were framed in perfection; man, as he was made ac­cording to his similitude, and to be his Viceroy ouer this inferior world, so he was constituted far more perfect than the rest; replenished with all kinds both of spirituall and corporall fauors, and had an especiall Charter of priuiledged habilitie (had hee not wilfully lost it) to be enfranchized from all defects of soule or body, defended from the first by the armour of originall Iustice, and exempted from the second by refuge and sanctu­ary to the tree of life. In that happy condition and estate, no infirmitie had beene bewailed, no errour in the vnderstanding, no froward affecti­on in the will, no King, Senate, Councell, or Ru­ler had beene entroubled with rules of Reforma­tion; no subiect had complained, no man had beene iniured; For, where no offence, either a­gainst God, or man, no disobedience of the infe­riour [Page 2] appetite to Reason, or of Reason against her Ruler had raigned, nothing could be amisse, to be complained of by the one, or corrected by the o­ther.

SECT. I. The frailetie and pronenesse of man to sinne, after the fall of Adam.

BVt after our protoparent made forfeiture of that tenure, & broke conditions with God, our Writte of Priuiledge was reuoked, and Citty of refuge taken away, and humane nature left to it selfe, naked, and disabled among so many enemies, and allurements of iniquitie, came to that impotent and poore degree wherein we are; insomuch, that Philosophers, and such as were onely conuersant in naturall affaires, prouing by pittifull experience, the still continuing and vn­cured scarres of that combat, ignorance, errour, concupiscence, sinne, sickenes, death and other afflictions which they found in themselues, and vnacquainted what they had lost in their first an­cestor,Aug. lib. 4. contr. [...]ulian. Cicero lib. [...]. Reipubl. Clem. Alex. lib. 3. [...]trom. Plutarch. [...]b. natur. amor. [...]a rent. & l. in­ [...]ust. animal. Plin. [...]rooem. li. 7. hist. [...]actant. firm. l. o­ [...]fic. c. 3. & 4. deplored the state of man so much, that they affirmed Nature onely in the production of him, behaued her selfe like a stepmother, and not as a naturall mother; such were the complaints of Cicero, Homer, Empedocles, Heraclitus, Plinius, and others: and it was the primordiall stumbling blocke to the blockish and beastly Epicures, (as Lactantius witnesseth) to deny the prouidence of God, and all religion of man vnto him. And al­though this complaint was vniust, and proceeded [Page 3] of ignorance, yet the wound which was then in­flicted, hath so festered in the whole posteritie of Adam, 1. Cor. 15. that vntill this corruptible hath put on incor­ruption, and this mortall, immortalitie, and death, (whose companions they are) is swallowed vppe in victorie, in the triumph of our glorious resurre­ction, there is no hope of cure. And touching sinne and iniquitie, which as it was the most deadly and deepest sore, so most to be bewailed: the transgression of the first law-breaker was so venomous a seede, to bring foorth wickednesse, and disobedience in the race of man, that neuer any law-maker, magistrate, or superior,Iob 9. Rom. 3. Rom. 2. Psal. 50 Rom. 5.2. Reg. 12. Iob 7. Philip. Bergom hist. fol. 7. Iosep l. antiq. Polidor Virgil. de inue [...] l. 2. c. 1. Diodor. l. 6. Virgil l. 4. [...] ne [...]d. Plin. l. 7. Stowe, Grafton Fab. Foxetom spirituall or temporall, either by example in themselues, as a president to subiects, or any law, ordinance, reward, or preferment for vertue, penalty and pu­nishment for vice, or any other engine or instru­ment could roote it out; no Bohemas among the Bohemians, no Tuball among the Spaniardes, no Be­lus among the Assyrians, no Ceres or Rhadaman­thus, no Draco or Solon among the Athenians, Mer­curius among the Egyptians, no Minos, Lycurgus, Charandes, Phoroneus, Romulus, Pithagoras, or A­pollo among the Cretensians, Lacedemonians, Tyri­ans, Grecians, Romans, Italians, Arcadians, no Mul­mutius Dunwallo, Alfrede, Edward, or any other politicke or vertuous king, ruler, or law-maker in England, or any other Nation could weede it vp:Genes. 3. & 4, 7▪ 12, 19. Iob [...] Exod. Leuitic Num. Deut. neither any spirituall law promulged and deliue­red, either by Adam the first, which knew best the difference of the estates of innocencie and sinne, hauing prooued both, and preached it first to the primitiue world, or Noe to those that were drow­ned in the deluge, or Abraham, Lot, Iob, Moses to [Page 4] the Cananites, [...]53. Iob 19. [...]b 2. & 4. Act. Hebr. 9. & 11. Timoth. 2. Sodomites posteritie of Esau, or o­thers. And Christ Iesus the sonne of God, wise­dome of his Father, and God himselfe, the most prudent law-maker, perfect exemplar, and presi­dent without all sinne, and exception, although he became our Priest, sacrifice, and redeemer, and offered so rigorous a ransome, that the least drop of his immaculate and vnvaluable blood, or the meanest of his so many infinitely meritorious o­perations, had beene both able and woorthy, to haue washed away and cleansed, not onely the malice and venome of sinne, but the whole poy­son and infection of all other infirmities and de­fects, yet it pleased that diuine wisedome to leaue them as a perpetual penitential memoriall of our former demerite,Corinth. 1. [...]atth. 20. [...]ar. 10. [...]phes. 1. & 4. to continue in this state of pil­grimage; and as they were contracted in our first fall from innocencie in Paradise, so perfectly to be remooued in our last resurrection to endlesse glory and happines: so that all times and places more or lesse haue beene infected with infirmi­ties, all sexes and ages, men, women, and chil­dren (except some one or few excepted by a spe­ciall writing of diuine exemption) little or much, originally and actually haue beene defiled. [...]m. 5. psal. 50. [...]eg. 12. [...]p 4. [...]4. [...]ab. in Gen. Thom Aqui. [...]. q 61 magis. [...]ist. 2. scholast. [...]. Gen. 3. [...]. 1.18, 19. [...] c. 8. The law deliuered to Angells was transgressed in hea­uen. If we follow the common opinion, that An­gelles were created in that imperiall Pallace; the Law giuen in the state of innocencie was broken in Paradise, the vnwritten Lawe vnder the Pa­triarckes, the written Lawe of Moises the E­uangelicall and most perfect lawe of Christ hath too oft beene violated in earth. Of this all ages, times, and places haue complained, God & An­gelles [Page 5] from heauen complained,Exod. 16. & 32 Gen. 13. Num. 2 [...] Prou. 20. Is. 3.59 Hierem. 7.16. Amos 5. Ose 4. [...] Rom. 5. Galat. 3 Iacob. 1. Senec. carefull and ver­tuous Kings, Regents, and Gouernours haue complained, the Patriarkes before the Lawe, the Priests and Prophets vnder the Lawe, Christ his Apostles, & all holy men in the time of grace, & remedy of originall offence haue complained. The first man complained, the last will make complaint; and (as Seneca saith) heereof our el­ders before vs haue complained, wee complaine, heereof they which liue after vs will complaine.

SECT. II. How this age of Protestants ex­ceedeth all others, both in respect of errors, and practicall impieties.

YEt notwithstanding all this (most honorable Peeres) the vnfortunate deluge and inun­dation of manifold notorious impieties, that haue surrownded and ouerflowed the manners and conuersation of all men, estates, times, and places, where it made irruption, since the violent streams of strange doctrines Martin Luther brake out into the world, hath left so manifest vncleane arguments in the liues of those it inuaded, that I am bolde to affirme, this vnhappy age since then, hath hatched farre more errours and heresies in the vnderstanding, and brooded vp more other sinnes and wickednesse in the will, and executiue powers of men, then euer any age or generation did in the schoole or regiment of Christ and those which professed him. I will passe ouer the com­plaints of Catholickes in this controuersie, lest they might be had in suspition, and in the cause [Page 6] of Protestants vse their owne witnesse for eui­dence. [...]at. in parl. 1. Eli. In England, the Protestants haue a rule, the Court of Parliament, and her Maiesties Su­premacie, to keepe in some kinde of vnitie, those, that wil not be in double degree of disobedience; [...]rrors and sects [...]ong Prote­ [...]ants. first to the Catholicke Church, which they haue forsaken; secondly, their Princes proceedings, to which they haue made submission. And yet I ap­peale in this question, [...]owe histor in [...]e yeere 1551. [...]554. & 1561. [...]o [...]lensh. Graft. [...]oxe & Regist. [...]ondon. Norw. [...]nod. Lond. anno [...]62. stat. 13. [...]iza. art. 1. art. 2. art. 3. art. 4. art. 5. art. 7. art. 26 to our Protestant histori­ans, to the Recordes and Registers of London, Norwich, and other Citties, to the first Protestant Synode vnder our Queene Elizabeth, subscribed twice by all Protestant Archbishops, and Bishops of England, ratified by her Maiestie, and confir­med in parliament to be authenticall, wherein so many heresies and infidelities then raigning in our Countrie, are condemned; what Arrians, Eu­nomians, Vigilantians, Nestorians, Eutichians, Greti­ans, Donatists, Iouinians, Henricians, Wicklefists, Beren­garians, Catharists, Anabaptists, Maniches, Ialians, Aerians, Brownists, Barrowists, Ketists, Antichrist [...] damned Crew, Pretenders of themselues to be Prophe [...] yea Christ himselfe, Epicures, Atheists, and oth [...] haue beene disclosed in this time, and remaine to this day, as iustly may be suspected.

What errours are like to bee in Germany, the mother and nurse of this vnluckie childe, where both the temporall and spirituall regiment are diuerse, hauing no common rule among them, e­uery man may coniecture, [...]h. to. 3. Ient. [...]ma fol. 340 [...]ol. 144 Nich. [...]l in thesib. [...]hol. Selnecc. com. in psal. 131. & praef. in catalog. concil. Alberus contra Carclo 1. Swing contra Luther. Tolsan Schutz [...] serpent. antiq. Georg Hamfeld in mon [...]rat. Sle [...] dan histor. lib. 1 [...] Mansieldens in confess fol. 89. & fol. 226. & [...]7 Caluin ep. so. 57 See Casp Vlenb. l. 22. caus. c 9. and the Woorkes of Luther himselfe, Nicolaus Gallus, Selneccerus, Al­berus, Swinglius, Schutz, Hamfield, Sleidan, Caluine, and other chiefe Protestants beare testimonie, e­uery one condemning other to hell for heresie & [Page 7] infidelitie, in the greatest questions of iustificati­on, Sacraments, originall sinne, free-will, prede­stination, of faith, of the Lawe, of the Gospel, of the nature of Christ, his discension into hell, as­cending to heauen, his glory there, properties of the diuine and humane nature, of penance, con­fession, resurrection of the body, mediatorshippe of Christ, and other essentiall thinges. Such be the Lutherans, Antinomians, Stancarians, Maie­rists, Flaccians, Synergists, Adiaphorists, Vbiquita­ries, Substantiarians, Accidentarians, Anabaptists, Carolostadians, Swinglians, Oecolampadians, Puritans Caluinopapists, Clancularians, Politickes, Causarians, Consistorials, Nonconsistorials, Muncerians, Apostoliks, Separates, Catharists, Silentiars, Enthusiasts, Ectasists, Free brethren, Adamites, Hutites, Augustinians, Mo­nasterians, Bocaldians, Hoffmanists, Georgians, Mem­nists, with the rest, amounting to the number of two hundred and three score knowne Sects, by the computation of Caspar Vlenbergius, Casp. Vlenber. 22. Caus. Rainold. Caluin [...] Pantal. in Oec [...] lam & apud Cas [...] Vlenberg. and others aboue twelue yeeres agoe; and who will doubt, but the number is farre greater, than hee, or any priuate man could gather together; especially if he considereth what Oecolampadius (that so highly esteemed Protestant, calling him selfe the light of the house, as his name in Greeke which he tooke doth signifie) writeth within nine yeeres of the reue [...]. of Luther, that there were then about se­uentie seauen diuisions and dissentions among them? And no wonder, where euery citie, towne, borough, and almost village, or particular person, hath, or may haue at pleasure, a particular religi­on; which Luther himselfe was not ashamed to write to the Citizens of Antwerp, within eight or [Page 8] nine yeeres of his new doctrine,Luther ep. ad Antuerpens. tom. [...]. Germ. Ient. fol. [...]01. in these wordes. There be almost so many Sects and Religions among vs, as there be men: there is no Asse in this time, so sottish, and blockish, but will haue the dreames of his owne head, and his owne opinion accounted for the instinct of the Holy-ghost, and himselfe esteemed for a Prophet. What the floud of practicall impietie hath beene in England, Practicall sinnes among Prote­ [...]ants. I appeale for triall heereof to the te­stimony of Iudges, Recordes of Courts, Indict­ments, Iudgements, & Executions, in most fowle & vnnaturall offences; for matters of dissentions, disagreements, and contentions betweene Lords, and Tenants, Tenant & Tenant, Lord & Lord, and other vnkinde proceedings among kinsfolks, brethren, parents, and children, and such vnnatu­rall sutes and debates, to the courts of law, where they be still depending and encreasing; to the newly and strangely encreased number, and rich estate of so many Lawyers, grounded vpon other mens losses, quarrells and vnquietnes; and your Honours farre more often than your Catholicke predecessors, haue beene molested with the hear­ing, examining, and condemning disordered ri­ots, [...]ut. in Perliam. [...].8. from an. 23 [...]. Ed. 6. & stat. izab. and misdemeanours. Lastly, I call for my re­cord herein, the publike statutes and acts of Par­liament, since the reuolte of king Henry the eight from the See of Rome, vnto this day wherein, (without feare) I affirme that more vices and vn­sufferable abuses in all kindes of people, not one­ly vnknowne heretofore in Catholike regiments, but intollerable in any Pagan, or Ethnicke com­mon-wealth, both for number and strangenesse, haue beene recorded and condemned, then euer were in all the Parliaments of her Maiesties chri­stian [Page 9] predecessors; the lawes be extant, I haue compared them, euery man may examine my comparison.Edict. Geneu. Edict. Basil Wit­tember. Pet No renbergens. ad Carol. 5. Imperat apud Sot. 4. sent. & Diego de stell Com. in Luc. Luther colloq. mensal. Germa folio 224 For forreine countries I cite the E­dicts, complaints, decrees, and prouisions of the Protestant Princes, and free states of Germanie, Switzerland and other places; or if the testimonie of the prime Apostles of Protestancie, Luther, Cal­uine, Andreas Musculus, Iacobus Andreas, Iohn Ri­uius, and such may be admitted, you shall heare their owne words. Luther affirmeth, that the scho­lers of his Schoole, for the most part, are Epicures, and onely seek to spend their dayes in pleasure. Caluin. ep. ad H [...] phel ser. 10 & serm. 30 Caluine speaketh of his fellowes in these termes, They are portents and woonders of Knaues, such as are no where else to be found, they are called reformed, when they seeme indeede rather to be diuells incarnate. The say­ing of Musculus is this;Andreas Muscu­lus libro prophet Christ: 1 The matter is come to that passe among them (speaking of his fellowe Prote­stants) that if any man desireth to see and behold any company of knaues, vsurers, dissolute persons, and deceit­full men, let him enter into any citty of Professors of the Gospel, and he shall finde enow of such: among Pagans, Iewes, and Turkes, and other infidelles, men can scarce­ly be found so disobedient or stubborne among whom all honestie, and whatsoeuer doth sauour of virtue, is dead, and no reckoning is made of any sinne. Iacob Andreas conc. 4 de pla­net. fol. 140 141 Iacobus An­dreas vttereth his opinion of them in this manner, a­mong them no amendment or emendation is thought vpon, they liue an Epicurean, and altogether beastly life, in place of fasting, a custome of eating, and exces­siue rioting in banquetting, and bawdery hath succee­ded; in place of almes, oppression and extortion ouer the poore; for prayer, blasphemy against the holy name of God. insteed of humilitie, pride, elation, and most filthie [Page 10] exceeding superfluitie. [...]ohn Riuius ep. And Mauric. Duc. [...]. [...]xon. in l. de [...]oenit. Io. Riuius saith, that the wic­kednes of thē hath encreased to the astonishment of all men; No man seeketh after God, no man blush­eth at the violating of his commandements, euery mans life is polluted with great sinnes, and wickednesse. I dare affirme (saieth hee) that in this corrupt and wretched age of ours, all manner of vices haue so encreased, that hardly greater wickednesse can be: for what sin or wic­kednesse at this day is wanting, [...]t c. 4. sup. which if it raigned, this age might be saide to be more vngodly for that respect? and although to iudge rightly hereof, in euery age there hath beene riotousnesse, sumptuous feastings, costly din­ners and suppers, surfetting, drunkennesse, whoredome, adultery, oppression, iniury, neglecting of well dooing, and other such wickednesse, which euery man in his time hath found fault withall (as Seneca saith) and no age that hath beene voyde of sinne: yet loosenesse of life, neglect of order, and discipline, outrageous wickednesse, hath in this our age so encreased, and gotten strength, that it appeareth euen Atheisme and Epicurisme hath inuaded the life of man, [...]n Praefat. sup. and as it were, beareth domi­nion among Christians, lawes take no force, lust ruleth altogether: for what? thinke you they beleeue the soule is immortall, who liue in maner as beastes? or bee they perswaded there be either rewards for the godly in hea­uen, [...]en. Sim. de Lu­ [...]he [...] fid. pag. 324 ch [...]md. cont. Germ in verbo Christ. Luc. 21 [...]uc li. 1. de Reg. Christ. c. 4. Wi­ [...] and in adm. bon. [...] mal. Germ. 11. [...]al.or punishment in hell appoynted for sinners, who in euery thing dread not to violate the commandements of God, & run altogether headlong into sin, euen as thogh they did either thinke, that God were but a vaine and fained thing, or beleeue, that when the body dieth, the soule likewise perisheth, and commeth vnto nothing. such be the testimonies of Nennon, Simonius, Schin­mideline, & others of the chiefest originall Prote­stants, of their fellow professors. I will cite more [Page] hereafter, when I will prooue those which giue this euidence of the rest, to be worst of all them­selues.

SECT. III. How all these errours and abu­ses proceede by dis-vnion from the Catholicke Church.

WHerefore that which so many priuate and publike writings affirme abroad, and at home, which euery man seeth and feeleth to be true, and those principall Pro­testants recorded of their Disciples, in the prime and flourishing time, the very zenith and high­est of their exaltation, when the reformers of o­thers should haue giuen some example and shew of reformation in themselues, I trust it will not be offensiue for me, a Catholike subiect of Eng­land, after so many yeeres of experienced en­crease of their impieties, and in their withering and decaying age, euery thing with them grow­ing worse and worse, to affirme to be true. Then (most Noble) as ordinary effects proceede from ordinary causes, so extraordinary and straunge things (such as this kinde of iniquitie, so wicked, so vniuersall, and erroneous is) must haue some vnwonted cause, more than is vsuall in christian men. I will not be so seuere a Sentencer against them, as their confederate Iohn Riuius is, to say, that they be Atheists, Epicures, and deniers of the soules immortalitie, and thereby thinking there is no religion in the worlde, no life after [Page 12] death, no reward of vertue, or penalty for vice haue giuen themselues ouer to all kinde of sinne. Neither wil I enter to so bloody a iudgement in this place (reseruing it to bee discussed heereaf­ter) against these men,Conuoc. Lond. [...]nno Dom. 1562 [...]rt. 12. Qu. Eliz. [...]etters pat. stat. [...]n parl. 13. Eliz. art. a. Resolut. as their owne generall and common approoued doctrine, especially in England, that true faith and good workes are inse­parable, condemneth such men for infidells, and misbeleeuers. But to reserue these and such ar­guments as may be inforced by that which is spoken, to their proper place, and prosecute my present intent; it is manifest by the Babilonical diuision, which is in the vnderstanding of this people, that they haue forsaken the true faith, re­ligion, and rule thereof, which can be but one; and by the grosse impieties which haue taken so quiet possession of their liues, that they are so far from al interest, either of reforming errors of the mind, or abuses of life in others (by which in the beginning they claymed title to a new religion) that they haue beene the onely cause of so many infidelities, Atheismes, Epicurismes, Iudaismes, Mahumetismes, and other intollerable sinnes, & offences which are daily by their owne con­fession before, practized among them: for when and where the infallible rule and censure of su­pernaturall difficulties is denied, and euery man left to his owne priuate deduction, and deceipt­full iudgement, farre vnable to descipher su­pernaturall mysteries, what hope can be had of truth? what probabilitie of agreement? who wil be encoraged to seeke for veritie, where it is im­possible to be found? If it were in naturall arts, and sciences, which be connaturall, and propor­tionable [Page 13] to humane capacitie, if there were so many opinions, diuers and contrary, as are a­mong them in religion, so that before hee could follow any, hee must learne to confute all the rest, what man would willingly professe that art as true, though it were neuer so gainefull, if it were obtained, about learning whereof there is such dissention, that three hundred to one hee should be deceiued? By that reason, in Arts, Al­chimie of making gold is ordinarily refused, ha­uing brought so many to errour and beggery, by the vncertaintie thereof, although in it selfe it is woonderfull commodious. For matters of antiquitie, the diuersity of opinions about the o­riginall of the Brittans in this land, hath caused many to thinke there neuer was any Brute at all.Hierom. lib. de vir illustr. l raen. lib. 3 c. 3. Euseb. lib. 2 hist. c. 14. Arnob l. 2. contra Gent. Epiphan. haer 27. Chryso. in psal. 48. Paul. Oros l 7. hist. 6. Leo ser. 1. de na­tal apost. Ignat. ep. ad Rom. Dio­nys. Corinth. a­pud Euseb. lib. 2. Egesip. lib. 3. exe. ca. 2. Theodoret. epi. ad Leon. Ter tull. li de prae. script. Lact. lib. 4 Ambr lib. 5. ep. Sulpit. lib. 2. hist. lib. 7. &c. Synod. Lond. artic. 6. It is as manifest both by al Histories and Monu­ments, that Saint Peter liued long and died at Rome, as that William of Normandy surnamed the Conquerour came into England, and subdued it, or as any such antiquity can be; and yet bicause (as Protestants say) there is difference betweene Saint Hierome, Orosius, and Fasciculus temporum, a­bout the time of his comming thither, (although they agree with the rest, that hee liued and died there) some Protestants are not afraide to af­firme he was neuer at Rome. For a like cause, the whole Protestant Cleargie of England in their authorized Conuocation, deny the Bookes of Machabees, Iudith, and Tobias, to be canonicall scriptures. So it chanceth in Sciences, where controuersie and multiplicity of opinions is. Then how much more true is it in things so ele­uated aboue naturall vnderstanding, as the my­steries [Page 30] of religion be? What a palpable prouo­cation and allurement of delightfull atheisme, e­picurisme, and infidelitie is it to carnall mindes, to see so many diuisions, and no agreement? For can any one particular voluptuous man or other in iudgement thinke himselfe wiser than so ma­ny great companies and congregations as hee is most sure are all deceiued? And if hee shoulde aduenture to beleeue, and be religious, as others doe, there is oddes, three hundred to one, he shall be brought into errour, because he seeth so ma­ny religions erected & defended, against what­soeuer he shall chuse to followe, the pleasures he should forsake are certaine, sensible, and forcible to mooue affection; that which hee should be­leeue is most vncertaine, ineuident, and without motiue to be followed, as it is proposed in these mens proceedings.Barnard. Lutz. [...]catol. haer. Or if that man bee of read­ing and iudgement to consider former times, he shal finde foure hundred more religions contra­ry to any that is now professed in the Schoole of Protestants; so that it will more than double the former danger: and the same man shall vnder­stand, that the Catholike Church, for whose e­lection, calling, preseruing from errour, and con­summation, the whole mysterie of Christ was wrought,Concil. Florent. [...]n vnion. Concil. Const. in Wick. Husse &c. Con­cil. Trid. Iohn 3. Reuel. 21. Luke 5 [...]. Tim. 3. Iohn 14. & 16. hath condemned and vtterly extirped all those foure hundred, and by the same infalli­ble authority, and censure in diuers generall Councelles, where the whole christian worlde was assembled, reprooued, and anathematized those that raigne in Protestants: So that if a man in case of religion, will deny the voyce of that spouse of Christ, that piller of trueth, and societie as­sisted [Page 31] by the promise of Christ, from falling into error, it is euident, that a thousand to one he shall shalbe seduced & damned. Who then wil won­der if many infidels & atheists are entred among these men, when at the worst their atheisme, and that only in the end, can bring but to damnatiō; & in the meane time brings al pleasures and de­lights; and their professing of religion in such vncertaine maner: first, most certainly depriueth of those plesures, & 1000. to one brings to the same damnation? Or who wil maruel if those that be not come to this, perfection of policie, & nullifi­dianitie (as I trust ther be but few, one being too much in a christian nation) be far more careles, negligent, & vnduetifull in liuing well, then such as doe liue in the vnitie of the whole Catholike worlde, wherein there neuer was, or is any dis­agreement, or contradiction in matters of belie­uing. For if (as I shewed before) a man might, would, or should, in reason, doubt to giue assent to any religion, where there was so manifest and apparant daunger of a false election; if it be true in a speculatiue consent of faith, onelie exacting an agreement of the vnderstanding, howe much more doubt and difficultie will bee made, for men of reason to aduenture so great paines and labours, as holy Scriptures prescribe to be vsed for obtaining heauen, when by rea­son it is euident, before they begin, that a thou­sand to one, al their labors will be lost, and their indeuours rewarded with euer-during damna­tion in hell? Will any man now muse if the song of Epicures is so often tuned, and so much im­pietie put in practise? If it were in the execution [Page 16] of daily and ordinary affaires, no man woulde labour much for that, which so many affirme he could not get, but contrariwise, euery one in reason should and would contend for principall preferrement and commodity, which all men graunt he might obtaine: hee that by consent of all, hath vndeniable title to a kingdome, or mea­ner dignitie, will refuse no aduenture to winne it; he, whome all, or most deny to haue such in­terest, either will not at all, or faintly take it in hand, hauing little or no hope to bring his at­tempt to passe; euen so in these spirituall affaires. For although the Crowne and inheritaunce of heauen proposed to Christians, is incomparably more excellent, than such terrene preferments; yet being a spirituall and supernaturall reward, and not so proportionate to the manner of hu­mane knowledge, and affection in this life, (de­pending of sence and imagination) as temporall aduauncements and pleasures are, and being so vncertain, vnprobable, or rather vnpossible to be obtained, as these men make it, it can be no mat­ter of admiration, that so much wickednesse doth rule, and so few aduenture so certaine and painefull a worke, for so vncertaine and doubt­full recompence.Lact firm. lib. 1, 2 [...]iu. instit. Andr. de la cur. [...]ist. Turc. [...]eonic. Chal. [...]cond lo Fab. [...]arth. Georg. pe­ [...]egr. lib. de afflict. Christi &c. Mich. [...]oirer. lib. 1. bell. [...]anon. ma [...]. Thus it alwayes chaunced in temporall things, so it euer did, and will come to passe in questions of religion, whether it be true or false. The Idolatrous state of the Gentiles when they were most diuided for their diuersi­ties and placalities of gods rites, and sacrifices, were farre more wicked, then when fewer pre­tended title to be worshipped. The Mahume­tans, though euer lewd and impious, yet after [Page 17] the Persian schisme and diuisions among them, they daily fell to be more wicked than before; and the Iewish people sometimes the true ser­uants of God, and religious,Bact. lib. 2.3. Reg. 12, 13, 1 [...] so long as they re­mained in vnitie among themselues, after they were diuided into Sectes, became more care­lesse of seruing God, as is manifest, not onely in the schisme betweene the houses of Roboam and Ieroboam recorded in holy Scriptures, but most euident in their last desolation. For at the comming of Christ (the time of the Messias be­ing expleated) they were diuided into many Sects and Religions, who should be hee, and what they shoulde beleeue. So that, besides Christians the true worshippers, there were,Iob 2. See Caes. Baron, tom. 1. Ioseph. li 17. antiquitat. 8 li. 18. c. 1. &c. 2 lib. 20. c. 26. at that time, in that nation, Samaritanes, Pharises, Sadduces, Essenes, Baptists, Herodians, Galileans, E­zechians, Atongists, Theudists, Egiptists, Barrow­nosbonists, Vespasianians, and other sects, where­by that nation so vertuous and religious, when it was vnited in true worship, was come to that carelesnesse of religion, and liuing well, that they were drowned and ouerwhelmed in such mon­strous and erroneous iniquities,Ioseph. lib. 7. b [...] Iudaic. c. 7. that their owne Historian Iosephus affirmeth their sinnes to haue beene so great, that if the Romanes had not come to take such extraordinary reuengement vpon them, he did thinke; Authiatu terrae deuorandam fuisse ciuitatem, That their Cittie Hierusalem would either haue beene swallowed vppe of the earth, or drowned with some deluge and inun­dation, or be consumed with fire and lightnings as the Sodomites were. In like manner it alwaies happened in all times, places, and persons pol­luted [Page 34] with hereticall Sects and diuisions, as all Antiquities and Historians witnesse.

SECT. IIII. The scope and intent of the Au­thour to teach a most vndoubted certaintie and vnitie in religion.

WHerefore (right Honourable) as it is so euident that it can not be denied, but such troupes of errours and im­pieties haue embatteled themselues in the camp of Protestants, and by ample reasons may bee had in iust suspition, that many doubters, or ra­ther deniers (at least in affection) of all Wor­ship, as euer in like times haue beene, are entred in: So, seeing contraries are, and must be cured by contraries, and certaintie and true vnitie in religion is the onely remedy of such intollerable and prophane abuses, as haue proceeded from want thereof, I haue written a cōpleate confu­tation of all enemies to true reuerence, of what condition soeuer, Atheists, Epicures, and such as be deniers of all worship; or externall infidells and aduersaries of Christ, Pagans, Iews, Mahu­metanes; or internall ennemies as the heretikes of all ages, eyther past, present, or to be heere­after, which I haue named, A Resolution of Re­ligion, because therein, not onely all doubtes and difficulties, eyther pretended by any of those misbeleeuers, or by any means to be ima­gined, or conceiued, are loosed and resolued, but [Page 35] euery article and question of that most holy and approoued Religion, which I defend, is solued from all errours, and resolued to the most assu­red and infallible word and reuelation of God, which by no possibilitie can either be deceiued in himselfe, or be cause of errour vnto others. Whereby euery point and proposition of religi­ous duety will be prooued to be so certaine, that no infidell or false beleeuer can make it doubt­full. So certaine as Saint Chrysostome writeth,Chrysost. homi. 8 in ep. ad Rom. Augu. lib. 7. Con­fess. c. 10. as any naturall demonstration is; or to folow saint Augustines phrase so vndoubted, that a man in iudgement should sooner doubt, whether him­selfe doth liue, than call any article of that faith into question. So that, as nothing can be more holy, credible, and woorthy to be beleeued, then that doctrine which I am to teach; so nothing can be more irreligious obstinacie, and wilful­nesse, than to deny, and not embrace it: and as great madnes to follow any other false pro­fession, being as resolutely proued, that they are all most vaine, false, erroneous, and resolued to the lying spirite of the Diuell, and wicked decei­uers and seducers.

SECT. V. The certaintie, excellency, and dig­nity of Catholike Religion.

AND lest any Reader should maruaile, that in a time of so great question and vn­certainty of true Religion, I should so peremptorily vndertake to so great personages, [Page 20] and with so much securitie, to shew any Religi­on so vndoubted and certaine, as I haue assu­med:Resol. part 1. tract. 1. arg. 1, 2, 3 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. Philip. Bergom. hist. Fox tom. 1. Mon. part. 2. chro. I do not meane thereby, any of those er­roneous professions, either affirming or deny­ing reuerence. Not the blasphemous impietie of Diagoras, Lucretius, Epicures, and Epicurians im­pugning all Religion, to whose sacriligious liues and sentences, God and all creatures are so re­pugnant; to which all reasons dissent; to whom no Argument or authoritie of any Country, Citty, Towne, Villadge, or particular man, not mad with passions, or frantickly distracted by pleasures, in so many thousands of yeares, as the world hath beene, and in so many kingdomes and countries thereof,Resolut. Relig. part 1. tract 2.1 argu 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Mahum. in Alco­ran. Thal. Iud. Pet. Maff hist. Ind. Lact. 7. firm. libt. diu. instit. yet agreed. Neither any of those Infidelities of Iewes, Mahumetanes, Brachmans, and Pagans so often by that Religion I will defend, both miraculously and otherwise confuted and condemned by their owne con­fessions; and withall, maintaining either plu­ralities, or corporeitie, mutation, change, and dishonourable imperfections in God, to whom Religion is belonging, haue in all reason spoy­led him of all worship, and reuerence, for none can be due to such a God or Gods as they ima­gine: besides so many irreligious errours against the light of nature it selfe, which are vnpossible to be taught of God, and yet be rewarded in the chiefest Rules of these Religions.Resolut. Relig. [...]art 2 arg. 1, 2, 3 [...]que ad 114. & [...]tim. Neither any of so many hundreds of expleaded, or nowe raigning heresies, or any that shall arise hereaf­ter, not the Religion of Martine Luther so often professed, and both priuately and publickly re­canted, altered, changed, doubted, and redoub­ted [Page 21] by himselfe,Foxe tom. 2. Mo­num. fo. 971, 972 Luther to. 2. Ger. Ient. folio 9. & in colloq. men­sal. folio 10. & to. 1. Ient. Germ. fol. 4. colloq. mensal. fol. 244. fol. 158 & fol. 273. Sur of holy dis­cipline. Hamelt. hist. Fox tom. 2. fol. 1486. as his owne workes and all pro­testants doe witnesse, neither of licentious Cal­uine, and a few artificers of Geneua, or of Knekes that gally slaue of Scotland, or of Edward Seymer duke of Somerset, or King Edward the sixt, a child of nine yeares old, without any assent or assem­bly, either of parliament or other (as Fox himselfe is witnes (the wil and testament of K. Henry the eight being violated, and his Bishops and Clergy committed to prison, or depriued. Neither of the Protestants of this time, which without dis­putation, or aduise of any learned or parliamen­tall diuine (all such then depriued) by the con­sent of some vnlearned Noble men,Stowe hist. anno 1. Elizab. statut. 1 Elizab. cap. 1 Knights of Shires, and Burgesses of the townes of England was enacted and decreed. Nor any other buil­ded vpon the deceitfull deduction of any pri­uate man, or framed vppon any such feeble and false foundation: for so I should committe my selfe, and bring my Readers to the same pittifull danger, whereof I complained in those profes­sors. But I defend that Religion and Worship,Bellar. in Chron pantal. in chron. Philip. Barg. hist. Tom. Concil. Resol. Relig. part 2. per mult. arg. which all most learned and vertuous men of the whole christian worlde, as well priuately by themselues, as twenty times gathered together in generall Councells, haue euer concluded out of holy Scriptures, which many thousandes of nationall and prouinciall Sinodes, euerie one of far more authoritie than any Protestant assem­bly, all vniuersities, colleges, schooles, and pla­ces of learning, the Lawes of all christian Prin­ces, spirituall and temporall haue decreed. For although wee ordinarily defend the infallible definition of POPES in controuersiall questi­ons [Page 38] of Religion, when Councells and such Re­medies cannot be called and vsed;stat. Elizab. as in tempo­rall, yea spirituall causes the Queenes Maiestie by her new taken prerogatiue proceedeth with­out Parliament; yet all doubts and difficulties betweene Protestants and vs,Resolut. Relig. part 2. argum. scrip. trad. we defend as defi­ned in general Councels out of holy Scriptures, and yet the definition of any Pope in such cases, by al moral iudgement, is vnpossible to be false: for neuer any did, or doth, or will define any sentence, but that that was, or shalbe the cōmon opinion of al schools, & vniuersi­ties, with the assent of the best learned of the world, & such exa­mination, as the difficulty to be adindged requires. I defend that Religion, which only is ratified by all authoritie, all Scriptures, Traditions, Prophets, Apostles, Euangelists, Sybils, Rabbins be­fore Christ, all holy & learned Fathers, Historians, Antiquaries, and Monum. al Sinodes, Councels, Laws, Parliaments, Canons, and Decrees of Popes, Emperors, Kings and Rulers, all Martires, Confessors, & holy witnesses, by al friends & enemies, euen Ma­humetans, Iewes, Pagans, Infidels, al former Heretikes, Schisma­tikes, & these Protestants themselues, when they were most pro­bable to speake the truth, and al testimonies that can be deuised, not only in this world, but of God, of Angelles, and glorified soules, whose euidence cannot be vntrue; of Diuels and damned soules in hell, condemned for their contempt or negligence ther­of, of soules in Purgatory, & whatsoeuer can be cited for witnes in such cases; as wilbe most euident in my particular arguments, not onlie of the Titles heere recited, but many others. I defend that Religion which hath confuted al forreine aduersaries, Athe­ists, Epicures, Iewes, Pagans, Mahumetans, Ma­gicians,Bernard. Lutz. [...]atol. haer. Philosophers, which hath conquered & left without memory, aboue foure hundred Sects of internall and domesticall heretikes, sub­dued all nations, and brought to subiection, all [Page 39] that haue opposed themselues against it: not a­ny Religion builded vppon the deceitfull and vaine coniecture, or blowne abroade to be be­leeued, with the whirling spirite of priuate men,Luther tom. 2. germ. Ient. f. 101 part 2. Resolut. arg. 18, 19, 20, 21 22, 23, 24, 25, 26 79, 80, &c. Sur. of holy discipline Peter Frarin. orat. cont. Sectar. Cocl. in vit. Luth. Stowe hist in H. 8 Fox tom. 2. Mon. in Henr. 8. Graf­ton in cod. Sleid. comment. Quot capita, tot religiones, so many heades, so many religions, as Luther saide, vnlearned, de­niers of Scriptures, and their sense, at their plea­sure, liers, deceitfull, false translators, corrupt­ers and forgers of holy euidence, deuisers of new Doctrines for temporall pleasures, and respects, to be exempted from obligation, and vowe of obedience, chastity, pouertie, to be obeyed, liue in lasciuiousnesse, and pompe of wealth, with­out any other argument at all, as those innoua­tors did. But a Religion founded vpon the most certaine and infallible worde and reuelation of God, expounded by those vndeceiuable Rules before remembred, and that holy and euer-du­ring society and Church of Christ, for which he gaue himselfe, and ordained Religion; where so much virtue is practised, such obedience, chasti­tie, pouertie, and contempt of all impediments of heauen is vowed, and professed, which socie­tie, if it might erre, no preseruance of true Re­ligion is to be hoped: for where none shoulde truely beleeue, all should be in errour. I defend that religion which in all times and places hath beene witnessed and approued with such Argu­ments, as are disabled to be vntrue, by infalli­ble and vndeceiuable signes, by thousandes of supernaturall miracles and wonders, which by no meanes could be counterfaite, or falsely re­ported, So many naturally vncurable blinde restored to sight, deafe to hearing, lame to going, [Page 24] sicke to health, dead to life, by most famous and notorious knowne Catholikes, or Papists, (as it pleaseth Protestants) which all Philosophers a­gree, no naturall cause or arte of Diuells them­selues could bring to passe, neither God graunt vnto man, for confirming falshoode. Not that Religion,Luther saep. in disput [...] Lypsic. Luther l. de Miss. ang. tom. 6. lent. Germ. folio 281 c. 5 folio 485 to. 2 folio 77 col­loq mens. Germ. folio 274, 275 Bed. l. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 hist. Greg. l. Dia­log. Palad. l. hist. Foxe tom. 1. Mo­num. Pantal. chr. Cocl. in vita Lu­theri, vita Calum. Stowe in chron. which as it was taught of the Diuell, father of lies, as the Authours themselues shall witnesse, and certainely by all arguments of re­probation, condemned them, their fellows and followers to hell. But that which by all testi­monies and vndeceitfull arguments, brought the professors thereof to heauen, and the most earnest and zealous therein, as religious Here­mites, Monkes, Freers, Nunnes, Priests, Bishops, Popes, as all Calenders, Histories, and approued Recordes giue euidence, to the greatest happi­nes. Not that Religion which made those that before were good, chaste, obedient, and contem ners of the world, to be wicked, and giuen to al impietie, as their owne writings witnesse; but that Religion which those it reclaymed from false worships,Hier. in vita parr. Eusebius in histo. pantal. in Chron. Foxc tom. 1. Mo. Bed. li. 1, li. 2, lib. 3 lib. 4, lib. 5 hist. Greg. lib. 1, 2, &c. Dialog. Greg. tu­ [...] 10 Ruff. socr. So­zomen. tom. 2. Sleid. contra Fox Booke of Articles anno 1562 stat. H. 8. Ed. 6. & E­lizab. Reg. Iniun. stat. Booke. made them so holy and such Saints, that all creatures haue done homage and duety vnto them; the sea and waters against na­ture supported them, the wilde, sauage, and de­uouring beasts adored them, the rauening foules in desarts nourished them, the windes, tempests, ayre, fire, earth, all elements, simple, compoun­ded, sensible, and vnsensible things, the Diuelles themselues those triumphing and tyrannicall e­nemies against humane nature commaunded and ouer-ruled by authoritie, with trembling o­beyed them. Not a Religion tossed and tenni­sed [Page 25] vp and downe, with so many boundes and reboundes, choppes and changes, vniuersal­ly both in head & members, containing so ma­ny falsities by their owne proceedings, so many contradictions in essentiall things, as there bee essentiall questions. Neither, doe what it could, hauing the temporall sword and all iurisdiction in it selfe, hath hitherto condemned vs, such as I will proue the Religion of English Protestants,Resol. Relig. part 1. arg. 5, 6, 7. and others to be; but a Religion which in this space of almost 1600. yeeres, neuer chaun­ged one poynt of Doctrine, neuer admitted er­rour in faith, or the least contradiction therein, eyther in Decree of Pope, or confirmed Coun­cell, but clearely condemned and confuted all misbeleeuers. Not a Religion, that contrarie to the name, nature, and office of true Religion, separateth man from his God and Creator, by so many sinnes and iniquities, and yet hath no grace no Sacrament for men of reason and a­ctuall offences, no meanes or preseruatiue to preuent them, no helpe or remedy to redeeme them; but suffereth man to lie loaden vnder so mighty a masse of impieties, and to be drowned in hell (for that instrument of their iustifying faith can be no benefit to them,Part 2. Resolu. Relig. arg. 1, 3, 4, 5.6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 12 which as before by their owne grounds haue no faith at all; and as I will demonstrate heereafter, haue not one property or condition of true beleeuing, or mat­ter tending to mans saluation.) But that Reli­gion, which as it teacheth and counselleth the way of perfection vnto all, by renouncing Ho­nours, and wealth,1 Timo. 6.1. cor. 7. luke 9. the Temptations and snares of the Diuell, as the Apostle calleth them, by pro­fessing [Page 42] Chastitie, more perfect and better then the matrimoniall state, as the same saint Paul witnesseth, and by abnegation of a mans owne will, and forsaking terrene and temporall digni­ties, which might hinder his heauenly iourney, such as our Sauiour his Apostles, the Primitiue Church, all reason and experience teacheth to be the path of perfection, and readiest way to Heauen; when, and where nothing is left to hin­der it.Matth. 28. Marke 16. Rom. 6. Gala. 3.1. Peter 3. Acts 2.8.10. Coloss. 2. Actes 8 & 19. Iohn 14, 15, 16 Art. 11. Concil. acel. 1. c. 8. Ar. 2 17. Concil. 6. ge­ner. Floreut. Tri­dent. Iohn 20 Trid. sesi. 14. c. 1 6. Florent. in Bull. Eng Iacob 5. Florent. in vnion. Arm. Trident. 5 14. 1 Acts 6. & 13 1. Tim. 4. Rom. 12 1 Cor. 12 Hebr. 6. Concil. Calce. c. 2 Concil. Bta. 2. cap 3 Concil. Triden. 5.23.2, 3 Ephesians 5 con­cil. Trid. fess. 24 can. 1. Eucarist. [...]p. 1. Tertull. lib. [...]2. conc. Carth. 4 [...]c. 13. Ambros. ep. [...]70. Ciril. ep. 1. c. 4 Innoc. ep. 9. That Religion, which taking compassion of the frailetie of man to sin, in euery state hath a stay to keepe from falling, and a remedy for those that haue offended. For the state of all, vn­til they came to such discretion and iudgement, as may be cause of sinne, the Sacrament of Bap­tisme, both taking originall offence away, and arming the soule against new and actual infecti­on. To confirme the former grace of that ten­der age, and enable vs against so many tempta­tions and persecutions as Christians haue, the Sacrament of Confirmation. To feede and fo­ster all estates in the whole course and circuite of this life, the foode of diuine Eucharist, and Sacrament of the most holy body and blood of Christ: and (seeing all are subiect vnto sinne) the Sacrament of Penaunce, for the cure and comfort of all offenders. And because the ago­nies and temptations at the time of death be vr­gent most against vs; the Sacrament of Annoin­ting, or extreame vnction, to remooue the re­lickes of sinne, and giue strength in that extre­mitie, And for the particular helpes and assi­stance of particular states, particular Sacra­ments; the Sacrament of Orders to dignifie the [Page 43] calling of Clergy men, and make them worthie and fit instruments to performe so many holy & supernaturall functions, as are belonging to that preeminence. And lastly, for the consolation and defence of married people, such as encom­ber themselues with the cares of the world, and practical life, the Sacrament of Matrimony, gi­uing grace and strength against the difficulties and cares of that condition. No state, no sexe, no age, no time, no place, order, or degree a­mong men is left vnprouided of spirituall com­forte, and protection. Not a Religion, whose grounds and principles ouerthrowe all christian and true Religion, where God is made author of all sinnes, and thereby worthy no Religion, where the decision of spirituall doubtes apper­taine to temporall and vnlearned Princes, men,Resolut. part 2. argum. 5.6. stat 1 Elizab. 13. Eliza. 5. Elizab. Com. Booke. Conuoc. London. 1562. women, or children; where such sentences, al­though neuer so much disagreeing euen to them selues, and apparantly false, must be obeyed for the infallible woord of God, where man hath not libertie and freedome of will, where our good workes are necessitate, where the predesti­nation of God taketh away all election and in­differencie; By which, and such like positions, as Protestants teach, it followeth, that no Ar­ticle of Religion can be certaine; no Religion can be; nothing is to be accounted sinne, no­thing reckoned for vertue. For who can cer­tainely beleeue that, which most certainely is vncertaine or false? or who can either praise or discommend, that which is doone whether the doer wil or no? How can such actions be rewar­ded or punished? How can that soule be immor­tall, [Page 44] and performe religion, which should want free and reasonable operations, the arguments and pledges of immortality? But I defend a re­ligion so measured, as before, that by no possi­bilitie any Decree can be vntrue, a Religion that so concordeth the eternall praescience and pre­destination of God, with the temporall coope­ration of man, that it both leaueth the first infal­lible, and yet prooueth the temporall action, ap­petite, delight or consent to any things, to be vo­luntary, free, and in the power of man, to be ef­fected or omitted, praised or discommended, re­warded or punished, as the nature thereof de­serueth. Not that Religion which hath raised such dissentions, that it hath taken all vnitie and communion of Saints away, diuided the milli­tant and triumphant Church, and dishonored both, depriuing Angells and glorified soules of that honor their excellencie and dignitie with God requireth, men in earth, the militant church of that helpe and assistance it needeth, and al­wayes had from them, as inferiour causes from superiour, all pitty and compassion of those that liue and be in state of merite, from the patient Church of the faithfull departed, and spoyled them of that reliefe they euer receiued of those that liue, and made such hauoke and confusion euen among the liuing, that no man regardeth other, euery one almost of a different and diui­ded minde from the rest in these things, and ne­uer at concord with himselfe, but vppon euery new conceipt differing from his former asserti­on, in continuall combate and controuersie with his owne will and vnderstanding; and so no [Page 45] communion and participation one with an o­ther, no care of offence, and iniuries, no minde of satisfaction for wrongs and iniustices, no cō ­bination of comembers, no penance, no restraint from sinne, where the passion of Christ hath bin so long vaunted and triumphed of, that except in most sacrilegious and blasphemous swearing by the instruments of our redemption, no me­morie at all thereof is left; no signe or token to put vs in minde, no image or representation, no commemoratiue sacrifice, or signification of so many paines, miseries, and mysteries, as our Sa­uiour indured and wrought for our redemption; where no order or hierarchicall subordination, no consecration, or distinction of callings and vocations is,Statut. Elizab. except the letters patents of a tem­porall Prince can giue that to others, which is not, & cannot be in the giuer. But that Religion, which as it is vnited, and one in it selfe, in earth consisteth of a most perfect hierarchicall regi­ment, of Pope, Patriarkes, Archbishops, Bishops, Priests, Deacons, Subdeacons, Acolathists, Ex­orcists, Lectors, and other Vnder-officers, eue­ry one in his roome and dignitie, and the mean­est of all, by calling and consecration, of greater honour than any ministeriall preferment among Protestants, being no reall thing, but an ens ra­tionis, an Idoll of the minde, as the making of Pursuvants, Apparators, and such Officers ap­poynted by others; where our POPE which is so odious in England, is so ample in iurisdicti­on in all the worlde, that no temporall Prince christian or infidell, no ruler or professor of re­giment in ecclesiasticall and spirituall causes, at [Page 46] this time; or any heeretofore, either is, or was' by many degrees possessed of so large a regimēt· And our priuate Priests, namely, the most reue­rend and learned Fathers of the Societie of IESVS, (so contemptible in our country,) are honoured of the greatest Princes of the world, & by their preachings & paines haue added so many king­domes both to the spirituall regiment of Christ, and temporall gouernement of Catholike kings. Our Catholike kings be most mightie, and they which regarde vs most, the most rich, puissant, and greatest Princes of the worlde. Our religi­on religeth and bindeth together, (as the name importeth) not onely kingdomes and menne in earth, but God, and his Catholike seruants, the triumphant, militant, and patient Church; no duety is omitted, no compassion or pitty wan­ting: where the mysterie of our redeeming is so esteemed and remembred, that no festiuitie, no office or parte of diuine seruice is celebrated in the yeere, but representeth vnto vs one benefite or other, no ceremony is vsed in the holy sacri­fice of Masse, no action of the Priest, no orna­ment or attire hee weareth, no benediction hee giueth, no signe of the Crosse hee maketh, but hath his religious signification, and preacheth vnto vs; his introite to the Altare, his actions there, his returne from thence, the very vest­ments wherewith he is adorned, the putting of them on, the wearing of them in that celebrati­on, his putting them off, his Amice, Albe, Gir­dle, Manciple, Stoale, Vestiment, and all hee v­seth, speak nothing but Christ crucified, the ma­ner of his oblation, the cloth wherewith he was [Page 47] blindfolded, the white garment putte on by He­rode, the cordes and whippe wherewith hee was bound and scourged, the purple vestment wher­with he was deluded, and that mysticall and most holy sacrifice, his bloody and cruental ob­lation vppon the Crosse; no action, gesture, prayer, or the least ceremony, either in word or deede, silence, or otherwise, but bringeth a reli­gious lesson and meaning, and tendeth to instru­ction; no benefite that Christ bestowed vppon man, from the first instant of his conception, left vnremembred, but one time or other celebra­ted. Not that Religion which denieth al things, and properties of Religion, as their opinions all negatiue doe witnes, that hath taken away and conuerted from common and spirituall religi­ous vses, to priuate and temporall pleasures and preferments, all monuments, and foundations of deuotion, and places of religious exercise, leau­ing, and vsing nothing necessary to mans salua­tion. But that Religion whose opinions against these men, are all affirmatiue, professing deuoti­on, and one acte of pietie or other; that hath founded Churches, Schooles, Colledges, Mo­nasteries and places, where Christian learning euer was, or is exercised at this day: that ob­serueth all things, and wanteth, or omitteth no­thing belonging,Resolut. Relig. part. 2. or that can be required to true Religion. I defend that most holy and religi­ous worship, which I will prooue by aboue an hundred arguments, and all kinde of inuincible reasons, diuine and humane, naturall and super­naturall, to be the onely true and lawfull reue­rence which we owe to God, by which we were [Page 48] labij vnius, Sleid. com anno 1517. Stowe hist. in H. 8. Pant. in Luth. &c. spake one language, and one Religi­on, vntill that confused Babel was begunne in Germany, from whence so many different tongs, and confusions in Religion haue proceeded.

SECT. VI. What mooued the Authour to dedicate his Worke to the Councell.

WHerefore, right Honorable, although the endes and offices of a religious & spirituall common wealth be distinct and diuerse, from those of a temporall and ciuil gouernment, wherein you are supreame Lieu­tenants vnder our gratious Princesse; and in that respect, matters handled in the one, doe not so properly appertaine to the iudgement and redres of those, which rule in the other, but are to bee decided and reformed by the gouernours of that profession, to which they are belonging; yet as the glory of the first cannot commonly bee maintained, without the fauour of the second, so this cannot rightly bee ruled without direction from the former, for where there is no greater or more forcible motiue to keepe in order, but feare of temporall correction, (for no temporall magistrate can punish eternally or after death) which is onely a bridle against publike and no­torious offences, which may be denounced and proued by witnes, as euery ciuill magistrate must proceed, secundum allegata & probata, as matters are, and can be alledged, and proued, and that which cannot so be determined, can neither be punished or condemned; but in secret men may [Page 49] practise all impietie without controlement, if no Religion and dread of a diuine maiestie by his infinit wisedome knowing, & by his immutable iustice punishing secret sinnes, were to keepe in awe. Therefore, as this cause I haue in hand is the most honorable of all, that can be entreated, so I am bolde to offer this introductory Epistle and defence thereof, to your honours, the most honourable and noble consistory of our nation; and as it is most necessary to be considered, in regard of duty to God and man, which it tea­cheth, so I tender it to you, the supreame Depu­ties of our gratious Soueraigne, whose chiefe care and solicitude must be, in taking order for such causes; because you are Christian magi­strates, and take vpon you the defence of the lawe of Christ, which I here maintaine; because you are sworne Councellers to assist our Prin­cesse, whose chiefe stile and title is granted to hir father King Henry the eight, by Pope Leo the tenth, (defendor of the faith) for defending the Catholike Romane Religion against Luther, Fox tom 2. mo [...] mon. in Henr. 8. Stowe hist gest. Leon. 10. that Archprotestant, which I here defend, and to preuent all suspitious censures, and conceipts of such as will imagine, I goe about to present a worke vnlawfull by those lawes, whereof you pretend defence, in that respect you are the high­est, wisest, and most honourable patrons of the lawes of our Country, I humbly pray pardon vnder your protection, to publish this worke; be­cause it is confirmed and demonstrated, not on­ly by al auncient lawes of England, al lawes Pa­pall, imperial, princely, nationall of forren coun­tries, and former times, but the present forcible [Page 50] lawes of England, established by our Qu [...] Eliz. to which I wil proue,Resolut. Relig. part 2. arg. 5, 6, 7 onely that Religion I defend to be conformable, & others repugnant, & ther­by condemned. Wherfore most Hh patrons (for I must challenge this title at your hands) be my protectors, the piety of my cause and complaint enclines to mercy, our vniust persecution vnder your predecessors requireth amends; and I hope at least shal receiue toleration, by you hereafter, the lawe of nature, the lawes of all nations, of all Princes of England it selfe in that state it is. The lawe of God calleth vpon you, and bring­eth euidēce of this obligation, to which you are bound, when you were new borne, and ruled by others, you vowed it in Baptisme, now you are rulers of others, both them which so iustly demaund it, as those which should, (and many would) so willingly yeeld it, your promise to God, to his Church, to your Country, is to bee performed, many, or most of you being of age, and discretion, in the time of Queene Marie, haue practised and professed it, so many of your noble company,Booke of the or­der of the Garter: the oath of the knights. Mag. Chart. Stowe hist. 1. Elizab. as are admitted to the honora­ble order of the Garter, haue sworne it, you are all sworne councellors to our Queene, which by title of inheritance, and at here coronation by the oath and fidelitie of a Christian Prince, hath obliged her selfe to maintaine it, of that which is her office, your place professeth perfor­mance, your vow to God, obedience and volun­tary submission to his church, fidelity to Prince, promise and duty to Country, compassion to vniustly oppressed, calleth vpon you to see it done. I demaund but iustice, by those lawes, [Page 51] which my Prince, her nobles, and other subiects your predecessors, and you haue enacted. For your wisedome you were chosen to gouerne; your mercy exalted you, where you may and ought to exercise most compassion; iustice and equitie haue aduaunced you to that high seate of equal iudgement: as you are wise, as you are mercifull, and must be iust, take pitty vppon iust complaints. And by the same titles I humblie craue you condemne me not, before I haue she­wed worthy cause of reproofe. Neuer any Ca­tholike subiect of England hitherto, hath so much abused your Honors, dishonoured the cause of his religion, for which wee daily vndertake so many troubles, and disgraces, or disgraced and discredited himselfe, to make so bolde a chal­lenge, except hee were able to performe it; and my confident assurance is, I shall not be the first vnhappy and vnaduised man to doe it. Pardon noble Patrons, peremptorily without al excep­tion I vndertake, to proue directly, not only by al other arguments, but by the Parliament laws & proceedings of Qu. Elizab. that the Religion those men profes as confirmed by thē, is false, e­uen by them, & that we defend, to be true, euen by those groundes and decrees. I will prooue thereby, That Christ is really present in the blessed sacrament of the Aultare, Resolut. part 2. argum. 5.6. that Saints and Angels are to be reuerenced, and praied vnto, that there is a Purgatory, that prayer, almes, and other good deeds are auaileable for the faithful soules departed, which had not perfected penance and satisfaction in this life, that onely faith iustifieth not, that good workes are meritorious before [Page 52] God, that there is an externall Priesthoode and sacrifice in the church of Christ, that wee are not iustified by an imputatiue iustice, but grace and iustice are inherent and internal things, that the Sacraments of Christ giue grace, that there be seauen Sacraments in number, Baptisme, Con­firmation, Eucharist, Penance, Extreame vnction, Orders, and Matrimonie, and all other matters of moment in controuersie betweene them and vs. Which when I haue performed, no obiecti­on can be made against the allowance of my pe­tition. And because I was sometimes demaun­ded of your predecessours in that place, beeing conuented before them for professing this Reli­gion, I still defend, what reason should mooue me, then very yong in yeares, borne of parents conformable to the time, in, and vnder the Pro­testant regiment of Queene Elizabeth, brought vp in that Vniuersitie and other places which were alwayes least fauouring of that beliefe (all which things were either knowne before, or ac­knowledged by me to that assembly) to be of a different and contrary opinion, when if I would haue beene of the same profession, I might haue beene regarded as others of my condition: to whome (as I hope) my answere then was suffi­cient for my owne priuate so dooing. So nowe lastly, for that cause, I humbly intreate licence, to direct these reasons, which I haue gathered in that question, both for the excuse of my selfe, and others, to your Honours, their successours in that court of iudgement, although farre more mercifull moderators in such causes. And that I may giue full assurance, I doe it not to vpbraid [Page 53] any of your Honourable societie, but onely to make my accompt and complaint to them, in whom I haue reposed most hope of reliefe. Ther is not now one left aliue, to my knowledge, that was then of the priuie Counsell, or present there, except your poore suppliant, such is the variable course of earthly things. Wherefore my hum­ble sute to your Honours, is, that you will, not onely accept of this my poore present, which for those reasons I haue alledged, your wise­dome, pietie, mercy and iustice will not, may not, cannot refuse to doe; but as you are in the highest degree of credit with my Soueraign, so to be a meanes to her, and as you can rule the rest, to giue but indifferent and deserued de­fence against those which vniustly shall dislike it.

SECT. VII. The Authors particular defence of his writing to all estates, and first to her Maiestie.

THen (noble Patrons) be my defenders, in this my so iust and godly cause, excuse my attempt to my Princesse and Queene, let not my doings be offensiue vnto you, & the rest of the Nobilitie, and protect me against the in­ferior controllers; I would be loath my ende­uours should be misexpounded of any. There­fore I humbly craue fauour by you to tender a particular excuse to all. And beginning with my Catholikely christned, anoynted, and crow­ned [Page 54] Queene Elizabeth, to whom I wish, both as much spirituall benediction, and terrene honor, as any subiect may to his temporall Soueraigne, or as I would, if she were of my owne Religion. I desire her gratious leaue in this enterprise:Stat. 2. Edward. 3. Magn. Chart. c. 1. Com. B. stat. Mag. Chart. folio 164. & 166. im­print. an. 1556. I defend that Religion which the lawe of God, whereof she, and all christian Princes professe defence, defendeth, the Lawes of the Church of Christ defend, whereto she hath vowed de­fence by the vowe of a christian in baptisme, by the promise and trueth of a Catholike in profes­sion, and life, by the promise, oath, and fidelitie of a christian Catholike annointed, consecrated and elected Queene at her coronation: for de­fence whereof that most renowned and prince­ly title the glorie of her stile was first granted to her father, and still vsed of her Maiestie for that intent, and by the POPES donation. I defend that Religion, whereof shee yet retaineth in her Princely person some reuerent notes, which the pietie of her Catholike education gaue her, as the vsing vpon sodaine and strange accidents, to signe her selfe, or women with childe, with the sacred signe of the Crosse, the great character of our glory; and as it is reported in her owne pri­uate opinion, not preuaricating in the maine poynt of the reall presence, and others of chie­fest moment, euident hopes and tokens of no irrecouerable laps. I will teach nothing contra­ry to her princely dignitie and prerogatiues, no­thing repugnant to her owne truely interpreted proceedings. I will defend the liues, religion, fame and memory of all her famous and noble christian progenitours, Kings and Queenes of [Page 55] England, many of them while they liued honou­rable in earth, and now glorious in Heauen, whome her wicked Protestant ministers must needes condemne all to hell and damnation, if they will leaue any little hope for themselues to be saued, for one heauen can not possesse them both: The lawe of God commaundeth me, the lawe of nature enforceth me, humanitie com­pelleth, gratitude obligeth, duety and reuerence to my Queene Elizabeth their heire and succes­sor, dooth necessitate me, in this extremitie, and desperate danger of their eternall noble fame & memory, to releeue them that bee dead, and without reliefe of those, by whome they should be both relieued and reuerenced in that behalf; and not permit them for want of iust defence to be condemned of men in earth, that are so hap­pily translated from corruptible to euer-during kingdomes. They were such as the condition of honorable Kings requireth, Historians write it, their yet liuing lawes, and other monuments doe prooue it, it cannot be imputed folly to him that shall defend them.Pantal. in Chron. in S. Edm. S. Ed. Fox tom. 1. Mo­num. in many kings. Stowe in histor. Graft. hist. Hall. Many of them were ho­lie Saints, and miraculously witnessed of God to be in heauen, euen by Protestants testimony and confession. Therefore it cannot be impiety in a subiect to the heire of their Scepter, to de­fend their Religion, but wickednes and heresie in those, which shall deny it; for false Religion can neither be approued by miracle from God, neither bring the professors thereof to their feli­citie. Of what degree soeuer wee are, all that liue in England are indebted to those Princes. If we be Cleargy men, for learning, schooles, and [Page 56] educations; if noble, for nobilitie; if souldiers and men of armes, for fortitude and heroicall actes; if peaceable and ciuill gouernors, for mat­ters and presidents of regiment; if of the com­minalty, for common peace and tranquillitie: they were prudent, potent, religious, magnificēt, and triumphant Princes; by their wisedome they ruled vs, by their victorious gests in armes they subdued and conquered vnto vs mighty strange and forreine Nations; Scotland wil wit­nesse, Ireland can make report, Ierusalem, Iewrie, Fraunce, Britanny, Normandy, and other Coun­tries made tributory and subiect vnto vs, will beare me record; the Princely stile of my Soue­raigne (Queene of England, Fraunce and Ireland) to this day auoucheth it to be true; if wee bee men of armes, the order of Martiall discipline, munitions, ordonance, artilery, victuals, towns, walls, gates, castles, fortresses, garrisons, musters, tributes, seruices, lieutenants, generals, captains, souldiers, their rewardes, honors, maintenance, and pensions were prouided by them. If we af­fect the quiet and peaceable life, all possible meanes of procuring, and preseruing thereof, hath beene their study and inuention: they spa­red no cost, omitted no labour to performe it; they personally sate in iudgement,Brirton. Bract. Glanuile de leg. Natura breu. Guil. Malmes b. [...] gest. Hen. Hun­ [...]ng. hist. Stowe Cron. Hall. Cron. Graft. Hollensh. [...]ist. Foxe tom. 1. [...]on. Fab. hist. and heard the complaints and causes of their subiects, compri­mitted matters without expences, diuided counties and prouinces, priuiledged citties, townes, and borroughs; to that purpose constituted courtes, assigned Iudges, ordained pensions, prouided Magistrates, gaue directions, freed frō taxes: so established a kingdome, that neither a­ny [Page 57] community or priuate person can iustlie make complaint against them: touching the spi­rituall and religious, they gaue vs schooles, col­ledges, and vniuersities for learning, and instru­ction, founded churches, monasteries, altares, for professing Religion, and deuotion. There is no grace, priuiledge, or prerogatiue needefull or belonging to an honourable and absolute chri­stian kingdome, which either Prince or subiect from the greatest to the least enioyeth, but wee receiued it by them, if it be temporall; and by their help and meanes, or allowaunce and con­sent; if it be spirituall, as from the first conuer­sion of the British, Saxon, and Danish Nation to the faith of Christ, all antiquities will witnesse; her royall Maiestie hath receiued life, being, hir crowne, kingdome, and diademe, won and con­uerted vnder Kings, Ethelbertus, Adelwaldus, Bed. lib. 3.4. &c. histor. Angl. Fab. hist. Stow histor. Fox tom. 1. mon. fol. 149, 150, 151 Hollensh. hist. Camb. in Britan. Kin­gylsus, Edwine, Peda or Wiferus, Sygebertus, and Redwalde, her most noble and renowned christi­an catholike Predecessors, Kings of England; v­nited by king Egbertus, augmented and enlarged by so many Henries, Edwards, and others, known Catholike Kings: by whome so many immuni­ties, fauours, and priuiledges were graunted to our religion. So many altares, churches, chap­pels, monasteries, and places of professing Pa­pistry (as Protestants name it) were founded and prouided, in the first time of our conuersion from Idolatry, and the very Primitiue dayes of christianitie in England. The Churches of saint Paul in London, of Canterbury, Winchester, Bed. histor. Angl. l. 2. &c. Fox tom. 1. mon. fol. 177. Guil. Malmesb. l. de gest. pont. Angl. Bed. & Fox sup. Stow hist. in K. Elfred. Cestren Cambd. in Britan. Math. Westm. Lin­colne, Westminster, and others; the common Schooles of Cambridge by king Sigebert, the vni­uersity [Page 58] of Oxford, by king Alfrede, the mona­stery of Gloucester, by king Ofricus, the monaste­ry of Hetesey, by king Oswye, who assigned pos­sssions for twelue more monasteries in Nor­thumberland, the monastery of Saint Martine in Douer, by king Whitred, the abbey of Lestingey, by king Oswalde, sonne to Saint Oswalde, the ab­bey of Abington, by king Cyssa, the monastery of Ely, by Queene Etheldred, wife to king Elfride, the monastery of Chertsey, by king Edgar, the ab­bey of Peterborow, by king Ethelwalde, the abby of Bardney, by king Etheldredus, Glastenbury by king I [...]a, the monastery of Winchcombe, by king Kenulfus, the abbey of Saint Albons, by king Offa, the abbey of Ethelingsey, and nunnery of Shaftersbury, by king Alfrede, and fortie monaste­ries by king Edgar;Fox tom. 1. mon. folio 177. all which were edified and founded in the time of our Primitiue Church, and within two hundred yeeres of our first con­uersion, as Fox himselfe acknowledgeth. What donations and free giftes were graunted to the English Clergy,Donat. Reg. E­thelwal. Clero facta apud Foxe tom. 1. mon. folio 181. & folio 178 Guil. Malmesb. l. 2. Chron. by those first christian kings? the donations of king Ethelwulfe, Ethelbalde, and o­thers were, to be free in their lands and territories, from secular seruices, and payments, tributes, and tax­ations to Kings &c. that all churches and mona­steries should be absolued from al publike vecti­gales, works and burdens, that they might ther­by more diligently serue God, by how much they were more alleuiated of those seruices. Such likewise were the graunts of Kings, Sige­bertus, Foxe tom. 1. Mo­num. Artic. Cler. Cissa, Edgar, Etheldredus, Offa, Aluredus, for the praying to God, and Saints, for the soules of them and their posteritie. So that no man can [Page 59] doubt of what faith they were, except it bee a question, whether hee that prayeth to Saints, prayeth for the dead, offereth sacrifice of Masse, graunteth church liberties, honoreth the See of Rome, buildeth altares, monasteries and nunne­ries for Monks and Nunnes, and foundeth these things, be a Papist or a Protestant. And it is so manifest, that these holy and sanctified kings were popish and moonkish men (as they tearme them) and of our religion, that presently vpon their beleeuing in Christ, the greatest care and study they had, was to prouide ornaments, and necessary furniture for that profession.Fox tom. 1. mon. folio 154.178. Bed. l 3. hist. an­gl. & l. 4. & 5. stow in chr. Gui. Mal l. gest. Pantal chro. Cambd. in Brit. Lypp. & fur. in vita sanct. And a­mong the Saxon Kings, within the space of two hundred yeeres, as Foxe himselfe with o­thers reporteth, in the English Primitiue church, nine Kings at the least, King Kingylsus, Iue, Colul­fus, Eadbertus, Ethelredus, Kenredus, Offa, Sebbi, and Sigebertus voluntarily forsooke their kingdoms, professed monasticall life, and liued monkes in vow of pouertie, chastity, and obedience: and for that most religious action, as our ennemies themselues acknowledge, were most highly ho­noured, and commended of all historians; and still to this day, for that cause, are more glorious both to themselues, and our nation, then the o­ther of our Kings, how honorable soeuer. The wordes of that history which Foxe in his Monu­ments citeth to that end, are these; Religion did most clearely shine, insomuch that Kings, Queenes, Foxe tom. 1. mo­num fol. 185. Princes, and Dukes, Consuls and Barons, and rulers of Churches, incensed with desire of the kingdome of Heauen, labouring and striuing among themselues, to enter into monasticall life, into voluntary exile and [Page 60] solitary liuing, forsooke all, and followed God. And no man can deny it to bee true, all Historians report it, all Monuments & Antiquities auouch it. Wherefore my assurance is, that my gratious Soueraigne, and prudent Princesse clayming all things by their title,Gyld hist. Bed. hist. Fox tom. 1. fol. 145.152. Bed. hist. Angl. li. 3.4.5. Mat. West min. in Chron. Hen. Hunt hist. Gui. Malm. l. gest. Stowe hist. Fab. hist. Foxtom. 1. mon. fo. 149, 150 cannot be offended for de­fence of the faith of all her noble christian pro­genitors and ancestors vntill now. Besides so many christian kings of the Brittons about thirty in number, from Lucius the first, to Cadwall ader; and of the English or Saxon, Danish and Nor­man nation, a hundred and fiftie kings, from the conuersion of Ethelbertus, Adelwaldus, or Ethel­waldus, Kingilsus, Edwine, Peda or Weda, or Wife­rus, Sigebertus, and Redwalde the first christian Kings of rhe Saxonish Septarchie, most wise, prudent, vertuous, and triumphant Princes, which both they themselues embraced and maintained with all zeale and deuotion, and promulged and deliuered by al lawes and con­stitutions to their posteritie, Kings and subiects to be beleeued. Which her Maiesties father K. Henry the eight (although denying the Romane iurisdiction) obserued in all his life,Stow hist. in Qu. Mary Fox tom. [...] Mo. Mag. Ch [...]t. praerogat. Reg. [...]at. Westm. c. 49 [...]raerog. Reg. stat. Alien. san. lic. 1.2. Auous. 2. Citat. 2. Corporat. 2. E­chet. 1. Esch. 15 [...]ooles 1.2. and of deny­ing that iurisdiction at his death repented, (of king Edward the sixt an infant; more needing to be taught, than to teach, I say nothing) and my Soueraigne that is, in the time of her sister Qu. Mary, professed with much deuotion, and after her death, at, and after her owne coronation, in the fidelitie, oth, and promise of a Prince, accor­ding to our antient lawes and titles of Kings of England, hath obliged and indebted her selfe to protect and defend. And for defence whereof, [Page 61] as appeareth by the statute of Westminster the first, and other authenticall Recordes,Forfeit. 4.5. Fran­chis. 20 Intiusion 1. Mortdamr. 1. partic & parcen. 1 1. patent. 1. Prim. seisin 1 prouis. 21 tenure 2. ward. 3.13, 14, 15. wo­men 2. wrecke 2. all those regall and princely prerogatiues which were graunted by the free subiects of England to their Kings, her Catholike predecessours, and which she still enioyeth by that title, were granted and confirmed, as euery one may reade in the kings prerogatiues and statutes, in the titles of such principalities, as were then, and for that reason and intent giuen vnto them; as the priuiledges of alienations, auowsons, citations, corporati­ons, escheats, fooles, forfeitures, franchises, deo­dands, intrusions, mort dauncestries, partitions, patēts, primer seisins, prouisions, tenures, wards, seruices, releefes, wrecks, and other preeminen­ces. Therefore this defence of those holy and euer most honorable kings can not be offensiue to my wise and prudent Princesse, hauing, clay­ming, and pretending all tide and interest shee hath, either to temporall or spirituall dignitie, as heire and successor to their regall right and au­thoritie. And to descend lower to those which haue bin benefited by those Princes: you first, (my noble Patrons) that possesse those honou­rable offices and dignities, you enioy them by their institution, they the first donors and foun­ders of those preferments, that life and beeing, which you haue, I meane, not onely your ho­norable, orderly, and peāceable life, and liuing in gouernement, of their prouision, but that ve­ry naturall life it selfe, wherein you communi­cate with all other reasonable men, in some sort you possesse by them, for if those Princes had not aduaunced your auncestors to honours, and [Page 62] nobility, those parents of whom you are discen­ded, and haue receiued being, had not bin mat­ched together, for so great disparitie betweene them: and so you had neither enioyed honour, dignitie, life, or any being at all. So that, howe much, or whatsoeuer you can chalenge to haue, you are indebted vnto them. And the rest of the nobilitie of England, though not chosen to that high credite and fauour of our Princesse, yet whatsoeuer it is they haue, landes, castles, man­nors, titles of dignitie, they possesse it by their ordinance; as euery Cittizen his priuiledge, and immunitie, euery countrey vplandish man his quiet and orderly gouernement and protection. And that miserable people of England, that vn­truely challengeth the name of Cleargie among Protestants, whatsoeuer honour Archbishop, Bishop, Deane, or inferior order, or degrees and titles in Schooles, as Doctors, Bachilors, and Maisters, and places of learning, Vniuersities, Colledges, or Learning it selfe, or their Bishop­pricks, Benefices, Churches, Houses, Donations, Priuiledges, or any other thing they can name, was deriued from our Catholike Kings & Prin­ces,Fox tom. 1. f. 177 Gui. Malm. l. gest. Cestr. in hist. Bed. l. 2.3.4 hist. angl Fab. hist. Stowe hist. Graft. hist. Cambd. in Brit. Hen. Hunt. histo. Caxton hist. Hall hist. Flor. hist. Fox 10.1. fo. 178.181. [...]14.215. and those that were of that Religion, Sige­bertus, Kingylsus, Ethelbert, Ofricus, Wiferus, Ethel­dredus, Oswye, Wbykred, Oswalde, Cissa, Edgar, Ethel­balde, Iua, Kenulfus, Offa, Aluredus, Ethelwulfe, Ed­warde, and others before the conquest, and such as raigned after to the Protestant regiment, no Protestant Prince enriched, many spoyled chur­ches. Wherefore seeing all estates in England, Soueraigne, and subiects of euery condition, and calling, haue receiued, and doe enioy, so many [Page 63] and irrecompensible fauours from those Catho­like Kings, and by as many obligations are bound and endebted to so honourable and im­mortall benefactors, no person can be so vn­mindfull of duty, or irregardfull of gratitude, to be displeased with my defence of them, which e­uery English-man is so much obliged to defend.Stat parlam. 1. H­li. Conuocat. c. 1. Lond. 1562. parl. 5. Elizab. 13. Eliz. Will. synops. Pap. And if it appertaine to the title and iurisdiction of christian Kings, (such as no man can denie them to haue beene) to determine matters and questions of Religion, as the English Protestants maintaine, then if I should bring no other argu­ment, but the decrees and constitutions of those holy and learned Kings to proue my entent, it ought to be admitted; especially ioyning there­with the authority and consent of the still forci­ble lawes of my euer honored Princesse: for in so dooing, I shall prooue my Religion by that ground, whereby onely it is impugned by the Protestants of England, Parliam. 1. Reg. Elizab. cap. 1. assigning the temporall prince, for the time being, to haue supreame au­thoritie in that cause: and of what credite soe­uer the Statutes of the Protestants are in this question, touching her Maiesties catholike pre­decessors, it was in all vpright iudgement vnpos­sible they should be deceiued. For if God giu­eth ordinary or extraordinary assistaunce to Kings and Princes, either for their owne vertu­ous endeuours, and sanctity, or for the pietie, learning, and number of them, by whome they are counsailed and aduised; there is no compa­rison, but rather Protestant princes should erre, then they; the zeale and deuotion of those Kings catholike I haue cited before, and Prote­stant [Page 64] writers Pantaleon, Pantal. Chron. Fox tom. 1. mon. in 1. Oswal s. Edm stowē hist. Graft. hist. Phi. Bergom. hist. fol. 172. stowe histor. in king Ellrede. Foxe and others acknowledge many of them to be glorious Saints in hea­uen, whither false Religion could not bring thē. And to giue example; it is written, not onely by English, both Catholike and Protestant, but for­raine Historians, that king Aelfred builded the monastery of monkes in Ethelingsey, and that of nunnes in Shaftesbury, he founded the vniuersi­tie of Oxford, hee translated the lawes into our English tongue, and diuerse other profitable Bookes, for the instruction of his subiects; hee diuided the foure and twenty houres of the day and night into three equall partes, eight houres he spent in writing, reading, and praying; eight houres in sleepe, and other bodily prouision; and the other eight houres, in hearing and dispatch­ing the causes and complaintes of his subiectes. Such was the exercise of Kings in those catho­like times, as all Historians and Registers are witnesse,Fox tom. 1. mon. fol. 216. in leg. s. Edward. Regist. antiq. of Guild Hall in Lond. and their constitutions themselues contained among the Lawes of Saint Edwarde, reported by Foxe, and yet to be seene in Guilde Hall giue euidence, wherein is contained, that King which dooth not such things in his owne person, is not woorthy the name of a King, and that hee ought to take his solemne oathe vppon the Euangelists, and blessed Relickes of Saints, before the whole state of his realme, to execute such things, and maintaine the holy Church, with all integrity and libertie, according to the Consti­tutions of his Auncestors and Predecessors, before he be crowned of the Archbishops, and Bishoppes, and that he ought to haue vnder him three seruants as vassails, fleshly lust, auarice, and greedy desire. This [Page 65] was the integritie, exercise, and profession of those Princes; so that if these [...]ters must bee referred to Princes iudgements, in regarde of themselues, it is not likely they were permitted by God to bee in errour, which performed all things, both for the aduauncing his honour, and the publike peace, which was the rigorous ex­ecution of their duetie. If wee considder what counsaile and aduise they vsed, as in matters of warre, they consulted with such expert and vali­ant captaines, as were both a securitie at home, and a terrour to forraine Nations; and in cau­ses of peace and publike gouernement with the most prudent, wise, and sage men, iudges and o­thers of our nation,Donat. Reg. E­thelw. fox tom. 1 mon. f. 181. stow [...] in Chron. Berg. Chron Fortesc I de laud. leg. Angl [...] Natur. bre [...]. Re­gistr. as the wordes of the aunti­ent donations of our Kings (Cum consilio Episco­porum & Principum, by the counsaile of Bishops and Princes) and as all Monuments, and the te­ste of euery Writ in law to this day wil declare; so concerning matters of practicall conscience, the greatest offices, as Chancellor, priuie Seale, and Treasurer, which be the chiefest places of confidence and conscience, were alwayes exe­cuted in those dayes, as Maister Fox reporteth, by the Claergie and Bishoppes of England. And touching matters of Faith and Religion they had alwayes of their priuy Councel, the most holy,Fox tom. 1. mo [...] vertuous, and learned Bishops of their time, such were Saint Cedde, Saint Anselme, Saint Dunstane, stowe hist. G [...]f [...] hist. Fox tom. 1. Monum. Saint Thomas of Canterbury, Saint Thomas of He­reford, Lanfrancus, and others to their Kings: and whatsoeuer any publike decree of religious cau­ses was to be enacted, or receiued in parliament, the whole Cleargie of England in their Cardi­nals, [Page 66] Archbishops,stat. parliam. Ric. 2. Edw 3. Henr. 3. Magna charta. Articl. Cler. Bishops, Suffragans, Abbots, Priors, and other chiefe ecclesiasticall persons, ten to one in number to the parliament ministe­ry of this time, was alwayes present; and no de­cree of faith euer concluded, but by the generall consent of the whole christian worlde, generall councells, and the vniuersall Church of God, which can neuer be seduced, so that no possible place of errour was left for those kings, except God would (which he could not) permitte the whole world to be deluded. To which if wee adde so many supernaturall signes and miracles, as are written & confessed by Protestants them­selues,Pantal. in Chron. in S. Edm. S. Ed. Fox to. 1. mon. in [...]s. Oswal. s. Edm. [...]s. Edw. stowe hist. Cambd. in Brit. Graft. hist. Hol­len sh. hist. in the liues of Saint Oswable, Saint Ed­munds, Saint Edwards, Lucius, Kingylsus, Iua, Ceo­luisus, Offa, Sigebertus, and other knowne catho­like kings of England, shewed by God, to testi­fie the trueth of their Religion in earth, and the greatnes of their glory in heauen, and whereof some, for the sanctitie of those Princes are here­ditary to their posteritie, not by any desert of Protestants, as the miraculous curing of that naturally vncurable disease, thereby called the Kings or Queenes euill, Stowe histor in [...]s. Edw. obtained by the holines of Saint Edward; euery man must say, that ey­ther God immutable and vndeceiuable, hath gi­uen testimony to falshoode, which is vnpossible; or else, that their Religion was true, which is most certaine.

Strange punish­ments imposed by God vpon all English Kings that opposd them [...]lues against the [...]oman See.And if it shoulde not bee tedious to your Ho­nors, I would craue to enlarge this Argument, by the vnhappy successe of those Princes, which in any sort haue opposed themselues to that ho­ly See of Rome, where the Vicar of Christ, and [Page 67] his viceregent in religious causes liueth: and as we haue seene before, all those kings of England that haue beene the greatest fauourers of that faith, and most obedient to that See, to be most happy and glorious, so contrariwise, wee shall perceiue, all Kings that haue shewed repugnan­cie to him (for that religion no christian King of England before this time denied) to haue had the most vnfortunate and dishonorable life and end, and that Apostolike gouernour to haue al­wayes beene conquerour. That holy See from the first Bishop thereof Saint Peter, Pantal. chro. Pla­tin. de vit. Pont. Foxe to. 1. & 2. monum. to Clement the eight, that now raigneth, hath had two hun­dred thirty and sixe Popes, and hath beene as­saulted by al forraine and domesticall enemies, the gates of Hell haue beene set open against it, and yet neuer any preuailed, and because Christ hath spoken and promised it,Matth. 16. they shall neuer pre­uaile. In the Primitiue age of Christianitie,Euseb. hist. Ruf­fin. Socrat. Zo­zom. Theod. it was assaulted by the Pagan Emperours, such as were Conquerours of the world, and comman­ded all things, and yet they could neither con­quer, nor commaunde it; although they had put the greatest part of the first Popes to death, but it subdued them in the end, and their endes were miserable; and the prophecie of Sybilla, that the Fishers Hooke should subdue the Romane Empire, Lacta. fir. l. diuin. Institut. [...] Blond. 1. Decad. 1. Osor. l 7. c. 39 Eutrop. l. 13. So­crat. l. 7. c. 10. get Leon. Blond. l. 6 proc. l. 3. bell, Goth. Volat. Pan­tal. in Chronol. i [...] and conquer the world, was fulfild in the successors of S. Peter. Rome was sacked & spoiled by Hala­ricus, Huns, Gothes, Vysegothes, but that holy and indefectible See preuailed, and vanquished. At­tila that surnamed scourge of God and vncon­querable captaine was miraculously caused to retire at the voyce of Saint Leo then Pope. Rome [Page 68] was besieged by Limprandus, Zacbar. fol. 60.65 Blond. 2. decad. 2. but the very coun­tenance of Pope Zachary enforced him to desist, as Pantaleon himselfe confesseth. The Saracens twice subdued Theophilus, Emperour of the East, and made Nicephorus his predecessour tributorie vnto them; conquered Candy, persecuted Af­frike, a great parte of Europe, and Asia, destroy­ed Italie, burned the suburbes of Rome, and yet Pope Gregory the fourth without force repelled them. In the time of Luther the Duke of Burbon besieged Rome, but beeing excommunicate the satterday before his desperate attempt, hee was miserably slaine at the assault,Foxe to. 2. f. 1122 Pantal. Chr. f. 124 and died censu­red, as Foxe reporteth; and since such time ma­ny Protestants affirme Papistrie entred in, that inuincible See hath beene oppugned and resisted with all the might and endeuours of the Kings, Princes, and supreame Regents of Germania, Ba­uaria, Munster. in chro. Iacob. Meier. Paul Diac. l. 4. ca. 17. platin. in Serg. Babell. Aen. 9. li. 9. Bed. li. 5. hist. An­gl. c. 10. Platin. in Nich. Blond. lib. 2 Hec 2. Bonfin. dec 1. l 10. Aen. Sylu. [...]. 3. Munster. in Chro. Vitichund. [...] Saxon. Platin. [...] steph. 7 Krants [...]. 3 c. 25. Aen. Sylu. c. 16. Krants 14. Blond. l. 2. [...]ec. 7. Volater. [...]etr. Maff. hist. [...]nd. Osor. histor. indic. epist. indie. Concil. Flor. in v­nion. Ph. Ber. hist. Persia, Caesarea, Saxonia, Frisia, Bulgaria, Dalmatia, Slauonia, Morauia, Normandia, Dania, Vandalia, Polonia, Prussia, Hollandia, Zelandia, Hungaria, Pomerania, Noruegia, Liflandia, Lithua­nia, Maiorica, Granata, Graecia, Armenia, the east and weast Indies, Iapponia, and so many vaste Nations in those partes of the world, yet that little See of Rome, and the faith thereof hath sub­dued them all, and the poore Moonkes, Freers, and religious Priests sent from thence, and that authority, haue miraculously ouerthrown them. That See was assaulted by Iulian the Apostata Emperour, but how miserable was his end? Va­lens and other Arrian and hereticall Emperours persecuted it, but they were confounded. The Graecians, Armenians, and Iacobines denied their [Page 69] obedience vnto it, but were both in disputation condemned, and after made vassalles to the in­fidell Turkish Empire. In the primitiue Church before Constantine, almost a hundred Pagan Em­perours, either truly elected, or reputed, perse­cuted it, and al of them, except ten or eleuen di­ed miserably; when the persecuted Popes put to death by them, came not to the third part of that number.Bernard. Lutzenb catol. haerer. Aboue foure hundred Archheretikes and their associates with all craft and subtiltie before Luther, and the Protestant rebellion, re­belled against it, but they are so blotted out of memory, that no mention is made of them, but by Catholike writers, impious, politike, and am­bitious christian Kings and Emperors, althogh not in matters of doctrine and faith, yet in ca­ses of iurisdiction haue wrastled with it: but they all were maugre all their might and power put to foyle.Buccan. l. 5. hist. Scot. pag. 157. Frecardus king of Scotland warred a­gainst it, but he had beene deposed of his nobi­litie, if Colmanus their Bishop had not forbid­cen them, wishing they should expect the ven­geance of God vpon him for his disobedience; which soone after came to passe, for hee died morbo pediculari, eaten with lice: and his grand­father before him, for the like disobedience, was apprehended and imprisoned by his nobles,C. 2. de supplic. negl. praelat. in 6. Duard. non. hist. Reg. Portugal. Crom. l. 4. de reb [...] Polon. Krants li [...] 3 c. 13.14. Mun­ster. l. 4. Cosmo­graph pag. 895. et 890. crom. l. 1 [...] and desperately killed himselfe. Such was the end of Sanctius king of Portugall, for his contempt to Pope Innocentius the fourth. Bolislaus King of Po­lonia striued with Pope Gregory the seauenth, but his body was cutte in peeces by his owne soul­diers, and cast to the dogges, and no successour of his for the space of two hundred yeares could [Page 70] euer obtaine to be called a King,Nauel. ge. 3. pag. 157. Emil. l. 3. Reg. 38. s. luo ep. 28.49.81 & 134 Emil. l. 3. Reg. 33 Paul. Langr. chro. Magdeb. 100.11. c. 10. Fox tom. 1. mon. Genebrard. chr. anno 1254. Pig. l. 5. c. 14, 15 except Vladi­slaus his next successor, which could neuer pro­cure his coronation. Like was the successe of King Philip of France, with Pope Vrbanus the se­cond; such was the end of the Emperours with their empire, for disobedience to that See, it was translated frō the French to Otho the third; and the case of the Emperour Henry the fourth, Fredericke the second, with Pope Gregory the se­uenth, Honorius the third, and Gregorie the ninth was not vnlike, the first being lamentably depri­ued of his imperial dignitie, and the second both spoyled thereof, and pitifully strangled to death by Manifredus the bastard, and left the Empire voyde by the space of eight and twenty yeeres. Such was the recompence of Otho the fourth or fift, and Lodowicke the fourth, for their contention with Pope Innocentius the third, and Clement the sixt:Phil. Berg. histor. Stowe Graft. hist. Foxe to. 1. mon. how long the East Empire fauouring the Graecian Schisme against the Church of Rome, hath beene drowned in the Turkish regiment, euery one knoweth; as howe their Emperour was miserably put to death, and their emperi­all citty Constantinople sacked, and taken in the very festiuitie of Pentecost, and the holy ghost, concerning whose procession they are in error. Iohn Alibrettus king of Nauarre contended with Pope Iulius the second, and the twoo Henries of Burbon with Sixtus the fourth, but the kingdome of the first, was taken away, and giuen to Ferdi­nando of Arragon, and the two others were also deposed, and depriued. Thus I might write of other Kings and inferiour Princes, that haue en­countred [Page] with that See.Cocl. in vit. Luth. Beza in vit. Calu. Sleid. com. Petr. frar. orat. cont. sect. Fox tom. 2. mon. Stowe hist. in reg. Mar. And concerning Pro­testants, to omitte the more than miserable liues and deathes of Luther, Oecolampadius, Caluine, Swinglius, Cranmer, and others of their Cleargy, and speake only of Princes. The first Protestant Duke of Saxony and Lantgraue of Hesse were dis­possessed of their regiments, and committed to prison. The Prince of Condie in Fraunce, and the Admirall there, the one pittifully put to death, the other like Iesabel, cast downe headlong, his legges broken, his body cutte in peeces, drawne like a dog through the streetes, and hanged vppe for a spectacle,Buccan. histor. Scot. in Iac. spur. Iouius l. 7. vir. il­lustr. Stowe hist. in Henr. octau. at the place of common executi­on. For Flaunders, the Prince of Orange misera­bly slaine by a priuate man, and in the time of his greatest triumph and ioyes. For Scotland, Iames the bastard dishonorably put to death. In Denmarke, Christine their king deposed of his kingdome, enclosed in a caue with yron barres, and consumed to death. And least any manne may fondly perswade himselfe, that the Kings and Rulers of England haue a Charter of immunitie from such vectigalles, and impositions, as God hath layed vpon those Princes, I will recite all the Kings of our Nation, that presently occurre to my memory, that haue opposed themselues a­gainst it, and what effect their opposition had.Bed. l. 3, 4, 5. hist. Angl. Stowe in chron. Foxe tom. 1. mon. Fab. hist. Flor. hist. Caxto [...] hist. Fox tom. 1. [...] 163. Bed. l. 3. hist. Angl. In the beginning, these Kings, Ethelbertus, Adel­waldus, Kingilsus, Edwine, Peda, Sigebertus, and Redwalde opposed themselues against the faith and iurisdiction of that See, and the doctrine of religious Monkes sent from thence; but they were all conquered and subdued, without any force of armes, & so submitted themselues, that [Page 72] Kingilsus and Sigebertus became religious & mo­nasticall men; king Ofricus and Eanfridus were apostataes from the Roman faith, but they were miserably put to death. And those three Kings whereof Saint Bede writeth, for their apostacie, besides other manifold temporall punishments, were blotted out of the Genealogie and Cata­logue of the Kings of England, & neuer remem­bred or numbred among them. Such was the wonderful desolation of the disobedient Brittish Kings, and their nation, for their disobedience to the Roman See, onely in the paschall obser­uance, and manner of shauing the crownes of Priests, as Saint Bede doth witnesse, prophecied against them, by Saint Augustine, and recorded by the same Saint Bede, Galfridus, Guilielmus Malmesburiensis, [...]ed. hist. angl. li. 3 [...]alf. mon. hist. [...]olychron. li. 5. c. [...]0. lib. Biblioth. [...]nal. Guil. Mal. 1. de Reg. Fab. [...]r. 5. c. 109, 120. [...]oxe tom 1. fol. [...]50. stowe chro. anno 1070, & [...]087. Osber [...]. in [...].s. Dunstan. Foxe, and others, that at one time eleuen thousand of their Monks defending that repugnance, were slaine, by the Pagan soul­diers, their whole nation distressed, and depri­ued of all regiment in their owne countrey, by their owne hired souldiers; their kings dispoyled of principality to this day, and made subiects to them, whose Soueraignes they were. King Ed­wine before the conquest opposed him selfe to som iuridical proceedings of the Popes of Rome, and banished Saint Dunstane his Archbishop of Canterbury, but he was deposed, died miserablie with infamy, and in his life, his brother Edgar was chosen and crowned King. [...]owe histor. in [...]il. Conq. Graf. [...]t. in cod. Caxt. [...]t. William surna­med the Conqueror spoyled all the monasteries of England of their golde and siluer, neither spa­ring Chalice, nor Shrine, and in his last voiage in Fraunce, burned our Ladies Church in Meux, & [Page 73] two Anachorets, which were enclosed therein, but he encouraging his men to maintaine the fire, was sodainely stricken with sicknesse, his entralls were strangely broken, and he died with misery, and to him that had beene so great a conquerour in his life, after his death a priuate gentleman drawing his sworde, denied buriall, in his owne Country and Towne, Cane of Nor­mandy, and in the very house himselfe had foun­ded, and in his life there was such famine and dearth in England, that men were enforced to eate horses, cats, dogs, and that which nature abhorreth, the flesh of men, such outragious floudes and inundations destroyed the country, that not onely townes were ouerflowne, but the very high hills themselues were surrounded, made soft, and consumed. And after him, his next successor and sonne William called Rufus, stowe histor. in Wil Ruf. Caxt. and others, Ediner. in vita s. Anselm. lippol. in s. Ansel. Sur. supr. Stowe in K. Will. Rufus. afflicted the Churches and Monasteries of Eng­land with grieuous oppression, maketh a decree against some iurisdiction of Pope Vrbane in Eng­land, and exiled Saint Anselme Archbishop of Canterbury, for his defence thereof, but hee was not left vnpunished; his naturall brother Robert duke of Normandy, and others his neerest kins­men and Nohility, raised and maintained wars against him, the Welchmen inuaded and spoiled Glocester, Shrewsbury, and other parts of England, and tooke the Ile of Anglesey, and the very in­sensible creatures rebelled against him, and cal­led for vengeance, the earth at Fynchamsteed in Barkshire flowed forth with blood: the winde in one tempest ouerthrewe sixe hundred and sixe houses in his chiefe Citty of London, the sea sur­rounded [Page 74] and ouerwhelmed al the lands that be­longed to his friend, the earle of Goodwine, and is called Goodwine sands to this day: and that the death of such a Prince might be aunswerable to his life, and deserts, the morrow after the feast of Saint Peter in August, whose successour Pope Vrbanus hee had so persecuted before, hee was slaine by his seruant and friend sir Walter Tyrrell shooting at a Deere, and being wounded in the breast, fell downe dead, neuer spake worde, and his owne men and retinew presently forsooke him, scarcely any remaining to take care of his body, but it was layd vpon a Colliers cart, and so drawne with one seely leane beast, from that place of the forrest where he was slaine, to Win­chester. Stat. in parliam. 24. He. 8. Parl. 1. Edw. 6.1. Elizab. Edmer. in vita sancti Anselmi. Mention is made in the statutes of the supremacie of king Henry the eight, King Ed­ward the sixt, and Queene Elizabeth, that title to be the auntient right of the Kings of England, and yet neuer any king or gouernor before king Henry the eight chalenged any such prerogatiue, except in the inuesture of Bishoppes, as Edmerus seemeth to insinuate of this king William Rufus, and his next successor was enforced to reuoke, as the same Authour dooth witnes. Then that which was so strangely punished of God in the first challenger, and refused by his whole poste­ritie, let others Iudge, whether it was a right or a wrong. And his next successour and brother K. Henry the first, so long as he perseuered in his brothers steps, & let those decrees of his to be in force, was tossed and turmoyled with mani­folde afflictions, both of vnnaturall warres, sedi­tions, and vnwonted punishments, so that hee [Page 75] was conquered with the very prick of his owne conscience to make his submission, and reuoke those former constitutions of his brother King William enacted,Edmer. sup. lipp. in vit. s. Anselm. and brought in against the Ec­clesiasticall libertie, and was neuer quiet, either in body or minde, vntill he had effected it. Like was the case of king Henry the second, challeng­ing to himselfe iurisdiction in the criminal cau­ses of the Cleargie,stowe histor. in H. 2. Caxt. in H. 2 M. Eduuard. in s. Th. Caxt. lipp. sur. & al in vit. s. Th. archiep. Cant. contrary to the prerogatiue of the Constitutions of the Apostolicke See of Rome, vnder whose time Saint Thomas Archbi­shop of Canterbury their earnest patrone, was put to death, and after the excommunication pro­mulged against the king; for those proceedings, hee was most pittifully scourged and afflicted, both with externall and vnnaturall domesticall warres, and other miseries; his owne naturall sonne taking Armes against him, the father a­gainst the sonne, and sonne against his father, that as Edwardus liuing at that time dooth write,M. Eduuard in s. Tho archiep. Cant. supr. all England did quake and tremble, looking for nothing but extreame confusion and desolation; for preuenting whereof, no humane help, either of wit or force could preuaile, vntill the king ad­monished in a vision, that no helpe was to be ex­pected, or had, but to be reconciled to the Ca­tholike Church (which also his proued experi­ence that had tasted all, & to no purpose, taught him to bee true) was enforced to humble him­selfe, reuoke his decrees, seeke reconciliation, & vndergoe that penance, which the See of Rome enioyned, which euery man may reade in the history of Grafton, a Protestant writer, and such,Graft hist. in H. 2 as such a Prince as Henry the second was, would [Page] haue scorned to doe, if any other remedy could haue preuailed. And to giue euidence to all po­steritie, that these afflictions were layde vppon him of God, for his disobedience to the Bishop of Rome; vpon his submission & reconcilement, all his miseries had their end, and ceased the ve­ry same day he was reconciled to the Church of Rome: [...]towe histor. in H. 2. Lippol. in [...]it. s. Tho. Cant. the earle of Flaunders, which with an huge Army (cum immenso exercitu) had appoynted to inuade England, presently, & strangely chan­ged his minde, and retired, and the next day af­ter, the king of Scots that had made inuasion, was taken prisoner in the field, and put to raunsome. King Henry his sonne (for he had crowned him king before) and his brethren were reconciled vnto him; his subiects became obedient, and he was restored to his pristine tranquilitie, both of minde and body.stowe histor. in K. Ioh. Caxt. in [...]od. Graft. Fab. [...]b [...]d. Like controuersie had K. Iohn with the See Apostolike, but how he was puni­shed of God, euery man may know; the Welch men tooke his castles, destroyed his townes, be­headed his souldiers; his own barons made war against him, his tresure was drownd, the French men inuaded both Normandy and England, hee was deposed and depriued of his crowne, as Peter the Heremite had prophesied before, he di­ed miserably, as all Historians write, and was so odious after his death, that his owne seruauntes spoyled him of his very clothes, leaning his bo­dy starke naked, and vnburied, had not the Ab­bot of Croxton, Radulph. Cicest. [...]ppol. in vit. s. Ri. Cicestr. stow hist. [...] Hen. 3. of charitie, giuen it buriall. His sonne king Henry the third opposed him selfe a­gainst Pope Innocentius the fourth, but what plagues, penuries, and strange punishments, hee [Page 77] and his country were oppressed with, what pro­digious and portenteous apparitions both by sea and land were seene, what inundations of wa­ters, tempests of windes, & other torments were inflicted vpon him and his nation, all Histori­ans can witnes; what rebellious warres and in­uasions was he infested with, how subdued by his owne Barons, hee and his sonnes taken pri­soners, and brought in subiection to their owne subiects? and hee that by his kingly office was to gouerne others, enforced to bee a pupill to those he should haue ruled; for twelue Rulers were assigned, which were caled the douze peres, to correct, rule and gouerne, and the king with his brethren, were sworne to be obedient to that lawe. It seemeth by some, that king Edward the second medled too far against that See of Rome, stowe histor. in Edouar. 2. Graft. Fabian. histor. restraining the executing and exercise of the iu­risdiction thereof in England; but hee wanted not his punishments; his people were afflicted with strange and extraordinary plagues, his countries inuaded, his barons & subiects arose in armes against him, such spoilers and theeues infested his nation, that noble men with their force could not trauaile with securitie, such fa­mine and hunger raigned, that horse flesh was accounted for delicates, dogges were stollen to be eaten, and the parents did eate their owne children; the theeues that were in prisons pul­led in peeces such malefactours as were newly committed, and deuoured them, (to vse Stowes wordes) halfe aliue; Such diseases and death ensued, that the liuing were not able to bury the dead; his owne wife Queene Isabell, and his [Page 78] owne sonne (after king Edward the third) and his naturall brother Edmund of Woodstocke, made warre against him, putte him to flight, subdued him, and by common consent of parliament de­posed him, and elected Edward his eldest sonne to gouerne.stowe hist. in Ric. [...]. Caxt. in cod. Hall in praesat. [...]ist. Fab. Pa [...]l. 24. H. 8. 1. Elizab. Like was the case of King Richard the second, enterposing himselfe too far in those causes, although hee neuer challenged any title of supremacie, as the statute of king Henry the eight, and Queene Elizabeth seeme to insinuate. For by expresse statute, as is yet to be seene a­mong our Lawes,Parliam. 2. Ric. 2. [...].7. he decreed, that Pope Vrbane was the supreame head of the Church, and so to be obeyed in England, yet because hee medled too much in Ecclesiasticall iurisdiction, what a troublesome and vnquiet regiment did he finde? What ciuill insurrections of base persons, as Wat Tiler Iacke Strawe, and others, in diuerse Countries, at sundry times, what extraordinary and strange quakings & tremblings of the earth? Was he not so odious, that his owne vncle Tho­mas duke of Gloucester, and the Earles of Arun­dell, Warwicke, Darby, and Nottingham raised an army of forty thousand men, and brought him to some conformity, and after was resisted, van­quished, taken prisoner, and imprisoned in the Tower, by Henry duke of Hereford, (afterwarde king Henry the fourth) depriued of al kingly dig­nitie, and miserably putte to death? What hath bin the historie of these things, which our Pro­testant Princes, since the new title of suprema­cie, brought in by K. Hen. the 8? what crosses the said king suffered after, in his life, at his death, & after his death, & what befell to king Edward the [Page 79] sixt (though an infant, yet not vniustly punished in his fathers fault,) and what is like to be the e­uent therof hereafter, I had rather others should write and shew their coniecture, which I for re­uerence to my Soueraigne will here omit, thogh our owne Protestant Historians haue already committed much to writing, which many may remember, and euery man know to be true. And my hope is, my prudent Princesse, will rather, in her latter dayes immitate the examples of her noble predecessors king Henry the first, and king Henry the second, in recalling that which they did in their inconsiderate times, and liued and died with honor, then any, or all of them, that still persisting in their former course, were puni­shed both in themselues, and their countrey, which they should haue tēdred equally, or more then themselues, in such order as I haue recoun­ted.Parliam, 1. Eliz [...] c. 1. All the title she claimeth in religious cau­ses, her statute of Supremacie pretendeth to be deriued from her former auncestors, neither can any man imagine how she can challenge by any other; what interest was in them, what successe they had, that euer aduaunced any; wee haue heard it to be such, that no Prince either in pru­dence, or pollicie, can follow their example, be­ing all that persisted therein, both strangely pu­nished of God, and accursed of men, in this life, and by all arguments of reprobation, perseue­rance in sinne, finall impenitencie, obstinacie, and the like, after death damned in hell for euer.

SECT. VIII. His defence to the honourable Councell, and all other men of Nobilitie.

COncerning you (my honorable Patrons) that wisedome and prudence which hath exalted you to that tipe of dignitie, dooth tell you, that you are not wiser in these causes, than thousands of so wise, learned, vertuous, and honourable predecessors in that place, councel­lors to those holy kings; suppose you might con­tend in politike gouernment with many, or most that went before you, let it be, some might be admitted fellowes in armes with so many mar­tiall and victorious men, because in such cases you haue beene experienced; yet to that which is most, or onely materiall in this question, and controuersie of learning, religion, and diuinitie, you are too wise to make so vnequall a compa­rison, to ballance your selues, vntrained and vn­skilfull in such faculties, with so many Saints, most holy, learned, and professed Diuines, Bi­shoppes, and others, famous in the whole chri­stian world: such as great numbers of the coun­cellors of those Princes were. Therefore, seeing it is the same vertue of prudence which teacheth and directeth what to doe, and admonisheth what we are not able to performe, it must needs put you in minde, of the place you possesse, the charge you haue vndertaken, promise and fide­litie you haue giuen: and I remaine assured the pietie, mercie, iustice, and heroical munificence, which be the vndiuided companions of that vir­tue, & the naturall gratitude you owe to so ma­ny [Page 81] descents of your noble predecessors, benefa­ctors and most zealous professours of the religi­on I defend, will both conquer your wittes, and mooue your willes. As I haue prooued of the Kings of England in all former times, those that were our greatest friends, still enioy the greatest honor, both in heauen and earth, those that frin­ded vs least, haue the least interest therein; and those which were our enemies, heauen & earth are still at enmitie and variance with them, so it was with your predecessours in that place, and the auncestors of our whole nobilitie: the ex­amples are too many to be cited, if any man de­sireth the view, he may haue it in the catalogue of our vnfortunate Nobles: and for Protestant councellors, let him call to minde,stowe histor. in H. 8. in Tho. lor [...] Cromwell. Gra [...] hist. Foxe tom. monum. stat. H [...] what an A­gent Thomas Lord Cromwell was in these affaires, how he was aduaunced thereby, what spirituall lands, yea offices hee hadde, what fauour with Prince, howe potent ouer subiects; yet by that law which he had prouided for others, himselfe was first that was thereby condemned, not ad­mitted to the presence of his Prince.stowe & Graf [...] in Edw. 6. Fo [...] eodem. What was the tragicall and mournfull enterlude of the two Protestant Protectors of king Edward the sixt, the chiefe pillers and first originalles of English Protestancie, the Dukes of Somerset and Nor­thumberland, so basely disgraced & put to death? Who in the time of her Maiestie that is, so vio­lent an enemy against vs as Robert earle of Leice­ster, yet the professors of that faith doe liue, and he at the very time when hee hadde designed the most bloudy persecution against vs, miserably died, terrified with monstrous visions of diuels, [Page 82] and now his name is not aliue. Sir Francis Wal­singham his deere friend, was the mast cruel ad­uersarie, for his degree, which this time hath maintained against vs; yet his miserable death, his despairing wordes, Lay me aside, and let me be forgotten, the illusions hee had at the same time, and the filthy stinke and corruption of his body, wanting all funerall pompe, basely buried in the night, will be an eternall infamy against him. I coulde easily exemplifie in others, both of the peaceable and martiall condition; but I will not be offensiue to any of their families; these which I haue recounted haue left few heires, ei­ther of honour, or their names behinde them. Wherefore, most honourable Patrons, and you the rest of the wise and noble gentry of England, Honor is the crest of your endowments, Glorie is that you desire, true honor and glory are one­ly, or chiefly belonging to that honorable state which I defend: this glory is truely in him that is religious, hee is honoured heere of God by grace, and in heauen by glory: other honors be rather in men that honour, than in them that be honoured. And yet if your immortall appetites must needes possesse these mortall honors, there is none you now enioy, none you can desire, which euer any of our Nation had, but was de­riued from the gifts, donations, and bounties of our Catholike Popes, and Princes, to your aun­cestors and predecessors, and so to you by inhe­ritance from the one, and succession from the other. It was neuer hitherto accompted disho­nourable to any, to be professor of that religion, which made him glorious. There haue beene [Page 83] many renowned families in England, which haue brought foorth many glorious men: and yet they which were most religious in our pro­fession, alwayes were, and euer will be the chie­fest honour of their houses.Guil. Rams. hist. S. Guthl. Foelix Crol. in codem. Caes. Baron in S. Tho. Heref. Sur. in vit. eius lippol. in vit. eius. Saint Guthlach the poore Eremite of Crowland was sonne to the noble Penwalde, of the linage of king Ethelred, and yet farre more honourable for his religion than natiuitie, and nowe chiefly honoured for that cause. So S. Suitbert sonne of the Earle of Nottingham, and his Lady Berta, whome Saxo­nie honoureth for the Apostle of that nation. So S. Thomas Bishop of Hereford, Chauncellour to King Henry the third, sonne of the noble Cantilu­pus and Millicent Countesse of Yorke, and Saint Ceadda councellor to King Alchfride, Saint Dun­stane, and other religious councellors to our ca­tholike Princes, before named,Bed. hist. in lipp. in S. Dunstane. Edmer. in S. Ans. T [...]ith. de script. in S. Ben. M. E­duuar. in s. Tho. Cantuar. Stowe hist. Foxe tom. 1. Monum. are nowe in all Histories and memories more honorable, than any of that place, that were not of their professi­on. The only order of S. Benedict, so renowned in our Nation, hath had about twenty Kings and Emperours, aboue an hundred great Prin­ces, many Popes, sixteene hundred archbishops, foure thousand bishops, fifteen thousand famous men, and fifteene thousand and sixe hundred most honourable canonized Saintes. And such was the continuing and neuer fading honour that our religion gaue, that our Kings, Queens, and greatest Princes thought it more honorable to bee religious, than to seeke honour in tem­porall regiments, It will be no easie thing for any Protestant to single foorth one auntient fa­mily of England, of which there haue not beene [Page 84] many Bishops, Abbots, or religious rulers in our Countrey, and yet those by all Recordes and Monuments are, and euer will be more renow­ned, than the others of their descent. And to exemplifie these names and houses following, ei­ther still now are, or heretofore haue bene great in England;Cambd in Britan. l. H [...]al. Graft. in catalog. Nobil. Norm. in G [...]ul. Conq. Registr. Cantuar. catalog arc [...]. Cant. Fox tom. [...]. monum. Graft. hist Fab. hi [...]. Ma [...]. West. S. Ludger. in vita [...]. suitbe [...]t. Baldwine, Hubert, Kylwarby, Peccam, Stratford, Offord, Braidwarden, Islepe, Langhton, Witlesey, Sudbery, Courtney, Arundell, Chichelsey, Burchier, Morton, and yet those Archbishoppes of Canterbury which were of these names and fa­milies, when they liued, were the most honora­ble of their linage, their place of dignitie highest among subiects, and next vnto our Kings, and now so long after their deaths, they are more honoured and remembred with glory, than any of their lines. Thus I might alleadge of other per­sons and places. And it is written in the life of that noble Saint Suitbert, that the children of the greatest Princes and Nobles of England were Priestes and Bishops.The conformitie of Catholike re­ligion to all true and lawfull ciuil policie and regi­ment, and the re­pugnancie of Protestancy vnto the same. But, most Honourable, as by name, place, office, and calling you are chiefe Councellors to our Prince, Comites, euen com­panions to Kings, Barones, Milites, the bulwarke and patrons of our countrey, whose principall pillers and members, vnder our Queene, you are, so your honor and glory consisteth much in defence thereof. And it might seeme more then a blemish in you to be defenders of that which is offensiue to that kingdome, and common state, wherein you are aduanced to Regiment. Then seeing this matter must bee disputed betweene Protestants and vs: so many hundred yeares of the flourishing estate of this Nation vnder [Page 85] our Religion, in the dayes almost of two hun­dreed Kings, when no other.Catal. reg. Britan. & Angl. Foxe tom. 1. monum. stowe histor. Grafton. histor. Religion was knowne among vs, will pleade for our preemi­nence: or if we must needes discend to particu­lars, although my condition is not to entrouble my selfe with politicke affaires, further then they are subordinate, and belonging to that high fa­culty of diuinitie, whereof I may be supposed a student; yet if it may bee lawfull for me to take notice of that, which the law of God, the law of nature, and the lawes of al nations, and the word Respublica it selfe teacheth to euery man, that it signifieth a publike, and not a priuate wealth, be­ing a congregation of many, and not one parti­cular person to be ruled, maintained, defended, and preserued, and not be destroyed: and if ei­ther the testimony of Catholikes, or Protestants in their owne cause may be admitted, and triall may be made by the opiniōs which be defended on either part, or by the effect which haue pro­ceeded from thence,Doctrine and proceedings of Pro­testants against common-wealth. this question will be soone at end, and your honours will be double honou­red to be Patrons of that Religion, whereof I professe defence. And to beginne with him, that was the first beginner of this innouation,Georg. Wiccl. de retect. Luth. Luth. ep. ad fratr. inferior. German. Luther. l. de po­test secul. l. cont. edict. 2. Caesa. l. de bell contr. Turc. Luth. l. captiu. Babyl. Claud. de sanct. l. de Saccad. englise fol. 58.55. the ho­ly polliticke and peaceable propositions of Mar­tine Luther are these. Their (Protestants) hands must bee embrued in blood, it is the nature of the gos­pell to raise warres and seditions among Christians, there is no magistrate, no superiour, it is to be entrea­ted by many prayers, that the countrymen obey not their Princes, that they goe not on warrefare against the Turke, no contribution must be giuen to Princes, for their warres against him: no law, neither any sil­lable [Page 86] of a law can be imposed vpon Christians, more then themselues will, either of men or Angels, there no hope of remedy, vntill all humane lawes be taken a­way. Which positions vtterly destroy all gouern­ments, and common wealths, yet such was not only the doctrine of Luther, which exercised in act to his power, what he taught in word, as not onely all histories,Cocl. in vit. Luth. Petr. Frat. orat. cont. sectar. Sta­phil. apolog. Foxe tom. 2. mon. Test. t [...] ord Burgund. in remonstrat. supr. edict. reg. Gal. part. 2. Petr. Fr. orat. cont. sect. Defens. reg. & re­lig. Erasm. Al­bert. & Conrad. Wimp l. contr. Swingl. Cocl. in Art. Luth Me­lancth. com. ad Coloss. but the ruines of Germany are witnesse to this day: but it was both the word and worke of Caluine, Beza, Othomanus, Spipha­nius, and others in Switzerland, and Fraunce, which taking all authoritie from Kings, and ma­gistrates, decreed in their conuenticles, not on­ly that all ancient and noble families, but ciuill gouernment, lawfull pollicie, and iurisdiction must be taken away, and kept a councell to de­stroy the King of Fraunce, his wife the Queene, his children, Queene mother, and all good ma­gistrates in that Kingdome, and not content with this, the basest people (as a Taylor and Cobler at Franckeforde) instituted new Courts, new Senators, and other officers of the meanest conditioned men, expelling and putting to death all ancient rulers. Wherevpon ensued so many outrages, and desolations in those countries, the intollerable seditions, rebellions, disobediences, and violence, in deposing and expelling lawfull Princes, abrogating lawes, spoyling Innocents, and other enormous crimes, against a common wealth, which haue bin practized by the Prote­stants of Denmarke, Sweueland, Scotland & Flaun­ders, are so famous, they neede no recitall. And lest English Protestāts, which so much in words, and little in deedes, contend for a Common [Page 87] wealth, should be exempted from this generall proposition; who in England was so famous a Protestant in the beginning, as Tindal their great apostle; and who in the time of our Q. Elizabeth, so great a writer and monumenter, as Foxe, and whose workes more generally applauded, then his acts and monuments and yet Tindall taught and Foxe defendeth in his publikely allowed and approued bookes, these propositions following. It is vnpossible for vs, to consent to the will of God, Foxe tom. 2. mo­num. in Tyndall. haer. arti. 3. artic. 2 artic. 18.19. Foxe sup. Tynd. obed. art. 18. the law requireth vnpossible things, the law maketh to hate God, euery man is Lord of other mens goods, the children of faith are vnder noe law? What common wealth can be, where these doctrines are publi­shed and proposed to be true? Did not their Pro­testants write a booke against the temporall re­giment of women, intituled, Contra monstrosum regimen mulierum, against the monstrous regi­ment of women? What monstrous doctrine,Goodm. l. cont. monstr. reg. mu­lier. and pestiferous were this now in our nation? What Common wealth men were those, which were the greatest and chiefest promulgers of this Pro­testancy in England? Stowe hist. Graft. hist. Fox to. 2. mo. The Lord Thomas Cromwell so exalted by King Henry the eight, Iohn duke of Northumberland, father to the late Earle of Lece­ster, Cranmer and others, I referre to their deaths for treason against their Princes. Who are chie­fest actors in affaires of a Common wealth in England, but the priuy councell of our Soue­raignes, and yet howe farre vnlike Common­wealth men did the councell of King Henry the eight (onely the Lord Chauncellor Wriothesly excepted) behaue themselues,Graft. vlt. H. 8. Stowe hist. Anno 1. Edw. 6. presently violating their King and masters last will, in which they [Page 88] were also constituted executors?Graft. & stowe Ann. 1. Mar. Would not the Protestant councell of King Edward the sixt haue disinherited her Maiestie that is, and Queene Mary? The Protestants of England testifie that the Puritanes platforme tendeth to the ouer­throw of the whole state, and gouernment of the common wealth:Respons. adm. parliam. Adm. parl 13. Eliz. the Puritanes affirme as much of their doctrine. I will passe ouer so many Pro­testant positions, which as they be al negatiue, denying Religion and duty to God, so in things concerning temporall gouernment, subiect to Religion, they must needs be repugnant to ciuill regiment. I will onely craue leaue to exemplifie in three or foure questions, it is a common opi­nion with this people,Caluin. Instit. Andr. Wyll. sy­nops. papism. c. Lawes. that the lawes of magi­strates do not binde in conscience, and secret, but onely in publike and open shew, for auoy­ding scandall. What treason and treacherie may not priuately be plotted, practised, and put in ex­ecution by this doctrine? What Realme can be secure, what Kingdome is not in hazarde to bee ouerthrowne, where euery rebellious vassall shall bee made a iudge of his Princes lawes?Conuoc. Protest. Lond. 1562. parl. 5. & 13. Elizab. What other thing doth their approued doctrine of sole faith portend to the world, but a desola­tion of all order, obedience, and regiment? If a man is onely iustified by faith, he cannot be vn­iustified and condemned, but for wanting faith, and so treason, felony, murther, rapine, periurie, and all offences against a common wealth,Protestant En­glish doctrine a­gainst a common wealth. euen to take away the crowne and scepter of a prince, may securely be put in action, as not destroying the vertue of faith, and so not able to condemne the workers of such impieties. Let vs speake a [Page 89] little of marriadge:statut. in parl. 32. H 8. c. 38. it was enacted by parlia­ment of K. Henry the eight, that all contracts of marriage whatsoeuer, were voyde by a second marriage consummate, hereupon ensued not on­ly such shame and dishonour to that law, against the light of nature, and ciuill contracts,Parl. Ed. 6. tit. Maryag. but to vse the words of King Edward the sixt his Prote­stants in open parliament; such incontinences intollerable to Christian eares, men and wo­men breaking their promises, and faith made by the one to the other, taking new husbands, and wiues at their pleasure, euen as it pleased them, that it was reuoked by King Edward the sixt;Parl. 1. Elizab. yet by the first parliament of our Queene it is reui­ued, and now in force, from which opinion, and the doctrine of remarrying, for the incontinency of the first husband, or wife, what deuorce­ments, dissentions, remarryings, breaches of wedlocks, false accusations, translations, and la­mentable decayes of ancient and honourable houses by adulteries, and most wicked supposi­tions of vnlawfully begotten children, haue en­sued? And because I haue spoken of marriage;Marriages of Priests and Mini­sters how much against a com­mon-wealth. I with the indifferent Reader to consider, whether the marriages of Priests and ministers consist with a common wealth or no: let him but looke into this one article, and he shall perceiue, that euen by the nature of the thing it selfe, so many wants, miseries, distresses, and hungers as haue beene since, in this kingdome, and other flouds of daungers to a ciuill regiment, haue flowed from that fountaine.Graft. hist. an. 15. H. 5. Cambd. in Britan. The ancient number of parishes in England (euery one hauing at the least one Priest, or Minister) haue beene accompted [Page 90] forty thousand; (though Camden and later Wri­ters muster a meaner reckning) besides Bishop­rikes, Deaneries, Archdeaneries, Prebendaries, pety Canonries, and almost as many Chappels more, many of them hauing their particular mi­nisters, and diuerse richer Protestant parsons their subcurates: and among all these it is a dis­honour at this day, for a man to be vnmarried. Then to make some coniecture in this case, be­cause a certainety can not be surueyed, lette vs compare this new married broode so giuen to generation, to the first inhabitants of countries, which of a farre fewer number, in processe of time haue growen to so great and populous Na­tions; and because the encrease of the people of Israel in Aegypt is most exactly aboue all others remembred, and registred in holy Scriptures, which these men receiue, I will take an exam­ple from them, and yet to the Protestant ad­uantage; for the Israelites in Aegypt were per­secuted, and their children put to death, when contrariwise the generation of Ministers in Eng­land hath flourished, and beene defended. The number of the Israelites, men, women, and chil­dren,Gen. 46. acts 7. entring into Aegypt, were onely 70. as is written in Genesis, or 75. as it is expounded of saint Stephen: if the first suruey of English pa­rishes, and ministers is admitted, although we alow many of them to haue liued, and vnmarri­ed, yet numbring their wiues, which by chasti­tie in catholike times also were vnmarried; it is probable, that for euery maried Israelite, there were more than two thousand married mini­sters:Gen. 46, 47. for the grand-children of Iacob were not [Page 91] married at that time: and if wee admit the least suruey of thirteene thousand, fifteene thousand, or sixteene thousand parishes, yet for euery mar­ried Israelite, there was a thousand married mi­nisters. Within the space of foure hundred yeeres, the number of Israelites, from the age of one and twenty yeeres vpward, besides many more thousands of women, children, and young people, and the whole tribe of Leui, one of the twelue which was not nūbred in this account,Numer. cap. 1. the number of such men amounted vnto six hundred thousands, three thousands, fiue hundred, and fiftie. Now let my Protestant Arithmetiti­ans make a calculation of the Ministers of­spring; if wee take my least account, if their religion should last foure hundred yeeres, which is but so long as the true Church of Israelites li­ued almost pilgrims or captiues: yet a true Reli­gion must be such that it carry no destruction to commonwealths, though it last for euer, as the worship of Christ was instituted to doe then by my meanest reckoning, the number of men en­creased in that time, wil be 603550000, six hun­dred thousands of thousands, three thousand thousands, fiue hundred thousands, and fiftie thousands, which is a greater number to bee ad­ded in our nation, then many Englands are able to maintaine, though we neither reckon woman nor childe. What then will the apparell and o­ther expences of this generation be to a little country? yet I haue not coūted how many since Protestant Religion, haue multiplied in this or­der, which before liued in monasteries and reli­gious houses, in chaste and single life, by com­mon [Page 92] iudgement, little, or not inferiour to the former multitude; which as it doubleth, the number of people encreased, so it doubleth the miseries and perplexities of this kingdome. Such chargeable, bloody, and continued warres as England in this time hath had in Fraunce, Flaun­ders, and other places, both at sea and land, are neither easie, nor secure to be maintained: And to ordaine or permitte multiplication of men to such endes, to vtter them by slaughter, is who­ly Turkish, and more like to Canaballs, than to Christians. And yet, if they had not beene, to preuent so many marriages, and kill so many thousands of men, how could this nation haue prouided for so many?Protestants do­ctrine and pra­ctise of Neglect, of Abstinence, and Fasting in England, how preiudiciall to a common wealth. or how wil it deale here­after, when the present inhabitants haue tasted so many wants? Lette vs make an other triall, what domage the taking away, or neglect of fa­sting and abstinence in this religion hath broght to our common wealth. In Catholicke times, besides so many dayes of abstinence, whereby many thousands of fishers were maintained, and much cattell and flesh preserued, there were obserued aboue an hundred fasting dayes, with onely one meale in the day, if wee account the seuerall dayes of Lent, Fridayes, Ember dayes, Vigils, and euens of Saints, that were fasted; the number of the eaters then were fewer by much, as is reckoned by ministers marriages, the diet was not so delitious, as Protestancie teacheth; then let vs giue all aduantage to Protestants in this commission of enquirie, and suppose con­trary to all iudgements, that there be but twelue thousand parishes in England: let vs allowe that [Page 93] there be onely in euery parish one with another, but an hundred persons, menne and women, which were wont to fast, though this number is much too little: let vs further imagine, that the expences of euery ones supper would onelie be the value of one penny, which is no deare or­dinarie; yet by this fauourable reckoning, eue­ry person in these hundred dayes, spareth one hundred pence, which is tenne shillings, and the hūdred persons of euery parish one hundred times ten shillings, which is fiftie pounds; which together amounteth yeerely to sixe hundred thousands of poundes, besides the consumpti­on of so much victualles, originall of so many wants: and yet it hath beene credibly reported, that of late yeeres vppon generall musters in England, the muster bookes haue amounted vn­to thirtie hundred thousands of able men, to which if wee adde so many women, making the number of threescore hundred thousands, the summe will be fiue times so much, that is, thirty hundred thousand poundes by the yeere, and to make a better esteeme of the Ministers progeny in expences; lette vs suppose, that in so many yeeres, they haue only amounted vnto one hun­dred thousand of people; and that euery person of that increased tribe, spendeth but three pence in the day, peny halfepeny a meale; and to help this reckoning, let vs forgiue their apparell, and all other costs for nothing, which is no vnequal dealing, yet their expences in the yeare do make 547500. fiue hundred thousands, seuen and for­ty thousands, and fiue hundreds of poundes; which is more than any victorious king of Eng­land [Page 94] spent in the continuall maintenaunce of a royall army, and wil discharge more and grea­ter wars, than euer her Maiestie had, and spare so many taxes, raised vppon better subiects: thus I could exemplifie in other Protestant excesses; But to vrge many of these doctrines, woulde bee too tedious, therefore I will passe them ouer. How their other actuall proceedings haue beene conformable to their words and teachings, hath beene somewhat declared before,Supr. § 2. Resolut. Relig. part. 2. Arg. 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79 80, 81, 82. and I may re­mit the Reader to the second parte of my Reso­lution in many chapters, where I haue prooued euen by the Protestants owne confessions, and testimonies, that their behauiour, and disobe­dience in commonwealths is worse, then amōg Iewes, Turkes, Pagans, or any Infidelles, and whosoeuer at this time entereth into view of the manners of all conditions of Protestants, both of this and other nations, can not call it in que­stion, neither can it be imagined how amend­ment can be had, e [...]cept a reformation of the o­riginall of these abuses, Protestant disobedient doctrine be made, for like causes must haue like effects.

The Conformitie and Honor of ca­tholike Religion to England, or any well ordered Commonwealth.Now let vs examine whether such disobedi­ence in doctrine, or disloyaltie of behauiour to commonwealths can be noted in Catholike re­ligion; doe we not teach all duety vnto Prin­ces and superiours? what office, either of Prince, or inferiour Magistrate, what estate, or conditi­on of men, clergy or laytie, what time, peace, or warres, or any thing that can be said belonging vnto gouernement, is not most sincerely deliue­red by the Casnysts and Canonists of our reli­gion, [Page 95] and that consenting to the regiment of the most famous and honourable Kingdomes of the worlde, gouerned by such constitutions? Or is there any thing wee teach, different, or not a­greeing to the auntient and most polliticke regi­ment of all christian Nations? To beginne with that most reuerend function of Priesthood, now treason by the proceedings of England (as some Protestants alleadge) what is there in that most sacred Religious dignitie, that can bee guiltie of so great a crime? Treason is the greatest offence that can be committed in England, and is called with vs, Crimen laesae maiestatis, an offence that hurteth the Kings or Queenes Maiestie;Stat. 25. Ed. 3. c. 2 5. Ric. 2. c. 5 stat. 1. Hen. 4. c. 10. and Proditio, a betraying, because, as appeareth by our auntient Lawes of King Edward the third, where it is set downe, what shal be treason, no­thing is remembred, but that which tendeth, ei­ther to the betraying of the King, or countrey; and so it is prouided by other lawes. Alas what is in Priesthoode now, that was not in former times, that it must be so accounted in the dayes of one Queene,Catal. Reg. Brit. & Angl. Fox to. mon. Stowe hist. which in the regiments of al­most two hundred Christian Kings within this kingdome, hath euer beene reputed both in par­liament, and elsewhere, the most honorable cal­ling, next to the prince, as the places of our great Priests or Archbishops are euidence. Nothing is, or can be changed in that sacrament, howso­euer the mindes and proceedings of Protestants doe change. The same priesthoode which was giuen to Saint Peter, and the Apostles, the same which saint Augustine, and his associates hadde [Page 96] that conuerted England, the same which hath beene so honored of al English Kings since then, is the same, which this people is not ashamed thus to terme. The same Sacrament vnchange­able, the same power of order, the same iurisdi­ction; then except the state of England bee not the same it was, Priesthoode must be honora­rable, & not trecherous. There is not any poynt of ciuill regiment in that sacrament, being who­lie spirituall and supernaturall, nothing concer­ning a temporall common wealth, no renoun­cing or deniall of any authority in England, no conspiracie to Prince, no betraying of a king­dome, of whome no one worde or mention is made, or can bee intended; no matter giuen in charge, no authoritie communicated, but to of­fer sacrifice, to pray, to preach, minister Sacra­ments,Pontifical. Rom. [...]n ord. sacerd. and such priestly functions, as the Pon­tificall will witnesse, which are not preiudiciall to a commonwealth, but such as the Ministers of England immitate the like, as I haue prooued in other places.Part. 2. Resol. [...]rgum. 5.6. That Priests doe absolue from sinnes, and excommunications, which they pre­tend, the cause is no temporall thing, and yet it cannot be the cause of this treason, [...]tat in parliam. [...]7. Elizab. c. 2. [...]esol. part. 2. [...]rgum. 5.8. for Deacons which haue no such authoritie, be traitours by the same statute. That our Priests be consecra­ted in forraine countries, neither can be, or is the cause, that this dignitie is now so vnwoor­thily reputed: [...]ed l. 2.3. histor. Angl. Fox tom. [...]. monum. for in former times it hath beene the greatest honour to our Cleargie, to be con­secrated in those famous Countries; and all our Primitiue archbishops of Canterbury were so sa­cred; [Page 97] & at this time Priesthoode giuen in France, to which we be friends, and in England it selfe, to which England must not be enemies,Parliam. 27. Elizab. sup. is equal­ly treason with these men, as to bee ordered in Rome, Spaine, or any place most offensiue to our state of England. And yet I woulde desire all States men to consider, that the Graecians, Ger­manes, and other people, hauing their doctrine diuers to the Church of Rome, haue their Semi­naries in the same City, and their Priests main­tained by the same Popes, and ordered by their authoritie; and yet the Princes of those Nati­ons being Infidell Turkes, for the greater part, condemne not their Priests for Traitours, but suffer them to be quiet, without incumber, ad­mitting the exercise of their function as agreea­ble to common wealth. And as it were a great absurditie to say, that the Pope in releeuing the Catholike Students of Palestina, Graecia, Arme­nia, and such nations, shoulde doe it in hope to be temporall Lord of those Countries, but on­ly for loue to true religion, so it is as improba­ble he should haue any such intent to England, as vnprobable as the others to bee vnder his tem­porall regiment; or, howe can those religious schooles be such aduersaries to our English go­uernement, where neither Reader, Professor, or Student of Policie is, or by the foundations and statutes of those places may be maintained? No law, order, rule, exercise, lecture, or disputation in any of those Seminaries that hath affinitie with such affaires; where no one point or opi­nion in doctrine against our English, or any o­ther [Page 98] well gouerned commonwealth (as is pro­ued) is practized. But all those Schooles by in­stitution, offer weekely or daily sacrifice for our nation, where prayer is continually made by deputed persons for her Maiestie, where so many publike prayers, processions, fasting, dis­ciplines, and austerities are vsed to that end. The rules and gouernement there consent with the auntient foundations of our Cambridge and Ox­ford, the Religion there vsed, the doctrine there taught, the Priesthoode, and other Orders there taken, sacrifice offered, prayers that bee made, Sacraments that be frequented, Lawes that bee obserued, all things there practized, be the same which so many renowned Kings of England e­uer professed and defended, as conformable to their temporal regiments: and to which our Qu. Elizabeth, by the fidelitie of a Prince, by solemne oath, and all greatest security an absolute Ru­ler can giue, hath indebted her selfe to obserue at her Coronation. And what disobedience or want of duety can it be, to deny to her, or any temporall Prince, Supremacy in ecclesiasticall causes, a preeminence so distinct and independ­ing of the ciuil gouernement? And it euer was so far fro treason, to deny it to any of our Kings or Queenes, that not onely all English subiects, but our Kings themselues euer approoued it in the Roman See. And neuer any temporall Turke, Tartare, Goth, Vandall, or impious ennemy of Christ, heretike, or infidell challenged it as be­longing to their temporall stile; and no Prote­stant Prince at this day, except in England, ey­ther [Page 99] claimeth to him selfe, or maketh it treason to giue it to the Pope of Rome. Neyther dooth, or euer did, any or these professed ennemies to that See, condemne for a temporall disobedi­ence, to appeale thither in spirituall causes; or maketh it a matter of state, to goe on pilgrimage to Rome, or bring a Crucifix, Picture, or any ha­lowed thing from thence, which can be no bu­sines of a commonwealth. But all other Chri­stians of the worlde, euen such as bee vnder the Turkish regiment, or any other, whether they be Iacobites in aboue forty kingdomes,§ 6. supr. Septeme. l. de m [...] rib. & Rel. Turc. Fran. Aluar. hist▪ Ethiop. Belfor. Cosmograph. l. 6. liturg. Ethiop [...] to. 4. Bibliothec. patr. Osor. histor Eman. l. 3. The­uet. l. 11. Nesto­rians, Maronites, in Libia, and Phoenitia, Arme­nians, Georgians, Suryans, Mozarabes, Indians vn­der Peter Iohannes in seauentie and twoo king­domes, or any others, besides all Catholike and Christian kingdomes, in this, or other partes of the world, haue free accesse, without prohibiti­on of their Princes, either to Rome, Ierusalem, or any place, where Christ, is, or hath beene re­uerenced. And in the dayes of the greatest temporall honour and renowne of England, vn­der the most glorious English Princes, it hath beene so farre from disturbance, or indignitie to our temporall state, to goe that iourney, and fetch, or receiue such things from thence, that our most puissant and triumphant Kings them­selues haue performed those offices,Foxe tom. 1. mon. Stowe his [...] Graft. histor. in their own princely and royall persons, as our Protestant Writers be witnesses. Howe honourable those Princes were for those and such offices, as also how dishonourable with men, and strangely punished of God, not only al Kings of England, [Page 100] but of other nations, which practized any thing offensiue to that Roman iurisdiction, I haue de­clared before. If wee should enter into compa­rison of this kingdome now Protestant, eyther with it selfe vnder Catholike regiment, or with forraine Catholike kingdomes, my sentence is true: whether wee consider the glory of king Henry the eight, and this kingdome before his fall, or their infamie and dishonours after: or the short or turbulent season of king Edward the sixt, or for this present time what it is, and what like to be, which, duety to her Maiestie char­geth me to leaue to the lamentable considerati­on of all men now, and the pittifull experience of those which shall prooue it heereafter. When contrariwise, if wee enter into conceipt of Ca­tholicke kingdomes, ruled by that Religion and law which we defend, they will be named the flowers of the worlde; our neighbouring coun­tries, Fraunce, Spaine, Italie, and others may be giuen for instance. And to particularize in them that be most hated of English Protestants, the Pope of Rome for a spiritual person, and the Spa­nish King for a temporall Prince. Is not the po­wer and iurisdiction of the first extended by many degrees, and whole kingdomes, further, and more glorious than euer was the Regencie of any spirituall superiour, high Priest in Iewrie, Caliphe of the Turkes, Archflamine of the Pa­gans, Archbishoppe of the Protestants, or any their supreame head or gouernor in Ecclesiasti­call causes, in this or any other Nation? neuer allowed further than one countrey, and no man [Page 101] can question, but the kingdomes, riches, and re­uenews of the king Catholike are the greatest of any Monarch, or Emperour in the worlde. How the glory of all kingdomes was euer most, when they most religiously embraced and maintained our doctrine, I haue demonstrated at large in my Resolution: no Article we defend,Resolut. Relig. part. 1. c. 14. prayer and adoration to Saints, prayer for the dead, restitu­tion for wrongs and iniuries to those that liue, obedience to Princes, their iust and equall regi­ment, the validitie of their lawes, the force of good woorkes, and their working, the number, grace, and reuerence of Sacraments, other holy things, penance and punishment for sinne, both in life, and after, with the rest, being all affirma­tiue positions, teaching duety to God, honour to Magistrates, equalitie to all, iniury and op­pression to none, the chiefest points of true re­giment, cannot be offensiue to a well ordered kingdome. What quarrelles and contentions betweene Princes, Kings, and Subiects, Nobles and Nobles, and all estates, haue beene com­primitted in England, by the spirituall Romane authoritie now so hateful amōg vs, which could by no other meanes be appeased, the turbulent dealings in the time of King Henry the second so pacified, the Barons warres quieted,D. Edward. in vit. S. Tho. Cant. Stowe histor. in Henr. 2. Graft. hist. sup. Stowe in K. Iohn. Caxton. in eod. Hall hist. in H. 5. Fox tom. 1. & 2. Monum. rigorous o­nerations imposed by Princes eased, contenti­ons and vnappeaseable warres of this kingdome with France, and other Nations, & the like, ap­peased and brought to end, will witnesse. What peace, concord, amitie, and agreement in all e­states, the Protestants deniall of Restitution and [Page 102] Confession hath taken away, what wrongs, en­mities, and abuses it hath wrought, the auntient loue, neighbourly friendship, christian charitie, and peaceable agreement generally since then exploded among Protestant people, are eui­dence; for those bridles beeing broken, what so conuenient meanes is either left, or inuented by this generation, to tame the inordinate pas­sions of vnruly people? How can the beginning of sinnes, first inwardly hatched in the mind, be­fore they proceede to outwarde action to bee controlled by ciuill Lawes, be stayed and pre­uented? How can secret offences, the mother and nurse of publike disorders, be punished and destroyed? Who can keepe Subiects from de­uising against Soueraignes, these from plotting against Subiects, Subiects against themselues? Who can now vmpire so many quarrelles, euen with extraordinary and intolerable charges and abuses, which the Consistory of Confession in euery parish, so freely, without bribe, trouble, or contention decided and rooted out? For want whereof, so many suites and actions in lawe, such multitudes of Lawyers, and their lately obtained riches haue ensued. What abu­ses in their proceedings, what vniust causes de­fended? What iust and pittifull complaints of the poore forsaken? What dilatory plees, non­suites, vnnecessary essoines, wagers of lawe, false pleadings, vnlawfull arrests, wicked impannel­ling, suborning, and corrupting Iurors, delayed false and corrupt iudgements, and executions, vnconscionable Writtes of errour against right, [Page 103] such remooueings of sutes, appeales, and I know not how many shifts to defraude, auoyde, and with-holde true titles, haue beene, and are pra­ctised and vncontrolled by these Protestant do­ctrines, which catholike Religion condemneth, binding the wicked practisers of such iniustices to an equall amends and restitution to the par­ties grieued. These and such abuses the lawe of Nature, the lawe of Nations, Canon, Imperiall, Prouinciall, in all christian Nations doe con­demne, & not onely in countries and kingdoms professing Christ, they are disabled, but explo­ded in al heathenish regiments of Iewes, Turks, Tartares, Persians, Indians, and all antient law makers among the Romans, Graecians, Lacede­monians, and others, onely practised, and not disallowed in Protestant regiments.

That portion of wealth, which the religious Cleargy of England enioyed in Catholike times, (if Foxe may be beleeued) amounted to the third part of the substance of our nation,Foxe to. 2. monn. in Henr. 8. and was then employed concerning them, to the necessaries of their poore, chaste, and single life: the remnant was bestowed, some for maintainance and de­fence of our Kings, and country:Caxt. histor. Hall in H. 5. Stowe & Graft. in Henr. 8. the Catholike Cleargy was then able, and often did furnish maine armies to that end, more then all the mi­nisters of England, and Abbey gentlemen are able or will performe, the rest was in Religious vses: the poore were relieued, so many statutes against them, and to burden the country, were not knowne, strangers were lodged, pilgrimes entertained, the sicke and maimed prouided for, [Page 104] orphanes kept, widdowes defended. Was not this so offensiue parte of religious goods in Pro­testants iudgement, better bestowed, then in hunting, hawking, cardings, courtings, and such like almes, to which the Protestant possessours haue disposed it? Let vs speake of friends at home, and abroade; Catholike Religion kept, and left England in friendship and amitie, with the Popedome, Empire, Spaine, and all countries in the world: protestancy hath either set vs at o­pen variance, or suspitious peace withall. Quar­rels among countries and kings, are euer groun­ded from behauiour of Princes, publike magi­strates, and persons of regard in those states: Pro­testants of England euer since their entraunce haue supplied those places priuate, persecuted and reiected men, such as Catholikes of England haue beene, and are there esteemed, cannot bee the origin of such contentions. What should I speake of honours, or other publike profits wher­with England was adorned by our Religion, and whereof Protestancy hath dispoyled it? Was it not an honourable, quiet, and secure preemi­nence, to be at league with so many and mighty christian Princes? Were not all communions with them and their countries as ordinary to England, and al estates thereof, as to themselues, had not our kings their legarde, and continuing ambassadors in those dominions, whereby peace was preserued, quarrels preuented, perrils auoy­ded, the country in security, warres but seldome, and neuer of such continuance? What historie doth make relation of so chargeable and pro­longed [Page 105] wars of this kingdome, with other nati­ons, as our late and present Spanish, Flemish, and Irish be? What Nobleman ot Gentleman of ac­compt did not then, and would not now desire, both for his owne and countries honour, and re­putation, to know other nations, to bee pre­sent in the Courts of forraine potent Princes, to learne language, to see diuersities of people, and manners, to know their order of Regiment, to winne experience? What learning, nurtriture, and knowledge haue our gentry and nobility lost by that seperation? What a blemish it is, e­uen in some of highest order, and in the greatest affaires of common wealth, England findeth, and forrainers are not ignorant, and the great ad­uantage and highly esteemed preeminence of him or them in that place, which hath enioyed it, will witnesse. Would not a souldier, for his skill and honour in armes, affect to know the or­der and discipline of their warres, especially a­gainst Infidels, and misbeleeuing Princes? What scholler for his instruction in learning, might not couet those vniuersities, wherein for an English­man to haue beene student, or consecrated Priest (now so odious) was euer had for high ho­nour and reputation? Would not the marchants of England esteeme it both a priuate helpe to themselues, and a publike profit to our nation, to haue free trade and trafficke in their domini­ons? Should not all England, Nobles, gentlemen, meaner people, and all estates of men, Catho­likes, Protestants, and whatsoeuer be desirous, that we might alwayes bee free, both from for­raine [Page 106] and domesticall warres? or if by any ne­cessitie, not in time preuented, we shuld by pro­babilitie bee infested with the one, coulde, or would he wish to be afflicted with both? Peace is to be desired, strife to be auoyded, friendes e­steemed, many and potent enimies to be feared. If any man of indifferent sentence entereth into iudgement, to consider the time of Protestancie, which is past, the present estate wherein England is, and what wee are like to taste heereafter, by such proceedings, I doubt not but he will be of my opinion, that it were better to be in such condition,Stow hist. in H. 8. as it was in the two and twentieth yeere of King Henry the eight, when this reformation, or soone after beganne, then euer it was by Protestancie since, nowe is, or by probability will grow to be in time to come. For auoyding offence, I will voluntarily omitte particulars of comparisons, as also the conformitie of our ca­tholike Religion, to the true and equall interpre­tation of our present lawes, both in the same re­garde, as that it demaundeth a larger treatie then this place alloweth. These may now suf­fice for excuse, not onely to your most Hono­rable Company, but to all inferior and subde­pending Magistrates, principally such as perse­cute vs vnder the false pretence of our repug­nancie to a lawfull and ciuill regiment: for whose cause I haue both beene longer in this question,Resol. Relig. part. [...]. Argum. 5, 6, 7. and must be enforced heereafter to vse more speech of our obediēce to the English laws of this time, than I otherwise had intended.

SECT. IX. The Authors defence to all ho­nourable Ladies and Gentlewomen.

AND as I must not bee vngratefully vn­duetifull to so many Catholicke Ladies, and noble Gentlewomen of England our nurses and foundresses in former times, so I de­sire pardon of that present sexe and condition, not to be offended with my writing; for I de­fend the faith and religion of all honorable, ho­ly, and vertuous English Queenes, Princesses,Bed. hist. Angl. l. 2, 3, 4, 5. Math. Westm. Henr. Hunt. Caxt. hist. Ladies and Gentlewomen. I may not permit the Foundresses of so many Churches, Chap­pelles, Aultares, Monasteries, Nunneries, Colledges, and Religious places, to bee re­prooued for that pietie. I cannot in conscience suffer such a triumphant and victorious compa­ny of that calling, so famous for miracles, and renowned for sanctitie,Fox tom. 1. mon. Pantal. Chron. as our greatest enne­mies, Fox, Pantaleon, and others acknowledge in them (an euident argument of true Religion) to be condemned; nor the immortall fame of the soules of such to bee defiled by false accusers, whose bodies many yeeres after their death,Bed. hist. Angl. l. 3.4.5. Guil. Malmes. l gest. Fox tom. 1. mon. Stowe histor. to witnesse the innocencie of their Religion and life, remained vncorrupted: nor those whome so many testimonies from heauen and earth haue confirmed to be most happy Saints, to be [Page 108] reiected as impious. I am out of doubt, no Protestant Lady of England, will, or dareth to compare her selfe with the meanest of many, which, for the loue and honour of our Religion, forsooke all temporall pleasures, and princelie honours, and preferring the poore, chaste, and obedient religious life, before all dignities, be­came sacred and consecrated Nunnes,Fox tom. 1. mon. fol. 178. Bed. l. 3, 4, 5. hist. Angl. Guil. Malm. l. gest such (as Foxe is enforced to consecrated were Queene E­delburge, wife and Queene to King Edwine, and daughter of King Anna. Saint Etheldrede wife to King Elfride, and married before, and yet a per­petuall Virgine, as Saint Bede, Fox, and others do witnesse: Sexburga, daughter of King Anna, and wife to King Ercombert: Kineburga wife to King Alfride, daughter to King Penda & sister to king Ofricus. Elfloda daughter to King Oswy, and wife to King Peda, and Alfritha wife to King Edgar. Hylda daughter to the nephew of King Edwine. Erchengoda and Ermenilda daughters of King Ercombert. Werburga daughter to King Vlferus. & Kinreda & Kinswida his sisters. Elfrida daugh­ter to King Oswy, Mildreda, Milburga, and Milginda, daughters of King Mirwaldus. Saint Editha, daughter to King Edgar, and others, most holie, religious, and miraculous Princes­ses, the glorie of our English Ladies. Or if the glorie and happinesse of Catholicke Princes will not mooue, yet let the fearefull examples of the principall Protestant Ladies of England, chiefe Agents in this quarrell, greeuously affli­cted of God, and made dishonourable to the worlde, putte vs in minde what wee ought to [Page 109] doe,Stowe & Graft. in hist. Henr. 8. Argum. 87.88. 2. I art. Resol. which though Stowe and Grafton haue too bluntly sette downe, my selfe, for some reue­rent respects, will heere omit. Thinke it (you Protestant Dames of England) no disparage­ment in honor, to be followers of those renow­ned Princesses, which in all Antiquities are re­corded to be the glory of your kinde, and the supreame womanly honour of our Kingdome; That RELIGION (the greatest honour) which hath giuen to them such eternitie of ho­nour in Heauen, can not make you dishonou­rable in Earth. It is the nature of your sexe to immitate, and in some things you will some­times immitate too much: If you that liue in Courte, didde but knowe the guise of attires, which those holy Queenes and Ladies vsed, before they were Religious you would follow it, in the highest degree; although therein you should consent with the Dames of Italy, France, Spaine, and Rome it selfe, or any other place or person, to which you professe your selues most distasted. And in such things though neuer v­sed of Queene Sexburga, Etheldreda, Edelburga, or any of those, or other Saintes, your daily and new deuises are euidence against you, that you esteeme it not dishonourable, to learne of the Ladies of those Nations. These agree­ments are not so worthie praise, and yet there­in you will not be at variaunce. Then, seeing the Religion of those Countries, whose Ladies you allowe in matters so little deseruing immi­tation, is that which maketh so honorable with God and man, and not for a short courting, [Page 110] but an euer-continuing time, feare not to bee French, Spanish, Italian, and Roman, in that, wherein the tipe and diademe of true honour consisteth; or if you haue chosen to bee wed­ded onelie to terrene and debased honour, yet you may not thinke so basely of that Religion I defend, to disallowe it. For all your earthly honours, titles, names, and ensignes of dignitie, were eyther first founded, or after allowed and confirmed to your auncestors, and in them to you, by the Popes, Emperours, Kings, and Regents in Catholike reuerence. England Pro­testant wanteth many degrees of chiefest place, which England Catholicke enioyed. England Protestant hath diminished, and added none to those, which were before. And those Coun­tries I named, and whose Religion I commend vnto you, haue many of that condition, which neuer any England hadde. Catholicke Religion neuer denied any thing vnto you, which was truely honourable: it gaue you your dignities, honourable places, and priuiledges; it gaue you credite with our Princes, and for their and your honour, ordayned you estates; it defen­deth your marriages to be honorable, and a sa­crament, by that Religion your matrimonie was not in the pleasure of your Lordes; repu­diations and deuorcements at their willes were not knowen; remarrying to a second wife (the former liuing) was euer most vnlawfull. Con­cubines could not possesse the maintenaunce of your honours, their bastardes might not enioy the inheritaunce of your legittimate, for feare [Page 111] of offence, I will be silent in most honourable fauours, which your Catholike ancestors had, and you might haue by that Religion, and Pro­testancie cannot giue; and referre that cause to your more serious examination, and fauourable construction; which, for my promise of writing nothing offensiue to our English state, I must willingly, in this, and other places, leaue naked and vnfurnished of many and greatest ar­guments of defence.

SECT. X. The Authors defence to all infe­riour subiects.

IF I shoulde entreate what benefites and pre­ferrements, so many diuerse orders and con­ditions of inferiour subiects enioyed, by en­ioying our Religion, and what they lost by losse thereof, as I should make my cause too po­pular and pleasing vnto them: so I feare I might be offensiue to some, to whome I haue promi­sed to giue no occasion of offence. Therefore I will onely put them in minde, that as all their auncestors and predecessors were of the same RELIGION with vs, so an innumerable company of their kinsfolks were religious men, and women, and in them, the care of their pa­rents ended, and they became Fathers and [Page 112] mothers to their parents, and families; others were attendant, instructed, and maintained by pensions, corrodies, farmes, annuities, leases, and tenements of our religious houses; the poore were releeued in our Hospitalles, and by our almes; others liuing vppon our landes without fines, or enhaunced rents; euery temporall man and woman enioying more for them and theirs, by howe much so many hundred thousandes of religious persons claimed and needed lesse, by their poore and single life. No wife to prouide for ioynture, no daughter to endowe and giue in marriage, no elder sonne to enrich with new inheritance, and spared purchases, no yonger sonne to be aduaunced by emprooued rents, toyles or turnings out of Farmes, no tenaunt chaunged, no fines, no forfeitures taken, no woodes destroyed, no priuiledge or freedome withdrawne, many new and greater graunted by Kings, and Noble men, to religious per­sons, their tenaunts and tenures: not so many iarres and quarrelles in lawe, contentions and debates of the poore subiects, comprimitted by ghostly confessors, religious persons, and kings themselues.

SECT. X. His defence to the Ministerie of England.

LAstly, to come to the Protestant Ministery of England, whose anger and displeasure, as I esteeme it least, so I name them last. I appeale to all those estates I haue recounted, for iudgement, whether in accusing them of igno­raunce, or wilfulnesse in errour, I offer them wrong or no: It is more agreeing to the lawe of God, of nature, nations, reason, humane ciuilitie, conscience, or whatsoeuer may bee termed and taken for a lawe, when it dooth so chaunce, that either all learned and holy men in the christian worlde, that euer were in so many hundred yeeres, in all times and places, should bee condemned, or else a few, neyther learned nor vertuous, but ignorant and wicked, should be reprooued and disallowed, that the most and first must be freeed, and the least and last condemned. Then lette the Ministeriall Cleargie of England yeelde mee patience; for I defend the doctrine and opinion of all godly and famous professors of Diuinitie, all Popes, Fathers, and Doctours that euer were in the Church, all Councelles particular and generall, all forren & domesticall Vniuersities, Schooles, Colledges, and places of christian learning, since the time of Christ, to Martine Luther: where so many thousandes or millions of miraculously approoued holy Saintes, haue liued and died, in [Page 114] this profession, and onely impugne a new, poore, lewde, licentious, and vnlearned company of Ministers, of one Kingdome, or age, and such as in particular reasons I will demonstrate to be euident wilfull,Part. 2. Resolut. Argum. 72, 73, 74, 75, 79.83, 84, 85. and ignorant mis-expounders, false translators, and alleadgers of holy Scrip­tures, liars, deceitfull, hereticall, maintainers of olde condemned heresies, actually erring, and reerring in greatest questions, and matters of Faith, ensigned and marked with all tokens and badges, which holy Scripture purtraiture, Heretickes, Seducers, and Reprobate persons by, that they learned their religion of the diuel himselfe; that it was first deuised, and after maintained for carnall libertie, and wicked endes, that they teach they know not what themselues, contrary to holy Scriptures, although we expound them by their owne rules of exposition, contrary to their owne proceedings, contrary to all autho­ritie, humane and diuine, contrary to all Lawes of God, of nature, nations, particular Coun­tries, of all ciuill and politicke gouernement, hauing nothing conducing to mans saluation, or that can bring to heauen; that by all iudge­ment of Christianitie, those that died in that state, without repentaunce (except inuincible ignoraunce coulde excuse some simple Soules) are condemned in hell: yet, seeing in this I shall dispute chiefly against the priuate Religion of one Nation, in one onely time, if I should leaue out the rest of the christian worlde in all ages; and because England nowe hath a par­ticular Religion to it selfe, compare the sancti­tie, [Page 115] learning and authoritie of former Catho­licke English Bishoppes and Diuines, with our present Ministers, I shall iustifie my cause to their great confusion.

As to giue example in our chiefest Metropo­litane See; Whether is it more equall, and con­sonant to reason, to giue credite (for either the one or the other must be vtterly discredited) to Thomas Cranmer the first Protestant Regent there, Parkar, and Grindal, notoriously knowne,Fox tom. 2. mon. in H. 8. Edw. 6. Qu. Mary. parl. 24 H. 8. c. 12. parl. 25. c. 14.20. parl. 26. c. 1.3.14, parl. 27. c. 15. parl. 31 e. 9.14 parl. 32. c. 15.26. parl. 35 c. 5. parl. 1 Ed. 6 c. 1.2 parl. 2.3. Edw. 6. c. 1.21. parl. 3.4. Edw. 6. c. 10. parl. 5.6. Ed. 6. c. 1.3.13. parl. 1. Eliz. c. 1. parl. 5 c. 1.28. parl. 13. c. 1. Conuoc. Lond. 1562. artic. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, &c. Foxe tom. 2. in Cranmer. not onely to haue beene of three diuerse Religi­ons, in substantiall poynts, one against an o­ther, but euery one of them at diuerse times to please their Princes often in the greatest questi­ons, to haue differed from him selfe, and they to haue beene of seauen or eight diuerse Religions, for none of them was eyther bur­ned for Protestancie, or quartered for deny­ing Supremacie, or a Saint for life (to speake the best) renowned for learning, for any mo­nument or argument I coulde euer finde. And to exemplifie in Cranmer their first and princi­ple, that was to condemne so many learned and holy Saints, that had beene in that Archie­piscopall See, and be a patterne to all his suc­cessors: hee was condemned of high treason a­gainst his Prince, prooued publikely periured, and to haue counterfaite the handes and con­sents of fifty Cleargy men, for the aduantage of his cause, hee recanted his errour, was in case of relapse, and for ignoraunce was hissed, and exploded in the common Schooles of Oxforde, in publike disputations; all which Foxe himselfe [Page 116] is enforced to graunt, and can not deny. Then whether is it more equall to giue credit to these, than to Saint Augustine, Bed. l. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. hist. Angl Admer in vita sancti Ans. Guil. Malmesb. [...]. gest. pont. Angl. Math. West. hist. the Monke, first arch­bishoppe there, Saint Laurence, Mellitus, Iu­stus, Honorius, Deusdedit, Theodorus Berctualdus, Tacuinus, and others, three score and eight in number, almost twenty to one, many, or most holy and learned men, miraculously approo­ued of God, and for pietie and learning admi­red of the whole worlde? If they pretende the decrees of any Protestant Prince, for expositi­on of holy Scriptures, and proposition of Re­ligion,Fox tom. 1. mon. I haue cited almost twoo hundred to one before, and in the lawes of that Prince, which soeuer any Protestant will assigne, ey­ther King Henry the eight, King Edward the sixt, or our Queene Elizabeth, I will ouerthrowe them; and prooue how euery one of them hath defined false and contradictory things to them­selues,Part. 2. Resol. Re­ [...]ig. Argum. 5.6 which (in some parte) already appea­reth in my last citations of Statutes. If they al­leadge their Vniuersities, they are ouermatch­ed:Foxe tom. 1. mo­ [...]um. Armar. in Catholike times at once Oxford hath had thirtie thousand Students, all euer of the same minde with vs. For other Clergie men, England Catholike had at the least, if wee will conie­cture by Fox his computation, aboue a hundred thousand more, than England Protestant is able to shew. If they speak of sinods, our sinods were greater in number of men, tenne to one, in num­ber of assemblies, two hundred to one. If they speake of Parliaments and Lawes decreed there, the excesse is more, in both respectes. If they [Page 117] vrge Scriptures,Syn. Lond. pro [...] 1562. articul [...] parliam. 5. Eliza. & 13. Eliza. Will. Synops. Pap. and true sence of them by de­duction, by resorting to the originall tongues, the Hebrew in the olde, and Greeke in the new Testament, comparing of places, and exami­ning circumstances, which be their owne rules of exposition, and the ground of their professi­on, or howsoeuer the comparison is made, the victory is ours. Wee vse more Scriptures for numbers of Bookes,Concil, Flor. in vn. Arm. Concil. Trid. c. de script. Syn. Lond. Prot. 1562. art. 6. Tri­them. l. script. Zuit. Sen. Bibl· sanct. Pantal. Chronol. more for diuersities of tongues, than they, and yet refuse none which they admit. All our expositours of Scriptures haue beene continuall professed Students in di­uinitie, expert and acquainted with all Rules, and meanes of true exposition, diuerse of them most excellent Linguists, and many naturall borne Greekes and Hebrewes; and wee neuer receiued or beleeued any thing as a matter of Faith, but that which the whole Catholicke Church (which cannot erre) had defined and receiued. Their expositors of Scriptures were neuer to bee compared vnto these: and at that time when their Religion was decreede and e­stablished (out of Scriptures they must say) there was not one person present, which eyther vnderstoode Greeke or Hebrew, or coulde vse any other of their Rules.Stowe hist. an. 1. Eliza. parliam. 1. Eliza. ca. 1. Graft. hist. an. 1. Elizab. For their religion was first approoued in the first Parliament of our Queene Elizabeth, where, not one man learned in Diuinitie was present, and had parlamentall voyce.

That wee Catholikes would wilfully erre, is too wilfull impudencie to affirme it; the pro­fession of that Religion we defend, is seuere and [Page 118] strict, in regarde of that wee doe deny: the pu­nishmentes and penalties we vndergoe for our profession, are many and greatest; the tempo­rall preferrement is none at all. The contrary Professors are in the contrary case; their Reli­gion is pleasant, and by professing it, they liue in honours and delights, which haue enticed, not onely many Catholickes to followe Prote­stancie,Casp. Vlenb. l. 22 caus. Rain. Calu. Sleid. com. but Protestants to be Mahumetanes, or of no Religion. That by ignoraunce wee shoulde be seduced, such sentence cannot pro­ceede but from ignoraunce, or malice. Wee haue all authorities, times, and places for our defence: our enemies haue none at all, we were borne in the same Countrey of England, bred vp in the same Vniuersities English, where, and whence, those Protestants be; wee haue tra­uailed all Countries; studied in all christian Vniuersities; we haue learned Diuinitie of the most famous Professors of the worlde: we haue disputed in all Schooles, and enioyed the best meanes of studie; wee want wiues, riches, ho­nours, pleasures and all impediments of true di­uinitie and studie thereof. Our aduersaries are snared and entangled with all these, and other lettes to hinder them. That rather they than we would be more carefull, to examine any autho­ritie or argument belonging to these questions, no man can imagine, it concerneth vs most, and the reasons be euident before. If Religion can be tried in this worlde, wee haue sought and found all meanes; they haue not farre sought for any, and found none at all: their daylie [Page 119] doubts, changes, and vncertaintie prooue it. If they would stand to any triall, wee knowe the order of all, and will accept of any one, with equall conditions.Conuoc. Lond. 1562. arti. 6. parl. 5. Eliz. & 13. Eli. If they will appeale to Scrip­tures, as their highest Conuocation doth, or to any other authoritie, so many Catholike Di­uines of England; And the poore Author here­of (because I haue taken this Woorke in hand, and must iustifie my writing, and not feed my Readers with vaine reportes, and heare-sayes, as Protestants doe) haue read and studied them all, and more than Protestants vse. If they contend to credite the Hebrew Text in the olde Testament, and the Greeke in the new,Fulke, Charke, Hanmer, Andr. Will. Synop. Pap. Rain. contr. Bell. Whitak. contr. Campian. as the common opinion of their Writers is, I haue studied them in those languages, and the aunti­ent Glosses and Scholies Latine and Greeke, for their Exposition. If they will stand to the report of the most auncient Historians, Eusebius, Ruffinus, Socrates, Sozomenus, Palladius, Sainct Hierome, Sainct Bede, and others, what was the practise of the Primitiue Church, and be­leeued in the vnspotted time of Christianitie, I haue perused them. If they will bee iudged by the decrees of the first POPES,Contr. Adm [...]nit. parliam. that were Saints, and bee in Heauen, as they confesse, and ruled the Church in those times, as their Archebishoppe of Canterbury dooth acknow­ledge, I haue often with diligence considdered the Decrees, both of all that were before the Councell of Nice, and after. If they will bee arbitrated by the present Schooles, and scho­lasticall reasons, I haue beene a poore Auditor [Page 120] both of scholasticall and controuersiall Que­stions, where all doubtes and difficulties that witte or learning can deuise and inuent, are handled, and most exquisitely debated. If they admit the first foure generall Councells of Nice, Constantinople, Parlam. 1. Eli. c. 1 Ephesus, and Calcedon, which the highest iudiciall authoritie of England hath expresly approoued by name, or anie of the rest, to which, the same, and her Maiesties consent also giueth approbation, I haue seene and read them all, from the first of Nice, to the last of Trent, as all approoued particular and prouinciall Councells, which be extant or ordinarily vsed. If they thinke there euer was true Religion among Christians, and that it was exercised in the first sixe hundred yeeres after Christ, and that those auncient Fathers which were the most famous in those dayes, and ru­led the Churche as Bishoppes and Doctours thereof, were acquainted with it, or Profes­sours of it: I haue carefully read ouer all the workes and writings which bee to be had, of Dyonisius the Areopagite Scholler to Saint Paul, Saint Ignatius, Saint Polycarpus, Saint Clement, Martialis liuing in the Apostles time, Saint Iu­stine, Origen, Saint Basill, Saint Athanasius, Saint Gregory Nazianzene, Saint Gregory Nis­sen, Saint Gregorie the Great, Saint Irenaeus, Saint Cyprian, Fulgentius, Pamphilus the Mar­tire, Palladius, Theodoretus, Ruffinus, Socrates, Sozomenus, Euagrius, Cassianus, Lactantius Fir­mianus, Vincentius Lyrenensis, the most famous and learned Fathers of those vncorrupted ages, [Page 121] all the workes of all these I haue read and exa­mined, and conferred them with Saint Au­gustine, Saint Hierome, Saint Ambrose, Saint Leo, Papias the scholler of Saint Iohn the Euan­gelist, Theophilact, Tertullian, Eusebius Cesariensis, Prudentius, and others, most excellent Di­uines, liuing when all Protestants agree, true faith was vniuersally preached, and beleeued. And yet I take God, and the whole Courte of Heauen to witnesse, before whome I must ren­der an accompt of this protestation, my beleefe, and all my actions (my constant writing in de­fence of this Faith, my selfe voluntarily in dis­grace and persecution professing it, will be my warrant of sinceritie.) That the same Faith and Religion which I defend, is taught and con­firmed by those holy Hebrew and Greeke Scri­ptures, those Historians, Popes, Decrees, Scholies and Expositions, Councels, Schooles, and Fathers, and the profession of Protestants, and all other Sectes by the same condemned. I haue examined, and with diligent aduise read ouer many Bookes and Writings of the best learned Protestantes (the Woorke to which this Epistle is a Preamble will be my witnesse,) and not any that euer came to my hands, con­taineth any argument or reason, in my iudge­ment, woorthy, or able to withdrawe a reaso­nable and indifferent minde, not blinded with pleasure, or seduced by affection, from em­bracing that Catholike Faith which I defend; or that can establish or prooue any other Reli­gion to be true. That I should not bee able to [Page 122] iudge what maketh for vs, what against vs, I hope no man will challenge mee of so great ig­norance. That I would willingly erre and per­sist in errour, (if my religion were errour) to followe a profession so austere and rigorous to sensuall appetite, and desire, if it be compared to Protestant doctrine, and obstinately heape disgrace and affliction vpon my selfe, to professe it, when by reforming my opinion or consci­ence to the contrary, I might both auoide the penitentiall life of Catholike profession, and the perilles and penalties which the Parliaments of Protestants haue imposed vppon vs, and en­ioy the liberties and delights which Protestan­cie yeeldeth, and the preferrements where­with their Schollers are rewarded. I am out of doubt no Reader can be so partiall and vnequall iudge against mee, or any one of so many En­glish Catholicke Students, which are in the same case, and defend the same cause.

SECT. XII. The Conclusion: how disho­nourable and vnreasonable it is, to persist in Protestancie: howe honourable to graunt a Reformation.

WHerefore (noble Patrones) seeing so many worldes of witnesses giue eui­dence against the profession of Pro­testants, and euery age, time, place, person, and [Page 123] thing of woorthy and credible authoritie, yeeld testimony to my defence, I will recomfort my selfe, that by your gratious and iust protecti­on, no man will be so wilfull to impugne that which God, and all reasonable creatures, and reason, haue alwayes, and by all meanes pro­pugned. I knowe your Honours are wise, and I trust no man will so much condemne himselfe, in obstinacie, to be of Luthers minde, (and if hee bee not, he cannot be a Protestant) which although hee euidently perceiued in his owne iudgement, and manifestly confessed in his owne writings, the whole christian worlde, all times, places, persons, and Authorities to bee against him, yet hee obstinately proceeded in his singularitie. The woordes of that grace­lesse Luther are these:Luther. tom. 2. Germ. Ientac. fol. 9. & Praefat. l. de abrog. miss. How often hath my heart panted, and reprehended me, and obiected against mee? What? arte thou onely wise? can it bee cre­dible, that all others doe erre, and haue erred so long a time? Haue all Generations so often euer been deceiued? What if thou doost erre, and bring so ma­ny into errour, that shall bee damned for euer? Luther. in colloq. mensal. fol. 10. & praefat. sup. Arte thou onelie hee which hath the true pure worde of God? Hath no man in the worlde the same, but thou? That which the Church of Christ hath hitherto defined, and so many yeeres obserued as good, doost thou ouerthrowe it, as though it were euill, and so doost dissipate by thy doctrine, both Ecclesiasti­call and Ciuill Common-weales? Thus, in those, and other places, his owne conscience and iudgement did accuse and condemne him, of singular obstinate rebellion, and disobedience, [Page 124] to the Church of God, as appeareth, and he fur­ther declareth in these wordes:Luther. tom. 1. Germ. [...]entac. fol. 4 colloq. mensal. fol. 158. & 273. I neuer put those thoughts and cogitations foorth of my minde, that is, that this worke and businesse (hee meaneth his A­postacie) had neuer beene begunne by mee: For, what a greate multitude of men haue I seduced by my Doctrine? I neuer had a greater and more greeuous temptation, than for my preaching, because I thought with my selfe, thou hast stirred vp all this tumult, in which temptation oftentimes, I haue beene drow­ned euen to Hell it selfe. Thus, his conscience, so long as hee had any, condemned him; thus, hee repented his disobedience, and saide, that hee hoped,Luther. in Prae­fat. in tom. 1. Germ. Ientacul. the Bookes which hee had written woulde bee burnt, and infect no more. But when the bridle of Obedience was altogether broken, his Conscience extinguished, and plumes of pride and sensualitie had mounted him so high, and carried him so farre, hee be­haued himselfe in his spirituall apostacie, as by the testimonie of Suetonius, Sueton. in vita Iul. Caesar. Iulius Caesar did in his temporall rebellion against the Romane state; which in the beginning, doubted whe­ther hee should go forwarde, or no; but when hee hadde cast off shame, brake out into this speach, Iacta est alea; My chaunce is throwne, the matter is gone so farre, that I can not retire, therefore I must goe forwarde, howsoeuer it falleth out. Euen so Luther (as you haue heard) did in the beginning; but when shipwracke was made of all shamefastnesse, hee vttered his de­sperate and vnreasonable resolution of obsti­nate perseueraunce in these termes; Because I [Page 124] haue entered into this cause, Luther. in colloq. mental. fol. 241. to. 5. germ. fo. 141 nowe I must looke vn­to it, and of necessitie say, It is iust. If you aske a reason, Doctour Martine Luther will haue it so. Sic volo, sic iubeo, sit pro ratione voluntas; So I will, so I commaunde, let my pleasure stand for a reason: for wee will not be Schollers, but Maisters and Iudges of Papists, yea wee will once (Proter­uire & insultare) bee malaparte and insulte ouer them. I Doctour Martine Luther, an vnwoorthie Euangelist of our Lorde Iesus Christ, do say and af­firme this Article (faith alone without woorkes dooth iustifie before God) the Romane Emperour shall suffer it to stand and remayne, the Empe­rour of the Turkes, the Emperour of the Tartares, the Emperour of the Persians, the Pope of Rome, the Cardinalles, Bishoppes, Priestes, Moonkes, Nunnes, Princes, Lordes, the whole world, with all Diuelles, and they shall further haue hell fire ouer their heads, and I will giue them no thanks for their paines: let this be my instinct from the holy ghost, of Doctour Luther, and my true and holie Go­spell. This (right Honourable) was the spi­rite and ground, wherevppon you see Prote­stancie was first founded, by this it was buil­ded, by this it was and is continued.Eccles, c. 10. c. 1 As the Scripture witnesseth, Pride, Wine, and Women are the originalles of Apostacie; and so it was in Luther, so it was in all these Authors of this in­nouation. If Pride had not beene, they had kept their vowe of obedience: If wine, deli­cacies, and riches had not borne a sway, they had continued their vowe of pouertie: if wo­men, wantonnesse, and carnall pleasures had [Page 126] not carried them away, their vowe of chastity had not beene broken, Protestancie founded vppon those three pillers, had not bin knowne; true Religion had not beene forsaken. And yet experience hath prooued, that all the pride and glorie of the worlde, all the riches, pomps, pleasures and sensible delights, that haue mo­ued carnall men, to oppose themselues against it, cannot ouerthrowe it, but Trueth is stron­ger than all: and the Probleme which the no­bles of Darius putte vnder the pillowe of their Prince,L. 3. Esdr. c. 3. to be disputed and argued, when hee shoulde awake, is performed, Wine is strong, the King is stronger, Women are stronger: aboue all things Trueth dooth ouercome. For, what­soeuer pleasures, riotous and banquetting de­lights, honour, ambition, preferrement, or the power, potencie of King or Potentate coulde e­uer doe, or wantonnesse, and carnall solace, or any thing else King or Queene, man or wo­man coulde hitherto effect, or bring to passe; the verity of this Religion, and onelie of this, hath still preuailed. My Honourable Patrons, let this Schedule and Conclusion of the Persian Nobles, bee putte vnder the pillowe of our Princesse;Stowe in Comp. hist. in aetat. Reg. Angl. Graft hist. Tom. Concil. Stat. parl. Reg. Angl. Resol. Re­lig. part 2. per mult. arg. if she sleepe and slumber too long, (shee is the oldest Prince since the Conquest) awake her foorth of dreame, and let this que­stion of Religion bee nowe at last disputed in her time; let equall audience bee had, the whole Christian worlde twenty times in Gennerall Councelles hath giuen sentence for vs, many thousands of Prouinciall Councelles haue pro­nounced [Page 127] iudgement, that our cause is right, al Christian Kings of England, and other Nations in their Lawes and Parliaments haue ratified it to be iust, all Popes, Fathers, Schooles, V­niuersities, Colledges of all ages haue pro­nounced their opinion on our side, all Argu­ments humane and diuine,Bernard. Lut [...]. Catalog. haeret. miraculous and ordinarie; yea all former Heretikes foure hun­dred in number, all differing from Protestants, in all, or most matters, wherein they disagree from vs, haue approoued it, and all these con­demned Protestants Religion.Salu. conduct. fact. protest. in Concil. Trident. Fox tom. 2. mo [...]. in Cranm. Lati [...]. We haue offered them all trialles, giuen them as great securitie and safe conduct, as Popes, Emperours, and Kings coulde giue, to come to disputation: their owne Schooles condemned them, and if clapping handes, hissings, and exclamations, in place of disputation, bee arguments of con­demnation. Foxe himselfe beareth mee witnes, that their prime Protestantes, Archebishoppe Cranmer, and Bishoppe Latimer, their princi­pall Disputants, were thus exploded and con­demned in Oxford. Wee neuer had so much as a peece of promise of our Princesse, for any e­qualitie of Disputation: what that in the time of her first Parliament was, our Protestant Chronicles will tell, and many remember, to their little glorie. What the latter in the To­wer was, no man is ignorant howe much it did disgrace them. No lawe of God, of Na­ture, of any Nation, doth, or can iudge, con­uict, and condemne the vilest Subiect in the meanest matter, if hee bee absent, but where [Page 128] by contempt hee refuseth triall. The Question whereof wee contend, is the greatest, the meanes wee haue made for audience, bee all that can be deui [...], those that haue sought it, are not to be contemned, the iudgements that haue beene pronounced for vs, bee innumera­ble, and of highest authoritie, if euer any was giuen against vs, you see howe vnequall and vniust it was: and yet I offer to prooue that no Lawe or Parliament of England hath or can condemne vs, euen by her Maiesties procee­dings.

Then my Lordes and Patrones, as you are wise, you knowe what to doe, as you are gra­cious with our Queene, in whose handes the redresse of this matter lieth, as you are maisters of your selues, potent and beloued with the Nobles, and powerable with all her people, you are able to performe what is to bee doone; as you are mercifull, you must take compassion; as iustice belongeth to your place, you can not make deniall. The matter it selfe, all circum­staunces of persons, places, and time, bidde mee bee secure, you will heare my petition. The matter is, the cause of God, and his high­est reuerence: your Honourable persons may not be vnmercifull, the persons of our greatest persecutours bee impious, the persons of vs your poore suppliants are your most duetifull, religious, and vniustly afflicted Countreymen, of your flesh and blood; for place, of that na­tion whereof you bee chiefe members, and wee [Page 129] little limmes, to deny influence vnto vs, is to be­reaue your selues of life, being of the same bo­dy: If I will pleade by time, as Daniell did,Dan. c. 9.2. Esa. 1 Ierem. 25.29. Stowe histor. in He. 8. parl. H. 8. Leuit. c. 25.27. Numer. 36. Ios. 6. wee haue suffered a long persecution, as hee dispu­ted with God, concerning his promise of Re­demption of the captiues of Israel, Septuagesi­mus iam annus est, it is (or almost is) the sea­uentieth yeere of our desolation, since King Henry the eight beganne to impose this heauie burden vppon vs. The time biddeth mee goe forward, for the yeere of Iubile centesimus an­nus is begunne, when all exiles were to re­turne, olde priuiledges to bee enioyed, all fa­uours and graces to bee graunted. This is the time when all christian Countries in the world, but we, and such as depend of vs, are at peace among themselues. Your Honours knowe bet­ter than I can enforme,Articul. & Coud. pacis 1598. pro­aem articul. artic. 1, 2, 3. ait. 31.32. what a generall amitie and friendshippe Clement the eight POPE that nowe is, hath concluded among them, where­in are comprehended the POPE himselfe, the Emperour, Electors, all Kings, Princes, Dukes, Com­mon-weales, States, Rulers and Regiments of the Popedome, Empire, Bohemia, Spaine, Fraunce, Ger­many, Polland, Sweede, Scotland, Denmarke, Ve­nice, Lorraine, Thuscane, Genoa, Luca, Parma, Playsance, Austria, Mantua, Vrbine, Salamoneta, Monaco, Fynall, Massa, Plombin, Sola, Carolino, Pallatine, Brandenburge, Wittenbergh, Hessen, Hamsbach, East Freesland, Cantons of Switzerland and many others. Noble Patrones, your of­fice is to seeke for peace, and maintaine it, the estate of our Princes, and all hir people is to [Page 130] wish it, that fauour I intreate, is the way to per­fect peace, to peace with heauen, to peace with earth, with all others, with our selues. All things desire peace, and seeke for rest, and your wisedomes are not, will not, cannot be against it. And to knowe the way of peace, there is a ground in Artes, vppon which all knowledge is grounded; Quae conueniunt vnitertio, conueni­unt inter se, &c. Those thinges that agree in a third thing, agree among themselues, and such as disagree in a third, disagree among them­selues. For if things agree, they must needes agree in something, if they agree not in that wherein they shoulde agree, of necessity they must be at variance; and at greater difference, by howe much their difference is greater, in that wherein they shoulde consent; this is eui­dent in all communities and agreements. That which maketh peace and vnitie with God and man, is true Religion, that bindeth them toge­ther. That which vniteth Christians, is the one certaine rule and promulgation of that faith; that which concordeth man with him­selfe, and the inferiour appetites to reason, is the grace which that Religion giueth, and by howe much wee differ most in these things, by so much our disagreement with God, with men, with our selues is greater. The Kingdomes, and Countries, Kings and Rulers of Spaine, Fraunce, Italie, Polonia, Sueuia, Transiluania, Bohemia, Austria, Bauaria, Sauoy, Lorraine, Brit­tanie, Burgundy, and other Countries agree in these things, and they are at perfect vnitie and [Page 131] peace; and vntill they did agree therein, they were not. And all other Countries and King­domes agree more or lesse, as they agree here­in; there is no Religion wherein England can a­gree with any, because the Religion thereof is different from all; neither can any twoo Pro­testant Nations haue this peace together, be­cause no twoo of them bee of one Religion. If wee will agree in this poynt with Catholicke Nations, wee shall agree with God, because true Religion is our vnion with him, wee shall agree with Angelles, for the same is approo­ued with them, wee shall agree with all glori­ous soules in Heauen, for this is necessarie to the communion and communication of Saints; wee shall be at concorde with the happy patient Christians in Purgatorie, wee shall haue peace with our selues, with all Catholicke Christians in the worlde, that be, that euer were before vs, or shall be after. Wee shall agree with all, with whome atonement must and ought to bee made, and disagree with none, but with Di­uelles, damned spirites, and such as doe, will, and can agree with none, and with whom no good man, in conscience, can agree in such things. And our agreement shall be perfect, in­dssoluble, generall, and for euer, because the e [...]fect and vnion of Religion is not for one fami­li [...] countrie, cittie, time, and place, as the com­binations and carnall vnions of kinred, coun­try and such temporall coniunctions are, but foreuer, and all, and so is the greatest that can be. If it bee in your powers to procure this at­tonement, [Page 132] if you performe it, you shall effect the most honourable and renowned thing our age hath seene, and they which so much desire it, and iustly deserue it, will not, can not bee vngratefull in their liues and words, and in their writings, will make you honourable to all po­sterities. If you can performe it, and neglect it, although you be no formall persecutours, yet because you suffer others to doe it, and leaue it in their power, when you may amend it, you wil be in the degree of dishonor both with God and man, as those enemies which I remembred before, and except you recall your mindes, like to taste of the same vengeance they haue done; it is the cause of God, which is powerable to punish, that is, iust, and will take reuengement. What is best to be done, your Honors knowe, and no man can be ignorant; what you wil do, I commit to your honourable and prudent con­sideration, and your Honours to Gods prote­ction. And craue leaue to giue my lawfull charge vpon these impious and irreligious ene­mies of Christ, and rebellious traitours to his holy Catholike Church, and euer-during In­heritance. 25. Mar. 1601.

Your Honours poore afflicted Ca­tholike Countrey-man. R. B.

IHS

At Antuerpe Printed by Arnold Coninx 1601.

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