WITS Theater of the little World.

Breue iter ad bonum per exempla, longum per praecepta.

Printed by I. R. for N. L. & are to be sold at the VVestdoore of Paules. 1599.

To my most esteemed and ap­proued louing friend, Maister Iohn Bodenham, R. A. vvisheth all happines.

SIR, for many causes best knowne vnto your selfe, and euer of me to bee acknow­ledged, it might be thought I were no lon­ger worthy of your loue, if I shoulde not in some sort shew my selfe thankeful. Besides, this history or Theater of the little VVorld, SVOIVRE, first challengeth your friendly patro­nage, by whose motion I vndertooke it, and for whose loue I am willing to vndergoe the heauy burden of censure. I must confesse that it might haue beene written with more maturitie, & de­liberation, but in respect of my promise I haue made this hast, how happy I know not, yet good enough I hope, if you vouchsafe your kinde ap­probation: which with your iudgement I holde ominous, and as vnder which, Politeuphuia was so gracious. Very fitly is man compared to a tree, whose rootes are his thoughts, whose branches and leaues his wordes (which are suf­ficiently set forth in choicest Sentences & Simi­litudes) [Page] the fruite whereof are his workes, now shewed in Examples. In these, as in a glasse, is to be seene the two-fold course of mans life, & such presidents, as eyther may be followed for vertu­ous, or eschevved as vicious. In many of them, I haue beene briefe, the better to assure & con­sume memory, in others, somewhat prolixe, be­cause I would auoyde obscuritie. These all, how soe [...]er they want the high charactered stile and smooth phrase (which is the body of eloquence) together with my best endeuours, I offer to your loue, that hath begot in me this labor, whose af­ter studies shall bee imployed to nourish it, and continue my euer thankefull mind for the same, resting alwayes

Yours most assured to commaund. Robert Allott.

To the Reader.

THE auncient Phylosophers (cour­teous Reader) haue written of tvvo vvorlds, the great and the lesser, the first is eyther vniuersall, which Plinie and others haue described, or perticuler, which is deuided into Heauen, called Mun­dus Architypus, & Earth, which Strabo, Pom­ponius Mela, and Solinus, haue set forth. The little world is man, (so called of Aristotle) for vvhom the greater vvorld was made. I haue therefore called these lucubrations or rather collections, The Theater of the little world, for that in it thou maist beholde the inward and outward parts of man, liuely figured in hys actions and behauiour. And albeit the per­sons I alledge haue giuen place to nature, yet the same or the like accidents happen daily. Thys worke gathered out of diuers learned Authours, I may not call mine, least it bee sayd; Tu quidem á Neuio, vel sumplis [...]i multa si fateris, vel sinegas surripuisti. But howesoe­uer this my labour shall be thought perfunc­tory [Page] & idle; because it is but a collection o [...] the flowers of antiquities and histories; ye [...] dooth it comprehend those seauen persons which haue euer been thought most worth [...] subiects to be written of, as Kings, Knights Bishops, Iudges, Magistrates, Husbands i [...] theyr houses, & Religious men in the chur­ches. The profit that ariseth by reading thes [...] epitomized histories is, to aemulate tha [...] vvhich thou likest in others, and to mak [...] right vse of theyr examples. If I haue no [...] obserued the true method (which Plato cal­leth a fire sent from heauen) nor honoure [...] neuer-dying memory as it deserueth, par­don my default, and shew thy gentle accep­tance (which is Genius Librorum, the veri [...] life of bookes) proue al, & approue the best, which done, Tanquam Hercules in biuio, [...] sequere aut vita.

A Table of all the Authours Names contayned in this Booke.

  • Augustinus
  • Aurelius.
  • Albumazar
  • Agathias
  • Appian
  • Aelianus.
  • Aristotle
  • Ambrose
  • Apoll. Thya.
  • Au. Gellius.
  • Biblia. Sacra.
  • Bernard.
  • Bruzo Hisp.
  • Berosus
  • Beza
  • Budeus
  • Brusoninus
  • Balaeus.
  • Chrisostome.
  • Cor. Tacitus
  • Cor. Agrippa.
  • Cicero.
  • Cassianus
  • Cassiodorus,
  • Caelius Rhod.
  • Carion.
  • D. Areopagita
  • Dion,
  • Diodorus,
  • Dodoneus
  • Damascenus
  • D. Laertius
  • Dioschorides
  • Eusebius
  • Eutropius
  • Euripides
  • Erasmus
  • Egesippus.
  • Fulgosius
  • Fulgentius
  • Fenestella
  • Florus
  • Freizard.
  • Gregorie.
  • Guido
  • Gueuara
  • Guichardine
  • Grymaldus
  • Hieronimus
  • Hesiodus
  • Hermes
  • Homer
  • Herodotus
  • Horace
  • Herodianus.
  • Iosephus
  • Isocrates
  • Iustinus
  • Iraeneus.
  • Iambylicus
  • Isodorus
  • Lactantius
  • Liuius
  • Lipsius.
  • [Page]Lampridius
  • Lucianus
  • Lucanus
  • Luther.
  • Leo.
  • Macrobius.
  • Marcianus
  • Marsilius
  • Massaeus
  • Marullus
  • Marcellius.
  • Mirandula
  • Munster.
  • Nicephorus
  • Niphus.
  • Orosius.
  • Osorius
  • Olaus Mag.
  • Ouid.
  • O [...]pheus.
  • P. Diaconus
  • P. Martyr.
  • Plato.
  • Plinie.
  • Plutarch
  • Phil. Lonc.
  • Procopius
  • Porphyrius
  • Polybius
  • Polydorus
  • Plautus.
  • Philo Iudaeus.
  • Patricius
  • Pulio
  • Pontanus
  • Phil. Com.
  • Polychron.
  • Petrarch
  • Pacunius
  • Pausanias
  • Quintilian
  • Q. Curtius.
  • Rauisius.
  • [...]
  • Sabellicus
  • Sui [...]as.
  • Soli [...]s.
  • Suetonius
  • Seneca.
  • Stobaeus
  • Statius
  • Salustius
  • Strabo.
  • Sparthianus
  • Theophrast.
  • Thucidides
  • Trebell. Pol.
  • Tertullianus
  • Vigetius
  • Varro.
  • Vitruuius
  • Virgillius.
  • Vincentius
  • Vopiscus.
  • Volateranus.
  • Val. Max.
  • Vrbanus.
  • Xenophon
  • Zosimus.
  • Zonarus.

THE THEATER OF the little World.

Of God. GOD is called in the holy Scriptures by these names; Elohim, Elohah, El, Eli, Elion, Iehouah, Iah, Adonai, Shaddai, Zebaoth, which signifie his name, essence, power, & omnipotencie.

GOD is called Iehouah, not only because he is, hath been, and shall bee, but for that in him we liue, moue, and haue our beeing. August.

Iesus in the Greeke tongue is called Sother, in Latine Sanator or Saluator, & euery name of these signifieth in our lan­guage a Sauiour, likewise Emanuell, which is to say, God with vs; Alpha & Omega, the beginning and the ending.

Iesus is the proper name of Christ, and Christ his sirname, Iesus the name of his god-head [Page] and diuinitie, Christ the name of his office and dignitie, from which we are denomina­ted Christians, how vainely then doe the Ie­suites call themselues from his proper name?

God hath created man 4. seuerall wayes; the first, without man and woman, as Adam out of the earth; the second, of man with­out woman, as Euah of Adams rib, the third, of man and woman, as we are now borne, the fourth and last, of a virgin without man, as Christ of the virgine Mary. Bernard.

GOD within the Arke, made quiet the Lyon with the Leopard, the VVolfe with the Lambe, the Beare with the Cowe, the Tygar with the Crocodile, the Horse with the Mare, the Dog with the Catte, the Foxe with Hennes, the Hounds with Hares, and so of all other beasts. Aurelius.

Socrates, the schoolemaister of Plato, con­fessed one onely God, and was condemned to drinke poyson, for teaching that the hea­then Gods which they worshipped in hys time, were but vanity. Aul. Gel.

VVhen Plato wrote of any serious matter, he began his Letters in the name of one on­ly God, and when otherwise, in the name of many gods. Ep. ad Dyonis.

Orpheus who did write of the pluralitie of [Page 2] gods in his time to Musaeus, made recantati­on, saying, There is but one God. Athenag.

Cicero alledgeth one soueraigne god, Her­mes Euripides, Sophocles, Epictetus, Hesi­odus, & Ouid, attribute the creation of the world, and all things therein to one God.

Antisthenes was of opinion, that there vvere many popular gods, and but one true and naturall God, which is the Creator of al.

The Sabians worshipped God in 3. per­sons, naming the first Holy, the second Fidi­us, the third Semi-pater, and in their oathes they did commonly put Fidius in the midst, as vnder that name comprehending all the 3. persons, whereof came their great oath, Medius Fidius.

The auncient Romans called their Iupiter Optimus maximus, to shew that his diuinity is before his omnipotencie.

The Persians had two gods, the one good, Creator & author of al goodnes, whom they called by the name of Truth, the other wic­ked, author of all euill, resembling him to Darknes and Ignorance. Agathius.

The Tuscane wits are sharpe and waspish, God keepeth them vnder a Prince, the Switzers be a people of a contrary dispositi­on, peaceable and quiet, he therefore giueth [Page] them liberty, the Venetians to be of a meane betwixt both, therefore hee permitteth to them a mixt or meane kind of gouernment. Lipsius.

Euclides beeing demaunded many things touching God, aunswered: Other thinges I know not, but of this I am assured, that hee hateth curious persons.

The Athenians banished Protagoras their cittie and Country, because in one of his bookes he called in question the dietie; and caused his bookes to be burned. Cicero.

Vpon the image of Senacharib in Egipt was written, Learne by me to feare God.

Pherecides an Assyrian, for contemning God, and godlines, was so consumed vvith lyce, that he fled for shame from the societie of men, and died miserably.

Lucian, hauing professed Christianity vn­der the Emperour Traian, fell away after­wardes, and became so prophane and impi­ous, that hee mocked at Religion and diui­nitie, where-vpon hee was sirnamed Atheist, in the end he was torne in peeces with dogs. Suidas.

The Emperour Iustinian, continuing ob­stinate in the heresie of Pelagius, the wrath of God fell vpon him, and suddenly without [Page 3] any grudge or token of sicknes, hee was de­priued of his sences, and became a foole, hee was so strooken, that his life and folly ended in one day. P. Diaconus.

Iulian the Apostate, at his death cast vp his blood into the ayre, crying Vicisti Galilaee.

Augustus erected an Altar in the Capitoll, with this inscription, The altar of the first be­gotten sonne of God. Niceph.

The Emperour Tiberius, vpon a Letter written to him from Pontius Pilate, repor­ting the miracles of Iesus and his innocent death, with his glorious resurrection, pre­ferred a bill to the Senate with his assent vn­to it, to haue them proclaime Iesus to bee God, which they refused, but Tiberius a­bode still in his opinion. Egesippus.

Alexander the sonne of Mammea, dyd in his chappell worship Iesus, sirnamed Christ, of whom he tooke his Poesie, (Doe not to an­other, that which thou wouldest not haue doone vnto thy selfe.) And therefore the Antiochi­ans called him the Arch priest of Syria. Dion.

Certaine Pagans vsed outrage and offered great iniurie to a religious man, and in dis­daine asked him what profit hee had by his Christ? Is not this, aunswered hee, a singu­ler profit, not to be moued with your bitter [Page] words, and to pardon the heauie wrongs you haue doone me? Cassianus.

The Apostles forsooke all, and followed Christ, that the mother Church might re­ceiue them naked, whom their mother flesh had brought naked into the world. Cyprian.

The Christian souldiers vnder Iulian the Apostate burning incense, had almost forsa­ken Christ, but after, beeing better aduised, they restored theyr gifts to him which hee gaue them to commit idolatry, and earnestly desired, that for their right hand vvhich had made that fault, their whole body might suf­fer for Christ. Ph. Lonicerus.

Marcellius Bishop of Rome, for [...]eare of Dioclesian offered sacrifice to idols, & Hea­then gods, but afterward lamented it. Idem.

Origen constrained and drawne to the Al­tar by the cruell instruments of sathan, sacri­ficed to the gods of Alexandria, but after be­ing desired to teach at Ierusalem, reading the 16. verse of the 50. psalme, Vnto the vvicked sayd God, what hast thou to doe, to declare mine ordinaunces, that thou shouldest take my com­maundement in thy mouth? he sate downe and mourned.

The Valentinians did hold, that there were thirtie couple of Gods, the Heathen vvor­shipped [Page 4] thirty thousand. August.

Euphemera Tegeian, wrote the true Hi­storie and genealogie of the Heathen Gods, shewing that they were Kings, Princes, and great personages, and therfore he was called Atheist. Lactan.

Varro, the best learned of all the Romans, made a bedrole of all the gods, for feare (as he sayth) least they should stray away, wher­in he concludeth, that those doe worship the true God, which adorne the onely one, and acknowledge him to bee the Gouernour of all the world.

The Pyrrhonists, a kinde of Philosophers called Sceptikes (that is to say, doubters) dyd rather suspend theyr iudgment touching the God-head, then call it in question.

Of Heauen. Heauen is called of Aristotle, the most excel­ent booke of nature, whose longitude is between both the Poles, latitude from East to the VVest, and altitude from the South to the North.

THere are in Heauen three Hierarchies, Epiphania, Epiphonomia, Euphumia. Epi­phania, containeth three orders, Seraphins, Cherubins, Thrones, the first of these excelleth [Page] in zealous loue, the second in knowledge, the third in iustice.

Epiphonomia, containeth likewise three or­ders, Principalities, Powers, Dominations, the first teacheth men of lower estate to re­uerence their farre betters; the next, chase away euill spirits, comforting thē that fight in ghostly battel, the last informe mē how to behaue thēselues in spiritual conflicts. Isidor.

Euphumia, hath also vnder it three lower or­ders, Vertues, Archangels, Angels, Angels working miracles, shewing miracles, & com­forters.

Saint Denis writeth of three Hierarchies, the first aboue heauen, of three persons, the second in heauen, of Angels, the third vnder heauen, of Prelates.

The Spheare, taken generally, containeth all perfect rounde bodies, vvhether they be sollid or not; vvhether contained vnder one only Superficies or more, and so may euery Orbe be called a Spheare: perticulerly ta­ken, and in his proper signification, nothing is a Spheare but a perfect round body being solid, contained vnder one Superficies or face, in whose middle is a poynt, from which all lines that are drawne to the Superficies, are equall the one to the other.

[Page 5]This is deuided into two parts, Elementall, which containeth the foure Elements, Fire, Ayre, VVater, Earth, which are subiect to alterations; Aethereall, that compasseth the [...]ementall substance in his hollownes▪ being by nature lightsome, vnchangeable, & con­t [...]ineth tenne Spheares.

The first and highest, is called the first Mooueable, containing all the other, and by his naturall motion mooueth from the East to the VVest, & so to the East againe in 24. howres space, & carrieth by violence all the other Spheares.

The next is the heauen Christaline, vvhich naturally but very slowlie, moueth from the East towards the vvest, in many yeeres pas­sing but one degree. This motion hath cau­sed the starres to alter their longitudes.

The third is the Firmament of fixed starrs, whose motion by nature is vppon two little Circles, the one about the head of Aries, the other of Libra, which is called the motion of Trepidation.

The other seauen Spheares are of the sea­uen Planets, of which Saturne is the highest, yet slowest in proper motion, cold, dry, and pale, who endeth his course in thirty yeeres, he mooueth from vvest toward East.

[Page] Iupiter is temperate, faire and bright, moo­uing from VVest to East, vvhose course [...] preformed in twelue yeeres.

Mars is hote and dry, of fierie colour ma­king his reuolution from VVest toward East in two yeeres.

Sol is a King among the Plants in the mid [...] of his throne, the golden eye of heauē, light­ning the vniuersall frame with his beames making one perfect reuolution in three hun­dred sixtie fiue dayes and sixe houres.

Venus is cold, moist, and cleere, her cours [...] is like vnto Sol, neuer aboue eight & fortie degrees from him, when she sheweth in ou [...] Horizon shee is called Lucifer, the day starre and when shee followeth him, shee is called Hesperus, the euening starre.

Mercurie is neuer aboue 29. degrees from the Sun▪ his course is like vnto the same.

The Moone lowest of the seauen, running ouer the whole Zodiacke in 27. dayes and eyght houres, and somewhat more. Al these seauen make theyr reuolution naturally frō VVest to East, & yet by violence of the first moueable, are carried from East to VVest.

The Spheare of heauen goeth vpon two Poles, the North and the South, which are neuer seene of vs.

[Page 6]The Center of the Spheare is the middle poynt of the same, and the Axe of it is a right line, passing from one side of the same (by his Center) to the cōtrary side, about which the roundnes of heauen moueth, as a wheele about an Axletree, but the lyne it selfe stan­d [...]th still.

The ends of this line Axis, are called Car­dines caeli, because they mooue about the hol­lownes of the Poles.

The Hemispheare is halfe the Spheare, that is the part that is seene of vs, & for default of our sight, it seemeth to vs to touch the earth.

In the body of the highest Spheare & first Moueable, it is imagined that there are ten Circles, the sixe greater are the Aequinoctial, Zodiacke, Horizon, Meridian, and two Co­lures, the lesser foure, are the Tropicke of Cancer, the Tropicke of Capricorne, the Ar­ticke, and Antarticke.

The Equinoctiall, called the Aequator, or girdle of heauen, deuideth Heauen into two parts alike, the which be called Hemispheares, so called, eyther for that it is equally in the midst of heauen, or for that the Sun cōming to his circle, makes both day & night equall.

The Zodiacke is a great circle, & taketh his name of the Greek word signifying a lyuing [Page] creature, and of the Latines Signifer, for th [...] it beareth the twelue signes.

Horizon deuideth the halfe of the Heaue [...] which we see, from the halfe which vvee [...] not, in Latine it is called Finitor, & maketh principal points, East, VVest, North, Sout [...]

The Meridian passeth frō the Poles of [...] world by our Verticall poynt, cutting the H [...]rizon in the North and South poynts.

Colures doe declare the times called Aequ [...]noctiall and Solstitiall, that is, when the da [...] and night be equall in length, also when th [...] day and the night are at the longest, passin [...] by the signe Libra into Aries, & turne [...] to their owne point.

The Tropicke of Cancer is a circle, equall [...] distant from the Equinoctiall, lying between [...] it and the North Pole, and touching the E [...]clipticke in the beginning of Cancer, it is calle [...] Tropicke, signifying a returning, because th [...] Sunne beeing brought to this point, fallet [...] in his noone height, and returneth againe.

The Tropicke of Capricorne is betwixt the Aequator and the South Pole, & is described by the Sun in the shortest day of vvinter, [...] which time the sun entereth into Capricorne

The Articke Circle is a lesse circle of the Spheare, described by the Northerne Pole, [Page 7] of the Ecliptick▪ Proclus sayth it is described by the formost foote of Vrsa maior, & there­of taketh his name.

The Antarticke is a like circle described by the South Pole of the Eclipticke, and is called Antarticke of a Greek word, which signifieth Opposition, because it is opposite to the other.

The foure greater circles are still the same through the whole world, and are sayd to bee moueable circles, for so much as in the mo­tion of heauen, they be also mooued, of the which the Aequinoctiall and the Zodiacke are moueable perfectly: but the two Colures are vnperfectly mooueable, and neuer shew the whole circle in any crooked Spheare.

The other 2. greater circles be called fixed, for that they neuer mooue by the motion of heauen, but they be changeable in euery re­gion, forsomuch as the Verticall of euery Re­gion is diuers, by the which the Meridian of necessitie must passe, and is the Pole also of the Horizon.

By the twelue signes the Planets that bee called Sidera errantia moue not, for they err, for they haue most certaine moouing, but they bee called errantia, because they holde theyr course against the course of the Firma­ment. Marcianus.

[Page] Caput Draconis, and Cauda Draconis, the hea [...] of the Dragon, and the tayle, are two starre that are of the natures of Planets; this Dra [...]gon kept the garden of the Hesperides, an [...] for his continuall vvatching vvas placed i [...] Heauen. Ouid.

Cepheus was sometimes King of Egipt, th [...] husband of Cassiopeia, and Father of Andr [...]meda the loue of Perseus, at whose byrth th [...] Gods swore that none of his kinde should tast of immortalitie, and therefore hee [...] stellified.

Bootes or the Northerne VVagoner, kee [...]peth the two Beares, the same circle is calle [...] Ar [...]ophilax, and is beautified vvith man [...] starres.

Corona, or Ariadnes crowne, made of ni [...] siluer starres, which was the garland that Venus gaue vnto her when she became Bacchu [...] loue after that Theseus forsooke her. Ouid.

Hercules, after his many great labours, [...] the consent of all the Gods, vvas taken v [...] into Heauen.

Lyra, or the Harpe of Orpheus, by vvho [...] melodious touch hee drevve stones, byrds and beasts after him; after his death vva [...] fained to be a signe in Heauen.

Cignus the Swanne, vnder whose shape Iu­piter [Page 8] rauished Laeda, was by him made a star.

Cassiopeia, sometimes the pride of Egypt, for brauing the Sea Nymphs Nereides with her beauty, was changed into a starre, vvho in the motion of the heauens is drawn back­wards.

Perseus is next her, the sonne of Danae, whō Iupiter begot of her in the shape of a golden shower, he ouercame Medusa by the help of Minerua, and rescued Andromeda, but at hys returne, his grandsire Acriseius meeting him, vvas by Medusas heade turned to a stone, which Perseus much lamenting, was by the Gods taken vp into heauen.

Auriga or the VVagoner, the Poets fayne to be Hippolitus, who stying his mother Phae­dras lust, was for his chastitie by the Gods made a starre.

By him stands the great Iupiters Nurse, by w [...]om hee vvas fostered, vvhen hee vvas conueied by his mother Ops, from Saturne, who would haue deuoured him.

Serpentarius the Serpent holder, hauing the picture of a man, is composed of tvventi [...] foure starres, holding a Serpent in his hand [...] and as it vvere striuing there-vvith, hee is fayned to bee Esculapius the sonne of Apollo, vvho vvhen Hippolitus vvas dead, restored [Page] him againe to life, and after was called Vi [...]bius. Ouid.

The Serpent Phoebus placed by his sonne for that by his meanes hee restored [...]lau [...] king Minos sonne from death to life.

Sagitta the dart, is that strong steeled arro [...] with the which Hercules killed the Griffi [...] that tyred vpon Prometheus hart, when he [...] was chained to the top of Caucasus, for ste [...]ling fire from heauen.

Aquila the Eagle, or the bird of Ioue, wh [...] stole the fayre Phrygian Ganimede, an [...] brought him to Iupiter, who serued him wit [...] N [...]ar and Ambrosia.

The Dolphin is that Fish vvhich when [...]rion was cast into the sea, first receiue him kindly vppon his backe, and afterwar [...] sette him sa [...]e on shoare in Italie, in recom [...]pence vvhereof, the Gods placed him in th [...] firmament.

Equiculus, the little horse of Bacchus, [...] vvhom he vsed to ryde vvhen his idle brain [...] vvas ouerburdened vvith too much vvin [...] a [...]ter vvhose death, his maister desired the Gods that he might in requitall of his seruic [...] be made a starre.

Pegasus, the flying horse, ingendred by the sun, of Medusas blood, could be managed by [Page 9] [...], vntill Bellerophon vndertooke him, who [...]ding vp into the skies, fell downe from him [...] to the Seas, but the horse kept his way still [...] heauen, where he resteth.

Andromeda the wife of Perseus, (at whose [...]rth the Gods promised her immortality,) [...]ter her death had her place amongst the [...]arres.

The Triangle signifieth the three squared forme of the thrice happy land of Cicilia, the Countrey of Ceres, which shee desired the Gods to be placed in heauen, for the loue she [...]re to the Land.

All these stars aboue mentioned, haue their residence in the Arcticke clymes, keeping their continuall motion with the Spheares.

Aries is the golden Ramme, that carryed Phryxus and his sister ouer Hellespont from their cruell mother.

Taurus the Bull that Iupiter transformed him into, when he stole Europa the daugh­ter of Agenor.

VVithin his forme are the seauen starres: once Atlas daughters called Atlantides, of [...]e which Electra the fayrest, the same night that Troy was burned, puld in her head, and would not see the flames, since vvhich [...]me, there be but sixe of them seene, vvho [Page] are also named, Hyades, and Plyades.

Gemini, Castor, and Pollux, were begot [...] Iupiter one Leda, when he transformed him [...]selfe into a Swan.

Cancer the Crab, when Hercules was figh [...]ting with Hydra, bit him by the heele, who [...] he espying killed, but Iuno for that she se [...] her, made her a signe in heauen.

Leo was the Nemean Lyon, whom Hercul [...] slew, and Ioue placed in heauen to grace hi [...] Sonne.

Virgo the Poets faine to be Iustice, vvh [...] forsaking earth flew to heauen, enforced b [...] the wickednes of men.

Libra are the ballance of Iustice, wheret [...] she wayed the vnequall actions of mens dis [...]ordered lyfes.

Scorpio was made a signe for killing Ori [...] with his sting, who proudly boasted, that th [...] earth bred no monster, but he could subdue

Sagitarius is Crocus, the sonne of Euth [...]mia, that nursed the Muses, who sucked tha [...] milke the Muses left, whom at their reque [...] Iupiter made a signe.

Capricornus was the disguised shape of Pa [...] the God of sheepheards, halfe fish and half Goate, when the Gyant Typhon warred a [...]gainst the Gods, which when the wars wer [...] [Page 10] ended, Iupiter placed among the starres.

Aquarius is Ganymedes of Troy, vvhom Iupiter caused his Eagle to fetch to bee his [...]ge.

Pisces are those fishes, that vvhen Venus and Cupid sporting themselues by Euphra­ [...]es, were compassed by the great Gyant Ti­phon, for feare of him tooke the Riuer, and were sustained by them whom she changed to starres.

These stars following, are of the Southerne climate.

The VVhale is placed next to the signes, which should haue deuoured Andromeda.

Orion was the sonne of Hyreus, who enter­tained Iupiter, Neptune, and Mercury, as they trauailed, who desired of them a Sonne, who after his death was thus metamorphized.

Eridanus or Padus, the Riuer wherein Pha­ethon was drowned, which for quenching of that flame, is among the starres.

The Hare is at his feete vvith two fierce dogges pursuing it, this fearefull beast Phae­thon delighted in, when he liued.

Iasons shippe in the which hee brought to Colchos, the golden fleece was placed next to Orion.

The Crow was so changed by Apollo, and [Page] the Cup likewise, with Hydra the Serpen [...] told him, kept him from the vvell, whethe [...] he was sent with the Cup for water.

Centaurus called Chiron the Schoolemaiste [...] of Esculapius, Achilles, and Hercules, was b [...] the Gods stellified.

The VVoolfe was placed next to him, an [...] an Altar, holding the Sacrifice in his hand [...] ready to offer, signifying his deuotion.

The wheele whereon Ixion was tortured for offering dalliance to Iuno.

The Southerne fish is called Venus daugh [...]ter, so transformed in the Sea.

Of Religion. From the beginning of the creation of th [...] world, Abell and Cain did religiously sacrifice [...] God, but Enoch was the first that set downes what manner he should be called vpon.

THE auntient Romaines through the in [...]stinct of nature onely, did so reuerenth think of Religion, that they sent theyr chi [...]dren, and the most noble men of Rome the [...] Sonnes into Hetruria, to learne the mann [...] of seruing God. Liuius.

They had neuer any greater meanes to ex­tend [Page 11] the borders of theyr Empire, and the glory of their famous Acts ouer all the earth, then Religion. Polybius.

Among the Athenians no King was crea­ted, before he had taken orders, and vvas a Priest, they killed all those that enuied theyr religion.

Theyr chiefest oath was this, In defending religion, both alone and with others will I fight against my foes. Demosth.

The Aegiptians of Philosophers chose their Priests, and of Priests their Kings.

The Lacedemonians when they laid hands vpon those that fled to the temple of Nep­tune for succour, Sparta was so shaken vvith earth-quakes, that few of theyr houses esca­ped. Nat. Comes.

The Phocians were condemned in a great summe of money, by the Amphyctiones, be­cause they had tilled grounde, which was consecrated to the Gods, which sum, when they refused to pay, they pronounced theyr Countrey, as confiscate to the Gods, where­vpon arose a warre, called the holy vvarre, made by the rest of the Grecians against thē, which in the end was their ruine. Diodorus.

Epicurus first began to rise, against the reli­gion of God. Lucretius.

[Page]The Germaines in the time of Tacitus, [...] neyther lawe nor religion, nor knowledge nor forme of common wealth, whereas no [...] they giue place to no nation for good in [...]struction in all things.

The Chananites were the first that vve [...] ignorant of the true worshipping of God because theyr first Authour and original Cham vvas cursed of his Father Noah. La [...]tantius.

The Hebrewes vvorshipped the true Go [...] at the first, but when they increased in num­ber, as the sands of the Sea, they went into diuers Countries, and left there true religi­on, fayning newe Gods and ceremonies▪ after their owne inuentions. Idem.

The Romaines allowed the seruice of [...] Gods, and to that end builded a temple to them all, called Pantheon, yet vvould they neuer receaue the true God, to wit, Ieho­uah the Lord GOD of the Hebrewes. Eu­sebius.

Ecebolius in Constantines time a Christi­an, in Iulianus a Gentile, lay along in the Church Porch, crying, tread me vnder foote, for that I am vnsauory salt. Idem.

Vitalis a Souldiour, when Vrsicinus a Phi­sition endured martirdome for religion, see­ing [Page 12] his courage to faile, boldly spake to him, [...]oe not Vrsicinus now cast away thy selfe, that hast cured so many, nor after so much blood of thine spilled, loose the merrit which is prepared for thee. Antonius.

The vnchristianlike behauiour of Christi­ans, haue caused the Turks euen to detest the true religion.

The cruelty, blasphemy, and couetousnes of the Spanyards, haue altogether alienated the poore Indians from the religion, which they gaue out to be true. Beuzo.

The Princes of Italy support the Iewes, rank enemies to religion.

Constantine was the first of the Romaine Emperours, that forsaking errors and here­sies, confessed and adored the maiesty of the true God. Lactantius.

Iouianus refused to gouern those that were not sound in faith; I (saith he) that am a Chri­stian, cannot become your Emperour, that are the Disciples of Iulian a runnagate from Christ. Eusebius.

The liberality of Princes, and especially of Matilda a Dutches of Italy, who at her death made the Pope her heire, begot ambition in the Bishops of Rome, and ambition destroy­ed religion. Aeneas Syluius.

[Page]Gratianus at his first entering, finding a places full of Arrians, & the lawes of Valen [...] his Vncle making for them, fearing some ge­nerall tumult, if he should presently distress [...] so manie, gaue leaue that euerie religion might haue churches & Oratories with free [...]dome, but being once ioyned with Theodo­tius, hee commanded that all theyr heresie [...] should be depressed; He sent the confession of his faith to Saint Ambrose. Eutropius.

Lycurgus reformed the estate of the Lace­demonians, Numa Pompilius of the Ro­maines, Solon of the Athenians, and Deuca­lion of all the Grecians, generally by making them deuoute and affectionate toward the Gods in prayers, oaths, oracles, and prophe­cies, through the meanes of feare, and hope of the diuine nature, which they imprinted in them.

Alexander after hee had sacked Tyrus, marched towards Ierusalem, to destroy it, because the Iewes refused to ayde him with victuals and munition, but when hee saw the high Priest comming towards him attired in his holy garments, he so reuerenced him, that he not onely spared the Citty, but also gaue gifts to the temple. Iosephus.

Cains a Romaine Emperor sent Petronius [Page 13] [...] Syria with commandement, to bid bat­ [...]e to the Iewes; If they would not receiue [...] Image into their temple, which they [...] to doe sa [...]ing: They had rather dye then [...] from the lawes of God. Idem.

The King of Calecut is chiefe of his religi­on and for this cause goeth before the other Ki [...]gs of India in dignity, and is called Samo­ry, that is to say, God on earth.

Canutus not full 32, yeres before the con­ [...]st, apparently proueth, that Princes kept their authority to cōmand, for matters of re­ [...]igion, more then 1000. yeares after Christ.

Charles the great, to Christian religion at [...]ononie, Padua in Italy, and Paris in France erected Academies.

Xerxes through counsaile of his Magi, commaunded all the temples and churches [...]hroughout Greece to bee burned, saying, [...]ha [...] it was wicked & impious, that Gods should [...] but vp in Churches. Cor. Agrippa.

In old time the Persians had no temples at [...]. Pausanias.

Theodectes a Poet, mingled his Tragedies [...] holy Scriptures, & therefore was struc­ [...]en with blindnes, vntill he had recanted his [...]piety. Iosephus.

A Iew often baptized for money sake, came [Page] to Paulus the Nouatian Bishop to that end, but the vvater twice vanishing out of the Fount, he said, O man, eyther thou dissemblest egregiously, or else thou art baptized vnwil­lingly. Eusebius.

Of Prayers & Thanksgiuing. The Maker and Redeemer of the world, di [...] vse great measure in all things, except in pray­ing, wherein hee was alwayes long, which he shewed most cleerely in Gethsemany, where ho [...] much the more the agonie did oppresse him, [...] much the more did he enlarge his prayers.

THE Hebrewes called the 100. and 1 [...] Psalme, and the next sixe following the great Alleluya, vvhich the Apostles sayd fo [...] grace at Easter and Pentecost.

The first earthly man of the Hebrewes, [...] called Adam, as homo tanquam ex humo, th [...] other heauenly of the Chaldeans, Enoch which signifieth true man, or that man whic [...] hath vndertaken, and hopeth to call vpo [...] God. Ambrosius.

Iacobus minor, the sonne of Ioseph brothe [...] of Christ, was so like him, that in the betray­ [...]ng, [Page 14] for feare they should mistake, Iudas [...]aue him a kisse; his knees with continuall [...]rayer, became as hard as a Cammels hoofe.

Bartholomew the Apostle, by his prayers, [...]estored the destracted daughter of Polemi­ [...]s King of India, to her former sences. Ma­ [...]ullus.

Arcadius was called of Chrisostome, the [...]ost Christian and godly Prince, who a litle [...]efore his death wone estimation of holines, [...]ot without the admiration of a great multi­ [...]ude, saued from destruction by his prayers. Theodorus. P. Diaconus.

God gaue Narsetes victory, more through [...]he zealous prayers that he vsed, then his [...]orce and valour; he neuer went to Sea, nor [...]egan any battaile, nor determined of warre, [...]or mounted on horseback, but first he went [...]o the temple and serued God. Blondus.

The Emperour Heraclius, after his warres [...]ere ended, entered Constantinople, sitting [...]n a Chariot without ornaments, and openly [...]aue thanks to the Sonne of God for his [...]reat victories. Orosius.

Tiberius that vertuous Emperour, being [...]riuen to a blessed necessity, as he walked in [...]he midst of his Pallace, he saw at his feete a [...]arble stone, vvhich was in forme of the [Page] crosse; and because he thought it religious to spurne it with his feete, he caused it to be taken vp, and vnder that found another, and so a third of the same forme, which when that was taken vp, there was found two millions of Duckets, for the which he thanked God.

Marcus Aurelius hauing felt the helpe of Christian prayers, ceased his persecution. Eusebius.

Prayers are of the Poets fayned, to be the daughters of Iupiter, because Kings & great men haue a number of followers and sutors. Orpheus.

Apollo being praied vnto to sing an Him [...] to the great GOD, began vvith this verse, VVhich made the first man and called him A­dam. Iustinus Martyr.

The lessons of Pythagoras, Plato, and thei [...] Disciples, began and ended with prayers.

The Brachmans among the Indians, & th [...] Magi among the Persians, neuer began any thing without praying vnto God.

Cleanthes in his Iambicke verses, praye [...] God to vouchsafe to guide him by his cause, which guideth all things in order, the which cause he calleth destiny, and the cause of cau­ses. Simplicius.

Pray said Nestor to his children, for vnlesse [Page 15] God helpe vs, we shall all perish. Homer.

The Romaines after many great victories, [...]etermined to make a very rich crowne of [...]old, and offer it to Apollo, but the common [...]reasure being poore, the vvomen defaced [...]heir Owches and Iewels to make it with all, [...]or which, they had graunted three things to [...]eare on their heads, garlands of flowers, to goe in chariots, and openly to the feasts of [...]he Gods.

Theseus asked of the Gods three things, good fortune, want of inward sorrow, & such glory as was neither false, counterfaite, nor [...]ained: of three other boones which he pray­ed of Neptune, the third was, in his fury cur­ [...]ing his sonne Hyppolitus, and wishing his violent death, which after it was granted, he repented him. Cicero.

Demonides hauing crooked feet, lost both of his shooes, where-vpon he desired God [...]hat his shoone might serue his feet that had [...]ound them.

VVhen Alcibiades was condemned by the Athenians, they commaunded the religious people of either sexe to curse him, which one of them refused to doe, saying, that they had entered religion not to make vniust, but iust prayers. Thucydides.

[Page]Sylla, Tiberius, Caligula, and Nero, neue [...] could but commaund and kill, on the other side, Augustus, Titus, and Traianus, could not but pray and pardon, in such manner that they ouercame praying, as the other figh­ting.

The Lacedemonians custome was, not to craue any thing of their Gods, but what was of importance and consequence, saying tha [...] all smal matters were to be obtained by man [...] industry.

Plinie in an oration he made in the prayse of Traiane, commended the custome of the Auntients, to make inuocation before the beginning of their work, and sayd, that there could be no assured nor wise beginning of a­ny enterprise, without the especiall ayde and counsaile of God.

In Athence was a temple dedicated to Mer­cy, which the Athenians kept so well watch­ed and locked, that without leaue & licence of the Senate, none might enter therein; in this temple were only the Images of pittiful men, and none entered there to pray and doe sacrifice, but those that vvere pittifull Macrobius.

Isocrates prayed God to saue and keepe him from his friends, rather then his ene­mies, [Page 16] saying, of his enemies he could be wary, [...]ecause I trust them not, so can I not of my [...]iends, because I haue assured confidence [...] them.

Octauius prayed GOD that it might be [...]yde, that by him the common wealth of [...]ome was preserued from all danger, and at [...]is death to carry with him that hope, that [...] might remaine many ages in that estate [...]e left it. Suetonius.

A poore man craued an almes of the Em­ [...]erour Maximilian, and told him, that they [...]ame both of one Father, to wit, Adam, and [...]o consequently were brethren, desiring bro­ [...]herly to deale with him: to whom the Em­ [...]erour gaue a small peece of siluer, whereat [...]hen he saw the poore man discontented, he told him, that he ought to take it in good worth, saying that if euery one of his bre­ [...]hren would giue him as much, he should [...]uickly be richer then himselfe.

Anthony distressed by the King of Par­ [...]ia, held vp his hands to heauen, saying, if a­ [...]y disdaine of GOD remayned of his for­ [...]er fortunes, hee desired it might fall vpon [...]im, so the Romaine army might be freed, [...]nd haue the victory. Appian.

Virginia the daughter of Virginius, for that [Page] her Father was a Plebeian, was forbidden to doe sacrifice with other Romaine matrone in the temple of Chastity, wherfore she mad [...] a temple of her own house to the Goddesse▪ for which, the Senate made her a Patritia [...] Liuius.

Claudius defiled the faire matrone Obe [...] ­na, as he found her praying in the temple [...] Minerua, who condemned for sacriledge, e­scaped punishment by bribes.

Brutus not satisfied in killing Caesar, mad [...] his prayers vnto Iupiter, and the hoast [...] heauen, to plague Caesar and his posterity.

VVhen the Cretans were vngently intrea­ted of the Romaines, they did not pray [...] their Gods to send them pestilence, warre and famine, or sedition, but that they woul [...] suffer new customes, manners, and fashion to be brought amongst them.

The praier of old Cato, was that the cou [...] of pleas might bee set with linnes and [...], to take the professors of the braw [...] study of law. Plutarch.

Alexander caused his Horse Bucephalus be buried; Augustus his Parrot; and Heli­ogabalus his Sparrow▪ at whose obsequie [...] hee prayed and caused the body to be em­balmed.

Of Vertue. The Hebrewes, by reason of the tenne Com­ [...]aundements, boasted that they had the cheefest [...]od, and the summe of all Vertue.

MArcus Marcellus building a Temple which he called the Temple of Honor, [...] so place & situate the same, as none could [...]aue any entrance therein, except hee came [...]rough the Temple of Vertue. Liuius.

The Romans did not onely assigne the [...]hiefest places to men of vertue, but likewise [...]ubliquely they gaue them Speares, Horse- [...]appings, and Garlands. Tacitus.

VVhen the Romaine Victors rode in try­ [...]mph, a slaue sate behind them striking them [...] vpon the necke, that they shoulde re­ [...]ember themselues and not be proude, and [...]hat euery man shoulde hope by vertue to [...]ome to the like dignity. Plutarch.

Fabius for his vertues was sirnamed Maxi [...]us, where before he was called Gurges.

Alexanders vertues purchased him the sir­ [...]ame of great. Plut.

It is recorded of Fabius, that it was as hard [...]o draw him from his honestie and vertues, [Page] as the sunne from his course. Eutropius.

Camillus, for a disgrace happening to him in Rome, was banished into Campania where his vertues and seruice in the vvars o [...] that country succeeded so happily with him▪ that hee returned to Rome not as an offen­der, but in great tryumph.

No Athenian excelled Alcibiades, eythe [...] for vertue or vice. Iustinus.

Socrates made him to weepe, for that hee shewed him by liuely reasons that he vvas [...] lesse estimation then a base hinde if hee ha [...] not vertue, and that it behooued him to b [...] sorrowfull.

The Rhodians and the Lydians had a lawe that those sonnes which followed not they fathers in theyr vertues, but liued viciously should be disinherited, and theyr lands giue to the most vertuous of that race, not ad­mitting any impious heyre vvhat-soeuer▪ Varro.

For that Artaxerxes Mnemon was a vertu­ous Prince & delighted in peace, the succee­ding kings of Persia were called by his name▪

Basilius, Emperour of Constantinople, a [...] his death exhorted Leo his sonne to vertu­ous actions, and not to become slaue to hy [...] owne affections; by good lyfe and studie o [...] [Page 18] [...]odlines to beautifie his soule, shewing him­ [...]lfe the image and Lieuetenant of the Knig [...] heauen. Theophrastus.

Demetrius, the scholler of Theophrastus, [...] he had ten yeeres gouerned the state of [...]hence, hauing in memory of his vertues, [...]ree hundred and threescore statues erected [...] Greece, yet were they all through enuie [...]oken dovvne, which when he heard of, he [...], Though they burne my pictures, yet cannot [...]ey burne the vertuous cause of them. Theo­prastus.

Alexander vvilled that the Grecians and Barbarians shoulde no more be disguised by [...]eyr garments, but that the Grecian should be knowne by vertue, and the Barbarian by [...]; accounting all vertuous men Greci­ [...]ns, and all vicious Barbarians. Quint. Cur­ [...]us.

Menander King of the Bactrians, vvas so [...]ell beloued of his subiects for his vertues, [...] after his death the principall citties con­ [...]ded which of them shoulde haue the ho­ [...]or of his buriall; for the appeasing of which [...]ife, it was concluded that each of them [...] remembrance of his worthynes) should [...]ake a tombe.

Harmocrates the last Tyrant in Sicilia, at [Page] the very instant of his death exhorted hys sonne to liue so vprightly, that his vertues might make him to be enuied.

Alexander praised greatly this vertue in the Phylosopher Calisthenes, that for others he asked many things, & for himselfe nothing. Plutarch.

Into the graue Senate of Areopage, no [...]e were receiued, except they had made some notable proofe of their vertues. Sabellicus.

A rare example of a Romans vertue was i [...] Mes [...]ala, who hauing Claudius in his custo­die, who before had proscribed him, resto­red him to his estate, and preserued him fr [...] danger. Appianus.

Iuno through her riches, Mercurie throug [...] his eloquence, Venus through her beautie M [...]s through his threats, and the rest of th [...] Gods hauing all conspired against Iupiter, [...] were not able to pull him out of heauen: [...] which the Poets signified, that a vertuou [...] man can by no meanes be turned aside from iustice.

Plato wrote 54. Bookes or Dialogues which did all intr [...]ate of vertue; in which that he might not be thought vngrateful to­ward his Maister Socrates, who woulde ne­uer write any thing, hee bringeth him in re [...]hearsing [Page 19] that which he heard him speake.

Anacharsis led with the onely loue of ver­ [...]ue, left the kingdom of Scythia to his youn­ [...]er brother, & trauailed into Grecia, where [...]e learned phylosophy of Solon.

Pelopidas, generall of the Thebans, is more [...]raised for his notable vertue hee shevved, [...]hen he was prysoner in the hands of Alex­ [...]nder the tyrannous K. of the Phereans, thē [...]or all his vertues gotten before. Thucid.

The Emperour Rodolphus, othervvise of [...]afe parentage, by his vertues mounted to [...] Monarchie.

Maximilian the Emperour, aunswered one [...]hat desired his Letters patents to ennoble [...]im, I am able to make thee rich, but vertue on­ [...] must make thee noble.

Alexander Seuerus neuer kept in his court [...] ill disposed persons, or suffered any [...]ough neuer so neere to him in blood, once [...]ound faulty, to escape vnpunished. Lactan.

Marius esteemed it a great poynt of vertue [...]nd high courage, to bee skilful in cosenage. Plutarch.

Two of the most famous Citties in the [...]orld were in two extremeties, Rome the [...]ead of vice, and Alexandria the end of all [...]ertues. Aurelius.

Of Iustice. Betweene the two zodiacall signes, Leo and Libra, is a virgin called Astraea or Iustice, the which in times past dwelled vpon the earth, an [...] beeing abused and neglected of mortall men, [...] tooke ber flight to heauen.

THe Egyptians who vvere the auncien [...] Lawmakers, in theyr Citties caused Iu [...] ­ges to be paynted without handes, and the President or chiefe Iustice, with hys eye [...] blindfolded, thereby signifying, that Iustic [...] ought neither to be briber, nor respecter o [...] persons. Pausanius.

Beza faineth Iustice and Mercie to bee two Sisters standing by the throne of God.

VVhen the Hebrewes asked a King of Sa­muell, they added this, to iudge al nations.

The Areopagites iudged by night, and i [...] the darke. Quintil.

Aristides, for his impartiall dealing in [...] matters, was sirnamed the Iust.

Mycerinus the son of Cleops, surpassed [...] the Kings of Egipt for true iustice. Herod [...]t.

Iunius Brutus, a consul of Rome, condem­ned his two sonnes Titus & Tiberius to be [...]eheaded, [Page 20] for that they conspired the reentre [...]f Tarquinius race into Rome. Liuius.

Philip and Alexander his sonne, when any [...]ame to complaine, stopped one of theyr [...]ares, which they reserued for the defen­ [...]ant. Plutarch.

No man durst euer solicite Cato Censorius [...] any dishonest cause. Cicero.

The Emperour Iulian, though otherwise a [...]yrant, condemned no man before his cause [...]as heard. Euseb.

Cambises commaunded Sisamnes skinne [...]or his iniustice to bee [...]lead of, and couering [...]he iudgement seate there-with, appointed [...]is sonne to iudge in his place. Herodotus.

Seleucus, Gouernour of [...]ocris, his sonne [...]eeing taken in adultery, whose punishment [...]as losse of both his eyes, to satisfie iustice, [...]nd in some sort the people, who intreated [...]im to remit the punishment, caused one of [...]is sonnes, and another of his owne to bee [...]ulled out. Valerius.

A boy was condemned at Athence for that [...]e vsed to catch young Quailes and to pull [...]ut theyr eyes▪ and so to let them flie againe, [...]im the Areopagites thought not vvorthy [...]o lyue, fearing that if hee were remitted for [...]hys offence, hee would not stick in time to [Page] attempt greater cruelties. Quintil.

Phocion refused to helpe his sonne in lavv Charillus in iudgement, beeing accused for bribery, saying withal, that he had made him his allie in al iust & reasonable matters only.

Philip was importuned by an olde woman to heare her cause, to whom when the King made aunswer that he had no leysure, she re­plyed, then be no King; which he wel regar­ding, sette all busines aside to heare her com­plaint. Valerius.

Thys King beeing once ouertaken vvit [...] sleepe, and not well hearing the iustificatio [...] & defence of Machetas, he condemned him in a certaine summe, wherevpon Macheta [...] cryed out, I appeale to Philip when hee is th [...] ­rowly awake: vvhich when he heard againe he aquited him.

Philip the first King of Macedon, vva [...] slaine by Pausanias a meane gentleman, be­cause hee woulde not let him haue iustice [...] ­gainst Antipater.

VVhen Aristides was to determine a con­trouersie betweene two, one of them sayde, My aduersary Aristides hath doone the wrong. But he aunswered; My friend, de­clare onely vvherein he hath wronged thee for I am here to doe thee right, and not my [Page 21] [...]lfe. Laertius.

Antonius Venereus, Duke of Venice, cau­ [...]d his sonne to die in prison because hee had [...]uished a maide.

Papinian a Pagan, although hee was com­ [...]aunded by the Emperor Caracalla (whose [...]eward and familiar hee was) to defende an [...]niust cause, would not doe it. Marsilius.

Cleon of Lacedemon, minding to deale in [...]ublique affayres, called all his friends toge­ [...]her, and told them that hee renounced and [...]ischarged himselfe of all friendship, because [...] caused men sometimes to swarue from iu­ [...]tice. Plut.

Aurelianus the Emperour, was so fearefull of placing an vnwoorthy man in the seate of iudgement, that hee neuer preferred any to the dignity of Senator, but with the consent of the whole Senate. Pau. Diaconus.

Traianus allighted from his horse as he was going to warres, onely to doe iustice to a poore woman. Eutropius.

Mardus sate in iudgement vpon his Sonne Cartanes, and would haue put him to death, but Artaxerxes seeing his iustice, pardoned his sonne. Aelianus.

Agesilaus requested by his Father to gyue sentence against equity, graciously denyed [Page] him with this aunswer; You haue taught me [...] ô Father, from my youth to obey the lawes, [...] therefore I will now obey you therein, by iudg­ing nothing against the lawes.

At Athence, if any man committed wilful murder, iudgemēt was prosecuted in a place called Martius Pagus, it against his vvill, the sessions was kept in Palladum, if the murde­rer were apprehended, and the deede doo [...] chaunce medly, in Delphico.

Domitius alwayes punished the poore, & those that were of no power, but the rich and mighty he pardoned. Suetonius.

Demetrius the besieger, hauing receiue [...] many requests and supplications of his sub­iects, threwe them all into the water as he [...] went ouer the bridge, wherupon his subiects conceiued such hatred against him, that [...] Armie forsooke him & yeelded to Pyrrhus▪ who draue him out of his kingdome. Dio­dorus.

The Romaine Censors, disfranchised a cit­tizen of Rome, because he breathed & yaw­ned a little too loude in theyr presence. Va­le [...]ius.

Augustus Caesar, beeing desired by Tacitus to come to his house, to iudge of an offence which one of his sonnes had committed, did [Page 22] [...] Tacitus requested, but first he commaun­ [...]d that euery one should first set downe his [...]inde in writing, and then he gaue his cen­ [...]re, fearing that if he had spoken first, they [...]ould all haue said as he sayd. Seneca.

Ferdinando the fourth, adiudging tvvo [...]ights to death more through anger then [...]stice, one of them cryed aloude, saying: O [...]niust King, we cite thee to appeare within 30. [...]yes before the tribunall seate of Iesus Christ, [...] receiue iudgement for thine iniustice, vpon [...] last of which dayes he dyed. Paulus Di­ [...]conus.

The name of law was vnknown among the Greekes in the time of Homer. Iosephus.

Minos, Zoroastres, Trismegistus, Caron­ [...]as, Lycurgus, Solon, Draco, Numa, & o­ [...]her law-giuers, haue euer fathered theyr [...]awes vpon some God, the better to haue [...]hem in authoritie, nature teaching thē, that [...]t appertained vnto God alone, and that o­therwise the lawes would not be obserued.

The Princes of Persia & Media, gaue coū ­ [...]el to Darius, that hee shoulde neuer change [...]ny law after it was once made.

Diodorus writ of certaine people, among whō no man ought to speake of the change of a lawe, except hee wore a halter, vvith [Page] vvhich hee was hanged if his opinion too [...] not place.

The Cittizens of Marseills, were much re­nowned for that they remained constant [...] their lawes & customs without changing▪

Lycurgus, after hee had brought the Lace­demonians to receiue his lawes, hee ma [...] them all sweare that they would alter no [...] of them during his absence, and after that, [...] neuer returned into his country againe.

Orpheus was cut in peeces by the wome [...] of Thrace, because hee had changed the lawes.

The Emperour Galba was greatly praise because hee woulde neither change auncie [...] law, nor create nevv.

Plutarch exhorted Traiane to take mo [...] care in seeing his auncient lawes vvell pre­serued then in making newe, and aboue [...] things, that his life should serue for a law.

Solon requested that his lawes might [...] preserued for an hundred yeres space, to the ende that they might neuer be changed.

In Greece were certaine Officers called Nom [...]thetes, who tooke great regard that no man should derogate from any good lawes.

The Almaines vvere praysed for changing theyr customs, which were found to bee but [Page 32] [...] before. Tacitus.

VVhen Varus was vanquished in Germa­ [...]e, they put out the eyes of all the Lavvyers [...]ich they could finde, and from some they [...]lled out theyr tongues also. Florus.

Galeaze Duke of Millan, caused a Lavv­ [...]er to be hanged for delaying of a sute a­ [...]inst a manifest and cleere debt.

Ferdinando the Emperour, sending a vice­ [...] into the Indies which had beene newlie [...]scouered, forbad him to carry ouer any [...]awes vvith him, to the end hee should not [...]we there the seede of sutes.

French-men in matters of tryall and lavve, [...]oe so simply behaue themselues, that they [...]icke to theyr first iudgement, & neuer ap­peale further. P. Aemilius.

Horace maketh mētion of a statue of Mar­ [...]a, which none durst beholde that vnder­tooke not a iust cause.

Astraea which maintained good lawes, and [...]y the equitie of them gaue quiet and con­ [...]entment to euery one, is nowe flowen to [...]eauen, impatient of such iniquities. Ouid.

There was an ancient law in Rome, that no Bakers, Bruers, Butchers, or such like me­ [...]hanicall trades might be Senators.

M. Caelius was saide to haue a good right [Page] hand, but an euill left, because he could plea [...] better against a man then for him. Plut.

The Romans and the Lacedemonians ha [...] a law, that no man should sup when hee lyst nor with what he list.

It was also a lawe among the Lacedemoni­ans, that hee which had deliuered three sor [...] to the cōmon wealth, should be priuiledge [...] from watching, both by day and night; he [...] which deliuered fiue, shoulde not be burde­ned with any publique office, so highly e­steemed they procreation of chyldren.

It was not lawfull for the Spartans to take frō their enemies any thing, no not so much as the booty or spoyle in war. Aelianus.

Vlpitian the Lawyer, wrote the manne [...] how the Emperors should torment and pu­nish the Christians. Lactant.

Dracones lawes were written vvith blood, and not incke. Demost.

Draco set downe equall punishment for [...] manner of offen [...]es, being the first Athenian Law-giuer, whose decrees Solon abolished, saue onely those which were against murder.

Aristotle maketh mention of a Countrey, where the inhabitants were to assure the safety of the wares, and to repay vnto pas­sengers that losse vvhich they had sustained [Page 24] [...] theeues and robbers. Aristo. de repub.

[...]anlius Torquatus, caused his sons heade be cut off, because hee fought against hys [...] body to body, cōtrary to the Edicts [...] out of his ranke, although he came away [...]ith victory. Liuius.

Vectius vvas presently slaine, because he [...] [...] not vvhen the Trybune of the people [...]ssed before him. Plut.

Fabius Maximus his sonne (beeing one of [...] Magistrates of Rome) seeing his Father [...]arre of comming towards him on horse­ [...]ke, and that the Sergiants in regarde of [...]therly reuerence, had not caused him to [...]ght, commaunded him to set foote on the [...]ound, which the Father presently obeied, [...] embraced his sonne, making more ac­ [...]unt of him then if he had done otherwise. [...]lutarch.

Of Prudence. The Poets, to declare the excellencie of this [...]ertue, faine VVisedome to be a vvoman, and [...] be borne of no mortall creature, but of Iupi­ [...]r himselfe; whō Painters so set foorth, that on [...]hat side soeuer any one beholding it dyd stand, [Page] either before her, or behinde her, hee had a [...] sight of her.

GOD inabled Salomon to dispute of [...] hearbes and plants, euen from the Ce­dars in Libanus, to the Pellitorie roote [...] groweth out of the wall.

The Oracle of Apollo pronounced th [...] the Chaldeans and the Hebrewes onely [...] vvisedome parted betweene them.

The Grecians boast, that all the vvise me [...] were of Greece. Pausanius.

Socrates beeing (according to the iudg [...]ment of the Physiognomers) giuen to [...] wickednes, by the study of wisedome refo [...] ­med himselfe, and became a good examp [...] of a godly man. Plato.

The wisedome of Fabius & Marcellus [...] so admired & honoured of the Romans, th [...] the one was called the Buckler, the other [...] Sword of the Romaine Empire. Plut.

Among the Romans was a Colledge of [...] men, called Augures, by whose authoritie, [...] state vvas sometimes gouerned. Varro.

Homer in the vvhole discourse of his [...], where Minerua alwayes accompanie [...] V [...]ses, gyueth vs to vnderstand, that Pr [...] ­dence ought alwayes to guide a man to a [...]ine [Page 25] to the end of his enterprise.

Men praised the prudence of Fabius, be­ [...]use he broke the point of fortune, and hin­ [...]red the aduancement of Hanibal by cunc­ [...]ion, temporising, & attending his aduan­ [...]ge, which is a vertue named long suffe­ [...]nce. Cicero.

Caesar the first Romaine Emperor, by his [...]udence, prepared his vvay to so great a [...]onarchy, by reconciling together Pompey [...] Cassius, tvvo of the greatest Romaine [...], by whose fauour he obtained after­ [...]rds, the dignity of consulship. Plut.

[...]olon, with the diuine knowledge of wise­ [...]m, gouerned the Athenians, Lycurgus the [...]cedemonians, and Parmenides the Eleati. [...]ycis the Pythagorian, inuented lawes for [...]aminondas, Plato for Dion, Aristotle for [...]exander, Anaxagoras for Pericles, Pytha­ [...]ras for the Princes of Italy, and Agrippa [...] the Emperour Octauius.

[...]ntisthenes bad many guests to the ban­ [...]et of wisedome, and none would come, [...] Diogenes, vvhere-vpon, beeing angry [...]t none would tast of his learned cheare, [...] excluded Diogenes, vvho the more hee [...] forbidden, the more he came, in the end [...]tisthenes beate him, thereby to driue him [Page] from his company, which he constantly [...] during, Antisthenes entertained him for [...] prudent perseuerance. Laertius.

M. Cato, when he saw that Pompey h [...] ioyned himselfe with Caesar, told him that did put Caesars yoake vpon his necke, wh [...] then he perceaued not, but shortly it wou [...] weigh heauy vpon him, and then should [...] finde himselfe taken.

Themistocles, at what time he was [...] Athence, and inforced to goe into [...], being intreated of the King to shew [...] estate of his Country, he wisely besought [...] one yeare, to learne the Persian languag [...] and then he would tell him. Valerius.

Pe [...]ilius enioyned vpon paine of death, his Soueraigne, to make an Asse to spea [...] knowing it a matter impossible, demaun [...] seauen yeares space, hoping in that time, [...] eyther the King, he, or the Asse would die.

Simonides being at a banquet with Pau [...] ­nias, he tooke occasion to desire him to [...] some precepts of wisedome, at which [...] laughed, and said, Remember thou art a [...] vvhich then he not regarded, but afterwa [...] in his misery, with great sorrow remembre [...] Theophrastus.

Cato, for the loue that he beare vnto wi [...]dome, [Page 26] entertained Athenodorus, Vlisses, as [...]omer saith, embraced Carylus, Pyrrhus e­ [...]eemed Artemius, Traian desired Plutarch [...]nd Scipio Panetius, who was learned, in all [...]rts both good and euill. Plut.

Euclides of Megara, desirous to heare the [...]isedome of Socrates, who read Philosophy [...] Athence, betweene vvhich two Citties, [...]ere was mortall emnity, so that no Citti­ [...]n of the one durst be seene in the other, [...]ithout great danger disguised himselfe like woman, and so heard Socrates.

Agesilaus sustaining great losses by Epami­ [...]ndas, commaunded his Souldiours to [...]ake head against him onely, because that [...]ne but wise and prudent men knew how [...] conquer. Thucidides.

[...]he Athenians being deuided and banded [...]o three contrary parts and factions, Solon [...]ould not ioyne himselfe with any one of [...]em, but kept him indifferent to all, seeking [...] all meanes to reconcile them together, in [...] end being chosen their pacifier, he refor­ [...]ed their estate, and placed them in greater [...] then before.

[...]hales, although numbred among the sea­ [...]n wise-men of Greece, refused to interme­ [...] in common wealth matters.

[Page]Demades, a man very pollitique, and prac [...]tised in state, being asked what Tutor he ha [...] to instruct him in wisdom, answered, the tr [...]bunall of the Athenians, meaning the Cou [...] and experience to excell all the precepts [...] Philosophy. Valerius.

Antonius the meeke, was a vertuous [...] Emperour, and so well aduised in all his do [...]ings, that hee neuer repented him of an [...] thing he did. Eutropius.

Romulus, the first King, & founder of th [...] Citty of Rome, chose 100. of the eldest & [...] in the same Country, by whose wisdom he willed it should be gouerned. Patritius.

Iulius Caesar gloried in his good fortune but yet the bringing of his great enterpri [...] to passe, was by his wisedom and experien [...] in warlike affaires. Suetonius.

The Lacedemonians made more acco [...] of an exployt done by pollicy, then by ar [...] whose Captaines vvhen they had by the [...] pollitique stratagems ouercome any, sacri [...]ced to theyr Gods an Oxe, if by force Cocke. Thucidides.

Alexander about to destroy the Citty [...] Lampsacus, Anaxemines his master cam to [...]wards him, intending to desire him to [...] it, but the king imagining wherfore he cam [...] [Page 27] [...] sweare that hee vvould not graunt that [...]hich Anaximines should request, who desi­ [...]d Alexander to destroy Lampsacus, which [...]quest by his oath he could not graunt, and [...] by this pollicy he saued his Citty. Valerius.

The Italians vnable to excuse the great [...]ults, treacheries, cowardize, and dissimula­ [...]on of their Nation, go about to colour their [...]llanies with the name of Italian prudence.

One bought a draught of fish of certaine fi­ [...]ers in Milesia, whose hap was to take with­ [...] theyr net a golden Tripos, which the fi­ [...]er-men refused to giue theyr chap-man, [...]ying, that they bargained for fish, the mat­ [...]er was brought before the Magistrates, who [...]ere cōmanded by the Oracle, to giue it to [...]he wisest man; first it was giuen to Thales, he [...]aue it to Bias, Bias to Pittacus, vntil it came [...]o Socrates, who gaue it to Apollo. Valerius.

Tully cryed out in his latter age, O vtinam [...]unquam sapuissē, would I had neuer knowne [...]hat wisedome meant.

Quintus Catulus did his Country as much good by his wisedome, as Cneius Pompeius by valour, for of small force is the warre a­ [...]road, vnlesse there be good aduise at home. Cicero.

Phillip of Macedon, being in hostage three [Page] yeares together, learned prudence of Epa­minondas, by which vertue he got into hi [...] hands, the monarchy of all Greece, and [...] great part of Asia. Curtius.

Caesar, when he tooke vpon him, the go­uernment of the Gaules, waged warre there 10. yeares, guided by vnspeakable prudence, that was accompanied with diligence, so that by these, he subdued 300. Nations, tooke 800. Townes, and in many battailes discom­fited three millions of men. Eutropius.

The Romaine Kings kept Eagles in theyr campe, against thunder and lightning. Ma­crobius.

The Emperour Tiberius, wore in his Hat [...] Bay braunch, to keepe him from thunder & lightning. Idem.

The Aegiptian mariners, were wont in sto [...]my and tempesteous weather, to hang vp [...] saile, on the which was sewed the Phoca [...] skinne, which is a kind of fish, called the [...] Cowe. Plinius.

Alexander Seuerus was a very wise Prince, which he attained vnto, by the counsaile and instruction of that learned Lawyer Vlpianus.

The 7, Sages, or wise-men of Greece, were renowned throughout al the world, of whom the first was Thales Milesius, who inuented [Page 28] [...] card to saile by. Laertius.

The second was Solon, who gaue the first [...]wes to the Athenians, and iudged no man [...]ppy before his death.

The third was Chilo of Lacedemon, vvho [...] Embassadour into the Orient for the A­ [...]enians.

The fourth was Pittacus, who was not only Philosopher, but also Captaine of the My­ [...]enes.

The fift was Cleobulus, that descended frō [...] auntient line of Hercules.

The sixt was Periander, of whom the Hi­ [...]oriographers doubted, whether his Philo­ [...]phy or tirany were greater.

The seauenth Bias, that was Prince of the [...]yraneans, a learned Philosopher, and a va­ [...]ant Souldiour, who ouercame the Meti­ [...]enses; this battaile was the first that any [...]hilosopher of Greece fought.

The Grecians had their Philosophers, the Persians their Magi, the Indians Gymnoso­ [...]hists, the Aegiptians Priests, the Hebrewes Prophets, the Assirians Chaldeans, the La­ [...]nes vvise-men, the French-men Druides, [...]ll vvhich in euery of these Nations, and [...]hroughout all the world, were renowned for their wisedome and profound learning.

Of Temperance. The property of this vertue consisteth in th [...] things which belong to the keeping of mans li [...] in his body, and vsing the pleasures thereof m [...]derately, being a meane in our seeing, bearing smelling, tasting, and feeling.

MOses abstained from his ordinary re [...]fection, the space of 40. daies, when vp­pon mount Sinai, he was to receaue the t [...] ­bles of the law from God. Exod.

Minos, as it is fayned, when he was to re [...]ceaue lawes from Iupiter, fasted nine dayes Homer.

Daniell and his companions, neglecting th [...] Kings table, liued with pulse and water one [...]ly. Bib.

Plato forsooke Dionysius courtly feasting & betook himselfe to his philosophicall diet.

Saint Iohn Baptist passed ouer the greates [...] part of his age in the vvildernes, eating no­thing but Locusts and wild honey.

Bartholomew the Apostle, when Polemi­on King of India, sent him Cammels richly loaden with gold and siluer, for that he had dispossessed his daughter of an vncleane spi­ [...]t, [Page 29] refused them saying, that hee came not to [...]ceaue rewards for his hire, but that he migh [...] [...]ew the way of saluation, to those that beleeue. [...]arullus.

Anacharsis the Scithian philosopher, coun­ [...]led Kings and Princes, to write about their [...]ctures, Rule lust, temper the tongue, bridle the [...]elly. Aelianus.

Augustus vvas of a very spare dyet, his [...]anner was to sit downe to meate, when his [...]uests had halfe dined, and would be the first [...]hat rised. Plut.

Pericles neuer supped, nor came at any [...]anquet. Thucidides.

Scipio for the space of fifty & foure yeares, [...]either bought nor sold any thing, he was so [...]e [...]l contented with a little.

Scipio in the flower of his age, at the taking of the Citty of Carthage, had a young Da­ [...]osell to his prisoner, of rare and excellent beauty, and when he vnderstood her birth, & that she was betrothed to Lucius of Spain, [...]e sent for him, and restored her vnto him, without abusing her any way, besides giuing her a dowry. Plut.

Alexander did the like with Darius vvife, who excelled all the dames of Asia for beau­ty: the like of Cyrus. Curtius. Herodotus.

[Page]Phryna the harlot, lying with Xenocrat [...] vpon a wager, to proue his continency, say [...] she lay not with a man, but with a blocke [...] Laertius.

C. Gracchus, as long as he gouerned Sa [...] ­dinia, would neuer suffer a woman to come into his house, except it vvere to demaun [...] iustice.

Pyttacus being constrained to take vpo [...] him the charge of an Army, accepted it with great griefe, saying, O howe hard a matter is i [...] to be a good man? Laertius.

Torquatus, and Fabritius, absented them­selues from Rome, the one because he woul [...] not haue the dictatorship, the other the con­sulship.

Of all those which sought the ouerthro [...] of Rome, neuer any sober man went abou [...] the same but Caesar. Cato.

Vespasian was of that temperance, that be would not drink nor eate, but once a day, and that very sparingly.

Socrates, by his great abstinence, liued [...] his life without sicknes.

M. Val. Coruinus, liued free from sicknes, an hundred yeares by his abstinence.

Massinissa King of Numidia, neuer sate at his table, neuer sawced his meate, and was [Page 30] [...]ntent with that bread he allowed vnto his [...]uldiours.

[...]yrus, when one of his minions moued him [...] see Panthea, saying, that her beauty was [...] worthy to be seene; that is the cause said [...]rus, why I will abstaine from the sight of [...]. Xenophon.

[...]edaretus hauing escaped the election of [...] of those three hundred Senators, which [...]uerned the estate of Sparta, returned ioy­ [...], saying, that it was an easie matter to find that Citty three hundred better, and more [...]onest men then himselfe.

[...]imaeus Duke of Sauoy, willingly gaue o­ [...]r his Dutchy, into his Sonnes hands, and [...]came an Hermit, and after that, being cho­ [...] Pope, he gaue vp the seate willingly to a­ [...]other. Guichardine.

Amurath, the second of that name, after he [...] obtayned infinite victories, became a [...]onke, of the straightest sect amongst them. Charles the fift, resigned his Empire into [...] hands of the Princes Electors, and with­ [...]ew himselfe into a monastrey. Guichard.

Cato the younger, trauailing ouer the de­ [...]rts of Lybia, endured great thirst, & when Souldiour offered him water, in his motion [...] threw it vpon the ground, in presence of [Page] them all, that his Army might know that h [...] would be in no better estate then they. V [...] ­lerius.

Socrates, when soeuer he felt himselfe thir­sty, would not drinke before he had cast a­way the first pitcher of water, that he might acquaint his sensuall appetite, to expect the conuenient time of reason. Plato.

The Germaines in Iulius Caesars time, a strong & warlike people, liued only of milk, cheese, and flesh, not knowing what wheate and vvine were, nor vvhat it was to labor the ground, or to sowe. Varro.

Liuia commendeth the barrainnes and ste­rility of a Country, more then the fruitful­nes saying, that men borne in a fat soile, are commonly doe-littles and cowards, but the barraine Country bringeth forth temperate and sober persons; the Athenians were situa­ted in a very vnfruitfull place.

The feasts of Pythagoras, Socrates, Xeno­crates, and the Sages of Greece, were the dis­courses of learned matters & philosophy.

The Aegiptians vsed in the midst of theyr banquets, to bring in the Anatomy of a dead body dried, that the horror of it might hold them within the bonds of temperance. Hero.

In the old time Vines were planted and [Page 31] [...]ressed, that wine might be drunk, rather in [...]ime of sicknes, then of health; in so much [...]hat it was not sold in Tauerns only, but also [...]n Apothicaries shops.

The Emperor Rodolphus, when drink was brought vnto him in the war, against Octo­tarus King of Bohemia, at what time he was [...]n a place, where his whole Army was trou­bled with thirst, would not receaue it, but sayd, that his thirst was for all his Army, and not alone for himselfe.

Pythagoras liued only of hearbs, fruit, and water, he neuer drank vvine, nor that great Orator Demosthenes.

The Kings of Aegipt were forbidden vvine, which they neuer drank, except on certaine daies, and that in measure. Sabellicus.

Alexander refused the Cookes and Payste­rers, which Ada Q. of Caria, sent vnto him, saying, that he had better then they, namely, For his dinner early rising, and walking a good while before day, & for his supper a litle dinner, but the Persian delicacies soon changed this.

C. Fabritius vvas found by the Samnite Embassadors that came vnto him, eating of Rape roots, which was all the fare he had.

Hanibal fed vpon no other meat, then the meanest of his Souldiers did.

[Page]The Priests of Aegipt, the Sages of [...] and Persia, and Iupiters Priests, seruing [...] Gods, did neuer eate any flesh, nor drink a [...]ny vvine. Pausanias.

Anacharsis a Seithian Phylosopher, being demaunded of his estate, how he fed, how he did lie, and how he was cloathed, aunswered, I feede on hunger, I lie on the ground, and I am cloathed like a Scithian. Laertius.

Dyonisius made sute to Aristides, for his daughter in marriage, but he knowing him to be an intemperate Prince, soberly answe­red, that he had rather kill his daughter with his owne hand, then giue her in marriage vn­to Dionysius.

Valerius Publicola, after he had been con­sull foure times, died so poore, that he had not sufficient to defray the charge of his Fu­nerals, but was buried of the common tresu­ry. Valerius.

The [...]ke of Menenius Agrippa, vvhen by the counsaile of Epimenides of Create, the Athenians vvere deliuered from a plague, which their neighbours were infected with, they in regard of his loue & aduice, sent him rich rewards, which he refused. Plato.

Apollonius Tyanaeus had diuers rich gifts sent him by Vespasian, which he would not [Page 32] [...]ccept, saying, that they were for couetous minded men and for those that had neede of them. Stobeus.

The Romaines laughed Sylla to scorne, that being a man most intemperate, did not withstanding vse to exhort, and compell o­thers to sobriety, temperance, and frugality. Suetonius.

Lisander contrary to him, allowed those vi­ [...]es in the Cittizens, from the which himselfe refrained. Thucidides.

Pericles, when his companion Sophocles and Pretor in Rome, commended the beau­ [...]y of a young woman, whom they met, said, It becommeth a Pretor to haue not onely hands free from corruption, but also continent eyes, voyde of vnchast lookes. Idem.

Hortensius was much reproued, for that at a supper (prepared for the Augurs) he set be­fore them a boiled Peacock. Suetonius.

Cassius was deemed intemperate, because publiquely he drank water, and could not for a short time endure the thirst thereof.

Duronius was remoued from the Senate, for that he being Tribune, repeated the law concerning the restraint of feasting. Patri­ [...]ius.

VVhen the Pres [...]nts which King Pyrrhus, [Page] after his ouerthrow, were brought to Rome and shewed about the streetes, hoping ther [...]by to winne good will of the people, the [...] was not one man seene to put out his hand towards them, so as the King found himselfe no lesse vanquished with continency, the [...] force of armes.

Diogenes laughed those to scorne, that by sacrifice sought for helpe of the Gods, and notvvithstanding led an intemperate lyfe. Gellius.

Cato by prescribing too spare & temperate dyet, killed his wife and child.

In the presence of Gorgo, the daughter of Cleomenes, but 9. yeares old, Aristagoras intreated Cleomenes, that the Lacedemoni­ans would send an Army into Asia, promising to giue him 10. talents, which he refusing, offered him 50, the wench tooke her Father a side, and sayd, Father, if you get you not hence, this guest will corrupt you, vvhereat he depar­ted, without hearkning to Aristagoras any more. Herodotus.

The Lacedemonians were very temperate in their dyet, and had certaine publique pla­ces, called Phidities, where they fed, of which came, that when men would speake of a small pittance, they vvould lyke it to a meale of [Page 33] [...]he Phiditie.

The Esseans a certaine Iewish sect, vvho were holier and of better conuersation then [...]he Pharisies, abstained from wine and vvo­men. Iosephus.

The temperance and staiednes of Titus Quintus, got more countries to the Ro­mans then al the forces vnder him had done.

It was felonie for the Magistrates of Locris to drinke wine without the lycence of a Phi­ [...]ition, and the Romans neuer drunke wine, before they were twenty yeres old. Diodo.

In the tyme of Saturne, the world did ney­ther eate flesh, nor drinke wine, wherin they agree with our Diuines, who put vs out of doubt, that the vse of flesh and wine, was vn­knowne before the vniuersall flood.

Of Fortitude. The vertue of the mind aduentureth nothing [...]shly, neyther in a good cause feareth death, be [...] in apparaunce neuer so terrible: whose ex­treames are feare and foolish boldnes.

FOure kinds of people the Romans found hard to ouercome, the Mermidons, the Gaditanes, the Saguntines, & the Numan­tines, [Page] the first were strong, the second val [...]ant, the third fortunate, but the Numantine were strong, valiant, and fortunate. Trebe [...]lius Pollio.

Amongst all the Citties of the world, onel [...] Numantia did neuer acknowledge her bet­ter, or kisse the hande of any other for he [...] Lord.

The Lacedemonians neuer vsed to aske th [...] number of their enemies, but vvhere the [...] vvere.

Iudas Macchabeus beeing begirt with 2 [...] thousand men, was counsailed to flie, [...] forbid (quoth he) that the sunne should see [...] flie, I had rather die then staine my glory by [...] ignominious flight.

The Numantines vvhen they were besi [...]ged slew nine Consuls, vvherevpon, the Ro­mans did capitulate with them that the [...] should be perpetuall friends. Liuius.

Fiue thousand resolute Romans, ouerca [...] thirty thousande of Methridates souldio [...] vvhom hee had chosen throughout all [...] kingdom. Appian.

Iulius Caesar, entering the Temple of He [...]cules in Gades, seeing the heroycall gests [...] Alexander set forth vpon the vvalls, fell [...] the lyke passion for Alexander, as he did [...] [Page 34] [...]hilles. Plutarch.

Q. Mutius aduentured alone into the tents [...] King Porsenna, eyther to kill the King, or [...] be killed by him, for which he purchased [...] sirname of Sceuola. Liuius.

Horatius Cocles resisted the whole Armie the same king, vntil the cittizens of Rome [...] to take vp the drawe bridge, and then all armed leapt into the riuer Tyber, and escaped his enemies. Liuius.

Perdiccas entered into the dangerous den a Lyonesse, and tooke avvay her whelps. [...]rtius.

Starchaterus to increase his strength, fedde [...] on Beares fleshe, and often vsed to drinke [...]eir blood. Olaus.

Alexander thought himselfe happy if hee [...]ight be named Achilles, Caesar if he might [...]e called Alexander; Achilles sought no [...]eater name then Theseus, Theseus desired [...] of Hercules.

Although Scythia was barren yet was shee oute, though rude and barbarous, yet was [...] very valiant, and hard to bee subdued. [...]iannus.

Leonides at Thermopyla, hauing vnder [...] charge but foure thousand souldiours, [...]liantly encountred with the huge Armie [Page] of Xerxes, and ouercame it, to his immorta [...] fame and Xerxes eternall infamie. Iustin [...]

Pyrrhus seeing the fortitude and valour [...] the Romaines, sayd, If valour were lost, th [...] mould thereof might bee founde in a Ro­mans hart; adding, that hee would quicklie conquer all the worlde if hee were King [...] Rome, or the Romaine souldiours subiect vnto him.

Solon made a law, that the children whos [...] parents had beene valiantly slaine in battaile, should for the prowesse of theyr parents, [...] euer after maintained of the Common trea­surie. Thucidides.

Lucius Dentatus was in sixescore battailes and eyghteene times came away conquere [...] Hee receiued in token of his valour, eygh­teene Launces, twenty Bards for horses▪ foure-score Bracelets, and 36. crownes, an [...] by his meanes nine Emperours triumphe [...] in Rome.

It vvas all the manner of the Lacedemoni­ans▪ to be greatly inflamed with the desire o [...] conquering. Plato.

Eumenes, (though neuer so distressed) thought himselfe strong enough, as long a [...] he had his sword in his hand. Plut.

Aristomenes the Messenian, beeing take [...] [Page 35] [...] the Lacedemonians and deliuered fast [...]und to two souldiours, hee drew neere to [...]fire, burned his bonds in sunder, killed his [...]eepers, and saued himselfe. Valerius.

Lysimachus vvas commaunded by Alex­ [...]der that he should be deuoured of a Lion, [...]at he valiantly fought with the beast, and [...]retching forth his arme, thrust it into hys [...]roate, taking holde of his tongue, and so [...]rangled him, whereupon hee vvas euer af­ [...]r more esteemed of Alexander then hee [...]as before. Aelianus.

Cassius aunswered a Chaldean Astrologer [...]ho counselled him not to fight vvith the [...]arthians vntill the Moone had passed Scor­ [...]o, I feare not (quoth he) Scorpius, but I feare [...] Archers: because the Romans were put [...] [...]light by Parthian Archers. Appian.

Agis vpon the poynt to giue battaile to the [...]ycaonians, vvhen his souldiers sayde, that [...]eyr enemies were many; aunswered, The [...]rince that will subdue many, must of necessity [...]ght with many. Tbucid.

Leonides beeing informed by his souldiers [...]at the enemies against whom hee vvas to [...]ght, vvere so many in number, that theyr [...]rrovves darkned the beames of the sunne, [...]o much the better (quoth he) for we shall thē [Page] fight in the shade. Licosthenes.

Alcibiades, when his Captaines suddainlie made an alarum with great citties that they were fallen into theyr enemies hands, would say vnto his souldiours, Be valiant and feare not, for we are not fallen into their hands, but they into ours. Thucidydes.

Scaeua a Iew, at the siege of Ierusalem ha­uing long time defended his fellow souldiers, after much slaughter by him made, abode still fighting, hauing his eyes stopped, hys body vvounded, and his shield strooke tho­row in sixscore places. Iosephus.

Iulius Caesar, perceiuing the Neruians to haue the better hand, caught a Target from out a souldiours hand that began to flie, and taking his place, did such feates of Armes, that all his Armie recouered courage, & got the victory. Plutarch.

Alexander swimmed ouer dangerous vva­ters, scaled townes, and put himselfe formost in perrils and paines-taking. Pyrrhus, Hani­ball, Sertorius and Caesar, are reported to haue done the like.

Eutycus beeing blinde, was set without the aray of the battaile by Leonidas; but being ashamed to leaue his companions, caused a slaue to leade him to the place vvhere they [Page 36] [...]ought, & there valiantly behauing himselfe, [...]e was slaine. Valerius.

Sylla the Dictator, hauing condemned to [...]eath all the inhabitants of Perouza, & par­ [...]oning none but his hoast, he would needes [...]ie, saying; that he scorned to hold his lyfe of the murtherer of his country. Appian.

The Polonian Ambassadors aunswered A­ [...]exander when he threatned theyr country; VVee feare (saide they) but one onely thing, which is least the skie fall vpon vs.

Pompey dreadlesse of a great storme whē he vvas sent by the Senate into Italie, vvas the first that went a shyp-board, and com­maunded the sailes to be spred, saying: It is necessary that I goe, but not necessary that I liue. Plutarch.

Xerxes great Nauie that dranke vvhole ri­uers dry, vvas rather a signe of his vvealth then magnanimitie. Iustinus.

Bias holding warres with Iphiorates, and put to the vvorst, his souldiours cryed out, saying: vvhat shall we doe? to vvhom hee aunswered, Tell those that are aliue, that I dyed fighting, and I will report vnto the deade, that you escaped flying. Laertius.

The women of Lacena vvent souldier-like into the field with their husbands.

[Page]Thomyris Queene of Scythia, ouercame Cyrus, cut off his head, & cast it into a bowle of blood, saying; Satiate sanguine quem siti­isti. Iustinus.

The vvomen of Scythia, called Amazons, lyued as conquerours ouer men, and vvere neuer conquered by men, vntill Alexander destroyed both them and theyr country.

Semyramis, when newes was brought her that her citty Babylon vvas besieged, all vn­attyred and vndressed, she tooke her armor, and by her vvonderfull valour repulsed her enemies. Iustinus.

Zenobia, Queene of the Palmerians, after the death of her husband gouerned the Em­pire, and long helde battaile against the Em­perour Aurelian, vvho sayd, That it was mo [...]e valour to conquer a woman so stoute as Zenobia, then to vanquish a king so fearefull as Xerxes.

Penthiselea, Queene of the Amazons, and Hyppolita, the first encountred hande to hand Achilles; the other Theseus, whom hee for her valour and courage afterward marri­ed. Homer.

Artimesia Queene of Caria, after the death of her husband, shewed such admirable for­titude against the Rhodians, that she burned theyr Nauies, entered theyr Citties, and [Page 37] [...]used in them her Image to bee set vp for a [...]onument of her chiualrie.

VVhen Epaminondas besieged Sparta, & [...]as gotten into the Towne, Isadas a young [...]an, all naked, his body annointed ouer [...]ith oyle, hauing a partisone, thrust himselfe [...]to the midst, beating downe all his ene­ [...]ies before him, and himselfe escaped away [...]nvvounded. Loncerus.

The Ephori at his return gaue him a crown [...]n honor of his provvesse, but they amerced [...]im at a thousand crownes for beeing so ad­ [...]enturous.

Of the Soule. The Soule is called Anima whilst it is in the [...]ody and giueth lyfe, Mens while it mindeth, Animus hauing will, Ratio for that it iudgeth rightfully, Spiritus while it breatheth, & Sen­sus whilst it feeleth.

THe Soule hath fiue vertues, of the which the first is feeling, by this vertue the soule is mooued, desiring those thing that belong to the body. Augustine.

The second povver is vvit, by thys the soule knovveth all things, sensible and cor­porall, [Page] when they are present.

The third is Imagination, by vvhich it be [...]holdeth the likenes of bodily thinges [...] they be absent.

The fourth is Reason, that iudgeth be­tweene good and euill, truth and falshood.

The fift is Vnderstanding, the which com­prehendeth things not materiall, but intelli­gible, as God and Angels.

The three first virtues are situate in the soule that is coupled to the body, and giueth lyfe and inner wit to perfection of the body, and these bee common both to men and beasts.

The other tvvo, Reason and Vnderstan­ding, be in the soule in that it may be depar­ted from the body, and abide beeing depar­ted, as an Angell by two manner of respects, for it beholdeth the higher things, and there­vpon is called Intellectus, and the lower, and for that cause is termed Ratio.

In diuers bodies the soule is threefold, Ve­gitable, that is, giueth life and no feeling, as in plants and rootes, vvhich the Philoso­phers liken to a Tryangle in Geometry, for as that hath three corners, so hath this soule three vertues, the first begetting, the second nourishing, the third growing.

[Page 38] [...]ensible, that gyueth lyfe and feeling, & not [...], which is in beasts; thys soule is lyke­ [...]d to a Quadrangle, for it is a line drawne [...] one corner to another before it maketh [...] Triangles, and the sensible soule maketh [...] triangles of vertues; for where-soeuer [...] soule Sensible is, there is also the soule [...]egitable, but not é contra.

The Reasonable soule giueth life, & feeling, [...]nd reason, which is in men; this soule is [...]kened to a circle because of her perfection [...]nd containing, for of all the figures of the [...]ame length, the circle is most, & most con­ [...]ayneth, and whosoeuer hath the soule Rea­sonable, hath also the Sensible, and Vegita­ble, sed non é contra. Aristotle.

The soule beeing once made, shall endure euermore in body or out of body, and that shall neuer be sayde that it vvas made by the Image of GOD, if it were closed in the bonds of death. Augustine.

Plato calleth the soule a beeing, which on­ly mooueth it selfe, Zeno termeth it a num­ber which mooueth it selfe, Pythagoras an harmony, Democritus a subtile and vncer­taine spyrite, Aselepiades saith it is a manner of cord that setteth the fiue Sences a vvorke, Porphyrius, Idea, Hippocrates, a subtile [Page] spirit spred through all the body, and Epic [...]rus a kinde of fire and ayre.

Pythagoras maintained Palingenesia, whic [...] is, that soules departed, returne into othe [...] bodies; Hee sayde that hee remembred tha [...] hee was Euphorbius, at the sacke of Troy. Ouid.

There vvas an auncient lavve vnder Sa­turne, that vvhen good men departed out of thys lyfe, they be sent into the fortunate Iles, vvhich Iles the Poet Pyndarus describeth, & the vvicked are sent into the Iaile of ven­geance, which he calleth Tartarus.

Plutarch imitating Plato, bringeth in The­spesias raysed from the dead, to discourse of the lyfe to come, De sera numinis vindicta.

The Thracians vvere sirnamed the neuer-dying Getes, vvho vvere of opinion, that af­ter theyr departure out of thys vvorld, they vvent to Zamolrix or Gebelezie, that is in the Getish of Goatish tongue, to him that gaue them health, saluation, and all kind of happi­nesse.

Cleombrotus a Phylosopher, when he had reade a Treatise of the immortalitie of the soule, presently slew himselfe, so did Cato of Vtica. Plutarch.

That which Virgill sayth in his second Eg­ [...]gue, [Page 39] concerning the drugge or spice of As­ [...]ria called Amomum, and the going thereof [...]uery vvhere, is of some interpreted to bee [...]eant of the immortalitie of the soule, the [...]octrine wherof Pherecides brought thence [...]to Greece, that it should bee vnderstoode [...]hroughout the vvorld.

The taking of Enoch into heauen of God, [...]vas doone that the vvorlde might thereby [...]nderstand and beleeue, that there is immor­ [...]ality after this lyfe.

The Indians burne themselues before they [...]ome to extreame age, terming it the letting of men loose, and the freeing of the soule frō the body, and the sooner they did it, the vvi­ser they vvere esteemed. Porphyrius.

Zeno sayd, that he had rather see an Indian burne himselfe cheerefully, then to heare all the Phylosophers of the vvorlde discoursing the immortality of the soule.

The people that dwell by the riuer Niger, otherwise called the people of Seneca in Af­frica, offer themselues vvith great willingnes to bee buried quicke with their maisters; vvherevpon Zeno sayd, that all the demon­strations of Logicke and Mathematick, had not so much force to proue the immortality of the soule, as this onely deed of theirs. [Page] Alexander asked a Gymnosophist, vvhe [...]ther there were more men aliue then deade he sayd there were more aliue, because no [...] are dead. Plutarch.

All the learning of the Sages & Scythians, was grounded vppon the immortality of the soule.

The Schollers of Hegesias hearing there Maister discoursing of the immortalitie of soules departed out of thys lyfe, vvere so rauished with his words, that they vvillinglie killed themselues. Plutarch.

The soules of Saints in heauen, knowe no­thing vvhat is doone vpon the earth; for if they did, said August: my mother Monicha would bee with mee euery night, to comfort me in my heauines. de ciuit. Dei.

Plinie the elder, denying the immortalitie of the soule, vvhilst hee was ouer curious in searching out the cause of the burning Aetna, was burned therein. A iust punishment for him, to end his life by smoake, who esteemed the soule no better then a vapour.

Origen attributeth vnto the soules depar­ted, a place vpon the earth, where they learn those thinges which they knewe not vvhile they liued; As the Papists frame a Purgato­rie, so he an Eruditory. P. Mart.

[Page 40]Philoronimus a priest of Galatia, liued sixe [...]eres in dead mens vaults and Sepulchers, [...]at bee might alwayes remember, that hee [...]as dead to the vvorld, and aliue to Christ. [...]aclides.

Pope [...]eo commanded two Phylosophers [...] discourse of the soule, the one to proue [...]e immortalitie, the other that it was mor­ [...]ll; and when the Pope was to giue iudge­ [...]ent, hee sayde to him that had maintained [...]he immortality, Thou hast argued the truth, [...]ut the reasons of the other sauour of more plea­ [...]re and liberty. Luther.

The soules of Tyrants are composed of ar­ogancie and cruelty. Plutarch.

Of all the fiue Sences, the sight is most piercing and subtile, for the kinde thereof is [...]erie.

Benedictus had such a power in his eye, euē to his superiors, that with a looke, he caused a furious and audatious King of the Goaths to quake and tremble.

Plautianus had such a terror in his counte­nance, that the lookers on him were daūted; for this cause when he went abroade, he had [...]teambulones to Marshall the way, and giue warning of his cōming, that they might not behold him. Herodianus.

[Page]Comodus was of so perfect ayme & sigh [...] that what soeuer he shot at, he killed, and [...] Herodotus writeth, he slew a hundred wild beasts at a hundred shot.

Amongst all lyuing creaturs, GOD hat [...] onely giuen immoouable eares to men and Apes. Aristotle.

Those that dwel by the riuer Nilus, are very deafe, by reason of the horrible noyse & [...] thereof. Ambrose.

The Emperour Claudius, seeing the meate that was prepared for the Salian Priests, dyd forth [...]with leaue all his serious affayres, and vvent to dinner vvith them. Suetonius.

Griffons haue so quicke a smell, that they smell carryon ouer or beyond the Seas. Am­brose.

Touching is a vertue in the sinewes of all the body, being the sence wherein all the o­ther imprint theyr passions. Auicen.

There is an hearbe called Spartonica, o [...] S [...]ytica, vvhich beeing tasted or helde in the mouth, the Scythians therby are able to en­dure hunger & cold twelue dayes together. Plinie.

Of Clemencie. This vertue by the Grecians is called Philan­ [...]ropia, which signifieth the law of mankind, her [...]ranches are thankefulnes, pitty, and libera­ [...]itie.

TItus Sonne of the Emperour Vespasian, for his wonderfull clemency, was called Deliciae humani generis. Iosephus.

Antonius for his pitty, was sirnamed Pius, [...]he (as neuer Emperor before him did) raig­ned without the effusion of any blood.

Traian, when he was blamed by some of his friends, for his ouer much clemency, answe­red, I will be vnto my Subiects, as I would my Subiects should be to mee, for the gentlenes of a Prince, neuer hurteth his estate. Suetonius.

Phillip King of Macedonia, would not pu­nish Nicanor, although he openly spake euill of him, saying, when he heard therof; I suppose that hee is a good man, it were better to search whether the fault be in vs or no.

Dion hauing ouercom Dionisius, & resto­ [...]ed his Cuntries liberty, forgaue Heraclides one of his most dangerous enemies. Plut.

Antigonus hearing certaine Souldiours rai­ling [Page] vpon him hard by his tent, who though that he was not so neere, shewed himselfe, say­ing, can you not goe further to speake ill of me!

Caesar, when he heard that Cato had slaine himselfe at Vtica, O Cato, (said he) I enuy thee, this thy death, seeing thou hast enuied me, the sa­uing of thy life. Plutarch.

Adrian bearing great enuy to a worthy Ro­maine, before he was Emperor, the same day he vvas elected, meeting his enemy in the streete, sayd to him aloud, Euasisti, meaning, that he being now a Prince, might in no wise reuenge an iniury. P. Diaconus.

Pythagoras was so pittifull, that he abstai­ned from cruelty, euen towards vnreasonable creatures, that he vvould buy birds of the Fowlers, and let them fly againe, & draught of fishes, to cast them againe into the Sea. Loncerus.

Augustus made one his Seruant, that would haue killed him.

Domitian, when he was first chosen Empe­rour, did so abhorre cruelty, that he would not suffer any beasts to be killed for sacrifice.

The Snakes of Syria, the Serpents of Ty­rinthia, and the Scorpions in Arcadia, are gentle, and sparing of theyr naturall soyle, though cruell in others. Plinius.

[Page 42]Scipio, hauing taken Hasdruball captiue, restored him againe without ransome.

Darius, vnderstanding that his Subiects were sore taxed with Subsidies, blamed his Counsaile, rebuked their Law, and in an ora­tion vnto his Subiects signified, that he was oath his estate should hinder theyrs, which gentlenes so wone them, that they offered their lands and lyfes at his feet. Herodotus.

The Emperor Aurelian, the gates of Tiae­ [...]a being shut against him, he sent word, that vnlesse they yeelded, he would not leaue one flogge aliue in the Citty, vvhich they not­withstanding refused to doe, but he ouer­comming them, was so pittifull, that he spa­ [...]ed them, commaunding to kill all the flogs.

Porus King of India, conquered of Alex­ [...]nder, and being commaunded to aske what [...]e would, fearing that pitty was farre from Alexander, desired clemency, which he gran­ [...]ed. Brusonius.

Alexander vvas so famous for clemency, that Darius wished, that he might ouercome Alexander, to shew him curtesie, or that A­ [...]exander, and none else, might conquer him. Plutarch.

The Romaines were renowned, for the ho­norable [Page] funerals of Siphax king of Numidia, whom they tooke prisoner. Valerius.

Prusias King of Bythinia, being banished by Nicomedes his owne Sonne, came to the Romains, who entreated him euery way ac­cording to his worthines & estate. Diodorus.

So did they with Ptolomey banished by his owne brother, and restored him againe to his kingdome.

Marcellus, after his Souldiours had con­quered Syracusa, not without great slaugh­ter of many, mounted vp an high tower of the Castell, and with teares lamented the [...] ­full fall of Syracuse. Valerius.

Metellus besieging the great Citty Cento­brica, in the Country of Celtiberia, when he saw their miserable condition, and their wo­men comming out with theyr children to craue mercy, he with-drew his intended for­ces, remoued his campe, and spared the Cit­ty, to his eternall commendation.

In Athence there was a temple dedicated to Mercy, into which none might enter, ex­cept he were beneficiall & pittifull, and then also with licence from the Senate. Macrobius

Arcagatus a notable Chirurgion, was high­ly esteemed among the Romaines, as long as he had pitty vpon his Patients, whose cure [Page 43] [...]e had promised, but when hee began to be [...]nmerciful, he was not only dispised of graue men, but in derision called Vulnerarius. Gel­ [...]ius.

Rome was called the hauen of succour, the [...]nker of trust, the key of curtesie, wher-vnto [...]ll helplesse Princes fled.

Pompey hauing cōquered Tigranes King of Armenia, and he kneeling at his feet, yeel­ding his crowne and scepter, he tooke him in his armes, put his crowne vppon his head, and restored him againe to his kingdome. Plutarch.

Iulius Caesar was as willing to reuenge the death of Pompey, as L. Paulus was curteous & fauourable to his foe Perseus. Idem.

Haniball, although a deadly enemy to the Romaines, yet in princely clemency he wone more commendacions by the buriall of Ae­milius Gracchus, & Marcellus, then he got fame by ouercomming three thousand Ro­maines. Valerius.

Polycrates the tyrant of Samos, was very gentle towards those women that were the wiues of the dead Souldiours, restoring them to their liberty, and giuing them wherewith­all to maintaine their after estate.

Vespasian, after that Vitellius had kil­led [Page] his brother Sabius, and long persecuted his sonne, being at last subdued, he spared his daughter, and bestowed a great sum of mo­ney with her in mariage.

Agesilaus, after he had ouercome the Co­rinthians, did not so ioy in his conquest, as he lamented the death of so many men. Plut.

Augustus, when he had conquered Alexan­dria, the Citty which Alexander built, moo­ued with pitty in sight of the Cittizens, ex­pecting nothing but death, said, for the beau­ty of your Citty, and memory of Alexander, and the loue I beare vnto Pyrrhus your phi­losopher, and pitty of all, I spare your Citty, and graunt you life. Aelianus.

Certain drunkards abused in wanton spech Pisistratus vvife, and being sober the next morning, came to aske him forgiuenes, he gently said, learne to be sober another time.

Camillus rebelled against Alexander Se­uerus, the Emperour of Rome, and for that, being condemned to dye by the Senate, was pardoned by him. Eutropius.

Fabius forgaue Marius, the treasons hee practised against him.

Cicero said of Iulius Caesar, that he extol­ling dead Pompey, and erecting his statues, did set vp his owne.

[Page 44]Alphonsus, by his clemency and gentlenes, [...]one Careta, so did Marcellus ouercome Siracusa.

Diogenes, Heraclitus, Apermanthus, & Ti­ [...]ion of Athence, were vngentle and vnciuile persons, and for their strange manners, ter­med haters of men.

Phocion the Athenian, would in nothing fulfill the request of the people, and therfore he was hated worse then a Toade.

The Spartans, for their obedience and hu­mility vvere more honoured, then eyther Thebes renowned for her Gods, or Athence for her wisedome. Plut.

Marius being appoynted by the people of Rome twice to tryumph, deuided the glory betweene himselfe, and his fellow Catullus. Appian.

Dion, after he was made King of the Syra­cusans, would neuer change his accustomed fare and apparell, which he vsed as Studient in the Vniuersity. Plut.

As Alexander was on his voyage, to con­quer the Indians, Taxiles, one of the Kings desired him, that they might not vvarre one against another, If thou (said he) art lesse then I, receaue benefits, if greater, I will take them of thee: Alexander admiring his curteous spech, [Page] answered; At the least we must fight and con­tend for this: whether of vs twaine shal be most beneficiall to his companion. Curtius.

Traianus was so meeke and curteous, that he was fellow-like to all men; during all his raigne, there was but one only Senator con­demned, who was adiudged to death against his will. Eutropius.

The kingdom wherin the Emperor Augu­stus most delighted and ioyed, was of the Mauritanes, and the reason was this, because all other kingdoms he got by the sword, and this kingdom by intreatance. Suetonius.

Alexander did write to Publian his bit-ma­ker, Iulius Caesar to Rufus his gardener, Au­gustus to Pamphilo his smith, Tiberius to Escaulus his miller, Tullie to Myrlo his tay­lour, and Seneca to Gipho his rent-gathe­rer, P. Aemilius to his plough-man, C. Den­tatus to his carpenter; such was theyr affa­bility.

Of Phaleris the tyrant is written, that neuer man did him seruice that he did not gratifie, either write him a letter that he did not aun­swere.

Herod by humbling himselfe before Augu­stus, saued & encreased his kingdome.

Pyrrhus could very well skill to humble [Page 45] [...]imselfe towards great men, and this helped [...]ery much to the conquest of his kingdom. Plutarch.

Pyrrhus, after many victories, vvhen his men of warre called him Eagle, I am, quoth [...], an Eagle by your meanes, being borne vp by [...]our knighthoode and chiualry, as the Eagle is [...]ast vp by his feathers, giuing the honour and [...]itle to his Souldier [...]. Valerius.

Xerxes dismissed certayne spyes vvhich [...]ame from Athence, and pardoning them, shewed them notwithstanding his Army and forces.

Augustus, when he entered Rome in a try­umph, one in a certaine Comedy, said, O good Lord, and euery man turned that word to Augustus, flattering, & clapping their hands for ioy, but he gaue a token, that he liked it not, and made prohibitions, that men should not vse the name of Lord vnto him.

Caligula denied all mens requests. Sueto­nius.

After that Pericles had the managing of the publique affaires, he was neuer seene abroad in the streets, nor at any feasts.

The Macedonians forsook Demetrius, be­cause he was vneasie to be dealt with, & very hard to be spoken vnto.

[Page]Dion was blamed of Plato for his ineffabili­ty, and of all the Sicilians.

Lucullus Souldiers would not follow him, because he was so vngentle to them.

Nicias for his ouer great sternnes was enui­ed, although he was otherwise vertuous; so likewise was Coriolanus. Liuius.

Of Liberality & Hospitality. Liberality giueth with iudgement, and is the meane betweene prodigality and auarice; ho­spitality is foure fold, glorious, onely to be well thought of, couetous, entertainment for ones mo­ney, curteous, that receiueth our friends, and re­ligious, which cherisheth those that serue God.

ALexander sent to Phocion, Captaine of the Athenians, an hundred talents of sil­uer for a gift, and the names of foure famous Citties, to choose and take which he would. Curtius.

The people of Leueani had a law, that if a­ny stranger entered into their soile before sun setting, and was not receaued into one mans house or other, being desirous to be lodged, they payd an appointed penalty for their in­humanity; this law vvas profitable to the [Page 46] [...]ayfairing man, and allowable to Iupiter, the [...]uer of hospitality.

The Persian Kings gaue to their Embassa­ [...]ors, to euery one a Babilonian talent, which [...]lxx. pounds of Athenian coyne, besides Bracelets, Iewels, a chaine, and a Persian word, which they called Acinax. Curtius.

All these were valued at a thousand Persian [...]eeces of siluer, besides all this, they gaue a Median royall robe, which was called Doro­ [...]horica.

Ptolomaeus, the sonne of Lagus, had a sin­guler delight and pleasure, in making his friends rich, saying, Better it is to enrich other, [...]hen a man to enrich himselfe.

The Apolloniatae expell (according to the Lacedemonian law) strangers out of theyr Country; contrary to the people of Epi­damnus who prohibite none.

Alexander preferred Abdolominus a man of no parentage, & base condition to a king­dome, because that his benefit should rather seeme to haue been bestowed freely, then de­serued by nobility, and that his own greatnes [...]ight the more therin be seene. Iustinus.

Plutus the God of riches, which at Sparta was kept blind, vvith Herod the Sophist, was sayd to haue receaued his sight, because [Page] being very rich, he was very bountifull, and knew how to vse his wealth to the vse of the pore, which caused many to loue and follow him. Caerius.

Lucius Lucullus house was common of re­ceate for all the poore Greekes, that trauai­led from Athence, Sparta, and Thebes, yea, from all Greece to Rome.

Pomponius Atticus, sent to Cicero being banished, two hundred thousand Sesterties, and vnto Volumnius & Brutus as much.

Phryne a Curtezan of Greece, after Alex­ander had subdued the Citty of Thebes, and made the wals therof leuell with the ground, she offered to reedifie them vpon this con­dition, that vpon euery gate of the Citty, this sentence should be set; This Citty Alex­ander the great threw downe, and Phryne the Curtezan builded vpon againe.

Atta [...]us King of Asia ready to dye, beque [...] ­thed his kingdome by testament to the Ro­maines, to bestow where they would, for that they were so liberall, somtime to him, when fortune fauoured him not.

Artaxerxes, made those Souldiours that came from Lacedemonia to ayde him, which came a foote, to goe home a horseback, they that came vpon horses, he sent back in cha­ [...]iots, [Page 47] & he that had a Village when he came to him, he gaue a Citty at his departure.

Alexander maried vpon his owne charges, [...]he most part of the Nobles of Macedonia, [...]nto the Ladies of Persia.

Aristides hauing all the state of Athence vnder his gouernment, gaue his wealth to the poore Cittizens, reseruing a small sum to bu­ry him with all.

Democritus Abderita, being very rich, as may be gathered by the feast which his Fa­ther made to Xerxes army, which consisted of more then two thousand millions of men, gaue all his patrimony to his Country, reser­uing a little portion for himselfe, that hee might study Philosophy, & then went to A­thence. Herodotus.

Caesar at one time gaue to Paulus Consull 9. hundred thousand crownes, for feare least he should oppose himselfe against his enter­prises, and to Curio the Tribune fifteene hundred thousand, that hee should take his part.

Cymon of Athence, gaue a yearely pension to the poore, fed the hungry, and cloathed the naked. Lactantius.

The Romaines had a lawe, that no man should presume to make a publique feast, [Page] except before he had prouided for all th [...] poore of his quarters. Patritius.

Epaminondas hauing notice of a rich man, that had no care of the poore, sent a needy fellow vnto him, and commaunded him vn­der great penalty, to giue him presently 600 crownes; the Cittizen hearing this, came to him, and asked him the cause thereof, this man (said hee) is honest and poore, and thou which bast greatly robbed the common wealth a [...]t rich, compelling him to bee liberall in spight of his teeth.

Alexander by his liberality, made away for his noble plat-formes, wherby he became monarch of three parts of the world, destri­buting liberally all his demaines amongst his followers.

He caused proclamation to be made during his warres, that all they that were indebted vpon any occasion whatsoeuer, should bring their conditions vnto him, and he would dis­charge them, which he performed.

He gaue at one time to his Maister Aristo­tle 800. talents, as a reward for his paines and expences, he had been at, in describing the nature and property of lyuing creatures. Plutarch.

He sent to Anaxarchus 50. talents, but he [Page 48] [...]efused them, saying, that he knew not what to doe with so great a sum, what, sayd Alex­ander, hath he no friends to pleasure? seeing all King Darius wealth will not suffice mee, to di­ [...]tribute among my friends.

Perillus besought him to giue some money towards the mariage of his daughter, where­ [...]pon he gaue her 50. talents, but he said, that it was too much by halfe, but he replied, If [...]alfe be enough for thee to take, yet it is not e­nough for me to giue.

He gaue to a poore Aegiptian, asking his [...]almes, a rich and populous Citty, and when the other amazed, supposed that he had moc­ked him, take (quoth he) that which I giue thee, for if thou art Bias that demaundest, I am Alexander that giueth.

Titus loued so liberality, that remembring one euening with himselfe, that he had giuen nothing the same day, sayd, O my friends, wee haue lost this day.

Dyonisius the elder, entering into his sonns lodging, and beholding theyr great store of rich Iewels and gold, sayde vnto him, My Sonne, I did not giue thee these riches to vse in this sort, but to impart them to thy friends.

Pertinax who succeeded Commodus, sur­passed all the Emperours that euer were, for [Page] exceeding liberality, he forbad that his nam [...] should be set vpon any Castle within his do­minion, saying, that his lands were not prope [...] to him onely, but common to all the people o [...] Rome. Suetonius.

Haniball, after he was vanquished by Sci­pio, fled into Asia to King Antiochus, who tooke him into his protection, and right ho­norably entertained him. Appianus.

The Germaines are very curteous towards Aliens and Strangers, and it is an horrible act accounted amongst them, to molest those whom they ought to defend, frō any which intended to hurt them. Caesar.

The entertainment of the greater Scipio towards Massinissa, brought such profit to the Romains, as he of some writers, is called the third preseruer of the Citty of Rome frō destruction, and therfore is ioyned compani­on with the elder and younger Scipio.

Lot, for his hospitality, escaped the fire o Sodom and Gomorrha.

Rahab, for her hospitality, was saued with all hers from death.

Elias restored from death, the Sonne of her which had lodged him.

Archelaus being requested by one of his Minions, to giue him a Cup of gold, wherein [Page 49] [...]e dranke, deliuered it to his page, and bidde [...]im giue it to Euripides, saying; Thou art [...]orthy to aske and to bee denyed, but Euripides worthy of gifts although hee aske not.

Marcus Antonius Emperour of Rome, af­ [...]er his great battailes, in one day gaue avvay hundred Lyons together; he made sale of [...]ll his plate and iewels, to augment his soul­ [...]iours pay. Eutropius.

The priuiledges belonging to hospitality, [...]re so great, as the Romaines obserued the [...]ites thereof to theyr enemies, and vvoulde [...]euer fight till such time as the prisoners to [...]hom they were indebted for meat, were set [...]t liberty.

Iupiter was called of Homer and Virgil, Hospitalis, the Harbourer.

The Almaines made so great account of those with whom they had eaten and drunk, that they imparted their houses vnto them.

The Lucans had a lawe which condemned that man to be fined, which suffered a stran­ger to passe vnlodged after the sunne vvas downe.

Scipio being blamed for his great bounty, [...]unswered, That Treasurers & receiuers were to make account of mony, and Captaines of feats of Armes.

[Page]Valerius Publicola, for relieuing the poor [...] with his goods, was called Publicola.

Nerua Cocceius in the one yeere that hee was Emperour, gaue vnto the poore fifteene hundred thousand crownes; for the dooing whereof he sold his iewels and his plate.

Tullus Hostilius King of the Romans, was so pittifully minded, that hee gaue a great part of his goods to the poore.

Philemon and Baucis, for theyr entertay­ning of Iupiter and Mercurie into their cot­tage vvhen the inhabitants of Phrygia deni­ed them hospitalitie, had theyr wishes gran­ted, that they might dye both together. O­uid. lib. 8.

There was a law made by King Cyrus, that what King soeuer of Persia did come vnto Babylon, he should giue a peece of gold vn­to euery poore vvoman in the citty, for the which cause, King Othus vvoulde neuer come thither.

Pompey being sicke in Pusoll, his Physiti­ons told him, that his remedy was to eate of certaine Zorzales that the Consull Lucullus did breede; but he aunswered; I will rather die then send to craue them, for the Gods haue not created Pompey to aske, but to giue. Plu­tarch.

[Page 50]Pompey flying into Egypt for succour to [...]tolomy, then very young, was betrayed [...]y Phocinus and Achillas. Plut.

Othosilanus, to winne the loue of his men [...]f VVarre, made a feast vnto them, & gaue [...] euery warrier a peece of money, besides [...]ndry other rewards.

Lycaon caused those stranger-guests that [...]ame to him to be slaine, for which cause Iu­piter turned him into a VVolfe. Ouid.

Busiris did the like, and therefore hee vvas [...]illed of Hercules.

Moneses a noble Parthian, fled to Antho­ [...]ie from his cruell King, who comparing his [...]isery to Themistocles, and his felicitie to Xerxes, gaue him three Citties, as Xerxes [...]id to Themistocles, for his bread, drinke, & [...]eate, and as some write, two more for hys [...]odging and apparrell. Appian.

Pomponius Atticus, vvhen he saw Brutus [...]nd Cassius were driuen and expelled out of Rome, he sent them 100000. Sextercies, as [...] friend that ayded them at theyr need when [...]thers had forsooke them.

Gillias a Sicilian of Agrigentum, clothed [...]he poore, fed them, bestowed their daugh­ [...]ers in marriage, lodged strangers, and gaue [...]ntertainement to fiue hundred men, whom [Page] the sea had cast vpon that coast. Valerius.

Buza a noble Lady of Pouile, releeued ten thousand Romains which had escaped from the battaile of Cannas. Idem.

Hiero King of Sicile, gaue vnto the Ro­mans in tyme of theyr neede, thirty thou­sand quarters of VVheate, two hundred of Barly, and 250. pound weight of gold.

Q. Flaminius, hauing conquered the La­cedemonians, discharged them of all talla­ges, and impositions contrary to the manner of other conquerers, vvho are wont to lay burdens vpon the backs of them whom they had conquered.

Alexander was reputed the most bountiful and liberall of all Princes, who gaue to none but to Phylosophers, men of vvarre, and Counsellers.

One day a Iugler (by his subtile sleight) threwe a dry pease a great way through the eie of a needle, hoping to haue some reward, but the King making no reckoning of him, commaunded one to giue him a bushell of those pease to practise his feates withall.

Alexander gaue his Treasurer charge, to gyue to Anaxarchus the Phylosopher what­soeuer he asked, and when hee had asked a [...] hundred talents, the Treasurer astonished [Page 51] [...]hereat, told Alexander, who answered, That Anaxarchus knewe well enough, that hee had a friend that both could & would bestow so much vpon him.

Caesar gaue a great summe of money to e­ [...]er [...] souldiour of the old bands.

Bellisarius vvas beloued of his followers for his liberality, because hee gaue them horse & armor vvhensoeuer they had lost them, so it were not through theyr owne negligence. P. Diaconus.

Vitellius, contrary to Caligula, neuer de­nyed any man his request.

Scipio dyed poore, notwithstanding hee had subdued two mighty Citties, Numance and Carthage, so bountifull vvas hee all hys life time.

Lisander esteemed liberalitie to others, more then his owne priuate welfare.

Fabius Maximus, at his owne charge re­deemed many Romaine prisoners that were taken captiue by Haniball.

Of Patience. This vertue causeth a vvise man to prepare himselfe to entertaine all kind of fortunes ther­fore God hath so disposed things, that hee will [Page] not suffer man to haue a prescience of thinges to come.

OF all men, one man named Anarchus Augustus, was most patient in tor­ments, and one woman named Laena, most patient for silence. Plinie.

Plutarch gaue the Emperor Traiane coun­sell to be patient towards furious folkes, con­sidering that time moderateth as many mat­ters, as reason doth change.

Socrates beeing counselled to reuenge a wrong receiued, aunswered, VVhat if a ma­stie had bitten me, or an Asse had strooke mee, would you haue me goe to law with them?

Ptolomey King of Egypt, demaunded me­rily of a Gramarian, who was the Father of Peleus, who aunswered, that he desired first to know who was the Father of Lagus; no­ting thereby his base parentage, whom when he vvas counselled to punish, sayd patiently, If it be vnseemely for a King to be mocked, it is also as vndecent for him to mocke another.

Valentinian was of a subtile wit, graue countenaunce, stoute in his affayres, in ad­uersities patient, and a great enemie of the vicious, temperate in eating and drinking; and a friend to religious persons. P. Diac.

[Page 52]After Sylla the Romaine had resigned hys Dictatorshyp, and became a priuate man, a certaine young-man greatly reuiled him, & gaue him euill language euen before his own dwelling place, hee nowe patiently bearing his speeches without any reuengement, who before had caused many of his country-men to die, for smaller offences tovvardes him. Appian.

VVhen Nicodromos the Musitian had smytten Crates the Thebane on the face, he ware a peece of paper on his forheade ouer the wound, where in he wrote, This did Ni­codromos; He vvould of purpose scold with harlots, thereby to inure himselfe to beare al reproches the more patiently. Dem. Phal.

VVhen the persecuted Christians com­plained against theyr aduersaries to Iulian the Emperour, desiring iustice; he ansvve­red them, It is your Maisters commaundement, that you should beare all kinde of iniuries with patience.

Mauritius the Emperour, beholding the death of his children vvith great patience, vvhen he savve his vvife put to death, cryed out, O Lord thou art iust, and thy iudgements are right.

Darius, what ill hap soeuer chaunced vnto [Page] him, hee tooke it patiently, and vvas neuer troubled in minde for the same. Herodotus.

Anaxagoras vvas much commended for so patiently bearing the death of his sonne, for when newes was brought him that his sonne was dead, he sayd; I knew that I had begotten a mortall man. Laertius.

Eretricus one of Zenos schollers, beeing as­ked of his father what hee had learned, aun­swered, hee would tell him by and by; but hee thereat angry, strooke his sonne, vvho pre­sently sayd vnto him, This much haue I lear­ned, to beare patiently the wordes and blowes which my father giueth me.

Lycurgus hauing lost one of his eyes by the misbehauiour of Alcander towards him, the Cittizens brought Alcander vnto him to be punished; but he contrary to their re­quest, patiently dismissed him, and pardo­ned the offence. Thucidides.

Eusebius vvhen a vvicked vvoman of the sect of Arrius had vvillingly throwne a stone at him, and therewithall had vvounded him to death, he was so patiently minded, and so farre from taking reuenge, that hee svvore all his friends that were about him at the ve­ry howre of his death, not to punish her for the same.

[Page 53]Xenophon, Dion, and Antigonus, are fa­ [...]ous for theyr singuler patience.

The Gymnosophists of India were so pati­ent, that from sunne rising till sunne setting, they continued vpon the hote sand vvithout either meate or drinke.

The Lacedemonians were most patient in trauaile, winde, weather, and warres.

Diogenes walking one day abroade in A­thence, wherein there was many images of such auncient men as had best deserued of the Common-wealth, asked his almes of them all one after another; and being asked why he did so, I learne heereby (quoth he) to take deniall patiently.

The Hebrew Doctors figure the Asse as a perfect symbole of patience, fortitude, and clemencie. Cor. Agrippa.

Because the Asse patiently yeeldeth his bo­dy to so many burdens, in reward thereof, he is neuer troubled with the lousie sicknesse. Idem.

The Asse vvas so respected in the olde Te­stament, that when God commaunded eue­ry first borne to be slaine for sacrifice, hee onely spared with men, Asses.

Christ vvould haue the patient Asse a wit­nesse of his natiuitie. Idem.

[Page]A certaine Philosopher vsurped the name not to the true vse of vertue, but for ostenta­tion sake, to whom one sayd, that hee would not repute him a vvise Phylosopher, vnlesse he dyd vvith patience endure contumelies and iniuries, vvhich hee a vvhile did suffer, but boasting sayd; Now doost thou see that I am a right Phylosopher, but the other pre­sently replyed, I had vnderstood so much if thou hadst held thy peace. Boetius.

Tyberius Caesar was commended of Sue­tonius for suffering in free citties free tongs.

Philip of Macedon, asked the Embassadors of Athence vvhat pleasure hee might doe to them? to vvhom they answered, that it were the greatest pleasure to Athence, if he would hang himselfe; which the King patienly en­dured, saying; Your reprochfull wordes doe make King Philip better able to reuenge your malice by warres, then moue him to aunswere your vnseeming speeches with words.

Alexander Seuerus beeing by some of hys friendes informed that he was greatly malig­ned of his people, & blamed of the Senators for the slender regard he had of the Citty, he sayde: It belongeth to Princes to requite the good, and not remember the euill. Herodian.

Harpalus was of exceeding patience, being [Page 54] bidden by Astiages to supper, vvhere he had tvvo sonnes of his ready drest, and layde in a siluer charger before him on the table to bee eaten. Iustinus.

Of Education. There be two ages (as Aristotle saith) wher­into the institution of youth is to bee deuided, namely, from the age of seauen yeeres vntill foureteene, and from foureteene to one & twen­tie: for they that deuide the ages by seuen, most commonly say amisse, but it is rather meete to follow the deuision of nature, because euery Art and institution, will supply the want of nature.

IN Persia, Lacedemonia, and sundry o­ther Prouinces, the Princes and the No­bilitie, had alvvayes a special regard to com­mit the education of theyr chyldren to such men of learning, as might instruct them in matters of vvisedome, whereby they might proue profitable to their c [...]untry.

Lycurgus, to prooue that education could alter nature, brought vp two whelps which had both one Damme, the one to hunt, the other to keepe house, and afterward, to try the conclusion, he sette downe before them [Page] an Hare and a pot of pottage, the one fell t [...] the pottage, the other ranne after the Hare Aelianus.

Socrates and Themistocles were both by nature vicious, but by education vertuous, the one made a perfect man by Phylosophy, the other by the example of Miltiades.

M. Portius Cato, would needs be Schoole­maister to his owne children, which institu­tion did much auaile them, not so much be­cause he was Cato, as that hee was their Fa­ther. Plutarch.

Iulius Caesar, adopted his nephew Octaui­us, and brought him vp himselfe.

Amongst the Heluetians or Switzers, whē one was condemned to death, order was ta­ken that the execution thereof shoulde bee done by the Father, who was the cause of his euill education; that he might come to hys death by the authour of his life, and that the father might in some sort be punished for his negligence vsed towards his child.

Traianus and Adrianus, at theyr own char­ges caused fiue thousand noble mens Chyl­dren of Rome, to be brought vp in learning, vertue, and feates of Armes, for the profi [...] of the Common-wealth. Eutropius.

Eteocles, one of the most noble Euphorie [Page 55] of Lacedemonia, freely aunswered Antipater asking 50. pledges, that he would not gyue him chyldren, least if they were brought vp farre from their Fathers, they should change the auncient custome of liuing vsed in theyr owne country, and become vicious, but of old men & women he would giue him dou­ble the number, if he would be so pleased to accept of them.

Leo the Emperour wished, that Schoole­maisters might receiue the pay of men at Armes.

Alexander caused thirty thousand children of those nations hee had conquered, to bee brought vp vnder professors of sundry Sci­ences; by whose policies, if he had lyued, he had thought to haue held al the whole world in awe. Plutarch.

Hipperides an Orator of Greece, sayde to one who tolde him that hee had sent a slaue with his sonne to gouerne him, You haue doone very well, for in sted of one slaue, at his returne you shall receiue two.

The Cittizens of Rome, dyd throw Scemi­des with her sonne Heliogabalus, aliue into the riuer Tyber, to beare him company, for that she bare and brought vp such a gulfe of mischiefes. Suetrnius.

[Page]Plato had his education among the priest of Egipt, where he learned such instructions▪ as made his phylosophie so perfect, that what [...]soeuer proceeded from the mouth of Plato, vvas accounted diuine.

The Lacedemonians vvere wont to make choyse of men of learning and vvisedome for the education of theyr cittizens, and them they called Publique Tutors, for vvhich re­spect they were holden vertuous men in ac­tion, valiant of courage, and excellent in martiall discipline.

The Phylosophers in Greece, made cer­tayne playes for the instruction of young men, vvhich discipline, eternall memorie hath preserued till these our dayes.

In Iulius Caesar there wanted no fortitude, for he ouercame many, neyther clemencie, for hee pardoned his enemies; neyther libe­rality, for hee gaue away kingdoms, neither science, for he vvrote many bookes, neither fortune, for hee vvas Lord of all men, but he vvanted good manners, vvhich is the foun­dation of a quiet life. Suetonius.

King Philip of Macedon, vowed his sonne vnto Aristotle as soone as euer he was born, and afterward did put him happily into hys hands, and he trained him vp in philosophy.

[Page 56]Comodus the Emperor, was a very vertu­ous chyld in the beginning, and had good e­ducation; but in the end he prooued a most vvicked Prince. Suetonius.

Nero wanted no good instructions, & such a maister he had, as neuer any had a better, yet among all the Emperours of Rome, not any one was worse then he. Tacitus.

Iulian the Apostate, tooke away all bene­uolences and contributions to schooles of [...]earning, to the end the chyldren might not be instructed in the liberal Arts, but brought vp in ignorance.

Caligula the fourth Emperour of Rome, vvas brought vp vvith such cost and delica­cie in his youth, that they doubted in Rome, whether Drusius Germanicus his Father, employed more for the Armies in vvarres, then Caligula his sonne spent in the cradle for his pleasures. Suetonius.

The Mother of Alexander the twenty sixe Emperour of Rome, was so carefull of her sonnes education, that shee kept continually a guard of men to take heed, that no vicious man came vnto him to corrupt him in euill. Herodian.


Of Wit & Memory. A good wit hath three degrees, of hope, of practising, of perfection; the first is in chyldren, the second in young men, in beeing perceiued 3. wayes, by desire to learne, by quicke conceit, by a good memory; The third of perfection, is in the elder sort, when they quickly conceiue, faithful­ly remember, and fruitfully put in practise those things which they haue learned.

ESdras the priest had the lawes of the He­brues at his fingers end.

Al [...]ibiades, wheresoeuer hee vvas, and in vvhat country soeuer hee soiourned, coulde easily frame himselfe according to the man­ners of the people.Plutarch.

Such another was Marcus Antonius, for at Rome hee vvoulde liue like a Romane, and would seeme a right Senator, in Egipt vvho more licentious?

Seuerus the good Emperor, because of his stable wit and iudgment, was called Seuerus Pertinax. Eutropius.

Clemens the sixt vvas of so good a memo­ry, that whatsoeuer he once learned, hee ne­uer after forgot.

[Page 57]Mithridates was of so great a memory, that he could call euery one of his Souldiours by name. Appian.

Anthony of Gueuara, sometimes his me­mory would be so good, and wit so quicke, and skill so excellent, that he could deuide an haire, and sweepe a graine, at other times, he wished not onely 5. but 10. sences, which wee call wittes.

The first lesson that Socrates taught his Schollers, was, Remember, learne to forget that which thou hast ill learned. Lirinensis.

The Sophists of Greece could with theyr eloquence and copiousnes of wit, make of a Mouse an Elephant, and a mountaine of a molehill.

The Schollers of Pythagoras learned his precepts by hart, vsing their wits & memo­ries for bookes.

Portius neuer forgotte any thing that hee once reade before.

Seneca could rehearse after one by hearing, two hundred verses.

Aelius Adrianus, amongst a great army of Souldiours, if any one were missing, straight knew who it was. Iustinus.

Scipio could call all his Souldiers by name. Plutarch.

[Page]I. Caesar could reade, talke, heare, and aun [...]swere at one time. Plinie.

Carmedes, a Grecian, neuer heard anie thing, but he could repeate it word by word, without writing.

Pythagoras was willed of Mercury, to aske what hee would, but immortality, and hee should haue it, of whom he obtained to keep in memory, all things that he had heard and seene. Laertius.

Lucullus is recorded of Tully for his excel­lent memory.

The Aegiptians vsed characters and figures for their memory, which was called locall memory. Baptista.

Hortensius could pronounce out of hand with his tongue, what he wrote with his pen. Plinie.

Cyneas being sent from King Pyrrhus to Rome, the second day in the Senate house, before all the people of Rome, he named all the Senators.

Cyrus could call euery Souldiour in his campe by name. Xenophon.

Cassius Seuerus, sayde, that although his bookes were burned, hee caried all his lear­ning in mind and memory.

[...]ublius Crassus, at one instant, heard fiue [Page 58] sundry languages spoken, and answered each of them in the same tongue.

Iulius Caesar at one time caused his Secre­taries to write vnto foure seuerall persons, of sundry matters, and would oftentimes indite a letter to one of his Secretaries, reade in a booke, and heare another speake, all at one time.

Seneca rehearsed tvvo thousande sundrie names, hauing only heard them pronounced before, beginning at the last, and continuing to the first.

One asked Domaratus, who was the hone­stest man in Sparta, He that resembleth thee least, sayd he.

One asked an Aegiptian, what hee caried folded vp, it is wrapped vp, quoth hee, because thou shouldest not know.

Another asked, what God made before he made heauen, who aunswered, hell, for such inquisitiue persons.

Virgill for all that vvith his so deuine a wit and iudgement, tooke all hope from his posterity, for any to follow him at any time, yet would he follow Homer.

Pythagoras very wittily, and after a subtile manner, found out the measure of Hercules body by his foot, measuring the space where [Page] euery fiue yeares they kept theyr games a [...] Olympus. Plinie.

The Aegiptians marked the well memoried man, with the figure of an Hare or a Fox, for that the Hare heareth best, and the Foxe is of greatest memory, and if any want memo­ry, they compare him to a Crocodile. Bap­tista.

Some are of opinion, that the signe Capri­cornus was Pan, whom Iupiter for the dexte­rity of his wit so metamorphized.

Aelius Adrianus the Emperour, would at one time vvrite, heare, and talke vvith his friends. Iustinus.

Homer in his discription of Vlisses, makes him of little stature, but of an excellent wit, and of the contrary, he sets foorth A [...]ax with body and members of great corpulency, but very simple in mind and iudgment.

Alexander Seuerus, and Charles the fifth, writ downe those thar did them seruice, and the rewards which he had giuen to many of them; and if in perusing his notes of remem­brance, hee saw any man that had done him seruice, and was not worthily recompenced, he caused him to come before him, and asked him why he had not sued for recompence. Rauisius.

[Page 59]Messala was of so weake a memory, that he forgot his owne name. Plinie.

Caluisius forgot his friends names, vvith whom he daily kept company. Seneca.

Curio a Iudge, was so forgetfull, that hee forgot the case which he should giue iudge­ment on. Cicero.

Atticus was of so weake a memory, that hee could not remember the foure elements.

Bamba, King of the Goths, by a drinke gi­uen by Heringeus his successor, lost his me­mory.

The Poets faine, that there is a riuer in hell called Lethe, of the which who soeuer drin­keth, forgetteth all vvhat hee remembred before.

The Thracians were so dul, that they could not count aboue foure.

Heraclitus Seuerus, was dumb before the Emperour.

Cicero was astonied at the presence of the Senators, & Demosthenes at king Phillip.

Theophrastus many times in the midst of his Oration, was at a stand.

Hipparchion when he would haue conten­ded with Ruffinus, had not a word to say, frō whence the prouerb cam, Hiparchio is domb.

Orbilius by extreamity of age, forgot his [Page] Alphabet and letters.

A certayne Romaine vaunted to Scipio, that he could call more men by their names then he, to whom he answered, you say true, for my study hath not beene to know many, but to be knowne of all.

Salust was much commended for the dex­terity of his wit, especially in writing of an History. Petrus Crinitus.

The inuention of the Art memoratiue, is fathered vpon Simonides.

Lasterna and Axiothea, were two Grecian women, very well learned, and amongst the Schollers of Plato much renowned; the one was of so perfect memory, and the other of so high vnderstanding, that Plato oft-times being in the chaire, and these two not come, he would not begin to reade, saying, I will not reade, for that there wanteth heere vnderstan­ding to conceaue, and memory to retaine. Hy­zearchus.

The fifth Queene of the Lidians was Mir­rha, which of her body was so little, that they called her a Dwarfe, but in quicknes of witte so high, that they called her a Gyant. Strabo.

Archelaus the Philosopher, learning Geo­metry of Hipponicus, was so dull, and yet so [Page 60] well learned therein, that he would say that Geometry fell into his mouth as he gaped.

Hermogenes, vvhen hee was but fifteene yeares old, was reported of to be an approo­ [...]ed Sophist, but afterwards hee vtterly lost the habite of this faculty, of whom Antio­chus Sophista, sayd, Hermogenes is become in his old age a child, who in his child-hood was an old man.

The Emperour Adrianus was of a wonder­full memory, in so much that he could recite the names of all his absent followers, besides, he was in labour so painfull, that he in proper person visited all his prouinces. Tacitus.

Themistocles to one offering to teach him the Art of memory, desired him to teach him how to forget. Plut.

Demosthenes was very hard to conceaue, and yet none more famous then he among the Grecian Orators, vpon the sodaine he could not declaime, and being therto entrea­ted, would answer, non sum paratus. Laertius.

Cicero should once haue pleaded vppon smal warning, but by an occasiō it was defer­red vntill another day, which newes his Ser­uant Erotes brought him, at which he so re­ioyced, that he made made Erotes of a bond man, a free Cittizen of Rome. Plut.

[Page]Cecillio was so foolish, that he atempted to tell the waues of the swelling Sea, as they boiled in the tumbling streame. Aelianus.

Chorebus, and Melitiades, were famous for their follies, of the which, the latter came to succour the Princes, after Troy was destroy­ed. Homer,

Of Diligence. Diligence hath reference, to the body, and the mind, in the mind, it is study, in the body, labour, and by so much the more the exercise of the mind is painefull, as the vertues of the one excell the other.

THE Aegiptians, whē they signified labor, figured an Ant running into the corne.

Cleanthes in the night caried water, in the day, was one of Chrysippus Auditors, who being an hundred yeares old, reade Philoso­phy. Laertius.

Sophocles, Plato, Isocrates, Hierome, con­tinued their studious labours, to their second birth, ending their lyfes with theyr woorkes. Volaterranus.

Diodorus Siculus trauailed the better part of Asia and Europe, least he should erre, as [Page 61] many before him had doone, in the vvorlds description.

Nicaula, the Queene of Aegipt and Aethio­pia, to heare the wisedom of Salomon, came from the farthest part of Arabia to Iudaea.

Publicola was blessed in his endeuours, got fame by his industry, woone battailes by his forwardnes, and dyed fortunatly through ly­uing laboriously. Plut.

Philotis by labour ouercame the Latines, and by his study and pollicy, got that victory vvhich the Romaines detracted by theyr feare.

The stuttering of Alcibiades, did not so much hurt him, as his industry in warres re­nowned him. Thucidides.

If Demosthenes had seene any Cittizen vp before him, and at work, it did greatly greeue him; his continuall labour and diligence in study, made him proue so rare an Orator.

Marius so charged his Souldiours, and em­ployed them in the ditches neere vnto the Rhyne, that they vvere after termed the moyles of Marius. Appian.

Nicias a paynter, was so earnest, and inten­tiue to his profession, that he forgot to take food & sustenance to succour nature. Aelian.

The Romains allowed euery houre of the [Page] day, a seuerall kind of exercise. Martialis.

Caesar in the warres betwixt him and Pom­pey, vsed such diligence, that comming ou [...] of Fraunce, he made himselfe Maister of all Italy in three score dayes, without any effu­sion of blood, and droue away his enemy. Plutarch.

Caesar, although he was weake, and of ten­der complexion, subiect to the falling-sick­nes, vsed not the infirmity of his body for a cloake to liue idely, but tooke the labours of warre for a medicine, fighting against disease with continuall labour & exercise, lying for the most part in the open aire with his Soul­diours. Idem.

Claudius enioying an assured peace, cau­sed the channell Fucinus to be made, that Rome might haue the commodity of good vvaters, about vvhich worke 30 [...] thousand were daily imployed, for the space of twelue yeares.

Adrianus seeing a generall peace within his Empire, continually vndertooke new and strange iourneyes, one while into Fraunce, another into Germany, then into Asia, cau­sing his men of vvarre to march with him, least being idle they should forget their mar­tiall discipline. Iustinus.

[Page 62]A wise Romaine counsailed the Senate not [...]o haue peace with Carthage, least the Ro­maines being in safety should become idle, and grow too ciuile dissentions.

Gelon King of Syracusa, led his people of­tentimes into the fields, as well to labour the ground and to plant, as to fight, both that the earth might be better being well dressed, as also because he feared, least his people should grow idle.

The wise and auntient Kings of Aegipt, im­ployed their idle people, in digging of the earth, & building of those Pyramides, which are reckoned amongst the seauen wonders of the world.

M. Aurelius speaking of the diligence of the auntient Romaines, writeth, that they all followed their labour so earnestly, that ha­uing necessary occasion one day to send a letter two or three dayes iourney from the towne, he could not finde one idle body in all the Citty to doe it.

Too much diligence is hurtfull, which A­pelles reproued in Protogenes, who would neuer keepe his hands from the table, not knowing when a thing was well.

Alexander in the night time, vsed to hold a siluer ball in his hand, when he went to bed, [Page] hauing a siluer Bason vpon the ground vn­der his arme, that when he was a sleepe, the falling of the ball might awake him, and put him in remēbrance of his enemies. Brusonius

Iulius Caesar deuided the night into three parts, to Nature, to his owne Country, about his owne businesses.

Phillip King of Macedon, when his Souldi­ours slept, he alwaies watched. Brusonius.

He neuer slept, before his friend Antipater would watch.

King Phillip doubted more the diligence of Demosthenes, then he feared all the force of Athence.

Demosthenes, that he might auoyd all oc­casions of the Citties pleasures, & with more liberty apply his studies, caused the haire of his head to bee close shaued off, for three vvhole moneths together.

Plautus writ his Comedies in the day, and in the night grinded in a mill.

Solon ordained that the high Court of Are­opagus, should haue authority and charge to inquire whereof euery man liued, and to pu­nish those whom they found idle and disso­lute.

Iulius Caesar obtained many victories by his diligence, in such wise, that hee amazed [Page 63] the Carnuts that had reuolted from him.

Traian and Adrian were so diligent & skil­full in warre matters, that they knew the ac­count of their Legions, and called the most part of their Souldiours by name. Eutropius.

Epaminondas neuer gaue him selfe respite from dealing in matters of state, saying, that [...]e watched for his Country-mens sakes, to the intent that they might make good chere at their ease, vvhile hee trauailed for them.

Scipio sent against Hanibal, marched at the sunne set, riding all night toward Carthage, and by day he was there, and made a ditch & trench about it, & the same day prepared to giue the assault. Appian.

Crispus differing frō others, & seeming to be more prone to plesure, did notwithstāding apply himselfe to the handling of important matters, which he performed with most dili­gence vnder a show of idlenes. Tacitus.

Agrippa did wisely admonish him that in­tended to conserue his credite in Court, to obserue two things, the one, that with his la­bours he should mollifie the hardnes of mat­ters, the other, that he should leaue the glory of atchiuing them to others. Diodorus.

Caesar vsed such expedition in the last en­counter with Pompey at Pharsalia, that hee [Page] writ to the Senate, Veni, vidi, vici, I came, saw, and ouercame. Plut.

Of Constancy & Perseuerance▪ In euery good action aduisedly begun, is re­quired, constancy, and perseuerance, which are called by Tully, the health of the mind, resisting all dolours that seekes to confound it, and con­tayning in their power, the whole force and ef­ficacie of wisedome.

POmponius Atticus was much renowned for his constant behauiour towards Mi­thridates, whom hee esteemed as one of his Princes about him. Appian.

M. Regulus was not so cōmended, because he had been twise consull, and, once had glo­riously tryumphed, as for keeping his fayth giuen to the Carthagenians, and suffered his eye-lids to be cut off, and so to stand against the Sunne vntill he died.

Zeno being cruelly tormented of a King of Cyprus, to con [...]es what he vrged, because he would not satisfie his mind, bit off his tong, and spit it in the tormentors face.

The constancy of Caius Marius was won­derfull, who to recouer his health, did not [Page 64] only giue himselfe to be sawed in sunder, but stood so quietly while it was doing, as if not he, but another man had felt the paine.

Although a thousand troubles encombred the common-wealth, yet Socrates was of an vnchangeable spirit and mind, and in all cases constant. Laertius.

Alcibiades hearing the sentence of his con­demnation to death pronounced, sayd; It is that leaue the Athenians condemned to dye, and not they mee; for I goe to seeke the Gods, where I shall be immortal, but they shal remaine still amongst men, who are all subiect to death.

Polycarpus dying, sayd to the proconsull: VVhy lingerest thou? vse eyther beasts or fire to destroy me. Loncerus.

Ignatius being condemned, sayd boldly; I am the wheate of God, & I shall be grownd with the teeth of beasts, that I may be found fine man­chet.

Cyprian sayd a little before his end, I am iam gladio feriendus deo gratias, I thanke God I shal straightway be smitten with the sword.

S. Lawrance tormented vpon a fiery Grid­iron, said to the Emperour, Looke ô wretch, thou hast roasted one side, turne the other. Eu­sebius.

Gordius, as hee was led to the place of pu­nishment, [Page] was exhorted by some to leaue [...] opinion, and to saue his life, to whom he aun [...]swered, that the tongue ought to vtter nothin [...] that is iniurious to the Creator thereof. P. Dia­corius.

Socrates had alvvayes one and the same countenance all his life time, hee was neuer sadder, nor pleasanter for any thing that hap­pened vnto him. Plato.

P. Rutilius being vniustly banished, neuer changed his behauiour, neyther would put on any other Gowne, then that he vsed to weare, although it was the custome of such as were banished to alter the same.

Q. Metellus sirnamed Numidicus, for con­quering Numidia, being banished, went into Asia, where he frequented playes, and recea­uing letters frō the Senate to call him home againe, the newes hee bare with as great mo­desty as his exile with constancy, not depar­ting from the Theater before the sports were ended.

One casting Diogenes in the teeth with his banishment from Pontus by the Synopians, answered; I haue bounded them with the Coun­try of Pontus.

Aristides whē Dionisius desired his daugh­ter in marriage, hee aunswered, that hee had [Page 65] rather see her deade, then the wife of a Tyrant. And hauing slaine her, he was againe asked if he continued in that mind; I am (quoth he) sorry for the fact, but glad that I haue so spo­ken.

Cato, notwithstanding the affliction of hys Country, in him was neuer seene any altera­tion, but had alvvayes one cheere, and one countenaunce, as well beeing repulsed, as when he was Pretor. Plutarch.

It is recorded of Saint Anthony and Saint Hillary, that they suffered wonderful temp­tations in the desert, & yet did not forbeare euen there, to doe great seruice to theyr Creator.

Aulus Vitellius▪ a most victorious Empe­rour, of all others vvas so inconstant, that he would say and vnsay with one breath, and vvas as vvauering in all his actions, as a vve­thercocke.

Sextus Pompeius, for his vvonderful mu­tabilitie vvas much defamed.

The Common-wealth of the Sicyonians, endured longer then that of the Greekes, E­gyptians, Lacedemonians, or the Romains, and the reason thereof vvas, because that in seauen hundred and forty yeeres, they neuer made any new lawes, or brake their old. Lact.

[Page]The Egyptians rather choose to dye the [...] to reueale any secrets, though they be neuer so much racked and tormented. Macrob.

Aesope the bondman of Demosthenes, wa [...] often vrged by torture to confesse his Mai­sters dealing with Iulian, but could neuer be brought to acknovvledge any thing, vntill at the length, Demosthenes himselfe disclo­sed it. Fulgosius.

Anasillus, Captaine of the Athenians, vvas taken of the Lacedemonians and put to the torture, because hee shoulde tell vvhat hee knew, and vvhat the King Agesilaus his ma­ster did intend; to vvhom hee aunswered; You Lacedemonians, haue liberty to dismember mee, but I haue none to reueale my Lordes se­crets. Plutarch.

Octauius Consull of Rome vvhen Marius was banished, at his repeale was vvarned by the Augurs to take heede of him and Cinna, but he, constantly determining not to leaue the citty while he was Consull, went to them in his roabes, with the Roddes and the Axes carried before him, and his friendes bringing him a horse to flee, he refused so to doe, but abode the stroake of Censorinus, who carri­ed his head to Cinna. Appian.

Labienus, who in Syllas tyme had kylled [Page 66] many that were proscribed, thinking that himselfe might well be reproued if he should not suffer death resolutely, went home to his house, sate downe in his chayre, and tarried the comming of those whom Anthonie sent to take away his lyfe. Appian.

Of Friendship. The Romaines perceiuing the necessitie of Friendship, shadowed the same in the shape of a young man, whose heade vvas bared, and vp­on his breast was written Sommer and VVin­ter; who hauing his breast open, & putting his finger to his hart, had therein sette, Farre and neere, & on the skirts of his coate were drawn, Life and death.

ARtorius a Romane, at the siege of Ieru­salem beeing in a place that was sette on fire, looking from the top of the house, sawe one of his friends by Titus, to whom he said, Friend Lucius, get on thy armour and come neere, that I may leap downe vpon thee, and thou maist receiue me. Lucius stood for his friende, who light vpon him with such force that they both died, which friendship, Titus caused to be noted to after ages. Vrbanus.

[Page]Alcibiades beeing desirous to know vvhe­ther he had so many friendes as hee thought, hee called them all one after another into a darke place, & shewed vnto them the image of a dead body, saying that it was a man whō he had killed, and requesting them to helpe him to carry the same away, amongst them all hee found none but Callias that vvoulde harken vnto him.

Cyrus alvvayes placed his friendes on hys left side, as neere his hart. Xenophon.

The friendship of Ionathan and Dauid, could not bee hindered by the vvrath of the Father of the one, nor any io [...]e changed, al­though he knew that his friend should after­ward raigne ouer him, notwithstanding hee were by inheritance to succeede next his fa­ther in the kingdome.

There was but one Orestes, and yet Py­lades called himselfe Orestes, and was con­demned to die, vnder that name, onelie to saue the life of his companyon.

Dion of Syracusa, vvas slaine of Callicra­tes, vvhom he alvvayes highly fauoured, & supposed to be the most assuredst friend hee had lyuing in the world.

Volumnius hearing of the death of his friende Lucullus, came to Anthony, desi­ring [Page 67] him to send his souldiours to kill him vpon the graue of his friend and bury him; vvhich hee denying, Volumnius vvent to his graue, and there killed himselfe, leauing a briefe by him, vvherein was vvritten, Thou that knewest the faithfull loue betweene Vo­lumnus and Lucullus, ioyne our bodyes beeing dead, as our mindes were one being aliue.

Asmundus so deerely loued his friende A­sotus, that after hee vvas dead, hee vvould needes be buried vvith him aliue. Saxo.

The Oracle of Apollo, pronounced the amitie betweene Chariton and Menalippus, to be heauenly, diuine, and celestiall.

Blossius humbly desired pardon of Lelius, because hee tooke part with Gracchus, ha­uing no greater reason to excuse himselfe but his great loue toward him, which he confes­sed to be such, that hee thought himselfe bound in friendshyp to doe whatsoeuer hee would haue him, yea, if it were to burne the Capitoll. Cicero.

Lucilius, when he sawe that his friend Bru­tus was compassed about with enemies, hee with a few souldiers ran among thē, and sayd that hee was Brutus, that his friende might scape away. Plut.

Polytius gaue Scipio counsell that hee [Page] should neuer depart frō the publique place of authority, before hee had got some nevve friende and wel-willer.

Phocion, when a friend of his vvould haue cast himselfe away, woulde not suffer hym, saying, I was made thy friend to this purpose.

Cicero writ to Atticus, that a friende vvas bounde to wish but three thinges vnto his friend, that he be healthy, that hee be well ac­counted of, and that he be not needy.

Archidamus, vvhen he vvas chosen Arbi­trator to decide a certaine contention be­tweene two friends, brought them both into Dianas Temple, and made them sweare vp­pon the Altar, that they would obserue what soeuer he determined; whervpon they yeel­ded, I iudge then (quoth he) that none of you depart this Temple before you bee reconciled. Thus were they cōstrained to agree between themselues, & Archidamus freed from loo­sing their friendships whō he deerly loued.

The Egyptians shewed signes of stronger friendship to their friends beeing dead, then when they were lyuing.

Scipio Affricanus, going against the Nu­mantines, deuided his Army into 500. com­panies, and made one band which hee called Philonida, the band of friends.

[Page 68]Mithridates, sought to driue Nicomedes forth of Bithinia, vvho vvas friende to the Romaines, and gaue the Romans so much to vnderstand; to vvhom the Senate made aunswer, that if he warred vpon Nicomedes, he should likewise feare the force of the Ro­maines. Appian.

Cicero and Clodius, Tiberius and Affrica­nus, frō mortall foes became faithful friends.

Scipio greatly complained, that men were very skilfull in numbring their Goates and Sheepe, but few could reckon their friends.

Alexander helde Aristotle deere, Darius Herodotus, Augustus Piso, Pampeius Pla [...] ­tus, Titus Plinie, Traiane Plutarch, Antho­nius Apollonius, Theodotius Claudius, Se­uerus Fabatus.

Pericles beeing desired by a friende to ayde him with false witnes, aunswered, That hee would friend him as high as the heauens; mea­ning, that men should ayde theyr friends so far as iustice & gods lawes did permit. Thu.

Plato seeing he could not bring the Com­mon-wealth to happines by vertue, reduced all lawes to friendship, deuising all things to be common, affirming that two only words, namely Mine & Thine, where the things that disturbed the society of man.

[Page]Homer giueth Achilles a Patroclus, Virgill an Achates vnto Aeneas, Alexander had his Hephestion, Darius his Zopirus, and Sci­pio his Laelius.

Dion and Iulius Caesar, had rather die then distrust theyr friends. Plu.

Augustus wanting his olde friends Maece­nas and Agrippa, said, that if they had lyued, hee had not fallen into the troubles hee vvas then in. Seneca.

Scaurus and Cataline, the conspirators a­gainst Rome; and Brutus and Cassius, the murtherers of Caesar, held great leagues and confederacie together; but in no sort they could be called friends, for there can bee no true amitie, vvhere is no vertue.

Among heauenlie bodyes, Mercury, Iupi­ter, Sol, and Luna, are friendes to Saturne, but Mars and Venus are his enemies.

All the Planets sauing Mars, are friendes to Iupiter, and all the rest of the Planets sauing Venus, hate Mars. Iupiter and Venus loue Sol. Mars, Mercury, and Luna, are his ene­mies, and all the rest of the Planets loue Ve­nus, except Saturne.

Iupiter, Venus, and Saturne, are friendes to Mercury, Sol, Luna, and Mars, are hys enemies.

[Page 69]There are inclinations of friendship, in vi­g [...]able & mineralls, as the Loadstone hath to yron, the Emerald hath to riches and fa­uours, the stone Iaspis to child-birth, the stone Achates to eloquence, and Naptha [...]ot onely draweth fire vnto it, but fire lea­peth vnto it where soeuer it is, the like dooth the roote Aproxes.

Such friendship is betweene the male and female Date tree, that when a bough of the one shall touch a bough of the other, they fold themselues into a naturall embracing, & neuer doth the female bring forth fruit with­out the male.

Vines loue the Elme tree & the Oliue, the Mirtle likewise loueth the Oliue & the Fig-tree; and if the Almond tree grovve alone, it will proue vnfruitfull.

There is friendship betweene the Blacke­bird and the Thrush, betweene the Choffe and the Heron, betweene the Peacocks and the Doues. Isodorus.

Cato the Censor, had a Ring vvhereon was engrauen, Esto amicus vnius, et inimicus nul­lius; Bee friende to one, and enemie to none. Plinie.

Of Loue. All the Arts and Sciences of the worlde, may in time be learned, except the Art of Loue, the which neither Salomon had skill to write, nor Asclepias to paynt, nor Ouid to teach, Helen to report, or Cleopatra learne, beeing a continuall Schoolemaister in the hart; whose diuine furies are Propheticall, misticall, poeticall, amatorial; consecrated to Apollo, Bacchus, the Muses, and Venus.

THe Poets meane nothing els by those tovvnes of Adamant vvhich they vvrite of, but the loue of Cittizens, vvho by no force or policie can be ouercome, so long as in hart they hold together.

The Grecians, so long as they continued at peace among themselues, they vvere cō ­querers of all men, but after that ciuill dis­cention had once entered in amongst them, they fell daily more and more to such ruine, that in fewe yeeres they became laughing-stocks to all the world. Plutarch.

Balsaria, when Calphurinus Crassus vvas taken captiue of the Messalines, and shoulde haue beene offered for a sacrifice vnto Sa­turne, [Page 70] shee deliuered Crassus from death, & made him conquerer.

Caluce, after Troy vvas destroyed, vvhen King Lycus her Father (sayling into Lybia) had appointed to kill Diomedes for sacri­fice, to appease the Gods for vvind & vvea­ [...]er, she deliuered him from her Father, and s [...]ued his lyfe.

Scipio Affricanus, esteemed so much the Poet Ennius aliue, that being dead, hee cau­sed his picture to bee set before his eyes, as a memoriall of his great loue. Plutarch.

Pomponius Atticus, thought himself hap­pie, when either Cicero was in his sight, or his bookes in his bosome.

Plato in his booke intituled Conuiuium, in­terlaceth Comicall speeches of loue; hovv­beit al the rest of the supper, there is nothing but discourses of Philosophy.

Alexander loued highly Apelles, insomuch that after he had made him draw out a I [...]e­man of his naked, whom hee likewise loued deerely, vnderstanding that he was enamo­red on her, he bestowed her on him.

Alexander vvould haue his picture drawne by none but Apelles, nor cut by any in brasse but onely Lysippus, so greatly did he affect them. Curtius.

[Page]Stagerita, the towne where Aristotle vv [...] borne, beeing destroyed by Philip of Mac [...]don, Alexander his sonne for the loue he [...] bare to his Maister Aristotle, reedified th [...] same againe.

Valerius, seruaunt to Panopion, hearing that certaine souldiours came vnto the Cit­tie of Rheatina, of purpose to kill his master, hee changed apparrell with his maister, and conueyed him away, suffering himselfe to be slaine in his Masters bed, for the great loue he bare him.

The Persians, for the affection they bare to theyr horses, when they died buried them.

Alexander made a tombe for Bucephalus.

Seuerus the Emperour, for the loue hee bare to Pertinax, whom Iulianus slew, willed that men shoulde euer after call him Perti­nax. Eutrop.

A Persian vvoman beeing asked why shee had rather saue the life of her brother then of her owne sonne, Because (sayd she) I well may haue more children, but neuer no more bro­thers, seeing my father and mother are dead.

Eros, the seruant of Antonius, hauing pro­mised to kill his Maister when hee requested him, drevv his sword, and holding it as if hee would haue killed him, turned his Maisters [Page 71] head aside, and thrust the sword into his own body. Plutarch.

Agesilaus was fined by the Ephories, be­cause he had stolne away the harts & wonne the loue of all his cittizens to himselfe.

The Emperour Claudius did neither loue nor hate, but as hee was prouoked and indu­ced therevnto by others. Tacitus.

Herius of Corinth, builded in the midst of the Citty a Temple to the Goddesse Venus, within which were inclosed more then 500. of the fairest maides of Asia, whom theyr pa­rents did there consecrate to the Goddesse Venus, to the end they might bee Louers, and stales to drawe louers to them; holding her for most religious and holy, which vvas most amorous and dissolute.

Samocratius, Nigidius, and Ouid, vvrit many volumes of the remedy of loue; but it little profited themselues, for they al three died in persecution, not for the abuses they committed at Rome, but for the loues they practised at Capua.

The cause of ciuil dissention between The­mistocles & Aristides, was the loue of Ste­silia an harlot, whose beauty being vanished, their hatred was such, that they neuer could be reconciled, but continued enemies euen [Page] to the death.

The like hatred vvas betvveene Cato and Caesar, about the loue of the harlot Seruilia.

The Kings of Assiria neuer aunswered anie Embassadour themselues, but by messen­gers, they spending theyr time in courting theyr Concubines; and for theyr vnkinglie loue to vvomen, they were euer condemned of all men. Pausanius.

Alexander, for the loue hee bare to the fa­mous harlot Thais, caused that most renow­ned and rich citty Persepolis to be burned.

Publius Pilatus, was in loue with the Ima­ges of Helena and Atalanta.

Pigmalion doated on an Iuory image that he had made with his owne hands. Ouid.

Two young men of Athence, were in loue with the picture of Fortune.

Cataline, for the loue of Orestilla, kylled his owne sonne, because she would not ioyne in marriage with him while his sonne liued. Salust.

Estrasco a Romaine, borne dumbe, loued Verona a Latine, borne also dumbe, who ly­king each other, came & visited each other, by the space of thirty yeeres, vvithout the witting of any person, then died the husband of the Lady Verona, & the wife of Estrasco, [Page 72] they married, & of them descended the noble linage of the Scipios. Aurelius.

The Poets faine, that in Leucadia there is a very high steepe Rocke, which is a notable remedy to asswage loue; from this, first lea­ped Cephalus, for the loue of Degonetes, vvhom he loued without measure.

Timon Misanthropos, loued none but onely Alcibiades, and him hee loued and once kis­sed, because he sawe in his face the destructi­on of Athence. Plutarch.

Xerxes (all the wonderfull workes of Iupi­ter both on sea and land sette aside) in Lydia fell so farre in loue with a Plane tree vvhich happened to his sight, that he tarried a whole day by it, and caused the boughes to be ador­ned with chaines of golde, bracelets & span­gles, yeelding there to great reuerence.

Alcibiades vvas the Paramour of Socra­tes, & Dion of Plato, who both reaped pro­fit by their loues.

Alexander crowned the tombe of Achilles, and Hephestion that of Patroclus, signify­ing thereby, that he loued Alexander, as wel as euer Patroclus loued Achilles.

Pausanias loued his wife so tenderly, that it cannot bee described, the like affection did Apelles beare to Pancasta, Alexanders lemō.

[Page]Adrian the Emperour, doated on the loue of Antinous a faire young man, insomuch that he dedicated a Temple to him at Man­tinea, and a Citty at Nilus. Pausan.

The Achaians honoured Fortune & Loue both together, in Aegina, because none can attaine to Loue without Fortune. Niphus.

Propertius, when he was in loue, sayde hee was not himselfe, but a shadow.

Hephestion was called the louer of Alex­ander, Craterus of the King. Plut.

VVhen Cyrus vvent to ouer-come Baby­lon, the riuer Euphrates let him, & a Knight whom the King wel loued, ventured into the water, and was drowned, then the king made a vow, that this great riuer should not come to any vvomans knees which shoulde vvade ouer, and therfore he parted it in the broade fields into foure hundred & threescore cha­nels, and so tooke the citty.

Perdiccas, for the loue he bare to Alexan­der, refused a great reuenewe in Macedonia, and followed him in his vvarres in Asia. Plu­tarch.

Turinga had so many louers, that shee coulde not reckon them vppon her fingers ends, but called for a bushell of pease to tell them by. Aurelius.

[Page 73]Demetrius hauing strongly begirt the Cit­ty of Rhodes, for the loue he bare to Proto­genes painted table, raised his siege.

Of Iealousie & Suspition. This griefe of the minde, as it is called iealou­sie, belongeth onely to matters of loue, and there­fore hath to name Zelotypia, the loue of beau­ty, whose braunches are obtractation, emulation, [...]nuie, and detraction.

POlycrates Samius, dearely affected Ana­creon the Poet, who likewise loued the Paramour of Polycrates, named Smerdias, but Polycrates kindled with the sparkes of iealousie, supposing that the Poet loued Smerdias exceedingly, shaued off his golden locks, thereby to make him mishapen, whose losse Anacreon lamented in a Poem. Aelia­nus.

Phanius was so iealous of his wife, that hee locked her vp, thinking by that meanes to preuent all commers, but he was deceaued, and what shee could not compasse beeing at liberty, she effected being pent vp.

Leucononia, the wife of Cyampus, was de­uoured of a dogge, in sted of a wild beast, hi­ding [Page] her selfe in the woods to follow & mark her husbands walks.

Argus hundred eyes, could not keepe Io from Iupiter. Ouid.

Procris followed her husband Cephalus into thee woods, fearing that he had some o­ther Loue, who being hid in the bushes, and desirous to come neerer to him, hee suppo­sing some wild beast to be there, killed her. Ouidius.

Plutarch reporteth the lyke of Aemilius, who killed himselfe, when hee saw it vvas his wife.

The fish Canchar is iealous ouer her male, and striueth oft for him. Plinie.

Aemilia, the wife of noble Scipio, who al­though shee knew thinges euident by him, made much of his Paramour, as she made of her husband, and all for Scipios sake.

Abraham was iealous of his wife Sara.

The Persians were so suspitious, that theyr wiues had no liberty to goe abroade, & when they went, it was in VVaggons.

The Thracians with such care and study kept their vvyues, that they would trust no man in their companies, but their Parents. Herodotus.

An hundred threescore and ten Romain [...] [Page 74] women poysoned theyr husbands, because they were iealous of them. Valerius.

Galatius Maria, Duke of Millane, beeing at masse, was slaine by a Cittizen, for a iea­lousie hee had conceaued, that this Prince had entertained his wife. Guicchard.

The wild Boare pursued of dogs, the Lyo­nesse bitten with hunger, the Tyger robbed of her young ones, or the Viper, whose tayle is trod vpon, are not more cruell and fierce then a woman offended, but nothing sooner casteth her into a fury thē iealousie. Ausonius.

Ariadne buried aliue Zeno Isauricus the Emperour, that shee might be reuenged of him for his iealousie.

Bomilchar, a Prince of Libia, being suspec­ted of his owne Country-men the Carthagi­ans, that he had conspired with Agathocles, vnto anoyance of the Subiects, was hanged in the Citty of Carthage, in the midst of the Market.

Phillip King of Macedonia, married the si­ster of Attalus, and had diuorced and put a­way Olimpias, the mother of Alexander, vp­pon suspition. Iustinus.

Betweene Cicero and Hortensius, was a learned iealousie about eloquence; between Cicero & Salust was the like.

[Page]Betweene Demosthenes and Aeschines al­so, as appeared by theyr orations, made a­gainst each other.

The like iealous contention, was betweene Xenocles and Euripides, the first by his Oe­dipus, Lycaon, Bacche, Athamas Satyricall, the last by his Alexander, his Palamede, his Troians, his Sisiphus Satyricall.

Demetrius Pheraeus the tirant, who rather trusted an yron branded slauish Thracian, then his wife Thebe, was by her slaine, for a iealousie of spousebreach. Cicero.

Of all people, the Parthians are most iea­lous of their wiues, where-vpon they going out of dores, doe neuer shew theyr faces or breasts, and those that be of great calling goe in close vailes, that they may not be seene.

There is not in the world any Nation lesse iealous then the Germaines, albeit their wo­men be very faire. P. Pius.

In his description of certaine naturall baths of Germany, wherat himselfe was present, he did much meruaile at the familiarity of the Dutch-women, who would in presence of theyr husbands, steppe naked into the baths among them. Idem.

The Italians are as iealous as any of theyr women. Aeneas Syluius.

[Page 75]Fuluius pursued by the Romaine Souldi­ours, fled to a vvoman seruant, whom first he kept, and after made free, and gaue a dow­ry to marry her, notwithstanding, for iealou­sie of another woman whom he had married she betrayed him. Appian.

Mithridates hauing his Sonne in suspition for coueting the kingdome, sent for him, and held him with chaynes of gold, commaun­ding him to be killed. Idem.

A Romaine Senatour named Attilus, fled from his Country, because he was contem­ned, and being in great fauour with Mithri­dates, was taken as one that vvould betray him, and for that he was a Senator, the King would not torture him, but killed him. I­dem.

VVhen Demetrius vvas returned to his kingdome, Cleopatra his wife killed him for iealousie of his other wife Rhadogine. Plinie

Alexander did emulate in Lysimachus skil­fulnes in vvarre, in Seleucus an inuincible courage, ambition in Antigonus, in Attalus a diuine maiesty, and in Ptolomey, an happy successe of all his enterprises.

Marcellus was an imitatour, and did emu­late the manners of Caesar. Cicero.

Aristotle emulated Plato, Cicero, Demo­sthenes, [Page] Virgil, Homer.

Of all beasts the wild Asse, by the Greekes called Onager, is the most iealous, for in an whole Herd of females, there is but one male, and he is so iealous, that he will not suffer any other to come among them, & when the fe­male chaunceth to haue a male Colt, the fire with his teeth will bite off his genitories, as fearing he should couer his damme. Plinius. Solinus.

Of Beauty. Beauty is onely humaine, consisting in goodly lineaments and colours well disposed, more per­ [...]est in women then men, and yet without fauour [...]perfect in both, therefore the graces are called the hand-mayds of beauty.

CLeopatra writ a booke of the preseruati­on of womens beauty.

Seneca reporteth, that the looking-glasse was first inuēted to this end, that man might vse it as a meane to know himselfe better by.

Appuleius earnestly perswaded his Audi­tors to looke often into a glasse, & to behold them selues therein, to this intent, that hee which thought himselfe beautifull and faire, [Page 76] might be faire in conditions, and who so was foule and deformed, to amend that defect by faire and vertuous behauiour.

Zeuxis made choise of the fiue daughters of Croton, of all these to make one figure most excellent in beauty.

Alcibiades, the Scholler of Socrates, was the fayrest and welfauoredst Boy in all A­thence, whose soule he loued, which was Al­cibiades better selfe.

Stesichorus a Poet, lost his sight for writing against beautious Helena, and recanting, had it restored to him againe.

Socrates and Aristotle not vvithstanding their deepe philosophy and knowledge, the one becam a slaue to faire Hermia, the other was bewitched with Aspasiaes beauty.

Hercules layd down his club at Iolaes feet, and became a prisoner to her conquering beauty. Ouid.

Demosthenes that famous Orator, hearing the prodigall report of Lais beauty, came from Athence to Corinth, to cōpound with her for a nights lodging. Laertius.

Poppeia, Neroes wife, had continually the milke of 5. hundred Asses, to bathe her in, thereby to preserue her beauty.

VVhen Helena was to be stoned to death, [Page] the executioners beholding her beauty, had no power to hurt her. Stecichorus.

Rhodope an harlot, was the fayrest among all the Aegiptians, vvhose slipper an Eagle snatched vp, and caried the same as farre as Memphis, and there let it fall in the lappe of Psamneticus, as he sate in iudgement, vpon which, he was presently enamoured of her person, and sent for her, whom he also mari­ed. Herodotus.

Alcibiadon was an hearb so called of Alcibi­ades, which he vsed to preserue his beauty.

Virgill describing the state & constitution of the body of Eurialus, saith, that he was ex­cellent in beauty, & in the greenenes of his youth.

The Princes of Troy made great question, whether they should deliuer Helen or no to her husband, in which dispute (such was the incertainty of their affections) that they con­demned her being absent, but whē she came in presence, the cōmanding power of beauty controled their power in doing iustice.

The good Consull Marcus Marcellus, see­ing the noble Citty of Sarragoce burning, commanded to quench the fire, esteeming it great losse to burn things so faire & goodly.

Titus hauing subdued the Country of Iu­dea, [Page 77] and taken the great Citty Ierusalem, when he beheld with iudgment the rich and [...]aire temple of Salomon, the presence and maiesty of the thing, carried him into that compassion, that commaunded no spoyle should be offered to it, till he were gone out of Asia, and returned to Rome. Iosephus.

Venus gaue Phaon a boxe of such a preci­ous oyntment, that being anoynted there­with, he became most beautifull. Ouid.

Among the Grecians, Alcibiades was re­ported to haue borne the price, for the most amiablest of countenance, and comlines of personage.

Among the Romaines, Scipio and Deme­trius Poliorcetes, were counted peerelesse.

Homer in describing such as were faire of fauour, and comly in proportion, compareth them to tall trees.

Achanthus was so faire, that for enuy he was metaphorphozed into a flower of his owne name.

Hylas for his beauty, was drawne into the water by the Nymphs. Ouid.

Diadumenus, Augustus taster, was so beau­tifull, that in a generall contention at Elis, who was the fayrest, hee bare the bell from them all. Niphus.

[Page]Of all the Grecians that came to the siege of Troy, Nereus was the most beautifull.

The Madianites, perceauing the children of Israell to be impregnable and inuincible, so long as they sinned not, tooke of the beau­tifullest young women they had, and sent to their campe, to entice them to sinne, which was the cause of their ouerthrow.

Spurina a young Romaine, of wonderfull beauty, because hee perceaued many to be enamoured of him, he did in most pittifull sort mangle and cut his nosethrils, so that hee seemed not onely deformed, but also odious to all men.

The Grecian women were fayrer then the vvomen of Rome, but the Romaines had a better grace, and were more rich in apparell then they. Eutropius.

Amongst the Romaines it vvas counted a great infamy, if any praysed the beauty of a woman, for in praysing her, hee let them vnderstand that he knew her, and knowing her, he courted her, and courting her, hee opened his hart to her, and this doing, hee plainly defamed her. Macrobius.

Of Chastity. This vertue is generally taken for a chastice­ [...]ent of the troublesome perturbations of man, [...] Varro witnesseth) but is more properly vnder­ [...]ode of that power, which in no case will suffer [...] body to be polluted or defiled, being an espe­ [...]iall braunch of temperance.

NVma Pompilius, first instituted and e­rected a temple, for the Vestall virgines, [...]ho made this law, that th [...]se which had be­trayed theyr chastity, should be put into a Caue, in campo scelerato, with water, milke, and a burning taper, and there be buried quicke. Liuius.

The vvomen of Teutonica hearing that theyr husbands vvere slaine of Marius, be­sought him that they might spende the re­mainder of theyr lifes in the seruice of Vesta.

Electra the daughter of Agamemnon, was called at the first Laodica, but after the death of her father, she was named Electra, for that she continued all her life a maide.

Phaedon of Athence vvas slaine at a ban­quet, by the 30. Tyrants, whose daughters to preserue their virginity, embracing each [Page] other cast themselues headlong into a vvell▪ Thucidides.

S. Augustine would not dwell with his si­ster, because he might not be mooued with the least spark of incontinency, and being as­ked the reason why, he aunswered, It is dan­gerous to see a woman, more dangerous to speake with her, but worst of all to touch her.

Origen caused himselfe to be gelded, for that he would auoid the motions of the flesh. Rauisius.

The Athenian Priests called Hierophontes, did vsually drink [...] kind of poyson, to aswage the insurrection of the flesh. Idem.

S. Hierome being halfe broyled with the heate of the Sunne in the desert, confessed that he could not refraine, from thinking vp­pon the beautifull dames of Rome. Eusebius.

Amabaeus, albeit he had to his wife a wo­man of rare beauty, yet he neuer knew her carnally; the like is recorded of Dionysius the Tragedian. Aelianus.

Xenocrates, because he was not prouoked to lust by the wantonnes of Phryne, was sayd of her and others, to be an Image & no man. Valerius.

Alexander sharply rebuked Cassander for kissing one in his presence, and was angry [Page 79] with Philoxenus, for seeming to inuite him [...] vnhonest actions by letters.

VVhen Pompey had put Mithridates to [...]ight, he would not touch his Concubines, [...]ut sent them all home to theyr friends. Ap­ [...]ian.

Dioclesian hauing taken the wife & daugh­ [...]ers of the King of Persia prisoners, did as A­lexander had done to the wife and daughters of Darius, which deed caused the Persians to render vnto the Romains, all they had taken from them. Eutropius.

Nero beeing monstrous incontinent him­selfe, was of opinion, that there was not a chast person in the world, but that men cloa­ked their vice with hipocrisie. Tacitus.

The Lady Bona of Lombardie, fearing her chastity should be assailed in her husbands absence, followed him in the holy warres to Palestine, and rescued him from many dan­gers, to her eternall honour. Guicchard.

Androchia and Alcida, two vertuous The­ban virgins, hearing by the Oracle of Apol­lo, that their Country should be victor ouer the Orchimenians; if two of theyr chastest virgins dyed voluntarily, couragiously killed them selues.

Drias, the daughter of Faunus, did so little [Page] regard the company of men, that she was ne [...]uer seene abroade, wherfore it was not law­full for any men to be present at her sacri­fice. Plut.

The women of Chios were so continent, that amongst them at no time was found ey­ther an adultres or defiled virgine. Dion.

Pelagia with her mother and sisters, drow­ned themselues, therby to preserue their ho­nour. Ambrose.

Lucia a virgine of Syracuse, knowing that the tyrant was enamoured of her, and daily sought to dishonour her, pulled out her eies, and sent them to him. Sabellicus.

Chilo seeing Hippocrates doe sacrifice, and vessels in Olympus to burne without fire, counsailed him eyther to liue chast, or if he were maried, to put away his wife. Herodotus.

In the warres of M. Torquatus, against the Gallogrecians, the wife of Oriontes, be­ing taken prisoner by a Centurion, who im­portunatly assaulted her for loue, caused him to be slaine by her slaues after she was ranso­med, and caried the leachers head as a token of her chastity, to her barbarous husband.

Antiochus beholding a beautious and reli­gious woman, that was vowed to Diana, so-daily surprised with the loue of her, for feare [Page 80] he might be vnhonestly prouoked, forsooke the place.

The Souldiers of Frauncis Sforza, brought to him a young virgine there prisoner, of in­comparable beauty, whom hee attempted with prayers, gifts, & threats, but preuailing in none of these, he sent her home ransom­lesse, and gaue her part of his spoiles, for be­ing so carefull of her chastity. Guicchard.

The Turtle male or female, after the death of her male, neuer brauncheth more vpon a greene bough. Plinie.

The Romaines vsed to crowne such wiues with the crowne of chastity, vvho after the death of their husbands, liued in perpetuall widow-hood, wher-vnto the Stockdoue and Turtle did inuite them, these in regard of their continency nature hath adorned, with a circle or coller of feathers, which they weare about their necks, as reward for theyr cha­stity. Idem.

Of 50, Spartaine virgines meruailously prouoked by the Messanians, to yeeld them selues to bee abused by them, not one was found that would condescend, but all rather chose to be slaine.

Nicetes the Martyr, pulled out his owne tongue, because hee would not consent to [Page] the vvanton dalliance of a vvicked harlot▪ Loncerus.

Of Fayth & Promises. By this the society of men is only maintayned, vpon this, the authority, power, and safety of Princes dependeth; a vertue without which not onely the parts of Iustice, but also all other ver­tues are imperfect.

NO Nation vnder the sunne was compa­rable to the Romaines, for keeping of promise. Contrary the Carthagenians were called Faedifragi, truce-breakers.

Ptolomey King of Aegipt, hauing by expe­rience tried the fidelity of the Romaines, in his death-bed committed his heire beeing then a child, to their tuition.

Amongst the Scythians, if any were periu­red, he was by the law adiudged to dye. Pau­sanias.

The Phrygians vse no oathes at all, & com­pell none to sweare. Stobaeus.

The ioyning of hands amongst the Persi­ans, was the fairest signe of giuing & keeping fayth inuiolate.

The Romains in old time dedicated a tem­ple [Page 81] to Faith, the better to cause the people to keepe and reuerence it. Pausanias.

VVhen Antiochus vvoulde haue vsurped Egypt vpon Ptolomey Epiphanes, vvhose protection the Romaines had already taken vpon thē, they sent vnto him Popilius, who made a circle about the same Antiochus, and forced him before hee departed, to promise, that hee woulde enterprise nothing against their sayd pupill. Dion.

An honorable person being called into the Senate at Athence to depose, touching some matters, the Senators vvould not haue him to take the accustomed oath, knowing him to be a vertuous & honest man. Cicero in an Oration pro Balbo.

The Emperour Fredericke, sayde to cer­taine of his Minions that vvere importunate to get into their hands the auncient demeane of the Empire, That hee rather would bee ac­counted of small liberality, then periured. Phil. Comi.

Melius Suffetius, a dictator of Albany, was drawne in peeces vvith foure horses, for that hee had broken his fayth, and the Cittie of Alba was rased cleane downe. Liuius.

Caracalla the Emperour, hauing pursued the king of Persia, contrary to his promise, [Page] vvas himselfe afterward slaine.

Ladislaus King of Hungary, made a most honourable truce with Amurath, during which, he was perswaded by Carninall Iulian Embassador from Pope Eugenes, to breake it, vvhich was the cause that hee vvith the chiefe of his Armie and the Cardinall, vvere slaine outright. Guychardine.

Pope Adrian tooke a solemne oath to ob­serue the peace concluded with the Empe­rour Fredericke, and afterwards breaking it, as he dranke was choked with a flie. P. Com.

Michael Paleologue, beeing chosen Empe­rour of the Greekes, promised & swore, that hee vvoulde render vp the Empire into the hands of Iohn Lascaris whē he should come to age; but notwithstanding, he held it still; hee died miserably, and to his posteritie en­sued an infinite number of mischiefes, & was occasion of the first beginning of the Tur­kish monarchy.

Christiern, King of Denmark, hauing bro­ken his fayth giuen to his subiects, was depri­ued his Realme, and afterwards lyued myse­rably, although he receiued many succours from the Emperour Charles the fift.

Charles, Duke of Burgundie, hauing vio­lated his fayth promised to the Switzers, and [Page 82] before that to the King of S. Poll, vvas van­quished, and all ill hap accompanied him e­uer after. Guychar.

Andronicus Conuens, cleane contrarie to his fayth giuen to the infants of Emanuell & to them of Nice, vsurped the Empire, but he was soone after hanged vp by the feete, & hewed in peeces for his periury.

Alexander hauing vovved to kill the first that should come forth of the towne, put an Asse to death in stead of him that ledde her. Q. Cur.

Haniball being but fifteene yeeres of age, was sworne by his father that he should con­tinually prooue an enemy to the Romaines. Appian.

Cassandra, for breaking her promise vvith Apollo, had this punishment, that propheci­ed she neuer so truly, shee should not be be­leeued. Virgill.

The first temple Romulus built at Rome, was dedicated to faithfulnes. Pausa.

Paulus Iouius, Bembus, Sabellicus, and Pandolphus, accuse the Frenchmen for not keeping their fayth according to theyr pro­mise with the Venetians.

The Petelines in Calabria, and the Sagun­tines in Spain, chose rather to die a miserable [Page] death, then to break the fayth they had once plighted. Liuius.

The prayse vvhich Sylla gaue Cinna, made him commit periurie.

The Indians vse to cut off the lyps and the handes of periured persons, to shewe the of­fence they had committed against God and theyr neighbours.

The Oracle of Delphos made aunswer, that all things should prosper well, if they forbad all oathes.

The Scythians vse to sweare by the vvinde and their sworde, because the winde giueth breath to liue by, & the sword killeth.

It vvas in no case permitted to the Priests of Iupiter to swear, for that an oath often en­deth in cursing and periurie.

Among the oathes of Iudges, one was that they should take no present. Demost.

Socrates vsed to sweare by a dog, Pythago­ras by the number of foure, the Manichies by the light.

The Nazarites vow was, neuer to cut their haire, nor drinke wine, nor pray for the dead.

King Dauids poesie vvas, Voue et redde.

H. The fourth Emperor of Almain, vowed to liue an Hirmit ten yeeres, and called him­selfe Godstall, that is, Gods calling. Polycr.

[Page 83]Stampitius, a holy Father of the Church, vowed vnto God a thousand times, that hee vvould become a better man, but hee neuer performed that which he vowed, then sayde he, Heereafter I will make no such vowe, for I haue now learned by experience, that I am not able to performe it, but commend my selfe vnto Gods mercy. Mag. Sent.

One promised to marry the daughter of Lisander, but her father dead, & his state not found so good as he was supposed, the young man reuolted; then the Magistrates called Ephori, vnderstanding thereof, by a common cōsent punished the young man as offender.

Antigonus the King, held Zeno in great re­uerence, and one day being drunke, hee met Zeno, and bid him commaund him any ser­uice and he vvould doe it, and bound it with an oath, to whom Zeno sayde, Abi et euome, goe and vomit.

Polymnestor, in whom King Priamus re­posed his confidence, committed his Sonne Polidorus vnto him, whom hee falsely slewe, notwithstanding his solemne vowe, to haue a most tender care ouer him. Virgill.

The people of Sarmatha, were most false in wordes, deceitful in deedes, and trecherous one to another.

[Page]The vvifes of the Scythians, while theyr husbands were at warres, brake their vowes, and married theyr slaues, vvhom at theyr returne they killed. Valer.

Forsworne Crocalus, King of Sicilia, killed King Minos, vnder colour of friendship, and pretence of talking with him.

Cleomenes, brake promise with the Ar­giues, with vvhom hee tooke truce for cer­taine daies, and notwithstanding castily be­trayed them in the night, slewe thē sleeping, and imprisoned them contrary to his former promise.

The Argiues loued so well theyr hayre, that beeing conuicted by the Lacedemonians, they shaued theyr heades, bewailing their misfortune, and vowed, neuer to let theyr haires grow, vntill they had recouered their losses.

Lisander, admirable among the Lacede­monians, neuer made any reckoning of iu­stice but vvhen it vvas profitable, accoun­ting onely profit to be honest, & saying, That it vvas requisite chyldren shoulde bee deceaued with the play of Cockall, and men beguiled with oathes.

The Emperor Iustinian, for breaking hys fayth with the Barbarians, and violating [Page 84] peace vvith the Bulgarians, his own subiects rebelled, and Leontius vsurped the king­dome, first cutting of his nostrils, and then sending him into banishment.

Of Silence & Secrecie. Nature hath placed the tongue betweene the bead and the hart, hauing aboue it the instru­ment of all the Sences, the eyes, the eares, and nose, obedient vnto reason, to the end it vtter nothing before counsell taken of the inward fa­culties of the soule, which are Vnderstanding & Reason, seated in the braine.

PYthagoras the Phylosopher, commaun­ded all the Schollers he receiued into his schoole, to bee silent fiue yeeres, & to learne of others so long before themselues dyd vt­ter any thing.

Harpocrates, was the Superintendent, and the corrector of mans speech, & vvas drawn vvith a ring fastned vpon his lyps.

Augerona was fained to bee the Goddesse of Silence, drawne with her finger vpon her mouth, and a table vppon her breast, where­on vvas vvritten, Heare, See, & say nothing. [Page] showing in vvhat reuerence they ought to hold secrecie.

The Egyptians did euer cut out his tonge, that had disclosed any secret, or reuealed a­ny practise to the enemy. Diodo.

In the time of the Emperour Augustus, one Fuluius, for hauing disclosed a matter of counsell to his vvife, they vvere both put to death.

The Persians ordayned most seuere pu­nishment, for those that coulde not keepe counsell. Q. Cur.

Homer blamed Thersiles for too much speaking, and praysed Menelaus, because he spake little.

Phocion was sayd to speake better thē De­mosthenes, because when hee spake, in fevve words he comprehended much matter.

Zeno vvas reported a great prater, in that his eares were founded vpon his tongue.

Pericles, before he mounted into his seate, vvould alwayes request of God, that not a­ny vvorde might passe his mouth, but onely such as pertained to the matter vvhereof he was presently to speake.

It vvas the property of Laelius, to talke of­ten, and much at a time.

The Pie in this respect is sayd to be conse­crated [Page 85] to Bacchus, because that drunkennes is subiect to much babling. Ouid.

Valerius a Poet, vvas executed at Rome, for disclosing of secretes.

It is a custome among the Popes at Rome vvhensoeuer they admit any Cardinall, to stop his mouth for certaine dayes, that hee may first learne of his seniors, and then they open it againe.

Amasis King of Egypt, sent vnto Pittacus, one of the seauen vvise-men of Greece that vvas come to see him, a Mutton, vvilling him to send backe that peece, which hee ac­counted as best, and that vvhich hee adiud­ged to be vvorst, vvhereupon hee sent vnto him the tongue. Herodotus.

Cranes, vvhen they passe ouer Cicilie, vp­on the mount Taurus, do fill theyr bills full of Flints, for feare of making any noyse, least they should serue as a pray to the Egles that are there. Plinie.

The Quailes in Fraunce, after haruest, vse to doe the like.

Aristotle counselled Calisthenes to speake but little, which he not regarding, was com­maunded to be put to death by Alexander.

The ouer-bolde speech of Clytus to Alex­ander, caused his death. Plut.

[Page]The Lacedemonians vvere alwayes much commended for theyr briefenes.

Seleucus sirnamed the Conquerour, ha­uing lost a battaile, fledde by many crooked paths and by wayes, and hapned at last vpon the cottage of a poore pesant, vvho relieued him according to his abilitie; in the end, vnderstanding it was the King, and not able to suppresse his ioy, nor disguise with the King who desired to be vnknowne, when he had brought him into the high-way, sayde, Farewell my Lord Seleucus. For vvhich, the King made a signe to one of his followers to kill him. Plut.

Papilius cut out his owne tongue, & flung it in the Tyrants face, because he vvould not discouer a conspiracie. Plinie.

Anthony the Emperour, beeing one day at the house of Ouilius a Senatour, demaun­ded of him, howe it was possible for him to haue so many pillars of Porphorie, to whom he aunswered; VVhen you enter into another mans house, you must learne to be both deafe & dumbe. VVhich the Emperour tooke in good part. Plut.

Leontius the Emperour, after hee had put Iustinian his Soueraigne to flight, caused two of his tale-bearers to be burned.

[Page 86]Papyrius vvas much commended and re­warded of the Senate, because hee fayned a contrary tale vnto his Mother when she de­maunded of him what affaires were handled in the Senate house. Valerius.

Demetrius the Philosopher, vvas vvont to say, that Birds in the vvoods had libertie to flie vvhere they lyst, and Grashoppers in the fielde to sing vvhen they vvould, but in the Citty vve must neither doe nor speake.

Isocrates, least hee should happen to be a­shamed of the speech of any of his schollers vnlearnedly vttered, neuer receiued any in­to his schoole but only those that paid dou­ble, first to learne silence, and then to learne to speake; and to speake nothing but vvhat they knew certaine.

Alexander perceiuing by Hephestion that hee had read a Letter vvhich his mother had sent him, closed vp his lips with his signet, to the end he should be secret.

Pompey suffered one of his fingers to bee burned, rather then he vvould disclose vvhat was done in the Senate.

Cleanthes being disired by one to instruct his sonne in some short and vvise sentence, sayd, Sige, that is, be silent.

Vlisses in his youth refrained from speech, [Page] vntill hee had learned howe to speake wel [...] Homer.

Metellus vvas so close, in the vvarres of Mecedonia, that he sayd, If he knewe his own coate to be priuie to his owne determination, hee would burne it.

Ixion, is fained to be tormented in hell, for telling tales of Iuno. Ouid.

Antigonus the sonne of Demetrius, vvas charged to kill Methridates, and not to tell him; hee dreamed that hee sowed golde in Pontus, and Methridates reaped it, which in dutie to his father hee kept not, but disclosed with his tongue, but in loue to Methridates he sought him out, & writ vpon the ground with his speare, Ely Methridates.

Demosthenes asked Aristodemus a Co­median, what he had for pronouncing such a speech, he aunswered, A talent, but sayd he; I had more to hold my peace.

Philip writ vnto them of Laconia, that If hee entered, hee woulde ouerthrow them topsie­turuy; to whom they writ backe onely this word, If.

Aristotle aunswered a great pleader of cau­ses who at euery sentence he rehearsed, asked him, If that were not a strange thing? said, This is a greater meruaile, that any man can abide to [Page 87] heare thy babling.

The citty of Athence was taken & destroi­ed by Sylla, who by his spyes was admoni­shed of the pratlyng of certaine old men in a Barbers shop, where they talked of a certain place that was weakest, and worst defended. Plutarch.

The ouer-much talke of Flauius, was the onely cause that Rome was no sooner deli­uered from the tiranny of Nero.

Antigonus beeing demaunded of his owne sonne at what howre the Campe shoulde dis­lodge, sayd; Art thou afraid that thou alone shalt not heare the trumpet?

Lisander aunswered a Megarian who thrust himselfe forward to speake aloude for the ly­bertie of Grecia, That speech my friende, had neede of a great Citty. So may it bee sayde to those that freely reprehend others, that their owne manners had neede to be reformed.

Lysimachus the King, asked Philippides vvhat part of his goods he would vvillinglie haue imparted vnto him? VVhich you please (quoth hee) so it be no part of your secrets.

Dion of Alexandria, reuenged himselfe on his foes more by silence then by vvords, in­somuch, that one perceiuing by his iniurie he could not cause him to speake, that hee [Page] might haue more scope to raile, hanged him­selfe. Brusonius.

Lycurgus did promise that nine persons shoulde feast together in reuerence of the nine Muses, but vpon this condition, that if they did talke at the table, they should haue no wine to drinke, and if they vsed silence, they might be allowed vvine. Macrob.

Countrey or Commonwealth. This generall nurse and mother of mankind, commaundeth of vs a dutie beyond that which we owe to our naturall parents, & of more loue and pietie, whose safetie ought to bee preferred before all affection, riches, and life; sith in her preseruation, all our riches, lands, liberties, and lifes are secured.

ARistotle beeing at Athence, was verie carefull for his country, the which when Alexander had ouer-runne and rased, by let­ters bee mooued him to builde it vp againe. Val. Max.

Dion of Syracuse, vvas so louing to hys Country, that hee neuer rested vntill he had thorowly freed it from the tyrannie of Dyo­sius. Plutarch.

[Page 88]Damarathus a Lacedemonian, though ba­nished his Country, and lyuing at Athence, yet thought it his duty to forevvarne hys Countrymen of the expedition which theyr enemies the Athenians speedily intended a­gainst them. Val. Max.

The Senate of Rome saluted Augustus by the name of Pater Patriae. Seuer.

Caelia, being amongst many other virgins one of the hostages of King Porsena, stole a­way by night from her Keeper, & mounted vpon a horse, swamme the riuer, whose ver­tue raised King Porsenas siege, and deliuered her Country from further feare. Val.

Paulus Aemilius, warring against Pyrrhus King of the Epyrots, when the Oracle pro­nounced, that the Romaines should bee vic­tors, if any one amongst them would throw himselfe into a gulfe, Val. Torquatus volun­tarily offered himselfe. Plut.

Q. Curtius did the like in Rome, beeing armed, and mounted on horseback.

Scipio Affricanus caused to be written vp­on his graue, Vnkind Country, receiue thou not my bones. Plut.

Leaena hearing that her son in battaile died valiantly, neuer mourned, but lyfted vp her hands to heauen, and thanked God that shee [Page] brought such a sonne into the vvorld, which in respect of vertue, for the defence of hys Country gaue his lyfe.

So deere was the loue of his country to V­lisses, that he preferred his natiue soile Itha­ca, before immortality. Homer.

Coriolanus, beare vnkinde armes against his Country. Plut.

Nascia was most worthily renowned for the defence of his Country. Appian.

Q. M. Scaeuola, feared not to goe to King Porsenas Campe, intending to slay him that troubled his Country, but killing the Secre­tary in stead of the King, hee was brought to the fire, and so valiantly indured the burning of his hand, that the King amazed thereat, & fearing some other stratageme, dismissed him, who for the losse of his right hand, vvas sirnamed Scaeuola. Liuius.

The Romans erected Images of all such as renowned theyr Country.

Codrus vnderstanding by the Oracle, that except hee were slaine, his Countrimen the Athenians, shoulde neuer haue the victorie ouer theyr enemies, vvent disguised into the battaile in the coate of a common souldier, & thrusting himselfe into the formost front, was slaine. Iustin.

[Page 89]Aglauros cast himselfe headlong from the walls of Athence, vnderstanding, that if any one vvould voluntarily kill him selfe for his Country, they should be conquerours.

Theopa, Eubula, & Praxithea, for the pre­seruation of Athence, were offered vnto Mi­nerua; to these was a temple erected called Leocorium, which is the temple of the peoples daughters. Pausan.

Leonides, the Lacedemonian, and thirty men more of high resolution, yeelded theyr bodies to the bitter passion of dreadful death at Pylas, which was pronounced vpon them by prophecy, for the preseruation of al Grae­cia. Rauisius.

All the riches in the world could not with­draw Epaminondas, from any the least duty of his Country. Aelianus.

Socrates went to Amphipolis & Potidaea, two great Citties in Delos, to fight for his Country.

Plato, from a famous Phylosopher of A­thence, became a renowned Souldier at the siege of Corynth. Laertius.

Caluin, in the yeare 1556. when Perin had conspired against the estate of Geneua, ran into the midst of their naked swords, to ap­pease the tumult. Beza.

[Page]Antonius the Romaine Orator, vncouered the armes and shoulders of Aquilius, when he was adiudged to death, shewing the skars of the wounds, which he had receaued in de­fence of his Country, at which sight the Iud­ges were so affected, that they reuersed theyr verdit, and pardoned him. Valerius.

Cato of Vtica, answered one of his friends, who was come to giue him thanks, for de­fending him in iudgement against a false ac­cusation, that he was to thank the common wealth, for whose loue only he did speake, & counsailed all things.

M. Otho, left behind him a wonderfull ex­ample, of the loue he bare to his Countrey, for the benefit wherof he died willingly.

Camillus, beeing a banished man, rescued Rome, and put the French-men to flight, for the which, he was called the second Romulus. Plutarch.

Themistocles being banished his Country, and in seruice with King Artaxerxes, poyso­ned himselfe with the blood of a Bull, in pre­sence of all the Persians, least hee should be compelled to fight agaynst his Countrey. Thucidides.

VVhen Pisistratus had brought the Citty of Athence vnder his obedience, Solon see­ing [Page 90] that all his labour for defence of the com­mon liberty, was in vaine, came and layde down his sword and target before the Senate dores, saying, O my Countrey, I haue by word and deede defended thee whilst I could.

Vetruria disswaded her Sonne Martius be­sieging Rome, onely by reducing to his me­mory, the loue hee ought to haue to his Country. Liuius.

Sertorius desired Pompeius and Metellus, to procure his reuocation, saying, He desired rather to be called an obscure Cittizen of Rome, then else where an Emperour.

Pompeius loued the common-weale, but Cicero preserued it so, that vnlesse Cicero had preserued the estate, Pompeius should haue vvanted place vvhere to tryumph. Plutarch.

Iulius Caesar and Cicero, being mortall e­nemies, Caesar in the Senate, sayd vnto him, I cannot deny this, ô Cicero, but that in those things that touch thy selfe, thou art carelesse & remisse, but in matters that concerne the comon-wealth, very importune. Suetonius.

Timagenes seeing the Citty of Thebes, be­sieged for his sake, chose rather to yeeld him­selfe to the Greekes, who were desirous of him, then to abide the burning, spoyling, and [Page] sacking of his Country.

Aratus the Sicyonian, when his Citty was 50. yeares with-holden by tyrants, being de­parted from Argos to Sicyon, with a priuy stoln entry got possession of the Citty, ouer­came the tyrant Nicocles, restored home a­gaine 600. banisht men, and set the common weale at liberty. Cicero.

Aulus Fuluius, a Senatour of Rome, be­cause his Son (other wise of great hope) was confederate with Cataline, in the conspiracy, killed him, saying, I begotte thee not for Cata­line, to go against thy Country, but for thy Coun­try against Cataline. Valerius. Max.

Gracchus, Son of that Gracchus, that had been twice Consull, whose mother was Cor­nelia, daughter to Scipio, that conquered Affrica, meaning well to his Countrey, but managing it vndiscreetly, was slaine in the Capitoll, by Cornelius, Scipio, Nasica, and his followers. Appian.

Of Pleasure. How so euer by the Latines, Pleasure is inter­preted in the worser sence, by the name of Vo­luptas, the Greekes are indifferent, terming it Hedone, whose deriuation is from sweetnes or [Page 91] pleasantnes; it is accompanied with delectation, recreation, oblectation, insultation, ill will, &c.

THE Scythians were so giuen to all kinde of pleasure, that in beastlines they excee­ded brute beasts. Pausanias.

Sardanapalus was so subiect to plesure, that he consumed all his time therein, whose poe­sie was, Ede, bibe, lude, post mortem nulla vo­luptas.

The Kings & Princes of Asia, were much giuen to pleasure.

The life of Dionysius, when he was in his best health, was lost by sodaine ioy. Fulgosius.

M. Aurelius banished fiue vvise-men his Court, for clapping their heeles, and hands, and laughing outragiously.

Heliogabalus writ certaine wanton books, and called them by the name of his wife Se­myramida.

Tharua the Romaine Consul, died through sodaine ioy, while he was reading the letters of the Senate, wherein they had ordayned a common supplication & thanksgiuing to be solemnly made. Plut.

Sophocles dyed vvith immoderate reioy­cing, for that his Tragedies went so generally applauded. Plinius.

[Page]Diagoras the Rhodian, and Chilon hearing that their children had wone the prize at the games of Olimpus, felt such a motion in them of the spleene, that they were stifeled with ioy.

Ep [...]curus, who placed his felicity in corpo­rall pleasures, dyed miserably in a vessell of hote water.

Xerxes propounded rewards to those, that inuented new kind of pleasures. Iustin.

Socrates meruailed that Aesope made not a fable, wherein hee might haue fayned, that God, since hee could neuer couple pleasure and sorrow together, might haue knit them with an extreamity, so that the beginning of one, should haue beene the end of the other. Plato in Phaedro.

The Romaines and the Athenians, to get the good will and loue of the people, builded Theaters, shewing diuers deuises of pastimes, as Comedies, Tragedies, and dauncing of Antiques.

The Greekes had 4. great games appoyn­ted, the first vpon mount Olympus in Arca­dia, which Hercules inuented to honour Iu­piter, which was so famous, that as the Ro­maines vsed to account the time by theyr Consuls, so did the Greekes by these games, [Page 92] which was appoynted euery fift yeare.

The second games were called Pythij, and inuented of Apollo, in memory that he kil­led the Serpent Python; heere they exer­cised running, leaping, wrastling, ryding, and swimming.

The third, were called Isthmia, inuented of Theseus, in the honour of Neptune of Isth­mos, a place in Arcadia, where hee was wor­shipped.

The fourth, Nemea, which they make in remembrance of Hercules, for that he killed a great fierce Lyon in the Forrest of Nemea.

In the first play, the garland of victory was of Oliue, in the second, of Oake, in the third, of Pine, in the fourth, the garland was of Poplar tree. Pyndarus.

The Troians in King Latinus Court, vsed for theyr recreation, the playing at the ball. Virgil.

The Corinthians thought it the greatest fe­licity in the world, to spende dayes & nights in playes, and esteemed more happines to winne a game, then a Romaine Captaine to get a triumph.

Xerxes inuented the Chesse-play, to warne a tyrant to auoide his tirany, and by his play to let him vnderstand, how dangerous the [Page] estate of a Prince is, that dooth not vse his Subiects well.

Another play was vsed in Greece, eyther vpon the dice, or else closely in hand called, Euen and odde.

The Romaines had foure games, the first, Lupercalia, brought out of Arcadia by Euan­der, & sacrificed vnto Pan vpon mount Pa­lantine; the young men of Rome ranne na­ked one vnto another, and he that was most swift of foote escaped stripes, but he that was ouer-taken by the way, was sure to speed.

The second, Circenses ludi in a place appoin­ted by Rome, enuironed about with huge & strong walls, heere was running of horses, fighting on horseback, wrastlers, & leapers.

The third, Saturnalia, which Ianus did in­uent in memory of Saturnus his fellow; this play was celebrated with much mirth, plea­sure, and pastime: It was alwaies in the mo­neth of September, when euery man saluted his friends with rewards, at that time al things were common. Macrobius.

The fourth, Gladiatoria, where the youth of Rome came to behaue themselues among theyr enemies, at the long speare, the long sword, the staffe, in that play naked without armour, they came to fight against theyr [Page 93] enemies.

Claudius Caesar Emperor, writ a booke of the Art of dicing & gaming, which he & his successour Augustus greatly studied. Agrip­ [...]a.

Caesar being warned to beware of Anthony and Dolobella, being fat, merry, and liberall speakers, sayd, that such were not be feared, but those rather which were sad, & of an hea­uy complexion, as Brutus & Cassius. Plu­tarch.

Alexander, when many Phylosophers had disputed in his presence, wherein consisteth the good hap of this life he made aunswere. Beleeue me friends, that in all this world, there is not equall delight or lyke pleasure, as to haue where-with to be liberall, and not wherefore to chastice. Plut.

VVhen Darius had ouercom the Lydians, he ordayned that they should vse perfumes, and doe nothing but daunce, leape, and hant Tauernes, to the intent that by that meanes becomming altogether effeminate, they might not haue the courage torebell after­ward.

Pyrrhus seeing the Tarentines to be too ful of delicacie, forbad all assemblies to feasts, to mummeries, and such like, & brought thē [Page] backe to the exercise of armes, shewing him­selfe seuere to those that were enrowled in his muster-booke, and bound to goe to the warres.

Cineas told Fabritius, how a Philosopher counsailed men to referre all their doings to pleasure, who prayed God to giue such wise­dome to Romulus and the Samnites.

Demetrius hauing giuen himselfe to al ple­sures, the Macedonians draue him out, say­ing, That they were weary of bearing armes, and fighting for his pleasures.

Lewes the 11. permitted all Comaedians and Stage-players, to speake freely, and to reprehend such vices as were manifest. Ph. Com.

Of Apparell. Nature cannot be surpassed by Art, who ma­ny times disdaining that she is prouoked, by how much more the greater force shee is pressed and couered, by so much the more she riseth vp and sheweth her selfe; the naturall deformity of the body, can neither he altered with sumptuous at­tire, colours, nor odours, but make it eyther more euident to be seene, or more doubtfull to be su­spected.

[Page 94]ALexander hauing ouercome the Persi­ans, despised his owne Country fashions, and vsed altogether the apparell of the Persi­ans, by the which hee alienated his Subiects harts, for thus the Persians tryumphed ouer him, not he ouer them. Fulgentius.

The Romains vsed three maner of gownes, Pretextatae, Palmatae, Candidatae; The first, Gentlemens children of 14. yeares old did vveare; the second, conquerours for theyr noble deeds, the third, Lords, maisters, and Rulers of the law.

Aristotle delighted to goe braue, & in gor­geous apparell, with chaines and rings, and tooke therein great felicity.

Demosthenes and Hortensius, two famous Orators, went so neate in their cloathing, and with such wanton iestures, that Lucius Tor­quatus would often call Hortensius, Dionisi­aes Sonne, for that she had great pleasure in dauncing, and mouing her body.

Augustus Caesar, would weare no other garments, then such as his vvife & daughters made, and those very modest.

Agesilaus King of Lacedemonia, neuer had but one kinde of garment for VVinter and Sommer.

[Page]Diogenes beholding a stranger come from Lacedemonia, more curiously decked on a feastiuall day, then he was wont, sayde vnto him, VVhat? doth not an honest man think that euery day is feastiuall vnto him?

Darius, the yeare before he fought with A­lexander, altered his sword, or Acynax which he wore by his side, being a Persian blade, in­to the fashion of a Macedonian, vvhich the Southsaiers interpreted, that they into whose fashion Darius had altered the forme of his blade, should become Rulers of Persia.

Dioclesian garnished his apparell and shoos with precious stones, where before his raigne the habite imperiall consisted but in a purple cloake. Eutropius.

Sysinius going to visite Arsacius the By­shop, one of his familiers asked him, why he wore white attire, and where hee found it written, that a Priest should weare vvhite? Tell me first, quoth he, where it is written, that he should weare blacke? But hee could not tell. Then Sisinius sayd, thou canst not prooue for blacke, but I can for white; Let thy garments bee white. Sal. Our Sauiour in the Gospell wore white; Moses and Elias appeared in white. Eusebius.

Diogenes returning frō Sparta to Athence, [Page 95] was by the way asked from whence he came, and whether hee went, who aunswered, hee came from men, & was going to women, no­ting therby the effeminacy of the Athenians, who were for that vice by the Lacedemoni­ans & other Grecians had in derision.

The Senatours of Rome vsed a garment set full of studs or tufts of golde, and on theyr hose they wore like vnto a moone, vvhich were the cognizants and badges of most ho­nour. Fenestella.

Plutarch alleageth foure causes, why the Romaines wore such hose.

The first, because they thought that the soules of great men, should by light of the moone, be guided the next way vnto hea­uen.

The 2, was that the signe of the moone, did shew they were descended from the Arcadi­ans, who came into Italy with Euander, for the Arcadians did imagine themselues more auntient then the moone.

The third, because in prosperity they shold remember the inconstancy and mutability of fortune.

The fourth, for that the signe of the moone doth stirre vp mens minds to modesty and obedience, mouing them to pray vnto God [Page] for wisedome, whereby both to commaun [...] and obey; euen as the moone doth take he brightnes from the sunne, being a more no­ble and excellent light, so ought men to seek for wisedome from heauen.

The women of Athence much delighted in gorgeousnes of apparell, and trimming themselues. Aristophanes.

Among the Romains, no man might weare purple, but onely Senatours, Magistrates, Priests, and young men of noble families. Fenestella.

Adrian the Emperour, ordayned that no man should bring any strange fashions into Rome. Eutropius.

Scylus King of Scythia, because hee wore apparell after the Greeke fashion, was depo­sed for so doing, and his head smitten off, and his brother Octumasides chosen King in his place.

The women of Lacedemonia wore theyr apparell short beneath, that one might see their knees, and some part of their thighs, which was ordained, to make them the stron­ger and more warlike.

The Athenians had theyr Gyneconomes, the Romaines their Censors, the Venetians their officers authorized, to restraine & mo­derate [Page 96] the excesse in apparell, iewels and im­broidery of women.

The Neece of Q. Martius, being great with child, the day that peace was made betweene him & Rome, lacing her selfe too hard in her attire, to seeme more proper and comly, she was long before her time deliuered of child, which with the mother presently died. Por­phirius.

Q. Hortensius, euery time when he made himselfe ready, had a glasse before him, and as much time had he to straighten his gowne plates, as a vvoman to trimme the haires of her head; One day being Consull, going a­broad in a narrow streete, he met with the o­ther Consull, where through the straightnes of the passage his plaits were vndone, where­fore he complained to the Senate of his fel­low, saying, that he had done him great iniu­ry, and was woorthy to loose his life for vn­loosing his gowne. Macrobius.

The Lacedemonians goe all a like apparel­led, as well the meanest as the best. Thucidides

Heliogabalus scorned to weare his apparell after the manner of the other Emperours, saying, that theyr garments vvere made of greasie wooll. Eutropius.

Lisander would not receaue the apparell [Page] and Iewels, which Dionysius the tyrant sen [...] vnto his daughter, saying, that those presents more dishonoured then honoured his daughters; the like is written of Sophocles.

Iulius Caesar would haue his Souldiours so braue, that he suffered them to weare theyr armour enchased with gold & siluer, as well for the beauty therof, as also that they might be more stout in battaile, for feare of loosing it; bragging that his Souldiours could fight valiantly, though they were persumed. Sue­tonius Tranquillus.

Of Musique & Dauncing. Aristotle would haue youth to exercise them selues in Musique, and to be imployed in those harmonies which stirre vp to commendable ope­rations and morall vertues, tempering desires, greedines, and sorrowes, for so much as numbers and melodies consist in certaine proportions and concords of the voyce; it is the excellent gift of God, and as Art of numbers & measures serueth to Diuinity, so doth the Art of Musique.

DAuid made foure Maisters to ouersee the Himnes and Songs, one in the middle, the right side, the left side, the last, to ouersee [Page 97] the Cymballs.

Alexander, vvith the Lydian tunes, vvas mooued to pleasure and banquettings, and vvith the Dorick sounds, to armor & warre.

Plato and Aristotle, would haue a man that is wel brought vp to be a Musition.

Lycurgus, notwithstanding his sharp laws, allowed of musick.

The Lacedemonians and the Cretans, (though otherwise warlike) vsed Harps, and other soft instruments.

Among the first instructions that Chiron taught Achilles in his youth, Musicke vvas one. Homer.

Marsias beeing rude and vnskilfull in mu­sick, contended vvith Apollo, but beeing o­uercome, vvas deseruedly punished. Ouid.

Thamyras vvoulde needes try maisteries vvith the Muses themselues, in playing on the Harpe, but being vanquished, vvas for his bold attempt bereft of both his eyes, and in derision called Barula; from him blinde Harpers are denominated.

Themistocles was thought vnlearned, and the lesse esteemed of, because he was no mu­sition. Cicero.

The Greekes iudged none to bee learned, vnlesse he were seene in musick.

[Page]The most part of the vvorld did learn mu­sicke, except in Egypt, where it was forbid­den, least the tender and soft mindes of their youth, should bee intised to too much plea­sure. Diodorus.

Aliates King of Lydia, in his warrs against the Milesians, had Musitions, pipers & Fid­lers, in sted of Trumpeters, to mooue them to vvarres. Herodo.

The Parthians caused their belles to bee rung when they went into the fielde. Plu­tarch.

The Lacedemonians might not indure in their musicke more then in other matters, a­ny new inuention.

Therpander, (in those dayes a famous mu­sition) for that he inuented to adde another string to a certaine instrument then vsed, vvas banished his Country, and his instru­ment broken.

Ambrose Bishop of Millane, when that hee vvith other holy men, vvatched euen in the Church, least they shoulde haue beene be­trayed to the Arrians, brought in singing to auoyde tediousnes, and to driue avvay the time. August.

This Athanasius forbadde, to auoyde vani­ties. S. Augustine was indifferent, and it re­pented [Page 98] him, because hee had sometimes fal­len, by giuing more attentiue heed vnto the measures and chordes of musicke, then the words which were vnder them spoken; for that measure & singing, were brought in for words sake, and not words for musick.

In the East parts, the holy assemblies, euen from the beginning, vsed singing. P. Mart.

Architas inuented a certaine musicall in­strument, to stay the running wits of chyl­dren. Pausa.

The Grecians learned to daunce of Castor and Pollux, and vsed to dispatch theyr busi­nes dauncing.

The Sirians, before they met their enemies vsed to sing and daunce. Plut.

The Romaine Priests called Salij, vsed to daunce in honour of Mars.

Diodorus a cunning Musition, beeing sent for by the harlot Lamia, refused to goe, yet Demetrius hauing his Armor on, the badge of a vvarriour, and his Diademe, the cogni­zaunce of a King, was not ashamed to goe to her house. Aelianus.

The Phylosophers called Peripateticks, condemned musick in vvemen, saying, that betweene it and chastitie there could be smal agreement. Niphus.

[Page]Euripides is commended for reprehending such as vse the Harpe at feasts, for sayth hee, Musicke ought rather to bee sent for vvhen men are angry or mourne, then vvhen they are feasting and making merry, thereby to make thē giue more liberty to pleasure then before.

A Musition by the onely vertue of the Do­rian tune, preserued the chastitie of Clytem­nestra, the vvife of Agamemnon, from the assaults of Aegisthus, who to bee reuenged, slew the Musition.

Dionysius commaunded, that all his ser­uants should daunce in purple roabes, which Plato would not doe, saying; I will not put on a womans garments. But Aristippus did, and when he began to daunce, sayde, In dronken feates the sober offend not. Laert.

Diogenes reprooued Musitions, because they tooke great care that their instruments shoulde agree, and neglected theyr man­ners.

Neanthus handled the Harpe of Orpheus, whereon expecting the trees to daunce, hee did by his confused iangling thereon, cause the dogs to barke at him.

Epaminondas, to auoyde the shame of ig­norance in musicke, learned to play vppon [Page 99] diuers instruments. Cicero.

Nero, the same night which vvas the last of his lyfe, (among the complaints which in­stant death, feare and sorrowe did minister,) thys onely thing he most bewailed, that so famous a Musition as himselfe, should per­rish from the world. Tacitus.

A boy in Athence taking into his hand the instrument of an excellent Musition, vvho was hired to teach him, and putting it to his mouth and straining his breath vvhereby his cheekes began to swell, perceiuing thereby the deformitie of his countenaunce, present­lie brake the pype, and disdainefully flung it away. Petrarch.

Socrates vvhen he vvas old, gaue his mind to musicke and dauncing. Appian.

Scipio ordinarily vsed to mooue his try­umphant and martiall body, after the tyme and measure of musicall instruments, not vvantonly mincing with his feete, but after a manly sort, vvhich hee sayde, shoulde no vvaies disparage him, if his enemies did be­hold him.

Bacchus instructed the people of East In­dia to honour the heauens, and the seauen Planets, by diuers kindes of daunces. Dio­dorus.

[Page]Ganimede, Hebe, & the nine Muses, great­lie pleased Iupiter with theyr dauncing. Or­pheus.

King Dauid, to shewe his cheerefull hart for the returne of the Arke of God, daun­ced before it.

The dauncing of Herods daughter, vvas the cause of Iohn Baptists death.

Progne in a daunce, did finde opportunitie to murder her sonne Itis. Ouid.

The Ethiopians vsed songs of diuers tunes, and dauncing before they went to battaile. Pausanias.

Timotheus the noble Musition, demaun­ded alway a greater reward of them vvhom other taught, then of them that neuer lear­ned any thing before. Quintil.

Gelo a Tyrant of Sicilie, when by horrible oppression of his people he had brought him selfe into a generall hatred, prohibited, that no man or woman shoulde speake to each o­ther, (for feare of conspiracies) but in stedde of vvords, they should vse in theyr necessarie affaires, countenaunces, tokens, and moo­uings with their feete, hands, and eyes, which for necessitie first vsed, at the last grewe to a perfect and delectable dauncing; but he was slaine of them for his cruelty.

[Page 100]Homer, among the great benefits that god giueth to man, reciteth dauncing.

One daunced before Demetrius the Ty­rant, and in his gestures and motions, show­ed the aduoutry of Mars and Venus, and their discouery by Phoebus, vvith Vulcans intrapping them; vvhere-with, contrary to his sullen disposition, he forced him to laugh and cry out, saying; O man, I doe not onely see but also heare what thou doost, and it seemeth to mee that thou speakest with thy hands.

The same daunced before Nero, in the pre­sence of a strange King, which vnderstoode no other language but his own country, who by his daūcing, made the king to vnderstand vvhat was sayde; and at his departure, Nero bid him aske what he would, and hee should haue it. Sir, said he, lend mee this young man, that by his motions I may vnderstand the lan­guage of my confines and neighbors.

The maiestie of Princes in olde time, vvas shewed in the daunce named Eumelia, & be­longed to Tragedies, dissolute countenaun­ces in that which was called Cordax, and per­tained to Comedies, wherin men of base be­hauiour onely daunced.

The forme of fighting in Armor, was ex­pressed in a daunce called, Enophe.

[Page]Hormus was a kinde of Daunce vvherein daunced both men and maydes, the man ex­pressing in his motion and countenaunce, strength and courage apt for the warres, the mayde, modestie and shamefastnesse, which represented a pleasant coniunction, of forti­tude and temperance. Lampridius.

Augustus, in the presence of many men, plaied on an instrument; A poore man stan­ding by with other, and beholding the Em­perour, sayde with a loude voyce to his fel­low, Scest thou not howe this voluptuous Lea­chor, tempereth all the world with his little fin­ger? VVhich words hee wisely noted, and during his life, hee euer after refrained hys hands from any such lightnes in open assem­blies.

Alexander when hee had vanquished Ilion where Troy stoode, being demaunded if he woulde see the Harpe of Paris who rauished Helen, gently smiling, hee aunswered, I had rather see the harpe of Achilles, wherevnto hee did sing, not the illecebrous sports of loue, but the valiant acts of noble Princes.

Lisander softned the walls of Athence, and burned their ships by sound of Flutes.

S. Augustine rather liked the maid or wife that soweth vpon the Saboth day, then hee [Page 101] that daunced. August.

The Archbishop of Magdeburgh brake his necke in dauncing. Mar. Hist.

The Tyrrhenes first founde the Trumpet, which they afterward vsed in battell to feare theyr enemies, and encourage their friends, likewise at solemne feastes, that they might thereby assemble the people together, and to proclaime the comming of the Iubilie in the beginning of the newe Moone, crying, ioy and rest to all men. Isodore.

Buccina was a kinde of Trumpet made of horne, of woode, or brasse, which the vvild Panims vsed to assemble themselues toge­ther. The Hebrews vsed Trumpets of horn, in remembrance of the deliuerance of Isaac, what time an horned vveather was offered and sacrificed in his stead.

Tibia was an instrument of sorrowe and la­mentation which men did vse in office, and sepultures of dead men; beeing like vnto a Shalme or Flute.

Lyra hath the name for diuersity of sounds, and was first inuented by Mercury.

The Harpe is called Cythera, first found by Apollo, which Virgill writeth to haue sea­uen strings, that is, seauen soundes, & seauen differences of voyces.

[Page]The Psalterie, hath the name of Psallendo, for the consonant aunswereth to the note therof in singing. The Hebrewes called the Psalterie Decachordon, an instrument hauing ten strings, according to the number of the ten Commaundements.

Cymballs are instruments of musick com­passed like an hoope, and on the vpper com­passe, vnder a certaine hollownesse hangeth halfe bells, fiue or seauen in number.

Sistrum, hath the name of a Lady that first founde the same, who vvas Isis Queene of Egypt; Among the Amazons the hoast of vvemen is called to battaile with this instru­ment. It is like a horne, vsed in battaile in sted of a Trumpet.

The Bell is also reckoned among the In­struments of musick, who whilst hee profi­teth others in sounding, hee is himselfe con­sumed and wasted by often smiting. Thys was inuented by the Parthians.

Of Wemen. Although Pandora had wisedome from Pal­las, eloquence from Mercurie, beautie from Venus, personage from Iuno, and from euery other God some gift, (where-vpon shee is so cal­led) [Page 102] yet in the nature of a woman, shee brought the whole world to confusion.

ALthough Eue transgressed before the man, yet is the originall of sinning, ascri­bed to Adam, because the succession is ac­counted in men, and not in wemen.

Thucidides was of opinion, that those vve­men vvere most honest, of whose commen­dation and disprayse there is least speech v­sed.

Harmonia, daughter to Hiero the Syracu­san, woulde vvillingly haue dyed in the de­fence of her Country.

Epicharia, a libertine of Rome, being made priuie to a conspiracie intended against Ne­ro, vvas so constant in secrecie, that beeing rent with most cruell torments, yet neuer vvould shee bewray any of the parties. Ta­citus.

Laeena bitte her tongue in sunder, & spette it in the face of Hippias the Tyrant, in whose honour, the Athenian, dedicated before the Castle gate a Lyonesse of brasse vvithout a tongue, to betoken the steady vertue of si­lence in her. Plinie.

Araetia taught her Sonne Aristippus phy­losophy.

[Page]Mithridates vvife and sisters, shewed a far lesse feare of death, then Mithridates hym­selfe. Appian.

The wife of Asdruball of Carthage, ouer­come by Scipio, shewed a greater resolution to die, then Asdruball himselfe.

Aspasia and Diotima, with sacrifice droue of a plague ten yeeres, which shoulde haue hapned in Athence.

Aspasia loued and taught the eloquent Pe­ricles of Athence.

Nichostrata, mother to Euander, shevved the Latines their Letters.

The Sabine women, were no lesse helpe to increase Rome, then the Troyans at the first beginning.

The conspiracie of Cataline, for which Ci­cero is so praised, was first disclosed by a wo­man. Salust.

Philip the sonne of Demetrius, laying siege to the citty of Scio, proclaimed that what bond-man soeuer woulde forsake the Citty, and come to him, they should haue li­berty & theyr Maisters wiues; the vvemen hearing this, came to the walls weaponed, & fought so fiercely that they repulsed Philip. A deede the men could not doe.

The Erythians made war vpon the Sciots, [Page 103] vvho not able to holde out, compounded to depart theyr Citty without armour, vvhich when the women heard of, they vvould not suffer, but counsailed them to carry theyr shield and speare, and leaue theyr clothes, & aunswer their enemies, that this was theyr array, which they followed, auoyding the s [...]ame of the other.

The Spartane wemen delighted to see their children die valiantly in defence of their country.

The vvemen of Sagunt in the destruction of theyr Country, tooke wepons in hand a­gainst Haniballs souldiers.

VVhen the Armie of the Germaines vvas vanquished by Marius, theyr vvemen not obtayning to liue free in Rome, in seruice with the Vestals, killed themselues and their chidren.

Portia the wife of Brutus, and daughter of Cato, when she heard that they both vvere deade, beeing carefully watched of her ser­uants, tooke the fire from the harth & swal­lowed the coales. Appian.

The wemen of India are so couragious and bold, that they dare leape into the fire with the dead bodies of theyr husbands.

Alexandra, wife to Alexander, was Bishop [Page] in Iurie nine yeers.

Antiochus King of Siria, had a seruant cal­led Arteon, so like him of face and person, that when King Antiochus dyed, the Queen Laodicea his wife dissembled the matter, vn­till shee of her owne decree, had made ano­ther King in Syria.

Zenobia Queene of the Palmerins, beeing very well learned in the Greeke, Latine, and Egiptian tongues, taught them to her tvvo sonnes, and wrote an Epitome of the Easterne Histories.

Chrisostome made a sermon against all we­men, because Eudoxia the Emperour Arca­dius wife, had bolstered Epiphanius against him; he mocked at her picture, for vvhich cause, she endeuoured to banish him againe, vvhereof he vnderstanding, made a notable Sermon with this beginning, Herodias rageth a fresh, stomaketh a new, daunceth againe, see­keth as yet the head of Iohn Baptist. Euseb.

In the war that Conradus a Germane Em­perour had with the Ca [...]ulies, hee tooke the Castle and Towne of VVeimsburge; then the Emperour commaunded to take all the Gentlemen, but the Gentlevvomen should be let goe with as much goods as they could carry, but they forsaking their goods, carried [Page 104] away their children, which the Emperour hearing of, commended their vertue, and gaue thē likewise leaue to take their goods.

The Romans had a law, that what soeuer a vvoman with childe longed for, shee should haue it, the cause was, for that Fuluius, Tor­quatus wife, longed to see a vvilde man that passed by her doore, whom the Knights of Mauritania had taken in hunting, in the de­serts of Egypt, and not seeing him, she dyed. Aurelius.

VVhen the Romans vpon a certaine vva­ger, dyd send from the vvarres to Rome, to vnderstand what euery mans vvife dyd at home, amongst them all, the most praysed, was the chast Lucrecia; for that shee onelie was founde vveauing, and all the rest idle. Liuius.

Assiria cōplaineth of the scandall of Semy­ramis, Armenia for Pincia, Greece for He­lena, Rome for Agrippina.

In the societie of the Druides of Fraunce, vvere very many learned wemen, of vvhom the Romaine Emperour Aurelian did aske counsaile. Vopiscus.

The greatest part of Asia was conquered & gouerned, more by the wemen Amazons, then with any barbarous people. P. Diaco.

[Page]Porus king of India, for want of men, and too many wemen, was ouercome of Alexan­der. Curtius.

Haniball was alwayes Lorde of Italie, vntill hee suffered vvemen to goe to the vvarres vvith him, and vvhen hee fell in loue vvith Tamyra at Capua, hee immediatly turned his backe to Rome.

Sylla, in the warres against Mithridates and Marius, & in the warres of the Cimbres, had ouer his enemies so many victories, because in his Campe he suffered no vvemen.

Liuia Fuluia, tolde her husband, that vn­lesse shee might lye out of his house one night, he should neuer haue any quietnesse with her. Aurelius.

Rotorra compounded with a Pirate on the sea, that no woman for 2. yeres should serue his hundred souldiers but she alone. Idem.

Semyramis, vvhen shee had (through her importancie) obtayned of her husband Ni­nus, the gouernment of the kingdome for fiue dayes, & that his nobles should for that time obey her, shee caused her husband to bee presently apprehended and cast in pry­son; vvho impatient of this disgrace, dashed out his owne braines.

Amongst the Amazons were two principal [Page 105] Queenes chosen from them all, that both at home and abroad their affaires might be wel marshalled; Lampedo gouerned at home, Marpesia fought their battailes.

Clytemnestra, the wife of Agamemnon, to reuenge an iniury receaued frō her husband, cōmitted adultry with Aegisthus, and after­ward consented to his death. Eurip.

Fuluia, the widdow of M. Marcellus, seeing her husband buried in the field of Mars, for griefe scratched her face, tore her haire, and fell downe into a sownd, whom the Senators tooke vp, but Cn. Flauius sayd, Let her goe, for she will doe all the penance of widdowes; but presently, whilst the bones of her husband were a burning, she agreed to be married to another, and more, to one of the Senatours which had lifted her vp.

Septimius wife corrupted in loue by one of Anthonies friends, was desirous of his harlot to become his wife, causing him to speake to Anthony for her, and foorth-with was Sept [...] ­mius condemned, whom she betrayed to the Souldiours, & in one day he was killed, and she married. Appian.

Salassus, fearing the displeasure of Antho­ny, got him to the top of his house, from whence when hee saw his wife bringing the [Page] Souldiours to murder him, threw himselfe headlong into the streets. Appian.

The auntient Brittains, did not only make women their Rulers in peace, but their Lea­ders in warre. Tacitus.

The Germaines preferred them before men themselues, and were of opinion, that some sacred and prouident thing remayned in them, for which cause, they did neyther reiect their counsailes, nor set light by theyr aunswers, and many of them were reputed amongst them for Prophetesses, and as theyr superstition encreased, they helde them as Goddesses. Idem.

Zenobia writ a Chronicle of all the warres fought in Alexandria, and made a collection of all the notable warres fought in the East parts.

So long as Mesa, the Grandmother of Se­uerus liued with him, his estate was sure, but folowing too much the fancies of his mother Mammea, he ouerthrew him selfe.

Semyramis ruled worthily, & fought more valiantly then euer Xerxes durst, with all his huge hoasts.

The mother of Seuerus did beare such sway with him, that he banished his Empresse frō the Court and his bed, vnto the vttermost [Page 106] Coasts of Africa.

The vviddow Empresse of Valens, vvhen the Gothes had strongly besieged Constan­tinople, where she was, fought with so great courage against them, that she enforced thē to raise their siege. Cassiodorus.

Penelope, was renowned for her chastity.

Alcesta, the wife of Admetus, chose to die, to prolong her husbands life. Euripides.

The Essenians were open enemies to wo­men.

Minerua was borne without a mother, as some write, so faigned, for that women haue no wisedome.

In the Spartane common-weale, they had certaine officers named Gynecomones, vvho had in charge to punish the insolency of wo­men, and to suppresse their arrogancy and pride; The Romaine Censors had the lyke authority.

Of Marriage. This contract of mariage, called, the contract of God, (as by him first instituted in paradize) is called the bond of mutuall loue and reciprocall affection betweene man and wife, ouer whom he ought to rule, not as the Lord ouer his Seruant, [Page] but as our Lord & Sauior doth ouer the Church, whose indissoluble knot who so seeke to dissun­der, combate with the Maiestie of God, damning themselues through a secret alliance which they make with sathan.

CHrist honoured a mariage with his pre­sence, and a miracle.

Pompey comming among the Massagetes, who vsed once a weeke to accompany their wiues, demaunded the cause thereof, vvho aunswered, Because wee would not heare chy­dings in the day time, nor their complaints in the night.

Venda, Queene of Russia, drowned her selfe, therby to preuent them that made war for her, to haue her in marriage, seeing they could not win her by gentlenes. Olaus.

M. Aurelius gaue this counsaile, that a wise husband, & one that mindeth to liue peacea­bly with his wife, ought aboue all things to obserue this rule; to admonish her often, to re­prehend her sildome, but neuer to lay hands vp­pon her.

The Romaines passed all other Nations, in pompe, ceremonies, and comlines of mar­riage.

Cato, a sworne enemy to vvomen, neuer [Page 107] strooke his wife.

Xantippe, Socrates wife, reuiling and chy­ding him, in the end being caried headlong into wrath, ouer-threw table and all; wher­vpon Euthydemus, whom he had inuited to supper, rose vp to depart; but Socrates not shewing him selfe angry with his wife, stayde him, saying, VVhat, doe you not remēber when we were at dinner with you, a Hen leapt vpon the table, and we sayd nothing, nor were angry?

Cato depriued a Senator of Rome from his place, because he kissed his wife in presence of his daughter. Plut.

Ruth, desiring to bee couered with Booz cloak, requested that he would acknowledge her for his lawfull wife. P. Martyr.

Amongst the Greeks, the childrē that ma­ried without their Parents cōsent, were pub­liquely whipt, and the Lacedemonians did not whip, but disinherite them. Laertius.

The Thebanes, not onely ordayned they shold be disinherited, but also cursed of their Parents openly; Let no man esteeme it light to be cursed of their Parents, for in olde time the Hebrewes children made more account of theyr Fathers blessing, then of their Grandfathers in­heritance.

The wife of Thucidides the Historiogra­pher, [Page] when she was asked how shee could in­dure her husbands stinking breath, aunswe­red, As no other but my husband hath come neere me, so I thought all other mens breath had been of the same sauour. Plut.

Dionysius married two wiues in one day, with whom hee slept and tooke his pleasure by turnes, the one followed him in his war­like affayres, the other entertained him in peace. Plut.

Paulina a woman in Rome, had been mari­ed to 22. husbands, who afterwards marying one that had 20. wiues, dyed in his life time; wher-vpon the Romains crowned him with Lawrell, in token of victory, and caused him to carry a braunch of Palme in his hand, at his wiues funerall. Hierome.

The Hebrewes had such a reuerence to ma­ried folks, that he which had married a wyfe the same yeare, should not be forced to goe on warfare. Orosius.

The Romains did lay a penalty vpon their back, that liued a single life, nor would they suffer them to beare any office in the com­mon-weale. Plut.

Augustus being a sore punisher of euill be­hauiour, examined a Souldiour because he did not mary his wife according to the laws, [Page 108] who had hardly escaped iudgement, if he had not gotten three children by her. Idem.

Albinus obtained his purpose of the Em­perour Adrian, for none other desert of his, but that hee had begotten an house full of children. Eutropius.

Lycurgus made a law, that they which ma­ried not, should be kept in Sommer from the sight of Stage playes and other showes, and in VVinter they should go naked about the market place, confessing that they had iustly deserued that punishment, because they liued not according to the lawes.

The Greekes punished the breach of ma­trimony, with ten yeares wars. Homer.

Among the Hebrewes, if a thiefe restored foure times the value of that he tooke away, he was acquitted, but an adulterers offence was punished with death. It was also lawfull among them to kill the adulterer.

Among the Hebrewes and the Persians, he was most commended, that had most wiues, as though the Cuntry were most beholding to him that encreased the same, with the gre­test number of children.

Tib. Gracchus, finding two Serpents in his chamber, inquired the meaning thereof by a South-sayer, that if he slew the male first, hee [Page] should dye before his wife, but if the female, his wife before him; but louing his wife dere­ly, he killed the male, and dyed shortly after. Valerius.

Orpheus wife Euridice, dying vppon her wedding day, he kept his loue inuiolable, and would neuer set it vpon any other.

Ninus, King of the Assirians, falling in loue with Semeramis, the wife of Menon his vas­sal, requested that hee might haue her to wife, and he should haue his daughter in ma­riage; but Menon loued her so well, that hee would not yeeld thereto, the King enraged, caused his eyes to be pulled out, & tooke her away by force, & Menon for griefe hanged him selfe.

M. Lepidus being driuen into banishment, hearing that his wife was maried to another, dyed for griefe.

VVhen word was brought to Plautius Nu­midius, a Romaine Senator, that his wife was dead, he stabbed him selfe.

Silanus, after Nero had tooke his wife from him, slew him selfe.

Domitius Catalusius, Prince of Lesbos, lo­ued his wife so well, that althogh she grew le­prous, he neuer forbad her his bord or bed.

Hector, when he saw Troy burning, was [Page 109] not so much greeued for his Parents, his bre­thren, nay, his selfe, as for Andromache his wife. Homer.

Antonius Pius, loued his wife Faustine so wel, that when she died, he caused her picture to be made, & to be set vp before his face, in his bed chamber, that he alwayes might re­member her.

M. Plancius, sailing with his wife into Asia, in the midst of his great glory, for that his wife died, stabbed himselfe with his dagger, saying, two bodies shall possesse one graue.

Antimachus, a Poet, bewailed the death of his wife, in mournfull Elegies.

Pericles being at Athence, was found kis­sing of his wife at Athence, & being from A­thence, hee was found more sad to depart from his vvife, then vvilling to dye for his Country.

Orpheus loued his wife so well, that hee went to hell & redeemed her from thence, but through too much loue, looking backe, he lost her againe. Ouid.

Alcestes a Q. of Thessalie, at what time K. Admetus should die, hauing by an Oracle gi­uen an aunswer, that if any would die for the King, he should liue, which when all refused, his vvife offered her selfe to saue her hus­bands [Page] life.

Iulia Pompeius wife, seeing him come sore wounded from the field, supposing that hee was slaine, beeing great with child trauailed straight, and dyed.

Paulina, the wife of Seneca, when shee had heard of the death of her husband, enquiring the manner of it, she killed her selfe.

Ipsicratea, the wife of Mithridates, follow­ed him lyke a Lacky in the warres, vnknown to him, desirous rather to bewitch him, then liue a Queene in Pontus.

Aemilia, the wife of Affricanus, perceauing her husband to be in loue vvith one of her maydes, and oftentimes to vse the mayde as her selfe, neuer hated the mayd, nor told her husband therof, and when he was dead, shee maried her wealthily in Rome.

Triara, when shee knew by letters that her husband Vitellius, was enuironed of his ene­mies, she rushed into the campe, and pressed to her husband, ready to die with him.

Laodamia, loued her husband so well, that when she heard that Protesilaus was slaine, onely desired that she might see his shadow, which when shee saw, and offering to em­brace, dyed presently.

Valeria, a Romaine Lady, sayde, that her [Page 110] husband dyed for others, but liued to her for euer.

Sulpitia, being carefully restrained by her mother Iulia, frō seeking her husband Len­tulus in Sicilia, whether he was banished, she went thither apparailed like a Page.

Hipparchia, a very faire and rich woman, so much loued the Phylosopher Crates, who was hard fauoured and poore, that she mari­ed him against all her friends minds.

The King of Persia, hauing taken prisoner the wife of Pandanns, and killed him, would haue maried her, but she slew her selfe, vtte­ring these words; GOD forbid, that to bee a Queene, I should euer wed him that hath beene the murderer of my deere husband.

Fuluia, the wife of Anthony, not bearing his vnkindnes in leauing her sicke, and not bidding her farewell, dyed for sorrow. Ap­pian.

Phaethusa, the wife of Pytheus, thought so earnestly vpon her husbands absence, that at his returne, she had a beard growne vpon her chinne. Hier. Merc.

Melanthus sayde of Grogias, the most elo­quent Oratour, that he laboured to exhort men to concord, yet could he not quiet his wife, and therefore held it great presumption [Page] to perswade others to that which hee could not procure himselfe, in his owne priuate fa­mily.

Amongst the Romaines, if any discention happened betweene the husband & the wife, the Parents of both parties met in a temple consecrated to the Goddesse Viriplica, and there tooke notice of their griefes, and also reconciled them.

Vlisses, albeit Penelope, were both faire & chast, would neuer trust her, vntill the very extreamity. Homer.

In Florence, euen at this day, he that is Fa­ther of twelue children, male or female, pre­sently vpon the birth of the twelueth, is free and exempt from all taxe, impost, loane, or Subsidy. Volateranus.

Adrian (of all the Emperors, the most lear­ned in the Mathematiques & Greeke tong) vpon the confiscation of any mans goods at­tainted and conuicted, hearing that hee had children, vvould restore the goods of the condemned Fathers, vnto them. Eutro­pius.

The Arabians, Grecians, and Italians, did vsually keepe theyr vvyues shut vp in theyr houses, almost as prisoners, and now like­wise the Turks. Antonius Geff.

[Page 111]In Gascoine, the wiues are in no subiection at all, but gad vp and downe at theyr plea­sures, like antient Amazons. Gilb. Graap.

Isis, Queene of Aegipt, made a law, that vp­pon the marriage day, the husband should take a solemne oath betvveene his vvyues hands, that hee should not meddle with any houshold affaires, and the wife likewise be­tweene her husbands hands, that shee should neuer entermedle with any forraine affaires or businesses. Diodorus.

The wiues of Sparta, were reported in the femenine sexe, to haue had masculine cou­rages.

Theana, being demaunded what married wife deserued commendation, aunswered, She that medleth onely with her rocke and spin­dle, that loueth onely her husbands bed, and kee­peth her tongue in quiet. Atheneus.

The Essenians haue neyther wife nor ser­uants, nor the Dulopolitans, called other­wise the Rascalls and Slaues of Citties, pro­fessed open enemies to all women-kind. Io­sephus.

Homer bringeth in Iupiter reprouing and threatning his wife, when she is rebellious, but neuer further.

Vpon the Ascention day in Venice, the [Page] Duke accompanied with all his Nobles in a faire vessel of plesure made Gally-wise, go­eth in it a mile or two into the Sea, & casteth there in a ring of gold, thinking by this cere­mony they so marry the Sea vnto them, that all the yeare after they may haue safe passage for their commodities.

Of Parents & Children. God hath formed the mind to the perfect mold of truth and vertue, carrying it farre from vice, wherefore it behoueth Parents to giue their chil­dren good education, which once taught, then is their voyage and Nauigation in this world hap­py, making them thankefull to the occasions of their great good, where otherwise neglected, they abhorre the remembrance of their Parents, when through their damnable liberty and euill exam­ples, they haue beene led away.

SOlon made a law, that those Parents in their old age, should not be releeued of theyr children, which cared not how they practised good manners, or profited in let­ters.

Timarchides, being of wicked life, was not ashamed to haue his Sonne of tender yeares [Page 112] to be a viewer and witnes of his wicked ly­uing. Cic.

Verres cared not how his Sonne spent his time, whether among harlots or honest per­sons. Cic.

Scipio Affricanus (being eighteene yeares of age, his Father then Consull) saued his life at Ticinum, and ouercame him that woun­ded his Father. Stat.

Vespasian being besieged of the Barbari­ans in Britania, was deliuered by his Sonne Titus. Xiphil.

Lausus, the Sonne of Mezentius, defended his Father from Aeneas, and was slayne of him. Virg.

Antigonus, when hee had obtained a great victory of his enemies, hee tendered all the honour at his Fathers feete. Rauisius.

Antigone led her blind Father Oedipus. Sophocles.

Cleobis and Byton, drew theyr mother in her Coach, to the temple of Apollo. Cicero.

Leo, the younger, when he had raigned one yeare, rendered the crowne againe to his Fa­ther. Zeno.

Aegeus, when he saw the ship that his Sonne rode into Crete, returne with blacke sailes contrary to promise, supposing that hee was [Page] slaine, threw himselfe from an high rocke in­to the Sea. Ouid.

Aelius Tubero, had sixteene children of his owne body, all of them maried, and dwelling in one house with their children, and lyuing with him in all peace & concord.

The arrogancy of a childe, was the cause that one of the Ephories published the law of testaments, wherby it was permitted to eue­ry one from that time forward, to appoynt whom he would his heire.

Among the Romains, the child was not ad­mitted to pleade his Fathers vvill after his death, by way of action, but onely by way of request, vsing very humble and reuerent speech of his dead Father, and leauing the whole matter to the discretion of the Iud­ges. Patritius.

Antigonus, the Sonne of Demetrius, who was taken prisoner by Seleucus, when his Fa­ther sent him word to giue no credite to any letters he should send, for the deliuering vp of certaine townes, thereto constrained by Seleucus; Antigonus contrariwise writ to Seleucus, that he would yeeld him vp all, be­come pledge for him, if he would restore his Father.

Apollonida, mother to King Eumenes, and [Page 113] to three other of his bretheren, accounted her selfe happy, because she saw her 3. youn­ger sonnes as it were a garde to theyr elder brother.

Cato with his owne hande wrote a historie, and gaue it to his sonne, to the end he might there see the acts of his auncestors, & learne the skill howe to gouerne the Common-wealth.

Bercilidus, a Gouernour in Sparta, sitting at meate, did forbid that the younger sorte should doe him reuerence, reproouing him­selfe of barrennes, because he had not begot­ten any children to doe them the like honor when they were old.

Cornelia accounted her children to be the chiefest treasure & riches that she had. Val.

In Fraunce there was a Father & his sonne condemned to death for treason, and iudged to be executed (according to the custom of the Country) by standing in a Caudron, in vvhich they should be boyled to death; now it was winter, and beeing both naked in the water, the sonne began to quake for cold, and when the vvater was heated, to cry out vvith great impatience; his Father persisting im­moueable in both, sayd, Thou sonne of a vile whore, canst thou neither abide heat nor cold?

[Page]Augustus commanded the Ladies his chil­dren, to learne all the offices and qualities wherewith a vvoman might liue & be main­tained, and vvhereof she ought to boast her­selfe in such vvise, that all the apparrel which they vveare, they did spin and weaue; say­ing; that a rock became a Ladies girdle, as­vvell as a Launce becam a Knight, or a book a Priest. Sueto.

Annalis being condemned by the Trium­uiri, fled to a tenant of his who had a homely house, & was safe hid, vntill his son brough [...] the pursuers to the house, who killed him▪ Then the Triumuiri rewarded him with his Fathers goods, and made him Chamberlain of the Citty, but one day beeing drunke and troubling the souldiours, they which killed his father, murdered him. Appian.

Choranius, the vnhappy Father of an vn­thrifty sonne, prayed the pursuers to spare his life a while, till he might sende to his son to speake to Anthony; who laughed at him, & sayd his sonne had spoken, but to the con­trary. Appian.

Quintus Ciceros brother and his sonne be­ing taken, prayed the murtherers to kil him before his sonne, but his sonne requested the contrary; vvhereupon the souldiers promi­sed [Page 114] to graunt both theyr desires, and taking them a sunder, by a token killed them both at one instant. Appian.

Ignatius the Father and the sonne fighting together, dyed of one vvound, & when their heads vvere striken of, theyr bodies dyd yet imbrace. Idem.

Aruntius could hardly perswade his sonne that would not flie without him, to saue him­selfe; because he was but young, his mother sent him afore to the gates, and then retur­ned to burie her husband beeing killed; and vvhen she shortly after heard that her sonne vvas dead vpon the sea, shee famished her­selfe. Plut.

Geta the sonne of Scoponius, made a fire in the open place of his house to burie his Father that seemed to be dead, whom he had hid in an house in the country, where the old man disguising himselfe, layde a parchment before his eyes, and after the agreement was made, hee tooke away the parchment, and founde his eyes out for want of vse. Appian.

Oppius sonne, minding to take part vvith his olde feeble father, bare him on his backe, till hee was past the gates, and the rest of the vvay sometimes leading him, & sometimes bearing him, he brought him safe to Sicelie: [Page] so did Aeneas for Anchises his father. Idem.

Metellus the father and the sonne, the one Captaine vnder Anthony, the other vnder Caesar, the Father being prisoner, and beeing condemned, his sonne sayde to Caesar, Thys hath beene thy enemy ô Caesar, and I thy friend, him thou must punish, and me rewarde, I desire thee to saue my father for mee, or let mee die for him, at whose request he was saued. Idem.

Crates Thebanus deliuered a stock of mo­ny to his friends vpon this condition, that if it shoulde happen his children to bee fooles, they should therewith be maintained, but if they became learned and phylosophers, then to distribute it to the poore. Dem. Mag.

Periander, one of the 7. Sages of Greece and a Tyrant, sent for his sonne Licophorna, that with his owne hands hee might kill him, because he mourned for the death of his mo­ther, which when the Cittizens of Corcyra knew, they put him to death themselues, to deliuer him from his Fathers tiranny. Vale. Maximus.

Priamus had by Hecuba fifty Sonnes and Daughters, Orodes king of Parthians thir­tie, Artaxerxes a hundred and fifteene, Ero­thinus King of the Arabians, seauen hun­dred, in confidence of whom he inuaded the [Page 115] confines of his enemies, and with seuerall in­roads he wasted the Lands of Egypt and Sy­ria. Petrarch.

Petrarch writeth of a married woman, that had twelue seuerall children by twelue seue­rall men, one of them a yeere elder then the other, who ready to die, tolde her husband of them all he was Father, but to the eldest; and reckoning vp the Fathers of the other, the youngest cryed to her, good mother giue me a good Father; to whom she sayde, that a very rich man was his father, wherevpon the childe was glad, saying; If hee be rich, I haue a good father.

Astapus & Amphorinus bare such loue to their parents, that their Citty beeing burned, they tooke them vpon their shoulders, and carried them through the midst of the fire.

A woman of Athence, her father called Cy­mon, being in pryson where he was like to be famished, craued so much leaue of the Kee­per that shee might haue accesse to her Fa­ther, whō with her milke shee preserued long time from death.

Harpalice, her father being takē prisoner by the Getes, redeemed him with more celeri­ty then can be thought in a woman. Seruius.

It is written that three bretheren striuing [Page] vvho should enioy their fathers land, vvere content to be agreed by the King, swearing that they vvould stand to that which hee de­termined; the King commaunded the dead body of the Father to bee taken vp, saying; that hee vvhich shot neerest the hart, should be the right successor; the eldest shotte him in the throate, the second in the breast neere the hart, but the third, abhorring this dam­ned resolution, sayd; I had rather yeeld all to my brothers then bee so degenerate. To whom for his vertue and reuerence to his father, the King adiudged the land.

Israell many yeeres lamented the losse of one of his sonnes, for whom when hee vvas 120. yeeres old, he vvent downe with al his family into Egypt.

Dauid greatly lamented the death of his rebellious sonne Absalon.

Orodes King of Persia, hearing that his son Pacorus was slaine in the wars against Ven­tidius, vvith extreame greefe therof became mad. Rauisius.

Auctolia the daughter of Sinon, and wife of Laertes, vnderstanding a false report of V­lisses death her sonne at Troy, dyed for sor­row. Idem.

Anius King of Thuscans, had a Daughter [Page 116] called Salia, whom when Oritheus had stoln away, threvve himselfe violently into a Ri­uer, called afterward by his own name. Plu­tarch.

Lucius Gellius, when in a maner he knew that his sonne had beastly abused himselfe with his stepmother, and attempted to be­reaue him of life, became himselfe this wret­ches defender, and before the Senate acqui­ted him both of fault and punishment. Val. Maximus.

Dioschorus put to death his vertuous and religious Daughter Barbara, for imbracing the Christian fayth.

Ptolomeus Euergetes, beeing expulsed his kingdome for his crueltie, killed his sonne in Cyprus whom hee had by his sister Cleopa­tra, & sent her his head & feete for a token. Liuius.

Apteras Saturnus, caused his owne Father to be gelded, killed his owne sonnes, & held continuall vvarres against his bretheren. Be­rosus.

Deiotarus, hauing many sonnes, murthe­thered all saue one, that he which suruiued al the rest, might be mightier, and of greater power. Gellius.

Hippomenes an Athenian Prince, for that [Page] his daughter Lima was founde in adulterie, caused her to be close shutte vp with a horse, giuing her no releefe, but the horse almost famished, deuoured his daughter. Laertius.

Oppianicus, contrary to the common na­ture of Parents, was content for money to forsake his children. Cicero.

Domitius, detested his sonne Nero for no other cause, but that hee had begotten him vpon Agrippina. Suetonius.

Medea beeing forsaken of Iason, murdered her owne sonnes. Ouid.

Herod commaunded his onely child to be killed among the general massacre of the in­nocents in Iurie; vvhich vvhen Augustus heard, he sayd, That he had rather bee Herods hog then his child. Iosephus.

Prusius King of Bithinia, was murthered of his owne sonne, when he had committed the rule vnto him.

P. Malleolus, for killing of his mother, was the first amongst the Romans that vvas sow­ed in a sacke and cast into the sea. Liuius.

Cham the youngest sonne of Noah, his Fa­ther being drunke & lying naked, called his brethren to that vnnatural sight; who going backwards, couered theyr fathers secrets, for the which they were blessed, & the posterity [Page 117] of Cham accursed. Gene. 6.

Absalon rising against his father Dauid, ex­pelled him his kingdome, & afterward assay­led by Ioab, fled and was hanged by his haire vpon an Oake.

Helie the Prophet, winking at the faultes of his children, though forewarned of Samu­el, died a violent death, and his sonnes both in one howre were slaine in battaile by the Philistines, as a iust reuenge for their for­mer disobedience. Regum. 11.

Adramelach and Sarazar, murdered theyr Father Senacharib, for which they were dri­uen out of theyr kingdome, and ended theyr dayes in exile. 4. Reg.

Irene pulled out her sonne Constantines eyes, because hee began to beare himselfe o­uer proudly in the Empire.

Eristhenes was famished of his mother, be­cause he fought in battaile with no courage. Rauisius.

Damatria, when shee heard that her sonne had not behaued himselfe in battaile, as the sonne of so woorthy a mother shoulde haue doone, at his returne killed him.

Orchanus caused his daughter to be buri­ed aliue, because Apollo had rauished her. Ouid.

[Page]Tigranes killed one of his sons, because he would not take him vp when hee had a fall at hunting, & for that hee set the crowne vpon his head. Appian.

Machates the sonne of Mithridates, for feare of his father, killed himselfe.

Mithridates killed his sonne Siphares, to be reuenged of the mother.

Gripus who was king after Seleucus, made his mother drinke the poyson vvhich shee had prepared for him.

Medullina, whose body was abused by her drunken Father, knowing by his Ring shee tooke of from his finger that it was hee, shee killed him at the Altar. Plut.

Of Sorrow. This vexation of mind, and sicknes of the bo­die, is a perturbation altogether contrarie to pleasure; from whence doth spring repentance, sadnesse, freating, lamentation, carefulnes, af­fliction, mourning, and desperation; this is the last of the perturbations of the minde, beeing in number foure.

A Certaine Nun vvas mother to P. Lom­bardus maister of the sentences, & Gra­tianus, [Page 118] who when shee sawe them such nota­ble men, sayd, she could not repent, to whom her Confessor said; Only sorrow, because thou canst not sorrow. P. Mar.

The Iewes thought Ecclesiastes to bee Sa­lomons repentance. Idem.

Origen repenting himselfe, & being sorrie for that hee did in his adolescencie, sayde; I expounded the Prophet Abdias allegoricallie, whose history I vnderstoode not.

Aeschines the Orator, being (as he was al­wayes) sicke, did neuer complaine of the Spleene that did grieue him, & on the other part, he did much lament for any sorow that otherwise happened vnto him. Plutarch.

Telemachus helde this his greatest griefe, that Iupiter had ended the race of his Father in him, not giuing him a brother. Homer.

King Xerxes, when he saw that Ochus lay in waite for his brethren to put thē to death, died for griefe thereof.

Plantius the Numidian, looking vpon hys dead wife, tooke such griefe to his hart, that casting himselfe vpon the dead body, he rose no more, but was stifled vvith sorrow.

Diodorus the Logitian, dyed for sorrovve, because he was not able to aunswer the que­stions of Stilpo. Laertius.

[Page]M. Coriolanus being banished Rome, be­came enemy to her, but his mother Veturia comming vnto him, & vpbraiding him with his fault, he found his error, layd dovvne his armes, went out of the field, and dyed vvith greefe of minde. Liuius.

Homer dyed with suddaine sorrovve, be­cause he could not aunswer a question which a Fisherman propounded vnto him. Plu.

The Romaine Matrons bewailed the death of Brutus one whole yeere, as a cheefe de­fender of theyr chastities. Eutrop.

Torquatus the younger, being banished frō his Fathers house, for greefe thereof slevve himselfe.

There was great contention betweene So­phocles and Aeschilus about versifying, in which (by the iudgement of those that were present) Sophocles was pre [...]erred, vvhich Aeschilus tooke so greeuously, that he fledde forthwith into Sicilia, where hee lyued ob­scu [...]ely, and in the end died miserably.

The lyke is written of Calchas a Soothsay­er at his returne from Troy, being ouercom of Mopsus, one of his owne profession. Ho­mer.

Niceratus, for that Antimachus verses vvritten in the prayse of Lisander, vvere [Page 119] by him more esteemed then his, (although by iudgement of the learned Niceratus were better) hee was so greeued that hee forsooke his studies, but Plato by counsell turned his minde, and of a dissolute, made him a dili­gent studient in Poetry.

Themistocles mother, for very griefe con­ceiued, that her sonne in his youth vvas gy­uen to all kinde of vvickednesse, hanged her selfe.

P. Rutilius, vvhen hee heard that his Bro­ther desiring to be made a Consul in Rome, had taken the repulse, for very angush of minde, dyed.

By the lawes of the twelue tables of Rome, all sorrovve and vveeping at funeralls vvas forbidden.

Lepidus, by a long griefe conceiued of the misbehauiour of his vvife, shortned his own dayes.

Dioxippus before Alexander, onely vvith a club challenged Corrhagus beeing all ar­med, to enter combat with him; vvhen [...]ee had smitten Corrhagus speare out of his hand, hee closed vvith him, and laying fast hold vpon his armour, hee threw him down, then sette his foote vpon his necke, and go­red him through the body with his svvord; [Page] for vvhich acte Alexander hated him, wher­vpon, Dioxippus tooke inward thought, & gaue such scope vnto inward force of fanta­sie, that hee pyned and consumed away with griefe of minde.

Timanthes, when hee had finished the pic­ture of Iphigenia in colours, set foorth Cal­chas to bee sorrowfull for the same, but Vlis­ses more sad; and to make her Father Aga­memnon seeme most sorrowfull, he painted him with his face couered.

The Poets faine Prometheus to bee tyed vpon the top of the Mountaine Caucasus, & an Eagle to be gnawing of his hart, whereby they signifie no other thing, but the great sadnes of Prometheus, gotten by contempla­ting the starres and Planets.

The poesie of the Pythagorians vvas, The hart should not be eaten.

Caesar neuer feared Anthony & Dolobel­la, or any other that was of a merry counte­naunce, but rather doubted sadde & mellan­cholie persons, such as Brutus and Cassius vvas.

Crassus was called Gelastos, for that he was once seene to laugh in his life.

Anaxagoras Clazomenius, vvas noted that hee neuer was seene to laugh or smyle from [Page 120] the day of his byrth.

Aristoxenus did vvonderfully bridle him­selfe from laughter.

Heraclitus was at such defiance with mirth that hee wept continually, and Democritus alwaies laughed. Laertius.

Bibu [...]us hearing of the death of both hys children in one day, lamented their losse that one day and no more.

Anaxagoras hearing tell that his sonne was dead, aunswered, It is no meruaile, for I begot a mortall body.

P. Varro remained so sorrowful in his hart to see himselfe ouercome of his enemies, & his vvife suddainely dead, that all the time he after liued, he neither combed his head, slept in bed, nor dined at the table. Liuius.

The Romaines were so sorrowfull for the death of Augustus Caesar, that they vvished hee had neuer beene borne, or being borne, neuer dyed▪ Eutropius.

Of Lying. This contrary to truth & nature, maketh that seeme very good, which is euill, and causeth the tongue to become a member of iniustice, when it vttereth more or lesse then is indeed; vnder this [Page] vice are contained Deceipt, Dissimulation, Cr [...]t, Hipocrisie, Idolatry, and cousenage.

THrough a lye, Ioseph was cast into pry­son, and Saint Chrisostome sent into ba­nishment.

The Egyptians ordained death to lyers, so dyd the Scythians and Garamantes.

The Persians and Indians, depriued him of all honour and farther speech which lyed.

The Gymnosophists, and Chaldeans, bar­red lyers all companies and dignities, and condemned them to remaine in perpetuall darknes, without speaking.

The very wormes did eate the tongue of the cousoner Nestorius, in his lyfe time. Ni­cephorus.

Popiel King of Poland, had euer this wishe in his mouth, If it be not true, I would the Rats might eate mee; vvhich came to passe, for he was so assayled by thē at a banquet, that ney­ther his guards, nor fire, nor water, could de­fend him from them. Munster.

Some write, that an Archbishop of Ma­gunce died the lyke death.

The Emperor Traiane, sirnamed the good Prince, tooke away from the sonne of Ce­ba [...]us the kingdom of Dacia, which we terme [Page 121] at this day Transiluania and Valachia, onely because he caught him in a lye, and [...]old him that Rome could not permit a lyer to pos­sesse a kingdome.

After that one had reade vnto Alexander, the great History, out of Aristobulus, wher­in he had intermingled certaine counterfaite prayses, he [...]ong the booke into the Ryuer, saying, The writer deserued to haue been cast in himselfe.

In Almaine, a lye hath beene alwayes ex­treamly hated & shunned, as it were a plague and bastards could neuer obtaine the price of any occupation whatsoeuer, nor take degree in any Art or Science. Zonarus.

The Emperours, Nero, Commodus, Max­imilius, Iulius, Valencius, haue by lyes been brought to ruine.

Pope Alexander the sixt, neuer did what he sayd, and his Sonne Borgia neuer sayde vvhat hee meant to doe, pleasing them­selues in counterfaiting and dissembling, to deceaue and falsifie theyr fayth. Guychar­dine.

VVhen the Duke of Valentinois had cau­sed certaine Princes to be murthered con­trary to his oath, his Father the Pope told him, that hee had played a right Spaniards [Page] part, but they dyed most miserably, the one poysoned, the other slaine.

The Lacedemonians banished C [...]hesiphon because he boasted that he could discourse a whole day long of any theame, that was put vnto him.

Artaxerxes, caused one of his Souldiours tongs, to be nailed to a post for making a lie.

The Gabionites for lying lost theyr liber­tie.

The Cretans for lying, became odious to all the world.

Achilles did more abhor lying then death. Homer.

Paulus Iouius, beeing demaunded in his Chronicle, why hee fained many things as false, and dissembled the true, which there­by might breed his History to be suspected, aunswered, that hee did it to please those from whom he receaued pensions.

Vlisses speach alwayes proceeded from his hart. Homer.

Pope Innocent the third, made faire wea­ther with Otho the fourth, and Fredericke the second contending for the Empyre, and neuerthelesse made a very solemne and elo­quent oration, of the agreement and vnity, which ought to be amongst Christian Prin­ces; [Page 122] but a Cittizen of Rome aunswered him, Holy Father, your wordes seeme to bee of God, but your deedes thereto contrary surely proceede from the deuill. Guychardine.

Pyrrhus was enemie to the Romaines, yet neuerthelesse did he giue this praise vnto Fa­britius, that a man might as soone turne him from the truth and honesty, as the sunne out of his course. Plut.

In Lacedemon, there vvas one that vvas knowne to bee a notorious lyer, who not­withstanding he gaue profitable aduise, and necessary for the time, yet it was cleane re­iected of the people. Plut.

Antiochus in hunting lost his way, & was constrained to retire to a poore mans house of the Country, who not knowing him, told him al the faults he & his fauorites had com­mitted, to whō at his returne, he sayd, that he neuer vnderstoode the truth till that night, and euer after carried him selfe most vertu­ously.

Marcus Aurelius was called Verissimus, for in him was neuer found lyes, nor truth euer fayled.

Pharamond King of Fraunce, was called VVarmond, which signifieth truth.

The Lacedemonians condemned one that [Page] did open penance, wearing hairecloath vpon his skin, for that thereby they discouered his hipocrisie, in as much as it was wouen with purpure.

Dionysius the Tyrant, being retired to A­thence, after hee was depriued of his king­dome, bewailed the estate of Princes, but e­specially in that men neuer spoke freely vn­to them, and the truth was euer hidden and concealed from them. Plato.

Demosthenes called Phocion, the hatchet of his words, because he spake truth & to the matter.

The dissimulation of Metellus and Scipio, was so great, that Metellus fained that Rome was happy that Scipio was borne therin, and yet was his mortall enemy all the dayes of his lyfe.

Fredericke a Romaine emperour, at what time the Senators were entring the Senate, would say to them before you enter, Cast a­way two things, simulations, and dissimulations.

Alexander, would consent to nothing but truth, and Phillip his Father to all kinde of falshood.

By craft Haniball vanquished the Taren­tines, & by craft the Romaines recouered it againe.

[Page 123]Clodius, to bring his purpose to passe with Pompeia Caesars wife, dissembled himselfe to be a woman. Cicero.

Salmoneus, by lightening of a Torch, did counterfet the thundering sownds & light­ning stormes of heauen. Virgil.

Phryne the harlot, to knowe which was Praxiteles the Paynters best picture, bad his man bring him word that his shop was on fire, I am vndone, sayd he, if my pictures of the Satyre and Cupid be burned. Pausanias.

Darius became King of Persia, by neighing of a Mare, hauing the day before brought to that place a Stallion, for it was agreed among the Persians, that whose Mare first neighed, he should be King. Herodotus.

Pelagia of Antioche, dissembled her selfe to be a man, because she would liue chast.

Semyramis, knowing her Sonne to be too young to rule, disguised her selfe lyke to a man, and gouerned the monarchy vntill her Sonne came to riper age. Iustin.

Vlisses fained himselfe mad, to auoyde the great expedition. Homer.

Marina, and Euphrosina, Grecian Virgins, were woorthily preferred before Cleomilus and Clisthenes, for that they vvent in the apparraile of men, to lyue in the vvilder­nes [Page] to auoide lust, the others went in the ha­bites of women, to beguile women.

Achilles, was by his mother Thetis, sent to King Licomedes like a woman, because hee might not goe to Troy, where thus disguised he g [...]t vpon one of them Pyrrhus Neopto­lemus.

Sinon by dissembling gotte Troy for the Grecians; Conon the Athenian, deceaued the Persians in Cyprus, and Antigonus the Cittizens of Corinth.

Pyrrhus deceaued Cannius in his bargaine of fish. Cic. of fic. lib.

An old Lacedemonian, who had coloured his haires, discouered his head in a great as­sembly, & made a declaration of such mat­ters, about which he came. Archidamus the King, rose vp & sayd, VVhat truth can this fel­low speake, whose heart is stayned with spots of hypocrisie and double dealing. Aelianus.

Eurydamas a wrastler, when his teeth were dashed out by his aduersary, hee dissembled his paine, and swollowed downe his teeth, blood & all, to the end, that hee which gaue the blow, might not perceaue the mischiefe.

Cleomenes, had a companion, whom hee made pertaker of a purpose he had to accō ­plish, to whom he swore that he would at­tempt [Page 124] nothing, but Archonides should be at one end thereat, when hee had gotten what hee desired, he murthered his companion, cut his head from his shoulders, & layd it in a bason of honey: so when he put any deuice in aduenture, he looked vpon his head in the bason, saying, I breake not my promise, but I stand to my oath, for I take counsaile with Ar­chonides head, according to my couenant. Aeli­anus.

Meton the Astronomer counterfaited him­selfe mad, and set his owne house on fire, be­cause he would not goe with the Grecians their voyage into Sicilia.

Cato was so renowned for his truth, that when any man rehearsed a strange thing, and hard to be beleeued, this prouerbe went of him, because he was knowne throughout the whole course of his life, to be a louer of truth, This is not credible although Cato himselfe shold speake it.

Aristomenes, when he was dead and vnbo­welled, his hart was hairy, which was a sure signe of his craft & subtilty.

Brutus dissembled himselfe a foole, to the end that men shold haue no mistrust of him, nor bee priuy to the greatnes of his cou­rage.

[Page]Ariston, being in loue with Agetus wyfe, found this fraud to get her frō her husband, hee promised Agetus to giue him any one thing that he would choose, of all that euer he had, praying him to doe the like for him againe; Ariston agreed and swore it, Ariston discharged his promise out of hand, & forth­with demaunded Agetus wife, who because of his oath deliuered her.

He that bare the office of the chiefe Iudge in Aegipt, did weare an Image of truth hang­ing at his breast, which picture was had in sin­guler estimation of the Druides.

One when truce was taken with the enemy for 30. daies, ouercame his land in the night, because the truce was taken for dayes and not nights. Cicero.

Q. Fab. Labeo, being by the Romaine Se­nate, appoynted dayes-man betweene the Nolanes & Neapolitanes, about the bownds of theyr land, did commune with eyther of them a part, and being come to the place, perswaded them rather to set backe, then to encroach vpon an other, which when eyther of thē had don, there was a parcell of ground left in the midst, then he caused their bownds to be staked out, and the middle part he ad­iudged to the people of Rome. Idem lib. offic.

[Page 125]Anniball, amongst the Carthagenians, and Q. Maximus of the Romaines, had meruai­lous cunning in cloaking, keeping, dissem­bling, making stales, and in preuenting the deuises of the enemy. Cicero.

Amongst the Greekes, Themistocles the Athenian, and Iason the Phaereian, excel­led in this kind. Cicero.

A Syrian slaue in Sicily, after a mad sort ra­ging with a desire to make a rebellion, pre­tended a religion of dooing honour to the Goddesse of Syria, and called bond-men to liberty and armes, and that he might seeme to doe that by the will of God, he held a nut in his mouth stuffed with Surphure and fire, the which when he he spake, did cast foorth flames. P. Diaconus.

Twēty thousand of the Celtaebrians broght braunches of Olyue like petitioners, asking pardon, which comming nigh the Romains, gaue a violent onset on thē, Gracchus went from the campe of purpose, and made as though he fled, and whilst they were about the spoile, hee returned and killed many of them, recouering Complega. Appian.

Vlisses was not so wily, but he was matched by Palmedes, and his dissembled madnes dis­couered.

[Page]Caesar, when he could not condemne one for any sufficient & probable crime, he made him away by some secret meanes, and some were dispatched in his armies by treachery & attempts, wrought against them by those of theyr owne side: this deceite was cruell. Diodorus.

The Achaians, a people of Greece, did al­together condemne pollicies & stratagems in warre, accounting of them as of subtilties, because they thought that no victory was ei­ther of any renowne or certainty, except they had in open fight ouercome their ene­mies, by an assigned battaile. Polybius.

Marius, a rich Cittizen of Rome, who by Augustus got all his wealth, alwayes sayde, that he would make him his onely heyre, which hee vowed to the Emperour the day before he dyed, after whose death was found, that in all his wil he had not made once men­tion of Augustus.

Of Slaunder. A wise man keepeth close his eares, when hee doubteth of the vertue and honesty of the person accused, making Reason their diligent Porter and watch, which examineth and letteth in the [Page 126] reports that be good, and excludeth those that a­rise from slaunder and detraction, whose Image was excellently described in figures by Apelles.

EVstace Bishop of Antioche, a religious and deuout man, seeking to suppresse the heresie of the Arrians, was by their false ac­cusation and slaunders depriued from his Sea. Eusebius.

Aristophanes slaundered Socrates (a man so much beloued of the Gods) in a Comedy, called, Nebulae, the clouds.

Leontius, after hee had put Iustinian to flight, caused two of his tale-bearers to be trailed by the feete & burned.

Darius, made the accusers of Daniell to be deuoured of Lyons.

Aristobulus, through a false report, put to death his owne brother, and afterwards dyed for griefe.

Plato banished accusers, slanderers, & tale-bearers, out of his common-wealth.

Scipio Africanus, being accused of many things, by the Tribunes of the people, aun­swered nothing to the crymes layd agaynst him, but only said thus; In such a day as this is sirs, I ouer-came both Carthage and Haniball, which the Senators and people hearieg, were [Page] so far from condemning him, that they cau­sed him in a maner to triumph againe.

Emilius Scaurus, being accused by Varius, made this aunswere, O yee Romaines, Varius affirmeth this crime layd against me to be true, and Scaurus denieth, whom will yee rather be­leeue?

Medius, Captaine of all the flatterers that followed, Alexander taught them that they should not spare to nip boldly, and to byte with store of slaunders, for quoth hee, al­though hee that is bitten should be cured of the wound, yet the scarre at the least will still re­maine.

By false accusations and slaunders, Cali­sthenes, Parmenio, and Philotas, were vn­iustly put to death by Alexander.

Phillip was told, that the Grecians spake ill of him behind his backe, notwithstanding he did them much good, & therfore was coun­sailed to chastice them; VVhat would they doe then, sayd hee, if we should doe them any harme; but they make mee a better man, for I striue daily both in my words and deeds to proue them lyers.

He was likewise counsailed to banish one who had slaundered him, or put to death, but he would doe none of both, saying, It was not [Page 127] sufficient cause to condemne him, and it was bet­ter not to let him stirre out of Macedonia, where all men knew that he lyed; but going among strangers not knowing him, they would admit his slaunder for truth.

Nicholas Scot was beheaded, for rayling vppon Maximilian Sforza, Duke of Mil­lane.

Augustus pardoned Cinna, that wold haue murdered him, and made him Consull, but Timagenes for that he railed vpon him, hee drane him out of his house, deeming that of an enemy he might make a friend, but of a rayler a back-biter and slaunderer, a man can make nothing else.

The Frenchmē called back-biters Mouches, flies, The Romaines called thē Delatores tale-bearers, the Greekes Acoustes, harkners, or spyes.

Dionysius held tale-bearers in great esti­mation, but at the alteration of the state, the Syracusans put them all to the sword.

Anthony put those tale-bearers to death, vvhich could not prooue theyr accusati­on.

Critias reproued Archilochus, because hee spake not well of him selfe.

Eschines finding fault with certaine of De­mosthenes [Page] words and phrases, he aunswered, Non in eo sitae sunt opes graeciae: The summe and substance of the matter dooth not consist in that.

The Romaines had a law called, Lex papia, which gaue halfe the goods of the accused to the accuser; but Nero brought it to a fourth part, and they were euer after called Quarte­rers, because they had a quarter of the goods that were so escheared.

Aesopus the Phrygian, that writ the fables, when he came to Delphos, was wrongfully accused of enuious persons, for stealing a peece of plate, which they had craftily hid in some things about him, for the which, he was cast downe from a rocke. Plut.

Lucius Crassus wone himselfe great praise, by a noble & glorious accusation. Cicero.

An accusation brought Publius Su [...]pitius eloquence to light, when into iudgement he called the seditious and vnprofitable Citti­zen C. Norbanus.

The Lidians had a law, that as they sent the condemned murderers to row in the Gal­lies, so they confined those that were de­tracters and ill tongued men into a secret place, farre of from all company, the space of halfe a yeare. Plut.

[Page 128]Tiberius the Emperor, condemned a great talker and rayler of his tongue, & comman­ded that he should not speake a word the space of a yeare.

Aristophanes, was accused by the Atheni­ans 95. times, & euer acquitted.

Narsetes, that valiant Generall, by false and slaunderous accusations, was by Iustine the Emperour depriued of his charge. P. Di­aconus.

Theodoricus, King of the Goaths, in his rage through a forged accusation, executed Boetius & Symmachus, shortly after he was serued at the table with the head of a fish, which seemed to him to be the same of Sym­machus looking a squint vppon him, with which conceit he fell sicke and dyed. Olaus.

Thrasibulus King of the Iewes, tooke such a conceite in that he had slaine his brother, without hearing his excuse, that he died; the like befell to Aristobulus, for murthering his brother Antiochus, who vomited vp his blood, in the place where his brothers was spilt, and in remorse of conscience dyed. Io­sephus.

They which accused Socrates, not being a­ble any longer to abide the publique hate, strangled themselues.

[Page]Mary of Aragon, accused an Earle before the Emperour Otho her husband, saying, that he would haue defiled her, and he was beheaded, but the truth being afterwards discouered, she was publiquely burned. Ni­cephorus vvriteth the lyke of Constantine the great.

Leo the Emperour, vpon a false accusation condemned Michaell to death, which exe­cution being a while deferred, the Emperor dyed, and Michaell was chosen in his sted.

Mathias, the Sonne of Huniades, was char­ged of ill behauing himselfe towards Ladisla­us, King of Boheme and Hungary, and as he was ready to be condemned (his eldest bro­ther hauing been before executed vpon en­uy and false information) the sayd Ladislaus minding to marry Margaret, daughter to Charles the 7, dyed sodainly, and Mathias was chosen King of Hungary. Loncerus.

Of Flattery. This poyson of mans sences and vnderstan­ding, hath no other scope in the world but deceit, selfe-loue, and ouerweening of ones selfe, yeel­neth this large field, cleane taking away right iudgement, and is blind in regard of what it lo­ueth; [Page 129] the feeders of this humour are more dan­gerous then Rauens, for they doe but deuoure the bodies of the dead, slatterers of the liuing.

PHillip, sirnamed Gods gift, and Constan­tine, banished flatterers frō their courts. And at Athence they were put to death, as the very ruine and plague of Princes.

Dion attributeth the hatred vvhich vvas conceiued against Iulius Caesar, & his death, to flatterers.

Dyonisius of Syracuse, sent Philoxenus the Poet to the galowes with those that were condemned to die, because heee vvould not flatter him.

The Thessalians, cleane rased a Citty of the Melians, because it was named flattery. A­theneus.

The Athenians put Tymagoras to death, because to insinuate with Darius, he saluted after the Persian manner. Agrippa.

Alexander the great, and Alphonsus King of Arragon, hauing each of them somewhat awry necke, the one of them by nature, the other by custome; the flatterers and cour­tiers that attended them, helde their necks on the one side, to [...] theyr imper­perfections.

[Page]Clisiphus was called the coūterfait of King Phillip, because when the king was merry, he was merry, and whatsoeuer the King tooke in hand, this flatterer would maintaine.

Aristippus coulde better please Dionisius with flattery, then Dion the Syracusian could pleasure him with truth.

Curio the Parasite, might perswade Caesar to doe any thing.

One subtile flattering Sinō, did that which tenne yeeres siege could not effect, namely, the destruction of Troy. Virgil.

Dionisius sent vnto Philoxenes the Poet, a Tragedy of his owne making, that hee might reade and correct it, which hee returned all blotted and rased from the beginning to the end, because hee found it in no respect vvor­thy to be published, so farre vvas hee from flattering him.

Augustus so hated flattery, that hee could not abide the kneeling of his housholde ser­uaunts.

Tiberius woulde not suffer his seruaunts to call him Lord.

Alexander, when his Parasites perswaded him to thinke himselfe a God, sayd, That by two things especially, he knew himselfe to be a man and no God, namely, by sleepe, and [Page 130] carnall motions. Plutarch.

In the hindermost part of Spaine, vvhen those of Siuill had war vvith the Gaditanes, it chanced that euen in the midst of the time, those of Siuill vvanted mony, and two Pa­rasites offered themselues for two yeeres to sustaine the vvarres vvith their own proper charges. Aurelius.

The Emperour Aurelius, neuer dranke o­ther then red vvine, vvhich Torquatus per­ceiuing, refrained from drinking of VVhite­vvine, and planted all his Vines vvith redde Grapes; for vvhich he made him Consul of Rome. Gueuara.

The Emperour Sigismond, strooke one that praysed him too much: saying that hee bitte him.

The flattering followers of Sylla, sette vp his image of gold on horse-back in the com­mon pallace at Rome, vvith this title, Cor­nelius Sylla, the happy Captaine; which name beginning of flattery, remained firme and stable. Appian.

Antigonus sayde vnto a Poet vvho called him a God, (therby noting his flattery) that the Groome of his stoole, knewe there was no such matter.

Aristotles auditors coūterfeited his stame­ring, [Page] Alexanders followers, his double chinne, & shrilnes of speech, & the schollers of Ennius his drunkennesse.

Flatterers, as the Italians say, trauaile be­tweene Lodi and Placentia, but neuer come at Verona.

Aristippus suing to Dionisius for a friende of his, and beeing once denied, fell downe be­fore his feete, for the which hee was repro [...] ­ued, but he thus excused it, saying; I am not in the faulte, but Dionisius, who hath eares on his feete.

VVhen the flatterers of Dionisius percei­ued that hee held Plato in great estimation, they then counterfaited the countenaunce and habite of Philosophers, but after that by theyr meanes Plato was expelled, they re­turned to theyr former wicked course of ly­uing. Plut.

Platoes schollers, for asmuch as theyr Mai­ster had a broade breast and high shoulders, and vvas therefore named Plato, which sig­nifieth broade, they stuffed theyr garments, and vvore vppon theyr shoulders great bol­sters, to the end they might seeme to bee of the like forme that he vvas.

Carneades the Phylosopher sayde, that the sonnes of noble men learned nothing vvell [Page 131] but to ride; for whilst they learned letters, theyr Maisters flattered them, praysing eue­ry word they spake, and in vvrastling, theyr Teachers & companions, submitting them­selues, fell downe at theyr feete, but the horse not knovving who rideth him, if he sitte not surely, will cast him quickly. Laertius.

Alexander sayd, that he loued better the i­dolatry of Hephestion, then the sincerity of Clitus.

Phocion sayde to King Antipater, that hee could not haue him both for his friende and flatterer.

One of Alexanders Leiuetenants, writ to him, that he had in his gouernment a boy of incomparable beauty, and that if it so lyked him, he would send him to him; vvhom hee thus aunswered; O cursed caitife, what hast thou euer knowne in me, that thou shouldest thus dare to flatter me by such pleasures?

A vvise Abbot, wrote to Charles the third, that aboue all things hee should take heede, that flattering Courtiers shoulde not rauish from himselfe the fauour of his benefites, as they are whom they terme sellers of smoake.

Of Learning. This is the true substance of felicitie, and the efficient cause of wisedom, without which, mans life is death; The which when the Egyptians would signifie, they set downe the picture of dew dropping from the clowdes.

COsroes king of the Persians, although a barbarian, was so learned, that he held argument with the chiefest Philosophers of Greece. Agath.

Claudius the Emperour, writ 40. bookes of history, by the perswasion of Titus Liuius, he had Homer at his fingers end. Volat.

Picus Mirandula, set vp nine hundred que­stions at Rome. S. Tho. M.

Caesar disdained not to frequent the thre­shold of Ariston, neither did Pompey think scorne to go oftentimes to the house of Cra­tippus. Plut.

Saint Augustine complained, that beeing a young man, he learned profitable words, but yet in vaine things, I heard (quoth he) Iu­piter thundering, and therewithall commit­ting adultery. 2. Confess.

Antisthenes, after hee had heard Socrates, [Page 132] tooke such great pleasure therein, that albeit he was very learned, and had a great number of schollers, yet hee vvilled them to seeke an other Maister, because he purposed to learne himselfe.

Traiane the Emperour, founde fiue hun­dred chyldren at schoole, thereby to banish ignorance.

Pope Caelestine the fift, deposed himselfe, by reason of his ignorance.

Iulianus, to the end hee might molest the Christians, forbid thē the reading of all good bookes.

Antimachus vvhen he read to all his schol­lers called together, and sawe that all sauing Plato, forsooke him before he had ended his reading; said, I will goe forward, and read on, for Plato is to me as much as all the rest.

Aristotle was angry with his Maister Ari­stotle, for that he made those bookes which he writ to him so common. Curtius.

Phillip, when his sonne Alexander vvas borne, gaue thanks to God, not so much be­cause he had a sonne, as that hee vvas borne in the time of Aristotle, vvhom he made his Schoolemaister.

Alexander carried alwayes Homers Iliades about him, & laid them vnder his pyllovve, [Page] naming it the preseruer of warlike vertue.

Anaxagoras suffered his Lands to lie wast, and followed his study.

Crates forsooke his patrimony of eyght ta­lents, that with the more liberty hee might follow Phylosophy.

Athence and Sparta could neuer agree, for that the one vvas adicted to serue Minerua, the other Mars.

Titus Vespasian often vsed to pleade cau­ses himselfe in Latine, and made diuers po­ems and tragedies in Greeke. Eutrop.

Lucius meeting with the Emperour Mar­cus Aurelius in the street, accompanied but with one man after him, asked him vvhether hee went? hee aunswered, It becommeth euen an olde man to learne; therefore am I going to Sextus the Philosopher, to the end I might learne those things which I know not.

The studie of Ptolomy theyr King in the Mathematiques, made the Egyptians so no­table in those Arts.

Ptolomey knew more in Astronomy, then any man saue Adam.

Ptolomey write a booke called Almagest; an excellent worke contayning the greatnes of the earth, heauen, moone, and starres.

Plato beeing requested by his schollers to [Page 133] speake some-what of good intendment and memory; sayd, That he had no more learned, saue as much as he that felt himselfe like vnto a vessel, that day and night, is all voyd & empty.

Arcesilas the Phylosopher, woulde neyther learne himselfe, nor suffer others to learne.

The Hymne of Orpheus to Musaeus, is called his Testament and last doctrine, wher­vnto he would haue men to sticke.

Amongst the Greekes and the Latines, ne­uer any vvas more learned thē Marcus Var­ro. Lactan.

The auncient Academies of Greece, were the nurseries of all Common-wealths, and out of them (as frō the Troyan horse) came forth most excellent Kings, singuler Cap­taines and Gouernours. Grynaldus.

VVhen Paulus Aemilius was to encounter with Perses, and that his Armie was sore dis­maied at the ecclips of the Moone vvhich then happened; Sulpitius Gallus incoura­ged them by his learning, in that hee assured thē of victory, by his knowledge in the Ma­thematicall Sciences.

By the lyke knowledge Archimedes defen­ded the Cittie of Syracusa from the furie of Marcellus.

Alexander the great, had in a manner as [Page] great a company of learned men in his Army as vvarriours. Plutarch.

VVhen Varro was condemned to die, An­thony pardoned him, saying; Vinat Varro, vi [...]doctissimus.

Lysander, in rewarde of a fewe verses, gaue vnto the Poet Antiochus, his hat full of sil­uer.

Alphonso, gaue 500. Duccats to Pogio of Florence, for translating out of Greeke into Latine Xenophon his Cyropedia, albeit that it was translated before.

Iulius Caesar made many and sumptuous Libraries, and gaue M. Varro a commissi­on throughout the dominions of Rome, to prouide workes of the best learned to furnish them. Appian.

Ptolomy, hauing set vp a most sumptuous Library in Alexandria, furnished the same vvith more then seauen hundred thousand bookes. Vitruuius.

He likewise caused 72. Interpreters of the most learned and religious men of Iudea, to come & translate the holy Bible out of He­brew into Greeke.

Asronius the Phylosopher, being demaun­ded what it was that he knew, sayd, To speake well, and being demaunded againe vvhat he [Page 134] [...]ad learned, hee aunswered, To speake well; [...]nd beeing asked the third time vvhat hee [...]aught, he said, To speake well. Sabel.

Aspasia was much read in Phylosophie, she [...]aught Rhetorique, & was Pericles teacher, [...]nd afterward his wife. Plutarch.

A Greeke Embassadour and a Romaine, were at vvordes in the Senate of the Rhodi­ [...]us, the Grecian sayd, Romaine it is true, that you are aduenturous in Armes, but for all that, [...]nable in Sciences, for the women of Greece know more in Letters, then the men of Rome in weapons. Vpon these vvords grew the mor­tall vvarres betweene Rome & Carthage, a­bout the possession of Sicilie.

The Romaines and the Grecians ready to defie one another, the Rhodians came in the midst, and perswaded both that this iniurie should not bee determined with vveapons, but argued with vvomens disputation. Af­terwards assembled at Rhodes tenne Greci­ans, and tenne Romaine vvomen, all veri [...] vvell learned, vvhich in theyr chaires, suc­cessiuely read certaine Lessons, and after­tervvardes held disputation one against the other. Eutropius.

The Greekes spake very high thinges, not so profound, but with an excellent stile, they [Page] vvere very wel pleased to heare the Romai [...] vvomen, and the Romaines astonished t [...] heare the Greekes; Vpon this occasion, th [...] Rhodians crowned euery one of them vvit [...] a crowne of Laurell as vanquishers, & iud [...]ged that in graue sentēces the Grecians had the best, & in eloquent speech the Romains had the victory. Idem.

The Romaine vvomen returned to Rome, & the Grecians to Greece, where they were receiued with such tryumph, as if they had wonne a battaile; the Rhodians for memo­ry of these women (in place of disputations) set vp twenty high pyllers, in euery one of the which were the names of the VVomen, vvhich were so sumptuous a building, that none in Rhodes was comparable vnto it ex­cept the Coloslus. Idem.

These pyllars stoode still, vntill the time of Heliogabalus the Emperour, who inuented new vices, and destroyed ancient memories.

L. Sylla had a Daughter called Lelia Sabi­na, of all the Romaine Ladies the vvisest, she read openly in a chayre both Greeke & La­tine; [...]hee, when her father after the warres of Mithridates, beheaded 3. thousand Ro­maines which came to salute him, (although by his word he had assured them safety) was [Page 135] [...]ondemned by the Senate for the fact, but [...]y the learned and eloquent oration of [...] he was saued.

Shee writ diuers orations, which her father [...]fterward learned by [...]art, and as hee vvas [...]uicke of spirit, so hee alwayes vsed to recite [...]hem in the Senate for his purpose.

Aristippus had a daughter called Aretha, [...]ho was so renowned in Greeke and Latine [...]etters, that the common report vvas, that [...]he soule of Socrates was entred into Are­ [...]ha.

This Aretha writ forty bookes, had Audi­ [...]ors one hundred and ten Philosophers, shee [...]ead naturall and morrall philosophy in the [...]choole of Athence, and died at the age of 77. yeeres.

Zenobia Queene of the Palmerians, vvrit an Epitome of the oriental historie of Alex­ander. Pollio.

Dama the daughter of Phythagoras, vvas famous for her learning.

Cornelia, the vvife of Africanus, and mo­ther to the Gra [...]chi, writ a volume of elo­quent Epistles. Cicero.

Polla the wife of [...]uca [...], helped her hus­band to finish his three bookes of the warres in Pharsalia. Statius.

[Page]Sappho vvrit nine bookes of Leriques, be­sides, Epigrams, Elegies, and other Poems, shee flourished when Alcaeus & Stesichorus liued.

Of the auncient Thracians, there vvas no [...] one endued with learning.

The Barbarians thoght it a thing reproch­full to haue knowledge and vnderstanding.

The people of Asia, attaining cleerer light of learning, were so bold, that they said Or­pheus the excellent Musitian wanted wise­dom, because he was a Thracian borne.

The Lacedemonians vvere vnlearned, for they regarded nothing but the exercises of the body.

The Emperour Licinius and Valentianus, vvere such enemies to learning, that they called learning the only poison of the world, and those that were learned, the Asses of Cu­ma. Ignatius.

Albeit that Traian was one of the best Em­perours that liued, yet he gaue not himselfe to learning for any commendation that Plu­tarch made thereof, but sayd, The Gods haue not made me to turne ouer the leaues of a booke, but to deale with martiall affaires. Eutrop.

Agricola restrained his minde, sette on fire with desire of learning, knowing it to bee a [Page 136] very hard thing for a man to holde a meane [...]n vvisedome. Tacitus.

Of Opinion. Among the Philosophers, some were Stoicks, some Academicks, some Peripatetickes, some E­picures; of Lawyers, some Cassians, some Sabi­ans, some Proculeians; among Phisitions, some affect Gallen, some Hippocrates, some Paracel­sus; the Iewes had their Esses, Saduces, & Pha­rises; In the Vniuersities, some are Libertines, some Germaines, some Alexandrians, some Ci­licians; in the Church, some Protestants, some Papists, some Puritans, &c.

VArro collected in his time, 288. opini­ons out of the bookes of Philosophers, concerning the felicity of the soule.

Socrates was reprooued of Plato, Plato of Aristotle, Aristotle of Alberius, Lelius of Varro, Ennius of Horace, Seneca of Aulus Gellius, Tesato of Gallen, Hermogaras of Cicero, Origen of Saint Hierome, Ruffinus of Donatus.

All the auncient Phylosophers sauing Pla­to, beleeued that Tyme is vvithout begin­ning. Proclus.

[Page]Ptolomey vvas of opinion, that the midst of the earth is vnder the Equinoctiall circle. Agrippa.

Berosus holdeth the Mountaine of Arme­nia, vpon which Noahs Arke rested, to bee the middle of the earth.

Some Diuines say, that Ierusalem is the middest, because it is written, Deus operatus est salutem in medio terrarum.

Zeno the Phylosopher held opinion that all sinnes are equall.

Epicurus maintained, that pleasure vvas the chiefest felicity.

The Saduces & Zadukes, not the meanest Doctors among the Iewes, held opiniō, that there were neyther Angels, nor spyrits, nor soules immortall. Tremelius.

Crates the Thebane, helde that there vvas no soule in our bodies, but onely a motion gouerned by nature. Leucippus thought it a subtile ayre or an heate, and so did Possi­donius.

One reading the diuersity of theyr opini­ons sayd, That clocks woulde sooner agree then Philosophers.

The Switzer is of opinion, that too much study hurteth the braine.

[...]hago [...]as held opinion, that Earthquakes [Page 137] proceeded from none other cause, then from the meeting together of dead bodies.

Epicurus Gargettius, was of this opinion, that he which was not contented with a litle, was insatiable, and neuer had enough.

Democritus, vvas of opinion, that there were worlds infinite and innumerable, which made Alexander weepe, that he was not lord of one among so many.

The Stoicks were of opinion, that who so­euer receaued their doctrine, if in the mor­ning he were wicked, in the euening he shold become a very good man.

Empedocles sayth, that the soule is in the blood; Plato in the braine, but Beda wry­ting vppon Marke, sayth, that it is in the hart.

Heraclitus was of opinion, that all thinges were led by strife and friendship.

Thales Milesius, and Hesiodus, held that water was the beginning of all thinges, say­ing, that it was the auntientest and migh­test of the Elements, because it ruled all the rest.

Zacharias, writing to Mithridates, was of opinion, that mens destinies are in the ver­tues of hearbs and stones.

Alexander the Peripatetike, holdeth that [Page] the hidden vertues of hearbs and stones pro­ceede of the elements, and their qualities.

The Academicks with theyr Plato, attri­bute these vertues to the Ideas, the shapers or formers of things.

Auicen, doth referre these operations to the intelligencies, Hermes to the starres, Alber­tus to the especiall formes of things.

Democritus and Orpheus, were of opini­on, that al things were ful of the Gods, mea­ning, that there is nothing of such excellent force, which being voyd of Gods helpe, is content with his owne nature.

Anaxagoras held opinion, that snow was black, because the water it is congealed of is blacke. Cicero Acad.

Plato was of opinion, that community in a common-wealth was best. Pythagoras held the contrary.

Demosthenes, would haue two names ba­nished the common-wealth, to the end as he thought the people might be best gouerned, that is, Lords and Subiects, Maisters & Ser­uants. Laertius.

Scipio Africanus, was of opinion, that hee did all things rather by the counsaile of the Gods then of men, which he maintained all his life. Appian.

[Page 138]In Prince Demylas time, there fell a stone from heauen, which made Anaxagoras of o­pinion, that heauen was made of stone, and that but for the great compasse of the buil­ding, it would sodainlay fall. Silenus.

Chilo of Lacedemon maintained, that man by reason might comprehend the foreknow­ledge of things to come, by the might & po­wer of his manhood.

Cyrus was of opinion, that no man was fit for an Empire, except he did excell those o­uer whom he bare rule. Xenophon.

Alcibiades was of opinion, that those men liue safest, who doe gouerne their common-wealth, without altering one whit their pre­sent customes and lawes, albeit they be not al­together so good. Thucidides.

Of Perigrination. In this most commendable action, two things are to be pr [...]posed, the profit, and pleasure of tra­uaile, the la [...]er, we are too greedy of by nature; the first which belongeth to the mind, is bounded with prudence and good cariage, which if it be neglected, the other two are vnprofitable.

IAcob hauing gotten vvisedome by tra­uaile, is sayd i [...] Genesis, to haue had the [Page] sight of God, because to the actiue life he had also ioyned the contemplatiue.

Plato, after the death of his Maister Socra­tes, made a voyage into Egypt, and then in­to Italy, to heare and conferre with the best learned of those Countries, and to learne that which he knew not before.

Orpheus, to seeke the misteries of the Ae­giptians, trauailed as farre as Memphis, visi­ting all the Citties of the riuer Nilus. Argo­naut.

Pythagoras, visited the Aegiptians, Arabi­ans, and Chaldeans, and went also into Iury, and dwelt a long time at Mount Carmell. Strabo.

Saba, came frō Aethiopia, the farthest part of the world, to heare Salomons wisdom.

Cornelia, a noble woman of Rome, trauai­led to Palestina, to heare S. Ierome [...]each the Christians.

Thalestris, Queene of the Amazons, came from Scythia vnto Hircania, with three hun­dred thousand women, to lye [...]ith Alexan­der 30. dayes, to haue a child by him.

Gueuara, Chronocler to Charles the first, writeth, that from forraine Countries, men commonly bring newes to prattle of, and strange customes to practise; and that few [Page 139] come out of Italy, that are not absolute and dissolute.

Lycurgus, by his lawes, commaunded the Lacedemonians not to goe out of their own Country, nor to conuerse with strangers, say­ing, That although by theyr traffique with them they might bee enriched, yet on the other side, they would grow poore, in regard of their owne vertues.

Democritus Abderita, trauailed into many Lands and Countries, being 80. yeares old, only for the study of Philosophy, he ventu­red into Chaldea, and entered into Babilon, at last, hee came amongst the Magitians and Gymnosophists of India. Olaus.

The Scythians trauaile onely in the Coasts of their owne Country; but Anacharsis fur­nished with wisedom and knowledge, aduen­tered further a greater way, for he came into Graecia, & was highly esteemed of Solon.

Osyris, King of Aegipt, trauailed the grea­test part of the world, that hee might haue written vpon his toombe, Heere lyeth Osyris King of Aegipt, the eldest sonne of Saturne, that left no part of the world vnsearched. Diodorus.

Cheremon, a Stoicke Phylosopher, by the starre that appeared at Christes death, iud­ging the same to be ominous to the Gods he [Page] worshipped, trauailed into Iury with cer­taine Astrologers, to seeke the true God.

Fabius the Consull, in 70. yeares which he liued, departed not once from his village of Regio, to goe to Messana, which was but two miles off by water.

Apollonius, trauailed ouer the three parts of the world, to see and conferre with all the skilfull men of his age, and beeing returned with wonderfull knowledge, he distributed his riches amongst his kindsfolkes and the poore, and liued euer after in contemplati­on. Philostratus.

The same hauing trauailed Asia, Africa, & Europa, sayd, that of two things he meruai­led most in all the world; the first was, that he alwayes saw the proude man commaund the humble, the quarrailous the quiet, the ty­rant the iust, the coward the hardy, the igno­rant the skilfull, & the greatest theeues hang the innocent.

P. Seruilius, was the first Romaine that made any voyage to Taurus, from whence when he returned, he triumphed and merited the name to be called Isauricus.

Anaxagoras, trauailed from Greece into Aegipt, vnto Persia, and Chaldea, and to di­uers other Countries for knowledge sake.

[Page 140]Vlisses, in his pilgrimage was wise, learning Phisicke of Aeolus, of Circes Magicke, and Astronomy of Calipso.

Phylosophers, when they were yong, stu­died, whē they came to be men, they trauai­led, and when they were old, they returned home and writ.

The Persians, if any of their Countrey did imitate the behauiour of strangers, and so trouble common orders, he should therfore dye.

Lycurgus caried the whole body of Ho­mers Poetry into Greece, out of Ionia, in his voyage and perigrination.

Appollonius, in his trauailes found a table of fine golde, called, The table of the Sunne, wherein all the world was portraied.

Not euer to haue seene Asia is praise woor­thy, but to haue liued temperatly in Asia, is highly to be commended. Cicero.

Anacharsis was put to death, for that by his trauailes he had learned strange fashions and conditions, which he sought to ground in his owne Country. Herodotus.

The Hebrewes called theyr Aduersaries Allophilos, that is, of a strange Cuntry. Amb.

Fooles in old time trauailed to see Chorae­bus tombe.

[Page]The Lacedemonians vvere so great ene­mies to nouelties in theyr common-wealth, that they neither permitted strangers to en­ter, or theyr people to wander into straunge Countries, doubting to be intangled vvith new fashions and customes.

Certaine studious persons of the Gaules and Spaniardes, went from theyr natiue Countries, with tedious iourneyes towards Rome, personally to beholde the Oratour and Historiographer, Titus Liuius. Philo­stratus.

The Athenians put theyr Embassadours whom they sent into Arcadia to death, be­cause they went not that way which was cō ­maunded, but a contrary.

Apollonius Thyaneus, who had trauailed the greatest part of the vvorld, being asked of a Priest at Ephesus, what thing hee won­dered at in all this vvorlde, aunswered, I let thee know Priest of Diana, that I haue beene through Fraunce, England, Spayne, Germany, through the Laces and Lydians, Hebrewes, and Greekes, Parths, and Medes, Phrygians, and Corinthians, Persians, and aboue all, in the great Realme of India, for that alone is more woorth then all the Realmes together.

Alexander, at what time he had ouercome [Page 141] Darius, in a place called Arbellis, demaun­ [...]ed of his Noble-men the safest way into Ae­ [...]ipt, but none could tell; a certaine Mer­ [...]hant, who had beene a great trauailer, pro­mised in three dayes iourney, to bring him safe into Aegipt, which Alexander at the first not beleeuing, in the end found true. Luci­anus.

Of Gods & Goddesses. The Auntients deuided their fayned Deities into three powers, of heauen, earth, and water, the first were the disposers and directors of mens actions, some ruled the ayrie Regions, others raigned in hell, and punished offendours, and some were Gods of the mountaines, some of shep­heards, some of husbandry, and some of woods; the last sort were Gods of the Sea, some of floods, others of riuers, and some of springs and foun­taines.

SAturne, was the sonne of King Caelius and Vesta, brother to Titan, who at the per­swasion of his mother, and Ops and Ceres, his sisters (much mislyking that one so rude as Titan, should ascende to the succession of [Page] Caelius crowne) gaue the kingdome to Sa­turne his younger brother, vnder this coue­nant notwithstanding, that he should slay al [...] his male children, to the end the issue of Ti­tan might after Saturnes death, repossesse the kingdome.

Saturnes wife and sister Ops, brought foorth a sonne, which hee caused to be slaine, after this, shee was deliuered of a daughter and a sonne, Iupiter, and Iuno, who desirous to saue the life of his sonne, gaue him to her mother Vesta, and presented only the daugh­ter to Saturne.

After this, contrary to the knowledge of Saturne, shee brought forth an other sonne, called Neptune, and at another birth Pluto and Glauca, but she onely shewed the daugh­ter.

Titan vnderstanding that Saturne had bro­ken promise with him, with the forces of the Titanois his children, inuaded Saturne, impri­soned him and his wife Ops, which Iupiter ha­uing knowledge of, being a valiant Prince, and ayded with the Coribantes, amongst whō he was trayned, ouercame Titan, and deliue­red his Parents.

Of this warre, came the fable of the warres of the Giants.

[Page 142] Saturne forwarned by the Oracle, to take [...]eede of Iupiter his sonne, for that hee had [...]tention to kill him, and expulse him his [...]ingdome, deuised to destroy him; who vn­ [...]erstanding his cōspiracies, came with a great [...]rmy and vanquished his Father.

Saturne fled into Italy, and there taught the people to plant and sow, and manure theyr earth, in recompence whereof (hauing liued before with roots and wild fruits) they hono­red him as a God.

Iupiter maried his sister Iuno, and conquered many Countries, not so much by power as pollicy, and for his wisedome, ordayning of lawes, inuention of arts, profitable for mans life, he was worshipped as a God, to whom those Princes he ouercame, erected temples thereto inioyned by him, for the better esta­blishment of his deuine honour.

The brethren of Iupiter, Neptunus and Plu­to, summoned him to partition of his patri­mony, where-vnto he agreed, and deuiding the kingdome by lot, the vvest part fell to Pluto; the Iles and banks of the Sea happe­ned to the portion of Neptune, and to Iupi­te [...] all the confines of the East.

Of this partition sprung the fiction of the Poets, calling Neptune, the God of the Seas, [Page] and Pluto God infernall, or dis pater, for that the vvest or falling of the sunne, is more dark and cloudy, and more base and low then the East.

Heere grew also the first fiction that Iupi­ter chased his Father into hell, for that Italy where Saturne was retired, standeth vvest, in respect of Candia, and is more darke.

The Poets faigned, that the firmament or heauen, fell to the part of Iupiter, the rather for that hee remayned for the most part since that partition in the mount Olympus in Thesalia, vvhich the Greekes called hea­uen.

Iuno, the daughter of Saturne, vvas the si­ster and wife of Iupiter, borne at Argos, some write at Samos, the Goddesse of marriage, and therefore called Pronuba, likewise Lucina for child-birth, the Queene of riches and honour, to whom the Pecocke is consecra­ted.

Vulcanus, was the God of fire, and sonne of Iuno, vvhom Iupiter for his deformity cast from heauen into Lemnos, where he was ho­noured.

Mars, was faigned to be the God of warre, and Iunoes sonne without the company of man, he was also vvorshipped in Lemnos.

[Page 143] Apollo, the God of vvisedome, Musicke, Phisicke, Poetry, and Shooting, was borne of Iupiter and Latona, & brother to Diana, he [...]s called in heauen Sol, in earth Liber pater, i [...] [...]ell Apollo; he was worshipped at Delphos, and renowned for his Oracles.

Venus, vvyfe of Vulcan, is faigned to bee borne of the froth of the Sea, the Goddesse of loue, beauty, and all sensuall delights, she was adored in Cyprus.

Cupid, the sonne of Venus, was paynted na­ked, winged, blind, in his hand a bowe, and at his backe a Quiuer of arrowes, his com­panions are Dronkennesse, Sloth, Luxury, Strife, Hate, and VVarre; he was worship­ped for the God of Loue.

Mercurie, vvas the Sonne of Iupiter, and Maia, the God of eloquence and merchan­dize, and the messenger of the Gods, hol­ding a Caduceus in his hand.

Dionysius, otherwise called Bacchus, for that hee shewed the Indeans the vse of Grapes, was honoured for a God.

Ceres, first taught men hovve to plough, sovve, reape, and grinde theyr Corne, and therefore they helde her a Goddesse. Pli­nie.

Diana, for her chast lyfe, vvas honou­red [Page] for a Goddesse, she continually exerc [...]sed her selfe in hunting wild beasts, in hea [...]uen she is called Luna, in earth Diana, in he [...] Proserpina.

Aeolus, was faigned by the Poets, to be th [...] God of the winds, because the cloudes an [...] mists rising about the 7. Aeolian Ilands, [...] whom hee was King, did alwayes porten [...] great store of winds.

Pallas, was the Goddesse of wisedome, an [...] all good Arts and Sciences, borne of Iupite [...] braine without a mother.

Nemesis, the daughter of Oceanus and Nox, called also Adrastea, was the Goddesse of re­uenge.

Berecynthia, Rhea, Tellus, Vesta, or Cybile, was the mother of the Gods.

Pierides the nine Muses, daughters of Iupiter and Mnemosyne, dwelled in Helicon, and were called the Goddesse of Poetry & Mu­sicke.

Momus, was the carping God, who neuer did any thing himselfe, but curiously beheld the doings of other, to carpe thereat.

Priapus, the sonne of Bacchus, and Venus, the God of Gardens.

Pomoma, the Goddesse of fruite, Flora of flowers, and Feronia of the woods.

[Page 144] Charites, were the Graces, in number three, [...]glaia, Thalia, Euphrosyne, supposed to bee [...]he daughters of Iupiter & Venus.

Penates & Lares, were houshold Gods, but [...]ares for the harth and fire, called by the [...]ames of good and euill Angells, also the [...]reseruers of Townes and Citties.

Genius, or Daimon, the Panyms, thought to [...]e a good or euill Angell, appoynted to each man to guide and defend, or to punish them.

Fortune, is faigned to dispose and change the good and euill haps of men, the daughter of Oceanus, or as Orpheus, of the blood, as a po­wer not to be resisted; shee is painted blind, and drawne in a Coach with blind Horses, vainly honored for a Goddesse.

Pan, was the God of sheepheards, of whom Duri [...] Samius writeth, that hee was the sonne of Penelope; whose wooers being so long de­layed, they all abused her, and got vpon her, Pan.

Pales was the Goddesse of sheepheards.

Faunus, sonne to Picus, and father of Latinus, was the Father of all the rurall Gods, his Son Sterculius inuented the manuring, & cō ­passing of grounds, and therfore was deified.

Syluanus, the God of vvoods, loued Cypa­rissus, who was turned by Apollo into a tree [Page] of his owne name, in remembrance of [...] Syluanus would alwayes beare a braunch [...] Cypres.

Ianus, a King of Italy, was a wise and pro [...]dent Prince, and therfore they pictured hi [...] with two faces, he was called the God of [...]terance, whose temple gates in time of wan [...] was alwayes open, and in peace shut vp.

Terminus, was God of the bounds, or seue [...]rall marks.

Libitina, was a Goddesse, in whose templ [...] were sold all things pertaining to funerals.

Oceanus, was the great God of the Sea, So [...] to Caelum, and Vesta the Father of all the Ri­uers.

Tethis, was Goddesse of the Sea, vvife of Oceanus, and mother to all the Sea Nymphs.

Triton, was the sonne & trumpeter of Nep­tune, begotten by him of Amphitrite. Ouid.

Glaucus, a fisher, perceauing the fishes which he had taken, by tasting of an hearbe on the banke, to leape into the Sea againe, ta­sted therof him selfe, and by the vertue ther­of, was forced to leape into the Sea, whence he was called one of the Sea Gods. Idem.

Nereus, was likewise a God, and Nereides the Faieries of the Sea, borne of Oceanus and Tethis.

[Page 145] Proteus a God of the Sea, was some-times like a flame of fire, somtimes like a Bul, some times like a Serpent; he fed Neptunes fishes called Phocae.

Castor and Pollux, the twinnes of Laeda, be­gotten by Iupiter in the forme of a Swanne; vvhen they came to age, scoured the sea of Pyrats, & therefore vvere counted the gods of the sea. For the infernal goods, looke in the chapter of hell.

The Assyrians vvorshipped Belus, the E­giptians Apys, the Chaldeans Assur, the Ba­bylonians the deuouring Dragon, the Pha­raons the statue of gold, & the Palestines Bel­zebub.

The Romaines chiefely honoured Iupiter, the Affricans Mars, the Corinthians Apollo, the Arabians Astaroth, the Aeginians the Sunne, those of Achaia the Moone, the Si­donians Belphegor, and the Ammonites Ba­lim.

The people of India honored Bacchus, the Lacedemonians Ogyges, the Macedonians Mercurie, the Ephesians the Goddesse Di­ana, the Greekes, the goddesse Iuno, the Ar­menians Liber, the Troyans Vesta, the La­tines Februa, the Tarentines Ceres, the Rho­dians Ianus. Apollonius.

[Page] Vaginatus vvas worshipped that theyr ch [...] ­dren might not cry; Ruminus was the God of sucking babes; Stellinus of their first go­ing; Adeon theyr guide vvhen they vvent well.

Cunius vvas adored for the safetie of theyr chyldren in Cradles.

VVhen the Emperour Seuerus vvarred a­gainst the Gaules, his vvife Iulia was deliue­red of a daughter, vvhose sister Mesa a Per­sian, sent vnto the Empresse a Cradle for her childe, made all of Vnicornes horne & fine golde, round about vvhich vvas artificially painted the image of the God Cunius.

Mentalis was theyr God of vvit, Fessoria of trauailers and pylgrims, Pelonia had the charge to conquer their enemies, Rubigo to keepe their Vines from vvormes, and the Corne from Locusts.

Muta vvas theyr God vvhom they prayed vnto, to the end that theyr enemies might not speake euill of them.

Genoria vvas a goddesse among the Greci­ans vvhich chased away sloth; and Stimulia they fained to be a goddesse which hastened them about theyr b [...]sinesse, her Image was sette vp ouer the gate of the Senate house.

Vallonia vvas the goodesse of their vallies. [Page 146] Segetia of their seeds. Tutillina of their fields. Ruana of their Reapers.

Forculus vvas the god of Goldsmithes, Por­tulus vvas the God of their gates, Cardea of theyr doores.

Psora vvas the goddesse of dishonest vvo­men; in Rome were 40. streets of common vvomen, in the middst of which vvas theyr Temple.

Theatrica kept theyr Theaters, in vvhich might well stand aboue 20. thousand, and as many vnderneath; her Temple was in the market of Cornelia, vvhich Domitian de­stroyed, because in his presence one of the Stages broke, and killed many men. Pulio.

Cloacina was goddesse of the stoole, and of those that were troubled with the wind Col­lick. Quies of their rest, whose Temple Nu­ma Pompilius built without the Citty; no­ting therby, that man in this world, could ne­uer haue pleasure or rest.

The gods of Troy more enuied the gods of Greece, then the Princes of Greece did the princes of Troy. Vulcan & Pallas were their enemies, Apollo and Venus their friends.

The Phylosopher Bruxellis being ready to dye, told the Romaines that where in times past they had but 5. Gods, namely, Iupiter, [Page] Mars, Ianus, Berecynthia, and Vesta; he let for euery one of them a priuate God, to 28000. housholds, 28000. gods. Aurel.

The Egiptians, although they were the first that excelled in the knowledge of celestiall and naturall things, (in somuch as Egipt was called the mother of Arts,) yet they aboue all others, superstitiously worshipped Leeks and Onions. Macrobius.

The Heathen honoured thirtie thousand Gods, as Hesiodus vvriteth, & adored three hundred Iupiters, as Marcus Varro vvitnes­seth.

M. Cato vvorshipped his grounds, desi­ring them to bring forth in aboundance, and to keepe his Cattell safe.

Diagoras burning an Image of Hercules, said; Thou must now doe me seruice in this thir­teene encounter, as well as thou hast done to Eu­ristheus in the other twelue.

The Assirians vvorshipped as many Gods as they had townes, and the Grecians as ma­ny as they had fancies.

Melissus an auncient King of Creet, dyd first of all others sacrifice to the Gods.

Vr Chaldaeorum, the fire of the Chaldeans, called also Orimasda, that is, holy fire, vvas the first occasion of Idolatry; this fire, kings [Page 147] caused to be vsually carried before them vp­pon an horse.

There arose a great vvarre betvveene the Alleynes and the Armenians, the occasion thereof vvas, for that as they came to the feast of Olympus, they fell in contention vvhether of theyr Gods were the better, by reason of vvhich vvarre, their Cōmonwealth and people were brought into great misery; which the Emperour Adrianus perceiuing, sent Iulius Seuerus vtterly to ouerthrovve those that vvould not bee ruled by his sen­tence, vvhom he thus pacified, willing that the Alleynes should take for their Gods, the Armenians Gods, and the Armenians, the Gods of the Alleynes. Pulio de dissol. reg.

Of Antiquities. The knowledge of Antiquities, & first inuen­tion of things, was so much in request among the Auncients, that Plinie, Marcus Varro, & Ma­crobius, (historiographers no lesse graue then true) were in great controuersie, for proouing what things were most auncient.

THere were seauen which first gaue lawes to the vvorlde, Moses to the Hebrewes, [Page] Solon to the Athenians, Lycurgus to the Lacedemonians, Numa Pompilius to the Romans, Asclepeius to the Rhodians, Mi­nos to the Cretans, and Phoroneus to the Egyptians. Diod. Siculus.

All Counsellors and Lawyers of Rome, did call the lavves that were most iust Forum, in memory of Phoroneus.

The true and most auncient mettals, be not of golde, but yron; much time passed in the Empire of Rome wherein the Romains had no mony, but of brasse or yron; & the first coyne that was made to be melted in Rome of gold, vvas in the time of Scipio Affrica­nus.

Corynthus, the sonne of Orestes, trayned by his Father to scoure the Sea, and commit Ilands to spoyle, reedifyed the Fortresse of Sisiphus a notorious Pyrat, and called it Co­rinthus by his owne name; so that this citty was fyrst built by tyrants, gouerned by Ty­rants, and destroyed by tyrants.

Rome was builded by Romulus, Ierusalem by Salem, Alexandria of Alexander, Anti­oche of Antiochus, Constantinople (before Bizantium) of Constantinus, & Numantia in Spayne, of Numa Pompilius.

In the Cittie of Numantia was but one [Page 148] crafts man, & he a Smith, others they would not consent shoulde liue among thē, saying; That all such thinges euery man ought to haue in his owne house, and not to seeke them in the Common-wealth.

In the beginning of the world, they writ in ashes, next in barks of trees, then in leaues of Laurell, afterward in sheets of leade, & at last they came to write in paper. Strabo.

In stones they did write with iron, in leaues with pensils, in ashes with fingers, in rindes vvith kniues, in parchment vvith canes, and in paper with pennes. Idem.

The Incke that our fore-fathers dyd write withall, was first of a Fish called Zibia, after that, they made it of foote, afterwards of ver­milian, after that, of Cardinellio, in the ende, they inuented it of Gum, Galls, Coperas, & vvine. Gueuara.

They which discended of Lycurgus in La­cedemonia, of Cato in Vtica, of Agesilaus in Lycaonia, & of Tusides in Galatia, were not onely priuiledged in their prouinces, but for their ancient noblesse honored of al nations.

It vvas a law in Rome, that all those that descended of the linage of the Tarquines, E­scaurians, Catilines, Fabatians & Bithinians, had no offices in the Common-vvealth, [Page] although they discended of an ancient stock, because theyr auncestors were in theyr liues very dishonest, and in their gouerment very offensiue. Patritius.

Christ himselfe vvoulde not descend of the Tribe of Beniamin, vvhich was the least, but of the Tribe of Iuda, which vvas the greater and the better.

The Romaines had the law Prosapia, the law of linages, by which it was ordained, that when contention did arise in the Senate for the Consulship, that those which descended of the stemme of the Syluians, of the Tor­quatians, and of the Fabritians, should ob­taine chiefe place before all others, for that these three linages in Rome vvere most an­cient, and did discend of most valiant Ro­maines.

Colonies first beganne at the diuers vvay-partings of Noahs posteritie, Sem, Cham, & Iaphet.

Of Gomer, one of the sonnes of Iaphet, came the Gomorites, whom the Greekes call Galates and Gaules, of them came the people that spoyled Delphos, & were called Gallo-Greekes; of them likewise come the Germaines. Melancthon.

From Tuball, vvho was their first King, [Page 149] [...]ame the Spanyards. Berosus.

The Egyptians boast themselues to be the [...]irst men in the world, as Geographers re­ [...]ort.

Mosoch was the father of the Muscouites, [...]nd Madai of the Medes, whose Empire was very great in the higher Asia; they destroied [...]he Chaldean Monarchy. Iosephus.

Magog was father of the Scythians, but at thys time the right Scithians are the Slauo­nians, Muschouites, and Tartarians, vvho vaunt of theyr descent from Iaphet. Me­lancthon.

The Thracians are descended of Thyras, and of Iauan the Greekes, who gaue name to the Ionians. Iosephus.

These were the seauen sonnes of Iaphet the youngest sonne of Noah.

VVhen Ioseph was sold by his brethren to the Egiptians, the Merchants of Israell car­ried Myrrhe, Balme, and Spicerie, out of Gilaad to sell in Egypt, which may testifie the antiquitie of merchandize.

Poets in antiquitie goe before Philoso­phers. Cicero.

Damascus is a famous Citty in Syria, and supposed to be the first that euer vvas inha­bited.

[Page]There vvere fiue antiquities in the vvor [...] generally accepted, the first vvas the Com [...]mon-wealth, the second, Letters, the thyrd▪ Lawes, the fourth, Barbers, the fyft, Dial [...] and Clocks. Marcus Varro.

The beginning of Venice vvas pittifull▪ poore, and almost in dispaire, it vvas builded vvhen Attyla troubled Italy, the first Duke vvas Paulus Anazalus, Anno Dom. 706. two hundred and fiftie two yeeres after the foun­dation. Sleidan.

Rome was the chiefe citty of all Italie, Car­thage was the principall of Affrick, Numan­tia of Spayne, Argentine of Germanie, Ba­bilon of Chaldea, Thebes of Egypt, Athence of Greece, Tyra of Phenice, Cesaria of Cap­padocia, Bizantium now Constantinople of Thrace, and Ierusalem of Palestine. Strabo.

Thales the Phylosopher being demaunded vvhat God vvas, aunswered; Of all antiqui­ties the most auncient; for all the ancients past neuer saw him take beginning, nor any that shal come after, shall euer see him haue ending. La­ertius.

The Germaines vvere called Cymbrians, and are now thought to be Danes.

The Phrygians vvere prooued more aun­cient then the Egyptians, by the education [Page 150] [...]f 2. children of both nations euery way like [...]ourished, by the commandement of Psam­ [...]etichus, who desirous to know it, vvilled [...]hat no man comming to them should speak [...]o them, but after two yeeres, the Phrygian [...]pake Beccos, vvhich in theyr language signi­ [...]yeth breade, by which hee perceiued them to be the auncientest. Herodotus.

The name of Countie, vvas fyrst gyuen to the Gouernours of Prouinces, in the raignes of the Emperours Honorius and Arcadius. P. Diaconus.

Longinus, in the time of Iustinus, called himselfe the supreame Gouernour of Italie, and he appoynted vnto euery Citty a Ruler, vvhom hee termed Dukes, from whence it is supposed that dignitie tooke the first name. Orosius.

In the time of Heraclius beganne the doc­trine of Mahomet, & was first embraced of the Arabians. Paulus Diaconus.

VVhen Constantinus vvarred against the Sarazines, Calinicus deuised vvild fire, with vvhich (by hurling it amongst thē) he bur­ned theyr ships, and droue them from Con­stantinople.

King Pippin ordayned the fyrst parliament in Fraunce.

[Page]Sem, the eldest sonne of Noah, vvas the first that did search out the Sciences, and b [...]fore the Deluge ingraued thē in pillers, th [...] his posterity might learne them.

Pythagoras was the first that called himse [...] a Phylosopher.

Socrates was the first that brought phylo­sophy from studie to practise.

Caine was the first homicide, and Lamec [...] did second him.

Lamech first deuided one rib into two, and brought in Polygamie.

Stephen was the first Martyr in the prima­tiue Church, called Protomartyr.

The first that died in the vvorld, was Abel, the first Citty was builded by Enoch in the fieldes of Edom, and the first that sailed was Noah.

The first Duke was Moses, he was likewise the first Prophet, and Zacharias the last.

The originall of prophecie was first in A­dam, who said, This is bone of my bone.

Foure things were first made in one tyme, the Heauen emperiall, Angels nature, the matter of the foure Elements, and Time.

Tuball first found out musicke, by the stri­king of hammers.

The Prophet Esdras, first reduced the He­ [...]rewes [Page 151] traditions into writings.

The Chananites vvere the first that vvere [...]gnorant of God, theyr originall and Prince Cham was accursed of his Father. Lactan­ [...]ius.

People being dispersed, & like vnto beasts [...]andering in the field, were first by Cecrops and after by Theseus, brought to inhabite a Citty which vvas called Cecropia, and since named Athence.

The first in this world that gaue comman­dement to be proclaimed, that all the heauy [...]oaden should come vnto him and he would disburden them, and all the weary, and hee would refresh them, was Christ; thys vvas, when in the moulde of loue hee did melt the law of feare. Gueuara.

The inuenters of a Common-wealth, were the Ants, which liue, trauaile, and make pro­uision together. Plato.

Chiualrie and Learning, had their first resi­dence in Athence, and from thence vvent to Rome.

Astronomy was first found in Chaldea.

The greeting of Paule, Grace and Peace, vvas neuer heard of before the preaching of the Gospell. Ambrose.

Cletus after him did vvrite, Salutem et A­postolicam [Page] benedictionem.

Orpheus gaue names vnto the Gods, and was the fyrst blaser of their petigrees.

Pythagoras obserued that the morning starre and the euening starre be both one, & that the Zodiack roundeth the vvorld like a gyrdle.

Thales noted the North-starre, Solon that the Moone fynisheth her course in 30. daies, and Archimedes gathering the obseruations of many yeeres thereof, vvas the fyrst that inuented the Sphere.

Pherecides the Assyrian, was the fyrst that writ any history in prose. Some holde that Ca [...]mus was the fyrst.

Capaneus, at the besieging of Thebes, in­uented the scaling with Ladders, & was kil­led with a stone from the vvall.

The Phenicians vvere the fyrst that found out the vse of Letters. Lucanus.

Nemrod fyrst required of men homage & seruice, & Darius was the fyrst that appoin­ted tribute.

Chrysippus corrupted the graue sect of Phylosophers with crabbed questions.

Zoroastres King of Bactria, was the inuen­ter of the Art of Negromancie.

Lucilius vvas the fyrst that wrote Satyres, [Page 152] and Sappho the fyrst Poeme of loue. Pau­ [...]anias.

The Athenians deuised the imposition of synes, penalties and forfeytures. Aelianus.

Ericthonius was the fyrst that ioyned hor­ses together for seruice in drawing; but in Italy Oxen were fyrst prepared to the vse of husbandry; vvherupon the Grecians called Countrimen the Oxen of Italy.

Triptolemus vvas the fyrst that inuented the plough.

Clisthenes fyrst deuised banishment, and happened himselfe to pertake the smart of his inuented punishment. The like is written of Perillus, for inuenting Phalaris Bull.

Caesar, whē we was Dictator, fyrst brought the Bull to be baited.

The diall of the sunne was found by Anax­imenes, and the experience thereof shewed in Lacedemonia, and brought to Rome by Papyrius; the Diall of VVater by Scipio Nascica, & the houres by Thales Milesius.

The Athenians inuented wrastling, and ac­tiue exercises.

Themistocles made a law, that one ordina­ry day through the yeere, there should be Cock-fyghting in Theaters.

VVhen the Tarentines were besieged by [Page] the Romaines, & vvel nie famished, the R [...] ­gineans fasting euery tenth day victualed the Tarentines; wherfore, when the force of the Romains failed and the Tarentines re [...]oue­red strength, they inuented a festiuall day in remembrance of theyr former miseries, & called it leiunicus.

The Aeginests first coyned money, vvher­vpon it was called answerable to their name, The Aeginean coyne. Aelianus.

Laius vvas the first that euer burned in the filthy lust of boyes, and by reason therefore of this monstrous perturbation, hee stole a­way Chrysippus the sonne of Pelops. Some vvrite that Orpheus was the first that fell in­to this sinne.

Farron was the first Law-maker of all the vvest parts of Europe, who had a sonne cal­led Druis, from whom came the Druides, and VVisemen of Fraunce.

Pastorall Poems had their head from those Sheepheards which lamented the losse of Daphnes eye-sight; Stesichorus vvas the first indighter of these Poesies and Ditties.

Hortensius the Oratour, was the first that euer appointed the Peacocke in course of seruice at feasts.

From the Arcadians came the best & first [Page 153] Maisters of defence and VVrastlers. Lelius Strabo.

The Thessalians were the first fighters vp­pon horseback, & the Affricans by Sea.

The Corinthians inuented Gallies & great ships. Thucidides.

All torments of warre, which wee call En­gines, were first inuented by Kings or Gene­ralls in warre, or if by other, they were by them made much better. Vitrunius.

Charles the great, created the first Mar­quesse, who was called Leopold of Austria, sirnamed the VVorthy, when he had driuen the Hungarians out of Germany, to them he assigned the frontiers of Countries, to de­fend against incursions and inuasions of the enemies.

The disport of hawking, was found out in Thracia, where men and hawkes as it were by a confederacy, tooke birds together, in this wise, the men sprang the birds out of the bushes, and the hawkes soaring ouer them, beate them downe, so that the men might ea­sily take them, then did they equally deuide the pray to the hawks, who being wel serued, of custom repaired to such places, where be­ing aloft, they perceaued men to be assem­bled to that purpose. Plinius.

[Page]Centauri, were the first that tamed horses riding, and men seeing them, supposed it t [...] be one body, and therfore an hundred horse­mē of Thessalia, were called Centauri of Cen­tum and aura, as it were an hundred wind VVaggers.

Thales Milesius, who flourished in Athence in the time of Achab King of Iuda, was the first that defined the soule, affirming it to be a nature alwayes mouing it selfe.

The very account of the yeare was vncer­taine and confused in Europe, vntill the time of Iulius Caesar. Censorius.

Pythagoras, Eudoxus, and Euclides, were the Authors of the most notablest grounds of Arithmetique and Geometry.

Ninus, was the first King, of whom any Hi­storiographers haue written. Plinius.

The first that vsed to haue backe-byters, spies, and tale-bearers, was Darius the youn­ger; next him Dionysius the tyrant, who in­termedled them among the Burgezes, that by that he might know what they said of him

The first ship that was euer set a floate, was vpon the red Sea. Plinie.

The Tyrians were the first that excelled in Nauigation. Strab.

Before the Persian warres, there was no [Page 154] common baker in Rome. Plinius.

The first cherries that came into Rome, were brought by Lucullus.

VVhen the Gaules came into Italy, there were no wines at all in Gallia.

The Greeke histories began at the Empire of the Persians. Apuleius.

The paper of Aegipt, was inuented in Alex­anders time.

Iustine, Origen, & Clement, were the first wryters amongst the Christians.

The Antiochians, were first called Christi­ans, by the preaching, of those that dispersed them selues at the stoning of Stephen. Gra­cianus.

Promethuis, first taught Grammer a­mongst the Grecians. Cornelius Ag.

Crates Mallot [...]s, brought it to Rome, which Palemon studied, and called it an Ar [...].

The first inuentour of the partition of ages, was Sybilla Cumana.

Pyrrhus, King of the Epyrotes, was the first that inuented Currers and Posts, he be­ing at Tarentum, in one day vnderstoode from Rome, in two out of Fraunce, in three out of Germany, and in foure out of Asia.

Dido, builded Carthage threescore and twelue yeres before the building of the Citty [Page] of Rome, then Aeneas neuer saw Dido, for Aeneas was before, & died 3. hundred yeere ere Carthage was built.

Numa, was the first that caused the peny to be coyned for his people, and called it Num­mus.

Lazarus, whom Christ raysed from death, was the first Bishop of Cyprus, he dyed his second death at the age of 78.

The Portingalls, were the first finders of the new world.

The first Emperour that tooke in hand to persecute the Christians, was Nero, picking a quarrell against them, for setting Rome on fire, when he was guilty of it himselfe.

Romulus, was the first King of Rome, Iuli­us Caesar the first Emperour.

C. Agrippa, desirous to know the originall of a Monks hood, sought many bookes, and neyther in the old testament, nor amongst the Prophets and Patriarches, was it to bee found, then he looked into the new Testa­ment, amongst the Saints and Apostles, but there was no mention of any such thing, by chance cōming into a Paynters shop, he saw the temptation of Christ by the deuill liuely paynted, and a hood vpon his head, then was he glad that hee had found that in pictures, [Page 155] which hee could not in bookes, that the de­uill was the first inuentour of the Moonkes [...]oods. Cor. Agrippa.

Poets, first professed naturall Philosophy, of the which Prometheus, Linus, Orpheus, and Homer, were the inuentors.

The Lacedemonians, found the helmet, speare, and sword; the Scithians, the vse of bowes and arrowes.

Simonides, inuented the Art of memory, which was perfected by Metrodorus Scep­ticus. Cor. Agrippa.

Aristeus, King of Arcadia, first found the vse of h [...]ney.

Victories and tryumphs, were first orday­ned by Dionysius.

Gorgias Leontinus, was the first among the Greekes for his eloquence, that had his picture set vp at Delphos, in the temple of Apollo.

Vlisses, was the first, after that Troy was o­uercom, that vsed to kil birds, which pastime he deuised, that it might cause those gallants, whose fathers at the siege of Troy were slain, to forget theyr deaths, with this new found pleasure. Cor. Agrippa.

The Cyclopians, were the first workers of Iron works.

[Page]The Athenians taught first to plant trees and Vineyards.

The Phrigians, first made Chariots and VVaggons.

The first that inuented to cut off theeues eares, and strangle them vpon Gibbets, were the Gothes, who notwithstanding in other respects were barbarous; yet vsed they se­uere iustice to malefactors. Gueuara.

Varro, a great searcher of antiquities, wry­teth, that all the Handicrafts were inuented within the space of a thousand yeares, recko­ned back from his time.

Tiberius, brought this custome of speaking to the Prince by writing, and of his aunswere by the same, to the end that nothing should escape his mouth, that was not well conside­red of before.

Dionysius, was the first in Sicily, that vsed to eate twice a day, of whom Plato sayd, That he was a monster of nature.

The Lydians first inuented the Art of dy­cing, and playing diuers kinds of games vpon the tables.

Dircaeus, made Captain ouer the people of Sparta, inuented the trumpet, and taught all the Lacedemonians to sound the same, which was such a terrour vnto their enemies [Page 156] the Messenians, that at the first sound therof they fled, and the Lacedemonians got the victory.

Pyrrhus, first taught his Souldiers to dance in armour, called Pyrrhyca Saltatio. Plinius.

Iones, so called of Iaon the sonne of Iape­ [...]us, are the first Greekes.

Seruius Tullius, the King of Rome, first inuented mustering of men, which before his time, was not knowne through the vvhole world. Eutropius.

S. Lewes, the 9. of that name, was the first King that raysed a taske in Fraunce. Guy­chardine.

Prometheus, first inuented statues and I­mages, some say Pigmalion, vvhose Image was metamorphized into a woman. Ouid.

Thales, was the first Philosopher. Lactan­tius.

Pope Sergius, the second, was the first that changed his name, who before was called Swines mouth.

Otho, the first, made the first oath to the Bishop of Rome.

In the time of Henry the black, Emperour of Germany, when Clement the second was Pope, the dignity of Cardinals first beg [...]n. Anno Domini one thousand & fifty.

[Page]Pope Hildebrand, did first forbid the Ger­maine Priests to marry.

In the yeare of Christ, one thousand, one hundred, and forty, when the studies of the Law flourished euery where, and the best learned embraced thē (as it happeneth most commonly in a new thing) the Monks per­ceauing that holy Scripture began to be de­spised for studying therein, they also began a study of Theology, and ordayned Schoole disputations in deuine matters, as the Law­yers did in ciuill, and this was the originall of Diuinity Schooles.

Frederick the second, Emperor of Germa­ny, was the first, that wanting siluer, caused to make coyne of leather, that hee might haue where-with to pay his men of vvarre, but when he had gotten siluer, he payd them lawfull mony, and that liberally.

Of Prophecies, Visions, &c. Sundry Philosophers by speculatiue Astrology, haue foretold many things, that should fall out, following the rules and signes which haue beene accustomed to proceed, and when experience an­swereth to the cause; otherwise they are not able to foretell ought without lying, & ayding them [Page 157] selues with Art, long experience, & reuelation of the deuill, to whom they haue wholy abandoned themselues.

ROmulus, set his Image in the Pallace at Rome, & sayd, it should not fall, vntill a mayde bare a child. Chrysost.

The same day that Iulius Caesar died, in the Ile of the land of Capua, was found by Quer­rions of the Country, a rich tomb of stone, in it a litle tablet of gold, with these words in­grauen, VVhen euer it shall fall this tombe to bee opened, the same day the conquerour of the world shall be murdered in the Capitoll. Vincen.

An hundred dayes before Caesar was slaine, the first letter of his name by figure an hun­dred, was by fire from heauen strooken a­way, his statue standing in the market place, and vpon the top written Caesar. Vincentius.

Sybilla prophecied, that the Pope should be ouercome with linnen rags.

The hundred Senators of Rome one night dreamed all one dreame.

Virgill made a head to speake, of which he demaunded what he should doe in a certaine purpose, the head aunswered, If hee kept well his head, hee should come againe all whole, but that day the sunne shined hotly, and smote him [Page] on the head, and chased his brayne, whereof be [...] dyed.

There appeared three Sunnes in the firma­ment, toward the East part of the world, the which by little and little were brought into one body; a great signe it was that Asia, Af­frica, Europe, should be brought to one mo­narchy.

Tanaquill, the wife of Tarquinius Priscus, when she saw the flames playing about Ser­uius Tullius head, she affirmed thereby that he should be King in Rome; this diuination is called Pyromancie. Liuius.

The raine of stones in Picen, at the second warres of Carthage, did foreshew the slaugh­ter and murder that Hanniball should doe in Italy. Idem.

Abraham, a Iew, prophecied, that in the yeare of our Lord 1464. the Iewish religion should get the vpper hand, the which was neuer more oppressed then at that time.

The Iewes were so adicted to obserue these augurations, that they would not goe vnto warre at any time, without some coniectures had by birds or beasts. Iosephus.

Simonides, in pitty buried a dead corps, which no man would doe (as he was to passe ouer the Seas) the night before hee should [Page 158] [...]ile, in the morning the same man which Si­monides had buried, appeared vnto him, warning him that day not to goe to Sea, be­ing ready to goe, he remembred his dreame, and told his fellowes thereof, but they regar­ded him not, & left him behind them, where in sight of Simonides, they and theyr shippe was lost. Patritius.

Mydas, King of Phrygia, being troubled and vexed with certaine dreames, grew to be desperate, and dyed voluntarily, by drinking the blood of a Bull.

Aristodemus, King of the Messenians, hea­ring dogs howle like vvolues, & vnderstan­ding by his South-sayers, that it was an euill signe, slew himselfe.

The picture of Fortune, at Tusculane, ap­peared vnto Galba, lamenting that hee had offered and consecrated the money which she had giuen him a little before, to Venus, & therfore with bitter words shee threatned to take it from him againe, for shortly after he was murdered by the Souldiours of Otho.

There appeared to Hercules two maydens, diuersly apparailed of diuers nature, the one plaine and simple, the other gorgiously dec­ked; Vertue, and Pleasure. Cicero.

Triton, appeared vnto Caesar, standing in a [Page] maze at the Riuer Rubrico, in Italy, who ta­king a trumpet from one of his Souldiours, leapt into the Riuer, whom Caesar and all his army followed. Suetonius.

Tacitus, when it was told him that his Fa­thers graue opened of it selfe, knew well that he should shortly die, and made himselfe rea­dy for it. Vopiscus.

There appeared to one Pertinax, three days before hee was slaine by a thrust, a certaine shadow in one of his fish-ponds, with a na­ked sword, threatning to kil him. Capitolinus.

An Horse-man appeared to Machabeus, shaking his speare, to signifie the famous vic­tory he should obtaine.

Alexander dreamed, that Hercules reached his hand to him out of a wall, promising him to helpe him in his warres.

Caesar dreamed, that hee lay with his mo­ther, which the South-sayers interpreting, the earth to be his mother, sayde, That hee should be conquerour of the world.

Mydas, being an Infant in his cradle, Ants were seene to carry graines and victualls to feede him, vvhich the South-sayers signifi­ed, that hee should be the wealthiest man in the world,

Socrates dreamed, that hee held fast in his [Page 159] hand a young Swan, which fled from him a­way, and mounted the skyes, whose sweete voyce as a wonderfull harmony, replenished the heauens; this was Plato his Scholler.

Brutus, fighting against Augustus, & An­tonius, saw two Eagles fighting together, the one comming from Caesars tent, the other from his own, whē his Eagle was vanquished, he knew he should be ouercome. Plut.

Cicero, vnderstoode that his death was at hand, when a Rauen helde him fast by the hemme of the gowne, making a noyse, vntill the Souldiers of M. Antonius, Herennius, & Popilius, had beheaded him. Plut.

Iulian, dreamed according to the opinion of Pythagoras & Plato, that by the transmi­gration of soules frō one body into another, the soule of Alexander was crept into his bo­dy, or that he was Alexander himselfe in an other body. Eusebius.

The Princes of Greece were certified by a Dragon, that climed a tree, where he killed a she Sparrow, & eight young ones, that they should hold wars with the Troians 9. yeares, and in the 10. should ouercome it. Homer.

Alexander, by a vision was warned to take heede of Antipater, who poysoned him.

VVhē Caesar was murdered, an Oxe yoked [Page] for the plough spake, That not onelie Co [...] shoulde want, but men also should perris [...] and therefore was vrged in vayne to labour▪ Liuius.

VVhen Nero began his Empire, trees, pa­stures, and meddowes, changed places one with another. Tacitus.

Before the destruction of Ierusalem by Ve [...]spasian, a starre appeared in maner of a sword in the skie, Chariots were seene running vp and down in the firmament, and men in har­nes fighting in the clouds. Iosephus.

A South-sayer forwarned Anthony of Au­gustus familiarity, saying, VVhat doe you so neere this young man? seperate your selfe from him, your fame is greater then his, you com­maund more then he, you haue greater experi­ence, but your familier spirit feareth his, and your fortune which of it selfe is great, flattereth his, and if you sequester not your selfe from him, she will leaue you, and goe to him.

South-saying was first practised in Hetru­ria, where a husbandman ploughing in the field Tarqumen, a certaine man sprung vp from the ground named Tages, in face much like a young child, but in wisedome far sur­mounting any Phylosopher, he taught all the Land of Hetruria. Cic. de diuin.

[Page 160]Thermute, the daughter of Pharao, who brought vp Moses, one day gaue him into her Fathers armes to play with all, & for the loue hee beare to her, hee put his Diadem vpon Moses, which he presently tooke off, casting [...]t vpon the ground, the Astrologers that cast his natiuity, sayde, O King, this is the childe whom God hath giuen vs to kill, for vndoubtedly [...]e will be the ouerthrow of our kingdome. Io­sephus.

Anaxagoras sayd, that a great stone should fall from the sunne the second yeare after the 67. Olympiade, in Egos, a Riuer in Thracia, which came so to passe. Plinius.

Romulus, after the sight of twelue Rauens, as Liuie sayth, or rather because the light­ning had pierced his body, from the left to the right side (as Dionysius writeth) was by diuination chosen King, which was the re­spect, that by law it was prouided, that no man should take vpon him to be made King without diuination.

Homer, maketh two gates of dreames, one of horne, which pertaineth to true dreames, and the other of Iuory, to false; the greatest part passe through the gates of Iuory, & not through that of horne.

M. Cicero, dreamed that he saw one in his [Page] dreame, whom waking hee had neuer seene, and as soone as he met him, he knew him.

Anaxarchus, in sharpe and colde weather foreknowing that Alexander would pitch hi [...] pauilion, and incampe in a place where wa [...] no wood, layde vp all his vtensills and imple­ments in store for a deere yeare; he caused drudges and slaues to carry vvood by the loade for his owne prouision; when Alex­ander came to that place, they found such want of wood, that they were compelled to burne their tables; in this lacke, one told the King that Anaxarchus had sufficient, to whō Alexander came and refreshed himselfe with him, rewarding him aboundantly.

Thales Milesius, a Phylosopher, being vp­brayded that his wisedome could not make him rich, foresaw by study that there would be great scarcity of oyle, which in the time of plenty he bought vp, & whē the want came, by his store, he became exceeding rich. La­ertius.

VVhen C. Marius, was a child, seauen yong Eagles fell into his lap, which the Augurs did shew, that hee should seauen times haue the greatest honour in Rome, and he was seauen times Consull. Appian.

Sylla, after hee had resigned his Dictator­ship, [Page 161] beeing reuiled of one, and patiently en­ [...]uring it, sayde either by naturall reason or a [...]iuination of thinges to come; This young [...]an will bee the let, that another man hauing [...]uch authority, will not so soone giue it ouer; [...]vhich thing happened in Caesar. Appian.

An auncient Soothsayer of Tuscane (when [...]greement vvas made betweene the Trium­ [...]irats) prophecied that the old kings should [...]eturne, and euery man be in bondage but himselfe alone; and presently hee shutte his mouth, and stopped his owne breath till hee dyed. Appian.

Seleucus, going to Babilon, stumbled on a stone, and the stone beeing remoued an An­ker was seene: and vvheras the Soothsayers that vvere with him, said it was a signe of de­lay, Ptolomeus Lagus that went vvith him, said, an Anker was a token of safety, and not of delay; vvhereupon, Seleucus euer after vsed an Anker in his signet.

Alexander returned from India to Babi­lon, & sayling in the [...]ends, a suddaine vvind did blow of his diadem into a place of reeds, in which stoode the sepulchre of an ancient King; which was held to be a token of his death.

Of Maiestie. The fountaine of all excellent manners [...] Maiestie, being the whole proportion and figu [...] of noble estate, and properly a beauty or comli­nesse in the countenaunce, language & gesture [...] which doth cast vpon the beholders & bearers a fearefull reuerence.

THere was in the Emperour Augustus [...] natiue maiestie, for from his eyes issued raies or beames which pierced the eyes o [...] the beholders. Sueto.

The Frenchman that came to kill Marius when he saw his countenance, ran from him▪ crying, that he had no power to kil him. App▪

VVhen Vlisses ship and men had suffere [...] shipwrack, and he hardly escaped, being ca [...] all naked vppon the coast of the Pheacaes the Kings daughter sent him a mantle, vvho comming to the King, presented such a won [...]derful maiestie in his lookes and speech, tha [...] Alcinous vvished Vlisses woulde take his daughter Nausicaa to wife. Homer.

The people wondering at his maiesty, ho­noured him with sundry presents, & at they [...] owne charges conueied him to Ithaca.

[Page 162]Scipio beeing in his manour place called Linternum, diuers notorious theeues & Py­ [...]ats came onely to see his person, of vvhose [...]ame they had heard so large reports; but he not knowing this theyr intent, armed hym­selfe to make defence, vvhich the Captaine perceiuing, dispatched his followers, & lay­ [...]ng downe his vveapons, said, That they came not as enemies, but wondering at his vertue and valour; vvhervpon Scipio entertained thē.

Calphurnius Crassus, conspiring vvith o­thers the death of Nerua, he knowing there­of, placed them next to him at a publique show, and not fearing danger (being streng­thened with a great mind) gaue them swords ready drawne, and asked them whether they vvere sharpe enough, who taking the swords in their hands, had no power to hurt him.

At the beginning, whē the multitude of people were oppressed by them that abounded in posses­sions & riches, they espying some one which ex­celled in vertue and fortitude, repaired to him▪ who ministing equity, when hee had defended the poore frō iniurie, retained together the grea­ter persons with the inferiour, in an equall and indifferent order, wherfore they called that man a king, which is to say a Ruler.

[Page]Belus the sonne of Nemrod, vvas the fir [...] King in the vvorld.

The auncient Egiptians called theyr king [...] Epiphanes, and had this custome, that they should enter the Temple barefooted; and because one of them came to the Church o­therwise, he vvas deposed, and that name o [...] dignitie ceased.

They likewise called theyr Kinges Phara­ones; the Bithinians Ptolomaei; the Latines Murani; the Parthians Arsacides; the Al­banes Syluij; the Sicilians Tyrants; the Ar­giues Kings.

Nabuchad-nezzar intiteled himselfe King of Kings, Alexander king of the world, De­metrius conquerer of Citties, Mithridates restorer of the vvorld, Attyla the vvhyp of Nations, Tamberlaine the scourge of God, Dyonisius the hoast of men, Cyrus the last of the Gods. Henry the eyght, king of Eng­land, defender of the fayth, Charles King of Fraunce the most christian king, & Alphon­so King of Spayne, the Catholicke king.

Thys Alphonso, dyd first begin to make Bishops houses ioyning to the Cathedral Churches, to the end, that neyther colde in VVinter, nor heate in Sommer, might hin­der their residencie.

[Page 163]In the Country of the Sydonians, there vvas Dynastia, which vvas called a linage of Kings that endured two hundred & twentie fiue yeeres, because all those Kings were of a good and vertuous conuersation.

The authority of Kings hath euer been ac­counted a thing diuine; for Homer and Iso­crates write, that hee who gouerneth alone, representeth a diuine maiestie.

In Egypt, of Phylosophers they did chuse theyr Priests, and of Priests their Kings, with whom it was a law inuiolable, that the King which had beene vvicked in his life, shoulde not be buried after his death.

In the Ile Tabrobana, kinges are chosen by election, and not by blood. Solinus.

Syllas dictatorship, vvas called a negatiue ordained kingdom. Appian.

The olde Romaine Kinges did vveare no crownes, but held scepters in their hands, of the vvhich Tarquinius was the last, for that his sonne rauished Lucrecia the vvife of Col­latinus. Iustinus.

Plato following the fiction of Homer, dyd write that kings children vvere composed of a precious masse, & to be seperated from the common sort.

Homer named kings Diogenes, that is, the [Page] generation of Iupiter, and Diotrophes, nouri­shed by Iupiter, and Aristes, which Plato in­terpreteth to be the familiars of Iupiter, and his disciples in politicke sciences.

The Kings of Persia in their priuie Cham­bers dispatched their greater matters them­selues, and left those of lesse consequence to their Princes.

It vvas a custome amongst the auncien [...] kings, to put questions one to another to try the abilitie of theyr wits, and certaine praise [...] & rewards were appointed to them that ex­celled. Plutarch.

Salomon sent riddles & problemes to king Hiram, vvhom it cost very much because he could not assoile them, vntill at length, hee founde a young man of Tyrus, called Aba [...] ­mon, vvho deciphered vnto him the mos [...] part of them. Dion.

The Kings of Persia shewed themselues more subiect to lawes then thir lords. Zona [...]

The Kings of Lacedemonia did monthly sweare to guide themselues according to the Lavves; and the Ephori tooke an oath in the behalfe of the people to see it executed.

Antiochus told his sonne Demetrius, that their kingdome vvas a noble slauery.

There vvas foure Kings & Princes, which [Page 164] [...]ad but one eye a peece, Philip, Alexanders [...]ather, Antigonus king of Macedonia, Ha­ [...]iball of Carthage, and Sertorius a Romain. The first lost his eye at Methon, the second, [...]t Perinthia, the third, vpon the Alpes, the [...]ourth in Pontus. Plutarch.

Alphonsus vvas the first king of Lusitania, the sonne of Henry Loraine, and Tiretia, the [...]ase daughter of Alphonsus king of Castile, [...]n one battaile he ouercame 5. princes of the Sarazines, and therefore in his shielde bare 5. seuerall coates of honour. Cor. Agrippa.

Pharamond, sirnamed VVarmond, vvas the first King of Fraunce; vvho came out of Germanie, hee bare in his shielde three blacke Toades.

Of Monarchies. A Monarchie, most significatly representeth the diuine regiment, wherin absolute soueraign­tie consisteth in one onely Prince, who commaun­deth all, and is not to be commaunded of any.

THE latter Romaines had a Duarchie, vvhich is comprehended vnder the go­uernment Oligarchie; their Empire was de­uided into two partes, the one Emperour [Page] of the East, the other of the VVest. Eutrop.

Aristocratie, is the rule or power of the best and most vertuous men, approued for good lyfe and vvisedome, directing their thoughts to no other end then a generall profit.

Oligarchie, is whē a fevv noble or rich men gouerne the Common-wealth, reiecting the poore and baser sort.

Timocratie, is the power of meane or indif­ferent vvealth, gouerning by some lawes ta­ken from Oligarchie and Democratie, vvhich are two extreames.

Democratie, is where free men, beeing the greater number, are Lords of the estate.

There was also a mixt or compounded e­state of all these.

Vnder the Monarchiall gouernment, liued the Scithians, Ethiopians, Iulians, Assirians, Medes, Egiptians, Bactrians, Armenians, Macedonians, Iewes, & Romaines; at thys day, Englishmen, Frenchmen, Spanyards, Polonians, Danes, Muschouits, Turks, Tar­tars, Abissines, Moores, Agiamesques, Za­gathians, Cathaians.

Vnder Aristocratie were the Lacedemoni­ans, which estate was an excellent patterne of gouernment, this established Lycurgus fiue hundred yeeres.

[Page 165]Vnder Oligarchie were the ancient gouern­ments in Sicilia, amongst which, that of the Leontines was translated into the tiranny of Pannecus, that of Geta into the tiranny of Leander, & that of Rheginū into the tiranny of Anaxilas, & so of others. Aristotle.

Vnder Aristocratie is the gouernment of Venice. Vnder Democratie, Athence. Plato.

Ptolomey King of Egipt, as he feasted one day seauen Embassadors of the best & most flourishing Common-wealths in his time, he desired them that they woulde instruct him in the best poynts necessary for the preserua­tion of an estate. VVho thus began.

The Romaine Embassador.

VVe haue the Temples in great respect and reue­rence, we are very obedient to our Gouernours, and we punish wicked men and euill liuers se­uerely.

The Carthagenian.

In the Common-wealth of Carthage, the nobles neuer cease fighting, nor the cōmon people & ar­tificers labouring, nor the Philosophers teach­ing.

The Sicilian.

In our Common-wealth, iustice is exactly kept, merchandize exercised with truth, and all men account themselues equall.

The Rhodian.

At Rhodes, olde men are honest, young men shamefast, and women solitary, and of fewe wordes.

The Athenian.

Our rich men are not suffered to be deuided into factions, nor poore men to be idle, nor the Gouer­nours to be ignorant.

The Lacedemonian.

In Sparta, enuie raigneth not, for all are equall, nor couetousnes, for all goods are common, nor sloth, for all labour.

The Sicyonian.

Voyages are not permitted, that they shoulde bring home new fashions at their returne, Phisi­tions are not suffered, least they shoulde kill the sound, nor Orators to take vppon them the de­fence of causes and sutes. Buda.

The Lacedemonians are highly praised for hauing continued seauen hundred yeeres without any alteration of their gouernment. Grimaldus.

The Venetians haue cōstantly liued in one forme of gouernmēt by the space of a thou­sand yeeres, and more. Idem.

The first Monarch was Ninus, King of the Assyrians, who vvas depriued of his king­dome by his vvife Semiramis, when she had [Page 166] obtained of him the gouernmēt for 7. daies, who impatient at her dealing, dashed out his his owne braines; after hee had gotten the Monarchie, his poesie was Rapitur.

Semyramis the mother of young Ninus, seeing him vnfit to rule, gouerned the Em­pire 42. yeres, but burning in vnnatural lust toward her sonne, she was therfore slaine by him.

Sardanapalus the last Assyrian Monarch, was deposed by Arbactus, who translated the monarchy to the Medes.

The second Monarch was Cyrus; vvhom Thomiris Qu. of Scythia ouercame; hys motto vvas Stabilitur.

Alexander the great, ouercame Darius, Monarch of Persia, and brought the go­uernment to the Grecians; his vvord vvas Tandem. It is supposed that hee vvas poyso­ned at Babilon.

Augustus Caesar vvas the fourth Monarch, (in vvhose time our Sauiour Christ vvas borne) his vvord was Finitur.

The Assyrian Monarchie continued one thousand three hundred sixe yeeres, the Medes and the Persians fiue hundred & 40. the Grecians 154. and the Romaines aboue eyght hundred.

[Page]The Romaine Monarchie beganne fort [...] and seauen yeeres before Christ was borne.

The Romains first brought this name Em­perour into the vvorld, which they inuen­ted, not for theyr Princes, but for their Cap­taines and Generalls in vvarre; & after that Caesar had ouercome Pompey, the Romains requested him that he would take vnto him the title Emperour; and hee was the first in all the world.

All I. Caesars successors in memory of him, are called Augusti, Caesares, & Imperatores.

Iulius Caesar the first Romane Emperour, was murdered in the Capitoll.

Octauius Augustus his nephew, succeeded him, who for his worthy demeanor, was ca­nonized for a God, he raigned 56. yeres. In his time Christ was borne.

Claudius Tiberius, sonne to Liuia Augu­stus his vvife by her first husbande, vvas a coward, cruell, couetous, and lecherous, hee deceased in Campania the 23. yeere of his raigne, to the great ioy of the Romains.

Caligula, sonne to Germanicus, for his cru­elty and beastly life, was slaine in his Pallace, whē he had raigned 3. yeres & 10. months.

Claudius, Son to Drusus, was a good Em­perour, yet poisoned by Nero, and after his [Page 167] [...]eath canonized, he raigned 13. yeeres and [...]ine monthes.

Nero, sonne in law to Claudius, who adop­ [...]ed him to bee his successour, was a most wicked Emperour, and a great persecuter of Christians, he killed himselfe when hee had raigned fourteene yeeres,

Galba was somewhat seuere and couetous, he raigned but seauen months, & vvas slaine through treason, by Otho; his throate vvas cut in the market place at Rome.

Otho inuaded the Empire, and at the same time he slewe Galba, Vitellius vvas chosen Emp. by the Germaines who ouercam him in battell, he killed himselfe, raigning 95. daies.

Vitellius was an excessiue glutton, & cruel, he striued in his doings and course of lyfe to be like Nero, he was slaine by the Captaines of Vespasian, and throwne into Tiber, when he had raigned eyght months, & one day.

Vespasian was a Prince endued vvith most excellent vertues, and very gentle, hee dyed of a [...]lixe when he had raigned 9. yeeres.

Titus his sonne succeeded him, who for his clemency was called the loue of mankind, he was a stout warriour, eloquent, learned, & li­berall, hee builded the Theater in Rome for plaies, he died whē he had raigned, 2. yeres, [Page] 8. months, 20. daies, & was canonized.

Domitian vvas the second Emperour that persecuted the Christians, a proude & cruell Prince, he was slaine by his owne seruaunts, the fifteene yeere of his raigne.

Nerua vvas a man in his priuate life sober, yet stout and valourous, he demeaned hym­selfe vprightly, and deceased vvhen hee had raigned one yeere, 4. months, 8. dayes.

Traianus a Spanyard, was the third Empe­rour that persecuted the Christians, he vvas an affable & sober Prince, & pittiful, he died of the flixe in the 19. yeere and 6. month of his raigne.

Adrianus gaue himselfe vvholy to peace, which much aduantaged the Common-vvealth, hee was expert in the knowledge of Astronomy; he persecuted the Christians a vvhile, and raigned 20. yeers 10. months.

Antonius Fuluius was a good Prince, libe­rall, curteous, iust, he was for his gentlenesse sirnamed Pius, and died of a Feauer, when he had raigned 23. yeeres.

Marcus Aurelius vvas very learned, he go­uerned the Empire ioyntly with his brother Antoninus, at what time Rome began to be ruled by two Emperours at once, M. Aure­lius died of the Apoplexie, raigning eleuen [Page 168] yeeres, then Antoninus gouerned alone, be­ing a sober and graue Prince & learned, he sold all his substance rather then hee vvould charge his subiects vvith exactions, & dyed when he had raigned 18. yeres.

Antonius Comodus defamed himselfe by his wicked life, and died suddainly, raigning twelue yeeres, 8. months.

Pertinax was very olde when hee was cho­sen, and hauing raigned but 80. daies, he was slaine in an vproare which sell among the gard, by the meanes of Iulian.

Didicus Iulianus bought the Empire vvith mony, hee was a noble man, expert in the lawes, he was ouercom by Seuerus, & slaine in his pallace, raigning 7. months.

Seuerus the only Emperour created forth of Affrique, he was very couetous, & by na­ture cruell, hee subdued Brittaine, deceased at Yorke, raigning 18. yeres.

Antoninus killed his brother Geta in hys mothers presence, hee founded the Baths at Rome, & was much giuen to lust, he espou­sed his mother in law, Iuba, and was slaine of Macrinus when he had raigned 6. yeeres.

Opilius Macrinus & Diadumenus hys son succeeded, & were both slaine in a sedition, raigning but one yeere, 2. months.

[Page]Heliogabalus vvas a most dissolute & wic­ked Emperour, the base sonne of Antoninus, he vvith his mother Semiamira, were drawn vvith all spight through the Citty of Rome, their bodies were torne in peeces, & cast in­to Tiber; he raigned sixe yeeres.

Alexander Seuerus, beeing but 17. yeeres old, was chosen Emperour, hee was a very vertuous Prince, and the first Emperor that fauoured the Christians; hee vvas slaine in Fraunce, in a tumult that arose among the souldiours by the meanes of Maximinus, in the thirteene yeere of his raigne.

Maximinus vvas first a Sheephearde in Thracia, and afterward became a souldiour, hee vvas the first that aspired to the Empyre by meanes of souldiours only; he was slaine by Pupienus at Aquileia, when he had raig­ned three yeeres.

Three at once bare the name of Augustus, Pupienus, Balbinus, and Gordianus; the the first two, so soone as they came to Rome, were slaine in the pallace, & Gordianus raig­ned alone; he was come of a noble progeny, and when he had raigned sixe yeeres he vvas slaine by the treason of Phillip, who succee­ded him.

Philip was the first Emperour that pro­ [...]essed [Page 169] the Christian saith, hee was slaine by Decius, when he had raigned 5. yeares.

Decius made an act, that all that worship­ped Christ should be slaine, both he and his [...]onne were slaine in Barbary, after they had [...]aigned 2. yeares, some write he was swallo­wed vp in an earthquake.

Virius Gallus, and Volusianus his sonne, [...]aigned together, then Emilianus attempted new conspiracies in Moesia, and when they both went to subdue him, they were slaine at [...]teramna, not raigning full out two yeares, [...]hey persecuted the Christians.

Aemilianus, as hee was descended of base stock, so was the time of his Empire obscure and without fame, when he had raigned 3, moneths he was slaine.

Valerianus raigned 6. yeres, he was discom­fited & taken prisoner by Sapores King of Persia, who whē he would take his horse, he made Valerianus lie on the ground, that hee might tred on him while he got on horsback, he was slaine at Millaine, & ruled 6. yeares.

Galienus was lerned, but giuen to great ex­cesse & dronkennes, he was slaine likewise at Millaine, hauing raigned with his Father 6. yeares, and 9. after him.

Flauius Claudius, a vertuous Prince, sober, [Page] and a maintayner of iustice, within two yer [...] after he began his raigne sickned and dyed▪ he ouercame the Gothes, the Germaines, & restored Aegipt to the Empire.

Quintilius, semblable as vertuous as hi [...] brother, by the assent of the Senat, was made Augustus, and was slaine within 17. dayes af­ter he began his raigne.

Aurelianus was borne in Denmark, a stout man in war, but cruell, he was slaine through the treason of his owne seruants, when he had raigned 5. yeres 6. moneths; he was the first that wore a crowne imperial, & robes of gold and pearle, which before were strange to the Romaines.

Tacitus, a man of exceeding good condi­tions, dyed within 6. moneths after his ente­rance.

Florianus, raigned 2. moneths & 20. daies, he dyed by incision of his owne vaines, & did nothing worthy of memory.

Probus, a man well expert in warfare, a stout and iust man, was slaine in an vproare, which grew among the Souldiours, when he had raigned 6. yeares 3. moneths.

Carus, made his sonnes Carasius, & Numi­rianus, Emperour with him, Numirianus was vertuous, and Carasius as wicked as Ne­ro, [Page 169] they raigned 2. yeares, Carus was slaine with lightning, and Numerianus by treason, and Carasius by his owne companie.

Dioclesian, was of ripe wisedome, and gar­nished with many vertues, yet a great perse­cutour of the Christians. Maximinianus was associated to him in the Empire, the first raigned 20. yeres, they both left the Empire, and liued priuatly, Dioclesian slew himselfe, for feare of Licinius, & Constantinus Maxi­minianus was slaine of Constantius, his bro­ther in law.

Constantius, and Galerius, sirnamed Arme­nius, for that he somtimes kept beasts, raig­ned 4. yers with great praise, Cōstantius died in England, and Galerius killed himselfe.

Constantinus, as some write, was the first Emperor that professed the name of Christ, he bulded Cōstantinople, in that place which was called Bizantium, he was a vertuous & godly Prince, he raigned 30. yeares.

Three Emperours and Caesars, raigned at once, Constantinus in Fraunce, Spaine, and Germany; Constantius in the East, Con­stans in Italy. The first was slaine when hee had raigned 3. yeares, the second was killed by Magnentius whē he had raigned 13 yeres and Constans died when he had ruled 39.


[Page]Iulianus the Apostata, raigned 3. yeares, he was a great persecutor of the Christians, wh [...] he was deadly wounded and lay vppon the ground, he threw his blood to heauen-ward saying, Vicisti Gallilaee.

Iouinianus was a very good Prince, and fa­uorer of the Gospel, he instituted that tithe [...] should be paid; he died sodainly when he had raigned 7, moneths.

Valentianus & Valens, raigned foureteene yeres, they were both Christians, Valens was slaine by the Gothes, and Valentianus dy­ed by an extreame bleeding.

Gratianus raigned sixe yeares, hee was a true maintainer of religion, and learned, hee made Theodosius partner with him, and was slaine in Fraunce, by his Gouernour Maximus.

Theodosius, raigned after him eleauen yeares, hee was a Spaniard, and a godly and vertuous Prince, restoring the peace to the Church, whose death Saint Ambrose be­wailed, and writ thus of him, That hee was more carefull for the estate of the Church, tha [...] to preuent his owne dangers.

Arcadius raigned with his brother Honori­us, the one in the East 15 yeares, the other in the VVest 29 yeres, and dyed.

[Page 171]Theodosius the 2, sonne of Arcadius, ruled [...]t Constantinople 42. yeares, he was a most vertuous Prince, and chose Valentinian as [...]hen a child to raigne with him, he dyed of [...]he pestilence.

Valentinianus was slaine by a Souldiour, hired of one Maximus to that end, for that he had forced his wife; he raigned fiue and twenty yeares.

Martianus, after he had gouerned the Em­pire 7 yeares, was poysoned at Constantino­ple, by the treasons of Ardibure, and Aspar hys Father, beeing a vertuous and iust Prince.

Leo the first, ruled 17 yeares, he ouercame Aspar, whilst he gouerned in the East, there raigned with lawfull and vnlawfull tytles in Italy sixe or seauen Emperours; he dyed at Constantinople.

Leo, the Nephew of this Leo deceased, was obeyed as Emperour, but hee yeelded it to his Father Zeno, crowning him vvith hys own hands, and shortly after dyed, who ruled like a tyrant, and died when he had gouerned the Empire 18 yeares.

Anastasius raigned 27. yeares, and vvas slaine with a thunderbolt that fell from hea­uen.

[Page]Iustinus the first, ruled 11. yeares, and dy­ing, adopted for Caesar his Nephew Iusti­nian.

Iustinian, was a wise and iust Prince, most happy in two Captaines, Belizarius, & Nar­ses; when he was old hee elected in the Em­pire his Nephew Iustine, and dyed in the 39. yeare of his Empire.

Iustinus the 2, raigned 11. yeares, and dy­ed of the gowte, but a little before he created Caesar, a Captaine called Tiberius.

Tiberius the 2, was a vertuous, iust, & mer­cifull Prince, he raigned 7. yeares, and nomi­nated Mauritius his sonne in law successour.

Mauritius was slaine by Phocas, with his wife, sonnes, and daughters; this punishment histories doe note, was for not redeeming the Christians, which being taken captiues, were in thraldome with an infidell Prince.

Phocas gouerned 7. yeares, and was slayne by Priscus, one of his Captaines; his leggs, armes, head, and priuities, were cut off, hee made the Bishop of Rome supreame head aboue all other Bishops, which Gregory the first discommended in Phocas: he tooke the Crosse of Christ from Ierusalem.

Heraclius brought againe the Crosse to Ie­rusalem, he gouerned 30. yeares, in his time [Page 171] began the kingdome of Mahomet, Anno Do­mini. 644.

Constantinus his sonne, was poysoned by his step-mother Martina, the first yeare of his raigne, to make her sonne Heraclionas Emperour, who raigned 2. yeares; the Se­nate hauing knowledge of theyr trecherous dealings, cutte off the nose of Heraclionas, Martinaes tonge, and the Patriarchs, sending them all 3. into banishment.

Constans, the sonne of Constantius, was strangled in a bath at Syracusa, when he had raigned 27. yeares.

Constantinus Barbatus, made peace in the Empire of the East, and in the Church, & di­ed when he had gouerned 17. yeares.

Iustinianus the 2, ruled 10. yeares before he was banished, and being restored 6. yeares more, many troubles befell him, for two flatterers by whom hee was ruled, the one Theodosius a Monke, whom his Subiects called General, the other Stephen his Chap­laine, who determined all matters concer­ning religion. Leontius the Patriarch hel­ping him, was made Emperour, and cut off Iustinianus nose. Apsimarus expulsed him, and gouerned 7. yeares.

Iustinian, before mentioned, returned from [Page] Exile, ayded by the Bulgarians, and cut off the heads of Leontius and Apsimarus, & pul­led out the eyes of Callinicus the Patriarch; in the end his Souldiours killed him and his sonne Tiberius, when they had taken them from a Sanctuary.

Philippus Bardanes ruled 2 yeres, he pul­led downe Images in Churches, but Artemi­us his Secretary, caused his eyes to be pul­led out.

Artemius, otherwise called Anastatius, held his Empire 1 yeare and 3 moneths, he was deposed by Theodosius, who put himselfe into a monastry, when he had raigned 1 yere, fearing to be inuaded of Leo; but Artemius gathering an hoast out of Bulgaria, went a­bout to recouer the Empire, but he was be­trayed to Leo, who killed him.

Leo, sirnamed Iconomachus, that is, an as­saulter of Images, raigned 26 yeres, he made an edict, that all Images in Churches should be pulled downe.

Constantinus Copronymus, so called, be­cause at his baptisme hee defiled the Fount, was a great destroyer of Images, he dyed in in the 35 of his Empire.

Leo the 4, his sonne gouerned 5. yeares, and vvas crowned of the Patriarch in hys [Page 173] life time.

Irene, with her young Sonne Constantine, [...]uled the Empire 10 yeares, after he being 20 yeares of age, tooke the gouernment a­ [...]one, which she enuying, when he had raig­ned 7. yeares, caused his eyes to be pulled out, of which greefe he died; she raigned af­ter him 3 yeares, and then the gouernment of Italy was committed to Carolus Magnus, by a generall consent.

Nicephorus possessed the Empire of the East, and made peace with Charles the great, hee was slaine of the Bulgarians the ninth yeare of his raigne, he made his sonne Stau­ratius Emperour, who the third moneth af­ter he gouerned, was deposed by Michaell Curopalates, and put into a monastry.

Michaell Curopalates, married Procopia, the sister of Stauratius, & made a league with Charles, and after he had raigned 2 yeares, became a Monke.

Since Iulius Caesar was murdered in the Senate, vnto Charles the great, there are found aboue thirty Emperors that were slaine, and foure that killed themselues. Sleidan.

Of the Empire of Germany.

THE Empire of Germany, began in the yeare of our Lord, eight hundred & one, whose first Emperour of the VVest, was Ca­rolus Magnus, so sirnamed for his noble acts, whose Grandfather was Carolus Martellus, his Father Pipinus of Fraunce, his Mother Birrha, daughter to Heraclius Emperour of Constantinople; he was excellently learned in the Greeke and Latine tongue, hee dyed at Aquisgrane, when hee had raigned 14. yeares.

Lodouicus Pius, his sonne, was so called of a religious superstition, not hauing the per­fect knowledge of God, but as religion went in those dayes, for he encreased the worship­ping of Idols and Images; he was farre infe­riour to his Father, both in wisedome and vertue; hee caused his brothers sonne Bar­nardus, King of Italy, his eyes to be pulled out; he made his sonne Lotharius Emperor with him, who with his brother Pipinus de­posed him, but afterwards restored, he dyed at Magunze, and raigned 27. yeares.

Lotharius the first, vexed by the ciuill wars of his brethren, was forced to make a Tetrar­chia, [Page 173] deuiding his Empire into 4. parts, that [...]e himself shold ēioy Italy with the Empire, [...]nd a part of Germany, which lieth between [...]hene, and Moselletta, Lodouicus, should [...]ule Germany, Charles, Fraunce, and Pipi­ [...]us Aquitania; he made his sonne Lodoui­ [...]us pertaker with him in the Empire, and [...]hortly after deposing himselfe, went into a monastry called Brumia, and there died, ha­ [...]ing raigned 15. yeares.

Lodouicus the 2, excelled in learning, god­ [...]ines, humanity, liberality, & profound wit, he dyed at Millaine in Italy, when hee had raigned 19. yeares.

Carolus Caluus, the sonne of Lodouicus Pius, succeeded him, for that he had no heire male, when hee fled from Charlemaine, and Carolus Crassus, the sonne of Lodouicus, Germanicus to Mantua, he was there as som write poysoned, by his Phisition Sidechias a Iew; he was couetous, proud, ambitious, and vaine-glorious, he raigned in the Empire 2. yeares.

Lodouicus the third, sirnamed the Stam­merer, contrary to the will of the Nobles of Rome, was made Emperour, by Pope Iohn the eight, he gouerned two yeares, and dyed in the warres against Bernardus, in the mar­ches [Page] of Italy.

Carolus Crassus, expelled the Sarazins o [...] of Italy, afterwards through his misfortun [...] in warre, and euill leagues with his enemies, he came into hatred with his Subiects; sick­nes also bringing him low, he was not of right mind, and therefore left his kingdome to Arnolphus, the Sonne of Charlemaine; he was brought to great misery, and not hauing sufficient whereby to liue, dyed at Sweuia, in the 7 yeare of his raigne.

Arnolphus, a couetous Prince, raigned 12 yeares, and dyed of Lyce; after him the ma­iesty of the Empire, came to the Germains, which continued with the French-men for the space of 100 yeares.

Lodouicus, the sonne of Arnolphus, gouer­ned sixe yeares, to vvhom also Conradus Duke of Austria ioyned, and raigned seauen yeares; Henry, the sonne of Otho Duke of Saxony, succeed him, and ruled eighteene yeares, by theyr ambition many tumults a­rose, for the space of 60 yeares, from Arnol­phus death to Otho the first.

The Italians created Berengarius Empe­rour, who at Verona ouercame Arnolphus, and put out hys eyes, hee gouerned foure yeares.

[Page 175]Berengarius the second, succeeded him, who was driuen out of the Countrey by Ro­ [...]olphus King of Burgundy, this Rodolph [...]aigned three yeares, and was expulsed his [...]ingdome by Hugo a Duke, he gouerned [...]enne yeares, leauing behind him Lothari­ [...]s his Sonne, vvho ruled two yeares, after [...]hom Berengarius the third, with his Sonne Adelbertus, gouerned eleuen yeares, vvho [...]sing themselues vvith all tyrannie, vvere by Otho dryuen out of Italy.

Otho the first, the Sonne of Henry the first, deposed Pope Iohn the thirteenth, he vvas a Prince endued vvith singuler ver­tue, hee dyed vvhen hee had ruled thirty yeares.

Otho the second, restored Nicephorus Emperour of Constantinople (beeing put [...]ut of his kingdome) into it agayne, and married Theoponia his sister. Henry Duke of Bauiers, rebelled agaynst him, but hee vvas by force of armes brought to obedi­ence; hee fought vvith the Greekes and Sarazens, and being ouer-throwne he fled, and vvas taken by Mariners, who not kno­wing him, for that hee spake the Greeke language, redeemed him-selfe for a small price, and returned to Rome, soone after he [Page] dyed when hee had ruled 11. yeares, som [...] write he was poysoned by the Italians.

Otho the third, put Crescentius to death and put out the eyes of Pope Iohn the 10 who deposed Gregory the fifth, whom he had made Pope; and for that there was grea [...] dissention, for the succession of the Empire with the assent of Gregory ordayned, that 7. Princes of Germany should choose the Em­perour, 3. ecclesiasticall, and 4. secular.

The Archbishop of Mentz, Colein, & Tri­er, to these were ioyned the Prince of Bo­heme, (for as then Bohemia had no King) the Coūty Palatine of the Rhene, the Duke of Saxony, and the Marquesse of Bradenbo­rough, but amongst these the Elector Bo­heme is appoynted an Vmpeere, to breake off all dissension in election, if any rise.

This institution of Otho is farre more pro­fitable, then was the ordayning of the Areo­pagites amongst the Athenians, or the Sta­tutes of the Ephories, to the Lacedemoni­ans; these Electors were appoynted the yer [...] of Christ, 1002.

Otho, was poysoned by the wife of Cres­centius, whom he put to death, when he had raigned 19. yeares; his wifes nam [...] was Ma­ry, daughter to the King of Aragon, a wo­man [Page 175] giuen to all beastlines and intemperanc [...] [...]f life.

Henry the 2. sirnamed the haulting, D. of [...]auier, succeeded him, he was the first Em­ [...]eror chosen by the Electors, & raigned 22. [...]eares; he was wholy giuen to religion and godly life, he brought the Hungarians to the Christian faith, & gaue his sister to Stephen theyr King in mariage, and dyed at Bam­ [...]rige.

Conradus the French-man, after an Inter­ [...]egnum for 3. yeares, was chosen Emperor, [...]orne of the daughter of Otho the first, he [...]ad fortunate wars against the Pannonians, [...]e subdued Burgundy, and dyed in the 15. yeare of his raigne.

Henry the 3. called the Black, the sonne of Conradus was elected, in his time 3. vsur­ [...]ing Popes, Gregory 6, Syluestes 3, and Benedict 9, were by him deposed, and a 4. [...]nstalled, who was the Bishop of Bambrige, called Clement the 2. he dyed when he had [...]aigned 17. yeares.

Henry the fourth, his sonne, was cursed by Pope Hildebrand, and by his treasons ouer­throwne, he being very young, his mother gouerned; the Pope made Rodolphus Em­perour, and sent him a crowne, whereon was [Page] written; Petra dedit Petro, Petrus diadema R [...]dolpho, but this vsurper was ouercom by Hē [...]ry, & his hand cut off in the battel, the whic [...] when he saw ready to die, he sayd; Loe [...] Lords yee Bishops, this is the hand where-wit [...] I promised my Lorde Henry fayth and loyaltie iudge ye then how well you haue aduised me.

The Pope set the sonne also against the Fa­ther, vvho besieged him at Mentz, but by meanes of the Princes he departed thence; the Father died when he had ruled 50 yeres, his body lay vnburied 5 yeares, by reason of the Popes curse.

Henry the fifth, his Sonne withstoode the tiranny of Pope Paschalis, and tooke his crowne from him, he gouerned the Empire 20 yeares and dyed.

Lotharius the 2. Duke of Saxony, raigned 13 yeares, against whom Conradus made warre; in his time the ciuill law gathered to­gether by Iustinian, and neglected through the tumults of warre, was called againe to light; he dyed of a Feauer.

Conradus, the third Duke of Bauaria, and Nephew to Henry the fourth, had great wars with the Sarazins in Asia, assisted by Richard sirnamed Cordelion, and Lewes the French King; he died without all glory & renowne, [Page 177] [...]n the fifteene yeere of his Empire.

Fredericke the first, called Oenobarbus, or [...]ith the red beard, vvas a Prince indued [...]ith very good qualities of minde and bo­ [...]ie, he ouerthrew Millaine to the ground, & [...]hased Pope Alexander out of Rome, and [...]laced Octauius in his seate; but vvhen hee [...]ooke his iourney into Syria, in the passage [...]uer a riuer, he vvas drowned, vvhen he had [...]aigned thirty and seauen yeeres; hee made [...]he Prince of Bohemia king, for his faithful­ [...]esse to him at Millaine.

Henry the 6. the sonne of F. Barbarossa, [...]ubdued the realme of Apulia, he tooke Na­ [...]les, and spoyled it. He made his sonne Fre­derick (being a childe) Emperour with him [...]y consent of the Electors, whose wardshyp, [...]e dying, committed to his brother Philip, he ruled 8. yeeres.

Philip the sonne of F. Barbarossa, was cho­sen Emperour for young Frederick, & raig­ned tenne yeeres, against whom Innocenti­us the third, erected Otho a Saxon, but Phi­lip ouercame him, and vvas murthered of Otho Prince of Brunsinia in his Chamber; this vvas called Otho the fourth, who vvas excomunicated by the Pope, & was murde­red in the 4. yeere of his raigne.

[Page]Fredericke the second, sonne of Henry the sixt, succeeded him, and raigned 27. yeeres▪ and yet before hee dyed, vvas depriued fiue yeeres of the Empire, by Innocentius; hee vvas a vertuous and learned Prince; in his time the faction arose betweene the Guel­phes and the Gibelines, the one vvith the Emperour, the other with the Pope.

Conradus the fourth, the son of Frederick, vvas ouercome by the Lantgraue, who whē he perceiued himselfe destituted of the Ger­maine Princes ayde, went to his hereditarie kingdome of Naples, and there dyed, vvhen he had raigned 4. yeeres.

VVilliam Countie of Holland vvas chosen Emperor after him, a Prince of noble and vertuous actions, he was slaine by the Frize­landers in the second yere of his raigne.

VVhen hee was dead, there vvas an Inter­regnū for 17. yeeres, by reason of the Pope; Some chose Alphonsus King of Spaine Em­perour for his vvisedome and vertues, which he refused, the other part of the Electors, e­lected Richard the King of Englands bro­ther, and brought him to Basill, but he vvas not accepted of the Empire.

Rodolphus the Countie of Haspurge vvas elected, and ruled 18. yeares, hee killed O­ [...]hocarus [Page 178] King of Bohemia, and burned one [...]hat sayd he was Frederick the second, he did [...] a manner set vp the decaied Empire, ere [...]e died.

Adolphus, County of Nason, succeeded [...]im, but the Princes annoyed with his bad [...]fe & ambition, chose in his place Albertus [...]he first, of vvhom Adolphus in a battaill [...]as slaine, hauing raigned 8. yeeres.

Albertus the first, son of Rodulphus, went [...]vith a great power against the King of France, but in passing ouer the riuer Rhene, [...]e vvas killed of Iohn his brothers sonne, af­ [...]er he had ruled ten yeeres.

Henry the seauenth, Coūty of Lusenbruge, [...]aigned 32. yeeres, and vvas poysoned by a Dominick Frier in the sacrament; he made his sonne Iohn King of Bohemia, by marry­ [...]ng the Kings Daughter; vvhose sonne vvas Charles the 4. king of Bohemia.

Lodouicus, Duke of Bauier vvas chosen Emperor by the Bishop of Mentz & Trier, the King of Bohemia and the Marquesse of Bradenbrough, and against him was erected Fredericke, Duke of Austria, by the Bishop of Coleine, the Count Palatine, and Duke of Saxonie, vvhereupon, neyther of them vvould giue place in the Empire, but rather [Page] for the space of eyght yeres they made warre one against the other, in the end, Lodouicus ouercame and killed Fredericke, & vvas sole Emperour, raigning thirty and two yeeres; hee dyed, and vvas a Prince indued with all vertuous qualities.

Gunther, Earle of Swartzenburge, was na­med Emperour, yet not vvith consent of all the Electors, and shortly after, hee vvas sud­daily poysoned at Franckford.

Charles the fourth, sonne to Prince Iohn, the sonne of Henry the seauenth, enioyed the Empire, to the honour of this election, were inuited Edvvarde the third, King of England, Frederick Earle prouinciall of Mi­sen, but they refused it. Hee vvas a learned Prince, and erected the Vniuersity of Prage, and raigned 32. yeeres.

Venceslaus succeeded his Father Charles, and gouerned 22. yeeres, he through sloth­fulnesse, let the Empire fall to ruine, he vvas deposed by his brother Sigismund.

Rupertus, or Robertus County Palatine of Rhene, hauing possessed the empire, after his warres against Galatius (vvho was the first Duke of Millaine, so created by Venceslaus, as Sleidan reporteth) gaue himselfe to peace and religion, & died, raigning 9. yeeres.

[Page 179]Sigismundus the sonne of Charles the 4. vvas a most noble, vertuous, and learned Prince, much condemning the Germaines [...]or that they hated the Latine tongue, hee [...]ooke avvay the ambitious contention of [...]hree Bishops of Rome, & draue them from [...]heyr seates, he died, raigning 27. yeeres.

Albert the second, Duke of Austria, marri­ed the onely daughter of Sigismund, vvho [...]hereby vvas King of Bohemia & Hungaria, [...]nd was the successor of Sigismund; in hys time the most excellent and necessary Arte of Printing vvas inuented, by the which, the knowledge of God was renued; he subdued [...]he Normaines, and the people of Svveuia; he dyed of the bloody flixe, raigning but 2. yeeres.

Frederick the third, Duke of Austria, go­uerned the state for the space of 53. yeeres, vvith so great vvisedome, that it florished in [...]ll prosperitie and quietnes, hee died the 79. yeere of his age.

Maximilian, the sonne of the Emperour Frederick & Leonora, daughter to the king of Lusitania, raigned 32. yeeres, he married Mary, the daughter of Charles Duke of Bur­gundie, by vvhom hee had the Dukedome, and Matthew the King of Pannonia beeing [Page] dead, he obtained the kingdome; thys vvas a Prince noble, valorous, and a patron of all learning, nor thought hee it dishonour (ha­uing taken King Henry the 8. his pay) to serue against Fraunce, vnder his conquering colours.

Charles the 5. sonne of Philip, vvho vvas Archduke of Austria, and the sonne of Max­imilian and Mary, succeeded; of this Philip came Carolus and Ferdinandus, vvhose mother was Ioane, Queene of Castile; he had also foure daughters, Leonora, married to the King of Lusitania, Isabell to the King of Fraunce, Mary to the king of Denmark, and Katherine to the king of Hungaria.

Charles the fift, vvas crovvned at Aquis­grane with the siluer crovvne; for it is an auncient custome, that all Emperors should be crowned vvith 3. diuers crownes, vvhich were of gold, siluer, and yron.

At Rome & Bononie, they were crowned with the crowne of golde, for the Empyre o [...] Rome, with the siluer at Aquisgrane for the Empire of Germany, and at Menza with the yron crowne for Lombardie.

Charles Duke of Burbon, with the Empe­rors host, besieged Rome, and sacked it, con­strayning Pope Leo to flie to his Castle An­ [...]elo, [Page 180] but the Duke was vnfortunatly slaine [...]n the assault, with an harguebuze.

Hee was elected Emperor at 19. yeeres of [...]ge, Fraunces the French king was his com­ [...]etitor, he conquered Millaine, & ouercame [...]he Frenchmen and Switzers, in which wars Fraunces there king was taken prisoner, hee [...]ooke the kingdome of Tunis from Aeno­ [...]arbus, Lieuetenant of the Turke, & con­quered by assault the towne of Affrick.

VVhen he had raigned 37. yeeres, he re­signed to his sonne Philip all the estate and [...]ignories, & his Empire to his brother Fer­dinando King of the Romaines; this doone, hee vvent into a Monastery of the Monkes of the order of Saint Hierome, and therein dyed.

Ferdinand the brother of Charles, sonne of Philip Archduke of Austria, and Ioane, Qu. of Castile, blessed by God in many prospe­rous victories, and in a small power (in com­parison of the forces of Solyman) was made a Conquerour ouer the Turke, Anno 1529. hee was a Prince of great clemencie, a louer of learning, studying to preserue peace in Europe among Christian Princes, hee dyed when hee had raigned sixe yeeres and foure months.

[Page]Maximilian the sonne of Ferdinand, vvas chosen Emperor, 1564. Hee made prospe­rous expeditions against the Turkes, & died vvhen he had raigned 11. yeeres.

Rodolphus his sonne succeeded him, who gouerneth the Empire at this day.

The maiestie of the Romaine Monarchie, florished especially in the house of Haspurge, and hath lineally brought foorth tenne Em­perours.

The Romaine Empire hath surmounted all others that haue been or shal be, it is novv much dismembred; in Asia it hath nothing, beeing as now possessed of the Turkes, and Tartarians, all Affricke almost is lost.

Portingall, Spayne, England, France, Po­land, Denmarke, Hungaria, Slauonia, and all Greece, are cut from the Empire, vvith the Countries there abouts, and the Iles of Sicilia, Sardinia, Corsica, and Sauoy.

Italy, vvhich hath alwaies beene the first, & most auncient patrimony of the Romain Empire, scarce acknowledgeth the Empe­rour, Spaine holds Calabria, Puel, Campa­nia, and the Kingdome of Naples, &c, as by succession of their auncestors.

The old and auncient seate of the Empire, the Popes possesse, and a great deale more; [Page 181] beeing now so farre from acknowledging an Emperour, that they haue made the Empe­rour and Gouernours beholding to them.

The Venetians holde not onely freedoms, but Prouinces, and are the freest people of the vvorld, as it were seperated frō the Ro­maine Empire.

All that appertaineth now to the Empire, is inclosed vvithin the confines of Germanie, out of vvhose limits there is nothing.

Thys Romaine Monarchie, is and shall bee the last, vvhich although it hath greatly de­cayed, yet shall part thereof continue to the vvorlds end, wherein shal remaine the name and maiestie of an Emperour.

These foure Monarchies were prophecied of long since by the Prophet Daniell, vnder the figure of a great Image, vvhose head was made of golde, breast of siluer, belly of cop­per, legges of yron, and feete of earth, and yron, mistically described.

The heade of Gold, signifieth the Monar­chy of the Assyrians, the breast of Siluer, the Persians, the belly of Brasse, the kingdome of the Greekes; the legges of Yron, the Ro­maines, the feete of yron and earth, the mo­derne estate of the Monarchie, beeing much vveaker then it was vvont to be.

[Page]Daniell dreamed that hee sawe 4. beastes come out of the Ocean, the first a Lyon, the second a Beare, the thyrd a Leopard, and as touching the fourth, he sayd it vvas terrible to behold.

The first of these, figured the kingdome of Assyria, the second, the kingdome of Persia, the third, the Empire of the Greekes, and the fourth, the Romaine Monarchie; the tenne hornes are his members or parts, as Si­ria, Egypt, Asia, Grecia, Affrick, England, Spaine, Fraunce, Italy, Germanie; for the Romaine Monarchie possessed all these Na­tions.

Betweene these tenne hornes, sprang vp a little horne, which pluckt away three of the other tenne; by which is meant the Maho­meticall or Turkish Empire, the vvhich en­gendered of small beginning in the Easterne Romaine Monarchie, hath now pulled out three hornes therof, Egypt, Asia, & Greece,

This little horne hath eyes, which are pre­sumptious against Christ and Christendom, sparckling foorth dreadfull blasphemies a­gainst the name of GOD.

Of the Turkish Empire.

IN the yeere of our Lord, 630. & in the 15. yeere of Heraclius Emperour of Rome, arose the dreadfull change of al man­kinde, by reason of the doctrine of Mahomet vvhich then beganne; this did the Arabians first embrace, who neuer obeyed kingdoms or lawes lawfully appoynted.

Mahomet himselfe, vvas borne of base pa­rentage in Arabia, in the yeere of our Lord, 591. (in the raigne of Mauritius, Emperor of the Romaines) his father was an Arabian, and his mother a Iew, vvho beeing brought vp with a rich Merchant, after his maisters death married his mistresse; and for that he vvas greatly desirous to rise in honour and estimation, by the counsell of Sergius an an­cient Monck, & an Arrian, he coyned a new religion, deriued out of sundry Sects, min­gled with some part of the Iewes, some part of the Christians, & some of the Arrians.

The Prophet Ezechiell and S. Iohn, call the Turks Gog and Magog, Gog signifyeth a Tent, and Magog the people vvithout the Tents; for the Tartarians vsually dvvell in Tents, and the Turkes are Tartaries, vvho [Page] came out of Tartarie into Asia, when the Sa­razens warred against the Persians, by theyr King Hormisda desired in ayde. Mahomet is interpreted rage or indignation, & Turke signifieth a souldiour, or a vvrastler, & in the Tartarian tongue, one that is accursed, or a vagabond.

Methodius calleth thys people red Iewes, eyther because they vvere cruell & thirsting after blood, or els, for that Mahomet vvas borne of Edom in Arabia, and Edom signi­fieth redde; Besides, the same Author vvri­teth, that Gog and Magog vvere closed in beyond the hyll Caucasus, and that a subtile Foxe should make them a passage, vvhich Foxe is Mahomet.

VVhen the Sarazens serued vnder Hera­clius, against the persians, being denied their pay, they fledde from him, and in theyr re­turne homewards, they spoyled many villa­ges and townes about Damascus in Syria; then vnderstanding Mahomet to be of great power, by reason of his vvealth, and the opi­nion vvhich vvas helde of his religion; they made choyse of him for theyr Gouernour, and by the consent of the Sarazens, Arabi­ans, and a great part of the Egyptians, they so proclaimed him.

[Page 183]The beginning of his kingdome, vvas in [...]523. yeeres after Christ, vvho making hys [...]eate in Syria, vvrote the Alcoran, a booke of all the lawes, ceremonies, and traditions of his religion, vvith a number of idle tales, and faigned miracles; hee vvas poysoned by Albunor one of his owne disciples, to the in­ [...]ent hee might see if his maister Mahomet vvoulde rise againe the thirde day after hys death, according to his prophecy; but hys body was torne in peeces of dogges, he raig­ned tenne yeeres.

Ebebuzer or Amiras, that is, a Prince or suc­cessor, his sonne in law, succeeded him, hee tooke Damascus, making that his princely seate, and after 2. yeeres siedge spoiled Gaza & Ierusalem, raigning 3. yeeres.

Ahumar succeeded, hee subdued all Syria and Egypt, conquering Persia, and hauing added Cilicia, Cappadocia, Mesopotamia, and the Ile of Cyprus vnto his conquests, he made Babylon the seate of his Empire; whō the Sarazens called the Calipha of Babilon; which signifieth the chiefe Prince of empire and religion; he raigned 12. yeeres.

Muhauiar tooke Caesaria and Palestine, o­uercame Horimasda the sonne of Cosroes, he made them keepe Mahomets lawes, vvhich [Page] the Persians obserue at this day; after thys the Sarazens possessed Affrica, & vvent for­ward into Asia, vvhere they flourished 200▪ yeeres.

The Turkes, as long as the Empire of the Sarazens flourished in Asia, they did most firmly sticke vnto them, but after that they began to decrease by their ciuill dissention, they encroched vppon them and their terri­tories, and by little and little, wrought them­selues at length wholy into the gouernment of the Empire.

In the yeere of our Lord, one thousand & fifty one, they elected Zadoc to bee theyr King, he laid the first foundation of the Tur­kish empire in Asia.

After 5. discents of them, in the yeere one thousand, foure hundred and eyght, vvhen Godfrey of Bullaine, vvith other Christan Princes, made theyr holy expedition into Palestine, the Christians in Armenia percei­uing that the Turkes were deuided, and that they had murdered theyr last Emperor Bel­ch [...]aior, suddainly assailed them, and draue them out of Persia, enforcing them to keepe in the lesser Asia.

In the yeere of our Lorde, one thousand three hundred, Ottoman restored their Em­pire, [Page 184] by his rare wit, and fortune in martiall affaires, he gaue names to the Emperors, & first appointed theyr king; hee conquered Bithinia, and Cappadocia, and tooke many places lying vpon Mare ponticum, and ruled 28. yeeres.

Orchanes his sonne, sacked Prusia, & made [...]t the head of his kingdome, he was slayne by [...]he Tartarians.

Amurath his sonne, was the first that came out of Asia into Europe, hee tooke Callipo­ [...]is, Cherronesus, Abydus, Philippolis, Adri­anapolis, Seruia, and Bulgaria, but entering into the vpper part of Misia, hee was slayne in the 23. yeere of his Empire.

Baiazeth his brother subdued all Greece, but beeing ouercome by Tamberlaine, hee dyed without renowne.

Callepin his sonne succeeded, hee ouer­came the Emperour Sigismund, and begin­ning to spoyle the borders of Constantino­ple, dyed in the flower of his age, raigning but sixe yeeres.

Mahomet, after him subdued the greatest part of Slauonia, and Macedonia, and came as farre as the Ionian sea, hee remooued hys seate out of Bythinia to Adrianopolis, where he dyed.

[Page]Amurath the second succeeded him, vvho wonne Epirus, Aetolia, Achaia, Beolia, Atti­ca, and Thessalonica.

Mahomet the second, destroyed Athence, & wonne Constantinople, Anno 1452. he brought vnder his subiection, the Empire Trapezuntiū, Corinth, the Ilands of Lem­nos, Euboiae, Mitilene, and Capha, a Cittie of the Genowaies, he raigned 32. yeeres.

Baiazeth the second, tooke from the Vene­tians Naupactus, Methonia, and Dirohaim, he spoyled all Dalmatia, and in the end vvas poysoned.

Zelimus his sonne, wonne Archair, & slew the Sultan of Egypt, he brought Alexandria, Damascus, and all Egypt vnder his Em­pyre.

Solyman his onely sonne, conquered Bel­grad, tooke Buda, the Kings Citty in Hun­garia, spoyled Strigonium, and all Hungaria. To him the Ile of Rhods was yeelded, he o­uerthrew the fiue Churches; when the Cit­tie Iula was taken, he besieged Zigethum, & was slaine in the assault.

This Citty his sonne Zelimus spoyled, in the yeere 1566. vnder 12. Emperors, they subdued vnto themselues, by Turkish ty­rannie, in two hundred threescore yeeres a great [Page 185] the Persians obserue at this day, after this the Sarazens possessed Affrica, & went forward into Asia, where they flourished 200. yeares.

Of the Bishops, Archbishops, Patriarchs, and Popes of Rome.

THE yeare of Peters comming to Rome, the time of his residency in the Sea, and his death there, hath beene so vncertainly re­ported by Platina, Orosius, Fasciculus tempo­rum, Eusebius, Vspergensis, Sabellicus, and Nauclerus, for the first, by S. Hierome, Beda, Fasciculus temporum, Vspergensis, and Plati­na, for the second, by Nicephorus, Diony­sius, Hierome, Isodorus, Eusebius, and Abdi­ [...]s, for the third, that diuers godly & learned men haue beene induced to think, and some constantly to write (as Vlricus Velenus, and Thomas Balaeus, with one other) that Peter was neuer at Rome; howbeit, many wise, re­ [...]erend, & truly lerned fathers of our church, are of opinion, that he was at Rome, but no Bishop thereof, & martired vnder Claudius Nero.

Linus, a Thuscane born, reported to be the successour of Peter, was a man of pure and godly lyfe, who for preaching the Gospell, suffered martyrdome vnder Saturninus the [Page] Consull, in the raigne of Vespasian, Emperor of Rome.

Anacletus the first, borne at Athence, wa [...] of an excellent and feruent spirit, and of grea [...] learning, he planted the Church of God wi [...] daily labour, in whose defence and beleefe h [...] was put to death by Domitian, which he con­stantly indured.

Clement the first, a Romaine, for his prea­ching and good deeds, was a long time bani­shed by the Emperor, to hew Marble stones, and in the end was cast into the Sea, with an Anchour about his necke.

Euaristus the first, a Grecian borne, in the time of persecution ceased not to increase the Church by his diligent preaching, till he was martired vnder Traian. An. Dom. 100.

Alexander the first, a Romaine, painefully trauailed both to preach and baptize, he suf­fered great torments till he died vnder Aure­lianus president to the Emperour. Anno Do­mini, 121.

Sixtus the first, a Romaine, diligently prea­ched the Gospell, & with many good works and godly deeds beautified the Church, he was vigilant and carefull for his flocke, and died for it. Anno, 129.

Telesphorus the first, a Grecian, vvas a [Page 186] worthy man for learning and godly life, he bare witnes of Christ most faithfully & con­ [...]tantly, both by his words and death, vnder the Emperour Antoninus. An. 140.

Higinus the first, an Athenian, of a Chri­stian Philosopher, was made a Bishop, who discharging the duty of a good Pastor, was put to death anno 144. Hee wrote in a Caue where he did hide himselfe in time of perse­cution, an Epistle touching God, and the in­carnation of the sonne of God.

Pius, borne in Aquilia, did many godly deeds in the Church, vnder Antonius Ve­ [...]us, and in the end watered the Church of Christ with his blood in martirdome. 159.

Anicetus a Syrian, a faithfull and diligent Pastor of the Church of Rome, was marty­red anno 169.

Sother, borne in Campania, like a valiant Souldiour of Iesus Christ, serued vnder his spirituall banner, in the time of the Empe­rour Commodus, he confirmed the doctrine which hee had preached, vvith his blood in martirdome. 177.

Eleutherius, a Grecian, (notwithstanding the stormes of persecution were somewhat calmed in his time, because many of the Ro­maine nobility beleeued on Christ) yet hee [Page] was beheaded 191. in his time, also man [...] godly vvriters writ learned bookes agayn [...] diuers heresies and heretiques, which infec­ted the Church.

Victor, borne in Affrica, was the first, tha [...] when the storme of persecution was calmed vsurped authority vpon strangers; In the former Bishops, sayth Vincentius, the spyri [...] abounded, but in these that follow, the tempta­tion of flesh and blood preuailed. He exempted his brethren of Asia from the Communion, because in keeping Easter day, they followed not the vse of the church of Rome, for which Policrates & Iraeneus Bishops of Ephesus, & Lyons reproued him; as then the church was rent in twaine by his obstinacy, he died. 203

Zepherinus, a Romaine borne, was a man more addicted to the seruice of God, then to the care of any worldly affairs, where before the vvine in celebrating the Communion, was ministred in a cup of wood, he first did alter that, and in sted thereof, brought in Cups or Chalices of glasse; in his time were the Artemonites a sect of vaine Philosophi­call Diuines, who as our late Schoolmen, did corrupt the Scripturs, with Plato, Aristotle, and Theophrastus, turning all into curious and subtile questions.

[Page 187]Origen taught the holy Scripture at Alex­ [...]ndria, in Zepherinus time, but his bookes [...]ere refused, because he brought in vnprofi­ [...]able disputations and allegories.

Calixtus the first, borne at Rauenna, when [...]ersecution began to waxe hote againe, was [...]pprehended by the commaundement of A­ [...]xander Seuerus, and after that, he was bea­ [...]en with cudgels and imprisoned, his body [...]as cast out of a window, and drowned in a [...]eepe pit. 226.

Vrbanus the first, a Romaine, in the time of Heliogabalus, with his sincerity of life, & ex­ [...]ellency in learning, drew many on all sides [...]o the Gospell; he was often times banished [...]he Citty for the Christian fayth, but being [...]ecretly brought in againe by the faithful, he [...]as martired by Seuerus. 233.

Pontianus, a Romaine, in the afore-sayde Emperours raigne, when the people ranne [...]n multitudes to heare him preach the word, [...]y the Princes commaundement, being set [...]n by the idolatrous Priests, he was caried [...]rom Rome, to the Ile Sardinia, where hee [...]as put to death. 239.

Antherosa Grecian, preached constantly & stoutly, vnder the tirany of Maximius the Emperour, he first ordained that all the acts [Page] of Martyrs should be recorded, least the re­membrance of them should be lost with their lifes; he dyed a Martir. 243.

Fabian, a Romaine, as hee was returning home out of the field, and with his Countr [...] men present, to elect a new Byshop, there was a Pidgeon seene standing on his head, and sodainly he was created Pastour of the Church, which he looked not for, as Eusebi­us writeth; hee suffered martirdome vnder Decius, 150. Some write that he baptized Philippus the first, Emperour, and that hee was the first that acknowledged the Christi­an faith.

Cornelius, a Romaine, was Bishop in the time of Decius, the seauenth persecutour of Rome, vnder whom he was martyred; hee condemned the heresie of Nouatius.

Lucius, a Romaine, driuen into Exile by Gallus Hostilianus, the persecutors of Chri­stianity, was comforted of S. Cyprian by let­ters; he after his death returned to Rome, and was put to death by Valerianus com­maundement. 255.

Stephen, a Romaine borne, succeeded him, who in the raigne of Galienus, after he had conuerted many of the Gentiles to the faith of Christ, was beheaded. 257.

[Page 188]Sixtus, the second, a Grecian, of a Philoso­ [...]her, became a Disciple of Christ, and with many thousands of Martyrs was slaine in the [...]ersecution of Decius and Valerius. 267. [...]. Lawrance loued this Bishop euen to the [...]eath, of the which the one was slaine with [...]he sword, the other broyled to death vpon [...] Gridiron.

In his time anno 260, one Paule terrified with the persecution, got him into the VVil­dernes and solitary places, and so became the first Eremite; for that time, as Eusebius sayth, many Christians for feare of death de­nied their faith; vpon this, Monks had theyr beginning, as Hierome writeth, in the life of this Paule the Eremite.

Dionysius, a Grecian, as appeareth by the Church of Antioche, 273. did conuince of error Paulus Samosatenus, notwithstanding he could not be there himselfe, by reason of his age; hee conuerted to Christianity the daughter of the Emperour Decius, and Tri­phonia her mother, with 46. thousand more, and at the length was martyred with them and many other, at Salarie gate. 277.

Felix, a Romaine, beeing a good man, and of vpright conuersation, preached the Gos­pell, vvhen Aurelianus did persecute the [Page] church, vnder whom he sufferd martirdom.

Eutichianus, a Thuscane, wholy giuen to godlines, saued many by his preaching the Gospell; he buried with his own hands 342. Martirs, and appoynted afterward an order for burying of them, he in the end was a mar­tyr himselfe. 283.

Caius borne in Dalmatia, & neere in blood to Dioclesian the Emperor, was a most wor­thy president in the church of God, he made the difference of Clergy amongst thē by de­grees, so that frō one degree to another, they should arise to the estate of a Bishop; in time of the persecution, he with his brother Gabi­nius hid themselues in a Caue, from whence being taken, they were both slaine with the sword.

Marcellinus, a Romain, being terrified with the persecutors tirany vnder D [...]oclesian and Maximiniā, he offered vnto the Idols a grain of Frankensence; but after this deede repen­ting, reproued Dioclesian to his face, & offe­ring himselfe willingly to death for the truth of Christ; he preuailed, receauing the crowne of martirdome. 303.

Marcellus, a Romain, endeuored to remoue Maximianus frō persecuting the Saints, but his hart being hardned, cōmanded him to be [Page 189] [...]eaten with cudgels, & to be driuē out of the City; wherupon he went to the house of Lu­cina a widow, & there he kept the congrega­tion secretly, which Maximilianus hearing, made a stable for Cattle of the same house, & cōmitted the keeping of it to Marcellus; af­ter this he gouerned the churches by his epi­stles, & being thus daily tormēted with stink & noisomnes, he gaue vp the ghost. 308.

Eusebius, a Grecian, gouerned the Church in the great storme of persecution vnder Maxentius, vntill he died by martirdome, as Massaeus writeth. 309.

Melchiades, for preaching the truth suffe­red death, vnder Maximinianus Galerius the Emperour. 314.

Syluester the first, for feare of the persecu­tion of Maximinianus, liued solitarily in the hill Soracte, but it pleased god to lay his hand vpon the persecutor, forcing him to reuoke his dedly decrees against the Christians, who died a miserable death, & in his torments ac­knowledged Christ Iesus, repenting his bloo­dy persecuting, the cause of this his wofull end. Siluester returned to Rome, & was the first romain Bishop that escaped martirdom; he died a confessor 234. He condemned the heresie of Arrius in the counsell of Nice.

[Page]Constantine, for the loue and zeale that he beare to the Church, with other Christian Princes, did endue the Pastours therof with many large benefits, riches, and possessions, who lyuing in wealth and ease, began to ad­uance themselues in dignity aboue their for­mer estate, putting rich miters vppon theyr heads, and taking vppon them the name of Archbishops.

At the first, in the Church, deuotion bred wealth, but the daughter choaked the mo­ther, & engendered the monster Ambition, who also like the cursed Impe of the bastard her mother, did at the ende deuoure her Grandmother Religion.

Marcus, a Romaine, commanded that the people and the Clergy, should on Sondayes, after the Gospell were reade, sing the Nice­an Creede, he builded Churches, and gaue many gifts vnto them, and dyed a Confes­sour. 335.

Iulius, the first, a Romaine, as Platina wry­teth, appoynted certaine notaries, to write the actts of other men, the which office is yet about the Pope; he caused also Churchyards to be made, & died a Confessour. 351.

Liberius, a Romaine, (as Hierome witnes­seth) for ambition, became an Arrian, for­sooke [Page 190] the true faith, and subscribed to Arrius [...]rticles, & dyed a Confessour. 366.

Faelix the second, a Romaine, was prefer­red by the Arrians, who deposed Liberius, & aduanced him, because they hoped he agreed with them in opinion; but in the second yere he was depriued of his seate, and Liberius re­stored, and in the yeare of our Lord 359. he with other spyrituall persons, was slaine in a tumult.

Damasus, a Spaniard, allowed Hieromes translation of the Bible (whose notary he had beene in his youth) he writ the lifes & deeds of the Byshops of Rome, and dyed a Con­fessour. 384.

Siricius, a Romaine, was the first that ad­mitted Monkes into orders, for pretence of single life, who before were neuer reckoned to be as Clarks, he mingled the Antiphones with the Psalmes, & dyed a Confessor. 399.

Anastasius, a Romayne, appoynted that whilst the Gospell was reading, the people should stand; he dyed a Confessour. 404.

Innocentius, borne in Albania, would haue the Sea of Rome to be iudged of none, and died a Confessour. 416.

Sozimus, a Grecian, suppressed the Noua­tian heretiques in Rome, and dyed a Con­fessour. [Page] 420.

Boni [...]acius, a Romaine, decreed that Saints euenings should be kept, and dyed a confes­sour. 426.

Caelestinus, borne in Campania, sent Ger­manus into England, Paladius into Scot­land, and Patricke with a certaine Segetian into Ireland, to roote out the Pelagian here­sie, he dyed a confessour. 435.

Sixtus the third, a Romain, called, the enri­cher of Churches, appoynted a yearely feast day, in honor of Peters chaines, to be kept at midsommer, & dyed a confessour. 440.

Leo the first, a Thuscane, decreed that men should worship the Images of the dead, and allowed the sacrifice of the Masse, he dyed a confessour. 462.

Hilarius, borne in Sardinia, made a law, that euery Minister should be put from his cal­ling, which maried either a widdow or diuor­ced vvoman, and not a mayde; he dyed a confessour. 469.

Simplicius, a Tiburtinian, shewed that the Church of Rome, was the chiefe Church of all, and commanded that none of the Clergy should acknowledge, that he held any eccle­siasticall benefice of a lay man; hee dyed a confessour. 484.

[Page 191]Felix the third, a Romain, decreed that the Clergy being accused of any matter, should haue dayes granted to returne their answer, and dyed a confessour. 494.

Gelasius, an Affrican, burned the bookes of the Manichees, he made Himnes, Prefaces, Collects, and Prayers; he seuered the Apo­crypha from canonicall Scripture, he dyed a confessour. 497.

Anastasius the second, a Romaine, commu­nicated with the Eutichians & Nestorians, he excommunicated the Emperor, & in the yere of our lord 499. on the stool of his ease­ment his bowels issued out of his belly, he di­ed a confessour, as Volaterranus writeth.

Symmachus, a Sardinian, was chosen Bi­shop, not without great dissention among the Clergy; Vspergensis sayth, that at his e­lection, one Laurence was set vp against him, wher-vpon many slaughters both of the peo­ple and Clergy were made in Rome, during the space of three yeares, but Symmachus preuailed, and dyed a martir. 514.

Hormisda, borne in Campania, excommu­nicated Anastatius the Emperor, because he said that it was an office due vnto the Empe­ror to cōmaund, & not to be at a Bishops cō ­mandement, he died a confessour. 523.

[Page]Iustinus the Emperor, as Isodorus writeth made Hormisda of an Archbishop, Patri­arch of Rome; from the time of Sylueste [...] the Romaine Prelates were Archbishops, fo [...] the space of 200. yeres, that is, from the yere 320. vntill the yeare 520. at what time they were first made Patriarchs by the Empero [...] Iustinus.

Iohn the first, a Tuscane; being the wor­thiest man of all this latter companie, gaue a testimony of his pure life, by suffering pa­ciently vndeserued death, at the commaun­dement of Theodoricus King of Italy. 627.

Faelix the fourth, borne in Samia, excom­municated the Patriarch of Constantinople, misdeemed of heresie, he commaunded, that they which lay a dying, should be anoynted with oyle, and dyed a Confessour. 530.

Boniface the second, a Romaine, seuered the Clergy from the Laity, by making the Quier in the Church, he dyed a Confessour. 532.

Iohn the second, a Romaine, called Mercu­ry for his eloquence, or the Embassadour of Iupiter; died a Confessour. 534.

Agapetus the first, a Romaine, was sent by Theodorus King of the Gothes, as his Em­bassadour, to pacifie Iustinianus the Empe­ [...]our, [Page 192] for the cruell murder of Amalasimitha, [...] noble Queene, and an excellent learned woman, whose worthy vertues the same Em­perour reuerenced highly, which he obtay­ned, and ordayned procession, dying a Con­ [...]essour. 535.

Syluerius, borne in Campania, by the pro­uocation of Vigilius a Deacon, who did ac­cuse him, that he would betray Rome to the Gothes, for the which he was banished into Pontus, by Theodora the Empresse, & An­tonina the wife of Bellizarius, he dyed in his exile being a Confessour. 527.

Vigilius a Romaine, the crafty accuser of Syluerius, was by these women aduanced to the Sea, but not keeping promise with the Empresse in some matters, she caused him to be brought to Constantinople & beaten, and banished, he appoynted that seruice should be sayd, the Priest standing with his face into the East, hee dyed a Confessour in Cilicia. 554.

Pelagius, a Romaine, to please Totylus king of the Gothes, made a publique decree, that it was needfull to haue the authority of the Prince, and consent of the people in cre­ation of Bishopps, hee dyed a Confessour. 566.

[Page]About this time Totyla King of the Gothe [...] besieged Rome, which being miserably op [...]pressed with extreame famine, was compel [...]led to yeld it himself to the sauage peple, vn [...]der which it continued 10. yeres. Vspergen [...]

Iohn the third, a Romaine, contrary to [...] predecessour, decreed that none ought to b [...] called chiefe Priest, or vniuersall Bishop, [...] dyed at Rome 577. In his time the Armeni­ans became Christians.

Benedictus the first, a Romaine, was Bishop when the Lombards spoiled Italy, he dyed for griefe, to see so many miseries in the Cit­ty of Rome. 582.

Pelagius the second, while the Citty was besieged, contrary to custome was made Bi­shop, without the Emperours commaunde­ment, and to pacifie him, sent one Gregory a Monke to Constantinople, he died. 590.

Gregory the great, a Romaine, of a Monk and a Deacon, was made Bishop, he was the best of all the chiefe Romaine Patriarks, for good life and doctrine; he turned his parents houses into monastries, & dedicated the first of them to Saint Andrew the Apostle, he ap­poynted chaunters for the day and night, he solemnized the feast of the purification of our blessed Lady with waxe candles (wherof [Page 193] [...] is called Candlemas day, hee builded sixe Monasteries of his owne cost in Sicilia, and [...]edicated Agathais Church, hee was the first [...]hat gaue pardons vppon certaine dayes, to [...]uch as came to Church.

He gaue stipends to three thousand maids, [...]ee allowed by decree the first 5. Counsells, [...]nd that the last will and tastament of euery man should be ratified, hee sent Augustine a Moncke to reclaime the English Saxons to [...]he church of Rome, hee remoued the right of the Archbishopricke from London, and [...]ranslated it to Canterburie.

In his tyme, Iohn, Patriarch of Constanti­nople, by the consent of Mauritius, vvould needes bee called the vniuersall Bishop, but Gregory would not agree to it.

Hee, (though otherwise learned and god­ [...]y) burdened the Church & the religion of God, with more ceremonies then had the Iewes; he writ Homilies, & expounded the most part of the Bible, & professed himselfe in his writings Seruus seruorum Dei, seruaunt to Gods seruaunts, shewing thereby, hovve farre he was from ambition; thys title hys successors continue.

He first commaunded Priests to single life, but vvhen hee sawe the inconueniences that [Page] came thereby, vvith sorrow and repentance he reuoked that. Caron.

Sabirianus a Thuscane, for the hate he ba [...] to his predecessor, after that hee had publi­shed certaine slaunders against him, cōman­ded that his bookes should bee burned, thy [...] was the last of the Romaine Patriarchs, be dyed, an. 606.

Boniface the third, obtained the suprema­cie of Phocas, an. 607. vvho murdered his Lord and Maister Mauritius, his wife and chyldren; since which time, they neuer cea­sed to augment theyr dignitie and power. In his decrees he writ, VVe will and commaund, he died, not enioying his rule one yeere.

Boniface the fourth, obtained of Phocas the Emperour, that the Church of Rome called Pantheon, which the heathen had de­dicated to their gods, should bee translated to the seruice of Christ, & called Alhallowes Church.

Theodatus, deuised a new-found alliance betweene the God-father and the God-daughter, and between the God-mother, & the god-sonne, calling it spiritual consangui­nitie, and therefore commaunded that they should not marry together; hee dyed in the third yeere of his popedome.

[Page 194]Boniface the 5. appoynted holy places & sanctuaries for theeues, murderers, & levvd persons, he sate in the sea 5. yeeres.

Honorius, borne in Campania, is commen­ded for his diligence and care in building of Churches, in his time Mahomet began to spread his religion in Turkie. He died, con­tinuing in his Popedome eleuen yeeres.

Zepherinus the 2, was confirmed pope, in the name of Heraclius the Emperor, by Isa­cius his Lieuetenant in Italy, who brake into the Church treasury, & tooke avvay the ri­ches therof; at this time the Zarazens wone from the Romains diuers kingdoms, by rea­son of Mahomets power. Zepherinus dyed ann. 636.

Iohn the 4. died, ruling scarce 2. yeeres.

Theodorus the first, a Grecian, builded many Churches in Rome, & golden shrines for Saints, he forbid that mariage made after a single vow should be broken, hee depriued Pyrrhus byshop of Constantinople for he­resie, and dyed, 646.

Martin the 1. cōmaunded Priests to shaue theyr heads, he deposed Paule, Patriarch of Cōstantinople, who being bound in chaines, was brought to Constantinople by the Em­peror Cōstantinus, where he died miserably; [Page] this Pope dyed, an. 656.

Eugenius the first, was much commended for the gouernment of his life, hee first de­creed that Bishops shoulde haue prisons for the punishment of theyr Priests. 662.

Vitellianus was an excellent Musitian, and brought singing & Organs into the church, he died 669.

Theodatus the second, a Romaine, of a Monke was made Pope, he died, 675.

Donus the first, beautified Saint Peters Church with pillars, and made subiect to Rome, the Church of Rauenna, Theodotus the Archbishop thereof agreeing thereto, which Church was called Alliocephalis, hee dyed, an. 679.

Agatho the first, commaunded the Popes decrees should be esteemed for as canonicall and authenticall as the vvritings of the Apo­stles, he died of the pestilence, an. 684.

Leo the second, was a very learned Monk, and skilfull in musick, hee died in the ende of his tenth month. 685.

Benedictus the second, vvas the first that tooke vpon him to be called Christs Vicar v­pon earth, he liued in the seat 10. monthes.

Iohn the fift, tooke consecration of three Bishoppes, Hostia, Portua, and Veliterne, [Page 195] which custome he appoynted to bee kept of his successors, he dyed, 687.

Conon a Thracian, beeing established, fell sicke and dyed, 689.

Sergius the first, an Assyrian borne, he ad­ded Agnus dei to the Masse, he died, 701.

Iohn the 6. a Germaine, in the time of fa­mine and vvar, nourished a great number of poore men with releefe, (beeing indeede the worthiest of al Popes for such almes-deeds) and redeemed diuers prisoners and captiues from bondage, he was onely elected Pope, because of Sergius adultery, and not confir­med, Sergius beeing afterward restored a­gaine, hee therefore is not reckoned among the Popes.

Iohn the seuenth a Grecian, beautified the Churches, and dyed, 707.

Sozimus the second, was so sore sick of the Gowte, that he dyed in 20. dayes; Naucle­tus writeth that he was poisoned by Diosco­rus, who contended with him.

Constantine the first, was the first that euer offered his Soueraigne his foote to kisse, hee cursed the Emperour Philippus, and all hys coyne, and mooued Anastasius to depose him, and put out his eyes. VVhen Kimre­dus and Offa, two Kings of the English Sax­ons [Page] for their pleasures came a voyage to Rome, beeing there, thys pope made them forsake their kingdomes, & become Monks, he dyed, ann. 715.

Gregory the second, mooued the subiects of the Emperour Leo to rebellion, because theyr Images were taken away, hee caused Spayne, Luguria, and Italy, to reuolt from him, and in the end, he excommunicated & deposed him; thus the Empire of the East, lost their title in Italy. Gregory died, 731.

Gregory the 3. vvrit to Boniface an Eng­lishman, that the priests ought to haue sha­uen crownes, to pray for the dead, & to offer sacrifice for them; he dyed, 742.

Zacharias was the first that gaue golden Coapes decked vvith pearles and stones to Churches, he commaunded that Gossips in no wise should marry together, hee was the first that attēpted to release subiects of theyr allegeance; for Pipinus, sonne of the ba­stard Charles Martell, obtained of this pope, that hee would depose Childericus from the crowne of Fraunce, and giue it him and hys heyres. He forced him to become a Monke, he changed Lachis king of Lombardie, Ca­rolorianus & others, from their royal estate, and made them become Monks, hee dyed, [Page 196] [...]vhen he had raigned 10. yeres, an. 752.

One Stephen a Deacon vvas chosen to [...]ucceed him, who died of the falling sicknes.

Stephen the second, craued of Pipin to re­ [...]enge his quarrell against Aristulphus king of Lombardie, for demaunding subsidie of him and his prelates, vvhich he did, and de­ [...]iuered the dominion of Rauenna vnto him, vvith all the Townes thereof, euen to the gulfe of Venice.

Hee vvas the first pope that vvas carried a [...]roade vpon mens shoulders, vvhich hys successors vse at this day; he dyed, 757.

Paule the first, the brother of Stephen, re­stored the Images which Constantine had abrogated, but Constantine defied his cur­ses, and withstood Images to his death, thys pope dyed, 767.

After thys, Charles the great beganne to raigne, vvho builded 24. Manasteries.

Cōstantine the second a lay man, by strong hand was made pope, by meanes of his bro­ther Desiderius, king of Lombardy, and To­tho duke of Nepetia, but because he had not taken ecclesiasticall orders, one Philip vvas chosen, but beeing weake in power, hee vvas forced to depose himselfe. Constantine ruled in the sea one yeere pontifically; in the end, [Page] a counsell of Italian and French Bishops de­posed him, and put him into an Abby, as a perpetuall prison, hauing before put out his eyes, ann. 708. VVhose brother, vnder pre­tence of praying, comming to Rome, rewar­ded the Pope with the like punishment.

Stephen the third, disanulled all that Con­stantine had doone, he brought to his subiec­tion the Church of Millaine, which euer be­fore had been free. He vvent once (that hee might bee called a follower of Christ) bare­footed in Procession, and dyed an. 772.

Hadrian the first, by the aide of Charles the Emperour, deliuered the sea of Rome from the perrill of all other Princes; hee was the first that with his leaden Bull, did honour theyr decrees, dispensations, and priuiled­ges.

Lodouicus Pius, the son of Carolus Mag­nus, confirmed his Father gift, adding to the Popes possessions Venice, and sundry other lands; he made Hadrian Prince of Rome & Italy, and ratified the Popes Empire; thys Pope dyed, ann. 799.

Leo the third, obtained of Charles the Em­perour, that the Romaines by an oath might become subiect to his gouernment, vvhich the Emperour graunted; vvherevpon, the [Page 197] Pope was so hated, that as he vvas going on Procession, diuers fell vpon him, and beate him from his horse, and stripping him out of his pontificall roabes, vvhypped him with [...]odds.

He made Charles Emperour vpon condi­tion, that hee should sweare perpetuall ho­mage and fealtie to the Church of Rome. Thys Leo dyed, ann. 816.

Stephen the fourth, considering that the prerogatiue which vvas giuen to Charles & his successors, might be a brideling to the sea of Rome, saide; that it vvas lawful for them to choose Popes without the Emperors au­thoritie, but not to consecrate him vvithout the presence eyther of him, or his Embassa­dors, he died, ruling but 8. months.

Paschal a Monck was chosen with the con­sent of the Emperour, and Lodouicus Pius yeelded vp to him all his authority in the e­lection of the Popes; this Pope dyed, anno. 824.

Eugenius the second, by his curteous be­hauiour and eloquence, got the Popedome from Zizimus, who had it graunted him, he raigned 4. yeres, and as some write, his eyes were pulled out by the Romaines, others, by the Priests that hated him.

[Page]Valentine the first, beeing a Decon, vvas made pope, he was a man of very quick wit, able to perswade, and diswade; some write that there was in him such excellent hope, that he vvould haue raigned in better order then the rest; he dyed the fourth day of hys raigne, and as it is supposed, he vvas poyso­ned by some of the clergy.

Gregory the fourth, refused to take the popedome before he were confirmed by the Emperour Lewes and that hee had restored them their right againe; by his meanes hee draue the Moores out of Italy, hee procured tenths to be giuen to churches, and visited solemne erection of Sepulchers, hee dyed, ann. 843.

Sergius the second, was the first pope that renounced his christian name giuen in Bap­tisme, and changed it, beeing called before, Swines snowt, and decreed that popes should change their names.

Leo the fourth, at Hostia gate ouercame the Sarazens when they had made a road in­to Italy; hee first beganne (contrary to the counsell at Aquisgrane) to decke the popes Crosse vvith precious stones, & cōmaunded it to be carryed before him, he died, 854.

In his time, Ethelwoldus, beeing first a [Page 198] Monke of single life, hauing a dispensation [...]rom the pope, left his calling, and became King of England, making it tributary to the [...]ea of Rome.

Iohn the 8. borne at Mentz, beeing a vvo­man was made Pope, her name was altered, and she was called Iohn English; shee sate in the pontificall seate at Rome, 2. yeeres & 6. months, her name at the first was Gilberta; vvho to inioy the company of a Monke whō she loued, trauailed with him in mans appar­rell to Athence, where she profited in all the Sciences; then shee came to Rome, still dis­guised, where for her learning she was much admired, & so made pope; but as some write, she was got with child by a Cardinall, & go­ing on procession to Lateran church, she was by the way deliuered of a childe, and dyed of the trauaile in the same place.

Benedict the 3. beeing first tried vpon the Posphirie stoole, was made Pope, and dyed 859.

Nicholas the first, put downe Iohn, Arch­bishoppe of Rauenna, for mayntayning the ancient liberty of his bishoprick, & brought that church into perpetuall bondage; he de­creed that christian Magistrates should haue no authoritie ouer a Prelate; Because, sayde [Page] he, the Pope is called God; he first bound the Clergie to single life; and dyed, 867.

Hadrian the second, vvas by the people & the Clergie made Pope before the Empe­rours Embassadors came; before this Pope dyed, in the yeere 873. it rained bloode 3. dayes at Brixia, and all the kingdome of Fraunce vvas miserably troubled vvith Lo­custs. Alphredus king of England tooke his crowne of the Pope, and vvas annoynted, vvhich neuer any King of England did be­fore, for vvhich hee was called the Popes a­dopted sonne.

Iohn the 9. was excellently learned both in Greeke and Latine, hee crowned 3. Empe­rours, Carolus Caluus, Carolus Balbus, and Carolus Crassus; he draue the Sarazens out of Italy and Sicilie, and died, 883.

At this time the Empire was translated frō the Frenchmen to the Germaines, by Caro­lus Crassus.

Martin the second, a Frenchman, the son of a coniuring priest, by craft and ill Artes got the Popedome, at his election the Emperors authority was not looked for, nor demaun­ded to his admission, he raigned about a yere and certaine months, & died, an. 884.

Hadrian the third, made a decree that the [Page 199] Emperours authority should no more take [...]lace in creating of popes, but that the voice of the Clergy and people of Rome shoulde [...]hoose them. He died suddenly. 888.

Stephen the 5, decreed that all the Canons of the Church of Rome, ought of necessitie [...]o be kept, and died, 892.

Formosus the first, being bishop of Portua, was chosen Pope, he raigned 6. yeres, his bo­dy & bones was taken vp by Sergius the 3. the 9. pope after him, & throwne into the ri­uer Tiber; after him, within 9. yeeres there were eleuen popes.

Boniface the 6. liued as pope but 25. daies, as Anselmus writeth, to bee remembred for nothing, but his quiet election, and happy in nothing, but in raigning so short a time.

Stephen the sixt, disanulled Formosus de­crees, and cancelled his acts, hee caused hys carkasse to be taken vp, and put all the pon­tificall rokes vpon it, and plucked them off againe, and then put lay mens apparrell vpon him, and cut off the two fingers of his right hand, with which he vsed to hold the Sacra­ment, & throwing them into Tiber, he com­maunded to bury his body againe, but not a­mong spirituall but lay mens bodies, he died after he had raigned one yeere onely.

[Page]Romanus the first, allowed the decrees of Formosus, and abrogated Stephens, hee ru­led but 3. months, and dyed, 898.

Theodorus the 2. was an vpholder and maintained of Formosus quarrell, and dyed the 20. day of his Popeship. 899.

Iohn the 10. sommoned a conuocation of 74. Byshops at Rauenna, & restored all the decrees of Formosus, openly cōdemning the acts of Stephen, he died, 901.

Benedict the 4. did nothing worthy of re­port, and dyed ann. 904.

Leo the first, being new made Pope, vvas violently cast into prison by one Christo­pher, who sought to make himselfe Pope, being his priest & Chapline. He raigned but 40. daies, & died through conceit of his in­gratitude, vpon whom he had heaped so ma­ny benefits. 904.

Christopher the 1. was thrust out by one Sergius in the 7. month of his raigne, and as Platina sayth, compelled to be a Monke, but afterward, he was pulled out of the Monaste­rie by the same Sergius, and cast into prison, vvhere he dyed.

Sergius the 3. vvhen he was but a Deacon attempted the popedome, and vvas chosen vvith Formosus, but beeing weake, fled into [Page 200] Fraunce, and espying his opportunitie, by the ayde of Charles Simplex, K. of Fraunce, and Adelbert, Marquesse of Thuscia, hee re­turned secretly to Rome, and deposed Chri­stopher his reuenge vpon Formosus. Read before in Formosus raigne. he died 913.

Anastasius the 3. did nothing good nor e­uill in his time, when he was Pope the bodie of Formosus was founde by certaine Fishers in the riuer Tiber, and so taken vp and buri­ed in S. Peters Pallace. Anastasius died, 915

Laudo the first, his life as Platina saith, was so obscure, that some doe not reckon him among the Popes, especially Vincentius. He begot Pope Iohn the 11. in detestable adul­tery. Petrus Premonstratensis.

Iohn the eleueth vvas made Pope, by the meanes of Theodola a Curtezane, for the loue she bare to him, he ouercame the Sara­zens that wasted Calabria, Apulia, and Italy. Hee was smothered by Guido Marquesse of Thusca his souldiers, which Guido, married the daughter of Theodora, that shee might aduaunce her base son by Sergius the thyrd, vvho vpon thys Popes death, vvas elected, but for that the agreement of the people and the Clergie was not certaine, he was deposed the same day.

[Page]Leo the sixt, established peace in Italy, and after he had raigned 7. months, he was poi­soned by Marozia.

Stephen the seauenth, liued in peace tvvo yeeres, and as Crantius writeth, he was poy­soned.

Iohn the 12. raigned 5. yeeres, while his mother Marozia ruled as wel the estate tem­porall, as spirituall in Rome.

Leo the 7. lyued quietly, and did nothing vvorthy of remembrance, hee dyed, Anno, 941.

Stephen the 8. a Germaine borne, was greatly vexed with ciuill seditions amongst the Romaines, he died, anno. 944.

Martin the third, repaired the Churches, & was very beneficiall to the poore, and dili­gent in reforming of outward manners, hee dyed, ann. 947.

Agapetus the second, caused Otho the first to vvage warre against Berengarius a Mar­quesse of Italy, promising him therefore the kingdome of the Romaines, as Sabellicus writeth, he died, an. 954.

Iohn the 13. was of so loose and intempe­rately life, that the Emperour, by the con­sent of the Prelates, deposed him, and sette vp Leo the 8. but when the Emperour was [Page 201] gone, those harlots that were Iohns cōpani­ons, promised the Nobles of Rome the trea­sures of the Church to depose Leo, & place Iohn againe, which they did.

He decreed, that the Emperor should euer be crowned at Rome by the Pope; but as hee was solacing himselfe without Rome a certaine night, with the wife of one (that scor­ned to be called a well contented man, id est, a Cuckold;) he was killed forthwith in the 10. yeare of his Popedome; Of him came the pro­uerbe, as merry as Pope Iohn.

Leo the 8. who fled to the Emperour, when he was deposed, after the death of Iohn was restored againe; he gaue to Otho authority absolute to elect the pope, as once Charls the great did, after a yere & 3. moneths, he died.

Iohn the 14. was quietly chosen, he allured the kingdom of Poland to accept him as su­preame head of all Churches; in this time they began to giue proper names to bels, and he called the great bell of Leteran, after his owne name, & dyed anno 973.

Benedictus the 6. was imprisoned in Castel Angelo, by Cynthius, a man of great power, and there hee was strangled, or as some say poysoned; in his time beganne the name of Cardinals to be vsed, as Carion reporteth.

[Page]Donus the second, gouerned indifferently, deseruing neyther great praise nor dispraise for a yeare and sixe moneths; he dyed anno 975.

Benedictus the fifth, was deposed by Otho, that he might restore Leo; he dyed in exile, anno 964.

Boniface the seauenth, doubting his safety at Rome, fled to Constantinople, and in his absence, the Romaines made one Iohn the 15. Pope, but at his returne, he tooke Iohn, thrust out his eyes, put him in prison, and pined him to death, but shortly after he dyed of the falling sicknes, and after his death his body was dispightfully vsed.

Iohn the 15. was Pope eight moneths, in the absence of Boniface.

Iohn the 16, as soone as he was Pope, be­gan to beare deadly hatred against the Cler­gy, and they likewise abhorred him, because he neglected the dignity of the Romaine sea, and bestowed the riches vpon his kindred and harlots, which fault Platina and Stella say, hath continued among the Clergy vnto our time; hee dyed the eight yeare of hys raigne.

Iohn the 17. was very well learned, & pub­lished diuers books, he was likewise expert in [Page 202] warlike affaires; in his time Crescentius the Consull, went about to make himselfe King of Rome, wherfore he departed into Hetru­ria; but Crescentius fearing that he went for the Emperor, sent for him to returne, which he did, and was receaued with all humility by Crescentius, who falling downe before him, kissed his feete, and craued pardon; This Iohn dyed anno 995.

Gregory the fifth, beeing the Emperours Cosen, was by his authority made Pope, whō Crescentius the Consull with the people de­posed, and established Iohn the 18. Bishop of of Placentia. Gregory complained to the Emperour, who ouercame Crescentius and killed him, and caused Iohns eyes to be put out, whereof he dyed; Gregory dyed the 3. yeare of his Popedome.

Iohn the 18. was very learned and rich, but proud and couetous, which was his ouer­throw; he dyed as before.

Syluester the second, a Frenchman, addic­ted wholy to deuilish arts, be tooke himselfe to the Author thereof both body and soule, who told him that he should not dye, vntill he sayd Masse in Ierusalem, wherfore he per­swaded himselfe, of long life, as minding not to come there; but saying Masse in the Pal­lace [Page] of the holy Crosse, which was called Ie­rusalem, in a terrible shiuering and quaking, he dyed miserably anno 1003.

Iohn the 19. by those means that Syluester vsed, came to be Pope, who after hee had raigned fiue moneths, was poysoned by his owne friends.

Iohn the 20. likewise by Magick got to be Pope, and was altogether giuen to idlenes, (as Platina saith) he dyed in the 4. yeare o [...] his raigne.

Sergius the fourth, was a pleasant, merry, & familiar companion; in his time was great pestilence and famine in Italy, and in Lo­raine a fountaine turned into blood; he dy­ed anno 1012.

Benedictus, the eight, by the Magicall charmes of his Nephew Theophilactus, who was Syluesters Scholler, obtayned the Pope­dome, and was therein defended by Henry Bauarius, because he had bestowed on him the crowne emperiall, but after his death, the Cardinalls deposed him, and set vp ano­ther, but hee vvith money compounded, and was restored agayne; hee dyed anno 1025.

Iohn the 21. brother of the former Be­nedict, being a lay man, was made Pope by [Page 203] the coniuring of Theophilactus, he so con­tinued 11. yeares.

Benedict the ninth, who before was Theo­philact, as he aduanced his vncles by his Ma­gicke Arts, so now hee brought to passe by them to succeede in theyr dignities; he after the death of Conradus, sought to disinherite his sonne Henry the 3. of the Empire, and to plant in his sted Peter King of Hungary, to whom hee sent the crowne of the Empire, with this verse, Petra dedit Romam Petro, tibi Papa coronam.

Henry ouercame Peter, and tooke him pri­soner, and sette forward to Rome, which the Pope hearing of, sold his Popeship to Iohn Gratian, after called Gregory the 6. in the meane time the Romains deposed Benedict, & placed in his sted Iohn Bishop of Saba.

Syluester the third, King of Saba, enioyed the roome but 49. daies, and was by the Em­peror driuen out, and constrained to returne to his Bishopricke.

Gregory the 6, learned the Magicall Sci­ences of Syluester the 2. in the seauenth yere of the Emperour Henry the third, Benedict, Syluester, and Gregory, made themselues 3. seuerall seates in Rome, to whom Iohn Gra­ [...]ian came, and perswaded them euery one [Page] to take a peece of mony and giue ouer their titles, which they did.

For this cause, the Romaines created him Pope, called Clement the second; which the Emperour hearing of, came to Rome, and condemned the three former Popes, and al­lowed of Gratianus.

He was poisoned the ninth month after his creation.

Damasus the second, obtained the Sea by force, without the Emperours commaunde­ment, but the 30. day after he was poysoned.

Leo the 9, Bishop of Toledo, was betraied to the Normaines, by Hildebrand and Theo­philact, who hardly escaping their rage, at his returne at Rome was poysoned by Bra­zutus, the fifth yeare of his Popedome.

Victor the second, a Germaine, when hee had raigned two yeares, was likewise poyso­ned of Brazutus.

Stephen the ninth, the Duke of Lo­rains brother, caused the Church of Rome (which for 200. yeares had defied the supre­nacy of Rome) to becom subiect vnto it; he in a counsell at Florence, commaunded ma­ny things against Dualities, Pluralities, and Totquots, but he was poysoned by Brazu­tus, at Hildebrands request.

[Page 204]Benedict the tenth, was made Pope con­trary to the oath, which the Clergy made to Hildebrand, who deposing Benedict, set vp Gerhard Bishop of Florence, naming him Nicholas the second. Benedict liued an out­law after he had beene Pope 9. moneths.

Nicholas the second, was by the meanes of Hildebrand poisoned of Brazutus; he first ordayned that Cardinals should choose the Pope, he condemned Berengarius, & com­pelled him to reuoke what he taught of the sacrament.

Alexander the second, was made Pope by Hildebrands meanes, against the Emperors mind, against whom the Lombards set vp by the Emperours consent, one Cadolus who came to Rome, but with his great army was put to flight; the Emperour sent the Arch­bishop of Coleine with his authority to de­bate the matter, but Hildebrand withstoode it; in the end the Pope of his owne volunta­ry sayde openly, that hee would no longer continue in the Sea, without the Emperours good will.

Hildebrand vpon this, with a troupe of ar­med Souldiours tooke the Pope, and beate him, because he had so protested; and casting him into prison, alowed him but 5. shillings a [Page] day, retaining all the rest of the reuenewes to himselfe. Alexander in this misery dyed, and the same houre Hildebrand vvas installed Pope by his Souldiers, without consent o [...] the people or Clergy.

Gregory the 7. first called Hildebrand (as his companion Brazutus and Beuno writes) poysoned sixe or seauen popes before hee came to the place, he excommunicated the Emperour Henry the 4. without lawfull ac­cusation, canonicall citation, or iudiciall or­der, & caused his peeres to reuolt from him, giuing his crowne to Rodolphus.

The Emperour with his wife and his sonne in the depth of vvinter, wayted 3. dayes and three nights at the popes gates, fasting from morning to night, humbly suing for pardon vpon his knees, but the pope would neyther pardon nor absolue him, but vpon hard con­ditions; all which the Emperor promised to performe by his hand and seale, yet was no [...] restored.

This pope commanded the Saterday to be fasted, and tooke away the crowne from the King of Poland, but Henry the Emperour anno Domini 1083. depriued him of his place, and placed in his sted Clement the third. Hildebrand forsaken of all, fledde to [Page 205] Salerne, where he ended his life in great mi­sery. 1086.

Victor the third, defended Gregories acts against the Emperour, and Clement, erected by him; hee was poysoned (as Harmanus, Carsulanus, and Praemonstratensis writeth) by his Deacon, who at Masse-time put the poyson into the Chalice.

Vrban the second, was made pope by Ma­tilda, and the Norman Lords in Apulia, in despight of the Emperour; hee excommu­nicated Clement the third, established by the Emperour, and the Emperour himselfe, on the other side, Clement excōmunicated him as an vsurper.

Vrban, first caused all that should take or­der, to sweare with this clause, So God helpe me and the holy Euangelist; Hee dyed anno 1099. the same yeare dyed also Clement the third, who in his time saw the death of three popes.

Paschall the second, an Italian, would not take the place vpon him, vntill the people had cryed three times, Saint Peter chooseth thee woorthy man Raynard, for so vvas hee called before; hee did prouoke and arme Henry the fift to rebell against the Emperor his father; he dyed. 1118.

[Page]Gelasius the 2. chosen without the Empe­rors consent, was deposed, & in his sted was set vp Gregory the 8. who dyed in exile.

Calixtus the second, of the royall bloods of England and Fraunce, continued his predi­cessours excōmunication against the Empe­rour, with whom he tooke peace. Gregory the 8. whom he had made Pope yet lyuing; the Emperour yeelded vp his right to the Pope, and was absolued; he tooke Gregory and put him into a monastry, hee dyed of a feauer. 1125.

Honorius the second, of base birth, for his learning was made Pope; hee by his Car­dinall condemned all the English Clergy of adultry which had wyfes, and was taken him selfe in one night in the same fault; Honori­us dyed anno 1130.

Innocentius the second, sought to suppresse Roger Duke of Sicilia, for saying that he was King of Italy, whom the Pope in a battaile ouercame, but the Duke his sonne tooke the Pope and his Cardinals, in this time the Ro­maines created Leo his sonne Pope, and cal­led him Anacletus; By the aydes of Phillip King of Fraunce, & Lotharius of Germany, he ouerthrew Anacletus with Duke Roger; for which he crowned Lotharius Emperor.

[Page 206]He gaue to Reginald his chiefest Captaine, the Dukdom of Apulia, which was the inhe­ritance of Roger; but after Reginalds death, Roger claimed his right, & being withstood, he tooke the pope, who for his ransom made him King of both Sicills, and so since that time the kingdom of Sicill is called S. Peters patrimony; he dyed anno 1143.

Celestine the second, a Thuscane, dyed the sixth moneth of his Popeship.

Lucius the second, disanulled the office of Patricianship in Rome, which the Romaines being weary of the Popes yoake, had made in the time of Innocentius, because the Pops tooke vpon them all sway within the Coun­try and abroade, about which, he was by the Cittizens slaine in a tumult 1145. hauing not raigned a yeare.

Eugenius the third, for his learning vvas had in great reuerence, yet seeking to sup­presse the Patrician, he was driuen from Ti­burie into Fraunce, and returning to Rome dyed. 1152.

Anastasius the fourth, of a Cardinall becam pope, he died in the second yere of his pope­dome.

Hadrian the fourth, an Englishman, before called Nicholas Breakspeare, suffered the [Page] Emperor Frederick the 1. to hold his stirop, and was angry with him for mistaking it; he dyed 1159. being choaked with a flye as he dranke water; he made King Henry the se­cond of England, Lord of Ireland.

Alexander the third, was chosen pope, but not by all parties, and therfore the Emperor appoynted Octauius, whom he called Victor the fourth, after whose death three Popes succeeded in order, Paschalis, Calixtus, and Innocentius, against Alexander; hee trod vpon the Emperours necke, who sued be­ing excommunicated to be vbsolued; & dy­ed. 1181.

Lucius the third, a Thuscane, borne of an honourable house, enioyed the popedome with much trouble; he died at Verona, anno 1185.

Vrbanus the third, for his seditious & trou­blesome dealing, was called Turbanus; hee dyed anno 1188.

Gregory the eight, was carefull for the re­couery of the Holy land, vvho going to stirrre vp the Pisans and Genowais in this matter, he was poysoned when he had raig­ned two moneths.

Clement the third, after the death of VVil­liam King of Sicill, who had no heire, clay­med [Page 207] it to bee tributary to the Church of Rome, but the people chose Trācred, bastard to King VVilliam, who withstoode the pope and his forces; he dyed. 1191.

Celestine the third, crowned Henry the sixt Emperour, and put the crowne vpon his head with his foote, whilst hee stooped, and then spurned it off, saying, I haue power to make and vnmake Emperours at my pleasure; he dyed. 1198.

Innocentius the third, enraged that Phil­lip vvas made Emperour agaynst his vvill, sayde, Eyther shall the Pope spoyle Phillip of his crowne and Empire, or else shall Phillippe take from the Pope his Apostolicall dignitie; Hee stirred vppe Otho a Duke against him, and by another Otho he vvas slayne; who vvas afterwardes made Emperour by the Pope.

He excommunicated Otho, and spoyled him of al his estate, creating in his place Fre­derick the second; he also excommunicated and cursed king Iohn of England, but by sub­mission hee receaued his crowne of Pandol­phus the Popes Legate; he dyed. 1216.

Honorius the third, graunted Archbishops power to giue pardons, faculties, dispen­sations, dualities, pluralities, within theyr [Page] Diocesse, being sicke of the spirituall drop­sie, he dranke vp the treasures gf the Clergy, and had two Prebends, of euery cathedrall Church in England, one of the Bishops sti­pend, and the other from the Charter, as Ma­theus Parisius writeth; in his time it rayned blood for the space of three dayes in Rome, he dyed. 1227.

Gregory the ninth, maintayned the quarell of Honorius, against the Emperour whom he excommunicated and cursed three times, as Abbas Vspergensis, wryteth; vvhilst the Emperour was warring in the Holy land, he tooke Apulia into his possession; he made the diuision in Italy, betweene the Guelphs and Gibelines; he died for thought that the Emperours power preuailed agaynst him. 1241.

Caelestine the fourth, an aged man, purpo­sed to pursue the quarrell against Frederick, but that he was poysoned the 18. day of his raigne.

Innocentius the fourth, deposed Frederick from the Empire, & cursed his sonne Conra­dus; in his time by a counsell held at Lions, it was decreed that the Cardinals should ride on their trapped Iennets throgh the streets, and weare red hats, & crimson robes, to sig­nifie, [Page 208] sayth Parisius, that they are ready to spend theyr blood for the catholique fayth, (but as Platina wryteth) for the honour of their estate.

Robert Grosted Bishop of Lincolne, dete­sted and defied both in preaching and wry­ting this popes couetousnes, pride, and tira­ny, nor would admit an vnlearned youth to a canoniship of Lincolne, but rebuked the pope for it in a letter.

Cestensis in his seauenth booke, wryteth, that when this Bishop of Lincolne dyed, a voyce was heard in the popes Court, saying, Veni miser in iudicium Dei; Come thou wretch to be iudged of God; and that the pope was found dead in his bed the next day, & a blew stroke vpon his body, as though he had been beaten with a staffe, anno 1253, he being at Naples, and gaping for the kingdome of Si­cill.

Alexander, the fourth, persecuted the King of Sicill, and in his time anno 1258. Richard Earle of Cornwall, sonne to King Iohn of England, was chosen King of Al­maine for his great treasure, and the pope procured that he was chosen Emperour, but he did that closely, because hee had likewise for the same matter taken a bribe of Alphon­sus [Page] King of Spaine, wher-vpon a Poet made this verse; Nummus ait pro me, nubet Cornu­bia Romae.

Thus money sayth, for loue of me,
Cornwall with Rome shall linked be.

This Pope dyed anno Domini. 1262.

Vrban the fourth, before Patriarch of Ieru­salem, as soone as he was pope commaunded Souldiours out of Fraunce, to subdue Man­fred the enemy of their Church; vvhile this pope was from Rome at Pruse, the Romains coueting their old liberties, made a new kind of officers, calling them Branderesies, vvho had power of life, & death in their hands.

Mascaeus sayth, that a blazing starre appea­red three nights before the death of Vrban, and ceased the same night he dyed. 1264.

Clement the fourth, before he came to be Pope, was a maried man, and had three chil­dren by his wife; hee sent for Charles Earle of Aniow, to bring an Army into Italy, where he slew Manfred, and was made King of Sicill and Ierusalem, vpon condition that he should pay yerely to the pope forty thou­sand crownes; hee dyed at Viterbium, 1270. and the seate was void two yeares.

Gregory the 10, of the house of Millaine, made peace betweene the Ven [...]tiuns and [Page 209] Genevvayes hee excommunicated the Flo­rentines.

After the Empire had beene voyde a long time, he made Rodolphus Earle of Haspurg Emperour, because he should maintaine ci­uill dissention; & after that Alphonsus king of Spayne had bestovved huge summes of money in hope to be Emperour, (especially the Duke of Cornvvall beeing deade) the Pope appeased him with words enough, but no recōpence in mony toward his charges.

Hee died at Arelium in the fift yeere of his popeship, & is there buried, who neuer cam to Rome, nor saw it. Parisius.

Innocentius the 5. dyed the same yere that Gregory did, raigning but 6. months.

Hadrian the 5. died at Viterbiū ere he was cōsecrated Pope, 40. daies after his election.

Iohn the 22. a Phisition by profession, suc­coured with money and ecclesiasticall ly­uings, diuers young men that vvere toward in learning, and especially the poorest. Hee prophecied by the course of starres, that hee should lyue long, but vvhilst he vvas vaine­ly vaunting thereof, the Chamber vvherein he vvas, fell down suddenly; Valerius calleth the place which fel down, Gamesters hall, and Stella the Popes precious Chamber, for the [Page] gorgiousnes therof, he raigned 8. months.

Nicholas the 3. by his falshoode, brought Flaunders, Bononia, and the royalty of Ra­uenna, (vvhich long time belonged to the Emperour) vnder his owne power, he dyed suddenly of an Apoplexie, without speaking any word. ann. 1281.

Martin the 4. bestowed great priuiledges vpon the begging Friers; and as hee was ta­king his accustomed recreation, vvith hys Cardinalls, (as Carsulanus writeth) a certain secret disease came vppon him, whereof hee dyed, an. 1285.

This Pope, in the first yeere of his raigne, receiued into his familiarity, the Concubine of his predecessor Nicholas; but to auoyde the like chaunce that his child had by her, (if he should haue any) which was borne vvith hayre, and clawes like a beast, he commaun­ded all Beares vvhich were painted in his Pallace, by a pope that vvas of Vrsinus house, to be blotted out, to auoyde in his concubine the sight therof, vvhich he thought wrough [...] great effect in conception.

Honorius the 4. decreed, that the Carme­lites putting of their rich robes, should weare white weeds, & that they should bee called our Ladies bretheren, he dyed. 1288.

[Page 210]Nicholas the 4. loued all men alike, and thought that he ought no more dutie to his kindred then to other; who seeing Rome in his time sore turmoiled with ciuill dissenti­ons, died vvith greefe. 1291.

Caelestine the 5. after the seate had been a­boue 2. yeres voyd, got the place, at the first time he sate in the Consistory, he went about exactly to reforme the church of Rome, that the Clergie might be example to other, hee thereby purchased great hatred. VVherfore hee resigned his Popeshyp, and determined to liue an Ermite, as Massaeus vvriteth, but he vvas imprisoned by Boniface, and dyed 1292. Of thys Pope sprang a sect of Monks called Caelestines.

Boniface the 8. raysed great vvarres in Ita­ly, and excommunicated the French King; giuing the title of the kingdome to the Em­perour, that by this meanes, (as Carion wri­teth) the Germaines and Frenchmen might [...]all to dissention; he was taken by them who fled for feare of him, and cast in prison, where he dyed, 1304. Hee entred as a Foxe, hee [...]aigned as a Lyon, & dyed like a dog.

Hee vvas the first that deuised the Iubilie, [...]ccording to the Iewes tradition.

Benedict the 11. the son of a shepheard, of [Page] an excellent vvit, and very eloquent, applied himselfe to asswage all the ciuill broyles in Italy. VVhen hee was first made Pope, hys mother came to see him, being aparrelled by the Senate in seemely order, but he did dys­daine to call her mother, vntill shee had put on her homely apparrell again; Then, quoth he, I knowe this Matron, for shee is my mother. Thys reporteth Leander Albertus.

After he had appeased those braules which his predecessors had procured, he dyed, and as some say, poysoned by a figge which vvas giuen him, ann. 1305. Of him was written these verses.

Aut rem peruerte, maledic, malefac, maledicte.
A re nomen habe Benedic, benefacte, Benedicte,

Clement the fift, translated the Court of Rome to Auinia in Fraunce, an. 1505. and there it continued 70. yeres, to the great da­mage of the Romaines. At his coronation▪ vvas Phillip King of Fraunce, & his brother Charles, and Iohn Duke of Brittaine, where Duke Iohn, and twelue more, by a wall tha [...] vvas ouerthrowne by the prease of people▪ were slaine, the king was somewhat hurt, and the Pope being thrust besides his horse, los [...] a Carbuncle stone out of his Miter, valued at 6000. florences.

[Page 211]After diuers decrees of superstition, hee di­ed of the bloody flixe at Rocca Maura, a Tent vpon Rhodanus, ann. 1314. the seat vvas voyd 3. yeeres.

He caused Frances Dandalus, a noble man of Venice (vvho came to sue for fauour for the Venetians) to be bound with a chaine a­bout the necke, and like a dog to lyue vnder his table, feeding vpon what fell frō hys tren­cher, ere he could asswage his fury. Sabel.

Iohn the 23. a French-man was chosen, to him Charles the faire (as Sleidan vvriteth) first of all permitted to leuie tenths vpon the Ecclesiasticall reuenues, & that they should deuide the booty betweene them.

Hee maintained (and was therewith char­ged in the Counsell of Constance) that the soule of man dyeth together with the body; which he neuer purged himselfe of, he dyed in the 90. yeere of his age. 1335.

Benedict the 12. renued the curses of pope Iohn against the Emperour Lodouicke, yet in the end he absolued him, notwithstanding that the Kings of Fraunce and Naples willed him to the contrary, and therefore they cal­led Benedict the defender of an Hereticke.

Clement the sixt, excommunicated all the Princes, Lordes, and Bishops, that consented [Page] to the dooings of Lewes, (as Naucler vvry­teth) to deface the Empire, hee created Vi­counts, and made them Viccars thereof, and the Emperor on the othreside, appoynted o­ther Viccars for the Church.

Thys Emperour, vvas by the Popes pro­curement poysoned, and his sonne Charles vvho succeeded him, morgaged to the E­lectors, the common reuenewes of the Em­pire, which they enioy to this day; for they cōpelled Charles to take an oath, that these pledges should neuer be reclaymed, vvhere­by at length, the Empire thus decayed, the Turke inuaded the Church of Christ, and made great spoyle thereof.

Thys Pope, vvhile his seruaunts vvent to dynner, leauing onely his chamberlaine with him, fell downe suddenly, and dyed of an im­postume, ann. 1352.

Innocent the 6. Doctor of both lawes, and of an Aduocate made Bishop of Claramont, and of the Cardinall of Hostia and Peniten­tiarie to the Pope, was made Pope himselfe, vvho vvhile he vvas preparing an Armie a­gainst the Turkes, he dyed for griefe that the Romaines vvere at ciuill dissention, ann. 1362.

Thys pope, (according to most vvriters) [Page 212] vvas a very niggard, but for maintenaunce of vvarres very prodigall.

Vrban the 5. vvas made Pope at Auerino, to him Briget a vvoman of Swelande came, vvhen he vvas at Rome, and by reason of a vow which she had made, shee desired that there might bee religious persons both men and vvomen, of the order of S. Briget. Hee vvas poysoned, ann. 1371.

In his time the order of Iesuites & Scope­tines first beganne, as Iohannes Palionedorus vvriteth.

Gregory the 11. vvas made Cardinall at 18. yeeres of age, by his vncle Clement, & vvas very learned; he excommunicated the Florentines, and demanded tenths through­out the Empire; he dyed of extreame paine in the bladder, 1378. he remoued the court from Fraunce to Rome againe.

Vrbanus the 6. vvas a poore man, and very obscure, Iane, Queene of Sicill, yeelded her kingdome at his commaundement, & Otho Duke of Brunsmier & Prince of Tarentum, offered him the like, which he vnkindly re­quited, for by his meanes, Otho was murde­red, and Iane imprisoned, where shee vvas strangled to death by one Duke Charles, vvho violently got the kingdome of Sicill.

[Page]This Pope, as Stella saith, was a crafty man, and one that would seeke to reuenge any in­iury do one vnto him, he dyed in Rome, an. 1390. poysoned as some thinke, after hee had misgouerned the popedome 10. yeeres, none beeing sorry for his death. Hee dead, his nephew Fraunces was thrust from all his lyuing, and despised of all men, according to the saying, cū moritur praesus, cognatio tota fit exul. It is thought, that in his time one Ber­tholdus Swart, an Alchumist & a Monke, in the North part of Germanie, first deuised & contriued Gunnes, to the hurte of many a braue souldiour.

Clement the 7. a Frenchman, was chosen by diuers Cardinalls, who fled from Vrban in the third month of his election, fearing his crueltie. He was ambitious needy, and yet very prodigall, (as Theodoricus writeth,) by reason of these two Popes at once seated, all Christendome was deuied, some taking part with Vrban, and some with Clement, he died 1392.

Boniface the 9. being scarce 20. yeeres old, was made Pope by cōsent of those Cardinals that remained at Rome; hee could neyther write nor sing, as Theodoricus witnesseth, and nothing during his time could bee demaun­ded, [Page 213] were it neuer so vniust & absurd, but he would grant it for money.

There was neuer any Pope did beare such rough sway ouer the Romaines as hee dyd, as Cranzius writeth, hee canonized Briget borne in Sweazeland, and ann. 1404. he di­ed of the Collick and stone.

Benedict the 13. before called Peter of the moone, before he was Pope, disputed against such authority, & the Clergy, he died 1424.

Innocent the 7. was much troubled about a murder that his Nephewe Lewes dyd in Rome, which he maintained, and therfore he & his Cardinalls were hotely pursued to Vi­terbium: but commaunding the halfe of ec­clesiasticall liuings both in Fraunce & Eng­land, hee tooke the foyle (as Gaguinus sayth) and died shortly after at Rome. an. 1407.

Gregory the 12. Patriarch of Constanti­nople, promised that he would renounce the bishopricke, if Benedictus likewise dyd not refuse to renounce also. But when Benedic­tus fled into Spaine, Gregory reuoked hys promise; whereupon, by a Counsell they were both deposed, and in theyr sted, Alex­ander the 5. was chosen, and Gregory for griefe dyed suddenly. 1415.

Alexander the 5. vvas a Franciscan Frier, [Page] and vvoorthily called Alexander (as Platina sayth) because hee being but a beggerly and begging Fryer, might now be matched with the proudest Prince in Europe, for prodiga­litie and courage; vvherevpon hee vvould oftentimes say, I am a rich Bishop, a poore Car­dinall, and a beggerly Pope. He was poysoned by his phisition Marcillius Parmensis, as Bap­tista Panaelius reporteth.

Iohn the 24. caused this Alexander to bee poysoned. VVhen hee vvas in Bononia, hee threatned the people and Clergy to bee re­uenged, if they did not chuse a pope accor­ding to his minde, and of many named, hee allowed none; vvhereupon hee was desired to appoynt one. Giue me (said he) the robe of Saint Peter, and I wil bestow it vpon him that shall be pope; which hee then put vpon himselfe, and sayd, In the name of God, amen, I Balthazar Cossa am Pope; which they durst not reproue, although mislike.

In the Counsell at Rome, at two sundry times, an Owle sitting vpon a beame of the Temple, and fastening her eyes vppon the pope, did with her noyse salute him; where­vppon it brake vp, and nothing was doone, nor so much as the Owle chased avvay, as Nicholas Clemanges writeth. This pope dyed [Page 216] being deposed. ann. 1419.

Martin the fift vvas made pope, by the de­cree of the counsell of Constance, vvhich to establish him, did depriue Benedict, Grego­ry, and Iohn. He dyed at Rome, of the falling sicknes, an. 1431. & was buried in a tombe of Brasse, in Lateran.

Eugenius the 4. refused to come to the Counsell of Basill, because it was sayde that a Counsell was aboue the pope, and therefore he was deposed, and condemned for an He­retick, and Amadeus Duke of Subandia, an Heremite, was placed in his stead; hee dyed, ann. 1446.

Faelix the 5. before a Duke, being an aged man before he came to be pope, lyued to see the day that the sonnes of his sons, matched in marriage with Kings daughters, and in the end, vvent into the vvildernesse vvith sixe Knights, to leade an Hermites life.

This pope beeing demaunded vvhether he kept any hounds? and to shewe them, hee brought thē that asked him to a place where a great company of poore people sate down together at dinner, saying; Behold, these are my hounds, which I feede daily, with the which I h [...]pe to hunt for the kingdom of heauen, he de­posed himselfe for vnitie sake, & died, 1447.

[Page]Nicholas the 5. in one yeere gotte to bee Bishop of Bononia, Cardinall and Pope, in his time the Turke vvone Constantinople He reuiued with great diligence learning & knowledge, (which was thē almost drowned vvith barbarous sophistrie,) and appoynted stipends for the maintenaunce of learned men; he dyed, ann. 1455.

Calixtus the 3. vvas an old impotent man, he decreed that no man should appeale from the Pope to a generall Counsell, and dyed ann. 1458.

Pius the 2. among the learned Popes, hee was most learned, and a most diligent vvri­ter, he vvas made Poet Laureat in his youth by Frederick the third. Volateranus writeth, that ambition did ouerthrow many vertues in him, among many of his prouerbiall sen­tences, he left this in vvriting, There is a great cause why the Clergy should be depriued of ma­riage, but greater cause why they should be suf­fered to marry. he dyed. ann. 1464.

Paule the second, being made Pope, gaue his minde vvholy (as Volateranus wryteth) to ambition, riotousnes, and pleasure, he di­ed suddenly of an Apoplexie. 1470.

Sixtus the fourth, in the space of 2. yeeres, (for he raigned no longer) spent of himselfe [Page 215] alone in riot, 200000. crownes, and becam in debt aboue threescore thousand, hee dyed at 28. yeeres of age, beeing vvasted through his incontinent lyfe. 1474.

Innocentinus the 8. was altogether vnlear­ned, yet to get money, he found out the title written vppon Christes Crosse in three lan­guages, which was found hidden in a vvall; also the yron head of the speare where-with his side was wounded; and before any one might see or kisse these reliques, hee shoulde pay well for it, he dyed 1492.

Alexander the sixt, first called Rodericus Borgia, was a riotous tyrant, and in league with the deuill for the papacie. He made his sonne Duke of Valentia by magick, who was called Caesar Borgia. Of his warres and hys sonnes, reade Guichardine, and Volatera­nus.

He made his eldest sonne Duke of Candie, who a litle while after, not vvithout his bro­thers procurement, vvas murdered in the night, & cast into Tyber. His daughter Lu­cretia was married to three Princes, one af­ter another, the Duke of Pisauria, Alosius of Aragon, and Alphonsus of Ferrara.

He prepared a feast for diuers Cardinalls & Senators, purposing to poyson them, but [Page] (by the prouidence of God) hee was poyso­ned himselfe. 1499.

Pius the 3. called first Franciscus Picolho­meneus, succeeded him, hee raised an Armie to driue the Frenchmen out of Italy, & died seeing no euent thereof, of an Vlcer in hys legge. ann. 1503.

Iulius the second rose, A remo ad tribunall; from a vvhirry-slaue to bee Pope, for so hee vvas in his youth, he made Rauenna, Seruia, Imola, Fauentia, Foroliuinium, and Bono­nia, subiect to his Empire. Vicelius saith, that he was rather giuen to warres then to Christ. He cast Peters keyes into Tyber, saying, Be­cause Peters keyes are able to doe no more, let the sword of Paule helpe to doe it. Thys Bibliander vvryteth of him. He dyed. 1513.

Leo the tenth, of the house of Medices was of his owne nature a gentle and quiet person, but greatly ouer-ruled by the counsaile of cruell and contentious men. He had no care of preaching the Gospell, but rather con­temned it; for Cardinall Benbus moouing a question out of it, the Pope aunswered, All ages can testifie, howe profitable that fable of Christ hath beene to vs and our company.

In the yeere 1518. as soone as hee heard it reported, that the Frenchmen vvere by his [Page 214] meanes slaine, and driuen out of Italie, hee laughed at the newes so vehemently, that there-with hee presently fell dovvne dead at the table.

Hadrian the 6. Schoolemaister before to Charles the Emperour, still kept the name that hee receiued in Baptisme, called Hadri­an, he dyed hauing raigned 4. yeres. 1523.

Clement the 7. got the place by violence, and possessed it vvith much trouble, and an. 1534. he vvas poysoned by a strange prac­tise, for both he, and certaine Cardinals, were poysoned vvith the smell and smoake of a certaine Taper, which with a strange confu­sion was poysoned for the same purpose.

Vnder this Clement, Nicholaus Machia­uell, Secretary of Florence did flourish, vvho in his first booke of the history of Florence, sayth; That for the most part, the mischiefes that happened among the Christans, proceeded of the Popes theyr ambition; & that before the [...]ime of Theodocricus, King of Lombardy, the yere of our Lorde, 500. they were euer subiect to Kings in ciuill matters.

Paule the 3. was an Astrologian, & a Ma­gitian, & giuen to all incontinencie, he had a booke of 45. thousand harlots, who for the [...]iberty of theyr stewes, did pay vnto hym [Page] a monthly tribute. He did openly excom­municate & curse the most renowned prince King, H. the 8. Et donauit regnum, primū oc­cupaturo, and gaue his kingdome to him tha [...] would first inuade it; he raigned 15. yeres▪

Iulius the 3. before called Iohn Mery o [...] the Mount, was a man of beastly condition▪ and a maintainer of Sodomitie, hee caused to be stamped vppon his coyne; Gens et regn [...] peribit, quod mihi non inseruit, that Nation & kingdome shall perrish, vvhich dooth not serue me, he dyed when he had raigned sixe yeeres. ann. 1555.

Marcellus the second, vvoulde not change his Christian name, hee dyed the 20. day af­ter his election.

Paule the fourth, founded a newe sect of Religious men in Venice, called by an holie name, Iesuits, of the name of Iesus, before he was Pope, for the which he vvas made Car­dinall; he was altogether gyuen to vvarres. He dedicated a booke of the reformation of the Church to Paule the third, & yet made none in his owne time.

Pius the fourth, before called Iohannes An­gelus, borne at Millaine, of the house of Me­dices, enioyed the place fiue yeeres, eleuen months, and fifteene dayes, in the raignes of [Page 217] Ferdinando and Max. Emperours, and dyed anno Domini, 1565.

Pius the 5. borne at Alexandria, succeeded him, & sate in the Sea 6. yeares.

Gregory the 13. before called Hugo of Bo­nonia, swayed Popedome 13. yeares, in the time of Maximilian and Rodolphus.

Sixtus the 5. borne at Millaine, liued in the place 5. yeres 4. moneths, by his means one Clement a Iacobine Fryer, killed the most Christian King of France, Henry the third.

Vrbanus the 7, possessed the place 13. days. Gregory the 14. ten moneths, ten dayes, In­nocentius the 9. two moneths, after these an­no Dom. 1592. Clement the 8. was elected Pope, who at this day enioyeth the place.

Of Warre. There is but one iust title of warre ingene­rall, that is, necessity, according to the old say­ing, nulium bellum iustum nisi necessarium; which is iust and necessary two wayes, the one is in defence of the innocent, the other is in reuenge of iniuries.

THE continuall warrs which the Sicilians had, made them like sauage beasts. Plut.

[Page]The Aeolians intending to ayd the Argiue [...] in their warre, Archidamus writ to them in a letter, onely these words, quietnes is good.

Silla, for his victories against Mithridates let out fiue ounces of the blood of his vain Cardiaca, and offered it to Iupiter Capitoli­nus. Plutarch.

The Romaines were 500. yeares in con­quering Italy.

The Oracle of Apollo aunswered those o [...] Cyrrha, that if they would liue in peace at home, they should make warre with theyr neighbour strangers; & the Romains, when they had none to wage warre with, fell to ci­uill dissentions, which was their ouerthrow.

Caesar, noted two great faults in Pompey, the one when hee had the better of him, and did not follow his fortune, the other, when in the last battaile at Pharsalia, he charged his Souldiours beeing ranged, to stand still in theyr places, whereby he was ouerthrowne. Appian.

Hanibal neuer fought any battaile, without laying some ambush.

Traian, was neuer vanquished, because he neuer vndertooke warre without iust cause; the same Liuius wryteth of the Romaines in his first Decad.

[Page 218]The Romaines out of their Country were inuincible, they were euer assaylants, and sil­dome times defendants. Eutropius.

There is a people in Germany called Catti, whose strength consisteth in theyr footmen, others goe to skirmish, and the Catti to war. Tacitus.

The Lacedemonians, of all people in peace and warre were most valiant, being in the be­ginning more then men, but in the end lesse [...]hen women.

Frenchmen, loosing the first encounter, [...]oose also the victory. Liuius.

C. Marius, neuer gaue his enemies occasi­on to force him to fight.

Darius against Alexander, Pompey against Caesar, Haniball against Scipio, Antonius a­gainst Augustus, & Mithridates against Syl­ [...]a, had greater forces without comparison, [...]hen their enemies, and yet were ouercome.

Fredericus Oenobarbus, when he had ouer­ [...]hrowne Millaine, sowed salt there, and har­ [...]owed it, thereby to shew that the same Citty was brought to vtter destruction.

If there be any fault committed generally [...] all the Souldiours in the campe, the Prin­ [...]es of the hoast take the tenth of the mul­ [...]tude, that by the punishment of a few, the [Page] rest may be assoiled. Plutarch.

F. Max. sent to Rome to the Senate [...] money, to redeeme his Souldiers which H [...]nibal had taken prisoners, and beeing den [...] thereof, commaunded his Son to sell all [...] lands, & bring money for their ransome.

Three hundred Noblemen of the house the Fabij, tooke vppon them alone to wa [...] battaile against the Vientines. Liuius.

C. Marius refused those Souldiers who [...] not sixe feete, or at the least fiue & a halfe [...] height. Vigetius.

Pyrrhus charged his Muster-maysters [...] choose them that were of large stature, & [...] said he, will make them valiant. Idem.

P. Aemilius, to auoide the sunne that shine in the face of his hoast, was so long in rāgin [...] his Army, that by the time the battailes shol [...] ioyne, the sunne was vpon his back. Mariu [...] vsed the like pollicy against the Cymbrian [...] and Augustus against the Flemings.

Polemon, to make his Souldiers fiercer [...] assailing the Lacedemonians, cast his colou [...] into the midst of his enemies, where-vpo [...] they pressed with great violence, esteeming [...] great shame to abandon of their Ancient.

Eumolphus, for that he feared a famine, [...] his prouision, for the which his Souldiou [...] [Page 219] [...]oned him to death.

Xenephon, was very curious in his proui­ [...]on of Martiall furniture, hee had an Argoli­ [...]n target, an Athenian breast-plate, a Beo­ [...]an head-peece; he was a Philosopher and a [...]aptaine.

Titus, the Emperour, beeing praysed for a [...]ictory that he obtained, aunswered, That it [...]roceeded from God, who made his hands but [...] instruments to serue him. Iosephus.

Caesar, when hee had ouercome Pompey, [...]oke nothing but his letters, & left the trea­ [...]re to his Souldiers; the like did Alexander [...]nd many other.

Charles the fift, was bound by oath, not to [...]ing any forraine Souldiers into Germany.

Of Felicity. Of all the Phylosophers who contended abou [...] [...]e chiefest felicity, the Peripatetikes iudgement to be allowed aboue the rest, who said, that it [...]nsisted in the goods of nature, fortune, and the [...]ind; of the first are health, beauty, strength, [...]ersonage; of the second, riches, loue, nobility, [...], of the third, vertue, who is deuided [...]to the foure cardinals. For the gifts of the [...]ody, looke in the head of beauty.

[Page]ARistophanes writ a Comedy called Plu­tus, whom he termed blind, where-vpo [...] Demetrius sayd, that Plutus was not onely blind, e but Fortune also, for she many time [...] bestowed her gifts vpon vnworthy men.

Ptolomey, of a common Souldiour, vvas chosen King of Egypt, Telophanes of a cha­riot-wright King of Lidia, Darius the son o [...] Histaspis, the quiuer bearer of Cyrus, king o [...] Persia, Agathocles of a Potters sonne, King of Sycania, and Tamberlaine of a shepheard became King of Scythia.

Olde Paynters haue drawne Timotheus hee Athenian Captayne in liuely colours, harnessed, and well weaponed, and Fortune standing ouer his head, holding in her hands a spreading net, where-with-all shee caught Citties and Regions.

The golde of Tholouse and Seians horse, were both infortunate to the possessors.

Hercules in his challenge at Olympus, [...] himselfe the vnknowne and fortunate.

Iason Pheraeus, was hurt by his enemie with a sword, & supposing he had slaine him, he left him, but the sword opened an impo­stume in Iason, whereby the enemy did heale that, although vnwittingly, which no Chirur­gion [Page 220] was able to cure. Cic. de nat. deorum.

Homer, faigneth two vessels to be in hea­uen full of destinies, the one of good, the o­ther of bad, and hee accounteth him happy, who equally pertaketh as well of the one as of the other.

Policrates, tyrant of Samos, was so fortu­nate, that in all his lyfe hee neuer tasted of greefe or losse, howbeit, to pertake some sor­row with others, hee cast a Ring of an ine­stimable value into the Sea, which was after­wards found in a fishes belly, presented to him by a poore fisher-man; in the end Po­licrates was hanged. Herodotus.

Pittacus, a Painter, made a ladder in a tem­ple at Mitylene, seruing to no other vse then as a gift dedicatory to Fortune; signifying thereby, that those that clymed vp with ease Fortune fauoured, and came headlong down if she frowned vpon them. Pausanius.

F. Maximus, Marcellus, Scipio, Sylla, Ma­rius, and other great Captaines, had the oft­ner charge of Armies committed to them, not for theyr valour onely, but in regard of their good fortune. Cicero.

The Elizian fields, where the Poets fayne the soules of the righteous to abide, are in the Ilands of Atlas, which we call the fortu­nate [Page] or happy Ilands. Homer.

Sylla, hauing got the Dictatorship, yeelde [...] himselfe and all his actions to the fauour o [...] Fortune, saying, That hee reputed himselfe t [...] be Fortunes child, and there-vpon tooke to hi [...] the sirname of Faelix.

Caesar entering vpon the Sea in a little Fri­got, and the weather very tempestuous, the Pilot making some doubt of waying vp the anchour, Caesar sayd, Be not afrayd my friend, for thou carriest Caesar and his fortune. Plut.

After the death of Caligula and Nero, the Senate caused all theyr riches and Iewels to be burned, and buried in vvells, fearing that in their tiranicall goods, there might be hid­den some euill fortune, by the possessing of which, Rome might be lost, & the common-wealth impoysoned there-with. Suetonius.

The Emperour Adrian did weare a Ring of gold, which he sayde, was once the Ring of Drusius Germanicus, and it had this poesie engrauen, Illis est grauis fortuna quibus est re­pentina, Fortune to them is most greeuous whom she assaulteth sodainly. M. Aurelius.

Bibulus, riding through Rome in triumph, a tilestone fell from the roofe of a house and killed him.

Lucia, M. Aurelius sister, hauing a needle [Page 221] on her breast, her child betweene her armes, [...]aying his hand vpon the needle, thrust it in­to her breast, wherof she dyed.

Cneius Rufferius, one day coambing of his head, by chaunce did strike one of the teeth into it, where-with he gaue himselfe a mortal wound, and dyed. Aurelius.

S. Ambrose, being in a rich mans house, & vnderstanding that he had euery thing in af­fluence and ease, presently departed, fearing least he should be pertaker of some misfor­tune; & afterwards the house was swallowed in an earthquake.

Theramenes, one of the 30. tyrants, being at a feast amongst a number vpon whom the house did fall, and he only escaping, was pro­nounced happy, but he answered, O Fortune, to what further mischiefe doost thou reserue me? Valerius.

Themistocles, before hee vvas elected to beare authority in the common-weale, was little worth, but when he had once occupied the place of superiority, after he was banish­ed, his goods being praised, amounted in va­lue to an hundred talents.

Rome was happy in the birth of Cato Cen­sorius, & Scipio, for that the one warred with their enemies, the other with their manners.

Of Fame. Fame is one of the parts of good fortune, in the opinion of some Philsophers and of the Po­ets, fayned to be the follower of vertuous and noble actions, and fitly compared to the shadow wich accompanieth the body, and attendeth vp­pon true honour, which is the reward of vertue.

AMongst the Romaines, the linage of the Cornelij was had in great estimation, for of them all, neuer one was found a coward, or a defamed person.

Marius, was neuer offended with any re­port that went of him, because if it were true it would sound to his prayse, if false, his lyfe and manners should prooue it contrary. Sa­lust.

Antonius, the Emperour, onely amended his life and manners, by the report of those as hee had sent about the Citty, to vnderstand what was sayd of him.

Publicolaes fame was gotten by leading of armes; Solons by ciuill actions.

The fame that Milciades got at Marathon, would not suffer Themistocles to sleepe.

Dionysius, as long as he perceaued himselfe [Page 222] to be well reported of, he was a good man, but when the priuy talke to his defamation came to his eares, he then began to leaue his good nature, and to exercise all kind of cru­elty. Diod.

The Persians, when any of their Country­mens good name was called in question, they examined the whole cause of their life, and if they found that their good actions did coun­teruaile their bad, they were acquited; if o­therwise, reputed vile and vnworthy of any calling. Herodotus.

Gorgias Leontinus, and Protagoras, for all the fame of theyr honour and renowne, yet notwithstanding were as far from know­ledge, as boyes from manhood. Aelianus.

Artaxerxes, hearing of the fame of Hyppo­crates, sent vnto the chiefe gouernor of Hel­lespont earnest letters for him.

Poore Codrus, and ragged Irus, are as fa­mous in respect, being beggers (with Poets) as Mydas, and Caesar, two famous & weal­thy Kings of Lidia, are mentioned of Plu­tarch.

Aristophanes, maketh as much mention of Cleonimus the coward, as Homer dooth of valiant Achilles.

Iuuenall, & Claudian, report no lesse of the [Page] little Pigmees, then Ouid or Virgill of the monstrous Cyclops.

Polyphemus, and Enceladus, two huge monstrous Gyants, are not so famous in Virgill for theyr bignes, as Conopas, or Mo­lon, two little Dwarfes, of two feete length, are renovvned in Plinie for theyr smale­nes.

Lysimachus, was famed ouer all the world, for that he being but a young Souldier vnder King Alexander, killed a Lyon.

Ilerdes was so famous for archery, that hee could kill a bird flying in the ayre, so could Catenes, and Commodus.

Paris, was famous (though otherwise infa­mous) for that vvhen neyther Hector nor Troylus, nor all the power of Phrygia could ouercome Achilles, hee with an arrow slew him.

The fame of Rome in Tullies youth, was but in her minority, & had not as then pas­sed the mount Caucasus, but afterwardes it grew in strength, and spred her wings ouer all the world. Cicero.

Iulius Caesar wept, beholding the Image of Alexander the great, at foure and twenty yeares of age, saying, Am not I miserable that haue done nothing woorthy of memory, and yet [Page 223] this Prince at these yeares had executed so many notable things.

An Indian beeing commaunded by Alex­ander to shoote before him, because hee had heard of his excellency in that Arte, would not doe it, where-vpon he condemned him to death; who going to execution sayde, That he had beene a very good Archer, but be­cause hee had long time intermitted the exer­cise, hee feared hee should loose the reputation he once got, and chose therefore to dye. Curtius.

Alcibiades, excelled in all Nations where­soeuer he came, euery man in the thing hee had most skill in. Thucidides.

Cn. Pompeius, who was but 24. yeares of age, tryumphed ouer Affrike, a thing neuer erst seene in any Romaine. Eutropius.

Alexander, refused to come to the feasts of Olympian gams, because there was no kings to try the prices with-all.

Pompey, from his youth, shewed in his countenance great sparks of honour, a plea­sant mildnes ioyned with a manly grauity, & in his conditions & behauior, a reuerent ex­cellency of kingly maiesty.

Ptolomey, hauing ouercome Demetrius, & put his hoost to flight, at the Citty of Ga­za, restored him his treasure & all his stuffe, [Page] with eight thoussnd prisoners, saying, that be stroue not with him but for honour and Em­pire; which Demetrius shortly after ouer­comming him, requited in the like sort.

Drusius, the Almaine, vsed to visite the graues and toombs of the most renowned which were buried in Italy, especially at hi [...] going to warfare, saying, That beholding their monuments, hee did recouer both strength and stoutnes. Dion.

There came frō Thebes a Knight to Rome, for no other purpose, but to see where it were true or no that was reported of the notable things there: vvhom Mecaenas asked what hee thought of Rome and the Romaines, who answered, The memory of the absent doth more content mee, then the glory of the present. Cic. Plinius.

Caesar gaue 52. battailes at his pleasure. Cyrus ouercame both Asieas, Pirrhus, came downe into Italy. Atyla King of the Huns, defied all Europe.

M. Marcellus, who was the first that saw the backe of Haniball in the field, was asked, how hee durst enter into battaile with him, who aunswered, I am a Romaine borne, and a Souldiour, and by him shall I make my renowne euerlasting. Sextus Cheronensis.

[Page 224]Iulius Caesar, being counsailed to waite vp­pon the Consull Sylla, to the end that by ser­uing him he might doe himselfe some good, aunswered, I sweare by the immortall Gods, I will neuer serue any to be of more woorth and greater then I am. Suetonius.

Of Feare. This perturbation hath his deriuation from [...]he mouing of the minde, and Metus (as Varro sayth) is quasi motus animi, a mouing of the mind, for it seemeth that the mind is fled, and the body much terrified, when some euill happeneth towards vs.

THE Siracusan Dionisius, had more feare of the diuine Plato, which was in Grecia, then of all his enemies he had neere him in Sicilia.

Herodes Ascolonita, did more feare Iohn Baptist, then all the kingdome of Iudea.

Dionysius the tyrant, was troubled vvith such torment of feare, that being afrayde of the Barbours razors, he vsed to sindge his beard with burning coales. Cicero.

Alexander Pheraeus, although he dearely loued his wife Thebe, yet comming to her [Page] from banquetting into the chamber, he com [...]maunded one to goe before with a dravvn [...] sword, and sent his Gard to ransacke the wo [...]mens Cofers, and see that no weapons [...] hidden in their garments. Cicero.

VVhen Pompey and Caesar became ene [...]mies, and so to ciuill warres, the Kings a [...] people of the Occidentall part came to Iu [...]us Caesar, and the mighty and most puissan [...] of the Orientall, came in the ayde of grea [...] Pompeius, because these Princes were lo­ued of few, and feared, & serued of all. Eutro▪

Mauritius, dreaming that he should be kil­led of Phocas, asked Philippicus what hee was, who aunswered, an ambitious Centuri­on, but fearefull, then Mauritius replyed, If he be fearefull, then is he a murderer. Orosius.

Numa refused the gard of 300. Archers, which Romulus had. Liuius.

The Crocodiles of Aegipt, if they be pursu­ed flye, if feared, pursue them that flye. He­rodotus.

Q. Fabius Max. caused the handes of all those which had fled from the Romaine stan­dard, to be cut off, as a terrour to all faynt & cowardly Souldiers. Val.

Amongst the Spartans, it was death to loose or cast away a shield in warre. Epaminondas [Page 225] [...]ad written vpon his shielde, Aut hunc, aut [...]per hunc.

C. Valienus, cutte off the fingers of hys left [...]and, because hee vvoulde not followe the [...]varres in Italy; but the Senate confiscated his goods, and condemned him to perpetu­ [...]ll bonds.

The Egiptians called Ochus an Asse in their mother tongue, comparing his cowardnes and blockishnesse, to the vveakenesse and vnskilfulnesse of that vnreasonable beast, in hi [...] discōmendation and reproch; wherfore he violētly snatching away their god, which vvas an Oxe, went and offered the same to an Asse.

The most fearefull of all men, are the Ga­ramants, for they are afraide of euery thing, and can abide the sight of none, though they be armed, yet they doe not vse theyr vvea­pons, for they are afraide to hurt, and when they are hurt, they will not for very cowar­dize reuenge. Herodatus.

Cicero being called by Clodius into iudge­ment, (because of his owne authoritie, with­out permission of the Senate, hee had com­maunded Lentulus and Cethegus to be pu­nished) hee vvas of such an abated courage, as hauing changed his garment, vveeping, [Page] as he vvas going, fell at the feet of euery one vvhich he met.

Demosthenes, nothing inferiour to Cice­ro in eloquence (if by studie not extempory hee would haue spoken) vvhen hee should haue defended himselfe before the Atheni­ans, he so forsooke himselfe, as he had rather goe into perpetuall banishment, then by talk openly to beseech fauour or forgiuenesse at the hands of the Athenians.

Nero, after hee had killed his mother, con­fessed that vvhilst he slept, he vvas troubled by her, and tormented vvith the sight of Fu­ries. Cor. Tacitus.

A souldiour that fled (whom Epaminon­das that famous Thebane General pursued) in returning backe slew him.

Niceas, the generall Captaine of the Athe­nians, through the feare which he had con­ceiued of the darknesse of an ecclips of the Moone, and not knovving the cause there­of, stayed so long determining vvith hym­selfe, that his enemies enclosed him round a­bout, vvhere-vpon, he vvas taken aliue, and put to death, besides forty thousand Atheni­ans that vvere taken and slaine.

In the Citty of Sparta, vvhich for Armes and Artes, flourished most among the Gre­cians, [Page 226] there vvas a Temple consecrated to feare, vvhich they sayd, better preserued the estate of the Common-vvealth then any o­ther thing.

Claudius the Emperor, vvas so faintharted, base minded, and blockish, that his mother said often of him, That nature had begun, but not finished him.

Agamemnon dispensed with a rich coward for going to vvarre personally, for a Mar [...] vvhich he gaue him. Homer.

M. Aurelius vvas so farre from fearing hys subiects, that he had neither gard nor porter in his Court.

Of Ingratitude. Vnder this monster, haue all vices vvith a curse beene comprehended: (omnia dixeris si ingratum dixeris;) most rightly figured in swine, who eate the Acorns, but neuer looke vp to the tree.

SOcrates, beeing pronounced by the O­racle of Apollo to bee the vvisest man in all Greece, vvas poysoned for his religious care hee had in bringing vp the youth of A­thence.

[Page]The Syracusans banished Dion, by vvhos [...] vvisedome and valour they recouered they [...] liberty, and being afterward repealed, they killed him.

Anthony, in the time of Vespasian, after al [...] his seruice against the Vitellians, and after h [...] had recouered Rome, vvas suspected by Mutianus, brought to Rome without autho­ritie, and visiting Vespasian in Asia, hee was so coldly entertained, that hee dyed shortlie after.

Philip the French-king, put one of hys souldiours out of pay, because hee was vn­thankfull, and caused him to bee marked in the fore-head with the vvord vnthankfull.

The ingratitude of the Romaines tovvard Scipio, vvas by reason of the conceiued su­spect of his fortunes, the suddainenes of hys expedition, and the greatnes of his enemies. Plutarch.

Plato, that princely Phylosopher, called Aristotle a Mule, because a Mule vvhen hee hath suckt his fill, and hath enough of hys Dammes milke, casteth vp his heeles, and kicks vnkindly; by this hee signified the in­gratitude and vnthankfull nature of Aristo­tle, for hee hauing receiued his Phylosophy from Plato, disdained his Maister, and in de­spight, [Page 227] gathered an assembly, and planted a Schoole. Laertius.

The Athenians greatly commended thank­fulnesse, yet no Nation was more vnthank­full then themselues.

Caesar, vvhen hee had ouercome Pompey at Pharsalia, gaue great charge to his Cap­taines, that in any wise they should saue Bru­tus; but hee afterwarde, like an vngratefull person, vvas the chiefest of the conspirators. Appian.

Laena, vvho by Ciceros helpe had been sa­ued from death, pulled his heade out of the Litter and cutte it off, hauing three stroaks, & making three vvoundes for vvant of cun­ning. He cut off his hand also, with which he wrote against Anthonie. Idem.

The noble King Seleucus vvas kylled by Ptolomey Ceraunus, whom hee had saued from the fury of his Father, which vvoulde haue murdered him.

Craesus beeing releeued before hee came to his kingdome by one Pamphaes, aftervvard in token that he had not forgotten this good turne, he sent him a chariot full of siluer.

Darius, when he was not superiour to a pri­uate man, receiuing a rich robe of Solon for a gi [...]t, after that hee was confirmed in the [Page] throne royall, he recompenced his curtesie committing vnto him the gouernment an [...] iurisdiction of the country of Samos.

Pyrrhus was exceedingly grieued for th [...] death of a friend, who dyed before hee ha [...] requited his many fauours.

The Romaines gaue him intelligence of a treason intended against him, who to shevve himselfe thankfull, sent backe vnto them a number of prisoners, and vvould receiue no raunsome.

An Arabian Turke, Admirall of the Infidels in their warre against Baldvvin King of Ie­rusalem, vvas with his vvife and children ta­ken prisoners, whom the king set free, in lue whereof, he went by night and tolde him, of the purpose of his companions, and led him out of the towne from danger.

Cato the elder, solde his old seruaunts that had serued him a long time, in the market, as wee vse to sell beastes; a foule blot in so fa­mous a man.

Solon, for all the good desarts of his coun­try, was banished from thence, and constrai­ned to end his life at Cyprus. Valerius.

Of Treason. The enemy to loyaltie is Treason, a thing of [...]ll others most odious to God, and among men [...]east prosperous, as by the euents appeare.

TArpeia, for loue of gold, dyd betray the Capitoll of Rome vnto Tatius King of the Sabines; but vvith the golde, receiued her deaths vvound. Liuius.

Antigonus made much of those Traytors that went about to pleasure him, but hauing once obtained his purpose, he rewarded the vvith death.

A Schoole-maister among the Phalerians, hauing the bringing vp of all the noble youth in the Citty, betrayed them to Camillus, ho­ping thereby to get reward & fauour of the Romaines, but Camillus disdaining his trea­son, caused him to be stript, and his handes bound behind him, and gaue his schollers rodds and vvhyps to beate him home to the Citty. Plutarch.

Fabritius sent Pyrrhus vvord of his trayte­rous Phisitian. Plut.

Lyciscus rotted aboue the ground for hys treasons against the Orchomenians.

[Page]The Embassadors that come to the Empe­rour of Tartary, before they deliuer they [...] message, must of force passe betvveen tvvo fiers, onely for this cause, that if they bring any poyson, by the force of the flames it may kill themselues.

The Athenians woulde suffer none to bee buried that were traytors to theyr country▪

Bessus, for his trayterous murdering of Darius, vvas adiudged by Alexander to bee torne in sunder with two trees bowed downe together by maine strength, one against the other, vnto which his body vvas fastened. Curtius.

Lasthenes, hauing holpen King Philip to become maister of Olynthus, whereof hee was an inhabitant, complained to the King that certaine called him traytor; but hee re­ceiued this onely aunswere, that the Mace­donians were naturally rude & grosse, cal­ling a Spade a Spade, and all thinges else by theyr proper name.

Darius caused the heade of his sonne Ario­barzanes to be cut off, because hee sought to betray his Armie to Alexander.

Augustus, with his own hands put out the eyes of one that vvas accused vnto him of treason.

[Page 229]Mahomet hauing taken Constantinople, through the treason of Iohn Iustinian of Ge­nua, after he had made him king, according to promise, within 3. daies after cut off hys head.

Dioclesian the Emperour, tooke an oath in the open assembly of the souldiours, that Numerianus vvas not slaine by any his trea­son, and therwithall drawing forth his sword, he ran Aper thorough, who being his Father in law, had trecherously slaine him. Eutrop.

M. Antonius an Orator, fled frō the wrath of Marius into a Farme-house, the Keeper vvhereof receiued him gently, & hyd hym, & sending his seruant to a Tauerne for wine oftner then he vvas wont, the Vintner asked him why he came so often for wine? he told him secretly that it was for Antonius; vvho sent word to Marius, & was by a Captaine of his slaine, who brought his head to Marius.

Decimus Brutus, one of the conspirators against Caesar, put to flight by Anthony, in his escape was taken of theeues, and asking vvho was Lord of that place, they told him, Camillus, vvhose name he much esteeming, desired to be brought to him; vvho when he saw him, made him faire presence, but pri­uily sent to Anthony, who coulde not abide [Page] to see him, but willed Camillus to kil him.

Attilus the eldest sonne of Anthony, vva [...] betrayed by his Schoolemaister Theodorus vvho tooke a goodly iewell from his neck [...] vvhen he was killed, the which being requi­red, and denied of him, he was hanged.

Of Names. The qualities of the minde, whether they bee good or euill, (especially in great personages) commend a perpetuall memory to theyr prospe­ritie, eyther of theyr honourable fame, or vile infamie; therefore the auncients gaue certaine names to the true deseruers of both.

IT vvas a sure signe that Adam should be Lord of all creatures, when at the first he could call them all by theyr names. Amb.

The Stoicks were great searchers for the originall of vvords and names.

The Troians, for theyr nobilitie & gentry, were called Dardans, for theyr fearefulnesse, Phryges, and for theyr valour, Troians.

The first of the Fabij was sirnamed Pictor, for his excellencie in the Art of paynting; vvhen he had paynted the vvalls of the tem­ple of Health, he writ thereon his name, lea­uing [Page 230] behind him a memory that he had been [...] paynter.

Titus Manlius, the vvorthiest of all the Se­nators, killed one of the French-men which prouoked him to fight hand to hande, and [...]hē he had slaine him, he pluckt off a chaine of golde which his enemie wore about hys necke, and put it about his owne, whereof both hee and his posteritie were called Tor­quatij.

Prophets are called Seers, because they see the misteries of the Gospell. Vrbanus.

Mar. Valerius, going to fight with a French man, a Crow lighted vpon his right arme, & sate there still, afterwarde, when they came to handy gripes, the same Crowe smote the Frenchman vpon the eyes, that hee coulde not see, by meanes whereof he was slayne, & Valerius was afterward sirnamed Coruinus.

In the old Testament, foure mens names were gyuen them before theyr byrth, Isma­ell; Isaack, Sampson, Iosias, in the new, on­ly Iohn and Christ.

Romulus was called Quirinus, of a Speare, for that vveapon he vsed; and the Knights of Rome were called Quirites, that is, speare men.

Aristippus was called Metrodidactos, because [Page] he was taught of his mother.

Calliope was named Calliopea, for her ex [...]cellencie, and Penelope, Penelopea, for th [...] sweetnes of her voyce.

Adam was buried in the same place vvhe [...] Christ his Crosse vvas set vp, and therefo [...] it was called Caluarie, because the origina [...] and head of mankind was buried there. Au­gustine.

Paris lay the first night with Helena in the Ile of Cranae, and aftervvards called it by her name, Helena.

Colossians are denominated frō the great Colossus in Rhodes, a statue of brasse, being once one of the worlds seauen wonders.

The Heathens called the Christians Sarmē ­titios, and Semiassios, because they were tyed to halfe-penny stakes, and burned to death with shrubbes.

Aborigines, are home-bred people, the A­thenians were so called, in token whereof they dyd weare Grashoppers in theyr hats. Diodorus.

The riuer Tygris, is so called for his svvift current. Iustine.

Valentinianus the Emperour, vvas called Funarius, for that before he vvas chosen, hol­ding a roape or corde in his hand, fiue strong [Page 231] [...]ouldiers were not able to pull it from hym. [...]linus.

VVithin twenty yeeres, Italy had 9. Em­ [...]erours, which raigned by succession, & the [...]ne was slaine of the other by occasion, the [...]ast was called Augustulus, that is, little no­ble, or little full of maiestie; the diminution of the name, vvas an euident signe that the gouernaunce of the Augustus shoulde fayle [...]n Italy. Agathias.

The Romaines had certaine Senators cal­led Pedarij Senatores, who beeing slovve of counsell & pronouncing theyr sentence, did followe the footesteps of other Counsellers, saying after thē, & therefore were so called. Fenestella.

There were two Emperours in Rome vn­like in name, & much more in manners, the one of them was named Nero the cruell, the other, Anthonie the meeke; the which o­uernames the Romaines gaue them, the one of meeke, because he could not but pardon, the other of cruell, because hee neuer ceased to kill.

The name of Knight, or Gentleman, the Romaines did neuer admit, eyther consent to intitle those that coulde gather much ri­ches, but such as had beene famous for being [Page] at the victorie of many battailes. Cicero.

Prince Charles, for his great & happy vic­tory ouer the Southerne people, vvas afte [...] sirnamed Martell the Maule, because he [...] broke and battered the force of them lyke [...] maule, or hammer of yron.

Cato was not first a sirname, but a name o [...] merrite, for the auncient Romaines called him Cato, that was wise by much experience. Of this name vvere two famous, Cato Cen­sorius, and Cato of Vtica.

Ionathan, for his valour, was named Iebo­nathan.

Sergius Orata, & Licinius Muraena, tooke theyr sirnames of fishes, for that one of them greatly loued the Gylthed, the other, the Lamprey. Petrarch.

Nemrod, the first tyrant, was called Oppres­sor hominum, an oppressor of men.

Cicero was called Pater patirae, the louer of his Countrey.

The sea of Icarus, was so called, for that Ica­rus was there drowned.

The sea Aegeum, of Aegeus king of Athence, who drowned himselfe therein.

Mare Tyrrhenū, of Tyrrhenus King of Li­dia; Hellespont, by a vvoman named Helle.

Tyberinus, altered the riuer which was be­ [...]ore [Page 232] named Albura, to the name of Tyber [...] his death.

Hesperides the daughter of Atlas, gaue the Hesperian sea his name.

Mare Myrtoun, by Myrtilus, whom Oeno­maus cast therein.

That which we call Euxinus, the Sea that beginneth at Bospherus, was first called Ax­enos; that is, Inhospitalis, because the inha­bitants did kill and eate the passengers, but after, being made ciuill, was called Euxinus.

The Romaines, if theyr Emperour vvere couragious, they woulde call him another Caesar, if vertuous, Octauian, if fortunate, Tiberius, if rash, Caligula, if cruell, Nero, if mercifull, Traiane, or Anthonius Pius, if beautifull, Titus, if idle, Domitian, if pati­ent, Vespasian, if temperate, Adrian, if reli­gious, Aurelianus, if sage and vertuous, Au­relius.

Of Contemplation. Contemplation hath three degrees, the first is an election & choosing of good before euill; the second is, as it were an habite or inioying there­of indeed; the last consisteth altogether in the mind of man, frō which the true example of all [Page] vertues doe flow In it all good qualities bee in­printed, which impression, the Platonists [...] Idaeas, being nothing els but inward conception of things.

CArneades & Archimedes, were accoun [...]ted as dead men when they were alyue forasmuch as their mindes beeing distracte [...] through earnestnes of contemplation, the naturall action of their bodies seemed to cease and giue ouer, the one forgetfull to reach his hand to the dish, being at meat, the other, not knowing vvhat the matter meant, when the towne of Siracusa was taken wher­in he liued. Laertius.

Socrates vvas seene studying a whole day, continuing the space of 24. howres in con­templation, and discoursing in his minde, which was, vvhen hee drew out this conclu­sion out of his thoughts, that there was b [...]t one onely God, and that the soule was immor­tall.

Mison the Phylosopher, liued altogether a contemplatiue and solitary life, vvho vvhen one by chaunce met him laughing to hym­selfe, and demaunding the cause vvhy hee laughed, hauing no company? aunsvvered, Euen therefore doe I laugh, because I haue [...] [Page 233] [...] company with me. Laertius.

Scipio, was neuer lesse alone, then when he [...]ad no company; and Tully, when hee was [...]hought to haue beene idle, studied most. Cicero.

Democritus plucked out his eyes, because [...]he pleasures of this world should not draw [...]im from contemplation.

S. Bernard, a most excellent man for lear­ [...]ing and holines, gotte all his knowledge wherein hee excelled all other of his time) [...] the woods & fields, not by the instruction [...]f man, but by contemplation & prayer.

Saint Augustine wryteth of himselfe, that [...] this sort hee vnderstoode Aristotles predi­ [...]aments, which are accounted amongst the [...]ardest things, and also the liberall Sciences, [...]nd no man taught him.

The Hare, the Pellican, and the Swan, liue [...]olitarily, & the last is merry at her death, in [...]ope to see shortly her beloued Apollo. Plato

Hiero, the tyrant of Syracusa, gaue ouer his [...]ingdom, & liued a solitary life.

Craesus, after the death of his son Adrastus, [...]ued in contemplation. Herod.

Ierome, Petrus Diamanus, Caelestinus, [...]orsaking the world, betooke them to solita­ [...]nes of life.


[Page]Timon of Athence, was so giuen to solitar [...]nes and melancholly, that he hated the [...] of all men, and therefore was called M [...]santhropos, he vsed and employed all his [...] to perswade his Countrimen to shorten the lifes, hauing set vp Iibbets in a field, which h [...] bought, for them that were disposed to han [...] themselues. Plut.

Anthony, dispairing of his fortunes, builde him an house in the Sea, at the Lanteme and ramped it about, seperating himself from the company of men, protesting to fol­low Timon, calling his house Timonion, or Ti­mons Tabernacle. Appian.

Tresilaus, ouercome with a melancholly passion, perswaded himselfe to be the righ [...] honour of all the great Nauy that ariued a [...] the port Pyreus; of which humour, when he by Phisitions was throughly purged, hee cursed them, saying, That they had robbed [...] of his pleasure and wealth.

The Emperour Lotharius pricked in con­science for his euill committed agaynst [...] Father Lodouicus Pius, resigned his Em­pire, and spent the remainder of his life int [...] monastry.

Appian, wryteth of a solitary way by the people Sapaei, which for the solitarines, the [Page 234] very birds could not discouer, by which Bru­ [...]us being distressed and afrayde, was guided by Roscopolis, who perswaded him to goe that way. Appianus.

Of Agriculture. Agriculture, or husbandry, tooke beginning [...] our forefather Adams fall, and since in euery succeeding Age hath beene highlie esteemed, whose companion is Labour, the true handmayd of vertue. The vpholders of this Art (as the Po­ets write) were the last that waxed wicked, and Iustice forsaking the earth, left her last foot-steps amongst husbandmen.

THis was so honored in old time, that euen the Romaine Emperours and mightie Kings and Potentates, haue not beene asha­med to exercise it.

Dioclesian, left his Empire at Salona, and Attalus likewise to labour in this Art.

Cyrus, set, planted, and grafted trees with his owne hands, checker wise. So did Sene­ca Planetrees.

From the honour of the earth and hus­bandry, the noble sirnames of Fabij, Lentuli, Cicerones, Pisones, haue beene denomi­nate. [Page] Cor. Ag.

From the breeding and feeding of Cattell the Iunij, Bubuli, Tauri, Statilij, Pomponij, Vi­tuli, Vitellij, Porcij, Catones, Annij, tooke their better names.

Romulus, and Remus, Romes first foun­ders, were sheepeheards, Apollo, Mercury, Pan, Abell, Abraham, Iacob, Moyses, Dauid, were sheepheards.

The Gardens of Adonis, Alcinous, Tanta­lus, & Hesperides, were subiects for the finest Poets.

Semyramis, had goodly flowers hanging in the ayre, and Massinissa strange, and fa­mous garnished Gardens, to the wonder of Affricke.

Tarquinius, in the time of that first olde Rome, walked pleasantly in his Garden, and cropping the tops of Poppy. Liuius.

Lucullus, after his victories obtayned in Asia, tooke his recreation in Gardens.

Sylla, forsaking his Dictatorship, spent the remainder of his life in gardening.

VVhen the Romaines would commend a­ny man, they vsed to call him a good man, & a good husband, insomuch, as the Senator [...] themselues liued in the Country, & at occa­sions were by Purseuants called to the citty▪

[Page 235]Quintius Cincinatus, and others, were cal­led from the plough to be Dictators.

King Agis, one day requested the Oracle of Apollo, to tell him who was the happiest man in the world, who aunswered, One Aglai­on, be knowne of the Gods, and vnknowne of men, and making search for him throughout all Greece, found at length that it was a pore gardener in Arcadia, who 60. yeares olde, neuer went from home, keeping himselfe with his onely labour in his Garden. Li­uius.

M. Cato Censorius, was as ready and apt to learning, as to warres, to matters concer­ning the field, as the Citty, and also to the ex­ercise of husbandry.

Hee was the most excellent husbandman of his time, and was the first amongst the Romians, that gathered the precepts of hus­bandry, and brought them into the forme of [...]n Art. Petrarch.

Quintius Cincinnatus, while hee was ea­ [...]ing his foure Acres of land, by decree of the Senate & people of Rome, was chosen Dic­ [...]ator. Florus.

Abdolominus, at the commaundement, or rather permission of Alexander, from a [...]oore Gardener, was aduaunced vnto [Page] the kingdome Sidon, and by contemning the kingdom, was reputed greater then the king­dome.

C. Marius, was an hireling ploughman, and spent the first yeares of his lyfe in the fields▪ but afterwards was seauen times Consull o [...] Rome.

The plesure that Lucanus had in this world, was nothing else but a little Garden, & when he died, he cōmaunded his graue to be made in it; where he was buried.

Of Pouerty. This burden, whether it come by birth or some sinister chaunce, is, or ought to bee a meanes to bring man to a ready knowledge of himselfe, an [...] by this, to a more neere knowledge of God, who sometime sendeth it as a tryall, other-while as [...] punishment, to the godly first, the burden is light▪ to the repining punished, intollerable, who loose the benefit thereof by their impatience and mur­muring.

ARistides, sirnamed the iust, beeing very poore, was chosen to leauie and gather the trybute before all the rich men in A­thence.

[Page 236]VVhilst the name of pouerty was honou­red at Rome (vvhich was by the space of 400. yeares after the foundation thereof, Pleasure could neuer set foote as there, but [...]fter that Pouerty began to be contemned, [...]ertue immediatly tooke her flight from [...]hence, which was their vtter ouerthrow.

Valerius Publicola, hauing foure times [...]eene Consull of Rome (the onely man for gouernment in war and peace) his pouerty is [...]ecorded not to his shame, but to his praise. Liuius.

Poore Aristides, had not the least honour [...]n the seruice at Salamis, and at Plateus, was [...]he chiefe leader of all the Athenian forces, [...]hō Vertue did put forward, Pouerty could not hold back nor dismay. Herodotus.

Fabritius, being in pouerty, was sent in Em­ [...]assage amongst other Romaines to Pyr­rhus, of whom Pyrrhus tooke such lyking, [...]hat to winne him to be his, he proffered him [...]he fourth part of his kingdome. Eutropius.

Ephialtes, beeing cast in the teeth with his pouerty, sayde, VVhy doost not thou make [...]ehearsall of the other thing, namely, that I loue [...]aw, and regard right? Aelian.

One of Catoes sonnes, of 15. yeares age, was banished for breaking of an earthen pot [Page] in a maydes hand, that went for water, so wa [...] Cinnaes sonne, because hee entered a Gar­den, and gathered fruite without leaue.

The Ostracisme, amongst the Athenians was a banishment for a time, whereby the brought dovvne them that seemed to ex­ceede in greatnes. This was inuented by Clisthenes.

A rude rusticke fellow, happened to meet Aristides, bearing a scroale of paper in hy [...] hand, and desired him to wryte the name o [...] Aristides therein, who meruailing thereat asked, whether any man had been by him in­iured, No (quoth he) but I cannot in any wis [...] endure the sirname of Iustus. Plutarch.

At such time as the Ephesi banished they [...] Prince Hermodonus, they pronounced thi [...] sentence, Let none of vs excell another, but i [...] any so doe, let him no longer heere dwell, but in­habite else where. Cicero.

Celliodorus, the Phylosopher, was bani­shed in the prosperity and fury of the Mari­ans, not for the euils they found in him, bu [...] for the vices he reproued in them.

Vulturnus, a man in Astrology, profoundly learned, was banished by M. Antonius, be­cause Cleopatra hated him.

Bestius, and Colla, Gentlemen of Rome, [Page 237] when they had boldly declared theyr seruice for the common-wealth, and reprehended the Senatours before they would be cast out by decree, voluntarily exiled themselues, Appian.

Sittius, was the first and onely man, that as a stranger, was an outlaw in his owne Coun­try. Idem.

Of Death. Death is faigned of the Poets, to be the sister of Sleepe, both borne of their mother Night, a God­desse impartiall and inexorable, as sparing none, and the Aegiptians by an Owle sitting vpon a tree signifie death. This all-killing power, trium­phans cedit, and by death is ouercome.

EPaminondas, ready to giue vp the ghost, willed the poysoned shaft to bee pulled from his deadly wound, & whē it was giuen him to vnderstand, that his shield was found safe, and his enemies put to flight, he cheere­fully departed out of this world. Cicero.

Gorgias Leontinus, being very sick, a frend of his demanded of him how he felt himselfe in body, he answered, Now Sleepe beginneth to deliuer me to the power of his brother Death.

[Page]Asdrubals wife, the last Lady of Carthage▪ had the lyke end in death, as the first Lady Dido had, for she threw her selfe and her two sonnes into the fire.

Herod, because hee would make the Iewes sorry for his death, whether they would or no, dying, commanded to sley all the Noble mens children of Iury. Iosephus.

Vespasian ready to dye, stoode vp & sayd, It becommeth an Emperour to passe out of this world standing.

Calanus, an Indian Gymnosophist, when he had taken his long leaue of Alexander, pi­led vp a bonfire in the suburbs of Babilon, of dry wood, of Cedar, Rosemary, Cypres, Mir­tle, & Laurell, then he mounted the pile, the Sunne shining in his face, whose glorious beames he worshipped, then he gaue a token to the Lacedemonians, to kindle the fire, & stoutly and valiantly dyed.

Cercidas, an Arcadian, ready to dye, said to his companions, I am not loath to depart this life, for I hope to see and talke with Pythagoras among the Phylosophers, with Liuius among the Historiographers, with Orpheus among the Musitians, and with Homer among the Poets; which words as soone as he had vttered, hee gaue vp the ghost.

[Page 238]Plato dying, thanked nature for three cau­ [...]es; the first, that he was borne a man, & not beast; the second, that hee was borne in Greece, and not in Barbary; the third, that [...]ee was borne in Socrates time, who taught [...]im to die well.

Antemon, was so desirous to liue, and so [...]earefull to dye, that scarse he would trauaile [...]broade, and compelled to goe, two of his [...]eruants bore ouer his head a great brazen Target, to defend him from any thing which might happen to hurt him.

Massinissa, King of Numidia, rather com­mitted his estate and life vnto dogs then vn­to men, as his gard to keepe and defend him from death.

Hector sayd to Andromache, Be not sorry for my death, for all men must die. Homer.

Polydamas, entering into a Caue to defend himselfe from the rayne, through the vio­lence of the water, the Caue fell downe vpon him. Cicero.

Anacreons breath was stopped with a grape kernell, that stucke in his throate. Plinie.

Euripides, returning home from King Ar­chelaus his supper, was torne in peeces of dogs. Gellius.

Aeschilus, sitting in a sunny place in Sicily, [Page] an Eagle flying ouer, taking his white bald head for a stone, strooke the shell of a Tor­toyse which was in his bill against his head and dashed out his braine. Valerius.

Pyndarus, laying his head downe to sleep in the bosome of a boy whom he loued, neue [...] awaked. Suidas.

Ennius, would not haue his death lamen­ted, because he was famous in his works, yet Solon would haue his death bewailed, & writ to put his friends in minde, Let my departure wayed be, & let my friends draw sighs for me.

Trophonius, and Agamedes, hauing built a sumptuous temple to Apollo of Delphos, begged the most profitable thing that might bee giuen to man, after the third day they were found dead. Cicero.

Velcurio, the learned Phylosopher, lying vpon his death-bed, when his friends came to comfort him, sayde, The Father is my Crea­tour, the Sonne my Redeemer, the holy Ghost my Comforter, how can I then be sorrowfull or dismayde?

The day before that Caesar went to the Se­nate, hee had beene at a banquet with Lepi­dus, talking meerely vvhat death was best for a man, some saying one, and some ano­ther, he of al praised the sodaine death, which [Page 239] happened to him. Appian.

The Scots in theyr owne Chronicles, haue recorded, that of one hundred & fiue Kings, [...]here dyed not aboue 50. of naturall deaths. Gasper Peucerus.

Of Vsurie. Vsury (of some called Interest, but without reason why, sith money let to interest returneth but with his proper summe) the daughter of Co­uetousnes and Ambition, may well be called a continuall sire, which euer encreaseth through the consuming of such as fall therein. This hath been so odious amongst the Heathen, that the practizers therof haue beene seuerely punished.

EVe tooke vp sinne of the deuill, as it were by lone vpon her bare word, Adam by cō ­senting vnaduisedly, subscribed to the bond, but the burden of it, hath euer beene, and shall be laid vpon the necks of his posterity.

In the time of king Phillip, Augustus, Lews the fift, of king Iohn, & Charles the sixt, the Iewes & Italians which held banques, & ex­ercised vsury throughout Fraunce, were ry­fled and banished.

In sundry places, debtours vvere priui­ledged, [Page] among others in Dianaes temple Ephesus, into the temple of sparing and we ordered expence vsurers might not ente [...] Pausanias.

Licurgus would suffer no vsurers to liue [...] ­mong the Spartanes.

The old Indians and Germaines knew n [...] what vsury meaned.

Amasis, King of Egipt, made a law, that th [...] Pretor should cal euery one to account, ho [...] they lyued, and if by vsury, they should b [...] punished as malefactors. Herod.

Cato, draue all the vsurers out of Sicilia, & (altogether vndone by them) restored he to her former glory. Val.

Asellius was slaine, for making a law agains [...] vsurers. Appian.

There was a law amongst the antient Gre­cians and Romaines, which forbad all vsury surmounting one penny for an hundred by the yeare, and they called it Vnciarie vsury.

This law was since that, brought to a halfe­penny a yeare among the Romaines, & not long after, vsury was cleane taken away by the law Genutia, because of vsuall seditions, which arose through the contempt of lawes concerning vsury.

It was prouided in Rome, that no Senator [Page 240] should be owner of any ship containing 300 Amphores, because immoderate gaines was [...]ot in the Noble men allowed.

In Thebes, it was by straight order forbid­den, that any man should be put in office, which in ten yeares before the election, had practised any vnlawfull chaffering.

The Egiptians & Athenians, seeing the er­ror of couetous vsury to take footing in their prouinces, by approued iudgement conclu­ded, that by no instrument, plea, execution, or other meanes in law, a body might be de­tayned, the original being for corrupt gaine.

The Romaines had a law, that no money should be lent to young heires vpon vsury, neyther allovving the detinew pleadable, nor the vsury answerable; hauing a priuate eye into those immeasurable gaines of those greedy Carles, vvho compasse the Fathers Lands, before the sonne come to it. Fene­stella.

By this vnlawfull getting, many of the best and most auntient houses in all Italy, were brought into vtter ruine and confusion.

Of Prodigality. Prodigality, one of the companions of Ple [...]sure, is called of the Stoicks a dissolution, or to [...] much loosing of reuerent vertue, and a token o [...] him which desireth to be a tyrant; such Lyons ( [...] Aristophanes termeth them) are not to be nouri­shed in a common-wealth, for if they should men must serue to satisfie their appetite, being a greedy of expence, as the couetous of money.

CLeopatra, the last Queene of Aegipt, in­uited Anthony to a feast, at which shee dissolued in vineger a Pearle priced at a [...] hundred Sestercies.

The sonne of Aesopus the Tragedian, was so prodigall, that at diuers suppers hee would dissolue rich pearles in vineger. Horace.

Lucullus, was so prodigall in sumptuous expences, and desired in all his buildings to seeme so magnificall, that he came into con­tempt among the Romaines, & was called a Romaine Xerxes. Plut.

There was a law among the Grecians, that those which had prodigally wasted theyr pa­trimony, should not be interred with theyr auncestors. Alexand.

[Page 241]Prodigall lauishing, and palpable sensuality, [...]rought Pericles, Callias the sonne of Hip­ [...]nicus, and Nicius, not onely to necessitie, [...]t to extreame pouerty; and when al their money was spent, they three drinking a poi­ [...]oned potion to one another, died all three.

Apicius, after he had by banquetting spent is whole patrimony, because hee would not [...]ade a miserable lyfe, hanged himselfe.

Epicharmus an Athenian, hauing a large [...]atrimony left him by his parents, consu­ [...]ed it in sixe dayes, and all his life time after [...]ued a begger.

Straton Sydonius, could in no vvise abide [...]hat any one should goe beyond him in pro­ [...]igall expences, vvhereupon arose a great [...]ontention betwixt Nicocles Ciprius and [...]im, vvhilst the one did vvhat hee could to [...]xcell the other. Theopompus.

Poliarchus vvas so grounded in prodigali­ [...]ie, that he would bring forth the dead car­ [...]asses of dogs and Cocks (if hee loued them [...]hen they vvere liuing) and gather all hys [...]riends and acquaintance to the buriall of [...]hem, sparing no costs; he raised vpon their [...]raues great pyllars, and caused Epitaphs to [...]e carued thereon. Aelianus.

Chrysogonus, layd hands vpon the goods [Page] of Sextus Roscius, that hee might riotou [...]ly spend that, vvhich the other had wicke [...]ly gotten. Cicero.

Caligula, in one yeere of his raigne, spe [...] prodigally 67. millions of golde, which T [...]berius his predecessor had gathered tog [...]ther. Tacitus.

In Rome it vvas prouided by lawe, that [...] Senator should be indebted aboue a certain sum prescribed. Fenestella.

Aemilius Lepidus, hauing built an hou [...] vvhich cost sixe thousand pound, vvas fo [...] that cause depriued from the Senate.

Diogenes, hearing that the house of a ce [...]taine prodigall man vvas offered to sale, said▪ I knewe well that house was so full of meate an [...] wine, that ere long it would vomit out his ma [...]ster.

To erect Tombes, to weare gold-rings, [...] vse spyce in meate, to allay vvine vvith vva [...]ter, and to beare sweet smells; the men of A [...]sia sent as presents to the Romaines, in re [...]uenge of the Citties and blood that they ha [...] taken from them. Cicero.

Caligula the Emperour, suffered his ovvn brother to make him a feast full of all ex­cesse, vvherein there vvere two thousan [...] sundry sort of dishes, & seuen thousand [...] [Page 242] [...]f foules.

One of the Fabij, by reason of his prodigall [...]xpences, was sirnamed Gurges.

Caligula was so prodigally minded, that he [...]ould often say, it became a man to be ey­ [...]her thrifty, or an Emperour.

Alexander vvas naturally giuen to spend much, and Darius to heape together, locke [...]p, and keepe. Plut.

Ptolomeus the first vvas so prodigall, that [...]hat soeuer his seruants had bought in the morning, he would giue away before night; [...]nd beeing by his nobles aduised to be more [...]oderate in his largesse, hee aunswered, You [...]re deceiued, to thinke that the poore and needie Prince is troubled.

Alexander the Romaine, very sildom gaue gold or siluer to any man but to souldiours; [...]ffirming it to be vnlawfull for him that was [...]teward of the Common-wealth, to conuert [...]hat vvhich the prouinces had contributed, [...]o the priuate sports and pastimes of hym­ [...]elfe and his fauorites. Lampridius.

Of Pride. Pride is a sinne of the soule, which is not seene [...]nd perceiued of any, but of God onely; and [Page] therfore Moses giueth no temporall punishmen [...] to proude men, but reserued them to the iudge­ment of God.

ROmulus, puffed vp with the glory he [...] had attained vnto, became more seuere to his Senators, and therefore hee was slaine of them at the flood of Caprea. Liuius.

Agamemnon, considering the destruction of Troy, and his owne tryumphant estate [...] sayd, that the ouerthrowe of Priamus mad [...] him proude; but afrayd vvithall, least he [...] thorow pride, as Priamus was, might bee o­uerthrowne. Seneca.

Plautianus, beeing in chiefe honour and credite vvith Seuerus the Emperour, left no [...] a Country or a Citty vnspoyled, to vphold thereby his greatnes and pryde. Dion.

The Romaines, because they would curb [...] the pride of the Iewes, tooke their kingl [...] dignitie from them, and deuided their king­dome into a Tetrarchie. August.

Chares vvaxed so proude because hee ha [...] hurt King Cyrus in the knee, that he becam [...] starke mad. Plutarch.

Vertue, at the first raysed the Templers, & [...] vpheld theyr honours, but theyr pryde and sloth, was theyr vtter ouerthrow. Polych.

[Page 243]Menecrates because he was excellent in the Arte of Phisick, caused himselfe to be called [...]upiter; Philip minding to correct hym for his pride, inuited him to a feast, and caused a [...]able to be prouided for him alone, which he vvas glad of, but when he saw that in sted of meate they gaue him nothing but incense, he vvas ashamed, and departed from them in great rage.

Dioclesian the Emperour, called himselfe brother to the Sunne and Moone, and made an Edict that he would haue all men to kisse his feete, wheras his predecessors gaue their hands to theyr nobility, and bovved theyr knees to the simpler sort. God suffered him to dye a mad man.

Socrates, when hee savve that Alcibiades vvexed proude because of his great possessi­ons, shewed the Mappe of all the vvorld, & asked him whether hee knew vvhich vvere his lands in the territory of Athence; vvho aunsvvered they were not described there; how is it then (quoth he) that thou braggest of that vvhich is no part of the world?

Antiochus had that admiration of himselfe, that he thought hee was able to sayle on the earth, and goe on the seas.

Egnatius vvould laugh of purpose, to shew [Page] his vvhite teeth. Catullus.

Palaemon a Gramarian in Rome, promised immortalitie and euerlasting felicitie vnto a­ny he dedicated his bookes to. Cor. Agrip.

Sparsus, amongst ignorant men, vvoulde seeme a great scholler, but when hee came vvhere schollers were, hee fained himselfe mad, as though he were not ignorant in any thing, but by his infirmitie to excuse hym­selfe from reasoning. Seneca.

Poppeia, Neroes concubine, had her hor­ses shooed with pure gold. Martiall.

Archidemus, the sonne of Agesilaus, beeing ouercome by Phillip, vnderstanding that he vvexed proude thereof, sent him this mes­sage, If thou measure thy shadowe now beeing a victor, with thy shadow in times past, when thou wast ouercome, thou shalt finde it no longer then in those dayes. Brusonius.

Iulius Caesar confessed (and that with boa­sting) that hee slew in battailes, eleuen hun­dred, ninety and two thousand men. Plinie.

Pompey the great surpassed him, who cau­sed to be written in the Temple of Minerua, That he had ouercome, put to flight, and slaine, and vpon yeeling, receiued to mercy, twentie hundred, fourescore, and foure thousand men.

Cato Censorius boasted, that hee tooke [Page 244] [...]ore Townes in Spaine, then he had beene [...]ves in that countrey. Plut.

Agesilaus King of Sparta, hearing an Athe­ [...]ian boasting the thicknes of Athens vvalls, [...]ayd, That the same did well become them, be­ [...]ause strong walls were wont to be built for wo­ [...]en.

A Romaine Patricide beeing ambitious of [...]onour, & a coward, to obtaine the same, de­ [...]ermined to sette fire on the Treasure house, vvhere the people of Rome layde vp theyr [...]reasure. Liuius.

Pyrrhus might haue beene a great Prince [...]f hee had not beene ambitious, and had fol­ [...]owed Cineas counsell, who disswaded hym from his voyage into Italie; but he said, that from Tarentum hee vvould goe to Rome; from Rome to Sicilia, from thence to Car­thage; and vvhen he had ouercome thē, he would be king of all Greece, & thē vvould rest himselfe.

Pompey could abide no equall, and Caesar no superiour.

Fabius the proud Senator, dyed vvith swa­ [...]owing a hayre in milke.

Spurinus Metellus a Senator of Rome, was murdered, by reason of his ambition, & his house vtterly rased by Cincinatus Dictator, [Page] because hee sought by meanes of a certaine distribution of wheat, to make himselfe king of Rome.

M. Manlius vppon the like occasion, vva [...] throwne down headlong from a Tower. Li­uius.

Diogenes vvould tread vpon Platoes car­pets and cushions, and sayde that hee trode Platoes pride vnder foote; but thou doos [...] that (quoth Plato) vvith another greate [...] pride. Laertius.

The proude and stoute nature of Coriola­nus, was the cause of his ruine, notwithstan­ding, that therewithall he was one of the ab­solutest men in all Rome. Liuius.

Epaminondas, perceiuing himselfe to bee somwhat prouder for his victory at Leuctra, came abrode the next day homely apparrel­led in some griefe; and when hee was asked vvhence his sadnes proceeded? he sayd hee had no cause of heauines, but dyd that be­cause he had beene too well pleased the day before. Thucidides.

The goodnes of Aristides, and the meeke­nesse of Cymon, made the gouernment of the Athenians well lyked of all the Nations of Greece, but the arrogancie of Pausanias, made it to be the more desired.

[Page 245]Philip King of Fraunce, & Iohn his sonne, lost Guien by theyr ouer-hastinesse, and Charles recouered it by gentlenes and humi­litie. Froisard.

Zeuxis, when hee had finished the picture of Atalanta, beeing strooken vvith admira­tion of his owne vvorke, brake into these vvords, and writ vnderneath it, Painters will sooner enuy then imitate my dooing.

Salacon, beeing knowne to be a very poore man, vvas of so proude an humour, that hee tooke vpon him as though hee had beene as vvealthy as the best, from him came thys prouerbe, Saloconica superbia. Suidas.

Anthony had two chyldren by Cleopatra, the one Alexander, whō hee called the Sun, the other Cleopatra, whom hee called the Moone. Appian.

Scipio and Haniball discoursing of the ex­cellencie of a Captaine, Scipio asked hym whom he thought to be the best Captaine in the world? he aunswered Alexander, where­at Scipio stayd; then he asked him who was the next? hee sayd Pyrrhus; at which hee grieued; then vvho the third? he sayd, my selfe. Scipio seeing him so aduaunce hym­selfe, sayd, in what place wouldest thou haue put thy selfe, if thou hadst not beene ouer­come [Page] of me? hee aunswered, I woulde then haue set my selfe before Alexander.

Pericles perswading the Athenians to fol­low the vvarres, in an Oration vainely pray­sed himselfe, saying, That for counsaile in this matter, they coulde not admit a more sufficient man then himselfe. Thucidides.

Iugurtha killed his bretheren Hiempsall & Adherball, that he alone might bee King of Numidia. Salust.

Aelius Adrianus the Emperour, boasted that vvhilst the Commonwealth was in qui­et estate, he got more then all other Empe­rours in warres, and destruction of Realmes and Countries; his name was so much fea­red, that many kings sent him presents, see­king to be at peace with him. Eutrop.

The ambition of Marius and Sylla, kindled ciuill vvarres with such extreamitie, that the streets of Rome dyd runne with the bloode of the Cittizens. Suet.

Alexander aunswered the Embassadors of Darius who intreated for peace, and offered his daughter in marriage, that as the heauens coulde not suffer two Sunnes to rule, so the earth might not permit two Alexanders.

Of Enuie. The most auncient vice of the world is Enuy, and that which shall not end vntill the vvorlde end, is Enuie.

THE Poets haue alwaies written, that the enuious persons are continually tormē ­ted by Megera, one of the Furies of hell.

Caligula offered sacrifice to Enuie, as fea­ring himselfe to be subiect to her furie, and therfore desirous to stand in her grace. Dion.

Aristotle enuied Isocrates so much, that he vvas wont to say, It were a shame for Aristotle to hold his peace, and let Isocrates speake.

Homer had his Zoilus, Virgill his Meuius, Cicero his Lycinius, yea, the Gods them­selues had theyr Momus.

Fauorinus was vvont to wonder hovve he coulde lyue, because the Emperour Adrian enuied him, and therefore on a time yeelding to the Emperour in a certaine disputation, vvhen his friends that stood by, meruailed thereat, he sayd; shall not I yeeld to him that hath twenty legions of souldiours?

Plato and Xenophon, Demosthenes and Aeschines, greatly despised each other. [Page] Antoninus and Geta, brothers & successors in the Empire to Seuerus theyr Father, en­uied so each other, that Antoninus slew hys brother Geta, that he might rule alone. He­rodian.

The Athenians, through the enuy they bare to Themistocles, caused Timocreon a Rhodian Poet, in his verses to report him a couetous person, a violater of his fayth, and no keeper of hospitalitie.

Caligula vvas wont for enuie to those hee met, to shaue theyr haires of behinde; hee was so enuious, that if hee saw any Romaine that had faire golden hayre, he would cut it off with his owne hands. Sueto.

Anthony caused the head of Cicero to bee set before him when he was at meat; & hys vvife Fuluia pulled out the tongue thereof, and wore it in her bonnet. Plutarch.

Metellus, at what time Pompey was ap­poynted to succeed him in his office of Pro­consulshyp in Spayne, for enuy threof brake all the furniture of warre, consumed all the victuals, famished all the Elephants, suffe­ring his souldiours to doe vvhat iniury they could against Pompey.

Plato being in Aegina, it was told the chiefe Iudge that a man of Athence was in the Cit­tie, [Page 247] which ought by law to die, he calling Pla­to before him, demaunded what hee vvas? Plato aunswered, a Phylosopher; one enui­ous of him and good letters, hearing the name of Phylosopher, sayd, thys is no man, but a beast, then replyed Plato, saying; I ought to be free by law, beeing a beast and no man; vvherevpon they dismissed hym. La­ertius.

Politian writ to an enuious man; thou en­uiest all things to all men, except enuie, and the same thou doost enuie in another man, which is more enuious then thy selfe.

The mortall hatred betwixt Caesar and Pompey, was not because the one had iniu­red the other, but for that Pompey had en­uie of that great fortune of Caesars in fight­ing, and Caesar of the great grace Pompey had in gouernment. Suetonius.

Themistocles beeing demaunded by one that met him, why hee was sad? aunswered, The sorrow that I haue, is for that in 22. yeeres since I was borne, I thinke not that I haue doone any thing worthy memory, because I see no man in all Athence beareth me enuie. Plutarch.

The Salamines buried theyr deade vvith theyr backes turned against the Agarenes, vvhich were theyr mortall enemies, shewing [Page] thereby, that their enmitie endured not on­ly in time of theyr lyfe, but also vvhen they were dead.

Publius seeing Mutius (a dogged & enui­ous man) sadder then hee was wont to be, sayd; Eyther some misfortune is befallen Mu­tius, or else some good fortune to those that hee enuieth. Macrobius.

So mortall vvas the hatred betweene the two bretheren Eteocles and Polynices, that vvhen theyr bodyes (according to the cu­stome of the Countrey) were burned, the flame parted in sunder, shewing therby that theyr enuie was not ended in death. Seneca.

Caligula was desirous of his ovvne ease, & yet hee was enuious to those that vvere at ease as well as he. Sueto.

He enuied Homer so much, that being de­termined vpon a time to abolish the memo­ry of him, he sayd, that hee might well haue as much power as Plato, to vveede him out of his Common-wealth. Suetonius.

Dyonisius the tyrant, to auoyd enuie, ad­uaunced a man that was wicked, & greatly hated of the people, and beeing demaunded vvhy he did so, Because (quoth hee) I meant to haue a man in my Realme that shall bee more hated then my selfe.

[Page 248]So mortall was the enuie between Themi­stocles and Arestides, that Themistocles said to the Athenians, Except yee cast mee and A­ristides out of the Citty, into the bottome of the sea, ye shall neuer haue a quiet Athence.

Alexander would not that Aristotle should publish those bookes which hee had read to him, because hee desired alone to passe all o­thers in learning and feates of warre.

Alcibiades, to auoyde the ouer-great enuie of the people, & to turne aside the euill spee­ches they had of him, cutte of the tayle of a dogge that he had bought very deere, and draue him thorow the Citty, to the intent hee might busie mens heades about talke of his dogge, and not about other matters.

Narsetes being an Egiptian borne, was ve­ry much enuied of the Romaines, because he daily encreased in honour and riches.

Had not that which Carmenta or Nico­strata the vvife of Euander writ of the warrs of Troy, beene at that tyme throught enuie throwne into the fire, the name of Homer had (without doubt) at thys day remayned obscure. Aurelius.

Viriatus a Spanyard, King of the Lusitani­ans, and a great enemy to the Romaines, was so aduenturous in all hys vvarres, and [Page] valiant in person, that they, by the space of fifteene yeeres, could neuer haue victory of him; but when they saw by experience that he was inuinsible, through enuy they caused him to be poysoned.

Alexander could not abide Perdiccas, be­cause hee was warlike, he hated Lysimachus because he was cunning in ordering a battell, he enuied Seleucus, because hee vvas full of prowesse and courage, hee abhorred Anti­gonus, because he vvas ambitious, hee grud­ged at Attalus, because his power was princ-like. Plutarrh.

Plato enuied Democritus, because he made no mention of him in his bookes, thinking that he made no account of him.

It is an old custome to murmure at vertu­ous deedes, Socrates was reproued of Plato, Plato of Aristotle, Aristotle of Auerrois and Ramus, Sicilius of Vulpitius, Lelius of Var­ro, Marinus of Ptolomeus, Ennius of Ho­mer, Seneca of Aul. Gellius, Cratonestes of Strabo, Thesalleo of Gellian, Hermagoras of Cicero, Cicero of Salust, Origen of Hie­rome, Hierom of Ruffinus, Ruffinus of Do­natus, Donatus of Prosper, and Prosper of Lupus.

Of Wrath. This vice proceedeth from the ouer-much in­ [...]med blood about the heart, the which by no [...]eanes yeeldeth leasure to vnderstand the cir­ [...]umstances which reason teacheth.

THE manner of the Pythagorians, was much commended, who when they had once vttered their choller, would take one [...]nother by the hand, and louingly embrace before euening.

The carriage of bundels of sticks bound to­gether vppon Pollaxes, was to shew that the wrath of a Magistrate ought not to bee too ready, for that while leasurely those bundels so bound were losed, it brought some delay and space to anger. Plutarch.

Cotys, King of Thracia, when one brought a present of goodly vessels of glasse, after he had well recompenced the gift, hee brak [...] thē all, for feare least through choller) wher­vnto he was subiect) he should be mooued to wrath against any of his seruants.

Theodosius, beeing wrathfully mooued a­gainst those of Thessolonica, for a cōmotion which they made, & for slaying his Lieuete­nant [Page] sent thither an Army, where-vpon 1 thousand were slayne, neyther women [...] childrē being spared, afterward repenting, [...] commanded the execution of his letters pa [...]tents should be held in suspence thirty day [...] after signification of them, namely, when a [...]ny were to be punished more seuerely the [...] of custome.

Aiax, impatient for the losse of Achilles a [...]mour, killed himselfe. Ouid.

Darius, being in an exceeding rage again [...] the Athenians, for sacking the Citty Sardis prayed God that he might reuenge that in­iury, and ordayned that thrice a day, whe [...] his meate was vpon the table, one should say vnto him, remember the Athenians. Hero­dotus.

Clinias, by playing vpon the Harpe, and Theodosius by reading the Alphabet, lear­ned to forget their anger. P. Diaconus.

Alcimenides, a King among the Grecians, fauoured one Pannonius highly, who one day playing with him at the ball, they con­tended about a chase, and the one sayd it was thus, the other contrary; and thus conten­ding the King inraged, commanded his gard presently to strike of his head. Plut.

Ptolomey, finding Eusenides, whom hee [Page 250] [...]reatly loued, talking vvith a Curtezan whō [...] likewise loued, made her drinke a cup of [...]oyson, and caused him foorth-with to be [...]rangled.

Constantius, the Emperour, had a minion [...]alled Hortensius, whom he dearely loued, & [...]ne day a Page giuing him drinke in a glasse [...]y mishap, the glasse fell out of his hand, and [...]rake in peeces, whereat the Emperour was [...]ery angry; in this vnhappy houre Horten­ [...]us came to the Emperour, to present him [...]ertaine bills to be signed, which he was con­ [...]ented to doe, and for that the Inke was too [...]hick, or the pen so naught that he could not [...]rite, he commaunded in a rage Hortensius [...]o be beheaded.

Pyrrhus, in his wrath, slew his trusty Secre­ [...]ary Fabatus. The Emperour Bitillion his [...]reatest friend Cincinnatus; Adrian, his on­ [...]y fauoured Amproma; Dioclesian, his [...]iend Patritius; Alexander, Clytus. P. Di­ [...]conus.

Periander, in his rage murdered his owne [...]ife, and then with iudgement considering [...]he fact, hee caused those strumpets which [...]censed him thereto to be burned.

Cataline sayd, that hee could not quench [...]he fire begun in his house with water, and [Page] therefore would pull it downe. Salustius.

The foolish reuenge of Xerxes is memo [...]ble, who when Hellespont molested him hys passage, commaunded, that it sho [...] haue three hundred strypes, and willed th [...] hundred paire of fetters to be throwne the in to bind it. Iustine.

Darius, after hee had taken Babylon, [...]uenged their old malice, with the murder 3000. Cittizens. Herodotus.

Alexander, after hee had subdued ma [...] kingdomes, went into the temple of Iupi [...] Hammon, to know by oracle whether yet [...]ny were aliue that had slaine his father Ph [...]lip, that he might seeke further reuenge. [...].

The Athenians did honour to Aristiget and Harmodius, for killing the tyrant Hipa­chus. Thucidides.

There were eleuen persecutions, of the p [...]matiue Church.

The first, was in the raigne of the Emper [...] Nero, who caused the bodies of Christia [...] to be torne in peeces with dogs, and to [...] the dogges more fierce, they were braced skins of Beares, & other sauage beasts; vnd [...] him suffered Peter and Paule. Eusebius. continued 3. yeares. Tacitus.

The second, was by Domitian, who vnde [...]anding [Page 251] that one should spring out of the [...]ne of Dauid, which should expell him his [...]mpire, he caused al those to be put to death [...]hich descended from the race of Dauid, a­ [...]ongst the Iewes, hee exiled and confined Iohn the Euangelist, into the Ile of Path­ [...]os, it continued 2. yeares. Orosius.

The third, was by Traiaine, who determi­ [...]ed by torments to punish the Christians, [...]nd therefore by publique edict, ordayned [...]at the Christians should worship the Idols [...] the Gentiles, vpon paine of death, which [...]hey refusing to doe, he made a great slaugh­ [...]er of them, afterward he stayed persecution, [...]nd gaue them liberty. Eusebius.

The 4, was in the time of Mar. Aurel. sirna­ [...]ed the Phylosopher, who persecuted the Church millitant in Asia and Europe, where [...]ucius Varus was Gouernour. Idem.

The 5, vnder Septimus Seuerus, which per­ [...]ecution caused God to disturbe his peace, [...]or one of his Captaines, called Albinius, re­ [...]elled against him, who made all Britaine re­ [...]olt from him, calling himselfe Emperor, du­ [...]ing his life. Orosius.

The 6, vnder Maximus, who most deuil­ishly persecuted the Christians, being offen­ded that A. Seuerus had supported them.

[Page]The 7. was in the raigne of Decius, [...] persecuted them in despight of his predice­sour Phillip, who was christened. Idem.

The 8. in Valerians raigne, who in the b [...]ginning greatly fauoured them, but afte [...]wards hee was seduced by a Magitian of Ae [...]gipt, because they impugned his deceipts sorceries, and persecuted them vvith gre [...] slaughter. Orosius.

The 9. in the time of the Emperour Aur [...]lius, who the first 6. yeres vsed them most l [...]uingly, but in the end by the prouocation the deuill, hee persecuted them througho [...] all the confines of his Empire. Euseb.

The 10. vnder Dioclesian, which continu [...]ed 10. yeares together, of the which Euseb [...]us and Orosius vvere eye-witnesses, som [...] were broiled and scorched aliue, others, the flesh carded, as though it had been wooll.

The 11. and last, was by Iulianus Apostat [...] who seeing that the blood of the Martirs wa [...] the seede of the Church, tempted diuers [...] preferments and offices to commit idolatry This was the greatest wound that euer th [...] Church receaued. Ruffinus. Cassiodorus.

Pressilla, a woman of Campania, was th [...] nurse of Caligula, shee had against all natur [...] of women her breast hairy, as she was gyuin [...] [Page 252] [...]uck to Caligula, a young child angered her, [...]hom she tore in peeces, and with the blood [...]hereof annoynted her breasts, so that he suc­ [...]ed together blood and milke, which made [...]im so cruell. Dion.

The women of Campania had this custom, [...]hat when they would giue theyr teates to a [...]hild, first they did annoynt the nipple with [...]he blood of an Hedghogge, to the end that children might bee more fierce and cruell. [...]dem.

Pyrrhus was borne in Greece, nourished in Arcadia, and brought vp with Tygres milke, [...] to say more plainly, Pyrrhus for beeing borne in Greece was sage, for that hee was brought vp in Archadia, hee was strong and couragious, and for to haue sucked Tygres milke, hee was very proude and cruell. Ho­mer.

Pantaleon, tyrant of Elis, caused those Em­bassadors that came to him to be guelded, & made thē to eate their own stones. Heraclid.

Bagoas, an Eunuche, not content to haue murthered Artaxerxes, sirnamed Ochus king Aegipt, caused his bones to be sawed in sun­der, to be filed and scraped, to be shauen, and carued, and made handles for swordes and daggers. I meruaile hee forgotte to make [Page] dice of them.

Euilmerodat, or Balthazar, the son of N [...]buchadnezer, gaue his fathers dead body [...] bee deuoured of Vultures, fearing that h [...] would reuiue againe, who of an Oxe, cou [...] become a man.

Tiberius Nero, put one to death, that [...] craftily tempered glasse that it would bend and bough with Iron (beeing himselfe one [...] his Crafts-mayster) saying, That gold and si [...]uer, if such were permitted, would be of no est [...]mation.

Dionysius, caused Damocles to sitte in [...] chaire of estate, abounding with all kinde [...] delicacies, but ouer his head did hang a n [...]ked sword, thereby to shew the estate where in tyrants stood. Plut.

Galba, assembling together the people [...] three Townes in Spaine, vnder colour [...] treat of somthing for their wealth, caused so [...]dainly to be murdered 7000. among who [...] was the flower of all the youth. Valerius.

Octauius, when hee tooke Perowse, choo [...]sing out three hundred of those that ha [...] yeelded, as well of the better sort, as of th [...] vulgar, slew them in manner of sacrifices be­fore an alter, newly erected Diuo Iulio. Su [...] ­tonius.

[Page 253]Antonius Caracalla, offended with them of Alexandria, entering the Citty in a peaceable maner, and calling out all their youth into a faire field, enclosed them with his Souldiers, and at a signe giuen, killed them euery one, vsing the like cruelty against all the rest, and cleane depopulated the Citty. Herodianus.

Volesius Messala, being Proconsull of Asia, slew with the sword in one day 300. and then walking proudly among the courses, with his hands cast abroade, as though hee had atchi­ued a worthy enterprize, cryed out, O kingly deede. Seneca.

Theodosius, the Prince (a man consecrated to the true God) fradulently calling together at Thessalonica 7000. innocent persons, as it were to see plays, sent in Souldiers amongst them, who slew them. Eutropius.

Of Couetousnes. The better hap a man hath to attaine to ri­ches, the more is he accursed, in being more tor­mented with the feauers of the mind and vnqui­etnes. This vice is held to be the roote of all euill, lacking as well those things which it enioyeth, as which it wanteth.


[Page]THE Scithians only, make no vse of gold and siluer, for euer detesting and con­demning the monstrous sinne of couetous­nes. Solinus.

Caligula, was so couetous, that there was no kind of lucre, or meane to get money by, howe vnlawfull so euer it were, which hee sought not out, insomuch as he layde a try­bute vpon vrine, and sold his sisters gownes, whom he had sent into banishment. Valerius.

Calipha, King of Persia, hauing filled a To­wer with gold, Iewels, and precious stones, and being in warre against Allan king of Tar­tary, was so ill succoured of his owne people, because hee would not giue them theyr pay, that hee was taken of Allan, and famished in that Tower where all his treasure lay.

Dionysius the elder, and aduertised of one that had hid great store of money, commaunded him vpon paine of death to bring it to him, which he did, although not all, but with the remainder dwelt in another place, and besto­wed it vppon inheritance, when Dionysius heard therof, he sent him that which he took from him, saying, Now thou knowest how to vse riches, take that I had from thee.

Hermocrates, ready to die, bequeathed his [Page 254] goods to himselfe.

One at the houre of his death, swallowed many peeces of gold, and sewed the rest in his coate, commanding that it should be bu­ried with him. Atheneus.

One besieged in the Tower of Cassilina by Haniball, chose rather to sell a Rat which he had taken for 200. Romaine pence, then to satisfie his hunger, whereof he dyed straight after, but the other saued his life by that dere meate. Valerius.

The Popes Camera, or Eschequer, is lyke vnto the Sea, whereinto all Riuers doe run, and yet it ouerfloweth not. P. Martyr.

The wife of Lot looking backward, turned into a pillar of salt, sheweth that none in the way of deliberation should desire things past. Augustinus

The old Clergy being asked why they can­not liue by theyr holines but by couetous­nes, aunswered, Nunc aliud tempus, alij pro tempore mores. Polychr:

Demonica betrayed Ephesus to Brennus of Senona, for gold, who demaunded her re­ward of him, vvho brought her to a great heape of gold, and loaded her so heauy ther­with, that she died vnder the burden.

Euclio, had hidden such treasure vnder the [Page] ground, that he durst not go out of his house for feare of robbing, nor tarry in it for feare of killing. Plautus.

Adrian, sirnamed Sophista, when a neigh­bour of his had sent him a few dainty fishes, for a present in a siluer dish, hee tooke both the siluer dish and the fishes, saying to the messenger, Thanke thy maister, and tell him, I take his fishes for nouelties, and his siluer dish for a present.

Simonides, whē he was requested to do any thing gratis, id est, for nothing, sayd, That he had two chests, the one shut vp for thanks, the o­ther alwayes open for money. Plut.

Vespasian, when hee heard that a siluer I­mage of great substance should be made for a monument of his worthines, he straight held out his hand, saying, Behold, heere is a place ready to set an Image, a sure foundation from falling.

Vespasian, of pure misery, niggardship, and couetousnes, commaunded in Rome, to be made publique places, to receaue vrine, not to keepe the Citty more sweete, but to the ende they should giue him more rent. Sue­tonius.

Simonides, beeing demaunded vvhy hee hoorded vp money towards the ende of his [Page 255] old age, Because (quoth he) I had rather leaue my goods to mine enemies, then to haue neede of the releefe of my friends while I am aliue.

Virgill, in his sixth booke of Aeneiads, put­teth those persons in hell, which haue done no good to their friends, kindsfolk, & neigh­bours, but haue been wholly wedded to their riches, without imparting them to others. Virgill.

Ochus, King of Persia, would neuer goe into the Country of Perseland, because that by the law of the Realme, hee was bound to giue to euery vvoman that had borne chil­dren, one French crowne, and to euery wo­man with child two.

Plato, thought it almost impossible, for a man very rich to be honest, yet Solon as wise as hee, desired to haue riches, but not to get them by wrong. Plut.

Anacreon, hauing receaued of Polycra­tes fiue talents for a gift, vvas so much trou­bled for the space of two nights with care, how hee might keepe them, and how to im­ploy them best, that he carried them backe againe, saying, That they were not woorth the paines he had already taken for them.

Socrates, being sent for by K. Archelaus, to come & receaue store of gold, sent him word [Page] that a measure of flower was sold in Athenc [...] for a penny double, and that water cost him nothing.

Lycurgus, abrogated the vse of gold & sil­uer coyne, and appoynted Iron money to be currant, by this meanes hee banished from them the desire of riches.

Caligula, tooke of euery Curtezan, as much of her gayne as shee could get of any man at once.

Pertinax, being aduanced to the degree of Emperour, did not forget his niggardlines, but parted Lettice and Artichawkes in two, that the one halfe might be for his dinner, & the other for his supper. Eutropius.

The parsimony of Fabritius, is not to bee condemned, for the age wherein hee lyued, ought to excuse him, in the which all magni­ficence was vnknowne to the Romaines.

Iustinian the Emperour, for himselfe pro­cured riches, and for the deuill he cheapned soules, he was couetous, and maintayned the heresie of the Pelagians.

Epimenides curse of riches was, that all the treasures hoorded vp by the couetous, shold be wasted by the prodigall.

The Romaines, and the Carthagenians, were friends a long time, but after they knew [Page 256] [...]here was in Spayne great mines of gold and siluer, immediatly arose betweene them ci­uill warres. P. Diaconus.

Darius, being very rich and couetous, sent to Alexander in scorne, to know where hee had treasure to maintaine such an army, who aunswered, Tell thy maister that he keepeth in his Cofers his treasures of mettalls, and I haue no other treasure then the hearts of my friends. Plutarch.

Angelot, a Cardinall, was so couetous, that by a false dore hee descended into the stable, and euery night stole away the Oates, which his horse-keepers had giuen his horses, and continued it so long, till one of the horse-keepers hyding himselfe in the stable, did so be labour him with a Pikeforke, that hee had much adoe to crawle away. I. Pontanus.

Of Sloth. In this vice, wit, vnderstanding, wisedom, and all honest endeuours are buried, as it were in a graue, from which ariseth the loathsome stench of corrupt manners and disordered life, making of men women, of women beasts, of beasts mon­sters.

[Page]ALexander, an Emperour of the East, gi­uen to great idlenes, demaunded of hi [...] wise men, if he had long to liue, they aunswe [...]red him, yea, If he could take away the teeth o [...] a brazen Boare, that stoode in the market place meaning therby, that he would shorten his daies except he gaue ouer his idlenes. Zonarus.

A Senator of Rome, who was saluted by an [...]other, riding in his chariot, aunswered, I wil [...] not say God saue you, since in going thus at you [...] ease, you show you haue no desire to liue long.

Epaminondas, discharged all his Souldiers which grew fat, saying, That as a woman too fat doth not easily conceaue, so doth fat hinder a man from doing his charge, as armes doe which are to heauy.

Scipio, being ariued at his campe, banish­ed all Souldiours, slaues, and Pages, and all vnprofitable people, and made each one to carry his owne armour.

The Sabies, hauing aboundance of all kind of riches, spent their times slothfully.

The Nabathies, hauing nothing, but what they get by their vertue and labor, are good husbands, & abandon all idlenes.

Metellus, when hee was ariued in Affrica, hee tooke away whatsoeuer might seeme to [Page 257] [...]ourish slothfulnes, and caused proclamati­ [...]n to be made, that none should presume to [...]ll eyther bread or any other foode dressed, [...]hat the carriers of vvater should not follow [...]he Campe, that the Souldiers shoulde haue [...]o pages, nor beastes of carriage, that each one should keepe his ranke, cast his trench, [...]nd carry his victuals together with his fur­ [...]iture. Salust.

In the Ilands named Baleares in Spayne, the chyldren might not eate, vntill vvith theyr slings they had strooken downe theyr meate, which theyr parents vsed to sette for them vpon an hie beame or poale. Plinie.

Epaminondas killed one of his souldiours beeing a sleepe, that was set to vvatch, say­ing that hee left him in the same estate hee found him.

The kings of Persia and Macedonia, were euery morning awaked, to put them in mind to take care of that which God had cōmit­ted to theyr charge. Herodot.

At certaine games of Olympus, there came a Phylosopher of Thebes, which had made all the apparrel he wore himselfe; the assem­bly meruailing that one man coulde doe all this, he answered, The sloth of man is the cause that one Art is deuided into diuers; for he that [Page] knoweth all Artes together, must needes kno [...] one alone. Hee vvas reputed a vaine-glor [...]ous Phylosopher.

More hurtfull vvas the Citty of Carthag [...] to Rome after her destruction, then durin [...] the vvhole course & season of warres whic [...] the Romaines had with her, for that vvhil [...] they had enemies in Affrick, they knew no [...] vvhat vices meant in Rome. Gueuara.

The great Numantia in Spayne, coulde ne [...]uer bee vvone (notwithstanding 14. yeere siedge of the Romaines,) till Scipio purge [...] his Campe of loyterers, perfumers, and har [...]lots.

Darius plunged the Babylonians in all ma [...]ner of idlenes, that they might not haue th [...] hart afterward to rebell.

The same policie vsed Cimon, to diminis [...] the force and povver of his allies, by graun [...]ting them vvhatsoeuer they required.

The carelesnesse and negligence of Dioni­sius the younger, getting the vpper hande o [...] him, carried him to vvomen and lechery, & at length did breake in sunder his Adaman [...] chaines; that is, the great number of his war­like souldiours, and his store of Gallyes, o [...] vvhom his Father boasted that hee left hys kingdome fast chained to his sonne.

[Page 258]Sardanapalus through his slothfulnesse, was [...]uercome by Arbactus, and lost the Mo­ [...]archie of Assyria.

The Pheacons counted it the greatest feli­ [...]tie that might be, to doe nothing. Homer.

The Romaines vsed to punish idlenesse so [...]arply, that the husbandman whose ground [...]as found barren, and his pastures vnoccu­ [...]ied, was presently put from the place, and [...]is ground giuen to another man.

Macarius & Diogenes, for that they would [...]ot be accoūted idle persons, the one would [...]emooue heapes of sand from place to place, [...]nd the other vvoulde tumble his tubbe vp [...] downe.

Augustus did win the souldiours vnto him [...]ith rewards, the common sort with plentie of victuals, and all generally vvith the plea­ [...]ure of ease. Tacitus.

VVhē Augustus reproched a certain plaier [...]ecause thorow his occasion there was a tu­ [...]ult among the people, hee aunswered, It is [...]ood for thee, ô Caesar, that the people bee vvith­ [...]eld by our idle exercises, from busying theyr [...]raines about other matters. Dion.

Of Gluttony. This deadly enemy to health, replenisheth th [...] body with humours, wind, inflamations, distil [...]lations, and opirations; and change of mea [...] draweth pleasure out of the bounds of sufficien [...]cie; Pleasure, in all thinges which pleaseth whereas in simple and vniforme thinges, deligh [...] neuer exceedeth the appetite and naturall neces [...]sitie.

THE Arigentines, builded as though the [...] shoulde alvvayes liue, and did feede, a [...]though they should alwayes die. Plato.

The Emperour Septimus Seuerus, & Io [...]uinianus, dyed with eating and drinking to much.

Valintinianus, a famous Emperour, dye suddenly of a surfet.

Lucullus, beeing asked one day by his ser [...]uaunt, whom he had inuited to his feast, see [...]ing so much meat prepared? aunswered, Lu­cullus shall dine with Lucullus. Plut.

Vitellius Spinter, vvas so much gyuen t [...] gluttony and excesse, that at one supper, h [...] vvas serued with two thousand seuerall kin [...] of fishes, and with 7000. flying foules.

[Page 259]Mulcasses king of Thunis, after he was de­ [...]riued of his kingdome, in his returne out of Almaigne, being without hope that the Em­perour Charles the fift vvould helpe him at [...]ll, hee spent one hundred crownes vpon a Peacock dressed for him. P. Iouius.

Maximilian the Emperour, deuoured in one day forty pounds of flesh, and drunke an [...]ogshead of vvine.

Geta the Emperour, for three dayes toge­ther continued his feastiual, and his delicates vvere brought in by the order of the Alpha­bet.

Astydamas, beeing inuited by Ariobarza­ [...]es to a banquet, eate vp al that alone, which vvas prouided for diuers guests. Vopisc.

There vvas a contention betweene Hercu­les and Lepreas, vvhich of them both should first deuoure an Oxe, in which attempt Le­preas vvas ouer-come, afterwards, hee cha­lenged him for drinking, but Hercules vvas his maister. Aelianus.

Aglais, vvhose practise was to sounde the trumpet, deuoured at euery meale tvvelue poundes of flesh, with as much bread, as tvvo bushels of wheate vvould make, and three gallons of vvine.

Philoxenes, a notorious glutton, vvished [Page] he had a necke like a Crane, that the svveet [...] meate vvhich he eate might bee long in go­ing downe. Rauisius.

Lucullus at a solemne and costly feast he made to certaine Embassadors of Asia, a [...]mong other things, he did eate a Griph boi [...]led, and a Goose in paste. Macrob.

Salust, in his inuectiue against Cicero, a [...]mongst many graue matters vvhereof he accused him, he spake of his wanton excesse as hauing poudred meats from Sardinia, an [...] wines from Spayne.

Lucullus tooke great paynes himselfe i [...] furnishing of a feast, and when he was aske [...] vvhy he was so curious in setting out a ban [...]quet, hee aunswered, That there was as grea [...] discretion to be vsed in marshalling of a feast, [...] in the ordering of a battaile, that the one migh [...] be terrible to his enemies, and the other accep­table to his friends. Plut.

In Rhodes, they that loue fish, are accoun­ted right curteous and free-harted men, bu [...] he that delighteth more in flesh, is ill though of, and to his great shame is reputed a bond slaue to his belly. Aelianus.

Sergius Galba, was a deuouring and glut [...]tonous Emperour, for he caused at one ban­quet 7. thousand byrds to be killed. Suet.

[Page 260]Xerxes hauing tasted of the figges of A­ [...]hence, sware by his Gods that hee vvoulde [...]ate no other all his life after, and went forth­ [...]vith to prepare an Army to conquer Gre­ [...]ia, for no other cause but to fill his belly full of the figges of that Country. Plut.

Plato returning out of Sicill into Greece, told his schollers that he had seen a monster, meaning Dionisius, because hee vsed to eate [...]wice a day. Idem.

Aristotle mocking the Epicures, sayd, that [...]pon a time they vvent all into a temple to­gether, beseeching the Gods that they wold gyue them necks as long as Cranes and He­ [...]ons, that the pleasures and tastes of meates might be more long, complayning against Nature for making their necks too short.

The Sicilians dedicated a Temple to Glut­ [...]ony, and erected images to Bacchus & Ce­ [...]es, the God and goddesse of vvine & corne. Pausanias.

M. Manlius, in times past made a booke of diuers vvayes hovv to dresse meate, and an­other of the tastes, sauces, and diuers meanes of seruices, vvhich were no sooner publi­shed, but by the decree of the Senate, they were burned, and if hee had not fled speedily [...]nto Asia, he had been burned with them.

[Page]There was a lawe in Rome called Fabia, b [...] which it was prohibited, that no man shoul [...] dispend in the greatest feast hee made, abou [...] an hundred Sexterces. Aul. Gellius.

The law Licinia, forbad all kindes of sauce at feastes, because they prouoke appetite, & are cause of great expence. Idem.

The lawe Ancia, charged the Romaines t [...] learne all kinde of sciences but cookerie.

The law Iulia, vvas that none should bee [...] hardie as to shutte theyr gates vvhen the [...] vvere at dinner, that the Censors of the Cit [...]tie might haue easie accesse into theyr hou [...]ses at that time, to see if their ordinary wer [...] according to their ability. Macrob.

Nisaeus a tyrant of Syracuse, vvhen he vn­derstood by his Soothsayers that he had no [...] long to liue, the little time hee had left, he [...] spent in belly-cheere and drunkennesse, an [...] so dyed. Rauisius.

Mar. Anthonius set foorth a booke of hy [...] drunkennesse, in which hee prooued thos [...] prancks he played when hee vvas ouercom [...] with vvine, to be good and lawfull. Plut.

Darius had written vpon his graue thys in [...]scription; I could drinke good store of wine, & beare it well. Rauisius.

Ptolomey, vvho in mockery vvas calle [...] [Page 261] Philopater, because hee put to death his Fa­ther and mother, through wine and women, dyed like a beast. Valer.

Lacydes a Phylosopher, by too much drin­king fell into a palsie, whereof he dyed.

Aruntius a Romaine, beeing drunken, de­flowred his own daughter Medullina, whom she forthwith killed. Plutarch.

Tiberius Caesar vvas preferred to a Pretor­shyp, because of his excellencie in drinking.

Diotimus, was sirnamed Funnell, or Tun­nell, because he gulped downe wine through the channell of his throate, vvhich was pow­red into a Funnell, the end whereof was put into his mouth, vvithout interspiration be­tweene gulpes. Rauisius.

In the feast of Bacchus, a crowne of golde vvas appoynted for him that coulde drinke more then the rest.

Agron the King of Illyrium, fell into a sick­nesse of the sides called the Plurisie, by rea­son of his excessiue drinking, and at last died thereof.

Cleio a vvoman, was so practised in drin­king, that shee durst challenge all men and vvomen what soeuer, to try maisteries who could drinke most, and ouercome all.

Cleomenes, king of Lacedemonia, beeing [Page] disposed to carouse after the manner of the Scythians, dranke so much, that hee became and continued euer after sencelesse.

Cyrillus sonne, in his drunkennes, wicked­ly slevv that holy man his father, & his mo­ther great with child, he hurt his two sisters, and deflowred one of them. August.

Androcides a Gentleman of Greece, hea­ring of Alexanders excesse in drunkennesse, vvrote a letter to him, wherein was a Tablet of gold, with these words thereon ingrauen, Remember Alexander when thou drinkest wine, that thou doost drinke the blood of the earth.

Those of Gallia Transalpina, vnderstan­ding that the Italians had planted Vines in Italy, came to conquer theyr Countrey; so that if they had neuer planted Vines, the French-men had not destroyed the Coun­trey. Liuius.

Foure old Lombards being at banquet to­gether, the one dranke an health rounde to the others yeeres, in the end they challenged two to two, and after each man had declared how many yeeres old he was, the one dranke as many times as he had yeeres, and likewise his companion pledged him, the one vvas 58. the second, 63. the third, 87. the last, 92. so that a man knoweth not vvhat they [Page 262] did eate or drinke; but he that dranke least, dranke 58. cups of vvine. P. Diaconus.

Of thys euill custome came the lawe that the Gothes made, that is; VVee ordaine and commaund, vppon paine of death, that no olde men vpon payne of death, shoulde drinke to one anothers health at the table. Idem.

Of Lechery. This bewitching euill, beeing an vnbrideled appetite, in whomsoeuer it raigneth, killeth all good motions of the minde, altereth, dryeth, & weakeneth the body, shortning lyfe, diminish­ing memory, and vnderstanding.

CYrena, a notorious strumpet, vvas sir­named Dode camechana, for that shee in­uented and found out tvvelue seuerall waies of beastly pleasure. Cor. Arip.

Proculeius the Emperour, of an hundred Sarmatian virgins he tooke captiue, he de­flowred tenne the first night, and all the rest vvithin fifteene dayes after.

Hercules in one night deflowred fiftie.

Theophrastus writeth of an Indian hearbe, vvhich who so eateth, is able to performe 70. seuerall actions.

[Page] Iohannes á Casa, Archbishop of Beneuento, and Legate in Venice, vvrit a booke in praise of the abhominable vice of Sodomitrie.

Sigismond Malatesta, striued to haue car­nall knowledge of his sonne Robert, vvho thrusting his dagger into his fathers bosom, reuenged his wickednes.

Cleopatra, had the vse of her brother Pto­lomeus company, as of her husbands.

Antiochus stayed a whole vvinter in Chal­cidea, for one mayde which he there fancied.

Lust vvas the cause of the vvarres between the Romaines and the Sabines. Liuius.

Thalesthis, Queene of the Amazons, came 25. dayes iourney, to lie vvith Alexander. Iustinus.

Adultery in Germany, is neuer pardoned. Tacitus.

Messalina and Popilia, vvere so inconti­nent, that they cōtended vvith most shame­full harlots, prostrating themselues without respect of time, place, or company, to any, though neuer so base. Plut.

Claudius deflowred his owne sisters, and Semiramis burned in beastly lust tovvards her sonne Ninus.

Nero caused Atticus a Romaine Consull to be slayne, that hee might the more conueni­ently [Page 263] enioy the company of his wife. Corn. Tacitus.

Commodus, not contented with his three hundred Concubines, cōmitted incest vvith his owne sisters. Herodian.

Caligula dyd the like, but the one vvas slaine by his vvife, the other by his Concu­bine.

Adultery was the cause of the first alterati­on of the Citty of Rome. Eutrop.

Sempronia a vvoman, well learned in the Greeke, and Sappho, no lesse famous, de­fended luxurie and lust by their writings.

Cleopatra inuited Anthony to a banquet in the prouince of Bithinia, in the vvood Se­sthem, where, at one instance, of threescore young virgines, fiftie and fiue were made mothers.

Cleophis a Queene of India, saued her kingdome and subiects from destruction, by a nights lodging with Alexander, by whom she had a sonne called Alexander, vvho was afterward King of India; shee was euer after called Scortum Reginum. Iustine.

Heliogabalus, not onely deflowred, but al­so married a virgine Vestall, saying it vvas reason that Priests shoulde marry Nunnes, because that in times past hee had beene [Page] Priest of the Sunne.

Iane Queene of Naples, was hanged vp for her aduoutry, in the very same place vvhere shee had hanged her husband Andreas afore, because he was not (as shee sayd) able to sa­tisfie her beastly desire.

Feron King of Egypt had beene blind 10. yeeres, and in the eleuenth, the Oracle told hym that he should recouer his sight, if hee washed his eyes in the vvater of a vvoman vvhich neuer had to doe with any but her husband; vvhereupon, hee first made tryall of his owne vvife, but that dyd him no good, after, of infinite others, which did him all as little, saue onely one, by whom hee recoue­red his sight, and then hee put all the rest to death. Herodot.

Iulia the daughter of Augustus vvas so im­modest, shamelesse, and vnchast, that the Emperour was neuer able to reclaime her; and vvhen shee was admonished to forsake her bad kinde of lyfe, and to follow chastitie as her Father dyd, shee aunswered, That her Father forgotte that hee was Caesar, but as for herselfe, shee knew well enough that shee was Caesars daughter.

Cornelius Gallus, and Q. Elerius, tvvo Romaine Knights, dyed in the very action [Page 264] of theyr filthy lust. Plinie.

Arichbertus, eldest sonne vnto Lotharius, King of Fraunce, dyed euen as hee was em­bracing his whores.

Alcibiades was burned in his bed, with hys Curtezan Timandra. Plut.

The Egyptians punishments against adul­tery, was, to cut of the nose of the vvoman, and the priuie parts of the man.

Alexander when a woman was brought to him one euening, demaunded of her vvhy shee came so late? she aunswered, that shee stayed vntill her husband was gone to bed. VVhich he no sooner heard, but he sent her away, being angry with thē that had almost made him commit adultery.

He was angry with Cassander, because hee would by force kisse a minstrels maid.

Rodolphus King of Lombardie, beeing ta­ken in adultery, was slaine by the vvomans husband whom he abused.

Roderigo, King of Spayne, was depriued of his kingdome & life by the Sarazins, who vvere called in by an Earle called Iulian, that he might be auenged of the king for forcing his daughter.

Caelius Rhodoginus, in his 11. booke of antiquities, telleth of a certain man, that the [Page] more he vvas beaten, the more he feruently desired vvomen.

The vvidowe of the Emperour Sigismund intending to marry againe, one perswaded her to spende the remainder of her life after the manner of the Turtle-Doue, who hath but one make; If you counsell mee, (quoth shee) to followe the example of byrds, why doe you not tell me of Pidgions & Sparrowes, which after the death of their makes, doe ordinarilie couple themselues with the next they meet.

Hiero, King of Syracusa, banished the Po­et Epicharmus for speaking vvantonly be­fore his vvife, and that very iustly, for hys vvife vvas a true mirrour of chastitie.

Sulpitius Gallus, put away his wife by de­uorce, because shee went abroad vnmasked.

Pompey caused one of his souldiers eyes to be put out in Spaine, for thrusting his hand vnder a womans garment that was a Spany­ard; and for the like offence, did Sertorius commaund a footeman of his band to be cut in peeces. Sabellicus.

If Caracalla had not seene his mothers thigh, he had not married her. Suetonius.

Speusippus the Phylosopher, one of Pla­toes followers, vvas slaine for his adulterie. Tertullianus.

[Page 265]Tigellinus dyed amongst his Concubines. Tacitus.

Rodoaldus, King of Lombardy, was slaine with a certaine matrone, euen in the action of their concupiscence. Paulus Diaconus.

By the law of Moses, adulterers were sto­ned with rigour, which our law doth not ob­ [...]erue, for were it to bee so in these dayes, wee should not finde stones enough to ful­fill it.

A Nunne, finding in her Booke, at the bot­tome of the leafe, these vvordes, Bonum est omnia scire, determined to try what the carnall copulation of man and woman might [...]ee, but turning ouer the leafe, shee sawe in the beginning thereof, Sed non vti, vvhere­ [...]pon to her greefe shee altered her purpose, and her ioy lasted but a while.

Rutilius, Consull of Rome, caused the tem­ple of Lucina to bee burned, because his daughter (great with child) made her vow, and kept her 9. vigils, and vpon more deuo­tion, was desirous to bee deliuered in the temple.

The Persians, would not shew their wiues vnto strangers. Iosephus.

The Tarentines, and the Capuans, were very mortall ennemies, by chaunce one [Page] one day in the campe of the Capuans, two Captaines fell at variance, because they both loued one woman, which when the Taren­tines perceiued, immediatly they gaue them the onset, & ouercame them.

If Scipio Affricanus had not scowred the Romaine Armies of leachery, the inuincible Numantia had neuer beene ouercome.

Phalaris, the tirant, would neuer grant man any thing that he desired, neyther euer deni­ed any thing that a dissolute woman reque­sted. Plut.

Caligula, gaue but 6000. sextercies onely, to repaire the walls of Rome, & 10000. sex­tercies for furring one of his Lēmons gowns. Idem.

Dionysius, the tyrant, albeit of nature hee was most cruell, yet by his Curtezan Mirta, hee became so tractable, that shee onely did confirme all his prouisions of the weale pub­lique, and hee did but ordaine and appoynt them.

Themistocles, was so enamoured of a wo­man that he had taken in the warres of Epi­rus, that she being sicke, and let blood, he al­so was let blood, and washed his face with the blood that issued out of her arme.

VVhen Demetrius had taken Rhods, there [Page 266] was brought to him a faire Gentlewoman, which he made his friend in loue, which she perceauing to be great, shewed her selfe an­gry with him, and refused his company, but he abandoning his estate, on his knees pray­ed her to pardon him.

Autenaricus, a famous King of the Gothes, after he had triumphed ouer Italy, and made himselfe Lord of Europe, was so far in loue with Pincia, a Curtezan, that whilst she com­bed his head, he would make cleane her slip­pers. Olaus.

I. Caesar diuersly was spotted with adultry, as with Posthumia, the wife of Seruius Sul­pitius, Lelia, the wife of Gabinus, with Tar­talin, the wife of Crassus, with Musia, Cne­rius Pompeyes vvyfe, and Seruilia, the mo­ther of Brutus.

Of Desperation. The last of all the perturbations of the mind, is Desperation, and is of all other most pernici­ous; this destroyer of all hope of better fortune, entereth so farre into the hart of man, that it ma­keth him offer violence to himselfe, then the which nothing can bee more dangerous to the soule.

[Page]BRutus, and Cassius, after the death of Caesar, desperatly killed themselues.

Anthony, when hee heard that Cleopatra had slaine her selfe, desperatly ranne vpon his sword.

Empedocles, because hee could not learne the cause of Aetnaes burning, threw himselfe into it. Horace.

Aristotle, for that he could not giue a rea­son of the flux and reflux of Eurypus, drow­ned himselfe.

Themistocles, vvas not ashamed of this damnable speach in his mouth; If a man should shew me two seuerall wayes, the one lea­ding to heauen, the other to hell, of the twaine I had rather take the latter. Aelianus.

Spira, the Italian, being exhorted to say the Lords prayer, desperately aunswered, That hee could not with his heart call God Father, be­cause the deuill was his Father, nor haue any place but amongst the reprobate.

The Donatists, rather then they would bee forced from theyr fancies, slew them­selues, yet this did nothing fray the Church of God from compelling them by the rigour of Princes lawes, without any respect of their wilfull desperation. August.

[Page 267]Ptolomeus, that killed Pompeius, being o­uercome by Caesar, drowned himselfe in the Riuer Nilus. Eutropius.

Phylostrates, beeing destitute of all hys friends, by the reason of a contagious wound hee had, led a poore and miserable lyfe, and lyke a begger wandered from place to place, thereby to signifie, that though hee were in such misery, as no man more, yet had he ra­ther in that griefe so consume his dayes, then desperatly to kill himselfe.

Fimbria, killed himselfe in Asia, in the tem­ple of Aesculapius, because hee would not be taken of Sylla. Appian.

Timocrates, an Athenian, seeking to a­uoyde the feare of death by water, as then ready to be sunke in a shippe, killed himselfe. Thucidides.

Sabina, the wife of Adrian the Emperour, beeing without all reason or modesty, was cruelly intreated, and with extreamity dri­uen to desperation, murdered her selfe. Eu­tropius.

Arbogastus, beeing vanquished by Theo­dosius the Emperour, fled out of the bat­taile, and not finding place of refuge or secu­rity, with his owne sword killed himselfe. Ambrose.

[Page]Artaxerxes, caused his eldest sonne Darius to be slaine, for certaine treacherous demea­nours, the second brother next to him, forth­with in his fathers presence, drew out his per­sian Acynax, and desperatly murthered him­selfe. Aelian.

Mithridates, naked of all comfort, & despe­rate in his vnhappy fortunes, when hee could not dispatch himselfe by poyson, for that hee had alwayes vsed Antidotes (from whence at this day we cal our Mithridate) desired Bi­talus a French-man, and one of his Captains, to kill him, which he obayed. Appian.

The Assapeians, besieged of the Romaines, seeing no way to escape their tiranny & bon­dage, brought all their goods and riches into the market-place, & piled vpon them great heapes of wood, and sware 50. of the chiefest of their Citty, that they with thēselues, wiues and children, should goe vp to it, and if they were furder distressed, to set it on fire. Idem.

Of the Deuill. The deuill hath diuers names, he is called Di­abolus, Daemō, (& of Plato Cacodaemō) Sathan, Lucifer, Leuiathan, Mammon, Asmodeus, Beel­zebub, Baal, Berith, Belphegor, & Astaroth.

[Page 268]THE deuill suffered Herod in words, to pretend the worshipping of Christ, when he intended in his hart to kill him.

He made Pilate to confesse Christes inno­cency, & yet against his owne conscience, to giue sentence of death against him.

Hee caused Iudas to kisse Christ, as though he loued him, & then to betray him.

The deuill caused Pilates wife to dreame, that she was troubled, because of Christ, and prayed him not to medle with him, for that the deuill knew by his death the restauration of mankind.

It is written in the discourse of the liues of the fathers of Aegipt, that one of them saw in a vision, the assembly of deuills, and hearing one report the diuersity of illusions, where­with they had beguiled the world, hee sawe their Prince make great gratulation and re­compence, to one of those ill spirits, that had deceaued a vertuous man of the Church, thē to all the rest, stirring thousands to transgres­sions and sinnes.

In Italy, an vnlearned vvoman possessed with the deuill, being asked, which was the best verse Virgil made, aunswered, Discite Iu­stitiam monite et non temnere diuos. Louicerus.

[Page]A mayde, borne in Saxony, before she was twelue yeares of age, and one that neue [...] knew what learning meant (possessed as the other) prophecied in Greeke, and Latine the warres that were to come in Saxonie Idem.

The King of the Sodomites, in the person of the deuill, sayde to Abraham, Giue mee the soules, take thou the rest.

The deuil disputed with Michael about the body of Moses.

A Musition shewed his cunning before An­tigonus, whō he oftentimes found fault with, bidding him set vp his treble string higher, & then his meane; the Musition said, The deuill is in it (ô King) by the Gods I sweare, if thou art more expert then I. Aelian.

The head and leader of euill spirits is Luci­fer, which hath that name, for hee was made more cleare and bright then other Angells. Gregory.

He waxing proud against his Creatour, lost his light and fairenes, & as he was worthy he got him a foule darke shape of Apostacy, with him fell a multitude of Angells, who by the permission of God, change themselues into Angels of light, to deceaue the world.

One wryteth pleasantly, that hee is called [Page 269] Diabolus of Dia, which in Greeke signifieth two, and Boulos, which is Morsus, because he maketh but two bits of a man, one of the bo­dy, the other of the soule.

The euill Angell or spirit of Brutus, appea­red to him sitting in his tent, whom he bold­ly asking, what man or God hee was, aun­swered, I am Brutus thy euill spirit, and at Phi­lippi I will meete thee agayne, where hee dyed. Plutarch.

Leuiathan tempteth with pride, Mammon attempteth by auarice, Asmodeus seduceth by leachery, Beelzebub inciteth to enuy, Baall Berith, prouoketh to ire, Belphegor moueth to gluttony, Astorath perswadeth to sloth.

Of Hell. Hell hath likewise diuers names, Infernus, Barathrum, Tartarus, Orcus, &c, from the which there is no redemption.

PLuto, the Sonne of Saturne and Ops, is of the Poets faigned, to bee the GOD of hell, and riches, hee vvas called Februus for certayne sacrifices for the dead, offered to him; in sted of a Scepter, he hath in his hands [Page] keyes, for that there is no returne from hell.

Proserpina, the daughter of Ceres, as shee was gathering flowers, was stolne away by Pluto, & afterward called the Queene of hel, and the dead. Apollodorus.

The three Iudges in hell, were Minos, Aea­cus, and Rhadamanthus.

The three destinies, Chotho, Lachesis, and Atropos, were faigned to be the daughters of Iupiter & Themis.

The furies of hell, were called Eumenides, & Erimies, with which the guilty consciences of men were tormented.

There are foure floods in hel, Acheron, Stix, Cocptus, and Phlegeton, whose Ferriman was Charon, and the Porter of hell it selfe, three headed Cerberus.

The Elizian fieldes, were faigned to be the place where the soules of the blessed remay­ned, and the flood Laeche, or of forgetfulnes, where who so did drinke, forgot whatsoeuer before they remembred.


A Table of all the speciall mat­ters contained in this booke.

  • ABstinance, vide temperance.
  • Accusation, vide slaunder.
  • Adultery, vide leachery.
  • Angels, 4.37.
  • Age, 54, 59.
  • Arts, 69.93.
  • Armes, 93, 134.221.
  • Arrogancy, 112. vide pride.
  • Antiquities, 147.
  • Astronomy, 151.
  • Agriculture. 234.
  • Arithmatique, 153.
  • Astrology, 156.
  • Aristocratia, 164.
  • Archbishops of Rome, 185.
  • Apparell, 93, 43.
  • Apparitions, vide visions.
  • Ambition, 189, vide pride.
  • Aduersities, vide pouerty.
  • Auarice, 45, vide couetousnes.
  • Authority, 163.
  • Anger, vide wrath.
  • Auncestors, 240.
  • Aboundance, 256.
  • BEauty, 75, 29,
  • Benefits, 44, vide liberality.
  • Banishment, 108, 120, 152.
  • Bishops of Rome, 185.
  • Blessednes, vide felicity.
  • Blasphemy, 12.
  • Blessing, 107.
  • Boasting, vid. pride.
  • Bounty, vide liberality.
  • Bookes, 243.
  • CHastity, 78.
  • Christ, 1, 106.139.
  • Children, 111, 34.
  • Captaines, 49.
  • Chiualry. 151.
  • Cardinals, 156.
  • Circles, 6.
  • Care, vide sorrow.
  • Cruelty, vide wrath.
  • Courage, vide fortitude.
  • Clemency, 41.
  • Continency, vide temperance, chastity.
  • Content. 29.
  • Couetousnes, 253, 12.
  • Constancy, 63.
  • [Page]Country. 87.
  • Common-wealth, 87.148.
  • Cruelty, 12.
  • Curiosity, 2.
  • Comaedians, 93.
  • Craft, 120.
  • Cosenage, 120.
  • Contemplation, 232, 139.
  • Counsaile, vide prudence.
  • Counsailours, 147.
  • Cursing, 107.
  • Colonies, 148.
  • Coronations, 79.
  • Confessours, 190.
  • Clergy, 213.
  • Curtesie, vide clemency.
  • Cowardize vide feare.
  • DEath, 237, 30, 33, 154.
  • Detraction, 73, vide slander.
  • Delectation, vide pleasure.
  • Dicing, 93, 155.
  • Diligence, 60, 27.
  • Dauncing, 96, 103.
  • Desperation, 266.117.
  • Deuill, 268.122.
  • Deceite, vide lying.
  • [Page]Dissimulation, 13, 120.
  • Destinies, 137, 220.
  • Dreames, vide visions.
  • Diuination, vide prophecie.
  • Democratia, 164.
  • Deuotion, 189.
  • Desire, vide couetousnes.
  • Delight, vide pleasure.
  • Drunkennes, 83, vide gluttony.
  • Duarchie, 164.
  • EDucation, 54.
  • Earth, 136.
  • Elements, 137.
  • Ease, vide sloth.
  • Eloquence, 74, 225.
  • Enuy, 246, 41, 73.
  • Emulation, 73,
  • Empyre, 164, 172,
  • Emperours, 166,
  • Electors, 7, 174,
  • Empire of Turks, 182,
  • Equity, vide Iustice,
  • Eruditory, 39,
  • Exercise, vide labour,
  • FAme, 221.
  • Fortune, 212, 25.
  • Faith, 80.
  • Fashions, vide apparrell, 140,
  • Flatery, 128.
  • Felicity, 219, 131.
  • Feare, 124, 23.
  • Fortitude, 33,
  • Forgetfulnes, vide memory.
  • Fooles. 140.
  • Faelix hownds, 216.
  • Furies, vide hell, 225.
  • Friendship, 66, 21.
  • Friends, 48.
  • GOD, 1, 13, 14, 51, 111, 149
  • Geometry, 37, 153.
  • Gifts, vide liberality.
  • Games, 91.
  • Gaming, 93.
  • Greefe, vide sorrow.
  • Gods, 141.
  • Goddesses, ibid.
  • Grace, 151.
  • Gardens, 234.
  • Grammer, 154.
  • Gamsters hall, 209.
  • [Page]Gold, 219.
  • Gentlenes, 245.
  • Glory, 223.
  • Generall in warre, vide warre.
  • Gluttony, 258.
  • HEauen, 4, 138.
  • Hierarchies, 4.
  • Hemispheare, 6.
  • Hospitality, 45.
  • Honour, 17, 223.
  • Humility▪ 44, vide clemency.
  • Hope, 56.
  • History, 113, 151.
  • Hipocrisie, 120.
  • Hell, 269.141.
  • Holy fire, 146.
  • Homage, 151.
  • Husbandry, 152.
  • Hawking, 153.
  • Happines, vide felicity.
  • Hate, vide enuy.
  • IEsus, 1, 3, 22.
  • Iustice, 19, 11, 18, 234.
  • Iudges, ibid.
  • Imagination, 37:
  • Iealousie, 73:
  • [Page]Idolatry, 120, 144.
  • Ignorance, vide learning.
  • Iniury, 217.
  • Idlenes, vide sloth.
  • Interest, 239.
  • Iniustice, 120.
  • Infamy, vide fame.
  • Industry, vide diligence.
  • Ingratitude, 226.
  • KIngs, 11, 162, 11.
  • Kingdome, 163.
  • Knowledge, vide learning.
  • Knight, 231.
  • LAwes, vide Iustice:
  • Learning, 131, 28.39.151:
  • Labour, vide diligence:
  • Lying, 120:
  • Lawyers, 147:
  • Liberality, 12.41:
  • Loue, 69:
  • Longing, 104:
  • Lechery, 262.
  • Lust, ibid.
  • MAN, 1, 25.138:
  • Mariage, 106.31:
  • [Page]Magnanimity, vide fortitude:
  • Memory, 56.223:
  • Mercy, 15. vide clemency:
  • Money. 152.240:
  • Maiesty, 161:
  • Muses, 87:
  • Musicke, 96.150:
  • Monarchy, 164:
  • Monarchs, 164:
  • Magick, 202:
  • Martyrs, 185:
  • Murder, vide wrath:
  • Melancholly, 233:
  • NAmes, 229.137, 151.238.
  • Nature, 93.226:
  • Nauigation, 153:
  • Necessity, 14.217:
  • Necromancy, 151:
  • Negligence, vide sloth:
  • Nobility, vide fame.
  • OAths, vide faith. 124:
  • Old age, 60:
  • Oracle,
  • Orators, 94:
  • Opinion, 136:
  • Ostracisme, 236.
  • PAtience, 51.161.
  • Parents, 111.34:
  • Palingenesia, 38:
  • Philanthropia, 41
  • Philosophy, 30:
  • Philosophers, 40.131. 236.140
  • Phisicke, 243:
  • Phisitions, 33:
  • Pitty, 41:
  • Perseuerance, 63:
  • Periury, vide faith:
  • Pleasure, 90, 131, 136:
  • Perturbations, 117:
  • Planets, 5, 6, 7, 68:
  • Pollicy, vide prudence, 218.
  • Pouerty, 235:
  • Poore, 47, 49:
  • Parasites, vide flattery:
  • Peregrination, 138:
  • Poets, 149, 155:
  • Prayer, 13, 233:
  • Prudence, 24:
  • Prodigality, 240, 45.
  • Promises, 80, 124.
  • Purgatory, 39:
  • Prophecy, 156.150:
  • Peace, 151:
  • [Page]Pastorall Poems, 152:
  • Priests, 156:
  • Popes, 185, 157:
  • Problemes, 165:
  • Pride, 242:
  • Persecution, 250.
  • QValities, 137, 229:
  • Questions, 118.151:
  • Quarrellers, 139:
  • Quietnes, 139, 217:
  • REason, 30, 37, 84, 125:
  • Religion, 10, 2, 189:
  • Riches, 46, vid. fortune, couetousnes:
  • Reuerency, 117:
  • Repentance, vide sorrow:
  • Riddles, 165:
  • Remembrance, vide memory:
  • Rulers, vide maiesty.
  • SAints, 39:
  • Sadnes, 117:
  • Secrecy, 65, vide silence:
  • Sences, 40.28, 84:
  • Soule, 37, 137:
  • Sicknes, 29:
  • Schoolemaisters, 55:
  • [Page]Schollers, 57:
  • Sciences, 69, 134:
  • Silence, 84.
  • Sinne, 102, 136.
  • Satyres, 151:
  • Seruants, 227:
  • Slaunder, 125:
  • Solitarines, vide contemplation.
  • Sorrow, 117:
  • Starres, 6, 7, 8, 9·
  • Souldiers, 30.40, 218:
  • Subiects, 4145, 226:
  • Suspition, 73:
  • South-saying, vide prophecy:
  • TEmperance, 28, 78▪
  • Timocratia, 164:
  • Thanksgiuing, 13, 41:
  • Time. 51.136:
  • Tongue.
  • Theologe, 156:
  • Treasure, vide couetousnes, 113:
  • Truth, 2.120▪
  • Treason, 228:
  • Turks. 182:
  • Turkish monarchy. 182.81.
  • Tiranny, vide wrath:
  • Tyrants, 40.65, 90.
  • VIctory. 92.218:
  • Vertue. 17.
  • Visions 156:
  • Vowes, vide faith.
  • Vnderstanding, 37.84.
  • Vsury, 239:
  • WIsedome, 24. vide prudence. 138.
  • VVisemen. 26.28.
  • VVine. 30. vide gluttony.
  • VVit, 56.37.
  • VVorld, 10.137.139.
  • VVomen, 101, 36.134.244.
  • VVife, 73.84.118.
  • VViddowes, 105.
  • VVarre, 217.
  • VVrath, 249.
  • YOuth. 54.96.
  • Yeare. 153.
  • ZElotypia. 73.
  • Zodiacke. 6, 151.

Faults escaped in the Printing.

IN fol. 71, reade Ouid dyed in persecution.

In fol. 82. for King of S. Paul, reade Earle.

In fol. 198. for Posphory, reade Porphory.

In fol: 197. for denied, deuised.

In fol. 241. for righteousnes, riotousnes.

In fol. 258. for opirations, opilations:

In fol. 263. for Reginum, Regium:

In fol. 268. for monite, moniti:

In fol. 269. for Chotho, Clotho:

In fol. for 269. Erimies, Erinnies:

In fol. 269, for Cocptus, Cocytus:

In fol. 269, for Laeche, reade Laethe.

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