P [...]ge 53. line 3. reade by that. p. 78. l. 35. for declension read Gender or declining. p. 87. l. 16. for eu [...]r reade a [...]way. p. 115. l. 9. put i [...] so far as I know. p. 116 after the 11 line, put i [...] so in others for most part. p. 191, l. [...]7. put out [...]ound. p 202. l. 25 for of Grammatica, read at Gram­matica. p. 2 [...]0. l. 32 put out seco [...]dly. p. 251. l. 20. for most, read many. p. 274. l. 22. put out kinde. 297. l. 35. for rest, read [...] rise.

Faults escaped by the Printer.

IN P [...]ge 20 line 3 the Alphabet should haue beene distinguished by threes, thus; Abc.def.ghi. and so for the rest.

3036a bookebookes
3122m i t.m c. t.
3130withoutor without
461ThirdA third
5929manui soelicismanui [...]oelici
633parsedp [...]ased
731goe truelygoe surely
36weaponwe [...]pons
1443 & 11vincitvincet
1921in mannerin good manner
22137so greatgreat
23435Th [...]ogiusTheoguis
23619be alsoalso
27824 [...]derintoderunt.

Page 200. in the margent against line 18 for yongest, read highest.


OR, A most plaine and easie way of exa­mining the Accidence and Grammar, by Questions and Answeres, arising directly out of the words of the Rules.

Whereby all Schollars may attaine most spee­dily to the perfect learning, full vnderstanding, and right vse thereof; for their happy proceeding in the Latine tongue.

Gathered purposely for the benefit of Schooles, and for the vse and delight of Maisters and Schollars.

The second Edition, corrected, and inlarged.

In omni disciplina, infirma est artis praeceptio, sine summa assiouitate exercitationis.


LONDON, Printed for THOMAS MAN. 1615.

TO THE WOR­shipfull, his much respected friend, Mr. ABRAHAM IO [...]NSON, Coun­sailour at the Lawe, of Lincolns Inne.

MAny haue been the wel-willers and furtherers of my labours, for our Grammar-schoole: yet few there are to whom I owe more, then vnto your worthy and louing fathers, M. Iohnson and M. Chade [...]ton; both for their direction and incou­ragement which they haue giuen me therein. Ha­uing therfore b [...]thought me to whom the Questions of Grammar ( [...]hich [...]re to make all difficulties in the Accidence and Gram­mar most plaine and easie, and which containe the very ground of all) might most fitly appertaine; I finde none, after those vnto whom I haue ded [...]cated my former School-labours, to whom these doe more of duty belong then vnto your selfe: that I may in some part repay vnto you, or at least vnto yours, that debt which I owe vnto themselues. And first for M. Iohnson your father: because he hath yeelded vnto me the greatest help (next vnto my Honou­rable Lord) in laying the foundation of all my School trauels; both in setting me more earnestly thereunto, by his graue aduise, and also supporting me by his bounty, that I might be able the bet­ter to goe through with the Worke. Moreouer, for that (besides his singular indeuours for the furtherance and aduancement of all good Learning, whereof both in Vniuersity, Citty, and Cou [...] ­trey he hath giuen so good testimonie) I haue knowen none, who hath come neere vnto him, in his great care, that the best▪ speedi­est surest and most easie waies might be found out, for all Schools, according to our receiued Grammar, and most approued Schoole Authors, and the same to bee made vniuersally knowen, that all euen the meanest both Maisters and Scholars may proceede [Page] with delight, and all good Learning may go happily forward. So for your father in law M. Chaderton: because he hath not onely vouchsafed to peruse som part of my labours, and to afford me his iudgement and censure therein, but hath also beene pleased to affoord some principal experiments, which himselfe hath obserued. Who therefore can [...] [...]is [...]ike, that I thus dedicate vnto you, this first Ground work of our grammar school, contained in these questions? Which being rightly laied, it is concluded by the ioynt consent of all the learned, that the whole building must needs goe most happily forward. Yea, I dare be bold to affirme, that a schollar of any aptnesse, being made perfect in these questions (which hee may learne together with his Accidence and Grammar; and that as soon, as he would learne the bare rules alone, if not much sooner) shall finde such a furtherance to attaine those sixe helps of Lear­ning, which wise Socrates so much commands, as he shall go for­ward with all ease and cheerefulnesse euer after. That I may fully perswade all men of the truth heerof; I will first rehearse all the seauen marks which Socrates giueth, of him who is fitted to make the most excellent schollar, as our most learned schoole-maister M. Askam hath set them downe. His hopefull schollar must be 1. [...], that is, as he expounds it, one apt of wit, and hauing all qualities of minde, and parts of body, meete to serue Learning. as, wit, will, tongue, voice, face, stature & comlinesse. 2. [...], that is, of good memorie, which is called the mother of Learning. 3. [...] ▪ a louer of learning; which loue will ouercome the hardest learning in time: and without which, the schollar shal ne­uer attaine vnto much. 4. [...], a louer of labour, one who still take paines at his book. 5. [...], one that is glad to hear and learne of others. 6. [...], one that is apt to moue questi­ons, d [...]sirous to searche out any doubt, not ashamed nor afraid to aske, vntill he be fully satisfied. 7. [...], one that loueth to be praised of his father, maister, or others for his well doing. A childe of this nature thus louing praise, will feruently loue and earnestly desire Learning, gladly labour for it willingly learne of others, boldly aske any doubt. Now for th [...]se helps, though the two first bee speciall benefits of nature, yet may they be much in­creased and preserued (chiefly the Memory) by this perfect vn­derstanding of all the grounds of Grammar; thorough this plaine [Page] order, so directly in all things agreeing with their Accidence. But for the fiue last, there will neuer any meanes be found, whereby they will more speedily be wrought, and appeare in children, then heerby; when they can answere so readily and perfectly to euerie Grammar question. For this (if they be well applied) will winne them such loue from their maisters, and Parents, and also such praise and commendations, from all who examine them, or heare them posed with so much ease through the plainenesse of it, as will make them to striue who shall carrie away most commendations; and so who shall take the most paines. And then the first Authors being seconded with the help of Grammaticall translations, so v­sed as is prescribed, not to make them truants, but to lead them surely by the hand▪ past the difficultie of all schoole Learning, and still afterward with other new supplies of Commentaries and the like, shall make the whole way so del [...]ght some, as they shall neuer wex wearie in all their course but be euer made more earnest to climbe vp to the top of all good Learning. If it be obiected that questions of Accidence and Grammar haue been set forth by o­thers, I answere that sundry haue indeede taken very profitable and commendable paines heerein: To all them I acknowledge our Schooles much beholden; and my selfe especially. And yet ayming at the same generall benefit and furtherance of Learning, which they doe, I hope none of them can be offended, if out of all of them laied together, and not iniuring any one of them, I haue indeuou­red to gather one more plaine, easie, full, and more agreeing to our Accidence and Grammar in all things; and to make all their la­bours of much more vse to Schooles then euer heertofore. For be­sides that som points of principal vse & arising directly out of the Booke, are wanting in all them which heere you shall finde, they haue more-ouer many hard and strange questions intermixed, not so necessarie for the first enterers, and which doe much trouble the younger sort. Many also of those questions in them, which are ga­thered directly, are placed out of the order of the Accidence, or else distinctions of the Chapters are not obserued, or they are set down in too obscure tearmes, or ouershort for children to conceiue: that both maisters and schollars doe soone cast them out of hand, and that very few of them are knowne in our Grammar Schooles. I haue therefore laboured to drawe these so, as they may serue [Page] most fitly and easily, for all schooles, according to the course which must of necessitie be taken, so long as our Accidence and Gram­mar remaine; which cannot be altered, without very great incon­ueniences to Schooles, and setting both maisters aend schollar [...] al­most newly to beg [...]n, to be acquainted with their new rules, or at the least to bring much disturbance. I haue also striuen to make them so plaine, that not o [...]ely the Teach [...]rs, but euen the young schollars themselues may appo [...]e one another by them, and vnder­stand each thing fully. For the necessarie qu [...]stions, which I haue adioyned, onely for making the rest more cl [...]are, I haue set an Asteriske vpon them▪ to distinguish them from those which are contained directly in the booke, to vse or omit as the maister will, and a hand p [...]inting at some places which are of most necessarie vse. For other questions (to th'end that our young schollars may not be troubled at all with them, nor hindred by them in learning their Accidence; and yet may in fit time be acquainted with all of them, which shal be most needfull: that nothing may be wanting hereunto to make our scho [...]a a sound Gramarian) I purpose (God willing) so much as (vpon further aduise) shall be thought fit, to set them briefly in the marg [...]ts ouer against the rul [...]s to which they belong, as I haue done some fewe alreadi [...]; or el [...]e in the end most shortly by themselues. Accept this beginning as a token of my thankefulnesse to those your graue father [...], who haue des [...]r­ued so well of the Church of God, and of all good learning, that I wish to keep a perpetuall memorie of them; and withall, as a pledge of my thankefull affection euen vnto your selfe for your ancient loue, and of my heartie desire, to adde somewhat to yours by these and other my trauail [...]s. Accept them as a witnesse of my vnfained study, for that good, which [...] trust shall hereby be conueyed vnto Schooles and all good learning, in making the first entrance so e­uen, as that it may be run in with al louing emulation. By the wel­come and kinde entertainement of my first labours, I shall be more incouraged to go forward with the work during my life; vntill I may either put the last hand vnto it, or that others after me may supply whatsoeuer is wanting in my poore indeuours, being but thus entred into. Ianuarie 12. 1611.

Yours in all thankfull affection, IOHN BRINSLEY,

To the iudicious Reader.

FIrst, cause the Schollar in learning his rules, to vnderstand them well, according to these Questions or the like: after, to get his rules, and keepe them perfectly by dai­ly repeating: then, by posing, or reading ouer these, all will bee made his owne most easily and surelie, to goe forward in construction with all alacritie and s [...]eede. Farewell.

The Authors Postscript.

LOuing Reader, correct (with thy pen) what still hath escaped. Future Editions (God willing) shall amend continually what is amisse, and supply what is wanting.

THE POSING OF the Accidence.

Q. WHat Booke doe you learne?

A. The Accidence.

Q. What booke is that?

A. A booke which teacheth all the first groūds of the Latine tonge.

* Q. Why is it called the Some think it to be so cal­led of Accedo, as a thing cō ­ming to, or whereby the learners doe come to the Grammar, or enter first in­to the know­ledge of the Latine tong; but then it should be cal­led the Acce­dence, e long; not Accidence, i short. Accidence? Because it teacheth first & chief­ly the Accidents; that is, the things belonging to the parts of speech.

Q. Into how many parts is your Accidence diuided?

A. Into two. First, an Introduction of the eyght parts of the Latine speech. Secondly▪ the Construction of the eight parts of speech.

* Q. What meane you by an Introduction of the eyght parts of speech?

A. An entring, or leading-in the learner as by the hand, to knowe the eight parts of speech.

* Q. What meane you by the Construction of the eight parts of speech?

A. The construing or framing, & setting together of the eyght parts of speech.

Q. Where begins your first part, or the Introduction of the eight parts of speech?

A. At In speech.

Q. Where beginneth the second part?

A. At For the due Ioyning of words, &c.

[Page]Q. What meane you by those words, Speech is properly the vttering of our minde by w [...]rds, or the words wherby we vtter our minde. In speech?

A. In euery tongue or language; as namely, in the Latine speech or tongue, which we are to learne.

Q. How many parts then are there of the Latine speech?

A. Some make but four parts of speech, Noune, Verb, Aduerbe▪ Cō ­junction: be­cause Pro­noūes, & Par­ticiples may be ioyned to [...] Nounes; [...]repositions & Interjecti­ons to the Aduerbs. Eight: Noune, Pronoune, Verbe, Participle, Ad­verbe, Conjunction, Preposition, Interjection.

Q. Are there no moe parts of all your Latine speech but onely eyght?

A. No: for euery word whereof speech is made, is one of these eight parts.] It is either a Noune, or a Pronone, Verbe, or one of the rest [...]hough there be many thousand words, yet each is one of these.

Q. How many of these parts are declined? how manie vndeclined?

A. The foure first are declined: the 4. last are vndeclined.

Q. Why are they said to be declined?

A. Because Or because their last let­ter or syllable may be chan­ged into o­ther letters or [...]yllables. they may be That many Nounes and Verbs are vn­declined is in regard of vse, that they are not vvont to be declined▪ not in regard of the nature of the words. declined: that is, they may be varied or changed, from their first ending, into diuerse end­ings:] as, Magister, magistri, magistro. Amo, amas, amat.

Q. Why are the rest called vndeclined?

A. Because they cannot bee so declined or changed: as, hodi [...], [...]ras, a [...].

* Q. How many of them are declined with case? how ma­ny without?

A. Three with case, one without case.

That many Nounes and Verbs are vn­declined is in regard of vse, that they are not vvont to be declined▪ not in regard of the nature of the words. Q Which three are declined with case?

A. Noune, Pronoune, and Participle with case: Verbe without case.

Of a Noune.

Q WHich is the first part of speech?

A. A Noune.

Q. What is a Noune?

A. A Noune is the name of a Ni [...]il ▪ is a Noune, thogh it signifie no­thing: because it is not ment properly no­thing at all, but a thing of no value, hauing the name of hilum ▪ the black in the top of a Beane: as ne-lul, or ne hilum, not so much as the black in a Beane. thing, that may be seene, felt, heard, or vnderstood.

[Page 2]Q. What meane you by that?

A. It is a In Gram­mer we haue to consider words▪ not things. word that signifieth the name by which we call any thing whatsoeuer may be seene, felt, heard, or vnder­stood.

Q. Giue me examples of it.

A. A hand manus, a house domus, goodnes bonitas.

* Q. Is a hand a Noune?

A. A hand it selfe is not a Noune: but the word signify­ing a hand, is a Noune.

Q. How many sorts of Nounes haue you?

A. Two: a Noune Substantiue, and a Noune Adjectiue.

Q. What is a Noune Substantiue?

A. A Noune Substantiue is that standeth by himselfe, and requireth not another word ioyned with it to shew his signi­fication.

Q. What meane you by that?

A. It is the name of a thing which may bee fully vnder­stood of it selfe, without the help of any other word to shew it by: as, a hand, a booke.

Q. How knowe you when a word may bee fully vnder­stood of it selfe?

A. If I may fitly put a, or the before it: or if I cannot fitlie ioyne this word thing vnto it; as, a booke, the house.

* Q. What are then the notes or marks in English, to know a Noune Substantiue by?

A. A or the, or if I cannot fitly put this word thing after it.

Q. With how many Articles is a Noune Substantiue de­clined?

A. With one: as, hic Magister, a Master; or with two at the most: as hic & haec Parens, a father or mother.

Q. What is a Noune Adjectiue?

A. Which cannot stand by it selfe in reason or significati­on, but requireth to be ioyned with another word.

Q. What meane you, when you say, a Noune Adjectiue is that cannot stand by it selfe?

A. I meane, it is the name of such a thing, as cannot bee fully vnderstood of it self, without the help of an other word to make it plaine.

[Page]Q. Shew mee an example how.

A. Bonus good, is a Noune Adjectiue: for when any one speakes of good, I know he meanes something that is good; but I know not what thing it is that hee calleth good, except hee put some other word vnto it: as a good boy; a good house; or the like.

Forme & fi­gure belong to all words: for euery word is Pri­mitiue or De­riuatiue. wch is called the form: & Sim­ple or Com­pound, which is called the figure. Primi­tiue, which is of it selfe De­riuatiue wch is deriued of another. Sim­ple, is a word not made of moe Com­pound is a word mingled of moe. Q. Haue you any speciall marke to know a Noune Ad­jectiue by?

A. Yes. If I may put this word thing to it, it is a Noune Ad­jectiue; as, a good thing, an euill thing.

Q. What is a Noune Adjectiue declined with?

A. Either with three terminations, or with three Articles.

Q. How with three terminations?

A. As, Bonus, bona, bonum.

Q. How wi [...]h three Articles?

A. As, Hic et haec levis, et hoc leve [...]ight.

Q. How many sorts of Noune Substantiues are there?

A. Two: Proper and Common.

Q. Which is a Noune Substantiue Proper?

A. Such a Noune or name as is proper to the thing that it betokeneth, or signifieth: or which belongeth but to one thing properly, as Edvardus, Edward; & so each mans pro­per name.

Q. What is a Noune Substantiue Common?

A. Euery Noune which is common to moe: or which is the common name of all things of that sort: as, homo ▪ a man, is the common name to all men; so a house, a citie, vertue.

Q. How many things belong to a Noune?

A. My booke sets downe fiue; Forme & fi­gure belong to all words: for euery word is Pri­mitiue or De­riuatiue. wch is called the form: & Sim­ple or Com­pound, which is called the figure. Primi­tiue, which is of it selfe. De­riuatiue wch is deriued of another. Sim­ple, is a word not made of moe Com­pound is a word mingled of moe. Number, Case, Gender, Declension, and Comparison.

Numbers of Nounes.

Q. HOw many Numbers belong to all parts of Speech which are declined. Numbers are there in a Noune?

A. Two: the Singular and the Plurall.

Q. What is the Singular Number?

A. That which speaketh but of one thing: as, Lapis a [Page 3] stone; meaning but one stone.

Q. Which is the Plurall number?

A. That which speaketh of moe then one: a [...], Lapides, stones.

Cases of Nounes.

* Q. WHat is a Case?

A. Euery seuerall ending of a Noune in the de­clining of it] and so of all other parts of speech, which are declined like a Noune.

Q. How many Cases are there?

A. Sixe in either Number; that is, sixe in the Singular, & sixe in the Plurall.

Q. Rehearse the Cases.

A. The Nominatiue, Genitiue, Datiue, Accusatiue, Vo­catiue, and Ablatiue.

Q. How may these Cases be known asunder?

A. They may [...]e known in Latine, f [...]r the most part, by the termina­tions of the Declensions. The Nominatiue and Accusatiue by their places, the other by their signes.

Q. Which is the place of the Nominatiue?

A. It vsually commeth before the Verbe in due order of speech.

Q To what question doth it answere?

A. To the question who, or what: as, if I aske, Who tea­cheth; the answere is in the Nominatiue case: as, Magister docet, the Master teacheth.

Q. What is the signe of the Genitiue case?

A. Of.

Q. To what question doth it answere?

A. To the question vvhose, or vvherof:] as, if it be asked, Whose learning is it; The answer is in the Genitiue case, Do­ctrina Magistri, the learning of the Master.

Q. What is the signe of the Datiue case?

A. To, and sometime for.

Q. To what question doth it answere?

A. To the question, to whom, or to what: as, if it be asked, [Page] To whom do you giue a booke: the answere is in the Datiue case, thus: Do librum Magistro, I giue a booke to the Ma­ster.

Q. How knowe you the Accusatiue case?

A. It followeth the Verbe in due order of speech.

Q. To what question doth it answere?

A. To the question vvhom, or what: as, if the Schollar be asked, Whom doe you loue; he answereth in the Accusatiue case thus: Amo Magistrum, I loue the Master.

Q. How knowe you the Vocatiue case?

A. By calling or speaking to: as, ô Magister, O Master.

Q. How knowe you the Ablatiue case?

A. Either by Prepositions seruing to the Ablatiue case, beeing ioyned with it, or else by signes.

Q. Which are the signes of the Ablatiue case?

A. In, with, through, for, from, by; and than, after the Com­paratiue degree.


Q. WHat followeth next after cases▪

A. Articles.

Q. What is an Article?

A. The marke to know the Gender by in declining.

Q. How many Articles are there?

A. Three, Hic, haec, hoc.

Q. Whence are these borrowed?

A. Of the Pronoune.

Q. Decline them all together.

A. Singulariter Nom. Hic, haec, hoc. Gen. Huius. Dat. Huic. &c. and so forth, as it is in the booke.

Q. Decline them seuerally, each Article by it selfe, and first the Masculine.

A. Singul. Nom. Hic. Gen. Huius. Dat. Huic. Accus. Hunc. Voc. Caret. Abl. Hoc. Plu [...]. Nom. Hi. Gen. Horum. Dat. His. Accus. Hos. Voc. Caret. Abl. His.

Q. Decline Haec.

A. Singu. Haec, huius, huic, hanc, hac. Plur. Hae, harum, [Page 4] his, has, his.

Q. Decline Hoc likewise.

A. Sing. Hoc, huius, huic, hoc, hoc. Plur. Haec, horum, his, haec, his.

* Q. Why are they set here before the Genders and De­clensions?

A. Because they serue to note out the Genders, and also to decline Nounes in euery Gender.

* Q. What signifieth Hic, haec, hoc.

A. When it is vsed as a Pronoune, it signifieth this: but when it is declined with a Noune, it is onely an Article, like as it is taken here, and hath no signification at all.

Genders of Nounes.

* Q. WHat is a Gender?

A. The difference of Nounes according to the sex.

* Q. What meane you by that?

A. It is the difference whereby a word is noted to signifie the male, or female, or neither: that is, either hee or shee, or neither of them.

Q. How many Genders haue you?

A. My booke makes seauen: the Masculine, the Femi­nine, the Neu [...]er, the Common of two, the Cōmon of three, the Doubtful, and the Epicene.

Q. Which is the Article of the Masculine Gender?

A. Hic: as, hic vir a man.

* Q. What doth it belong to?

A. It belongeth properly to Masculines; that is, vnto males or hees, and vnto such words as haue been vsed vnder the names of hees.

Q. Which is the Article of the Feminine Gender?

A. Haec: as, haec mulier a woman.

* Q. What belongs it to?

A. To Feminines; that is, to females or shees, or things going vnder the names of shees.

Q. What is the Article of the Neuter Gender?

[Page]A. Hoc; as, hoc saxum a stone.

* Q. What belongs it to?

A. It belongeth properly to words which signifie neither hee nor shee.

Q. What Article hath the Common of two?

A. It is declined with hic and haec.

* Q. What belongeth it to?

A. It belongeth properly to words signifying both male and female; that is, both hee and shee.

Q. What Articles hath the Common of three?

A. Hic, haec, and hoc.

* Q. What belongs it to?

A. Onely to Adjectiues.

Q. What Articles hath the Doubtfull?

A. Hic or haec, as we will: as, hic vel haec dies a day.

* Q. What doth it belong to?

A. To such liuing creatures most properly, in which the the kinde is vnknowne; whether they be hee or shee.] As a snayle, a snake, &c. and to some others. Also to some liue­lesse things, as a day, a chanell, and the like.

Q. What is the Epicene Gender declined vvith?

A. Onely with one Article, and vnder that one Article both kindes are signified] that is, both hee and shee. In names of foules, fishes, and wilde beastes: as, Hic passer, a sparrovv, either the cocke or the henne, haec aquilae an Eagle, both hee and shee: hoc hale [...] a herring, both milter and spauner.

* Q. Is the Epicene Gender a Gender properly?

A. No; it is not properly a Gender, nor hath any proper Article.

* Q. You said, that your booke did make seauen Gen­ders: are there not seauen simply?

A. No: there are but three simply. The Masculine, Fe­minine & Neuter: the other foure are compounded or made of these three.

The Declensions of Nounes.

Q. WHat follow next after Genders?

A. Declensions.

* Q. What call you a Declension?

A. A varying of a word into cases,] or the varying & chan­ging of the first name of a word, into diuerse other endings, called cases.

Q. How many Declensions of Nounes are there?

A. Sundry Greeke words made La­tine words; yet declined wholly or in part, after the Greeke manner, cannot be referred to any of these fiue Declensions properly, as Ti­ta [...], Pan, Daphnis, & the like, being of the first Declension in Greeke. So Feminines in o, hauing the Ge­nitiue in us, and the Accusatiue in o, as, Sappho, Manto, Clio, Dido, Ec­ch [...], &c. which belong to the fourth Declension of the contracts end­ing in o, as [...] Leto, Gen. Letoos, Le­tous, Accu. Letoa, Leto. So Anchises, Penelope, & others of other Declen­sions. Fiue.

Q. How wil you know of what Declen­sion a Noune is?

A. By the termination of the Genitiue case singular.

* Q. What meane you by termination?

A. The end of a word in the last letter or syllable.

Q. How ends the Genitiue case singu­lar of the first Declension?

A. In ae diphthong.

Q. How the Datiue?

A. The rest of the terminations, both in this and all other Declen­sions, may bee posed thus by the Accidence. In ae dipthong, &c.

Q. What is your example of the first Declension?

A. Musa.

* Q. What serues this exāple for chiefly?

A. This, and all other examples following in each De­clension, serue to shewe their rules by, and also to decline or frame others like vnto them.

Q. Decline Musa, and giue the English with it in euery case,Make your schollar perfect in this kind of declining of Nounes & con­iugating Verbes, & you shall soone finde the benefit of it aboue that which you will imagine. according to the signs of the cases.

A. Singul. Nom. haec musa a song.


huius musae of a song.


huic musae to a song.


hanc musam the song.


ô musa O song.


ab hac musa from a song.


Nom. hae musae songs.


harum musarum of songs.


his musis to songs.


has musas the songs.


ô musae ô songs.


ab his musis from songs.

Q. Why do you giue a, for the signe of the Nominatiue case; and the, of the Accusatiue?

A. Because these are the most vsuall signes of these cases, and may most fitly serue herevnto.

Q. Giue me the signes by themselues to decline any word by.

A. A, of, to, the, ô, from or fro.

Q. Decline Musa with the English first.

A. A song, musa: of a song, musae: to a song, musae: the song, musam: ô song, ô musa: from a song, ab hac musa.

Plur. Songs, musae: of songs, musarū: to songs, musis: the songs, musas: ô songs, musae: from songs, ab his musis.

* Q. Why doe you decline them so?

A. Because giuing English to the Latine, will teach me to construe & parse Latine speedily: and giuing Latine to Eng­lish, will helpe me as much for making Latine.

For other questions cō ­cerning the Declensions, because they are very many & ouer-hard for children, I take it much better for the Teachers, to shew them to their schollars out of the Latine rules (where most of them are set downe at large) as their schollars shall haue occasion to learne them, in their Authors, then either to trouble their memories, or margents with them. Q. Doe your Datiues and Ablatiues plurall, end alwaies in is, in this Declension?

A. No: Filia and nata are excepted, which make the Da­tiue and Ablatiue plurall in is, or in abus. Also Dea, mula, ae­qua, liberta, which end in abus onely; as, Deabus, mulabus: not deis, mulis.

The second Declension.

Q. HOw ends the Genitiue case singular of the second Declension?

[Page 6]A. In i.

Q. How the Datiue?

A. In o, &c.

Q. Giue me an example of the second Declension.

A. Hic Magister, a Master.

Q. Decline Magister as you decline Musa: that is, both Latine before the English, and English before the Latine.

A. Sing. Nom. Hic Magister, a Master. Gen. Huius Magistri, of a master, &c.

Q. Doth your Vocatiue case in the second Declension end alwaies like the Nominatiue?

A. No: but for most part.

Q. How many exceptions haue you of it?

A. Three: first, of Nounes ending in us. Secondly, of proper names of men, ending in ïus. Thirdly, of some com­mon Nounes, making their Vocatiue in e, or in us.

This is only to be vnder­stood of Nouns of the second De­clension; for in the fourth, manus makes ô manus: & of words of the Masculine or Feminine Gē ­der onely, not of the Neuter. Q. When the Nominatiue endeth in us, how must the Vocatiue end?

A. In e: as, Dominus, ô Domine.

Q. Words end­ing in os, also, of the second Declension, make the Vo­catiue like­wise in e, like words in us, as, logos, ô log [...]. Doe all words in Panthus and Oedipus, hauing the Vocatiue in u, are not of the second Declension in Latine, but of the third, of contracts in Greek, like Basileus, ô Basi­leu. us, make the Vocatiue in e?

A. Yea, all but two: Deus that makes ô Deus, and Filius that makes ô Fili.

Q. If the word be a proper name of a man ending in ïus, how must the Vocatiue end?

A. Latmius for Latmi, in the Vocat. is an Atticisme, that is, after the Attick dialect, the Voca. like the Nomi. In i: as, Georgius, ô Georgi.

Q. How many words haue you which make the Vocatiue in [...], or in us?

A. Six: agnus, lucus, vulgus, populus, chorus, fluuius: for ag­nus, makes agne, vel agnus in the vocatiue case: so all the rest.

Q. Are Nounes of the Neuter Gender declined like Nounes of the Masculine and Feminine?

A. No: all Nounes of the Neuter Gender, of what Declen­sion soeuer they be, haue three like cases in either number.

Q. What three cases are those?

A. The Nominatiue, the Accusatiue, & the Vocatiue.

Q. And how do these 3. cases end in the plurall number?

A. This is ment only of Nouns which are re­gular, that is▪ declined after the common manner, not of irregulars or hetero­clits, as words wanting the Plurall nūber, or the like.In a.

Q. Giue me an example of the Neuter Gender, and de­cline [Page] it both wayes, as you did Musa.

A. Sing. Nom. hoc regnum, a kingdome. Gen. huius reg­ni, of a kingdome. So, a kingdom, regnum: of a kingdome, regni, &c.

Q. Are no words excepted from beeing thus declined?

A. Yes: Ambo & duo, are found to be the same in all Genders, like as duo in Greeke, as, ambo anguis, for ambos an­gueis, or angues. Plaut. only ambo and duo of the first & second Declen­sion; which make the Neuter Gender in o, as ambo, not amba: and the Datiue and Ablatiue in bus; as, ambobus, ambabus, am­bobus, not ambis.

Q. Here declining of Latine before may suffice: and so in Ad­jectiues. Decline Ambo with the English.

A. Plur. Ambo, both Masculines: ambae, both Feminines: ambo, both Neuters. So in the rest.

The third Declension.

Q. HOw ends the Genitiue case singular of the third Declension?

A. In is, &c.

Q. Giue me an example of the third Declension, decli­ned as before both waies.

A. Sing. Nom. hic lapis a stone.

Gen. huius lapidis, of a stone, &c.

So, Nom. hic et haec Parens, a father or mother.

Gen. huius Parentis, of a father or mother, &c.

Thus againe English first.

The fourth Declension.

Q. HOw ends the Genitiue case singular of the fourth Declension?

A. In us.

Q. Giue an example.

A. Sing. Nom. haec manus, a hand, &c.

The fift Declension.

Q. How this Genitiue case is somtimes in e, somtimes in ij, see the Latine rules. HOw ends the Genitiue case singular of the fift Declension?

A. In ëi.

Q. Giue an example.

A. Sing. Nom. hic meridies, a noone-time of the day, &c.

Q. Of what Gender are Nounes of the fift Declension?

A. Of the Feminine Gender, except meridies and dies.

Q. Shew me how the Genitiue case singular ends in each Declension together.

These are to be made perfect by continuall posing each way. A. Of the first in Some words of the first Declensi­on haue the Genitiue singular in as, as▪ Familias, auras, terras, &c. in imitation of words of the second Declension in Greeke, which end in da, tha, ra ▪ and a pure; viz. which haue a vowell before a. This is cal­led Graecismus, that is an imitation of the Greeke. Other words haue ai, for a: as, pictai, aulai, for pictae, au­lae. This is called Archaismos: an imitation of the ancient kinde of speaking. Heereof also see the La­tine rules. ae dipthong, as, Musae.

The second in i: as, Magistri.

The third in is: as, lapidis.

The fourth in us: as, manus.

The fift in ëi, as, meridiei.

Q. Shew me how the Datiues end, & so all the rest in order.

A. The Datiue case singular of the first, in ae diphthong: as, Musae.

The second in o: as, Magistro.

The third in i: as, Lapidi.

The fourth in üi, as, Manui.

The fift in ëi, as, Meridi [...]i.

The Accusatiue case singular

Of the first in am: as, Musam.

The second in um: as, Magistrum.

The third in em, or im: as, Lapidem, [...]iti [...].

The fourth in um: as, Manum.

The fift in em: as, Meridiem.

The Vocatiue for the In the first Declensiō, the Vocat. is like the Nom. ex­cept in Greek words in as, which make the Vocat. in a; and in es, which make the vocat. in a, or in e. That Pithias and Dorias, names of vvomen, do make the vocat. in as, is after the At­tick Dialect in Greeke▪ making the Vocat. like the Nom. These wordes are also ra­ther to be taken to be of the second Declension in Greeke, then of the first; & their termination after the maner of the barbarous tongue, frō which they were taken. most part like the Nominatiue.

The Ablatiue case singular

Of the first in a: as, Musa.

The second in o: as, Magistro.

[Page] The Ablat. of the third is oft in i, as, par­ti, colli, ciui, fu­sti, &c. by rea­son of the vsu­all change of e, into i, a­mongst the Ancients, like as here, and he­ri, &c.The third in e or i: as, Lapide, tristi.

The fourth in u: as, Manu.

The fift in e: as, Meridie.

The Nominatiue case plurall

Of the first in ae diphthong: as, Musae.

The second in i: as, Magistri.

The third in es: as, Lapides.

The fourth in us: as, Manus.

The fift in es: as, Meridies.

The Genitiue case plurall

Of the first in arum: as, Musarum.

The second in orum: as, Magistrorum.

The third in um, or ium: as, Lapidum, tristium.

The fourth in üm: as, Manuum.

The fift in erum: as, Meridierum.

The Datiue case Plurall

Of the first in is: as, Musis.

The second in is: as, Magistris.

The third in bus: as, Lapidibus.

The fourth in ibus, or ubus: as, manibus, arcubus.

The fift in ebus: as, Meridiebus.

The Accusatiue case plurall

Of the first in as: as, Musas.

The second in os: as, Magistros.

The Accu. case plurall of the third, did indifferently and in es, or eis, as, parteis, omneis, especi­ally in those whose Gen. plurall end in ium; and som­time eis, is cō ­tracted into is, as for angueis, anguis, for om­neis, omnis. The third in es: as, Lapides.

The fourth in us: as, manus.

The fift in es: as, meridies.

The Vocatiue plurall is euer like the Nominatiue.

The Ablatiue plurall, is euer the same with the Datiue.

Q. Schollars beeing made perfect in these termi­nations, will soone growe to readinesse in giuing any case of a Noune, and keeping them most surely. Giue me shortly the terminations alone, in euerie case together.

A. Of the Genitiue case singular, ae, i, is, us, ei.

Of the Datiue, ae, o, i, üi, ëi.

Of the Accusatiue, am, um, em, um, em.

Of the Ablatiue, a, o, e, u, e.

[Page 8]Nominatiue plurall, ae, i, es, us, es.

Gen. For Dardani­darum, is vsed Dardanidum, by the figure Syncope; so An­chisaidûm, Tro­ijgenûm: like as virûm for virorum ▪ in the second. arum, orum, um or ïum, üum, erum.

Datiu. is, is, bus, ibus or ubus, ebus.

Accus. as, os, es, us, es.

Vocatiue like the Nominatiue.

Ablat. is, is, bus, ibus or ubus, ebus.

* Q. Are there no speciall terminations of the Nomina­tiue cases in each Declension, to knovve the Declensions by?

A. Not certaine: Other ter­minations are either of words com­ming from the Greek, or of other strange tongues: as am, in the first Declension, is a termination of the He­brew; as, es, e, of the Greeke. yet these are the most vsuall in wordes which are meerely Latine, and regular.

The Nomi. case of the first, endeth in a. Of the second, in r, us, or m. Of the third, in l, n, o, r, s, x. Of the fourth, in us. Of the fift, in es.

The Declining of Adjectiues.

Q. NOvv that wee haue done with Noune Substan­tiues, what are wee to come to next?

A. To Nounes Adjectiues.

Q. How many sorts of Adiectiues are there?

A. Two: Adiectiues declined with three terminations, & Adiectiues declined with three Articles.

Q. What Adiectiues are of three terminations?

A. Such as haue in most cases three terminations] that is, three diuers endings, shewing their Genders, as Bonus, bona, bonum.

Q. * How know you their Genders by their terminations?

A. The first word, as Bonus, is the masculine: the se­cond, as Bona, is the Feminine: the third, as Bonum, is the Neuter.

* Q. What if they haue but one termination, that is, if they haue but one word in any [...]ase, as Abla. Bonis, what Gender is the word then?

A. That word is of all Genders.

[Page]Q. Adjectiues ending in us, er, or ur, are declined like bonus: except vetus, veteris, ending in us: and those in er, which may end also in is, as Camp [...]ster, & his fellowes: with cicur, cicu­ris, in ur: and these follow­ing, which are declined like unus. What is the example to decline words of three ter­minations by?

A. Bonus, bona, bonum, good.

Q. How decline you Bonus with the English with it?

A. Bonus, a good masculine: bona, a good feminine: bo­num, a good Neuter. Genit. Boni, of a good masculine: bona, of a good feminine: boni, of a good neuter. So in the rest.

Q. Are all Adjectiues of three terminations declined like bonus?

A. All, except eight with their compounds: which make the Genitiue case singular in ïus, and the Datiue in i.

Q. What are those declined like?

A. Like vnus, a, um.

Q. Hath unus the plurall number?

A. No: except when it is ioyned with a word lacking the singular number.

Q. Which are those other words which are so declined like nuus, hauing the Genitiue case singular in ïus, and the Datiue in i?

A. These words are also amōg the ancient Writers decli­ned like bonus in the Gene. & Dat. as, ulli, alters ▪ for ullius, alterius. Totus, solus, and also ullus, alius, alter, uter, & neuter.

Q. Are these in all things declined like unus?

A. Yes: sa [...]ing that the fiue last, that is, ullus, alius, alter, uter, and neuter, doe want the Vocatiue case: & alius makes aliud, not alium, in the Neuter Gender.

* Q. Of what Declension are Nounes of three terminati­ons, as Bonus, bona, bonum?

A. Of the first and second] for the first word, as Bonus, is declined like Magister or Dominus; the second, as bona, is declined like Musa; the third, as bonum, is declined like Regnum.

Q. Which do you call Adjectiues of three Articles?

A. Such as wee put Articles to, in euery case to expresse their Genders: as, Nom. Hic, haec et hoc Foelix. Gene. huius foelicis, &c. Hic et haec tristis, & hoc triste.

* Of what Declension are all Nounes of three Articles?

A. Of the third Declension.

* Q. What Genders are Adjectiues of 3. Articles of?

A. Of the Common of three.

[Page 9]* Q. If they haue but one termination is any case, as, Foe­lix, what Gender is that of?

A. Of all three Genders.

Q. If they haue two terminations, as Tristis and Triste, what Gender are those words of?

A. The first, as Tristis, is the Masculine & Feminine Gen­der: the second, as Triste, is the Neuter.

* Q. What are all such Adjectiues of three Articles decli­ned like?

A. If they haue but one ending in the Nominatiue case, as, foelix, or audax, they are declined like foelix. If they haue two, like tristis and triste, levis and leve, they are declined like tristis.

Comparisons of Nounes Adjectiues.

Q. WHat else belongs to a Noune besides Num­ber, Case, Gender, and Declension?

A. Comparison.

* Q. What is Comparison?

A. The altering the signification of a word into more or lesse by degrees.

Q. Doth Comparison belong to all Nounes?

A. No: it belongs Some Sub­stantiues are compared but only by abuse, not properly, as also some Pronouns. No words are cō ­pared proper­ly but Adje­ctiues & Ad­uerbs cōming of them. Par­ticiples when they are chā ­ged into Ad­jectiues, and some Prepo­sitions chan­ged into Ad­uerbs, may be compared therevpon. properly to none but to Adjectiues.

Q. May all Adjectiues be compared?

A. No: none but onely such, whose signification may increase or be diminished.

* Q. What is it to increase or be diminished?

A. To be made more or lesse: as, hard, harder, hardest. So backe againe; hardest, harder, hard.

* Q. What meane you by a degree of Comparison?

A. Euery word that altereth the signification by more or lesse, is a degree.

Q. How many degrees of Comparison are there?

A. Three: the Positiue, the Comparatiue, and the Super­latiue.

[Page]Q. Which is the Positiue degree?

A. That which betokeneth a thing absolutely, without excesse.

Q. What meane you by a thing absolutely, without ex­cesse?

A. Such a thing as The Positiue is improperly called a de­gree of Com­parison. signifieth neither more nor lesse; but is absolute of it selfe, vvithout beeing compared, or without hauing respect to any other: as, Durus hard.

Q. What call you the Comparatiue?

A. The Comparatiue is that which somewhat exceedeth the Positiue in signification.

Q. What meane you by that?

A. The Comparatiue is a word drawne from the Positiue, wherein the signification of the Positiue is somewhat increa­sed, or made more:] as, Durior harder, or more hard; minor lesse, or more little.

* Q. What is the signe of the Comparatiue degree?

A. More: either beeing set downe, or vnderstood.

Q. Of what is the Comparatiue degree formed, & how?

A. Of the first case of the Positiue that endeth in i, by put­ting to or, for the Masculine & Feminine Gender; and us, for the Neuter.

* Q. Shew mee how?

A. Of Durus, dura, durum, the Genitiue case is duri: which by putting to or, is made durior: and by putting to us, is made durius.] So the Comparatiue degree, is hic et haec durior, for the Masculine and Feminine, and hoc durius for the Neuter. So also of Tristi and Dulci.

Q. What is the Superlatiue?

A. The Superlatiue exceedeth his Positiue in the highest degree] that is, it increaseth the signification of the Positiue to the highest: so that one thing beeing compared with ma­ny, is said to be most of all this thing or that: as Durissimus, hardest, or most hard.

Q. Whence is the Superlatiue formed?

A. Of the first case of the Positiue that endeth in i, by put­ting to it the letter s, and the word simus: as, if I put to duri, s, and simus, it is made durissimus.

[Page 10]* Q. How do you compare these three degrees?

A. By declining all three degrees together, in each Case and euery Gender; I meane each Gender in euery case to­gether: as,

Sing. Nom.
Durus, durior, durissimu [...].
Dura, durior, durissima.
Durum, durius, durissimum.
Duri, durioris, durissimi.
Durae, durioris, durissimae.
Duri, durioris, durissimi.


This Table heedfully obserued, wil teach presently to forme Comparisons, by declining all three degrees together.
HocTriste,tristius,tristi [...]simum.
HuiusTristis,tristioris,tristissimi, &c.

[Page 11]Q. Are there no exceptions from these generall rules of comparing Nounes; that is, from this manner of compa­ring?

A. Yes: there are foure exceptions.

Q. What is the first exception?

A. Of Nounes which haue no Comparatiue or Superla­tiue degree, but borrow them of others.

Q. How many such haue you?

A. All other ir­regular com­parisons may be much bet­ter shewed the schollars out of the Latine rules, as they shall haue vse of them, then hee [...]e to trou­ble them, or the bookes with them. My booke names fiue: Bonus, malus, magnus, par­vus, and multus.

Q. Compare Bonus.

A. All other ir­regular com­parisons may be much bet­ter shewed the schollars out of the Latine rules, as they shall haue vse of them, then hee [...]e to trou­ble them, or the bookes with them. Bonus, melior, Paruissimus, multissimus, e­gregijsimus pijs­simus, and the like, are old words, & out of vse. optimus: bona, melior, optima: bo­num, melius, optimum. Gen. Boni, melioris, optimi: bonae, meli­oris, optimae: boni, melioris, optimi, &c. So Malus, peior, pes­simus, and the rest as before.

Q. What is your second exception?

A. Of Positiues ending in r.

Q. If the Positiue end in r, how must the Superlatiue be formed?

A. [...]hus must also celebr [...], sa­lubris, acris, ala­cris, haue the Superlatiues, because they haue the Nō. also in r; as, ce­leber, salub [...]r, saluberrimus. Of the Nominatiue case, by putting to rimus: as Pulcher, pulcherrimus.

Q. Which is the third exception?

A. Of sixe Adjectiues ending in lis.

Q. How doe you make their Superlatiue?

A. By changing lis into These six are in prose most truly written with a single l, i [...] into limus: they are in verse with a double ll, for the verse sake. limus, and not into lissi­mus.

Q. Which are those sixe?

A. Humilis humble, similis like, facilis easie, gracilis, slen­der, agilis nimble, docilis apt to learne: for, wee say, Humilis, humilimus, and not humilissimus.

Q. How doe all other Nounes ending in lis, forme the Superlatiue?

A. They follow the generall rule afore-going.

Q. What meane you by that?

A. That they forme the Superlatiue, by putting to s and simus, to the first case of the Positiue ending in i; as utili, vti­lissimus: as before.

Q. What is your last exception?

[Page]A. Of such Adjectiues as haue a vowell comming before us: as, Pius, Assiduus, Idoneus.

Q. How are these compared?

A. By these two Adverbs, Magis more, & maximè most; putting-to magis in steed of the Comparatiue degree, & ma­ximè in steede of the Superlatiue:] so declining the three degrees together, as before in euery Case and Gender in or­der: as Pius godly, magispius more godly, maximè pius most godly, &c.

* Q. Why are these so compared?

A. For auoyding the meeting together of vowels, which cannot be so well pronounced together: as wee cannot say well, Pius, piior, &c.

Of a Pronoune.

Q. WHich is the second part of speech?

A. A Pronoune.

Q. What is a Pronoune?

A. Pronounes supply the place of Nounes, and haue for most part the na­ture of nouns. A part of speech much like to a Noune, which is vsed in shewing or rehearsing.

* Q. Why is it called a Pronoune?

A. Because it is put for a Noune.

Q. Wherein are Pronounes vsed?

A. In shewing or rehearsing some thing which hath been vttered before, or may well be discerned.

Q. How many Pronounes are there?

A. [...]here are but 15. Pro­nounes pro­perly, the rest are compoun­ded of them, or added to them. Sundry o­ther Pro­nounes are found in old Writers, as, an am, for eam, em & im for eum, hibus for his, med, ted, mis, tis, campse, quoi, ibus, &c. These & the like are to be known, and not vsed. Fifteene: as, Ego, tu, sui, &c.

Q. Haue all Pronounes all the cases?

A. No: onely foure of them haue the Vocatiue case: all the rest want it. Also sui want [...] the Nominatiue case.

Q. May not some other be added to them?

A. Yes: three compound Pronounes, Egomet, tute, idem: and also Qui is added to the Pronounes, be­cause it is vsed in rehearsing something, and it is declined much like words of the second Declension of the Pronounes. Qui, quae, quod.

[Page 12]* Q. Whereof are these three compounded?

A. Egomet, of ego and mete tute, of tu and te: idem of is and domum.

* Q. How many kind of Pronounes haue you generally?

A. Two: Pronoune Substantiues, & Pronoune Adjectiues.

* Q. How many Pronoune Substantiues are there?

A. Three: Ego, tu, sui, with their compounds; all the rest are Adjectiues.

Q. How doth your booke diuide the Pronounes?

A. Into Primitiues and Deriuatiues.

Q. How many Pronoune Primitiues are there?

A. Eight: Ego, tu, sui, ille, ipse, iste, hic and is.

Q. Why are they called Primitiues?

A. Because they are first vvordes, and not deriued of o­thers.

Q. What are these Primitiues called besides?

A. Demonstratiues.

Q. Why so?

A. Because they commonly shew a thing not spoken of before.

Q. Are not some of them called Relatiues?

A. Yes.

Q. Which are those?

A. Hic, ille, iste, is, with idem and qui ioyned to them.

Q. Why are these sixe called Relatiues?

A. Because they serue to rehearse a thing that was spoken of before.

* Q. Can Hic, ille, iste, and is, be both Demonstratiues & Relatiues?

A. Yes; in respect of the diuerse vses to which they serue: that is, both to shew and to rehearse.

Q. Which of these is most specially called a Relatiue?

A. Qui. Qui of some Grāmarians is taken for a Noune.

Q. How many Pronounes Deriuatiues are there?

A. Seauen: Meus, tuus, suus, noster, vester, nostras, vestras.

Q. Why are they called Deriuatiues?

A. Because they are deriued of their Primitiues, Mei, tui, sui, nostri, and vestri; the Genitiue cases of Ego, tu, sui.

[Page]* Q. Shew me how.

A. Meus comes of m [...]i, the Genitiue case of Ego: tuus of tui, the Genitiue case of tu: suus of sui: nostras of nostri, the Genitiue case plurall of ego: vestras of vestri, the Genitiue case plurall of tu.

Q. How many sorts of Deriuatiues haue you?

These follow alter.A. Two; Possessiues, and Gentiles.

Q. How many things belong to a Pronoune?

A. My booke names fiue: Number, Case, Gender, as are in a Noune, Declension and Person.

* Q. How will you know the Genders in Pronoune Sub­stantiues; as, in Ego, tu, sui?

A. Though these are not properly of any Gender, yet they are to be vnderstood to be of that Gender, whereof the woord or thing is, whereto they are referred, or whereof they are spoken.

* Q. As how?

A. If they be referred to a word of the Masculine Gender, they are of the Masculine; if to a word of the Feminine, they are of the Feminine: as, Ego vnderstood of a man, or any thing of the Masculine Gender, it is the Masculine Gender; of a woman▪ or any thing of the Feminine Gender, it is a Femi­nine.

Q. How will you knowe the Genders in Pronoune Adie­ctiues?

A. Like as in the Noune Adiectiues.

Declensions of Pronounes.

Q. HOw many Declensions are there of a Pronoune?

A. Foure.

* Q. How will you know what Declension euery Pro­noune is?

A. By the ending of the Genitiue case singular, like as in Nounes.

Q. Giue me the terminations of the Genitiue case singu­lar [Page 13] of each Declension.

A. Of the first in i: as, Ego, mei.

The second in ïus, or jus: as, Ipse, ipsius: Qui, cujus.

The third in i, ae, i ▪ like Adjectiues of three terminations; as, Mei, meae▪ mei.

The fourth in âtis; as, Nostras, nostrâtis.

Q. How many Pronounes are of the first Declension?

A. Three: Ego, tu, sui.

Q. Decline them Latine and English together.

A. Ego I, mei of me, mihi to me, me to mee, â me from me. Nos wee, nostrûm vel nostri of vs, nobis to vs, nos vs, à nobis, from vs.

So, English first. I ego, of me, &c. Tu thou, tui of thee, &c. Sui of himselfe, or of themselues. Sibi to himselfe, or to thē ­selues, &c.

Q. Then Sui is the same both in the singular and in the plurall number.

A. Yes: in all the cases which it hath; for it wanteth the Nominatiue and the Vocatiue case.

Q. How many Pronounes are of the second Declension?

A. Sixe: Ille, ipse, iste, hic, is, and qui.

Q. What are they declined like?

A. Much like to unus, una, unum. Gen. unius.

Q. Do they all make their Genitiue in ïus, like unus?

A. No: these three, Haec is often­times vsed for hae in old Wri­ters. Hic, is, and qui, make the Genitiue in jus: as, huius, eius, cuius.

Q. Are ille, ipse, iste, declined alike?

A. Yea: they are declined like iste. sauing that ipse maketh ipsum in the Neuter Gender of the Nominatiue and Accusa­tiue case singular, not ipsud.

Q. But haue not is and qui, a seuerall declining?

A. Yes: they differ somewhat.

Q. Decline these, Latine and English together, and first iste.

A. Iste that Masculine, ista that Feminine, istud that Neu­ter, or that thing. Genit. istius of that Masculine, Feminine, Neuter.

So, Is hee, ea shee, id that thing. [Page] Qui which Masculine: quae which Feminine: quod vvhich Neuter, &c.

* Q. Why doe you say in the Ablatiue case of Qui, Ablat. quo, qua quo vel qui.

A. Because Qui, in the Ablatiue case is of all genders, and may be put for quo, qua, or quo.

Q. How are Quis and Quid declined?

A. Note when Quis is compounded▪ it makes qua for quae, both in the Femi­nine singular, & Neuter p [...]u­rall: as [...]qua, nequa; not ne­quae: so aliq [...]is, numquis▪ Ecquis makes both [...]quae & [...]qua. As qui, quae, quod: puting quis before qui, and quid after quod, thus;

Nom. Quis vel qui, quae, quod vel quid. Gen. cuius, &c.

So▪ Accus. Quem, quam, quod vel quid.

Q. How decline you Quisquis?

A. Sing. Nom.

  • Quisquis,
  • Quicquid.


* Q. What difference is there betweene quod and quid?

A. Quod requireth commonly a Substantiue, or Antece­dent with it. Quid is alwaies a Substantiue of the Neuter Gen­der.

Q. What Pronounes are of the third declension?

A. Fiue: Meus, tuus, suus, noster, and vester.

* Q. What are these called?

A. Possessiues.

Q. Why so?

A. Because they signifie possession, or owning; as, Meus mine: tuus thine: suus his: noster ours: vester yours.

Q. How are these declined?

A. Like Bonus: except that meus makes Meus for m [...] in the Vocat. is by Antiptosis as Virg. Tro [...]ce [...]ela manu sa [...] [...]uis m [...]us. mi, in the Mas­culine Gender of the Vocatiue case singular; & that tuus, su­us, vester, haue no Vocatiue case at all.

Q. How many Pronounes are of the fourth Declension?

A. Two: nostras and vestras.

Q. What are these called?

A. Gentiles.

Q. Why so.

A. Because they properly betoken pertaining to some Of Gens, a Nation. Country or Of Gens, a Nation. Nation; to some sect or faction: as Nostras, one of our Country, or of our sect or side. Vestras, one of [Page 14] your countrie, sect, or side.

Q. But your booke ads Cuias: is it a Pronoune?

A. No: it is a Noune.

Q. Why is it declned here, being a Noune?

A. Because it hath the same manner of declining vvith Nostras, and Vestras;Arpinas of Ar­pinum ▪ and Ra­uennas of Ra­uenna, are so declined. like as all other Nounes that be Gen­tiles haue: and because it comes of Cuius, the Genitiue case of Qui, quae quod.

Q. What signifies Cuias?

A. Of what countrie, or what countrie-man.

Q. What are these three declined like?

A. They are in al things declined like Tristis: sauing that in the Nominatiue and Vocatiue case singular, they make as for atis.

Q. Shew me how by example.

A. Sing. Nom. H [...]c et haec Nostras et hoc Nostrate; for hic et haec nostratis, et hoc nostrate: the termination âtis beeing drawne into as.

Of the Persons in a Pronoune.

Q. WHat is the fift thing belonging to a Pro­noune?

A. Person.

* Q. What meane you by a Person?

A. Any person or thing which speaketh of it selfe, or is spoken to, or spoken of.

Q. How many persons be there?

A. Three.

Q. What is the first Person?

A. A word whereby any person speaketh of himselfe a­lone or with others: as, Ego I, Nos we.

Q. How many words are of this Person?

A. Ego, and nos: and no more properly.

Q. What is the second Person?

A. Any person or thing which is spoken to, either alone, or with others: as Tu thou, Vos ye.

[Page]Q. How many wordes are of this Person?

A. Tu and Vos: and no moe properly.

Q. But your booke saith, that euery Vocatiue case is of the second Person.

A. That is by a figure, called Evocation.

Q. What is the reason of it?

A. Because Tu or Vos are vnderstood in euery Vocatiue case; and so the Vocatiue case is made of the same Person with them.

Q. As how, for example?

A. When we say, ô puer, ô boy: we vnderstand, ô tu puer, ô thou boy.

Q. What is the third Person?

A. That which is spoken of; as, Ille he, Illi they.

Q. What words are of the third Person?

A. All Persons be­long to Noūes Verbs & Par­ticiples, by reason of som Person of the Pronoune ioi­ned to them expressed or vnderstood, not properly. Nounes, Pronounes and Participles; except Ego, nos, tu and uos.

Q. But these three, ipse, idem and qui, are sometime of the first and second Person.

A. That is likewise by the figure Evocation, when they are ioyned with wordes of the first or second Person, expressed or vnderstood: as, with Ego, tu, nos, or vos. For then they are made of the same Person.

Q. May not any Noune or Pronoune be of the first or se­cond Person by the same figure?

A. Yes.

* Q. To what end serue these Persons in Pronounes?

A. To expresse our minde fitly vvhen wee speake of a­nie Person.For other questions see the Latine Pronoune.] More specially they serue for the forming of Verbes, vvherein they are euer expressed or vnderstoode in euery vvord, in each Moode and Tense, except the In­finitiue.

Of a Verbe.

Q. WHich is the third part of speech?

A. A Verbe.

[Page 15]Q. What is a Verbe?

A. A part of speech declined with This is ment of perfect Verbes. That Aue, faxo, quae­so, &c. are not declined with Mood & Tēse, it is in regard of vse, not the nature of the words. Mood & Tense, & be­tokeneth the dooing, suffering, or beeing of any thing.

Q. Shewe mee how it betokeneth dooing, suffering, or beeing.

A. Thus: Dooing, as, Amo, I doe loue: suffering, as, amor I am loued: beeing, as, sum I am.

* Q. What is then the difference betweene a Noune and a Verbe?

A. A Noune signifieth the name of a thing: a Verbe sig­nifieth the manner of dooing, suffering, or beeing of that thing.

Q. How many kinde of Verbes are there?

A. Two: Personall, and Impersonall.

Q. What meane you by Personall?

A. A Verbe that hath Persons.

Q. What a Verbe is that?

A. Such a Verb as is varied by diuerse Persons: as, I loue, thou louest, he loueth, we loue, &c.

Q. What is an Impersonall?

A. That which is not varied by moe Persons, but onely is formed in the third Person singular, with this signe it: as, Decet it becommeth.

Q. How many kinde of Personalls are there?

A. Fiue: Actiue, Passiue, Neuter, Deponent, and Com­mon.

* Q. How doe these differ one from another?

A. Three waies: First in termination or ending. Second­ly, in signification. Thirdly in declining or forming.

Q. How doe they differ in Termination?

A. Some end in o, some in or, some fewe in m.

Q. What Verbes in o,?

A. A Verbe Actiue, and a Verbe Neuter.

Q. What Verbes end in or?

A. Passiues, Deponents, and Commons.

* Q. What Verbs end in m?

A. A few Neuters: as, sum, forem, inquam, possum: with other compounds of them.

[Page]Q. How then ends a Verbe Actiue?

A. In o.

Q. What doth it betoken or signifie?

A. To doe: as, amo I loue; or I doe loue.

Q. What may a Verbe Actiue be made?

A. A Passiue.

Q. How?

A. By putting to r: as, of Amo I loue; put to r, is made Amor.

Q. How ends a Verbe Passiue?

A. In or.

Q. What doth it betoken?

A. It betokeneth passion or suffering, or somthing to be done: as Amor I am loued.

Q. May not a Verbe Passiue be made an Actiue?

A. Yes.

Q. How?

A. By putting awaie r; as, of Amor take away r, it is made Amo.

Q How ends a Verbe Neuter?

A. In o, or m: as, Curro I runne: Sum, I am.

Q. Cannot a Verbe Neuter take r, to make it a Passiue, as Actiues doe: as, of Curro by putting to r, to make curror?

A. No: There is no such word as Curror.

Q. How is a Verbe Neuter Englished?

A. Sometime Actiuely: that is like an Actiue; as, Curro I runne: sometimes Passiuely, or like a Passiue; as, Aegroto, I am sick.

Q. How ends a Verbe Deponent?

A. In r, like a Verbe Passiue.

Q. How doth it signifie?

A. Either like an Actiue: as, loquor, I do speake: or like a Verbe Neuter signifying Actiuely, not Passiuely; as, glorior, I doe boast.

Q. How ends a Verbe Common?

A. In r, like a Passiue.

Q. How doth it signifie?

[Page 16]A. Both Actiuely and Few Verbes Cōmons are now in vse, viz. signifying Pas­siuely as well as Actiuely, except Crimi­nor▪ Frustror, Osculor, & some other, althogh many Partici­ples of the Preter tense of Verbes De­ponents may be found sig­nifying Pas­siuely, as Com­plexus, Medita­tus, Interpreta­tus, Comitatus, &c. Passiuely: that is, both as a Verbe Actiue, and as a Verbe Passiue: and therefore it is called a Verbe Common; as Osculor, I kisse, or am kissed.

* Q. How many I know in any place whether a Verbe Cō ­mon do signifie Actiuely, or Passiuely?

A. By the construction. For if it be construed as a Verbe Actiue, it signifieth Actiuely; as, Osculor te I kisse thee: but if it haue the construction of a Verbe Passiue, it signifieth Passiuely: as, Osculor à te I am kissed of thee.

Q. Whether can a Verbe Deponent or a Verb Common loose r, to be made Actiues?

A. No: Loquor cannot be made loquo, nor Osculor osculo.

* Q. But some of these kinds of verbs are said to be Tran­sitiue, others Intransitiue: how may I know which are Tran­sitiue, which Intransitiue?

A. Those are Transitiue whose action or doing passeth in­to another thing, & haue not a perfect sense in themselues: as, Amo Magistrum, I loue the Master.

* Q. What is the way to know them?

A. If I may fitly aske the question whom or what, made by the Verbe, to shew the meaning of it. As, when you say Amo I loue; another may aske vvhom or what doe you loue; or else he vnderstandes not your meaning.

Q. Which are Intransitiue?

A. Such as haue an absolute or perfect sense in their owne signification, without asking any question: as, Curro I run, Aegroto I am sicke.

* Of all the fiue kindes which are Transitiues?

A. Actiues, Deponent, and Commons signifying Actiue­ly, that is when they are construed like Actiues.

Q. Which are Intransitives?

A. Verbs Passiues, Neuters and Cmmmons signifying Passiuely, that is, being construed as Passiues.


Q. YOu saide a Verbe was declined with Moode and Tense: what is a Mood?

Or a Moode is the manner of speech vsed in signifying the doing suffe­ring or being of any thing.A. The manner of speech wherein the signification of a Verbe is vttered: as, in declaring, commanding, wishing, or the like.

Q. How many Moodes are there?

A. Six: the Indicatiue, Imperatiue, Optatiue, Potentiall, Subiunctiue and Infinitiue.

Q. What is the Indicatiue?

A. That which onely sheweth a reason true or false: as, A­mo, I loue; or else asketh a question: as, Amas tu? dost thou loue?

What signe hath it?

A. None.

Q. How know you the Imperatiue?

A. It biddeth or commandeth, as, Ama, loue thou.

* Q. What signe hath it?

A. It may haue the signe Let; except in the second Per­sons: where it is euidently knowne by bidding.

Q. How know you the Optatiue?

A. It wisheth or desireth.

Q What signes hath it?

A. These signes; Would God, I pray God, or God grant.

Q. What hath it ioyned with it in Latine?

A. An Aduerbe of wishing: as, vtinam Amem, God grant I loue.

Q. How know you the Potentiall Moode?

A. It sheweth an abilitie, vvill or duety to doe any thing.

Q. What signifies it?

A. May, can, might, would, should, ought or could: as, Amem, I may or can loue.

Q. How differs it in Latine from the Optatiue and Sub­iunctiue, seeing that they haue all one termination?

A. Because it hath neither Aduerb nor Coniunction ioy­ned with it.

[Page 17]Q. How know you the Subjunctiue Moode?

A. It hath euermore some Conjunction ioyned with it: or some Aduerbe hauing the nature of a Conjunction: as, That, if, when, vvhereas: as, Cum amarem, when I loued.

Q. Why is it called the Subjunctiue Moode?

A. Because it dependeth vpon some other Verbe in the same sentence, either going before or comming after it; as, Cum amarem eram miser, when I loued I was a wretch. Ama­rem, I loued, depends of eram, I was.

* Q. Is there no difference in Latine, betweene the Opta­tiue, Potentiall, and Subjunctiue Moodes?

A. No: saue in signification, & signes of the Moodes.

Q. What signifieth the Infinitiue?

A. To doe, to suffer, or to be.

Q. Whether hath it Number & Person, as other Moodes haue?

A. No: it hath neither Number, nor Person, nor Nomi­natiue case.

Q. What is the common signe to knowe it by?

A. To: as Amare to loue.

Q. When two Verbs come together without any Nomi­natiue case betweene them, vvhat Moode must the latter be?

A. The Infinitiue: as, Cupio discere, I desire to learne.


Q. WHat are there moreouer belonging to the In­finitiue Mood?

A. All Verbs Personalls which are perfect & re­gular haue Gerunds and Supines, except onely Passiues: and such are excepted and noted to want their Supines. Impersonalls haue none. Gerunds and Supines.

* Q. Why do they belong to the Infinitiue Mood?

A. Because their signification is infinite, like to the signi­fication of the Infinitiue Mood; not making any difference of Number or Person.

[Page]Q. How many Gerunds are named of Ge­rendo, because they signifie the manner of dooing some­thing. Su­pines (as Me­lancthon think­eth) of Supi­nus, because they haue no case before them. Gerunds are there?

A. Three: the first ending in di, the second in do, the third in dum.

Q. What signification haue they?

A. Both the Actiue and Passiue: as, Amandi of louing, or of beeing loued: Amando in louing, or in beeing loued: A­mandum to loue, or to be loued.

Q. Some decline these, Gen. Amandi, Accusat. A­mandum, Abla. Amando, But I take it better to decline them onely as they are de­clined in the Verbe. How will you decline these?

A. They are declined in the Verbe.


Q. HOw many Supines be there?

A. Two: one ending in um, called the first Supine: the other ending in u, which is called the later Supine.

Q. Why is that in um called the first Supine?

A. Because it hath It hath the signification of a Verb Pas­siue, when it comes of a Verbe signify­ing Passiuely: or whē it hath iri, the Infini­tiue Moode of itur ioyned with it. for the most part, the signification of the Infinitiue Mood of the Verbe Actiue: as, Amatum to loue.

Q. Why is that in u called the later Supine?

A. Because it hath for the most part the signification of the Infinitiue Mood Passiue: as, Amatu to be loued.


* Q. What is a Tense?

A. The Tense signifieth the time wherein any Person is said to doe or suffer any thing. The A Noune may signifie time, as a day, &c. but not the doing, suffering, or beeing of a thing in time, as a Verbe doth. difference of a Verbe according to the times past, present, to come.

Q. How many Tenses are there?

A. There are properly but three senses or times. Fiue: The Present tense, the Preterimperfect tense, the Preterperfect tense, the Preterpluperfect tense, and the Future tense.

[Page 18]* Q. How may these be knowne asunder?The time past,present,to com. Our booke diuides the Pretertense or time past, into three▪ (viz.) Preter­imperfect tense, not per­fectly past. Preterperfect tense, perfect­ly past. Preterplu­perfect tense more then perfectly past.

A. By the times which they speake of, and by signes.

Q. What time doth the Present tense speake of?

A. The time that is now present: as, Amo, I loue.

Q. What signes hath it?

A. Doe, do [...]st, or doth, in the Actiue voice: and am, are, art, is, or be, in the Passiue.

Q. What speaketh the Preterimperfect tense of?

A. Of the time that is not perfectly past, but as it were still present: as, Amabam I loued or did loue.

Q. What signes may it be knowne by?

A. By these, did or didst, in the Actiue voice: and vvas, were, wert, in the Passiue.

Q. What time speakes the Preterperfect tense of?

A. That which is perfectly past, though lately: as Ama­ui, I haue loued.

Q. What signes hath it?

A. Haue, hast or hath in the Actiue: haue been, hast been, or hath been, in the Passiue.

Q. What time speakes the Preterpluperfect tense of?

A. Of that which is more then perfectly past, or past a long while since.

Q. What signes hath it?

A. Had or hadst in the Actiue: had beene, or hadst beene, in the Passiue.

Q. What time speakes the Future tense of?

A. Of the time to come.

Q. What signes hath it?

A. Shall or will in the Actiue: shall be, or vvill be, in the Passiue.

* Q. Giue me all the vsuall signes of the Actiue together.

A. The princi­pall signes of the Actiue, are, Doe, did, haue, had, shall or will. Doe or doth; did or didst; haue, hast, or hath; had or hadst; shall or will.

* Q. Giue me the vsuall signes of the Passiue.

A. Am, be, is, are, art; was, were, wert; haue been, had been, shall or will be.


* Q. WHat is a Person in a Verbe?

A. Euery seuerall word, in euery Mood and Tense: except the Infinitiue Moode; which hath no Person.

Q. Why are these called Persons?

A. Because one of the three Persons of the Pronoune, is vnderstood in euery one of them: as, Amo I loue, is asmuch as, ego amo; amas thou louest, as much as tu amas; amat hee loueth, asmuch as ille amat: and so in the rest.

Q. How many Persons are there in Verbs?

A. In Verbs Personals▪ there are three in either Number; like as in the Pronoune.

* Q. Hath euery Moode & Tense, three Persons in either Number?

A. Yea, in perfect Verbs; except that the Imperatiue Mood wants the first Person of the singular Number; and the In­finitiue hath no Persons at all, as was said.

* Q. What differ your Persons in Verbs, from Persons in Nounes and Pronounes?

A. The Persons in Nounes and Pronounes, signifie who or what Person it is, that doth, or suffereth any thing. The Persons in Verbs signifie, what it is, that such a Person doth or suffereth.

* Q. Shew it by an example.

A. Magister docet, the Maister teacheth: Magister is the Person of the Noune doing something; docet, the Person of the Verbe, signifying what he doth.


* Q. WHat is a Coniugation?

A. A Coniuga­tion is a fit varying of verbs by their finall terminations in both Numbers, and in euery person, in each Moode and Tense. The varying of a Verbe, according to Moods, Tenses, and Persons.

Q. How many Coniugations haue Verbs?

[Page 19]A. Foure.

Q. How may they be knowne asunder?

A. By their seuerall vowels; which are their marks to know them by.

Q. What is the vowell of the first Conjugation to know it by?

A. Do and cer­taine com­pounds of it are excepted: as, circundo, pes­sundo, secundo, which make a short, as, da­mus, circunda­mus, as is in the Latine Prosodia. A long, before re and ris: as, amâre, amâris.

Q. What of the second?

A. E long, before re and ris: as, docêre, docêris.

Q. What of the third?

A. E short, before re and ris: as, lege [...]e, legeris.

Q. What of the fourth?

A. I long, before re and ris: as, audîre, audîris.

* Q. Where must you finde this re and ris vvhich you speake of?

A. Re, in the Infinitiue Moode Actiue; which is the fourth word in declining the Verbe in the Actiue voice: as, Amo, a­mas, amaui, amare: and ris, in the second Person Passiue; that is, in the second word in declining a Verbe Passiue: as, Amor, amaris.

Of declining and coniugating Verbs.

Q. THat you may be skilful in all Verbs (which with the knowledge of the Nounes, is accounted the most speedy helpe to attaine the Latine tongue) what must you doe?

A. I must learne to bee verie perfect, in Declining a Verbe, is the rehearsing of the first & se­cond Person of the Present tense, with the first Person of the Preterper­fect tense of the Indica­tiue Moode: the Present tense of the Infinitiue moode: the Gerunds▪ Supines & Parciciples belonging to that Verbe and voice. declining and coniugating any Verbe.

Q. How many examples haue you to decline, and con­jugate all perfect Verbs by?

A. Foure; according to the number of the Conjuga­tions.

Q. In how many voyces are these examples Forming or conjugating a Verbe, is the breaking or vary [...]ng the first word of the Verb, into sundry other words coming of it, by Per­sons, Tenses, Moodes. formed?

[Page]A. In two: Actiue, and Passiue. All Verbs in o, are for­med like Amo, Doceo, Lego or Audio. All Verbs in or, like Amor, Doceor, Legor, Audior.

* Q. Are Deponents and Commons declined like Pas­siues?

A. Yes: sauing that they are to haue Gerunds & Supines declined with them, be [...]ause they want Actiues: and they haue Participles, as they are set down in the Participle after.

* Q. What is the chiefe benefit of this perfect readinesse, in declining and conjugating?

A. To be able, as in the Noune, to giue either the English to the Latine; or Latine to the English of any Verbe, in each Moode, Tense, and Person: and thereby to be able to pro­ceede most speedily in construing, parsing, and making La­tine.

* Q. How will you doe that?

A. By beeing perfect in all the Persons, thorough each Mood and Tense, to be able to giue both English to Latine, and Latine to English in them: and after to runne the Ter­minations of euery Tense and Person, in my mind; together with the signes of euery Person in English.

Q. But how will you doe in the Imperatiue Mood, which hath no first Person singular?

A. Giue it in the second Person.

Q. Shew mee an example hereof: and first of saying the Latine before.

A. Amo I loue, amabam I loued or did loue, amaui I haue loued, amaueram I had loued, amabo I shall or will loue.

Imperatiue second Person, Ama amato loue thou.

Optatiue vtinam Amem grant I loue, &c.

Q. Giue me the English first.

A. I loue Amo, I loued or did loue amabam, &c. as in de­clining Nounes.

Q. But let me heare how you runne the Terminations: as, in Amo.

A. O, as, at, amus, atis, ant. So in Amabam, bam, bas, bat, bamus, batis, ba [...]t.

Q. Which are those English signes, which you must run [Page 20] in your minde, with these terminations?

A. The Persons in English; I, thou, he, we, ye and they.

Q. Then if you can giue the first Person in any Tense, you can by this meanes giue any Person of the same, by remem­bring, or running in your mind, the terminations & signes together.

A. Yes.

Q. How say you, I loued or did loue?

A. Amabam.

Q. They loued or did loue?

A. Amabant.

Q. If you be asked any Person which you cannot tell, what must you doe to finde it?

A. Call to minde but the first Person of that Tense, and run the rest in my minde vntill I come to it.

Q. How, for example?

A. If I be asked, how I say, Wee had taught, I straight re­member I had taught docueram: & so running in my minde, ram, ras, rat, ramus, ratis, rant; and withall, I, thou, he, wee, ye, they; I finde docueramus we had taught.

* Q. Giue mee the first Persons of those Tenses, vvhich come one of another: and first which come of the Present tense.

A. Amo, amabam, amabo, amem, amarem, amare.

* Q. Giue those which come of the Preterperfect tense.

A. Amaui, amaueram, amauerim, amauero, amauissem, a­mauisse.

Q. Rehearse them together as they stand in the booke.

A. Amo, amabam, amaui, amaueram, amabo: Ama, ama­to; Amem, amarem, amauerim, amauissem, amauero, amare, amauisse.

Q. Rehearse them Actiuely, and Passiuely together, as they stand in order.

A. Amo amor, amabam amabar, amaui amatus sum vel fui, amaueram amatus eram vel fueram, amabo amabor.

Imper. second Person, Ama amato, amare amator.

Optat. Potentiall and Subiunctiue, Amem amer, amarem a­marer, amauerim amatus sim vel fuerim, amauissē amatus essem [Page] vel fuissem, amauero amatus er [...] vel fuero.

Infinitiue, Amare amari; amauisse, amatum esse vel fuisse.

Illi polliciti se­se facturum omnia. Est quod speremus deos bonis benefactu­rum. Amaturum esse, amatum iri vel amandum essem.

Amandi, amando, amandum; Amatum, amatu; amans, a­matus, amaturus, amandus.

* Q. Giue the terminations of the first Persons of the Actiue voice alone.

Make these terminations exceeding perfect: all the rest will bee soon gotten & easily kept by oft repea­ting these o­uer thus.A. O, bam, i, ram, bo or am. Em or am, rem, rim, sem, ro.

Q. Giue the signes of the Tenses answering.

A. Do, did, haue, had, shall or will; as before.

Q. Giue the terminations of the Actiue and Passiue to­gether.

A. O or, bam bar, i sum vel

  • bo bor,
  • am ar.

fui, ram eram vel fueram

  • Em er
  • am ar

rem rer, rim sim vel fuerim, sem essem vel fuissem, ro ero vel fuero.

Infinit. e, i: se esse vel fuisse.

* Q. Is there yet no further helpe for knowing the seue­rall Persons?

A. Yes. The first Persons Actiue end in o, am, em, im, or i: the second in as, es, is or sti: the third in at, et, it: the first Plurall in mus; the second in tis; the third in nt.

Q. How end the first Persons Passiue?

A. The first Persons end commonly in or, ar, er; the se­cond in aris, eris, iris; the third in tur; the first Plural in mur; the second in mini; the third in ntur.

In the Preterperfect tenses, Preterplup. and Future tenses Passiue, the terminations are the same with the tenses in Sum, es, fui, of which they are borrowed: except the Future tense of the Indicatiue Moode.

* Q. Which doe you account the speediest way of all, to get and keepe these Verbs?

A. This oft repetition of these terminations in Latine, and of the English signes of the Moodes, Tenses, and Persons: and also much examination of the Actiue and Passiue toge­ther: [Page 21] as, asking, I loue, Amo: I am loued, Amor: he loueth, amat: he is loued, amatur: they loue, amant: they are loued, amantur, &c.

Of Sum and other Verbes out of rule.

Q. WHat rules haue you for Verbes ending in m?

A. There are no rules for them, they are irregu­lar: that is, without rule.

Q. Are none of them declined in your booke?

A. Yes: Sum and Possum.

Q. How are others in m declined?

A. They with most other lame Ve [...]bs, or which are irregu­lar, At Sed [...] vt totum are set downe in the Latin Grammar by themselues: except volo, nolo, malo, edo, fio, fero, feror; which doe fol­low after.

Q. Is not a perfect readines in this verbe Sum, as necessa­rie as in any other of the Verbes?

A. Yes, and more also.

Q. Why?

A. Because it serueth for declining of all Verbs in or, and also for that it is of perpetuall vse.

Q. How will you come to be perfect in this Verb Sum?

A. By the same meanes as in Amo, doceo, &c. and so in vo­lo, nolo, malo, and the rest of those Verbs out of rule: chiefly in being perfect in giuing all the first Persons, both English to Latine, and Latine to English.

Q. Haue you not some speciall obseruations concerning these two Verbs, Eo and queo?

A. Yes.

Q. Wherein doe they differ from other Verbes?

A. In the Preterimperf. and Future tense of the Indicatiue Moode, and in the Gerunds.

Q. How do they make their Preterimperfect tense?

A. A [...]dibant le­ni [...]ant, scibar [...], sae [...]tham, and the like, are by the figure Sy [...] ­cope. Ibam and quibam; not iebam.

Q. How doe they make their Future tense?

[Page]A. Ib [...] and quibo: not iam.

Q. How doe they make their Gerunds?

A. So they make the oblique cases of the Participle of the Present tense: as, of Ien [...], the Ge­nitiue is euntis, so eunti, &c. Eundi, eundo, eundum; not ieudi: so queundi, que­undo, qu [...]undum.

Q. How are they varied in all other Moodes & Tenses?

A. Like Verbes in o, of the fourth Conjugation.

Q. What Tenses are formed of the Preterperfect tense of the Indicatiue Moode?

A. All other Preterperfect tenses, Preterpluperfect tenses, and Future tenses; except the Future tense of the Indicatiue Moode.

Q. How are these formed of the Preterperfect tense of the Indicatiue Moode.

A. Those which ende in ram, rim, or ro, be formed of it, by changing i, into e short: & then putting to ram, rim, or ro: as, of Amaui, are made amaueram, amauerim, amauero. Those which end in sem, or se, be formed of it onely by putting to s and sem, or se: as of Amaui, amauissem, amauisse.


Q. We haue done with Verbs Personals: to come to Im­personals, how are they declined?

A. They are not declined as Verbes Personals, but onely formed in the third Person singular through all Moodes and Tenses: as, Delectat, delectabat, &c.

Q. What signes haue they to know them by?

A. They haue commonly before their English this signe it, and sometimes there.

Of a Participle.

Q. WHat is your fourth part of speech, vvhich is declined?

A. A Participle?

Q. What is a Participle?

[Page 22]A. A part of speech deriued a [...] a Verbe, taking part of a Noune, &c.

Q. Of what is a Participle deriued?

A. Of a Verb [...], from whence it hath the beginning.

Q. Why is it called a Participle?

A. Of taking part. Because it hath nothing of it selfe, but what it takes from others.

Q. What parts of speech doth it take part of?

A. Part of a Noune; part of a Verbe; and part of both a Noune and a Verbe together.

Q. What doth i [...] take of a Noune onely, or seuerally?

A. Gender, Case and Declension.

Q. What of a Verbe alone?

A. Tense and signification.

Q. What doth it take of both of them together?

A. Number and figure.

* Q. How is a Participle declined?

A. With Number, Case and Gender; as a Noune Adje­ctiue.

Q. There are two of the Ac­tiue voice; as, the Participle of the Present and the Fut. in rus. two of the Passiue; that is, the Participle of the Preter­tense, and Fu­ture in [...]us. How many kindes of Participles are there?

A. Foure: one of the Present tense, another of the Preter tense, one of the Future in rus, an other of the Future in dus.

Q. How can you know them?

A. Partly, by their endings; partly, by their significati­on.

Q. How ends the Latine of the Participle of the Present tense?

A. In ans, or ens: as, amans, docens.

Q. How ends it in English?

A. In ing: as, louing.

Q. Is euery word ending in ing, a Participle of the Present tense?

No: vnlesse the Latine end also in ans, or ens, hauing the other properties of a Participle.

Q. What time doth it signifie?

A. The time present.

Q. What is the Latine of the Participle of the present tense formed of?

[Page]A. Of the For forming [...]articiples of Verbs [...]. Preterimperf. tense of the Indicatiue Mood, by changing the last syllable into ns: as, of Amabam, bam turned in ns, is made amans: so, of Auxiliabar, auxilians.

Q. What doth a Participle of the Future in rus, signifie or betoken?

A To doe; like the Infinitiue Mood, of the Actiue voyce: as, Amaturus to loue, or about to loue.

Q. What time doth it signifie?

A. The time to come, but Actiuely.

Q. How endeth it in Latine?

A. In rus: as, amaturus.

Q. What is it formed of?

A. These Par­ticiples [...] are for­med irregu­larly. Stockwood. Of the later Supine by putting to rus: as, of Doctu, docturus.

Q. How ends the English of the Participle of the Preter­tense?

A. In d, t, or n: as, loued, taught, slaine.

Q. How ends his Latine?

A. In tus, sus, xus: as, amatus loued, visus seen, nexus knit.

Q. Do all of them end either in tus, sus, or xus, in Latine?

A. Yea all; except Mortuus dead, which endeth in üus.

* Q. What time doth a Participle of the Preter tense sig­nifie?

A. The time past.

Q. What is it formed of?

A. Of the later Supine by putting to s: as, of Lectu, le­ctus.

Q. What signifieth a Participle of the future in dus?

A. To suffer; like the Infinitiue Moode of the Passiue voyce: as, Amandus to be loued.

* Q. What time doth it signifie?

A. The time to come Passiuely.

Q. Of what is it formed?

A. Of the Gen. Case of the Participle of the Present tense.

Q. How?

A. By changing tis, into dus: as, of Amantis, turne tis in­to dus, and it is made Amandus.

Q. But hath it not somtimes the signification of the Ac­tiue [Page 23] voyce; and of the Participle of the Present tense?

A. Yes: as, Legendus reading. As in this sentence; Legendis veteribus proficis; In reading old authors thou doest profit.

Q. Is it then properly a Participle of the Future in dus, when it signifieth Actiuely?

A. No. It is rather an Adjectiue Gerundiue.

Q. Hath euery kinde of Verbe all the foure Participles?

A. No.

Q. How many Participles haue Verbs Actiues & Dolendus and carendus, are out of rule. Erratus, excursus percursus, are taken to come of Verbs Im­personals of the Passiue voyce: so reg­natus, triumpha­tus, or abu­siuely. Neu­ters, which haue the Supines?

A. Two: one of the Present tense, and another of the Fu­ture in rus.

Q. But what if these lacke the Supines?

A. Then they want the Future in rus.

Q. Why so?

A. Because it is deriued of the later Supine. As, of Disco is onely discens; without a Participle of the Future in rus.

Q What Participles haue Verbs Passiues, whose Actiues haue the Supines?

A. Two: a Participle of the Preter tense, & of the Future in dus: as, of Amor, cometh amatus, amandus.

Q. But what if the Actiues want the Supines?

A. They want then the Participle of the Preter tense.

Q. Why so?

A. Because the Participle of the Preter tense should bee formed of the later Supine which is wanting. As, of Timeor is onely timendus.

Q. What Participles hath a Verbe Deponent?

A. Three: one of the Present tense; another of the Pre­tertense, and one of the future in rus: as, of Auxilior, com­meth auxilians, auxiliatus, auxiliaturus.

Q. Can it neuer haue a Participle of the Future in dus?

A. Yes; if it gouerne an Accusatiue case, as being a Verbe Transitiue: as, Loquor ver [...]ū; Loquor, may forme loquendus.

Q. How many Participles hath a Verbe Common?

A. All the four Participles: as, of Largior, commeth lar­giens, largiturus, largitus, largiendus.

Q. How are the Participles of the Present tense declined?

[Page]A. Like Nounes Adjectiues of three Articles: as, Nom. Hic, haec & hoc Amans; like Foelix.

Q. How are Participles of other tenses declined?

Like Nouns Adjectiues of three diuers endings: as, Nom. Amatus, amata, amatum; like Bonus, a, um: so all the rest.

Of an Aduerbe.

Q. WHich is your fift part of speech; and the first of those which are vndeclined?

A. An Aduerbe.

Q. What is an Aduerbe?

A. A part of speech ioyned to the Verbes, to declare their signification.

Q. Why is it called an Aduerbe?

A. Because it is vsu [...]lly ioyned to V [...]rbs, in speaking.

Q. May it not be ioyned vnto other parts of speech also?

A. Yes: to such wordes as are in the place of Verbes, and some other; as, sometimes to Nounes, sometimes to Ad­uerbes.

Q Whereto is an Aduerbe ioyned to the Verbs?

A. To declare their signification; that is, to make their signification more plaine and full.

* How?

A. By some circumstance of time, place, number, order, or the like, according to the the seuerall kindes of Aduerbs; As, when I taught, where, how oft, in what order: and the like hereunto.

Q. Rehearse the sorts of your Aduerbs.

A. Aduerbs are of Time, Place, Number Order: and so as they stand in the booke.

Q. Giue me your Aduerbs, Englishing them in order.

A. Aduerbs of time: as, Hodie to day, cras to morrow, he­rì yesterday: perendie they day after to morrow, olim in time past, aliquando somtimes, nuper of late, quando when.

Of Place: as, vbi where, ibi there, hic heere, istic there, illic there, intus within, foris without.

[Page 24]Of Number: as, Semel once, bis twise, ter thrise, quater foure times, iterum againe.

Of Order: as, Indè from thence: deinde afterwards: deni­que to conclude: postremò last of all.

Of Asking or Doubting: as, Cur wherefore, quare where­fore, vnde from whence, quorsum to what end, num whether, numquid whether.

Of Calling: as, Heus hoe, ô hoe: ehodum hoe syrrah.

Of Affirming: as, Certè surely, nae verily, profectò truely, sanè truely or doubtlesse, scilicet doubtlesse or truely,Scilicet q. scire licet. licet be it so, esto be it so.

Of Denying: as, Non not, haud not, minimè no, or in no wise, neutiquam not, or in no wise, nequaquam no, or in no wise.

Of Swearing: as, ver. Pol in good-sooth,ver. Pol by Pol­lux. Aedepol by the Temple of Pollux. Me dius fidius, as Fidus the son of Iupiter, and God of faithfulnesse, loue me; like Me Hercule, as Hercules shall helpe me. Sodes q. si audes. aedepol in good-sooth, H [...]rcle truly, Medius-fidius in faith or truth.

Of Exhorting: as, Eia goe to, or well, age go to, agite goe ye to, agedum well, go to yet.

Of Flatering: as Sodes if thou darest, or on good fellow­ship, amabo of all loue.

Of Forbidding: as, Ne no, not.

Of Wishing: as, vtinam I would to God, si O that, ô si O if, ô oh that.

Of Gathering together: as, Simul together, vnà together, pariter together, non modò not onely, non solùm not onely.

Of Parting: as, Seorsim asunder, or one from another: si­gillatin [...] euery one asunder or peculiarly, vicatim streete by streete, or village by village.

Of Choosing: as, Potius rather, imò yea rather.

Of a thing not finished: as, Penè almost, ferè almost, pro­pe nigh, or neer, or almost, vix scarsly, modò almost.

Of Shewing: as, En behold, ecce behold.

Of Doubting: as, Forsan peraduenture, forsitan perad­uenture, fortassis it may be, fortasse it may be peraduenture.

Of Chance: as, Fortè by chance, fortuitò by chance, or at aduenture.

Of Likenesse: as, Sic so, sicut like as, quasi as, ceu as, tan­quam euen as, velut as.

[Page]Of Qualitie: as, Benè well, malè euilly, doctè learnedly, fortiter valiantly.

Of Quantitie: as, Multum much, parum little, minimum the least of all, paululum very little, plurimum the most of all or very much.

Of Comparison: as, Tam so or aswel, quàm as, magis more, minus lesse, maximè especially.

Q. Are not some Aduerbs compared?

A. Yes; certain are: as, Doctè learnedly, doctiùs more lear­nedly, doctissime most learnedly. Fortiter valiantly, fortiùs more valiantly, fortissimè most valiantly. Prope neer, propiùs neerer, proximè the neerest of all.

Aduerbs cō ­ming of Noūs which are cō ­pared irregu­larly, do follow their manner of comparing: as, of Bonus, Melior, optimus, is Benè, meliùs, op [...]imè.* Q. Doe these form the Co [...]paratiue, and the Superla­tiue degree of their Positiue, as Adjectiues doe?

A. No: they haue no Comparatiue nor Superlatiue de­gree, of themselues; neither doe forme any Comparison properly.

* Q. How then haue they these degrees?

A. They doe borrow them of Nounes Adjectiues of the Comparatiue and Superlatiue degree.

* Q. How do their Cōparatiue & Superlatiue degrees end?

A. Their Comparatiues end in us; like the Neuter Gender of the Adjectiue of the Comparatiue degree.

Q. How end their Superlatiues?

A. They end for most part in e, like the Masculin Gender of the Vocatiue case of their Adjectiue of the Superlatiue de­gree. Of which they seeme to bee formed: as Doctè, doctiùs, doctissimè.

Q. Neuter Ad­jectiues [...]re oft put for Aduerbs as, recens pro r [...]cen­ter, toruum for t [...]ruè. This is when they are taken Aduerbially, signifiing as Aduerbs. Doe not some Superlatiues end in um?

A. Yes: some few which haue the termination of the Neu­ter Gender, of the Vocatiue case, whereof they come: as, Plurimùm, potissimùm.

Q. Are not Prepositions sometimes made Aduerbes?

A. Yes: when they are set alone without a case.

* Q. How may we know Aduerbs?

A. Easily. Many of them are set downe in the Accidence. The rest may be knowne partly by their English, partly by their Latine; chiefly by their English and Latine together.

[Page 25]* Q. How by their English?

A. Most of them, besides these in the booke, are Aduerbs of Quality, & doe commonly end in ly, in English: as, wise­ly, learnedly.

Q. How by their Latine?

A. They end commonly in è, or us, and are marked ouer the head with a graue accent, to distinguish them frō Nouns: as, Doctè, doctiùs, doctissimè. Or else they end in er: as, Pru­denter, wisely.

* Q. How by their English and Latine together?

A. Thus: as, Doctè learnedly, doctiùs more learnedly, do­ctissmè most learnedly. Fortiter valiantly, fortiùs more vali­antly, fortissimè most valiantly.

Q. But haue you not some ending in o, like Ablatiue cases?

A. Yes: as, Tantò by so much: & some also in im: as, furtìm theeuishly, comming of the verbe furor. But these haue their accents to know them by, like as those in um, and the rest.

Of a Conjunction.

Q. WHich is your second part of speech vndeclined?

A. A Conjunction.

Q. What is a Conjunction?

A. A part of speech that joineth words & sentēces together.

* Q. What is then the vse of Conjunctions?

A. To ioyne words and sentences.

Q. How many kindes haue you of them?

A. Twelue: Copulatiues, Disjunctiues, Discretiues, Cau­sals, Conditionals, Exceptiues, Interrogatiues, Illatiues, Ad­uersatiues, Redditiues, Electiues, Diminutiues.

Q. Giue me your Coniunctions, Latine and English to­gether.

A. These are called Copu­latiues, be­cause they serue to cou­ple parts of sentences ab­solutely. Disiunctiues, by vvhich parts of sen­tences are so seuered, as if one onely could be true. Discretiues, by which the parts are lightly seuered. Causals, which sh [...]w a cause of a thing go­ing before. Cōditionals, by which the part folowing is knit, vpon condition of that going before. Exceptiues, do except a­gainst some­thing going before, or frō somthing following. Interrogatiues aske a question. Illatiues, bring in some conclusion or shew somthing. Aduersatiues shew some diuersitie of things. Reddi­tiues, answere to the Aduersatiues. For the order of the Coniunctions how they are to bee placed, and other questions, see the Latine Coniunction. Copulatiues: as, Et and, que and, quoquè also, ac and, atque and, [...]oc neither, neque neither.

Disjunctiues: as, Aut either, ve or, or either, vel either, sen either, sine either.

Discretiues: as, Sed but, quidem but truly, autem but, verò [Page] but, at but, ast but.

Casuals: as, Nam for, namque for, enim for, etenim for, quia because, vt that, quòd that, quum sith that, quoniam because, and quando (set for quoniam) sith that, or because.

Conditionals: as, Si if, sin but if, modò so that, dum so that, dummodo so that.

Exceptiues: as, N [...] except, nisi except, quin but, alioquin except that, or otherwise, praeter quam except that.

Interrogatiues: as, Ne whether, an whether, utrùm vvhe­ther, necnè whether or no, annè whether or no, nonnè is it not so.

Illatiues: as, Ergo therefore, ideo therefore, igitur there­fore, quare wherefore, it aque therefore, proin therefore.

Aduersatiues: as, Et si although, quanquam although, quam [...]is although, licèt although or albeit, esto be it so.

Redditiues to the same: as, Tamen notwithstanding, atta­men yet notwithstanding.

Electiues: as, Quàm how, ac as, atque as, or then.

Diminutiues: as, Saltem at least, vel yea, or at the least­wise.

Of a Preposition.

Q. WHich is your third part of speech vndecli­ned?

A. A Preposition.

Q. What is a Preposition?

A. A part of speech most commonly sette before other parts of speech, either in Apposition, or in Composition.

Q. Why doe you say, most commonly set before o­ther parts?

A. Because some Prepositions are orderly set after their cases; the rest also may be set after, sometimes.

[Page 26]Q. What meane you by Apposition, when you say a Pre­position is set before in Apposition?

A. When a Preposition is onely set before an other word, yet is not made one with it, but remaineth a perfect word of it selfe: as, Ad patrem.

Q. What meane you by Composition, when you say a Preposition is set before in Composition?

A. When it is made a part of the word which it is set be­fore: as, indoctus vnlearned.

Q. To what vse doe Prepositions serue specially?

A. To gouerne cases: or to serue to cases, as our booke hath it.

* Q. What cases doe they serue to?

A. To three. Some to an Accusatiue, some to an Abla­tiue; some both to an Accusatiue and an Ablatiue.

Q. How many Prepositions serue to the Procul is sometimes a Preposition, and ioyned both to the Accusatiue & to the Abla­tiue cases. Coo­per. Accusatiue case?

A. Two and thirtie: namely, Ad to, apud at, ante be­fore, &c.

Q. How many serue to the Ablatiue case?

A. These fifteene. Portat prae si­bi, h. e. praeportat sibi, or prae, h. e. praesidium siue cōmeatum, sibi. Lamb. in Plau. Venio advor­sum tempori, h. e. advorsum Me­nechmum tempo­ri, h. e. opportu­nè. Stockw. A, ab, abs, from or fro, &c.

Q. How many serue to both cases?

A. Onely these foure; In, sub, super, and subter.

Q. What Prepositions are set after their cases?

A. These three: versus, penes, and tenus, are ordinarily set after; also cum and vsque, sometimes: as, mecum, ad occiden­tem vsque.

* Q. May not the rest of the Prepositions be so set after their cases also?

A. Yes: by the figure Anastrophe: as, Italiam contra.

Q. Can no Preposition serue to a Genitiue case?

A. Yes; Tenus.

Q. When is that?

A. When the casuall word ioyned with Tenus is the Plu­rall number, then it must be put in the Genitiue case, and be set before tenus: as, Aurium tenus, vp to the eares; genuum tenus, vp to the knees.

Q. If Prepositions be set alone without any case; whether [Page] are they then Prepositions?

A. No: they are then changed into Aduerbs: and so if they doe forme the degrees of Comparison.

Q. May those foure which serue to both cases, haue ei­ther an Accusatiue case or an Ablatiue, as we will?

A. No: except Subter, which wee may vse at our plea­sure.

* Q. How knowe you then when to ioyne them to the Accusatiue case; when to the Ablatiue?

A. By their signification: for when they are put for other Prepositions seruing to the Accus. case, they will common­ly haue an Accusatiue case: so for Prepositions seruing to the Ablatiue, an Ablatiue.

Q. When doth in, serue to the Accusatiue case?

A. When it hath the signe to, ioyned with the English: as, in vrbem, into the Citie. Or, when it is put for Erga to­wards, contra against, or ad vnto. Otherwise, it serues to an Ablatiue.

* Q. When doth Sub gouerne an Accusatiue case?

A. When it is put for Ad, per, or ante; that is, when it sig­nifieth vnto, by, about or before. Otherwise, it gouerns an Ablatiue.

* Q. When doth Super gouerne an Accusatiue?

A. When it is put for vltra beyond. Else it will haue an Ablatiue.

* Q. Haue you no moe Prepositions but these?

A. Yes: These haue commonly these signifi­cations or the like, which by vse in reading may easily be obserued; Am about, di from, &c. dis asunder, re back or againe: se asunder: con together. se q. scorsim. con. q. cum. These sixe; Am, di, dis, re, se, con.

Q. Doe these serue to any cases?

A. No: they serue onely to make Compound words; so that they are neuer found alone, but onely in Composition, compounded with other words.

Q. Are not Prepositions compared?

A. No: except some of them when they are changed into Aduerbs as, Prope, propiùs, proximè.

Of an Interjection.

Q. WHat i [...] your last part of speech?

A. An Interjection.

Q. What is an Interjection?

A. A part of speech, which signifieth some suddaine af­fection, or passion of the minde, in an imperfect voice.

Q. How many kindes of Interjections haue you?

A. So many as there are suddaine passions or motions of the minde:] as of mirth, sorrow, dread and the like: as they are in my booke.

Q. Giue me the English of your Interjections; as you did of Aduerbs and Coniunctions.

A. They are imperfect voices: and so haue no proper English words: yet we may English them thus, after our cu­stome of speech.

Some be of mirth: as Euax hey, vah hey-da.

Sorrow: as, Heu alas, hei ah alas.

Dread: as, Atat oh, or out-alas.

Maruelling: as, Papè ô wonderfull!

Disdaining: as, Hem oh or what, vah ah.

Shunning: as, Apage get thee gone, or fie away.

Praysing: as, Euge ô well done!

Scorning: as, Hui hoe, alas.

Exclamation: as, Proh Deum atque hominum fidem. Oh the faith of Gods and men.

Cursing: as, Vae woe, malum in a mischiefe.

Laughing: as, Ha, ha, he; ha, ha.

Calling: as, Eh [...], oh, ïo, hoe syrrah.

Silence: as, Au auh.

Q. But are all Interjections such imperfect voices?

A. Yea, all which are properly Interjections: as, Euax, vah, &c.

* Q. What say you then of malum, signifying in a mis­chiefe, is it not a perfect voice?

A. Malum is not properly an Interjection, but a Noune: and is onely then taken for an Interjection, when it is put to [Page] expresse such a suddaine passion.

* Q. May not other perfect words also, bee made Inter­jections?

A. Yes: any part of speech may; but especially Nounes and Verbes, whensoeuer they are vsed to expresse these sud­daine motions of the minde:] as, Infandum a thing not to be spoken of, Amabo of all good fellowship, Peri [...] alasse, are made Interjections and vndeclined.

Q. May one word then be of many parts of speech?

A. Yes: being taken in a diuerse signification; or in a di­uerse respect and consideration.

* Q. As how, for example?

A. As: Cum when, is an Aduerbe of Time; Cum seeing that, is a Conjunction Causall; Cum with, a Preposition. And cum taken for this word cum, or for itselfe, is a Noune Sub­stantiue and vndeclined.

* Q. It seemeth hereby that a word of any part of speech may be a Noune Substantiue.

A.Such words are Substan­tiues not pro­perly, but technicos, that is, artificially, or materially, as som Gram­marians doe speake. Yes: when it is taken for the word it selfe, or as for a word of Art.] As, Habeo this word habeo. Or when it is put in place of a Noune Substantiue: as, Bonum manè good mor­row. Manè is heere declined, Hoc manè inuar [...]abile.

The Concords of the Latine speech.

Q. WEe haue done vvith the Introduction of the Eight parts of speech, or the handling of the eight parts seuerally, which is the first part of your Acci­dence: now wee are to come to the rules of Construction of the Eight parts of speech, called the English rules. What meane you by Construction?

A. That con­struction is to be accounted lawfull, which the most ap­proued of the ancient Wri­ters haue vsed both in wri­ting and spea­king. The due joyning, or right ordering & framing toge­ther of words in speech.] Or the right ioyning of the parts of speech together in speaking according to the naturall man­ner; or according to the reason & rule of Grammar.

Q. How many things are to be considered, for the right ioyning of words in Construction?

[Page 28]A. Two:

  • 1. The Concords of words.
  • 2. The gouerning of words.

* Q. What meane you by Concords?

A. The agreements of words together, in some speciall Accidents or qualities: as in one Number, Person, Case or Gender.

Q. How many Concords haue you?

A. Three: The firs [...] between the Nominatiue case, and the Verbe.

The second, between the S [...]bstantiue and the Adiectiue.

The third, between the Antecedent and the Relatiue.

* Q. Why must these sixe so agree together?

A. Because three of these are weake, and cannot be placed orderly in speech, except they be guided and holden vp by the three stronger.

* Q. Which are those three weake once?

A. The three later: that is, the Verbe, the Adjectiue and the Relatiue.

Q. What must the Verbe haue to agree with?

A. His Nominatiue case.

Q. What the Adjectiue?

A. His Substantiue.

Q. What must the Relatiue haue?

A. His Antecedent.

The first Concord.

Q. WHat is then your first Concord?

A. Between the Nominatiue case & the Verbe.

Q. When an English is giuen to be made in Latine, what must you doe first?

A. Looke out the principall Verbe?

Q. What if you haue moe Verbs then one in a sentence, which of them is the principall Verbe?

A. The first of them.

Q. Are there no exceptions?

A. Yes; three: first if the Verb be of the Infinitiue Mood, [Page] it cannot be the principall Verb. Secondly, if it haue before it a Relatiue: as, that, whom, which. Thirdly, if it haue before it a Coniunction: as, vt that, cum when, si if, and such others.

* Q. Why can none of these be the principall Ve [...]be?

A. Because all these doe euer depend vpon some other Verbe, going before them in naturall and due order of speech.

* Q. Must not the same course be taken, when a Latine is to be construed, or turned into English?

A. Yes: the very same▪ I must likewise first seeke out the principall Verbe, and marke it carefully.

* Q. Why so?

A. Because that will point out the right Nominatiue case, which is that which ag [...]e [...]th with it, both in Number & Per­son, and also in reason; and so it doth very much direct the construing of all the sentence.

Q. When you haue found out the principall Verbe, what must you doe then?

A. Seeke out his Nominatiue case.

Q. How?

A. By putting the English, vvho or vvhat, with the Eng­lish of the Verbe; and then the vvord in the same sentence, which answereth to the question, shal be the Nominatiue case to the Verbe.

Q. Giue me an example how.

A. Venit ne rex? Doth the King come? If you aske here, who commeth, the answere is, the King; so the word King, is the Nominatiue case to the Verbe.

Q. Must we alwaies thus seeke out the Nominatiue case?

A. Yes, in Verbs Personals: except the Verb be an Imper­sonall, which will haue no Nominatiue case.

Q. And where must your Nominatiue case be set, in ma­king or construing Latine?

A. Before the Verbe.

Q. Are there no exceptions?

A. Yes: three. First, when a question is asked. Secondly, when the Verbe is of the Imperatiue Moode. Thirdly, vvhen this signe it, or there, commeth before the English of [Page 29] the Verbe.

Q. Where must the Nominatiue case be placed, if any of these happen?

A. Most vsually after the Verbe, or after the signe of the Verb: as, Amas tu louest thou? or dost thou loue?

Q. And what case must your casuall worde bee, which commeth next after the Verbe, & answereth to the questi­on, whom or what, made by the Verbe?

A. It must commonly be the Accusatiue case.

Q. Why doe you say commonly? Is there any excep­tion?

A. Yes: if the Verbe doe properly gouerne another case after him to be construed withall] for then it must bee such case, as the Verbe gouernes properly.

Q. Giue an example.

A. Si cupis placere magistro, vtere diligentia, &c. Heere placere the Verbe gouernes properly magistro a Datiue case; and vtere gouernes diligentia an Ablatiue case, not an Accu­satiue.

Q. What doth a Verbe Personall agree with?

A. With his Nominatiue case.

Q. In how many things?

A. In two; in Number and Person.

Q. What meane you by that?

A. The same Number and Person that the Nominitiue case is, the same must the Verbe be.

Q. Giue me an example.

A. Praeceptor legit, vos verò negligitis.

Q. In which words lyeth the speciall example, and force of the rule, to apply them to the rule?

A. In Praeceptor legit, vos negligitis.

Q. How are these to be applyed?

A. Thus; Legit the Verb is the singular Number, & third Person, agreeing with Praeceptor his Nominatiue case, which is the Singular Number, and third Person. And negligitis is the Plurall Number, and second Person, because it agreeth with vos his Nominatiue case, which is also the Plurall Nun­ber, and second Person.

[Page]Q. Must the Verbe be alwaies the same Number and Per­son, that the Nominatiue case is?

A. No: For there are three exceptions, in the three rules following.

Q. Which is the first exception?

A. Many Nominatiue cases Singular, hauing a Coniuncti­on Copulatiue, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. When there are moe Nominatiues cases cōming toge­ther, with a Coniunction Copulatiue comming betweene them; though all the Nominatiues cases bee of the Singular Number, yet the Verbe must be the Plurall Number.

Q. But what if the Nominat. cases be of I [...] and ij may be of all Per­sons as well as idem; by the [...]igure I [...]v [...]cation, hauing Ego or nos, Tu or vos, vnderstood; as, Agimus ij, ij poteramus esse pares, &c. for Nos ij agimus, &c. diuers Persons, with which of them must the Verbe agree in Person? may it agree with any of them?

A. No: It must agree with the Nominatiue case of the most worthy Person.

Q. Which is the Nominatiue case of the vvorthiest Per­son:

A. The Nominatiue case of the first Person, is more wor­thy then of the second; and the second more worthy then the third.

Q. Which is your second exception?

A. When a Verbe commeth betweene two Nominatiue cases of diuers Numbers, the Verbe may indifferently accord with either of them, so that they be both of one Person.

Q. What mean you by that, when you say, it may indif­ferently accord with either of them?

A. It may agree either with that Nominatiue case, which goeth before the Verbe, or with that which commeth after the Verbe; so that both the Nominatiue cases bee of one Person.

Q. Which is the third exception?

A. Heere note also that sometime the Infinitiue Mood of a Verbe, &c.

Q. What meane you by that rule?

A. That not only a Casuall word is the Nominatiue case to the Verbe; but sometime an Infinitiue Mood, somtimes a [Page 30] whole clause going before, and sometime a member of a sen­tence may be the Nominatiue case to the Verbe.

* Q. What meane you by a Casuall word?

A. Such a word as may be declined with Cases.

Q. How can an Infinitiue Moode, or a whole sentence be the Nominatiue case to the Verb? Can any word be a Nomi­natiue case to the Verbe, but onely a Noune Substantiue?

A. Yes: a Noune Substantiue, or whatsoeuer is put in the place of a Noune Substantiue; as these are.

Q. How will you decline these, when they are put in place of a Noune Substantiue?

A. Like Substantiues of the Neuter Gender vndeclined: as, Hoc nihil inuartabile: so, Hoc diluculò surgere inuaria­bile.

* Q. May not a Relatiue bee the Nominatiue case to the Verbe?

A. Yes: but that is onely by reason of the Substantiue or Antecedent vnderstood with it, or in whose place it is put.

* Q. And may not an Adjectiue also bee the Nominatiue case to the Verbe?

A. Yes: but then it must bee an Adjectiue in the Neuter Gender, put alone without a Substantiue, standing for a Sub­stantiue.

* Q. What Number and Person must the Verbe be, when a whole sentence, or a peece of a sentence, are the Nomina­tiue case to the Verbe?

A. If the Verbe bee referred, or haue respect but to one thing, it shall be the Singular Number, and third Person: but if to moe, it shall be the Plurall Number and third Person.

* Q. What if it be a Noune of Multitude of the Singular Number? I meane, a Noune signifying moe then one?

A. It may sometimes haue a Verbe of the Plurall Num­ber.

* Q. How many things may bee the Nominatiue case to the Verbe?

A. Sixe: first, a Casuall worde, which is either a Substan­tiue, or a Relatiue; or an Adjectiue standing for a Substan­tiue. Secondly, a vvhole reason or sentence. Thirdly, a [Page] clause or peece of a sentence. Fourthly, an Infinitiue Mood. Fiftly, an Aduerbe with a Genitiue case. Lastly, any one word or moe put for themselues, or whatsoeuer is put in steade of the Nominatiue case.

Q. What if your Verbe be of the Infinitiue Moode, must it haue a Nominatiue case before it?

A. No: It must haue an Accusatiue case before it, in stead of a Nominatiue.

The second Concord.

Q. WHat is your second Concord betweene?

A. Betweene the Substantiue and the Adjectiue.

Q. When you haue an Adjectiue, how will you finde out his Substantiue?

A. As I found out the Nominatiue case:] that is, by put­ting the English who or what to the English of the Adjectiue; and the word or wordes answering to the question, shall be the Substantiue to it.

Q. In how many things doth the Adjectiue agree with his Substantiue?

A. In three: in Case, Gender and Number.

Q. Why doth your booke say, The Adjectiue whether it be a Noune, Pronoune or Participle?

A. Because all Pronounes are Adjectiues by nature; ex­cept Ego, tu, sui: and so are all Participles; and therefore agree with Substantiues as vvell as the Noune Adjectiues doe.

Q. Is your Adjectiue alwaies the same Case, Gender and Number, that the Substantiue is?

A. No, not alwaies: fos there are three such exceptions as in the first Concord, though my book name but one.

Q. What is the first exception?

A. Many Substantiues Singular, hauing a Coniunction Copulatiue comming between them, will haue an Adjectiue Plurall; which Adjectiue shall agree with the Substantiue of the most worthie Gender.

[Page 31]Q. Which is the Substantiue of the most worthie Gen­der?

A. The Substantiue of the Masculin Gender, is more wor­the then the Substantiue of the Feminine; and the Substan­tiue of the Feminine, more worthy then of the Neuter.

Q. Is this alwaies true?

A. Yea: except in things without life; I meane such as are not apt to haue life: as we shall see after.

Q. What Gender is most worthy in these?

A. The Neuter: as, Arcus et calami sunt bona.

* Q. Which is the second exception?

A. When an Adjectiue commeth betweene two Substan­tiues of diuers Genders, it may Nunquam ae­què ac modò p [...] ­pertas mihi vi­sum est onus et miserum & graue. Terent. paupertas visu [...] onus. indifferently accord with ei­ther of them.

* Q. Which is the third exception?

A. That the Substantiue is not alwaies a Casuall word: but a whole sentence, a peece of a sentence, an Infinitiue Mood, an Aduerbe with a Genitiue case, or any word put for it selfe, may be the Substantiue to the Adjectiue.

* Q. Why so?

A. Because all these things which may be the Nominatiue case to the Verbe, may be likewise the Substantiue to the Ad­jectiue, and the Antecedent to the Relatiue.

* Q. What Case, Gender & Number, shall the Adjectiue be, when any of these are his Substantiue?

A. Such as that which standeth for his Substantiue, is ac­counted to be.

* Q. What if the Adjectiue haue respect but to one thing alone (as to one sentence, or one peece of a sentence) vvhat Gender and number must it be?

A. The Neuter Gender and Singular Number.

* Q. What if it haue respect to moe things then one?

A. It must be the Neuter Gender and Plurall Number.

The third Concord.

Q. WHat is the third Concord?

A. Betweene the Antecedent and the Relatiue.

Q. When you haue a Relatiue, what must you do to find out his Antecedent?

A. Put the question who, or what, to the English of the Re­latiue; and the worde that answereth to the question is the Antecedent to it.

Q. What meane you by the Antecedent?

A. The Antecedent is commonly such a word, as goeth in the sentence before the Relatiue, and is rehearsed againe of the Relatiue.

Q. In how many things doth the Relatiue agree with his Antecedent?

A. In three: in Gender, Number and Person.

* Q. Is one Substantiue or Casuall word the Antecedent alwaies to the Relatiue?

A. No: all the same things may be the Antecedent to the Relatiue, which may be the Nominatiue case to the Verb, or the Substantiue to the Adjectiue.

Q. When any of these, except a Casuall worde, are the Antecedent, what Gender and Number must the Relatiue be?

A. If the Relatiue be referred but to one thing, it must be the Neuter Gender, and Singular Number: but if it be refer­red to two things or moe, it must be the Neuter Gender and Plurall Number.

Q. When the English word that, may be turned into which, what part of speech is it?

A. A Relatiue.

Q. If it cannot bee so turned, vvhat part of speech is it then?

A. A Coniunction; which in Latine is called quòd, or vt, signifying that.

Q. Must it alwaies needs be so made in Latine by quòd, or vt, signifying that?

[Page 32]A. No: we may oft-times elegantly leaue out both quod, and vt, by turning the Nominatiue case into the Accusatiue, and the Verbe into the Infinitiue moode.

Q. If many Antecedents of the Singular Number come together with a Coniunction Copulatiue comming between them; what Number must the Relatiue be?

A. The Plurall.

Q. But with which of the Antecedents must the Relatiue agree in Gender?

A. With the Antecedent of the most worthie Gender.

Q. Which call you the most worthy Gender, in things not apt to haue life?

A. The Neuter.

Q. But what if the Antecedents bee of the Masculine or Feminine Gender, and none of them of the Neuter; may yet the Relatiue be the Neuter?

A. Yes: as, Arcus & calami quae fregisti, quae the Relatiue is the Neuter Gender; though Arcus & calami the Antecedents be the Masculine.

The Case of the Relatiue.

Q. HOw many chiefe rules are there to knowe what Case the Relatiue must be of?

A. Two: When there commeth no Nominatiue case be­tweene the Relatiue and &c. And, when there commeth a Nominatiue case, &c.

Q. When in making or construing Latine, there com­meth no Nominatiue case between the Relatiue & the Verb, what case must your Relatiue be?

A. The Nominatiue case to the Verbe; as it were a Noune Substantiue.

Q. But when there comes a Nominatiue case betweene the Relatiue and the Verbe; what Case must the Relatiue be then?

A. Such Case as the Verbe will haue after him: that is, such Case as any Noune Substantiue should be, being gouer­ned [Page] of the same Verbe.

Q. May not the Relatiue be the Substantiue to the Adje­ctiue, as well as it may be the Nominatiue case to the Verb?

A. Yes.

Q. Are there no other wordes which haue their Cases, as the Relatiue hath?

A. Yes: Nounes Interrogatiues and Indefinites: as, Quis, vter, qualis, quantus, quotus, &c.

Q. Doe Relatiues, Interrogatiues and Indefinites, follow the words whereof they are gouerned, like as Substantiues, and other parts of speech doe?

A. No: these all come before the Verbe; that is, they are set before the Verbe, or other wordes, vvhereof they are gouerned.

* Q. Doth a Substantiue neuer stand before the worde whereof it is gouerned?

A. Yes: when a word is ioyned with it which goeth before by nature; as, a Relatiue, or an Interrogatiue, or Indefinite: As, Quem librum legis; librum goeth before legis whereof it is gouerned, like as quem doth.

Q. Why so?

A. Because of the Relatiue which goeth with it.

Q. But is the Relatiue alwaies gouerned of the Verbe, which he commeth before?

A. It is gouerned of whatsoeuer a Noune Substantiue may be gouerned: as, somtimes of an Infinitiue Mood comming after the Verbe. Sometimes of a Participle. Sometimes of a Gerund. And so of other words, according to my book; and in all things like vnto the Substantiue.

* Q. But how can you know of what word the Relatiue is gouerned?

A. By putting in steade of the Relatiue the same Case of Hic, haec, hoc; and so construing the sentence.

* Q. Why so?

A. Because then the worde which is put for the Relatiue, wil in construing follow the worde which the Relatiue is go­uerned of, as other parts of speech doe.

* Q. Shew how in this sentēce; Quae nunc non est narrandi [Page 33] locus.

A. Put haec in stead of quae, and then it will follow thus in construing: Nunc non est locus narrandi haec: so quae is gouer­ned of narrandi.

Q. But if a Relatiue come betweene two Substantiues of diuerse Genders, with which of them shall it agree?

A. With either of thē indifferently, as we wil; yea, though they be of diuerse Numbers also.

Constructions of Nounes Substantiues.

Q WEe haue done with Construction in the a­greement of words: now wee are to come to construction in gouerning of words. Where beginne your rules for gouerning words?

A. At, When two Substantiues come together, &c.

Q. In what order doe these rules stand in your booke?

A. In the order of the eight parts of speech.

Q. Shew how.

A. First, the Rules for construction of Nounes Substan­tiues. Secondly, of Nounes Adjectiues. Thirdly, of Pro­nounes. Fourthly, of verbes Personals. Fiftly, of Gerunds. Sixtly, of Supi [...]es. Seauenthly, of all such words as signifie Time, Space, betweene Place. Names of places. Eightlie, of verbs Impersonals. Ninthly, of Participles. Tenthly, of Aduerbs. The eleuenth, of Conjunctions. The twelfth, Pre­positions. The thirteenth, Interjections.

Q. In what order are the rules placed for all these?

A. According to the order of the cases. First, rules for the Nominatiue case, if the word doe gouern a Nominatiue case. Secondly, for the Genitiue. Thirdly, for the Datiue. Fourth­ly, for the Accusatiue. Fiftly, for the Ablatiue.

* Q. Why doe you not mention any rules for the Voca­tiue?

A. Because the Vocatiue is gouerned of no other part of speech, except an Interjection. And also it may easilie be [Page] knowen; because whensoeuer wee call or speake to any Per­son or thing, we doe it in the Vocatiue case.

* Q. How then will you finde out the rule for any word in a sentence to know why it is put in the Genitiue, Datiue, or a­ny other case?

A. First, I must construe the sentence.

* Q. What meane you by construe?

A. To cōstrue, is to place euery word in a sentence, accor­ding to the naturall order of speech; and to giue euery word his proper signification in English.

* Q. Why must you construe thus first?

A. Because euery case is commonly gouerned of the prin­cipall word which goeth next before it, in this right and na­turall order of construing.

Q. How will you then seek out the rule for the case, when you haue construed?

A. First, I must consider what case my word is, and of what word it is gouerned. Secondly, what part of speech the word is, whereof it is gouerned, and of what signification. Thirdly, I must turne to the rules for such a case, after such a part of speech.

* Q. Shew me how: for example, if it be a Genitiue case after a Substantiue, how doe you finde it?

A. I must turne to the rules of the Genitiue case after the Substantiue: and marking the signification of the word, I shall finde the rule in one of those.

* Q. Shew me this by an example in this little sentence, Virtutis comes inuidia. What must you doe here first?

First I construe it, thus; Inuidia enuy [est is] comes a com­panion virtutis of vertue.

* Q. What case is Comes here, and why?

A. Comes is the Nominatiue case, gouerned of the Verbe est, going next before it in construing, by the first rule of the Nominatiue case after the Verbe; that is, Sum, forem, fio.

* Q. What case is virtutis, and why?

A. The Genitiue case, gouerned of the Substantiue Comes, going next before it in construing, by the first rule of the Genitiue case, after the Substantiue; When two Sub­stantiues, [Page 34] &c.

* Q. Seeing you must construe right before you can tell your rule;For this Rule see it more at large in the Grammar schoole. what order must you obserue in construing of a sentence?

A. First I must read distinctly to a full point, marking all the points and proper names if there be any, with the mea­ning of the matter as much as I can.

* Q. How can you know which are proper names?

A. They are all such wordes as are written with great let­ters; except the first word of euery sentence, vvich is euer written with a great letter.

* Q. What word then must you take first?

A. A Vocatiue case if there be one, or whatsoeuer is in steed of it; and the wordes which hang on it to make it plaine.

* Q. What next?

A. I must seeke out the principall Verbe, and his Nomina­tiue case; and take first the Nominatiue case, or whatsoeuer is in steede of it; and that which hangeth of it, seruing to make it plaine.

* Q. What next?

A. The principall Verbe, and whatsoeuer words depend on it, seruing to make it plaine; as, an Infinitiue Mood, or an Aduerbe.

* Q. What then?

A. Such case as the Verbe properly gouernes: which is commonly an Accusatiue case.

* Q. What must you take next?

A. All the Cases in order; first a genitiue, secondly a Da­tiue, lastly the Ablatiue.

* Q. Giue me the summe of this Rule briefly.

A. First,Euery Schol­lar should be able to re [...]eat this Rule. I must reade my sentence plainely to a full point, marking all the points and proper names. Second­ly, I must take first a Vocatiue case, if there be one, or what­soeuer is in stead of it, and that which depends of it. Third­ly, I must seeke out the principall Verbe, and his Nomina­tiue case; and take first the Nominatiue case, and that vvhich hangeth on it. Then the Verbe with the Infinitiue Moode, or Aduerbe. Next the Accusatiue case, or such case [Page] as the Verbe properly gouerns. Lastly, all the other cases in order: as, first the Genitiue, secondly the Datiue, after the Ablatiue.

* Q. What if there be not all these kindes of words in a sentence?

* A. Then I must take so many of them as are in the sen­tence, and in this order.

Q. Is this order euer to be kept?

A. More short­ly: It is oft al­tered by In­terrogatiues, Relatiues, Partitiues, certaine Ad­uerbs & Con­iunctions. See Goclenius his Analysis. p. 9. It is often altered by words of exciting or stirring vp: as, by Interjections, Aduerbs of wishing▪ calling, shew­ing, denying, exhorting, &c. Secondly, by some Conjun­ctions. Thirdly, by Interrogatiues, Indefinites, Partitiues, Relatiues: as, by Quis or qui, vter, qualis, quantus, quotus, &c. Lastly, by such words as haue in them the force of rela­tion or dependence.

Q. What words are those?

A. Such as haue some other vvords depending vpon them in the later part of the sentence; or are referred to something going before. As, Cum, deinde, deinceps, quemad­modum, sic, sicut, sicuti; dum, donec, primum, quando, quia, quoniam, li [...]èt, post quam, quam, quanquam, et si, quamuis, and the like.

* Q. Why is the order changed by these?

A. Because these commonly goe before in a sentence, be­ginning the sentence.

* Q But are there not some speciall things to be obserued in construing?

Speciall things to be obserued in construing.A. Yes, these: first to mark well the principall Verbe, be­cause it pointeth out the right Nominatiue case, and vsually directs all the sentence. Secondly, that commonly the No­minatiue case be set before the Verbe; the Accusatiue after the Verbe; the Infinitiue Moode after another Moode; the Substantiue and Adjectiue be construed together, except the Adjectiue doe gouerne some other word, or haue some word ioyned vnto it, to which it passeth the signification; that the Preposition be ioyned with his case.

[Page 35]Q. Well; to returne againe to the Rules in order: What cases doe Substantiues gouerne?

A. A Genitiue commonly; some an Ablatiue.

Q. How many rules are there of these?

A. [...]iue.

Q. Name the beginnings of each rule in order.

A. When two Substantiues come together betokening, &c. 2. When the English of the word Res, is put with an Adjectiue, &c. 3. An Adjectiue in the Neuter Gender. 4. Words of any qualitie or propertie to the prayse, &c. 5. Opus and vsus, when they be Latine for need.

Q. When two Substantiues come together betokening diuerse things, what case shall the later be?

A. The Genitiue.

Q. Giue an example.

A. Facundia Ciceronis.

Q. Which is your Genitiue case, and why?

A. Ciceronis is my Genitiue case, gouerned of facundia; because it is the later of two Substantiues.

Q. Is there no exception from this rule?

A. [...]he first of the two Sub­stantiues is o [...]t vn [...]er­stood by a fi­gure called Ecli [...]sis: as, Nō videmus manti­cae quod in te [...]go est, for id m [...]n­ti [...]ae, as in the Latine rules. Yes: if the Substantiues belong both to one thing.

Q. What if they belong both to one thing?

A. Then they shal be put both in one case.

Q. When you haue the English of the word R [...]s, that is, thing, put with the Adjectiue, what may you doe then?

A. Put away the word Res; and put the Adjectiue in the Neuter Gender, like a Substantiue.

Q. If an Adjectiue in the Neuter Gender, bee put alone without a Substantiue; what doth it stand for?

A. For a Substantiue; and so is said to be put Substantiue­ly, or for a Substantiue.

Q. What case will it haue when it is so put.

A. A Genitiue, as if it were a Substantiue.

Q. What case must Nounes be put in, that signifie the praise or dispraise of any thing, and come after a Noune Substantiue, or a Verbe Substantiue: as, after Sum, forem, or fio, &c?

[Page] Verbals in [...]o were wont to haue the same cases with the verbs which they come of, as to say, Nihil in ea re captio est, for nihil in ea re ceperis. Quid tibi nos ta­ctio est, for quid nos tangis. Lamb. on Plautus. A. In the Ablatiue, or in the Genitiue.

Q. Puero opus est cibum. Plaut. Lectionis opus est. Fab. Opus and vsus, when they signifie neede, what case must they haue?

A. An Ablatiue.

Constructions of Adiectiues.

The Genitiue Case after the Adjectiue.

Q. HOw many generall rules are there belonging to that Chapter of the Genitiue after the Ad­jectiue?

A. Fiue: Adjectiues that signifie desire, Nounes Parti­tiues, &c.

Q. What case will Adjectiues haue which signifie desire, knowledge, remembrance, ignorance or forgetting, and the like?

A. A Genitiue.

Q. Nounes Partitiues with Interrogatiues, and certaine Nounes of Number, as these set downe in the booke, and the like; what case doe they require?

A. A Genitiue.

Q. When you haue a question asked, as by any of these Interrogatiues, in what case must you answere?

A. In the same case wherein the Question is asked.

Q. And in what tense of a Verbe must you answere?

A. In the same tense.

Q. How many exceptions haue you from this rule?

A. Three: First, if a question be asked by Cuius, cuia, cu­ium: Secondly, if it be asked by such a word, as may gouern diuerse cases: Thirdly, if I must answere by any of these Pro­noune Possessiues; Meus, tuus, suus, noster, voster.

Q. Nounes of the Comparatiue and Superlatiue degree, being put as Nounes Partitiues (that is, hauing after them the [Page 36] English of or among) what case doe they require?

A. A Genitiue.

Q. Nounes of the Comparatiue degree, with this signe than or by after them, what case will they haue?

A. Quam nemo omnium elegan­tius explicauit à Cicerone, for Ci­cer [...]ne, or quàm Cicero. An Ablatiue.

The Datiue case after the Adjectiue.

Q. These art set downe more shortly for the more speedy examining; as beeing most plaine of themselues. WHat Adjectiues gouerne a Datiue Case?

A. Adjectiues that betoken profit or disprofit; likenesse, vnlikenesse; pleasure, submitting, or belonging to any thing.

Q. What other Adjectiues?

A. Of the Passiue signification in bilis; and Nounes Par­ticipials in dus.

The Accusatiue Case after the Adjectiues.

Q. WHat Adiectiues gouerne an Accusatiue case?

A. Such as betoken the length, breadth or thick­nesse of any thing, will haue an Accusatiue Case of such Nounes as signifie the measure of the length, breadth or thicknesse.

Q. Doe they euer gouerne an Accusatiue case?

A. No: sometimes an Ablatiue; and sometimes a Ge­nitiue.

The Ablatiue Case after the Adiectiue.

Q. WHat Adjectiues gouerne an Ablatiue Case?

A. Adjectiues signifying fulnesse, emptinesse, plenty or wanting.

[Page]Q. Doe these alwaies gouerne an Hispania in omni [...]rugum genere foecunda. I [...]st. Foecundū in fraudes homi­num genus. Sil. Ablatiue?

A. No: sometime a Genitiue.

Q. What other Adjectiues gouerne an Ablatiue case?

A. Quid dignus siem. Pla [...]. Dignus, indignus, Praeditus, captus, contentus, and such like.

Q. What may the Adjectiues, dignus, indignus, and con­tentus, haue in stead of their Ablatiue case?

A. An Infinitiue Moode.

Constructions of Pronounes.

Q. WHat Cases doe Pronounes gouern?

A. None at all.

Q. What then doth that rule of the Pronounes (These Genitiue cases of the Primitiues) teach?

A. It teacheth when to vse Mei, tui, sui, nostri, and ve­stri, the Genitiue cases of the Pronoune Primitiues, signi­fying of mee, of thee, &c. and when to vse Meus, tuus, suus, noster and vester, the Pronoune Possessiues, signifying mine, thine, &c.

Q. When must Mei, tui, sui, the Genitiue cases of the Pri­mitiues, be vsed?

A. When suffering or the passion is signified.

Q. When is that?

A. When a Person is meant to suffer somthing, or to haue something done vnto it, but not to doe any thing: as, Amor the loue mei of me; not meaning the loue which I haue, but the loue wherewith others loue me, or which others haue of me.

Q. When must meus, tuus, suus, be vsed?

A. When doing or Quisnam à me pepulit tam gra­ [...]iter fores? à me pro mea [...]. possession is signified.

Q. When is that?

A. When a person is meant to do or possesse something: as, ars tua, thy Art or skill; that is, that Art which thou hast.

Q. Where are Nostrum and vestrum vsed?

A. After Distributiues, Partitiues, Comparatiues, and Su­perlatiues.

Construction of the Verbe; and first with the Nominatiue case.

Q WHat Verbes haue a Nominatiue case after them?

A. Sum, forem, fio, existo, and certaine Verbs Passiues of calling: as, Dicor, v [...]cor, salutor, appellor, habeor, existimor, videor, and such like.

Q. Will these euer haue a Nominatiue case after them?

A. No: but when they haue a Nominatiue case before them.

Q. Why so?

A. Because they haue such Case after them, as they haue before them.

Q. What if they haue an Accusatiue case before them, as Infinitiue Moodes haue commonly?

A. Then they must haue an Accusatiue case after them; Quod si ciui Romano licet esse Gaditanum h. e. ciuem esse Gadi­tanum: or Ga­ditanum for Gaditano, by Antiptosis; so in many others.and so hauing a Datiue before them, they haue a Datiue af­ter them.

Q. What others Verbes haue such Cases after them, as they haue before them?

A. Verbes of Gesture.

Q. Which call you Verbes of Gesture?

A. Verbes of bodily mouing, going, resting, or doing.

Q. What is your generall rule, when the word going be­fore the Verbe, and the word comming after the Verbe, be­long both to one thing?

A. That they bee put both in one Case; By this rule, And generally when the word that goeth, &c.

The Genitiue case after the Verbe.

Q. WHat Verbes require a Genitiue case after them?

A. The Verbe Sum, vvhen it betokeneth possession, ow­ing, [Page] or otherwise appertaining to a thing as a token, proper­tie, dutie or guise.

Q. Is there no exception?

A. Yes: Meus, tuus, suus noster, vester, must be the Nomi­natiue case, agreeing with the Substantiue going before, be­cause they be Adjectiues.

Q. What other Verbes require a Genitiue case?

A. Verbes that be [...]oken to esteeme or regard.

Q. What Genitiue case?

A. A Genitiue case signifying the valewe.

Q. What other Verbes besides require a Genitiue case?

A. So all the Verbes taken in the same signification of accusing or condem­ning &c as, Terdo, appello, pos [...]ulo, arcesso, insimulo, desero, arguo, incuso, ca­stigo, increpo, vrgeo, plecto, al­ligo, obligo, astringo, teneor, cito, i [...]dico, con­uinco, redarguo, noto, insamo, prehendo, deprehendo, purgo, commonefacio, interrogo, contemno, anquiro, doceo; as, docco de iniurijs. Verbes of accusing, condemning, warning, purging, quitting or assoiling.

Q. What Genitiue case will they haue?

A. A Genitiue case of the crime, or of the cause, or of the thing that one is accused, condemned or warned of.

Q. May they haue no Case else?

A. Yes: an Ablatiue case; and that most commonly with­out a Preposition.

Q. What other Verbes yet require a Genitiue case?

A Satago de vi. Aul. Gel. Satago, misereor, Indoleo: miseresco.

Q. What Case doe Reminiscor, obliuiscor, recordor and me­mini require?

A. A Genitiue; and sometime an Accusatiue.

The Datiue case after the Verbe.

Q. WHat Verbes require a Datiue case?

A. All sorts of Verbes which are put acquisi­tiuely?

Q. What is that, to be put acquisitiuely?

A. To be put after the manner of getting something to them.

Q. What tokens haue such Verbes after them?

[Page 38]A. These tokens, to or fro.

Q. What Verbes doe especially belong to the rule which haue thus a Datiue case?

A. Sundry of these Verbes haue some­times other cases; as, Nun­ [...]io ad te. Plaut. Credere duarum rerum, and om­nium rerum cre­dere. Plaut. Ignosco, cond [...]no te. Verbes which betoken, First, to profit or disprofit. Se­condly, to compare. Thirdly, to giue or to restore. Fourth­ly, to promise or to pay. Fiftly, to command or shew. Sixtly, to trust. Seauenthly, to obey or to be against. Eightthly, to threaten or to bee angry with. Ninthly, Sum vvith his com­pounds except possum, vvhen they haue to or for after them. Tenthly, Verbes compounded with Satis, benè and male. Eleuenthly, Verbes compounded vvith these Prepositions, Prae, ad, con, sub, ante, post, ob, in, and inter; except praeco, prae­uinco, praecedo, praecurro, praeuertor, which will haue an Accu­satiue case.

Q. What Case will Sum haue, when it is put for habeo to haue?

A. A Datiue.

Q. When Sum hath after him a Nominatiue case, and a Datiue; what Case may the Nominatiue be turned into?

A. Into the Datiue: so that Sum may in (such manner of speaking) haue a double Datiue case.

Q. Can onely Sum haue a double Datiue case?

A. Not onely Sum, but also many other Verbes may haue a double Datiue case, in such manner of speaking.

Q. Whereof?

A. One Datiue case of the Person, another of the thing.

The Accusatiue case after the Verbe.

Q. WHat Verbes require an Accusatiue case?

A. Verbes Transitiues.

* Q. What Verbes are those?

A. All Actiues, Commons, and Deponents, whose action or doing passeth into some other thing to expresse it by,Transiti [...]a, quo­rum actio transit in rem aliam. and haue no perfect sense in themselues.

Q. Whereof may they haue an Accusatiue case?

[Page]A. Of the doer, or sufferer.

Q. May not Verbes Neuters haue an Accusatiue case?

A. Yes: of their owne signification.

Q. Are there not some Verbes which will haue two Accu­satiue cases?

A. Yes: Verbes of Interr [...]go, posco, postulo, flagito, exigo. asking, teaching and Celo. arraying.

Q. Whereof?

A. One of the Accus. cases may be turn'd into the Abla. with a Prepo­sition or with­out, as in the Latin rule. One Accusatiue case of the sufferer, another of the thing.

The Ablatiue case after the Verbe.

Q. WHat Verbes will haue an Ablatiue case?

A. All Verbes require an Ablatiue case of the in­strument, put with this signe with before it; or of the cause, or of the manner of doing.

Q. What meane you by that?

A. All Verbes will haue an Ablatiue case of the word that signifieth the instrument wherwith any thing is done, hauing this signe with put before it; or of the worde which signifi­eth the cause why any thing is done; or of the manner of do­ing of it.

Q. What case must the vvorde which signifieth the price which any thing cost, be put into, after Verbes?

A. Into the Vili, paulo, &c. are oft put without Sub­stantiues, and the Substan. pretio or the like vnder­stood: so multo, pauco, caro, im­menso. Ablatiue.

Q. Must it be alwaies in the Ablatiue?

A. Yes: Some Sub­stantiues of the price are also put in the Genitiue case gouerned of the word pretio vnderstood, or the like word: as centussis, decussis. except in these Genitiues, when they are put a­lone without Substantiues: as Tanti, quanti, pluris, minoris, tantiuis, tantidem, quantinis, quantilibet, quanticunque.

* Q. What if these words be put with Substantiues? what Cases must they be?

A. The Ablatiue; according to the Rule.

Q. What other words are vsed after Verbes, of price, in stead of their Casuall words?

A. These Aduerbes, Cariùs more deare, viliùs more cheap, meliùs better, peiùs worse.

[Page 39]Q. What other Verbes require an Ablatiue case pro­perly?

A. Verbes of So Sca [...]eo, d [...] ­ficio, nitor, fran­do, abdico, as, cumulo, orbo, viduo, augeo, fas [...]idio, don [...], interdico, dico, as, opulento, as. plenty, scarsenesse, filling, emptying, loa­ding or vnloading.

Q. What other?

A. Vtor, Fungor, fruor, potior, egeo, careo, &c. haue some­times other cases; some an Accusatiue, some a Genit. fungor, potior, fruor, laetor, gaudeo, dignor, mu­to, munero, communico, afficio, prosequor, impertio, impertior.

Q. What Case will Verbes haue, which signifie So disco, di­mitto, amitto, summoueo, abi­go, amoueo, re­dimo, relego, pro­hibeo pro defen­do, vindico, de­pello, refraeno, retraho reprimo, arceo, reueco, declino. recei­uing, distance or taking away?

A. An Ablatiue case, with one of these Prepositions; A, ab, è, ex, or de.

Q. But may not this Ablatiue case bee turned into a Datiue?

A. Yes; after Verbs of taking away.

Q. What Case vvill Verbes of comparing or exceeding haue?

A. An Ablatiue case.

Q. What Ablatiue case?

A. Of the word that signifieth the measure of exceeding.

Q. If a Noune or a Pronoune Substantiue, bee ioyned with a Participle, either expressed or vnderstood, and haue no other word whereof it may be gouerned; what case shall it be put into?

A. The Ablatiue case absolute.

Q. What meane you by absolute?

A. Without other gouernement.

Q. By what wordes may this Ablatiue case be resolued?

A. By any of these words, Dum, cum, quando, si, quanquam, postquam.

Constructions of Verbes Passiues.

Q. WHat Case will a Verbe Passiue haue after him?

A. An Ablatiue case vvith a Preposition, and sometime a Datiue of the Dooer.

Q. What meane you by a Datiue of the Dooer?

A. Of the Person which is meant to doe any thing.

[Page]Q. What if the sentence be made by the Verbe Actiue, in steed of the Passiue?

A. Then the Datiue or Ablatiue must be turned into the Nominatiue, before the Verbe.


Q. WHat Case will Gerunds and Supines haue?

A. The same Case as the Verbes vvhich they come of.

The Gerund in di.

Q. WHen the English of the Infinitiue Moode Ac­tiue, or of the Participle of the Present tense, commeth after any of these Noune Substantiues, Studium, causa, &c. what may it be fitly made by?

A. By the Gerund in di.

Q. What may the same Gerund in di be vsed after also?

A. After certaine Adiectiues.

The Gerund in do.

Q. WHen you haue the English of the Participle of the Present tense, with this signe So with any of these signes In, with, through for, from, or by. of or with, comming after a Noune Adiectiue; what must it bee made by?

A. The Gerund in do.

Q. What else must be made by the Gerund in do?

A The English of the Participle of the Present tense com­ming after a Substantiue, with this signe in or by, before him.

Q. How is the Gerund in do vsed?

A. Either without a Preposition, or with one of these Pre­positions; a, ab, è, de, ex, cum, in.

The Gerund in dum.

Q. IF you haue an English of the Infinitiue Moode, comming after a reason, & shewing a cause of that reason; what must it be put in?

A. It must be put in the Gerund in dum.

Q. What is the Gerund in dum vsed after?

A. After one of these Prepositions; Ad, ob, propter, inter, ante. Gerunds may be turn'd into Adiectiues Gerundiues. The Gerund in di into the Genit. case. The Gerund in do into the Ablatiue. The Gerund in dum into the Accusatiue.

Q. If you haue this English must or ought, in a sentence, vvhere it seemeth that the Latine should bee made by the Verbe Oportet, signifying It must or It behoueth; what may it be fitly put into?

A. The Gerund in dum, with this Verbe est, beeing set Im­personally, ioyned vnto it.

Q. What Case then must that word be, which seemeth in the English to be the Nominatiue case?

A. The Datiue.


Q. WHat signification hath the first Supine?

A. The Actiue, signifying to doe.

Q. What is it put after?

A. Verbes and Participles, which betoken mouing to a place.

Q. What signification hath the later Supine?

A. The signification of a Verbe Passiue.

Q. What doth it follow?

A. Nounes Adjectiues.

Q. What may this Supine be turned into?

A. Into the Infinitiue Moode Passiue; that wee may say indifferently, Facile factu, or facile fieri, easie to be done.

The Time.

Q. WHat Case must Nounes bee, which betoken part of time?

A. Most commonly the Ablatiue; sometime the Accu­satiue.

* How can you know this?

A. By asking the question when.

Q. But what Case must Nounes be, which betoken con­tinuall terme of time, without any ceasing or intermission?

A. Commonly the Accusatiue; sometime the Ablatiue.

Q. How can you know when Nounes signifie continuall terme of time?

A. By asking this question, How long.

Space of Place.

Q. WHat Cases are Nounes put in, which signifie space, betweene place and place?

A. Commonly in the Accusatiue; sometime in the Ab­latiue.

A Place.

Q. NOunes Appellatiues, or names of great places (that is, names of Countries) if they follow a Verbe signifying in a place, to a place, from a place, or by a place, whether must they be put with a Preposition, or with­out?

A. With a Preposition.

Q. In a place or at a place, if the place be a proper name of a lesse place, as of a Citie or Towne, of the first or second Declension, and Singular Number; what Case must it bee put in?

A. In the Genitiue.

[Page 41]Q. What common Nounes, or names of places, signify­ing in or at a place, are in the same manner put in the Geni­tiue case?

A. These foure: Humi, domi, militiae, belli.

* Q. What Adjectiues may be ioyned with these Geni­tiues, Humi, domi, &c.

A. Onely meae, tuae, suae, nostrae, vestrae, alienae.

* Q. If any other Adjectiues be ioyned vnto them, what case must they be put in?

A. In the Ablatiue.

Q. But if the place, in or at which any thing is done, be a proper name, of the third Declension, or Plurall Number; in what case must it be put?

A. In the Datiue, or Ablatiue case.

Q. Is there no common Noune so put?

A. Yes; Rus: as, we say, Ruri or rure, at or in the coun­trey.

Q. If your word be a proper name of some lesse place, as of a citie or towne, & signifie to a place; in what case must it be put?

A. In the Accusatiue case, without a Preposition.

Q. What other Nounes are so put?

A. Domus, and rus.

Q. From a place or by a place, in lesser places; in what case must it be?

A. In the Ablatiue case, without a Preposition.

Q. Are no other common Nounes so put?

A. Yes: onely Domus and rus; all other Nounes may haue Prepositions.


Q. WHether haue Verbes Impersonals any Nomi­natiue before them, as Personals haue?

A. No.

Q. What is their signe to knowe them by?

A. It, or there.

[Page]Q. But what if they haue neither of these signes before them?

A. Then the word that seemeth in the English to bee the Nominatiue case, shall be such case as the Verbe Imperso­nall will haue after him.

Q. What cases will verbs Impersonals haue after them?

A. Some a Genitiue; some a Datiue; some an Accusatiue; some both an Accusatiue and a Genitiue.

Q. How many Impersonals require a Genitiue case?

Interest. q. in re est. Refert q. refert. Hoc domi­nus ac pater in­terest; Interest is heere a Per­son [...]ll, signify­ing doth d [...]ter: as if, Dominus interest hoc, ac pater interest hoc, by Zeugma.A. Three: Interest, refert, and est, being put for interest.

Q. Will these haue a Genitiue case of all words?

A. Yea: except mea, tua, sua, nostra, vestra, and cuia, the Ablatiue cases of the Pronounes Possessiues: for these must be put in the Ablatiue case.

Q. What Impersonals require a Datiue case?

So certum est, cōsert, competit, conducit, displi­cet, dolet, euenit, nocet, obest, prae­stat, stat, restat, benefit, malefit, satisfi [...], sup▪ rest. A. Libet, licet▪ patet, liquet, constat placet, expedit, prodest, sufficit, vacat, accidit, conuenit, contingit; with other like, set downe in the Latine Syntax.

Q. How many will haue an Accusatiue case onely?

A. Foure: Delectat, Decet vo [...]is is a Grecisme. because we say, [...]. decet, tuuat, oport [...]t.

Q. How many will haue an Accusatiue case with a Geni­tiue?

A. Six: Poenitet, taedet, miseret, miserescit, piget and pudet.

Q. Verbs Impersonals of the Passiue voice, This is be­sides the ca [...]e of the Doer. So a [...]l Verbs Pas­ [...]iu [...]s haue the same c [...]se of the thing with the Actiu [...]s. if they be formed of Verbs Neuters, what case doe they gouerne?

A. Such case as the Verbs Neuters whereof they come.

Q. What cases of the person haue all Verbs Impersonals of the Passiue voice, properly?

A. The same cases as other Verbs Passiues haue: that is, an Ablatiue with a Preposition, or sometimes a Datiue of the Dooer.

Q. Is this case alwaies set downe with it?

A. No: many times it is vnderstood.

Q. When a deed is signified to be done of many, the verb beeing a verb Neuter; what may be done elegantly?

A. The Verbe Neuter, may be fitly changed into the Im­personall in tur.

Q. May not Impersonals be turned into Personals?

[Page 42]A. Yes, sundry of them may sometimes; as, Vterum do­let, arbustaiuuant.

Construction of Participles.

Q. WHat cases doe Participles gouerne?

A. Such case as the Verbs that they come of.

Q. What may Participles be changed into?

A. Into Nounes.

Q. How many wayes?

A. Foure.

Q. Which is the first?

A. When the voice of a Participle is construed with an other case then the Verbe that it commeth of.

Q. Which is the second way?

A. When the Participle is compounded with a Prepositi­on, vvith vvhich the Verbe that it commeth of cannot bee compounded.

Q. Which is the third?

A. When it formeth all the degrees of Comparison.

Q. Which is the fourth?

A. When it hath no respect, nor expresse difference of time.

Q. When Participles are thus changed into Nounes, what are they called?

A. Nounes Participials.

Q. What cases doe Participles gouerne, when they are so changed into Nounes?

A. A Genitiue.

Q. Doe all Nounes Participials require a Genitiue case?

A. Exosus, perosus, pertaesus, are excepted, and speciallie to be marked.

Q. Why?

A. Because though they seeme to bee Participles of the Passiue voice: yet they commonly haue the Actiue signifi­cation, and doe gouerne an Accusatiue case.

* Q. Haue they not alwaies so?

[Page] These Parti­ciples, Natus, prognatus, satus, cretus, creatus, ortus, editus, haue properly an Ablatiue case.A. No: Exosus, and perosus doe sometimes signifie Pas­siuely, and haue then a Datiue case: as, Exosus Deo, odious to God, or hated of God.

Construction of Aduerbs.

Q. WHat Cases doe Aduerbs gouerne?

A. Some a Genitiue, some a Datiue, some an Ac­cusatiue.

Q. What Aduerbs require a Genitiue?

A. Instar also may either be vsed as an Ad­uerbe with a Genitiue case, or else as a Noune vnde­clined, with ad expressed or vnderstood: as, instar mon­tis, ad instar ca­strorum. Aduerbs of Quantitie, time and place.

Q. What Aduerbs gouerne a Datiue case?

A. Certain Aduerbs deriued of Nounes Adjectiues, which require a Datiue case: as, Venit ad­vorsum mihi. Obuiam deriued of obuius, simi­liter of similis.

Q. Haue you not some Datiue cases of Nounes Substan­tiues, which are vsed Aduerbially; that is, made Aduerbs?

A. Yes; Tempori, luci, vesperi.

Q. What Aduerbs require an Accusatiue case?

A. Certaine which come of Clanculum pa­tres. Plaut. Clā ­culum à clam, gouerning an Ablat. & som­time an Ac­cusatiue: as, clam vi [...]ū. Plau. Prepositions seruing to the Accusatiue Case: as, propius of prope.

Q. How many waies may Prepositions be changed into Aduerbs?

A. Two: First, when they are sette alone without their case: Secondly, when they do forme all the degrees of com­parison.

Construction of Conjunctions.

Q. WHat cases doe Conjunctions gouerne?

A. They gouerne non [...]; but couple like cases.

Q. What meane you by that?

A. They ioyne together words in the same case.

Q. What Conjunctions doe couple like cases?

A. All Copulatiues, Disjunctiues, and these foure, quam, [Page 43] nisi, praeterquam, an.

Q. May they not somtimes couple diuerse cases?

A. Yes: in regard of a diuerse construction.

Q. Do Coniunctions Copulatiues & Disjunctiues cou­ple nothing else but cases?

A. Yes: they commonly ioyne together like Moodes & Tenses.

Q. May they not ioyne together diuerse Tenses?

A. Yes: sometimes.

Construction of Prepositions.

Q. IS the Preposition in, alwaies sette downe vvith hi [...] case?

A. No: it is somtimes vnderstood; and yet the word put in the Ablatiue case, as well as if the Preposition were set downe.

Q. Are not sundry other Prepositions oft vnderstood al­so, as well as in?

A. Yes.

Q. What cases doe Verbs require, which are compoun­ded with Prepositions?

A. They sometimes require the case of the Prepositions which they are compounded with; that is,Abdicauit se praetura. Cic. Appulit terram. the same case which their Preposition requires.

Constructions of Interjections.

Q. WHat Cases doe Interjections require?

A. Some a Nominatiue, some a Datiue, some an Accusatiue, some a Vocatiue.

Q. What Interjections require a Nominatiue case?

A. O.

Q. What a Datiue?

A. He [...], and Ve [...].

[Page]Q. What an Hem astuti­as. Ter. Hem tibi voluptatem. Accusatiue?

A. Heu & proh may somtime haue a Nomi­natiue case. Heu and proh.

Q. What a Vocatiue?

A. Proh.

* Q. Are not Interjections sometimes put absolutely, without case?

A. Yes: often.

THE POSING OF THE Rules, called Propria quae Maribus.

Generall rules of proper Names, and first of proper Masculines.

Q. HOW can you knowe what Gender a Noune is of?

A. I haue certaine rules at Propria quae maribus, which teach mee the Genders of Nounes.

Q. How can you know by these rules?

A. First, I must looke according to the order of my Acci­dence, whether it be a Substantiue or an Adjectiue: If it be a Substantiue, I haue my rule betweene Propria quae maribus, and Adiectiua vnam, &c.

Q. If it be a Substantiue, what must you looke for next?

A. Whether it be a Proper name, or a Common called an Appellatiue.

Q. If it be a proper name, what must you looke for then?

A. Whether it belong to the male kinde or female; that is, to the he, or she.

Q. If it be a proper name belonging to the male kinde, what Gender is it?

A. The Masculine.

Q. Where is your rule?

A. Propria quae maribus tribuuntur, &c.

Q What is the meaning of that Rule?

A. All proper names belonging to the male kinde, [or vvhich were wont to goe vnder the names of hees] are [Page] the Masculine Gender.

Q. How many kindes of proper Masculines haue you be­longing to that Rule?

A. Fiue: Names of heathenish Gods, men, Styx, Cocytus, Lethe, are Greek words, and names of stāding ponds or fennes, not riuers, and so are of the feminine Gender. Albul [...] pota Deo; aqua is vnderstood by Synthesis. So tepidum [...]ader; flum [...]n is vnderstood: or else it is the Neuter, be [...]ause it is a barbarous word vndeclined. flouds, mo­neths, winds.

Proper Feminines.

Q. IF it be a proper name, belonging to the female kind, or shees; what Gender must it be?

A. The Feminine.

Q. Where is your Rule?

A. Propria foemineum.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. All proper names belonging to the female kinde, [or going vnder the names of shees] are the feminine Gender.

Q. How many kindes of proper Feminines haue you be­longing to that rule?

A. Fiue: Names of Goddesses, women, cities, countries, Ilands.

Q. Are all names of Cities the Feminine Gender?

A. Yea, all; except two of the Masculine: as, Abydos is a Greeke word, and thought to bee the name of a streight or narrow sea: or i [...] a towne it is to be referred to Mascula Sulmo, Agragas. Sulmo & Agragas. Three of the Neuter: as, Argos, Tybur, Praeneste: And one both Masculine and Neuter; as, Anxur.

Q. Where is your rule for those which are excepted?

A. Excipienda tamen quaedam.

Generall rules of Appellatiues.

Q BVt if your Noune be none of these proper names, but some Appellatiue or common name: hovv must you finde the Rule?

A. It is then either the name of a tree, or of some bird, beast, [Page 45] or fish, or some other more common name; all which haue their speciall rules.

Q. Where is the rule for names of trees?

A. Appellatiua arborum erunt, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. All names of trees are of the feminine Gender: except spinus and olcaster of the Masculine; and Siler, suber, thus, ro­bur and acer of the Neuter Gender.


Q. WHere is the Rule for birds, beasts and fishes?

A. Sunt etiam v [...]luerum.

Q. What is the meaning?

A. The names of birds, beasts, and fishes, are the Epicene Gender.

Q. What is the common exception from all Nounes?

A. Omne quod exit in um.

Q. What is the meaning of that?

A. That all Nounes Substantiues proper or common, en­ding in um, are the So Londinum, Ebora [...]um, Brū ­dusium are Neuters. Neuter Gender: so is euery Substantiue vndeclined.

* Q. Are all Substantiues ending in um, the Neut. Gender?

A. All, but names of men & Glycerium, Philotium Pha­nium, being proper names of wome [...] and made Latine words, are the femin Gen­der though they com [...] of Greek Appel­latiues which are the N [...]ur. women: according to that rule of Despauterias; Vm neutrū pones, hominū si propria tolles.

Q. But how shall the Gender be knowne in Epicens, and so in all other Appellatiues?

A. By the Genitiue case.

Q. By what rules?

A. Dicta Epicoena quibus, &c. And, Nam genus hîc semper dignoscitur ex Genitiuo.

Q. How by the Genitiue case?

A. By considering vvhether it increase or no; and if it in­crease, whether it increase sharp or flat; or as we may tearme it more easily, long, or short.

Q. When is a Noune said to increase?

A. When it hath moe syllables in the Genitiue case, then [Page] in the Nominatiue: as, virtus virtutis.

Q. How many special rules haue you to know the Gender; by the increasing, or not increasing of the Genitiue case?

A. Three.

Q. Which be they?

A. The first is, Nomen non crescens Genitiuo.

Q. The Second: Nomen crescentis penultima si Genitiui syllaba acuta sonet, &c.

The Third: Nomen crescentis penultima si Genitiui sit gra­uis, &c.

The first speciall Rule.

Q. WHat is the meaning of your first special Rule? Nomen non crescens?

A. Euery Noune Substantiue common, not Aulā [...], aurāi, and the like do not in­crease proper­ly, but by changing and resoluing the dipthong a into āi after the old maner increasing in the Genitiue case This not in­creasing is meant of the Genit. singu­lar only, not Plurall. singular, is the feminine Gender; ex­cept those excepted in the rules following.

Q. How many sorts haue you excepted?

A. Some of the Masculine Gender, some of the Neuter, some of the Doubtfull, some of the Common of two.

Q. How many Rules haue you of Masculines excepted, not increasing?

A. Four: 1. Mascula nomina in a, &c. 2. Mascula Graecorū, &c. 3. Masculaitem verres. 4. Mascula in er seu venter.

Q. What meane you by Mascula nomina in a dicuntur, &c?

A. Many names of offices of men ending in a, are the Mas­culine Gender; as, Hic Scriba, ae, a scribe or a scriuener.

Q. What is the meaning of the second Rule? Mascula Graecorum, &c?

A. All Nounes of the Some few are excepted: as Charta, Marga­rita, Cataracta, Catapulta, which are of the feminine. Stockwood. first declension in Greeke beeing made Latine Nounes, and ending in as, es, or a, are the Mas­culine Gender: as, H [...]c Saetrapas, ae, hic Athletes, ae, or athleta, ae, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of the third Rule? Masculaite [...] verres?

[Page 46]A. These words are also the Masculine Gender; verres, na­talis, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of Mascula in er, seu venter, &c?

A. Nounes Substantiues ending in er, os, or us, no [...] increa­sing in the Genitiue case, are the Masculine Gender: as, hic venter ventris, hic logos gi, hic annus i.

Q. Is there no exception from that rule?

A. Yes: Foemine [...] Generis sunt mater, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. That these words ending in er, os & Anus for an old woman is sometimes found to make anuis in the Genitiue case singular, as if it were of the third declen­sion, after the old manner. us, are the femi­nine Gender, excepted from Masculain er, &c. as Haec ma­ter matris, &c. so ficus of the fourth declension put for a fig. And words ending in us, comming of Greek words in os: as, papyrus, &c. with sundry other of the same kind, us cōming of feminines in Greek.

Q. Where is your rule of Neuters not increasing?

A. Neutrum nomen in e, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. Euery Noune ending in e, hauing is in the Genitiue case; and euery Noune ending in on, or in um, Iusiurandum doth not in­crease proper­ly, that is in the last word and last sylla­ble; but onely in the first wherewith it is cōpounded not increa­sing; also hippomanes, cacoëthes, virus, pelagus, are the Neuter Gender: Vulgus is the Masculine and Neuter.

Q. Where is your rule for Doubtfuls not increasing?

A. Incerti generis sunt talpa, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. These words are of the doubtfull Gender; ta [...]pa, dama, &c. so ficus for a disease, making fici in the Genitiue ease, &c.

Q. Where is your rule for Commons not increasing?

A. Compositum à verbo dans a, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. Euery compound Noune ending in a, being deriued of a Verbe, and not increasing, is the Common of two Gen­ders: as, Graiugena, beeing deriued of the Verbe Gigno, &c. so are senex, auriga, and the rest of that rule.

The second speciall Rule.

Q. WHat is your second speciall Rule?

A. Nomen crescentis penultima si Genitiui syllaba acuta sonet, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. Euery Noune Substantiue common, increasing sharp or long in the Genitiue case, is the feminine Gender; except those excepted in the rules following.

Q. What meane you by that, To increase sharp or long?

A. To haue the last syllable, but one, of the Genitiue case increasing, to be lifted vp in pronouncing, or to be pronoū ­ced long:So dos dotis: coscotis: res rei: spes spei. Dote sero in Plaut. seemeth to be false printed; fero for fèra or ferè. as, Virtus virtütis.

Q. How many chiefe exceptions haue you from this Rule?

A. Foure: some wordes of the Masculine, some of the Neuter, some of the Doubtfull, some of the Common, are excepted?

Q. How many rules haue you of acute, or long Mascu­lines excepted?

A. Three: 1. Mascula dicuntur monosyllaba, &c. 2. Mas­cula sunt etiam polysyllaba in n. 3. Mascula, in er, or, & os.

Q. What is the meaning of the first rule, Mascula dicun­tur, &c?

A. These Nounes of one syllable increasing acute or long, are the Masculine Gender▪ as, Sal, sol, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of Mascula sunt etiam polysylla­ba in n, &c?

A. All Nounes ending in n, beeing of moe syllables then one, and increasing long in the Genitiue case, are the Mascu­line Gender: as, Hic Acarnan, ânis. So all such wordes en­ding in o, signifying a body, or bodily thing: as, Leo, curcu­lio. So also senio, ternio, sermo, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of the third rule, Mascula in er, or, & os, &c?

A. All Nounes ending in er, or, and os, increasing sharp or long, are the Masculine Gender; as, crater, conditor, heros, ois [Page 47] So all other words in that rule, and many ending in de [...], [...]s,So of AsSextans. of AsQuadrans. of AsTriens. of AsQuincunx vu­cia. As.Septunx vu­cia. As.Deunx vu­cia. As.Dextans. vu­cia. As. bidens, with words compounded of As, as [...]i [...]: as Dodrans, se­mis, semissis, &c.

Q. Haue you no exception from these two last rules?

A. Yes: there are foure word [...] except, which are of the fe­minine Gender (as, Syren, mulier, sor [...]r, vx [...]r) by Sunt mulie­bre genus syren, &c.

Q. Where is your rule for Neuters increasing sharpe or long?

A. Su [...]t Neutralia & haec monosyllaba, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. These words of one syllable increasing sharpe or long, are the Neuter Gender: as, Mel, fel. Also all wordes of moe syllables ending in al, or in ar, increasing long: as Capital, âlis, laquear, &c. Onely Hal [...]c is of the Neuter and Feminine Gender: as, Haec vel hoc halec.

Q. Where is your rule for long Doubtfuls?

A. Sunt dubia haec, python, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of it?

A. These words increasing sharp are the Doubtfull Gen­der: as, Python, scrobs, &c. So stirps for a stump of a tree, and calx for a heele. Also dies a day; except that dies is onely the Masculine Gender, in the Plurall Number.

Q. Where is the rule of sharpe or long Commons?

A. Sunt commune pa [...]ens, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. These words increasing sharp, are the Common of two Genders: as, Parens, author, &c. And so the compounds of frons, as bifrons; with cust [...]s and the rest of the rule.

The third and last speciall Rule.

Q. GIue me your third speciall Rule.

A. Nomen crescentis penultima si Genitiui sit gra­uis, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that Rule?

A. Euery Noune Substantiue Common, increasing flatte [Page] or short in the Genitiue case, is the Masculine Gender.

Q. What meane you by that, To increase flat?

A. To haue the last syllable, but one, pressed downe flat in the pronouncing: as, S [...]nguis▪ [...]anguinis.

Q. How many exceptions haue you from this Rule▪

A. Foure: some Feminines are excepted, some Neuters, some Doubtfuls, some Commons.

Q. How many rules haue you of Feminines encreasing short?

Two: Foeminei Generis sit hyperdissyllabon in do; And Grae­cula in as, vel in is, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of the first rule, Foeminei generis si [...] hyperdis [...]yllab [...]n, &c?

A. Euery Noune of moe syllables then two, ending in Cupido for a greedy de­sire is some­times vsed in the Masculine Gender; as, Au [...]i coe [...]us cu­pido: so when there is allusi­on to Cupid. [...], and making dinis in the Genitiue case (as, Dulcedo, dulce­dinis) and in go, making ginis (as, compago, compaginis) if they increase short, are the Feminine Gender: so are virgo, gran­do, and the rest of that rule.

Q. What is the meaning of the second rule, Graecula in as, v [...]l in is, &c.

A. That Latine words ending in as, or in is, if they be made of Greek words, & increasing short in the Genitiue case, are the feminine Gender: as, Lampas lampadis, iaspis iaspidis. So pecus, udis, forfex, cis, supellex ilis, Mulier may better be re­ferred to this rule, because it commonly increaseth sho [...]t; & may be ioyned to the end of the rule thus; Et malier, nam­que hac melius [...] locatur and the rest of that rule.

Q. Where is your rule of short Neuters?

A. Est neutral [...] genus, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. All Nounes ending in a, signifying a thing without life, if they increase short are the Neuter Gender.] So all such Nounes ending in n, as omen, in ar, as iubar, in ur, as iecur, in us, as onus, in put, as occiput: Except pecten and furfur; which are the Masculine. And so all the rest of that rule are the Neu­ter Gender: as Cadauer, verber, Iter makes iti [...]ri [...], in the Genitiue of an old word itiner Spinther a tache or clasp, may be referred hi­ther, being of the Neuter. iter, &c. and pecus, ma­king pecoris.

Q. Giue the rule of short Doubtfuls.

A. Sunt dubij generis cardo, margo, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of it?

A. These words increasing short are the Doubtfull Gen­der: [Page 48] as, cardo, margo, &c.

Q. Giue the rule of short Commons.

A. Communis generis sunt ista, &c.

Q. What is the meaning?

A. These words are the Common of two, increasing short [...] as, Homo and nemo are some­times found in the feminine Gender: as, Scioneminem peperisse hic. Quia homo nata erat. Cicero. Nec vox hominem sonat: ô Deacertè. Virg. vigil vigilis, &c.

The generall Rule of Adjectiues.

Q. WHere begins your rule for Adjectiues?

A. Adiectiua vnam, &c.

Q. How many rules are there of them?

A. Fiue. 1. For all Adjectiues of one termination like foe­lix. 2. for all of two terminations like Tristis. 3. for all of three terminations like bonus. 4. for Adiectiues declined but with two Articles like Substantiues. 5. for Adiectiues of proper declining.

Q. Giue your rule for all Adiectiues of one termination like Foelix.

A. Adiectiua vnam duntaxat, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that Rule?

A. In Adiectiues hauing but onely one word or termina­tion in the Nominatiue case, that one word is of all three Genders: as, Nom. Hic, haec & hoc foelix.

Q. Giue your rule for all Adiectiues of two termination [...] like Tristis.

A. Sub gemina si voce, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that Rule?

A. If Adiectiues haue two wordes or terminations in the Nominatiue case, as omnis and omne; the first word as omnis, is the Common of two Genders, or the Masculine & the Fe­minine, the second as omne is the Neuter: as, hic & haec omnis & hoc omne.

Q. What is your rule for all Adiectiues of three termina­tions, like bonus, a, um?

[Page]A. At si tres variant voces, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. If Adiectiues haue three words or terminations in the Nominatiue case, as Sacer, sacra, sacrum; the first as Sacer is the Masculine, the second as sacra is the Feminine, the third as sacrum is the Neuter.

Q. Where is your rule for those Adiectiues, which are de­clined like Substantiues, with two Articles onely?

A. At sunt, quae flexu, &c.

Q. Giue me the meaning of that rule.

A. These Adiectiues are almost Substantiues by decli­ning, yet Adiectiues by nature and vse: as, Hic et haec pauper, Gen. huius pauperis: so puber, and the rest.

Q. But may not some of these bee found in the Neuter Gender?

A. Yes: Diues opus, sospes depositum, pauperis tugurij, ubere solo, &c. sometimes; but more seldome.

Q. Giue your rule for those vvhich haue a speciall kinde of declining.

A. Haec proprium quendam, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. These words haue a speciall declining differing some­what from all examples in the Accidence.

Q. Shew me how.

A. Thus: Hic campester, haec campestris, hoc campestre: or hic & haec campestris, & hoc campestre. Gen. huius campestris. In the rest of the cases they are declined like tristis.

Q. What is the meaning of the last rule, Su [...]t quae defici­unt, &c?

A. That there are certain other Adiectiues which are De­fectiues: which shall be spoken of in an other place, with some others.

Q. Where is that?

A. In the Heteroclits.

POSING OF THE Rules of the Heteroclits, called commonly, Quae Genus.

Q. HAVE you not some other Nounes, of an other kinde of declining then these?

A. Yes: we haue sundry, in the rules vvhich wee call Quae Genus.

Q. What are those Nounes tearmed properly?

A. Heteroclits.

Q. What meane you by Heteroclits?

A. Nounes of an other manner of declining; that is, Nounes declined otherwise then the ordinary manner.

Q. How many generall kinds are there of them?

A. Three: Variantia genus, defectiua, redundantia: that is, such as change their Gender or Declining: Secondly, such as want some Case or Number. Thirdly, such as haue ouer­much in declining.

Q. Where are these set downe together?

A. In the two first verses of Quae genus.

Q. Shew me how.

A. First these words, Quae genus aut flexum variant, doe note those that vary. Secondly, these words quaecunque noua­to ritu deficiunt, doe signifie the defectiues. Thirdly, these words, superántue, do signifie those which redound or haue too much.

Heteroclits varying their Gender.

Q. WHere begin your Rules for those which vary their Gender and declining?

A. Haec genus ac partim, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of the rule?

A. These words change their Gender and declining.

Q. How many sorts haue you of these?

A. Sixe; set downe in three generall rules.

Q. Name the sorts.

A. First, some of the Feminine Gender in the Singular Number, and the Neuter in the Plurall. Secondly, Neuters in the Singular Number, Masculines and Neuters in the Plu­rall. Thirdly, Neuters Singular, Masculines onely in the Plu­rall. Fourthly, Neuters Singular, Feminines Plurall. Fiftly, Masculines Singular, Neuters Plurall. Sixtly, Masculines Sin­gular, Masculines and Neuters Plurall.

Q. Where is your rule for Feminines Singular, Neuters Plurall?

A. Hoc Pergamō is a Greeke word, Perga­mum is found in Plautus in the Neuter. Stockw. Pergamus infoelix, &c. Singula foemineis, neutris pluralia gaudent.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. These two words Pergamus and supellex are the Femi­nine Gender in the Singular Number, the Neuter in the Plurall: as, Haec Pergamus, pergami; In the Plurall, Haec pergama, horum pergamorum: so haec supellex: Plur. haec supel­lectilia.

Q. Giue your rules for Neuters Singular, Masculines & Neuters Plurall.

A. Dat prior his numerus, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. These foure words, Rastrum, fraenum, filum, and Ca­pistrum, are of the Neuter Gender in the Singular Number, Masculine and Neuter in the Plurall: as, hoc Rastrum. Plu­ral. hi rastri vel haec rastra, &c.

[Page 50]Q. Where is the rule for Neuters singular, which are Masculines onely in the Plurall?

A. Sed audi: Mascula duntaxit coelos, &c.

Q. Giue the meaning of that rule.

A. Coelum and Argos are the Neuter Gender, in the sin­gular Number, and the Masculine onely in the Plurall: as, Hoc coelum, Plural. hi coeli tantùm: so hoc Argos, Plural. hi Argi.

Q. Where is the rule for Neuters singular, Feminines Plu­rall?

A. Nundinum & hinc Epulum, &c.

Q. What is the meaning?

A. That these three, Nundinum, epulum, balneum, are Neuters in the singular Number, and Feminines onelie in the Plurall.

Q. Are none of these the Neuter Gender, in the Plurall Number?

A. The Poet Iuuenal hath Balnea in the Plurall Number.

Q. Giue mee the rule for Masculines singular, Neuters Plurall.

A. Haec maribus dantur, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that?

A. These eight wordes are Masculines singular, Neuters Plurall: to wit, Maenalus, Dyndimus, Ismarus, Tartarus, Tay­getus, Taenarus, Massicus, Gargarus.

Q. Where is the rule of Masculines singular, Masculines and Neuters Plurall.

A. At numerus genus his dabit, &c.

Q. Giue the meaning.

A. These foure words, Sibilus, iocus, locus, Auernus, are of the Masculine Gender in the Singular Number, Masculine and Neuter in the Plurall.


Q. WHere begin your rules for the Heteroclits, cal­led Defectiues?

[Page]A. Quae sequitur manca, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. All these sorts of Nounes following, are lame [or de­fectiue] in Number, or in Case.

Q. Rehearse the seuerall sorts of Defectiues, as they are sette downe in your Booke, before the rules or in the margents.

A. Aptots, Monoptots, Diptots, Triptots, Nounes wan­ting the Vocatiue case: Propers wanting the Plurall Num­ber: Neuters singular wanting certaine cases in the Plurall: Appellatiues Masculines wanting the Plurall: Feminines wanting the Plurall: Neuters wanting the Plurall: Mascu­lines wanting the Singular, Feminines wanting the Singular, Neuters wanting the Singular.


Q. WHich are those which you call Aptots?

A. Such as haue no seuerall case, but are alike in all cases.

Q. Where is the rule of them?

A. Quae nullum variant casum, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. These words haue no case, & are therefore called Ap­tots: As, Frit, the light corne in the toppe of the eare; Git, the herbe Nigella Romana; Tax, a yerk or sound of a lash, or of a whip, are al­so Aptots. Fas, nil, nihil, instar: so, many ending in u, and in i. In u, as Cornu, genu; In i, as Gummi, frugi: So also Tem­pe, tot, quot; and all numbers, from three to a hundred.

Q. Haue these no number?

A. Yes; Fas, nil, nihil, instar, cornu, genu, gummi, are of the Singular Number vndeclined. Pon [...]o is vsed both in the Singular and Plurall Frugi, both Singular and Plurall vndeclined. Tempe is the Neuter Gender, & Plurall number of the first Declension of the Contracts in Greeke, as Teichea, Teiche; so it makes [...] long in the rule Sic Tempe, tot quot, &c. as Thessala Tem [...]e. Tempe of the Plurall vndeclined. Tot, quot, & all numbers from three to a hundred (as Ambo and duo are found to be of all Genders and Cases vndeclined, as duo in Greeke. Quatuor, quinque, &c.) are the Plurall number vndeclined.

[Page 51]Q. Are none of these declined in either Number?

A. Yes; Cornu and Genu, with others ending in u, are de­clined wholly in the Plurall Number.

Q. How decline you Fas, & the rest of the Singular nūber?

A. Sing. Hoc Fas inuariabile.

Q. How decline you words in u, as Cornu?

A. Hoc cornu inuariabile in Singulari; Plural. Haec cornua, horum cornuum, his cornibus, &c.

Q. Decline Tempe.

A. Singul. and Plural. Tempe inuariabile.

Q. How decline you Tot, & those of the Plu. Number?

A. Plur. Tot inuariabile: or, Hi, hae & haec Tot inuari: so Hi, hae, & haec quatuor inuar. &c. This is the v­suall manner.


Q. WHich call you Monoptots?

A. Such words as are found onely in one ob­lique case.

Q. What meane you by an oblique case?

A. Any besides the Nominatiue and the Vocatiue.

Q. Giue your rule for Monoptots.

A. Est que Monoptoton, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of it?

A. These words Noctu is found of the feminine Gē ­der for nocte. Noctu, natu, iussu, iniussu, astu, promp­tu, permissu, are of the Ablatiue case Singular. Astus is read also in the Plurall Number. Inficias is found onely in the Accusatiue case Plurall.

Q. Decline Noctu.

A. Ablat. Noctu; so the rest.

Q. Decline Inficias.

A. Accus. has inficias.


Q. WHat words doe you call Diptots?

A. Such as haue but two cases.

[Page]Q. Giue the Rule.

A. Sunt Diptota quibus, &c.

Q. Giue the meaning of the Rule.

A. These words haue but onely two cases in the singular number, fors forte, spontis sponte, plus pluris, iugeris iugere, ver­beris verbere, tantundem tantidem, impetis impete, vicem vice. These haue two in the Plurall number, repetundarum repe­tundis, suppetiae suppetias.

Q. Haue none of those words of the Singular number, all the cases of the Plurall number?

A. Yes: these foure, verberis, vicem, plus and iugere.

Q. Giue the rule for them.

A. Verberis, atque vicem, sic plus, &c.


Q. WHat words doe you call Triptots?

A. Such as haue but three cases in the Singular number.

Q. Giue the Rule.

A. Tres quibus inflectis, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. These two words, Terence hath preci in the Datiue. Nihil est preci loci re­lictum. Vis is seldome read in the Datiue. precis and opis, haue but three in the singular number: as, precis, precem, prece; opis, opem, ope: frugis and ditionis want onely the Nominatiue, and Voca­tiue; and vis commonly wanteth the Datiue: but they all haue the Plurall number whole.

Q. Giue your Rule for those vvhich want the Voca­tiue case.

A. Quae referunt, vt qui, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that Rule?

A. All Relatiues, Interrogatiues, Distributiues, Indefinits, and all Pronounes, besides tu, meus, noster and nostras, doe lack the Vocatiue case.

[Page 52]Q. Giue your Rules of Proper Names, wanting the Plu­rall Number.

A. Propria cunctanotes quibus, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that Rule?

A. This shortly: All proper names, names of graine [or corne] weights, hearbs, moist things, metalls, doe naturally and commonly want the Plurall number.

Q. But may not proper names sometimes haue the Plu­rall number?

A. Yes: but not properly, that is, not when they are taken for proper names; but when they are taken for Appellatiues or common Nounes: Or when there are moe of the same name.

Q. Shew me how by example.

A. As, when Catones are taken for wise men, such as Cato was; Decij put for valiant men, such as Decius was; Maecena­tes put for worthy Noble men, such as Maecenas was; then they are in the Plurall number. Or as, sundry called Decius.

Q. Giue the rule for this exception.

A. Est vbi pluralem retinent, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that?

A. These sometimes haue the Plurall Number, somtimes they want it.

Q. Giue your rule of Neuters singular, wanting certaine cases in the Plurall.

A. Hordea. This rule is set for an ex­ception from Propria cuncta­notes. Ordea, farra, forum, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. These Neuters, Hordeum, far, forum, mel, mulsum, de­frutum, thus, haue onely three cases: that is, the No­minatiue, Accusatiue, and Vocatiue, in the Plurall Num­ber.

Q. Decline Hordeum.

A. Sing. Nom. hoc hordeum, Gen. huius hordei. Plur. Nom. haec hordea, Accus. hordea, Voc. hordea.

Q. Giue your rule of Appellatiues Masculines wanting the Plurall Number.

[Page]A. Hesperus & vesper, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of it?

A. These Masculines, Hesperus, vesper, pontus, limus, fimus, penus, sanguis, aether, & nemo (which is of the common of two Genders) doe want the Plurall Number.

* Q. Hath Nemo all the cases in the Singular Number?

A. It is seldome read in the Genitiue, or Vocatiue: ac­cording to that rule of Despauterius; Nemo caret Genito, quinto, numeróque secundo: Nemo wants the Genitiue, and Vocatiue Singular, and the Plurall Number.

Q. Giue your Rule of Feminines, vvanting the Plurall Number.

A. Singula Foeminei generis, &c.

Q. Giue the meaning of that rule.

A. These Feminines do cōmonly want the Plural Num­ber; Pubes, salus, talio, indoles, tussis, pix, humus, lues, suis, fu­ga, quies, cholera, fames, bilis, senecta, iuuentus. But Sob [...]les & labes haue the Nominatiue, Accusatiue and Vocatiue in the Plurall Number: and so haue all Nounes of the fift Declen­sion; except res, species, facies, acies, and dies, which haue all the Plurall Number.

Q. Are there no other Feminines wanting the Plurall Number?

A. Yes: names of vertues and vices doe commonly want the Plurall Number: as, Stultitia, inuidia, sapientia, desidia, and many other words like.

Q. Giue your Rule of Neuters wanting the Plurall.

A. Nec licet his Neutris, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of it?

A. These Neuters want the Plurall Number, Delicium, senium, laethum, coenum, salum, barathrum, virus, vitrum, vis­cum, penum, iustitium, nihilum, ver, lac, gluten, halec, gelu, solium, iubar.

[Page 53]Q. Giue me your Rules of Masculines vvanting the Sin­gular Number?

A. Mascula sunt tautùm, &c.

Q. Giue the meaning of it.

A. These Masculines do want the Singular Number; Ma­nes, maiores, cancelli, liberi, antes, menses, being taken for an issue of blood, lemures, fasti, minores, natales, penates; vvith certaine proper names of places, of the Plurall Number: as, Gabij, Locri and the like.

Q. Giue your rule for Feminines wanting the Singular Number.

A. Haec sunt foeminei generis, &c.

Q. Giue the meaning of it.

A. These Feminine [...] want the Singular Number. Exuviae, phalerae, and so the rest. So plaga signifying nets, vvith valuae, diuitiae, nuptiae, lactes, and names of Cities which are of the Feminine Gender, and Plurall Number: as, Theba, Athenae, and the like.

Q. Giue your Rule for Neuters wanting the Singular.

A. Rarius haec primo, &c.

Q. Giue the meaning of the Rule.

A. These Neuters vvant the Singular Number; Moenia, tesqua, praecordia, lustra, arma, mapalia, bellaria, munia, ca­stra, iusta, sponsalia, r [...]stra, crepundia, cunabula, exta, effata, also the feasts of the heathenish Gods: as, Bacchanalia and the like.

Heteroclits, called Redundantia.

Q. GIue your Rules for those words which redound, or which haue more in declining then Nounes haue commonly.

A. Haec quasi luxuriant, &c.

Q. How many rules haue you of them?

A. Fiue▪ First, of such words as are of diuers terminati­ons, [Page] declining and Genders. Secondly, such as haue two Ac­cusatiue cases. Thirdly, such as haue diuerse terminations, and some of them diuerse declinings in the same sense and Gender. Fourthly, such as are of the fourth and second de­clension. Fiftly, Adiectiues of diuers terminations and decli­ning.

Q. Where is your rule for those which are of diuers Ter­minations, Declining and Gender?

A. Haec quasi luxuriant, &c.

Q. Giue the meaning of that rule.

A. These Substantiues haue diuers Terminations, Decli­clining and Genders: as, hic tonitrus hoc tonitru, hic clypeus hoc [...]lypeum, hic baculus hoc baculum, hic sensus hoc sensum, hic tignus hoc tignum; hoc tapetum ti, hoc tapete tis, and hic tapes êtis; hic punctus hoc punctum, hoc sinapi inuariabile hac sinapis, hic sinus hoc sinum, hae [...]menda hoc mendum, hic viscus hoc vis­cum, hoc cornu inuariabile hoc cornum and hic cornus, hic euen­tus hoc euentum, As Rete & re­tis, perduellus & perduellis, pecus udis, and pecus oris ▪ and pecu, inuariabile: Fa­mes, is and ei, artus, u [...], and artu, inuariab. and artua, [...]um, in the Plural. Problema and problematum, dogma, schema, thema: Schema, atis, and schema, ae [...] so pascha, atis, and pascha, ae; Iuger, and iugerum, i, and Iuger, is, and iugeris, is. So La­bium & l [...]bia, aeuus and aenum, nasus and nasum, collus and collum, vterus and vterum. Hic gut­tur and hoc guttur: Vlysses, is, and Vlysseus, Vlyssei; by Synare [...]is vlyssei, & by contracti­on Vlyssi, of Vlysseus of the third Declension of the contracts in Greek; like Basileus. So are Achilli, Oronti, Achati, when they are vsed in the Genitiue case as they are oft; as is manifest by the Adiectiues agreeing with them in the Genit. and many other like vnto them.

Q. Giue your rule for those vvhich haue two Accusatiue cases.

A. Sed tibi praeterea, &c.

Q. Giue the meaning of that rule.

A. Certaine Greeke wordes, vvhen they are made Latine words, haue two Accusatiue cases; one of the Latine, an o­ther of the Greeke: as, Hic panther êris. Accus. hunc panthe­rem vel panthera; so crater, is, Accus. hunc craterem vel cra­tera; cassis idis, Accus. hanc cassidem vel cassida; aether, aethe­rem vel aethera.

Q. May not other Substantiues bee made of the Greeke Accusatiue case?

[Page 54]A. Yes: as of panthera may bee made hac panthera pan­therae.

Q. Where is your rule for those which haue diuers ter­minations in the Nominatiue case, in the same sense and Gender?

A. Vertitur his rectus, sensus &c.

Q. Giue the meaning of the rule.

A. These words haue diuers Nominatiue cases, & some of them sundry declinings, keeping the same sense and Gender: as, puerus, eri, puer, eri: nubes and nubis. Hic Gibbus bi, and gibber eris, hic cucumis vel cucumer cucumeris, haec stipis stipis, and haec stips is, hic vel haec cinis cineris, and ciner cineris, hic vomis vel vomer vomeris, haec sco­bis vel scobsis, hic vel haec puluis vel puluer eris, hic & haec puber vel pubes eris. Haec pubesis,

Q. VVhat other vvordes haue you belonging to this Rule?

A. Words ending in or, and in os: as, Hic honor and honos ôris; hoc ador and ados adôris: so haec apes and apis is, haec plebs and plebis, is.

Q. Are there not other Nounes also belonging to this Rule?

A. Yes: many comming of Greek wordes: as, hic Delphin nis, and delphinus i, hic elephas tis and elephantus ti, hic congrus vel conger i, hic Meleagrus vel Meleager i, hic Teucrus and Teucer i: so, many other like.

Q. Giue your rule for those that change their Declen­sion.

A. Haec simul & quarti, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?Tumultus, orna­tus, gemitus, se­natus, are found also of the second Declension. So anus, us, and anus, anuis.

A. These Nounes are of the second and fourth Declensi­on: as, laurus, quercus, pinus, ficus, colus, penus, cornus (when it signifieth a Doggetree) lacus and domus.

Q. Decline Laurus.

A. Haec laurus, Gen. lauri vel laurus, &c. so the rest.

[Page]Q. Where is your Rule for Adiectiues of diuers decli­nings and endings?

A. Et quae luxuriant sunt, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. There are certain Adiectiues which haue two manner of endings and declinings; and especially those which come of these words▪ arma, iugum, neruus, somnus, clinus, animus, limus, fraenum, cera, bacillum.

How doe these end?

A. Both in us, and in is: as, inermus, and inermis, comming of arma.

Q. How are these declined?

A. Ending in us, they are declined like bonus; in is, like tristis: as, inermus, a, um; and hic & haec inermis & hoc inerme.

THE POSING OF THE Rules of the Verbes, called As in praesenti.

Q. WHat are the Rules of Verbes for?

A. For the Preterperfect tenses and Su­pines of Verbes.

Q. In what order are those rules of the Verbes placed?

A. First for the common Preterperfect tenses of simple Verbes ending in o. Secondly, for the Preterperfect tenses of compound Verbes. Thirdly, for the Supines of simple Verbes. Fourthly, for the Supines of compound Verbes. Fiftly, For the Preterperfect tenses of Verbes in or. Sixtly, for Verbes hauing two Preterperfect tenses. Seauenthly, for the preterperfect tenses of Verbes Neuter Passiues. Eightth­ly, for Verbes borrowing their Preterperfect tense. Ninthly, for Verbes wanting their Preterperfect tense. Tenthly, for Verbes lacking their Supines.

Q. For the Preterperfect tenses of simple Verbes ending in o, what order is kept?

A. According to the order of the foure Coniugations. First, for Verbes of the first Coniugation like Amo. Second­ly, for Verbes of the second Coniugation like Doceo. Third­ly, for Verbes of the Third Coniugation, like Lego. Fourth­ly, for Verbes of the fourth Coniugation, like Audio.

Of the common Preterperfect tense of simple Verbes of the first Coniugation.

Q. GIue your Rule for all simple Verbes ending in o, of the first Coniugation like Amo.

A. As in praesenti perf [...]ctu [...], &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that Rule?

A. That Verbes of the first Coniugation, hauing as in the Present tense, as, Amo amas, will haue aui in the Preterper­fect tense like amani: as, Nonas, naui; except Lano & so the rest excep­ted may seem to haue been sometimes of the third Cō ­iugation. They make the Preterper. tense very sel­dome in aui, though some­time some of them are found so: as, necaui. Plaut. lauo, lauas, which makes laui, not lauaui; so iuuo iuui, and nexo, seco, neco, mico, plico, frico, domo, tono, sono, crepo, veto, cubo, which make üi: as, nexo as, üi. Also do das, which makes dedi, and sto, stas, steti.

The second Coniugation.

Q. WHere is your Rule for Verbes of the second Coniugation like Doceo?

A. Es in praesenti perfectum, &c.

Q. Giue the meaning of that rule.

A. Verbs of the second Coniugation, hauing es in the Pre­sent tense like doceo, doces, will haue üi in the Preterperfect tense like docui: as, Nigr [...]o nigres nigrui.

Q. Haue you no exceptions from this rule?

A. Yes: my book seemes to make six.

Q. What is the first?

A. Iubeo excipe iussi, &c.

Q. Giue the meaning of it?

A. These Verbs are first excepted; Iubeo which makes iussi, not iubui; sorbeo hauing sorbui and sorpsi, [...]ulceomulsi, luceo luxi, sedeo sedi, video vidi, prandeo pra [...]di, Stridere, feruere, cauere, are somtimes read as if of the third Cō ­iugation. Fri­geo hath also friguit in the Preterperfect tense, and so refriguit. strideo stridi.

Q. What is the second exception?

A. Quatuor his infrà, &c.

[Page 56]Q. Giue the meaning of that rule.

A. That the first syllable of the preterperfect tense is dou­bled in these foure Verbes: Pendeo, making pependi, mord [...] m [...]mordi, spondeo spospondi, tondeo totondi. Memordi and spospondi are out of vse.

Q. What is the third exception?

A. L velr ante geo si stet, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that Rule?

A. If l or r be set before geo, geo must be turned into si, in the Preterperfect tense: as, vrgeo vrsi, mulgeo mulsi and mulxi. These ending in geo, make xi: as, Frigeo frixi, lugeo luxi, au­geo auxi.

Q. What is the fourth exception?

A. Dat fleo fles, fleui, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of it?

A. These Verbes in leo make vi, in the Preterperfect: as, Fleo fleui, Leo leui, and the compounds of Leo: as, deleo dele­ui, so pleo pleui, and neo neui.

Q. What is the fift exception?

A. A maneo mansi, &c.

Q. Giue the meaning.

A. Maneo makes mansi; so torqueo torsi, and haereo haes [...].

Q. What is the last exception?

A. Veo fit vi, &c.

Q. Giue the meaning of it.

A. Verbes ending in Veo make vi: as, ferueo ferui; except niueo and conniueo comming of it, which make both niui & nixi. To which may be ioyned cieo making ciui, & vieo vieui.

The third Coniugation.

Q. WHere begin your rules for Verbs of the thi [...]d Coniugation like Lego?

A. Tertia praeteritum formabit, &c.

Q. Haue these any common ending of the Preterperfect tense, as the Verbs of the first and second Coniugation haue?

A. No: but so many seueral terminations as they haue of their Present tense, so many kindes of Preterperfect tenses [Page] haue they.

Q. What is then the meaning of that rule, Tertia prateri­tum, &c.

A. That Verbs of the third Coniugation forme their Pre­terperfect tense, according to the termination of the Present tense: as in the rules following.

Q. How can you know the right Preterperfect tense and rule by those Rules?

A. I must marke how the Verbe ends, whether in bo, co, do, or any of the rest; according to the order of the letters, and as they stand in my booke: and so shall I finde my rule.

Q. If your Verbe end in bo in the Present tense, how doth it make the Preterperfect tense?

A. By changing bo into bi: as Lambo lambi; except scribo which makes scripsi, nubo nupsi, and cumbo cubüi.

Giue the rule.

A. Bo fit bi, vt Lambo bi, &c.

Q. Tell mee shortly the meaning of euery of those rules in order.

1. What is [...] turned into?

A. Co is turned into ci: as vinco vici; except parco, which makes both Parciui is out of vse; so sciscidi & scin­didi of scindo. peperci and parsi, dico dixi, and duco duxi.

Q. What is do made in the Preterperfect tense?

A. Di: as, mando mandi. But findo makes fidi, fundo fudi, tundo tutudi, pendo pependi, tendo tetendi, pedo pepedi; so cado cecidi, and caedo to beate cecîdi.

Cedo to giue place makes cessi; so all these Verbes, vado, rado, laedo, ludo, diuido, trudo, claudo, plaudo, rodo, make their Preterperfect tense in si, not in di: as, vado vasi, &c.

Q. What is go made in the Preterperfect tense?

A. Go is made xi, as, iu [...]go iunxi: except r be set before go; for then it is turned into si, Tergeo & s [...]geo are found for tergo and sugo. as, spargo sparsi. But these Verbes ending in go make gi: as, lego legi, ago egi, tango tetigi, pungo punxi and pupugi; pango when it signifieth to make a coue­nant, will haue pepegi; but when it signifieth to ioyne it will haue pegi, and when it signifieth to sing it will haue pauxi.

Q. What is ho made?

A. Ho is made xi: as, traho traxi, and veho vexi.

[Page 57]Q. What is Lo made?

A. Lo is made üi: as, colo, colüi: but psallo with p, and sallo without p, doe both make li, not üi: [...] psallo, psalli. Excello excellui. Percello in Te­rence makes perculsit; vnlesse it bee printed false, or percus­sit of percutio. Also vello makes velli and vulsi, fallo fefelli; cell [...], signifying to breake, ceculi, and pello pepuli.

Q. What is mo made?

A. üi: as vomo vomui. But emo makes emi. And como pro­mo, demo, sumo, premo make si: as como compsi, &c.

Q. What is no made in the Preterperfect tense?

A. Vi: as, Sino siui; except temno which makes tempsi, sterno straui, sperno spreui, lino which makes leui & somtimes lini and liui, cerno making crevi: gigno makes genui, Posiui for posui, and occanui for occinui are out of vse. pono po­sui, cano cecini.

Q. What is po made?

A. Psi: as, Scalpo scalpsi; except rumpo which makes rupi, strepo strepui, and crepo crepui.

Q. What is quo turned into?

A. Qui: as, Linquo liqui; except coquo, that makes coxi.

Q. What is ro made?

A. Vi: as, Sero, to plant or to sowe, seui; but in other sig­nifications it makes serüi: verro makes verri and versi, vro ussi, gero gessi, quaero quesiui, tero trini, curro cucurri.

What is so made?

A. Vi: as, Accerso accersiui; so arcesso, incesso, lacesso: but capesso makes capessi and capessiui, facesso facessi, viso visi, and pinso pinsüi.

Q. What is sco made?

A. Vi: as, Pasco paui: but posco makes poposci, disco didici, quinisco quexi.

Q. What is to made?

A. Ti: as, Verto verti: but sisto, signifying to make to stand, will haue stui: so sterto hath stertui, meto messui. Words end­ing in ecto will haue exi: as, Flecto flexi: but pecto makes pe­xui and pexi, and necto nexui and nexi. Mitto makes misi: peto hath petij and petiui.

Q. What is Vo made?

A. Vi: as, Voluo volui: but viuo makes vixi, nexo hath ne­xui, and texo texui. Q. What is cio made?

[Page]A. Ci: as, Faecio feci, i [...]cio ieci: but the old word l [...]cio makes lexi, and specio spexi.

Q. What is d [...]o made?

A. Di: as, F [...]dio f [...]di.

Q. What is gio made?

A. Gi: as, Fugio fugi.

Q. What is pio made?

A. Pi: as, capio cepi: but cupio makes cupi [...], rapio makes rapüi, sapi [...] sapüi and sapiui.

Q. What is rio made?

A. Ri: as, Pario peperi.

Q. What is tio made?

A. Tio is made ssi with a double ss: as, Quatio quassi.

Q. What is üo made?

A. üi: as, statuo statui: but pluo makes pluvi, and plüi: struo makes struxi, and fluo fluxi.

The fourth Conjugation.

Q. WHere is your Rule for words of the fourth Conjugation, like Audio?

A. Quarta dat is ivi, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that Rule?

A. All Verbs of the fourth Coniugation make their Pre­terperfect tenses in ivi: as, scio, scis, sciui. Except venio, which makes veni: so cambio, raucio, farcio, sartio, sepio, sen­tio, fulci [...], haurio; which make si: sauxio makes sauxi, and vincio vinxi; salto hath salüi, and amicio amicüi.

Q. Doe these neuer make their Preterperfect tense in ivi?

A. Yes: sometimes, though more seldome: by the rule Parciù, vtemur, cambiu [...], &c.

Of the Preterperfect tenses of Com­pound Verbes.

Q. WHere is your Rule for the Preterperfect tens [...] of Compound Verbes?

A. Praetoritum dat idem, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. That the Compound Verbe hath the same Preterper­fect tense with his simple Verbe. As, D [...]ceo docüi, edoce [...] edocüi.

Q. Are there no exceptions from this rule?

A. Yes: diuerse.

Q. Which is the first exception?

A. Sed syllaba semper, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that exception?

A. That the first syllable of the Preterperfect tense, which is doubled in some simple Verbes, is not doubled in their compounds: except onely in these three, praecurro, excurro, repungo; and in the Compounds of do, disco, sto, and posco.

Q. Shew how for example.

A. Curro makes cucurri; but the Compounds of it, as oc­curro makes but occurri, not occucurri: so all other com­pounds; except praecurro, which makes praecuc [...]rri: and so excurro, repungo, &c.

Q. Which is your second exception?

A. Of the Compounds of plico, oleo, pungo, do and s [...]o, as they are noted in the margent of my booke, and haue euery one their seuerall rules.

Q. What is your rule for the Compounds of plico?

A. A plico compositum, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. Plico being compounded with sub, or with a Noune, wil haue aui, in the Preterperfect tense: as, Supplico as, supplicaui: so multiplico, compounded of multum and plico, wil haue mul­tiplicaui: but all the rest of the compounds of plico haue both üi and aui: as, applico, applicui, vel applicaui: so complico, replico, explico.

[Page]Q. Giue your rule for the Compounds of [...]l [...]o.

A. Quamuis vult oleo, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. Although the simple Verbe oleo makes olüi in the Pre­terperfect tense, yet all his Compounds make oleui: as, Ex­oleo exol [...]vi; except redoleo and suboleo, which make ol [...]i: as, redoleo, redolüi, &c.

Q. Where is your rule for the compounds of pungo?

A. Composita à pungo, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. All the compounds of pu [...]go make punxi; except re­pungo, which makes repunxi and repupugi.

Q. Giue your rule for the compounds of do.

A. Natum à do quando, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. Thogh ma­ny cōpounds of Do are of the third Cō iugation, yet the simple is now euer of the first. The compounds of do, being of the third Coniu­gation, doe make didi, not d [...]di: as Addo, addis, addidi; so Credo, ex cre­tum et do. credo, edo, dedo, and all the rest of them: except abscondo, which makes abscondi.

Q. What doe the compounds of sto make?

A. Stiti, not steti: by the rule, Natum à sto stas, stiti ha­bebit.

Compounds changing the first Vowell into e, euery where.

Q. WHat other exceptions haue you, wherein the compound Verbs doe differ from the simple?

A. Three generall exceptions.

Q. Which are those?

A. The first, of such Verbs as when they are compoun­ded doe change the first vowell euery where into e. The se­cond, of such as change the first vowell into i euery where. The third, of such as change the first vowell into i euerie where but in the Preterperfect tense.

Q. Giue the rule of those which change the first vowell into e.

[Page 59]A. Verba haec simplicia, &c.

Q. Giue the meaning of that rule.

A. These simple Verbes, if they be compounded, doe change the first Vowell euery where into e: as, Damno bee­ing compounded with con makes condemno, not condamno; so of lact [...], obiecto: and thus in all the rest.

Q. Haue you no speciall obseruation of any of those Verbes of that rule, vvhich so change the first Vowell into e?

A. Yes: of some compounds of pario and pasco.

Q. What is your obseruation of the Compounds of pario?

A. That two of them, that is comperio and reperio, make their Preterperfect tense in ri: as, comperio comperi, and so re­perio reperi: but all the rest of the compounds of pario make üi: as, aperio aperüi, and operio operüi.

Q. Is there nothing else to bee obserued in the Com­pounds of pario?

A. Yes: that (except in the Preterperfect tense) they are declined like Verbes of the fourth Conjugation, although the simple Verbe bee of the third Conjugation: as, aperire, operire, reperire.

Q. What is the obseruation of the compounds of pasco?

A. That onely two of them, compesco and dispesco, doe change the first Vowel into e, and make their Preterperfect tense in üi: as, compesco is, compescui, & dispesco dispescui: but all the rest of the compounds of pasco, doe keepe still the vowell and Preterperfect tense of the simple Verbe: as, epas­co, epascis, epaui, &c.

Compounds changing the first Vowell into i, euery where.

Q. GIue your Rule of those which change the first Vowell into i, euery where.

A. Haec babeo, lateo, &c.

[Page]Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. That these Verbes habeo, lateo, sal [...]o, &c. if they bee compounded, doe change the first vowell into i; as, of ha­beo is made inhibeo, and of rapio, eripio, erip [...]i: and so in the rest.

Q. Haue you no speciall obseruation of the compounds of cano?

A. Yes: that they make their Preterperfect tense in üi; though cano it selfe make cecini: as, concino, concinüi.

Q. Giue the rule.

A. A cano natum praeteritum per üi, &c.

Q. Haue you no other speciall rules which are ioyned to this rule; Hac habeo, lateo, salio, &c?

A. Yes: the compounds of placeo, pango, maneo, scalpo, calco, salto, claudo, quatio, lauo.

Q. What is your rule for the compounds of placeo?

A. A placeo, sic displiceo, &c.

Q. Giue the meaning of that rule.

A. That all the compoundes of placeo, do change the first vowell into i: as, displiceo; except complaceo, and perplaceo, which are like the simple.

Q. Giue your rule for the compounds of pango.

A. Composita à pango retinent a quatuor ista, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of it?

A. That these foure compounds of pango, signifying to ioyne: that is, depango, oppango, circumpango and repango, doe keepe depango depegi, and depanxi: so repango.: all the rest of the compounds of pango are changed into i (as, impingo, impegi) by the rule Haec habeo, lateo, &c.

Q. Giue your rule for the compounds of maneo.

A. A maneo mansi, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of it?

A. That these foure compounds of maneo, praemineo, emi­neo, promineo and immineo, doe change the first vowel into i, and also make minüi in the Preterperfect tense: as, praemineo praeminui; but all the rest of them are in all things declined like maneo: as, permaneo, permansi.

Q. Where is your rule for the compounds of scalpo, cal­co, salto?

[Page 60]A. Composita à scalpo, &c.

Q. What is the meaning?

A. That the compounds of scalpo, calco, salto, doe change a into u; as, for excalpo we say exculpo: so for incalco, inculco, for resalto, resulto.

Q. Giue the rule for the compounds of claudo, quatio lauo.

A. Composita à claudo, &c.

Q. Giue the meaning?

A. The compounds of claudo, quatio, lauo, doe cast away a: as, of claudo we doe not say occlaudo but occludo: so of qua­tio, not perquatio, but percu [...]io: of lauo woe say prolu [...], not prolauo.

Compounds changing the first vowell into i, euery where but in the Preterperfect tense.

Q. WHere is your Rule for compounds changing the first vowell into i, euery where but in the Preterperfect tense?

A. Haec si componas, &c.

Q. Giue the meaning of it.

A. That these Verbs ago, emo, sedeo, rego, frango, capio, iacio, lacio, specio, premo, when they are compounded, doe change the first Vowell euery where into i, Except in the Preterper­fect tense: as, of Frango we say refringo refregi; of capio, in­cipio, incepi, not incipi.

Q. Haue you no exceptions?

A. Yes: I haue exceptions for some of the compounds of ago, rego, facio, lego.

Q. What is the first exception?

A. That perago and satago, are declined like the simple Verbe ago, keeping a still.

Q. Giue the rule.

A. Sed pauca notentur: Namque suum simplex, &c.

Q. What is the second exception?

[Page]A. Vtque ab ago, dego, dat degi, &c.

Q. Giue the meaning.

A. That these two compounds of ago, dego, and cogo, & p [...]rgo and surgo compounds of rego, doe cast away the middle syllable of the Present tense.

Q. Shew me how.

A. As we doe not say deago, but dego: so for coago wee say cogo, pergo for perago; and surgo, for surrego.

Q. What is the exception for the Compoundes of Fa­cio?

A. Nil variat facio, nisi, &c.

Q. Giue the meaning of it.

A. The compounds of Facio, do not change the first Vo­well into i, but in those which are compounded with Prepo­sitions; as, inficio: the rest, as Olfacio of ole­re facio: and calfacio of cale­re facio, or cali­dum facio. olfacio, and calfacio, keepe a still.

Q. What is the exception for the compounds of lego?

A. A lego nata, re, se, &c.

Q. Giue the meaning.

A. That lego beeing compounded with re, se, per, prae, sub, or trans, doth keep e still; as, relego not religo: the rest of the compounds of lego, doe change the first vowel into i: as, in­telligo, not intellego.

Q. How doe the compounds of lego make their Preter­perfect tense?

A. Three of them, intelligo, diligo, negligo, make their Pre­terperfect tense in lexi; all the rest haue legi in the Preter­perfect tense.

Of the Supines of Simple Verbes.

Q. HHovv vvill you knowe the Supine of a sim­ple Verbe?

A. By the ending of the Preterperfect tense.

Q. Why so?

[Page 61]A. Because the Supine is formed of the Preterper. tense.

Q. Giue your Rule.

A. Nunc ex praterito, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that Rule?

A. That we must learne to forme the Supine, of the Pre­terperfect tense.

Q. If the Preterperfect tense ende in bi, how must the Su­pine ende?

A. In tum: as, Bibi bibitum.

Q. Giue the Rule.

A. Bi sibi tum format, &c.

Q. What is ci made?

A. Ci is made ctum; as, vici victum, ici ictum, feci factum, ieci iactum.

Q. What is di made?

A. Sum: by the rule, Di fit sum, &c.

Q. Giue the meaning of that rule.

A. Di, in the Preterperfect tense, is made sum in the Su­pines: as, vidi visum. And some of them doe make it with a double ss: as, pandi passum, sedi sessum, scidi scissum, fidi fissum, fodi fossum, not fosum.

Q. What speciall obseruation haue you in that Rule?

A. Hîc etiam aduertas, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of it?

A. That the first syllable which is doubled in the Preter­perfect tense, is not doubled in the Supines: as, Totondi makes tonsum, not totonsum: so, cecîdi caesum, and cecidi ca­sum, tetendi is made tensum and tentum, tutudi tunsum, pepêdi peditum, dedi datum.

Q. What is gi made?

A. Gi is made tum: as, legi lectum: pegi and pepigi make pa­ctum, fregi fractum, tetigi tactum, egi actum, pupugi punctum, fugi fugitum.

Q. What is li made?

A. Li is made sum: as, salli, signifying to season with salt, makes salsum, pepuli pulsum, ceculi culsum, fefelli falsum, velli vulsum, tuli makes latum.

Q. What are these terminations, mi, ni, pi, qui, made?

[Page]A. Tum: as, emi emptum, veni ventum, cecini cantum; cepi comming of capio makes captum, and coepi ▪ of coepio, coeptum, rupi ruptum, liqui lictum.

Q. What is ri made?

A. Ri is made sum: as, verri versum; except peperi, which makes partum.

Q. What is si made?

A. Si is made sum: as, visi visum; but misi makes missum with a double ss. These which follow make tum: as, fulsi ful­tum, hausi haustum, sarsi sartum, farsi fartum, ussi ustum, gessi gestum, torsi makes both tortum and torsum, indulsi hath in­dultum and indulsum.

Q. What is psi made?

A. Psi is made tum: as, Scripsi scriptum: but campsi makes campsum.

Q. What is ti made?

A. Ti is made tum: as, steti comming of sto, and stiti com­ming of sisto, doe both of them make statum: except verti, which makes versum.

Q. What is vi made?

A. Vi is made tum: as Flavi statum; except paui, vvhich makes pastum: so laui hath lotum lautum and lauatum, pota­ui potum and potatum, caui makes cautum, seui comming of sero makes satum, liui litum, solui solutum, volui volutum, singultiui singultum, veniui to be sold makes venum, sepeliui sepultum.

Q. What is üi made?

A. üi is made itum: as, domui domitum: but if the Preter­perfect üi come of a Verbe ending in üo, it is made utum in the Supines, and not itum: as exüi comming of exuo makes exutum; except rüi of ruo, which makes ruitum, not rutum: Secui makes sectum, necui nectum, fricui frictum, mis­cui mistum, amicui amictum, torrui tostum, docui doctum, te­nui tentum, consului consultum, alui makes altum and alitum, salui saltum, colui cultum, occului occultum, pinsui pistum, rapui raptum, serui sertum, and texui textum.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule, Haec sed üi mutant in sum, &c?

[Page 61]A. These Verbes turne üi into sum: as, censui makes censum, cellui celsum, messui messum: but nexüi makes nexū, and pexüi pexum. Patui makes passum, carui cassum and ca­ritum.

Q. What is xi made?

A. Xi is made ctum: as, vinxi vinctum. But fiue Verbes ending in xi, cast away n: as, Finxi makes fictum, not fin­ctum: so minxi mictum, pinxi pictum strinxi strictum, & rinxi rictum. Also these foure Verbes ending in xi, make xum, not ctum, fl [...]xi flexum, plexi plexum, fixi fixum, fluxi fluxum.

Of the Supines of Compound Verbes.

Q. WHere is your Rule for Supines of Compound Verbes?

A. Compositum vt simplex formatur, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that Rule?

A. That Compound Verbes forme their Supines, as the simple Verbes vvhereof they are compounded: as Docui makes doctum; so edocui edoctum.

Q. Is there no exception?

A. Yes: Quamuis non eadem stet, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of it?

A. That there are some compound Supines, which haue not the same syllable, which the simple haue.

Q. Which are those?

A. The compounds of tunsum make tusum, of ruitum rutum, of saltum sultum, and of satum situm. So captum, fa­ctum, iactum, raptum, cantum, partum, sparsum, carptum, far­tum, doe change a, into e: as of captum inceptum, of factum infectum▪ &c.

Q. Haue you no other obseruations of the Supines of compound Verbes?

A. Yes: of Edo and nosco.

Q. What for Edo?

[Page]A. That the compounds of Edo doe not make estum, as the simple Verbe edo doth: but esum alone: as, exedo makes exesum: onely comedo makes comesum and comestum, by the rule, Verbum Edo compositum, &c.

Q. What is your obseruation for the compoundes of Nosco?

A. A Nosco tantùm duo, &c.

Q. Giue the meaning of it.

A. That onely these two compounds of Nosco, cognosco & agnosco, haue cognitum and agnitum. All the rest of the com­pounds of nosco make notum: as, pernosco pernotum; none of them make noscitum.

Preterperfect tenses of Verbes in or.

Q. WHere is your Rule for Verbes in or?

A. Verba in or admittunt, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. That all Verbes Passiues, whose Actiues haue the Su­pines, do make their Preterperfect tense, of the latter Supine of the Actiue voyce, by changing u into ui, and putting to sum velfui: as of Lectu is made lectus sum vel fui.

Q. Is there no exception from that rule?

A. Yes: At horum nunc est Deponens, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of it?

A. In Verbes Deponents & Commons which forme the Preterper. tense after the ordinary ma­ner as Pas­siues do▪ we must faine la­ter Supines to forme them of. That Deponents & Commons are to be marked; be­cause they haue no later Supine of the Actiue, whereof to be formed: and especially those are to be noted which seeme to differ from the common kinde of declining.

Q. Repeate those which are obserued in your booke.

A. Labor makes lapsus, patior makes passus, and the com­pounds of patior: as, compatior compassus, perpetior perpessus: fateor which makes fassus, and the compounds of it: as, confi­teor confessus, diffiteor diffessus: gradior making gressus, with the compounds of it: as, digredior digressus. So fatiscor fes­sus, metior mensus, vtor vsus, ordior signifying to weaue ma­king orditus, ordior, to begin orsus, nitor nisus vel nixus sum, [Page 63] vlciscor vltus, irascoriratus, reorratus, obliuiscor oblitus, fru [...]r fructus vel fruitus, misereor misertus, tuor and tueor both make tuitus, although they haue both tutum & tuitum in their Su­pines. Loquor makes loquutus, sequor sequutus, experior ex­pertus, paciscor pactus, nanciscor nactus, apiscor aptus, adipiscor adeptus, queror questus, proficiscor profectus, expergiscor exper­rectus, comminiscor commentus, nascor natus, Merior, eris, tuus sum, mori. Orior, oriris vel oreris ortus sum oriri. morior mor­tuus, orior ortus.

Of Verbes hauing a double Preter­perfect tense.

Q. WHere is your Rule for Verbs which haue two Preterperfect tenses?

A. Praeteritum actiuae, &c.

Q. Giue me the meaning of that rule.

A. These Verbes Neuters haue a Preterperfect tense, both of the Actiue and Passiue voyce: as, Coeno coenaui and coena­tus sum, iuro iuraui and iuratus sum; poto potaui and potus, titubo titubaui and titubatus, careo carui and cassus, prandeo prandi and pransus, pateo patui and passus, placeo placui and placitus, suesco sueui and suetus, veneo to be solde venivi and venditus sum, nubo to be maried nupsi and nupta sum, mereor meritus sum and merui, libet makes libuit and libitum est vel fuit, licet makes licuit and licitum est velfuit, taedet taeduit and pertaesum est vel fuit, pudet puduit & puditum est vel fuit, piget piguit and pigitum est vel fuit.

Of the Preterperfect tense of Verbes Neuters Passiues.

Q. HAue you not some Verbs which are called Neu­ter Passiues?

A. Yes.

Q. What Verbes are those?

A. Verbes Neuters hauing for most part the Passiue signi­fication, [Page] and the Preterperfect tense of the Passiue.

Q. What is your rule for them?

A. Neutropassivum sic praeteritum, &c.

Q. Giue the meaning of that rule.

A. These Neuter Passiues haue a Preterperfect tense, as if of the Passiue voyce: as, Ga [...]de [...] gauisus sum, fido fisus sum, audeo ausus sum, fio factus sum, soleo solitus sum, moereo moe­stus sum. Although the Grammarian Phocas count moestus a Noune.

Of Verbes borrowing a Preter­perfect tense.

Q. WHere is your Rule for those which borrowe theire Preterperfect tense?

A. Quaedam praeteritum verba, &c.

Q. Giue me the meaning of that Rule.

A. These Verbs haue no Preterperfect tense of their own, but borrow a Preterperfect tense of others: as, 1. Verbes In­ceptiues ending in sco, beeing put for the Primitiue Verbes, whereof they are deriued, doe borrow their Preterperfect tense of them.

Q What meane you by Inceptiues ending in sco, put for their Primitiues?

A. Verbes which end in sco, signifying to begin to doe a thing, or to waxe more: as, Tepesco, to begin to be warme or to waxe warme, being put for tepeo to be warme, hath tepui in the Preterperfect tense: and so fervesco put for ferveo will haue ferui.

Q. Name the other Verbes which borrow the Preterper­fect tense.

A. Cerno hath vid [...] of video, quatio makes concussi of con­cutio, ferio hath percussi of percutio, meio hath minxi of min­go, si [...]o hath sedi of sedo, tollo hath sustuli of suffero, sum hath fui of fuo, fero tuli of tulo, sisto signifying to stand will haue steti of sto, furo hath insaniui of insanio: so vescor makes [Page 63] pastui sum of pascor, medeor will haue medicatus comming of medicor, liquor liquefactus of liquefio, reminiscor makes recor­datus, of recordor.

Of Verbes wanting their Preter­perfect tenses.

Q. WHere is your Rule for Verbes wanting their Preterperfect tenses?

A. Praeteritum fugiunt vergo, ambigo, &c.

Q. Giue the meaning of that Rule.

A. These Verbes want their Preterperfect tense. First, these sixe; vergo, ambigo, glisco, fatisco, polleo, nideo. Second­ly, such Verbs Inceptiues ending in sco, which are not put for their Primitiues, but for them selues, or which haue no Pri­mitiue Verbes: as, Puerasco I begin my boyes age; which is deriued of Puer, not of any Verbe. Thirdly, such Verbes Passiues, whose Actiues want the Supines, whereof the Pre­terperfect tense should be formed: as, metuor, timeor. Fourth­ly, all Meditatiues besides parturio, which makes parturiui, and esurio esuriui.

Q. What Verbes doe you call Meditatiues?

A. All Verbes signifying a meditation or a desire to doe a thing, or to be about to doe something: as, Scripturio, I am about to write, esurio, I hunger or haue a desire to eate.

Of Verbes wanting their Supines.

Q. GIue your Rule for Verbs wanting their Supines.

A. Haec rarò aut nunquam, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that Rule?

A. All these Verbes doe commonly want their Supines; Lambo, mico, rudo, scabo, parco, dispesco, posco, Of Parco are found parsum and par [...]itum; but out of vse. disco compes­co, quinisco, dego, ango, sugo, lingo, mingo, satago, psallo, volo, nolo, malo, tremo, strideo, strido, flaueo, liueo, auco, paueo, cōniueo, ferueo. So the compounds of nuo: as, renuo: the compounds [Page] of cado, Excello and pracello com­pounds of cel­lo do want the Supines. The com­pounds of lin­guo haue the Supines: as, relictum; thogh it be seldome read in the simple. as, incido: except occido which makes occasum, and recido which makes recasum.

Also these Verbes want their Supines; respuo, linquo, lu [...], metuo, cluo, frigeo, caluo, sterto, timeo, lucco and arceo: but the compounds of arceo do make ercitum. So the cōpounds of gruo want their Supines: as, ingruo.

Finally, all Neuters of the second Coniugation, which haue [...]i in the Preterperfect tense, doe want their Supines: except oleo, doleo, placeo, taceo, pa­reo, careo, [...]oceo, pateo, lateo, valeo, and caleo; which haue their Supines.


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