LVDVS LITERARIVS: OR, THE GRAMMAR SCHOOLE; SHEWING HOW TO PRO­ceede from the first entrance into lear­ning, to the highest perfection required in the GRAMMAR SCHOOLES, with ease, certainty and delight both to Masters and Schollars; onely according to our common Grammar, and ordinary Classicall Authours:

BEGVN TO BE SOVGHT OVT AT THE desire of some worthy fauourers of learning, by searching the experiments of sundry most profitable Schoolemasters and other learned, and confirmed by tryall:

Intended for the helping of the younger sort of Teachers, and of all Schollars, with all other desirous of learning; for the perpetuall benefit of Church and Common-wealth.

It offereth it selfe to all to whom it may doe good, or of whom it may receiue good to bring it towards perfection.

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Theognis.
Nullum munus Reipub. affere maius meliúsue possumus, quam sido­ceamus at (que) erudimus iuuentutem. Cic. 3. de Diuin.
Quaerendi defatigatio turpis est, cum id quod quaeritur sit pulcherri­mum. 2. de Finibus.

LONDON, Printed for THOMAS MAN. 1612.

TO THE HIGH AND MIGHTY PRINCE, Henry, Prince of Wales; and to the most Noble and excellent Duke, Charles, Duke of Yorke; I. B. vnfainedly wisheth all grace and glory, and humbly commendeth the Patronage of his Labours.

SEeing that all of vs of this Nation (most Gratious and Excellent) doe aboue all people, owe vnto the Highest, our liues and Re­ligion, with all our bles­sings; and next vnder him, to his Anoynted, your most royall Father, our drad Soue­raigne; to whom he hath giuen vs, by whose hand he hath so miraculously saued vs, and doth still preserue vs aliue in the midst of our enemies: we are therfore euery one alwaies [Page] bound (in what thing soeuer he shall inable vs thereunto) to testifie our acknowledge­ment. Pardon then the desire of your deuo­ted and most affectionate poore seruant, if he shall endeauour in all humility, to witness his thankefulnesse vnto the Lord of heauen, and to his Annoynted, by seeking to adde somewhat vnto the Honour, and deserts of his royall progenie: euen of you, who are the rich gifts of the heauenly bountie, and the flourishing branches, of that happy sprea­ding Cedar. And what is it, which might still more aduance you in the eyes and hearts of all the people of your most noble Fathers Dominions; then if now from your first yeares, you might beginne to be the blessed instruments of the Almighty, of an euerla­sting benefite to the present and all succee­ding generations? whereby you might knit all hearts more surely vnto the holy God, and his supreame deputy here amongst vs; as also to your selues his Regall issue, and vnto yours for euer. Accept therefore, to this purpose (I beseech you) this weake labour thus begun, of searching out, and inquiring of all the speediest, surest and most easie en­trance and way to all good learning in our [Page] Grammar schooles. To the end, that those rare helpes of knowledge, which the Lord hath graunted to this last Age (some of the principall wherof haue been scarce knowen, or very little practiced, so farre as I can find; and most of the rest haue bin only knowen amongst some few) might by your Princely fauours, be made common vnto all, for the publique good of the present Age, and of all times to come. The Lord God hath giuen vnto your Highnesse and Excellency, to be born, and to liue in the time of most glorious light, and knowledge; in which, if the expe­riments of sundry of the learnedest, & most happily experienced Schoolemasters and o­thers, were gathered into one short sum, all good learning (which is the chiefest glory of a nation) would daily flourish more & more, and be conueyed to all places & times; that not only this age present, but also al posteri­ty should haue iust cause euermore to mag­nifie the God of glory for you: for how must this needes oblige all sorts, if this heauenly gift of learning, might thorough you be at­tained with much more ease, delight, & cer­tainty; and also in shorter time, with lesse charges to Parents, without that extreame [Page] sharpnes vsed ordinarily in schools amongst the poore children? How shall it increase your lasting comfort & honour, if by your Highnesses fauours, the work thus entred in­to, shall soone come to an happy end! For as some very learned and of much experience, haue begun already to help herein; so others of the chiefest gifts and imploiments in this kind, shall not disdaine to lay-to their hands to bring it in time to some perfection. Why should wee the liege subiects of IESVS CHRIST, and of this renowned kingdome, be ouergone herein, by the seruants of Anti­christ? many of whom bend all their wittes and ioine their studies, for the greatest ad­uantage of their learning, euen in the Gram­mar schooles, onely to the aduancement of Babylon, with the ouerthrow of this glori­ous nation, and of all parts of the Church of Christ; to bring vs vnder that yoake againe, or else to vtter confusion. Or why should we omit any time or opportunity, which the Lord offereth hereunto? The hope therfore of your poore seruant is, that your Highness and Excellency will not impute anie pre­sumption to this indeuor, (though thus vn­dertaken by me the vnablest of many thou­sands) [Page] but that you will accept it, according to the desire that hath bin in me, to do good thereby to this Church and Nation. And the rather, for the vndoubted assurance of the exceeding benefit, which must needs come in time, by the best courses once found out and made publick: and for that though such a work haue bin long talked of and wished, yet it is still generally neglected. The expe­rience also which the Lord hath shewed,In the true Watch and Rule of life, made farre more perfect and plaine in this 5. Editiō. in the readinesse of sundrie very learned, in a worke of not much lesse difficulty, to helpe most louingly, with their best aduices, to bring still to better perfection, dooth giue your seruant certain hope of the like cheer­full assistance herein. Howsoeuer; yet it shall remaine for a further testimony of duety to the heauenly Majesty, of thankfulnesse and loyall affection towardes our Liege Soue­raigne, and you his Royall Progenie. That as you are the worthy sons of a Father most renowned of all the Kings of the earth, for singular learning, and for holding vp, and aduauncing by all meanes the glorious light therof; and as you are not inferior to anie of the Princes of the world in your education and first yeeres: so all sorts may thorough [Page] you receiue an increase of the same shining light, and all hearts may be still more firmly bound by your perpetual benefits. To you thrice happy Prince, I offer it most humbly, as the poore Widowes mite, amongst the great gifts presented vnto your Highnesse: And to you right noble Duke, the study of your seruant, if he might but in any one thing further you in that sweet and pleasant way of learning, wherin you are so graciously pro­ceeding. Finally, I trust that it shal euer stand as a true witnesse of an vnfained desire to­wardes the perpetuall flourishing of this Nation, with all the Church of CHRIST. And in this humble desire, I commend your Highnesse and Excellency vnto him who aduaunceth and setteth vp Kings in their throne, and hath sayde that he will ho­nor those who honor him. The whole suc­cesse I commit to that Supreame Grace, who looketh at the heart, and accepts the will: whom you desiring to follow shall reigne with him in that most blessed light eternally.

Your Highnesse & Graces humbly deuoted in all loyall and faithfull obseruance, IO. BRINSL [...].

A COMMENDATORY Preface.

ARts are the only helpes towards humane perfection. Those therfore which are the helps towards the easinesse, maturi­tie, perfection of Arts, deserue best of mankinde. Whence it is, that God would not suffer the first deuisers, so much as of shepheards tents, of musical instruments, of Iron-works, to be vnknown to the world:Tubal-cain. the last wherof euen heathen Antiqui­tie hath in common iudgement continued, without much difference of name, till this daie; although I cannot beleeue that anie of the heathen gods were so ancient. Yea, hence it is, that the holy Ghost chal­lengeth the faculty euen of manuary skill, to his owne gifte; as beeing too good for Nature, and too meritorious of men. That Bezaleel and Aholiab can worke curiously in siluer and golde, for the ma­teriall Tabernacle, is from Gods spirit, and not theirs: How much more is this true, in those scien­ces which are so essentiall to the spirituall house of God? As Arts are to perfection of knowledge; so is Grammar to all Artes. Man differs but in speech and reason (that is, Grammar and Logicke) from [Page] beasts: wherof reason is of Nature; speech (in respect of the present variation) is of humane institution. Neither is it vnsafe to say, that this later is the more necessary of the two: For we both haue, and can vse our reason alone; our speech we cannot, without a guide I subscribe therfore to the iudgement of them, that think God was the first Author of letters (which are the simples of this Art) whether by the hand of Moses; as Clement of Alexandria reports from Eu­polemus: or rather of the ancienter Progeny of Seth in the first wotld; as Iosephus. Hee that gaue man the faculty of speech, gaue him this meanes, to teach his speech: And if he were so carefull to giue man this helpe, while all the world was of one lip (as the Hebrews speak) how much more, after that misera­ble confusion of tongues? wherein euery man was a Grammar to himselfe; & needed a new Grammar, to be vnderstood of others. It is not therfore vnworthy of obseruatiō, that God (knowing languages to be the carryage of knowledge) as in his iudgement he diui­ded the tongues of those presumptuous builders; so contrarily hee sent his spirit in clouen tongues vpon the heads of those master-builders of his Church. What they were suddainly taught of God, we with much leasure and industry learne of men; knowing the tongues so necessarie for all knowledge, that it is well, if but our younger yeeres be spent in this study. How seruiceable therfore is this labor, which is here vndertaken, and how beneficial, to make the way vn­to all learning, both short, and faire! Our Grandfa­thers were so long vnder the ferule, till their beards were growen as long as their pens: this age hath de­scried [Page] a neerer way; yet not without much difficulty, both to the schollars, and teacher: Now, time, expe­rience, and painfulnesse (which are the meanes to bring all things to their height) haue taught this au­thor yet further, how to spare both time and paines this way vnto others; and (that which is most to bee approoued) without any change of the receiued groūds. It is the cōmon enuy of men, by how much richer treasure they haue found, so much more care­fully to cōceale it. How commendable is the ingenu­ity of those spirits, which cannot ingrosse good expe­riments to their priuate aduantage? which had rather doe then haue good: who can be content to cast at once into the common Bank of the world, what the studious obseruation, inquisition, reading, practice of many yeeres haue inriched them withall: That, which this Author hath so freely done; as one that feares not, least knowledge should be made too easie, or too vulgar. The Iesuites haue won much of their reputation, and stollen many hearts with their dili­gence in this kinde. How happie shall it be for the Chnrch and vs, if we excite our selues at least to imi­tate this their forwardness? We may out-strip them, if wee want not to our selues: Behold here, not feete but wings, offered to vs. Neither are these directions of meere speculation, whose promises are common­ly as large, as the performance defectiue; but such as (for the most part) to the knowledge of my selfe, and manie abler Iudges, haue been, and are daily an­swered in his experience, and practice, with more then vsuall successe. What remaines therefore, but that the thankfull acceptation of men, and his effec­tuall [Page] labors should mutually reflect vpon each-other? that he may be in couraged by the one, and they by the other benefited: that, what hath been vnderta­ken and furthered by the graue counsell of many, and wise; and performed by the studious indeuours of one so well deseruing; may be both vsed and per­fected to the common good of all, and to the glorie of him which giueth, and blesseth all.

IOS. HALL. Dr. of Diuin.

THE CONTENTS IN GENERALL, OF the chiefe points aimed at, and hoped to be effected by this WORKE.

  • 1 TO teach schollars how to be able to reade well, and write true Orthography, in a short space.
  • 2 To make them ready, in all points of Accedence and Grammar, to answere any necessary question therein.
  • 3 To say without book all the vsual and necessary rules, to construe the Grammar rules, to giue the meaning, vse, and order of the rules; to shew the examples, and to apply them: which being wel perfomed, will make all other learning easie and pleasant.
  • 4 In the seuerall fourmes and Authours to construe truely, and in propriety of wordes and sense, to parse of themselues, and to giue a right reason of euery word why it must be so, and not otherwise; and to reade the English of the Lectures perfectly out of the Latine.
  • [Page] 5 Out of an English Grammaticall translation of their Authours, to make and to construe any part of the Latine, which they haue learned; to proue that it must be so: and so to reade the Latine out of the English, first in the plaine Grammaticall order; after as the wordes are placed in the Authour, or in other good composition. Also to parse in Latine, looking only vpon the Translation.
  • 6 To take their Lectures of themselues, except in the very lowest fourmes, and first enterers into constru­ction; or to do it with very little helpe, in some more difficult things.
  • 7 To enter surely in making Latine, without danger of making false Latine, or vsing any barbarous phrase.
  • 8 To make true Latine, and pure Tullies phrase, and to proue it to be true and pure. To doe this in ordi­nary morall matters, by that time that they haue bin but two yeares in construction.
  • 9 To make Epistles imitating Tully, short and pithy, in Tullies Latine and familiar.
  • 10 To translate into English, according to propriety both of wordes and sense: and out of the English to reade the Latine againe, to proue it, and giue a reason of euery thing.
  • 11 To take a peece of Tully, or of any other familiar, ea­sie Authour, Grammatically translated, and in pro­priety of wordes, and to turne the same out of the translation into good Latine, and very neere vnto the wordes of the Authour; so as in most you shall hardly discerne, whether it be the Authours Latin, or the schollars.
  • [Page] 12 To correct their faults of themselues, when they are but noted out vnto them, or a question is asked of them.
  • 13 To be able in each fourme (at any time whensoeuer they shallbe apposed of a sudden, in any part of their Authors, which the haue learned) to construe, parse, reade into English, and forth of the translation to construe and to reade into the Latine of their Au­thours; first into the naturall order, then into the order of the Authour, or neere vnto it.
  • 14 In Virgilor Horace to resolue any peece, for all these points of learning, and to doe it in good Latine;
    • In
      • Construing to giue propriety of wordes and sense.
      • Scanning the verses, and giuing a reason there­of.
      • Shewing the difficulties of Grammar.
      • Obseruing the elegancies in tropes and figures.
      • Noting phrases and Epithets.
  • 15 So to reade ouer most of the chiefe Latine Poets, as Virgil, Horace, Persius, &c. by that time that by rea­son of their yeares, they be in any measure thought fit for their discretion, to goe vnto the Vniuersity: yea to goe through the rest of themselues, by ordinary helpes.
  • 16 In the Greeke Testament to construe perfectly, and parse as in the Latine; to reade the Greeke backe a­gaine out of a translation Latine or English: also to construe, parse, and to proue it out of the same. To doe the like in Isocrates, or any familiar pure Greeke Authour; as also in Theognis, Hesiod, or Homer, and to resolue as in Virgil or Horace.
  • [Page] 17 In the Hebrew to construe perfectly, and to resolue as in the Greeke Testament; and to reade the He­brew also out of the translation. Which practice of daily reading somewhat out of the translations into the Originals, must needes make them both very cun­ning in the tongues, and also perfect in the textes of the Originals themselues, if it be obserued constant­ly; like as it is in daily reading Latine out of the translation.
  • 18 To answere most of the difficulties in all Classicall schoole Authours; as, in Terence, Virgil, Horace, Per­sius, &c.
  • 19 To oppose schollarlike in Latine, of any Grammar question necessary, in a good forme of wordes; both what may be obiected against Lillies rules, and how to defend them.
  • 20 To write Theames full of good matter, in pure La­tine, and with iudgement.
  • 21 To enter to make a verse with delight, without any bodging at all; and to furnish with copie of Poeticall phrase, out of Ouid, Virgil, and other the best Poets.
  • 22 So to imitate and expresse Ouid or Virgil, as you shall hardly discerne, vnlesse you know the places, whether the verses be the Authours or the schollars: and to write verses ex tempore of any ordinary Theame.
  • 23 To pronounce naturally and sweetly, without vaine affectation; and to begin to doe it from the lowest fourmes.
  • 24 To make right vse of the matter of their Authours, besides the Latine; euen from the first beginners: as [Page] of Sententiae and Confabulatiunculae Pueriles, Cato, Esops fables, Tullies Epistles, Tullies Offices, Ouids Me­tamorphosis, & so on to the highest. To help to furnish them, with varietie of the best morall matter, and with vnderstanding, wisedome and precepts of ver­tue, as they growe; and withall to imprint the Latine so in their minds thereby, as hardly to be forgotten.
  • 25 To answere concerning the matter contained in their Lectures, in the Latine of their Authors, from the lowest fourmes and so vpward.
  • 26 To construe any ordinary Author ex tempore.
  • 27 To come to that facilitie and ripenesse, as not onely to translate leasurely, & with some meditation, both into English and Latine, as before in the Sect. or Arti­cle, 10. and 11; but more also, to reade any easie Au­thor forth of Latine into English, and out of a tran­slation of the same Grammatically translated, to reade it into Latine againe. As, Corderius, Terence, Tullies Offices, Tullie de natura Deorum, Apthoni­us. To doe this in Authors and places which they are not acquainted with, and almost as fast as they are able to reade the Author alone.
  • 28 To write fayre in Secretary, Romane, Greeke, He­brue; as they grow in knowledge of the tongues.
  • 29 To know all the principall and necessarie Radices, Greeke and Hebrue; and to be able to preceede in all the learned tongues of themselues, thorow ordinarie helps, and much more by the worthy helps & meanes, to be had in the Vniuersities.
  • 30 To be acquainted with the grounds of Religion, and the chiefe Histories of the Bible. To take all the sub­stance of the Sermons, for Doctrines, proofes, vses, [Page] if they be plainely and orderly deliuered: and to set them downe afterwards in a good Latine stile, or to reade them ex tempore into Latine, out of the Eng­lish: To conceiue and answere the seuerall points of the Sermons, and to make a briefe repetition of the whole Sermon without booke.
  • 31 To be set in the high way, and to haue the rules and grounds, how to attaine to the puritie and perfection of the Latine tongue, by their further labour and practice in the Vniuersitie.
  • 32 To grow in our owne English tongue, according to their ages and growthes in other learning: To vtter their minds in the same both in proprietie and puri­tie; and so to be fitted for diuinitie, lawe, or what o­ther calling or faculty soeuer they shall bee after im­ployed in.
  • 33 Finally, thus to proceede togither with the tongues in the vnderstanding and knowledge of the learning, or matter contained in the same. To become alike ex­pert, in all good learning meete for their yeares and studies; that so proceeding still, after they are gone from the Grammar schooles, they may become most exquisite in all kinds of good learning to which they shall be applied.

These things may be effected in good sort, thorough Gods blessing, in the seuerall formes, as the schollars pro­ceede, by so many in each forme as are apt and indu­strious, onely by the directions following, if they be constantly obserued; If the Maisters being of any com­petent sufficiencie, will take meet paines; and if the schollars being set to schoole so soone as they shall be meete, may bee kept to learning ordinarily, hauing [Page] bookes and other necessary helps & encouragements. That so all schollars of any towardlnesse and dili­gence may be made absolute Grammarians, and eue­ry way fit for the Vniuersitie, by fifteen yeares of age; or by that time that they shall bee meete by discretion and gouernment. And all this to bee done with de­light and certaintie, both to maisters and schollars, with strife and contention amongst the schollars themselues; without that vsual terrour and cruelty, which hath beene practiced in many places, and with­out somuch as seueritie amongst good natures.

How greatly all this vvould tend to the furtherance of the publique good, euery one may iudge; which yet it will doe so much the more, as the Lord shal vouchsafe a further supply, to the seuerall meanes and courses that are thus begun, by adioining dayly the helps and experiments of many moe learned men, of whom wee conceiue good hope, that they will bee ready to lend their helping hands, to the perfiting of so good a Worke.

To the louing Reader.

CVrteous Reader, who tenderest the poore Countrey schooles, for which this labour hath beene vndertaken, or didst euer feele or know the wants in many of them, accept my vvilling minde for their good. And take this first impression as not set forth: but chiefely to the end, to haue store of copies, to goe to many learned wel-willers to the Worke, for their help: like as it hath heretofore, to sundry much reuerenced for their learning and wise­dome. Of all whome, I humbly intreat their kinde assistance, for amending that which is amisse; by adding what is vvanting, cutting off whatsoeuer is superfluous, changing what is vnbefitting, and redu­cing euery thing into the right order: That it may speedily come forth more plaine and perfect; and thereby, if not themselues, yet their friends may reape some benefit of their labours. For the liberty and boldnesse vsed in it, consider that it is but a Dia­logue to incite and encourage others; as, I tooke it, farre more profitable and delightsom to reade, then a [Page] bare narration. All who are friendly and vnfained fauourers of good learning, will I hope thinke so of it. It shall wrong no man willingly: farre be that from mee. I will right them againe, so soon as I know it. Be the faults neuer so many, thorough my weak­nesse and want of meete leasure (as they must needs bee the moe, by my absence from the Presse) yet time, I trust will reforme them. In the meane while, let my trauell and the good things weigh against the rest. For the length of it, remember for whome I write, euen the meanest teachers and learners: with whom though I sometime vse repetitions, I can­not bee ouer-plaine; sith they commonly get so lit­tle of short Treatises, be they neuer so learned. Con­sider also that I would hide nothing, which GOD hath vouchsafed mee in my search: that out of all, the most profitable may be selected, and in the meane time the best onely vsed. And for the matter of the Dialogue, take it as that which is desired to be effe­cted in time; and which I hope all shall finde, when once the helpes belonging hereunto, shall bee sup­plied and perfected.

Account this, but as a meere entrance into the worke: which if seuen yeares shall bring to perfecti­on fully to accomplish that which is wished, I shall thinke my paines most happily bestowed, if GOD so farre forth prolong my daies. I seeke not my self: if I may do some little seruice to God and my Coun­trey, I haue enough. I oppose my selfe to none. Shew my ouersight in loue, and I will amend it. I prescribe to none: no, not the meanest; but onely desire to learne of all the learned, to help the vn­learned. [Page] In the worke I take nothing to my selfe, but the wants. What I receiued of others, I receiued to this ende; after full triall made of them to publish them for the common good. This I haue professed from the beginning of my trauell. I would also giue euery one his due particularly, what I haue had of him; and will, if it shall bee thought meete. I haue promised nothing but my labour: that I haue and doe desire to performe to my abilitie and aboue. The vveaker I am, the fitter shall I bee to apply my selfe to the simplest: and the more honour God shall haue, if hee shall giue that blessing vnto it, which I doe humbly begge. If any man shall oppose, and detract from these my labours; forasmuch, as hee shall therein (as I take it) shew himselfe an enemie to the common good of the present Age, and of all po­steritie (the benefite whereof, as God is my witnesse, I haue intended principally in these my endeauours) I can but be sory, and pray for him.

Thine in Christ, I. B.

FOr the manner of proceeding vsed in this worke, it is prescribed in the Preface to the Reader, which is set before our common Grammar: where it, ha­uing shewed the inconuenience of the diuersitie of Grammars and teaching, doth direct thus;

Wherefore it is not amisse, if one seeing by triall an easier and readierway, then the common sort of Teachers doe, would say that he hath proued it, and for the commoditie allowed it; that others not kno­wing the same, might by experience proue the like, and them by proofe reasonable iudge the like: not hereby excluding the better way when it is found; but in the meane season forbidding the worse.

OF GRAMMATICALL Translations.

THere is a way (saith Mr. Askame) touched in the first booke of Ci­cero de Oratore, Mr Askame 1. Booke page 1 which wisely brought into Schooles, truely taught, & constantly vsed would not onely take wholly away that butcherly feare in making La­tines, but would also with ease and pleasure, and in short time as I know by good experience, worke a true choise and placing of words, a right ordering of sentences, an easie vnderstanding of the tongues, a rea­dinesse to speake, a facilitie to write, a true iudgement both of his owne, and other mens doings, what tongue so euer he doth vse.

This way, as he sheweth, is by causing the Schol­lar first to vnderstand the matter which he learneth: secondly, to construe truely: thirdly, to parse exactly: fourthly, to translate into English plainely: fiftly, to translate out of the English into the Latine of the [Page] Author againe: and so after to compare with the Au­thor how neere he came vnto it. Finally, by much translating both wayes, chiefely out of the English into Latine, as hee setteth downe in the beginning of his second booke; and hereby hee saw those strange experiments of the increase of learning, which hee reporteth of Mr. Iohn Whitney, and others. Now, whereas these things are very hard to bee performed in the common schooles; especially for lacke of time to trie and compare euery schollars translation, and euer giuing them new peeces to translate, and those such as are meete for euery forme; by the meanes of these translations of our first schoole Authors, all these things may bee performed in euery Author and forme, most certainely and constantly, and with much ease and delight both to Maister and Schollars; as I trust will be found. The manner hereof I haue set downe in the 8. Chapter, and others following. Therfore since the time that God made these knowne vnto mee (which was about some foure yeares agoe or not much aboue, vpon the occasion of a late wor­thy experiment related vnto mee, confirming the te­stimonie of Mr. Askam) I haue laboured in these translations aboue all other things, First, to finde out the Grammar rule of construing truely and perfect­ly, whereby to guide these translations, and where­vpon they chiefely depend: Secondly, to finde out the parricular vses and benefits of them: Thirdly, to finde out and set downe such directions, as whereby to frame the translations to serue for all the vses most plainely: Fourthly, to translate so many of our first Authors after the same manner, as since that time I [Page] haue had occasion for my schollars in each forme to reade: Fiftly, to haue certaine triall and experience of euery thing, so much as in this time I could; and vpon triall to commend them to Schooles, to help hereby to bring into Schooles that excellent way of learning, which hee so highly commendeth, and whereof I haue very great hope; and so by them a per­petuall benefit to all schooles and good learning: which I vnfainedly wish and pray for. (⸫)

Aduertisement by the Printer.

CVrteous Reader, whereas in the later end of this Booke it is signified in what forwardness the Authors tran­slation of Sententiae Pueriles and Cato, are; take notice also that his booke entituled, The Poasing of the Accedence, is since come to my hands, and likely to come forth at the same time with Cato.

Ludus Literarius: OR The Grammar Schoole.

CHAP. 1.
A Discourse between two Schoolemasters, concerning their function. In the end, determining a confe­rence about the best way of teaching, and the manner of their proceeding in the same.

SPOVDEVS. PHILOPONVS.
Spoud.

GOd saue you, good Sir: I am glad to see you in health.

Phil.

What mine old acquaintance, M. Spoudaeus?

Spoud.

The very same, sir.

Phil.

Now, I am as right glad to see you well: you are heartily welcome to this my poore house.

Spoud.

Sir, I giue you many thanks.

Phil.

But how haue you done these many yeares?

Spoud.

I thank God I haue had good health,The Schoole­masters place ordinarily wea­risome, thanke­lesse. euer since wee liued in the Colledge together: but for my time, I haue spent it in a fruitlesse, wearisom, and an vnthankfull office; in teaching a poore country schoole, as I haue heard, that your [Page 2] selfe haue also beene imployed in the same kinde of life; and am therefore perswaded, that you haue had some experience of my griefe.

Phil.

Experience, say you? yea indeed I haue had so much experience of that whereof you now complaine, that if all o­ther things were according thereunto, I might bee able to teach very many. But I pray you sir, what good occasion hath brought you into these parts? It is a wonder to see you in this countrey. I should hardly haue knowen you (it is so long since we liued together, now aboue twentie yeeres, and also for that you seeme to me so aged) but that I did better remem­ber your voice then your fauour.

Spoud.

Sir, you see the Prouerbe verefied in me; Cura fa­cit canos. They who haue felt the e­uils of labou­ring without fruit in their calling, wil nei­ther spare labor nor cost to help the same. Cares and troubles haue made me aged long before my time. As for my iourney, a very great and necessary oc­casion hath driuen me into these quarters, to come euen vn­to you, to seeke your helpe and direction, in matter where­in (I hope) you may exceedingly pleasure me, without hurt any way, or so much as the least preiudice vnto your selfe.

Phil.

You might thinke mee very vnkinde, and forgetfull of our auncient loue, if I should not be readie to shew you a­nie kindnesse; especially sith you haue taken so long a iour­ney vnto me.If for to gain a little politick experience or to see fashions, many will ad­uēture both by sea and land, into enemies countries, to the hazarding ofttimes both of body and soule; how much more ought we to trauel at home, amongst our friends, to gain lasting comfort in our labours? But I pray what is the matter?

Spoud.

The matter (if you will giue mee leaue) is this. I haue heard that you haue long taken great pains in teaching; and that of late yeares▪ you haue set your selfe wholly to this happy kinde of trauell; to finde out the most plaine, easie, and sure waies of teaching, for the benefit both of your selfe and others: whereby you haue attained much happy know­ledge in this behalfe. Now my long iourney hath bin for this same very purpose, to desire some conference with you, and to intreat your louing fauour and helpe. I should thinke my selfe for eu [...]r bound vnto you, if you would vouchsafe to im­part vnto me some of those experiments, which I haue beene certainely informed, that by your trauels you haue obtained. For, I my selfe haue so long laboured in this moyling and drudging life, without any fruite to speake of, and with so [Page 3] many discouragements and vexations insteede of any true comfort,Many honest and painefull School-masters weary of their places, liue in continuall dis­content, tho­row lacke of knowledge of a good cour [...]e of teaching. that I waxe vtterly wearie of my place, and my life is a continuall burden vnto me. Insomuch as that it causeth me to feare, that God neuer called me to this function, be­cause I see his blessing so little vpon my labors; neyther can I finde any delight therein: whereas, notwithstanding, I heare of some others, and euen of our old acquaintance, whom GOD blesseth greatly in this calling; though such bee verie rare,Some few God much blesseth in this calling though they be very rare. some one or two spoken of almost in a whole countrey.

Phil.

Indeede I haue trauelled in this too vnthankefull a calling (as you doe most iustly complaine) and that in all this time, since we liued together▪ In the greatest part where­of, I haue beene well acquainted with your griefes and vex­ations; which are no other then doe ordinarily waite vp­on this our function: yet this I thankefully acknowledge (according to your former speech, and to giue you likewise some reuiuing) that now of late, since I set my selfe more conscionably and earnestly to seeke out the best waies of teaching, by inquiring, conferring and practicing constant­ly all the most likely courses, which I could heare or de­uise, God hath graunted vnto mee, to finde so great conten­tation and ioy of this same labour in my schoole, that it hath swallowed vp the remembrance of all my former grieuances. For I doe plainely see such a change,More true con­tentment may be [...]ound in this calling rightly follo­wed, then in a­ny recreation whatsoeuer. that now I doe not on­ly labour in my place vsually without griefe, or any wea­rinesse at all, but that I can take ordinarilie more true delight and pleasure in following my children (by obser­uing the earnest strife and emulation which is amongst them, which of them shall doe the best, and in the sen­sible increase of their learning and towardnesse) then a­nie one can take in following hawkes and hounds, or in a­ny other the pleasantest recreation,The fruit of this trauel is euer the swee­test in the re­membrance of it after. as I verely perswade my selfe. And the rather because after my labour ended, my chiefest delight is in the remembrance thereof; and in the consideration of the certaine good, that I knowe shall come thereby, both vnto Church and Common-wealth: [Page 4] and also that my labour and seruice is acceptable to the Lord, though all men should be vnthankfull. So that now I am ne­uer so well, as when I am most diligent in my place. Yea I do seeme to my selfe to finde withall so great a blessing vpon my labours,Knowledge & practi [...]e of the best courses will much aug­ment the bles­sing of our la­bours, and fill our liues with contentment. aboue all former times, that if I had knowen the same courses from the beginning, I doe assure my selfe that I had done ten times more good, and my whole life had beene full of much sweete contentment, in regard of that which it hath bin. Although my labours haue neuer been vtterly vn­profitable, but that I haue still sent forth for euery yeere, some vnto the Vniuersities, and they approoued amongst the better sort of those which haue come thither: yet this hath been nothing to that good which I might vndoubtedly haue done.

Spoud.

Sir,Feeling of the griefe and want of others, will make vs more compassionate. I am perswaded that you speake as you thinke: and therefore I doe grow into greater hope, that you ha­uing had so much experience of the griefe in the one, and ioy in the other, will be more compassionate of me, and more ready also to impart your experiments with me, to make me partaker of your comfort.

Phil.

For communicating vnto you, for your helpe and comfort, what God hath made knowne vnto me, I take it to be my dutie.Wee are but stuards of Gods gifts & to bee accoun­table for euery talent. We all of vs know the danger of hiding our ta­lent, or keeping backe our debt, when the Lord hauing giuen vs abilitie, doth call vpon vs to paie it.

Spoud.

I thank God vnfainedly (good sir) for this harty af­fection, which I doe finde in you, and for this readinesse to communicate with mee the fruites of your trauells.What our affe­ction and reso­lution should be in receiuing any speciall blessing from the Lord: as namely direc­tion how to walke more fruitfully in our calling. You shall see. I hope, that I shall receiue them, with like alacritie and thankfulnesse, and bee as ready to employ them to the best, to doe my vttermost seruice in my place and calling hereafter. So that although my first beginnings haue been small, through ignorance of better courses, yet I trust my after fruits shall much increase. Hereby my last dayes shall prooue my best, and make some amends for that which is past: and also my newe comforts shall sweeten all the re­mainder of my life, and make mee likewise to forget the [Page 5] daies that are past. How true is that Prouerbe of wise Salo­mon, that heauinesse in the heart of man doth bring it down, but a good word doth reioice it? You haue reuiued my heart, and put new spirits into mee, by that which you haue alrea­die saide.

Phil.

The Lord will reuiue you,How the way of all good learning may be more easie then euer in former ages. I hope, and all of vs also who labour in this toyling kinde; by causing vs to finde more [...]ound fruit, and pleasant content in our teaching, then euer yet we felt; if wee will but set our selues to seeke of him, and readily impart our seuerall experiments for the good of all: if withall we will receiue thankfully, and cheerefully put in practice those gracious helpes of so many learned men, which he in this last age of the world hath afforded aboun­dently, aboue all former times, very many whereof lie vtter­ly hid and vnknowne to the greatest sort,Many most worthy helps lie vtterly hid from the grea­test part, only thorow neg­lect. vnto this day. And that partly thorow lacke of care and conscience, to doe that good which we might, and ought in our places; partly tho­row extreame vnthankfulnesse, neglecting the rich giftes of the Lord, so plentifully powred downe from heauen vpon vs, to leaue the world more without excuse. But as for mine own selfe, all that I can promise is, onely my studie and desire, to doe you and all other the greatest good that euer I shall be a­ble; and hereunto we haue all bound our selues. If I knowe anie thing wherein I haue, or you may receiue benefit, I ac­knowledge it wholly where it is due, euen to him who giueth liberally to all who seeke him aright, and casteth no man in the teeth. And resting vpon his rich bounty for a further sup­ply, if you shall propound in order the particular points, wherein you would wish my aduise, I shall very willingly goe on with you; and acquaint you with all things which hither­to I haue learned in all my search, and more hereafter as his wisdome shall adde vnto me.

Spoud.

I reioice in your confidence and wish that so it may bee. In the meane time I like well of your motion, of going through in order the principall matters of difficultie. If ther­fore you shall thinke meete, I shall reduce all to certaine heads, which a friend of mine shewed vnto me of late, set [Page 6] downe in a certaine Table, which it may bee that your selfe haue seene.

Phil.

Let mee heare what was contained in it, and then I shall soone answere you, vvhether I haue seene it or no.

Spoud.

There was contained, in it, a briefe summe of sundrie particular benefits, which may bee brought to Grammar Schooles, to make schollars very perfect in euerie part of good learning meet for their yeeres; and that all both Ma­sters and Schollars may proceede with ease, certaintie and delight, to fit all apt Schollars for the Vniuersitie euerie waie, by fifteene yeeres of age. Concerning which seuerall heads, although it were a most happie worke if they could be attai­ned vnto (all of them beeing in my minde verie excellent, and indeede the whole, such a worke as must needes bring a perpetuall benefit, both to Church, and Common-wealth, and that not onely to the present but to all succeeding ages) yet that I may speake freely, what I conceiue of them, ma­ny of them seeme very strange vnto me. And, although I will not say that they are vtterly impossible: yet indeede I take them to be altogether vnlikely; considering the conti­nuall paines and vexation that my selfe haue vndergone, and yet could neuer come in many of them, neere vnto the least part thereof.

Phil.

By that little which you haue mentioned, I take it that I haue seene the very same: and for them I do not onely thinke it,All the things mentioned in the contents may be effec­ted through di­ligence, con­stancy & Gods blessing. but also do know assuredly, that by the Lords gra­cious assistance and blessing, through constant diligence they may be all effected; for that I haue knowne so much trial of al of them, as is sufficient to induce any man therunto: besides that they do all stand vpon plain & sure grounds, as I trust I am able to make euident demōstration in each particu­lar,See the particu­lars in the con­tents set before the booke. so as any man of vnderstanding may perceiue cleerly, that they may be done. Neither doe I doubt but to satisfie you in euery point, and to cause you to yeelde vnto the euidence hereof, before wee part, if you will but onely aske and still shewe mee wherein you are not satisfied. Moreouer, I am so verie confident herein, not onely vpon mine owne reason [Page 7] and experience, but because I haue knowne the iudgements of sundrie verie learned and experienced both Schoolema­sters and others, who haue beene acquainted with these selfe­same heads, which you haue mentioned: who, though at the first reading of them, they haue beene of your iudgement, and haue thought as you doe, yet within a quarter of an hower after that they haue taken a little triall, in some of the most vnlikely, and seene the reason of them, haue rested fully satisfied and assured of the whole, that all might bee done, as standing on the like grounds. And therefore I haue no cause to distrust the like successe with your selfe.

Spoud.

Sir, if you shall doe this for mee, I shall acknow­ledge my selfe to haue receiued a very great benefit, and be thankfull vnto the Lord, and to your selfe as his instrument; and do my vttermost indeauour to put them all constantly in practice, that I may confirme them by mine owne expe­rience, and finde the same happie comfort, that your selfe haue done.

I will therefore begin in order according vnto those heads, & so propound the questions, how each thing may be done, and desire your answere vnto them seuerally.

Phil.

Nay rather,The most easie and profitable manner of procee [...]ing in this conference▪ for the manner of proceeding, I take this to be far more easie and commodious to vs both, and where­by God may direct this conference so, as to profit manie o­thers besides our selues: To go through all the whole course of learning, from the first step, beginning at the verie first Elements, euen at the A. B. C. & so to ascend to the highest top of learning, which can be required in Grammar schooles; to make a schollar each way fit for the Vniuersity. Thus to run through all the necessarie points appertaining to the same, as neere as we can remember; To make hereby the whole waie easie and readie to all good learning, and to ranke euery head in the right order and proper place, according to the due manner of proceeding in Schooles. So wee may insert these points which you haue spoken of; diuiding the whole into s [...]uerall chapters, for the full distinguishing & plain set­ting down of euery matter. To the end therfore that I may be [Page 8] the better guided and occasioned to impart all things vnto you, I shall request you, first to propound all the seuerall points of learning in order, from point to point as we pro­ceed. Secondly, in the propounding of them, to shewe me in euery one, what course you your selfe haue taken, where­in you haue found so little fruite or comfort, as you com­plaine, and which you thinke to be most ordinarie in the countrey schooles. Wherein you shall faile in omitting any necessary head or chapter, or in misplacing any, I shall afford you my best direction.

Spoud.

I will accomplish your desire so well as I can. I doubt not of your patience, seeing you take me thus of a suddaine; and that you who haue better thought of these things, will guide me continually, vntill wee haue gone tho­row the whole.

Phil.

I trust you are so perswaded of me. Therefore I pray you begin.

CHAP. II.
When the Schollar should first be set to the Schoole.

Spoud.

THat I may begin at the very first entrance of the Schoole:The first point. How soone the childe is to bee set to the schoole. let me inquire this of you, how soon you would haue your childe set vnto the Schoole; for I thinke that worthie to be first knowen, if so bee, that you purpose to haue your schollar fitted for the vniuer­sitie by fifteene yeeres of age.

Phil.

I like your reason well, to enter there. But to the in­tent that I may more fully make knowen vnto you, what I thinke and haue found in this behalfe, let mee heare first of you, as I wished in generall, at what age you vse in your coun­trey, to set your children to begin to learne.

Spoud.
[Page 9]

For the time of their entrance with vs, in our countrey schooles,The time of the first entrāce in countrey schooles, at 7. or 8. it is commonly about 7. or 8. yeeres olde: six is very soone. If any begin so early, they are ra­ther sent to the schoole to keepe them from troubling the house at home, and from danger, and shrewd turnes, then for any great hope and desire their friends haue that they should learne anything in effect.The childe of any ordinary towardlinesse, to begin to learne about 5. yeere olde. Reasons.

Phil.

I finde that therein first is a very great want gene­rally; for that the childe if hee be of any ordinary toward­nesse and capacity, should begin at fiue yeere olde at the vt­termost, or sooner rather. My reasons are these:

1 Because that then children will begin to conceiue of instruction,1. Because they are then meete to conceiue of learning and to delight in it. and to vnderstand; and bee able not onely to knowe their letters, to spell and to reade, but also to take a delight therein, and to striue to goe before their fellowes. Experience heerein will quickely teach euery one, who shall make triall of it, if so be that they doe follow a right course.

2 Verie reason must needes perswade euery one of this.2. For that they are apt much sooner to learn shrewdnesse, & those things which are hurt­full. For, if they bee apt much before fiue yeeres of age, to learne shrewdnesse, and those things which are hurtfull, which they must [...]ee taught to vnlearne againe; why are they not as well fit to learne those things which are good and profitable for them, if they bee entred and drawen on in such a manner, as they may take a delight and finde a kinde of sport and plaie in the same. This de­light may and ought to bee in all their progresse, and most of all in the first entrance, to make them the bet­ter to loue the Schoole, and learning, as wee shall see af­ter.

3 Many of them,3. To auoide much rudeness, and that too much sweetness which they feel in play and i­dlenesse. doe learne so much vntowardnesse and n [...]ughtinesse amongst other rude children, in that time before they come to schoole, that they are worse for it continually after: and also they feele such a sweetnesse in play and idlenesse, as they can hardly bee framed to leaue it, and to take a delight in their bookes without verie much adoe.

[Page 10] 4 This first age,4 This age is most easily bē ­ded, and ac [...]u­stomed to good things. is that wherein they are most plant, and may bee bended and fashioned most easily to any good course. And being thus accustomed to good things from their infancie, and kept so much as may bee, from all practice and sight of euill, custome becomes vnto them a­nother nature. So great a thing it is (according to the old prouerbe) to accustome children, euen from their ren­der yeeres; and so vndoubtedly true is that common verse, ‘Quo s [...]mel est imbuta recens seruabit odorem testa diû’

5 Aboue all these,5 Two or three yeeres may be gained by this meanes, to fit thē sooner for the Vniuersitie or other im­ploiments, which is no small benefit. this is a principall benefit, that by this meanes two or three yeeres may well be gained, to fit your Schollar so much sooner for the Vniuersity or for any honest trade or calling. So that a child thus entred right­ly, shall doe much more at eight yeeres olde, then an o­ther so neglected can doe at tenne, or it may bee at eleuen or twelue. Also many such shall bee meete for trades and like imployments, when they haue no learning to fit them thereunto. This must needes bee a great griefe to the Pa­rents of such, whose children haue so lost their time, as it is a ioy to others whose children haue been so well brought vp, when they see their children compared together.

6 Lastly,6 Parents ought to labour to see their childrens good educatiō before their eyes, so soone as may be. our time being so short▪ it much concerneth euery parent, to see their children to haue the best educati­on and instruction, which is the chiefe patrimonie, and the greatest comfort & hope both of the Parents and children, and also of their houses and posteritie. And this so soone as euer may be, to fit them for some profitable imploiment for Church or Common-wealth.

Spoud.

But they will say with vs,Ob. It will hinder their growth. that it will hinder the growth of their children to bee set to schoole so young.

Phil.

Let the schoole be made vnto them a place of play:A. The schoole being rightly vsed will not hinder any more thē their plaie. and the children drawne on by that pleasant delight which ought to be, it can then no more hinder their growth then their play doth, but rather further it, when they sit at their ease; besides that continuall experience doth confute this errour.

Spoud.

Bee it so as you say:Ob. 2. It will cause them to hate learning. yet this is a receiued opinion, [Page 11] that it will cause them to hate the schoole, when they should be set to it in good earnest.

Phil.

Nay rather it is clean contrarie:A They will ra­ther loue it bet­ter. for being acquain­ted with the schoole so young, and with the sport and plea­sure which they finde amongst other children there; and also being kept from feeling the ouer much sweetnesse in play, it shall cause them to loue & to delight in the schoole continually, and to goe on without any repining, or so much as thinking of being away from the schoole: wher­as they being nuzled vp in play abroad, are very hardly re­claimed and weaned from it, to sticke to their bookes in­deede.

Spoud.

But yet it is thought that they can get but little learning then,Ob. 3 It is a small matter to lose a yeere or two then. being so very young, and therefore there is the smaller losse of a yeere or two, at that time.

Phil.

The losse will bee found in the end, although it be indeed in the beginning.A The losse of a yeere or two will be found in the end. For looke how many yeeres they lose in the beginning if they bee apt, so many in the end they will be shorter, of such of their fellowes, who are but of their owne age, and applied all alike being of like capa­citie. Therefore, as wee will not let them lose a day, when they growe towards the Vniuersitie, so neither should wee when they are young; but preuent this losse, and take the time in the beginning.

Spoud.

We see notwithstanding some very long ere euer they begin,Ob. 4. They will learn the faster. who then goe forward with it the fastest of all.

Phil.

It is true in some pregant wits, and who are indu­strious:A So in higher learning at those yeeres. but you shall [...]ue others as blockish and dull. Al­so, for those, if they goe so fas [...] in the rudiments and first grounds, how much more would they doe so at the same time in better studies? Neither can they haue halfe that learning in all things, which others of like age and aptnesse haue, who haue been well applyed from their first yeeres.

Spoud.

I yeelde to all which you haue saide in this be­halfe; and I doe see plainely the exceeding benefites, that must needes come hereby, especially in gaining of time; if they may bee entred in that playing manner, and go for­warde [Page 12] with alacritie and contention; and moreouer so, that they be not any way ouerloaded or discouraged, nor yet in dangered, by the ouer charging of their wits and me­mories.

Phil.

For that take you no feare; you shall (God willing) see the euidence of that, and a plaine direction in euerie Chapter how to proceede in that easie and playing kinde. Therefore, if you be satisfied in this, let vs come vnto the next point.

Spoud.

Very gladly sir: for I long to heare this, how you would teach your childe being so young to read so soone and readily.

Phil.

I like the point well: proceed according to your order.

CHAP. III.
How the Schollar may be taught to reade English speedily, to fit him the sooner and better for the Grammar schoole.

Spoud.

BEfore we enter into this question, yet let me put you in minde of one thing,The inconue­nience of ha­uing the Gram­mar schooles trobled with teaching A. B. C which doth much trouble mee concerning this very matter. That it seemeth to mee an vnreasonable thing that the Grammar schooles should bee troubled with teaching A. B. C. see­ing it is so great a hinderance, to those paines which wee should take with our Grammar schollars, for whom wee are appointed: Because it dooth take vp almost one halfe of our time, and thereby dooth depriue vs of a chiefe part of the fruite of our labours; especially when our mindes are so distracted, and our thoughts carried so ma­nie wayes, to doe good to all. The very little ones in a towne, in most countrey townes which are of any big­nesse, [Page 13] would require a whole man, of themselues, to be alwaies hearing▪ poasing and following them, so as they ought to bee applyed: for continuall applying in a right course,Continuall ap­plying in a right course is aboue al means is in this and all other parts of learning, aboue all other meanes. And young ones, by a little slaking our hands, run faster backe, then euer they went forward; as boates going vp the streame.

Besides, it is an extreame vexation, that wee must bee toyled amongst such little pettyes, and in teaching such matters, whereof we can get no profit, nor take any delight in our labours.

Phil.

I am well inured with this grieuance, which you speake of, and doe knowe by long experience your com­plaint to bee too iust in this behalfe. I my selfe haue com­plained of it manie a time. For it were much to be wished, that none might be admitted to the Grammar schooles, vn­till they were able to reade English: as namely that they could reade the new Testament perfectly, and that they were in their Accidences or meet to enter into them.How this might be reme­died by some other schoole in each towne for this purpose. There might bee some other schoole in the towne, for these little ones to enter them. It would help some poore man or wo­man, who knew not how to liue otherwise, and who might do that well, if they were rightly directed. Also it would be such an ease to all Grammar Schoolemasters, as they might doe much more good in their places.The redresse of it to be sought. Wherefore, all such Schoolemasters who are incumbred with this inconueni­ence, are not onely to wish, but also to labour to haue it re­formed in their seuerall schooles.To be borne with patience where it cannot be remedied. Yet notwithstanding, where it cannot be redressed, it must be borne with wisdome and patience as an heauy burden. Patience shall make it much more light. And therefore euery one is to doe his best indeauour, to know how to make it most easie, if it do lie vpon him. Moreouer, seeing we purpose, God willing, to goe through all the whole course of learning, and also sith our labour is to finde out the meanes, whereby to make the way plaine, to traine vp euerie childe from the verie first entraunce into learning, (as was sayde) [Page 14] vntill wee haue brought him vnto the Vniuersitie, we can­not omit any point, which may tend vnto the same, much lesse the first steppe of all. For, a child well entred is halfe made:The first en­tring of chil­dren to be loo­ked to careful­ly. according to that Prouerbe, Principium, dimidium totius. The foundation well layd, the building must needs goe forward much more happily. This is specially true in learning; wherein children feeling a sweetnesse in the be­ginning, are very much incouraged, as daily experience will manifest to euery one.

Spoud.

I see well the necessitie of vndergoing this bur­den, in those places where remedie cannot be had, without greater inconueniences. And therefore, sith that necessity hath no lawe, nor for my selfe I knowe no meanes h [...]w to be freed from it; I pray you let vs returne againe vnto the point, and let mee still intreat of you your best direction, to make this burden so light as may bee.To teach to read well in a short time is of great profit This is a thing worth the diligence of all, who must be imploied amongst little ones: to wit, to teach children how to read well, and to pronounce their letters truly; as also to spell right, and to knowe how to write true Orthography in a short space. For (that I may acknowledge the truth, and which hath bit no small discredit vnto me in this behalfe) I haue had some who haue beene with me, two or three yeeres, before they could reade well.Griefe & dis­credit of the want of this. And that which hath yet bin much more grieuous to mee, I haue sometimes been so abashed and a­shamed, that I haue not knowen what to say, when some being a little discontented, or taking occasion to quarrell a­bout paying my stipend, haue cast this in my teeth, that their children haue been vnder me sixe or seauen yeere, and yet haue not learned to reade english well. I my selfe haue also knowen, that their complaints haue been true in part; though I haue taken all the paines with them that euer I could deuise. Therefore good sir, set downe as plainly and shortly as you can, how this may be helped. Both my selfe & many others shall be much beholden for your direction in this first entrance. For my maner of en [...]ing them, it is that which I take to be euery where: to teach & heare them [Page 15] so oft ouer vntill they can say a lesson, and so to a new.

Phil.

I likewise h [...]ue been well acquainted with this your trouble: and therfore I will indeuor, to afford you so much as I haue yet learned, how to auoide these clamors; and how any poore man who will imploy his paines, may learn to teach children to read well in a short time, though this may seeme vnbefitting our profession.

First the ch [...]de is to be taught,1. To teach children how to cal and pro­nounce their letters right. how to call euery letter, pronouncing each of them plainely, fully and distinctly; I mean in a distinct and differing sound, each from others, and also naturally, from the very first entrance to learning. More specially to bee carefull, for the right pronouncing the fiue vowels,And first the 5. vowels. in the first place, as a, e, i, o, u. Because these are first and most naturall, and doe make a perfect sound, so that they may bee pronounced fully of them­selues; and they being rightly vttered, all the rest are more plaine. After these vowels▪ to teach them to pronounce e­uery other letter:The Conso­nants. which are therefore called Consonants, because they cannot make a perfect sound of themselues, without a vowell.

This may be done,Right calling the letters be­fore the chil­dren doe know them. and also the teaching of children to spell any syllable, before the childe do knowe any letter on the booke; and that, some wise and experienced do holde the surest and best course. But they are, at least, to be taught to pronounce their letters thus, as they doe learne them; to preuent the griefe and wearisomnesse of teaching them to forget euill customes in pronouncing, which they took [...] vp in their first ill learning. And so euer in teaching to read, the teachers are to continue the like care of sweete and na­turall pronun [...]ia [...]ion.

Secondly,2. How to teach children to know the letters the soo­nest. for the knowing of the letters (besides that common manner practiced in Schooles, which is by oft reading ouer all the letters forwards and backwards vntill they can say them) they may be much furthered thus; That is,To cause them to finde out a­ny letter. by causing the childe to finde out, and to shew you which is a, which b, which c, which f, and so any other letter. First to finde them in the Alphabet, then in any other place. [Page 16] Or if you will let them learne but one letter at once,The surer way is to learne but one letter at a [...] once. vntill they can readily know or finde out that letter in any place, and after that an other in the same manner; This is holden the surer and more easie waie: But this at your owne iudge­ment.

3 You may helpe them to spell thus,3. How to teach to spell. besides that course which is vsuall. Let so many as are beginners, or who cannot reade perfectly, stand together, and then poase them without booke, one by one. First in syllables of two letters, as they are set downe in their A. B. C. and where one misseth let his next fellow tell,M. Coots Eng­lish Schoole­master might bee profitable to this purpose, in which booke are syllables & words of all sorts. if he cannot then som other. Then examine them in syllables of three letters, after in moe. And euer what syllable they misse, marke it with a dent with the nayle, or a pricke with a pen, or the like: and when you haue marked out those wherein they so misse, poase them oft ouer, not forgetting due praise to them who do best. One halfe howre would be spent daily in this kinde of examining,To make chil­dren to take de­light in spel­ling. vntill they bee perfect in any syl­lable or worde. To make children to take a delight in spelling, let them spell many syllables together, which differ but onely in one letter, as hand, band, land, sand, &c. These syllables and words following, I haue obserued, to be of the hardest for children to spel: I will set you them downe together in this short briefe. They may serue for spelling, reading, or writing, and may soone be gotten by being often poased, read or written ouer.

Ac,Some of the hardest sylla­bles to practice children in the spelling of thē. These would be written in some little ta­ble to poase them oft. ec, ca, ce, ci, co, cu, ag, eg, ah, az, ae, ai, au, ga, ge, gi, go, gu, va, wa, we, wee, bac, bace, bag, bage, gage, badge, bau, baye, dawe, dewe, iawe, rac, race, rosse, rose, yell, you, gua, cha, cla, dwa, gla, pha, tha, sca, sha, swa, wra, chra, phra, spha, thra, twa, thwa, able, abs, ach, adge, afle, apt, ath, own, blowe, browe, chrou, dregg, dredge, dwarfe, frogg, gnash, gnaw, plowe, snowe, stewe, slugge, they, thom, throne, twaine, twigge, schoole, cockle, puddle, pegle, good, golde, gogle, balme, fallen, stolne, scalpe, false, thumbe, couple, pearce, charme, chapt, moth, mouth, nymphes, vnkle, tenth, strength, height, depth, breadth, weight, ioint, laude, [Page 17] beautie, deede, language, guide, feede, feude, vowe, braue, dou, dove, knife, kniues, yeoman, ynough, ayre, heyre, doubting, Island, yle, buye, league, hatchet, laugh, yeugh, bough▪ publique, quishon.

These are some of the hardest syllables,Note in spel­ling. as I sayde: your selfe may adde moe as you meet with them. Also this is to be obserued in spelling; that before (on) you spell or write commonly (ti) not (ci) as saluation not saluacion, though we pronounce it as (ci.) But this is to be knowen chieflie, by the latine words from whence they come.

Right pronuntiation of words,Right pronoū ­cing makes right spelling. & continuall practice in spelling, are the surest way to come to spell truely.

If you pronounce the word false, which you would haue your childe to spell, hee spelleth it false: for hee spelleth according as it is pronounced to him, or as he vseth to pro­nounce. As for example; aske the childe how he spelles a strea, (as in many places the countrey manner is to pro­nounce it) hee will spell strea or stre: but aske him how hee spels a strawe and so pronounce it, and he will spell strawe.

To direct further how to come to perfection in spelling or writing right,Further direc­tion for spel­ling after. I shall haue occasion to speake after.

In ioining syllables together,4. Ioyning syl­lables together. they must bee taught, to vtter euerie syllable by it selfe, truly, plainly, fully, and di­stinctly, as we heard of the letters before; and so also as that others who heare may vnderstand;Vnderstanding the matter. euer sounding out the last syllable: as sal-ua-ti-on.

Thus they may goe through their Abcie,Bookes to bee first learned of children. and Primer. And if they reade them twise ouer, that they may bee very perfect in them, it will bee the better for them. For, the se­cond reading of any booke dooth much incourage chil­dren,Abcie, Primer. Second reading of a booke. because it seemeth to bee so easie then; and also it doth imprint it the more. Besides that they will run it ouer so fast at the second time, as it will be no losse of time at all vnto them.

After these they may reade ouer other English bookes.Psalmes in me­tre. Amongst which, the Psalms in metre would be one, because children wil learne that booke with most readinesse and de­light [Page 18] through the running of the metre, as it is found by experience.Testament. Then the Testament, in which the discreete Master may keepe his schollar lesse or more, vntil he think him meet to enter into the Accidence.

If any require any other little booke meet to enter chil­dren;Schoole of Vertue. the Schoole of Vertue is one of the principall, and easiest for the first enterers, being full of precepts of ciui­litie, and such as children will soone learne and take a de­light in, thorow the roundnesse of the metre, as was sayde before of the singing Psalmes: And after it the Schoole of good manners, Schoole of good manners, called, the new Schoole of Vertue, leading the childe as by the hand, in the way of all good manners.

By these meanes,5. In what time children well applyed, may easily learne to reade English. children if they be well applied, and continually kept vnto it, may be taught so to read within a yeere or little more, as they may be meet to enter into their Accidence, by that time that they bee six yeere olde at the vttermost; especially if they bee in any measure apt, and much practiced in spelling the hardest syllables.

For diuiding or distinguishing of syllables this one ob­seruation is to be remembred;Diuiding and distinguishing syllables. That what consonants are v­sually ioined in the beginnings of words, those are not to be disioined and separate in the middest of words, except in Compound words. But of this wee shall speake more fitly after. And thus much may suffice for the present, for the speedy reading of English; for heereof I haue had much certaine experience.

Spoud.

I cannot iustly dislike of any thing which you haue sayd herein, it standeth all with so great reason: chief­ly, to make children so perfect in the hardest syllables. For, they being perfect in these must needs attaine all the rest in a short space. Except onely one thing which you vttered; which indeede seemes a strange Paradox to me: Namely, that some wise & experienced, would haue children taught to call and pronounce all their letters, and to spell any syl­lable before they know a letter on the booke.

Phil.

This is very true which you say; it may seeme a Paradox to them who haue not tryed it. I my selfe was of [Page 19] your minde when I heard it first.6. To teach lit­tle ones to pro­nounce their letters, and to spell before they know a letter, is the pleasantest way Yet setting my selfe to make some triall of it, for the reuerence I bare to him of whom I heard it, and for that he shewed me experience of it in a child not fowre yeeres olde; I found it the easiest, plea­santest and shortest way of all, where one would begin in a priuate house with little ones playing. The manner is thus▪ 1. You must teach them, as I sayde, to call their fiue vow­els, and to pronounce them right: Which they will pre­sently learne,How little ones will presently pronounce their fiue vow­els. if you do but only cause them to repeat them oft ouer, after you, distinctly together thus; a, e, i, o, u. after the manner of fiue bels, or as we say; one, two, three, fowre, fiue.

2 Then teach them to put the consonants in order be­fore euery vowell,To put the cō ­sonants in or­der before the vowelles pro­noūcing them. and to repeate them oft ouer together; as thus: to begin with b, and to say ba, be, bi, bo, bu. So d. da, de, di, do, du. f. fa, fe, fi, fo, fu. Thus teach them to say all the rest, as it were singing them together, la, le, li, lo, lu; The hardest to the last, as ca, ce, ci, co, cu. and ga, ge, gi, go, gu. In which the sound is a little changed in the se­cond and third syllables. When they can do all these, then teach them to spell them in order,To teach to spell these thus, putting the consonants first. thus; What spels b-a? If the child cannot tell, teach him to say thus; b-a, ba: so put­ting first b. before euery vowell▪ to say b-a ba, b-e be, b-i bi, b-o bo, b-u bu. Then aske him againe what spels b-a, and he will tell you; so all the rest in order. By oft repeating be­fore him he will certainly do it. After this if you aske him, how he spels b-a, he will answere b-a ba. So in all others.

Next these teach them to put the vowels first, as to say, ab, eb, ib, ob, ub. Then thus, a-b ab, e-b eb, i-b ib, o-b ob, u-b ub. After; what spelles a-b, e-b, &c. Thus to goe with them backward and forward, crosse, in and out vntill they can spell any word of two letters. Then you may adioine those of three letters: Afterwards, all the hard syllables, to tell what any of them spels, til they be perfect in al, or as you shall thinke meete.Repeating th letters of thee Alphabet, by roate. By this meanes, and by a little repea­ting of the letters of the Alphabet ouer before them, by three or fowre letters together, as they stand in order, so as [Page 20] they may best sound in the childrens eares, they will soone learne to say all the letters of the A. B. C. if you will. As to repeat them thus. A. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. k. l. m. n. o. p. q. r. s. t. u. w. x. y. z. &. To say them thus by roat will nothing hinder but further them.

Then they may presently be taught to know the letters vpon the booke,To teach them to know their letters as be­fore. either one by one, finding first which is a, in the Alphabet; and after in any other place. Then to finde which is b, and so through all the rest as you will.

Then when they are cunning in their letters, and spel­ling,To cause them to knowe the matter by que­stions or oft re­peating to thē. if you make them to vnderstand the matter which they learne, by questions, for a little at the first, they will goe on in reading, as fast as you will desire. The easier and more familiar the matter is to them, the faster they learne.

Thus may any poore man or woman enter the little ones in a towne together;Any one who can read, may thus enter children for reading english and make an honest poore liuing of it, or get somwhat towards helping the same. Also the Parents who haue any learning, may enter their little ones playing with them, at dinners and suppers, or as they sit by the fire, and finde it very pleasant delight.

So they may helpe to gaine their children a yeere or two in learning at the beginning, and also the Grammar Schooles of this labour and hinderance.

Spoud.

You haue perswaded me very much concerning this doubt also. Surely sir howsoeuer thus may seeme but a toye, yet all tender parents will much reioice in it, and ac­knowledge it an exceeding benefit, to haue their children so entered; and this time beeing got [...]en in the beginning, will bee found in the end as you truely sayde. Yet there is another matter that comes vnto my remembraunce, a­bout which I haue taken no small griefe and discourage­ment manie a time, concerning this point of reading Eng­lish. I will mention it here, and desire your iudgement how to redresse it, although it might happely come-in-fitter af­terwards.

The trouble is this. That when as my children doe first enter into Latine, manie of them will forget to reade [Page 21] English,8. The incon­uenience of childrē forget­ting to reade English, when they enter first into latine, and how to auoid it. Complaints of Parents for childrē forget­ting English. and some of them bee worse two or three yeeres after that they haue been in construction, then when they began it.

Now if you could teach me how to helpe this likewise, that they might as well goe forward still in reading English as in Latine, I should account this a very great benefit. For, some of their Parents, who vse me the kindliest, will bee at mee that their children may euerie daie reade some Chap­ters of the Bible, to helpe their reading of English. Now this I cannot possibly doe, but they must needes bee hin­dred in their latine, in some lessons or necessarie exerci­ses; and eyther be behinde their fellowes, or else trouble all their fellowes very much, that they cannot goe so fast forward as they should, but stay for these readers. Others being more ignorant or malitious, vpon euery light occa­sion, are readie to rage and raile at me, for that their chil­dren as they say, doe get no good vnder mee, but are worse and worse. For, wheras they could haue read English per­fectly (it may be) when they came to mee, now they haue forgotten to do it. Thus am I grieued on euery side, and vexed daily, let mee labour neuer so much, and spend my heart amongst them for to doe them good.

Phil.

Sir, herein I can say, as she in the Poet; ‘Haud ignara mali miseris succurrere disco.’ For I haue tasted deeply of the same griefe vntill verie late­ly, within this yeere or two. Yet now I seeme to my selfe, to find as sensible and continuall a growth amongst all my Schollars, in their English tongue as in the Latine. And not only for the reading of it, but also for vnderstanding it, and abilitie to vtter their minde [...] of any matter, wherewith they are acquainted, or which they learne in Latine; and also how to express the meaning of the latine in prop [...]iety▪ and puritie of our owne tongue:Complaint of want of care in our schooles for growth in our owne tong is in the latine. so that I am quite d [...]uered from that clamor.

But to tell you what I thinke, wherein there seemes vnto mee, to be a verie maine want in all our Gram­mar, schooles generally, or in the most of them; where­of [Page 22] I haue heard som great learned men to complain; That there is no care had in respect, to train vp schollars so, as they may be able to expresse their minds purely and readi­ly in our owne tongue,Our chiefe in­deauor should be for our own tongue. and to increase in the practice of it, as well as in the Latine or Greeke; whereas our chiefe in­deuour should bee for it, and that for these reasons.Reasons. 1. Be­cause that language which all sorts and conditions of men amongst vs are to haue most vse of, both in speech & wri­ting, is our owne natiue tongue. 2. The purity and elegan­cie of our owne language is to be esteemed a chiefe part of the honour of our nation: which we all ought to aduance as much as in vs lieth. As when Greece and Rome and o­ther nations haue most florished, their languages also haue beene most pure: and from those times of Greece & Rome, wee fetch our chiefest patterns, for the learning of their tongues. 3. Because of those which are for a time trained vp in schooles, there are very fewe which proceede in lear­ning, in comparison of them that follow other callings.

Spoud.

This complaint is notwithout iust cause:Few Scooles which haue any regarde for our English tongue for I do not know any schoole▪ wherein there is regard had hereof to anie purpose; notwithstanding the generall necessitie and vse of it, and also the great cōmendation which it brings to them who haue attained it: but I thinke euery minute an howre, vntill I heare this of you, how my trouble & shame may be auoided, and how I may obtaine this facultie to di­rect my children, how they may goe thus forward, not onely in reading English perfitly, but also in the proprietie, puritie and copie of our English tongue, so as they may vt­ter their mindes commendably of any matter which may concerne them, according to their age and place.

Phil.

I will but name the meanes vnto you now: for I shal haue occasion to shew them all more particularly here­after.

Besides the daily vse of distinct reading ouer their Eng­lish parts to get them perfectly,Meanes to ob­taine this bene­fit of increa­sing in our English tong, as in the Latin. and of right reading all o­ther things which they learn in latine, as your self do know; these means following, by the blessing of God wil accōplish your desire.

[Page 23] 1 The continuall vse of the bookes of construing of Lillies rules,1. Daily vse of Lillies rules construed. by causing them to learne to construe, and to keepe their Grammar rules, onely by the helpe of those translations. This I find one very good vse of these books, besides some other which I shall mention after.

2 The daily vse,2. Continuall practice of English Gram­maticall tran­slations. and practise of Grammaticall transla­tion in English, of all the Schoole Authours, which the yonger sort doe learne; causing them each day out of those to construe and repeate, whatsoeuer they learne. This I also haue proued by happy experience, to be a rare helpe to make young Schollars to grow very much, both in English and Latine. But of all these, for the manner, bene­fites, and vse of them, I shall haue occasion to speake at large.

3 Besides these,3. Translating and writing English, with some other Schoole exer­cises. they would haue euery day some pra­ctice of writing English heedily, in true Orthography; as al­so of translating into English; or, of writing Epistles, or fa­miliar Letters to their friends, as wel in English as in Latine. Amongst some of them, the reporting of a Fable in Eng­lish, or the like matter, trying who can make the best re­port, doth much further them in this. And generally, a­mongst all those that can write, the taking of notes of Ser­mons, and deliuering them againe, or making repetitions, is a speciall meanes. Also striuing to expresse whatsoeuer they construe, not onely in propriety, but in variety of the finest phrase, who can giue the best. This chiefly in the higher fourmes: So reading forth of Latine into English; first in propriety, then in puritie. By these, and some vse of the History of the Bible, and the like, which I shall be oc­casioned to mention after; you may finde their growth, ac­cording to your desire, and much aboue your expe­ctation.

Spoud.

Vndoubtedly sir, these must needs be very auaile­able; because schollars may haue hereby, so much vse of the English euery daie, aboue that which is practiced in anie Schoole which I haue knowne. But for anie such transla­tions of the Schoole Authors, I haue not heard of them, [Page 24] Onely I haue seen the bookes of construing Lillies rules, and some of my children haue them, though I feared that it would rather make them idle, being but a truants booke. Indeed I neuer conceiued so much of them as you say: I shal better thinke of the vse thereof.

Phil.

There is not the best thing but it may bee abused. But for that booke as the others, I shall shewe and proue vnto you the cōmodities of them, aboue all that you would imagine.The chief fault of the children going backe­wards in rea­ding English, when they first learne latine, is in the Parents themselues. Experience makes me confident: Yet to returne vnto your selfe, concerning the complaint of the Parents, for their children going backward in reading English, when they first learne latine; the chiefe fault in truth is in the Pa­rents themselues; although we poore schoolemasters must be sure to beare all. For if such murmuring Parents, would would but cause their children, euery day after dinner or supper, or both, to reade a Chapter of the Bible, or a peece of a Chapter, as leasure would permit, and to doe it con­stantly; therby to shew their loue to the Lord, and his word, and their desire to haue the word dwell plentifully in their houses, to haue their children trained vp in it, as young Ti­mothy was; then I say, this complaint would soon be at an end: for they should either seethen, their children to in­crease in this, or else they should discerne the fault to be in their childrens dulnesse, and not in our neglect. Notwith­standing, sith that they are so very fewe of whome wee can hope, that they haue any care of this duetie in their houses, in respect of all the rest who omit it, and yet all the blame must surely rest on vs, it concerneth vs so much as we can to redresse it; and therefore vse all good meanes, to cut off all occasions of clamours, and of discrediting our selues, and our schooles, and to contend for the greatest profi­ting of our children, aswell in this, as in any other part of learning; the vse of this being, as we heard, most generall and perpetuall.

Spoud.

You haue directed mee very rightly how to aun­swere such Parents: now I shall be able to shew them where the fault is, and bee calling vpon them to redresse this at [Page 25] home. I shall also indeuor to put all this in vre, and more as you make the particulars more fully known vnto me; and as I shall finde by triall the fruit heereof. But now, that you haue thus satisfied me in all these my doubts; I cannot but demand yet one other point, wherein I finde another great want, though not comparable to the former; because there is not so much vse of it: which is about the ordinary num­bers or numbring. For I am much troubled about this, that my readers and others aboue them, are much to seeke in all matters of numbers, whether in figures or in letters. Inso­much, as whē they heare the chapters named in the church, many of them cannot turn to them, much less to the verse.

Phil.

This likewise is a very ordinary defect,An ordinary fault, that most schollars are to seek in matters of common numbers, which they may bee taught in an hower or two. & yet might easily be helped by common means, in an howr or two. I call it ordinary, because you shall haue schollars, almost rea­dy to goe to the Vniuersity, who yet can hardly tell you the number of pages, sections, chapters, or other diuisions in their books, to find what they should. And it is as you say, a great & a fowle want; because, without the perfect know­ledge of these numbers, schollars cannot help themselues by the Indices, or Tables of such books, as they should vse, for turning to any thing of a sodaine: although it be a mat­ter wherof they should haue vse all their life long. And to conclude, it is a great neglect, because it is a thing so easie, as that it may be learned in so short a time, only by most vsuall meanes, as by these following. For numbers by letters, vse but only to appose them,Numbers by letters knowen easily, yet oft neglected. according to the direction in the latine Grammar at Orthographia, & they will do them pre­sently. As if you aske what I. stands for, what V. what X. what L. &c. And back againe, what letter stands for one, so what for fiue, or forten. But specially if you desire to haue them very ready herein, cause them to haue these written, & then to practice to read them ouer often, vntil that they can answer any of them perfectly. Warn them also to remember alwaies▪ that any number set after a greater, or after the same nūber, doth add so many mo, as the value of that later nūber is. As, I. set after X. thus, XI. doth make eleuen. XV. fifteen▪ [Page 26] XX. twentie. But being set before, they doe take away so▪ many as they are: as I. before X. thus, IX. nine.

If you wish an example more at large this may serue; let each of them that should learne haue a briefe of these, af­ter this maner, to shew them all the chiefe numbers. I. one, II. two, III. three, IIII. or IV. fowre, V. fiue, VI. six, VII. seauen, VIII. eight, IX. nine, X. tenne, XI. eleuen▪ XII. twelue, XIII. thirteene, XIIII. fourteene, XV. fifteene, XVI. XVII. XVIII. XIX. XX. XXI. XXV. twenty fiue, XXX. thirtie, XL. fortie, L fifty, XC. ninetie, C. a hundreth, D. fiue hundreth, M. a thousand. And thus much shortly for numbring by letters.

For the numbers by figures,Numbers by figures. this rule must also be obser­ued; That the figures do signifie in the first place so much o [...]ly, as if they were alone, or one time so many. In the 2. place tennes, or tenne times so many. In the third place, hundreths, or a hundreth times so many. In the fourth place thousands, or a thousand times so many. In the fift place ten thousands. In the sixt place hundreth thousands; the places being reconed from the right hand to the le [...]t. As for example, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. twentie. 21. 22. 23. &c. 30. thirtie. 31. 32. 40. fortie, 41. &c. 50. fiftie 51. 60. sixtie, 70. seauentie. 80. eighty. 90. ninetie 100. a hundreth. 101. a hundreth & one, 102. 110. a hundreth and ten. 120. a hundreth & twenty. 130, &c. 200. two hundreth, &c. 1000. a thousand. 10000. ten thousand. 100000. a hundreth thousand.

These beeing learned backewards and forwards, so that your schollar be able to know each of them, to call them or name them right, & to find them out, as the child should finde any letter which he is to learne: in a word, to tell what any of these numbers stand for, or how to set downe any of them; will performe fully so much as is needfull for your ordinarie Grammar schollar. If you do require more for any; you must seeke Records Arithmetique, or other like Authors and set them to the Cyphering schoole.

Spoud.

This is a defect that I see is most easily supplyed [Page 27] by a very little paine and care in examining. I haue trou­bled you ouerlong in this, beeing in it selfe so very a trifle, though the want generally be to bee blamed. Now there­fore let vs hasten vnto our profession for the Grammar Schoolemaster. For I desire earnestly to be in our owne e­lement, as more befitting and beseeming our place.

Phil.

I am very willing to make all the haste that we can:Why this Dia­logue is so long for this I see, that though wee neither vse digressions, nor needlesse words; yet this our conference will proue verie long, before that I can make my mind plain vnto you. Vn­lesse I should be so short, as either to be obscure, or to omit many things which I take to be very necessarie: But yet before we come to make entrance into the Latine, if we doe keepe order, wee are to goe through the way of writing, as being more generall, and which chiefly appertaineth also to our English tongue; in respect of our more frequent vse of it: I meane chiefely for the writing of our ordinarie hand called the Secretarie hand, which is almost wholly in vse amongst vs.

CHAP. IIII.
How the Master may direct his Schollars to write verie faire, though himselfe be no good Pen-man.

Spoud.

TO come therfore vnto writing,Faire writing a great benefit & ornament to Schooles. and the manner of teaching it; That which you affirm may be done herein, cannot but bee a very great benefit, and a notable grace to schooles, and also to all learning, if it can be so effected. That all Schollars in generall, may be directed to write cōmendably, and a great part of them which are more apt to write very faire; and that in the seue­rall [Page 28] hands of the learned tongues, as they doe proceed in e­uery one of them. For many of the best Schollars, haue beene wont to write very ill;It hath beene a receiued opini­on a [...]ong ma­ny, that a good Schollar can not be a good writer. in so much, as it hath beene a receiued opinion, as you know, amongst very many, That a good Schollar can hardly be a good pen-man. Moreo­uer you shall finde very fewe good writers in Grammar Schooles; vnlesse eyther they haue been taught by Scri­ueners, or be themselues maruellous apt hereunto, and ve­ry rare, or where the Master doth apply himself chiefly to teach to write.

The want of this, hath bin another part of my griefe: for besides the complaint and grudging of the Parents;The trouble of Schoolema­sters, for the want of this fa­culty to teach Schollars to write. I haue also seen, after they haue bin a great while with me, that they haue not bin able to write so, as to be fit for any trade; but they must after be set to learne of the Scriuener: much lesse haue they bin able to write a letter to their friends, or to per­form any such business with their pen, in any commendable maner. You shall therefore do me no lesse a pleasure, then in the former, if you can direct me, how to help all these euils, and to attaine to that dexterity, whereof you speake.

Phil.

I hope to satisfie you herein also. But first relate vnto me, what courses yourselfe haue taken, to teach your Schollars to write; whereof you haue found so little profit: and after I shall adde, as in the former, what I haue learned, to the better effecting hereof.

Spoud.

Surely I haue done this:The ordinary course in Schooles to teach to write. I haue daily set them co­pies, so well as I could; which hath bin no small toile vnto me: or else I haue caused some of my Schollars, or some o­thers to doe it. Also I haue made them now & then to write some copies; and it may be, I haue corrected them for wri­ting so badly, or guided some of their hands, or shewed them how to amend their letters. This I take to be the most that is done in Schooles ordinarily; vnlesse any doe procure Scriueners, to teach in their townes: whereof we finde no small inconueniences.

Phil.

I take it to be as you say, that this is all which is done in most Schooles: and hence so many of vs haue ex­perience, [Page 29] of the like murmurings against vs. Now I will let you see plainly and as familiarly as I can, how to helpe this euill, and to attaine this so great a benefit.

1. The Schollar should be set to write,1. When Schol­lars should be­gin to write. when he enters into his Accidence; so euery day to spend an houre in wri­ting, or very neere.

2. There must be speciall care,2. To haue all necessaries. that euery one who is to write, haue all necessaries belonging thereunto; as penne, inke, paper, rular, plummet, ruling-pen, pen-knife, &c.

3. The like care must be,3. Inke and pa­per, of what sort. that their inke be thin, blacke, cleere; which wil not run abroad, nor blot: their paper good; that is, such as is white, smooth, and which will beare inke, & also that it be made in a book.Writing books kept faire. Their writing books would be kept faire strait ruled, & each to haue a blotting paper to keep their books for̄ soyling, or marring vnder their hands.

4. Cause euery one of them to make his own pen; other­wise the making,4. Euery one to learne to make his owne pen. and mending of pens, will be a very great hinderance, both to the Masters and to the Schollars. Be­sides that, when they are away from their Masters (if they haue not a good pen made before) they wil write naught; be­cause they know not how to make their pens themselues.

The best manner of making the pen,The manner of making the pen. is thus:

1. Choose the quil of the best and strongest of the wing, which is somewhat harder, and will cleaue.

2. Make it cleane with the backe of the pen-knife.

3. Cleaue it strait vp the backe; first with a cleft,Cleft of the penne. made with your pen-knife: after with another quill put into it, riue it further by little and little, till you see the cleft to be very cleane: so you may make your pen of the best of the quil, & where you see the cleft to be the cleanest, & without teeth. If it doe not cleaue without teeth, cleaue it with your pen-knife in another place, still neerer the backe: for if it be nor strait vp the backe, it will very seldome run right. After, make the nebbe and cleft both about one length, some­what aboue a barley corne breadth, & small; so as it may let downe the inke,The neb of the pen. and write cleane. Cut the nebbe first slant downewards to make it thinne, and after strait [Page 30] ouerthwart. Make both sides of equall bignesse, vnlesse you bee conning to cut that side, which lieth vpon the long finger, thinner and shorter; yet so little, as the difference can hardly be discerned. But both of equall length is accoun­ted the surest.

The speediest and surest way to learne to make the pen,The surest way for making the pen. is this. When your Shollar shall naue a good pen fit for his hand, and well fashioned; then to viewe and mark that well, and to trie to make one in all things like vnto it. It were good for the learner to procure such a penne made, and to keepe it for a patterne, to make others by vntill he be very perfect in it. A childe may soone learne to make his pen; yet, fewe of age do know how to make their owne pennes well, although they haue written long and very much: nei­ther can any attaine to write faire without that skill.

Next vnto this,How to holde the pen. cause your schollar to holde his penne right, as neere vnto the nebbe as hee can, his thumbe and two fore-fingers, almost closed together, round about the neb, like vnto a cats foote, as some of the Scriueners doe terme it.

Then let him learne to carry his pen as lightly as he can,To cary the pen so lightly as to glide on the paper. to glide or swimme vpon the paper. So hee shall write the cleanest, fayrest, and fastest, and also his pen shall last the longe.

Insteede of setting of copies and to saue that endlesse toyle,Copies. In stead of set­ting copies to haue copie bookes faste­ned to the top of their books. let euery one haue a little copie booke fastened to the top of his writing booke, with a strong thread of a spanne long, or thereabout; that alwaies when he writeth, he may lay his copie booke close before him, and that the side of the copie, may almost touch the line where he writeth, that his eye may be vpon the copie, and vpon his letter both to­gether. And also, to the end that euer when he hath done writing, he may put his copie booke into his writing booke againe; so that the copie may neuer bee out of the waie, nor the Schollar write without it.

The fittest volume for their writing a booke is, to haue them in quarto.

[Page 31] Moreouer, the copie bookes would be made thus.Maner of the copie bookes. Not a­boue two inches in bredth; fowre or six copies in a booke, halfe secretarie, halfe Roman. The copie bookes might be made thus most fitly as I take it.

1 One line of small letters, of each letter one, except in those which haue letters of diuers kinds, and therin both kinds to be set downe: as i. j. s. 8. u, v.

Vnder the line of small letters, would be set a line of great letters, after the same manner; and vnder them both a line or two of ioyning hand, containing all the letters in them.

Examples of both sorts for the present vntill better can bee found may be these. I meane copies both of Secretary and Roman, containing all the letters in them.

For Secretary thus:

Exercise thy selfe much in Gods booke,Examples of copyes contay­ning all the let­ters in one line of ioyning. with zealous and feruent prayers and requests.

For Roman thus:

Aequore cur gelido zephyrus fert xenia kymbis?

Respect not the verse, but the vse.

Vnder all these, may be fitly set in very little room those characters or letters, out of which all the rest of the letters may be framed: as in the small letters in Secretarie, m. i. t. v. z. s. In the great letters, [...]. So vnder the Roman copies after the same manner.

In the end of the copie bookes, in a page or two, might be set down all the hard syllables mentioned before.The hardest sy­lables and prin­cipall numbers to be set in the end of the copy bookes. That by oft writing them ouer they might be helped to spel, & to write true Orthographie. And after those, the numbers mentioned, to be able to write or totel any of them vpō the book without it. Then what schollar so euer were not able to tell any of them, after a little poasing,The copy books to bee printed & how, with the bene­fit of them. were well worthy to be corrected. If such copie books were finely printed, be­ing grauen by som cunning workman, & those of the most perfect and plaine forms of letters, that could possibly be procured, in a strong and very white paper, one book or two of them would serue a schollar neere all his time, that hee should neuer need to change his hand.

[Page 32] The often change & following of diuerse hands,Inconuenience of following diuers hands. doth as­much hinder writing, as often change of schoolemasters doth hinder learning. Therfore, the best is to be chosen at the first, and euer to be stucke vnto without alteration, if it may be.

In the meane time,The best writ­ten copies to be procured. vntill such copies can be had, some would be procured of the master, to be written by the best Scriuener who can be gotten, after the manner aforesayde, for each schollar to haue one to fasten to his booke, and to vse as before.

Otherwise when for lacke heereof,Inconuenience of the lacke of such bookes. the Master, or Vsher, or some other Schollar is compelled euery day, to write each schollar a new copy; it is both an endlesse toile, and al­so an extreame losse of time: besides the inconuenience mentioned, of change of hands, and that few Masters or V­shers are fit pen men, to write such copies as were necessa­ry.

Lastly, because thorough want of such copies, schollars do write ordinarily without direction or pattern, in all their exercises; whereby they either grow to very bad hands, or do profit in writing,Faire writing to be practiced by all the schollars once euery day. little or not at all.

This exercise of writing faire, would be practiced by all the Schollars thorow the Schoole, at least once everie day, for an howres space or neere; and that about one of the clocke: for then commonly their hands are warmest and nimblest.

Now those that write exercises, may take the opportu­nitie of that time,General rule in writing; To make all like vnto the copy. to write them so faire as they can.

In al writing this general rule would be obserued streight­ly, to cause them to striue to make euerie letter, as like to the copie letter in all proportion, as the one hand is to the other. And that they neuer thinke a letter good, vntill no difference can bee found betweene it and the copie letter;To keepe euen compasse. that it cannot be discerned whether is the better.

Great care would bee had withall, to make euery writer to keepe euen compasse in the height, greatnesse, and breadth of his letters; that no one letter stand either [Page 33] too high or too lowe, be ouer long, or ouer short, nor anie way too bigge, or too little, too wide, or too narrow.

To the end,How to write of euen height. that they may write of euen height; cause them to rule their bookes with a ruling pen, and then that they make the body of each letter, to touch their rules on both sides, I meane both at the tops and bottomes of the letters; but not to go one hair bredth higher or lower. Thus by practice the schollar will in time attaine to write very faire of himselfe without any ruling pen.

That euery one may rule their bookes thus,Each to haue his ruling pen, and what on [...]. cause them to haue each his ruling pen, made of a quill, somwhat like vnto a pen; but onely that it is to be made with a nocke in the neb or point of it, like the nocke of an arrow, the nebs of the nocke standing iust of the bredth of their copie let­ters asunder, that they may rule their rules meete of the same compasse with their copies.

The points of the nebs of the ruling pennes,The neb of the ruling pen, and how to rule with it. must not be made ouer sharpe, nor pressed downe ouer hard in ru­ling; because they wil then race the paper, and make it that it will not beare inke. They are moreouer to rule but a few lines at once: because the lines being drawen but lightly, will soone go out, and not be seene before that the learners come to write in them.

Also this care must be had in ruling, to cary the ruling pen so euen and straight forward, that both the lines which are drawen by it, may be seene together; or els to drawe the lines so oft ouer with the same, vntil that both the lines may be well seene.Euen writing to be streightly looked to, by the help of a ru­ling pen. This would be obserued carefully, vntill that time that they can begin to write euen & streight of them­selues: for the euen compasse doth especially grace a hand, and the faire shew of it will cause children to take a delight in writing faire.

Euery schollar who writeth Latine should haue two of these ruling pens: one for Secretarie, and an other for Ro­man; or else to haue one made of iron or brass, the one end for the one, the other end for the other.

Moreouer, the bookes of all the new beginners or ente­rers, [Page 34] whilst they write letters, would be ruled wel with crosse lines, with the ruling pens on this manner: It is found to direct them very much.Ruling the bookes of the young begin­ners with crosse lines thus.

[figure]

Thus their bookes shall be kept faire.Benefit of this ruling. The compasse or the space within the crosse lines, serues to keep & guide the body of each letter to make it of a iust proportion. The straight lines direct and guide the childe to make euery stroke straight forward, or vp and downe, and also how to frame the head and taile of each letter.

Thus much for the compasse of the letters;The compasse in greatnesse or neernesse of the letters. chiefly in the tops and bottoms of the letters.

Now that the letters may not be ouer bigge or ouer lit­tle, set too neere one another or far off, this may bee one good direction;

Cause your schollar to drawe his lines, on which hee wil write his copies, of the very same length with the length of the line of his copie: and then if he write iust so much in his line as is in the copie, it is very like that he makes his letters of a good proportion, not too bigge nor too little, and the compasse euen, not one ouer neere, or far off from an other. But if hee write more in a shorter space, then is in like space in the copie, he either makes his letters too lit­tle, or sets them too neere one another; letters, or words, or both. And so on the other side, if he write lesse in a line, then is in his copie in the same space, and length, then hee makes his letters too bigge, or too wide asunder.

The letters would bee ioined in euery word: yet so as no one be set ouer neere another, but iust as the copie, obser­uing [Page 35] blacks and whites, as the Scriuener tearmeth them. And each word in a sentence, would be set about the bredth of an a, or an o, from one another.

For writing straight without lines (after that they haue practiced this a good while,Writing straight with­out lines. to write with double lines, ru­led with the ruling pen, and after with single lines) this may helpe to guide them wel; to cause them to hold their elbow so close to their side and so steadily, as they can conueni­ently: for the elbow so stayd, will guide the hand as a rule, especially in writing fast. Afterwards, looking at the end of the line, as we vse to trie the straightnes of an arrowe, they shal see easily where it is crooked. Practice wil bring facility

These also may bee speciall furtherances for the first en­terers:Speciall furthe­rances for the first enterers in writing. When they cannot frame a letter. When the young schollar cannot frame his hand to fashion any letter; besides the guiding of his hand, and also the shewing where to begin each letter and how to draw it, some do vse to drawe before them the proportion of their letters, with a peece of chawke vpon a board, or table, or with a peece of blacke lead vpon a paper; and then let the childe trie how he himselfe can draw the like vpon it; and after this to let him to do it with his pen, following the let­ter of his booke.

Or thus;To follow a let­ter with a dry pen. Let him take a drie pen, that cannot blot his booke, and therewith cause him to follow that letter in his copie, which he cannot make, drawing vpon the copie let­ter very lightly, & a little turning the side of the pen, where the letter is smal; but leaning harder vpon it where it is ful, and there also turning the broad part of the pen. Onely warne him to be carefull, that hee doe not hurt the letter in the copy, by his hard leaning vpon his pen, or by the ouer­much sharpness of it▪ Thus let him follow his copie letter, drawing his pen so oft vpon it, vntill he think his hand will goe like vnto it. Then direct him, to trie with another pen with inke, whether he can make one like to that of his co­pie. If he cannot, let him goe to it with his drie pen again, vntill that he can fashion one like vnto it.

This also is a speciall obseruation: That the more lea­surely [Page 36] the childe draweth at the beginning,Leasurely drawing as the Painter. as the Painter doth, and the more lightly, the sooner a great deale he shall learne to frame his hand to write faire.

This likewise some good Scriueners obserue;To learne to make one let­ter wel first, then another. to suffer the child to learne to make but one kind of letter at once, vntill they can make that in some good sort, then another: as first a, then b. But especially to beginne with those let­ters, out of which all the rest may be framed, to make them perfectly, as m, c, t, v, z. For so all the rest will bee the ea­sier.

To helpe to write cleane,To helpe to write cleane, fast and faire to­gether. fast and faire together, call oft on your schollars to exercise their hands in making of f strokes, that is, dashes of f, and s thus [...]; and the stroake of the great C, and B, thus, [...]

Also some vse to cause the learners,Making flori­shes, gliding vp­on the paper. to practice their hands to run vpon the paper, either with inke or without, vntill they be very nimble and cunning to glide vpon the paper; and namely, to make certaine rude florishes.

[figure]

Call on them in all exercises,To obserue or­naments of writing. to bee carefull to obserue the graces of letters: as the keeping of great letters, accents, points, as comma, colon, period, parenthesis, and whatso­euer may serue for the adorning of writing; and euermore to take a delight in writing faire: which delight is in each art the one halfe of the skill; but to flie all long tailes of letters, and to make all their letters so plaine as they can:To make the letters most plaine. the plai­ner the better. Beware that you suffer no one to learne a bad hand, or to make any bad letter, so neere as you are a­ble to preuent it.Mischiefs of getting a bad hand. For it will be found much harder to teach such to forget their bad letters and hands, then to teach o­ther which neuer learned, to write the good.

[Page 37] So that if you teach such, a better hand, after that they haue learned and been long inured to the worse; although they seeme to haue learned to write well, yet vnlesse they be hol­den continually to practice their good hand each day a lit­tle, they will fall vnto their bad hand againe: so great force hath any euill custome.

This therefore must be our wisedome, to procure from the beginning the most excellent copies,To procure the most excellent copies from the beginning. for our schollars, whatsoeuer they cost; and to keepe them constantly to them: they will soone quite the cost both to Master and Schollar.

To the end that any Master may bee the better able to teach thus;That the Master may teach his Schollars to write faire, what to be don. let him eyther trie to attaine this faculty of wri­ting faire (which much commends a Master) or at least, let him labour to be well acquainted with these directions, or the like: and also let him cause his Schollars to obserue them constantly; or so many of them, as neede shall re­quire.

And to this end, let him vse to walke amongst his Schol­lars as they write all together;To walke a­mongst the schollars, to see they obserue these directions▪ and see that they do practice these things duely: but chiefly that euery one haue his co­pie booke layed close before him; and to marke well wherin any one of them misseth in any letter or stroke, that it is not like to the copie, there to point him to the copie, and to shew him where they differ, or to cause him to compare them himselfe: so to appoint them to bee mending their faults, vntill their letters be in all things like the copie let­ters. And what letters they make the worst,To obserue all the bad let­ters and faults in writing. to make them so oft ouer, in some voyde place of their booke, or some waste paper, vntill those be as good as any of the rest, and like the copie, as was said. Amongst others, to look specially to these three letters together, f. g. h. and to m. which being well made, do grace all the rest, & yet are commonly made the worst of all.

Thus any one of the schollars,Any Schollar may helpe the Master. chiefly one of them who write the best, may helpe the Master to direct the rest.

By these meanes the Schoole-master may bring many of [Page 38] his Schollars to be very good pen-men,The meanest writers may bring many of their schol­lars to be good pen-men. and all generally to some competent sufficiencie, to the credite of the Schoole, the good contentment of the parents, and the great benefit of the Schollars, though he cannot write well himselfe, if hee can but onely thus farre forth direct, as to cause his Schollars to follow these obseruations.

Hereby the Schooles also may be freed from hauing any need of the Scriueners, which go about the country; at least, which go vnder the names of Scriueners,To auoyde the euils by wan­dring Scriue­ners. and take vpon them to teach to write; & do ofttimes very much hurt in the places where they come. For they draw away the mindes of many of the Schollars from their bookes; euen of all such as cannot indure to take paines, nor haue any great loue of learning and cause many, of good hope to leaue the school vtterly. Besides that, very often, so soone as euer these Scri­ueners are gone, the Schollars whom they haue taught, doe forget what they seemed to haue gotten by them, vn­lesse they be kept to practice their writing daily.

So that all that cost and time is commonly lost; be­sides the former inconueniences, that sundry by them lose all the learning which they had gotten. Also most of the younger sort, who seeme to write faire, and so leaue the Schoole in a conceit of that which they haue gotten by the Scriuener; yet doe write so false Orthography, as is loath­some to see, and ridiculous to reade.

For these properties should be ioyned together in euery pen-man,Things neces­sarily required in commenda­ble writing. who would haue any approbation; to be able as well to write a good stile (I meane to indite, and to expresse his mind in some good forme of words, and true Orthogra­phie) as to write faire.

As for the vse of Scriueners in the common schooles, it would be this (if any);The vse of Scri­ueners in the Grammar Schooles, what. eyther to make euery schollar his booke of copies, to vse after the manner prescribed, vntill such printed ones can be had: or else to set all the schollars in a good way of writing for right framing their letters, and the like. To do it onely at such times as the Master shall ap­point; that it may be without any great hinderance to the [Page 39] schollars for their learning, & warily preuenting al the former inconueniences. For schooles and good learning being such a singular benefit, and so great a gift of God to Church & Com­mon-wealth, all hinderances would be wisely foreseene, and heedfully preuented.

These are the speciall helps, which hitherto I haue learned, for the direction of schollars in writing: and by these I am assu­red vpon triall, that what is promised in this behalfe, may bee effected through Gods blessing.

Spoud.

Sir, these must needs be very profitable: yet my me­mory being weake, and they many, I shall hardly thinke of them to put them in practice. I pray you therfore repeat vn­to me againe in a word or two, which of them you take to be the principall and of most continuall vse.

Phil.

These I take to be the principall, & almost the sum of all;The sum of the principall and most necessary directions for wri­ting, to be euer re­membred: and there­fore here shortly re­peated that we may haue a briefe no­tion of them. & which would euer be had in memory: that the schollars haue good pens, thin inke, faire & good copie books; & those made fast to their bookes, to haue them euer laid close before thē when they are to write fair; which wold be once euery day; & then all of them together. That they haue their books ruled strait & lightly, & that with ruling pens amongst al the yonger sort: and that therein a care be had, that they euer touch both the lines of the ruling pen with the bodies of their letters. Also that they haue their faults shewed them, by pointing them to the copie letters; and where their letters are vnlike to the co­pie, thereto cause them to be amending them continually, vntill they attain to write as faire as it. To call on them euer to haue an eye to the copie, & to haue the fashions of the letters in their minds. To take a delight in writing; striuing who shall do the best: to this end, to let their hands glide lightly on the paper; to striue to write very clean; to make minimes, and such like letters sharp at tops & bottoms, or iust to the proportiō of their copies: to hold their pens very low: their elbow somthing neer their side: to keep their copies & books fair, vnblotted & vnscrauled: to haue void places or waste papers for assaies, &c.

Most shortly, these three are almost all in all; good co­pies, continual eying them wel, a delight in writing: although [Page 40] I thinke it very necessary, that you bee acquainted with all the former directions, as they are set downe at large, to vse them as neede shall require. You may soone attaine the knowledge of them, when you haue them written downe: the labour of lear­ning them will be nothing to you in regard of the benefit; and much lesse in regard of the long search and obseruation, which I haue vsed to finde them out.

Spoud.

It is true indeede; and I am the more beholden vnto you: but giue me leaue this one word; that which you said e­uen now, may seeme to make very much against the Scriue­ners.

Phil.

Not at all;This ma­keth no­thing a­gainst the honest Scriueners, but to pre­uent the abuse of shifters, and hurt to Schooles. it onlely helpeth to redresse the great abuse by som shifters, who go vnder the name of Scriueners: for all good Scriueners haue their callings and imployments, where­in to serue to the profite and good of the Common-wealth, and not vnto the hurt thereof. This onely may teach vs to pre­uent and auoyde those intollerable abuses, & hurts to schooles mentioned; whereof there hath beene, and is daily, so much experience.

Spoud.

Sir, I cannot but like of your answer; I my selfe haue had some experience of the truth of the complaint: it is very necessary that such euils should be preuented. Now therefore that you haue thus shewed me how to make my schollars good pen-men, and that they may grow therein, as in their schoole learning; and thus prepared the way to our Grammar schoole: let vs at length come to that which hath beene the speciall end of my iourney, and wherin our chiefe trauell and imployment lieth. A first let vs begin with the rudiments of the Grammar, I meane the Accedence; wherein our first entrance is.

Phil.

Very willingly: but first let me acquaint you with cer­taine generall obseruations, which concerne our whole course of teaching, and whereof we shall haue almost continuall vse; lest we be troubled with repeating them often after.

Spoud.

It is well aduised, that wee may doe all things the most shortly, and in the best and easiest order that wee can: I pray you therefore shew vnto me what those generall obserua­tions be.

CHAP. V.
Of certaine generall Obseruations to be knowen of Schoole masters, and practiced carefully in all Grammar learning chiefely. And first of causing all things to be done with vnderstanding.

Phil.

FOr the generall Obseruations the first may be this.Schollars are to be taught to do all thing, with vnderstan­ding, and to know the mat­ter before in generall. 1. That Schollars be taught to do all things with vnderstanding; and to be able to giue a reason of e­uery matter which they learne. And so in euery lec­ture which they learne in any tongue, first to vnderstand the matter of it, and the lesson will bee learned presently.

But before I speake any more of this, I pray you let mee heare of you what course you haue taken in this point.

Spoud.

This first obseruation seemeth strange vnto me,The common course to doe all things with­out vnderstan­ding the reason of them or how to make vse of any thing. at the very naming of it. I my selfe haue vsed onely this course, and I thinke it to bee all that is done in most of our countrey schooles; To giue Lectures to the seuerall formes, or cause some schollar to doe it. And therin first to reade them ouer their Lecture, then to construe them, and in the lower formes to parse them. So when they come to say; to heare them whether they can read, say without book, construe and parse. More as I take it, is not much vsed, for the vnderstanding and making vse of them.

Phil.

I know it to be as you say; and do hold it to bee a verie great defect in schooles generally:The defect hereof excee­ding great. yea a farre grea­ter hinderance to learning, then that of letting them to lose so many yeeres, before they begin to learne. For this is a matter which of all other concerneth the credite of schooles, and furthereth learning wonderfully; to teach schollars to vnderstand whatsoeuer they learn, & to be able [Page 42] to giue a reason of euery thing why it is so; and to doe this from the lowest to the highest. My reasons are these:

1 Because if it were rightly knowen,To doe all things by rea­son, brings al­most double learning. & constantly prac­ticed in schooles, it would bring forth very neere double so much good and sound learning, as is now gotten cōmonly.

2 It would bring withall, so much ease, pleasure and de­light, both to all teachers & learners and also so much cer­tainty, & cause them to go forward with such cheerfulness, boldness and contention, as will hardly be beleeued vntil it be tried by experience. In a word; It would cause at things to be gotten much more speedily, layed vp more safely, and kept more surely in memory. Therefore, that olde rule is true; ‘Legere & non intelligere negligere est.’

To read and not to vnderstand what wee read,To read with­out vnderstan­ding and know­ledge how to make vse, is a neglect of all learning. or not to know how to make vse of it, is nothing else but a neglect of all good learning; and a meere abuse of the means & helps to attaine the same. It is no other thing but a very losse of our pretious time, and of all our labour and cost bestowed therin, in regard of that which is read with vnderstanding.

We may see triall hereof sundry waies.

1 Let children be examined together;Triall of the difference be­tween learning with vnderstan­ding & without 1. In schollars examined toge­ther, whereof one vnderstan­deth, and can giue reasons of things, the other not. I meane such as of whom one of them alone hath beene taught to do all things by reason & with vnderstanding; so that he is able to giue you a plaine reason, and make the right vse of euerie thing, which he hath learned: the other haue learned only to say without booke, to construe and parse; then mark the difference. Although all these learn one and the same Au­thor; yet when they come to the triall, you would thinke that one to haue all learning, when you heare him to giue a reason of euery thing, and that he can make vse of al things; all the rest to haue almost nothing at all, or at least nothing in regard of that one so taught.

2 Proue it thus in getting learning:2. In getting a lesson, how to do it soonest, & in the best man­ner.

Teach your schollar one lesson which you cause him to vnderstand perfectly before; another of the same matter, whereof hee vnderstandeth little or nothing: and then trie [Page 43] whether he will not doe that, whereof he vnderstandeth the meaning and reasons, almost in half the time, which the o­ther will require. And this also so, as you may euidently dis­cerne it, that hee will doe it with much more ease, certainty and boldnesse, then he can do the other.

3 Wee our selues may make triall of it by our owne ex­perience,3. In our owne experience con­struing or stu­dying out any difficult place in any Author or tongue. in construing any difficult peece of Latine, Greek, or Hebrewe, or committing any thing to memorie; whe­ther if so be that we doe but vnderstand the matter of it be­fore perfectly, wee shall not do it in halfe the time and with one halfe of the labour, that otherwise it would require.

Or if we would write or speake of any thing, let vs proue it but thus: If we first vnderstand the matter wel and haue it perfectly in our head, whether words to expresse our mindes will not follow as of themselues.

To this very purpose, for confirming the truth here­of, and to keepe a continuall remembrance of this point; these three verses of Horace were worthie to be written in letters of golde, and to be imprinted in the memorie of e­uery one who is desirous to get the best learning: for so they would indeed proue golden verses, and make vndoubtedly golden times;

Scribendirectè sapere est & principium & fons:
Rem tibi Socraticae poterunt ostendere char [...]ae;
Verba (que) prouisam rem non inuita sequentur.

The meaning of the verses, I take it to be this: To at­taine to this facultie, to bee able to write or speake of anie matter, and so to come to all excellent learning, the verie first and chiefe fountaine, and that which is all in all, is to vnderstand the matter wel in the first place. As for store of matter, the writings of learned men (such as Socrates was) will furnish you aboundantly therewith.

And when you haue the matter throughly in your head, words will follow, as waters out of a fountaine, euen almost naturally, to expresse your mind in any tongue, which you studie in any right order.

[Page 44] This will be found to be true in Latine, Greeke, Hebrew, and by a like reason in euery other tongue, and in euery fa­cultie: whether wee would write, speake, learne, resolue, or remember and lay vp for euer.

This was a principall cause that made Tully,One chiefe cause why Vir­gil and others writ so eloquēt­ly, because they were so ripe in vnderstanding, and had such store of matter. Ouid, Vir­gil, and some others so to flowe in eloquence; and especi­ally Virgil, whom men worthily account the chiefe of all latine Poets, because they did vnderstand so fully whatsoe­uer they writ of. I might instance this also in Preachers, by our daily experience; of whom some are better able to preach powerfully in two daies warning, and hauing words at will, then other in two moneths; and all because the one sort are so full of vnderstanding and matter, the other are so barren thereof.

Thus in all these examples, euery man may see a plaine demōstration of the truth of these verses of Horace, which he no doubt did write vpon his owne experience, as euerie man shall find, who will set himself to make triall. Proue & confirme what tong soeuer your schollar learns,Trie. euen from the first reading of English, if he can repeat you the matter, or the sum of it, or haue it in his head, trie whether hee will not haue the words presently. The plentifull experience which I haue seene,They who find experience will be desirous to make others partakers. of the sweete delight and fruite of this course, of causing children to doe all things with vnder­standing and reason, compared with the fruitlesse toiles and griefes of former times, do make me not only confident for the thing, but also desirous to make all other partakers of the benefit.

Spoud.

I do fully see the euidence of all that which you haue said, and therfore I must needs be perswaded of it. I do heartily thank God for it, and will indeuor my selfe to put it in practice continually.It seemeth great difficulty for masters to teach their schollars to do all things with vnderstanding. Only here is the difficulty, how a schoolemaster may do this, to teach his schollar so to pro­ceed with vnderstanding, and how to giue a reason of euery matter which they learne, to make vse of all their lear­ning.

Aboue all, how hee may beginne to fraught young [Page 45] Schollars with all store of matter, as they goe on: this very much passeth my skill. I should thinke my selfe most hap­py, to obtaine this knowledge, if it possibly can be done.

Phil.

Attend to those things which I shall relate, and I haue no doubt, but I shall very much accomplish your de­sire in this: for our whole conference, doth tend chiefly to this end. As all learning is grounded on reason: so in euery Chapter, I shall endeaur my selfe to manifest the reasons of euery thing, and how you may teach others; so farre forth, as hitherto the Lord hath made them knowne vnto me. And more hereafter, as I shall learne more. The prin­cipall meanes for their vnderstanding, is, by asking short questions of the matter: for so they will vnderstand and any thing, which they are to learne. But of that more hereaf­ter in the particular examples; and chiefly, Chapt. 24.

Spoud.

If you haue done then with this, let vs goe for­ward to your next generall obseruation; and so through them all, as briefly as you can.

Phil.

My next obseruation is this:The second ge­nerall obserua­tion. that as I would haue them to doe all things with vnderstanding; so to learne on­ly such bookes and matters, as whereof they may haue the best vse,To learne only such things, as whereof they may haue good and perpetuall vse. and that perpetually in all their learning, or in their whole life. For this is well knowne to euery one; that things well learned in youth, will bee kept most surely all the life long; because in that age they are most easily imprinted, and sticke the longest in fresh memory. And for that cause, children should spend no time vnfruitfully, in such books, as whereof they cannot haue both very good and continu­all vse. This cannot be but a great folly, to mis-spend our pretious time in such studies, whereof neither our selues nor others can haue benefite after; or else in such, as the knowledge whereof will vanish for want of practice: and much more in those, which will corrupt and hurt in stead of doing good.Filthy places in Poets omitted. And therefore all filthy places in the Poets would be wisely passed ouer, or warily expounded. It were well if there were an Index Expurgatorius, to purge out all the filth out of these, by leauing it out, or changing it.

[Page 46] Third rule,3. To note all hard words, or matters worthy obseruation. and that generall for all Students, is this: that whatsoeuer difficult words, or matters of speciall obseruati­on, they doe reade in any Author, be marked out; I meane all such words or things, as eyther are hard to them in the learning of them, or which are of some speciall excellency, or vse, worthy the noting: or which, after that they haue beene a certaine time in construction, they haue not eyther learned, or at least they knowe not where they haue learned them.Manner of marking. For the marking of them, to doe it with little lines vnder them, or aboue them, or against such partes of the word wherein the difficulty lieth, or by some prickes, or whatsoeuer letter or marke may best helpe to cal the know­ledge of the thing to remembrance; yet so much as may be, without marring of their books. To doe this, to the end that they may oft-times reade ouer these, or examine and medi­tate of them more seriously, vntill that they be as perfect in them, as in any of the rest of their bookes: for hauing these then haue they all.

This would be vniuersall,This general in getting all lear­ning. in getting all kind of learning; after that children do grow to any discretion to marke such things rightly: you will maruel (if you haue not made triall of it) how much they will go through, & what sound know­ledge they will come vnto in any kinde of study; and how soone by this helpe, more then they can do without it. And when they haue once gotten it they may as easily keepe it, & as surely, by oft-times running ouer those things, which are so noted, aboue all the rest. This is the reason that you shall haue the choysest bookes of most great learned men,The bookes of the best stu­dents thus no­ted. & the notablest students all marked through thus, in all matters eyther obscure, or of principall & most necessary vse. And this is one chiefe meanes, whereby Schollars may haue the difficultest things in their Authours so perfectly, as that whensoeuer they shall be examined of a sudden, they shall be very ready, to their great praise, and to the iust commen­dation of the Schoole.To note books of dailyvse with inke. For the manner of noting, it is best to note all schoole books with inke; & also all others, which you would haue gotten advnguem, as we vse to say, or wher­of [Page 47] we would haue daily or long practice; because inke will indure: neither wil such books be the worse for their noting, but the better,Others with blacke leade thrust into a quill. they be noted with iudgement. But for all other bookes, which you would haue faire againe at your pleasure; note them with a pensil of black lead: for that you may rub out againe when you will,How to rub it for [...]h againe. with the crums of new wheate bread.

The very little ones, which reade but English, may make some secret markes thus at euery hard word; though but with some little dint with their naile: so that they doe not marre their bookes.

Of this I shall speake more particularly in the manner of parsing, Chapt. 9.

A fourth obseruation,4. To learne all so perfectly, as the former may be in stead of a Schoolmaster to the later. is this: That whatsoeuer books or matter Schollars doe learne, after they beginne to learne without booke; that they learne them so perfectly, and holde them so surely, by daily repetition and examination, that they may haue in their mindes such an absolute know­ledge of al the words, and matters which they haue learned; as wheresoeuer they shall meete with the same againe, or shall haue occasion to vse them, they may not neede to bee driuen to learne them anew; but that they may tell of a sud­den where they haue learned them, or can repeat the place: and so make their vse and benefit of them.

To teach the same things twise,Not to neede to teach the same things twise or thrise ouer. or thrise, is a double la­bour and griefe: but to haue all things which they haue learned, euer in readinesse is a singular benefit, and a rare commendation. For besides the preuenting of all losse of labour and time, it shall be to the great delight of all who heare them tried, and the exceeding furtherance of their continuall growth in all good learning.

And to effect this yet more fully;To tell where they haue lear­ned euery hard word. acquaint them in all their Lectures and exercises, some one of them or other, who can tell first, to repeat where they haue learned euery hard word: and that chiefly in their Grammar, if they haue learned it there, to haue that exceeding perfect; and to marke surely euery new word, according to the direction which I haue before giuen.

[Page 48] A fift generall obseruation,5. That the whole Schoole be diuided into so few fourmes as may be. and which is not inferiour to any of the former, for the good both of Masters and Schollars, and the very great benefite of Schooles, is this: that the whole Schoole be diuided into so few fourmes as may be, of so many as can any way bee fitted to goe toge­ther: though they be sixteene, or twenty, yea, forty in a fourme, it is not the worse.

The reasons of it are most cleere.

1. In most things it is almost the same labour,Reasons: to teach twenty,1. It is for most part the same labour, to teach twenty in a fourme, as to teach two. as to teach two: as in reading all Lectures and rules vnto them, in examining all partes and Lectures. Like as it is in Sermons, and Catechisings, where it is the same labour to teach one, that it is to teach a thousand, if all can heare a­like. This is very generall, except in exercises of writing; wherin also great aduantage may be gotten by this means, if right order be obserued, as we shall shew after.

2. Secondly,2. The fewer fourmes, the more labour may be besto­wed in exami­ning euery title. the fewer fourmes there are, the more time may be spent in each fourme; and more labour may be be­stowed in examining euery title necessary. Which worke of continuall examination, is a notable quickner and nou­risher of all good learning; helping maruellously vnder­standing, audacity, memory, and prouoking emulation of the Schollars:Examination, a quickner of learning. and therfore a principall part of the Masters labour, and of the time in the Schoole, would be imployed in this.

3. By this meanes,Euery one of a fourme shall some way pro­uoke the others by this means. euery one of a fourme shall some way prouoke, or incourage the rest of their fellowes. If they be but dull, the rest will thinke to goe before them; but if they be more pregnant and witty, or more painfull and diligent, they shall put spirits into all the rest, and be as a spurre vnto them. For there is in our nature an inbred desire to ayme at the best, and to wish to equalize them in each commen­dable quality; if there be right meanes of direction and incouragement thereunto.

Also euery one of a fourme may some way helpe the rest:And euery one may helpe o­thers. for none are so dull, but they may happely remember some thing, which none of the rest did.

[Page 49] This I haue seene by experience,Those who but reade, to be put together so many as can be. to be the very best way; euen for those who but reade the Accedence, to put so ma­ny of them into a fourm together, as may be: they wil both further one another very much, in reading it quickly (each helping and teaching others) and also they may sooner be heard, when euery one need but to reade his piece of the same lesson, the rest helping. Thus they will goe through very fast, and be all ready to enter without booke together. Trie, and finding the benefite, you will not alter.

6 A sixt generall obseruation,6, To haue a great care that none be discou­raged. and of no lesse worth then any of the former, may be this: That there be most heedfull care, chiefly amongst all the youngest, that not one of them be any way discouraged, eyther by bitternesse of speech, or by taunting disgrace; or else by seuerity of correction, to cause them to hate the Schoole before they knowe it, or to distast good learning before they haue felt the sweetnesse of it:But all to be prouoked by emulation and desire of praise. but in stead heereof, that all things in Schooles be done by emulation, and honest contention, through a wise commending in them euery thing, which any way deserueth prayse, and by giuing preeminence in place, or such like rewards. For that adage is not so aunci­ent as true; Laus excitat ingenium.

There is no such a Whet-stone,Commendati­on the Whet-stone of the wit. to set an edge vpon a good wit, or to incourage an ingenuous nature to learning as praise is, as our learned Master Askam doth most rightly affirme.

To this purpose that sentence of Tully were worthy to be written in euery Schoole,A sentence of Tully worthy to be euer before the Masters eye. and to be set vp in such places, where it might euer stand in the Masters eye, if it were pos­sible; that so euery teacher might at length be brought to the continuall practice, of the good policy contained in it: to wit, to bend all his endeauours to prouoke all his Schol­lars, to striue incessantly, which of them shall carry away the worthiest praise & commendation. The sentence is this;

Pueriefferuntur laetitiacum vicerint,Cic. 5. de finib. & pudet victos: vt tamse accusari nolunt, quam cupiunt laudari: quos illi labores non perferunt vt aequaliumprincipes sint?

[Page 50] Besides this also,This strift for Masteries is the most commen­dable play, and a chiefe meanes to make the Schoole Ludus literarius. this same strift for these Masteries, and for rewards of learning, is the most commendable play, and the very high way to make the Schoole-house to bee Ludus literarius, indeed a Schoole of play and pleasure (as was said) and not of feare and bondage: although there must bee alwaies a meete and louing feare, furthered by wise seueritie, to maintaine authority, and to make it also Ludus à non ludēdo, a place voyd of al fruitless play & loyte­ring, the better to be able to effect al this good wch we desire.

7. To the end that euery thing in the Schoole may be thus done,7. All to haue their aduersa­ries, and so to be matched and placed, that all may be done by strift. by emulation and contention for praise; there would be a carefull sorting, and matching euery one with him, who is next vnto him in learning: for this is also a most true prouerbe; Marcet sine aduersario virtus: Vertue loo­seth the vigour and decayeth, where it hath no aduersarie. So they would be placed as aduersaries, that they may con­tend in all things, whether of them shall doe the better, and beare the bell away. Thus the whole fourmes through the Schoole, should be diuided also into two equall partes; to striue alwaies, whether side of the fourme should get the vi­ctorie: like as it is in games, at shooting, or the like. Expe­rience sheweth how this will prouoke them, to be preparing and fitting for the victory. Euen as Archers will prepare themselues by exercising, getting the best bowes & arrowes; and then making first their choyse so equall as they can, af­terwards directing their fellows; thus striuing by all means, whether side shal beat: so will it be here. But of this I shall haue more fit occasion, to tell what I thinke, when we shall speake of the manner of diuiding of the fourmes.

8. That we vse euer to appose the worst and most negli­gent of each fourme aboue all the rest;8. To vse euer to appose the most negli­gent. though euery one somthing, yet them principally. This wil make them more carefull, & cause all to come on together in some good sort.

9. That from the first entrance they be taught to pro­nounce euery thing audibly,9. Continuall care of pro­nunciation. leasurely, distinctly, & natu­rally; sounding out specially the last syllable, that each word may be fully vnderstood. But of this wee haue spo­ken [Page 51] somwhat; & shal speake more in the due place, what a grace sweete pronunciation giues vnto all learning, and how the want of it doth altogether mar, or much deforme the most excellent speech.

10. That they haue daily some speciall exercise of the memory▪ by repearing somewhat without booke;10. To haue some exercise of the memory daily. as a part in their rules the foure first daies in the weeke, the Lectures of the weeke, or some part of them on the Friday, al the rules of the weeke on the Saturday: besides matters of reports as Apologues or fables, theames, disputations, and the like.

The reason is, because the daily practice hereof, is the on­ly means to make excellent memoryes;Reason of it for making excel­lent memories. so that the memo­ry be not ouerloaden. But for this matter of saying without booke, how farre it is to be vsed, and what helpe may be had to preuent the ouertoyling, & terrifying of Schollars with it, and to supply some things better otherwise; I hope I shall take a fitter place to speake of it hereafter.

11. That for whatsoeuer exercises they are to learne,11. To haue the best patternes, of all sorts. they haue the best patternes to follow, which can be pro­cured: as in writing so for all kinde of learning, how to do euery thing; because all learning is principally gotten by a kinde of imitation, and arte doth imitate the most excel­lent nature. The patternes being singular, so shall their work proue in time, eyther to expresse their patterne very liuely, or happely to go beyond it. Of this also we shall haue occa­sion after to speake.

12. The Masters to be alwayes vigilant,12 The Masters continually to incourage themselues, and their Schollars. as good leaders; to labour to a liuely cheerfulnes, to put life & spirit into the children; & to incourage themselues in wel doing, by amen­ding whatsoeuer is amisse, & supplying each thing, wherein they are defectiue (obseruing the daily growth of their Schollars, remembring stil that worthy counsel, Tu ne cede malis, sed contra audentiorito; and also euer calling to minde whom they serue, and how their reward is with the Lord.

13. Constancy in good orders,13. Constancy in good orders, with a continu­all demonstra­tion of loue to the Schollars, to do all for their good. & exercises ought euer to be kept inuiolable; with continual demonstration of loue in the Masters towards the Schollars, & a desire to do them [Page 52] the vttermost good. This shall ouercome the most fro­ward in time; and vsed with the rest, shal vndoubtedly bring forth the fruit of their desires.

Though many moe directions might be added, yet we will content ourselues with these for the present; as being most generall and belonging to all which follow. Others we shall adde, as we shall finde the fittest occasions.

Spoud.

Certainly Sir, these rules doe very much affect and delight me, at this hearing of them; neyther can I ea­sily discerne which of them is most to bee preferred. If you had giuen mee so many crownes, you could not haue gratified mee more: I purpose to put them in pra­ctice presently, that I may finde that sweete and pleasant fruite of them, which I fully conceiue may bee attained by them.

Phil.

If you take so much delight in the hearing of them, I trust you shall doe much more in the proofe: and therefore hauing finished these, we will now at length come vnto the Accedence.

CHAP. VI.
How to make children perfect in the ACCEDENCE.

Spoud.

FOR the Accidence then, I pray you acquaint mee what you haue learned, how children may get it most speedily; and how they may be made so very perfect in it, as to answere so readily to any question thereof, as you did affirme that they may; and to make the right vse of it.

Phil.

You must euer first let me heare of you, what course [Page 53] you haue taken, and what you thinke to bee ordinarie in Schooles, and then I will supply whatsoeuer I haue learned; for that all shall be the better conceiued.

Spoud.

For reading ouer their Accedence,The vsuall mā ­ner of learning to reade the Accedence. this is all that I haue vsed; To let them reade it ouer euery one by him­selfe by lessons, as in reading other English: and so to heare them one by one, as they can say. In the harder lessons to reade it ouer before them. Thus I make them to reade ouer their Accedence once or twise within the book, before they doe get it without booke.

Secondly,The ordinarie manner of get­ting the Acce­dence without booke. for getting it without booke, I cause them to doe likewise, and to say as oft as they can. To keepe that which they haue learned, by weekely repetitions, and by saying parts. And for the meaning, to teach it after by pra­ctise. Now I pray you shew me your iudgement, and vouch­safe me your help.

Phil.

My iudgement is, according to my experience, that though this be the ordinary course,The wants in this course. yet it may be done with farre greater ease, in lesse time and with much more profit, to effect your desire: yea, to teach ten or twelue as soon and readily as you shall teach one. Also to make them more full of vnderstanding, that they shall be able to make right vse of their rules, to enter into construction, and goe forward readily together in construing, parsing & making Latine. Whereas otherwise they must be taught the vnder­standing and vse of it after: which shall be another labour, and bee as if they had not learned it at all before. Now th [...] meanes how all this may be effected are these:

1 For reading the Accedence.

So soone as they enter into the Accedence,The best means for lear­ning to read the Accedence. put so many of them into a fourm as you can well, to enter together; as was shewed before. And therein first, reade them ouer their lesson, telling them the meaning shortly, to make them a little to vnderstand it: and so they will learne it much sooner. Then let them one helpe another, as they will doe learning together,Euer one to be reading, all the rest marking & helping. and euery one will draw on another; one of them euer reading ouer the lesson, that all the rest may [Page 54] heare, and the rest telling where he misseth; and so neuer i­dle till all can read it. When they come to say, cause euerie one of the fourm to read his peece in order, in like manner the rest to help where he sticks.

By this meanes there will not bee much more labour with twelue, then with one alone. Experience also wil shew, that they will all goe forwarde more fast and surely then a­ny other way. And although that they goe faster forward, and not so very perfectly as they thus read it first, yet they will soone reade most readily, when they come to get with­out booke.

When they haue once gone through it within booke, let them begin to learne it without booke.Learning the Accedence without book, to take but a lit­tle at once. Or else if they can reade well before, you may let them learne to reade thus, as they get without booke, and so doe both vnder one. But then some howre or two would bee spent daily in the after­noon in reading,This rule must be generall of all learning that seemeth hard & of things to be gotten perfect­ly; but here spe­cially. or som day of the week separate therto: els they will somewhat forget to read, because they reade but so little on a day; which must be carefully preuēted. Therfore it will not bee amisse to reade it ouer speedily once or twise before. When they learne without book; let them vse this Caueat especially; That they take but little at a time, so as they may be able to get it quickly and well, and so go on to a new lesson: for this will harten them exceedingly to take paines, in reioicing how many lessons they haue learned and how soone they haue learned each lesson; Wheras gi­uing them ouermuch, it will put them out of heart, so that they will either doe nothing at all, or with no life.

2 Before they goe in hand with a lesson, doe what you can to make them to vnderstand the summe of the lesson first, and the meaning of it: thus. 1. Reade them ouer their lesson. 2. Then shewe them the plaine meaning of euerie thing so easily,To make them first to vnder­stand their lec­tures & how. shortly and familiarly, as possibly you can, and as you thinke that they can conceiue. After propound all vnto them in short questions, and ask the que­stions directly in order as they lie in the book answering them first your selfe. Then if you will you may aske them [Page 55] the same questions, and let them answere them as you did before,To let them answer the que­stions vpō their bookes. still looking vpon their bookes, when they aun­swere.

To require them to aunswere so, will much incourage them; because they shal find themselues able to doe it. The moe the questions are, the shorter and plainer arising natu­rally out of the words of the book, the sooner a great deale will your children vnderstand them.

And therefore any long question is to be diuided into as many short ones as you may, according to the parts of the question. Hereby the dullest capacities will come to con­ceiue the hardest questions in time, and proceed with more facility; so that the masters doe enter them thus from the beginning, stil causing them to vnderstand as they learne.

Here the masters must not be ashamed,Admonition to masters desi­rous to doe good, to be as the Nurses with little children. nor weary, to do as the nurse with the child, as it were stammering and play­ing with them, to seeke by all meanes to breede in the little ones a loue of their masters, with delight in their bookes, and a ioy that they can vnderstand; and also to the end to nourish in them that emulation mentioned, to striue who shall doe best. Neither is the wise master to stand with the children about amending the Accedence, if he thinke anie thing faulty or defectiue; but only to make them to vnder­stand the rules, as they are set downe in the booke: for this they wil keep.Exāple how to make the child to vnderstand by shewing the meaning. To make this plain by example. To begin at In Speech be, &c. First, read them over the words: Then tell them for the meaning after this manner, or the like as you please. The meaning is this; That in Speech which men vtter, there is nothing but words to cal or know things by, and setting or ioyning of words together. Like as it is in our English tongue, so in the latine, & so in other tongues. And of these words which make this speech, are not manie parts or kindes, but onely eight parts of speech. For what­soeuer can be spoken belongeth to one of these eight parts. They are either Nownes, or Pronowns, or Verbs, or one of the rest. More shortly thus; There is not any word in any language whatsoeuer, but it is either a Nown or a Pronown, Verbe, &c.

[Page 56] Also of these eight parts, the fowre first onely are such as may be declined. That is, such as each of them may bee turned or framed diuerse waies, and haue diuers endings: as Magister, magistri, magistro. Amo, amas, amat. The o­ther fowre last are vndeclined; that is, such as cannot bee so turned, and haue but onely one ending: as, Hodie, cras, &c.

Then ask them questions according to the same,How by asking Questions. follow­ing the words of the book, in this manner of the like, as you thinke good.

Q. How many parts of speech haue you? Or how ma­ny parts are there in Speech?

A. Eight.

Q. Of these how many are declined, how many vnde­clined? So, which are declined, which vndeclined?

Afterwards to aske the same questions backe againe, the last first. As, which parts of speech are vndeclined? Or how many are vndeclined? So in the next.

Q. What is a Nowne?

A. A Nowne is the name of a thing.

Q. Of what thing?

A. Of such a thing as may bee seene, selt, heard, or vn­derstood.

Q. Giue me some examples of some such things?

A. A hand, a house, goodnesse.

Q. What is the name of a hand in Latine? Or what is la­tine for a hand? what is latine for a house? and so forth.

Then aske the questions as it were backward thus:

Q. What part of speech is that which is the name of a thing, which may be seene, felt, heard, or vnderstood?

A. A Nowne, &c.

Thus to goe forward in euery rule. 1. Reading it ouer to the children. 2. Shewing the plaine meaning in as fewe words as you can. 3. Propounding euery peece of it in a short question, following the words of the booke, and an­swering it your selfe out of the words of the booke. 4. As­king the same questions of them, and trying how them­selues [Page 57] can aunswere them, still looking vpon their bookes. Then let them goe in hand with getting it amongst them­selues, vntill they can say and answer the questions without booke readily; the highest of the fourmes poasing the rest vntil they can say. By this means it wil seem so easie to them, that they will go to it most cheerfully, and get it much soo­ner then you would imagine, both the vnderstanding and the words: for the vnderstanding of the matter will present­ly bring the words, as we sayd.

As they go forward, striue to make them most perfect in these things specially:In what points of the Acce­dence the chief labour would be bestowed with the chil­dren, to make them perfect in them.

1 In knowing a Nowne, and how to discerne the Sub­stantiue from the Adiectiue. After in the signes of the Ca­ses.

Then in declining the Articles, Hic, haec, hoc; euerie Article by it selfe: as Nom, hic, Gen. huius. Dat, huic. Accus. hunc. Ablat. hoc. &c. So in the Feminines. Nom. haec. Ac­cus. hanc. Abl. hac. &c.

By beeing perfect in these Articles thus,Articles. they shall both bee able to decline any Nowne much sooner, and to know the right Gender for making Latine.

Also let them learne to decline both Latine and English together;Declining English before Latine, Latine before Eng [...]lsh. I meane Latine before English, and English be­fore Latine, both in the Articles, and other examples of Nownes, Pronownes and Verbes. As in the Articles thus: Hic this Masculine, haec this Feminine, hoc this Neu­ter. Gen. huius of this Masculine, Feminine, Neuter. Dat. hui [...], to this Masculine, Feminine, Neuter. Accus. hunc this Masculine, hanc this Feminine, hoc this Neuter, Voc. caret. Ablat. ab hoc from this Masculine, ab hac from this Femi­nine, ab hoc from this Neuter. Or hic this Male, haec this Fe­male, hoc this Neuter, &c. or hoc this thing.

So the English before, if you will: Though in these Ar­ticles it may suffice to decline the Latine first▪ so as before, and in (is) and (qui) or the like. This kinde of declining in all examples following,Benefit of this declining. will be found such a helpe, as it will hardly be thought, vntill it be tryed, both to speedie con­struing, [Page 58] parsing, and making Latine, howsoeuer it may seem at first childish, or but a toy, and of no moment. The La­tine before the English for construing. The English before the Latine,Genders. for making Latine true. Then make them as p [...]rfect in their Genders forwards and backwards. As what Gender is hic, and hic what Gender? or what is the Article of the Masculine Gender? so in the rest.

After these, make them as ready in their Declensions, not onely to knowe what Declension euery word is of;Seuerall termi­nations of the Declensions. but also the seueral terminations of [...]uery case in euery Declension, both as they learn thē one by one, according to the booke, and after to giue them together, when they haue learned them all, and that in this manner as followeth.

The Genitiue case singular of the first in ae dipthong [...]as, musae, the second in i, as Magistri, the third in is, as lapidis &c. so thorough: and backward; the Gen. of the fift in ëi, as meridiëi, of the fourth in us, as manus; the third in is, as lapidis, &c.

Then to decline perfectly euery example in each De­clension,Declining the examples in each Declen­sion. in manner as the Articles: as for example;

Musa a song, musae of a song, musae to a song, musam the song, ô musa ô song, ab hac musa from a song, or from this song. So in the Plurall number, musae songs, musarum of songs, &c.

After, English first. A song musa, of a song musae, to a song musae. &c. To giue them these signes, because they signifie thus most commonly, though not alwaies. Then appose them vntill they can giue readily any case either English to Latine, or Latine to English: which they will soone doe. So in each Declension.Declining all the examples of all the Declen­sions together. After you may acquaint them to decline all the examples of the Declensions toge­ther, putting in Regnum also, because it differeth from Ma­gister; as Nominatiuo Musa, Magister, Regnum, Lapis, Ma­nus, Meridies: Gen. musae, magistri, regni, lapidis, manus, meridi [...], &c. This will helpe them presently to ioine anie Substantiues as they fall in the same case, or the Substan­tiues and Adiectiues together.

[Page 59] So if you please, you may cause them to decline them so with the English adioined, either before the latine or after. The moe waies they are thus declined, to make them each way perfect,Giuing th [...] bare termina­tions, the shor­test way. the better they wil be learned, if time wil permit.

Of all other this is the shortest, and wherby they may be most easily kept by them, who haue anie vnderstanding, to giue the bare terminations alone together, as thus. Terminations of the Genitiue singular. ae. i. is. us. ei. Datiue. ae. o. i. ui. ei. &c.

And those vsuall signes of the cases, as a, of, to, the, ô, from. Thus to plie continual poasing, each day a little, vn­till they can giue you any termination, or [...]ase in these ex­amples. English to Latine, or Latine to English.

After to doe the like in bonus; The like i [...] bonus. thus: Bonus a good Mas­culine, bona a good Feminine, bonum a good Neuter, &c. We may English it after this manner, for the better vnderstan­ding of the children: Or as wee can finde any more easie waie.

After all these when they wex perfect in them;Declining of Substantiues and Adiectiues together. the de­clining of Substantiues and Adiectiues, of all sorts toge­ther, is of very great profit, either Latine alone together, or Latine and English both together if you will.

And first the examples of the booke. As musa bona a good muse, musae bonae of a good muse, musae bonae to a good muse, &c.

So Magister bonus, Magistri boni, &c. So Regnum bo­num. And lapis bonus, a good stone, lapidis boni, of a good stone▪ or lapis durus, lapidis duri, &c. So manus foelix, ma­nus foelicis, manui foelici [...], manum foelicem.

Or meridies tristis, meridiei tristis, meridiei tristi, meridi­em tristem. &c.

And in which you obserue them to miss most ply those vntill all be perfect.

When they are very cunning in these, then they are to be acquainted with declining other words like their examples, still keeping them to those patterns, where they miss. And first the words set downe in the margents of their books a­gainst each example.

[Page 60] Then other Substantiues and Adiectiues together. As sylua s [...]nans, syluae sonantis, syluae sonanti, &c.

L [...]o magnus, a great lion, Leonis magni of a great Lion, Leoni magno, to a great lion, &c.

Or English before. A great lion, Leo magnus, of a great Lion, Leonis magni, &c.

Vnto these adioine the daily forming of comparisons: as Gratus, gratior, gratissimus. Bonus, melior, optimus. So, Foelix, foelicior, foelicissimus: first regular, then irregular or out of rule.

Then do the like in the Pronownes,Chiefe exam­ples in the Pro­nownes of most common vse. to make them to be able to decline and giue them readily, English to Latine, and Latine to English; like as the Nownes. As Ego, I. mei of mee, &c. So backe againe. I, Ego. of mee, mei. to me, mihi. Tu thou, tui of thee, and thou tu, of thee tui, &c. Sui of himselfe or of themselues, sibi to himselfe, or to themselues, se himselfe or themselues. Is he, ea shee, id that thing, eius of that man, of that woman, of that thing, or that matter.

Qui which man, quae which woman, quod which thing, cuius of which man, of which woman, of which thing; like as you may say, hic this man, haec this woman, hoc this thing &c. or hic this Masculine, &c.

In these two and (hic) it may suffice onely to decline La­tine before, as was sayd.

So to be very readie in the persons of the Pronouns,Persons of the Pronownes. both to shewe what person euerie one is of: and to giue euerie one both English to Latine, and Latine to English. As when I say, giue your first person singular, Latine and Eng­lish; The child answereth Ego, I. or I, Ego. &c. so what per­son euerie one is.

But in the Verbes aboue all, is your diligence to be shew­ed in making them not only perfect in declining euery ex­ample to be able to decline any Verb by thē; but more spe­cially in coniugating, and being readie to giue you the La­tine to the English, and English to the Latine in any person, of any Moode, or Tense.

[Page 61] To effect this most speedily,How to come most speedily to be perfect in the verbes, which are a meane founda­tion▪ and wher­in the greatest difficulty lyeth. teach them to say first the first persons of one cōiugation alone, throgh the Actiue voyce, both Latine before English, & English before Latin, thus: Amo I loue amabam I loued or did loue, amaui I haue loued; so through the Indicatiue mood. Then English first, thus: I loue, Amo: I loued or did loue, amabam &c.

And after withall to be able to run the terminations in e­uery tense: as in amo, o, as, at, amus, atis, ant. In Amabam, bam, bas, bat, bamus, batis, bant. And likewise the persons in Eng­lish, I, thou, he, we, yee, they, according to the terminations; and then by apposing, they will presently answere any of them.

As thus; aske the childe, I loue: he answereth amo: then aske, they loue; he cannot tell. Bid him to runne the ter­minations of Amo; he answereth o, as, at, amus, atis, ant: then I say, giue now they loue: he answereth amant: so yee loue, or we loue, &c.

So aske, I loued or did loue; he answereth Amabam: then we loued or did loue: if he cannot tell, bid him to runne his terminations, and he will answere, bam, bas, bat, bamus, batis, bant. Then aske, How say you, we loued or did loue: he an­swereth Amabamus. Afterwards in Doceo: so in the rest.

When they come at the Passiue, let them doe the like: and when they haue learned it through, then let them pra­ctice to repeate Actiue and Passiue together thus: I loue, Amo: I am loued, Amo [...]: I loued or did loue, Amabam: I was loued, Amabar: I haue loued, Amaui: I haue beene lo­ued, amat us sum vel fui, &c.

Then by posing the first persons, and running the termi­nations, they will very soone giue any of the verbes in any person.

They will by this meanes goe through all the coniu­gations, and with this perfect readinesse, as soone as they will learne to say them without booke, without any vnder­standing at al if not sooner; so that they be wel applied. Yet if this preuaile not as you desire, you may exercise them [Page 62] to repeat al the persons through euery moode,These may be added if we wil [...] to make them more ready. and person, by themselues, but chiefly the first persons: as, Amo, ama­bam, amaui, amaueram, amabo: Am [...]m, amarem, amauerim, amauissem, amauero: amare, amauisse, amaturum esse: amandi, amando, amandum, &c.

So in the second persons, Amas, amabas, &c.

Or thus to coniugate those tenses together, which doe come one of another: as Amo, amabam, amabo, amem, ama­rem, amare.

So, Amaui, amaueram, amauerim, amauero, amauissem, a­mauisse.

This is accounted the speediest way; in examining here, to appose the same tenses,The manner of apposing here. of the seuerall moodes together: as the present tenses, I loue, Amo: Graunt I loue, Vtt [...]am amem: I may or can loue, amem: when I loue, cum am [...]m.

So in the Preterimperfect tenses.

To make them most perfect in this, practice them that they can giue readily,Knowledge of the terminati­ons. the terminations of the first persons, first in the Indicatiue moode, in each tense; then how the same tenses differ in the rest of the moodes,Comparing them together for memory sake, though they come not one of another. except the Im­peratiue, together with the signes of the tenses in English. As for example: the termination o, in the Indicatiue mood present tense, is in the three other moodes turned into em or am; as amo is made amem, doceo doceam lego legam, audio au­diam. In the Preterimperfect tense, bam is turned into rem: Preterperfect tense, i into rim: Preterpluperfect tense, ram into sem: Future tense bo, or am, into ro.

So in the Indicatiue moode, the terminations are these: o, bam, i, ram, bo or am. In the other three are these answera­ble; em or am, rem, rim, sem, ro.

Though these be not one formed of another; yet com­paring them thus together, wil make the children to learne them sooner by much.

Generall signes of the fiue tenses actiue, are; Doe, Did, Haue, Shall or will.

Of the Passiue present tense, Am, Is, Are or Art. Imperfect tense, Was, Were, Wert. Preterperfect tense, Haue beene. [Page 63] Preterpluperfect tense, Had beene. Future tense, Shall or Will be.

Signes of the moodes are set downe in the booke; the Indicatiue hauing no signe: the other three hauing their seuerall signes in English.

This little Table well thought on, makes all most easie.
Actiue voyce.Passiue voyce.
 Signes of the tēses in Eng­lish.Termi­nations in latine without a signe.Ter­mina­tions with a signe.Signes of the tenses in Eng­lish.Terminatiōs in lat. wthout a sign.Terminati­ons in latin with a sign.
Present tense.Do.o.em or am.Am, is, are, art.or.er, (or) ar.
Preterimper­fect tense.Did.bam.rem.Was, were, wert.bar.rer.
Preterperfect tense.Haue.i.rim.Haue beene.sū vel fui.sim vel fu [...]rim,
Preterpluper­fect tense.Had.ram.sem.Had been.rā vel fuerā.essem vel fuissem.
Future tense.Shall or will.bo am.ro.Shall or will be.ber. ar.crov [...]i fuero.

For to make the childe to vnderstand this Table,For vnderstan­ding this Table. first shew him these things vpon his booke, by comparing the Actiue voyce with the Passiue, and the Indicatiue moode in both, with the other moodes. After pose thus:

Q. Do, without a signe of the moode, how must it end in Latine?

A. In o.

Q. Do, with a signe, how?

A. In em or am.

For example:

[Page 64] Q. I doe loue, or I loue?

A. Amo.

Q. Graunt I loue.

A. Vtinam amem.

Q. I may or can loue?

A. Amem.

Q. When I loue?

A. Cum amem.

So in the Preterimperfect tense.

Q. How say you Did, without a signe?

A. bam.

Q. With a signe.

A. rem, as Amabam, amarem: Docebam, docerem. Haue, without a singe. i. With a signe, rim; as Amaui, amauerim: Docui, docuerim, &c.

The shortest way of all, and most easie for all of vnder­standing,The shortest way of all to repeat and keepe these. is, oft to repeat the bare signes and terminations; specially at such times, as when the younger sort are to make Latine: and this daily then, vntill they be perfect, or as shal be requisite, thus: Actiue signes, Do, Did, Haue, Had, Shall or will. Passiue, Am, Is, Art, Was, Were, Wert, Haue bin, Had bin, Shall or will be.

Terminations in Latine Indicat. or terminat. without a signe, o, bam, i, ram, bo and am.

  • Termin. with a signe,
    • em.
    • am.
    • rem, rim, sem, ro.

So Actiue and Passiue together.

  • o, or. bam, bar. i, sum vel fui. ram, eram vel fueram.
    • bo, bor.
    • am, ar.

  • Em, er.
  • Am, ar.
  • rem, rer. rim. sim vel fuerim. sem, essem vel futissem. ro, crouel fuero.

These gotten, all will be plaine; if you vse withall to cause them to runne the tenses, as was said, with the signes of the persons, thus: I, thou, he, we, ye, they: o, as, at, amus, at is, [Page 65] ant. bam, bas, bat, bamus, batis, bant: so in any. And withall to remember in what letters, or syllables euery person ends, both in the Actiue and Passiue: as the first persons Actiue, signifying (I) doe end commonly in o, am, em; im, or i. as amo, amabam, amem, amaui, amauerim. The second persons (or thou) in as, es, is, or sti: as amas, doces, legis, amauisti. (hee) in at, et, it. (wee) in mus. (yee) in tis. (they) in nt.

So in the Passiue, (I) in or, ar, er, (thou) in ris, or like the Actiue. (he) in tur. (we) in mur. (ye) in mini. (they) in ntur.

By these the learners may haue a great light: and though some of them be both in the Actiue and Passiue, and the Imperatiue moode doe differ so as no certaine rules can be giuen: yet they may be soone discerned and knowne. And the perfect knowledge of the Terminations beeing the speediest way to the getting the full vnderstanding, both of Nounes and Verbs in euery tongue; these would be lear­ned first, and euer kept most surely.

The benefite also of this exquisite perfection in Nounes and Verbes,No paines can be too great for perfect get­ting Nounes and Verbes. is so singular, for the speedy attay­ning of the Latine tongue, as no paines in them can be too great.

First, the very difficulty of the Latine tongue, is in these.

Secondly, these examples set downe in the booke, are such liuely patternes of all Nounes and Verbes; that Schol­lars being perfect in these, will soone be perfect in any o­ther. And for the other parts of speech, the very words are most of them set downe in the Accedence; as Pronounes, Aduerbes, Coniunctions, Prepositions: Participles, like the Adiectiues.

So that these being gotten perfectly, the Latine tongue may soone be attained in good maner; euen by the meanes following: whereas without this perfection it is very diffi­cult. So that the learners shall still goe incertainly and feare­fully.

Also by these meanes and helpes named, this rea­dinesse in them may be very speedily obtained; whereas [Page 66] onely to be able to say them without booke, without this vnderstanding, is to little purpose: and to learne them by practice in construction, and in writing exercises alone, is most long, hard and wearisome, both to Master and Schollar.

My former toyle and griefe in these, aboue all other things in Grammar (though I tried all wayes which I could heare or deuise) with the ease and benefite in this way, ma­keth me confident. For I haue found more profite by this course in a moneth, then by all other in halfe a yeare. By this practice also, it is most soone recouered when it is lost, and most easily kept.

Yet my meaning is not to haue Schollars to stay ouer­long to be so exquisite in them,Yet children not to stay o­uerlong in these. before they go any further; but to go on so fast as they can well, and to make them so ready by daily practice; spending each day a quarter of an houre, or more, in them, vntill they come to perfection.

This were not amisse, to be practiced sometimes also a­mongst the elder schollars, which are not ready in them; as also those comming from other Schooles, till they grow perfect: here should be the beginning.

If yet a shorter way can be found out, we shall haue more cause to reioyce thereof.

In the Participles, the chiefe care would be to make them perfect▪ Participles. to know the seuerall tenses by their signes, and en­dings English and Latine, as they are in the booke: for de­clining, they are the same with the Nounes.

In the Aduerbs, Coniunctions, Prepositions & Interiecti­ons,Aduerbs, Con­iunctions, Pre­positions, In­teriections. they would be made so ready, as to giue English to La­tine, & Latine to English, and to tell of what kinds they are; and also to what cases each preposition serueth: and these specially.

Here it were to be wished (as I take it) that all the rest of the Aduerbs,A want in the Aduerbs to be supplied. Coniunctions, & Interiections were also set down in the Accedences; except only such Aduerbes as are deri­ued of other words: by which words they may be knowne, or by their accents or terminations.

[Page 67] Also that some rules were set downe for framing of these deriued Aduerbes;Rules of deri­uing Aduerbs necessary; and of the Latine in the Accedence Englished. and that all the rest of the Aduerbes and Coniunctions, with all other wordes and sentences through the Accedence, were Englished, like as the Prepo­sitions are.

Hereby all these Latine wordes would soone bee learned perfectly, and proue a very great helpe, when children come to construction: for then they should haue but onely Nounes and Verbes to trouble them withall, as was said; and those most easie to be knowne, by the meanes aboue mentioned, and after.

For the English rules great care would bee had likewise,English rules. to make Schollars very ready in them: for these rules of themselues with a few other,Benefit of them well gotten. might serue for construction, or making Latine. The perfect knowledge of them also, will make the Latine rules easie, when your Schollars come at them.

In teaching these rules, these two things would be obser­ued generally:Generall ob­seruations in the English rules. first, That the Schollars learne to construe each ensample; and that without booke. Experience tea­cheth, that those which art apt, wil construe almost as soone without the booke,1. To construe the examples. as vpon the booke, or as they will learne them construed: here by they shal get so much Latin; beside that it wil be a great helpe to the perfect vnderstanding, and applying of them.2. To tell in what wordes the force of the examples doth lie. The second is, to marke out with some speciall markes, those wordes in which the force of the ex­amples doth lie; as the words agreeing, or the word gouer­ning, and the word gouerned, and to cause the children to be able to tell them:See this more plainly, in exa­mining the Syntax in La­tine. and so euer in saying their rules with­out book, to repeat ouer those wordes againe, in all the lon­ger examples. The rules or examples otherwise shall doe them little good, because they know not how to make vse of them.

But hereby they shall haue perpetuall and sure patternes and warrants for parsing, making and trying Latine. I shall shew this more plainly, when we come to the Syntax in Latine.

[Page 68] These two things being obserued,To make them most perfect in the rules of the principal Verb. Concordes. haue a chiefe regard in the rules, first, to make them perfect in the rule of fin­ding out the principall Verbe; secondly, in the Concords, as being of continuall vse; thirdly, in the rules of gouerne­ment.

And amongst those, to looke specially to the two first rules,Relatiue Qui. of the case of the Relatiue Qui: and namely, the latter of them, viz. But when there commeth a Nom. case; for in it Schollars most faile.

Also in all rules of gouernment, to make them able to tell you presently where any rule is,Gouernments. Manner of exa­mining in them and what cases such wordes gouerne: as, Where beginnes the construction of Substantiues? What cases they gouerne? How many rules there are of them? Or asking thus; What case must your latter of two Substantiues be? What case will such a word gouerne? As Opus or Vsus, What cases doe they gouerne? Where is the rule? So in the rules of the Adiectiues, and all the rest throughout.

In posing, remember that which was first directed: to marke carefully the drift of the whole rule, and so to pro­pound your question; or else to propound the whole rule in a question. As thus: when two Substantiues come to­gether, betokening diuers things; what case must the latter be? and why? or by what rule?

Furthermore, to the end to make your Schollars so very ready in the Accedence,Other helpes to make Scho­lars ready in the Accedence. and to keepe it perfectly; besides the learning all things so well as may be, there must be also, first, daily repetitions and examinations; because of the weaknesse of childrens memories: [...]. Daily repeti­tions and exa­minations. that so by long custome all may be imprinted in them.

Heerein cause your first enterers to repeate ouer euery day, all that they haue learned; as they proceede to learne more, to diuide it into partes, to goe ouer all so oft as time will permit. For them who haue learned all their Accedence, I holde it best (according to the man­ner of most Schooles) to diuide it into foure e­quall partes, except the examples of the Verbes; and [Page 69] to cause them to say a part euery of the fowre first dayes of the weeke, to say ouer the vvhole each weeke once: for the Verbes, how they specially would be parsed daily, I spake before.

In hearing parts,Manner of hea­ring parts. aske them first the chiefe question or questions of each rule in order; then make them euery one say his rule or rules; and in all rules of construction, to an­swere you in what words the force of the example lyeth, both gouernour and gouerned; saying the gouernour first. Where helpe is wanting, to doe it only in the hardest and most necessary rules and questions, or where we know them most defectiue: Or else only to repeate the rules and examples in such sort as was shewed, without further exa­mination.

Though, where there is helpe and time enough, it is far the surest, to cause them to repeate the whole part, and to examine each peece of it daily, though they say the lesse at a time.2. The spending of a moneth or two to make the Accedence perfect, after it is learned ouer. Secondly, the spending of one moneth or two, af­ter they haue first learned ouer their Accedence, to make them perfect thus euery way, will be time as well bestowed as they can bestowe any; to preuent both the griefe and an­ger of the Master after, and also the feare and punishment of the Schollar.3. Some time separate daily to examine Nownes and Verbs. Thirdly, euerie daie some time would bee separate, to the examining Nownes and Verbes; chiefely the Verbes, vntill they could not be set in declining, con­iugating, giuing any termination, case or person.

This continuall practice of parsing,Constancy in poasing till vse bring surenesse. would bee con­stantly kept as neede shall require, vntill by long vse chil­dren growe to perfection and surenesse: Because the Ac­cedence thus gotten perfectly; and after in like maner the rules of Nownes and Verbes in Propria qua maribus, Hete­roclits and in As in praesenti; the difficulty of learning is past: so that verie children, with a little practice, will goe forvvard vvith much cheerefulnesse, in construing, par­sing, making and proouing Latine, by the helps follow­ing.

Thus haue I set you downe so plainely as I can, how [Page 70] the Accedence may be gotten most speedily and profitably, to make all learning a play. Trie, and you will acknow­ledge Gods blessing herein.

Spoud.

I acknowledge your kindnesse: I can make no doubt of the courses; because, besides your experience, I see so euident reason in euery part.

Phil.

Put them in vre, and so you shall haue more full as­surance, and daily be helping to find out better, or to con­firme the pricipall of these.

CHAP. VII.
How to make Schollars perfect in the Grammar.

Spoud.

I Intend to put them in practice forthwith: but in the meane time as you haue thus louingly gone with mee, to direct me, how to make the Accedence so plaine and easie to my little ones; so I intreat you to point me out the way, how they may proceed in the Grammar with like happy successe.What is done ordinarily in Schooles in teaching Grammar. As for mine owne selfe, I haue onely vsed to cause my schollars to learne it without booke, and a lit­tle to construe it; and after, to make it as perfect as I can, by oft saying Parts: Finally, in parsing their lectures to giue the rules. This hath been all that I haue done.

Phil.

I knowe that which you mention, to bee the most that is done ordinarily: but to say without booke and con­strue a little,What things are requisite to be done in lear­ning Gram­mar. are smally auaileable, vnlesse your schollar be able to shew the meaning and vse of his rules. Yea, it is ve­ry requisite, that here also they should bee able to giue the seuerall examples, and in what words the force of each ex­ample lyeth; and so to apply the examples to the rules, to the end that they may doe the like by them, in parsing, or making Latine. And moreouer, in Nownes and Verbes, to [Page 71] bee able not onely to decline them, and to giue English to the Latine words; but the Latine words also to the English. Grammar being made perfect in this manner, will make all other their learning more easie and delightsome, and be as a Dictionary in their heads, for many chiefe words: neither will there any losse of time in it; especially this beeing done as they learne it, and still gotten more perfectly by such continuall repetitions and examinations. I haue had experience in both.

To the end that they may thus get the Grammar with most fruite and ease;To get the Grammar with most ease and fruite.

1 Let them learne euery rule (I meane) those which are commonly read in Schooles,To learne euery ordinary rule perfectly. and that perfectly as they goe forward, together with the titles set before the rules, and the summes of the rules which are set in the margents.With titles and summes.

The manner of it I finde to be most direct thus, for all the younger sort of enterers:Manner for en­terers.

Where you haue time enough,1. Reading their rules to them. in giuing them rules, do as in the Accedence.

1. Reade them ouer their rule leasurely, and distinctly.

2. Construe it,2. Construing and shewing them the mea­ning. and then shew them the plaine meaning of it, by applying the examples, as teaching them to decline the words or the like. As I shall shewe after.

Or else for most ease and speedinesse in construing, and for lacke of leasure,How they may soonest learne to construe them. cause euery one of your Schollars to haue a booke of the construing of Lillies rules, and each to reade ouer his rule, so oft vpon that booke vntill he can construe without it;Each Schollar to haue his cō ­struing booke, and learne to construe by that. or else after a time, to trie how hee can beate it out of himselfe, and be helped by that book where hee sticketh.

By the helpe of these bookes, I finde that they will learne to construe their rules much sooner, then they can without,Benefit of the vse of Lillyes rules construed I take it by almost one halfe of the time; and thereby gaine so much time, to bee imployed in other stu­dies, because they shall haue it euer before their eie with­out any asking or searching:1. To gain one halfe of time in cōstruing them. wheras otherwise either their Master or some other must tell them euery word, which [Page 72] they cannot tell, or else they must turne to it in their Dicti­onaries,And free their Masters from much trouble, and the Schol­lar from much feare and toyle. Also some re­couer their selues hauing forgot. vntill they can construe: and that so oft as they forget; which, what a toyle and hinderance it is to the Ma­ster, and feare to the Schollar, euery one knoweth. From all which they may bee freed hereby; and when they haue forgot they may soonerecouer themselues againe. Final­ly, they shall hereby increase daily in reading English, and be furthered to write true Orthography in English, as they grow in Latine. And so the Masters shall also be freed from feare of that mischiefe,Increase in rea­ding English. Masters freed from clamors of these little ones forgetting to read English, when they first learne latine; and from the clamours and accusations of their Parents in this behalfe, spoken of before.

But here it were to be wished,Wherein the construing bookes, vnder correction, may be much helped & made more profitable. that those books of con­struing Lillies rules were translated euer Grammatically; the manner of which translation I shall shew after, with the benefits of them: And also that not onely the Substantiue and Adiectiue, Preposition and his case were euer constru­ed and set together, wheresoeuer they are to be taken toge­ther;This I thinke is in hand or fi­nished. but withal that euery word were Englished in the first, proper, natural, and distinct signification. In which things they oft faile,Necessary words to bee Englished in their proper significations. as in the Verbes chiefely: though of all other things, that be more necessary, for Schollars, to know the first and naturall signification; for the other then will soone be learned, by reason and vse: or else som of the other most vsual significations might be put in, in other letters, or with notes to know them.

Thus the childe might goe surely forwarde, and haue a certaine direction for the right and proper vse of euery word, to bee more sure to him then any Dictionarie, all his life long, either for construing or making Latine: Where­as beeing set downe in generall significations not distinct, they shall euer goe doubtfully & abuse the words: as when traho, promo, haurio, are set downe euery one of them to draw, without further distinction.

The benefit would be much more, if it were thus transla­ted: for then they might learne thereby not only to con­strue [Page 73] truely, to vnderstand and goe truly; but also to make and speake the same Latine: I meane, to answer easily to all the rules, with the other benefits of Grammaticall translati­ons.

When they can construe in some good sort,Learning the rules without booke. and vnder­stand (as was sayde) then let them get without booke per­fectly.

In getting without book, when they can read it perfectly,Helps for get­ting without book all things which they learne in verse. they may bee much helped thus, in all things which they learne in verse; to reade them ouer in a kinde of singing voyce, and after the manner of the running of the verse; oft tuning over one verse vntil they can say that, then ano­ther; and so forward: which they will do presently, if the Master do but reade them so before them.

Also,So repeating the Rules in verse. to say these rules at parts sometimes, after the same manner of scanning, or running as a verse, shall make them both more easily kept, and bee a good helpe for right pro­nuntiation of quantities, and to prepare them the more ea­sily to make a verse, for authorities and the like.

When they can say perfectly without book,Construing without book. then (if you please) you may cause all those who are any thing apt and pregnant, to learne to construe also without booke: which they will do very quickly, with a little reading ouer and o­uer, vpon the construing booke; and almost as soone as they will construe vpon the booke.

By this meanes they will bee able presently to giue not onely the English to the Latine,Benefit of con­struing without booke. but also the Latine to the English, of any word in the rule, to be perfect thereby, and to keep all more firmly.

Or where leasure is wanting,Where leasure is wanting how to doe. among the elder sort,And in the elder which are well entred in the rules; they may first learne without booke, then to construe, both vpon the book and with­out: Or to construe first. It is not very materiall: but, as themselues doe finde that they can get it most easily, at the Masters discretion.

Although for all the first enterers and younger sort,The surest way for young be­ginners. I finde it the surest vvaie, vvhere the Maisters leasure [Page 74] will serue, to cause them first to vnderstand the rule and the meaning of it, by a short opening or expressing the sum of it, and then by questions in English, as I directed before: All of the learners looking vpon their bookes as hee rea­deth vnto them; that they may see the questions and an­sweres in their books, eyther wholly, or the most part ther­of.

And when they can aunswere in English, looking vpon their books, or do vnderstand the rule; then to learne to construe it of themselues, and to get it without booke.

After, ar the saying of their rules, when they haue sayde without booke and construed;At saying of rules how to examine, to cause them to answere any question. to labour especially to cause them to be able to aunswere, without book, each part of the rule, and that both in English and Latine together, after they are a little entered; that with the meaning and English, you may beate the Latine into their heads also, to helpe to prepare them to speake and perse in latine.

Let the manner of the appoasing be here,Manner of ap­poasing. as in the Ac­cedence, viz. by short questions, propounded vnto them, arising directly out of the words of the booke, either out of the summe and title of the rule set before it, or set in the margent euer against it, or out of the very words of the rule; and withall, the examples of the rule, and how to ap­ply them to the seuerall rules.

I will set you downe an example or two more at large,Exāple of ma­king the rules [...]. that you or any may doe the like the more easily. To be­gin at Propria quae maribus: Propria quae ma­ribus. first, you haue the Title be­fore Regulae generales propriorum. Out of which, you may shewe them thus;Title of it. That according to the order of their Ac­cedence, as the first part of speech is a Nowne, so here are rules first of Nownes: And as their Accedence hath first the Substantiue then the Adiectiue, so here begin rules first of the Substantiues, after of the Adiectiues. Againe, as the Substantiue is either Proper or Cōmon; so here the rules of Proper Nowns are first set downe, wherby to know the Gen­ders of them; and after of the Common Nowns called Ap­pellatiues. You may also point them in their book, where [Page 75] each of these begin: they will presently conceiue of them, being first perfect in their Accedence.

Then that the rules of Proper names, are of Masculines, or Feminines: Or all Proper Nownes are either of the Masculine or of the Feminine Gender, vnlesse they be ex­cepted.

Also all Proper Nownes which goe vnder the names of Males or Hees (as wee call them) are the Masculine Gender. Then teach them according to the margent, that of those there are fiue kindes, which goe vnder the names of Males or Hees. As names of Gods, men, floods or riuers, mo­neths, windes.

So all proper Nowns or names of Females or Shees, are the Feminine Gender. And of those are likewise fiue kinds: That is; names of Goddesses, Women, Cities, Regi­ons or countreys, Islands, &c.

Then appoase after the same manner,Appo [...]sing af­ter the same manner, to help the weakest tea­cher: for whom I haue set down the moe exam­ples. keeping strictly the words of the booke, as was sayd; onely putting in here or there, a word or two, to make the question; which by oft repeating, they will easily vnderstand. As thus, out of the words set before the rule: Or in the like manner;

Q. Where begin your generall rules of Proper Nownes? Vbi incipiunt regulae generales propriorum?

A. Propria quae maribus.

Q. This poasing in Latine if it be ouer-hard to the enterers at first, may be v­sed after a time in examining their parts. How many generall rules are there of proper Nowns? Quot sunt regulae generales propriorum?

A. Two: Duae.

Q. What is your first rule? Quae est primaregula?

A. Propria quae maribus. &c.

Then out of the margent thus:

Q. How many kinds of Proper names are there of the Masculine gender? Quot sunt gener a propriorum nominum masculinigeneris?

A. Quin (que) fiue: Diuorum, virorum, fluuiorum, mensium, ventorum.Examining out of the margent. Or as they are set in the margent. Mascula sunt nomina Diuorum, virorum, fluuiorum, mensium, ventorum. Names of Gods, men, floods or riuers, moneths, winds.

[Page 76] After,Examining out of the words of the rule. out of the words of the rule, Propria quae maribus tribuuntur, &c. you may propound your questions thus;

Q. Cuius generis dicas, Propria quae maribus tribuuntur? What Gender are all Nownes, or names of Hees, or of the Male kind. R. Mascula, or masculini generis.

Q. Cuius generis sunt nomina Diuorum? R. Masculini.

Q.Manner of ap­poasing the ex­amples of the rules. Quomodo dicis latinè, The God of Battaile?

R. Mars, hic Mars, Martis.

Q. The god of wine, quomodo dicis?

R. Bacchus, hic Bacchus Bacchi, &c.

Q. Per quam regulam? R. Propria quae maribus.

In the fewer words you can do it, for breuitie, is the bet­ter,Fewest words best. and that you may go ouer the more. Or if you think it to be too hard for children, to answer in Latine at first, and that it is best to do it only in English; you may do it follow­ing the same order.To oppose on­ly in English if children be too weak to answer in Latine. As in the next rule, Propria Foemineum, onely asking thus;

Q. What gender are proper names of Females, or Shees? How many kindes are there of them? Where is the rule for them?Manner of the questions in English, at Pro­pria Foemineum. What exceptions are there from that generall rule? Or, how many Masculine Cities haue you? How many Neu­ter Cities? How many Masculine and Neuter Cities?

So in the next rule,Appell, Arborū. Appellatiua Arborum, to ask thus or the like;

Where begin your rules of Appellatiues, or Common Nownes?

How many kinds of Appellatiues haue you? Or how ma­ny sorts of rules haue you for Appellatiues?

  • A. Three: of
    • Trees,
    • Epicenes,
    • The rest.

What gender are names of trees? What exceptions? Or how many Masculine trees haue you? How many Newters, trees? So of Epicens.

Where is your rule of words of the Epicene Gender? How many kindes haue you of words, or Names, of the Epi­cene gender?

How know you the Gender in the Epicens?

What Gender is euery Noune that endeth in um?

How know you the Gender in all Appellatiues?

Then the speciall rules,Examining of the speciall rules. thus, or the like: How many spe­ciall rules of Nounes Appellatiues haue you? Ans. Three: The first, of Nounes not increasing; the second, of Nounes increasing acute, commonly called long; the third, of Nounes increasing, graue or short, as wee call it.

What Genders each of these are of? Where are the rules for them? What examples haue you of them? So to giue the meaning, and applye the examples. How many excep­tions there are from euery one of these rules? As, how many rules of Masculines except; so of Feminines or Neuters ex­cept. Or thus: Of what Genders are all Nounes, not increa­sing in the Genitiue case, as Capra, caprae: Or all Nounes like Musa, musae? So what Genders are all Nounes of the second speciall rule? or all Nounes increasing acute, as Pietas, pie­tatis. What Gender are all Nounes increasing, graue, or flat, or short? as Sanguis, sangumis. And how many rules haue you of Masculines except from the first speciall rule? or of Masculines not increasing in the Genitiue case? How many rules haue you of long Masculines, or Masculines increasing acute, excepted from the second speciall rule? Or of Femi­nines increasing short, except from the thrid speciall rule? Or yet more plainly thus: Where is your general rule of all like Capra, caprae: or musa, musae? Or of all like Magister, magistri: or Dominus, domin.: venter ventris. Or of wordes ending in er, os, us, not increasing. Or where is your rule of all like Virtus, virtutis? Or like Sanguis, sanguinis? And of what Genders they are of.

For the exceptions,Examining the Exceptions. you may appose thus: Where is your rule of Neuters not increasing? Of Neuters increasing, a­cute or long? Of Neuters increasing, flat or short? Thus of Doubtfuls, Commons.

[Page 78] Or posing the examples,Posing by ask­ing first the ex­amples. to aske what is Latine for any word, which is in any of the rules; and then to cause them to decline the word, the Nom. and Genit. case, and to tell the rule, as was shewed before: as,

What is Latine for a cloude?

A. Nubes, haec nubes, nubis, &c.

Q. By what rule? What is the meaning of that rule?The shortest course. Thus you shall receiue diuers benefits together

Or thus only; when they haue said any rule, to aske them what is the meaning of that rule, and to giue the examples.

So in the Adiectiues, to aske thus or the like:Examining the Adiectiues.

Where begin the rules of the Adiectiues?

Where is the rule of all like Foelix? Adiectiua vnam. So of all like Tristis? Sub gemina, &c. Of all like Bonus? At si tres &c. Of Adiectiues of two Articles like Substantiues? At sunt quae flexu. &c. Of Adiectiues of a strange declining? Haec proprium quendaem &c.

For all declining to make them very perfect in the Geni­tiue case,How to make Schollars per­fect in the Ge­nitiue cases. you may practice them thus; sometimes to repeate the Nominatiue & the Genitiue case together; as in Propria qua maribus to run, thus: Mars, Martis, Bacchus, Bacchi, A­pollo, Apollinis, Cato, Catonis: So in euery rule when time will permit.

And chiefly appose them often in the most difficult,To appose the hardest oft­times. be­ing noted with some marke: as, Opus, Opuntis, Persis, Persi­dis. Barbiton, Barbiti. Senex, senis. Var, viri, Bes, bessis. Cres. Cretis. Pres, predis. Semis, semissis, and the like. The rest they will doe readily of themselues.

In the Heteroclites to do the like,Examining in the Hetero­clites. first to shew them what they are, viz. Nounes of another kinde of declining: and then the three seueral kinds of them according to the titles,

  • Variantiagenus.
  • Defectiua.
  • Redundantia:

Eyther such as change their declension, or want some thing, or haue too much. And so the seuerall rules of eue­ry one.

[Page 79] Then the seuerall rules to be examined particularly; like as in Propria quae maribus: to vnderstand euery peece: and in them speedily to looke to the Margents: to be able readily to giue the rules to them.

And to make them able to repeate the Sums and Mar­gents in order.

So to giue any rule thereby: as when I aske, Where is your rule [...] of Ap [...]ots, Monoptots, Diptots, Triptots? Of those which want the Vocatiue case, or Defecta vocatiuo, or pro­pria defecta plurali? or the like.

In the Verbes likewise shew them the order,Making the Verbes plaine. that the rules are of Preterperfect tenses and Supines: and those first of simple Verbes in o. Then compounds after of Verbs in or. Last, of those that differ in their Preterperfect tenses, or Supines.

In the simple Verbes, first are rules of the first Coniuga­tion, then the second, so in order.

After cause them to tell by the summes and Margents,Examining in them. where euery rule standeth: as where are verbes of the first Coniugation, so in the rest.

Practice them also to answere thus: The Present tense, Preterperfect tense, Infinitiue moode and first Supine to­gether. As if I aske, How say you To swim? he answereth, No. No, naui, nare, natum. So To wash, Lauo, laut, lauare, lautum. Because these being known al the rest are presently known; and to do it also for breuity sake: especially examine those Verbes often, which haue two Preterperfect tenses, or two Supines, or moe; and would therefore haue speciall marks: as vello, velli, & v [...]lsi vellere, vulsum.

For the Syntax in Latine, though the English rules, with a few moe ad [...]ed to them,Good vse of the Syntax in Latine. might serue for resoluing any construction, or for making Latin; and so many do thinke them needlesse altogether; others do vse to teach only the rules thereof, and one example only in each rule; yet there may be very good vse of them all, rightly vnderstood, and specially of the seuerall examples rightly applied: that Schollars by them may goe surely, hauing seuerall exam­ples [Page 80] to warrant almost euery thing in construction; which by the bare rule, and one example they could not but goe very doubtfully. Besides that, therby they also get so much good Latine of the best Authours, and be helped much for parsing by the wordes of the rule.

In examining the Syntax,Examining the Syntax for help of the weakest likewise. it is the best to doe it in Latine: for by that time they will be well able to doe it so, if they be rightly trained vp.All who wish well to poore countrey-Schooles, will pardon my in­deauour to be so plain, thogh in so many ex­amples. And it will much helpe them, as was said, to speake and to parse in Latine: yet still asking the question also in English, and answering both in English and Latine, so farre as neeede is; as thus, out of the words:

Q. Quot sunt Concordantiae?

R. Tres.

Q. Quae est concordantia prima?

R. Nominatiui & verbi.

Q. Verbum personale cum quo cohaeret?

R. Cum Nominatiuo.

Q. In quibus cohaeret Verbum personale cum Nominatiuo?

R. Numero & persona.

Q. Daexemplum.

R. Nunquam sera est adbonos mores via.

Q. Applica hoc exemplum: vel, Ostende voces, in quibus est vis regulae.

R. Via est.

Q. Da aliud exemplum.

R. Fortuna nunquam perpetuò est bona.

Q. Applica.

R. Fortuna est.

Q. Repete regulam.

R. Verbum personale cohaeret cum Nominatiuo, &c.

Q. Dic Anglicè. R. A Verbe personall agreeth, &c. In the next rule, Nominatiuus primae vel secundae per­sonae &c.

Q. Vtrum exprimitur Nominatiuus primae vel secundae personae?

R. Rarissimè.

Q. Quibus de causis exprimitur?

[Page 81] R. Causa discretionis, aut Emphasis gratia,

Q. Da xemplum vbi exprimitur causa discretionis.

R Vos damnastis.

Q. Quid intelligis per vos?

R. Vos damnastis, & nemo praeterea, &c.

So likewise in the rules of gouernment:Examining in the rules of go­uernement. as at Adiectiua quae desiderium, &c.

Q. Adiectiua quae significant desiderium, notitiam, memo­riam, &c. quem casum adsciscunt?

R. Genitiuum.

Q. Da regulam.

R. Adiectina quae desiderium, &c.

Q. Da exemplum.

R. Est natura hominuus nouitatis avida.

Q. Applica.

R. Auida nouitatis.

To helpe the examining the Syntax the better,Helpes to spee­die examining and applying the force of the examples. those wordes also (in euery example throughout the Grammar) would be marked, in which the force of the example lieth; as was aduised in the English rules; The word gouerning, or more principall, with two marks, or with a double mark: the word gouerned with one; or at least the chiefe word or gouernor with some letter or marke distinct frō the gouer­ned. And then euer in saying the ensample,In saying their rules, after each example repea­ted, to repeate those words, in which the force of the example heth. to repeate again those wordes onely, in which the force of the example ly­eth; the gouernour or principall first: as in the English rules, so here. As thus; in saying, Est natura hominum noui­tatis auida; to repeate againe, auida nouitatis. Mens futuri praescia; praescia futuri. Crescit amor nummi quantum ipsa pecunia crescit; amor nummi, &c.

By this kinde of repeating,Benefit of this kinde of repea­ting. or continuall apposing where they misse, by asking thus, Da exemplum, vbi est vis regulae; They will become exceeding cunning to vnderstand and apply rightly any example of the Grammar, so fast as they can repeate it; or to apply any other thereunto; or else to make the like: that so they may euer haue sure patternes for all parsing, making and trying Latin.

[Page 82] Though this may be though an easie matter,Difficulty here­of, vnlesse they be thus taught. and that euery Schollar can doe it; yet trie it, and it will be found cleane contrary almost throughout, and to trouble many weake Masters to apply many of them aright. It is a mat­ter most necessary: because the very life of the examples is in these; and the profite will doubly counteruaile the paines.

With a little practice, they will almost as soone say their rules this way, applying each example, as without.

Spoud.

I discerne euidently the great benefite and fur­therance to Schollars, to be able to repeate the examples of euery rule, in such sort as you haue shewed, for continu­all vse both in parsing, and in making and writing Latine surely; as also to haue the summes of the rules which are in the Margents, and before the rules, perfectly: but chil­dren cannot possibly get these, vnlesse their bookes bee marked so, as you directed.

And for the Masters to marke all their Grammars so, it is an infinite toyle,The trouble and inconueni­ence in mar­king the books, chiefly by Schollars. and hinderance to him: to marke some one, and to cause the Schollars to marke theirs thereby; they will doe them so falsly, as will oft more hinder then further, besides the trouble in it: also the summes of the Margents are very defectiue.

Phil.

For the supplying of all this,The Grammars are procured [...]o be thus printed, as to be most easie and profi­table for schooles, with­out inconue­nience. and the auoyding of all these inconueniences, and other like, and for making our Grammar farre more easie and profitable to the Schollars, without any alteration; the Grammars are procured to bee so printed, as to be most plaine herein: all the words wherin the force of the examples doth lie, being printed in differing letters; that the least childe may bee able to discerne them, and so to apply and repeate them: and also the Margents made more perfect. What is missed or defectiue herein, shall (as I hope) bee supplyed here­after.

Spoud.

Sir, al Schooles must needs hereby receiue an ex­ceeding benefit; as I see plainly by that which you haue she­wed for the vse of them. But I pray you proceede, and let [Page 83] me heare what other helpes you haue, for examining your Schollars, so as they may fully vnderstand their rules.

Phil.

Other helpes for the examination and vnderstan­ding the rules,Other helpes to examine and vnderstand the rules. are these;

1. Where they cannot vnderstand any question, or an­swere; remember that, to teach them to vnderstand, by re­peating English and Latine together,How to make them to vnder­stand and an­swere any que­stion in Latine. vntill they fully vn­derstand it. For, as was said before, if they haue the meaning in their heads, wordes, with oft repeating, will easily bee gotten to vtter their minds, especially hauing them in their bookes.

2 Also this may further to vnderstanding,To giue Eng­lish rules to the Latine. to cause them to be able to giue the English rules, answering to euery La­tine rule, of those which haue English rules; to set markes vpon those Latine rules, which haue no English: and to an­swere to them that they haue no rule, but to be able to giue the meaning.

3 These meanes may also much profite to the easie get­ting, full vnderstanding,Other helps to get the rules easily, and to keepe them perfectly; re­peating the Ti­tles and Mar­gents in a con­tinued speech. and perfect keeping of the rules; oft to reade ouer, and keepe perfectly the summes of the rules, which are eyther set before them, or in the margents; as was noted so to repeate them in order. Thus to be able to report all the summe; like as of the Accedence, so of the Grammar, as in a narration or continued speech, as thus:

Regulae generales propriorum, Mascula sunt nomina Diuo­rum. Virorum, Fluuiorum, Mensium, ventorum. Foeminina. Dearum, Mulierū, Vrbium, Regionum, Insularum. Exceptio. Regulae generales appellatiuorū. Arborū. Epicoena. Volncrum, ferarum, piscium. Exceptio generalis. Vsus trium regularum specialium. Prima regula specialis, &c.

So to know to giue readily the beginning of euery rule in order; as,To repeate the beginnings of the rules in a continued speech. Propria quae maribus. Propria foemineum. Excipien­da tamen quaedam sunt, &c. Appellatiua arborum crunt, &c.

By these meanes they will be able both to answere the questions in Latine, with a very few other words: and also to giue any rule presently when but the sum is demaunded or any word belonging vnto it,Benefits of these. to tell where the rule is, and to begin it.

[Page 84] To hauean Idaea or generall notion of all in their heads,Idaea. as if it were before their faces; which Idaea doth make any learning most easie, eyther to be gotten or kept.

Hereby also that shorter examination and repetition of parts, may sometimes serue where time or helpe is wanting;Shorter exami­nation and re­petition. and in parsing their Lectures, to rid twise so fast, when they can in a word signifie a rule, eyther by the word in the Mar­gent, or before the rule, or by the beginning of the rule.

As to say in parsing, It is so, by the rule of the first con­cord: or per concordantiam Nominatiui & Verbi &c. Per regulam Accusatiui ante verbum infinitum, &c. Or to repeate onely a word or two of the beginning of the rule; as Verba infiniti modi, &c. or the like.

To this end it were to be wished that the summes of the rules were set more perfectly in the margents,Summes to be perfected. in a word or two in all the Syntax,This is repor­ted to haue his Master Bruns-words order. as they are in the Nounes, to haue some speciall name to be called by: as, Adiectiua desiderij, verbalia in ax. Nomina [...]artitiua; & the like.

In hearing parts in straights of time, thus we may exa­mine only in those places where we most suspect their neg­ligence:Helpe in hea­ring parts in straights of time. asking first the summe of the rule, with an exam­ple in it; and then to cause him whom you examine, to say that rule. Or to aske only an example of the rule, and cause them to apply it, and to giue the rule.

I haue set down all these,To vse the most profitable that we may take and vse which we finde most profitable. The shorter the better, as was ad­uised; so that we make sure that they doe fully vnderstand the rule, and can make vse of it.

One rule, so learned with vnderstanding, is more profita­ble,The profite of rules thus learned. then if they could say euery word in a hundreth; and could but onely repeat them ouer as parats, without any knowledge to make the right vse thereof.

Spoud.

Sir▪ I do like very well of these things which you haue said; yet for the helping of my memory and practice, tell me againe shortly, which you account to be the princi­pall: wherein chiefe care would be had, to the end to make all easie; also to keepe all, and to make right vse thereof.

Phil.
[Page 85]

This I account and finde the chiefe; to haue them perfect in the order both of the whole,The summe of all: wherein chiefe care would be had. and also of all the parts in Grammar, as I shewed; and also to be able to repeat the Titles, with those margents which are necessary; the be­ginnings of the rules; and to haue the vnderstanding of them, and examples; and also to be able to apply the exam­ples for the seuerall words wherein the force is: and so to giue any rule of a sodain, either the beginning or the sum of it; and the words wherein the force of the rule is.

Spoud.

Oh, but this is a matter, that is most accounted of with vs; to haue them very perfect in saying all their Gram­mar without booke, euen euerie rule; and wherein I haue found much griefe and vexation: because I haue not been able to cause my schollars to get their rules so perfectly; and much lesse to keepe them: and hereby, euer the say­ing parts hath been the greatest fretting to me and feare to my schollars, for the negligence of most, in them; so that do I what I could, yet I haue neuer been able to bring most to any commendable readinesse in them.

Phil.

To this I answere you;Difficulty of keeping the Grammar rules perfectly with­out booke. that this indeede is one prin­cipall thing, that makes our calling the more vncomforta­ble: and I doubt not, but that the griefe, which the best doe finde therin, is a means to humble them, and to keep them that they be not too much lift-vp in the rest. And indeed it were to be wished that the rules were much shorter: but sith we see not how that may possibly be helped, without much greater inconuenience; we must in this, as in the rest of our inconueniences, vse all the wisdome that wee can, to make a benefit of necessity, and the burden so light, as we may. And that,How helped. thus. 1. Making our schollars to learn them so perfect­ly as we can. 2. To keep chiefly the things last learned, by oft repetition. 3. Continuall care for parts; and so much as may be, to let them haue som little time ouer night, to read them ouer, against morning. 4. to cause them at least where time wil not serue, to repeat the summes of the rules: and by daily examining to make them able to giue you the sum or beginning of any rule, with the meaning of it, and to apply the examples.

[Page 86] And therin to content our selues, if we can but obtaine so much of many,Such a perfect saying euery rule, not so ab­solutely neces­sarie. as to be able to vnderstand and make vse of the rules, or to turn to them, though they cannot say them readily: for we see most Schollars, when they come to the Vniuersities, to forget that perfectnesse in their Grammars, and most learned men cannot say the rules; yet so long as they haue a full vnderstanding and remembrance to make vse, in resoluing, writing, or speaking, this sufficeth.

Lastly, this shall much helpe, to cause them in prepa­ring their lectures in construction,Other helpe to haue the Gram­mar perfect, to turne to each rule as they parse. to turne to euerie hard rule as they parse, and then to get these rules readily; and so euer to come to say, with their Grammars vnder their arms.

And also in examining lectures, to cause them to tell you where they haue learned the seuerall harder words, at least in their Grammars.Note in exami­ning lectures. For this I find, that the most ordina­ry words are in some part of their Grammar, or the words whereof they come, or some very neere vnto them, wherby they may remember them.

Thus may they becom very exquisite in the Grammar,Grammar to be made as a Dictionary. in time; and haue it (as I said) as a Dictionary in their minds, not to need to seek here or there for euery word.

In the higher fourmes,Seldomer repeating rules in the higher formes may serue. where daily repeating rules hin­dereth much other learning, if they repeat them but some­times, and can answere in a word or two, giuing the sum of each rule, it may suffice; although it is a great commenda­tion to haue the Grammar ad vnguem, and to giue an ex­ample of each thing belonging vnto Grammar.

Thus haue I shewed you what I haue yet learned concer­ning making Schollars perfect in the Accedence,Readinesse of schollars in Ac­cedence and Grammar, will helpe to make the Schoole­masters life most pleasant. & Gram­mar: wherin as you see, I haue been much longer; because I finde this by experience, and therefore dare constantly af­firme it, that if this bee once archieued in a school, to haue the schollars thus made perfect in Accedence & Grammar as they proceede, the life of a Schoolemaster may be made as full of ioy and contenment, without wearisomnesse, on­ly in obseruing the fruit of his labours, as I touched, as the life of any in any other calling whatsoeuer: whereas of the [Page 87] otherside, much of our fretting toile, ariseth only for want of this.

Spoud.

I would therefore thinke it a most profitable la­bour, to set downe this maner of examining the Accedence and Grammar, by Question and Answere particularly; that not onely the weakest Schoolemaster amongst vs, but e­uen our schollars themselues might bee able so to oppose and whet one another. I my selfe haue seene diuers books of questions of our Accedence and Grammar, beeing ga­thered by learned men; yet in none of them haue I obser­ued (so far as I remember) sundry of the principall of these points.

Besides, that no man can so wel examine the Accedence and Grammar by them; because, first the words of their Question and Aunswere, doe not arise so out of the words of the rules as you direct: neither doe they euer keepe the order of the rules; and they haue moreouer sundry o­ther hard questions intermixed, and sometimes many toge­ther, that my schollars haue not beene able to make vse of them, nor my selfe very little, in regarde of that which I might if they had been so framed.

Phil.

I my selfe haue had experience of the same in them: insomuch as though I haue greatly desired and tried to vse some of them in my schoole, in regard of the profit which I haue conceiued might come by them; yet I haue not bin able without further inconuenience. And euer as new schol­lars haue come to any schoole, so they haue beene alwaies to seeke in those new questions, as that I haue been inforced to leaue them off vtterly.A most plaine m [...]nner of ex­amining Acce­dence & Gram­mar, collected, to help to make al schollars perfect therein; called, The po­sing of the parts. In consideration whereof, and of the generall want herein; as also of the publique benefit, which I am certainly assured, may come by such a labour as you speake of; I haue indeauored by the helpe of all such bookes of Questions and Answeres, of Accedence and Grammar, as are extant, which I could procure; as like­wise of some written, togather one in this sort, hauing all the Questions & Answers arising most directly out of the [Page 88] words of the rules. In which, I haue chiefely followed the order of the Quest. of that auncient Schoolemaster▪ Ma­ster Brunsword, of Maxfield, in Cheshire, so much com­mended for his order and Schollars; who, of al other, com­meth therein the neerest vnto the marke. This I haue stu­died to make so plaine, as euery childe may by it both pre­sently vnderstand the meaning of each rule; and, if he can say the rules, may as soone be able to answere these questi­ons: and wherby they may also poase one another (as you wish) to make all rules and parts most familiar. I haue in it tied my selfe strictly to the order and words of the rules, as it may serue for continual poasing, and speedy examining Parts: and that from what schoole soeuer they come, if they can say the Accedence, they may presently answere these questions. Other questions which I haue thought needful, I haue set in the margents, directly against the questions, to be learned after, if you will, without troubling the learner, and that nothing may be wanting. But, for this book, I re­ferre you you to the Epistle Dedicatorie before it, and the questions themselues.

Spoud.

Sir, I see well you haue spared no labour, to seeke to draw-on the little ones with ease & delight, and to make schollars most perfect Grammarians; which all the learned do so highly commend. I trust I shall be partaker hereof.

Phil.

It is and hath been my desire, to hide no part of my talent; but to imploy all to the best, and communicate it to euery one to whom it may doe good: and especially the little ones, in whome is the chiefest hope of most of our countrey schooles, and of the age to come.

CHAP. VIII.
Of Construction; how to make all the waie thereof most easie and plaine.

Spoud.

WEll then (good sir) now that you haue thus farre forth directed mee, how to lay so sure a foundation, for my schollars to build vp­on; I doubt not but you can indeed guide me forward, how they may build vpon it as speedily & hap­pily, both for their construing, parsing, and making La­tine.

To begin therfore with construction, which is the first thing that our children enter into, after their Accedence, and Rules: I desire greatly to heare of you those things which you affirme may be done by schollars;Things see­ming difficult in cōstruction. and wherby all the way of construction may be made so easie. As name­ly, that children should bee able to take their lectures of themselues, truely and perfectly; and likewise with vnder­standing vpon sure grounds: or at least to do it with a very little help of their Masters, in such places where they doubt. So the rest which were mentioned in the note: as that they should be able to construe, both in propriety of words, and also according to the right sense and meaning. To do this at any time, in all that which they haue learned, to con­strue out of a translation in English, as out of the Latine it selfe.The ordinary toile of m [...]sters about giuing lectures, and to cause their schollars to const [...]ue.

These things, doe iustly seeme strange vnto mee; be­cause I am faine to giue euery lecture my selfe: or if I ap­point the fourmes aboue to giue them; yet I am compelled to heare the giuing of them. And so I haue as great a trou­ble, [Page 90] when they construe false to direct them right; That it were as much ease to mee to giue them, myselfe; and so I should bee freede from the griefe that I haue, when they cannot doe it, and from other inconueniences.

Besides, to reade the lectures in proprietie of words,Difficulty in taking lectures in proprietie of words & sense. phrase, and sense also; this seemeth to mee a matter of some difficultie for many poore countrey Schoolemasters; and not onely for the younger and weaker sort, but also for some of the more ancient and experienced; and requireth reading and iudgement; that I do not see how schollars can possibly do it.

Moreouer,Hardnesse for schollars to re­member how they were con­strued, and the trouble therein. when I haue giuen my schollars their lectures or haue heard them giuen, vnlesse they marke very well; yet they w [...]ll commonly mis [...]e in some part of that which I haue read. And if the chiefe of the fourme mistake or goe false, all the rest of the fourme likewise construe false, be­cause they depend on them: and so oft as they doubt I am sai [...]e to t [...]ll them▪ what businesse soeuer I haue; which dooth exceedingly trouble mee. They also are afraide to aske mee so manie things, and it may bee the same things againe and againe: wherby it commeth to passe that when they come to say, fewe of them can construe, or hardly a­ny of them perfectly: which increaseth oft my passion, and their feare.

Finally, this I account the worst of all, that when I haue taken a great deale of paines,Griefe of the Masters for their schollars forge [...]ing of that which they haue learned. and haue made my schollars very ready in construing & parsing; yet come and examine them in those things a quarter of a yeer after, they will be many of them as though they had neuer learned them, and the best farre to seeke: whereby, when gentlemen or others come in and examine them, or their friends try them at home, in the things which they learned a quarter, or halfe a yeere b [...]fore; they are ordinarily found so rawe, and to haue so f [...]rgotten, that I do receiue great reproach, as though I had taken no paines with them, or as they had profited nothing.

And for that of beeing able to reade, construe, and [Page 91] parse lectures, or whatsoeuer they haue learned, out of an English translation, I haue not made triall; though I know they cannot doe it, being harder, then the construing and parsing of the Authors themselues: albeit it cannot be, but a matter of exceeding profit, and must needes helpe to make schollars very soone.

Therefore, if you can direct mee, how to doe all these things, which you haue mentioned in this behalfe, so to construe and parse of themselues, and that out of the bare English translation, and also that they shall bee able to goe certainely, and vppon sure grounds; I must needes ac­knowledge my selfe to haue receiued an incomparable and a perpetuall benefit: and you shall indeede euen heer [...]in helpe to make my burden far more light, and my whole life much more comfortable; besides, that my schollars shal be beholden vnto you [...]or euer, for deliuering them from so much feare, and setting them to go so fast forwarde with such alacritie, as should appeare.

Phil.

Surely, sir, all this may bee done, by the perfect knowledge of their Accedence and Grammar rules first, and then the practice of that golden rule of construing,All th [...]s may be done by the practice of the rule of constru­ing & of Gram­matical transla­tions. together with Grammaticall translations of the first ordina­rie schoole Authours, framed according to the same rule, if they be translated rightly in propriety of words, phrase and sense.

By these I dare be hold to affirme vpon sure experience, and the trials of many very learned, that all these things may bee effected amongst th [...]se who are apt, without any inconuenience at all, if they be rightly vsed▪ as I shall direct you the manner after. But without them, I cannot finde how possibly the inconueniences, which you haue recited, can be preuēted, or these benefits can be attained in any like measure; chiefly in the greater schooles, where many schol­lars are.

Spoud.

For that golden rule of construing and the Grammaticall transl [...]tions which you mention,The rule of [...] vn­heard of to the most. I knowe not vvhat you meane: N [...]yther haue I euer heard of [Page 92] any such. Haue you any other rule of construing, then our Grammar teacheth? or any such translations made according to it, in this propriety which you speake of?

Phil.

Yes indeede sir, there is a speciall rule, and such translations also: by the constant practice whereof, not onely the former euils may bee auoided, and the benefites mentioned may bee obtained; but also the way to all con­struing, parsing, examining, making, writing, speaking, and also trying Latine, may be made most easie and plaine; So, as children may proceede vpon sure grounds, and doe all things herein with vnderstanding, and right reason, and far more speedily, and with more delight, then vsually.

And howsoeuer this rule bee vnknowen of most, who neuer heard of any such particular rule of construing, but only of such directions, as may be gathered here and there, out of our Accedence and Grammar, where they are dis­pearsed thorough all,This rule is set downe by sun­dry learned Grammarians. very hardly to be discerned; yet it is set downe by sundry learned Grammarians. As by Susen­brotus, Crusius, Cosarzus, and our ancient Schoole master Master Leech, in his little questions of the Accedence and others, as also lately by learned Goclenius; though in all of them imperfectly, and differing somewhat each from o­ther, through the diuers exceptions in the Grammar rules and varietie of Grammars. Crusius hath also examples of the practice of the rule handled at large. It would be ouer­tedious to set them downe all, or what each of them hath written thereof.

Yet because the rule hath some difficulty, and that wee may consider the better of it, I will rehearse it briefly out of one or two of them. And seeing we are to deale for the first enterers into construction,The rule, as M. Leech hath it, I will set it downe first, as Master Leach hath it, who is the plainest.

His words are these;

Q. What order will you obserue in construing of asen­tence?

A. If there bee a Vocatiue case I must take that first: then I must seek out the principall Verbe & his Nominatiue [Page 93] case, and construe first the Nominatiue case: and if there be an Adiectiue or Participle with him, then I must English them next, and such wordes as they gouerne; then the Verbe: and if there follow an Infinitiue moode, I must take that next; then the Aduerbe; then the case which the Verbe properly gouerneth: and lastly, all the other cases in their order; first the Genitiue, secondly the Datiue, &c.

Q. What if there be not all these words?

A. Then I must take so many of them as be in the sen­tence, and in this order.

Q. Is this order euer to be obserued?

A. No: it may be altered by Interrogatiues. Relatiues, Infinitiues, Genitiues of partition, and Coniunctions.

Q. What speciall things must bee obserued in constru­ing?

A. That the Nominatiue case be set before the Verbe, the Accusatiue case after the Verbe, the Infinitiue moode after another moode: the Substantiue and the Adiectiue must be construed together; except the Adiectiue do passe ouer his signification vnto some other word, which it go­uerneth.

The Accusatiue, before an Infinitiue moode, must haue the word (that) ioyned with it.

The Preposition must be ioyned with his case.

Afterwards he giues a short example hereof.

Crusius,The rule, ac­cording to Crusius. from whom I receiued the first light heereof long agoe, he hath it something otherwise; though for the substance it be the same: whose wordes also, because hee is but short, I will set downe; and the rather, for that there are so many learned, who haue not so much as heard of the rule. The words of Crusius are these:

De ordine verborum in construendo & interpretando.Crusius in his Latine Gram­mar, pag. 382,

QVotuplex est ordo verborum?

Duplex. Naturalis & Artificiosus.

[Page 94] Quid est naturalis?

Est Grammaticus ordo docens quid primo, secundo, aut po­stremo loco ponendum sit.

Quid artificiosus?

Quo Oratores, Historici, Poëtae & Philosophivtuntur.

Quid est ordo verborum naturalis?

1. Sumitur Nominatiuus Substantiuinominis, qui dicitur subiectum aut quicquid vim Nominatiui habet.

Huic additur Adiectiuum, aut quicquid Nominatiunm ex­plicat. Saepe sententiam inchoat Vocatiuus, aut particulae Qrati­onem connectentes, aut Ablatiui absoluti, aut Relatiua.

2. Verbum finitum personale, quod vocatur Praedicatum. Impersonalia constructionem sine Nominatiuo inchoant.

3. Casus obliqui, inter quos dignior praecedat.

Saepe Infinitinus: quem antecedit Accusatiuus cum adest.

Saepe Aduerbium, aut Nominatiui gestuum ac similes: quae statim verbo subijciuntur.

Interdum Gerundia, aut Ablatiui absoluti.

Praeterea,

Praepositiones cum suis casibus.

Deni (que), Coniunctiones quae superioribus alia attexunt, in quibus idem ordo seruandus est.

Sic in quauis lingua.

Comprehende ista mihi regula quam potes breuissima.

DIctio regens praeponenda est ei quae regitur:

Quae declarant postponenda sunt ijs quae declarantur. Thus farre Crusius, of the rule.

Sp [...]ud.

I pray you expound it somewhat more at large, that I may conceiue of it yet more fully.The rule ex­pounded more [...].

Phil.

I will endeauour to doe as you say; although for the more curious handling of it, I will leaue it to some o­ther or else referre it to a farther time,The [...]urious. [...]. because of the diffi­culty of it, through the manifold exceptions, as I noted, especially in the longer and more intricate sentences: wher­in [Page 95] I take it very hard, to set down any direct rule particularly.

Therefore for the better vnderstanding of the rule,Generall ob­seruations for the better vn­derstanding of the rule. we are to obserue,

1. That the Schollar must reade the sentence, before he construe; and in reading, that he doe it distinctly, reading to a Period or full point, and there to stay.1. That the Schollar reade before he con­strue.

2. To marke the sentence well, and to obserue all the points in it, both Commaes and Colons; or lesse distin­ctions,2. To mark the sentence well, and all the points in it. and middle distinctions: that so hee may see and consider both the beginning, middest, and end of the sentence together; and also each clause in it.

3. That if there bee any wordes in the sentence, [...] To marke words begin­ning with great letters, and in­cluded in a Pa­renthesis. be­ginning with great letters, except the first wordes of all; to remember that those are proper names: and also if there be any wordes included within a Parenthesis, or two halfe Moones, as they are tearmed, that they are to be construed by themselues.

4. That hee seeke to vnderstand what the matter is a­bout:4. To vnder­stand the mat­ter. and so in continued speeches, to marke what went be­fore.

5. To obserue if there be a Vocatiue case.5. To marke if there be any Voca [...]iue case.

6. To seeke out carefully the principall Verbe, by the rule in the Grammar of finding out the principal Verb,6. To seeke out the princi­pall Verbe, and obserue that wel, as directing all. viz. If there be moe Verbes then one in a sentence, the first is the principall except it be an infinitiue moode; or haue be­fore it a Relatiue, or a Coniunction as vt, cum. si, &c. Which principall Verbe being found out, doth commonly point out the right Nominatiue case: which Nominatiue case is that, which agreeth with it in number & person; and it doth also direct all the sentence very much. So that this may be accounted as the load-star, guiding all.

7. To marke the clauses which haue no Verbs in them,7 To giue e­uery clause his right Verbe. to fit them with their owne right Verbes, expressed or vn­derstood: for no clause can be without a Verbe.

8. To supply all such wordes as are wanting,8. To supply all words wan­ting. to make perfect sense and construction.

9. To giue euery word his due signification and pro­per9. To giue each word his due signification and proper signe. [Page 96] signe, so farre as sense will beare.

10. To ioyne the Substantiue and Adiectiue together in construing,10. To ioyne Substantiue and Adiectiue, also Preposition and case. except the Adiectiue doe passe ouer his sig­nification into some other word, which is gouerned of it. Also to ioyne the Preposition with his case.

11. To marke whether the sentence haue not an Inter­rogatiue point:11. To marke if the sentence haue not an In­terrogatiue point. then to reade it as asking a question; and then the Nominatiue case is to come after the Verbe, accor­ding to the rule of the Accedence: or otherwise to bee set directly before it, if our English phrase will beare it.

These things obserued, then the order proceedeth thus vsually:

1. If there be a Vocatiue case,The order of the rule: to take to take that first and what­soeuer dependeth of it,1. The Voca­tiue case, or whatsoeuer is in place of it, or hangeth of it. that is whatsoeuer agreeth with it; or is gouerned of it to expresse it; or in stead of a Vocatiue case, an Interiection of Calling or Exclamation, or an Ad­uerb of Calling, Wishing, Shewing, Exhorting, or Swearing, Affirming, or the like; which haue the nature of Interiecti­ons, if there be any such.

2. The Nominatiue of the principall Verbe,2. The Nomi­natiue case, or whatsoeuer is in place of it, or dependeth of it. or whatso­euer is put in stead of the Nominatiue case, and such words as depend on it; as namely, an Adiectiue or Participle, and such wordes as they gouerne: or a Substantiue, being the latter of two Substantiues.

3. The principall Verbe,3. The princi­pall Verbe, and whatsoeuer de­pendeth on it. and whatsoeuer hangeth or dependeth on it: as if there follow an Infinitiue moode, to take that next, and the Aduerbe, which is ioyned common­ly to the Verbes, to declare their signification.

4. The case which the Verbe doth properly gouerne next vnto it selfe,4. The case which the Verb properly go­ [...]erneth. which is most commonly the Accusatiue case, and whatsoeuer hangeth on it; or an Accusatiue case before an Infinitiue moode in stead hereof.

5. Then follow all the other cases in order;5. All the o­ther cases in order. first the Genitiue, then the Datiue or Ablatiue, with a Preposition, or without.

This is the sum of the rule, as it is most generall and na­turall.

[Page 97] Yet here these things must be remembred:Other cautiues in the rule.

1. If all these words be not in the sentence which is to be construed,1 To take so many words as there are in the same order. to take so many of them as there are, and in this order.

2 That the order is changed by the Relatiue Qui quae, 2 The order is changed by Relat. Interrog. Indef. Partit. wordes of de­pendence and Connexion. quod: also by Interrogatiues, Indefinites, Partitiues; because these (according to the Grammar rule) follow the rule of the Relatiue; going before the words wherof they are gouerned. So likewise Aduerbs of likenesse (as, Quemadmodum, vt, ve­luti, sicut) when they haue sic or ita answering to them in the second part of the sentence, doe vse to goe before. As also Coniunctions Copulatiues, Rationals, Aduersitiues, hauing their Redditiues following, answering vnto them: so Exple­tiues, and certaine others:

Finally, all such wordes as these mentioned (which wee may call wordes of dependence, because they depend on something going before or comming after in the same sentence) or else wordes of Connexion, seruing to knit new sentences to the former (as these Coniunctions) are to bee placed next the Vocatiue case: or in the first place, where there is no Vocatiue case.

3 That in stead of the Nominatiue case,3 To take for the Nominat. case whatsoeuer is put in place of it, or inclu­deth it. we take whatso­euer is in place thereof, as a whole sentence, a peece of a sentence, an Infinitiue moode, an Aduerbe with a Ge­nitiue case, two Nominatiue cases singular or moe, ioyned with a Verbe plurall, or sometimes a letter set by it selfe, or moe, or any word put for it selfe; which we call a word of arte: as Amo est verbum. Amo is here taken for the Nomina­tiue case: for all such wordes or sentences are supposed to bee the Neuter Gender vndeclined.

So whatsoeuer includeth the Nominatiue case; as, a Verbe Impersonall, an Ablatiue case absolute; Gerunds and Supines put absolutely with this Verbe est: as Oran­dum est vt sit mens sana in corpore sano. I [...]um est in viscera terrae: because these stand for Verbes Imper­sonals, and haue the Nominatiue case included in them.

[Page 98] 4. The Participles with Gerunds and Supines follow the order of those Verbes wherof they come,4 Participles, Gerunds and Supines, follow the order of the Verbes. in gouerning thesame cases, as in the rules. Also that Gerunds and Su­pines are commonly put for the Infinitiue moode.

5. Coniunctions or other wordes of dependance in new clauses of the sentences,5 New Con­iunctions and wordes of de­pendence serue to ioyne new sentences. serue to ioyne together the later parts of the sentences to the former; wherein the same or­der must be kept againe as before.

6. That the Aduerbs be placed before or after the Verb;6 Aduerbs to be placed to the best sense. as the sense will most conueniently beare.

7. That the Latinismes bee obserued,7 To obserue Latinismes, and ioyne phrases. to ioyne the whole phrases together, so much as may be, and to expresse them by as elegant and fit phrases as wee can in our tongue.

The reason also of the rule, that euery one may conceiue each thing,The reason of the rule. is this:

1 That the wordes must bee placed in order,1 The wordes to be placed in naturall order. as they should stand; according to the plaine and proper nature of the speech, in which they are vsed to expresse any matter: which is the very order which Grammar teacheth, and as one gouerneth another.

2 The word gouerning or directing,2 Gouernours before the go­uerned. to be placed before those which it gouerneth or directeth.

3 Those words which do declare others,3 Declarers to follow the de­clared. are to be set af­ter those which they doe declare or make plaine.

So the principall word going before, doth commonly direct the wordes following;4 The princi­pall words go­ing before, di­rect the wordes following; ex­cept the Interr. Relat. Ind. Part. eyther in agreement or go­uernement: that is, it causeth the word following to agree with it, or to be gouerned of it; except in oblique cases of Interrogatiues, Relatiues, Indefinits, Partitiues, which doe commonly goe before together with the Substantiues or Antecedents, with which they agree; and are gouerned or guided by the word following after: as, Quem librum legis? Quarum rerum vtram minus velim non facilè possum existi­mare.

Spoud.

I perceiue the rule most plainely, and doe see an euident reason of euery thing; yet neuerthelesse I desire [Page 99] you further to giue me a little briefe of it, as my schollars may best remember it.

Phil.

The summe is this;The summe of the rule of con­struing. to reade ouer the sentence di­stinctly to a full point; obseruing carefully all the points and proper names, with the drift and meaning; but chiefely to marke the principall Verbe, because that poin­teth out the right Nominatiue case, and directeth all the sentence: also to marke if there be any Vocatiue case. Then the order goeth thus:

1 If there be a Vocatiue case, to construe that first, with whatsoeuer agreeth with it, or is gouerned of it, or whatsoeuer is put in the place of it; as an Interiecti­on of Exclamation or calling, or an Aduerbe of calling.

2 To take the Nominatiue case of the principal Verbe, or whatsoeuer is put in steede of it, and to adioyne to it whatsoeuer hangeth of it: as the Adiectiue or Participle, and such words as they gouerne.

3 To take the principall Verbe, and whatsoeuer hang­eth on it, each in the right order; as if there follow an Infi­nitiue moode, to take that next: then the Aduerbe; after, the case which the Verbe properly gouerneth (which is com­monly the Accusatiue case) & whatsoeuer hangeth on that. Lastly, all the other cases in order: first the Genitiue, se­condly the Datiue, and lastly the Ablatiue.

4 If there be not all these Verbes, to take so many of them as are in the sentence, and in this order.

5 That this order is changed by Interr. Relat. Indefi­nites, Partitiues, & som Coniunctions with Aduerbs of like­nesse: as Quemadmodum, vt, sicut &c. hauing sic, or ita, to an­swer them in the second part of the sentence; because those wordes vse to goe before.

Lastly, to take the Substantiue and Adiectiue together, vnlesse the Adiectiue passe ouer his signification vnto some other word, which it gouerneth; and so likewise the Prepo­sition with his case.

Most briefly thus: that the principal Verb be first sought out; then

[Page 100] 1. Take the Vocatiue case,A briefe of the rule of constru­ing for euery childe to be a­ble to answere. or whatsoeuer is in stead of it, or hangs vpon it seruing to make it plaine.

2. The Nom. case of the principall Verbe, or whatsoe­uer is in stead of it, or depends of it to make it plaine.

3. Then the principall Verbe, and whatsoeuer hangs of it, seruing to expound it: as an Aduerbe, or an Infinitiue mood.

4. Lastly, the case which the Verbe properly gouernes, and all the other cases after it, in order.

Note that the order is changed by Interrog. Relat. Partit, certain Aduerbs & Coniunctions: al which vse to go before.

Obserue, specially for the enterers, to put them in minde of this often: the Nom. before the Verbe: the Accus. after the Verbe: the Substant. and Adiect. to goe together; vn­lesse the Adiect. passe his signification into some other word: the Preposition and his case together.

This is the briefest, plainest, and most generall forme, that (after long practice and considering of it) I can con­ceiue, though it haue some exceptions, as I said.

Spoud.

I pray you giue me an example hereof.An example of construing, and of Grammati­call translations according to the rule.

Phil.

I will take the very example which Crusius hath set downe out of Tully de Senectute.

1. Aptissima omnino sunt,1 The artifici­all placing, ac­cording to T [...]lly. [...] Sene­ctu [...]e Scipio & Laeli, arma senectutis, ar­tes exercitationes (que) virtutū: quae in omni aetate cultae, cum mul­tum diu (que) vixeris, mirificos afferunt fructus: non folum quia nunquam deserunt, ne in extremo quidē tempore aetatis, quan­quam id maximum est: verum etiam quia conscientia benè ac­ [...] vitae, multorum (que) benefactorum recordatio, iueundissima est. This is Tullies order in placing this sentence.

2. The naturall or Grammaticall order of it is this:2. The Gram­maticall pla­cing.

Scipio et Laeli, artes exercitationes (que) virtutum sunt omnin [...] arma aptissima senectutis: quae cultae afferunt fructus mirificos in aetate omni cum vixeris multum diu (que): non solum quia deserunt nunquam, ne quidem in tempore extremo aetatis, quanquam ad est maximum: verum etiam quia conscientia vitae actae benè, recordatio (que) bene factorum multorum est iucun­dissima.

[Page 101] 3. The Translation is after this Grammaticall order thus:3. Translation according to the [...] Grammaticall order.

O S [...]ipio & Lelius, arts & exercises of vertues,Are the very fittest weapons, Verb aptest. are altoge­ther the (verb) fittest weapons of old age: which being (verb) exercised in (verb) euery age do bringWonderfull fruits, or bene­fits. maruellous fruites, when you haue liuedVery long much and long: not onely because theyNeuer leaue vs. forsake neuer,Not indeede. no truelyIn our last age. in the extreame time of age,Verb loued or adorned. although that isThe chiefe. the greatest; but also becauseThe inward testimony. the conscience of a life well done [or well passed ouer] and theVerb in all age. remembrance of many good deeds is most pleasant.

4. The construing is directly according to this translati­on.4. Construing according to the Grammati­call translation. Or, que cultae afferunt, &c. So that the translation leadeth the schollar as by the hand, or insteed of his Master; so, as he cannot erre, if he be of any vnderstanding: as thus;

Scipio ô Scipio, et and, Laeli ô Lelius, artes arts, exercitati­ones (que) and exercises, virtutum of vertues, sunt are, omnino altogether, arma aptissima the fittest weapons, senectutis of old age: quae which, cultae being exercised [or vsed] in aeta­te omni in euery age, [or in all our life] afferunt doe bring, fructus mirificos maruellous fruits, cum when, vixeris you haue liued, multum much, diu (que) and long, &c.

5. This translation directeth to parse,5. Parsing ac­cording to this translation. chiefely for all the Syntax; Euery principall word in the Latine, going before others, commonly gouerning, or directing & gui­ding some way that which followeth after. It helpeth very much for the Etymologie; that children well entred, shall goe very neere to tell by the English alone, what part of speech euery word is: of which I shall speake after.

The manner of parsing by it, is thus shortly for the Syn­taxe:

Scipio] is the first word to be parsed,Scipio. because it is the first in construing; for that we begin commonly of a Vocatiue case if there be one. It is the Vocat ue case, knowne by speak­ing to, and by the Interiection O vnderstood; gouerned of the Interiection O, by the rule O Exclaman [...]is Nominatiuo, Accusatiuo, & Vocatiuo [...]ungitur. In English, Certaine a Vo­catiue &c.

[Page 102] Et] the next word a Coniunction Copulatiue,Et. seruing to couple words or sentences; here coupling Scipio and Laeli together.

Laeli] the next word,Laeli. the Vocatiue case knowen also by speaking to, and put in the same case with Scipio by reason of the Coniunction et; by the rule, Coniunctions Copula­tiues and Disiunctiues couple like cases, &c.

Artes] is next,Artes. in construing according to my rule of construing. The Nominatiue case, comming before the principall Verbe sunt, by the rule of the first Con­cord.

Quae] next,Quae. a Coniunction Copulatiue, coupling artes and exercitationes together.

Exercitationes] is the next,Exercitatio­nes. the Nominatiue case coupled with artes, by the Coniunction Enclyticall, que, which is set after exercitationes in the booke; by the rule of the Con­iunctions Subiunctiues, or which are put after.

Virtutem] followeth next,Virtutem. the Genitiue case, gouerned of the Substantiue exercitationes: and is the later of tvvo Substantiues; by the rule, When two Substantiues come together.

Sunt] is next,Sunt. agreeing with the Nominatiue case artes ex­ercitationes (que); by Verbum personale cohaeret cum Nominatiuo &c. It is expressed to the one Nominatiue case, and vnder­stood to the other, by the figure Zeugma.

Omninò] the next word,Omninò. an Aduerbe ioined to the Verbe to declare the signification.

Arma] the Nominatiue following the verbe sunt. Arma. Sum, forem, fio &c.

Aptissimathe Nominatiue case of the Nowne Adiectiue,Aptissima. agreeing in all things with arma, by the rule of the second Concord. The Adiectiue whether it bee Nowne, &c. It a­greeth with arma, because it expresseth the qualitie of arma, &c.

Senectutis] next,Senectutis. the Genitiue case gouerned of arma, because it expresseth arma, the weapon of olde age, the later of two Substantiues.

[Page 103] And so forward, in all things giuing the reason according to the rules of Grammar, and this rule of construing com­pared; the later word, still declaring the former. So much shortly for parsing by this rule.

6 This translation directeth the schollar also for making Latine,6. Making la­tine according to this rule. to proceede easily; and likewise the master to teach and guide the schollar both to make true Latine and pure Tully, or what Author he will follow: so that he cannot miss so long as he followeth this and looketh on the Author: al­so, it guideth to giue a reason of euery thing, or to prooue the Latine thus, in the very same order as they parsed.

As. the Master to aske thus according to the order of the translation:

How say you Scipio, or ô Scipio?

The Schollar answereth;Example. Scipio, as it is in the booke.

Aske why not Scipionis nor Scipioni but Scipio; he answe­reth: because it must be the Vocatiue case, knowen by spea­king to, and gouerned of o vnderstood, as o Magister, o Master.

And] et.

Laelius] Laeli. If it be asked, why not Laelius, nor Laelij, nor Laelium; he answereth, because it must be the Vocatiue case; and therfore Laeli: because, when the Nominatiue endeth in ius, the Vocatiue shall end in i. Also, that it must be the Vo­catiue case, because et coupleth like cases.

So in all things, iust as the childe parsed; but only asking the English first, and making the childe to giue it in Latin, and to giue a reason of euery thing more particularly.

The causing the childe to construe and to parse, looking vpon the English onely; especially the parsing so, is conti­tinuall making Latin, and prouing it.

So that we may see by this sentence,Vse and bene­fit of Gramma­ticall translati­ons, set downe in generall. how this translation serueth to direct the younger schollar: first, to resolue or cast each sentence in Latine into the naturall or Gramma­ticall order: secondly, to construe directly according to the same: thirdly, to parse as it is construed, by marking the last chiefe word: fourthly, to make the same Latine as it [Page 104] was parsed, and to proue it by reason and rule. Fiftly, by comparing the order of the translation and the order of the Author, to compose the Latine againe into the order of the Authour. And so by daily practicing these translations, young schollars must needs come on very much, for that it makes all the way to learning so plaine.

One principall reason is, for that this is nothing else but a continuall practice of Analysis and Genesis; Chief reason of the benefit of translations ac­cording to the rule, for the cō ­tinuall vse of Analysis and Genesis. that is, of re­soluing and vnmaking the Latine of the Author, and then making it againe iust after the same manner, as it was vn­made. Or if we may so tearme it, the vnwinding, and win­ding it vp againe; which is generally acknowledged to be the speediest way to all good learning. Now of either of these there may be three parts.

1. Of the Analysis or resoluing a sentence; first the resol­uing it out of the Rhetoricall order of the Author,Three speciall parts both of Analysis and Genesis. into the first proper, naturall and Grammaticall order.

2. Construing, turning or translating it into English, ac­cording to thesame order; giuing the true sense and force of each word and phrase.

3. Parsing as we construe.

So of the Genesis or making vp againe are three parts.

1. The making thesame Latine againe, according to the order of the translation and the words of the Author; that they may goe surely.

2. To proue it to bee true Latine, after the manner of parsing, by the same order.

3. To compose all againe for the Rhetoricall placing of the words, according to the order of the Author, by the helpe of a fewe rules, and by comparing with the Author; that a childe may haue a confident boldnesse, to stand a­gainst the most learned, to iustifie that which hee hath done.

Spoud.

This stands with all reason, that if the way of vn­making or resoluing be so plaine, thorough this rule; the waie of making vp againe must needes bee as plaine and readie: for there is the same waie from Cambridge to Lon­don, [Page 105] which was from London to Cambridge.

Phil.

You say as it is: Hence you shall finde by experi­ence, that as children will soon learne to construe and parse their Authors thereby; so they will as soone learne to make them into latine againe: yea they will come by daily prac­tice, to reade the Latine almost as fast out of the English translation, as out of the Author it selfe, and proue that it must bee so: and in short time to doe the same in things which they haue not learned; especially, where they shall haue occasion to vse the same phrase, to doe it readily whe­ther they shall write or speake.

Particular benefits of the vse of Grammaticall translations, and of the Rule.

Spoud.

IT is apparant by that which you haue sayd,Benefits of the translations and the rule set downe particu­larly. that you take the benefit to bee very great, which may come by such translations rightly vsed.

Phil.

I do indeed; and that for all these things following, which seem most strange and hard to be done by children.

1 Teaching to resolue Latine Grammatically:1. Resoluiug Grammatically which is the foundation of the rest.

2 In construing,2. Construing. to direct to do it artificially by rule, and also in propriety of words, and in true sense.

3 For parsing to do it of themselues:3. Parsing. as reading a lecture without any question asked, vnlesse some which they omit: which maner of parsing gaineth half the time which is spent therin commonly, when otherwise each question is asked and stood vpon.

4 For making latine,4. Making la­tine. to be able to make the very same la­tine of their Authors vpon sure grounds; & therby to be in­couraged to go on boldly & certainly, with cheerfulnes and confidence: when little children shall see, that they are able to make the same latine which their Authors do, as was said, & haue also the Author to iustify that which they haue don.

5 For prouing latine,5. Prouing▪ specially for the Syntaxe, when [Page 106] each principall word going before, directs th [...]se which fol­low, except in some few.

6 For composing artificially,6. Composing. by continuall comparing this Grammaticall order, to the order of the Author, and marking why the Author placed otherwise; and by being helped by a few rules, which I will shew after.

7 To helpe the younger schollars to vnderstand their lectures,7. Vnderstan­ding. so farre as need is; of the benefit of which vnder­standing we haue spoken before.

8 Also to take their lectures for most part of themselues,8. T [...]king lec­tures of them­selues. as was sayd; to get and bring their lectures more surely and sooner then by the masters teaching alone, as a little expe­rience will shewe.

9 To construe and parse their lectures,9. Construing and parsing out of the English. out of the Eng­lish as out of the Latine (which is a continuall making la­tine, as we heard) and so to read their lectures first in the na­turall order, then as they are in their Authors.

10 To bee able to correct their Authors of themselues,10. Correcting their Authors. if they be false printed.

11 To keepe all which they haue learned in their Au­thors so perfectly,11. Keeping all learned in their Authors per­fectly. as to be able in good sort to construe or parse at any time, in any place out of the bare translation, onely by reading them oft ouer out of the translation.

12 To saue all the labour of learning most Authours without booke,12. Saue getting Authors with­out booke. as all Authors in prose; which labour in many schooles is one of the greatest tortures to the poore schollars, and cause of impatience and too much seueritie to the Masters, though with very little good for most part: to be able as it were by playing, only reading their Authors out of the English ouer & ouer,Ten notes more [...]. at meet times, to haue them much better for all true vse and each good purpose, then by all saying without booke; to trouble the memorie one­ly with getting rules of Grammars and the like, and such o­ther of most necessary vse, as the Poets: which also are ex­ceedingly furthered hereby.

13 To helpe to proceed as well in our English tonge as in the latine,13. To proceed in English as in Latine. for reading, and writing true orthographie; to [Page 107] attaine variety and copie of English words, to expresse their mindes easily, and vtter any matter belonging to their Au­thors. And so in time, to come to proprietie, choise, and puritie, aswell in our English as in the Latine.

14 To learne the propriety of the Latine tongue,14. To learne the propriety of the latine tong, to iustify words and phrases, and also to at­taine the purity of the latine tongue. as they goe forward; to bee able to iustifie each phrase, and in time to remember words and phrases, for almost whatsoe­uer they haue learned, and where. Also by reading Tully, and other purer Authors constantly out of such translati­ons, first Grammatically, then Rhetorically, to attaine to make a more easie entrance, to that purity of the Latine tongue, wherof sundry great learned men haue giuen pre­cepts, then by precepts alone; and much more by ioining precepts and this practice together.

15 By the translations of the Poets,15. To enter & traine vp schol­lars iu Poetrie with ease and delight without bodging. as of Ouid, and Vir­gil, to haue a most plain way into the first entrance into ver­sifying, to turne the prose of the Poets into the Poets owne verse, with delight, certainty and speed, without any bodg­ing; and so by continuall practice to grow in this facilitie, for getting the phrase and veine of the Poet.

16 To be (as was noted) not only insteed of Masters,16. To be in­steed of M [...]ster or Vsher a­mongst the schollars for giuing and pre­paring lec­tures. or Vshers, to giue each lower lecture perfectly, for all the sub­stance; but also to be after insteed of their owne presence, or of Dictionaries in euery one of those fourmes continu­ally, to direct them, vntill euery one of the fourm can con­strue, parse, make the same latine, and proue it. Heereby both to free the children from that feare which they will haue ordinarily,To free chil­dren from feare of so oft ask­ing, and the Masters from that trouble & hindrance. to go to their Masters for euery word; and also to free the Masters from that trouble and hindrance to tell them euery word, so oft as they forget, and the vexati­on and fretting to see the childrens dulnesse and forgetful­nesse. For the helpe of the Master, or Vsher, in the meane time what it ought to bee, wee shall see after in the vse of these.

17 Hereby schollars hauing been well entered,17. To be able to proceed in other Authors of themselues by some helpe of Master and Cōmentaries. and ex­ercised in their lower Authors, shall be able to proceede to their higher Authors, ex tempore; and goe on with ease, by [Page 108] the assistance of the Master, where they need, and by the helpe of Commentaries; that they may be thus inabled to construe any Author, and bee fitted for the studies of the Vniuersitie, at their first entrance thither.

18 These will be also a helpe to many weaker Schoole­masters,18. A helpe to weaker masters. for right and certaine construction, without so oft seeking Dictionaries for English, and proprietie of words; and so for parsing, and all sorts of the former direc­tions.

19 A [...]so,19. To helpe weaker schol­lars, to proceed in latine in their priuate studies in the Vniuer­sities. weaker schollars in the Vniuersities, who haue not been so well grounded in the Grammar schooles, may proceed in their priuate studies, by the vse of some of these translations, either one alone, or two or three together; and increase both for construing, vnderstanding, and writing latine. Also they may haue continuall vse of tran­slating both into English, and Latine; whether reading out of the Authour into the translation, or out of the tran­slation into the Author, or doing it by pen; and euer a di­rection to trie all by, and as a priuate helpe: which continu­all translating both waies is a most speedy way to learning, as M. Askam proueth at large.

20 Likewise,20. So to helpe any who haue lost their latine or haue but a taste. any who haue lost the knowledge of the Latine tongue, may recouer it hereby within a short time; and they who haue had but a smattering, or some little be­ginning, may soone come to vnderstand any ordinary Au­thor, and proceed with pleasure and certaintie.

21 Finally,21. To haue daily much practice of A­nalysis and Genesis; which is all in all, in getting all lear­ning. hereby schollars may haue daily much sure practice both of Analysis and Genesis; that is, resoluing and making Latine: which as was noted, all the learned doe ac­knowledge to bee almost all in all, in getting all learning: for all this practice by them is nothing else but Analysis and Genesis, as we shewed before.

Things more specially obserued in the Transla­ting of the Schoole Authours.

Spoud.

THese benefits are indeede very great, and worthy the labour of euery childe, or other who would attaine them, if it be as you say: yet by your fa­uour, many of them cannot be obtained by bare Gramma­ticall Translations alone; as to get the propriety of both the tongues, both of Latine and English together, with va­riety of phrase, the sense, and the like. Therefore what course haue you obserued in your Translations, to make them to serue to all these purposes?

Phil.

I haue obserued these things following,Things obser­ued in the Translations of the Schoole Authours. so neere as I haue beene able for the present: I shall amend them af­ter God willing.

1 This naturall or Grammaticall order throughout.1 Naturall or­der.

2 That the English Translation is set downe alone,2 English a­lone. with­out the Latine adioyning, to auoyde the inconueniences of hauing the Latine and English together; as of making Truant, or the like: whereof I shall speake after.

3 The propriety of the English words,3 The English answering the Latine in pro­priety. answering to the Latine, in the first and naturall signification, and expressing the force of the Latine words, so neere as I could, is set down in the first place.Where any phrase is some­what hard, how it is expressed. And where the Latine phrase is somewhat hard or obscure to bee expressed in our English tongue, word for word; there I haue also expressed that by a more plaine phrase, sometimes included within two markes, al­most like a Parenthesis, with [or] thus. Or else I haue set it euer in the Margent: where also I haue oft placed the mea­ning, with variety of other phrases ouer against the word, and noted them with a character or letter, answering to the word in the Text.

Moreouer,Where any phrase seemes ouer harsh in our English tongue. where any phrase is ouer-harsh in our English tongue, to expresse the Latine verbatim, viz. word for word, or in good propriety; that harsh phrase is also placed in the Margent, ouer against the Latine phrase, with this marke, [Page 110] (Verb) or (ver. (or v.) signifying verbatim, word by word, or word for word, and the more easie phrase set in the Text.

Likewise where there may be two senses or constrctions,Where there may be two senses. I haue commonly expressed both: the more likely and na­turall in the Text, the other in the Margent. This I haue done, to the end that the Schollar may see both constructi­on and meaning together; with the propriety of the tongue, whereunto I haue chiefly laboured.

So that there is no varying from the propriety,No varying but on necessity. saue where necessity inforced, for the impropernesse of the phrase in our speech▪ or in some few places, where the con­struction is easie and familiar; and there is set in the Mar­gent (Verb) as was said before.

Lastly,The order of some wordes changed. where in the Grammaticall order in Latine, the Substantiue goeth before the Adiectiue, the gouernour or guider first; in our English Dialect, the Adiectiue is most commonly set before: as vir bonus, a good man; not a man good: vnlesse the Adiectiue be diuided from the Substan­tiue; as where it passeth the signification into some at [...]er word gouerned of it: as vir praestans ingenio, a man excel­ling in wit.

So in the Aduerbe Non: as Non est, It is not; wee doe not say, Not it is. Also in the Enclyticall Conjunctio [...] [...]quen, and the like; as id (que), and that.

In the first and lowest Authours is commonly translated Thou,Obseruation in the lowest Au­thours. Thee, Not you; because of the difficulty for children, to distinguish betweene Thou, and You.

Thus I place ordinarily the Accusatiue case before the Infinitiue moode, in plaine wordes, for the ready and easie making the Latine out of it: as Multum eum praeuidisse di­cimus, we say him to haue foreseene much: and in the mar­gent vsually thus; We say, that he foresaw much: according to our English phrase.

How to vse these Translations so, as to attaine the former benefites.

Spoud.

THese things diligently obserued,The manner of vse of the Translations. must needes be very auaileable to the purposes, which you haue mentioned: the very propriety alone, I meane the knowledge of words, in their first and proper significa­tion, is a singular helpe to learning. For reason will com­monly teach, both the change of the signification by the circumstances of the place, & also the cause of the change. But I pray you, how might my Schollars vse these Transla­tions so, as that I might finde the benefits of them.

Phil.

You may cause them to vse them after these dire­ctions following:

1 First,1 To see that euery one can giue the summe of the rule of construing. you are to see that euery one who is to vse them, can repeate the rule of construing, and answere the questi­ons thereof, according to the briefest forme of it at least. And if your leasure will serue, to heare your selfe how they can take their Lectures of themselues, according to the same.

2 Where your leisure will not well permit you to see all Lectures giuen,2 In the lower fourmes one to reade ouer the translation, to giue some light, and look on the Transla­tion. you may appoint at the taking of the Le­ctures, that some one or two of the best of each fourme, doe looke vpon the Translation; and in the lower fourmes doe first reade ouer the Translation once, onely to giue them some light, for the meaning and vnderstanding of their Lectures; the rest looking on their Authours, or onely harkening to the meaning: although in the higher fourms which vse them, they will not neede so much as once rea­ding ouer before, vnlesse in some difficult places: onely he who looketh on the Translation, may reade the Translation after, for their more full vnderstanding of the Lecture, and more easie remembrance of it.

3 After that to appoint another,3 To construe according to the rule, of themselues. first, to reade ouer their Lecture in the Latine distinctly, as it is in the Author, and to trie how he can construe; beating it out according [Page 112] to the rule.He who hath the Translation onely, to direct where they goe false. In the meane time cause him who hath the Translation, to be in stead of your selfe amongst the rest, to see that they goe right; and where the construer sticketh, or goeth amisse, to call him backe to the rule, and wish the rest to helpe to finde it out by the same rule.

And when al the fourme are at a stand,To doe as the cunning Hunts-man. and none of them can beat it out, then onely he who hath the booke, to do it; as the cunning Hunts-man, to helpe a little at the default, to point and to direct them where to take it: and thus so ma­ny to construe ouer, or so oft, vntill all of them can con­strue.

In the mean time your selfe or Vsher, in the middest, both to haue an eye to them,The assistance of the Master or Vsher herein that they take this course; and also to helpe yet further, where neede is: And after the taking of the Lecture, to note out vnto them al the difficult or new wordes in their Lecture, to examine and direct them, for the parsing of them: and also to cause each of the fourme to marke out those wordes, to take speciall paines in them; to make them perfect aboue all the rest: because they haue learned the rest before, and haue but so many new wordes to get in that Lecture.

4 According to the order as they construe, cause them to parse,To construe & parse out of the Translation, is the surest and most profitable way. as we shewed; eyther looking vpon the Authour, or vpon the Translation alone. But I finde it farre the su­rer and better, in al who are able, both to construe and parse out of the Translation: because thereby they are learning continually, both to make and proue their Latine; and so doe imprint both the matter and Latine, more firmely in their memory. So also all of ability, to construe and parse onely out of the Translation, when they come to say; and out of it to giue the reason of euery thing. This they will doe most readily, with a little practice.

5 To the end that they may may keepe all their Au­thors perfectly,How to keepe all their Au­thors perfectly. which they haue learned (which is thought of many almost impossible, and doth indeed so much in­courage young Schollars, and grace the Schooles when they can doe it) let them but vse this practice: Euery day [Page 113] after that they haue said their Lectures,To construe or reade oft all which they haue learned, out of the Translati­ons; to make and keepe all perfect, by oft repetions. cause each fourme which vse these translations, to goe immediately to con­struing ouer all which they haue learned, each day a peece, euery one a side of a leafe, or the like in order, vntill they haue gone through all; construing it only out of the trans­lation: to spend an houre or more therein, as time will per­mit: one or two who sit next vnto the construer, to looke on the Translation with him,Manner hereof. to helpe where hee sticketh; the rest to looke on their Authours. Appoint withall some of the Seniors of the fourme, to examine shortly the harde wordes of each page as they goe; I meane those wordes, which they marked when they learned them.

And when they become perfect in construing out of the English, cause them for more speedy dispatch, but onely to reade their Authours into Latine, forth of the Translation; first in the Grammaticall order: after as they are in the Au­thor. They will thus soone runne ouer all which they haue learned, without the least losse of time: for this will be found the best bestowed time, to keepe perfectly that which they haue gotten. And what they can so construe or reade out of the English into Latine, they can also doe it out of the Latine into English ordinarily.

Then,To reade ouer other Authours after the same manner. as they waxe perfect in that which they haue lear­ned, and grow a little to vnderstanding; they may practice of themselues by the same meanes, to reade ouer the rest of their Authour, which they learned not, or some easie Au­thour, which they haue not read; as first Corderius, or the like, by the helpe of the same translations: first to construe ex tempore amongst themselues, after to reade out of the Translations; according to the same manner as they did in that which they haue learned: wherein they will do more then you will easily beleeue, vntill you see experience.So in higher Authours trans­lated.

After this, as they come to higher fourmes, and more iudgement,Practice will make them ve­ry prompt, both in English and Latine. they may be appointed likewise to reade ex tem­pore some other Authour, whereof they haue the Translati­on to direct them; and that both out of the Authour into English: first, after the Grammaticall manner, and then in a [Page 114] good English stile: afterwards out of the English into La­tine, both wayes, both in Grammaticall order, and after in Composition, according to the Authour. And within a time that they haue beene thus exercised, they will be able to doe this, almost as easily and readily, as that which they haue learned. I finde Tullies sentences, and Tully de natura Deo­rum, with Terentius Christianus, to be singular books to this purpose for the best vses.

By this meanes it must come to passe by daily practice,The fruit here­of. that they shall attaine to the phrase, stile & Composition of any Authour which they vse to reade oft ouer, & to make it their owne; euen of any peece of Tully himselfe (as was said) & much sooner then can be imagined, vntill triall be made: though this must needes require meet time. For what thing of any worth can be obtained, but by time, industry, & con­tinuall practice? much lesse such copy, choyse, propriety, and elegancy, as Tully doth affoord.

Obiections against the vse of Translations in Schooles answered.

Spoud.

AS you haue shewed me the benefites which may come by Grammaticall Translations; and also how to vse them, that Schollars may attaine the same: so giue me leaue to propound what doubts I may su­spect concerning the same for the present; and moe here­after, as I shall make triall of them.

Phil.

Very willingly; for I doe desire to finde out all the inconueniences that can be imagined, which may comeby by them: but for mine owne part, I can finde none, if they be vsed according to the former direction; and yet I haue done what I could, to finde out whatsoeuer euils might be to follow of them. Obiect whatsoeuer you can, I thinke I am able plainly to answere it, and to satisfie you fully in e­uery point.

Spoud.

I will therefore deale plainly with you, in what I can conceiue for the present.

Obiect.
[Page 115]

1. Translations in Schooles haue not bin found to bring any such benefite, but rather much hurt; and ther­fore the best and wisest Schoole-masters haue not beene wont to suffer any of them amongst their Schollars.

Phil.

I will first answere you for the benefites:These vses and benefits cannot be made of any other Transla­tion of the Schoole Au­thors, but the Grammatical, and why. That it is true indeede, that these vses and benefites cannot bee made of any other Translation of any one of our Schoole Au­thours. The reasons are euident: first, because none of the Translators haue followed, nor so much as propounded to themselues to follow this Grammaticall rule in Transla­ting: which you see is the meane foundation of all true construing, parsing, making and trying Latine: and of all these benefites, to keepe Schollars to goe surely. Secondly, none of them which I know, haue laboured to expresse the propriety and force of the Latine, in the first and natiue sig­nification; which this intendeth continually: and how much lieth vpon the knowledge of the propriety of the wordes for the certaine getting of any tongue, euery Schol­lar knoweth. Thirdly, none of them haue indeauoured by a double Translation to make all things plaine, as these do euery where; labouring to expresse with the wordes, and Grammar, the sense and meaning also in all obscure places, with variety of English wordes or phrase: to the end to teach children thereby, Grammar, propriety, sense with variety of phrase to expresse their mindes in English, as wel as in Latine: and all vnder one, that nothing bee wan­ting.

The Translators haue seemed to ayme eyther onely or principally,What the trans­lator, haue ay­med at. at the meaning and drift of the Authour,The Translati­ons of our Schoole Au­thors extant do perform [...] none of the benefites which these Grammaticall Translations doe aime at chiefly. which benefite alone they doe in some sort performe: but for the rest of the benefits and vses, or for the most of them (as for true construing▪ parsing, making and trying Latine, which are the chiefe things here mentioned) they eyther set the learner at a non plus, or carie him ordinarily cleane amisse. And therefore there is no maruell, if in that respect they be vtterly disliked. Triall in any of them, compared to the rule and the other limits, and especially how in construing, [Page 116] parsing, and the like, they carry the learner vtterly out of the way, will presently shew the truth hereof, and common­ly in the very first sentence of them. I will set downe the words in one or two.

Esops Fables construed thus:

Dum whilst,Examples of the Translati­ons extant, to manifest the truth hereof. Gallinaceus the dunghill, Gallus Cocke, Ver­ [...]it scratched, Stercorarium in the dunghill.

Tullies Offices translated thus:

Marci Tullij Ciceronis de officijs ad Marcum filium liber primus.

Marcus Tullius Ciceroes first booke of dueties to Marcus his sonne.

Trie in any one of these, whether a childe can construe one sentence right and surely,Try all to con­strue by these. according to Grammar, or in any certainety of the propriety of the wordes, or be able to parse or make Latine, or the rest: though some of these Translatours were learned▪ and gaue the sense; yet you may perceiue that they aimed not at these endes here mentioned, or few of them.

Thus you see what I haue answered concerning the be­nefites: now let vs heare what you say concerning the hurt comming by them.

Obiect. 2. Spoud.

Besides that they leade Schollars a­misse very ordinarily in construing, almost in euery sen­tence; they are found also to make Schollars Tru­ants, or to goe by rote (as wee commonly call it) which is worse.

A. Phil.

For the first part, that they leade Schollars a­misse, I haue answered; that, that is onely in such Transla­tions, which respect the sense alone, but doe not respect the Grammar.

[Page 117] Secondly,Grammaticall translations se­parate from the Latine, cannot indanger any to make them truants, if they be rightly vsed. for making truants, I aunswere; that these Grammaticall translations being thus meerly English, and separate from the Latine altogether, can neuer indan­ger any waie to make truants, if they bee vsed according to the directions prescribed. For first, for construing latine, there can bee no likelihood hereof, if the translation bee onely vsed; first to giue some light and vnderstanding of the lecture amongst the younger; after, to bee onely in place of the Master, where he cannot be himselfe.

Also, where all of the fourme cannot beat out the con­struing by the Grammaticall rule, there to direct and point it out how to take it. Likewise, to giue propriety of Eng­lish, and to guide the schollars in place of the Master (who cannot bee alwaies with euery one) to the end, that in all things they may goe surely. Secondly, for construing and making the Latine out of the translation, it chiefly consists vpon vnderstanding and conceit; and shall more stirre vp the wit and memory to get propriety and copie of words and phrases, then all getting without booke can possibly doe. In getting without book alone, words and sentences may bee learned, as by Parats, without any vnderstanding: hereby children must needes vnderstand them: For, ha­uing nothing but the bare translation, they must be driuen of necessitie to beate out the latine, by learning and by rea­son, with diligence; and so stirre vp their memories continu­ally. Also, hereby whensoeuer they shall haue againe the same English words or phrases to make in Latine, to write or to speake; the verie same Latine words and phrases, which they learned in their Authours, doe come straight wayes to their memories to expresse their mindes. And in what things they can giue Latine to the English, in that, as was sayd, they can ordinarily giue English to the Latine.

Indeede,There is great difficulty to vse an interlineall translation, or latine ioined to the English▪ where the translation is ioined with the Au­thour, and so they are set together answerably word for word, eyther as the Interlineal set ouer the head, or the Eng­lish word or phrase set after the Latine; there the eie of the [Page 118] childe is no sooner vpon the one, but it will be vpon the o­ther: and so the memory is not exercised, neither can this mischiefe be auoided. Yea, where the Author is of the one page, the translation is on the other ouer against it (like as it is in Theognis, and some other Greeke Poets) there must be much discretion for the right vsing of them; otherwise many inconueniences must needes follow amongst chil­dren. But in these bare translations so by themselues, these surmised daungers are preuented; if they bee vsed as hath been shewed. Although for them who are of full dis­cretion to vse them (as those who would study priuately for the reoouering their Latine, or increasing therin) it may bee the most profitable of all, to haue the translation ouer-against the latine, directly on the other page, after the man­ner as Theognis is printed; that folding the booke, they may looke vpon the one, when they would finde out the o­ther; and yet haue the other euer at hand, as a master, to helpe in an instant, where they need.

3. Ob. Sp.

But the schollars may be idle, when they seem to be construing, when as one only construeth, and the rest looke on their bookes.

A. Phil.

So they may be idle in whatsoeuer exercise they do amongst themselues,How to preuēt idlenes or neg­ligēce in the vse of the transla­tions, so that one cannot be idle while they are in hand with these. vnlesse the Master be vigilant: but let the master vse any diligent circumspection, and they cannot possibly be idle in this, of all other; no not one in any fourme. For, let but the Master or Vsher haue an eye to all in generall, though they bee in hand in hearing any fourme; and where they do marke or but suspect any one of all the fourmes to bee carelesse, or not to attend; there let them step to such a one of a sodaine, and bid him set his finger to the last word which was spoken: and so if any bee idle, he may bee catched presently. Prouided alwaies, that no one keep his finger at the book, lest by them the truants see where it is; but euery one to vse only his eye and his eare. Some of the most negligent and stubborne so ouertaken now and then, and sharpely corrected for ensample, will continually keepe all the rest in order and diligence, at this [Page 119] time specially. This practice may serue for whatsoeuer they construe, parse, or examine together, to keepe them fro [...] loytering or carelesnesse.

4. Ob. Spoud.

Wel: you seeme to haue answered the euils which I feared for the schollars; I shall thinke further of them. But there may bee greater inconueniences in them concerning the Masters: as 1. These may bee a meanes to make the Master idle, by freeing them from giuing lec­tures, and much other imployment about the same, which they are wont to be exercised in.

Phil.

The best things may be abused some waie: but o­therwise there cannot be any such danger of idlenesse to the Master,These, no means to make Masters idle, but contrarily to incourage them to take all paines. who makes conscience of this dutie, or hath any de­sire to see his schollars to profit; but an incouragement here­by to take all possible paines, by seeing the ease and fruite of his labours. Also, besides the continuall eye that hee is to haue, that euery one be painfully exercised by them in e­uery fourme, and his marking out all the difficult words, that they may labour those aboue all, and helping in each fourme where neede is, the Master may bestowe the more time with the higher fourms; and in poasing & examining, which is the life of all learning, as hath bin & shall be shew­ed further in due place. As before lectures, he may spend more time continually in examining parts, and in more exquisite reading lectures in the higher formes, or hearing them to reade their owne lectures, which is farre the best of all; or taking paines with the first enterers for euerie tit­tle: so in examining and trying exercises and lectures af­ter.

Spoud.

You seeme to bee maruellous confident in all things, for the vse and benefit of these translations; and to make a principall reckoning of them.

Phil.

I do indeed make a principall account of them ve­ry iustly;The account to be made iustly of these translations. and doe acknowledge my selfe bound vnto God chiefly for them, aboue al other things which he hath made knowne vnto me in all my search and trauell.

For these are for me insteed of mine owne selfe, hearing [Page 120] and directing in euery other fourm which I cannot be with­all, or as so many helpers. And by the help and benefit of these, all my younger Schollars doe seeme to attaine almost double learning to that, that by mine owne paines being farre greater, and my griefe much more, I was euer a­ble to bring them vnto before. For, before the time that I came to the knowledge and vse of these, as I taught at one end, my children would forget at an other; and bee as rawe in that which was learned a quarter or halfe a yeere before, as if they either had not learned it, or neuer learned it well; which was no small griefe vnto mee whensoeuer they were examined: but now take them where you will of a sodaine, in all the Authors which they haue learned; and they shall be able in good sort, not onely to construe or parse, but al­so to reade out of the English into the Latine and proue it: at least so many of them as are apt, and the rest in better maner then I could haue expected of them, vnless the fault be in my selfe; and that without any losse of time: and to goe faster forwarde in their Authors then euer they were wont to do; and without any such fretting or vexing to my selfe, though I haue but some one written copie in a fourm. Now trie this amongst your schollars, whether they be able to doe the like at any time of a sodaine, by all your labour. For mine owne part, I could neuer by all meanes attaine vnto it in any measure, especially hauing many fourmes: neither can I see how I could haue done it, vnlesse I had had so many bodies, or so many to haue bin continually in my place, in each fourme one.

A small triall will soone make this euident;Triall to make all this euident. proouing some schollars with them, others learning the same things without them, in some quarter or halfe yeeres space, whe­ther haue learned more and the surelier. And therefore I dare bee bolde to commend this vnto you vpon most vn­doubted experience.

Spoud.

I do not doubt then, but vpon this so happy an experience you haue thus translated many of our schoole Authors.

Phil.
[Page 121]

I haue indeed taken paines in translating so many of them,Schoole Au­thors translated Gramatically. as I haue had occasion for my schollars to vse, since God made knowne vnto me the benefit of them; and haue either finished them wholly, or some part of each of them; and hope in time to go thorough them wholly, if the Lord vouchsafe me life. As namely, to begin at the lowest:

Schoole Authors transla­ted or in hand.
  • Pueriles confabulatiunculae.
  • Sententiae pueriles.
  • Cato.
  • Corderius dialogues.
  • Esops fables.
  • Tullies Epistles gathered by Sturmius.
  • Tullies Offices with the books adioind to them; de Amicitia, Senectute, Paradoxes.
  • Ouid de Tristibus.
  • Ouids Metamorphosis.
  • Virgil.

Also these books following,Other bookes also translated Grammatically for continuall helpes in schooles. wherof I find great benefit:

1 Tullies Sentences for entring schollars, to make latine truly and purely in steed of giuing vulgars, and for vse of daily translating into latine, to furnish with variety of pure latine and matter.

2 Aphthonius for easie entrance into Theames, for vn­derstanding, matter and order.

3 Drax his phrases, to helpe to furnish with copie of phrase both english and latine, and to attaine to propriety in both.

4 Flores poëtarum, to prepare for versifying; to learn to versifie, ex tempore, of any ordinary Theame.

5 Tully de Natura Deorum; for purity, easinesse, varie­ty, to helpe to fit with a sweet stile for their disputations in the Vniuersities.

6 Terentius Christianus.

Of the further vses of all of which I shall speak in their proper places:Translations as other things defectiue. though this I must needs confesse vnto you, that I know them all to be very imperfect, and to haue many defects: which I euery day obserue, and am continually a­mending, [Page 122] hoping to bring them to much more perfection, as either my selfe, or you, or any other good friend, to whose hands they shall come, shall obserue the slips, and God vouchsafe life & his gracious assistance. In the meane time I intreat you to suspend your iudgement, vntill you haue seene some triall, if you haue any further doubt concerning the benefit of them; and then to let me heare plainly as you finde.

Of construing ex tempore.

Spoud.

I Rest in these your answeres, which you giue vpon your experience, for the doubts which may bee made concerning the Grammaticall translations, and so for the vse and benefits of them; and also for the construing of those lower Schoole Authors, which are so translated. But when your schollars haue gon through these Authors, what helpes may they vse for the higher Schoole Authors?What helpes to be vsed for higher Au­thors. as Horace, Persius, and the like; and so for all other things to be construed ex tempore.

Phil.

By this time they will do very much in construing any ordinary Author of themselues, ex tempore; thorough their perfect knowledge and continuall practice of the rule of construing,Remembring euer to cast each sentence into the natural order. and by that helpe of their reading in the lower Authors: I meane the help of the matter, words and phrase which they are well acquainted with, and of being a­ble to cast the words into the naturall order.

Yet besides these, and the assistance of the Master where need is, they may vse also these helpes following:

1 The best and easiest Commentaries of the hardest and most crabbed Schoole Authors;1. Commen­taries of the hardest Au­thors. as M. Bonde vpon Horace: who hath by his paines made that difficult Poet so easie, that a very childe which hath been well entred, and hath read the former Schoole Authors in any good man­ner may go thorough it with facilitie,Bonde vpon Horace. except in very few pla­ces. Of him, it were to be wished, for his singular dexteritie in making that difficult Poet plaine in so few words, that he would take the like paines in the rest of that kinde: as in [Page 123] Persius and Iuvenall, for the great benefit of Schooles. Or that som other would do it, following his example.

Next vnto him, of those which I haue seene are these: Murmelius & Buschius vpon Persius, Murmelius printed at Paris 1531. a double Commenta­rie; the one shortly expressing the matter, and beating out the sense & meaning, the other the words. Lubin also vpon Persius, and Iuvenal, Lubin on Persi­us and Iuvenal. Helps for Virg. Virg. with Me­lancht. anno­tations printed at Witeberg. 1598. is much commended. For short com­ments and annotations of Virgil, there may be vsed Ramus vpon the Eclogues & Georgicks. Also the Virgils printed with H. Stephens annotations; and with Melancthons.

2 Where they haue no help but the bare Author, & that they must cōstrue wholly of themselues cal vpon them oft, to labour to vnderstand & keep in fresh memory the Argu­ment, matter & drift of the place, which they are to cōstrue: which matter,2. Vnderstan­ding the Argu­ment, matter & drift in general. they may either find prefixed generally be­fore the beginning of the treatises, or chapters, in the Argu­mēts, or else they are to demand the vnderstanding in gene­ral, of the Master or examiner, what the matter of the place is, or what it about. Otherwise many places may trouble the greatest schollars at the first sight.

3. To consider wel of all the circumstances of each place,3 To consider the common cirrcumstances of places. which are cōprehended most of them in this plaine verse:

Quis, cui, causa, locus, quo tempore, prima sequela.

That is, who speaks in that place, what he speaks, to whom he speakes,This verse com­prehending the chief circum­stāces of places to be euer in mind. vpon what occasion he speaks, or to what end, where he spake, at what time time it was, what went before in the sentences next, what followeth next after. This verse I would haue euery such schollar to haue readily; and alwaies to thinke of it in his construing.It is a principal rule for the vn­derstanding of Authors or matter. It is a very principall rule for the vnderstanding of any Author or matt [...]r whatsoeuer.

4 In all hard words or phrases let them first call to re­membrance where they haue learned them, or the primi­tiue word whereof they come,4. To search out euery hard word & phrase. or some words neere vnto them: or otherwise to search them out by inquiring of the Master, Vsher, or som follow; or of the Dictionaries, which they ought to haue euer at hand.

And in construing their own Authors, let them remem­ber [Page 124] that generall precept, to marke the newe words with a line vnder them, as was aduised before; that they may oft go ouer them: or if they feare they cannot so remember them, to write them in their books ouer the word, or in the mar­gents ouer against the words, in a fine small hand, it will not hurt their bookes: or for sauing their books, let euery one haue a little paper booke,Or to haue each a little pa­per booke to note all n [...]w & hard words in. and therein write onely all the new and hard words as was obserued generally, to bee very perfect in those each way, by oft reading ouer; and so they shal come on very fast: hauing those (as I said) they haue all. So that these things obserued shall accomplish your desire.

1. Consider and way wel the generall matter & argument.The sum of all, for construing without Com­mentary or or helpe.

2. Marke all the hard words in their proper significati­ons.

3. Keepe in mind that verse of the circumstances of pla­ces; Quis, cui, &c.

4. Cast and dispose the words in the proper Grammati­call order.

5. See that nothing bee against sense, nothing against Grammar: but if either the sense be absurd, or constructi­on against Grammar, cast it, and try it another way vntill you find it out.

Finally,Seuerall kinds of construing or expounding. giue me leaue to adde this, before wee end this matter of construing; That all these kinds of construing, or rather of expounding and expressing their minds, may be v­sed by schollars of ripenesse, and with much profit.

1 According to the bare words in their first signification, and in the naturall order plainly.

2 According to the sense to expresse the mind of the Au­thor with vnderstanding.

3 More elegantly, in finenesse of words and phrase.

4 Paraphrastically, by exposition of words and matter more at large, to make as it were a Paraphrase of it. And to do this last in good Latine, where they are of ability.

Spoud.

Sir, you haue satisfied me at large for all this mat­ter of cōstruing: now I pray you let vs come to parsing, and the manner of it, which followeth next; that I may haue [Page 125] your helpe therein. For this hath beene no lesse wearinesse and vexation vnto me, then the construing hath beene.

Phil.

Before we come to parsing, let me also tell you this one thing:A most profi­table exercise, to cause the Schollars, daily to construe some things ex tempore, be­sides their ordi­nary Lectures. That besides my Schollars ordinary Le­ctures, and repeating daily some part of that which they haue learned in the lower fourmes; I finde very great good in causing them euery day in each fourme to construe a peece of their Authours where they haue not learned; and that ex tempore, aside, or a leafe at a time, as leisure will per­mit: hearing them eyther my selfe, or by some other very sufficient, how they can doe it; and posing onely some hard things as they goe forward: noting also the harder wordes and more difficult places, as was shewed. Also in those bookes, where of they haue Translations, I cause them by course sometimes to construe or reade the same, out of the Translations: as at other times to reade out of the Authour into English; according to the maner of the Translation.

Spoud.

This must needes bee exceeding profitable: I likewise will put it in practice forthwith, if God will; and do heartily thanke you for imparting it vnto me. But now if you haue done, to the matter of parsing.

Phil.

Let me heare of you, what course you haue vsed therein, and I will supply whatsoeuer I can.

CHAP. IX.
Of Parsing, and the kindes thereof; and how chil­dren may parse of themselues readily and surely.

Spoud.

FOr parsing, I haue followed the common course; which is this,The vsuall manner of Parsing. so farre as I haue seene or heard: viz. To parse ouer, all my yongest, euery word; and euen in the same order as the words doe stand in their Au­thours: [Page 126] teaching them what part of speech euery word is, how to decline them; and so all the questions belonging thereunto: and what each word is gouerned of; the rules for euerything, and the like.

Herein,How to teach children to parse of them­selues most surely and rea­dily. after long and much labour, I haue found very little fruite, through the hardnesse of it, and the weakenesse of the childrens memories to carie away that which I tolde them: much lesse haue I beene able to make my litle ones, no not in the second or third fourmes, so to parse of them­selues, as to giue a true reason of euery word why it must be so; according to that which I saw in the note, what might be done in parsing. Now if you haue seen the practice ther­of, let me heare it of you, I intreate you; and that in so few wordes as you can.

Phil.

Yes indeed, I haue seene the practice hereof & do know it, that children will doe very much, to ease & delight both the Master and themselues exceedingly. Besides some of the best of those which you mention (as the shewing the youngest how to parse euery word) I haue learned to ob­serue these things following,The certaine direction for parsing. and finde maruellous light, easinesse, surenesse and helpe of memory by them:

1 To cause the children euer to parse as they construe,To parse as they construe, euer marknig the last word. according to the Grammaticall rule of construing and the Translations; alwayes marking the last principall word which went before in construing: wherein (as I shortly she­wed you before) the very childe may see euery principall word going before, gouerning or ordering that which fol­loweth; and so he hath therein a guide leading him by the hand for all the Syntax at least: except in the exceptions mentioned in the Grammaticall rule; as of Interrogatiues, Relatiues, &c. which they will soone know: and where one word gouernes diuers things; as in that example. Dedit mihi vestem pignori, tepresente, propria manu. where the word Dedit gouernes most of the rest in a di­uers consideration.2 To remem­ber if they haue not learned the words before.

2 To aske among them euery word of any hardnesse, whether they haue not learned it before: & if they haue, to [Page 127] repeat where. As it was before, so it is there for the most part.

3 For the Etymologie;3 To marke in Nounes, Verbs, Parti­ciples, what examples they are like, The rest are in the booke. al the difficulty is in these three parts of speech, Nounes, Verbs, and Participles; the rest be­ing set downe in the Accedence, or easily known, as was she­wed before. And in all words of these three parts, do but tell them what examples they are like in the Accedence: which examples being knowne, will presently bring to their vn­derstanding all the questions depending on them and their answers. As, of what part of speech the words are; of what de­clension or Coniugation: so the declining, Case, Gender, Number, Person, Mood, Tense, &c. Also with a litle practice they wil soon ghesse at them, themselues; & that very right, to shew what examples they are like, eyther by the English, or Latine, or both. The same would be also for the Syntax, both in agreements and gouernements,Paralleling by examples in the Syntax likewise An example of parsing set downe at large, to direct the rudest. euer to shew what examples they are like. The example makes the rule most plaine, and imprints all in the childes memory.

To make this plaine to the capacity of the simplest, I will adde one only example, particularly examined out of the two first verses of Qui mihi discipulus puer es, &c.

First,First construe truely. be sure that the childe know the meaning of them, and can construe them perfectly, as thus:

Puer Oh childe, qui who, es art, discipulus a Schollar, mihi to me, at (que) and, cupis dost couet (or desire) doceri to bee taught; ades come, huc hither: concipe conceiue (or consi­der well) dicta haec these sayings, animo tuo in thy minde.

In this sentence,Parse as they construe. parse the childe after the same manner; and examine him accordingly. As aske, where he must be­gin to parse;Examining in parsing. he answere that Puer, Oh boy, because he began to construe there. And if you ask why he began to construe there; he answers by the rule of construing, which biddeth, If there be a Vocatiue case to begin commonly at it. Then aske what Puer is like; he answereth, like Magister: which being knowne of him & he perfect in his examples can tel you by Magister, Puer. what declension it is, how to decline it, and the number; and also by the increasing of it short in the Ge­nitiue case, he can tell you, it is the Masculine Gender by the third speciall rule.

[Page 128] For the case; that it is the Vocatiue, knowne by cal­ling, or speaking to the childe. And if you aske, why it may not be pueri not puero, but puer; he answereth, because it is the Vocatiue case, which is like the Nominatiue.

Afterwards,Qui. demaunding what must be parsed next; hee answereth qui; because qui is next in construing: and also that qui is a Pronoune Relatiue, set down in the Accedence, and there declined. Also that it is the Nominatiue case, comming before the Verbe es, following it next, by the rule of the Relatiue; When there commeth no Nominatiue case: as, Miser est qui nummos admiratur, qui admiratur So qui es. For the Gender likewise; that it is the Masculine Gender, because so is his Antecedent puer going next be­fore in construing: with which the Relatiue agreeth, by the rule of the Relatiue: The Relatiue agreeth, &c. as vir sapit qui pauca loquitur: vir qui. So puer qui. Also hee can shew it, to bee the Masculine Gender, because in wordes of three terminations, the first is the Masculine, the second the Fe­minine, the third is the Neuter. Likewise he can tell why it must be qui, not cuius, nor cui, nor any other; because it must be the Nominatiue case to the Verbe, by the rule of the Relatiue; because no other Nominatiue case commeth betweene them. So all other questions. For Person; it is made the second person here, by a figure called Euocation, because it agreeth with puer, which is made of the second person; and by the same figure Euocation, as euery Voca­tiue case is, by reason of Tu vnderstood.

Then followeth es, Es. art: of which word the childe can giue you all the Questions; because hee hath learned it in his Accedence, and is perfect in it. If you aske why it must be es, and not est, nor any other word; he answereth, because it is Thou art, not He is, nor I am: and also because in that place qui his Nominatiue case is of the second person, as was said.Discipulus. If you then aske what is parsed next; he answereth discipulus, because hee construed so: and discipulus is like Magister. Which being knowne, the childe can tell the questions of declining, Gender, Case, Number, and the rest [Page 129] appertayning thereto. If you demaund further, why it must be Discipulus and not Discipulum; why it must be a Nominatiue case after the Verbe, and not an Accusatiue according to the rules, The Accusatiue followeth the Verbe; and also that rule, Verbes Transitiues are all such, &c. He answereth, because this Verbe Sum es, is a Verbe Substantiue intransitiue, not a transitiue; and therefore will haue such case after it as it hath before it: as Fama est ma­lum, est malum. And that other rule for the Accusatiue after the Verbe, is of Transitiues, whose action passeth into another thing. So to proceede throughout for short­nesse, thus:

Mihi] is parsed next, because it it next in construing.Mihi▪ It is a Pronoune set downe in the booke. All the questions are plaine in it, except why it must bee the Datiue case: which is, because it is gouerned of es, the principall go­uernour going before, by the rule of the Datiue case after sum, Also sum with his compounds, except possum, &c. and, for that, one word may gouerne diuers cases; or it may be gouerned of Discipulus the Substantiue, by the rule of the later of two Substantiues, turned into a Datiue: where­in the English rules are defectiue. The rule in Latine, is Est etiam vbi in Datiuum, vertitur, &c.

At (que)] is next in construing;At (que). and therefore in parsing. It is a Coniunction Copulatiue, set downe in the booke. It is also a Compound Coniunction; com­pounded of at and que. It is put here to couple these mem­bers of the sentence together, viz. Cupis doceri, with that go­ing before.

Cupis] is next:Cupis. It is like Legis, Thou readest. Which being knowne, the childe can tell you what Coniugation, Moode, Tense, Number, Person, the word Cupis is; and why it must be so, and not cupiunt, nor any other worde; because at (que) couples like Moodes and Tenses: and it is, Thou couetest. Other questions which fall out in decli­ning, the childe can tell; as, why it is Cupiui, by the excep­tion of the rule Fit pio, pi. And why Cupitum, by the [Page 130] rule of the ending of the Preterperfect tense in vi. Vi [...]it tum.

Doceri] is parsed next,Doceri. because it is construed next: it is in my booke, saith the childe, and it signifieth to be taught. Thus hee can answere all the questions, why it must bee doceri, not docere: also why it must come next; because an Infinitiue moode doeth commonly follow another moode.

Ades] is next in order,Ades. and is in all things like es in sum, compounded of ad and sum: and it must be so, because it is Come thou, not adest not adsunt.

Huc] is next in construing,Huc. because Aduerbes are vsually ioyned to the Verbs, to declare their signification. It is an Aduerbe of place signifying hither, or to this place.

Concipe] is like Lege, Concipe. Reade thou. This being knowne, the part of Speech, Moode, Tense, Number, Person, and most questions of it are knowne; except two or three of the compounding it with a Preposition, and of changing of the letters a, into i. Which are to be learned after by the rule in their booke.

Dicta] is next,Dicta. because the Substantiue, which is more principall, and to which the Adiectiue agreeth, must goe before the Adiectiue in parsing; though in our English, Ad­iectiues goe before. It is like Regna. The Accusatiue case, Neuter Gender, Plurall Number, following the Verbe Con­cipe, by Verbes Transitiues. And the Neuter Gender by my rule of all wordes like Regnum. Omne quod exit in um. And Neutrum nomen in e. It must also end in a, in the Accusatiue case Plurall number, because all Neuters do end so in three like cases. It is deriued of the Supine dictu, by putting to m.

Haec] is a Pronoune demonstratiue,Haec. agreeing with dicta, by the rule of the Relatiue: and it must bee so by that rule.

Animo] followeth next,Animo. the Substantiue to be set before the Adiectiue; it is like Magistro in all. The Ablatiue case, because it signifieth in the minde, and not into the minde: because, in, without this signe, to, serues to the Ablatiue case, and is a signe thereof. It is also by the rule, Sometime [Page 131] this Preposition In, is not expressed but vnderstanded.

Tuo] A Pronoune possessiue,Tuo. like bono or meo, but that it wants the Vocatiue case. It is set downe in my booke, and doth agree in al things with animo; by the rule of, The Adie­ctiue, whether it be Noune, Pronoune or Participle, agreeth with his Subst. &c. And so on for the rest.

In this first kinde of parsing,Manner of hea­ring their Lectures. you may at the first en­trance, aske them the English of each word, and cause them to giue you the Latine, and so to parse, looking on their Latine bookes, to incourage them; iust in the manner as is set downe.

After a little time cause them to doe it, looking onely vpon the English Translation.

Then (which is the principall, and wherein you will take much delight) cause them amongst themselues to construe and parse out of the translation vntill they can say, or out of their Authours, whether they can sooner: but when they come to say, cause them to say each sentence, first in Eng­lish, then to construe and parse them; and all with their bookes vnder their armes: what they cannot repeat so, they will doe it if you aske them questions of it. You shall finde by experience, that with a little practice, all who are apt will do this as soone, readily, & perfectly, as looking vpon their books (if so that they but vnderstand the matter wel before) and so they will make all their owne most surely. Thus I would haue them to do in Sententiae, Confabulatiunculae and Cato if you will. After in the middle fourmes, as in E [...]ops Fa­bles, Ouid de Tristibus, or Ouids Metamorphosis, &c (because eyther the matter is not so familiar and easie to remember, or the Lecture longer) I would haue them to parse thus, looking vpon their translation; but then to parse wholly in Latine: and I can assure you by some good experience, that through Gods blessing▪ you will admire their profiting.

Spoud.

Surely Sir▪ this way of parsing is most direct and plaine; and the benefits must needes bee exceeding great: but giue me leaue yet to aske one thing of you, concerning this parsing amongst the younger. I haue heard of some, [Page 132] who would teach their enterers to know by the very words,How to know by the wordes what part of speech each word is. what part of Speech each word is. How may that be done?

Phil.

This may very well be done, euen according to this ensample aboue, when euery thing is examined at large. As for example, Cause your Schollar to doe this:

1 To marke out all those wordes, which they haue lear­ned, being set downe in their Accedences; as Pronounes, Aduerbes, Coniunctions, Interiections: that they knowe all those. Then haue they nothing to trouble them with; but they may know that all the rest are eyther Nounes, Verbes or Participles, or else Gerunds or Supines belong­ing to the Verbes, or some other Aduerbs.

2 For those partes of Speech, when your Schollar can construe perfectly, they may bee knowne by their Latine and English together, whether they be Nounes, Verbs, Par­ticiples, or such Aduerbes; chiefly, when they are very cun­ning in their parts of Speech in their Accedence, and que­stions thereof.

1 The Noune Substantiues, that they are names of things, to which you may put to a, Substantiues, and how to know them. or the, as was said; as A boy, A Schollar: but cannot put to the word Thing, in any good sense. And morefully, when the Latine is put to the English; as puer A boy, like Magister: discipulus a schollar, like Ma­gister.

The Noune Adiectiues contrarily,How Adie­ctiues. though they signifie a thing; yet they cannot stand by themselues in sense, vn­lesse you put to (Thing) or some other word expresly or vn­derstood; nor you cannot in proper speech put to a, or the. As we cannot say properly, A good, An euill: but wee may say A good man, A good house, An euill thing. And when they are put Substantiuely, yet Thing is properly vnder­stood: as bonum a good thing, summum bonum the chiefest good thing; though wee call it the chiefest good.

These Adiectiues also may be more fully vnderstood,By the Latine adioyned. In us or er like bonus, by the Latin words: as if they end in us or er, they are like bonus; except those expressed like Nounes, and some few strange Adiectiues, which are partly Substantiues partly Adiectiues [Page 133] set downe in the Rule, At sunt quae flexu &c. as Pauper, pu­ber, &c. And in the Rule, Haec proprium, &c. as Campester, &c.

Adiectiues ending in ans or ens (though they be Parti­ciples) and also in x, In ans, ens, x, rs, like foelix. and rs, as concors, are declined like foelix; and some in or, as memor.

Adiectiues in is, In is, ior, ius, like tristis. ior, [or jor] and ius signifying the Com­paratiue degree, that is to say, more, are like Tristis: as Dul­cis, dulcior, maior, dulcius.

Finally, if the childe but knowe his word to be like any of the examples of a Nown Substantiue, as Musa, Magister, Regnū, Lapis, Manus, Meridies, he knoweth it to be a Nown Substantiue. If like bonus, vnus, foelix, tristis, a Nown Adiec­tiue.

Verbes also may be knowen most plainly by the Eng­lish and Latine together.How Verbes may be known. As, the words signifying, doing, suffering or being, and like Amo, doceo, lego, audio, or amor, doceor, legor, audior, or any person comming of them in a­ny Moode or Tense, and signifying like to them, are Verbs. So by the signes of the tenses; do, did or didst, haue, hast, hath, had or haddest, shall or will. By the signes of the moods; Or signes of the Passiue: as am, are, art, was, were, wert, be or beene: where any of these signes are, are com­monly Verbes.

And finally, this is generall for the Verbes, as for the Nownes; that if either the childe can tell of himself, or you but shewe him what person in a Verbe it is like, hee can tell presently that it is a Verbe, and most questions belonging to it▪ As, knowing that cupis thou couetest, is like legis thou readest, he knoweth presently, that it is a Verb of the third Coniugation, and the Mood, Tense, &c.

The like may bee sayde for Gerunds of Verbes,Gerunds. and Supines,Supines. in all things, as for the Verbe before.

ParticiplesParticiples. also may bee plainely knowen by the verie same manner; and chiefly by their endings in English and Latine both together. As, the words that ende in [ing] in English, and in Latine in ans or ens, are Participles [Page 134] of the Present tense.Present tense Preter tense. Words in d, t, or n, and their Latine in tus, sus, xus, are Participles of the Preter tense. So those words ending in rus in Latine, and signifying to doe or a­bout to doe,Future in rus. of the Future in rus. And in dus, signifying to be done like the Infinitiue moode Passiue,Future in dus. are Participles of the Future in dus.

Aduerbes (besides those in the booke,How to know other Aduerbes besides those in the bookes. or which should bee set downe in the English Aduerbe as they are in the Latine) are but either Aduerbes of Comparison or of Qualitie.

Those of Comparison end in us, Of Compari­son. and signifie more; or in e, and signifie most.

Those of Qualitie end in è, Qualitie. or in er commonly; and all of these haue their English vsually ending in ly: as doc­tè learnedly, doctiùs more learnedly, doctissimè most lear­nedly.

To conclude, they are also marked commonly in all bookes which are well printed, with graue accents ouer them, to distinguish them from other parts of Speech, and that they may be knowen to bee Aduerbes: as doctè learnedly, to bee knowen from docte the Vocatiue case of the Adiectiue: so doctiùs. And thus are all Aduerbes of like nature; as quàm then, to be distinguished from quam which, the Pronowne.

And also sundry Prepositions are so marked: as ponè, propè.

Spoud.

I approue and see the reason of all this, that the parts of Speech may bee knowen or neerely ghessed at: and I doe still go on with you, reioycing in this our confe­rence.

Notwithstanding, there is one thing I haue heard, that a child may not only be taught to know what part of Speech each word is, but also of what Coniugation any Verbe is, if hee heare but onely the first person of the Indicatiue Mood; that is, if he heare but onely the Verbe named. Now this seemeth to me vnpossible; there being so many hun­dreth Verbes all ending in o, and they so like one another; [Page 135] and especially those of the first and third Coniugation, so hard to bee distinguished,A child may know of what Coniugation any Verbe is. that this may oft trouble a lear­ned man, and much more a young schollar.

Phil.

This which seemes to you so impossible, may bee likewise easilie done by a childe, by the helpe of this direc­tion which I shall heere set downe before your face, and by one obseruation or two arising there from.

A direction how to know the Coniugation of any Simple Verb (and so of the Compounds which may be knowne by the Simples) although the learner neuer heard the Verbes before.

ALl Verbes in ëo, A direction to know the Con­iugations of Verbs. as doceo, are of the second Coniugati­on: except a fewe of the first Coniugation; and eo, queo, veneo, which are of the fourth.

So Deponents also in ëor are of the second: as fateor, tueor, Verbs of the second Coniu­gation easily knowen. mereor, vereor, misereor, liceor, with their Compounds.

And onely these sixe, so farre as I remember. So also Verbes in ëo alone.

All Verbes ending in ïo as audio, Verbs of the 4. Coniugation. and in ïor, as audior, and they onely, are of the fourth Coniugation, except a fewe which are of the third, and some of the first noted after.

All the Verbes of the third Coniugation are set downe in the rules of the Verbs,Verbs of the 3. Coniugation. at Tertia praeteritum formabit, &c. Except these which follow in this Table, which are also of the third.

  • [Page 136]üo
    • acuo, arguo, exuo, imbuo, induo, mi­nuo, sternuo, suo, tribuo, delibuo, indè delibutus.
  • bo
    • glubo.
  • co
    • ico.
  • do
    • cudo, pando, pindo, idem quod pinso, prehendo, con­tractè prendo, ac­cendo, succendo, incendo, à cando obsoleto, defendo, offendo, infendo, à fendo obsoleto.
  • go
    • cingo, clango, fli­go, frigo, mergo, mungo, plango, sugo, tego, tingo, vngo.
  • guo
    • distinguo, extin­guo, restinguo, in­stinguo, à stinguo obsoleto, indè in­stinctus, instinctor
  • lo
    • consulo, molo, to grinde: but im­molo, as: promello, an old word, sig­nifying to stir vp strife, or to make delay.
  • mo
    • fremo, gemo, tre [...]o
  • [...]
    • dispe [...], to stretch abroad▪ [...]
  • po
    • clepo, repo, serpo, sculpo.
  • pso
    • clepso, pro clepo to steale or take a­waie.
    • depso, to kneade.
  • to
    • beto, quasi bene ito, to goe.
    • Varro.
  • sco
    • All in sco, except conisco, as, to push with the head, as Rams do. lucret.
These old words
  • clingo.
  • cludo.
  • lido.
  • geno.
  • pago.
  • tago.
  • spicio.
    • for
      • cingo.
      • claudo.
      • laedo.
      • gigno.
      • pango.
      • tango.
      • specio.

These following are of the first and third coniugation in the same signifi­cation.

la [...]o, sono, tono, piso to stamp out the huskes of corne.

These also of the first and third, in a diuerse significa­tion.

  • appello, as, to call. appello, is, appuli, to bring to, to ap­proach, to ar­riue, to apply.
  • caluo, as, to make balde.
  • caluo, is, to de­ceiue.
  • colo, as, to straine.
  • colo, is, to wor­ship.
  • como, as, to trim or lay out.
  • como, is, to kembe.
  • consterno, as, to trouble in mind, consterno, is, to strewe or scatter.
  • dico, as, to vow, offer, dedicate. dico, is, to say.
  • duco, as, as educo, as, to bring vp. duco, is, to leade.
  • euallo, as, to cast out of the dores. euallo, is, to vanne or to make clean corne.
  • [Page 137] fundo, as, to found, establish▪ fundo, is, to poure out.
  • iugo, iugas, to yoake.
  • iugo, is, to cry like a Kite.
  • [...]ego, as, to send Embassador, or to bequeath.
  • [...]ego, is, to read, to gather, steale, or to strike sayle.
  • mando, as, to com­mand, mando, is, to eate.
  • nicto, as, to winke often.
  • nicto, is, to open as a hound, or quest as aspaniel.
  • pedo, as, to prop. pedo, is, to breake winde.
  • sero, as, to locke. sero, is, to lay in order or to sowe.

These are of the second and third;

  • pendeo, pendo.
  • tergeo, tergo.
These old words,
  • feruo.
  • cauo.
  • fulgo.
  • olo.
  • cluo.
  • fren­lo.
    • for
      • ferueo.
      • caueo.
      • fulgeo.
      • oleo.
      • clueo.
      • fren­deo.
      • excello and excelleo.

Of the first Coniu­gation, There are some in [...]o, as, beo, meo, screo.

And al other verbs in ëo deriued from Nowns in ëus, & ë [...], as calceo: of which also is calcio, of cal­ceus; nauseo, of nau­sea.

Some also in ïo, as frio, h [...]o, pio to please God by sa­crifice.

  • Trauìo.
  • gargaridio
    • olde.

And al other verbs in ïo and ïor, deri­ued from Nownes in ï [...]s, iae, ium, and ies: as nuncio, of nuncius.

  • saucio,
  • à scio.
  • somnio,
  • calumnior,
  • auxilior,
  • glacio à glacies.
  • satio à saties.
  • meridior.

And so all other like; except these which are of the fourth Coniugati­on; as, ineptio,

  • insanio,
  • vesanio,
  • lasciuio.
  • balbutio,
  • fastidio.
  • munio à maeniae.

Finally all other Verbes besides these, are of the first Coniugation; and are infinitely moe then of all the other three Coniugations iointly.

Spoud.
[Page 138]

I see that to bee true, which is said of a Parable; that before it be expounded, nothing seems more hard and obscure; but when it is once made plaine, nothing is more cleare: so is it in this, and in the way of construing and par­sing, by the helpe of the rule, and in diuers other things, which you haue shewed vnto me.

Phil.

It is most certaine which you say. I my selfe haue so thought, this matter of knowing what Coniugation anie Verb is of, to be impossible: but you see what things, paine and diligence may find out.This direction for finding out the Coniugati­on receiued frō M. Coot [...] As for this direction, I acknow­ledge it wholly to that painfull M. Coot; who writ the Eng­lish Schoolemaster. And by this one, it may euidently ap­peare, what further benefit the Latine tongue might haue hoped for by his labors, if God had vouchsafed him life to haue brought them to perfection; or if others had bin care­full to haue afforded him that helpe that they might haue done.

Spoud.

It is great pitty that he, or any other, should want any help or means, in so profitable a work; and a token of Gods displeasure, that we should be depriued of such profi­table labors. But, to return again to this matter of parsing; you haue very well satisfied mee concerning the younger sort & their parsing: yet there is one thing concerning this Grammaticall parsing amongst the younger, which I must craue of you.Much time and toile in parsing thorough exa­mining each word by the Master, how helped. That there is so much time spent in exami­ning euery thing; the Master asking each question particu­larly, and the schollar answering: which besides the losse of time, is a very great wearinesse to the Master. I pray you shewe mee the very shortest and speediest waie which you knowe.

Phil.

Some very learned would haue this parsing to be by pen,The surest shortest and speediest way of parsing. and by characters for shortnesse: But howsoeuer this may be done among 2. or 3. schollars taught by them­selues;Some account to be by pen and characters. put this will be found most short and easie. yet this seemeth to require farre more time (both for writing to set euery thing down, and also for examining by the Master) then can bee performed in the common Schooles.

[Page 139] But the shortest, surest, most pleasant & easie waie both to Master and Schollar, I touched before, if you marked it: and it is this. After that they haue been entred, and trained vp some twelue-month in the lowest fourme by questions, as the example was shewed out of Qui mihi; then, when they goe into the next fourme,To parse euerie one his peece, as reading a lecture. as into Cato, to begin to parse euerie one of themselues, as reading a lecture, each his peece. I meane chiefly, when they come to say their lectures.

For example:Example. To take those two first verses of Qui mi­hi, because they are parsed before. First let them construe perfectly in the Grammaticall order, as was sayd: then let each parse his word or two, as they construed, euer marking the last word, and in all things iust in the same manner, as is set downe before; but only to doe it of themselues without any question asked, for the sauing of time: Onely the Ma­ster, or he who heareth them, is to aske where they do omit any necessary question in any word, or where they misse.

As thus:Example. The childe hauing construed, beginnes of him­selfe,

Puer oh child: It is to be parsed first because it is first in construing. Puer, is like Magister. A Nowne Substantiue common of the second Declension; and so he declines it, so farre as the Master thinkes meete, at least giuing the Ge­nitiue case; for if they be wel entred in the Accedence, they will easily decline any regular word, when they knowe the example. After he shews the rule when he hath declined a­ny Nown or Verbe. As Puer pueri, is a graue increaser; and therfore of the Masculine Gender. Nomen cresentis penulti­masi Genitiui sit grauis &c. Also the Vocatiue case knowen by calling or speaking to, as ô Magister, ô Master. Qui is next, a Pronowne Relatiue, &c. So euery thing in the same order as before.

To help your schollars to do this: Remember first when you haue vsed for a time to parse them ouer euery word so,To help to pre­pare the chil­dren for par­sing, at taking lectures▪ before them, that by your example they may do the like; then for speediness, when they haue taken their lectures of [Page 140] themselues, that they can cōstrue to cause only som one of them to read ouer their lecture, to see that they pronounce it right, and to construe if you will, if time so permit, or to reade it ouer to them: And what words you obserue to be hard, which you thinke they know not, you may aske them what those words are like, and how they are declined, or where they haue learned them,To marke out hard words. as was sayd. Where they cannot tell any, or haue any newe word which they haue not learned, to make that plaine vnto them, and to cause euerie one of the fourm, as was directed in the third gene­rall obseruation,See more of this marking before in the 3. generall obser­ation. to make a line vnder that word, or vnder that part of the word, that letter or syllable wherein the difficulty lieth; for a little helpe will bring the whole to re­membrance. Or to note them with some marke or letter ouer the head of the word.

As in the enterers, to note the Declension with a d, ouer the head, and a figure signifying which Declension.

The Coniugation with a c, and a figure.

Heteroclites with an h; lame Verbes with an l.

For example, to take that which was parsed before

Example of marking hard words amongst the first ente­rers.
Qui mihi discipulus2. d. puer2. d. es cupis3. c. at (que) doceri,
Huc ades haec animo concipe dicta tuo.

Here discipulus and puer are noted for the second De­clension, cupis the third Coniugation, ades for the Compo­sition of ad and sum, concipe for changing a into i.

Or you may marke Declensions and Coniugations, by setting downe but onely the first letters of the examples, which they are like, as discipulusmag., puermag., cupisleg., &c.

The former is the shorter, after they are acquainted with it, and can make their figures.

And euer what rules they are not well acquainted with, turne them,To cause them to turne to the rules. or cause them to turne to the places in their Grammar, and to shew them to you.

[Page 141] As they proceede to higher fourmes,Noting in the higher fourm. and are more perfect, marke onely those which haue most difficulty; as Notations, Deriuations, figuratiue Constructions, Tropes, Figures▪ and the like: and what they feare they cannot remember by a marke, cause them to write those in the Margent in a fine hand, or in some little booke.

In the lower fourmes, you marking one booke your selfe, all the rest may marke theirs after it, vntill they can doe it of themselues.

The ends of this marking,The ends of marking their bookes. are, as I said, that they may take most paines in these; for the rest they can doe easily, and almost of themselues. And also that when they construe and repeat ouer their Authors, they may oft pose ouer those hard wordes. And thus they shall keepe their Authours, which they haue learned, to the credite of the Schoole, with the profiting and incouragement of the schollars, that they shall goe farre safer forward, then by any other meanes.

Spou.

But this marking may indanger them, to make them Truants, & to trust their books more then their memories.

Phil.

I answere no,Marking the hardest wordes for remem­brance, is no meanes to make them Truants, but helpeth and preuenteth ma­ny inconueni­ences. not at all; but to performe a neces­sary supply vnto the children. For childrens memories are weake: and they are soone discouraged by the difficul­tie of learning and by the hastinesse of their Masters. And therefore they had neede of all helpes at the beginning. It is also the oft repeating ouer of any thing, which imprints it in their memory for euer.

Of the contrary, trie amongst children of the sharpest wits & best memories, if they haue not some such helps, whether they will not be long in learning to parse a Lecture:Euils of the want hereof. & when they can parse it very perfectly, proue them within a month after, whether they will not haue forgotten, at least most of the hardest & chiefe matters. Then think what a vexation it is to the honest minded Mast that would be alwaies ready to giue an accoūt of the profiting of his schollar; & withal whē he must teach him euery thing anew, wch he hath forgotten: [Page 142] neyther his leisure will any way serue; hee hauing many fourmes▪ and being to goe forward daily with his Schollars in some new construction; besides many other like dis­commodities.

Spoud.

But there is another kinde of apposing, which I remember in the note, and which you mentioned; how to teach children to make right vse of their Authours, euen of euery sentence: which I conceiue not of.

Phil.

Yes truely:How to appose so as the chil­dren may get both the mat­ter, words, and phrase of each Lecture. and that which I account the very prin­cipall, and as it were the very picking out of the kernell, and the life of euery Lecture; to get both the matter and also the Latine wordes and phrases, that they make them their owne, to vse as neede or occasion requireth.

Spoud.

That must needs be of excellent vse: for though it be commendable to construe, & to parse perfectly; yet it is nothing in regard of this, if they shall not know how to make their vse and benefite eyther of matter or phrase.

Phil.

This is onely by apposing them, as I shewed you the manner in the Propria quae maribus, to make them to vn­derstand; and that first in English, then in Latine: and to cause them to answere both wayes, both wordes and sen­tences, as time will permit.

For example;Example. Take a sentence or two in the beginning of that little booke, called Sententiae pueriles: which is well worthy to be read first vnto children, because it hath beene gathered with much care & aduice to enter younger schol­lars, for Latine and matter euery way meete for them: but of it and others, what I finde best to be read, I shall shew you my experience in another place. Out of it you may exa­mine thus, for making vse, as in the these first sentences of it:

  • Amicis opitulare.
  • Alienis abstine.
  • Arcanum cela.
  • Affabilis esto, &c.

1 If you will, you may aske them by a question of the contrary,Manner of pro­pounding the questions. Must you not helpe your friends? The childe an­swereth, Yes. Then bid him giue you a sentence to proue it; [Page 143] hee answereth, Amicis opitulare.

Or aske by a distribution thus; Whether must you helpe or forsake your friends? The childe answereth, I must helpe them. Then bid him to giue you a sentence; he answereth, Amicis opitulare.

Or thus by Comparison; Whether ought you to helpe your friends, or others first? or friends or enemies, &c. When the childe hath answered, euer bid him to giue his sentence. So on in the rest.

The more plainly you can propound your question, that the childe may vnderstand it, and may answere in the very wordes of his Lecture, the better it is: so to examine the wordes seuerally: How say you Helpe? he answereth Opi­tulare. Friends, Amicis. But of this more after.

After the childe hath beene a while thus practiced,Example of examining English and Latine toge­ther. then vse to examine both in English and Latin together: I mean propounding the questions first in English, then in Latine; and so let him answere, that the matter and English may bring the Latine with them: which they will certainly doe. The manner I shewed in examining in the Latine rules: I will set downe one other example, in the sentences of three wordes; Amor vincit omnia.

Out of this sentence I examine thus:

Q. What is that, that will ouercome all things?

A. Loue.

Then bid him giue the sentence.

A. Amor vincit omnia.

Or thus: Is there any thing that can ouercome all things?

A. Yes; Loue.

Or thus more particularly, to put delight and vnderstan­ding into them;

Q. What is that which will ouercome learning, & make it our owne?

A. Loue of learning, or louing our bookes.

Q. Giue me a sentence to proue it.

A. Amor vincit omnia, &c.

[Page 144] Then examine in Latine the very same things; but vtte­ring them in Latine and English together, as thus:

Quid vincit omnia? what will ouercome all things?

R. Amor.

Or thus: Est ne aliquid quod potest omnia vincere? Is there any thing that can ouercome all things? R. Imò.

Q. Quidest? What is it?

R. Amor.

Q. Da sententiam.

R. Amor vincit omnia.

Q. Or thus: Quid vincit amor? What wil loue ouercome?

R. Omnia, All things.

So in Cato, Examining for the vse in Cato. to aske, as in the first Verses,

Q. What thing ought to be chiefe vnto vs?

A. The worship of God.

Q. Dasententiam.

R. Cultus Deipraecipuus.

Q Dacarmen.

R. Si Deus est animus nobis, &c.

Then to examine the Verses by parts if you will: as Si De­us est animus, &c. Aske,

Qualis est Deus, What is God, or what a one?

A. Animus, A spirit, or spirituall nature or being.

Q. Qui ita nobis dicunt? vel, Quae nobis ita dicunt? Who or what things tell vs so?

R. Carmina, Verses, or Poets who write Verses.

Q. Quomodo tum co [...]endus est?

R. Pura mente.

Q. Dacarmen.

R. Si Deus est animus, &c.

Thus throughout, onely where they vnderstand not, to propound the question, as well in English, as in Latine, and so to answere.

Also you may examine thus: What Verses in Cato haue you, to proue that the worship of God must bee chiefly re­garded? A. Si Deus est animus.

What against sleepinesse and idlenesse?

A. Plus vigila semper, &c.

[Page 145] So in Esops Fables,Examining the Fables in Esop for the vse. besides the examining euery peece of a sentence in the Lectures, as thus:

Gallus Gallinaceus dum vertit stercorarium offendit gem­mam, &c.

Q. Quid offendebat Gallus dum vertit stercorarium?

R. Offendit gemmam, &c.

Cause the children to tell you, what euery Fable is about or against, or what it teacheth, in a word or two. For exam­ple, thus:

Q. What Fable haue you against the foolish contempt of learning and vertue, and preferring play or pleasure be­fore it?

A. The Fable of the Cocke, scratching in the dung-hill.

Or after this manner:

Q. What Fable haue you against the foolish neglect of learning?

A. The Fable of the Cocke, scratching in the dung-hill.

2 Cause them to make a good and pithy report of the Fable;Making a re­port of their Fables. first in English, then in Latine: and that eyther in the wordes of the Authour, or of themselues as they can; and as they did in English. For, this practice in English to make a good report of a Fable, is of singular vse, to cause them to vtter their mindes well in English; and would neuer bee o­mitted for that and like purposes.

In other bookes the vse is according to the quality of them:The vse accor­ding to the quality of the bookes. as in Confabulatiunculae pueriles, the vse is for the children to talke to one another in the same words.

In Sturmius Epistles, and others of Tully, the phrase prin­cipally is to be regarded: as also in the Poets, the Poeticall phrase.

For the further vse of them for imitation both in Epistles and Verses, I shall speake after in their place.

But for the Latine and matter to make it our owne, I finde the chiefe benefit to be in oft reading them out of the Gram­matical translations,The surest way to make both Latine and mat­ter our owne. ouer and ouer, vntill the Latine be as familiar to the schollar, as the English: as I noted in the be­nefits of the Translations. And also in saying and repeating [Page 146] of Lectures (I meane the weekes worke) to construe with­out booke: and then repeare them in Verse, or as they are without booke.

For the vse in Tullies Offices and Ouids Metamorphosis, Vse in Tullies Offices, and Ouids Meta­morphosis. I haue set in the Margents of the Translations, the sum of all the matter; which is very notable and full of delight.

For parsing in the highest fourmes: to obserue onely for breuity sake the difficulties of Grammar or Rhetorick,Parsing in the higher fourms. spe­ciall phrases, or the like; the Master onely to examine what things they omit, or wherein he suspects them negligent. In parsing they may vse these or the like speeches:

Hae sunt difficultates Grammaticae. Hae elegantiae Rhetori­ces. Reliqualcuiora, trita, puerilia, &c.

In Poetry also, Phrases hae: Epitheta ista.

Let all this examination be onely in pure Latine, from the very lowest fourmes,All in Latine in the higher fourmes. except the first or second at the most. For they will do it with ease if they be rightly entered from the beginning; and that the Master euer do it before them where they are not able: and to obserue wherein they are most defectiue, therein to take the most paines.

Spoud.

Although these things cannot but be very profi­table; yet being so many, they can hardly be put in practice in the greater Schooles. I pray you rehearse me the summe of those which you take most necessary for daily vse.

Phil.

These are they;The summe of all, principally necessary for parsing. Cause your schollars to reade first their Lecture distinctly and construe truly: to parse as they construe, euer marking the last principall word: to shew where they haue learned euery hard word: what exam­ple euery hard word is like; so to giue rules & examples of them, both for Etymologie & Syntax, as after for the Rheto­rick, as need is. To parse of themselues, as reading a Lecture, and that only in Latin when they come to say, except in the very lowest fourmes: to make some marke at euery hard word, which you note vnto them, to take the most pains in those: amongst the younger specially, to examine each Le­cture for the vse; wherby they may get matter, wordes, and phrases, all vnder one. In the highest, for speedines to exa­mine [Page 147] onely the difficulties, as you see requisite; to let them name the rule in a word or two; to obserue phrases and Epithets. In all repetitions amongst themselues, and construing ouer their Authours, to examine ouer also the noted wordes, as time permits.

CHAP. X.
Of making Latine; how to enter children therein, with delight and certainty, without danger of false Latine, barbarous phrase, or any o­ther like inconuenience.

Spoud.

NOw that you haue thus louingly ledde me by the hand, through the way of laying a sure foundati­on amongst my children, for all the grounds both of Accedence and Grammar; and also of construing and parsing: let me still intreate you to goe on before me; and next to shew how I may enter my children for making of Latine: and then through the seuerall exer­cises thereof.To enter chil­dren to make Latine, a matter ordinarily ex­tremely diffi­cult, and full of toyle both to Master and schollar. This I haue found extreamely difficult. For although it hath beene a matter of continuall vexation and paine vnto my selfe, and of feare vnto my poore schollars; yet haue I found as little profiting therein, as in any other: but that my children will still write false Latine, barbarous phrase, and without any certainty, after a very long time of exercise.

If therefore you can guide me the way, how I may do that which you spake of before, that I may enter my chil­dren with ease and delight, both to my selfe and to them; and also surely without danger of making false Latine or barbarous phrase; I shall further acknowledge my selfe, to haue receiued yet a greater benefite then in all the former. And aboue all, if you can direct me how by that [Page 148] time that they haue beene not two yeares onely, but three or foure yeares in construction, they may be able to make true Latine, and pure Tully in ordinary morall matters. For I my selfe haue hardly beene able to cause my children to doe this at fourteene or fifteene yeares of age; nor then to warrant that which they haue done: neyther doe I thinke that it is much otherwise in our ordinary Schooles.

Phil.

I shall willingly satisfie your request hereein like­wise, and shew you what I haue found: onely let me see, as before, what course your selfe haue taken, to enter your children.

Spoud.

I haue taken that course which I thinke is com­monly practiced in Schooles:The ordinary manner in countrey Schooles, to enter Schollars to make Latin. I haue giuen them vulgars, or Englishes, such as I haue deuised, to be made in Latine: and at the first entrance I haue taught and heard them, how to make euery word in Latine, word by word, according to their rules. After a while I haue onely giuen them such vulgars, and appointed them a time, against which they should bring them made in Latine: and at the perusing a [...] examining of them, I haue beene wont to correct them sharply, for their faults in writing, and for their negligence; and so haue giuen them new Englishes: and it may bee I haue told them the Latine to the hardest words. This is the course that I haue followed.

Phil.

Our learned Schoole-master M. Askam, The butcherly feare of making Latines. doeth not without cause tearme this the butcherly feare of making Latines. For to omit the trouble to the Master, and that it will require a ready wit, to giue variety of such vulgars to the children; and also that it will aske good learning and iudgement to direct them, to make not onely true Latine, but pure phrase withall; what a terrour must this needes be vnto the young Schollar, who feares to be corrected for euery fault,The shortest way to enter Schollars to make Latine easily and sure­ly. and hardly knoweth in any thing, what to make vpon sure and certaine grounds? But for the way, this I finde the shortest, surest, and easiest both to Master and schollar; and which will certainely effect whatsoeuer hath bin said: and that Master and Schollar may proceede cheerefully [Page 149] and boldly, to iustifie what they doe.

1. See that your schollar be very cunning in his Acce­dence,1. To be ex­ceeding per­fect in their rules; chiefly in Nownes and Verbes. and Grammar as hee goeth forward: and chiefly in Nownes and Verbes, to be able to giue each case of a Nown, and euery tense and person of a Verbe; both Latine to Eng­lish, and English to Latine, as I wished you, and shewed the manner before; at least by the perfect knowledge of the ter­minations of them.

2. Besides the construing and parsing their lectures without booke,2. Each day to make the La­tine of their lectures, and giue a reason why each word must be so. in the lowest fourmes, or out of the English translation, accustom your selfe, in examining the lectures of your first enterers, to do all after the manner of making Latine; as it were causing them euery day to make the La­tine of their lectures, and giue a reason why each word must be so, and not otherwise, their bookes being shut. I set you downe the manner before, in the vse of the Grammaticall rule for making Latine, in that example; Aptissima omnino sunt, &c. Yet to repeate you a word or two for your little ones; take that first sentence, Amicis opitulare: when you haue made them to vnderstand the meaning, and exami­ned it,Example re­peated. so as was shewed; Aske but thus:

How can you make this in Latine; Helpe friends? How say you, Helpe thou?

A. Opitulare.

Q. Opitulare like what?

A. Like Amare amator, be thou loued.

So all the questions for parsing: Then aske, why is it helpe thou, and not, be thou helped, as Amare amator, be thou loued. He answereth because it is a Verbe Deponent, and signifieth Actiuely, to help; and not, to be helped.

After aske the next word:

Q. Whom must you help?

A. Our friends.

Q. How say you friends?

A. Amicis.

Q. What is Amicis like?

A. Magistris.

[Page 150] So the questions of declining and the like. Then aske, why not amici nor amicos, the Accusatiue case after the verb.

A. Because the Verb Opitulor, to help, wil haue a Datiue case, by that rule of the Datiue, To profit or disprofit, &c.

These may be insteede of all vulgars or Latines, both for ease,These insteede of all vulgars. delight and certainty to your selfe and the childe: and so you may euer haue the Author to warrant both Latine, and phrase.

3 Next vnto this,3. Continuall reading lec­tures, and re­peating what they haue lear­ned out of the Grammaticall translations, is continuall ma­king Latine, to cause children to come on ve­ry fast. that continuall beating out and rea­ding their Authors, both lectures and repetitions, out of the translations, is continual making Latine thus, (as I said, in the vse of the translations) that children will come on very fast for propriety, choise, & variety of the best words, phrase, matter, and sentences of their Authors, to begin to haue a store [...] house in themselues of all copie, as I haue ob­serued.

4 After the former practiced for a time, you may chuse some sentences which they haue not learned,4. Shewing fit sentences to turne into La­tine out of the booke which they learne, or others. and cause them to make those, either some out of this booke of Sen­tences, or any other of like easie morall matter; and then let them begin to write downe that which they make in La­tine.

This manner I find to be most easie and speedy for chil­dren at their first entrance:The manner of their entrance to write Latine, to profit in English, Latine, writing faire, & true, and all vn­der one. wherby they may profit in Eng­lish, Latine▪ Writing true and faire, and all vnder one labor.

Let them haue their paper books in octauo, of the one side to write the English which you giue them; on the o­ther to set the Latine directly ouer against it, and word for word.

To this end cause them to rule their bookes both sides at once,Their bookes how ruled. or at least the lines of one side directly against the other: their lines a good distance asunder, that they may interline any thing, if they misse any word; or for copie and varietie, to be set ouer the head if you will. On the first side toward the right hand, in which the English is to be set, to leaue a lesse margent: on the other side for the Latine a greater margent; because the Latine may bee written in a [Page 151] lesse space then the English; and also to write all the hard words in the margent of the Latine, the Nominatiue case of the Nowne and the first person of the Verbe, if so you please. Then cause so many as are to write Latine together (hauing books, pen, inke and copie before them, and euery thing so fitted) to write as you speake, so faire as possibly they can.

Herein you are to dictate▪ or deliuer vnto them word by word,Manner of dic­tating the Eng­lish which they are to turne in­to Latine. the English of the sentence, which you would haue them to turne into Latine; & to do it according to the man­ner of the Grammaticall translation, euery word in that or­der & in propriety of English, answering the Latine as neer as you can. Also, you are to vtter each word leasurely and treatably; pronouncing euery part of it, so as euery one may write both as fast as you speake, and also faire and true together.

And to the end to helpe for writing true Orthographie,A principall practice for writing true Orthography both in English and Latine. besides the former knowledge of spelling; as they are wri­ting, cause euerie one in order to spell his 2. or 3. words to­gether, speaking vp, that all his fellowes may heare, & may goe on in writing, as fast as he spels and you speake. Those who can write faster to take paines to write fairer; your selfe also to walke amongst them in the meane time, to see that euery one of them write true & faire, and to shew them their faults by pointing them to their copies, and vsing like directions mentioned in the helps of writing, of which I spake before.

After; when they haue thus set down the English, cause e­uery one in the like order to make his word or two in latin, after the maner which was shewed before for making latine the very words of the Author in the natural or Grāmatical order: & cause them al to write the same words, as he speaks, vnless any of them be able to make it before of themselues; who may correct, as they heare their fellowes to make it. Cause also euery one to spel the words which he hath made in Latine, like as they did in English, so as all may heare, & go surely in writing true Orthography in Latine likewise.

[Page 152] And when they haue done a sentence,Repeating or construing without booke that which they haue written. or so much as you thinke good for a time, then cause them to the end to com­mit it the better to memorie, to trie which of them can re­peate the soonest without booke, that which they haue made. First saying the English sentence; then giuing it in Latine, or construing it without booke: which all of them who are apt, will doe presently, or with a very little medita­tion. Or, which is shortest of all, appoint them folding their bookes, to looke only on the English, and read or construe it into Latine: Or on the Latine, to reade or construe it into English. Thus as time will permit.

By this meanes you shall haue a certaine direction in all things,Benefit heereof for certaine di­rection to Ma­ster and schol­lar, and to get Writing, Eng­lish Latine, all at once. both for your selfe and your schollar, to goe truely and surely, both for propriety, Latine, phrase, and whatsoe­ue [...] you can desire. By this exercise also your schollar shall get both Writing, English and Latine, all vnder one. And therefore an howre may bee well imployed daily in this ex­ercise.

And to imprint this,To imprint it by repetition the next mor­ning together with their eue­ning exercise. yet better; you may cause them the next morning at shewing their exercise made that night, to repeate together with it, that againe which they thus made the day before (if time permit): Either some one to repeate all, or moe, euery one a peece, or as time will permit; but all to be able to do it as they are called forth. Through this also they shall from the first entrance, get audacity and vtte­rance, with good matter which will bring the Latine with it.

Spoud.

But how shall they doe for composing, or right placing of their words? which you know is a principal mat­ter in writing pure Latine.

Phil.

I would haue them first for a time exercised in this plaine naturall order;How to enter young schol­lars for compo­sing, or right placing their Latine. for this is that which Grammar tea­cheth: and then to compose or place finely; which belon­geth to Rhetorick, after. As first to write well in prose, be­fore they beginne in verse: so in prose, to goe vpright and strongly before they learne to go finely; and as M. Askam speaketh, first to goe, before they learne to dance. But for entring them into composition, thus you may do.

[Page 153] 1 When they haue made it in the naturall order, onely reade vnto them how Tully, or the Authour, whom their sentence is taken of it, doth place it, and some reason of his varying, and cause them to repeat both wayes, first as they haue written, after in composition.

2 After that they haue beene practiced a while in the former plaine manner, you may make them to doe thus: Cause their bookes to be ruled in three columnes; in the first to write the English, in the second the Latine verbatim, in the third to write in composition, to try who can come the neerest vnto the Authour.

Spoud.

Although I take it that I do conceiue your mea­ning in all, and do see an euident reason of euerything: yet because examples do most liuely demonstrate any matter; I pray you set me downe one example hereof, and shew me what Authour you thinke most fit to gather the sentences forth of.

Phil.

In stead of your Authour,Tullies senten­ces the fittest to dictate sen­tences out of. I thinke and finde Tullies sentences the fittest; and of those sentences, to make choise of such in euery Chapter, as are most easie and familiar to the capacity of the children. This booke I doe acount of all other to bee the principall; the Latine of Tully being the purest and best, by the gene­rall applause of all the Learned: and because that booke is as a most pleasant posie, composed of all the sweete smelling flowers, picked of purpose out of all his workes; that one booke, together with the bookes which the children haue or doe learne, shall also helpe to furnish them with some sentences, contayning some of the choysest matter and wordes, belonging to all morall matters whatsoeuer; whether to vnderstand, write, or speake thereof; that they shall bee able to goe forward with much ease and delight; first in it, and then in the other sentences adioyned to it, or what exercise you shall thinke fitte.

For an example; take these little sentences, which heere follow, as they are set downe in the first Chapter of [Page 154] Tullies sentences, De Deo eius (que) natura, dictating the words to them plainly, as the children may most readily make them in Latine. In their little paper bookes they may write the English on the first side, with the hard Latine wordes in the Margent, the Latine on the other ouer against it, in two columns; the first plaine after the Grammar order, the later placed after the order of the Authour: your selfe may make the wordes or phrases plaine to them, as they are set in the margent.

An Example of Dictating in English, and setting downe both English and Latine; and the Latine both plainly and elegantly.
Dictating accor­ding to the na­turall order.Ordo Gramma­ticus.Ordo Ciceronianus.
No man
Hath euer bin.
hath been
At any time (verb) inspirati­on some diuine
euer great without (verb) some diuine
afflatus, brea­thing into.
in­spiration.
Nemo fuit vn­quam magnus si­ne afflatu aliqu [...] Diuino.Nemo magnus sine aliquo afflatu diuino vnquam fuit. 2. de Natura Deor.
There is no­thing which God cannot
Bring to passe.
effect, and truely with­out any labour.
Est nihil quod Deus non possit efficere, & qui­dem sine labore vllo.Nihil est quod De­us efficere non possit, & quidem sine labore vl­lo. 3. de Nat. Deor.
GOD cannot
Ignoro.
be ignorāt
In what mind or with what minde.
of what minde eue­ry one is.
Deus non po­test ignorare, qua mēte quis (que) sit.Ignorare Deus non potest, qua quis (que) men­te sit. 2. de Diuinati­one.

In these examples all is very plaine; except that in the [Page 155] first sentence we say, & so translate in our English tongue, some diuine inspiration; according as it is more elegantly in Latine, the Adiectiues vsually before the Substantiues; and not inspiration some diuine, which would bee very harsh; and so likewise after [without any labour] although in the Grammaticall order in the Latine, the Substantiue is to be set before the Adiectiue; as the childe is to beginne to make the Substantiue in Latine before the Adiectiue, and to make the Adiectiues to agree vnto, or to bee framed ac­cording to the Substantiues; as we haue shewed in the rules obserued in the Grammaticall translations.

If you thinke this course ouer tedious to write both waies in Latine; then let them turne it only into the naturall or­der,How to learne to compose the Latine other­wise. thus verbatim by pen: & afterwards in the repeating that which they haue made, ask of them how Tully would place each word, and to giue you reasons thereof: and then to reade the sentence in the booke vnto them; so by the book and some rules to direct them how to proceede.

For further practice in translating amongst all the high­er,Translating in­to pure Latine, and composing it of them­selues; trying who can come neerest vnto Tully. after they grow in some good sort to write true Latine verbatim, according to the former kinde of translating; let them still write down the English as you dictate it, or out of a translation; and trie who can come neerest vnto Tully of themselues, composing at the first; and then after examine their exercises, bringing them to the Au­thour.

For preuenting of stealing,For preuenting stealing. or any helpe by the Latine booke if you doubt thereof, you may both cause them to write in your presence, and also make choise of such places which they know not where to find.

If you catch any one writing after another,And writing af­ter one another. and so de­ceyuing both himselfe and you, correct him surely, who suffereth him to steale.

For going on faster, & dispatching more in translating; beside their writing so,How to go o [...] faster, and dis­patch more in making Latin. you may only aske them the words or phrases in English, how they can vtter them in Latine; and then let them giue them in Latine, euery one his piece: [Page 156] first naturally, after placing each sentence. Thus to goe through daily a side, or a leaf at a time, or as leasure wil serue.

Besides these, this may be a most profitable course as they proceed to cause them to translate of themselues Esops Fa­bles,Translating in­to English after M. Askams manner. or Tullies sentences, or the like, into plaine naturall English, so as was shewed; and to cause them the next day, for their exercise,Vse hereof. to bring the same thus in English, & to be able without book, first to make a report of it (striuing in the Fables,Here you must be sure that they haue no transla­tion to help them secretly. who shall tell his tale in best words & manner) & then to reade it into the Latin of the Author out of the English, and be able to proue it, and where they haue read the hard words. And after all these to trie (if your leasure will serue) how they can report the same in Latine, eyther in the words of the Authour, or otherwise, as they can of themselues; which all who are pregnant, and will take paines, will be able to doe very readily: by this you shall finde a great increase.

Lastly, this is yet the most speedy and profitable way of all, as my experience doth assure me, to cause them to reade ex tempore some easie Author daily,The most spee­dy and profita­ble way of translating and composing. out of the translation in­to the Latine of the Author, or out of the Author into Eng­lish; first plainly, then artificially. And to this purpose I haue translated, as I shewed, Corderius Dialogues, whose latin you know to be most easie, familar, and pure; and also Terentius Christianus; with Tullies sentences to helpe hereunto.

For further translating, or turning any Author, or piece of Author,For translating an Author into Latine. or other matter into Latine; if it be difficult, direct your Schollars to resolue the speech into the naturall order of the words, so neere as they can. Secondly, if there be any phrase, which they cannot expresse; to resolue & expresse it by some other easier words & phrase of speech, with which they are better acquainted; & to do it by Periphrasis, that is moe words, if need be. Besides, for such English words which they know not to giue Latin vnto;One good vse of Holyokes Dictionarie. let them vse the help of some Dictionary: as Holyoke or Barret: Holyoke is best, wherein the proper words and more pure, are first placed.

In all such translating either English or Latine,Things to be considered in translating. this is carefully to bee obserued; euer to consider well the scope [Page 157] and drift of the Author & the circumstances of the place; and to labour to expresse liuely, not only the matter, but also the force of each phrase, so neere as the propriety of the tongue will permit.

But for all this matter of translating,Best direction for translating. that practice of reading the English out of the Authors, and the Authors backe againe out of the translations, shall fully teach it, so far as it concerneth the schollar for propriety & getting of the tongues.Translation for the sense & meaning. For translating any Latine Author into Eng­lish, only to expresse the sense and meaning of it; the sense & drift of the Latine Author is principally to be obserued, and not the phrase nor propriety of the tongue, to bee so much sought to bee expressed or stucken vnto. The like may be said for the Latine. But this kind of translating into Latine,This kinde of translating into Latine is for schollars well grounded. is only for such schollars as are wel grounded tho­rough long exercise & practice in the former kind of Grā ­matical translation, and in Tullies or their Authors phrase.

Spoud.

I hope I vnderstand you, right, and doe like very wel of all, so far as I conceiue. Only let me intreate you, as in the former, to rehearse the principall heads briefly con­cerning this matter.

Phil.

This is the sum of all,Summe of all. for this entrance in making and writing Latine. 1. Readiness in their rules, chiefly in ex­amples of Nownes and Verbes. 2. Making their owne lec­tures into Latine daily. 3. Continuall reading or repeating lectures and all their Authors which they haue learned, out of the Grammaticall translations, into the Latine of the Authors. 4. Translating into Tullies Latine, out of a perfect Grāmaticall translation, or as the English is so dictated vn­to them, & reading or repeating the same out of the English into Latine. And lastly, out of the natural order, into the or­der of Tully. 5. Translating into English Grammatically of themselues, and reading forth of the English into the La­tine of the Author, or writing it downe.

By these means constantly practiced, they wil soone be a­ble to make, write, or vtter any ordinary morall matter in pure and good phrase; especially if the matter be deliuered [Page 158] vnto them in the naturall order of the words. Make triall: and I doubt not but you will not onely confirme it, but still find out more for the common good.

CHAP. XI.
Of the Artificiall order of composing or placing the words in prose, according to Tully and the purest Latinists.

Spoud.

BVt yet here is one thing wanting: namely, the rules which you spake of for composing or placing the words after the manner of the purest Latinists; I meane for turning them forth of this naturall or­der, into the Rhetoricall order, or order of Tully; without which, the truest and best Latine is little worth. This I haue found very hard for my schollars to performe;Composition a matter of dif­ficulty. ney­ther haue I had any certain grounds that they might stand vpon. Moreouer, this I haue knowne for certaine, that ma­ny young schollars the more confusedly that they can transpose,The error of young schol­lars in displa­cing sentences. or disorder the words of a sentence, the more ex­cellent they think it to be, when as it is indeed most absurd to the learned eare.

Phil.

Although this may seeme to belong to Declamati­ons and Orations, because therein there is the greatest la­bor for curious composition and setting of words, as wher­in schollars stand to shewe most art, indeauouring to per­swade:Composition generally be­longing to all Latine. yet it is in truth generall to all Latine, whether Translations, Epistles, Theames or whatsoeuer, and doth bring great grace and commendation to euery part there­of; and contrarily being neglected, doth detract very much from the most excellent speech, be the matter and words neuer so choise. And because there is speciall vse of it, in [Page 159] the practice of all the translations: and in all this matter of making Latine for turning or composing out of the Grammaticall order, into the order of the Author, I will afforde you the best help I can. But forsomuch as neither Tully nor any of the purest Latinists do alwais obserue the same order, and therfore I take it that no certaine rules can bee giuen as perpetuall; I will take those which Macro­pedius hath set downe, as being the most easie of all that I know. He hath sundry generall precepts.

Precepts of Composition or placing the words in Latine, as they are set downe by Macrope­dius, in the end of his method of making Epistles.

The I. Precept.
Of placing the Nominatiue case, the Verbe, and the oblique case.

A Perfect sentence consisting most commonly of a No­minatiue case, a Verbe and an oblique case; this order is kept in placing ordinarily

1 The oblique cases (that,Oblique case [...] first. is all besides the Nominatiue and the Vocatiue) are commonly placed in the beginning, the Nominatiue case in the midst,Nominnatiue in the midst. the Verbe in the end: For example;Verb in the end in the sentence following, the Grammaticall order is thus;

Caesar occupauit ciuitatem munitissimam hostium.

The Artificiall order is vsually thus:

Munitissimam hostium ciuitatem Caesar occupanit.

Yet if the oblique case bee of a Nowne negatiue,Except in ob­liques of de­nying. or a Nowne of denying, it may be put elegantly in the end: as

[Page 160] Caesare fortunatiorem legimus n [...]minem.

Yea, any Adiectiue or Participle may bee put so, when the chief point of the matter or meaning resteth in it: as

Caesarem in morteferè omnes putant miserum.

The II. Precept.

THe Adiectiue is ordinarily to bee placed before the Substantiue.Adiectiues be­fore. And between the Adiectiue and the Sub­stantiue may bee fitly placed the Gentitiue case of the later of two Substantiues;Words placed between the Adiectiue and Substantiue. 1. Genitiue case as in this sentence the Grammaticall order is:

Seuer itas magna Caesaris incussit terrorem hostibus.

The artificiall order thus;

Terrorem hostibus magna Caesaris seueritas incussit.

Also betweene the Adiectiue and the Substantiue of the Genitiue case,2. Word gouer­ning the Geni­tiue. the word gouerning the Genitiue case, may be elegantly placed, as in this sentence:

Clementia Caesariae maiestatis dedit pacem, & tranquilli­tatem prouincijs.

The artificiall order may be thus;

Caesareae clementia maiestatis pacem & tranquillitatem prouincijs dedit.

The III. Precept.

BEtween the Adiectiue and the Substantiue,Verbe. Tully som­time placeth the Verbe in like manner;A [...]erbe. sometime the Aduerbe,Coniunction. sometime the Coniunction, sometime the Pre­position alone,Preposition. or with his case: as,

Magnum profecto laborem Caesar assumpsit, quem fermè ab ipsis ad nos venisse Gadibus ai [...]nt, vt hostes suae quidem ma­iestati rebelles, nostris autem supra modum rebus infestos ar­mis subigeret. Quam ob causam, perpetuum illi amorem▪ & gratiam debemus immortalem.

The III. Precept.
Of Aduerbes and Prepositions.

ADuerbs and Prepositions with their cases may be pla­ced any where,Aduerbes and Prepositions. wheresoeuer they shall seeme to stand most fitly to please the eare: yet most elegantly before the Verbe or Participle which they declare. As,

Debitam pro contemptu suis hostibus diu (que) dilatam seue­ritatem, Caesar tandem exhibuit, sedclement issimè mitiga­uit.

These are the principall of his rules which are neces­sarie.

To these may be added,

1. That this is to be obserued very vsually:1. Obseruation. That the word gouerned is commonly placed before the words gouer­ning,Word gouer­ned first. contrary to the Grammaticall order. As here.

Fortitudo Caesaris potitur victoria.

The artificiall placing may be fitly.

Caesaris fortitudo victoria potitur.

Also if in a sentence there bee mention of two persons,2. Obseruation. the one as it were an agent the other a patient, they stand together most vsually and elegantly;Person doing first. the agent commonly first: as,

Caesar did great wrong to Pompey in this point.

Hac vna in re magnam Caesar Pompeio iniuriam fecit.

These Precepts are set down,The end of these precepts to the end to direct young schollars; yet so as we must not thinke, as I sayd, that these are euer to bee followed strictly; because neither Tully, nor Caesar himselfe, nor any who haue been most curious, did euer obserue the same: for that should be a falt rather, as we shall see after.

Notwithstanding, by practice in composing, and obser­uation [Page 162] in Tully,How to attain to right com­position. Caesar & the best Authors, and trying how neere we can come vnto them in translating into Latine, by cōparing ours with theirs; and finally weighing how euery sentence may so fall as may best please the eare; schollars may attaine much certaintie and commendation herein.

More exquisite obseruation in placing and mea­suring sentences.

FOr most exquisite obseruation of placing and measu­ring sentences,Obseruation in placing and measuring sen­tences in prose. Butlers Rhetor. Chap. 15. Rhetorically, in prose by schollars of riper iudgement, in their Theames, Declamations, Orati­ons or the like, reade Talaeus Rhetoricke de Numero Ora­torio. Cap. 17. 18.

Out of which Chapter, and out of the Commentaries of Minos vpon them, these precepts may be further obserued, which follow.

1 That the placing and measuring of the sentences in prose,Prose must be vnlike verse. should be both vnlike to the placing in poetrie, and also each sentence vnlike other.No verses to be made in prose. And therefore that the schollar make no verses in his prose, but that he shun them warily.

Though in any exercise in prose,Verses cited in prose. chiefly in Theames, he may cite verses out of other Authors eyther for authoritie or delight.

2 That the beginning or ending of a sentence in prose,Beginning and ending of sen­tences most ob­serued: endings chiefly, not to to bee like a verse. be not the beginning or ending of a verse; although this be not so faulty in the beginning of a sentence, as in the end; where the fault is more obserued.

3 That the ending of sentences bee specially weighed, which are chiefly marked of all;Endings of sentences to be carefully waied. and therefore are to bee carefully varyed, that they may not be displeasing.

4 That this curious obseruation of the endings neede not bee regarded aboue sixe syllables from the end;This neede not be aboue sixe syllables. and those to stand on feete of two syllables, Trochees princi­pally.

[Page 163] 5 That we doe not continue the same feete in the ends;The same feete not to be conti­nued in the ends. but dispose them diuersly: not all long syllables, nor all short, vnlesse more seldome; but commonly tempering long & short syllables together,Tempering cō ­monly long & short syllables. as Trochees and Iambicks, sometimes Spondees and Perrichees, yet so as wee be not curious.

6 That sentence is accounted most sweet and excellent which endeth in two Troches;The sweetest sentence ending in 2. Trochees. viz. the first syllable long, the last short, as in this sentence.

Deindè patris dictum sapiens temeritas fil [...] cōmprŏbā [...]it.

This endeth in an Iambicke and two Trochees.

Tully vsed this most often.Tullies ending. So as in that one Oration pro Pompeio, it is obserued to be an hundreth and fowrteene times.

7. Yet the variety ought to be such, that this art of pla­cing or setting the number of syllables,The art of pla­cing to be hid. may not bee obser­ued of euerie one, and so bee made enuious, nor the curio­sitie ridiculous; but to be laboured so as it may most delight and drawe on others.

8. That the sounds of the very words and letters are the principall things to bee respected herein.Sounds to be respected prin­cipally, in words or let­ters. For the elegant composition, is that which is made by a sweet sound of let­ters and words.

9. Therfore words of the best sound are to be obserued;Words of the best sound. and amongst them most elegant Aduerbes and bonds of Coniunctions to bee noted diligentlie.

Words sounding well are these:

  • 1. Verbals: as, Dominatrix, gubernatrix.
  • 2. Compounds: as, pernoscere, excruciari.
  • 3. Superlatiues: as, Conspectus iucundissimus. Ad dicendum paratissinus.
  • 4. Words of mo syllables: as, Moderatio animi. Tempestas anni.

[Page 164] 10 Words which are insolent,Insolent words to be [...]uo [...]ded. hard and out of vse, are to be as warily auoided, as rockes of Mariners.

11 That in all sentences,That all words may [...] & distinct sound. the words haue an easie and di­stinct sound: that is, neither harsh nor gaping; but that they fall and conclude aptly and sweetly, fitting best the vtte­rance of the pronouncer, and as may most like the eare of the hearer.

These are the summe of those rules as I remember. Al­though the excellency heereof is rather to bee attained, by vse and practice, then by any certaine precepts.

Spoud.

Sir these put in practice may be very sufficient for whatsoeuer can be required in this behalfe, as it seemeth vnto me.

Phil.

These things concerne onely the placing and set­ting or measuring of sentences, which is one little part of Rhetorick? and there the rest is to be fully sought, & how to adorne all sentences with tropes and figures. The practice of these is to be vsed in their seuerall exercises.

Thus haue I gone thorough all these at large, for making the Accedence and Grammar perfect, for construing, par­sing, and making Latine; applying my selfe to the capacity of the [...]udest learner in so many words; because these things well performed, all other learning wil be most plea­sant, as [...]as said before.

Spoud.

But one other thing by the waie, I cannot omit to demaund that I did obserue by your speech, that you would haue your very enterers to make some exercise eue­ry night of themselues.

Phil.

I would indeede haue no Euening passed without some little exercise in Latine by all, from the very lowest who begin to write Latine;No [...] to be pas [...]ed with­out some little exercise against mo [...]ing. I meane something to be shew­ed the next daie about 9 of the clocke.

Spoud

But what exercise woulde you appoint to such little ones, that coulde bee easie enough and meet for their capacitie.

Phil.

I woulde appoint them to beginne euen at, In Speech bee these eight parts &c. and so giue them 2. or 3. [Page 165] lines of it for euery one to turn into Latin. And for the exa­mining what they haue done where they are many, & time will not permit to examine what euery one hath done; to cause some one or two whom you suspect to be most negli­gent, first to pronounce the English without booke, then to construe it into Latine without book, or to repeat the Latin as they haue made it: but to construe it without booke is far the surest, or to reade & construe it out of the English. And according to these as they pronounce, and are shewed their faults, for all the rest to correct theirs. If any be found not to correct so, or to haue omitted his exercise, to haue his due correction.

Though I haue tried many wayes and exercises for these little ones, to doe priuately by themselues, yet I finde none comparable to this: for this they will doe with much facili­tie and contention, after a little that they are entred; being helped somewhat by their Latine rules, which they haue learned.

Thus they may alwayes haue a fit exercise, and know a­forehand what they are to doe. This also will further much towards their parsing in Latin, and better imprinting their rules.

CHAP. XII.
How to make Epistles, imitating Tully, short, pithie, sweete Latine and familiar; and to indite Letters to our friends in English accordingly.

Spoud.

I Am very glad I asked you this question: I rest fully sa­tisfied in it, as also in al this matter of making and com­posing Latine, for the euidence of the meanes; and doe thanke you heartily for directing me so particularly.

[Page 166] Now let vs come, I pray you, to the other seuerall exer­cises of Schollars, which are to bee practiced in Schooles continually, for the morefull attayning of the knowledge of the Latine tongue.

And first for the making of Epistles,Of making Epistles. in such sort as was mentioned before; that is imitating Tully, short, pithy, full of variety of good matter, sweet Latin and familiar; and for inditing of like Letters in English:

I haue found this exercise of making Epistles, no lesse difficult then the former toyle of making Latine.Difficulty of making Epi­stles, purely and pithily. For although I haue taken great paines: yet after long pra­ctice, I haue hardly beene able to bring them to a shew of that which you speake of, I meane so to imitate and resemble Tully; but that they will frame them of long sentences, matters vnfit for an Epistle, flash and to little purpose; but very childish, and more like vnto a Theame or an Oration, then to an Epistle. Thus I see it to be also amongst the chiefe of the Schollars, of sundry of those who are much accounted of, and wherin the schollars seeme to doe the best.

As for inditing Letters in English,Inditing Eng­lish Letters lit­tle exercised in Schooles. I haue not exercised my schollars in them at all; neyther haue I knowne them to be vsed in Schooles: although they cannot but bee ex­ceeding necessary for schollars; being of perpetuall vse in all our whole life, and of very great commendation, when they are so performed. Therefore I still craue your helping hand to direct me, how to bring my schollars to the attay­ning that faculty.

Phil.

Let me first heare what way you haue taken in these, like as you shewed me in the former kinds; and then I shall relate vnto you how this may bee done, so shortly as I can.

Spoud.

I haue done this:The ordinary meanes of dire­cting Schollars to make Epistles I haue read them some of Tul­lies Epistles, and also some part of Macropedius or Hegen­dorphinus de conscribendis Epistolis. I haue directed them that they are to follow the rules set downe in the seuerall kindes of Epistles there mentioned, and made the [Page 167] examples plaine vnto them.

Moreouer, I haue vsed oft to put them in minde of this, that an Epistle is nothing but a Letter sent to a friend, to certifie him of some matter, or to signifie our mind plainly and fully vnto him. And therefore looke how wee would write in English, so to doe in Latin. These and the like are the helpes which I haue vsed: and I take them to bee the most that are done in ordinary Schooles.

Phil.

I like well of your reading of Tullies Epistles, which indeed is the very foundation of all: but for Macro­pedius and Hegendorphinus, although their paines were great; yet I cannot see, but that they will rather require an auncient learned Master to vnderstand, and make vse of them, then a younger schollar, who is to be taught how to speake.Hard for chil­dren who haue no reading, to inuent variety of matter of themselues. Also for telling a childe that he must inuent variety of matter of his owne head, to write to his friend; this is a taske ouer hard to ordinary wits. For what can a childe haue in his vnderstanding, to be able to conceiue or write of, which hee hath not read or someway knowne before? according to that Maxime: Nihil est in intellectu quod non prius fuerat in sensu.

Therefore omitting these, wherein I my selfe haue also found a great deale of toyle, with small fruit; I will set you downe plainely the very direct way, so neere as yet I haue beene able to learne; and whereby I am out of doubt, that that same faculty may be easily gotten, of writing such Epistles; fully expressing Tully, as was said, and of inditing Letters like vnto them, which are our vsuall Epistles, as the Latine were of the Romanes.

The way may be this:

1 When your young schollars haue gone through Sententiae pueriles, Helpes for ma­king Epistles. Confab. Cato, or the like; and can begin to make Latine in some such good sort as was shewed; let them then reade Tullies Epistles, gathered by Sturmius;1 Reading Tullies Epistles▪ as being of the choysest of his Epistles, and most fitte for children. This one booke rightly vsed, may sufficiently furnish for making Epistles, so farre as shall be needfull [Page 168] for the Grammar Schooles. It would be read by them twice in the weeke at least, vntill they had gone through a good part thereof; vnlesse they be able to reade it of themselues ex tempore, or by the helpe of the translation.

2 As they reade euery Epistle, or before they are to imi­tate any one,2 Making thē very perfect in euery Epistle. make them as perfect in it as you can, and as time will permit: not onely in construing, parsing, reading out of the Grammaticall translation into the Latine; but al­so to be able to giue euery phrase, both Latine to English, and English to Latine.

Also cause them to make you a report what the summe of the Epistle is; and this if you will, both in English and Latine also, as was said of the Fables.

3 Cause them for their exercise to make another Epi­stle in imitation of Tullies Epistle, vsing al the phrases and matter of that Epistle;3 To cause them to make another Epistle in imitation thereof. onely applying and turning it to some friend, as if they had the very same occasion then pre­sently: and also changing numbers, tenses persons, places, times: yet so▪ as thereby to make all the matter and phrases, each way most familiar to them▪ and fully their owne.

And first let them doe this in a good English stile, as was said; I meane in making an English Letter first: setting it after the manner,To do this first in English, then in Latine. as they did their English Translation; of that page of their booke towards the left hand, or on the first columne, the Latine on the other ouer against it, sen­tence for sentence.

Herein they are only to differ from the Translations,To set the Epi­stles after the manner of the Translations. that they [...] doe not in these Letters sticke so much to wordes, to answere word for word both English and Latine; as to write purely and sweetly, as well in English as in Latine, and to expresse their mindes most fully in both, and in most fa­miliar manner.

4 The next day to make another Epistle, as being sent from their friend to whom they writ,4 Making an­swers to Epi­stles. in answere to that which they writ the former day: and in that to answere e­uery sentence from point to point, in as short manner as the former Epistle was, stil reteyning the same phrases as much [Page 169] as they can.Examples of i­mitating Epi­stles. I will take for example the first Epistle of Stur­mius. The more easie it is for the children, the better it is.

M. C. Terentiae salutem plurimam dicit.

SIvales, benè est: ego valeo. Nos quotidie tab [...]llarios ve­stros expectamus:Tullies Epistles to be imitated. qui si venerint, fortasse erimus certiores quid nobis fac [...]endum sit: faciemus (que) te statim certiorem, vale­tudinem tuam cura diligenter. Vale. Calendis Septembris.

The summe of the Letter is; That Tully writes to his wife Terentia:The manner of the report of the summe of the Letter. signifying vnto her, that hee was in health: that he waited for the Letter-carriers daily: how by them he should know what to doe; and that he would then certi­fie her of al things. And so concludeth, wishing her to looke well to her health. The Letter bare date the Calends of Sep­tember.

An English Letter in imita­tion of Tully.

IF you be in health, it is well: I am in health. I haue long looked for yourLetter car­riers. Messengers. When they shall come, I shalbe more certaine what I am to do; and then I will forthwith certi­fie you of all things. See that you looke very carefully to your health.

The Answere.

I Reioyce greatly of your health. I am sory that you haue looked for the Carriers so long. They wil be with you ve­ry shortly, & then indeede you shalbe more certain what to do. [Page 170] Wee shall forthwith looke to heare of all your matters. I will in the mean time looke to my health, as you aduise. Farewell.

An Epistle in imitation of Tully.
EPISTOLA.

SIvales benè est: ego qu [...]dē valeo: diu tabellarios ve­stros expectaui. Cūvenerint certior ero quid mihi faciēdū sit. Tum autē te omnibus de rebus certiorē faciam. Tu­am diligentissimè valetudi­nem fac vt cures.

Responsio.

TE valere maximè la­tor. Doleo quòd tabel­larios tam diu expectasti. Statim vobiscum erunt, & tum re vera certior eris quid tibi agendum sit. [Page 170] Nos deindè vestra omnia au­dire sperabimus. Meam in­terim vt suade; curabo va­letudinem. Vale.

Antonius Schorus in the end of his booke, de ratione dis­cendae linguae latinae, hath sundry examples. I will set downe one Epistle, imitated two wayes: the first keeping almost the wordes and forme of Tullies Epistle; the other imita­ting onely the forme, but changing the wordes. Tullies E­pistle is this:

Aulo Trebonio, qui in tua prouincia magna negotiaet ampla, & expedita habet, multos annos vtor valde f [...]miliariter.Tullies Epistle. Is cum antea semper & suo splendore & nostra caeterorum (que), amicorum commendatione gratissimus in prouincia fuit, tum hoc tempore propter tuum in me amorem, nostram (que) necessitudinem, vehe­menter confidit, his meis literis, se apud te gratiosum fore. Quae ne spes eum fallat, vehementer te rogo: commendo (que) tibi eius omnia negotia, liberos, procuratores, familiam: inprimis (que) vt quae T. Ampius de eius re decreuerit, ea comprobes, omnibus (que) re­bus eum ita tractes, vt intelligat nostram commendationem non vulgarem fuisse.

The first imitation, more following the words, is this.

Petro Fabro,The first exam­ple of imitation of the former Epistle. qui in vestra vrbe & magnanegotia, & multos amicos habet, multos annos vtor familiariter. Is cum antea sem­per & suo splendore, & nostra caeterorum (que) amicorum commen­datione gratissimus in hac nostra Repub. fuit, tum hoc tempore propter tuum in me amorem nostram (que) necessitudinem vehe­menter confidit, his meis literis se apud te gratiosum fore. Quae nespes eum fallat, vehementer te rogo: commendo (que) tibi eius omnia negotia, amicos, cognatos, inprimi [...] (que) vt quae procuratori de eius rebus videbuntur, ea comprobes: omnibus (que) rebus eum ita tractes, vt intelligat nostram commendationem non vulga­rem fuisse.

The second imitation, expressing the forme.

Petrus Faber,The second imitation. qui tibi notus est, & magnas res apud nos gessit, multos annos mihi valde familiaris fuit. Is cum semper & sua dignitate, & benefi [...]ijs multis erga me, meis omnibus gratissi­mus [Page 171] fuit: tum nunc ob tuum ergame animum, nostram (que) con­iunctionem, non dubitat quin hac mea commendatione sit in maxima gratia apud te futurus. Quod vt fiat, summoperè te o­ro: committo (que) tuae fide [...] & curae omnes res eius, amicos, cogna­tos, parentes: praecipuè verò vt quae procurator de rebus eius agat ea consil [...]o tuo iuues: & ita honorificè eum accipias, vt sentiat has nostras literas apud te pondus habuisse.

Thus practicing and trayning vp your schollar by little and little; first for imitation, more neerely following the wordes; afterwards only the forme, and such phrases as shal seeme fittest: and euer first writing their English Letters, and then their Latine answering thereunto; you shall see that they will come to a liuely imitation of Tully; especially if you exercise them wel in Tully, in such sort as is prescribed.

Spoud.

Sir, this must needes bee a most sure and ready way. But in imitation what things am I to direct them to obserue?

Phil.

That they take only so much as is needfull,The rule in imitation. and fit for their purpose, leauing out all the rest; that they adde what is wanting, alter and apply fitly to the occasions, ac­cording to the circumstances of times, persons, places, and the like; that nothing may appeare stollen, but all wittily imitated. Be sure that they know perfectly the matter and the phrase, of that which they should imitate: and then no­thing will be hard, in imitation of Epistles, Verses, or what­soeuer.

Spoud.

What is then the summe of all, which you would haue principally exercised, for the speedy attayning this faculty?

Phil.

That your schollars haue daily a peece of an Epi­stle, or a whole Epistle appointed them, matter and phrase made every familiar vnto them; then one day to make an Epistle in imitation, and that both English and Latine; the next day to make an answere in like manner: thus to pro­ceede vntill they come to some good perfection. And so much may serue for Epistles.

CHAP. XIII.
Of making Theames full of good matter, in a pure stile, and with iudgement.

Spoud.

NExt after Epistles Theames▪ doe follow; wherein if you can direct me also, how these likewise may be composed by children, so as to bee couched full of good matter, written in a pure stile, and with iudgement, and with as much certainty and readinesse as you haue shewed me for making their Epistles; I shall re­main more beholden, and returne home with greater hope to doe good.

For the Epistles it cannot bee otherwise, but that the course set down must needs produce that effect, which you haue affirmed; by reason of these singular patterns of Tul­ly, which children haue to imitate. But what patternes or helpes can you haue for Theames any way comparable to those?

Phil.

What patternes Schollars may haue, you shal heare after: but first relate vnto me, as in the former, what way you haue vsed, for the entring of your children in making their Theames.

Spoud.

I haue according to the custome in Schooles,The ordinary manner of dire­cting Schollars how to begin to make Theames. According to Apthonius rules. read them some of Apthonius rules, and so it may be, haue begun with Apologues or Fables, or rather with a Chreia: and in their Chreia, I haue first made the seuerall parts of it, or of their Theame so handled, very plaine vnto them, with the manner of the proofes of it; and of gathering reasons to amplifie it, according to the same.

I haue then giuen them a Theame to make, following the example in their booke, to prosecute the same parts of the Theame; as Exordium, narratio, confirmatio, confutatio, [Page 173] conclusio, and also to follow the seuerall places, to amplifie each thing by. I haue withall shewed them how to doe it: as to trie what they could gather of themselues; and withall to seeke Tullies sentences what they could find out of it, or out of other bookes to their purpose.The inconue­niences of this course. But yet (alas!) that which my children haue done hereby for a long time, they haue done it with exceeding paines and feare, and yet too-too weakely, in ha [...]sh [...]phrase, without any inuention, or iudgement; and ordinarily so rudely, as I haue been asha­med that any one should see their exercises. So as it hath driuen mee into exceeding passions, causing me to deale o­uer rigorously with the poore boies. Whereby some of them, whose Parents haue been more tender, seeing their children heauy and vnwilling to the Schoole, haue suffered them to leaue off the Schoole, and so to lose all which they had gotten before; others also haue beene made so feare­ful, that they would rather desire to go to any base trade or drudgery, then to be Schollars, & hereby haue very much reproached my schoole: Because, as they haue ouer-right­ly complained, they must bee beaten for not doing that, which they knew not how to doe; so that this feare is worse to them, then the first for making Latines.

And yet notwithstanding, in their entring to make Theames, and so likewise into versifying, I haue not know­en how to auoid it, but I haue bin enforced to vse so much sharpnesse, as to make them to call all their wits together, and to stir them vp to all diligence and paines; or otherwise I should haue done no good at all.

Whereupon very great inconueniences haue insued: and yet as I sayd, I haue seene very little fruite to answere vnto my paines.

Phil.

I doe not see how by this course,This way hard enough for ma­ny Schoole­masters. these euils could be auoided. As I said of Macropedius for Epistles, so I may here; that this way of entring your schollars is hard e­nough to many a Schoolemaster, thus to follow euery part of the Theame and those places of Apthonius, to in­uent matter and reasons to proue and illustrate euery thing, [Page 174] and to do it in a good stile. That which is said of Epistles, that children must be acquainted by reading,Difficulty in making Theams, be­cause schollars are not ac­quainted with the matter of them. with matter & phrase fit for Epistles, before they can euer bee fit to make such Epistles, is much more true concerning both theames and verses; inasmuch as the matter of them is harder, being of such things as they haue neuer read of, nor been any way acquainted with, or at least very little. Besides, to follow the Logicke places in Apthonius in a Philosophical discourse, doth require both some insight in Logick, and reading in such Authors as haue written of such morall matters. And therfore herein many a Master deserues rather to be beaten then the schollar,The Master oft deserues to bee beaten rather thē the schollar. for driuing the childe by cruelty, to doe that which he himself can see no reason how the poor child should be able to do it. It must of necessitie either driue the schollar to vse all deuises to leaue the schoole, or else cause him to liue in a continual horror & hatred of learning; and to account the schoole, not Ludus literarius, but carnificina, or pistrînum literarium.

Spoud.

I acknowledge it too true which you haue said: I pray you therfore shew me your best aduise & experience how to free my selfe & my children from these euils; that I may both so enter them in these & also draw them on after, as not to discourage them in this maner, nor bee driuen to vse the like sharpnesse any more.

Phil.

Herein I my self am desirous to be a learner, as in all the rest. Although too much experience hath cōpelled me to seek out all meanes to redress this; notwithstanding also that I haue euer been afraid of vsing cruelty in my schoole. And the rather haue I bin careful to seek out the easiest and plainest way, that I might allure & draw on my schollars in this exercise, as in all other, to proceed as in a scholasticall play, with vnderstanding, loue and delight. So much as I haue attained, I shall willingly impart vnto you.

1. We are to consider,1. To consider the principall end of making Theams. what is the end & purpose of their making Theams; and then to bethink our selues, which way they may the soonest attaine vnto the same. The principal end of making Theams, I take to be this, to furnish schol­lars [Page 175] with al store of the choisest matter,The principall end of making Theams. that they may ther­by learne to vnderstand, speake or write of any ordinary Theame, Morall or Politicall, such as vsually fall into dis­course amongst men & in practice of life; and especially cō ­cerning vertues & vices. So as to work in themselues a grea­ter loue of the vertue and hatred of the vice, and to be able with soundnesse of reason to draw others to their opinion.

The best means to effect this most soone and surely,The means to furnish them. are these so far as yet I know.

1. To see that by perfect learning,1. Making them very perfect in all their first school Authors. Reasons. & oft repeating they be very readie in their first Authors, which they learned, of such morall matters; as their Sententiae, Cato, Esopsfables: For some one or mo of these haue the grounds of almost e­uery Theam, which is meet to be propounded to schollars to write on. So that by these they shal be furnished with the iudgements of may Wisemen, what is truth, what is false in most matters, with som words to expresse their minds, and also some reasons; as with the sentences or testimonies of the wisest, Similitudes, or Apologues in Aesop, and some graue reasons out of Cato, which they may cal to mind. All these may be done by the courses set downe before, and as soon as the bare learning of the cōstruing & parsing alone.

2. Add to these the oft reading ouer of Tullies sentences out of the Gram. translations,2. Reading o­uer & ouer Tullies senten­ces. & the sentences of the other Authors adioined with the same. As also the reading them forth of Latine into a good English stile. Thus yoush I find by experience, that after that children are perfect in their first schoole Authors, they wil also read this book of them­selues, by the help of the translatiō alone, to go ouer & ouer it, euery day thus reading a peece of it amongst thēselues, with little or no hindring any of their school exercises.

3. To the end that they may haue presidents and patterns for Theams,3. Presidents or examples. like as they had for their Epistles and for making Latin, some book is to be chosen which is writ­ten to this purpose, and such a one as is most easie, both for the sweetest Latine and choisest matter.

These presidents are of two sorts: some are to furnish [Page 176] them still,Presidents for matter. with more variety of the best matter; others, for the whole forme and frame of the Theame.

Of the first sort, for singular matter notably compact together,Reusneri Symbo­la. Reusners Symbola doth seeme to me most famili­ar and plaine: wherein the Poesies or sentences of the seue­rall Emperors, both Italian, Greek, and Germane are hand­led: As these;

Artem quaeuis terra alit. Apex Magistratus authoritas. Bonus dux, bonus comes. Bonis nocet, qui parcet malis. Ce­dendum multitudini. Festma lentè and the like

This book I take to be a very worthie booke to traine vp young Gentlemen,Reusner worthy to traine vp young Gentle­men, and all of any good sort and condition. and all others whom we would haue to become wise men, & good Common-wealths men. It is full of most singular precepts and instructions concerning dueties and vertues; and for framing and ordering the whole course of our life, and managing all our affaires with wisedome, safetie and commendations. So as any one may receiue many wise directions, for all occasions of life, and withall much sweete delight, in it. And for this matter of Theames, it is fraughted full of the graue testimonies and sentences of many of the auncientest, wisest, and most ex­perienced; all fitly applyed, without any matter to corrupt or offend, and in a most familiar, easie, and pleasing stile.

The manner of the vse of it for the first enterers into Theames, where they haue bookes, and the Teacher would specially apply them to Theames,How Schollars may vse Reus­ners Symbola for Theames. and that they haue time enough, may be this:

To take theThe words or Mottoes. Poesies or Theams of it in order: or if any of them seeme ouer hard for childrens capacities, in re­gard of the matter of them, to make choyse of the most ea­sie and familiar, first: to reade vnto them euery night a peece of a Theame of it, as a side of a leafe, or more or lesse; according to the abilities of their Schollars. In reading, first to make the Theame or generall matter of it very plaine vnto them. They are commonly expounded for the sum of them vnder the Poesie, in verse, or with som short glosse, or both. Afterwards, to shew your Schollars the chiefe [Page 177] reasons and sentences, as you do reade, and in what words the force of each Argument or reason lieth. Also to ob­serue al the phrases which are either more difficult or pure, or most fit to that purpose in hand.

And thus to make euery thing plaine vnto them; first opening them, after examining the same, and so causing them to vnderstand, and to be able to answere euerie point therof in Latine, or to giue the hard phrases to the English.

This poasing by short questions, with the other things mentioned, will make the obscurest peeces of it very eui­dent, and cause both weaker Masters and schollars to profit greatly in vnderstanding. After all this, if you will, cause them to construe it amongst themselues and to giue the sense, and so make it as perfect as they can euery waie: Or if they bee able, heare them to construe it themselues first, or to read it out of the Latine into English, and then make it plaine to them. Then let each seuerally see how hee can gather a short Theam out of that; choosing out all the prin­cipal sentences and reasons, and composing them in good order: following, if you thinke good, the parts of a Theam: viz. Exordium, Narratio, Confirmatio, Confutatio, Conclusio, though their Theame be not aboue 12. or [...]6. lines, accor­ding to their time & abilitie. To these they may adioine o­ther reasons or sentēces, as they can, either what they haue learned, or what they can gather fitly to the same purpose.

To bring this Theame of theirs thus made, the next day at the time appointed for shewing their Theames each one to pronounce his Theam without book;Pronouncing their Theam [...]. you in the meane time looking on that which is pronounced, & examining each fault, as they are vttering it or after, by asking them short questions of the faults, and causing them to answere them, and to shew how they should be amended; and so ma­king a dash with a pen vnder euery falt, or the letters where the falt is, to leaue them to them to correct them after. Yet your selfe somtimes to peruse the exercises after againe, to see that they haue corrected them; as I shal shew in another place. By this means the first enterers may haue choise of [Page 178] matter gathered to their hands, which otherwise they were to seeke in other Authors they knewe not where no [...] how.

2. All the Theams of this Author being thus written of,Benefit of Reus­ner so vsed, & of daily Theams out of it. and pronounced by them memoriter, which may bee done in a short time, keeping each night a Theame, must needs help to furnish them with variety of the best matter, and fit phrase. Besides that, this will be a great furtherance to au­dac [...]tie, memory, gesture, pronuntiation: and by the con­tinual and diligent reading of that Author, with their other Authors, they shall haue much help to construe & vnder­stand any other morall Author ex tempore.

Or if this course bee ouer-tedious, by reason of the multitude of schollars,These Theams to be limited according to leasure and o­portunitie. or their other exercises; then to reade them the more at a time, and let them bring them once or twice in the weeke, made longer and more care­fully.

Spoud.

This way may bee very good for entering young schollars, and to store them with the best matter & phrase: but might there not bee some speciall rules and directions giuen, for writing their Theames according to the order of the chiefe schooles, prosecuting the seuerall parts of the Theame?

Phil.

Yes: but these I thinke fittest to succeed in the se­cond place,The best and most easie di­rection for Theams to be written at large, with iudgement according to the parts therof. after that they haue thus furnished themselues, with words and store of matter, by this help, or Tullies sen­tences, or the like; or in want of other books to vse Aptho­nius. Then to learne to flourish and adorne their Theames after.

For the surest and easiest direction for such Theams, to be done in more exquisite manner, where the schollars may haue leasure to them;To take the Theams out of Apthonius, and how to make them to vnder­stand them ful­ly, and prepare matter. I shall shew you my iudgement, and what I can yet find or conceiue to be the best.

1. Because I would not haue my schollars discouraged any way thorough the difficulty of this exercise, I would do as in their first Theams for matter: so in these. That is, I would take their Theames (at least for a time) out of Ap­thonius, [Page 179] either in order as they stand, or choosing of the most familiar, and in all things read and make it plaine vn­to them, with the seuerall parts and arguments, as I shewed you before in Reusner.

Then I would demaund of them, first to giue mee Ap­thonius arguments: as, what reasons hee hath from the Cause, Effect, Contrarie, Similitude, Example, Testimo­nie.

Next, what reasons euerie one can giue of his owne, to proue the same.

In the third place to shew, what any of them can obiect against it; or if it be true, what absurdities and inconueni­ences will follow of it; and also some of them to answere the obiections and inconueniences: and lastly my selfe to supplie their wants and faylings.

After this done, direct euery one of them who are to write of it, to remember where they haue read any thing of that Theam, or by the Indexes of their books of Cōmon­places: as Tullies sentences, Reusner, or the like, to seeke what they can finde of that matter.

2. That they obserue these parts, named

  • Exordium.
  • Narratio.
    Parts of the Theame.
  • Confirmatio.
  • Confutatio.
  • Conclusio.

3. To make their Exordium very short,Exordium what one. two or three lines, to gaine the approbation of the hearers, and their attention.

If the Theam be of any person in accusation or defence of them after the manner of declamations,If the Theame be of persons. then that their Exordium may bee fittest taken, from the partie himselfe who is accused or defended; from some description of him to his praise or dispraise; or else from the person of the ad­uersarie, or of the auditours, or of the party himselfe who writeth.

For the persons whom they will defend, they must labor [Page 180] to perswade their hearers of their vertues, or to remoue from them all preiudicate opinion. And for the persons whom they will accuse, to dispraise them, by shewing their bad qualities; so to bring them into disgrace.

But if the Theame bee of some matter to be proued or disproued,Theame of some matter. commended or discommended, which are most ordinarie; their Exordium may bee taken from the matter; by commending it for the excellency thereof, or for the benefit which may redound to the hearers, by the know­ledge of it; or discommending it by the contrary, or by some circumstance of time▪ persons, places, or the like.

In their Narration, to the end that the Auditors may fully vnderstand the matter,Narration. and themselues may proceed more easily; let them set downe first the Theame or mat­ter in as few and plaine words as they can.

Secondly, expound the doubtfull words or phrases, if therebe any. If it concerne persons or facts of persons, then to set downe all the circumstances to expresse the na­ture & maner of it. Or if it concerne some special matter, to make some short diuision of it; if it bee a generall into his specials, or if a whole into his members or parts: so to goe throgh euery part in order, ioining each part together with fit transitions, to shew their passage frō one part to another.

In the Confirmation to the end,Confirmation. to bee able to proue the matter the better;

1. To note in their Authors all the principall reasons which they can, to that end, and to gather them forth.

2. To trie what reasons they can inuent of themselues according to the chiefe heads of Inuention, following ei­ther Apthonius order, or the ten chief heads of Inuention: as, Causes, Effects, Subiects, Adiuncts, &c. which ar the same in effect, but farre more easie to prosecute, according to the Art of meditation, whereof we shal speak after. By conside­ring wel either the thing it self, Causes & Effects of it: or if it be a Proposition, as in this (Children are to obey their Pa­rents) by marking carefully both parts of the Proposition or sentence, both Antecedent and consequent, as they are [Page 181] called; and the one part wil surely afford some reasons.

As if we thinke first of the parents what they haue beene, and are towards the children; and so what the children haue and doe receiue from them (thus following the parts according to those places of meditation) any one of vnder­standing shall be able to finde out reasons why the children are to obey their parents.

Then hauing found out reasons, before they set them downe in their Theame, as they will haue them, to ranke them in their minde or in writing; so as they doe purpose to set them in their Theame: setting some stronger in the first place, weaker in the midst, reseruing some of the stron­ger to the last, crossing and leauing out all the weake ones, whereof any one may discredite all the rest.

In the Confutation to seeke out and set downe two or three good reasons,Confutation. to ouerthrow or reproue the contrary opinion to the Theame: and also to consider what may be obiected against it, and how to answere them, by way of Occupation and Subiection, or of preuenting and obiection.

Then to direct them,Conclusion. that the Conclusion is nothing but a collection gathered from all the former reasons; in which may be a short recapitulation, or rehearsall of the summe of the reasons, and an vrging (if they will) of one or two of the principall & most forcible reasons somwhat more, to leaue a deeper impression in the minds of the hearers; & so out of them to conclude most firmly. And thus much may serue for the direction in generall for making the Theame.

Spoud.

But this seemes still to me rather too obscure for young Grammar schollars: I pray you let me heare, if you could not leade me yet vnto more ready helpes.

Phil.

The most excellent patterns, I take to be the most speedy and ready helps for schollars to be acquainted with, and to learne to imitate them: for they in euery thing doe most auaile, to teach the soonest and sureliest.

As for variety of Exordiums and Conclusions, Apthoni­us his Prog [...]masmata may helpe to direct;Imitation of Exordiums and Conclusions. and also Master Stockwood his disputations of Grammar.

[Page 183] For furnishing with matter and substance,Authours for matter. besides Reus­ners Symbola mentioned, Erasmus Adages of the largest and last Edition, is a rich store-house. Also Lycosthenes his Apothegmata, printed at London by G. Bishoppe, M.D.XCVI. is of good vse.

Lycosthenes of the last Edition (as I heare) is dangerous­ly corrupted with Popery,Lycosthenes of the last Edition to be taken heed of, as it is augmented and corrupted by the Iesuites, printed Coloniae, sumptibus Laza­ri Zetzueri An. M.D.C.III. and rayling against K. Henry the eight, K. Edward, and our late blessed Queene; and therefore not to be permitted vnto children. Many other I might name vnto you, which haue written of such morall matters; diuers of them in English, and some of them very notable: as the French Academie, the morall part of it: Charactery, Morall Philosophy, Golden groue, Wits Com­mon wealth, Ciuill conuersation; and others.

So in Latin▪ Z [...]gedine his Philosophia Poetica; The senten­ces selected out of the best Authours, adioyned to Tallies sentences; Flores Poetarum for Verses to flourish with­all.

But the former, viz. Reusner Erasmus Adages, Apthoni­us, and Lycosthenes, may serue in steed of many, for Schol­lars who are of vnderstanding and iudgement to vse them aright; chusing out the summe of the most excellent mat­ter, and making it their owne; composing euery thing fitly, without apparant stealing out of any.

Spoud.

But what helpe doe you account the very best for inuention of matter,Helpes for in­uention of matter. to find it out as of their own heads, which you know is principally esteemed of?

Phil.

That which I named in the direction for the Theame, is the vsual manner in schooles, as I take it; I mean the following the places of Apthonius: as, à Laudatiuo, Pa­raphrastico, Causa, Contrario, Parabola, Exemplo, Testimonio veterum, Breui Epilogo.

So à Manifesto, Credibili, Possibili, Consequente, Decoro, Vtili. And ab Obscuro, Incredibili, Impossibili, Inconsequenti, Indecoro, Inutili, and the like.

Yet these doe seeme to mee also farre too hard for chil­drens conceits, who haue read no Logicke, and ouer-tedi­ous. [Page 182] But the following of those ten first and chiefe heads of reasoning;The knowledg of the ten grounds of In­uention, the readiest. to wit, from Causes, Effects, Subiects, Adiuncts, Disagreeable things, Comparisons, Notations, Distributi­ons, Definitions, Testimonies (to one of which each of Ap­thonius or Tullies places doe belong) is farre the easiest, surest, and plainest way.

If that little booke called the Arte of Meditation, were made somewhat more plaine for the definitions or descrip­tions,The arte of meditation most profitable for inuention. that children might see euery thing euidently; and il­lustrated by a few moe examples; and so schollars made perfect in it by examining; they would bee able to inuent plenty of good matter presently, after that they had beene exercised in Reusner, and the other Authours; in reading, and also in writing some variety of Theames, after the man­ner set downe before.

Let them practice when they would inuent matter, but to runne through those places curiously in their mindes; and if one place doe not offer fit matter, another will sure­ly, and furnish them with store: so that by the helpe of that small Treatise, if it were so perfected, all this might bee ac­complished; and that with a small meditation any schollar of vnderstanding might discourse very commendably of any such matter.

Spoud.

It is great pitie it should not be made exact, if the vse and benefite bee such as you conceiue of it to this pur­pose, besides the worthy end for which it is written.

But as you haue giuen patternes for other exercises, so let me heare your iudgement, where they may haue th [...] best patternes for Theames, for the whole frame thereof, being handled according to all the parts seuerally.

Phil.

Apthonius (out of whom these Theames may bee taken first and the schollars also to haue liberty to gather out the principall matter;Presidents for the manner of Theames, and out of which to take their Theames first; or out of Reusthner, or others as we wil yet making it their owne, by seeking to better euery sentence) hath sundry very good presidents for such Theames; and in sweete Latine, written by Rodulphus Agricola, Cataneus Lorichius, or others: as the example of a Common-place, of the Thesis, and the [Page 184] like. Though Apthonius his owne (I meane) those trans­lated out of him, are of a more harsh stile in Latine; yet the order is good, as being written and set forth of purpose to this end.

These very Theames may be written on, first for incou­ragement; after, others of like matterto be imitated, accor­ding to the same places.

Secondly,Tullies Para­doxes for more excellent pat­ternes. next vnto those in Apthonius, which are more easie, Tullies Paradoxes are most singular patternes for true Rhetoricke, though the order of them seeme to be more obscure: they will be notable directions, if that the schollars be of capacity and ripenesse, and haue the seuerall parts rightly opened vnto them, that they fully vnderstand them.

Spoud.

But for Declamations what examples or helpes would you vse?Declamations and pattrnes for them.

Phil.

The Declamation being nothing else but a Theame of som matter, which may be controuerted, and so handled by parts, when one taketh the Affirmatiue part, another the Negatiue, & it may be a third moderateth or determineth betweene both; we haue very good Presidents in the Thesis in Apthonius: as in that question handled both affirma­tiuely and negatiuely, viz. Vxor est ducenda, Vxor non est ducenda.

If it be in a more vehement inuectiue against some vice,Examples of Inuectiues. we haue sundry examples in Apthonius, in Loco communi. As, In villarum incensores, In sacrilegum, Incontumacem, In auarum. Examples of praise and dis­praise.

Likewise the seuerall examples there set downe of praise and dispraise, of persons, cities, or the like. So the Presidents in Apthonius of particular actions, in accusing or defence of them, may be great helpes to giue much good direction.

For further patternes, see Tully his Orations; and speci­ally the Inuectiues against Catiline.

In these kinde of Theames, wee shall haue farre more vse of those figures of Sentences, which are the very life and strength of an Oration; as of Exclamations, Reuoca­tions, [Page 185] Apostrophees, Prosopopies; and the rest of the fi­gures in Dialogismo.

I haue heard of some good ensamples in English, viz. thirteene Declamations; but I haue not beene able to finde them out.

But these kinde of exercises of Declaming are rather for the Vniuersities;Declamations fit for the Vni­uersities, or for principall schol­lars in the Grammar schooles. Manner of writing downe the Theames by Schollars of iudgement. or at least for such Schollars in the Gram­mar schooles, as haue beene long exercised in the former kindes.

For the manner of writing downe the Theames by Schollars of iudgement, it may not bee amisse where leasure will serue, to cause the schollars to write them thus: In the first Margent towards the left hand, together with the seuerall partes of the Theame (as Exord. Narratio, Confir­matio, Confutatio, Conclusio, being set in great letters ouer a­gainst each part) to set also the heads of the seuerall argu­ments; chiefly against the Confirmation: as Causa, Effectum: like as Apthonius doth set his places, à Causa, à Contrario. And in the later side of the page, towards the right hand, to set the seuerall tropes or figures, but in two or three letters. As for Metonymia Efficientis, no more but Met. Effic. or the like: making some line vnder the word, in which they are; The shorter the better, if it can bee vnder­stood.

One Theame in the weeke well performed in this maner, besides all other exercises,One Theame thus in the weeke may suf­fice, and to spend their odd times in ma­king Verses, as more sharpe­ning the wit. Making Theames ex tempore, a mat­ter of great commendati­ons if it be don schollar-like. may be sufficient; like as the or­der is in many of the chiefe schooles.

Spoud.

Certainely Sir, these courses seeme to me as easie as the former, both for Masters and Schollars; that here­by they must needes labour, and goe on with delight; beeing thus plainely guided and directed from point to point.

Yet to proceede a little further herein, if you will giue me leaue: I haue heard of some schollars marueilously praised for this, that they haue beene able to speake of a Theame ex tempore for a quarter of an houre, or more together, in good Latine, and to very good purpose.

[Page 186] Now how doe you thinke that this may be done? for this is a matter of very high commendations to young schol­lars euen in the Vniuersities; and much more in the Gram­mar schooles, if it can be done.

Phil.

This exercise must needes require much reading,The way to make Theames ex tempore. and practice to doe it, in such commendable manner; as indeed it may. The best way how to attaine it most soone and surely▪ is this, so farre as yet I can conceiue:

1 They must practice constantly for a good space, the former or better course of making Theames; that they may become very ready in writing their Theames of any morall matter with a little study.

2 I haue seene this practice to bee easie and profitable to this end:A practice most easie and profi­table to helpe to make Theames ex tempore. the very vse of the Grammatical translation of Apthonius, according to the maner of the vse of the trans­lations, for keeping the schoole Authours perfectly.

As first, causing them to reade a Theame out of the La­tine into English; or where it is hard, first to reade it ouer in English to giue some light;To follow a patterne of a Theame, made familiar vnto them by the Grammaticall translations. To see how each is able to better his Au­thour, in vtte­ring euery part of themselues, both English and Latine. then out of the Latine into English, to vnderstand it perfectly: afterwards to reade it out of the English translation into Latin, to haue the phrase and Latine readily to expresse their mindes.

Then euery one in his course, to trie how he is able to ex­presse or vtter that Theame of himselfe; first in English, then in Latine, euery part of the Theame in order.

For example: To begin first with the Exordium, to trie how they can vtter it in English, and whether they can bet­ter the Authour. After the first, a second fellow to assay how he is able to better the first; so another after him to better them both: and so forward as you will.

After this, to make tryall how they can vtter the same in Latine; euery one still bettering others: then to doe the like in the Narration; and so through euery part, both in English and Latine; still contending to go beyond their patternes in purity of phrase and matter, contracting, ad­ding, or changing as they will.

When they haue for some good time vsed this practice, [Page 187] then trying how they are able to discourse of themselues in a Theame giuen vnto them,To practice to discourse of themselues. according to the order of me­ditation, or places of Inuention, by continual exercise they shall attaine hereunto.

The practice in Apthonius will affoord them matter and wordesenow for imitation of Exordiums,Where to be stored with matter: and wordes for all parts. manner of Con­futations and Conclusions.

Their readinesse in their first Authours of morall mat­ters, as also in Tullies sentences, and Flores Poëtarum; and that their continued exercise in Reusner, with the helpe of the places of Inuention, will commonly yeelde matter sufficient.

What phrase or word they cannot vtter in Latine,

1 Let them bethinke themselues how they would first vtter and vary it in English,Helpe for sup­plying wordes or phrases. and some of the English words will bring Latine wordes,1 To think how to vtter it in o­ther words in English. or phrases to their remembrance; or else how they can expresse it by Periphrasis, or circumlo­cution in moe words, by some description, or by the gene­rall, or the contrary, or by some property, or the like.

2 Next to this, they may vse the helpe of Holyokes Dictionary;2 Helps of Di­ctionaries and bookes of phrases. and for phrase Manutius or Master Draxes Calliepëia: the phrases may bee found more easily in the Calliepëia.

3 And to the end that they may be sure to haue variety both of words and phrase,To meditate the chiefe phrases before. which doth much delight; it shal not be amisse to peruse before in the phrase book, the prin­cipall wordes or phrases which concerne that Theame, and how many wayes they may be vttered: at least the Master when hee tryeth his Schollars in this extemporall faculty, if hee bee not a ready and perfect Latinist may haue the phrase booke by him,Helpe by the Master. to looke euery hard phrase which they cannot vtter well; and how they may vary it diuers wayes.

Spoud.

But to the end that schollars may be sure euer to haue store of matter, or to finde of a sudden where to turne to fit matter for euery Theame; what doe you thinke of Common-place bookes of such morall matters, that euery [Page 188] schollar should haue his Common-place booke written.

Phil.

I do account them a great help where the schollars haue leasure and iudgement to gather them;Common-place bookes a singular help. I meane, to gleane out all the choyse sentences and matter in the best Authours. Or, because that that is ouer-great a toyle, and requires more iudgement then can bee looked for in so young yeares; if they had but only bookes of References, it would be exceeding profitable: to wit, such Common-place bookes as did but only containe the generall heads of matter, and then the Quotations of three or foure of the chiefe Authours; as Reusner, Erasmus Adages, Tullies sen­tences, or some other; setting downe the booke and the page, where to turn of a sudden to any such matter in them. This would ease them of much searching, and make schol­lars to do such exercises much sooner, and with farre grea­ter commendations: like as it is in Diuinity, Law, Physick, and whatsoeuer other Artes. Thus they may vse the matter of the best Authors, going farre beyond the matter which the wit of any childe can conceiue; sith that those bookes haue in them the choysest sayings of the very wisest of all ages: although they are stil to adde whatsoeuer they can in­uent of their owne braine, so it be wittily and pithily.

Such a book of References wel gathered, and made pub­licke, would much further young schollars herein.

Spoud.

I see well how they may be furnished for store of matter; yet for choyse of good wordes and phrase, to haue copie and variety euer ready at hand, I make some doubt how they may be furnished: for it is a toyle to goe euer to turne to phrase bookes; neyther can they haue time when they are to speake ex tempore.

Phil.

Take no care for that;How to get store of phrases store of matter being thus gotten, as I haue shewed, wil bring words: yet to haue copie of Synonymaes & good phrase, besides their Authours made perfect, & other helps mentioned; Calliepeia translated in propriety, & read one while out of Latin into English, ano­ther while out of English into Latin, & after trying how to vary both in English and Latin; will help very much to fur­nish [Page 189] with copie both English and Latine. Hereof I haue known som experience. A little triall will soon cōfirm this.

There may be also other helpes forvarying:Other helps. as the rules in Erasmus de Cap [...]a, in Macropedius and others; and more specially some select phrases to seuerall purposes noted in Erasmus de Copia.

Spoud.

But what say you concerning Orations,Orations. what course doe you thinke fittest to bee able to performe them with commendations?

Phil.

I take them to belong rather to the Vniuersities,Orations be­long specially to the Vniuersi­ties. that there is more seldom vse of them in schooles, and then also to be performed by schollars growen to som maturity.

For examples or patterns of Orations,Examples of Orations. wee can haue no better then Tullies Orations; wherein are presidents of all sorts. In these is the schollar to bee exercised to knowe the nature of them, & the maner of the loftiness of stile vsed in them. Also Turners Orations, Muretus, or others. Though for entrance into them we may follow the exāples of prai­ses in Apthonius. Chap. 8. Or some other select Orations.

Yet, because in Schooles of special note, and where there are auncient schollars,Orations ex tempore. sometimes it may bee expected a­mongst them, that some one of them should make an Ora­tion to entertaine a Benefactor, or other person of note; and it may be, to do it ex tempore, as their comming is of a sodaine; therfore certaine speciall heads of an Oration to that purpose might be euer in readinesse. As the commen­dations of a person for his descent, learning, loue and coun­tenance of good learning & vertue, beneficence curtesie, fauor towards that place, and the like. Also for excusing themselues by their tender yeers, want of experience and of practice in that kind, bashfulnesse, timorousnesse; and yet their desire to answere the parties loue & expectation, with presuming vpon their patience, and such others. To be ac­quainted also with variety of choise phrases to the same purposes, to haue them euer in fresh memory.

Sp.

These courses are very plain in my iudgemēt: yet not­withstanding, sith they are of more seldom vse, but Theams [Page 190] of daily practice, wee are specially to looke vnto them. Therfore my weak memory, let me heare in two words, the sum of all concerning the Theames.

Phil.

This is the sum;

1. That they be acquainted with som matter for Theams and easie phrase,Sum of all for Theames. and so accustomed to write Theames in a plaine manner first, following Reusner principally.

2. That they learne to handle the Theame more curi­ously according to Apthonius, prosequuting and ador­ning the seuerall parts thereof, making choise of the most excellent patternes.

3. That they haue the helps and grounds of inuenting reasons of themselues, and do know whereto finde more store of matter and phrase to expresse their mindes, and be furnished with helps of the best books.

4. Lastly, that as in all other exercises, they vse continu­all practice; which makes the hardest things easie and plea­sant.

CHAP. XIIII.
How to enter to make verses with delight and cer­taintie, without bodging; and to traine vp schol­lars to imitate and expresse Ouid or Vir­gil, both their phrase & stile.

Spo [...]d.

NOw that wee haue gone thorough all the whole course of writing Latine in prose, and the seuerall exercises therof which are requisite in Grammar schooles, so far forth as I remember; it remaineth that we come to verse: wherein I presume of your loue as in all the former, not to conceale anything from me, but to impart whatsoeuer may helpe to the attaining of that facul­tie.

Phil.
[Page 191]

Though Poetry bee rather for ornament then for any necessary vse; and the main matter to be regarded in it,Poetry rather for ornament then for any necessity. Yet there may be commenda­ble vse of it. is the puritie of phrase and of stile: yet because there is very commendable vse of it, sometimes in occasions of triumph and reioicing, more ordinarily at the funerals of some worthy personages, and sometimes for some other purposes; it is not amisse to traine vp schollars euen in this kinde also. And the rather because it serueth very much for the sharpning of the wit, and is a matter of high com­mendation, when a schollar is able to write a smooth and pure verse, and to comp [...]ehend a great deale of choise matter in a very little roome.

Spoud.

Surely sir though it is, as you say, but an orna­ment, yet it is such a one, as doth highly grace those who haue attained it, in any such measure as you speak of; and two such verses are worth two thousand, of such flash and bodge stuffe as are ordinarily in some schooles. But this I haue found also to be full of difficutie,The ordinary difficulty of this faculty. both in the entring, the progresse, and also in the end; that my schollars haue had more feare in this, then in all the former, and my selfe also driuen to more seuerity: which I haue been inforced vnto, or else I should haue done no good at al with the grea­test part.

And yet when I haue done my vttermost, I haue not had any to come to such pe [...]fection as you mention,The folly of some in this kinde. to write so pithily or purely: yea, let me tell you this, that I haue kno­wensom Masters, who haue thought themselues very pro­found Poets, who would vpon an occasion of a Funerall haue written you a sheete or two of verses, as it were of a sydden; yet amongst all those, you should hardly haue found one such a Verse as you speake of, vnlesse it were stolne; and most of them such, as iudicious Poet would be ready to laugh at, or loath to reade. Therefore I intreat you to guide me, how I may redresse this euill, and preuent these inconueniences.

Phil.

Though I be no Poet, yet I finde this course to be found most easie and plaine to direct my schollars:

[Page 192] 1. To looke that they bee able in manner to write true Latine,The most plain way how to en­ter to make a verse without bodging. and a good phrase in prose,1. To write true Latine. before they begin to meddle with making a verse.

2. That they haue read some poetry first;2. To haue read some Poetry. as at least these books or the like, or some part of them: viz. Ouid de Tri­stibus, or de Ponto, some peace of his Metamorphosis or of Virgil, and be well acquainted with their Poeticall phra­ses.

3. I find this a most easie & pleasant way to enter them; that for all the first bookes of Poetry which they learne in the beginning,3. Practice of turning them out of the Grā ­maticall tran­slations into verse. they vse to reade them daily out of the Grammaticall translations: first resoluing euery verse into the Grammaticall order, like as it is in the translation; after into the Poeticall, turning it into verse, as the words are in the Poet: according as I shewed the manner before, in the benefit and vse of the translations. For the making of a verse,Giuing Poeti­call phrase. is nothing but the turning of words forth of the Grammaticall order, into the Rhetoricall, in some kinde of metre; which wee call verses. And withall, that in reading thus out of the translations, they vse to giue the Poeticall phrases, to our English phrases, set in the margents, and al­so the Epithetes.

For this practice of reading their Poetry, out of the tran­slations into verse, a little trial will soon shew you, that ve­ry children wil do it as fast almost as into prose: and by the vse of it, continually turning prose into verse, they will be in a good way towards the making a verse, before they haue learned any rules therof.

4. Then when you would haue them to go in hand with making a verse;4. To be very cunning in the rules of versify­ing. that they be made very cunning in the rules of versifying, so as to be able to giue you readily each rule, and the meaning therof.

5. That they bee expert in scanning a verse,5. To be perfect in scanning. and in pro­uing euery quantity, according to their rules, and so vse to practice in their lectures daily.

6. To keepe them that they shall neuer bodge in their entrance,6. To keepe frō bodging in their entrance. neither for phrase nor otherwise, but to enter [Page 193] with ease, certainty and delight; this you shall finde to be a most speedy way:

Take Flores Poetarum, and in euery Common place make choise of Ouids verses,To vse the like practice in Flo­res Po [...]tarum for verse, as in Tullies senten­ces for prose. or if you find any other which be pleasant and easie: and making sure, that your schollars know not the verses a forehand, vse to dictate vnto them as you did in prose. Cause also so many as you would haue to learne together, to set down the English as you dictate.

Secondly to giue you, and to write downe all the words in Latine verbatim, or Grammatically.

Thirdly, hauing iust the same words, let them trie which of them can soonest turne them into the order of a verse: which they will presently doe▪ being trained vp in the vse of the translations; which is the same in effect.

And then lastly, read thē ouer the verse of Ouid, that they may see that themselues haue made the very same; or wher­in they missed: this shall much incourage and assure them.

After that they haue practiced this for a little time;To do this without pen. if for speediness, & for sauing paper (because they may soon run ouer much) you do vse but only to read the English Gram­matically, and appoint som one of them to deliuer it in La­tine; then all to trie which of them can soonest turne those words into a verse, or how many waies they can turne them into a verse: you shall see them come on a pace, and an ear­nest [...]rift to be wrought amongst them.

This also may bee done most easily,The most easie way of turning verses out of Flores Poetarum by the vse of Grammaticall translations of all the choyce verses in Flo­res Poetarum; practicing as in Tully & other, to read them▪ ex tēpore out of the English first into prose▪ after into verse. They wil be as familiar & easie, as to read prose, and to do it with as much delight and contention, or more; euery da [...]e practicing a little by course.To note hard words quātities Epithets. For this is nothing (as I sayd) but the Poeticall composition. In the practice of this like­wise, vse to note euery new & hard word, and quātity, as also Epithetes; according to the generall rule before, and the manner in each lecture, and oft to examine those.

7. Cause them to turn the verses of their lecture into other verses,7. To turne the verses of their lectures. either to the same purpose, which is easiest for yoūg [Page 194] beginners, or turned to some other purpose, to expresse some other matter; yet euer to keep the very phrase of the Poet, there or in other places, only transposing the words or phrase, or changing some words or phrase, or the num­bers, or persons, or applying them to matters which are fa­miliar, as they did in imitating Epistles. This may be prac­ticed, each to bring first a verse or two thus changed, either being giuen at eleuen to be brought at one, or at euening to be brought in the morning, or both.

8. As they proceed, to cause them to contract their lec­tures,8. Contracting their lectures. drawing seauen or eight verses into fowre or fiue, or fewer: yet still labouring to expresse the whole matter of their Author in their owne verse, and euery circumstance, with all significant Metaphors, and other tropes and phra­ses, so much as they can.

Thus▪ they may proceed if you wil, from the lowest kind of verse in the Eclogues, to somthing a loftier in the Geor­gicks; and so to the stateliest kinds in the Aeneids: where­in they may be tasked to go thorough some booke of the Aeneids,The certaine benefit of this exercise. euery day contracting a certaine number, as some 5 or 6. a day, for some of their exercises, striuing who can expresse their Author most liuely. By which daily conten­tion you shall find, that those who take a delight in Poetry, and haue sharpness & dexterity accordingly,To expresse their Poet most liuely. will in a short time attaine to that ripenesse, as that they who know not the places which they imitate, shall hardly discerne in many verses, whether the verse bee Virgils verse, or the schollars.

But herein there must be this care,Caueat in con­tracting. that before they goe in hand with this kinde of contracting, they bee both well exercised in the former kindes, or the like; and also that they beate out the meaning of the place fully, marking what goeth before, and also what followeth after; and ob­seruing curiously euery phrase, elegancy, and matter of any weight.

Morouer,To make ver­ses of any ordi­nary Theam. that your schollars may be able to write verses ex tempore, of any ordinary Theame, after they haue bin wel [Page 195] practiced in turning the easie verses of Flores Po [...]tarum, forth of prose into verse, that they can doe it readily; ap­point them of the most familiar Theames of it, and the sweetest verses thereof in order, to see how they can turne the same ex tempore into other verses, to the very same pur­pose; either by imitation, or contraction, like as I shewed the practice in their lectures: or hauing but the light of those verses, how they can make other verses of their owne like vnto them.

By this practice kept duely, to make some such verses twise in the day (as to giue them Theams before their brea­king vp at noone,To versifie ex tempore. to bring them at one of the clocke, and at night to bring them in the morning, or nine, as before; onely hauing this help and direction) or of a sodaine euer before they are to pla [...]e, to versifie of some Theame not thought of: and secondly by causing them to bring the sum of their Theams written vnder their Theams, compri­zed in a disticke, or two or moe, you shall finde that they will grow in so good sort, as shall be requisite to make you verses, ex tempore of any vsuall Theame, without hindering of their other studies. And here by they will soone bee ac­quainted with matter of all sorts according to those Com­mon places,Benefits of this practice. and also with variety of poetical phrase of the best, with Epihetes & stile. This exercise is very commen­dable to satisfie such,The vse of ver­sifying ex tem­pore. as vse to giue Theams to versifie vpon ex tempore; and also for that it is a very great sharpner of the wit, as was sayd, and a stirrer vp of inuention and of good wits to strift and emulation.

In this matter of versifying, as in all the former exerci­ses, I take this Imitation of the most excellent patternes,Imitation surest to be the surest rule, both for phrase and whatsoeuer: And therefore I would haue the chiefest labor to make these pu­rest Authors our owne, as Tully for prose, so Ouid and Vir­gil for verse so to speake and write in Latine for the phrase, as they did.

For them who desire to attain to more exquisite perfecti­on in this faculty of Poetry,Further helps for versifying. these things may much fur­ther besides the former:

[Page 196] 1. For more store and variety of matter,For store of m [...]tt [...]r to haue Cōmon place books or books of references to to the most ex­cellent places in Poets. to haue Com­mon place books (as I said for the Theams) therein at least to haue ref [...]rences▪ wherby to turn of a sodaine to matters of all sorts, in the most exquisite and pure Poets: to haue some direction both for matter and imitation; whether for Gratulatory verses, Triumphs, Funerals, or whatsoeuer. Or to refer all such principall places for imitation, to the heads in Flores Poetarum; which may serue insteede there­of

2. For variety & copie of Poeticall phrases,2. [...] the The sau­rus Phrasium poeticarum gathered by Buchlerus of the last Edition. An. M. D Cvij. is a notable helpe.

Also both for words and phrases, [...] Sylua Synonimorum, may stand in good steede, chiefly for schollars of iudge­mentable to make right choise of the fittest.

3. For store of Epithetes,3. For Epithets, Textors Epi­thets of the last and largest. which if they bee choyse, are a singular ornament, and meanes of speedinesse in this facultie, and so for all other matters belonging to Po­etrie, Textor his Epitheta of the largest and of the last E­dition printed at Lions, M. D. Cij. may bee a great helpe.

The abbridgement of Textors Epithetes may serue in­steede hereof to young schollars:Abb [...]idgement of Textor. and namely to such who are not able to buy the large; though the large is more pro­fitable.

4. For hauing of the best authorities for the quantities of all syllables, Smotius his Prosodia will furnish plentifully;4. For Qua [...]iti [...]s and Authorities Smet [...] Prosodia [...] all needfull words being set in it in the Alphabeticall order. For rules of quantities, though our owne Grammar may be sufficient; yet you may see also Smotius his Methodus dignosc [...]n [...]arum Syllabarum ex Georg. Fabricio, set before his Prosodia. And rules of the quantities of Syllables in M. Butlers Rhetorick, short and very plaine. Chap. 14 de Me­tro.

Also the Virgils printed with Erythraus Index, [...] for Autho­rities and vses of all words in Virgil.

5. For imitation of the best Poets, [...] and further directi­on to attaine to more perfection in Poetry, see Sabines pre­cepts [Page 197] Decarminibi [...]s ad vete [...]um imitationem artificiose com­ponendis▪ ioyned with Textors Epithets. Also Buch [...]rus his Institutio Poetica in the end of his Thesaurus phrasium poe­ticarum.

6 For the Figures belonging to Poetry,6 Figures of Rhetoricke. see Butlars Rhetoricke in his fourteenth Chapt. De Metro.

7 For turning of Verses diuers waies,7 For turning Verses Poeti­cally: Stocke­wood his Pro­gymnasma s [...]o­lafticum. M▪ Stockwood his Progymnasma scholasticum is instar omnium▪ to direct and to incourage young schollars. In which booke towards the end of it, you shall haue one Disticke or couple of Verses, varied 450. wayes.One Disticke varyed 450. wayes. The Verses are these:

1 Linque Cupido iecur; cordi quo (que) parcito: sivis
Figere fige alio tela cruent a loco.
2 Parce meo iecori; intactum mihi linquito pectus:
Omnia de reliquo corpore membrapete.
3 Ca [...]epuer, &c.

And in the shutting vp of all,One Verse tur­ned 104. waies, the same words being kept. this one Verse is turned by transposing the words 104. wayes; all the same wordes, and onely those wordes being kept: which might seeme impos­sible, but that there we may see it before our eyes, that nine wordes should serue to make a hundreth and foure Verses, all of the same matter. The Verse is this:

Est mea spes Christus sol [...]s, qui de cruce pendet.
Est Christus solus mea spes, qui de cruce pendet.
Est solus Christus mea spes, qui de cruce pendet.
Solus de cruce, &c.

A schollar of any inclination and fitnesse for Poetry, can­not but receiue notable incouragement, hauing these, or but the principall of these bookes: this exercise of Versify­ing will be found a most pleasant recreation vnto him after a time.

8 Lastly,8 Practice still all in all. in this exercise, as in all the rest, I holde daily practice and diligence (following the best patternes) to be the surest and speediest guide; and which will bring in time much perfection, where there is aptnesse of nature concur­ring.

Spoud.
[Page 198]

But repeat mee in a word, which exercises you would haue daily put in practice.Daily and easie exercises.

Phil.

Turning the Verses of the Lectures, as was shewed; chiefly by contraction in Virgil, keeping strictly his phrase.

2 Before each breaking vp at noones and nights, to haue a Theame out of the easiest of Fl [...]res Poëtarum in or­der, to bring Verses of it at their entrance againe, or as is ap­pointed to them.

3 Writing Verses of their weekly Theames.

CHAP. XV.
The manner of examining and correcting Exercises.

Spoud.

HAuing thus gone through the principall exerci­ses of writing;Examining ex­ercises neuer to be omitted. I pray you let me heare your iudg­ment, for the examining of such exercises, and the best manner of performing it:Though tedi­ous yet profita­ble. for I finde it a matter very tedious and troublesome.

Phil.

Howsoeuer it be tedious,Neglect of ex­mining brings carelesnesse in schollars. yet it is such a matter as would neuer be omitted, no more then the giuing of exer­cises; nor to be slightly passed ouer, so much as time and o­portunity will permit. For when the schollar knoweth that his exercise must be strictly examined, it will make him more carefull in performing thereof, and contrarily; and it will be a great helpe to bring him sooner to perfection.

For the manner of doing it;

1 The Master ought heedfully to obserue those speci­all faults,1 Masters to obs [...]rue gene­rall faults. wherein his schollars doe most vsually slip; and to acquaint euery one, not onely with the generall, but also with his particular, to warne them of them.

[Page 199] For example;Wherein schol­lars do most commonly slip. I haue found my schollars to misse most in these: through want of Dipthongs. Incongruity in their Concords. In the vse of the two chiefe rules of the Rela­tiue Qui, quae quod. Ablatiue case absolute. Apposition▪ Coniunctions to couple together like cases, moodes and Tenses. Nominature case after the Verbe, &c. The Accusa­tiue case before an Infinitiue Moode.

Also that they will oft haue a Synchesis, Synchesis. or a disordered confusion of their wordes;Hyperbaton to be auoided. and sometimes they will vse hy­perbaton: which is a further fetching or carrying of some wordes, whereby a sentence is obscured; and the schollar forgets himselfe before he come to the end of his sentence, and so writes false Latine. Long Periods are therefore to be auoyded as much as may be.

2 The Schollars are to be called vpon, to reade ouer their exercises in the naturall or Grammaticall order,2 To reade o­uer their exer­cises first in na­turall order. so as they construe: and then they may see presently how the wordes doe hang together, both for agreement, gouerne­ment, and sense, and where the faults of Grammar are.

3 That besides their rules, they be able presently to pa­rallele or proue each phrase and construction, by the like example in Grammar,3. To parallele each thing by examples. or by a like phrase out of Tully, or o­ther Authours: and what they know not, to seeke out; to the end that they may be able to iustifie euery word, euen where they haue read it, so much as may be.

4 The higher schollars to looke to elegancie, and fine­nesse of phrase and Composition;4 To looke to elegancy and finenesse of Composition. and so to bee reading their exercises ouer and ouer, stil correcting and amending them, neuer thinking an exercise well enough, vntill no fault can be found,Neuer to think any exercise la­boured enough▪ in Latine, propriety, composition, mat­ter; no nor in the least tittle. The schollar is herein to imi­tate the curious painter, who is still amending and bette­ring his picture, to drawe all into admiration; that his Theames, Verses, Orations may be as the harpe of Orphe­us, to draw all the hearers or readers after them.

5 To appoint aduersaries to take one anothers exercises, [Page 200] and to see whether of them can finde the moe faults:5 Aduersaries to note faults in one anothers exercises. and if you will, to set vnderneath, how many faults either of them findes; and so to giue them to the Master, or to them­selues first to correct, then to the Master.

6 Afterall, the Master is carefully to reade ouer euery ones exercise,6 The maner of examining by the Master. so much as leasure will permit; and by questi­ons to make themselues to finde where the errour is: as but asking; Doe we say thus or thus? and to cause them to a­mend it of themselues by giuing a like example▪ And in the meane time, to make some little line vnder the phrase or word, or peece of the word or syllable wherein the errour is, that they may amend it after in their bookes. And for all correcting of translations in Latine, to doe it by comparing their exercise with the Authour; and so exercises of imitati­on, to see who commeth next to the example.

7 In examining exercises in the highest fourmes (as in Theames, Declamations,7 Special faults in the youngest fourmes. Verses, Orations, and the like) be­sides the faults against Grammar, the diligent Master should obserue, first, all barbarous phrases, or Poeticall phrase in Prose, or contrary: secondly, Tautologies, or oft repetiti­ons of the same thing or words: thirdly, want of transitions; that is, of fit bonds or phrases, whereby to passe elegantly from one point to another; so as they might be more easily vnderstood: fourthly▪ harsh composition: fiftly, lacke of matter: sixtly, want of elegancy in Tropes and Figures; and so like elegancies noted in Grammar.

7 To haue a diligent eye that the schollars do forthwith correct their exercises, so noted out vnto them:7 Care that they do cor­rect their exer­cises forthwith. and to this end he is oft to looke in their bookes, whether they haue corrected their former exercises; and to vse sharpe repre­hension or correction for that carelesnes, to make them to looke to that aboue all. For there is nothing wherein their negligence is more intollerable, nor for which the Master shal be more censured, when their parents, or others who be learned▪ shall looke into their bookes,8 This to be [...]o [...]e by others [...] of and reade ouer their exercises, and there to find them vncorrected.

8 If at any time the Masters occasions permit not so much [Page 201] time, yet to see that it be performed by the Vsher or some of the highest schollars, and the number of faults noted.

Spou.

But what if there should be 30. or 40. in a fourme (as it may be in the greater schools;How to do for correcting where there are very many in a fourme; and where time will not permit to correct all. especially amongst the lower fourmes) how would you do to examine all their ex­ercises in a morning, but you shal hinder your selfe & them frō many other things, wth you must of necessity performe?

Ph.

In such cases we must yeeld to necessity, & vse the best policy we can; as in that exercise of translating into Latin, to cause som 3. or 4. whom you most feare,In exercises of translations. to pronounce their exercises, or to reade or construe thē out of the translation; you to looke vpon the exercises, as they are pronouncing, & cause them to shew how they must be amended: so al the rest to correct theirs, according as they heare those cor­rected: if any be found carelesse to correct so, that he be surely corrected: and this is the best helpe which I know in this behalfe.

So likewise where you giue them a Theame to make Ver­ses ex tempore: Verses ex tem­pore. or vpon som smal meditation, as those which are to be brought each morning, or at one of the clocke, when time will not permit to peruse the writing of euery one; yet to cause euery one to pronounce the Verses which he hath made: and as they pronounce, to shew them their faults, and then cause them to correct them after. Thus haue I shewed you my iudgement also for examining of exercises.

CHAP. XVI.
How to answere any needefull question of Grammar or Rhetoricke.

Spoud.

WEll good Sir, you see how bolde I am, to re­quire your iudgment in euery mater, wher­in I find difficulty: now to return to the brief again of those things which you affirmed might be done for learning;

This I remember was another point, which cannot but greatly commend a schollar: to bee able to answere [Page 202] any difficult question of Grammar, euen beside those which are in the rules, which are commonly learned; and also how to oppose or dispute schollar-like in Latine, of any good Grammar question; as both what may be obiected against Lillies rules, and how to defend them: I pray you let mee heare of you how this may be done, and what is the most speedy way which you know hereunto.

Phil.

The plainest,How to answer any difficult question of Grammar. shortest, and surest way, I finde to be this:

1 See that they be very ready in all the vsuall and ordi­nary questions of Grammar,1 To be per­fect in all or­dinary questi­ons of Acce­dence. by daily examining at Parts.

2 For most of the rest fit for young schollars,2 In those set together in the end of the Ac­cedence questi­ons. I haue ga­thered them for the vse of mine owne schollars, and set them together after the end of the Accedence Questions; yet so▪ as I haue sorted and referred euery Question to the right place whither it appertaines: as to the Noune, Pro­noune, Participle, and so the seuerall heads thereof.

When as young schollars waxe perfect in all the former, which are in the Accedence; then a little paines in teaching them these, making them plain vnto them, and examining them some halfe side at time (in stead of the time spent be­fore in examining the former) will very soone make them as ready in these also.

3 After these,3 In the Latine questions dis­persed through the Grammar, not learned vsually. you may (if you please) goe through the questions of Grammatica, and make them plaine; exami­ning them in Latin: and so through all the necessary questi­ons which are scattered here and there, through the whole Grammar: directing them to marke out the questions, or the speciall wordes wherein the questions are, and how to be propounded; that they themselues may oppose one an­other, or one to oppose all as neede is.

But this as you shall thinke necessary;Caueat. and so as it do not hinder better studies.

4 You may runne through the questions in M. Stock­woods disputations of Grammar, as they are commonly noted in the Margents,4 Stockwoods questions. but onely propounding the questi­on in few words, both English and Latine, as need requires, [Page 203] and teaching them to answere in a word or two.

By going through these, they may be able to answere all, or most of those which are set together in the end of his disputations;Most of the difficulties of the auncient Classicall Au­thors collected into one by M. Stockwoods last Edition, printed Anno. 1607. wherein he hath with marueilous paines, and diligent obseruation, collected a very great part of the dif­ficulties of all Classicall Authours, and in the last Edition noted the words in the Margents, in which the difficulty in each sentence is. What other are wanting in these, may be answered by them, being of like nature.

5 To giue a further light, and that nothing may bee wanting for my children,5 Certaine ge­nerall Figures to answere ma­ny difficulties by. I haue adioyned vnto the later end of all the Accedence questions which I spake of, certain generall figures: vnto some of which, many of the difficul­ties of all auncient Authours (both those in Stockewood and others) may be referred, or else vnto those figures set downe in the Grammar and Rhetoricke.

For answering the questions of Rhetoricke,In Talaeus Rhetoricke to giue definiti­ons, diuisions and one short example. you may if you please, make them perfect in Talaeus Rhetorick, which I take to be most vsed in the best Schooles; onely to giue each definition and distribution, and some one example or two at most in each Chapter; and those of the shortest sen­tences out of the Poets: so that they can giue the word or words, wherein the force of the rule is. And so to proporti­on all other questions accordingly.

To this end, the wordes wherein the force of the ex­amples consist,Talaeus exam­ples would be noted as Grammar. would bee marked as in the Grammar; and that not onely in some one or two examples in euery Chapter, which they are to haue perfect without booke, but also in euery example through the booke, to be able to apply any.

Claudius Minos Commentary may bee a good helpe to make Talaeus Rhetoricke most plaine,Minos Com­mentary to helpe for vn­derstanding Talaeus. both for precepts and examples.

If your Schollar after he hath read these, doe but vse to bee carefull to keepe a short Catalogue in his minde, of the names of the Tropes, and also Figures (and those both of Grammar and Rhetoricke) hee shall with practice of [Page 204] examination and obseruation be able to tell any of them, but repeating the heads in his minde.

Or in stead of Talaeus,Butlars Rheto­ricke, a notable abbridgement of Talaeus, and farre more easie and profitable. you may vse Master Butlars Rhe­toricke, of Magdalens in Oxford, printed in Oxford; which I mentioned before: being a notable abbridgement of Ta­laeus, making it most plaine, and farre more easie to be lear­ned of Schollars, and also supplying very many things wanting in Talaeus. Both it and the Commentary together, are almost as small as Talaeus alone, and not a much grea­ter price, though the worth be double. It is a booke, which (as I take it) is yet very little knowne in Schooles, thought it haue beene forth sundry yeares, set forth for the vse of Schooles; and the vse and benefit will be found to be farre aboue all that euer hath beene written of the same.

Finally,Brasbridges questions on Tullies offices. for answering the questions of Tullies Offices, M. Brasbridge his questions therof, are as short and perspi­cuous as any of the former.

Spoud.

Sir, I haue not (in truth) so much as euer heard of eyther of those bookes: as neyther of any almost of those singular helps which you mentioned for Poetry; by which apt Schollars cannot choose but become excellent Poets.

Phil.

Thereby may appeare what a generall want here is amongst vs;Generall want in the igno­rance of the best helpes. when God hath giuen so many worthy helpes, whereby we and our Schollars may attaine so readily the excellency of all learning meet for vs, and make all our courses so full of al pleasant and alluring contentment, and yet we shall neglect to enquire after them.

CHAP. XVII.
Of Grammaticall oppositions, how to dispute schol­larlike of any Grammar question in good Latine.

Spoud.

IT seemeth to be very euident, that by these means they may be able to answere any necessarie question, meete for them; but for those schollar-like oppositions in Grammar questions, I heare you to say nothing, al­though it cannot but be a maruellous profitable exercise.

Phil.

It is indeed a profitable exercise: and I finde that it may be very easily attained thus;

1. About that time when they begin to reade Virgill or before,Two to dispute each day insteed of their Theam or Verses. as they are able, when they begin to make Theams, two of them may be appointed, insteed of their Theam, or Verses to be made for that mornings exercise, to dispute e­uery day by course. The manner of it thus:

Let them take M. Stockwoods disputations,1. To follow M. Stockwood and to vse his very words. to direct them. And first for their greater ease and incouragement, to enter them; appoint them to dispute in the very words which M. Stockwood hath, and that of all the questions in order, about a side of a leafe at a time, or as they can well: so that following the words of the Author, there needeth no more labour, but committing it to memory and vttering; vnlesse they can meditate to doe it more shortly of them­selues.

2. After this when they haue thus gone ouer the book or the greatest part of it,2. After to take only the sub­stance of his disputations, & go thorough a whole question at a time. which they may doe in a short time, keeping a constant course: then cause them to practice to take a whole disputation at a time, or at least a whole que­stion, and to bring only the substance of it as shortly as they can; yet st [...]l obseruing as much as may be▪ M. Stockwoods phrase, his order and witty conceits, which he vseth both in obiecting and answering.

[Page 206] For their better vnderstanding of their disputations,Helpe for the vnderstanding of the disputa­tions amongst the enterers. do as in their Theams: vse at their entrance, to read them ouer vnto them: shew them the plaine meaning of euery thing; and by examining the sum of it all, first in English after in Latine, cause them to vnderstand so much as time will permit.

What they are not able to vtter in Latine, remem­ber to cause them first to vtter in English, and then they wil easily do it in Latine, as we said.

When they haue beene well exercised in these that they are able thus to dispute with facility, and are acquainted well with Stockwoods phrase and order; they may haue o­ther questions giuen to handle wholly of themselues, if you will.

By these means of continuall disputing they shall reape these benefits:Benefits of such scholasti­cal oppositions.

1. They shall bee much helped for the perfect vnder­standing, and answering of any difficult Grammar questi­on, as was sayd before.

2. They shall bee very much furthered for deliuering their minds easily in Latine.

3. They shal be notably fitted for disputations in the V­niuersity, or any like opposition, mooting, or pleading in the Innes of Court.

4. It shall bring audacity, help, gesture, pronuntiation, memory, and much prouoke them to an ingenuous e [...]u­lation and contention.

Spoud.

But I haue seene in a schoole, where the schol­lars haue beene able to dispute ex tempore of any ordinarie morall question, which you should propound vnto them: which me thought did exceedingly grace them, and was a very rare commendation vnto the schoole.

Phil.

Though I doe grant with you that this deserued very great praise;Disputations of Morall Philo­sophy belong rather to the Vniuersitie. yet this seemes to me rather to belong to the Vniuersities, then to the Grammar schooles. For I take it not onely meet, but also most equall and necessarie, that euery place haue their owne Priuiledges reserued vn­to [Page 207] them; and that one in no case should incroach vpon a­nother.

Aboue all,The priuiled­ges & preroga­tiues of the V­niuersities by al means to bee preserued. that there be a chiefe regard of the Vniuer­sities, as vnto which the Grammar schooles are ordained principally, for training vp young schollars to furnish them; and that they haue all their honours and preroga­tiues, reserued most carefully vnto them. Of which sort these disputations in Logick and other Philosophie are.

Notwithstanding I shall shew you my iudgement,How these may be done and how farre. how this may be performed also; and as I take it in the most ea­sie manner, and most surely, so farre as it may be.

1. I would haue my schollar well practiced in these Grammaticall disputations,1. By practice in the Grāma­ticall disputati­ons. to haue phrase & order of dis­putation in readinesse, and to keep themselues within the compasse of that kinde of reasoning; leauing logicall and strict concluding by Syllogisms, vnto the Vniuersitie.

2. To haue read ouer Tullies Offices,2. To bee ac­quainted with Tullies Offices and the questi­ons of it. with vnderstan­ding; which by the helpe of Master Brasbridges questions, and the Grammatical translations they may the more spee­dily by farre.

3. To choose out of the easiest of those questions,3. To oppose of som of those questiōs insteed of the Gram­maticall. and to appoint the schollars insteede of their disputations in Grammar: when they haue gone thorough those, then to reply and answere an argument or two vpon some of these questions daily. It were worthy the labor of some ingenu­ous and good Latinist,Som of Tullies Offices questi­ons handled af­ter the manner of M. Stockw▪ Grammaticall disputations worthy the la­bour▪ as M. Stockwood, to handle some of the questions of Tullies Offices after the manner of his Grammaticall disputations, to fit schollars the more for such witty and pleasant disputations, against that they should come to the Vniuersitie. But I speak this as the rest vnder better iudgement, and so farre as these may be meet for the Grammar schooles.

4. For inuenting reasons to replie,4. How to in­uent reasons by the helpe of the places of Inuē ­tion. it may soone be per­formed, by the dullest capacitie, according to the manner of inuenting reasons for Theames or verses, following the chiefe heads of reasoning. If the replier do but only medi­tate what can be sayd against the question or position, from [Page 208] some one of those chiefe places of reasoning, discoursed in his mind in order; hauing the places euer in fresh memo­rie (as I shewed before) by the practice of the Art of Medi­tation, or the like: For then if one place will not presently afforde meete matter, another will. And commonly, the places from Causes, Effects, Contraries, Examples, Testi­monies, are most pregnant to bring reasons to our minde.

Moreouer, to helpe to answere the subtilties or [...]allacies; besides the perfect vnderstanding of the question,Helps for the answerer. and the matter of it, by reading or meditating of it diligently, the wise obseruing by the aunswerer from what place of reaso­ning the argument seemes to be taken, will vsually answere the reason. For, the most ordinary fallacies or deceits in reasoning, are from a bare shew of Causes, Effects, Contra­ries, Testimonies, and the rest, mistaken or misalledged; yet vrged as if they were true Causes Effects &c. when they are but fained or bare shewes: Or else in wra [...]gling about words, not disputing to the purpose, and to the point; but in some other sense mistaking the question.

For those common places or heads of Inuention, all schollars who come to any ripeness,All the chiefe schollars are necessarily to be acquainted with the heads of Inuention. are necessarily to be ac­quainted with them, as was touched before. These wil euer stand them insteed for making of all Epistles Theams, Ver­ses, Declamations, Oppositions.

Also to helpe them to resolue whatsoeuer they reade or heare in any continued speech;For Inuenting, Resoluing, Remembring. and to remember it, by gathering all the matter vnto the seuerall heads of Inuen­tion. Thus to be able to remember, and confute a Position, or an Oration, ex tempore, with much admiration.

Without these helps they shall neuer be able to do these things; or at least not with that facilitie, and in so commen­dable a manner, though they haue otherwise very singular gifts, of nature and learning.

But aboue all,Continuall ex­ercise all in all. as in all other exercises so in this chieflie, continuall practice of disputing is all in all; when once you haue directed them how to attaine good order, or me­thod, phrase, and matter.

[Page 209] If you desire any more,Goclenius Problemes. cōcerning the difficult questions of Grammar, reade Goclenius his Problems in the end of his Obseruations of the Latine tongue.

Spoud.

I much approoue of all that you haue sayde in this matter; and principally that the Vniuersities should be honoured by all means▪ and their dignities reserued inuio­lable; yet giue me leaue to tell you of one thing, which here may seeme to bee blame-worthy,Ob. That this may seem to make them tru­ants to dispute out of the words of the booke. which is this: That you would haue your enterers into this kinde of opposing, to bring the whole disputations of M. Stockw▪ to dispute in his very words; this may helpe to make them truants, to trust only to their books and memory, and not to stirre vp their owne wits and inuentions.

Phil.

Nothing less: for you see how after that they haue bin exercised this way for a time, then I would haue them to trie their owne wits & inuentions also; first abbridging their Author,Necessity of being well ac­quainted with the best exam­ples. then bringing their owne: But▪ for following this course, both experience and reason do shew it to be the su­rest; as in all other learning, so in this (like as we obserued in generall before) to let them haue first the most excellent patterns, & neuer to rest vntil they haue the very patterns in their heads, and as it were euer before their eies; for then they wil be able to go forwards of themselues with delight & cōmendations.The euils of in forcing schol­lars to exerci­ses, wherof they are not ac­quainted with the examples first. Wheras, otherwise to inforce them by feare, to vndertake such exercises, wherwith they are not acquain­ted, nor see the reason of them, it is a matter of ouer great rigor▪ that I say no more of it, & which must needs worke a maruellous distast in the schollar, as I haue noted. Besides, to cause such young ones to dispute without hearing or see­ing such presidents, is al one, as to teach them to write only by precepts or some direction without copie. For euen as therin they shal both write very il fauouredly if any thing at all, and learn so bad a hand, as they shal be much troubled to forget, which they must doe before they can come to a good hand▪ so is it here. 1. They shall dispute very weakly & childishly, both forwords & matter▪ if any thing at all, & 2. they shal get barbarous phrase, to make them to be skor­ned, and which they shall hardly forget againe.

[Page 210] But of the otherside,Benefits of the contrary; viz of hauing the best patternes. they being trained vp thus, shall make not onely the matter of their learned Authour their owne, but also his phrase; and be so furnished, that any man wil take delight to heare them. And that which I say of this, the same I affirm of all excellent patterns, whether for ma­king Theames, Verses or whatsoeuer; that the more abso­lute their Presidents are, and the more cunning they are in them, the more singular they shall vndoubtedly proue.

This is the very maine reason, why all would haue the children to learne each Author so perfectly, as to say euery worde without booke, as much as is possible, that the verie phrase and matter of their Author may bee their owne to vse perpetually.

To conclude this point,Triall by expe­rience. triall and experience may teach vs. Let two children be taken, one of a more pregnant and sharpe wit, the other of a slower and duller capacity: cause him of the sharpe wit, to do all only by precept and his own Inuention in making Epistles, Theames, Verses, disputing; but let the other of the duller capacitie be trained vp, not only by precept and his own inuention; but principally by being kept strictly to imitate the most excellent patternes in all things: then make the triall, whether he of the duller wit shall not expresse the sharpnesse, learning, grauitie, of the most learned and wise men, with certaine assurance to iustifie what hee hath done: whereas in the other; shall be found by a learned and a iudicious examiner, nothing but froth, childishnesse and vncertaintie, in the greatest ouer­weening of wit and learning; and whether the duller and harder wit shall not do it with farre lesse labour.

Sp.

I must needs yeeld vnto that which you say,Following cō ­stantly [...] ex­cellent patterns doth [...] euery calling. for that euidēce of truth which cannot be gainsaid. For this indeed all men doe see by common experience, that in all trades and sciences, they who get themselues most excellent pat­ternes to follow, and are the curiousest in expressing them most liu [...]ly, are euer found the most excellent workemen. And therefore I do content my selfe, as fully answered, in­treating that we may still proceed.

CHAP. XVIII.
Of pronouncing naturally and sweetly without vaine affectation.

Phil.

WHat will you that we come vnto next? Take it that wee haue gone thorough the most things, which concerne our function for teaching the Latine tongue.

Spoud.

There remaine yet two other matters, and those of no lesse difficulty nor waight then most of the former; and without which, yet schooles doe lacke their principall ornaments, as I suppose: the one of them is pronouncing sweetly, the other speaking Latine purely and readily.

Phil.

These 2. are▪ indeed worthy of our best thoughts. The first of them,The excellen­cy of Pronun­tiation. that is, Pronuntiation, beeing that which either makes or mars the most excellent speech. For al speeches are vsually esteemed euen as they are vttered or pronounced; the finest schollar without this is accounted no bodie: and a mean schollar hauing attained this facul­tie, is ordinarily reputed and commended aboue the best. Wherupō you know how that famous Greek Orator, when he was asked, what was the chief grace or excellēcy in Rhe­torick, what was the second and third; he stil answered, To pronounce wel.The necessity and estimation of being able to speake Latine readily and purely. And for the second, that is, speaking of La­tine, as in examinations and disputations, so in all other things, there would bee a perpetuall vse of it amongst all Grammar schollars of any yeers. To the end, to fit them to answer any learned man in Latine, or to dispute ex tempore: also to traine them vp to be able to speak purely when they come in the Vniuersities; as in some Colledges they are on­ly to speake Latine: or to fit them, if they shall go beyond these as, as Gentlemen who goe to trauell, Factors for Mar­chants, and the like. The readinesse in which facultie if it [Page 212] be in a good phrase, how much it graceth a childe in Vni­uersitie, Citie, or Countrey, we all of vs knowe.

Spoud.

Sir, you haue spoken very truely of these: ther­fore let vs come vnto them in order, I intreate you; and first vnto pronuntiation.Pronuntiation ordinarily hard to be attained in Schooles. This I haue found passing hard to acquaint my schollars withall, to bring them to any ripe­nesse or commendable faculty, but still they will speake as a boy who is saying his lesson; though I haue both direc­ted them how to pronounce, vttering the sentences oft before them, and haue very much called vpon them for the same.

Phil.

To bring your schollars vnto this sweetnesse of pronuntiation,How schollars may be broght to pronou [...]ce sweetly. this is the plainest and surest way, so farre forth as yet I can finde: and this I am assured will effect it in a commendable sort;

1. You must remember that which was generally pre­mised in the beginning. To acquaint your young schollar from the very first entrance,1. Children to be trained vp to pronoūce right from the first entrance. to pronounce euery lesson and each word audibly, leasurely, and distinctly, euer soun­ding out the last letter.

2. To pronounce euery matter according to the nature of it, so much as you can;To vtter euerie matter, accor­ding to the na­ture of it. chiefly where persons or other things are [...]ained to speake.

As for example: In the Confabulatiunculae pueriles, Cause them to vtter euery dialogue liuely, as if they them­selues were the persons which did speake in that dialogue, & so in euery other speech, to imagine themselues to haue occasion to vtter the very same things.

3. What they cannot vtter well in Latine, cause them first to do it naturally and liuely in English,What they can not vtter in La­tine, to learn to do it in English, then after the same manner in Latine. and shew them your selfe the absurdnesse of their pronuntiation, by pronouncing foolishly or childishly, as they do: and then pronounce it rightly, and naturally before them likewise, that they may perceiue the difference to be ashamed of the one, and take a delight in the other.

So cause them to do it after you, vntill that they can do it in good sort, tuning their voices sweetly. When they can [Page 213] doe it in English, then cause them to doe it iust in the same manner in Latine; and thus they will vndoubtedly come vnto it very easily.

4 Also cause sundry of them to pronounce thus the very same sentence;4 To cause sundry to pro­nounce the ve­ry same sen­tence in emu­lation. disgracing the speech of those who pro­nounce absurdly, by imitation of it, and gracing as much the speech of those who doe it most naturally and pleasant­ly: propounding such as patternes and markes to all their fellows, for al to emulate and imitate them; as I haue aduised generally.

5 Cause them to doe the like in Corderius,5 In all Au­thors wherein persons are fained to speak to be carefull for this. Esops Fa­bles, or Terence as they did in Confabulatiunculae. For E­sops Fables, we haue shewed before the manner, for making a report of each Fable, first in English, after in Latine, and the benefite thereof.

So after when they shall come to Virgils Eclogues, cause them yet still more liuely, in saying without booke, to expresse the affections and persons of sheepeheards; or whose speech soeuer else, which they are to imitate. Of which sort are the Prosopopeyes of Iupiter, Apollo, and others in Ouids Metamorphosis, Iuno, Neptune, Aeolus, Aeneas, Venus, Dido, &c. Virgils Aeneids.

So in all Poetry,Poetry to be pronounced as prose, except in scanning. for the pronuntiation, it is to be vtte­red as prose; obseruing distinctions and the nature of the matter; not to bee tuned foolishly or childishly after the manner of scanning a Verse as the vse of some is. Onely to tune it so in scanning, or getting it without booke, vnlesse you would haue them to pronounce some speciall booke, for getting authorities for quantities; or others, onely to that same purpose.

6 To helpe hereunto yet more,6 Further helpes as they proceede. Practice of oft pronouncing [...] e [...]ically, some speciall examples in T [...]l [...]us. and that they may doe euery thing according to the very nature; acquaint them to pronounce some speciall examples, set downe in Talaeus Rhetoricke as pathetically as they can: as examples of Iro­nies, Exclamations, Reuocations, Prosopopeyes, and those which are in his rules of pronouncing.

Let them also be taught carefully, in what word the Em­phasis [Page 212] [...] [Page 213] [...] [Page 214] lyeth;To marke in each sentence in what word the Emphasis is. and therefore which is to be eleuated in the pronuntiation. As namely those wordes in which the chiefe Trope or Figure is.

Thus let them take speciall pains to pronounce Theams or Declamations, striuing who shall doe best:Butlars Rhet. li. 2. cap. 2. de voce in singulis verbis. Care in pro­nouncing all exercises. and in all their oppositions to dispute, as if ex animo in good earnest, with all contention and vehemencie.

Finally, the practice of pronouncing emphatically, of some of Tullies Orations, which are most flowing in these Figures of sentences (especially in Exclamations,The curious pronouncing some of Tullies Orations or the like. Prosopo­peis, Apostrophees, and the like: as some against Catiline) must needes much acquaint them with great variety of pro­nuntiation, to be fitted for all sorts.

For more exquisite knowledge and practice hereof,More exquisite knowledge hereof left to the Vniuersities Butleri Rhet. lib. 2. de proment. I leaue it to the Vniuersities, which are to perfect all those faculties which are but begun in the Grammar Schooles; and do referre you for precepts, to the second booke of Talaeus Rhetoricke de pronunciatione: or rather of Master Butlars Rhetoricke, as I said before.

CHAP. XIX.
Of speaking Latine purely and readily.

Spoud.

I Pray you Sir, go on to the last point: in this which you haue said for the maner of pronuntiation, I haue heard nothing which I can iustly except against, it doth all sound so pleasing and likely in mine eare. When I haue more tryall, I shall be able to say more.

In the meane time let me craue the like, for the manner of learning to speake Latine. If you can shew me so plaine a way of it, as this seemeth to be, surely you shall make mee much more to reioyce.

[Page 215] For of this I may complaine yet more,Complaint of the trouble and difficulty to traine vp schol­lars to speake Latine. then of most of the rest; that though I haue laboured and striuen by Feru­la, and all meanes of seuerity, yet I haue not beene able to make my Schollars to vtter their mindes in any tollerable manner, of ordinary things, but in very barbarous phrase, nor so much as to put it in practice amongst themselues; much lesse to vtter their minds in Latine easily, purely, and freely as it were to be wished, and as you haue shewed the ne­cessity and commendation thereof.

Phil.

I my selfe haue had long experience of the truth and griefe of this complaint likewise, though I also haue done what I could continually: and yet of late time I grow to this certaine assurance, that Schollars may be brought to talke of any ordinary matter which can be required of them, both in good Latine, and also most readily and easily.

Herein hath beene a great part of my errour and hinde­rance,The generall errour for the time when schollars are to begin to speake Latine. that I euer thought as most doe, that children were not to be exercised to speake Latin, for feare of Barbarisme, vntill they came into the highest fourmes; as at least vntill they were in the third, fourth, or fift fourmes: and hereup­pon I could neuer attaine to that which I desired.

But now I finde euidently,To learne to speake Latine, must be begun from the first entrance into construction. that this must be begun from the very first entrance into construction; their first books being principally appointed, and read to them to this end, to enter and traine them vp in speaking of Latine of ordi­nary matters:

As Confabulatiunculae Pueriles, Corderius, and other like Colloquiums. And therefore they should then begin to practice to vse those phrases which there they learne.

Also for the Grammar, I see no reason but it might haue beene all as well set downe in the English, like as the Acce­dence is, and learned in one halfe of the time, & with much more delight; but onely or chiefly to traine vp schollars to deliuer all their Grammar rules, and matters concerning Grammar, in Latin.

Spoud.

It standeth with very great reason, that it should [Page 216] be as you say, that in the learning of those bookes, the right foundation of speaking Latine familiarly should be layed; and the practice begunne; and that indeede there is a gene­rall mistaking about this: but I desire you to set downe the whole course and proceeding in it, how to bring it to perfection; and then I shall bee much better able to iudge.

Phil.

For the manner of effecting it, I find it to be most easie thus:The surest course for en­tring young schollars to speake Latine. 1 Examining and answering euery peece of a rule or sentence in Latine, to make them their owne. So in their Authours.

1 You must remember that which I said, concerning the manner of the examining both of their Grammar rules and Lectures; to pose euery peece of a rule, and euery part of a sentence both in English and Latine, as leasure will per­mit; and to cause them to answere both in English and La­tine, vntill they be able to vnderstand and answere in Latine alone. And so both examining in the wordes of their Au­thors, and causing them to answer likewise in the very same words of the Authours, they will enter into it with great de­light. For the particular manner. I referre you to the Chap­ter of examining in Latine, which I shewed you before at large, and set downe examples of it.

2 What they are not able to vtter in Latine,2 To vtter be­fore them what they cannot. How the Ma­ster himselfe may do it easily before them. vtter you it euer before them; that as the childe learneth of the mo­ther or of the nurse, to begin to speake, so they may of you and of their Authour.

If you were not able so to vtter euery thing before them, as very many are to seeke this way, amongst others (I meane in this, to speake in Latine easily and purely, euen in ordi­nary matters);3 The daily practice of Grammaticall translations; chiefly reading bookes of Di­alogues out of English into Latine, which is nothing but such talking. yet this continuall practice of daily exami­ning and teaching your schollars to answere out of the wordes of the Authour (as the manner was set down before) and watchfulnesse to vse to speake Latine, onely amongst all whom you would haue to learne it, shall bring you vnto it; and much more by the meanes following.

3 I doe finde the daily practice also of those Gram­maticall translations, which I haue so oft mentioned in rea­ding the Latine of the Author out of the translation, to be a [Page 217] marueilous helpe heereunto; especially the reading of bookes of Dialogues: as of Confabulatiunculae pueriles, Corderius, &c. For if there they can presently expresse their mindes in Latine, of any such matter as is there handled; why shall they not be able to doe it likewise, of any such thing falling into their common talke.

4 As they learne these Dialogues, when they haue construed and parsed,4 To talke to­gether in the wordes of the Dialogues, each sentence first in English, then Latine. cause them to talke together; vtte­ring euery sentence pathetically one to another (as was shewed in our former speech of pronouncing) and first to vtter euery sentence in English, as neede is, then in La­tine.

So you shall be sure that they shall not goe by rote (as we tearme it) and as they may do soone, if they only repeate the Latine so talking together. And moreouer, euer thus with the English, the Latine will easily come to their remem­brance, so often as they haue occasion to vse the same.

5 The practice mentioned of turning euery morning a peece of their Accedence into Latin,5 Translating and vttering e­uery morning a peece of their Accedence in Latine. for their exercise, shall much prepare them to parse and speake in Latine.

6 Accustome them to parse wholly in Latine, by that time that they haue bin a yeare or two at the most, in con­struction,6 Custome to parse wholly in Latine, and how to doe it. and are well acquainted with the manner of par­sidg in English, as we aduised before. This they will do very readily, if you traine them vp well in their Accedence, and in the former kindes of examining and exercises, which I spake of euen now; and more specially by the right & con­tinuall apposing of their Grammar rules in Latine.

Moreouer, the Dialogues in the end of the first booke of Corderius Dialogues,Corderius lib. [...]. Colloq. 69 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. will much further them in this par­sing, because they are principally written to this purpose; as all his foure bookes are very sweete and pleasant for all ordinary schollars talke.

7 Next vnto these I finde the daily practice of dispu­ting or opposing in Latine (following the order,7 Daily pra­ctice of dispu­ting. and vsing the helpe of M. Stockwood) to be marueilously profitable, for witty and sweet speech.

[Page 218] 8 Vnto these you may adde the practice of varying of a phrase,8 Practice of varying a phrase into diue [...]s [...]oimes. according to the manner of Erasmus, Riuius, or Macropedius, de copia verborum: as the wayes of varying the first Supine, of the Imperatiue moode, the future tense, the Superlatiue degree, and the like. But these onely as lea­sure will suffer not hindering the most necessary exercises.

9 So also for copie of the purest phrases and Synoni­maes,9 Copie of Synonimaes, & the [...]urest phrases, & how to get them. This noted be­fore. besides the daily helpes of all their Authours,Manu­tius or Master Draxe his phrases, to see how many wayes they can vtter any thing in good phrase; and so to turne to any phrase when they haue occasion. And more specially for that practice of the reading them ou [...] of the Grammati­call Translations in propriety (as was shewed before of the Dialogues) any shall finde to be most easie, to furnish with store of the purest phrase for any purpose.

10 Besides, for the Master to vse oft, at taking or saying Lectures or exercises,10 Exercising the schollars oft to giue variety for euery difficult matter. or at their pronouncing or shewing exercises, to cause them to giue variety for anything; who is able to giue a better word or phrase, or to giue the greatest copie to expresse their mindes, and where they haue read the wordes or phrase.

11 Where none can giue a fit word,11 Holyokes Dictionary, describing things by Peri­phrasis or cir­cumlocution. there to turne their Dictionaries, as to Holyokes Dictionary, and then to fur­nish them; or to describe the thing by some Periphrasis or circumlocution of words or the phrases mentioned.

12 But to the end to haue copie of proper wordes, be­sides all other helpes spoken of,12 To giue dai [...]y certaine proper wordes, and where they haue read them. it were not vnprofitable to haue daily some few wordes to be repeated first in the mor­ning; as out of Adrianus [...]unius his Nomenclator; or out of the Latine Primitiues, or the Greeke Radices; the vse whereof I shall shew hereafter: and euer for those wordes which they haue learned (any one who can soonest) to name where they haue learned them.

Thus by all meanes they should be furnished with pro­priety and copie of the best words; which is a wonderfull helpe to all kinde of learning, especially to the knowledge of the tongues.

[Page 219] 13 To all these may be added for them who haue leasure enough the reading ouer and ouer of Erasmus Colloqui­um,13 Reading o­uer Erasmus Colloquium. Castalions Dialogues, or the like.

14 Lastly when you haue layed a sound foundation that they may be sure to haue warrantable and pure phrase,14 Continuall practice, when they haue lear­ned a pure phrase. by these means or the best of them, and all other their schoole exercises; then continuall practice of speaking shall vn­doubtedly accomplish your desire to cause them to speake truely, purely, properly, and readily; Practice in a good way being here, as in all the rest, that which doth all.

Spoud.

These things, or but the best of them, being con­stantly practiced cannot but effect marueilous much, and very surely; chiefly if we could bring them to speake La­tine continually, from that time that they beginne to parse in Latine:Difficulty to cause schollar [...] to practice speaking Latine amongst them­selues. but this I haue had too much experience of, that without great seuerity they will not be brought vnto: but they will speake English, and one will winke at another, if they be out of the Masters hearing.

Phil.

It is indeed exceeding hard, to cause this to bee practiced constantly amongst schollars. That is a vsuall custome in Schooles to appoint Custodes, or Asini (as they are tearmed in some places) to obserue and catch them who speake English in each fourme,Inconuenien­ces of Custode [...]. or whom they see idle, to giue them the Ferula, and to make them Custodes if they cannot answere a question which they aske.

But I haue obserued so much inconuenience in it, as I cannot tell what to say in this case: for oft-times, he who is the Custos will hardly attend his own worke, for harkening to heare others to speake English.

Also there falleth our amongst them oft-times so much w [...]angling about the questions, or defending themselues, that they did not speake English, or were not idle, that all the whole fourme is troubled. So likewise when the Cu­stodes are called for, before breaking vp at dinner and at night, there will be so much contention amongst them, as is a disquieting and trouble to the Master. Moreouer, this I haue obserued, that euer if there be any one simple in a [Page 220] fourme or harder of learning then the rest, they will make him a right Asinus, causing such to be the Custodes conti­nually, or for the most part, if they cannot answere: and to this end will be alwayes watching them; wherby many such are not only notably abused, but very much discouraged for being schollars, when they see themselues so baited at by all: some others are made ouer malipart thereby.

Besides all these, I doe not see any great fitnesse, that one schollar should smite another with the Ferula;Of one schol­lar smiting an­other with the Ferula. because much malicing one another, with grudges and quarrels do arise thereupon. So that the discommodities that follow the Custodes, seem to me to be many moe then the benefits can be; chiefly in losse of time, and hindering more in other learning, then can be gotten in that.

Spoud.

I my selfe haue had experience of most of these inconueniences: but what way will you take then, to cause your schollars to speake Latine continually?

Phil.

This is the best way that yet I can finde,The best means & to auoid the former inconueniences; First, to appoint the two Seni­ors in each fourm (of whom we shall speake after) as to look to all other matters in the fourme,1 Seniours of each fourme to looke to the whole. so to this more special­ly, that none speake English nor barbarous Latin: & if they be found partiall or negligent, then to preferre others into their places; besides the other censures to be inflicted vpon them which I shall mention to you, when we shall come to speake of punishments; & so to haue their due rewards, be­ing found carefull. Secondly, the Masters owne eye & eare in the Schoole,2 The Masters eye and eare. to be continuall Custodes so much as may be, both for Monitors and others. Thirdly, if they do vse to parse in Latin (& therefore must needs exercise themselues in that against that time that their Master doth come to hearethem) & secondly,3 Parsing in Latine. if they be kept in their places, and strictly looked vnto for performing all exercises; I doe not see but they may be made to speake Latin in the schoole at schooletimes; neyther that they shall haue any great oc­casions of the contrary. Fourthly,4 Weekely Monitours a­broad. for speaking Latin in all other places, it must only be by Monitours appointed week­ly, as we shall haue occasion to speak more after, and some [Page 221] seuerely corrected who are found most carelesse herein.

Spoud

But if any one alone, who hath some vnderstan­ding of Latine,How any one may by himself alone attaine to speake Latine of ordinary mat­ters. would learne to speake of familiar matters, to be able to talke with others, what course doe you thinke the speediest?

Phil.

Euen the same which I would vse to help a whole Schoole: which if I should take a course for a wager, a­mongst others, I would vse specially, to cause them daily to spend some quarter, or halfe an howre, each in his order, reading Corderius first out of Latine into English, after out of English into Latine, euery one a little peece; where one failes another to helpe; and the booke or Master where all faile: and also the Master to cause them to vary each hard phrase (and chiefly all which are of most common vse) so many waies as they can, trying who can doe best; himselfe to adde moe where they faile. After Corderius gone ouer, to do the like in other easie Authors, as Terence, or Teren­tius Christianus, and the like. So I would haue the priuate learner to practice daily the same, reading Corderius first out of Latine into English, by help of the translation; after trying how he can read it out of English into Latine, and e­uer where he fails, to vse the help of the Latine book lying by him. The continual exercise in this, if they labor to be perfect in the examples of Nowns & Verbs, and somwhat in knowing the Rules of the Accedence, as was shewed, shal most speedily effect this desire. For thus may any one soon learne to vtter all that booke: And in it is the substance of most things falling out in ordinary speech. After this, hee may do the like in other easie books by the same helpe of translations. And lastly, practicing to translate other books of dialogues (as, Erasmus Colloquium, or the like) and after­wards reading them forth of English into Latine againe, a­ny one may come on very fast.

Spoud.

This stands vpon the former grounds. These se­uerall points which you haue gone thorough, seeme to me very sufficient (and to neede no addition) for training vp schollars to attain to so good perfection in the Latin tong.

Phil.

These are but an entrance, meet for the Grammar [Page 222] schooles; but to attaine to the perfection of the Latine tongue, for propriety, choise, elegancy, puritie, will require much and long reading, and exercise in the Vniuersi­ties.

For further direction thereunto, I refer you to Gocleni­nius his obseruations of the Latine tongue:Goclenius his obseruations for them who seeke to come to puritie and ripenesse in the Latine tongue. whom I take to be worthy the diligent reading of all schollars who are of iudgement, and who doe desire to come to the puritie and ripenesse of the Latine.

CHAP. XX.
How to attaine most speedily vnto the knowledge of the Greeke tongue.

Spoud.

NOw that we haue gone thorough all the principall points of learning, which belong to the know­ledge of the Latine tongue▪ so much as can be re­quired in schooles, as far forth as I can conceiue or remember for the present; let me (I intreat you) require your like helpe for the Greek: for I desire now, to be direc­ted in euery matter, which may concerne our calling and facultie. I doe perceiue by our former speeches, that you likewise haue trauelled and found much experience and as­surance herein.

Phil.

Although I am onely a learner in the Greeke,The Greeke may be gotten with farre lesse labour the [...] the Latine. as in the Latine, and my hope is chiefly for the time to come: yet this I haue found by experience, that the Latine once obtained, the Greeke may bee gotten with farre lesse la­bour, and euerything as certainly, And this also in a little time, so much as it shall bee requisite for the Grammar schooles.

Spoud.
[Page 223]

Surely sir,One benefit worth al our la­bour in the Greek. if but that one thing that I saw in the note, may be attained, concerning the tongues, the Greek and Hebrew, I doe not see what can be more required for the Grammarschooles: That is; That schollars may be a­ble as they proceed, to reade the Greeke of the New Testa­ment and the Hebrew of the olde, first into Latine, or English exactly, out of the bare text; and after, out of a tran­slation to reade them into the text, that is, into their owne wordes againe: and also to giue the reason of euery word, why it must be so, and to be able to proceed thus of them­selues in the Vniuersitie.

The continual practice hereof, must needs make them worthy Linguists, as was there sayd, and notable text men. I pra [...] you therfore let me heare of you, how this may bee effected, and I shall thinke my selfe sufficiently satisfied for all my trauell, though it were but in this one thing alone be­sides all the former.

Phil.

Nay rather,To go through the whol course of the Greek. let vs goe thorough the whole course still, so farre as wee can, how the exact knowledge of this famous tongue may bee gotten most speedily. For when I do remember the worthy testimony, which our learnedest Schoolemaster doth giue,M. Askams te­stimony con­cerning the Greeke tongue▪ Schoolemaster p. 17. 2. concerning this Greek tongue, I cannot thinke any paines ouer-much, for the finding out the readie waie to the perfect knowledge of it. Hee in one place hauing mentioned sundrie of the renowned Greeke Authors, as Plato, Aristotle, Zenophon, Demosthenes, Iso­crates and others, whom he names there (the matchlesse masters in all manner of learning) addes these words in praise of the Greeke tongue, and the learning in it.

Now let Italian, sayth hee, and Latine it selfe, Spanish, French, Dutch, and English bring forth their learning, and recite their Authors, Cicero onely excepted, and one or two more in Latine; they be all patched clouts and ragges in comparison of faire wouen broad cloathes. And truely, saith he, if there bee any good in them, it is either learned, borrowed, or stolne from som one of those worthy wits of Athens. Thus far M. Askam.

Spoud.
[Page 224]

This is a high commendation indeed, to bee gi­uen by a man of such reading and estimation for learning, as M. Askam was; and which must needs incite all students to the reading of the principall Greeke Authors, to desire to heare these peerlesse Masters to speake in their ovvne tongue.

Wherefore, I pray you let vs heare from you, how you thinke that the way may bee made so ready vnto it.

Phil.

The way may be most short and easie to him,The way to the Greek the same with the Latine. who is acquainted with the maner of getting the Latine tongue, so as hath been mentioned; because it is the very same with it in effect.

1. If your schollars who are to enter into it,Getting first the chiefe rules. be such as haue time enough before them; let them get the Gram­mar very perfectly, especially all the chiefe rules, by con­tinuall saying and poasing, as in the Latine. Most excepti­ons or Anomalies may bee learned after, or turned vnto presently, as they learne their Authors. Because Rectum is Index sui, & obliqui. And knowing the rule perfectly, they will soone know the reason of the change.

More specially,To be very per­fect in Nownes and Verbs. make them very perfect in declining Nouns & Verbs, and giuing all the Terminations of them: I meane the seuerall Terminations of each declension, and euery case in them;Terminating Nownes. and so likewise the Terminanations of euery Coniugation, and each Tense therein.

In the Coniugations,Coniugating & terminating Verbs. to giue the first person of euery Mood and Tense, in each voice together (wherby they are the soonest learned,To giue the first person in e­uery Moode & Tense in each voice together. one directing another) and also to bee able to runne the Terminations as in the Latine.

For example, in the first Declension. The terminations of the Declension are [...] and [...]. Terminations of the ca­ses are [...], &c.

So declining the example.

[...].

So in the rest: The Terminations gotten first perfect­ly, the words are declined presently, as I sayd.

In the Verbs also, besides the Terminations, to vse to giue [Page 225] the first Persons together in euery voice. Onely let them be perfect in the Actiue voice, giuing all the first persons in order; then the Passiue and middle voice by comparing them to the Actiue: As Indicat [...]vus presens, [...] verbero, [...]. Imperfectum, [...] verberabam, [...]. Futurum pr [...]us, [...] verber [...]bo [...].

So the Terminations of them, if you will: As [...], &c.

To this end, make them very perfect in the tables of the cognata tempora. And also, cause them to run the Termina­tions in each voice thus; [...].

You shall finde they will be learned not onely very soon and surely this way, but also most profitably for vse.

After these to bee perfect in Pronowns,To bee very perfect in Pro­nowns, Ad­uerbes, Con­iunctions, Pre­positions. Aduerbs, Con­iunctions, and Prepositions; giuing (if you will) Latine to Greeke, and Greeke to Latine, as I shewed before in the Latine. Because then all the labour is with the Nowns and Verbes onely.

If your schollars who begin Greeke,How schollars of vnderstan­ding & iudge­ment, may take yet a shorter course. be of good yeeres and iudgement; it may suffice to haue them perfect in the examples of the Nownes and Verbes, and some fewe principall rules, in such sort as I haue shewed: and to be well acquainted with the order of the Grammar, by shewing how and where euery part of it stands; that so they may learne the Rules or the meaning of them, by turning to them; as they shall haue occasion in euery lect [...]re.

Spoud.

But what Grammar woulde you haue them to vse?

Phil.

Master Camdens Grammar, notwithstanding the faults in the print (as indeede there are very many; which thing would bee carefully amended in all our schoole Au­thors) and what other exceptions can be taken: because, as it is one of the shortest as yet, so it is most answerable to our Latine Grammar, for the order of it. Wherby schollars well acquainted with our common Grammar, wil be much [Page 226] helped both for speedy vnderstanding and learning it. Al­so the words of art set downe in it in Greeke, as well as La­tine, will bee a great helpe for reading Commentaries in Greeke: as vpon Hesiode, and Homer.

To the end to make that Grammar most plaine,To make it plai [...]e: Grammatica Graecapro Scho­la Argentinensi per Theophilum Golium. and to supply and helpe whatsoeuer is defectiue; I take it, that the Strasburge Greeke Grammar, set sorth lately by Golius (which seemes to me to haue been made in an imitation of Camden) may be as a good Commentarie, though the or­der be not euer directly kept: The first part of it seruing for a briefe sum of the Etymologie, the second for an exposi­tion at large.

Spoud.

But with what Author would you begin, to enter them into Construction?

Phil.

I hold the Greeke Testament to bee most fit; and that for these reasons:To begin Con­struction with the Greek Te­stament. Reasons.

1. Because,1. For the fami­liarnesse of it. that thorough the familiarnesse of the mat­ter, (in that children are so well acquainted with it, by daily hearing or reading of it) the Greek thereof which is easie of itselfe, will be made yet far more easie to the learner; for that the matter will bring the words, as I haue oft sayd.

2. Because all schollars who can haue meanes to come to any knowledge of the Greeke,2. Because that booke with the Hebrew of the old Testament are the Books of books. Being only written by the Lord. Hauing life in the [...]. should indeauour aboue all other Authors, to be well acquainted with this. First, for that this booke together with the Hebrew of the Old Te­stament were written by the Lord himselfe; not onely the matter, but also euen the very words of them.

Secondly, for that eternall life is onely in these bookes, being truely vnderstood and beleeued. So that wee may rightly tearme these the Bible, or Book of books; because all other bookes are but as seruants vnto these, and all o­ther are nothing without these, for any true good, but on­ly to condemnation by leauing men more without excuse. Yea,All who may, are to labor to see with their owne eyes, and why. euery one who can haue opportunitie, should labour to see with his owne eyes, for the fulnesse of his assurance, rather then to rest on others. And much more because there are so many and such malicious sl [...]unders against all [Page 227] our translations; as that those shamelesse calumniations haue beene a principall meanes to turne many thousand soules, after Sathan and Antichrist, by causing them to re­iect the sacred Scriptures vtterly, to their endless perdition, and haue beene enough to shake the faith of Gods Elect. Vnder this very pretence of false translations, and obscuri­tie of the Scriptures, hath Antichrist principally holden vp his kingdome; keeping all in palpable ignorance to be drawen to dumb Idols, to murther Princes, to lying and all abhominations which himselfe listeth.

And therefore in these respects it were to bee wished, that all schollars who haue any leasure, and may come to these studies of Greeke and Hebrew (especially they who purpose in time to become teachers of others) would doe their indeauours to be as perfect in these two bookes,To striue to haue these books as fami­liarly as the Iewes had the Hebrew. and to haue them as familiarly as euer the auncient Iewes had the Hebrew. This cunning in the Text should make them to speake as the words of God indeed, with facility, autho­rity, and power.

Those also, who haue but a little time to bestow in the Greeke,If any purpose to haue but a smattering in the Greek, to haue it here, and why. would bestow it here, for the former reasons; and because they may haue good occasion & helpe to increase in this continually, by the daily vse which they haue of the scriptures: wheras they, hauing but a smattring insom other Greek Authors, and contenting themselues therewith, doe come in a short time vtterly to forget all; and so all that la­bour which was taken therin, is altogether lost.

If any doe preferre some other Greek Author, for the sweetnesse and purity of the Greek,The Testament compared to o­ther Greek w [...] ­ters. and so will spend their little time [...]o that; Luke is inferior to none therein, by the iudgement of the learned. If they look to the excellencie of all wisdom, what light is there to the light of the Sunne? Also, for them who haue a desire to trauel further,This is a not [...] ­ble entrance to read all other Greek Authors amongst all the famous Greeke writers, for the surpassing humane wisedome to bee found therein; this booke once perfectly knowen, will make the passage thorough all of them both very direct and plain, and also full of all delight and con­tentment, [Page 228] & to read al other Authors without any danger.

In the Greeke Testament, to begin at the Gospell of Iohn as being most easie;In the Testa­ment to begin at the Gospell of Iohn. and next vnto that to go through the Gospell of Luke, if you please. In which two Euange­lists most of the history of the Gospell is contained: that by them the Euangelists may be soone run thorough; And also the Acts: Then all the Epistles may be read with speed.

Spoud.

I cannot but allowe and like of all these things; and principally of reading the Greeke Testament in the first place, making it the entrance, and another foundati­on to all the Greek studies. But if that could be brought to passe,How schollars may be made most perfect in the Greeke Testament. that schollars, as they proceeded herein, might growe as perfect in the Greeke Testament, as it is sayde of the learned Iewes, that they were in the bookes of the Olde Testament; what a blessing might it bee to the Church of God, and what a happinesse to all posterity?

Phil.

Surely, I am fully perswaded of it, that very much may be done in it; and after also, in the Hebrew of the Old, to come neere vnto them: except that, that was their natiue language. This perswasion I ground, partly from that lit­tle experience which I haue had in mine owne triall; yet suf­ficient to confirme me by proportion. More specially, by that which is well knowen in a worthy schoole in London, (to which I acknowledge my selfe much beholden for that which I haue seene in this behalfe, and some other) where som of the schollars haue bin able in very good sort to c [...] ­strue and resolue the Greek Testam. out of the Latine into Greek, wheresoeuer you would set them, and to go verie neer to tell you, where they had read any speciall word or phrase in it, to turn to them. And lastly, for the euident rea­sons therof, and the agreement of it with som former cour­ses in the Latine, wherof I haue a full assurance.

Spoud.

I pray you shew me the meanes how.

Phil.

The means are these, most easie & plain, for euery one to teach who hath any Greek,Meanes parti­ [...]ularly. and for others to learne:

1. That they haue so much knowledge in the Grammar, as I shewed chiefly in Nowns and Verbes.

[Page 229] 2 Besides the Greeke Testament, I would haue euery one to haue his English Testament, or Latine, or both; and euer in their entrance before they learne a lesson, to haue read it ouer in the translation, and to bee able eyther to say it without booke, or make a report of it in English or Latine: but better to say it without booke, euen in the English; which with a little reading ouer, especially before bedde time, those who are of good me­mories will get quickely. This same done with vnderstan­ding, will exceedingly bring the Greeke with it: be­sides, that thus they shall haue much opportunity and furtherance, to get the English text almost by heart, as we tearme it.

3. In reading a Lecture to them, euer tell them what example each Noune and Verbe is like vnto, and for Pro­nounes, Aduerbes, and the like: if they bee not perfect in Grammar, tell them in a word, or point them where they are in the Grammar; iust after the manner as in the Latine.

4 Shew them carefully al the hard words, & those which they haue not learned; and for those which you thinke they cannot remember otherwise, or wherin there is need of spe­ciall labour, cause euery one to write them in a little paper book, made for that purpose, with sundry columnes in each page, to write at least the Greek word & Latin or English in, in each Chap. & the Verse against them: to the end to take most paines in those, & to run oft ouer them: and so euer to see after where they haue had those wordes before. And thereby also to account how many new wordes they haue in euery Lecture: for all the rest learned before in any place or which are very easie, are not to be accounted for any new wordes.

Thus shall you prouoke and encourage them to more paines▪ when they haue not ouer fiue or sixe new words in a douzen or twenty Verses, and in time happely not two in a Chapter. So that they will haue the most of the hard words in a short time, and be able easily to proceed of themselues, without any reading, throgh these & other helps following. [Page 230] 5 When they learne to construe, let them doe it by the helpe of the translation; obseruing wherein the translation seemes to differ from the wordes of the Greeke, and mar­king the reason thereof; and after to trie of themselues how they can construe, looking onely vpon the translation, beating the Greeke out of it, as formerly they did the Latin. Those who are of any aptnesse, will doe it presently.

And thus by practice, euery day going a piece, and oft reading ouer and ouer, they will grow very much, to your great joy.

Spoud.

But giue me leaue to aske of you two or three doubts.

1 Why you would haue them to write down their hard wordes in a booke:1 Why to haue the hard words written downe. will not making some markes at the wordes serue as in their Latine Authours, according to the generall obseruation?

Phil.

This was obserued before, as I remember to mark their hard wordes eyther in their bookes, or setting them downe in a paper. But here I thinke it to be better, thus to write downe the principall; First, because schollars now will be carefull to keepe their Greeke Testaments faire from blotting or scrauling, although a booke were well bestowed to make them perfect in it, though it were neuer so marked. Secondly, be [...]use when they are fit to reade Greeke, they haue commonly good discretion to keepe their notes, and to make vse of them; going oft ouer them.

Spoud.

But might there not be some other meanes for the getting of the hard wordes aforehand? for this must needes be some labour, and aske care and diligence thus to write them down.

Phil.

Yes verily, if it be looked to in time; all these may be so prepared aforehand, that most of this labour now may be spared, and onely speciall difficulties to be obser­ued.

The maner of it is thus: That wheras there is nothing in getting any tongue, but to get wordes, and Grammar for framing and setting those wordes together, and afterwards [Page 231] practice; I hold it to be farre the speediest course,The speediest way, to get the Greeke Ra [...]i­ces first. to haue the schollars to haue learned the Greeke Radices or Primi­tiue words, before that they goe to construction; or at least to be well acquainted with them.

This course some famous Grecians haue taken:How it may be done easily, without losse of time. wee may doe it most easily, and without any losse of time, or very lit­tle, if any; as I haue made triall: First, hauing gathered the Greeke Radices out of Scapula, after the manner of that ab­bridgement, called voces primogeniae, I haue heretofore cau­sed such as I haue thought fit, to write it out, and to bring me a side (or so much as I thought good) euery morning at my entrance into the Schoole, or presently after; and so haue vsed to examine those wordes amongst them all, once or twice ouer, and where they haue learned the principall Latine wordes. (Of late I haue seene the Greeke Nomencla­ton vsed, not without fruit; though it be vnperfectly gathe­red.)

The manner of getting the wordes may bee most easie, thus:Manner of learning them.

Hauing these in this manner with the English adioyned: if you would make triall herein; when you haue examined a side, reade them ouer as much more against the next day; reading first the English word, then the Latine, and Greeke last: shewing them some helpe how to remember, by com­paring the Greeke with the Latine, or English; and so the English will bring the Latine to remembrance, and both of them the Greeke.

And in examining them,Manner of exa­mining them for speed and memory. to aske them the English word; and to cause them to giue both Latine and Greeke toge­ther, both backeward and forward againe.

As, posing thus: How say you, I loue? He answereth, Amo, [...], amo, I loue: so they will be perfect each way. Thus within the space of a twelue moneth they may goe through the whole; spending not much aboue a quar­ter of an houre in a day or half an houre at most of schoole time. Those who are diligent may get them in good sort, onely (as I haue oft admonished) making some little pricks [Page 232] or markes at the hardest to runne oft ouer them: and when they haue once gone ouer them, you may cause them to bring you a leafe at a time, or more; as those who are apt will doe readily.

By this meanes, besides that they shall learne very many Latine wordes,Benefit hereof. chiefly most of the Primitiues to further them greatly in the Latine, and to counteruaile all the time and labour bestowed in them: they may also, when they come to construction, eyther haue euery Radix in their head, or turne to it with a wette finger, and make it perfect in an instant; and thereby haue such a light to all other wordes comming of these, as presently by them, to conceiue of and remember any word.

And thus by them and their readinesse in the Grammar, to goe on in reading by the helpes mentioned, faster then you would imagine.

For hauing these Radices perfect,Hauing Scapu­la in the school to run to, they shall presently haue any thing. they will conceiue presently by a little obseruing, of what roote euery word commeth, and ghesse neere at the significations of them.

Spoud.

But how shall I teach my fourmes which haue not learned the Greeke Grammar, to reade these Radices?

Phil.

Nothing more easily: for I finde by experience that they will learne that presently,How children may soone learne to reade the Greeke be­fore they learn the Greeke Grammar. by knowing but the value and power of the Greeke letters; I meane what euery letter signifieth, or soundeth in the Latine: and so calling them by their names, as A. b. g. d. or giuing them their sounds. Although if you will, the names of the Greeke characters are soone learned: but that for­mer course, with continuall reading ouer to them be­fore hand, so much as you would haue them to learne at once, will sufficiently effect it, vntill they learne the Gram­mar.

In learning these Radices, In learning the Radices to ob­serue right pro­nuntiation for accents and spirits. call vpon them oft to marke carefully the accents of each word, with the spirits: for that will further them exceedingly to accent right, when they [Page 233] come to write in Greeke, by knowing but the accent of the Primitiue word, and a few other rules. Right pronouncing of them, will make both their accents and spirits remem­bred.

By some experience of the fruite of this booke,This booke laboured in for the common good. for the speedy getting of the Greeke▪ I haue endeauoured to make it more perfect, by placing so neere as I can,

First, the most proper significations in the first place; and onely one worde in each signification, lest the volume should proue ouer-great: though (if the volume would beare it) variety vnder euery one, being rightly placed, were the better, to vse as neede required; and therby also to help to furnish with copie of Synonimaes.

Secondly, by setting downe also the English in one proper word, or iust as the Latine; onely to expresse it, and without variety: except in some speciall things which haue diuers names in our owne tongue, not commonly knowne.

Thirdly, setting downe also the Articles in the Nounes, at least in all which are hard to distinguish. The Future and Preterperfect tenses of the Verbes may be known by their figuratiue letters: Anomalyes are set down in the Grammar for most part.

I also intend (God willing) to set in the Margent of it all the Hebrew Radices, against euery Radix in Greeke; at least so many as can be found: which I presume vpon good ground will be found a speedy introduction to the Hebrew.

Thus young schollars, and all others who are desirous to get the tongues, may make a most easie entrance into them, and goe forward with much pleasure in all to­gether: for hauing these, they shall lack nothing in effect, but some precepts of Grammar, with practice in rea­ding.

Spoud.

But I would thinke, these Radices should be very hard to remember.

Phil.

Not so: for there is such an agreement and har­mony, [Page 234] betweene all the foure tongues,Helpe for com­mitting wordes to memory. or some of them in many wordes, as will make the learners to take a delight in them, and much quicken and confirme the memory of the weakest; if it be but by the very sounding of one word like another.

Those wordes which they cannot remember thus, direct them to remember them by some other name or thing which we know well; being of a like sound: which so soone as they but conceiue, the Greeke or Hebrew wordes may come to their minde, or the significations of them.

Here must be remembred that Maxime in the Arte of Memory, [...]aueat in re­membring. that the more we doe animate or giue life vnto the obiect, or thing wherby we would remember, the more presently will the word which we would remember come to our minde. But yet withall, we must alwayes looke to that diuine Caueat, that we neuer helpe the minde by any filthy obiect, or whatsoeuer may any way corrupt it, or offend the Lord: because we must neuer doe the least euill, that we may obtaine the greatest good. If we get any thing so, the more the worse; for it cannot prosper, but to bring a curse with it.

But for this point of the agreement of the tongues, it may be I shall haue more occasion yet after, and how to remem­ber the wordes.

And thus much shortly for remembring the Radices.

Yet besides these,The Greeke Radices con­triued into continued speeches. there might yet bee a shorter way for committing all the Radices to memory, or exceedingly hel­ping thereunto;

If all the principal of them were contriued into continu­ed speeches, & diuided into certaine Classes or chiefe heads; and they translated verbatim into Latine or English, or both: and the translation to be made in a booke separate, or in seuerall pages; as in the one page the Greeke, in the other ouer against it the Latine or English, line for line, and so many words in a line: like as is the translation of Theo­gius, and the other small Poets adioyned, with Sylburgius annotations; that so looking onely on the Greeke, they [Page 235] might learne first to construe into Latin, and after looking onely on the translation they might beate out the Greeke (as I shewed before in the vse of the translations) and onely vse the helpe of the Greeke text where they could not finde it out otherwise.

By this meanes, when they were able to reade these both wayes, both the Greeke into the translation, and the translation into the Greeke readily (as they might soone doe, by oft reading ouer, and by vnderstanding the matter of them well) it must needes make all other Greeke very easie, being but the same wordes in ef­fect.

This work also is done in part: it perfected and adioyned as a praxis in the end of the Radices, being so framed (as was shewed) the one might soone be learned by the helpe of the other.

And finally for this matter of thus getting all the Ra­dices, Strange Latine wordes. or principall wordes in the tongues, if all the hard Latine wordes, and specially whereof they may haue vse in good Authours, and which they haue not learned in their former Authours (as namely in Virgil, or the rest vnder him, or which were not to bee found in his Nomen­clator) were set downe after all these Radices, in a few leaues in the end, the schollars should be with all furnished for ordinary Latine words.

As for such wordes as are peculiar to some speciall artes, as to Physicke or the like, they are to bee studied and lear [...]ed onely of them who apply themselues to those artes.

Spoud.

Well Sir, to returne vnto the point again for ma­king your schollars so perfect in the Testament, by helpe of reading it out of the translation;Learning the Greeke out of our translations I would thinke that it must needes bee hard to learne to construe or reade it out of our translation, to doe it with iudgement on sure grounds; because ours so oft doe expresse the sense and force of the wordes, for the better vnderstanding of the matter, according to the phrase in our owne tongue; [Page 236] and not the wordes particularly.

Phil.

Indeede it is oft-times the more hard and vncer­taine: and therefore the Schollar must take the more paines to remember it.

But to this purpose, for the exact getting of the Greeke Testament, if there were a perfect verball Translation,The readiest and surest way by a perfect verball transla­tion, or the ver­ball [...]et in the Margent▪ where it differeth from that we vse. according to the manner of the interline­all (that so out of that the schollar might daily practice to reade the Greeke) this must needes make him exceeding readie, without danger of any missing, ey­ther of the phrase, or misplacing the wordes: or in steede of such a perfect verball Translation, if you take the ordinary interlineall Translation; and where it doth not sufficiently expresse the force of the Greeke wordes, there setting downe the different wordes in the Margent, as they are in the best Translations, you shall finde it very profitable. Or if you will, you may take Bezaes Translation, and set the verball in the Margent, where Beza differeth from it. The difficult Radices would be also be set in the Margent.

Spoud.

It is very like that this would make them very perfect in the wordes of the text: but yet this verball trans­lation would not serue for the manner of construction, or the parsing of it; like as the Grammaticall translations did in the Latine.

Phil.

By this time,How to east the Greeke into the Grammati­call order. when they know the wordes, and the meaning, they will be able to cast them into the Gram­maticall order of themselues; and so all that labour is sup­plyed for construing and parsing: for euen as they cast and dispose the Latine into the naturall order; so they may the Greeke.

Spoud.

Then that must needes follow▪ which you af­firme; that by daily practice of reading the Greeke out of such a translation,How any who haue but a sma­tering may proceed of themselues in the Greeke Te­stament. they may be exceeding perfect in the Testament; and that after that they are a little entred they may goe on of themselues in it: and so likewise all others by the same reason, who haue any smattering in the [Page 237] Greeke, as all such Ministers who are desirous hereof, may grow to great readinesse and perfection in it by themselues, thorough such a Translation.

Phil.

It is most certaine: for there is the very same rea­son in it that is in the Latine; and this I finde that a child of 9. or 10. yeere old, being well entred, shall be able only by the help of the translation, to read of himselfe an easie Au­thor, as Corderius, or Tullies sentences, as fast out of Latine into the English, or the English into the Latine, as the La­tine is ordinarily read alone, after he hath read it ouer once or twice: to bee able to reade you thus, in the space of an howre, a side of a leafe or more, of that which he neuer saw before: And by oft reading it ouer, to haue it almost with­out booke, if he vnderstand the matter of it.

Spoud.

But if they should vse the very Interlineall of Arias Montanus,This cannot be so well done, by the Interli­neall or hauing the Greeke and Latine together as by hauing them separate. Experience. as it is: I meane the Greeke and Latine together; might they not as well learne by that; as hauing them so seuerally, the Greeke in one book the Latine in a­nother?

Phil.

No in no wise. This will appeare most euidently to any who shall make triall, how much sooner and more surely they will learne, and keep that which they learne, by this meanes of hauing the bookes separate.

The reason also is euident; because when the bookes are so seuered, the mind it beates out the words, and makes them its owne: yea, and also imprints them; and doth vse the Translation but onely as a Schoolemaster, or a Dictio­nary,The Interlineal is continually a prompt [...] to the schol [...]ar, and a deceiuer of the mind insteed of a Master, vnlesse it be vsed with great wisdome. where it is not able to finde out the words of it selfe; and also to try after, that it haue gone surely. But when both are ioined together, as in the Interlineall, the eye is as soone vpon the one as the other: I meane, as soone vpon the La­tine as vpon the Greeke; and so likewise vpon the Greek as vpon the Latine, because they are so close ioined one vnto the other. So that the booke insteed of being a Master to helpe only where it should, where the mind cannot study it out▪ it becommeth a continuall prompter and maketh the mind a truant, that it will not take the pains, which it should.

[Page 238] How this euill can be preuented amongst schollars,This euill can­not be preuen­ted amongst schollars. ha­uing both together, I doe not possibly see. For, whether they be to get it themselues, or to be examined; yet still will their eye be vpon the helpe, where it should not be.

Indeed this I grant, that the Interlineall translation may bee a worthy helpe for a man of iudgement or vnderstan­ding;How men of vnderstanding may vse the In­terlineall. who can so moderate his eye as to keep it fixed vpon either Greeke or Latine alone, when hee would beat the o­ther out of it; as vpon the Greeke onely when hee would construe, or reade it into Latine, or on the Latine onely when he would reade it into Greeke, and so can vse them as was sayd, without hindring the mind to studie and beat out, or to remember. Though the wisest shall find it very hard to vse it in this sort, but the eye will be where it should not; vnlesse hee vse this course, to lay a knife, or a ruler, or the like, on the line which he would not see, & so remoue it as neede is. Thus hee may vse it both for the Greeke and He­brew.

Spoud.

It stands with great reason. Well then, the way beeing so ready and plaine, they are vtterly vnworthie so great a benefit, who wil not take paines in so easie a course.

But if I woulde haue my schollars to proceede in o­ther Greeke Authors,How the schol­lars may pro­ceed in other Authors. what courses should I then take: Though I cannot doubt, but being only thus entred in the Testament, that they will be well accepted in the Vniuersi­tie, and goe forward speedily.

Phil.

If you traine them vp thus f [...]st in the Testament, they vvill goe forwards in others with the smaller helpes. But if you would haue them to begin in other Greeke Au­thors; I take the very same help of translations, either ver­ball or Grammaticall, to be the most speedy furtherances, so that there bee a diligent care of propriety in translating, and of variety set in the margents; to vse them in all things as in the Greeke Testament, and in the Latine Authors mentioned.

Spoud.

But how shal we do for such translations of those Greeke Authors?

Phil.
[Page 239]

Insteed of reading lectures to them, you may thus translate them their lectures daily, either in Latine or Eng­lish; and cause them then eyther to seeke them out of themselues by their translations, Grammars and Lexicons: Or reading them first vnto them, cause them to make them perfect hereby.

By this labour of translating, you shall finde your selfe to profit very much in this knowledge of the Greeke, and be greatly eased in your paines.

Spoud.

But be it so, that I am not able to translate thus; as he had neede to be a good Grecian who should translate in such manner: what then should I do?

Phil.

If you bee able to reade the Author truely vnto them,The benefit of such translati­ons of some of the purest Au­thors perfor­med by skilfull Grecians. and profitably; then may you also translate it thus: you may haue helpe by such translations as are extant, to giue you much light. But it were much to bee wished, that to this purpose, some skilfull Grecians would translate som of the purest Authors in this manner. As namely, Isocra­tes, Xenophon, Plato, or Demosthenes, or some parts of them, which might seem most fit for schollars; onely to be for this purpose of getting the Greeke. To begin with the easiest of them first. All painfu [...]l students would be found to profit exceedingly, and to become rare Grecians in a little time.

Thus they might goe on vntill they were able to reade any Greeke Author of themselues, with such helpes as are extant.

In the meane time,As the fables translated in the Strasburge Grammar. you may vse such Authors as are so translated, or which come the neerest vnto them; of which sort are those fables of Aesop translated in the Argentine Grammar, and others which I shall shew you in the manner of parsing.

Spoud.

For the parsing then, what way may I vse?

Phil.

I haue shewed you this in part:Parsing in Greek▪ as the noting and causing your schollars to write euery hard word, shewing what examples they are like, the speciall rule, & so the other helpes as they are in the Latine, by casting words into the [Page 240] Grammaticall order.

More speciall helpes for them, who are not acquainted with Camdens Grammar.

1. They may vse the Praxis Praeceptorum Grammati­ces of Antesignanus, set downe in the end of Cleonards Greeke Grammar;Helps [...]or con­struing and pa [...] ­fing. wherein is both an Interlineall verball translation,Praxis praecep­torum Gramma­tices Antesigna­ni. such as I spake of; and also a parsing of euery word familiarly and plainely, much according to the man­ner of parsing of Latine, which I shewed you; which may be a good direction for parsing.

2. Berkets Commentary vpon Stephens Catechisme,Berket on Ste­phens Catech, printed by We­chelus an. 1604 parsing euery word according to Cleonard in folio, is found to be a speedy helpe.

3. M Stockwood his Progymna [...]ma scholasticum: wher­in is also a Grammatical practice of sundry Greeke Epi­grams gathered by H. Stephens,M▪ Stockw. Progimnasma scholasticum ex Anthologia Hē ­ [...]ici Stephani. hauing a double transla­tion in Latine (the one ad verbum, the other in verse) and also a varying of each Epigr [...] Latineverse by diuerse Au­thors. And lastly, an explanation or parsing of euery hard word set in the margent, or vnder each Epigram in manner of a Commentarie. In it also the Greeke text is set downe both in Greek Characters, and also in Latine letters interli­neally, directly ouer the head of the Greek words; of pur­pose for the easie entering and better directing of the igno­rant.

The Commentary in it for parsing, may be also a good direction, for parsing in the shortest manner by pen or rea­ding.

Besides these, for Poetry, wee may take these Authors, which are easie and plaine by their helpes mentioned:The best & fit­test Authors [...]or Poetry, & most easie:

1. Theognis his sentences with the other Poets ioined with him: as namely, Phocilides with the Latine translati­on and notes,Theognis. Phocili [...]es. Hesiode with C [...]po [...]ine and M [...]lanchthon. set forth by Sylburgius; which is verie nota­ble to enter young Schollars into Poetry, for making a verse.

2. Hesiode his Opera and Dies with Ceporine and Me­lancthons Commentaries set forth by Iohannes Frisius Ti­gurinus, [Page 241] and the new translation of it, adverbum, by Eras­mus Schemidt, Greeke professour at Wittenberge, printed 1601.

3. Homer with Eustathius Greeke Commentarie may easily bee read after these (especially after the Commen­tary on Hesiode; Homer with Eustathius. which may bee as an introduction to it) by the help of the verbal Latine translation of Homer: and the words of Art, belonging to Grammar set down in Greek in M. Camdens Grammer.

Moreouer, these directions following wil be most spee­die helps for all the Poets:

To haue in readinesse some briefe rules of the chiefe figures,To haue in rea­dinesse a short briefe of all the dialects and fi­gures, a speedy help for the knowledge of the Poets. and dialects: as those who are in Master Camdens Grammar; so to be able to referre all Anomalies in Greeke vnto them. Those with the verba anomala, and the parti­cular dialects, according to each part of speech, set downe in the end of Camden, may resolue most doubtes: for Anomalies and speciall difficulties which you cannot find otherwise,A principal help for all Anoma­lies and difficul­ties in Greeke. you may find many of them set Alphabetical­ly together in the end of Scapula his Lexicon, where they are expressed fully, and particularly: which you shall proue to be a maruellous readinesse to you.

Spoud.

Here are indeed very many and singular helpes: most of which, I may truely say as before, that I haue not so much as heard of. But if I would haue my schollar to write in Greek, what meanes should I vse then?

Phil.

If you mean for the tongue,How to write purely in Greek to be able to write true and pure Greeke, the sure meanes are euen the same, as for writing Latine.

1. The continuall practice of construing, parsing, and reading forth of the translation into the Authors, is making the Greeke continually.

2. To come to the stile and composition, and so for Or­thography, to doe as for the Latine. As I directed you to giue them sentences in English, translated Grammatically out of Tullies sentences, to turne into Tullies Latine, wher­by both your selfe and they may haue a certaine guide for [Page 242] them to go surely; so here to giue them sentences or peeces out of the Testament, or out of Isocrates, as ad Demom­cum, or out of Xenophon to translate into Greeke, and so to see how neere they can come vnto the Author. Or else, to aske them onely the Latine or English of the Greeke, and to trie how they can turne it into Greek first Grammatical­ly, after in composition: or sometimes one way, somtimes the other. And to this purpose also, the translations of som excellent parts of the purest Greek Authors were most ne­cessary.

By these meanes they might come in time, to be as ac­curate in writing Greeke for the stile and composition, as in the Latine. For all other exercises in Greeke, I referre you to that which hath been said concerning the Latine, the reason and meanes being the like.

Or if you meant for writing the Greek hand faire,How to write faire. most exquisite copies constantly followed, as in the Latine and English, and practice, shal bring them vnto it. But for this, I likewise refer you to that which was sayd concerning the way of writing faire.

Spoud.

But what say you for versifying in Greeke?Versifying in Greek. for that you know to commend the chiefe Schooles greatly.

Phil.

As I answered you before, so I take the meanes to be in all things the same, as for versifying in Latine; except that this is more easie, because of the long and short vow­els so certainely knowne. To be very perfect in the rules of versifying;Theognis may be easily lear­ned without booke by the helpe of the translation▪ inscanning averse. To learne Theognis, that pleasant and easie Poet without booke, to haue store of Poeticall phrase and authorities: which is the speediest and surest way. And so to enter by turning or imitating his ver­ses, as in Latine. But herein as in all the rest, I do stil desire the help of the learned, who can better shew by experience the shortest, surest, and most plaine waies.

Notwithstanding, let me heere admonish you of this (which for our curiositie wee had neede to bee often put in minde of) that,A Caueat for the time besto­wed in such ex­ercises of wri­ting in Greek [...]. seeing wee haue so little practice of any ex­ercises to bee written in Greeke, wee doe not bestowe too [Page 243] much time in that, whereof wee happely shall haue no vse; and which therefore wee shall also forget againe: but that wee still imploy our pretious time to the best aduantage in the most profitable studies, which may after do most good to Gods Church or our countrey.

Spoud.

Your counsell is good: yet repeate mee againe a briefe of the principall of these helpes for my memorie sake.

Phil.

This was it;

1. To make your Schollars very perfect in the Gram­mar,Summe of all. chiefly Nownes and Verbes; that they may bee able to proue and parallel euery thing by a like example, or at least to turne to them readily.

2. To haue the Greeke Radices by the meanes menti­oned.

3. Continuall vse of most accurate verball or Gram­maticall translations; and in the meane time to make them perfect in the Testament daily vse of our ordinarie tran­slations so as was shewed, by reading the Greek out of them ouer and ouer.

4. Helpe of the best Commentaries and Grammaticall practices in the books mentioned.

5. To be ready in the dialects and the common figures for the Poetry.

6. Noting all the difficulties, and running oft ouer them as in the Latine; and so all other helpes of vnderstanding the matter first, and the rest mentioned generally.

CHAP. XXI.
How to get most speedily the knowledge and vn­derstanding of the Hebrew.

Spoud.

BVt what say you, for that most sacred tongue, the Hebrew? How, I pray you, do you think, that that may bee attained, which you mentioned, that stu­dents may come so soon to the vnderstanding of it?

Phil.

This may be obtained the sooner,The know­ledge of the Hebrew may be the soonest gotten and why because we haue it all comprised, so far as is necessary for vs to know, in that one sacred volume of the old Testament. Also because the principall rootes of it are so few, the matter so familiar, as which euery one of vs ought to bee acquainted with. The Nowns haue so little varying or turning in them.

And finally, for that wee haue such singular helpes for the vnderstanding of it (as the Interlineall verball transla­tion, and the translations and labours of others which beat out the propriety, force and sense of euery word & phrase) like as in the Greeke Testament, that nothing can be diffi­cult in it to the good heart, who will vse the means which the Lord hath vouchsafed, and will seek this blessing, from his Maiesty.

Spoud.

Surely, hee is vtterly vnworthy of this heauenlie treasure, who will not seek & beg it from the Lord, and dig deep for it: I meane, who wil not vse any holy meanes, for the obtaining of it; and much more the course being so short, plaine & direct, as you say. But I intreat you to trace me out the shortest way.

Phil.

The way, so far as yet I haue been able to learne, is wholly set downe already in the manner of getting the La­tine and the Greek. But to make a brie [...]e rehearsall▪

[Page 245] 1 For them who would bee more accurate Hebricians for the beating out of euery tittle,1 The Gram­mar to be got­ten most exqui­sitely of them who desire to come to perfe­ction in the Hebrew. they are to haue the Grammar very accurately; and that by the like means euen as the Greeke and the Latine.

But for those who onely desire the vnderstanding of it, and to be skilfull in the text, the chiefe care must be, that they be made perfect in some few principall rules of Gram­mar of most vse.Some chiefe parts for others who onely de­sire the vnder­standing. Also in declining and coniugating the examples set down in the book, & in the seuerall terminati­ons of declensions, numbers, moodes, tenses, persons, to be able in them in some good manner to giue Hebrew to La­tine, and Latine to Hebrew, and to run the terminations in each; at least to giue the Latine to the Hebrew perfectly. And so in the seuerall Pronounes, Aduerbes, Coniunctions to do the like; I meane, to giue Latine to the Hebrew, to haue them very readily, seeing they are but few, and sundry of them of continuall vse.

Spoud.

But what Grammar would you vse?

Phil.

Martinius of the last Edition,Grammars to be vsed. with the Technologia adioyned to it,Martinius with his Technolo­gia. I take to be most vsed of all the learned, as most methodicall and perfect; although Blebelius is farre more easie to the young beginner,Blebelius ac­counted most plaine and easie as much more answering to our Latine Grammar; and made so plaine of purpose by questions and answeres, that any one of iudgement may better vnderstand it, and goe forward with delight: so as it may be a notable introduction or Commentary to Marti­nius, who had neede of a good Reader, to learne to vnder­stand him perfectly.

Both read together,The seuerall points in Mar­tinius you may finde in Blebe­lius by the table in the end of Blebelius. must needs be most profitable; Marti­nius for method and shortnes, Blebelius for resoluing and expounding euery obscurity: yet euery one who hath lear­ned a Grammar, may best vse the same, because that is most familiar to him.

But for them who are to begin, or to teach others, they may take the easiest first, that the learner may no way bee discouraged; and after others as as they shall thinke meete, or which shall be found most profitable, by the iudgement [Page 246] of the greatest Hebricians. This I thinke to be the surest aduice; and by comparing of Grammars together, euer to beate out the sense and meaning.

Spoud.

What is your next meanes?

Phil.

The getting of the Hebrew rootes,The second principall meanes, the perfect getting of the Radices. together with the Grammar, euery day a certaine number. Hereunto the Nomenclator Anglolatmus-Graecus-Haebraicus, mentioned before, if it were so finished, might be a notable introductiō.

For the maner of committing the Radices to memory,Manner of committing the Radices to me­morie. I shewed it before: yet hereto speake of it a little more fully, first to helpe our remembrance by som of the chiefe helps of memory; as by comparing in our meditation the seueral words in the Hebrew, with what words they are like vnto, eyther in the English, Latin, or Greek, which words eyther do come of them, or sound like vnto them, or with some o­ther roote in the Hebr [...]w, wherwith they haue affinity. That so soone as we see the Hebrew roote, the other word which we would remember it by, comming to our minde; the vn­derstanding or meaning of the Hebrew roote may also come to minde with it.

As for example,Examples of helping me­morie in the Hebrew. to begin in the first Radices, & to giue som light in 2. or 3; [...] & [...] [...]uber or pubert as, may be remem­bred by [...], pubertas; and by ephebe or ephebus, in Latine comming of it, signifying the same: as Postquam excessit ex ephebis. Terent. Also [...] may be remēbred by the month Abib in the Scriptures, which was amongst the Iewes mensis pubertatis, in quo seges terrae Canaan protrudebat spicas. [...] Perijt, may be remembred by Abaddon in the Apoca­lips, called in Greek Apollion, the destroyer, or destruction; the Angel of the bottomlesse pit. [...] voluit, acquieuit, or bene affectus est in aliquid, vt pater in filios: It may fully be re­membred by Abba, father, comming of [...] pater: and so the word [...] in Greeke, or Abbas an Abbot, quia Abbas erat pater totius societatis. And Auus seemes to come of the same By any of these we may remember the roote.

Thus we may remember very many of them by the help of Auenars Dictionary (as I shewed) or by our own medita­tion, [Page 247] euen from the wordes comming of them indeede, or in shew, obserued according to certaine rules which Auena­rius giueth in the beginning of his Lexicon.

The reason hereof also is most euident; for that this is the mother tongue of all tongues,The Hebrew the mother tongue most auncient and worthy. & was the only tongue, vntil the confounding of the tongs at Babel: in which confusion, som words were changed altogether, in others the significa­tions were altered, & many haue bin depraued and corrup­ted by continuance & succession of time.Others deriued from it. Therefore as this tongue is to be honored, so this diligence in comparing & deriuing other tongues,The benefit of diligence in comparing the tongues. must needes be of exceeding great profit many wayes: & amongst other, for this very purpose of conceiuing or cōmitting to memory, & retayning the Hebrew more surely, by other wordes better knowne to vs.

Other wordes which cannot be remembred thus,How other words may be remembred, which cannot be so deriued. yet may be remembred by the learned, by some thing which they sound like vnto, in one of the three tongs; So that we forget not to animate that which we remember by: that is, to conceiue of it in our minde, as being liuely and stirring; like as we noted before in the Greeke.

The rest of the roots besides these,The hardest rootes which seeme to haue no affini [...]y. will be but few: and being noted with a line with a black lead pen (as was said) or any marke, and oft run ouer, they may soone be gotten.

Besides these,To marke out also the harder deriuatiues in the Hebrew. som mark would be giuen vnder euery de­riuatiue, in each roote, which doth differ much in significa­tion from the Radix, and cannot be remembred well by the Radix, nor how it may be deriued from it.

Spoud.

Such a Nomenclator as you speake of, must needs be a rare and speedy helpe to all the tongues, if it were well gathered by some very learned and iudicious Hebrician. But in the meane time, what abbridgement would you vse for getting these Radices of the Hebrew?

Phil.

The Epitome of Pagnine I take to be most com­mon:The best Epito­me for getting the Radices. but Buxtorphius his abbridgement (going vnder the name of Polanus) must needes be the best in all likelihood; as hauing had the helpe of that and all other, and gathered by great iudgement.

[Page 248] I haue seene a draught of another,This is not ful­ly finished. much shorter then them both, collected by comparing Pagnine, Auenar, and others; shewing also for most part how the Hebrew deriua­tiues, which are more obscure, are deriued from the Radi­ces, giuing at least a probable reason for them: and also in sundry, shewing the agreement and manner of the deriua­tion of the tongues, one from another, and the affinity of many of them; to helpe the memory with the speedy and sure getting of all.

Spoud.

It were great pitie, but that that should be perfe­cted; for the benefite of it must needes be very great. But might there not be such a deuise, of contriuing all the He­brew roots into continued speeches; and so learning them by studying them out of verball translations, as you shewed for the Greeke?

Phil.

Yes vndoubtedly,The way might be more com­pendious by the rootes reduced to Classes. it might easily be accomplished by some exquisite and painefull Hebrician, to make this labour yet much more compendious: Although I doe not doubt but any indifferent memory, might in the space of a twelue moneth or lesse, get all the Hebrew Radices very perfectly,By the Dictio­nary alone they might be got­ten in a short time. by the former meanes of Buxtorphius or Pag­nines abbridgement alone; spending but euery day one houre therein. And when they were once gotten, they were easily kept by oft repetition, running ouer the hardest, being marked out; and by daily practice in reading some Chapters; though much more easily, by hauing the heads reduced to such classes, and the oft running ouer them.

I haue heard moreouer of all the Radices, with their Pri­mitiue significations alone, drawne into a very little space; which being well performed, must needes be a notable fur­therance.

Spoud.

What is your third helpe?

Phil.

The perfect verball translations written out of A­rias Montanus,The third help, perfect verball translations, and continuall practice of them. by conferring with Iunius and our owne Bible, specially our new translation, and setting the diuers readings in the margents with a letter, to signifie whose the translations are, and also euery hard Radix noted in the [Page 249] margent, as now sundry of them are; with references to them by letters or figures, as I shewed for the Greeke: these being vsed as the English translations, for getting the Latin, and as the Latine or English for the Greeke, will be found a­boue all that we would imagine.

And that after this manner:

First, as I said for the others, by reading ouer the translati­ons,The manner of vsing these re­peated. to vnderstand the matter.

Secondly, learning to construe the Hebrew into the La­tine exactly, and backe againe out of the translation into Hebrew; looking onely on the translation, to meditate and beate out the Hebrew. This helpes vnderstanding, appre­hension, memory, and all (as I said) to haue the text most absolutely.

Lastly, beginning with the easiest first (as in the other tongues) as eyther some part of the History (as namely Ge­nesis, the bookes of Samuell) or else the Psalmes; and ther­in specially the hundred and nineteene Psalme, as most plaine of all other: or rather to beginne with the Praxis vpon the Psalmes, the first, the fiue and twentieth, and the threescore and eight, set downe in the end of Martinius Grammar, printed by Raphalengius, Anno 1607. which will both acquaint the learner with the vnderstanding of Martinius, and set him in a most direct and ready way, by the other helpes.

For the certainty of this,Experience of this for assu­rance. besides that the reason is the ve­ry same with the Latine, and like as I said for the Greeke also, I haue moreouer knowne this experience in a childe, vnder fifteene yeares of age; who besides all kinde of stu­dies and exercises, both in Latin and Greeke, as those men­tioned before, and his daily progresse in them, had within the space of lesse then a yeare, gotten sundry of the princi­pall and most necessary rules of Grammar. Also a great part of the Radices in Buxtorphius, though hee spent not therein aboue two houres in a day. And besides all this, hee had learned about foureteene or fifteene Psalmes: wherein he was so readie, as that hee was able not onely to [Page 250] construe or reade the Hebrew into the Latine; but also out of the bare translation, to reade the Hebrew backe againe, to shew euery Radix, and to giue a reason in good sort for each word, why it was so. Of this hath beene tryall by lear­ned and sufficient witnesses.

The which experience with the daily trials of reading the Latine so exactly and readily out of the English, and get­ting it (as it were without booke) by that practice, doefully assure me that by this daily exercise the very originals of the Hebrew may be made as easie and familiar as the Latine is; yea, in time with continuall practice, to be able to say very much of it without booke:A Student can­not be better imployed then in thus imprin­ting the origi­nals in his hart, if he haue lea­sure. as I shewed before for the Greeke. And what Student, especially of Diuinity, can euer bestow some part of his time in a more pleasant, easie and happy studie? when there will be no more but reading ouer and ouer with meditation, and still to be reading the words and wisedome of the Highest; in whose presence he hopes to dwell, and to heare the same sweete voyce in the Temple in heauen eternally.

Spoud.

By these means, it seemeth to me that any tongue may be gotten speedily.

Phil.

Yea verily, I do so perswade my selfe. For seeing (as I said) that there is no more in any tongue,It seemeth that any tong may be gotten thus. but wordes and ioyning of those words together; therfore the words being first gotten, chiefly by being contriued into continued speeches, & those so learnd out of such verbal translations: secondly, some few rules of them being knowne: thirdly, continuall vse of such translations; would make any tongue to be vnderstood and learned very soone, so farre as I can conceiue.

Spoud.

How soeuer this be, which seemeth indeede most probable;These tongues, Latine, Greeke, and Hebrew may be gotten in each Nation, by these means of translations in their owne [...]ongues. yet I take it, there can be no doubt of this, but that in euery country of the world, the Latin, Greek, & He­brew may be attained by the same meanes: which three are enough (yea the two last alone sufficient) to know God and Iesus Christ to eternall life: and that so by the knowledge of the Originals, men may haue a certaine knowledge of the eternall worde of the Lord.

Phil.
[Page 251]

I can see no reason at all to the contrary, but that these our Latine Classicall Authours being trans­lated Grammatically into other tongues, by some who are learned amongst them, the Latine may as well bee learned thereby by them out of their translations, in their own tongues, by such helps of rules as haue bin mentioned, or the like, as out of translations in our English tongue. Secondly, the Latine tongue being once gotten, the get­ting of the Greek and Hebrew are the very same vnto them which they are to vs.

Or otherwise, the Greeke and Hebrew but translated so alone,Greeke or He­brew most easi­ly learned by perfect transla­tions in each tongue. into the seuerall tongues of each Nation (I meane verbally) they might as easily, if not more ea­sily, be learned in each countrey out of them, as out of the English or Latine; and the sense or meaning al­so, if in euery difficult place, or where the wordes see­med to be out of order, it were set in the margents ouer a­gainst them.

The same I say for our English; into which the He­brew, in most places translated verbatim, doth keepe a perfect sense, and might bee learned out of it. Also the most absolute fulnesse of vnderstanding of the mat­ter in our heads, doth bring wordes, most readily to ex­presse it; which I haue oft tolde you of.

But remember this that I haue said;Of the vse of perfect verball translations for getting the o­riginals. that the verball Translations, for these originals, shall make the learners most cunning in the text, and in the very order of the wordes of the Holy Ghost, without danger of any way deprauing, corrupting or inuerting one iotte or tittle: though for the Latine, the Grammaticall translations bee farre most profitable, as we haue shewed.

Spoud.

Are these all the directions that you would giue me herein?

Phil.

These are all which yet I know.

Spoud.

By these then it seemeth that you are fully perswaded that this holy tongue may be obtayned.

Phil.

Yea vndoubtedly, so much as shal be requisit for vs, [Page 252] by obseruing withall those generall rules, set downe for the getting of the Latine; and chiefly that, of making markes vnder euery hard word in each page, without marring our bookes; and to runne oft ouer those.

But herein it is necessary that I put you in minde againe,Obseruation re [...] eated how much and what to learne in eu [...] ­ry booke▪ of that which I admonished you of in the Greek; that your schollar learne so much onely, as eyther the present time requires: I meane, whereof he may haue good vse present­ly, or else when he shall proceede to higher studies in the Vniuersities, or to other imployments. And for other spe­culatiue or more curious knowledge in Quiddities, eyther to cut them off altogether from hindring better and more needefull studies, or to reserue them to their due time and place; or to leaue them onely to them who shall giue them­selues wholly to these studies, to be readers in the Vniuersi­ties, or for like purposes; as, the learning of the musick and Rhetoricall accents: the Prosodia metrica, and the like.

Spoud.

What is then the summe of all?

Phil.

For them who desire to be exact Hebricians, to be very perfect in the Grammar; for them who desire but on­ly the vnderstanding, to haue,

1 Some necessary rules, and principally examples of Nounes and Verbes very readily.

2 The Radices.

3 Continuall vse of verball translations, or others; as in the Greeke.

4 Oft running ouer the hardest wordes.

But these, as all other things, I write vnder correction, and with submission and desire of better iudgement.

CHAP. XXII.
Of knowledge of the grounds of religion and training vp the schollars therin.

Spoud.

NOw that we haue thus gone thorough all the way of learning, for whatsoeuer can bee required in the Grammar schooles; and how to lay a sure foundation, both for the Greeke and the Hebrew, that they may bee able to goe on of themselues in all these by their owne studies: it remaineth that wee come yet to one further point, and which is as it were the end of all these.Schollars to be trained vp in Religion. That is, how schollars may be seasoned and trained vp in Gods true Religion and in grace; without which all o­ther learning is meerely vaine, or to increase a greater con­demnation. This one alone doth make them truely bles­sed, and sanctifie all other their studies.

Moreouer, they being taught herein in their youth shall not depart from it when they are old. I intreat you there­fore to shew me so shortly as you can, how schollars maie bee taught all those things which were contained in the note: As,

1. To be acquainted with all the grounds of religion and chief histories of the Bible.

2. So to take the Sermons▪ at least for all the substance both for doctrines, proofes, vses; and after to make a re­hearsall of them.

3. Euery one to begin to conceiue and answere the se­uerall points of the Sermons, euen from the lowest formes.

These are matters that I thinke are least thought of in most schooles,This most neg­lected in schooles. though of all other they must needes bee most necessary, and which our lawes and iniunctions doe [Page 254] take principall care for; and that the schoolmasters, to these ends, be of sincere religion.

Phil.

I feare indeede that it is as you say, that this is ouer-generally neglected.The popish Schoolemasters shall rise vp a­gainst vs. And herein shall the popish schoole­masters rise vp in iudgement against vs: who make this the very chiefe marke at which they aime, in all their teaching; to poure in superstition at the beginning, first to corrupt and deceiue the tender minds.

But to returne vnto the matter, how they may bee thus trained vp in the feare of the Lord; I shall set you downe the best manner, so neere as I my selfe haue yet learned, follovving the order of these particulars mentioned.

1. For beeing acquainted with the grounds of religion and the principles of the Catechisme; Euerie Saturdaie before their breaking vp the schoole (for [...] finishing their weeks labours,How to teach them the Catechisme and when. and a preparatiue to the Sabbaoth) let them spend halfe an howre or more in learning & answering the Catechisme.

To this end, cause euery one to haue his Catechisme, to get halfe a side of a leafe or more at a time; each to be a­ble to repeate the whole. The more they say at a time and the ofter they runne ouer the whole, the sooner they will come to vnderstanding. This must be as their parts in their Accedence.

In examining, first your Vsher or Seniors of each fourm may heare that euery one can say.Manner of exa­mining Cate­chisme. Afterwardes, you ha­uing all set before you, may poase whom you suspect most carelesse.

1. Whether they can answere the questions.

2. In demanding euery question againe, to stand a lit­tle on it, to make it so plaine and easie, as the least childe a­mongst them may vnderstand euery word which hath any hardnesse in it, and the force of it.

Let the manner of the poasing bee as I shewed for the Accedence. The more plainly the question is drawen out of the very words of the book, and into the moe short que­stions it is diuided, and also examined backeward and for­ward, [Page 255] the sooner a great deale they will vnderstand it, and better remember it.

Herein also to vse all diligence to apply euery peecevn­to them, to whet it vpon them, to worke holy affections in them; that each may learne to feare the Lord and walke in all his commandements. For, beeing in their hearts and practice, it will be more firmly kept. This also must be re­membred for all that followeth.

2. For the Sabbaoths and other daies when there is anie sermon,Taking notes or writing sermons. cause euery one to learn somthing at the sermons.

1. The very lowest to bring some notes, at least 3. or 4. If they can, to learne them by their owne marking; if not to get other of their fellowes to teach them some short les­sons after. As thus: Without God we can do nothing. All good gifts are from God: or the like short sentences; not to ouer-load them at the first.

To this end, that the Monitours see, 1. That all be most attentiue to the Preacher.

2. That all those who can write any thing,2. All who can write to take notes. or do but be­gin to write [...]oining hand, doe euery one write some such notes, or at least to get them written, some 5. or 6. or moe as they can, as I sayde to bee able to repeate them without booke, as their other little fellowes.

But herein there must be great care by the Monitours,Caueat of any noise or disor­der in gathering notes. that they trouble not their fellowes, nor the congregation, in asking notes, or stirring out of their places to seek of one another, or any other disorder; but to aske them after they are come forth of the Church, and get them written then.

3. For those who haue been longer practiced herein,3. The higher to set downe parts of the ser­mon more o [...] ­derly. to set downe, 1. The Text or a part of it. 2. To marke as neere as they can, and set downe euery doctrine, and what proofes they can, the reasons and the vses of them.

4. In the highest fourmes,4. In all the highest fourm [...] to set downe the substance exactly. cause them to set downe all the Sermons. As Text, diuision, exposition, or meaning, doctrines, and how the seuerall doctrines were gathered, all the proofes, reasons, vses, applications. I meane all the substance and effect of the Sermons: for learning is [Page 256] not so much seene, in setting downe the words, as the sub­stance.

And also for further directing them, and better helping their vnderstanding and memories,Manner of no­ting for helping vnderstanding & memorie. for the repetition thereof; cause them to leaue spaces betweene euery part, and where neede is to diuide them with lines. So also to di­stinguish the seuerall parts by letters or figures, and setting the sum of euery thing in the margent ouer against each matter in a word or two.Helps for me­mory in the margent, & for vnderstanding. As, Text, Diuision, Summe.

First Obseruation or 1. Doctrine, Proofes, Reasons 1. 2. 3. Vses 1. 2. 3. So, the 2. Obseruation or doctrine, proofes, reasons, &c. so thoroughout. Or what method soeuer, the Preacher doth vse, to follow the parts after the same maner, so well as they can.

Direct them to leaue good margents for these purpo­ses: and so soone as euer the Preacher quotes any scripture,To leaue good margents. as hee nameth it,To set downe quotations as they are spoken. to set it in the Margent against the place, lest it slip out of memorie.

And presently after the sermon is done, to run ouer all againe,To set downe the heads of all in the margents after. correcting it, and setting downe the sum of euerie chief head, faire and distinctly in the margent ouer against the place, if his leasure will suffer.

By this helpe they will be able to vnderstand, and make a repetition of the sermon,Benefit of this. with a verie little meditation; yea to doe it with admiration for children.

After all these,To turne it af­ter into Latine for the next daies exercise. you may (if you think good) cause them the next morning, to translate it into a good Latine stile, insteed of their exercise the next day (I meane, so many of them as write Latine) or some little peece of it according to their ability.

Or rather, (because of the lacke of time, to examine what euery one hath written) to see how they are able out of the English,Or to read it in­to Latine ex tempore. to read that which they haue written, into Latine, ex tempore, each of them reading his peece in or­der, and helping others to giue better phrase and more va­riety, for euery difficult word; and so to runne thorough the whole.

[Page 257] This I finde that they will beginne to do,Experiēce how soone they will do this. after that they haue beene exercised in making Latine a twelue moneth or two, if they haue beene rightly entred, and well exercised in Sententiae pueriles; especially in the diuine sentences in the end thereof, and in Corderius with other bookes and ex­ercises noted before, chiefly by the practice of reading out of the translations.

Spoud.

But when would you examine these?Examining the sermons.

Phil.

For the reading into Latine, I would haue it done the next day at 9. of the clock for their exercise, or at their entrance after dinner; that so they might haue some meete time to meditate of it before: and for examining of it in English, to do it at night before their breaking vp, amongst them all shortly, or before dinner.

Herein also some one of the higher fourmes might bee appointed in order to make a repetitiō of the wholeserm on without book,One to make a short rehearsall of the whole first. according as I shewed the manner of setting it down; rehearsing the seueral parts so distinctly & briefly, as the rest attending may the better conceiue of the whole, and not exceed the space of a quarter of an howre.

After the repetition of it,To aske que­stions of all things difficult. if leasure serue, the Master may aske amongst the highest som few questions, of whatsoe­uer points might seeme difficult in the sermon: for by que­stions as I haue said, they wil com to vnderstand any thing.

Next to appose amongst the lowest,To cause the least & all sorts to repeate their notes. where he thinkes good, what notes they took of the Sermons, and cause them to pronounce them; and in appoasing to cause them to vn­derstand, by applying all things to them in a word or two. Thus to go thorough as time shall permit.

Spoud.

This strict examining will be a good means to make them attentiue?

Phil.

It will indeed;Benefit of this strict exami­ning. so as you shal see them to increase in knowledge and vnderstanding aboue your expectation: And besides it wil keep them from playing talking, sleeping and all other disorders in the Church. To this end therfore poase diligently, all those whō you obserue or suspect most negligent▪ as I haue aduised: then you shall haue them to at­tend heedfully.

Spoud.
[Page 258]

But how will you cause them to be able so to re­peate the Sermon? Mee thinkes that should bee very diffi­cult.

Phil.

The schollars will doe it very readily,How they may be able to re­peat the whole sermons with­out booke. where the Preachers keep any good order; when they haue so noted euerything as I directed before, and set downe the sum in the margent. For then, first meditating the text to haue it perfect: secondly, meditating the margents to get the sum of all into their heads, and the manner how it stands: third­ly, obseruing how many doctrines were gathered and how, what proofs, how many reasons & vses of euery doctrine; they will soone both conceiue it, and be able to deliuer it with much facilitie after a little practice.

But herein the principall helpes are vnderstanding,Principall helps for it. by getting the summes, and margents; obseruing the order, and constant practice. Vnderstanding will bring words: practice perfection.

If those who are weaker or more timorous, haue their notes lying open before them,Helpe of notes for assurance. to cast their eye vpon them here or there where they sticke, it shall much embolden them, and fit them after to make vse of short notes of any thing: I meane of the briefe summe of that which they shall deliuer.

Spoud.

These are surely very good exercises for the Sa­turday for catechizing, and the daies after the sermons for repeating of the sermons: but would you haue no exerci­ses of religion at all in the other daies of the weeke?

Phil.

Yes. As there is no no day but it is the Lords, and therefore it and all our labours to be consecrated to him by a morning & an euening sacrifice, I mean praier & thanks­giuing morning & euening; so there would no day be su [...] ­fered to passe ouer, wherin there should not be some short exercise or lesson of religion: which is both the chiefe end of all other our studies, and also that, wherby all the rest are sanctified. And to this end, one quarter of an hower or more might be taken euery euening before praier, though they were kept so much the longer, that it might not hin­der [Page 259] any other of their daily studies: Although in this, no losse will euer be found, to any other studie, but the Lord wil bless so much the more; That also to be in such a course as none could any way dislike, & which of all other might be both most sure and profitable.

Spoud.

What such a course can you find which is so pro­fitable, and which all must needes so approue of, which might be so short?

Phil.

To go thorough the history of the Bible, euery day a history, or som peece of a history: I meane, some few que­stions of it in order, as the time will permit.

To this purpose,Euery night to go thorough a peece of the hi­storie of the Bi­ble. there is a little book called the history of the Bible, gathered by M. Paget: wherin if you cause them to prouide against euery night a side of a leafe, or as you shall thinke meet, of the most easie & plaine questions; and to examine them after the maner of examining the Cate­chism;Manner of ex­amining the history. you shall see them to profit much, both for the ea­sinesse of the history, and the delight which children will take therein.

Wherein also if first you shall shewe them or aske them what vertues are commended in that history; what vices are cōdemned; or what generals they could gather out of that particular; or what examples they haue against such vices, or for such vertues; and thus examine them after the same maner, so going ouer & ouer as the time permits, you shall see them to come on according to your desire.

Spoud.

But me thinks that you would not haue them to take euery question in that booke before them.Not to trouble them with eue­ry question.

Phil.

No: I would haue only those histories which are most familiar for children to vnderstand, and most to edi­fication; and so those questions only to be chosen. There are sundry concerning the Leuiticall lawes, which are be­yond their conceit, and so in diuerse other parts. For that shuld euer be kept in memorie, that things wel vnderstood are euer most soone learned and most firmly kept: and we should euer be afraid to discourage our children by the dif­ficulty of anything.

Spoud.
[Page 260]

It is true indeed. And moreouer, howsoeuer it is most certaine that all holy Scripture is profitable, and all to be knowen: yet som parts are more easie and as milk, meet for the weakest and youngest children to be taught, and which they may vnderstand and conceiue of easily; others are as stronger meate, and more obscure, wherewith they are to be acquainted after. But as in all other learning, so it is here, euery thing is to be learned in the right place. The more plaine and easie questions and places will still be ex­pounders and masters to the more hard and obscure.

But yet,Obiection, cō ­cerning them who would not haue their chil­dren taught any religion. howsoeuer I like very well of all this, you know that there are some who would not haue their children to be taught any religion, nor to meddle with it at all.

Phil.

There cannot bee anie such who either loue or know the Gospell of Christ, or regarde their owne salua­tion, or the sauing of their children.

The rest are to be pittied and praied for, rather then to be answered.

The Popish sort know the necessitie hereof: and there­fore they labour principally to corrupt the youth, and of­fer their pains freely to that end. They shal be the Iudges of all such.

Spoud.

But it will take vp ouer-much time from their other learning.

Phil.

I directed you how to cut off all such exceptions:How to deale that this may not hinder any other learning I would take the time to that purpose ouer and beside their ordinarie. It is but mine owne labour, for a quarter or halfe an howre in the day at the most, keeping them a little lon­ger. Although if it should be part of the schoole time, there would neuer be found any losse therein.

Spoud.

But how will you teach your children ciuility & good manners? which is principally required in Schollars.

Phil.

Religion will teach them manners:How to teach the schollars ciuilitie. As they grow in it, so they will also in all ciuil and good behauiour. The word of the Lord is the rule and ground of all, to frame their manners by; that is therefore the first and principall meanes.

[Page 261] Secondly, out of their Authours which they reade, you may still take occasion to teach them manners; some of their Treatises being written of purpose to that end: as Qui mihi, Sententiae pueriles, Cato, Tullies Offices, &c.

For the carriage of youth, according to the ciuility vsed in our time, and for the whole course of framing their man­ners in the most commendable sort, there is a little booke translated out of French,The Schoole of good man­ners, or The new Schoole of vertue for ciui­litie. called The Schoole of good man­ners, or The new Schoole of vertue; teaching youth how they ought to behaue themselues in all companies, times, and places. It is a booke most easie and plaine, meet both for Masters and Schollars to be acquainted with, to frame all according vnto it; vnlesse in any particular the custome of the place require otherwise.

Spoud.

How would you haue the children acquainted with this?

Phil.

The Master sometimes in steade of the History, or if he will (at some other times) might reade it ouer vnto them al, a leaf or two at a time, & after to examin it amongst them. It is so plaine that they will easily vnderstand it.

Spoud.

But if I could thus teach them Religion, and La­tine all vnder one; it were a most happy thing, and I should cut off all quarrell and exception.

Phil.

I will shew you how you may doe it. Cause your Schollars to reade you a Chapter of the New Testament,How to teach Religion and Latine all vnder one, by reading each night a peece of a Chapter. Practice this constantly and carefully, and trie the experi­ence of Gods blessing in it. or a peece of a Chapter, as time will permit, about twentie verses at a time, in steed of the History mentioned. One night to reade it out of the Latin into English; reading first a verse or a sentence in Latine to a Comma, or a full point, as they can: then Englishing that, not as construing it, but as reading it into good English; so throughout: the next night to reade the same ouer againe forth of an Eng­lish Testament, into the same Latine backe againe.

Thus euery one of those who are able, to reade in order, each his night; all the rest to looke on their owne Testaments, English, Latine, or Greeke, or to harken. Let them beginne at the Gospell of Iohn, as was [Page 262] aduised for the Greeke, as being most easie; or at Matthew if you please; and you shall soone finde that through the familiarnes of the matter, they will so come on both wayes (both in reading the Latine into English, and English into Latine) as your selfe will maruell at, and their parents will reioyce in; and acknowledge themselues bound vnto you for to see their little ones to be able to reade the Testament into Latine.

Besides that, it will be also a notable preparatiue to learne the Greeke Testament, when they are so well acquainted with the English and Latine before.

Spoud.

But what Latine translation would you vse?

Phil.

Such as my Schollars haue: Erasmus or Beza; but chiefly Beza, as the more pure phrase, and more fully ex­pressing the sense and drift of the Holy Ghost. Therein your selfe, or your schollars marking the peculiar Latine phrases, when they reade first forth of the Latine into the English, they will be able of themselues (when they reade them the second time forth of the English into Latine) to giue the same phrases againe, and to imprint them for euer.

Spoud.

But what time should I haue then for the History of the Bible, that little booke which you mentioned; wher­of must needes be very singular vse: would you haue me to omit it?

Phil.

No, in no case: one quarter of an houre spent in examining it before prayers in the forenoone,When the Hi­story to be re­peated. a side or a leafe at a time (as I said) may serue for that; and another quarter or not much more, before prayers at the breaking vp at euening for this; and so neyther to lose time, nor to omit any thing necessary for their happy growth herein. In this reading of the Chapters so, you shall finde that they will get as much Latine, and goe on as fast as in any other exercise whatsoever; and also will doe it with ease, when they haue beene first well trayned vp in the Grammaticall translations, and that each knoweth his night to looke to it aforehand.

Spoud.
[Page 263]

But at this kinde of reading the Chapter, the lesser sort which vnderstand no Latine, will get no good.

Phil.

Yes very much.How all the least may pro­fite by reading of the Chapters▪ If after that the Chapter is read, you vse but to examine some two or three, as time will per­mit; asking them what they remember of that which was read, or how much they can repeat without booke of it: you shall see that in a short time they will so marke, or so looke to it afore hand, as they will (almost any of them) repeate you a verse or two a peece. If you vse to appose ordinarily for example, some one whom you know can repeat a great deale, it will much prouoke the rest, to marke and take paines; and especially if (as in other things) you vse to ap­pose aduersaries, whether can repeate the more. And thus much for that, how they may get Religion and Latine to­gether.

CHAP. XXIII.
How to vnderstand and remember any morall matter.

Spoud.

YEt one other point remaineth, which is of great vse, and very fit to bee asked here; how children may be made to vnderstand, and conceiue of any ordinary matter meete for them? as the points of the Sermons, the History of the Bible: for euen most of these things may seeme to be aboue childrens capacities; and I see vnderstanding to be the life and substance of all.

Phil.

This point hath been taught throughout in part:A principall helpe of vnder­standing, how to make chil­dren to vnder­stand any thing and remember. but this I say vnto you againe, and you shall finde it most true; that for any one who would conceiue of any long sentence and remember it, let him diuide it into as many short questions as he can, and answere them (though close­ly) in his minde; it shall giue a great light. So do with your [Page 264] schollars in any thing which you would haue them to vn­derstand: diuide the long question or sentence into many short ones; by the short they will vnderstand and conceiue of the long. I shewed the maner in examining young schol­lars, at In speech, and in Sententiae pueriles.

For other helpes; as for marking the summe and drift of euery thing, and also for obseruing what goeth before, what followeth after, the propriety of words, those circum­stances of examining and vnderstanding, casting the words into the naturall order, and the like: I referre you to the Chapter of construing ex tempore; where these things are handled at large.

Spoud.

Yet for my further direction, giue me one en­sample in a sentence, in the storie of the Bible, because wee were speaking of that last, and how to teach children to vn­derstand that. I take it there is the like reason in the Latin, and in all things.

Phil.

There is indeede the same reason. I will giue you an instance in a sentence or two in the first Chapter in Ge­nesis: and the rather because this is vsed by many, to cause children to reade a Chapter of the Bible, and then to aske some questions out of that. For example:

1 In the beginning God created the heauen and the earth.Examples of asking questi­ons, to helpe vnderstanding.

2 And the earth was without forme and voyde, and darkenesse was vpon the face of the deepe, and the spirit of God moued vpon the waters.

3 Then God said; Let there be light, and there was light, &c.

I would propound my questions thus, sundry wayes, out of the wordes, and that they may answere directly in the ve­ry wordes:

Q. What did God in the beginning?

A. He created heauen and earth.

Q. When did God create heauen and earth?

A. In the beginning.

Q. Were not heauen and earth alwayes?

[Page 265] A. No; God created them.

Q. What a one was the earth?

A. The earth was without forme or fashion.

Q. Had it any thing in it?

A. No; it was voyde or waste.

Q. Was there nothing vpon it?

A. Yes; darkenesse was vpon the deepe.

Q. Was there nothing else mouing?

A. Yes; the spirit of God moued on the waters.

Q. What said God then?

A. Let there be light?

Q. Was there light as he commaunded?

A. Yes; there was light.

Q. Was there no light before?

A. No; God commaunding created it: there was no­thing but darkenesse before: darkeness was vpon the deep.

These questions and answeres arise directly out of the words; & are the same in effect with those in the little booke, called The Historie.

Spoud.

These verely giue a great light, and are maruei­lous easie, and do cause that a childe may conceiue and ca­rie away most of them; whereas reading them ouer hee marked little in them. But yet here are some things darke, and ouer-hard for children to vnderstand: as, what is meant by created, by the deepe, and the mouing of the spirit vpon the waters, &c.

Phil.

It is true;These short questions giue a great light to harder points, how they are to be vnderstood. but yet by this meanes a childe shal haue a great light and helpe for vnderstanding, conceit and me­mory in most. And for those things which remaine ob­scure, the learner is to marke them out, and inquire them of others, or of the notes & short Commentaries vpon them; and so by the other helpes mentioned: and especially con­sidering the drift of the Holy Ghost, and comparing with more plaine places where like phrases are vsed. But here it shal be the safest, in posing to aske those things which arise clearly & naturally out of the words, & may be fully vnder­stood; to omit the rest vntil God shal make them as euident. [Page 266] The easiest being first learned perfectly, the rest will come in their time, and the fruite according to your desire.

And let me tell you this for your owne benefite: In your priuate reading Scriptures,Helpe in pri­uate reading. or other bookes, where you would fully vnderstand and lay vp, vse thus to resolue by questions and answeres in your minde; and then tell me what you doe finde. The benefit which I doe conceiue of it, makes me bolde thus to aduise you: but this by the way.

Spoud.

Thus you will binde me vnto you for euer, in di­recting me in euery thing, so plainly and so easily; and not onely for my children, and how to doe them all this good, but euen for mine owne priuate. Though I cannot requite you, yet the high God, who hath giuen you this heart, and who neuer forgets the least part of the labor or loue which any of his seruants shall shew to his name, he will certainely reward it.

Thus haue we gone through all the maine and principall matters concerning this our function, for all parts and ex­ercises of learning, which I doe remember; so farre as doe belong to our calling: so that now I should leaue off from hindering or troubling you any further. Yet neuerthelesse, whereas I remember that you said, that God might direct this our conference, not onely to our owne priuate bene­fite, but also to the benefite of many thousand other; and verely I see that hee may turne it to a perpetuall blesing: giue me leaue to propound some other doubts, to the very same purpose, to remoue whatsoeuer may hinder or bring scruple to any, and to supply what yet may seeme wanting or hard to be effected.

Phil.

Goe on I pray you: I shall resolue you in all, accor­ding to my poore ability, as I haue in the rest. Now indeede we haue a fit time: and God knoweth whether euer we shall haue the like opportunity againe. Therefore propound whatsoeuer may tend hereunto.

CHAP. XXIIII.
Some things necessary to be knowne, for the better attaining of all the partes of Learning mentioned.

1 How the Schoolemaster should be qualified.

Spoud.

My first question shall bee this:How the Schoolemaster should be qualified. How you would haue your Schoolemaster qualified, to be able to doe all these in this manner: hee had not neede to be euery ordinary man.

Phil.

I will answere you, how I thinke it necessary, that the Schoolemaster should be qualified.

1 To be such a one as is sufficient to direct his Schol­lars in the things mentioned,1 Sufficient to direct his Schollars. Or tractable. or in better; according as the learning of his Schollars shall require: or at least such a one as is tractable, and not conceited, though his ability be the meaner; and who will willingly vse any helpe or di­rection, to fit him hereunto. Neyther is there any thing here, but that any one meere to be admitted to that place, may by his labour and diligence (following but euen this direction) attaine vnto in short time, through the blessing of God.

2 He must resolue to be painefull and constant in the best courses;2 Painefull and constant, of conscience to God. of conscience, to do a speciall seruice to God in his place: to be alwayes vpon his worke, during schoole times; neuer absent from his place or office more then vp­pon vrgent necessity.

To cast aside all other studies for the time of his schoole,To cast off all other studies for schoole times. I meane in the greater Grammar schooles: his eye to be on euery one and their behauiours, and that nothing bee [Page 268] wanting to them: his minde vpon their taskes and profi­ting;Not to post o­uer the trust to others. not posting ouer the trust to others, for hearing parts or Lectures, or examining exercises, so farre as his owne leisure will serue. For he shall sensibly discerne a neglect, euen in the best where they haue any hope to escape the Masters own view. One day omitted shall make them worse two dayes after. The Masters eye must feede the horse: therefore where he is compelled to vse the helpe of some schollars, he is to see that they deale faithfully, and to take some short tryall of them after.

3 Hee should be of a louing and gentle disposition with grauitie;3 Of a louing disposition to incourage all by praise and rewards. or such a one as will frame himselfe vnto it; and to incourage his schollars by due praise, rewards, and an honest emulation; who also dislikes vttery all se­uerity, more then for necessity: yet so as that he be quicke and cheerefull▪ to put life into all, and who cannot indure to see sluggishnesse or idlenesse in any, much lesse any vn­gratiousnesse; and therefore can vse also not onely sharpenesse, but euen seuerity with discretion where neede is.

4 Hee ought to bee a godly man, of a good carriage in all his conuersation,4 A godly man and of good carriage. to gaine loue and reuerence thereby. And therefore to auoyde carefully all light­nesse,To seeke to gain and main­taine his autho­thority, & how. and ouer-much familiarity with boyes, or whatso­euer may diminish his estimation and authority. And al­so to the end that God may grace him with authority, to aime in all his labour, not at his owne priuate gaine or credite, but how he may most honour God in his place, doe the best seruice to his Church, and most profite the children committed to him. To expect the blessing of his labours only from the Lord, and to ascribe all the praise vnto him alone. Thus to serue forth his time, so long as he remaines therein, that he may be euer acceptable vnto the Lord, looking (as was said) for his chiefe reward from him.

Spoud.

Indeede Sir, such a man cannot doubt of a bles­sing, and a reward from the Lord: yet neverthelesse he had [Page 269] neede haue good helpe, and also to bee well rewarded and incouraged from men, at least by them with whose chil­dren hee takes these paines. You thinke it then necessary that he should haue an Vsher: I pray you let me heare, your iudgement of this, and what a one you would haue his V­sher to be.

CHAP. XXV.
Of the Vsher and his Office.

Phil.

TO answere your questions,An Vsher ne­cessarie in all greater schools. and first for an Vsher. I thinke it most necessarie, that in all greater schooles, where an Vsher can bee had, there bee prouision for one Vsher or moe,To diuide the burden. according to the number of the schollars; that the burden may be diuided e­qually amongst them. As Iethro exhorted Moses concer­ning the Magistracie; wherein he was ouertoiled, and the iudgement of the people much hindred for lacke of help; that therfore there should be prouision of helpers made: so is it as requisite here.

That so the Master may imploy his paines principally amongst the chiefer; as the Vsher doth amongst the lower. For otherwise,Euill of lacke of an Vsher. when the master is compelled to diuide his pains both amongst little & great, he may much ouer-wea­rie himselfe, and yet not be able to do that good with anie, which he might haue done hauing helpe.

Hence also it shall come to passe, that another Schoole­master who hath but two or three of the chiefe fourmes onely vnder him, shall haue his schollars farre to excell his, who is troubled with all; though the other neyther take halfe the paines, nor obserue so good orders. Besides, that he who hath the care of all, can haue no leasure nor oppor­tunity to furnish himselfe more & more for the better pro­fiting [Page 270] and growth of the highest, nor for any other studie to answere the expectation of his place.The Master burdened with all, is as the hus­bandman ouer­charged with more then hee can compasse. It is in this case as we see in husbandrie; where the meanest and most vnskil­full husband hauing but a little husbandrie to follow, which hee is able to compasse thoroughly, goeth ordinarily be­yond the most skilfull beeing ouercharged, though hee toyle neuer so hard, and weary himselfe neuer so much.

And howsoeuer wise order and policie may much help,Supply by schollars not sufficient. to the supply of the want of an Vsher, by meanes of some of the schollars: yet it shal not be comparable to that good which may bee done by a sufficient Vsher, because of his stayednesse and authoritie; neither without some hinde­rance to those schollars, who are so imployed.

Besides this, in the absence of the Master (which some­times will necessarily fall out) how hard a thing it is to keep children in any awe without an Vsher (when boyes are to bee gouerned by boyes) euery man knoweth; what incon­ueniences also come of it, and specially what discredit to the schoole. And thus much for the necessitie of an V­sher.

Now for the sufficiency of the Vsher,Sufficiency of the Vsher. it would be such, as that hee should bee able in some good sort to supply the Masters absence; or that he be such a one, as who will wil­lingly take any paines, and follow any good direction to fit himselfe for his place.

For his submission,To be at the Masters com­mand. he should be alwaies at the Masters command, in all things in the schoole, euer to supplie the Masters absence, as need shall require; and to see that there be no intermission, or loitering in any fourme, if the Ma­ster bee away: but that euery one doe goe on in his place. Yet awarie care must be had,To be vsed with respect. that hee be vsed with respect by the Master, and all the schollars, to maintaine and in­crease his authoritie, to auoide all disgrace and contempt.

Also, for the auoiding of all repining and malice against him,Not to meddle with correcting the highest. there would be this caueat; that he doe not take vpon him the correction of those which are vnder the Master; without aspeciall charge, or some extraordinary occasion.

[Page 271] And to speake further what I thinke in this case;It were the best if the Vsher medled with no correction at all, vnlesse in the Masters absence. That although I would haue the Vsher to haue authoritie to cor­rect any vnder him, or others also, need so requiring in the Masters absence, and all the schollars to know so much: Yet he shold not vse that authoritie, no not in correcting those vnder himself, vnless very sparingly; but rather of himselfe & in his own discretion, to referre or to put them vp to the Master; so to keepe the schollars from that stomaking and complaints which will be made against him to the Parents and otherwise, do he what he can to preuent it: vnlesse it be where the Vsher teacheth in a place separate from the Ma­ster; there he is of necessitie to vse correction, though with great discretion, and so seldome as may be. Experience al­so sheweth, that the schollars will much more willingly and submisly take correction of the Master without the least repining. Neither need this correction to be so great, as to trouble the Master very much, if right gouernment be vsed.

All this must bee ordered by the discretion of the wise Master, so as they may stand in awe of the Vsher: other­wise little good will be done.

The principall office and imploiment of the Vsher,The Vshers principall im­ployment with the younger, to traine them vp for the Master. where there is but one, should be, for all vnder constructi­on and the enterers into it, to prepare and fit them for the Master, to lay a most sure foundation amongst them; to traine them vp to the Masters hand; and so to make them exceeding perfect in all the first grounds, that they may goe on with [...]ase and cheerfulnesse, when they come vnder the Master.

Also to the end that the Vsher bee not a meanes of the negligence of the Master,To preuent all inconueni­ences by the Vsher. but to preuent that, and a num­ber of inconueniences, and also to tye both Vsher and Schollars, to perpetuall diligence and care; and withall that the Master may haue an assured comfort in the profiting of all his Schollars, and boldenesse against the accusations of any malitious party, this shall be very requisite: that the Master go ouer all once in the day (if he can possibly) to see [Page 272] what they haue done, and to examine some questions in each fourme of them vnder the Vsher, to make triall in some part of that which they haue learned that day, how well they haue done it; or at least amongst some of them where there are many. This account will inforce all, both Vsher and schollars, to a very heedefull care. It may bee shorter or longer, as time and occasions permit.

CHAP. XXVI.
Helpes in the schoole.

Spoud.

BVt be it so,Helpes besides the Vsher. that you be destitute of an Vsher; or ha­uing an Vsher, yet your number is so many, as you are not able to goe thorough them all, in that sort that were meete: what helpe would you vse then?

Phil.

My helpes are of two sorts; generall or particular. My generall helpes which are common to all schooles, e­uen where there are Vshers, are these:

1. That which was noted amongst the generall obserua­tions;1. Helpe in Schooles, few­nesse of the fourmes. to haue all my schoole sorted into fourmes or Classes, and those so few as may be: though twenty in a fourme or moe, the better, as was sayd; and my fourmes diuided into equall parts. This shall gaine one halfe of time, for the reasons there mentioned.

2. In euery fourme this may bee a notable helpe,2. Seniors in each fourme. that the two or fowre seniors in each fourme, be as Vshers in that fourme, for ouerseeing, directing, examining, and fit­ting the rest euery way before they come to say; and so for ouerseeing the exercises.

Also in straights of time, to stand forth before the rest, and to heare them. The Master to haue an eie and see care­fully that they deale faithfully, and make some short exa­mination [Page 273] after. And in all lectures those two Seniors to be blamed principally for the negligence of their sides, and contrarily to be commended for their diligence. This may bee a second and a very great helpe: like as it is in an army, where they haue their vnder-officers for hundreths or for tennes; as Decuriones, Centuriones, &c. for the speciall go­uernment of all vnder them. These who thus take most paines with the rest, shall stil euer keep to be the best of the fourmes.

A third might be added:3. Authority. which is Authority and good Gouernment, which indeed is aboue all. But of that it will be fitter to speake by it selfe.

The particular help where either an Vsher is wanting,Particular help. or else is not sufficient,Subdoctor in place of the V­sher, or where the Vsher is not sufficient. is by a Subdoctor, one or mo, accor­ding to the number of the schollars. The Subdoctor is to be appointed out of all your highest fourmes▪ euery one to be his day insteed of an Vsher, to do those things which the Vsher should, according to their abilities; and so to obserue the behauior of all vnder them.

Spoud.

These cannot but bee very worthy helpes. But here I pray you resolue me a doubt or two, arising hereon.

1. How will you diuide your schoole thus, and especi­ally your fourmes, for the appointing of your Seniors, that euery one in a fourm may be placed according to his lear­ning? which I take to be very necessary; so as they shall not thinke, that any are preferred by the fauour of the Master: also that all may sit as Aduersaries and fit matches, and so to haue sides equally diuided, to doe all by that emulati­on, and honest strift and contention, which you spake of.

Phil.

For my fourmes I would put so many in a fourm,Sorting the fourmes so ma­ny together as may be. as possibly can goe together, as was noted: the better will be continuall helpers to the other, and much drawe on the worse.

Secondly, for the diuision of my fourms, and election of Seniors, I finde this the only way to cut off all quarrel­ling, and to prouoke all to a continuall contention;

1. By voices; all of a fourme to name who is the best [Page 274] of their fourme,Choise & mat­ching each fourme. and so who is the best next him. Those who haue the most voices, to bee the two Seniours of the fourme. These they will choose very certainly. Then to the ende to make equall sides; let the second or Iunior of those two so chosen, call vnto himselfe the best which hee can, to make his side.

After that, let the first choose the best next; then after, the second and his fellow, to choose the best next to them again: And thus to go thorough choosing vntil they haue chosen all the fourme. The two Seniours, I say, to be cho­sen by electiō of the whole fourm: then they two to choose, or call the rest of the fourm by equall election; the Iunior choosing first and so to go by course: If the Senior should choose first, then his side would euer be the better; which by the Iunior choosing first is preuented.

By this meanes you shall find that they will choose very equally, and without partialitie,Benefits of this election. to the end that each may haue the best fellowes; euen as gamesters will do at mat­ches in shooting, bowling or the like: and euery match shal be very equall, or small difference amongst them.

Also hereby all mutterings shall be cut off, wherby some kind boyes will bee whispering to their Parents, that their Master doth not regard no [...] loue them, but preferres others before them. Thus also the painefull shall be incouraged, when they find themselues preferred by the iudgement of all their fellowes; and each made to striue daily to bee as good as his match or aduersary, and for the credite of their side: and finally, they wil labor that they may be preferred at the next election; or at least, not bee put downe with dis­grace. This election would be made oftener amongst the younger, as once in a moneth at least; because their dili­gence and quicknesse will much alter: Amongst the Seni­or fourmes once in a quarter may suffice; yet at the Masters discretion.

Spoud.

This election surely is most equall, and the bene­fits of it must needs be very great according to that which you haue sayd; and chiefly to helpe as much as any one [Page 275] thing to make the schoole to be indeede a pleasant place of honest,This a chiefe means to make the schoole Ludu [...] literari [...] schollarlike, sweete and earnest contention. But you spake of a third generall helpe, which might be added, which you sayd was aboue all; to wit good gouernment: of this I do desire to heare.

CHAP. XXVII.
Of gouernment and authoritie in schooles.

Phil.

COncerning the gouernment of the schoole,Gouernment the help of helpes. of which you so desire my sentence; I do indeed ac­count it the helpe of helps: as it is in all kinde of societies; so principally in the schoole: out of which, all other good and ciuill societies should first pro­ceed. To the end, that out of the schooles, and from the first yeares, children may learne the benefit and blessing of good gouernment, and how euery one ought to doe his duetie in his place: and so from thence this good order and gouernment may be deriued into all places in som maner.Authority the top of gouern­ment.

This gouernment ought to bee, 1. By maintaining au­thoritie, which is the very top of all gouernment; and is indeed aspeciall gift of God.

This authority must be maintained,Authority how to be maintai­ned. as in the Magistrate, by his so carying himselfe, as beeing a certaine liuing lawe, or rather as in the place of God amongst them;1. By being a liuing lawe. I mean, as one appointed of God, to see the most profitable courses to be put in practice painfully, and constantly, for the spee­diest furnishing his schollars with the best learning & man­ners, to the greatest good of the schollars, Gods Church, and their countrey.

2. It must bee maintained by a most strict execution of iustice,2. By most strict executi­on of iustice in praemio. poena. in rewards & punishments. As Solon said that the [Page 276] Common-wealth, was vpholden by two things; praemio & poena. That the painefull and obedient bee by all meanes countenanced, incouraged and preferred: the negligent, and any waie disobedient, be disgraced, and discouraged in all their euill manners, vntill they frame themselues to the diligence and obedience of the best.

Thus by the incouragement & commendation of ver­tue,Incouraging vertue. and discountenancing of vice; you shall in time ouer­come the most froward nature,Discouraging vice. and bring all into a cheere­full submission:The euils of the contrary, or of partialitie. Wheras of the contrary, dealing partially, or making no difference betweene the good and the bad, and much more discountenancing the painful and toward, and countenancing or fauouring the idle and vngracious, you shall see all ouerturned:Obserue this and be warned. for who will not frame him­selfe to the lewdest, when it is all one vnto them, whatsoeuer they be? our corrupt natures being so prone vnto the worst things.

3. That in all their gouernment there be a true demon­stration of conscience and loue,3. By a demon­stration of con­science and loue in all. to doe all as of consci­ence to God, and of loue to the children, for the perpetuall good of euery one; and in an indeuor & study to draw them on by loue, in an honest emulation, with due praise and re­wards; abhorring cruelty, & auoiding seuerity (as was said) more then of necessity.

4. By beeing Presidents of all vertue to their children;4. By being pre­sidents to the children, of all vertue. and being as carefull in their owne places first, before the childrens eyes to do their dueties, as they would haue their children to be in theirs. And so finally, by their holy and faithfull cariage, to seeke that God may rule, and that the children may obey God: For then hee will both blesse all their labours, and maintaine their authority.

Spoud.

Surely si [...] these are worthy meanes to maintaine authority: which vnlesse it be preserued inuiolable, all go­uernment goeth downe▪ But I perceiue, you vtterly dislike that extreame seueritie whereby all things are done in verie many schooles, and the whole gouernment maintained on­ly by continuall and terrible whipping; because you haue [Page 277] so oft mentioned it as with griefe.

Phil.

You shall find that M. Askam doth as oft and more vehemently inueigh against it.Extreame seue­rity and whip­ping to be a­uoyded in schooles, and all meanes vsed to preuent it. For mine owne part I doe indeed altogether dislike it, more then necessity inforceth: and I take it that I haue better grounds for my dislike, then any one can haue to the contrary; euen from those things which cannot be contradicted.

1 We are to imitate the Lord himselfe;1 By the exam­ple of God. who though he be iustice it selfe, yet is euermore inclined vnto mercy, and doth not execute the seuerity and rigour of his iu­stice, when any other meanes can serue: who if he should smite vs, euen the most vigilant of vs all, so oft as wee offend, as many doe the children; which of vs could liue?

2 What father is there;2 By the gene­rall desire of all wise parents, hauing naturall affections. nay which of vs is there who is a father, who would not haue our owne children rather trai­ned vp by all louing meanes of gentle incouragement, praise and faire dealing, then with buffeting and blowes, or continuall and cruell whipping, scorning, and reui­ling? Or which of vs could but indure to see that indigni­ty done to our owne children, before our faces?

Now our gouernement and correction ought to bee such, as which the very parent being present (I meane the wise parent) might approoue; and for which wee may euer haue comfort and boldenesse, euen before the holy God. To this we are to striue and contend al­wayes, vntill at length we attaine vnto it.

3 Which of vs is there that would willingly liue vnder such a gouernement of any sort,3 By that which euery one of vs would haue done vnto our selues. that our state should bee as the people, vnder their taske Masters in Aegypt, that we should bee smitten continually for euery little fault? and labour we neuer so much to doe our duties, yet still we should be beaten.

4 Let euery mans experience teach whether ex­treamity or excesse of feare4 For the mis­chiefes which follow excesse of [...]eare, taking away all vnder­st [...]nding and sense from the wisest. (which must needes fol­low vpon such cruell and continuall beating and dulling) doth not depriue and robbe the minde of all the helpes [Page 278] which reason offers. So as that the minde running about that which it feares so much, forgets that which it should wholly intend; whereby in timorous natures, you shall see some to stand as very sottes, and senselesse through an ap­prehension of some extreame euil, or by extremity of feare; wheras they are otherwise as wise & learned as the best. Inso­much as all deuices are to be vsed to rid children of that kinde of ouerwhelming feare; and sometimes correction for it, when this feare is without cause, and cannot be helped otherwise.

5 For the schollars themselues;5 For the schollars to worke in them a loue of lear­ning. because all things should be done in the Schoole, so as to worke in the chil­dren a loue of learning, and also of their teachers: for that this loue is well knowne to be the most effectuall meanes, to increase and nourish learning in them the fastest; and also that gouernement which consists in loue, is euer the fir­mest.

Now this extreame whipping, all men know what a dis­like it breedeth in the children, both of the schoole, and of all learning as that they will think themselues very happy, if the parents will set them to any seruille or toyling busines, so that they may keepe from schoole. And also it workes in them a secret hatred of their Masters; according to the sayings, Quem metuunt oderint: and, Quem quis (que) odit perijsse expetit; whom men doe feare with a slauish feare, them they hate, and wish in their hearts to see their death.

6 In regard of the Masters themselues;6 In regard of the Masters, to gaine hearts of children and parents. because by this milde and louing gouernement, they shall both haue the hearts & commendations of the children presently, when they see in the Masters the affections of fathers towards them; and also they will euer keepe a sweet and thankefull remembrance of them, all their life long: that euer when they haue occasion to speake of their Schoolemasters, they will doe it with reuerence, and praise God that euer they fell into the hands of such Masters: whereas of the contra­ry, they shall be sure of the secret hate and complaints of the poore children presently, where they dare speake: and e­uer [Page 279] after when they come at their owne liberty, they will then report as they haue found, and it may be farre worse. So that they can neuer speake of their Master, but as of a thing which they abhorre: his name is as a curse in their mouthes; many wishing they had neuer knowne him. For that then they had beene schollars, if they had not falne into the hands of so cruell Masters.

7 And finally,7 That Ma­sters may euer haue boldnesse and comfort. because in this louing, equall, milde and tender gouernement, the Masters shall euer haue boldenes and comfort before the children, their parents, in their own consciences, and before God himselfe: whereas in the cru­ell and vnmercifull tyrannie, they shall haue nothing but feare; feare of the children, feare of their parents, feare in their owne consciences, feare for the Lord who hath said, that there shall be iudgement mercilesse for them who shew no mercy; and so the conscience being awaked, to haue no­thing but feare round about, except the Lord doe graunt vnfained repentance to escape thereby.

Spoud.

I know not how to answere that which you say.It is hard for the Master stri­uing to do good, to mo­derate his passion. The Lord be mercifull vnto vs all who are in this calling, e­uen for this sinne: for it is no small matter to moderate our passion, and our correction. When the parents and others looke for great things at our hands, and we find little good, and oft-times those the worst, whom we would fainest haue to doe the best: which of vs can herein iustifie our selues? But I pray you Sir, how would you haue our authority maintained, and iustice executed, which you so commend? You would haue correction vsed, and sometimes sharpness too; as I obserued in your speech for your Schoolemaster. How wold you haue the iustice, inpraemio & poena, in rewards and punishments? Set me downe shortly the meanes: and first for rewardes and incourageme [...]ts; after for punish­ments.

CHAP. XXVIII.
Of Preferments and incouragements.

Phil.

FOr the rewardes of learning by preferments and in­couragements;Incourage­ments to be by these meanes; thus I finde best to doe it:

1 By often elections of euery fourme,1 Often electi­ons and prefer­ments therein. in such manner as was shewed; and so euer preferring the best thereby, to higher places as they grow in learning.

2 By gracing all the Seniors,2 Countenan­cing and gra­cing the Seni­ours, and all the best and most painefull. all best in each fourme, both to incourage them, and to prouoke their fellowes to emulate them, to striue in all things to bee like vnto them: and also to cause all their fellowes in all things to reuerence, and preferre them, both by giuing place to them and otherwise.

3 By preferring or putting vp those into higher fourms,3 Putting vp into higher fourmes. Giuing places. who profite extraordinarily.

Also daily (if you see good) to giue higher places to them who do better, vntill the other recouer their places againe, by the election of the whole fourme, or by their dili­gence.

4 To vse to commend euery thing in their exercises,4 Commen­ding euery thing wel done. which is well or painefully done; passing ouer the lesser faults onely with a word, shewing our dislike: and that which is absurd, with some pretty speech; sharpely repro­uing or disgracing their absurdity, without further corre­ction, if there doe not appeare in them extreame negli­gence.

Yet in praising them, you are to beware of making any of them wantonly proude,Caueat in pray­sing. or letting them to be any way ouer­bolde or malepart, or of vsing them ouer-familiarly: for [Page 281] familiarity will certainely breede contempt, and sundry in­conueniences; whereas a reuerend awe and louing feare, with these incouragements, shall continually nourish all vertue and diligence.

5 This might be vsed also with much fruite,5 Disputation for the victor­ship. to incou­rage and prouoke: but this as shall be found meet; To haue a disputation for the victorship once euery quarter of the yeare: as the last Wednesday or Friday of each Quarter in the afternoone; the manner thus:

Cause the two Seniours of the two highest fourmes to sit together in the vpper end of the Schoole;Manner of the Disputation. and all the Schollars from the lowest which take construction, vnto the highest▪ to aske of eyther of them, each two questions in order▪ of the best questions, which they haue learned in their Grammar or Authours: first the two Seniour aduersa­ries of the highest fourme to answere, then two of the next. And then let those two of them foure, who answered best (that is, one of either fourm who answered most questions) bee the victours for that Quarter. Two other of their next fellowes, or moe, to take note, and set downe to how many questions each answered; and so the victorship to be decided.

After this, some vse to cause the schollars euery of them, to giue something for a Praemium, Praemia giuen to the two victours. to the Victours: as each one a point or a counter, or moe; or else better gifts if they be well able, of such things as they may without their hurt, or the offence of their parents, and as euery one will himselfe. These to bee diuided equally betweene the two Victours, as a reward of their diligence and learning; to incourage them, and all the rest of them by their en­sample to striue at length to come vnto the Victorshippe; because then besides the honour of it, each may come to receiue againe more then euer they gaue before.

The practice of this disputation must needes bee very profitable; though some good Schoolemasters doe doubt of the expediency for Schollars to giue any thing, but to honour them otherwise.

[Page 282] The two victours in regard of this dignity, and the ap­plause from their fellowes,Office of the victours for their Praemia. should vse to make some exer­cises of Verses, or the like, to get leaue to play on euery Thursday, when there was no play day in the weeke be­fore. And so they two continually to haue that day for their fellowes, as a further reward and honour of their learning; I meane onely in such weekes when they had no play before, or at the Masters discretion. But this (as was aduised) as Masters shall finde it most expe­dient.

6 Aboue all these, this may be vsed as a notable incou­ragement and prouocation,Solemne exa­mination to be made once eue­ry yeare. both to Masters and schollars, and very necessary; That euery yeare, at least once in the yeare, there be a solemne examination by the Gouernours of the schoole, or some specially appointed thereunto.

Against which time,Exercises to be prouided a­gainst that time. all of any ability should prouide some exercises faire written; as eyther Translations, Epi­stles, Theames, or Verses, according to the daily exercises of euery fourme: and withall some declamations where there are auncient schollars, an Oration by the highest, to giue the visitours intertainement. That in these their exercises, all may see their profiting, at least in writing, and receiue some other contentment.

Also all to keepe their chiefe exercises faire written in bookes,To keepe their daily exercises faire written in bookes for tryall then by comparing. to be shewed then; that by comparing them to­gether with the former yeares, both the Masters diligence and their profiting may appeare, and haue due commen­dation.

Besides these also,A course of ex­amination to be appointed, and to be per­formed first by the Masters and Vshers. for the full examination of the schol­lars in all their learning, the Schoolemasters and Vshers are to be appointed an order and course in their examination; and themselues first to make a demonstration before the Visitours, what the children can doe in euery fourme, both in their Grammar and Authours, and each kinde▪ as shall be fit. It would be done first by themselues, because the schollars are best acquainted with their manner of exami­ning,After by others not satisfied. and will be most bolde to answere them. After them [Page 283] the Visitours and others, who are not satisfied, to examine where, and as they please.

Then when all is done,All who do wel to be praised. as the Visitours are to incourage all who doe well, with praise; so those who doe best, would be graced with some Praemium from them:The best speci­ally graced. as some little booke, or money; to euery one something: or at least with some speciall commendation.

It were to be wished that in great schooles,Some Praemia giuen. there were something giuen to this end, to be so bestowed; fiue shillings or ten shillings. It would exceedingly incourage and incite all to take paines.

This set solemne publike examination, will more inforce all,Benefit of set and solemne examination. both Masters, Vshers and Schollars, to take paines, and tye them to make conscience of their dueties, and to seeke to profite and increase daily in knowledge, that they may then answere the expectation of all men, and giue vp a good account; then any augmentation of maintenance, or statutes, or whatsoeuer deuise can possibly doe:

Although all necessary prouision is to bee made, both for the best statutes and orders; and chiefly for sufficient maintenance, and rewardes to giue all kinde of hart­ning and incouragement both to Masters, Vshers, and Schollars.

Also if at such examinations,Something gi­uen to some painefull poore schollar to help the Vsher. something were giuen by the Visitors or other benefactors, to be allowed vpon some poore schollar of the schoole, who is of speciall paineful­nesse and towardlinesse; to the end he might be assistant to the Vsher: it would much help both Vsher and the younger schollars, and animate all such to take paines; striuing who should haue that preferment.

Before such publique examinations,All parents to haue notice be­fore su [...]h exa­mination. all the parents of the children should haue notice giuen them: that all of them may know certainely, the hopes of their children, and contrarily; and all who will may take tryall.

That so neyther the parents may bee abused, neyther schooles, nor schollars discredited, nor any lose their time, [Page 284] nor be wearied out, in that to which they are not fitted by nature; but euery one to be imployed to that in due time, to which he is most apt.

Spoud.

These meanes constantly obserued, together with that strift and contention by aduersaries, must needes prouoke to a vehement studie and emulation; vnlesse in such who are of a very seruile nature, and bad disposition: but how will you deale with them? you must needs vse ex­treame seuerity towards them, who regard neyther prefer­ment, nor credite, nor feare ought but stripes.

Phil.

For these and all the rest (besides the former pre­ferments) to the end to auoyde this cruelty, which is so odi­ous to all, we are to striue to this one thing following:

7 Aboue all,7 To labour euer to worke conscience in al to do all of conscience to God. to labour to worke in them some consci­ence of their dueties, by planting grace in them, and the feare of the Lord; with childelike affections towards the Lord, as towards their heauenly Father.

And that also, besides al other means of Religion, spoken of before,By calling on them to re­member these things: by calling oft vpō all, to remember these things:

1 That in their calling they serue not men,1 That in their calling they are Gods seruants. but God; that they are Gods children and seruants. As the very drudge is Gods seruant: so they are much more, being im­ployed in so holy a calling, as to get knowledge and good nurture, for the good of the Church of God, and their owne saluation; and principally that they may be most seruicea­ble to God in all their liues after, in what calling soeuer.

And therefore euer to bethinke themselues, that Gods eye is vpon them,His eye is vpon them. and he markes all their labour, and of what conscience to him they doe it; and so will accept and reward them according to their faithfulnesse: so to be painefull and obedient, not for feare of their Master, nor of the rodde; but for the feare and loue of God, because hee hath appointed them so. And so herein to make a full demonstration, who they are amongst them that are truely wise, who feare and loue God indeede; and who otherwise.

2. To call on them oft, to aime at this, to vse all their [Page 285] wit,2. To study to get le [...]rning to honor God with, & do ser­uice to his Church. their labour, time, and all their gifts, which are Gods, to get the best learning that they can; to doe the Lord the greatest honour which they are able, whilst they shall re­maine in the earth, and the best seruice to his Church▪ and thereby to walke towards eternall life. Because, thus they shall be sure that God will honour them seeking to honour him; & wil cast learning vpon them so far as shall be good.

3. To put them oft in mind of the reward of their lear­ning,3. To put them in mind of the rewards which follow learning which they may looke for euen in this life. As those rewards which accompanie great learned men; namely, riches, honours, dignities, fauour, pleasures, and whatsoe­uer their hearts can desire; and much more that rewarde which shal be eternall; that if men should be vnthankfull, yet God wil reward al our labor & study aboundantly, euen euery thought & meditation that euer we had for his name.

To this end,Excellent sen­tences to be oft incu [...]cated, to worke in the schollars a loue of learning. Pro. 3. 13. to inculcate oft vnto them som of Salomons Prouerbs, cōcerning the excellency of learning & wisdom.

As, Pro. 3. 13. Blessed is the man that findeth wisdom, and the man that getteth vnderstanding.

14. For the merchandize thereof is better than the mer­chandize of siluer, and the gaine therof is better then gold.

15. It is more pretious then pearls; and all things that thou canst desire, are not to be compared vnto her.

And so forth, the 16. 17, & 18. verses. Also Prou. 4. 7. 8. & 8. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. &c. & 33. 34. &c. These and the like, being indeed chiefly meant, of the diuine wis­dom, comprehend also this learning, which is the way and meanes vnto that diuine and heauenly wisdome.

By these meanes, and remembring well the generall ob­seruations to put them in practice (as,To keepe groūds perfect. to make all grounds exceeding perfect as they go, chiefly their Accedence and Grammar, and to keepe them by continual [...] repetitions and examinations, that they may goe on with ease, and fee­ling a sweetnesse of learning,To [...] the nature of each [...], and fra [...] our selues thereto accor­dingly. and keeping a constant course in your gouernment; obseruing wisely the nature and disposition of euerie one, and framing your selfe ther­to accordingly) you shall vndoubtedly see the Lord so [Page 286] bringing them in obedience by your prayers, as a very small punishment shall serue.

Spoud.

It cannot he, but if we can plant the feare of the Lord in them, to worke in them a conscience of their du­ties, it must needs be most auaileable; and much more all these: but yet seeing that punishments also must needs be inflicted on some oft times and on all sometimes (because otherwise as you sayd, iustice cannot be executed, nor any gouernment or authority maintained) I pray you let mee heare, how you would proceed in the same.

CHAP. XXIX.
Of execution of iustice in schooles by punishments.

Phil.

FOr inflicting punishments,To punish vn­willingly. we ought to come there­unto vnwillingly, and euen inforced; and therefore to proceed by degrees: that who cannot bee moued by any of the former meanes of preferments, nor incouragements, nor any gentle exhortation nor admo­nition, may be brought into order and obedience by pu­nishment.

And therefore,To proceed by degrees in pu­nishing. first to beginne with the lesser kindes of punishments; and so by degrees to the highest and seue­rest, after this manner obseruing carefully the natures of e­uery one, as was sayd.

1. To vse reproofes;1. Reproofes. and those sometimes more sharpe according to the nature of the offender, and his falt.

2. To punish by losse of place to him who dooth better according to our discretion.2. Loss of place.

3. To punish by a note,3. Black Bill of principall vse & most auaileable which may be called, the black Bill. This I would haue the principall punishment, I meane [Page 287] most of vse: for you shall finde by experience, that it being rig [...]ly vsed, it is more auaileable then all other, to keepe [...] obedience; and specially for any notoriously idle or stubborne, or which are of euill behauiour any way.

The manner of it may be thus:

To keepe a note in writing:Manner of the blacke Bill to depriue them of the play-daies. or which may more easi­ly be done; to keepe a remembrance of all whom you ob­serue very negligent, stubborne, lewd, or any waie disobe­dient, to restraine them from all liberty of play.

And therfore,To make them all to knowe what to looke for. to giue them all to know so much before hand, that whosoeuer asketh leaue to play, or vpon what occasion soeuer, yet we intend alwaies to except all such; and that the liberty is granted only for the painfull and obedi­ent, which are worthy to haue the priuiledges of schollars, and of the schoole, because they are such, and are an orna­ment to the schoole: not for them who are a disgrace vnto it.

So alwaies at such playing times,To view the fourmes be­fore play, and to separate all the disobedient and vnworthy to be left to their taskes. before the Exeatis, the Master and Vshers to view euery fourm thorough; and then to cause all them to sit still, whom they remember to haue been negligent, or faulty in any speciall sort worthie that punishment, and to doe some exercises in writing be­sides; either those which they haue omitted before, or such as wherein they cannot be idle.

But herein there must be a speciall care,Care for their taskes to be performed faithfully in their restraint. when they are thus restrained from play, that either Master or Vsher, if it can be conueniently, haue an eye to them, that they cannot loyter; or some one specially appointed, to see that they do their taskes.

Also that they bee called to an account the next mor­ning, whether they haue done the taskes inioined, vnder paine of sixe ierkes to be surely payed.

Moreouer,Notorious of­fenders to sit vntill they shew geod tokens of amendment. for all those who are notoriously stubborne, or negligent, or haue done any grosse fault, to cause them to sit thus, not only one day, but euery play day cōtinually, vntill they shew themselues truly sory for their faults, and do amend; becomming as duetifull, and submisse as any o­ther; [Page 288] and vntill they do declare by good signes, their desire and purpose to please and obey their Master. Vnlesse they be released at very great suite, or vpon sufficient sureties of their fellowes, to incurre otherwise their penalty if they a­mend not.

This course straightly obserued,Benefit of this punishment strictly obser­ued, and why. partly thorough the shame of being noted in the ranke of disordered fellowes, and also lest their Parents should knowe it; and partly thorough depriuing them of play, and more also tho­rough this strict account to be giuen of their taskes, and seuerity of correction otherwise, will more tame the stub­bornest and prowdest, thorough Gods blessing, then anie correction by rod: and this without danger to the schollar, or offence to their friends.

And therefore,To look to this strictly. when rod and all other meanes faile, let vs looke carefully to this, not to leaue one stubborne boy, vntill hee be brought as submisse and dutifull as any of the rest. For, those beeing brought into obedience, the rest may easily bee kept in order, with very little correction: whereas one stubborne boy suffered, will spoile, or at least­wise indanger all the rest.

4. Sometimes in greater faults,4. Correction with rod more seldome, and chiefly for ter­rour. to giue three or fowre ierkes with a birch, or with a small redde willow where birch cannot be had. Or for terror in some notorious fault, halfe a dozen stripes or moe, soundly laied on, according to the discretion of the Master.

Some doe only keep a bill,Custome of some in the vse of the blacke Bill. and note carefully their seue­rall principal disorders; and now and then, shew them their names and faults mildly, how oft they haue been admoni­shed; and when they take them in hand pay them soundly, and by this policie keepe them in great obedience.

In this correction with the rod,C [...]ueats in cor­rection. speciall prouision must be had for sundry things.

1. That when you are to correct any stubborne or vn­broken boy,1. Manner of correction of the stubborne and vnbroken. you make sure with him to hold him fast; as they are inforced to do, who are to shooe or to tame an vn­broken colt.

[Page 289] To this end to appoint 3. or 4 of your schollars,To hold them fast. whom you knowe to bee honest, and strong inough, or moe if need be, to lay hands vpon him together, to hold him fast, ouer some fourme, so that he cannot stir hand nor foot; or else if no other remedy will serue, to hold him to some post (which is farre the safest and free from inconuenience) so as he cannot any way hurt himselfe or others, be he ne­uer so peeuish. Neither that he can haue hope by any de­uise or turning, or by his apparell, or any other meanes to escape. Nor yet that any one be left in his stubbornness to go away murmuring,Not to let any to goe awaie in their stubborn­nesse. pou [...]ing, or blowing and puffing, vn­till he shew as much submission as any, and that hee will lie still of himselfe without any holding; yet so as euer a wise moderation be kept. Although this must of necessitie bee locked vnto; because besides the euill ensample to others, there is no hope to doe any good to count of, with any vn­till their stomacks be first broken: and then they once tho­roughly brought vnder, you may haue great hope to work all good according to their capacity; so that it may be, you shall haue little occasion to correct them after.

Moreouer, a very child suffered in his stubbornnesse, to scape for his strugling, will in a short time come to trouble two or three men to take him vp, and to correct him with­out danger of hurting himselfe, or others.

2. To be very wary for smiting them ouer the backes,To be wary to auoide all smi­ting or hurting the children. in any case, or in such sort as in any way to hurt or indanger them. To the end to preuent all mischiefes, for our owne comfort; and to cut off all occasions from quarrelling pa­rents or euill reports of the schoole. And withall, to auoid for these causes, all smiting them vpon the head, with hand, rod, or ferula.Caueat of threatning. Also to the end that we may auoid all danger and feare for desperate boyes hurting themselues, not to vse to threaten them afore, and when they hane done any no­torious fault, nor to let them know when they shall be bea­ten; but when they commit a new fault, or that wee see the schoole most full or opportunity most fit to take them of a sodaine.

[Page 290] 3. That the Master do not in any case abase himselfe,That the Master do not abase himselfe to struggle with any schollar. to striue or struggle with any boy to take him vp: but to ap­point other [...] the strongest to do it, where such need is, in such sort as was shewed before; and the rather for feare of hurting them in his anger, & for the euils which may come therof, & which som Schoolemasters haue lamented after.

4. That the Masters and Vshers also, do by all meanes, auoide all furious anger,To auoide all furious anger. threatning, cha [...]ing, fretting, reui­ling: for these things will diminish authoritie, and may do much hurt, and much indanger many waies.

And therefore of the contrary,How correcti­on ought euer to be giuen. that all their correction be done with authority, and with a wise and sober modera­tion, in a demonstration of duety to God, and loue to the children, for their amendment, and the reformation of their euill manners.

Finally,Sparing the rod where necessitie requireth is to vndoe the chil­dren. as God hath sanctified the rod and correction, to cure the euils of their conditions, to driue out that folly which is bound vp in their hearts, to saue their soules from hell, and to giue them wisdome; so it is to be vsed as Gods instrument to these purposes. To spare them in these cases is to hate them.Assurance of s [...]fety in correc­tion when it is done [...]right, Such correctiō is no cruelty. To loue them is to correct them betime. Do it vnder God, and for him to these ends and with these cautions, and you shall neuer hurt them: you haue the Lord for your warrant. Correction in such manner, for stubbornnesse, negligence and carelesnesse, is not to be ac­counted ouer-great seueritie, much lesse crueltie.

Spoud.

But how hard a matter is it to keepe this mode­ration in correcting, and thus to temper our anger! Surely, it must bee a greater worke then of flesh and blood: how may wee attaine vnto it? It is a matter which hath often times troubled me, but I haue not been able to ouercome it.

Phil.

I doe not condemne all anger in vs: nay, anger in the Schoole-master is as necessary as in any other,Anger necessa­ry in Schoole­masters, so it be tempered a­right. to be an­gry at the negligence and other vices of the children; for God hath ordained this to be a meanes, to whet vs on to do our duties, & for the reformation & good of our schollars, [Page 291] to keepe them euer in a holy awe by the feare of it. Yea, sometimes in more grieuous offenses, God is wonderfully pleased with it, though it be more vehement; as we may see in the anger of Moses & Phineas, so that we tēper it in such sort, as that we sin not in it. That it do not cause vs to break out to reuiling, fretting, chafing, blowes on the head, or o­therwise to any cruell or vnmercifull dealing with the chil­dren, to vse them worse, then wee would vse a dogge, as we say:

But that wee euer remember, that they are children, Gods children, heires of his kingdome; we are to nu [...]ture them onely vnder him, to traine them vp for him, and for his Church; nor to correct nature but vice; to do all to the end to make them men.

Now the helpes of repressing this our anger,Meanes to re­presse furious and raging an­ger. are the wise consideration of those things which I haue mentioned, or the like. As to keep a continuall memory, whose the chil­dren are; what they are; for whom we bring them vp; vnder whom and in whose place; whether we would haue God an­gry at vs, & to smite vs, as we do the children, for euery fault which wee do: how we would haue our owne children dealt withall: and also Gods iustice to measure to vs or ours, with what measure we mete to others. Besides, to remember, that anger will blinde our mindes, that we cannot see to correct or vse any right moderation.

Moreouer, to haue euer in mind, the mischiefes that come of anger; how it will diminish our authority, and dis­grace vs extremelie in the eyes of the children, when it is immoderate, and without iust cause. Also that in our anger, we may do that euill in a moment, which we shall repent all our liues long. And the rather, because Sathan watcheth to get aduantage against vs, to bring vs to some notable euils in our anger. Into whose hand, it is iust with God to leaue vs, because we would not watch ouer this passion to keepe it in temper; when we know that of all other our affections we mostly open to his malice in this, by reason of our con­tinuall occasions of anger.

[Page 292] Therefore to conclude this point, as wee are to vse all wisdome to preuent these euills; so principally, a constant course in obseruing all orders, shall preuaile maruellously, by cutting off most occasions of anger.

And finally, when all other meanes faile of conquering this vnruly passion: let vs call to mind the means, which the Lord hath sanctified to bring euery thought into obe­dience;Places of scrip­ture to be euer in our minds for repressing and moderating our anger. to wit, his heauenly word and praier. To this end it shall bee necessary, to haue euer in minde, some speciall places of holie scripture against anger; as these and the like:

Be angry but sin not,Eph. 4. 26. 27 let not the sunne goe downe vpon your wrath: neyther giue place to the diuell.

Bee slowe to wrath:Iam. 1. 20 For, the wrath of man doth not ac­complish the righteousnesse of God.

Cease from anger,Psal. 37. 8. leaue off wrath: fret not thy selfe also to do euill.

A foole in a day is knowne by his anger.

Be not of a hastie spirit, to be angrie: for anger resteth in the bosome of fooles.

The angry man is said to exalt folly, to set vp his folly to be seene of all.

A man of much anger shal suffer punishmēt:Pro. 19 19 and though thou deliuer him, yet wil his anger come againe.

In a word, that seuere denuntiation of our Sauior for this vndiscreete anger, breaking out into euill speeches, may humble vs continually and make vs afraide of this sinne:

That whosoeuer is angry with his brother vnaduisedly,Mat. 5. 22 shall be culpable of iudgement [or subiect to punishment.]Danger of rash anger when it exceedes. And whosoeuer shall say vnto his brother Racha, shall bee worthy to be punished by the Councell; and whosoeuer shall say foole shal be worthy to be punished with hell fire.

By all which words it is most euident, that our vndis­creete and hastie anger which ouertakes vs too oft in our places, making vs to breake out (vnlesse wee bee more watchfull) not onely into reuiling speeches, but also to blowes, and to great seueritie, is highly displeasing to [Page 293] the Lord; and it dooth exceedingly indaunger vs for his wrath and vengeance, vnlesse we be daily humbled by vn­fained repentance for it: and yet so, as that we cannot looke to escape some like measure from him, that we or ours shal surely feele his hand, vnlesse we preuent and amend it.

Spoud.

These are worthy places of holy Scriptures; and able to stay vs, if we could keepe them in memory. But yet euen in the most moderate, the very desire to do good, and to answer our places, moued by the vntowardnes and care­lesnesse of many of our children, doth cause vs sometimes to forget our selues, and to breake out ouer-much.

Phil.

God hath left this to our calling,Occasions of anger left to our calling to humble and ex­ercise vs. as a meanes to trie vs, and to humble vs continually; and also to haue matter wherin to exercise vs to striue against, and to make vs more watchfull in our places. But if wee could learne but these three lessons,Three lessons for preuenting of anger. wee should wonderfully preuent Sathan in these occasions of our anger, wherein wee are so ouer­taken;

1 So much as euer we are able,1 Constancy in obseruing or­der, and our eye euer on all. to haue our eye conti­nually round about the Schoole vpon euery one; and namely the most vnruely, to keepe them in awe: and that we keepe order strictly in euerything at all times; as speci­ally in all examinations and taskes, and our times for euery thing most precisely, that they may looke for it: for omit­ting them somtimes, makes the best too carelesse, & some bolde to offend, in hope that they shall not be seene, or not called to an account: wheras by the contrary they grow into a habite of painefulnesse and obedience.

2 Studying to put on a fatherly affection and to deale so with them as a good father amongst his children.2 Fatherly af­fections. This shall also bring them or many of them to the affections and dutifulnesse of louing children, to doe all of cons [...]i­ence.

3 Labouring to be Enocks,3 To walke i [...] our places with God as Enock. to walke in our places with God, as euer in his presence, his eye alwayes on vs; that hee obserues all our wayes and will reward and blesse vs, accor­ding to our conscience herein: thus to walke before him, [Page 294] vntill he translate vs hence, being as little absent from our place and charge, as possible may be; cutting off wisely all vnnecessary occasions. Oft absence of the Master is a prin­cipall cause of the schollars negligence and not profiting, with the griefe and vexing of the Master, arising thereon; vnlesse he haue very good supply.

Spoud.

Happy men were we if we could attaine to this. But I pray you sir, what thinke you of this, to haue ever the rodde or ferula in our hand, at lesser faults to giue them a blow or a ierke on the hand; and so when wee see any of them idle?

Phil.

If we will striue earnestly, according to the former meanes, we shall by little and little attaine to that ability, to cut off those occasions, and come to this good gouerne­ment, so farre as the Lord shall be well pleased with vs; and that he will passe by our weakenesses. But for hauing the rodde or ferula alwayes in our hands, if we be of hastie na­tures,The danger of hauing the rod of ferula euer in our hand. I take it to be, as for a furious man to carie euer a naked sword in his hand. It will make vs to strike many a time, when wee will bee sory for it after, if it fall not out worse. For these lighter faults, proceeding from lacke of time, yeares, capacity, discretion, or the like, would rather be corrected by words, and reformed louing­ly, then by this continuall whipping and striking: neyther will any good and wise father smite his childe for euery fault.

I would therefore haue neyther of these to be continual­ly holden vp;Rather a little twigge if any thing at all. but rather some little twigge, if you will needes: I meane a small twigge something more then a foote long; that if you a little rap them on the heads, you can no way hurt them, neyther their head, eyes nor face.

But I account this farre the best, for a Schoolemaster by his graue and wise carriage,For the surest, to haue no­thing ordinari­ly, but grauity and authority. and his faithfulnesse in his place; and also by carefully obseruing, and surely and soundly correcting the negligent and disobedient, when other meanes faile; to striue to come to this, that his owne presence, or at least his eye & speech, may sufficiently pre­uaile [Page 295] to keepe all in a submisse obedience; and that he may vse the rodde very sparingly, but onely in greater faults, and on the principall offenders for example and terrour. This shall be a fatherly and worthy gouernement indeede, when the children thus obey of conscience; striuing who shall be the best, and each way most dutifull. And thus in a short time, when your Schollars are so inured to your gouernement that they know what to looke for, you shall finde that very seldome correction will serue.

Spoud.

I like your aduice wonderfull well herein:The time of inflicting com­mon punish­ments. but when would you haue the time, of common punishment to be inflicted; as namely that for their misdemeanours in the Church, or other grosse faults noted by the Moni­tours?

Phil.

I would haue this done commonly at the giuing vp of the Monitours Bils, some day before prayer; some­times one day, sometimes another: and when the Master findes the greatest company present, then to call for the Monitours of that weeke; lest keeping a settime, any absent themselues by fained excuses or otherwise, or cry vnto their parents, that they dare not go to the schoole, because they must be beaten. But for extreame negligence, or other faults in the Schoole, the very fittest time is immediately before the breaking vp, vpon the play-dayes; then if need [...] so require, first to whip all the stubborne and notoriously negligent, as also those who haue done any grosse fault: and after to cause them to sit, and do some exercises, wherof they are to giue a strict account, as I said. This will surely by Gods blessing tame the proudest of them in time, & bring them to be as submisse as the least childe; as experience will manifest.

Spoud.

But what if you haue any,Such as of whom is no hope of refor­mation to be sent from Schoole in time. whom you cannot yet reforme of their vngratiousnesse or loyt [...]ring, and whom you can do no good with all, no not by [...] these meanes? As some there are euer in all schooles extreamly vntoward.

Phil.

These I would haue some way remoued from the schoole; at least by giuing the parents notice, and intrea­ting [Page 296] them to imploy them some other way; that neyther other be hurt by their example, nor they be a reproach to the Schoole, nor yet we be inforced to vse that seuerity with them which they will deserue. But keepe these courses strictly, and you shall see that they will eyther amend, or get away of themselues, by one meanes or other; I meane, by some deuice to their parents, to leaue the Schoole, and to go to some other imployment.

CHAP. XXX.
Of Schoole times, intermissions and recreations.

Spoud.

NOw that you haue thus curteously gone through this point concerning the Schoole-gouernment, by rewards and punishments (which being right­ly put in practice, must needes bring a great bles­sing with them) let me craue your iudgement also for the times of Schoole and intermissions; with recreations to be vsed therein.

Phil.

To giue you my iudgement in all these briefly,Schoole time to begin at sixe. ac­cording to that which by tryall I finde best;

1 The Schoole-time should beginne at sixe: all who write Latine to make their exercises which were giuen ouer­night, in that houre before seuen, vnlesse they did them the night before, to get parts or the like.

Spoud.

Would you then haue the Master and Vsher present so early?

Phil.

The Vsher should necessarily be there, to be pre­sent amongst them;The Vsher to be present at sixe, only to o­uersee all. though hee follow his owne priuate studie that houre, yet to see that all the Schollars doe their dueties appointed, and that there be no disorder: which [Page 297] will be, vnlesse he or some other of authority be amongst them. For otherwise the best children, left to their owne liberty, will shew themselues children. If the Master bee present at seuen, it may suffice, where there is any in his place, whose presence they stand in awe of.

Spoud.

But it is hard for the little children to rise so early, and in some families all lie long: how would you haue them come so soone then? You would not haue them bea­ten euery time that they come ouer-late, as the custome is in some schooles.

Phil.

That I take farre too great seuerity, and whereby many a poore childe is driuen into wonderfull feare, and eyther to play the truant, or make some deuice to leaue the schoole; at least to come with a marueilous ill will, and oft to be dragged to the Schoole, to the reproach of the Master and the Schoole.

The best meanes that euer I could finde to make them to rise early,How to make all children to striue who shall be first at schoole without any correction. to preuent all this feare of whipping, is this; by letting the little ones to haue their places in their fourmes daily, according to their comming after sixe of the clock: so many as are there at sixe, to haue their places as they had them by election or the day before: all who come after six, euery one to sit as he commeth, and so to continue that day, and vntill he recouer his place againe by the election of the fourme or otherwise. Thus deale with them at all times, after euery intermission, when they are to be in their places againe, and you shall haue them euer attending who to be first in his place; so greatly euen children are prouo­ked by the credite of their places.

If any cannot be brought by this, then to be noted in the blacke Bill by a speciall marke, and feele the punishment thereof: and sometimes present correction to be vsed for terrour; though this (as I said) to be more seldome, for ma­king them to feare comming to the Schoole.Intermission at nine and three for a quarter of an houre, or more.

The higher Schollars must of necessity rest to doe their exercises, if their exercises be strictly called for.

Thus they are to continue vntill nine, signified by Moni­tours, [Page 298] Subdoctour, or otherwise. Then at nine I finde that order which is in Westminster to bee farre the best; to let them to haue a quarter of an houre at least, or more for intermission, eyther for breakefast, for all who are neere vnto the Schoole, that can bee there within the time limitted, or els for the nece [...]sity of euery one, or their honest recreation, or to prepare their exercises against the Masters comming in.

After, each of them to be in his place in an instant vpon the knocking of the dore, or some other signe giuen by the Subdoctor or Monitors, in paine of losse of his place, or further punishment, as was noted before; so to continue vn­till eleuen of the clocke, or somewhat after, to counteruaile the time of the intermission at nine.

To be againe all ready, and in their places at one, in an instant [...] to continue vntill three, or halfe an houre after: then to haue another quarter of an houre or more, as at nine for drinking and necessities; so to continue till halfe an houre after fiue: thereby in that halfe houre to coun­teruaile the time at three; then to end so as was shewed, with reading a peece of a Chapter, and with singing two staues of a Psalme: lastly, with prayer to be vsed by the Master.

For the Psalmes, euery schollar should begin to giue the Psalme and the tune in order,To sing part of a Psalme be­fore breaking vp at night; and each to begin in order and giue the tune. and to reade euery verse be­fore them; or euery one to haue his booke (if it can bee) and reade it as they doe sing it: where any one can not begin the tune, his next fellow beneath is to helpe him, and take his place.

By this they will all learne to giue the tunes sweetely, which is a thing very commendable; and also it will helpe both reading, voyce and audacity in the younge [...].

Spoud.

But these intermissions at nine and three, may be offensiue: they who know not the maner of them, may re­proch the schoole, thinking that they do nothing but play.

Phil.

We are so much as may be in all things to auoyde offence:Intermissions at nine and three a clocke not offensiue. but when by long custome the order is once made knowne, it will be no more offensiue then it is at Westmin­ster, [Page 299] or then it is at noone and night; so that it be done in a decent order.

The benefits of such intermissionsBenefits of in­termissions. will be found very great, and to preuent many inconueniences.

1 By this meanes neyther Masters nor Schollars shall bee ouer-toyled,1 None ouer-toyled, but wits euer fresh. but haue fit times of refreshing. For there is none (no not almost of the least) but being vsed to it a while, they will sitte very well in their places, for two houres together,The least will soone learne to sit two houres together. or two houres and a halfe; without any wearinesse or necessity, obseruing duely those times.

2 By this meanes also the Schollars may bee kept e­uer in their places, and hard to their labours, without that running out to the Campo (as the tearme it) at schoole times,2 Kept euer in their places at schoole time. and the manifolde disorders thereof; as watching and striuing for the clubbe, and loytering then in the fields, some hindred that they cannot go forth at all.

But hereby all may haue their free liberty in due time; and none can abuse their liberty in that sort, nor haue their minds drawne away, nor stirre abroad all the day at schoole times: except vpon some vrgent necessity, to be signified to the Master or Vsher; and so leaue to be gotten priuately, to returne presently againe. And also in those cases to lose their places for that day, vnlesse the case be approued very necessary and sure; to the end to cut off occasionsLeaue to be graunted vpon vrgent occasi­ons besides. from such as will pretend necessities. If any one be catched abusing his Master or his liberty, without necessity onely, vpon de­sire of idlenesse or play, he is to be corrected sharpely, for ensample. By this meanes you shall bring them to that or­der and obedience in a short time as they will not thinke of stirring all the day, but at their times appointed, or vpon very vrgent and almost extraordinary necessity.

3 Besides these benefits,3 The time may be gained daily, and sun­dry inconueni­ences preuen­ted. this will also gaine so much time euery day, as is lost in those intermissions; because there is no day but they will all looke for so much time or more, to the Campo: especially the shrewdest boyes, who vse to waite for the club, and watch their times; [Page 300] these will be sure to haue much more then that. Besides all the time which they lose in wayting for that idle fit; and that they will, if they can, be away at Lectures, and shewing exercises: and likewise they will exceedingly trouble the Master in asking three or foure sometimes together, what businesse soeuer he be about.

Spoud.

I haue been well acquainted with these disorders of the Campo, and vexed with them many a time: I shall be most glad▪ if I may thus reforme them, and finde these be­nefites in stead thereof. But what say you for their recrea­ [...]ions? Let me also hea [...]e your iudgement in them: for I see that you would haue in like manner a speciall regard to be kept thereof.

Phil.

I would indeed haue their recreations as well loo­ked vnto, as their learning; as you may perceiue plainely, by their intermissions, at nine and at three.

Besides those, and all other their intermissions, it is very requisite also, that they should haue weekely one part of an after-noone for recreation,Weekely re­creations. as a reward of their diligence, obedience and profiting: and that to be appointed at the Masters discretion, eyther the Thursday, after the vsuall custom; or according to the best opportunity of the place. That also to be procured by some Verses, made by the Vi­ctors, as was shewed: and then onely, when there hath bin already no play-day in the week before, nor holy day in all the weeke.

Before their breaking vp also, it shall not bee amisse to giue them a Theamto make som verses of, ex tempore, Before brea­king vp to play, to make verses ex tem­pore. in the highest fourmes, after they haue beene for a time exerci­sed therein: or if time permit, sometime to cap verses.

In capping verses the way to prouoke them the most, and to haue most variety of good verses,Or cap verses. The best man­ner of capping verses. is, to appoint some one or two of the best, to challenge their fellowes to come one after another; and euer as any one but sticketh or misseth in a syllable, the other to tell him, and another to come in his place: or els to trie aduersaries or fourmes to­gether.

[Page 301] This exercise will much helpe capacitie and audacitie,Benefit of cap­ping verses. memorie, right pronuntiation, to furnish with store of au­thorities for Poetrie, and the like; so as that they may bee very cunning in their Poets by it.

Therefore it may also be vsed in regard of the benefits at some other fit times besides, insteed of some other exa­mination.

Hee that brings the most sweete verses,The greatest commendation in these. out of Ouid and Virgil or Cato amongst the yongest, and so out of o­ther most approued Poets, is to haue euer the greatest com­mendations.

Absurde verses, such as most are of those called Carmi­na Prouerbialia, are to be hissed forth: Namely, those which are tearmed versus Leonini. As that first verse, ‘Si canis ex hilla religatur mordet in illa.’

And so all other of the same mould. Though euen a­mongst those of that booke there are some tolerable ver­ses, if good choise be made.

This exercise may well goe before play: for it is nothing but a pleasant schoole recreation, & will exceedingly whet on the schollars to an ingenuous contention.

All recreations and sports of schollars,Manner of their recreations. would be meet for Gentleman. Clownish sports, or perilous, or yet playing for money, are no way to be admitted.

The recreations of the studious are as well to be looked vnto,The recreatiōs of the studious to be regarded. as the study of the rest: That none take hurt by his study, either for minde or bodie, or any waie else.

Yet here of the other side,Ouer much play to be carefully auoided. very great care is to be had, in the moderating of their recreation. For schooles, general­ly, doe not take more hinderance by any one thing, then by ouer-often leaue to play. Experience teacheth, that this draweth their mindes vtterly away from their bookes, that that they cannot take paines, for longing after plaie, and talking of it; as also deuising meanes to procure others to get leaue to play: so that ordinarily when they are but in hope thereof, they will doe things very negligently; and after the most play they are euermore farre the worst.

[Page 302] And contrarily, when they are most holden to it, with­out looking for any play, in such a course, as wherein they may take delight, and goe on with ease; then will they do farre the best, without any daunger of taking hurt thereby; for that thē their learning is for most part as a play to them who are ingenuous.

Therefore Masters are to vse great wisdom in auoiding this▪ and answering with mildnesse, all those who are euer importunate in asking leaue.

And whereas such suiters are wont to be instant thus, That the Schollars will learne the better after; we may say truly, that they will learne fa [...] the worse after. Also, where­as they think that they do them good; they do both them, their friends and the schoole very great hurt, for the rea­sons mentioned. It is continuall applying which brings learning, and the credit of a schoole. And for this cause it were not amisse, nor inconuenient (neither for the schoole, nor the Master himselfe who hath a regard of the profiting of his schollars) if in such places where both Master and schollars are hindred hereby that there were some statute for the helpe of the Master, that he could not giue leaue of himselfe aboue once in the weeke, without consent of the Minister, or some man of authority in the towne; vnlesse very seldome, and vnto some chiefe parties to be yeelded vnto of necessity, in regard of some speciall dignity or de­sert.

Spoud.

Many Masters would count this a bondage.

Phil.

They should yet finde it a profitable bondage, and which would bring no small freedome and comfort to themselues, or benefit and credite to their schooles in the end.

CHAP. XXXI.
Inconuenience growing by diuersitie of teaching, and of Grammars.

Spoud.

BVt what think you of diuersities of Grammars,Inconuenience by diuersity of Grammars and courses of tea­ching. and of diuers courses in teaching? do you not take them to be very inconuenient?

Phil.

Yes indeed: for by this means they young­er schollars comming at new schooles, or vnder new ma­sters, are new to begin; or are hindered, and do lose much time, when they must after asort begin againe. Many of great towardnesse and hope are thought to haue nothing in them, because they are not acquainted with the newe courses.

Also their former Masters are discredited, which hap­pely had taken the best and most profitable paines with them: the children are vtterly or very much discouraged. Besides that many schoolmasters are extreamly ignorant, and insufficient, not knowing any good course of teaching at all.

Spoud.

But how might these be helped?

Phil.

Only thus: The best courses being once foūd out by search, conference, and trial, with directions & helpsHow helped. for the practice therof▪ & the same vniuersally receiued or at least known; these inconueniences should be for most part pre­uented, & both Masters & schollars go on with cheerfulnes in euery place. In the meane time this is the safest course; To make them perfect in our ordinary Grāmar, by the vse whereof alone so many excellent schollars haue been: then they shall be sure to goe forward in any schoole or course, and to be well liked by euery one.

CHAP. XXXII.
Euils by ordinarie absence of Schollars.

Spoud.

ALthough I haue been troubled by that diuersitie, yet much more by the absence of many of my schollars,Euils by ab­sence of schol­lars. when some of them are away, two or three dayes in a weeke, and sometimes happely a moneth together, or almost a quarter of a yeere, as in the haruest time, and it may be they haue no bookes neither; and yet the Parents will expect, that they should profit as much as if they were there daily, and as if they had al neces­sary bookes.

Also they will bee ready to raile vpon me that their chil­dren do no good: whereby both my selfe and my schoole are much traduced; when the fault is wholly in themselues or principally, neither can I tell how to helpe it.

Phil.

I knowe this to bee a common grieuance. The best waie to redresse it, is this, so farre as I know:

1. Parents are to bee admonished, either to keepe their children to schoole daily, or to keep them away continual­ly. For by such absence, though it bee but now and then, the mindes of the best and most studious will bee much drawen away, or they discouraged, and made vnable to go with their fellowes.

Other their fellowes also, are often much hindred for them; Schooles and Masters discredited by them: Besides that in their absence they commonly learne much euill; and chiefly stubbornnesse to corrupt themselues and o­thers

[Page 305] Therefore this would bee looked vnto specially,How redressed. to be a­uoided so much as may be: And order to be taken by the gouernours and ouerseers of schooles, that all such should be sent home againe, who are kept awaie aboue a certaine number of daies; as thirteene in a Quarter (as the statute is in some schooles) or a like number: vnlesse in case of sick­nesse, or such necessary occasion to be approued by the Master or ouerseers.

Those most seldome absences, to be punished by losse of their places, and correction too, if the fault be found to be any way in themselues; or at least to sit still on the play daies to learne when their fellowes plaie, to recouer that time againe, and to make them more carefull to come; or by all these meanes together. This will make the Pa­rents to amend it.

CHAP. XXXIII.
Discouragements of Schoolemasters by vnthankfulnesse of Parents.

Spoud.

THis is good counsell, if I could get our ouerseers to put it in execution; I my selfe will trie what I can doe to redresse it by these helpes: Yet there is one other discouragement, whereby I haue bin very much troubled in my selfe, many times; that is, the great vnthankfulnesse that I finde,Discourage­ment of Schoolemasters by vnthankful­ness of Parents. and haue euer found in many whose children I haue had; That some, if they think they haue any little priuiledge by the place, they will not so much as giue me thanks for all my labours, nor it may be afford me a good word, though their children do neuer so well vnder me.

[Page 306] Others who haue no priuiledge in the place, will giue lit­tle or nothing, in regarde of my paines, or to my meete maintenance, according to my place, to incourage mee to take paines: and besides, they will run behind with me two or three Quarters, and then they will seek some occasion to take away their children, to set them to other schooles, fin­ding some quarrell that their children did not profit, or the like; and thus not onely defraude me of my due, but also raise such slaunders against me, for the recompence of all my paines.

Phil.

We must look for thankes,Thanks to be expected at Gods hands. Remedies a­gainst discou­ragements by vnthankfulness of Parents. and the rewards of our labours from God, where the world is vnthankfull. But for the help of this, my aduise is, that first we labour to be faith­full in our places, in the best courses and kindes; chiefly to make our schollars good Grāmarians: and then we may be bold to cause them who are of abilitie to paie accordingly in some sort, for the instruction of their children. They will better esteem the worth of learning, and of the seruice we performe to them (in those in whom they are to liue af­ter their time) and also to the Church & Common-wealth. And if God doe blesse vs, that our schollars profit indeede, we shall in time haue schollars enow; such as will be willing to pay well, how basely soeuer learning be esteemed of.

Moreouer, to preuent all such shifting and detraction, it is wisdom euer to cal for our due at the Quarters end; and to see that our cariage & gouernment be such in our place, as that we may stand in the face of any such vnthankful de­tractour. Also, that Gods blessing on our labours, may e­uer answere for vs; which following but these directions we may certainly expect.

Finally, that in our places we labour to serue the Lord faithfully: and then wee may bee sure to receiue the full re­ward of all our labour, from him; let men, as I said, be ne­uer so vnthankfull.

CHAP. XXXIIII.
What Children are to be kept to learning.

Spoud.

SIr, if I should not take heart and courage to set to my calling afresh, I were much to be blamed, hauing all my doubts thus answered, and being thus heartened in euery part. But yet, that I may both returne vnto it cheerefully; and also goe forward, and continue happily to the end: I pray you let me haue your iudgement in these two points:

1. What children you would haue set to learning, and incouraged to goe on in the same.

2. Which you would haue sent to the Vniuersity, & how qualified.

Phil.

To both these I shall aunswere you vvhat I hold.1. what schollars to be set to lear­ning.

To the first: I would haue those who after good time of triall shall be found the fittest amongst a mans children, to be applied vnto learning;Most apt & of greatest hope. as being the meetest to be offe­red to God in a more speciall maner, to the publick seruice of his church or their Countries.

And so those onely of them, to be incouraged to goe on in the same, whom you find most ingenuous, and espe­cially whom you perceiue to loue learning the best; which also do witnesse the same by their painfulnesse and delight in their books. The rest to be fitted so far as may be conue­niently, for trades, or some other calling, or to be remoued speedily.

2. To the second I answere: That such onely should be sent to the Vniuersities,2. What schol­lars to be sent to the Vniuer­sities. who proue most ingenuous and to­wardly, and who in a loue of learning, will begin to take [Page 308] paines of themselues, hauing attained in some sort the for­mer parts of learning;Ingenuous and louers of learn­ing. being good GrammariansGood Gram­mari [...]ns. at least, able to vnderstand, write and speake Latine in good sort.

2. Such as haue good discretion how to gouerne them­selues there,Of discretion. and to moderate their expenses; which is sel­dome times before 15. yeeres of age: which is also the youngest age admitted by the statutes of the Vniuersity, as I take it.

Some of chiefe note for learning and gouernment, and of long experience in the Vniuersitie (as namely, some worthy heads of Colledges) would haue none sent nor admitted into the Vniuersitie,None to be sent to the Vniuersi­ties, be [...]ore 15. yeeres of age at least. before they be full fif­teen yeers olde at least; for these reasons specially amongst others:

1. Because, before that time, they will commonly re­quire more bodily helpe, then can be there afforded.

2. The Vniuersitie statute forbiddeth to admit any vn­der this age.

3. Because that daily experience doth teach how in­conuenient it is in diuers respects.

Finally, all generally of whom I can heare in the Vniuer­sitie, doe assent hereunto. Many would haue them 17. or 18. yeere olde before; because then commonly they haue discretion to sticke to their studies and to gouerne them­selues.

Spoud.

I doe much approue their iudgement. I would haue them good schollars, before they goe to the Vniuer­sitie; and namely sound Grammarians, that the Tutors need not to be troubled with teaching them to make or to construe Latine; but that they may goe forward in Logick or other studies meet for the Vniuersitie. For such a schol­lar as is able to vnderstand well what hee reades, or what is read vnto him there (I meane in regard of the Latine) shall doe more good in a yeere, then a weak schollar shall do in two or three; chiefly, if hee haue discretion to gouerne himselfe, and abide close to his booke.

For when as the schollar is faine to turne his Dictionary [Page 309] for euery word, or hearing a Lecture read doth come away as he went; vnlesse he be placed vnder a most painefull Tu­tor, how is it possible that he should profite any thing, in respect of him who goeth a good schollar thither? How many euils doe come vpon the sending of schollars so raw­ly thither, both Vniuersity and Countrey doe fully know and [...]ue.

Now you haue so louingly and fully answered me in e­uery doubt, and so largely laide open your minde vnto me, as indeede I cannot desire any more of you: Onely let me tell you this,To practice the most profitable that the points are so many, as I feare that I shall neuer be able to put them in practice.

Phil.

You may make triall of all, or the most likely of them; and constantly practice those which you finde most profitable: the shorter that you can be in euery thing, the better shall you do; so that all be done with vnderstanding, as I said before.

Spoud.

I trust you will giue me a copie of them: for o­therwise I shall neuer be able to remember them; besides that they will require to be oft read ouer and ouer, vntill I shall grow perfect in them. I doe not doubt, but you haue set them downe.

Phil.

I haue; though as yet very imperfectly, for lacke of meete leasure. Such as I haue I shall impart (seeing your earnest desire to doe good) and more as God shall adde more helpe and experience by your selfe, and by others▪

CHAP. XXXV.
A briefe rehearsall of the chiefe points and helpes mentioned in this booke.

Spoud.

HOw much shall you make me more indebted by that fauour, aboue all your other kindnesse hi­therto! Yet in the meane time before we depart, to the end to helpe my weake memory, and to cause me to goe on more cherefully, let me request onely these two things of you further:

1 To repeat the principall heads of those things which should be as it were in the Masters remembrance alwayes,A briefe rehear­sall of the chief points mentio­ned in this booke. to be continually put in practice.

2 To set me downe a short Catalogue of the bookes and helpes which you haue mentioned belonging hereun­to,A rehearsall of the bookes and helps mentio­ned. for the better accomplishing of all these seuerall parts of learning.

Phil.

For those principall heads, though most of them were named in the obseruations; yet sith such little briefes doe much helpe memory, I will rehearse them so neere as I can.

These were of the chiefe:

1 To cause all to be done with vnderstanding.The principall heads of those things which would be kept euer in memo­ry, to be put in practice by the Master conti­nually.

2 To cut off all needlesse matters, so much as may be, and passe by that which is vnprofitable.

3 To note all hard and new wordes: to obserue matter and phrase carefully.

4 To learne and keepe all things most perfectly, as they goe.

5 To haue few fourmes.

6 To discourage none, but to draw on all by a desire of commendation.

7 To stirre vp to emulation of aduersaries, and to vse all good policy for one to prouoke another.

[Page 311] 8 Continuall examining (which is the life of all) and chiefly posing of the most negligent.

9 Right pronuntiation.

10 Some exercise of memory daily.

11 To haue the best patternes for euery thing; and to doe all by imitation.

12 The Master to stirre vp both himselfe and his Schol­lars to continuall cheerefulnesse.

13 Constancy in order.

These were generally premised. To these we may adde;

14 To get an Idea or short summe and generall notion of euery Treatise or Chapter.

15 To parallel all by examples, or to giue like exam­ples for each thing, and where they haue learned them.

16 To see that they haue continually all necessaries.

17 To countenance and preferre the best, to be markes for the rest to aime at, and that all may be incouraged by their example.

18 Maintayning authority, by carefull execution of iu­stice in rewards and punishments, with demonstration of loue, faithfulnesse and painefulnesse in our place, with gra­uitie; working by all means a loue of learning in the schol­lars, and a strift who shall excell most therein, of a consci­ence to do most honour and seruice vnto the Lord, both presently, and chiefly in time to come.

19 In a word; Seruing the Lord with constant cheere­fulnesse, in the best courses which he shall make knowne vnto vs▪ we shall vndoubtedly see his blessing, according to our hearts.

M. Askam hath these steps to learning:Master Askam his steps to lear­ning. First, Aptnesse of nature: Secondly, Loue of learning: Thirdly, Diligence in right order: Fourthly, Constancy with pleasant moderati­on: Fiftly, Alwayes to learne of the most learned; pointing and ayming at the best, to match or go beyond them.

Philip Melanchton also, in his Preface before Hesiod, ad­uiseth after this manner;Philip Me­lanchtons dire­ction. To striue to make schollars ex­ceeding cunning in euery Authour which they reade. [Page 312] doe this by oft reading and construing ouer their Authors; causing them to note euery thing worthy obseruation, with some marke, to run ofter ouer those: not regarding how many the Authours are, but how exactly they learne them; chiefly all their sentences & speciall phrases, that the speech of the children may euer sauor of them: for thus he saith; Vt quis (que) author optimus, it a saepissimè relegendus ad imit atio­nem: And that thereby they may alwayes haue of a sudden a patterne or president in their minde, whereunto to run, as the painter hath. And so much for the chiefe points: for the seuerall books and helps, I referre you rather to the seuerall Chapters; where you may soone see them toge­ther, as you shal haue occasion to vse them for their seuerall purposes.

Spoud.

But it is a great charge to poore men, to prouide so many bookes as may seeme necessary.

Phil.

It is true indeede; yet one yeare gained in their childrens learning, will recompence abundantly all charge in bookes which they shall neede: and much more, if by them they shall gaine sundry yeares, and be furnished with all kinde of excellent learning meet for their yeares; which without the best bookes, it is no more likely to do, then for any to proue exquisite in other trades and sciences, without the most fine instruments seruing thereunto.

And this one certaine assurance of the obtayning this treasure of learning, by following the right meanes and courses, may counterpoize all labour and charges whatso­euer can be furmised, for attayning of the same.

Spoud.

Sir, I rest fully satisfied; praysing the Lord, and acknowledging my perpetual debt for this our conference.

Phil.

Let vs giue God all the glory; to whom of due it ap­pertaines: and let vs euer intreate him, that as he hath thus begun, so he will perfect his owne worke, for the euerla­sting praise of his owne name, and the perpetuall good of all his people, vntill Christ Iesus shall come. [...].

[...].

THE SEVERALL CHAPTERS, WITH THE PAR­ticular Contents of them.

CHAP. I.

1 A Discourse betweene two Schoolemasters, concerning their function: in the end de­termining a conference about the best way of teaching, and the manner of pro­ceeding in the same.

Herein these particulars:

  • The Schoolemasters place, ordinarily, wearisome, and thankelesse.
  • They, who haue felt the euils of labouring without fruit, will neyther spare trauell nor cost to helpe the same.
  • Many honest hearted & painful Schoolemasters vtterly discouraged, and liuing in continuall discontentment, through lacke of knowledge of a right course of teaching.
  • Some few God much blesseth in this calling, thogh rare.
  • More true contentment to bee found in this calling, rightly followed, then in any recreation.
  • The fruits of this, most sweet in the remembrance.
  • Knowledge and practice of the best courses will much augment the blessing of our labour, and fill our liues with contentment.
  • How the way of all good learning may bee made more easie, then euer in former ages.
  • Many worthy helpes lie hid from the greatest part, only through neglect.
  • [Page 314] A briefe rehearsall of the chiefe contents, for the better entring into the conference, & for giuing more light and life to all that followeth.
  • The manner of proceeding in this conference.

CHAP. II.

2 WHen the schollar should first be set to the school. Branches;

  • The time of the first entrance in countrey schooles, at seuen or eight yeare olde.
  • The child of any ordinary towardlines, to begin to learn about fiue yeare olde. Reasons and benefit of it.
  • Two or three yeares may be gained hereby, to fit them sooner for the Vniuersity.
  • Parents ought to labour to see their childrens good e­ducation before their eyes, so soone as may be.
  • Obiections against setting children so young to the schoole, answered.

CHAP. III.

3 HOw the schollar may be taught to reade English wel and speedily, to fit him the sooner and better for the Grammar schoole.

Herein these things handled;

  • The inconueniences of hauing the Grammar schooles troubled with teaching A. B. C.
  • How this might be remedied by some other schooles in each towne for that purpose.
  • The redresse hereof to besought.
  • To be borne with patience, where it cannot be auoyded; and the burden of it to be made so light as may be.
  • The first entring of children to be looked to heedily.
  • To teach to reade wel, a matter of good commendation.
  • Griefe & discredit to the Schoolemaster for want of this.
  • To teach to call and pronounce each letter right.
  • [Page 315] How to know their letters the soonest.
  • To spell, and take a delight therein.
  • Some of the hardest syllables and words set downe, for the practicing children in spelling of them; to helpe by them to spell any other speedily, and for writing true Orthography.
  • Of ioyning syllables together.
  • Bookes to be first learned of children.
  • In what time children well applyed, may learne to reade English.
  • Diuiding and distinguishing syllables.
  • The pleasantest way to teach the little ones, to pronounce their letters, and to spell before they know a letter; and how to doe it.
  • Any one who can reade, may thus enter children, if they wil follow the directions; and so a poore body may make an honest liuing of it, and free the Grammar schooles.
  • Complaints for children for getting to reade English, when they first enter into Latine; and how to auoyde them.
  • The iust complaint of want of care in our schooles, for pro­ceeding in our owne tongue, as in the Latine or Greeke; wheras our chiefe care should be for our owne language: and reasons for it.
  • How schollars may increase continually, as fast in our own tongue as in the Latine.
  • The chiefe fault of children going backe in English, when they begin to learne Latine, is in the Parents.
  • An ordinary fault, that schollars are to seeke in matters of common numbers; and how to redresse it.

CHAP. IIII.

OF writing. How the Master may direct his schollars to write faire, though himselfe be no good pen-man.

Herein these particulars:

  • Faire writing a great benefit and ornament to schooles.
  • The opinion is fond, that a good schollar cannot be a good writer.
  • [Page 316] The trouble of Schoolemasters, for want of this skill to teach their schollars how to write.
  • When the schollars should begin to write.
  • To haue all necessaries thereunto, and books kept faire.
  • Each to learne to make his owne pen, and how.
  • Holding the pen, and carrying it lightly.
  • In stead of setting copies, to haue little copie-bookes fa­stened to the tops of their bookes; and those of the best which can be procured.
  • Manner of their copie-bookes and copies.
  • Inconuenience of following diuers hands.
  • Euils of the want of such copie-bookes.
  • Faire writing to be practiced by all the schollars once e­uery day.
  • General rule in writing, to make all like the copie.
  • How to keepe euen compasse in writing, not ouer-high not too low.
  • Benefit of ruling-pens for each, and what ones.
  • The bookes of the young beginners to bee ruled with crosse lines.
  • The compasse in greatnes and neerenes of the letters.
  • Ioyning the letters in writing.
  • Writing straight without lines.
  • Speciall furtherances for the first enterers, when they cannot frame any letter.
  • Leisurely drawing the letters as the Painter, a chief help.
  • To obserue ornaments of writing.
  • To make all the letters most plaine.
  • Mischiefes of getting a bad hand first.
  • What the Master is to doe, to the end that he may learne to teach his schollars to write faire.
  • To walke amongst the schollars, to see that they obserue their directions, and to marke all faults in writing.
  • This skill is to be gotten, to auoyde the euils by wan­dring Scriueners.
  • The vse of Scriueners in Grammar Schooles, what.
  • The summe of the principal directions for writing, to be euer in memory.

CHAP. V.

CErtaine general obseruations to be knowen of School­masters, and practiced carefully; chiefly in all Gram­mar learning.

  • 1. That schollars bee taught to doe all things with vn­derstanding, and to haue a generall knowledge of the mat­ter before.
  • To do all things by reason with vnderstanding, brings almost double learning, besides ease and delight.
  • Reading without vnderstanding, is a neglect of lear­ning.
  • Triall of difference betweene learning with vnderstan­ding and without.
  • Verses of Horace to this end, worthy to bee written in letters of golde, to be imprinted in the memories of all.
  • How some writers haue so far gone beyond others in e­loquence, thorough their ripenesse and vnderstanding.
  • How to teach all to be done by vnderstanding.
  • 2. To learne onely such things as whereof they may haue good and perpetuall vse.
  • 3. To note all hard words or matters worthie obserua­tion, and the manner of marking them.
  • 4. To learne all things so perfectly, as the former may be insteed of a Schoolemaster to the later.
  • 5. That the whole schoole be diuided into so few forms, as may be; with reasons for the same.
  • 6 To haue a great care that none be discouraged, but all to be prouoked by emulation and desire of praise.
  • A sentence of Tully to this purpose worthie to be euer before the Masters eye.
  • Strift for victories the most commendable plaie and a chiefe meanes to make the schoole Ludus Literar [...]us.
  • 7. Each to haue his aduersary: and they to be so matched and placed as all may be done by equall strift.
  • [Page 318] 8. To vse euer to examine the most negligent.
  • 9. Continuall care of pronouncing.
  • 10. To haue some exercise of memory daily, for ma­king excellent memories.
  • 11. To haue the best patternes of all sorts that can bee gotten.
  • 12. The Masters to incourage themselues and their schollars continually.
  • 12. Constancie in good orders, with continuall de­monstration of loue, to doe all for the greatest good of the schollars.

CHAP. VI.

HOw to make children perfect in the Accedence.

Herein these particulars:

  • The vsuall manner of learning to reade the Acce­dence.
  • The ordinary manner of getting the Accedence with­out booke.
  • The best meanes, for learning to reade the Accedence.
  • Generall rule in learning without booke, or getting whatsoeuer seemeth hard, To take but a little at a time.
  • To cause them first to vnderstand their lectures and how.
  • Admonition to Masters, desirous to do good; To be as the Nurses with little children.
  • Example how to make children to vnderstand, by shew­ing the meaning, and by asking questions.
  • In what points of the Accedence, the chiefe labour would be bestowed to make young schollars very perfect▪ viz. in all kinde of declining.
  • How to be most speedily perfect in the Verbs; which are a mean foundation, and wherin the greatest difficulty lieth.
  • No paines can be too great in Nownes and Verbs vntill they be exceeding perfect.
  • [Page 319] Two generall obseruations in the English rules: what parts of the English rules, to be made most perfect in.
  • Helpe for examination of the Accedence: viz. The questions of the Accedence, called the Poasing of the Eng­lish parts. Other needfull questions adioined to the end of the same.

CHAP. VII.

HOw to make schollars perfect in the Grammar.

  • What is done ordinarily in schooles in teaching Grammar.
  • What things are requisite in learning Grammar.
  • How to get the Grammar with most ease and fruite.
  • Benefit of Lillies rules construed.
  • Learning the rules without booke.
  • Construing the rules without booke.
  • How to do where leasure is wanting.
  • How to examine so as to make your schollar to answer a­ny question of his Grammar; with an example thereof.
  • To appose only in English, where children are too weak to answere in Latine.
  • Examining in the Latine Nownes and Verbes.
  • Examining the Syntaxis, and helpes thereunto.
  • Repeating titles and margents, or the beginning of the rules, in a continued speech, to keep the rules perfectly.
  • Helpe for hearing part in straights of time.
  • Helps for further vnderstanding the rules.
  • The sum of all, wherin chiefe care would be had.
  • A perfect saying euery rule, not so absolutely necessa­rie.
  • To turne to each hard rule in parsing, a helpe to make Schollars perfect in the Grammar.
  • Grammar to be made as a Dictionary to the Schollars.

CHAP. VIII.

OF Construction, or of construing Authors, how to make all the way thereof most easie and plaine.

Herein these particulars:

  • Things seeming difficult in construction.
  • The ordinary toile of Masters about giuing lectures, & making their schollars able to construe.
  • Difficulty in taking lectures, in propriety of words and sense.
  • Griefe of the Masters for their schollars forgetting that which they haue learned.
  • The waie of construing most plaine, by practice of the Rule of construing, and of Grammaticall translations.
  • The rule of construing vnheard of to the most.
  • The rule set downe by sundry learned Grammarians.
  • The rule according as Master Leech hath set it downe.
  • The rule according to Crusius.
  • The rule expounded more at large, though the curious handling of it be left to some others.
  • The sum of the rule briefly.
  • An example of construing and of Grammaticall tran­slations according to the rule: wherin may be seene the ge­nerall benefits therof, for resoluing Latine into the Gram­maticall order, construing, parsing, making Latine, and trying it.
  • The chiefe reason of the benefits.
  • Benefits of translatiōs according to the rule, set down more particularly.
  • Things specially obserued in the translations of the Schoole Authors.
  • How to vse the translations, so as to attaine the former benefits.
  • Obiections against the vse of translations in Schooles, answered.
  • [Page 321] The vses and benefits mentioned, cannot be made of a­ny other translations of the Schoole Authors, except of the Grammaticall: and the reason of it.
  • Som exampls of other translations, to manifest the truth hereof.
  • Grammatical translations separate from the Latine, can­not indanger any to make them truants.
  • How to preuent idlenesse or negligence in the vse of the translations.
  • These no meanes to make Masters idle, but contrarily to incourage them to take all paines.
  • The account to be iustly made of such translations.
  • Schoole Authors translated Grammatically.
  • Other bookes also translated Grammatically for conti­nuall helps in Schooles.
  • What helpes to be vsed for construing higher Authors, and so for construing ex tempore.
  • The higher fourmes to practice to goe ouer so much as they can, construing ex tempore.

CHAP. IX.

OF Parsing and the seueral kinds therof. How children may parse of themselues, readily and surely.

The particular branches are these;

  • The vsuall manner of teaching to parse.
  • The certaine direction for parsing.
  • To parse as they construe, marking the last word.
  • To obserue carefully, where they haue learned each word, what exāple euery word is like; so to parallel by exā ­ples, each thing which they haue not learned in their rules.
  • An example of parsing, set downe at large for the ru­dest.
  • Manner of hearing lectures amongst the lower.
  • How to knowe by the words what part of Speech each word is.
  • [Page 322] How a childe may knowe, of what Coniugation any Verbe is.
  • Much time and toyle in parsing, thorough examining each word by the Master, how helped.
  • The surest, shortest & speediest way of parsing, to parse as reading a lecture.
  • How to helpe to prepare the children for parsing at ta­king lectures, by shewing them onely the hard words, that they may take most paines in them.
  • Example of marking the hard words amongst the first enterers.
  • Marking the hard words helpeth much, and preuenteth many inconueniences.
  • How to oppose so as children may get both matter, words and phrase of each lecture, with examples of it in the first Authors: and how to make vse of each Author.
  • Parsing in the higher fourmes, and to do all in Latine.
  • The sum of all for parsing.

CHAP. X.

OF making Latine. How to enter children to make La­tine, with delight and certainty; without daunger of false Latine, barbarous phrase, or any other like inconue­nience.

Particular points;

  • To enter children to make Latine, a matter ordinarily extreamly difficult and full of toyle, both to Master and Schollar.
  • The vsuall manner in country Schooles, to enter chil­dren to make Latine.
  • The shortest, surest, and easiest way, both to Master and Schollar, for entring to make Latine.
  • Making first the Latine of their lectures, and giuing a reason of each word. Example of it.
  • Continuall construing, parsing, and reading their Au­thors [Page 323] out of Grammaticall translations, is continuall ma­king pure Latine, to cause children to come on in it very fast.
  • Choosing fit sentences out of Authors, for the children to make of themselues.
  • The maner of the entrance of children to write Latine, so as to profit in English, Latine, Writing faire and true, all vnder one labor.
  • How to haue their bookes ruled to this purpose.
  • Manner of dictating the English to schollars, when they are to learne to write Latine.
  • Making and setting downe the Latine, by the Schollars.
  • Benefit of it for, certaine direction both to Master and Schollar.
  • Further vse to be made of the Latine so set down, to make it fully their owne.
  • Composing the Latine into the order of the Author.
  • Tullies Sentences, the fittest book to dictate sentences out of.
  • An example of the manner of dictating, and writing downe both English and Latine.
  • Translating into pure Latine, and in good composition of themselues, trying who can come neerest vnto Tullie.
  • How to preuent stealing, and writing after one another.
  • How to goe on faster, and dispatch more in making La­tine.
  • Translating into English of themselues, after M. As­kams maner; and after, reading the same into Latine again, or writing it.
  • The most speedy and profitable way of translating for young schollars.
  • How to translate an Authour into Latine, or any peece thereof.
  • Such translating onely for Schollars well grounded.
  • Summe of all for making Latine.

CHAP. XI.

OF the Artificial order of composing, or placing of the words in prose, according to Tully, and the purest la­tinists. Herein these particulars:

  • Pure composition a matter of difficulty.
  • The error of young Schollars, displacing sentences, in an imagination of fine composition.
  • Composition generally belonging to all Latine.
  • Rules of composition, as they are set down by Macro­pedius, in the end of his Method of making Epistles.
  • More exquisite obseruation in placing and measuring sentences.

CHAP. XII.

HOw to make Epistles imitating Tully, short pithy, sweet Latine and familiar, and to indite Letters to our friends in English accordinglie. Herein these things;

  • Difficulty of making Epistles purely, and pithily.
  • The ordinary meanes of directing Schollars to make Epistles.
  • Difficulty for children, who haue no reading, to inuent variety of matter of themselues.
  • Helpes for making Epistles, by reading Tullies Epi­stles, and imitating them.
  • Making answeres to Epistles.
  • Examples of imitating Epistles, and answering them.

CHAP. XIII.

OF making Theames full of good matter, in a pure stile and with iudgement.

[Page 325] Herein these branches;

  • The ordinary manner of directing schollars how to en­ter to make Theames, according to Apthonius precepts.
  • The inconueniencies of that course for yong schollars; and that it is hard enough for many teachers.
  • Difficulty in making Theames, because schollars are not acquainted with the matter of them.
  • The schollar is oft beaten for his Theame, when the Ma­ster rather deserueth it.
  • To consider the end of making Theames.
  • The meanes to furnish the schollars for Theames.
  • Presidents or examples for Theames.
  • Presidents for matter, to furnish schollars with store of the best matter.
  • Reusneri Symbola, a booke meete to this purpose; and chiefly for trayning vp young Gentlemen, and all of chiefe sort and condition.
  • How to vse Reusner for Theames.
  • An easie direction for Theames, to be handled according to the seuerall parts thereof.
  • Imitation of Exordiums and Conclusions.
  • Other Authours for matter.
  • Helpes for inuention of matter.
  • The knowledge of the ten grounds of Inuention, the readiest way.
  • The Art of meditation most profitable and easie for help of inuention.
  • Presidents for the forme and manner of making Theames.
  • Declamations and patternes for them.
  • Declamations fit for the Vniuersities, or for the princi­pall schollars in Grammar schooles.
  • Manner of writing down Theams by schollars of iudge­ment.
  • Making of Theames ex tempore, a matter of great com­mendations, if it be done schollar-like.
  • The way to make Theames ex tempore.
  • [Page 326] A most easie and profitable practice, to helpe to make Theames ex tempore.
  • Whereto be stored with matter and words for each part of the Theame.
  • Helpe for supplying wordes and phrases.
  • Common-place bookes, a singular helpe.
  • Orations.
  • Orations belong specially to the Vniuersities.
  • Examples of Orations.
  • Orations ex tempore.
  • Summe for Theames.

CHAP. XIIII.

OF versifying. How to enter to make verses with de­light and certainty, without bodging; and to traine vp schollars to imitate and expresse Ouid or Virgill, both their phrase and stile.

Herein these particulars:

  • Poetry rather for ornament then for any necessity.
  • There may be commendable vse of Poetry.
  • The ordinary difficulty of Poetry.
  • The folly of some in this kinde.
  • The most plaine way how to enter to make verses, with­out bodging.
  • Turning the verses of their Lectures into other verses.
  • Of contracting or drawing seuen or eight verses into foure or fiue; and the certaine benefit of this exercise.
  • To make verses of any ordinary Theame.
  • To versifie ex tempore.
  • Helpes for versifying.

CHAP. XV.

THe manner of examining and correcting exercises.

Herein these particulars:

  • Examining exercises neuer to be omitted.
  • Generall faults wherein schollars doe commonly slip.
  • To reade ouer their exercises first in naturall order.
  • To parallel each thing by examples.
  • To looke to elegancy and finenesse of composition.
  • Neuer to thinke any thing laboured enough.
  • Aduersaries to note faults in one anothers exercises.
  • The manner of examining exercises by the Master.
  • Speciall faults in the highest fourmes.
  • Care that they doe correct their exercises presently.

CHAP. XVI.

HOw to answere any needfull question of Grammar or Rhetoricke.

Herein these things;

  • To answere any Grammar question, a thing commen­dable.
  • How to answere any difficult Grammar question.
  • Most of the difficulties of the auncient Classicall Au­thours, collected briefly by M. Stockwood.
  • How to answere the questions of Rhetoricke.
  • How to answere the questions of Tullies Offices.

CHAP. XVII.

OF Grammaticall oppositions. How to dispute schol­lar-like of any Grammar question in good Latine.

Herein these branches:

  • [Page 328] To vse the helpe of Master Stockwoods disputations of Grammar.
  • Benefits of such scholasticall oppositions.
  • Disputations of morall Philosophy belong rather to the Vniuersities.
  • How these may be done, and how farre.
  • Obiection answered, for disputing out of Master Stock­wood.
  • Euils of inforcing schollars to exercises, with the exam­ples whereof they are not acquainted first.
  • Benefite of hauing the best paternes.

CHAP. XVIII.

OF pronouncing naturally and sweetly, without vaine affectation.

Herein these particulars:

  • The excellency of pronuntiation.
  • Pronuntiation ordinarily hard to bee attained in schooles.
  • How schollars may bee brought to pronounce sweete­lie.
  • Children to be trai [...]ed vp to pronounce right from the first entrance.
  • To vtter euery matter according to the nature of it.
  • What they cannot vtter in Latine, to learne to doe it first in English, then in Latine.
  • To cause sundry to pronounce the very same sentence in emulation.
  • To be carefull, chiefly for pronuntiation, in all Authors wherein persons are fained to speake.
  • Poetry to be pronounced as prose, except in scanning.
  • Further helpes in pronouncing.
  • To marke in each sentence, in what word the Emphasie lyeth.
  • Care in pronouncing exercises.
  • [Page 329] The more exquisite knowledge and practice of pro­nouncing, left vnto the Vniuersities.

CHAP. XIX.

OF speaking Latine purely and readily.

  • Complaint of the difficulty to traine vp schollars to speake Latine.
  • The generall errour, for the time when schollars are to begin to speake Latine.
  • To learne to speake Latine should be begun from the first entrance into construction.
  • The surest course for entring young schollars to speake Latine.
  • How the Master himselfe may doe it easily before them.
  • The daily practice of Grammaticall Translations, and chiefly of reading bookes of Dialogues out of English into Latine, is a continuall practice of speaking Latine.
  • Difficulty to cause schollars to practice speaking Latine amongst themselues.
  • Inconueniencies of Custodes for speaking Latine.
  • Inconuenience of one schollar smiting another with the Ferula.
  • The best meanes to holde schollars to speaking La­tine.
  • How any one may by himselfe alone, attaine to speake Latine in ordinary matters.
  • For them who desire to come to ripenesse and purity in the Latine tongue, Goclenius his obseruations of the Latine tongue, is of singular vse.

CHAP. XX.

HOw to attaine most speedily vnto the knowledge of the Greeke tongue.

[Page 330] Herein these branches;

  • The Greeke may be gotten with farre lesse labour then the Latine.
  • One benefite of the perfect knowledge of the Greeke Testament alone, worthy all our labour to be taken in the Greeke.
  • M. Askams testimony concerning the Greeke tongue, and the excellent learning contained in it.
  • The way to the Greeke, the same with the Latine.
  • How schollars of vnderstanding and iudgement may take a shorter course.
  • To vse M. Camdens Grammar.
  • Grammatica Graecapro Schola Argentinensi per Theophi­lum Golium, may serue in steede of a further exposition of Camden.
  • To begin construction with the Greeke Testament, and why.
  • To striue to haue the Scriptures as familiarly in the Ori­ginals, as the Iewes had the Hebrew.
  • Those who purpose to haue any smattering in the Greek, to haue it in the Testament, and why.
  • The Testament compared to other Greeke Au­thours.
  • The Testament a notable entrance to all other Greeke Authours.
  • How schollars may be made most perfect in the Greeke Testament.
  • The speediest way to the Greeke, To get the Radices first.
  • The easiest way, how to learne the Greeke Radi­ces.
  • How any may soone learne to reade the Greeke, before they learne the Greeke Grammar.
  • How the Nomenclator of the Greeke Primitiues might be made of singular vse.
  • Helpe for committing wordes to memory.
  • Caueat in remembring.
  • [Page 331] The Greeke Radices contriued into continued speeches, may be gotten soonest of all.
  • The readiest and surest way of getting the Testament▪ By a perfect verball translation, separate from the Greeke.
  • How by the help of such a translation, any who haue but a smattering in the Greeke may proceede of themselues in the Testament.
  • This cannot be so done by the interlineall, or hauing the Greeke and Latine together, and why.
  • How schollars of iudgement may vse the interlineall.
  • How to proceede in other Authours.
  • The benefit of such translations of some of the purest Greeke Authours.
  • Parsing in Greeke.
  • Helpes for parsing in Greeke.
  • Helpes for knowledge of the Poets.
  • How to write in Greeke purely.
  • How to write faire in Greeke.
  • Versifying in Greeke.
  • Summe of all for the Greeke.

CHAP. XXI.

HOw to get most speedily, the knowledge and vnder­standing of the Hebrew.

Herein these branches;

  • The knowledge of the Hebrew may be the soonest got­ten, and why.
  • Manner of learning the Grammar, and what Grammar to be vsed.
  • The getting the Hebrew Radices, a chiefe helpe.
  • Manner of committing the Radices to memory.
  • Examples of helping the memory in learning the He­brew Radices.
  • The benefit of comparing the tongues.
  • The best Epitome for learning the Radices.
  • [Page 332] The way might be more compendious by the rootes re­duced to Classes.
  • Continuall practice of perfect verball Translations, a singular helpe.
  • A Student hauing opportunity cannot be better imploy­ed, then in getting perfectly, and imprinting the originals in memory.
  • The Latine, Greeke and Hebrew, may bee the soonest gotten by such perfect Translations in each tongue.
  • How much and what to learne in all things.

CHAP. XXII.

OF knowledge of the grounds of Religion, and tray­ning vp schollars therein.

Herein these heads;

  • Schollars are to be trained vp in Religion.
  • Religion most neglected in Schooles.
  • The Popish Schoolemasters shall rise vp in iudgement against all who neglect it.
  • Teaching the Catechisme, and when.
  • Examining the Catechisme.
  • Taking notes of Sermons.
  • Setting downe all the substance of the Sermons, in the higher fourmes.
  • Manner of noting, for helping vnderstanding and me­mory.
  • To translate the Sermon into Latine, or to reade it into Latine ex tempore.
  • Examining Sermons.
  • Repetition or rehearsall of the Sermons.
  • Benefit of strict examination of Sermons.
  • How the repetition may be done readily.
  • How to goe through the History of the Bible, and the manner of examining it.
  • Obiections answered.
  • How to teach the schollars ciuility.

CHAP. XXIII.

HOw to vnderstand and remember anie Morall mat­ter.

Herein these things;

  • A principall helpe of vnderstanding, to cause children to vnderstand and remember by questions.
  • An example hereof.
  • Helpe in priuate reading, by questions.

CHAP. XXIIII.

SOme things necessarie to be knowen, for the better at­taining of all the parts of learning mentioned before: as,

  • 1. How the Schoolemaster should be qualified. Herein these branches;
  • The Schoolemaster ought to be sufficient to direct his Schollars, or tractable and willing to be directed.
  • The Schoolemaster must be painfull and constant, of conscience of God.
  • He must cast off all other studdies at schoole times.
  • He must not post ouer the trust to others.
  • The Schoolemaster must be of a louing disposition, to incourage all by praise and rewards.
  • He ought to be a godly man, and of good cariage.
  • To seeke to gaine, and maintaine authority, and how.

CHAP. XXV.

OF the Vsher and his office.

Herein these particulars;

  • An Vsher necessary in all greater Schooles.
  • [Page 334] Euils of lacke of an Vsher.
  • The Master burdened with all, is, as the Husbandman o­uercharged with more then he can compasse.
  • Supply by Schollars, not sufficient.
  • Sufficiency of the Vsher.
  • The Vsher to be at the Masters command.
  • To be vsed with respect.
  • The Vsher not to meddle with correcting the highest Schollars.
  • The Vsher to vse as little correction as may be, vnlesse in the Masters absence.
  • The Vshers principall imployment with the younger, to traine them vp for the Master.
  • To preuent all inconueniences by the Vsher.

CHAP. XXVI.

HElpes in the Schoole besides the Vsher.

  • Seniors in each fourme.
  • Particular helpe, a Subdoctor in place of the Vsher, or where one Vsher is not sufficient.
  • Sorting the fourmes, so many into a fourme as may be.
  • Choise and matching each forme equally, that all may sit as matches.
  • Benefits of this election.
  • This equall matching all, a chiefe meanes to make the Schoole Ludus L [...]terarius.

CHAP. XXVII.

OF gouernment and of authority in Schooles.

Herein these branches;

  • Gouernment, the helpe of helps.
  • Authority, the top of gouernment.
  • Authority how to be maintained.
  • [Page 335] The Masters and Vshers to be as liuing laws, to maintaine their authority.
  • Authority maintained by most strict execution of iu­stice, by rewards and punishments.
  • Incouraging vertue, discouraging vice, to maintaine au­thority.
  • The euils of neglect hereof, and of partiality.
  • Authority to be maintained by a continuall demonstra­tion of conscience, and loue to the schollars.
  • By being Presidents of all vertue.
  • Extream seuerity, & whipping, to be auoided in schooles; and all meanes vsed to preuent it.
  • Reasons.
  • Difficulty for the Master to moderate his passions often­times, if he striue to doe good.

CHAP. XXVIII.

OF Preferments and incouragements.

Herein these particulars:

  • Incouragements to be by these meanes;
  • Often Elections.
  • Countenancing and gracing the Seniors, and all the best and most painfull.
  • Putting vp into higher fourmes.
  • Giuing places.
  • Commending euery thing well done.
  • Caueat in commending.
  • Disputation for the victorship.
  • Praemia to be giuen to the two Victors.
  • Office of the Victors for their praemia.
  • Solemne examination to bee made once euerie yeere.
  • Exercises to be prouided against that time.
  • To keepe their daily exercises faire written in bookes, to try their profiting▪ by comparing with the former.
  • [Page 336] A course of examination to be appointed: and the same first to be performed by the Masters and Vshers; after by o­thers not satisfied.
  • All dooing well to bee praised, the best specially gra­ced.
  • Benefits of this set solemne examination.
  • All Parents to haue notice before such examinations.
  • To labour by all meanes to worke a conscience in all the Schollars, to do all of dutie and loue to God, and how.
  • Some excellent sentences to be oft inculcated, to worke in the Schollars a loue of learning.

CHAP. XXIX.

OF execution of iustice in Schooles, by punishments. Herein these particulars:

  • To punish vnwillingly.
  • To proceede by degrees in punishing.
  • A note which may be tearmed the black Bill, of princi­pall vse, and most auaileable in punishing & reforming.
  • Manner of the blacke Bill, to depriue all chiefe offen­ders of the benefit of play daies.
  • To cause all such to knowe aforehand, what to looke for.
  • To view the formes before play, and to separate all the disobedient and vnworthy, to be left to their taskes.
  • Care that their taskes be strictly exacted.
  • Notorious offenders, or stubborne boies, to sit so ma­ny dayes, vntill that they shew good tokens of amend­ment.
  • Benefit of this punishment, strictly obserued, and why.
  • Correction with rodde to be vsed more seldome, and chiefly for terror.
  • Caueats in correcting.
  • Manner of correcting the stubborne, and vnbroken.
  • [Page 337] Not to suffer any to goe away in their stubbornnesse.
  • To be wary to auoide all smi [...]ing or hurting the children.
  • Caueat of threatning.
  • That the Maister doe not abase himselfe, to struggle with any stubborne boy.
  • To auoide all furious anger and cha [...]ing.
  • How correction should euer be taken.
  • Sparing the rodde where necessitie requireth, is to vndoe the children.
  • Assurance of safety in correction, when it is done aright.
  • Anger necessary in Schoolemaisters, so it bee tempered aright.
  • Meanes to represse furious and raging anger.
  • Places of Scripture to bee euer in our mindes, for the re­pressing and moderating our anger.
  • Danger of rash anger when it exceeds.
  • Occasions of anger, left to the calling of the Schoolemai­sters, to humble and exercise them.
  • Three lessons for preuenting anger.
  • The danger of hauing the rod, or ferule euer in the hand of the Maister or Vsher.
  • The surest way to haue nothing ordinarily, but grauitie and authoritie.
  • The time of inflicting common punishments.
  • Such as in whom is no hope of reformation, to bee sent from Schoole in time.

CHAP. XXX.

OF School-times, intermissions, and recreations.

  • School-time to begin at sixe.
  • The Vsher to be euer present at sixe of the clock, though onely to ouersee all.
  • How to make children to striue vvho shall bee first at Schoole without correction.
  • Daily intermissions at nine, and three of the clock, for a [Page 338] quarter of an hower or more.
  • To sing part of a Psalme before breaking vp at night, and each to begin in order, and to giue the tune.
  • Intermissions at nine of the clocke and three, not offen­siue, when they are once knowne.
  • Benefits of intermissions.
  • None to stirre forth of t [...]eir places at Schoole-times, but vpon vrgent occasions.
  • The time of the intermissions may be gayned dayly, and sundry inconueniences preuented.
  • Weekely recreations.
  • Before breaking vp to play, to make Verses ex tempore, or to cap Verses.
  • The best manner of capping Verses.
  • The greatest commendation in these.
  • Manner of their recreations.
  • The recreations of the studious to be regarded.
  • Ouermuch play to be carefully auoided.

CHAP. XXXI.

  • INconueniences growing by diuersity of teaching and of Grammars.
  • How this helped.

CHAP. XXXII.

Euils by ordinary absence of Schollars.

CHAP. XXXIII.

  • DIscouragements of Schoolemaisters, by vnthankeful­nesse of parents.
  • Remedies against such discouragements.

CHAP. XXXIIII.

  • WHat Children to be set and kept to learning.
  • What Schollars to be sent to the Vniuersities.
  • None to bee sent to the Vniuersities before fifteene yeares of age at least.
  • The best courses to be practiced.

CHAP. XXXV.

  • A Briefe rehearsall of the chiefe points and special helps, mentioned through the whole booke.
  • The principall heads of those things, vvhich vvould bee euer kept in memory by the Maister, to bee continually put in practice.
  • Mt. Askames steppes to good learning: with a briefe dire­ction of Melanchtons.
FINIS.

STudious Reader, I thought meete to giue thee notice, that my Translation of Sententiae Pueriles, and of Cato, are now vnder the Presse; and the former of them, within a day or two, ready to come forth. Expect the other, shortly after.

Postscript.

PAge 53. line 3. reade by that. p. 78. l. 35. for declension read Gender or declining. p. 87. l. 16. for euer reade a [...]way. p. 115. l. 9. put in so far as I know p. 116. after the 11. line, put in so mothers for most part. p. 191, l. [...]7. put out [...]ound. p. 202. l. 25 for of Grammatica, read at Gram­matica. p. 2 [...]0. l. 32▪ put out secondly. p. 251. l. 20. for most, read many. p. 274. l. 22. put out kinde. 297. l. 35. for rest, read: rise.

Faults escaped by the Printer.

IN PAge 20. line 3 the Alphabet should haue beene distinguished by threes, thus; A b c. d e f. g h i. and so for the rest.

PageLineFalseTrue.
2025thusthis
3024longlongest
3036a bookebookes
3122m. i t.m c.t.
3130withoutor without
461ThirdA third
569ofor
5929manuifoelicismanuifoelici
633parsedpoased
6327parsingpoasing
7223moremost
731goe truelygoe surely
793speedilyspecially
10212QueQue
18Virtutem.virtutum
36weaponweapons
1149mustwill
1372àscioascio
1443. & 11vincitvincet
17931fittestfit [...]est
18217curiouslycursorily
1921in mannerin good manner
22137so greatgreat
23116Nomenc [...]atonNomenclator
23435Th [...]ogiusTheognis
23522histhis
23619be alsoalso
24113whowhich
27824oderintoderunt.

Page 200. in the margent against line 18 for yongest▪ read highest:

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