VVherin is shevved both hovve lavvful, honorable, and necessarie that action vvas; and also that al others, especiallie those of the English Nation, that detayne anie tovvnes, or other places, in the lovve countries, from the King Catholike, are bound, vpon paine of damnation, to do the like.

Before VVhich is also prefixed à gentlemans letter, that gaue occasion, of this discourse.

Matth. 22.

Reddite ergo quae sunt, Caesaris, Caesari:

Render therfore the things that are Caesars, to Caesar:

Imprinted at Antuarpe, by Ioachim Trognaesius, Anno 1587.


HONORABLE good Sir, Your letters came vvith good speede, and in season, hauing at this pre­sent readie meanes to returne an­svvere, and yet time ynough to vvaighe vvel the matter of que­stion you moue vnto me. Into the more particular cōsideratiō vvherof, I vvil enter the rather at your request: though othervvise by the dutie of my priesthoode, and professiō, I compt my selfe bound to serue my christian countriemen, in al such things, as may any vvay perteine to their saluatiō. For you must not thinck, that I am so restray ned to studētes matters, though that be my special trade, and charge, that I haue no care of so manie vvorthie men of your vocatiō, vvhom vvith hart, prayers, and penne, I doe most vvillinglie serue knovving that state of life to be necessarie for the commō vvealth, godlie, honorable, and especial­lie appointed by God, for defense of Iustice, and Religion.Manie soul­diars great, Sainctes ād Martyrs. Out of vvhich order the Church of Christ celebrateth sun drie, for high Sainctes: and whole legions haue benne, for their constancie in faith, martyred at once. Manie in the holie Scri­ptures, for singular deuotion tovvardes Christs person, and special promptnes to receiue the faith, by the Apostles preaching, by name commended. And remembring in S. Lukes narration,Act. 10. of the holie Capitaine Cornelius, and of one of his soul­diars, [Page 6] vvhom the Euangelist nameth: militē met uen­tem Dominū, à souldiar fearing God, it easely brought me to conceiue, that sundrie of your bande, in vvhose behalfe you propose the doubt, haue the feare of God, before their eyes: vvhich is à peerlesse prayse, in such as folovve art militare: and that the vvhole companie is not farre from the king­dome of God, that haue such regarde, of their con­science, and good name.

To come then to your purpose, though I haue alreadie, by my letters to Sir William, geuen myn opinion, I vvil yeat for better clearing the cause, set here dovvne, my minde more largely, and di­stinctly.

Rēdering vp of tovvnes, VVrongfully holden, to be necessaire.Therfore first I say, that the rēdering vp of such tovvnes, and places of the lovve countries as be in anie English mēnes custodie, is not onlie lavvful, but necessarie to be done, vnder paine of mortal sinne, and damnation. The cause is, for that euerie thing vvrongfully obtayned, and vniustly detay­ned from the true ovvneres, vvhether they be, by fraude, or violence come by, according to al diuine, and humane lavves, and by the very rule of nature, ought to be restored to them, to vvhom they duly pertayne.Restitution of thinges vvrongfully detayned, necessarie in al VVarres, iust or vn­iust. Which thing as it is euident in al other negotiation of mannes life, vvherin no man may lavvfully detayne other mēs goodes: so the olde holie fathers, and al the lat­ter schoole Doctors agreably to the Scriptures, and the ciuil and canon lavves, determine resti­tution to be specially necessarie, of al thinges vvrongfully obtayned in vvarres: vvhether the vvarres be lavvful, or vnlavvful. For vvarres being nothing els but an act of vindicatiue iustice, must, [Page 7] as much as is possible, be in al pointes, voide of iniurie, and iniustice.

Against vvhich vvhen anie thing is committed, either by the Prince that causeth the vvarre, or the souldiars that are executioners of his vvil, and sentence, both the one and the other, are bound to make recompence, and restitution accor­ding to the measure and maner, of the iniuries done. And this I say, euen in lavvful vvarres, or such as to the common people may be, vpon their Princes credit, so deemed. Where, though they may offend the enimie in life, goodes, liber­tie, and othervvise as farre and in such sorte, as the lavve of armes permitteth, and prescribeth: yeat vvhat so euer is done against militare discipline, and iustice, is sinne, & punishable by Gods lavves.

But vvhere the vvarre is vvholy,In VVarres plainly vn­iust, recom­pence and restitution is to be ma­de of al da­mage: and of al things vniustly de­tayned. and plainlie vn­lavvful, denounced, and vvaged vvithout iust cau­se, yea euidently against right and reason, and so knovvne to be to men of vnderstanding, and to the soldiars them selues: in that case the Prince that published the vvarre doth principally, and most damnably offend: then euerie one that serueth in those vvarres, doth sinne mortally: and al and eue­rie one bound to satisfaction, and restitution, for vvhat soeuer anoyance is done, by the said vnlavv­ful armes, to the Prince, and people, to vvhom the iniurie is done. Neither doth the Souereignes authoritie, and commandement excuse the soul­diars, or subiectes, vvho can not in conscience, nor may not, be executors by their seruice, of the Princes knovvne iniquitie. Ovving euer obe­dience to God more then to any man: though vvhere the iniustice of the vvarres vvere not so [Page 8] assuredly knovvne to the subiectes, they might vpon their Princes vvarrant, and commandement serue in the same.

The English vvarres proued to be vniust both by land and by sea.But novve that the vvarres of the lovve coun­tries, on the English part be most vniust, not only such as be in conscience Catholike (for other cau­ses vvhich aftervvard I vvil rehearse) doe most cer­tainly see: but euen those also vvhich are not vvel instructed in Religion, endued only vvith good nature, reason, and ciuil honestie, must heedes con­fesse. Wherby it vvil be plaine, that neither the one sorte of conscience, nor the other of moral iustice, can lavvfully serue in the said vvarres.Lib. Etym. 28. c. 1. Causa 23. Quest. [...]. The vvarre is iust, saith Cicero in his bookes de. De Republica: as Isiodorus citeth it, vvhich is denounced for re­compence, or reuenge of iniuries, and anoyance, or for defence against enimies.

I 1. The Quene of England, as al the vvourld knovveth, can make no iust claime to Holland, Zeland, or any other of those partes, vvhich by ar­mes, she hath seazed on: al those prouinces being confessed, to be his Catholike Maiesties auncient, and vndoubtful inhaeritance: therfore that vvay, she can haue no pretence, to inuade those coun­tries. II 2. The defence of the kings rebelles, a­gainst their most iust Lord, and Soueraigne, is no lavvful, nor honorable quarel of vvarres: neither haue the said Traytoures, and rebelles any autho­ritie, to yeeld vp their Soueraignes tovvnes, and portes into his enimies handes, or thē selues to the English protection, or subiection. III 3. Rebelles against their lavvful povvers, be not properly the confoederates or Socij, of anie Prince, or common­vvealth, that for their defence armes may be takē.

[Page 9]4. The kinges Maiestie hath done to the Quene,IIII or her realme, no such iniuries, for redresse, or reuenge vvherof, she should by hostilitie, enter into his Domnions, and surprise his tovvnes, and castles, and bring his people into her subiection. Neither these causes, nor any other pretenses being sufficient to make her vvarre lavvful, but al plaine proofes, of most vniust quarel, it must needes be euident to eche reasonable man, of vvhat sense in Religion so euer he be, folovving only moral ver­tue, and the lavve of nature, and natiōs that as vvel this warre by land in the lovve countries, as that o­ther by seas, be nothing elles but à publike robbe­rie, ād pyracie. In both vvhich not only the Prince, or her principal ministers, my lord of Lecester, and Sir Francis Drake, but al other that serue, in either of the said armies, or any such like, offend God damnably, and are bound to restore, to the King Catholike, and his people, al that euer they haue, or shal by this vniust violence, extorte from them.

It is not the pretence of the Quenes counsel, or realmes publike allovving, or permitting these things, that can excuse them before God, or man, either in conscience, or honour. For iniustice done by publike pretended authoritie, is more shame­ful, then that, vvhich is done by priuate offenders. S. Augustin affirming, that whole Kingdomes, when they agree vpon open iniquitie, are nothing els, but à great larondge, that is, a brotherhoode of theeues, cōcur­ring and conspiring in cōmon robberie,Li. 4. Ciuit. Ca. 4. Quid sunt regna (saith he) remota iustitia, nisi magna latrocinia?

I remember, tvvo of the best learned Diuines in Louaine, being demaunded, of the lavvfulnes,The iudge­ment of the Diuines of Louaine concerning the like vvar­res. of [Page 10] the Duke of Alinsones late like actions, in those countries, & of the obligation of that oth, vvhich he caused the people to make, against their Lord & Maister, to him, ansvvered: and put forth their ansvvere in print, that vvarre to be vvholy vnlavvful, & al othes, & promisses made to him, to be of them selues vnjust & not to bind any man either in honour, or conscience.

And yeat that Prince, might perchance seme to haue some better pretence, vpō I can not tel vvhat old interest, that Fraunce chalengeth in Flaun­ders, & other those Prouinces, vvhich once vvere vnited, and ioyned vvith Fraunce: and of some hope he had, and gaue to many, to reduce those countries to libertie, at least of Catholike consci­ence againe. But this English action, hath no ap­parance of iustice, or aequitie in the vvorlde. And therfore to any gentleman, or souldiar, that standeth vpon his honour (as that state of men, of al others, haue most reason to doe) it must needes be à great disgrace, to serue in such publike robberies, either by sea, or land. Which I say to al noble Capitaines, or souldiars, of vvhat Reli­gion soeuer they be, vvho may easely perceiue, by conference of our old English honorable de­nounced vvarres vvith these of our dayes. None other hauing benne vvaged by our countrie, these thirtie yeares almost, then in the cloke of amitie, to surprise the tovvnes, & countries of their frein­des, & confederates: and for the defence, or encou­ragement of detestable rebelles, against their lavv­ful annointed Kinges.

They helpe the Scotish rebelles.As soone as the Scottes rebelled, against their Quene, the English ioyned their forces, to the vt­ter [Page 11] ruine, and destruction of both her, and her Dominion. They rebel against their Kinges in Fraunce: our English helpes, & armes vvere straight readie, to succour them,The French rebelles. and to seaze vpon the strong places, of that land, in their ovven, or the rebelles behalfe. They rise in the lovve countries, and in other partes of the vvourlde,The Flemish rebelles. against the iustest povvre that can be: and imme­diatly (as though our countrie vvere ordayned, to be the buckler of al rebellion, and iniustice, and an enimie of lavvful Dominion, & Superiori­tie) the Quene thincketh it honorable or needful, to protect the said rebelles, & to assayle vvith the vvicked traitours, and seditious persons, the oldest, faithfullest, and greatest confoederate, that euer our realme had.

When therfore our English vvarres, that in other ages, vvere renoumed for iustice, forti­tude, and foelicitie, are become to be infamous, & infortunate through the vvourlde, as made for the patronage of rebellious, and seditious per­sons, & maintenance only of iniustice, and ini­quitie: Who can not of very moral reason, and ho­nestie perceiue, his good name, and honour to be stayned, by cooperation in such infamous actions? & his soule to be in daunger of aeternal perdition, by follovving, and executing, other mennes most vnlavvful, and barbarous desigmentes, to the disturbance of the quiet, and vveal, of al chri­stian natiōs. rovvnd about vs? or thincketh it not à most glorious resolutiō, to reuolt to that side, vvith vvhich al true honour, and iustice, & al conditi­ons of lavvful vvarres doe stand? Of such I speake of our countrie men, in vvhom is yeat lieft some [Page 12] remorse of conscience, or respect of iustice, neces­sarie for humane societie: though by this euel times, & error of education, at home they be not vvel instructed yeat in christian Religiō, & vertue. For of others (as I feare some such be, in the A­theisme,Atheistes of England vn capable of admoni­tion. that our countrie is fallen into) that haue put of al sense of ciuil iustice, honour, & honestie, togeather vvith the feare of God, and his iudge­mēts in the next life, I can say nothing. In this sorte some such may be, not only among priuate poore souldiars, but of the counselers of our coūtrie, that vvithout respect, of either christian discipline, or olde heathen obseruation in this case, vvhich vvas euer most sacred, thinke Regna esse occupātium, king­domes to be rightly theirs that can catch them: and al their ovvne, they can either by Machiuiliā shiftes, or violent armes obtayne: that regard not the ould honour, rule, and discipline of Chiualrie: that feare not the compt they haue to make, for the bloud of innocents, for sackages, spoyle, rapine, destructi­ons, depopulatiōs, and subuersion of vvhole king­domes: that thinke it cause of vvarre good ynough to hinder their neighbours greatnes, ād to disturbe other mennes quietnes, to procure their ovvne peace, ād safetie. If either, (I say) our countrie, once of notable name, in martial iustice, or any of our souldiars, be come to this extremitie, to deale vvith such, either by humane, or Diuine lavves, vvere, To be madde vvith reason. Cum ratione insanire. As the Poete said.

And these haue only to make their prayer, in the morning dayly, as vve haue heard, of a cer­taine holy theefe, in the bordes: Good Lord send me, to hurte many this day, and none to hurte me.

[Page 13]But novve to come to those,This that folovveth specially to be noted of Catholike [...], that in the campe be Catholikes, as I perceiue by you, Sir, and other­vvise, that verie manie be in their hartes fully re­solued, our forefathers faith to be only true, and that innumerable, at home in our coūtrie, do dayly more and more perceiue, that these nevve Sectes vvere but to make broyle, and garboyle in the vvourlde, that in the vniuersal shuffle of things, poore lost companions might haue their partes, yea & other mennes partes too. To such therfore as be, by Gods special gift, Catholikly bēt, it shal be an easier matter, to make cleare this point. For as they be more capable of reason, & more obser­uant of ciuil iustice, and moral vertue: so they haue their consciences better informed, by the rules of Christian Religion, for gouernment of their actiōs, in al partes of life. Such may easely perceiue not only for the causes aforesaid, this vvarre, on thenglish side, to be vniust, and that the seruice in the same, is sinful, dishonorable, & obnoxious to restitution: but principally, for that it is vvaged, for defēce of Haeresie, and Haeretikes, and for the euer­sion of the Catholike faith: that is to say, directly against God, and his holy Church.

The holy Prophet of God, that reprehēded King Iosaphat, for geuing succourse (of amitie only, & not of euel meaning in Religion) to the vvicked King Achab, sayng: Impio praebes auxilium, 2. Taralip. 19. Aug. lib. 2. con­tra Epist. Parmem. & ijs qui oderunt Dominum amicitia iungeris, idcirco irā Dei me­rebàris. Thou geuest ayde to the wicked & art cōfoederate with such as hate our Lord, therfore thou deseruedst Gods ire: What vvould he haue saide, or vvhat may vve deeme of our Princes cōfoederacies, only & al­vvayes, vvith Christ his enimies? as vvith the Ghe­vves, [Page 14] Ghevves, Hugonots, & Caluinistes, in Flaunders, Fraunce, & Scotland, vvith most ample succourses cōtinually yeelded to euerie of them, for destructiō of christian Religion? In vvich not only vnlawful, but sacrilegious vvarres, al men of conscience must consider, that al Coronells, Capitaines, & souldiars, that in this case serue the Prince, and Haeretikes, are partakers of their iniquitie, coope­rators vvith them in al their sinne, executors of the Haeretical Princes sentence, against their ovvne Catholike, and innocēt bretheren: fautors, and de­fenders of Haeretikes: and so by the censure of ho­ly Church,The ease of Catholikes that serue Haeretikes. incurre Excommunication: à most pi­tiful, and dangerous state, for à christian man to liue or dye in.

They must marke, vvhat an infinite miserie it is, for à noble, and couragious hart (as lightly those men of best seruice be) that vvith their svvoorde, and armes, the vvicked only should be protected, & the innocent destroyed, Churches despoyled, Gods Priestes & seruantes murthered, the blessed Sacramentes profaned, yea euen the dread soue­raigne holies, of Christs ovvne bodie & bloud. What death should not à true Catholike knight suffer, rather then for to see, such horrible vvic­kednes committed? Or to be in such base serui­tude of Haeresie, & her dishonorable defenders, as vvith their ovvne handes, to be ministers of such sacrilegious impietie, and vvich is yeat more pitti­ful, that one Catholike man should be brought, to destroy an other, that in fine euerie one may be the instrument, of his ovvne destruction? In their ci­uil gouuernment at home, they cause the Catho­like iudge, to geue sentence of death, against the [Page 15] Priestes, vvhose innocēcie they knovve,The policie, and practise of Haeretikes to make one Catholike, destroy another. & vvhose Religion in hart, they beleue to be true. They ma­ke one Catholike neighbour, to accuse an other, and one noble man to condemne an other. In their vvarres, they serue themselues of Catholikes: & by English Catholikes, they destroy Catholikes abro­de: that forreine Catholikes being ouerthrovven, they may more easely, ouerthrovve their ovvne at home. Alas for my deare bretheren: alas for our desolate countrie: vvhich no noble hart can novve serue, either in Politike, or Martial matters, but vpō such detestable cōditiōs, of assured dānatiō, ād in fine to their owne vtter ruine also in this life.

Of al men in the vvorld,A souldiar [...] had most need to be careful of his cōsciece. the souldiar should most specially attend to his conscience: and stand vpon good & sure groundes, for the iustice of the quarel, he hath in hand, being hovverly more sub­iect to death, and daunger then any other kinde of men: and being assured, that if he dye, in any kno­vven euil cause, and namely in this fight against God, and defence of Haeretikes, he is doubtles to be damned for euer. As contrarievvise, to dye in lavvful vvarres, for defence of iustice, is euerful of hope. And for defence of true Religion,Souldiars dying in de­fence of true Religion are martyrs. & Gods honour, in most cases plaine martyrdome. Let no christian conscience therefore, excuse, or flatter it selfe, in this case, vpon the Princes commandemēt or the Superiors authoritie, or vpon the daunger of disobeyng the Quenes lavves: no mortal crea­ture hauing lavvful povver to commaund, nor any subiect bound, or permitted to obey, in matter di­rectly against God. In vvhich case, à mā must say to his Prince, vvith S. Augustin: Tu minaris carcerē, S. Aug. ser. 6. de verbis Domini. Deus Gehennam. Thou threatnest prison, God threatneth Hel. [Page 16] And as it is vndecent, for any Christian for feare of man, to offend God: so it is most disagreable to the manly courage, and constancie of a christian Ca­tholike souldiar, for feare of death, or daūger vvhat soeuer to enter in to so damnable, & dishonorable a seruice, or to fight, or die in à cause cōtrarie to his ovvne conscience.An other inconueniē ­ce in seruing of Haeretikes. Besides al this to serue in an hae­retical cause, and vnder haeretical capitaines, catho­likes are inforced, to heare continual blasphemies of al Sainctes, & Sacraments, & to be present at the vvicked Sermōs, & profane seruice, of the Haereti­kes. Which is no lesse dānable, then it vvas in olde time, for such as serued the heathen Emperoures, to commit Idolatrie, by Sacrificing to Idoles. For refusing of vvhich abomination, and in parti­cular for disobeying the Emperoure Maximinus his commandement therin, the famous Coronel S. Mauritius,S. Maurice vvith his legion of sould [...]ars martyred. Eusebi lib. 8. cap. 3. & 4. vvith the legion of Thebs, sustay­ned most glorious martyrdome. As diuers others did vnder Iulian the Apostata, and the like. And many noble souldiars, for that they could not exer­cise their Christian vsages, partly vvere driuen to abandon their profession, in displeasure of their Princes, and partly vvere licensed to depart: as may appeare by à Decree,Can. 12. in the holy councel of Nice. Where it is forbidden to christian souldiars so licē ­ced, to returne to those profane vvarres againe. For that is the meaning, vvhen the Fathers vpon great spiritual paine commanded, that none should re­sumere cingulum militare, that is, put on the girdle mili­tare againe, that for such à cause, had leift it once.

And surely if there vvere nothing els but this, that the Catholike souldiar being hovvrely in pe­ril of death, can haue no Sacrament, nor Sacramē ­tal [Page 17] for his sinnes, nor any comfort of conscience, nor succour for his soule in the vvorld, it must ne­des be the most miserable condition that can be thought of. Novve to be reliued of this deadlie ca­lamitie, & distresse of cōscience, after à man is once by errour, or misfortune entred into the same, there is no vvay, but to forsake that vniust, and ir­religious cause, and to retire to that part, vvhere à mā may serue vvith iustice, honour, great revvarde in this life, and sure hope of saluation. And no doubt, but most happie be those Gentlemen, that haue this occasion, & commoditie offered them by God, to make amendes for their former errour, as vvel by seruing of the Church, vvich before they impugned, as by rendering vp the places, vvhich they (though not of malice, yeat) by other mens vniust appointement, did from the true Lordes, and ovvners detayne.

Yea I say more to you (Gentlemen) seing you desire to knovve my meaning fully, in this point,Another cause vvh [...] the vvarres of the Quene be not lavv­ful. Bulla P [...]j quinti. an. 1569. that as al actes of iustice vvithin the realme, done by the Quenes authoritie, euer since she vvas, by publike sentence of the Church, and Sea Aposto­like, declared an Haeretike, and an enimie of Gods Church, and for the same, by name excōmunica­ted, & deposed from al regal dignitie: as (I say) euer sithence an. 157 [...]. the publication therof, al is voide, by the lavve of God, and man: so likevvise no vvarre can be lavvfully denounced, or vvaged by her, though othervvise in it selfe, it vvere most iust.An excom­municate person cannot lavvfully denounce vvarres. Because that is the first condition, that is required in iust warre, that it be by one denounced, that hath law­ful, and supreme povvre to doe the same: as no ex­cōmunicate person hath: especially if he be vvithal [Page 18] deposed, frō his Regal dignitie, by Christ his ovvne vicare, vvhich is the supreme povvre in earth. And al subiectes are not only absolued,Subiect. 1 ought not to on [...]y an Excommu­nicate Prin­ce. Causa 15. quest. 6. & discharged of their seruice, oth, homage, & obediēce: but special­ly forbidde to serue, or obey any such canonically cōdemned person. Nos (sayth Gregorie the seuēth) Sanctorum Praedecessorum nostrorum Statuta tenentes, eos qui excommunicatis, fidelitate aut Sacramento, con­stricti sunt, Apostolica authoritate à sacramento absolui­mus, & ne eis fidelitatem obseruent, omnibus modis pro­hibemus. that is: wee according to our Praedecessors De­crees, do assoyle, and discharge al them, that by obligation of oth, or fidelitie, are bound to persones excommunicate: and that they doe not obey such, we do expresly forbid. And for their discharge especially, that serue in such vvarres, there is an expresse Canon of Vrba­nus the second:Vbi supra. Iuratos milites Hugoni Comiti, ne ipsi, quandiu excommunicatus est, seruiant, prohibeto: qui si sacramentum pratenderint, moneantur, oportere Deo ma­gis seruire quam hominibus. Fidelitatem enim quā Chri­stiano principi iurarunt, Deo eius (que) Sanctis aduersanti, & eorum praecepta calcanti, nulla cohibentur authoritate, persoluere Which is thus in oure toung: Geue order, that the sworne souldiars of Countie Hughe, serue him not so long as he stadeth excommunicate: And if they prae­tēd their former oth, made vnto him, admonish them, that God is to be serued, before men. For, that oth, which they made to him then, when he was à Christian Prince, is not nowe to be kept towardes him, being an enimie to God, & his Sainctes, & à breaker, & cōtemner, of their cōmaun­dementes These fevve, as I might doe much more, I alleadge, that you may see, the sense of the Ca­tholike Church, vvhich to you, that be the chil­dren of the same, vvil be à ful vvarrant, for al your [Page 19] actions, & à guide for al Gentlemen, & persons, of rightly informed consciences, hovve to behaue them selues, vvhen not only the warres are for Re­ligion, but vvhen any excommunicate, or canoni­cally condemned Prince, is one partie. Whom no man by lavve can serue, nor geue ayde vnto, but he falleth into Excommunication. And therfore vvhē S. Augustin vvriteth, that sometimes it falleth out,Lib. 12. con. Faust. cap. 74. & 75. that à iust man, may serue à vvicked, & sacrilegious King in the vvarres, for obediēce to his superiour, so that nothing be cōmaunded him plainly against Gods praeceptes: especial exception is made,Causa. 23. quest. 1. in Kinges excommunicated. Who differ in this case, in respect of seruice, & obediēce of their subiectes, and are in à vvoorse Praedicament, then any either heathen, or vniust Prince, or Potētate vvho so euer: yea then Iuliane the Apostata him selfe: vvhom to serue in iust vvarres, & causes, Christian soul­diars vvere not by the Church, then prohibited:Causa. 11. quest. 3. ca. Iulianus. but only vvere as vvel by the lavve of God, as the Church forbidden to serue him, in any vvarre or vvoorke, against Christ, and Christians, or vvhen he vvent about to destroy the true Religion. But vvhere, for defection from the faith, or other enor­mities not tolerable, the sentence of Excommuni­cation, & Depositiō is also adioyned, there can nei­ther be lavvful vvarres, nor any dutie of seruice in the same allovvable.Hovve hey­nous a crime it is for ae Prince to fal from the Church of God. So great à crime it is in à Prin­ce, that is exalted by God, to administer iustice, to defend Christs Church, & the faithful people ther­of, and taketh à solemne corporal oth, at his coro­natiō, by his vvoorde & might, to obserue, & main­tayne, the lavves & priuilegies of holy Church, & al praerogatiues, graunted by his praedecessours, [Page 20] to the same, and to honour the Bisshoppes, & Cler­gie of his realme: aftervvard neglecting his oth, promise, and vocation, to bend al his povvre, to de­stroy Gods Religiō, Church, & Priestes, & become an enimie to al humane societie. This then being the miserable condition of such Princes, as be cutt of by the Churches Censures, from the felovv­shippe of the faithful: you may see vvhat à disho­norable thing it is, for men of honour, or honestie, to striue by armes, for the vpholding of them, vvhō God by his iust iudgemētes, & the Churches sentence doth pul dovvne. And thervvith perceiue, that those that breake vvith God, can not claime any bōde of oth, or fidelitie of them, that were their subiectes. And least of al, of christian Knightes, & Gentlemen of armes:The dutie of a christian Knight. the principal institution, and professiō, of al such noble orders being, for defēce of the true Catholike, & Apostolike faith, and to be svvorne aduersaries, and persecutors of Gods enimies: the Crosse and Cognissaunce they vveare protesting the same.Liberius Epist. 1. ad Athanasiū. As contrarievvise, no Haere­tike can be à lavvful souldiar, but by the imperial and canon lavves, is to be degarded, of militare dignitie, & armes, and to be spoyled of his militare girdle,Haeresie maketh à man infamous, and vnca­pable of al degree, and dignitie. as they then spake. For Haeresie maketh à man, by al christian lavves, infamous, and voideth him of al degrees, and titles of honour, among vvhich militare order is, & of olde time vvas so great, that euery man of armes, vvas capable of the Imperial souereigntie. Therfore as in yeelding vp, the places vniustly possessed, you did an act of restitution, & iustice: so (Gentlemen) in forsaking the vvarres of the other side, for so many respectes, as I haue saide, dishonorable, vnlavvful, & damna­ble, [Page 21] you haue done doubtlesse agreably to your christian knighthood, & an act much renovvmed in al these partes, of the best & vvisest, of al degrees.

And the same that you haue done, al other of honour, conscience, and Religion, of our countrie, are bound to doe: as vvel in this vvarre, as in al o­ther, vvhich either at home, or abrode, is vvaged for, or against Religion.1. R [...]. 16. & sequent. After King Saul vvas by God, and the Prophets sentence, as it vvere, excom­municated, and deposed, it vvas no fault for Da­uid, or others, either of the Priestes, or people, to re­uolt from him: nor for the vvorthie Capitaine Ab­ner, to reuolt from Saules sonne, that claimed the Kingdome, by the pretended right of his father: nor for any other Capitaines, or souldiars of Saules side, novve deposed, to render vp al they had in their gouernments, to King Dauid, and his posteri­posteritie. It vvas no crime, but great commenda­tion for Ioiada the high Priest,4. Reg. 11. [...]. Reg. 1 [...]. & 4. Reg [...] to reuolt from the vsurping Quene Athalia: nor for others to do the same, against vvicked King Achab, and cursed Ie­sabel, nor to see, permit, and proue them, for their impietie condignly punished: vvherunto the very Priestes, and Prophetes of God, did by counsel, and encouragemēt, cooperate. In vvhich case, vve may see, for our instruction, not only tovvnes vniustly detayned, to be restored, to the true Lordes, but an impious Kings ovvne countries also, & cities lavv­fully by reuolt of the people, yeelded vp to other mennes handes.2. Paralip. 21.4. Reg. 8. As the Scriptures do recorde of the countries and cities of Edom, and Lobna: VVhich reuolted from King Ioram, and from the Dominion of Iuda, for euer, yeelding this cause therof: Dereliquer at enim Deum patrum suorū. [Page 22] For (saith the holie storie) he had forsaken the God of his fore-fathers. To forsake them, that forsake God, is most lavvful, honorable, & necessaire. As con­trarievvise to serue and defend them, vvhom God by the sentence of his high Priest, & Tribunal in earth, hath pulled dovvne, & vvil haue punished, is to fight against God, and to resist his ordinaunce.

Examples of our ovvne coūtrie. King Iohn forsaken.And I pray you, Gentlemen, (to geue you dome­stical examples,) vvhat disgrace, or shame vvas it, for al the chiefe Lordes of our countrie, to reuolt from King Iohn, in his dayes? & absolutly to denie him ayde, & assistence, euen in his lavvful vvarres, vntil he returned againe to the obedience of the Sea Apostolike, and vvere absolued from the Cen­sures of the same, vvhich he had iustly incurred? Or for the English Nobilitie, & specially for the renovvmed Stanley, one of this Sir William his house,Richard the third lavvfully forsaken. and name, to reuolt from King Richard the Tyrant, and to yeeld him selfe, and his charge, to Henrie the seuēth? vvhat dishonour vvas it, for the Nobilitie of England,Iane the vsuper for­saken. in our memories, to forsake Iane the pretended Quene: & Northumberland, the father of him, vvhom novve you haue forsakē, & to yeeld the Tovvre committed to their custo­die, and them selues, to the lavvful, and most Reli­gious Quene Marie? Notvvithstanding vvhat vn­iust bandes of oth, or promisse soeuer they had made, of feare & pusilanimitie, to the said vsurper, & Haeretical Quene before? In al these, & the like, there is neither sinne, nor shame, nor scandal committed. For that to reuolt, is of it selfe, lavvful or vnlavvful, honorable or othervvise, according to the iustice, or iniustice of the cause, or difference of the person, from or to vvhō, the reuolt is made. [Page 23] Wherin, vvhen the right from the vvrong is eui­dent, & in the Capitaines, or souldiars conscience, & in al godlie mēs sight cleare, & vndoubted, there nedeth no more discussing of the matter.

To conclude breifly. In these vvarres,Hovve Ca­tholiques should en­forme their con [...]rn [...]s for the iu­stice of the vvarres. & al o­thers, that may at any time fal for Religiō, against Haeretikes, or other Infidels, euerie Catholike mā, is bound in conscience, to enforme him selfe, for the iustice of the cause. The vvhich vvhen it is doubtful, or toucheth Religiō (as is said) he ought to imploy his person, & forces, by directiō of such, as are vertuous, and intelligent in such cases: but specially by the general Pastour of our soules,A necessa­ri [...] and à sure rule. being Christes vicare in earth. Whose soueraigne authoritie, & vvisdome, deriued from Christ him selfe, may best instruct, and vvarrant à christian souldiar, hovve farre, vvhen, and vvhere, either at home, or abrode, in ciuil, or foraine vvarres, made against the enimies, or Rebelles of Gods Church, he may, and must breake vvith his temporal soue­raigne, and obey God and his spiritual Superiour.

Againe (Gentlemen) by this your retiring your selues, from the seruice of Gods,Other com­modities of retiring to the Kings seruice. and the churches enimies, you haue not only prouided vvel, for your consciences, honour. & saluation: but also for the encrease of your knovvledge, and experience in art militare, and of the exact order, & discipline to be obserued in the same, being novve to serue, vnder so vertuous, valerous, fortimate, famous,The noble Duke of Parma. and vi­ctorious à General, as hath had fewe peers, in these latter ages. And in companie of so manie valiant, and expert Capitaines, and souldiars, of diuerse Nations, as no vvhere in Europe, better can be founde. Which your selues (my maisters) [Page 24] may more easely consider, by comparing your late General, my Lord of Lecester, his vertues, & fa­mous factes (scilicet) vnto the glorious exploytes, & victories, atchiued by the Duke of Parma his Highnesse. Or the disorder of the English irreligi­ous, and licentious companies, to the religious discipline, of the Catholike campe. Betvven vvhich, I doubt not, but you finde à meruelous dif­ference, and shal do dayly, more and more, to your infinite contentment. Would to God, by your ho­norable example,A necessa­rie conside­ration. al others our deceiued countrie­men, vvould begince to thinck earnestly, hovve to discharge them selues of that dangerous, & in­famous seruice of Haeretikes, and Rebelles, and render them selues, into this most iust, and godlie course, that you are happely entred into. Which they should the rather speedely resolue vpon, for that they can not be so ignorant, of the times late­ly past, or the present dayes, but they must nedes haue marked, hovve God him selfe, fighteth for the iust causes, of his Catholike Maiestie, and ge­nerally for al Catholike Armies, against Haere­tikes,God geueth the victorie euer to Ca­tholikes. and Rebelles. Wise men haue noted, that though God for our sinnes hath suffered, and stil doth permit Haeretikes, to keepe great broiles, in al partes (almost) of the vvorld, for à time: yeat he euer hath put them, in fine, to confusion: geuing the victorie, lightly in al battailes, and encoun­ters, to the Catholikes. And that oftentimes very miraculously, defeating (as in the vvarres of the Machabees, & els vvhere in old time) great numbers, vvith à very fevve, & for one Catho­like, à thousand Haeretikes slaine: and many glori­ous victories obtained vvithout any bloudshed.

[Page 25]For Luther, & Zvvinglius his time, I referre you, to the recordes of Germanie, and Svvizerland, vvhich set dovvne the ouerthrovves of Haeretikes in the filde. The fightes in Fraunce, vvhere the Ca­tholikes, euer haue had also the victorie, be in al our memories meruelous. But of al others those of Flauders are most memorable. Where,Diuers vn­bloudie vi­ctories, geuē to the King Catholike, in these vvar­res. besides the conflictes at Grunning, Mock, Mounts, Rosan­dal, Zeriksea, Northorne, Amerone, Antvvarpe, Luart, Gemblovve, & the like, in euery of vvhich (the Lord God of Hosts mercifully fighting for his ovvne cause, & the Catholike Kinges right) verie few Catholikes, vvithout any losse of men, in mā ­ner, slevve and defeated manie thousandes, of vvel appointed souldiars:God hath destroyed al the Haereti­kes parta­kers mira­culously. the same most iust God of re­uenge, hath notoriously put to rebuke and confu­sion, al such forrein Princes, and people, as came to ayde his enimies. And sometimes, by his iust iudgement, hath brought them to ruine, euen by those same Haeretikes, & Rebelles, that called for them, and for vvhose protection, they came into that countrie. As vve haue seen both in the case of the Almaine, & French succourses. And the like lucke seemeth to approch vnto our English forces: ex­cept our Lord (vvhich I hartely pray for) cal them from that vniust, and infamous seruice of Haere­tikes. VVho hauing the perpetual curse of Christ, & his holie Church, lying heauely vpon them, can no more escape speedie destruction, then others, who vnluckely haue folowed that side, haue done before them. Which I speake of charitie, loue, & compassion of my deare countriemen: being assu­red, that if they perish in bodie (as it is to be feared, they shal do in that seruice) they shal lose their [Page 26] soules also euerlastingly: & shal aeternally curse those,A necessa­rie admo­nit [...]on to ou [...] coūtrie­men. that ledde them out of their countrie, to so certayne perdition. Let not the memorie, of the old English notorious battailles, and victories, vvhich in old time vvere cōparable to vvhat pro­uinces, or peoples vvere most famous: nor the esteeme, either true, or partial, of their present streingth, & courage in Englād, make them obsti­nate, in so dangerous and doubtful state of thin­ges. Let them not flatter them selues, nor be abu­sed by others: it goeth not vvholy, nor principally, nor oftentimes at al, by the streingth, or might of mannes arme, if they vvere as they pretend: but God striketh the stroke, and geueth the victorie, according to his Diuine disposition, to the vvor­thie, & to such, as serue him, put their trust in him, & confesse vvith the Prophet:Psalm 43. That. Nec in gladio suo possederūt terrā: & brachiū eorū nō saluauit eos: sed dex­teratua, & brachiū tuū. Neither in their owne svvorde haue they possessed the land: & their owne arme hath not saued them: but thy right hād, (ô God) & thy arme.

1. Reg. 25.When our Princes did Praeliari praelia Domini, Fight the sightes of our Lord (As holie vvritte saith of Dauid,By vvhat meanes our Princes be­came of old so victori­ous. being in armes against King Saul then de­priued) and their subiectes, & souldiars serued, & feared God, reuerenced his Priestes, had their con­fessours vvith them in campe, dayly heard Masse deuoutly, adored the Blessed Sacrament, called on Christ, & his holie Angels, and Sainctes, and the special Patrones of their persons, or countrie, for their defence, liued in martial discipline, order, & obedience,Luc. [...]. religiously (according to S. Iohn Bapti­stes rule, geuen to men of that condition) abstay­ning from rape, and violence, tovvardes the inno­cent, [Page 27] cōbating only for their faith, or their coun­tries right: thē both amongst the Infidelles, & Hea­then, & also among their Christian neighboures, their fightes vvere famous, thier conquestes glori­ous, and the English armes redoubted in al places.

But novve hauing forsaken God, & God forsakē them: vvhen they take no quarel in hand, but for the dishonorable defence of Rebelles, Pyrates, & Infidels: vvhen their Princes are become, Socij furū, Isaia. 1. Ezech. 22. & quasi lupi rapientes praedam▪ Companions of theeues, and rauenous woolues: and publike enimies of al true Kinges, and lavvful Dominion: keeping fidelitie neither vvith Gòd, nor man: though they vvere as strong and valiant, as euer they vvere, & of provv­der conceipt, of their ovvne courage, & cunning, then at this day, they pretend: yeat God vvil con­funde them, & such à feare vvil be put into their hartes, that they shal flie, vvhen no man persecu­teth them, & à thousand shal runae avvay, before the face of one Catholike, that fighteth for Gods Church. These things (my deare countriemē) you haue either seene with your ovvne eyes, or by assu­red faithful testimonie of others, haue heard to haue fallen, in al these vvarres of Flaunders, & shal dayly proue it, by your ovvne experiēce, to be most true that no humane streingth, or desperation, can match God: & that it neuer fel vvel vvith him, that opposeth him selfe to Christ, & his holie Church. To vvhich Church, the Prophet playnly saith:Isaia. 60. Gens et regnum, quod tibi non seruierit, peribit. The Nation and Kingdome, that serueth not thee, shal perish.

Novve in such euident, & imminēt dāger of de­structiō & death, as vvel of bodie as soul, to al such as folovve these nevv English quarels, it vvere [Page 28] bootlesse to put you in mind,No aduaūcement by English vvarres vvith the Haeretikes: but intole­rable miseries. of the impossibilitie of aduauncement, by those vvarres, vvhat so euer your successe be: your selues hauing dayly experi­ence, of the intolerable distresles, both there & at home, & hovve shamfully they vvhich vvere the authors of such vvarres, & novve are the chiefe leaders of the same, haue abused al sortes of our countriemen: enforcing manie à Gentleman, and substantial person, to serue of their ovvne charges, & to spoile them selues at home, in hope of their inriching abrode. Who novve finding al things cōtrarie, to promise, & expectatiō, are so entangled, that they neither dare go [...] home, for feare of han­ging, nor can wel endure these miseries abrode, for feare of dying shamfully, & miserably in forraine countries. Nothing being leift for their reliefe, indeed, in this perplexitie, but only to do that (if they haue grace) vvhich you haue both vvisely, godly, & honorably done: praeseruing your soules for life, & glorie euerlasting, & your persons, for the seruice of our Church, and countrie, in better times to come. In the meane while to occupie the fortitude and forces,Epist. 207. of your bodie, and minde (vvhich are Gods special gifts, as S. Augustin saith) in the ser­uice of the Almightie: and of the greatast, & iustest Monarch in the vvorld, vnder à General so peerles, vvho can, & vvil, according to the vvorthines of your courage, condition, and qualities, advaunce you, & bestowe you in such places of seruice, where you may encrease in honour, and knovvledge, and so be in time, vvhē it shal please God to haue mer­cie of our desolare countrie, not only restorers of old militare vertue, and discipline in the same: but be notable helpers by the valerous arme of your [Page 29] Christiā Knighthoode, to reduce our people, to the obedience of Christes Church: & deliuer our Ca­tholike freindes, & brethrē from the damnable, & vntolerable yoke of Haeresie, and her most impure leaders.

It is novve some yeares agoe, sith à Gentlman, & Capitaine, of my name, vvished, & (to say the truth) conferred earnestly vvith me about it, that as vve had certaine Seminaries, and Colledges for praeseruation, or restitution of the Cleargie, vvhen the time should come, to serue God, in our coun­trie:A Nource­rie [...]. so that there vvere some compainies of Eng­lish souldiars also, to be trayned vp in Catholike, and old godly militare discipline, for the helpe of our said countrie, in that kind likevvise. Which thing being honorably begune, by diuers Noble­men and Gentlemen before: so I trust, God hath brought to passe in you nowe, that it shal be finish­ed, to the vniuersal comfort of vs al, and the great good, and hope of our Nation. For redressing the euils vvherof, it is as lavvful, godly,VVhat me­rite it is to fight for the faith. & glorious for you to fight, as for vs Priestes to suffer, and to die. Either the one vvay, or thother, for defence of our fathers faith, is alvvais in the sight of God, à most precious death, and martyrdome. And great com­fort (truly) it is to me, and hope to our poore coū ­trie, that in this our desolation, our merciful Lord hath leift vs seed in both sortes: And that I may truly say to you, the vvordes of S. Augustin,Epist. 207. to Coū tie Boniface: Alij pro vobis orando pugnant, cōtra inui­sibiles inimicos: vos pro eis pugnatis, cōtra visibiles Barba­ros. God (saith he) geueth his giftes diuersly: Others by praiers fight for you, against your inuisible enimies: and you sight for them, against visible Haeretikes, or (as [Page 30] he speaketh) against the Barbarous. The Priest and souldiar should con­curre. So goodly à thing it is, for the Priest & souldiar to concurre, in the seruice of God, and their countrie, togeather.

But I forget my selfe, and am alreadie past the measure of à letter. Therfore I vvil here make an end: & for the rest referre you to the good Priestes, to vvhom I haue geuen order in al things. And you shal finde them such, as for zeale, discretion, learning, and vertue, shal be agreable to your de­sire, and expectation. Whose holie laboures, and al your honorable endevours, I beseke Almightie God to blesse. Commēding vnto you for à farewel, this goodlie sentence of the foresaid holie Doctor S. Augustin, vvorthie to be vvritten in golden let­ters,Vbi supia. on euerie noble souldiars breast: Hoc primum cogita, quando armaris ad pu [...]nam, quia virtus tua etiam corporalis, donum Dei est: sic enim cogitabis, de dono Dei non facere contra Deum. that is: When soeuer thou art armed, & in readinesse for battayle, let this be thy first co­gitation, that thy very corporal streingth it selfe, is the gift of God: wherby thou shalt stil be put in minde, neuer to vse the gift of God, against God him selfe, that gaue it thee. Fare you vve [...] againe. And to commaund me in these matters, that pertaine to my profession, make no courtesie. For I am vvholy yours, and al theirs, that serue the Catholike cause, & our countrie.

Your freind and seruant in Christ: VVilliam Allen.

Vidit & approbauit Siluester Par­do, S. Theol. Licenciatus & Cathedr. Ecclesiae Antuerp. Can. librorum (que) Censor.

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