A Briefe and true Relation of the Discouerie of the North part of Virginia; being a most pleasant, fruitfull and commodious soile: Made this present yeere 1602, by Captaine Bartholomew Gosnold, Cap­taine Bartholowmew Gilbert, and diuers other gentlemen their associats, by the permission of the honourable knight, Sir WALTER RALEGH, &c. Written by M. Iohn Brereton one of the voyage. Whereunto is annexed a Treatise, of M. Edward Hayes, conteining important inducements for the planting in those parts, and finding a passage that way to the South sea, and China. With diuers instructions of speciall moment newly added in this second im­pression.

LONDINI, Impensis Geor. Bishop. 1602.

To the honourable, Sir WALTER RALEGH, Knight, Captaine of her Maiesties Guards, Lord Warden of the Stanneries, Lieutenant of Cornwall, and Gouernour of the Isle of Iersey.

HOnourable sir,

being earnestly reque­sted by a déere friend, to put downe in writing, some true relation of our late performed voyage to the North parts of Virginia; at length I resolued to sa­tisfie his request, who also emboldened me to direct the same to your honour­able consideration; to whom indéed of duetie it perteineth.

May it please your Lordship therefore to vnderstand, that vpon the sixe and twentieth of March 1602, being Friday, we went from Falmouth, being in all, two & thirtie persons, in a small barke of Dartmouth, called The Concord, holding a course for the North part of Virginia: and although by chance the winde fauoured vs not at first as we wished, but inforced vs so farre to the Southward,They fel with S. Marie, one of the Açores. as we fell with S. Ma­rie, one of the islands of the Açores (which was not much out of our way) but holding our course directly from thence, we made our iourney shorter (than hitherto accustomed) by the better part of a thousand leagues, yet were wée longer in our passage than we expected; which happened, for that our barke being weake, we were loth to presse her with much saile; also, our sailers being few, and they none of the best, we bare (except in faire weather) but low saile; besides, our go­ing vpon an vnknowen coast, made vs not ouer-bolde to [Page 4] stand in with the shore, but in open weather; which caused vs to be certeine daies in sounding, before we discouered the coast, the weather being by chance, somewhat foggie. But on Friday the fourtéenth of May,They discoue­red land the 14. of May. early in the morning, wée made the land, being full of faire trées, the land somewhat low, certeine hummocks or hilles lying into the land, the shore full of white sand, but very stony or rocky. And standing faire alongst by the shore, about twelue of the clocke the same day,Eight Indi­ans come a­boord of them. we came to an anker, where eight Indians, in a Baske­shallop with mast and saile, an iron grapple, and a kettle of Copper, came boldly aboord vs, one of them apparelled with a wastcoat and breeches of blacke serdge, made after our sea-fa­shion, hose and shoes on his féet; all the rest (sauing one that had a paire of breeches of blue cloth) were naked.The descrip­tion of them. These people are of tall stature, broad and grim visage, of a blacke swart complexion, their eie-browes painted white; their weapons are bowes and arrowes. It seemed by some words and signes they made, that some Basks or of S, Iohn de Luz, haue fished or traded in this place, being in the latitude of 43. degrées. But riding heere, in no very good harbour, and with­all, doubting the weather, about thrée of the clocke the same day in the afternoone we weighed, & standing Southerly off into sea the rest of that day and the night following, with a fresh gale of winde, in the morning we found our selues em­baied with a mightie headland; but comming to an anker a­bout nine of the clocke the same day, within a league of the shore, we hoised out the one halfe of our shallop, and captaine Bartholmew Gosnold, Their first landing. my selfe, and thrée others, went ashore, being a white sandie and very bolde shore; and marching all that afternoone with our muskets on our necks, on the highest hilles which we saw (the weather very hot) at length we per­ceiued this headland to be parcell of the maine, and sundrie Islands lying almost round about it: so returning (towards euening) to our shallop (for by that time, the other part was brought ashore and set together) we espied an Indian,Another In­dian. a yoong man, of proper stature, and of a pleasing countenance; and af­ter some familiaritie with him, we left him at the sea side, and returned to our ship; where, in fiue or sixe houres absence, we had pestered our ship so with Cod fish,Anexcellent Codfishing. that we threw num­bers [Page 5] of them ouer-boord againe: and surely, I am persua­ded that in the moneths of March, April, and May, there is vpon this coast, better fishing, and in as great plentie, as in Newfound-land: for the sculles of Mackerell, herrings, Cod, and other fish, that we daily saw as we went and came from the shore, were woonderfull; and besides, the places where we tooke these Cods (and might in a few daies haue laden our ship) were but in seuen fadome water, and within lesse than a league of the shore: where, in Newfound-land they fish in fortie or fiftie fadome water, and farre off. From this place, we sailed round about this headland,A great head­land. almost all the points of the compasse, the shore very bolde: but as no coast is frée from dangers, so I am persuaded, this is as frée as any. The land somwhat lowe, full of goodly woods, but in some places plaine. At length we were come amongst many faire Islands,Many faire Islands. which we had partly discerned at our first landing; all lying within a league or two one of another, and the outermost not aboue sixe or seuen leagues from the maine:The first I­sland called Marthaes vine­yard. but cōming to an anker vnder one of them, which was about thrée or foure leagues from the maine, captaine Gosnold, my selfe, and some others, went ashore, and going round about it, we found it to be foure English miles in compasse, without house or inhabitant, sa­uing a little old house made of boughes, couered with barke, an olde piece of a weare of the Indians, to catch fish, and one or two places, where they had made fires. The chiefest trées of this Island, are BéechesBeeches. and Cedars;Cedars. the outward parts all ouergrowen with lowe bushie trées, thrée or foure foot in height, which beare some kinde of fruits, as appeared by their blossomes; Strawberries, red and white, as sweet and much bigger than ours in England: Rasberies, Gooseberies, Hurtleberies, and such an incredible store of Uines,Uines in a­bundance. aswell in the wooddie part of the Island, where they run vpon euery trée, as on the outward parts, that we could not goe for trea­ding vpon them: also, many springsSprings. of excellent swéet water, and a great standing lakeA Lake. of fresh water, néere the sea side, an English mile in compasse, which is mainteined with the springs running excéeding pleasantly thorow the wooddie grounds which are very rockie. Here are also in this Island, great store of Déere,Deere. which we saw, and other beasts,Other beasts. as ap­peared [Page 6] by their tracks; as also diuers fowles, as Cranes,Cranes. Hernshawes,Hernshawes. Bitters,Bitters. Géese,Geese. Mallards,Mallards. TealesTeales. and other fowles, in great plenty; also, great store of Pease, which grow in certeine plots all the Island ouer. On the North side of this Island we found many huge bones and ribbes of Whales. This Island, as also all the rest of these Islands, are full of all sorts of stones fit for building; the sea sides all couered with stones, many of them glistring and shining like minerall stones, and verie rockie: also, the rest of these Islands are replenished with these commodities, and vpon some of them, inhabitants; as vpon as Island to the North­ward, and within two leagues of this; yet wée found no townes, nor many of their houses, although we saw manie Indians, which are tall big boned men, all naked, sauing they couer their priuy parts with a blacke tewed skin, much like a Black smiths apron, tied about their middle and betwéene their legs behinde: they gaue vs of their fish readie boiled, (which they carried in a basket made of twigges, not vnlike our osier) whereof we did eat, and iudged them to be fresh water fish: they gaue vs also of their Tabacco,Tabacco. which they drinke gréene, but dried into powder, very strong and plea­sant, and much better than any I haue tasted in England: the necks of their pipes are made of clay hard dried, (whereof in that Island is great store both red and white) the other part is a piece of hollow copper, very finely closed and semented together. Wée gaue vnto them certeine trifles, as kniues, points, and such like, which they much estéemed. From hence we went to another Island,Elizabeths Island. to the Northwest of this, and within a league or two of the maine, which we found to bee greater than before we imagined, being 16. English miles at the least in compasse; for it conteineth many pieces or necks of land, which differ nothing frō seuerall Islands, sauing that certeine banks of small bredth, do like bridges, ioine them to this Island. On the outsides of this Island are many plaine places of grasse, abundance of Strawberies & other berries before mentioned. In mid May we did sowe in this Island (for a triall) in sundry places, Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Pease,Wheat, Bar­ley, and Oats sowed, came vp nine inches in fourteene daies. which in fourtéene daies were sprung vp nine inches and more. The soile is fat and lustie, the vpper crust of gray [Page 7] colour; but a foot or lesse in depth, of the colour of our hempe­lands in England; and being thus apt for these and the like graines; the sowing or setting (after the ground is clensed) is no greater labour, than if you should set or sow in one of our best prepared gardens in England. This Island is full of high timbred Oakes,Oakes. their leaues thrise so broad as ours; Ce­ders,Cedars. straight and tall; Béech,Beech. Elme,Elme. hollie,Hollie. Walnut treesWalnut trees. in a­boundance, the fruit as bigge as ours, as appeared by those we found vnder the trees, which had lien all the yéere vnga­thered; Haslenut trées, Cherry trées,Cherry trees. the leafe, barke and big­nesse not differing from ours in England, but the stalke bea­reth the blossoms or fruit at the end thereof, like a cluster of Grapes, forty or fifty in a bunch; Sassafras tréesSassafras trees. great plen­tie all the Island ouer, a trée of high price and profit; also di­uers other fruit trées,Diuers other trees. some of them with strange barkes, of an Orange colour, in feeling soft and smoothe like Ueluet: in the thickest parts of these woods, you may sée a furlong or more round about. On the Northwest side of this Island, néere to the sea side, is a standing Lake of fresh water, almost thrée English milesA lake three miles about. in compasse, in the middest whereof stands a plot of woody ground, an acre in quantitie or not aboue: this Lake is full of small Tortoises,Small Tor­toises. and excéedingly frequen­ted with all sorts of fowles before rehearsed, which breed, some low on the banks, and others on low trees about this Lake in great aboundance, whose yong ones of all sorts we tooke and eat at our pleasure: but all these fowles are much bigger than ours in England. Abundance of fowles, much bigger than ours in Eng­land. Also, in euery Island, and al­most in euery part of euery Island, are great store of Ground nuts,Ground nuts. fortie together on a string, some of them as bigge as hennes egges; they grow not two inches vnder ground: the which nuts we found to be as good as Potatoes. Also, diuers sorts of shell-fish,Shell fish. as Scalops, Muscles, Cockles, Lobsters, Crabs, Oisters, and Wilks, exéeding good and very great. But not to cloy you with particular rehearsall of such things as God & Nature hath bestowed on these places, in compari­son whereof, the most fertil part of al England is (of it selfe) but barren; we went in our light-horsman from this Island to the maine, right against this Island some two leagues off, where comming ashore, we stood a while like men rauished at the [Page 8] beautieThe exceeding beautie of the maine land. and delicacie of this swéet soile; for besides diuers cléere LakesGreat Lakes. of fresh water (whereof we saw no end) Mo­dowesLarge me­dowes. very large and full of gréene grasse; euen the most woody places (I speake onely of such as I saw) doe grow so distinct and apart, one trée from another, vpon gréene grassie ground, somewhat higher than the Plaines, as if Nature would shew her selfe aboue her power, artificiall. Hard by, we espied seuen Indians,Seuen In­dians. and cumming vp to them, at first they expressed some feare; but being emboldned by our cur­teous vsage, and some trifles which we gaue them, they fol­lowed vs to a necke of land, which we imagined had beene se­uered from the maine; but finding it otherwise, we perceiued a broad harbour or riuersA broad riuer. mouth, which ranne vp into the maine: and because the day was farre spent, we were forced to returne to the Island from whence we came, leauing the discouery of this harbour,A good har­bour. for a time of better leasure. Of the goodnesse of which harbour, as also of many others therea­bouts, there is small doubt, considering that all the Islands, as also the maine (where we were) is all rockie grounds and broken lands. Now the next day, we determined to fortifie our selues in a little plot of ground in the midst of the Lake aboue mentioned,The English house. where we built an house, and couered it with sedge, which grew about this lake in great aboundance; in building whereof, we spent thrée wéeks and more: but the second day after our comming from the maine, we espied 11 canowes or boats, with fiftie Indians in them,Eleuen ca­nows with fiftie Indi­ans in them. comming toward vs from this part of the maine, where we, two daies before landed; and being loth they should discouer our forti­fication, we went out on the sea side to méete them; and com­ming somewhat néere them, they all sat downe vpon the stones, calling aloud to vs (as we rightly ghessed) to doe the like, a little distance from them: hauing sat a while in this or­der, captaine Gosnold willed me to goe vnto them, to sée what countenance they would make; but as soone as I came vp vn­to them, one of them, to whom I had giuen a knife two daies before in the maine, knew me, (whom I also very wel remem­bred) and smiling vpon me, spake somewhat vnto their lord or captaine,Their cap­taine. which sat in the midst of them, who presently rose vp and tooke a large Beauer skin from one that stood about [Page 9] him, and gaue it vnto me, which I requited for that time the best I could: but I, pointing towards captaine Gosnold, made signes vnto him, that he was our captaine, and desi­rous to be his friend, and enter league with him, which (as I perceiued) he vnderstood, and made signes of ioy: whereup­pon captaine Gosnold with the rest of his companie, being twenty in all, came vp vnto them; and after many signes of gratulations (captaine Gosnold presenting their Lord with certaine trifles which they wondred at, and highly estéemed) we became very great friends, and sent for meat aboord our shallop, and gaue them such meats as we had then readie dressed, whereof they misliked nothing but our mustard, whereat they made many a sowre face. While we were thus mery, one of them had conueied a target of ours into one of their canowes, which we suffered, onely to trie whe­ther they were in subiection to this Lord to whom we made signes (by shewing him another of the same likenesse, and pointing to the canow) what one of his companie had done: who suddenly expressed some feare, and speaking angerly to one about him (as we perceiued by his countenance) caused it presently to be brought backe againe. So the rest of the day we spent in trading with them for Furres,Seuerall sorts of Furres. which are Bea­uers, Luzernes, Marterns, Otters, Wild-cat skinnes, very large and déepe Furre, blacke Foxes, Conie skinnes, of the colour of our Hares, but somewhat lesse, Déere skinnes, ve­ry large, Seale skinnes, and other beasts skinnes, to vs vn­knowen. They haue also great store of Copper,Red Copper in abundance. some very redde; and some of a paler colour; none of them but haue chaines, earings or collars of this mettall: they head some of their arrows herewith much like our broad arrow heads, very workmanly made. Their chainesChaines. are many hollow pieces semented together, ech piece of the bignesse of one of our réeds, a finger in length, ten or twelue of them together on a string, which they weare about their necks: their col­larsCollars. they weare about their bodies like bandelieres a hand­full broad, all hollow pieces, like the other, but somewhat shorter, four hundred pieces in a collar, very fine and euenly set together. Besides these, they haue large drinking cupsDrinking cuppes of Copper. made like sculles, and other thinne plates of copper, made [Page 10] much like our boare-speare blades, all which they so little e­stéeme, as they offered their fairest collars or chaines, for a knife or such like trifle, but we séemed little to regard it; yet I was desirous to vnderstand where they had such store of this mettall, and made signes to one of them (with whom I was very familiar) who taking a piece of CopperMines of Copper. in his hand, made a hole with his finger in the ground, and withall pointed to the maine from whence they came. They strike fire in this manner; euery one carrieth about him in a purse of tewd leather, a Minerall stoneMinerall stones. (which I take to be their Copper) and with a flat Emerie stoneEmerie stones. (wherewith Glasiers cut glasse, and Cutlers glase blades) tied fast to the end of a little sticke, gently he striketh vpon the Minerall stone, and within a stroke or two, a sparke falleth vpon a piece of Touchwood (much like our Spunge in England) and with the least sparke he maketh a fire presently. We had also of their Flaxe,Flaxe. wherewith they make many strings and cords, but it is not so bright of colour as ours in England: I am per­swaded they haue great store growing vpon the maine, as also Mines and many other rich commodities, which we, wanting both time and meanes, could not possibly discouer. Thus they continued with vs thrée daies, euery night reti­ring them selues to the furthermost part of our Island two or three miles from our fort: but the fourth day they returned to the maine, pointing fiue or six times to the Sun, and once to the maine, which we vnderstood, that within fiue or six daies they would come from the maine to vs againe: but being in their canowes a little from the shore, they made huge cries & shouts of ioy vnto vs; and we with our trumpet and cornet, and casting vp our cappes into the aire, made them the best farewell we could:Indians apt for seruice. yet six or seuen of them remained with vs behinde, bearing vs company euery day into the woods, and helpt vs to cut and carie our Sassafras,Sassafras. and some of them lay aboord our ship. These people, as they are excéeding cour­teous,A goodly peo­ple, & of good conditions. gentle of disposition, and well conditioned, excelling all others that we haue séene; so for shape of bodie and louely fa­uour, I thinke they excell all the people of America; of stature much higher than we; of complexion or colour, much like a darke Oliue; their eie-browes and haire blacke, which they [Page 11] weare long, tied vp behinde in knots, whereon they pricke feathers of fowles, in fashion of a crownet: some of them are blacke thin bearded; they make beards of the haire of beasts: and one of them offered a beard of their making to one of our sailers, for his that grew on his face, which because it was of a red colour, they iudged to be none of his owne. They are quicke eied, and stedfast in their looks, fearelesse of others harmes, as intending none themselues; some of the meaner sort giuen to filching, which the very name of Saluages (not weighing their ignorance in good or euill) may easily excuse: their garments are of Déere skins, and some of them weare Furres round and close about their necks.Their appa­rell. They pronounce our language with great facilitie; for one of them one day sitting by mee, vpon occasion I spake smiling to him these words: How now (sirrha) are you so saucie with my Tabacco? which words (without any further repetition) he suddenly spake so plaine and distinctly, as if he had béene a long scholar in the language. Many other such trials we had, which are héere néedlesse to repeat. Their womenTheir wo­men. (such as we saw) which were but thrée in all, were but lowe of stature, their eie-browes, haire, apparell, and maner of wearing, like to the men, fat, and very well fauoured, and much delighted in our company; the men are very dutifull towards them. And truely, the holsomnesse and temperature of this Climat, doth not onely argue this people to be answerable to this descrip­tion, but also of a perfect constitution of body, actiue, strong, healthfull, and very wittie, as the sundry toies of theirs cun­ningly wrought, may easily witnes. For the agréeing of this ClimatThe goodnesse or the Climat. with vs (I speake of my selfe, & so I may iustly do for the rest of our company) that we found our health & strength all the while we remained there, so to renew and increase, as notwithstanding our diet and lodging was none of the best, yet not one of our company (God be thanked) felt the least grudging or inclination to any disease or sicknesse, but were much fatter and in better health than when we went out of England. But after our barke had taken in so much Sassafras, Cedar, Furres, Skinnes, and other commodities, as were thought conuenient; some of our company that had promised captaine Gosnold to stay, hauing nothing but a sa­uing [Page 12] voyage in their minds, made our company of inhabi­tants (which was small enough before) much smaller; so as captaine Gosnold séeing his whole strength to consist but of twelue men, and they but meanly prouided, determined to returneTheir return. for England, leauing this Island (which he called Eli­zabeths Island) which as many true sorrowfull eies, as were before desirous to sée it. So the 18. of Iune, being Friday, we weighed, and with indifferent faire winde and weather came to anker the 23 of Iuly, being also Friday (in all, bare fiue wéeks) before Exmouth.

Your Lordships to command, Ihon Brereton.

A briefe Note of such commodities as we saw in the countrey, notwithstanding our small time of stay.

  • SAssafras trees, the roots wherof at 3. s. the pound are 336. l. the tunne.
  • Cedars tall and straight, in great abundance.
  • Cypres trees.
  • Oakes.
  • Walnut trees great store.
  • Elmes.
  • Beech.
  • Hollie.
  • Haslenut trees.
  • Cherry trees.
  • Cotten trees.
  • Other fruit trees to vs vn­knowen.

The finder of our Sassafras in these parts, was one Master Robert Meriton.

  • EAgles.
  • Hernshawes.
  • Cranes.
  • Bitters.
  • Mallards.
  • Teales.
  • Geese.
  • Pengwins.
  • Ospreis and Hawks.
  • Crowes.
  • Rauens.
  • Mewes.
  • Doues.
  • Sea-pies.
  • Blacke-birds with carnation wings.
  • DEere in great store, very great and large.
  • [Page 13] Beares.
  • Luzernes.
  • Blacke Foxes.
  • Beauers.
  • Otters.
  • Wilde-Cats, verie large and great.
  • Dogs like Foxes, blacke and sharpe nosed.
  • Conies.
Fruits, Plants, and Herbs.
  • TAbacco, excellent sweet and strong.
  • Vines in more plenty than in France.
  • Ground-nuts, good meat, & also medicinable.
  • Strawberries.
  • Raspeberries.
  • Gooseberries.
  • Hurtleberries.
  • Pease growing naturally.
  • Flaxe.
  • Iris Florentina, whereof apo­thecaries make sweet balles.
  • Sorrell, and many other herbs wherewith they made sal­lets.
  • VVHales.
  • Tortoises, both on land and sea.
  • Seales.
  • Cods.
  • Mackerell.
  • Breames.
  • Herrings.
  • Thornbacke.
  • Hakes.
  • Rockefish.
  • Doggefish.
  • Lobstars.
  • Crabbes.
  • Muscles.
  • Wilks.
  • Cockles.
  • Scallops.
  • Oisters.

SNakes foure foot in length, and sixe inches about, which the Indians eat for daintie meat, the skinnes whereof they vse for girdles.

Colours to die with, red, white, and blacke.

Mettals and Stones.
  • COpper in great abun­dance.
  • Emerie stones for Glasiers & Cutlers.
  • Alabaster very white.
  • Stones glistering and shining like Minerall stones.
  • Stones of a blue mettalline colour, which we take to be Steele oare.
  • Stones of all sorts for buil­dings.
  • Clay, red & white, which may proue good Terra Sigillata.

A briefe Note of the sending another barke this present yeere 1602. by the honorable knight, Sir WALTE RALEGH, for the searching out of his Colonie in Virginia.

SAmuel Mace of Weimouth, a very sufficent Mariner, an honest sober man, who had béene at Virginia twise before, was imploied thi­ther by Sir Walter Ralegh, to finde those peo­ple which were left there in the yeere 1587. To whose succour he hath sent fiue seuerall times at his owne charges. The parties by him set foorth, performed nothing; some of them following their owne pro­fit elsewhere; others returning with friuolous allegations. At this last time, to auoid all excuse, he bought a barke, and hired all the company for wages by the moneth: who depar­ting from Weimouth in March last 1062, fell fortie leagues to the Southwestward of Hatarask, in thirtie foure degrées or thereabout; and hauing there spent a moneth; when they came along the coast to séeke the people, they did it not, pre­tending that the extremitie of weather and losse of some prin­cipall ground-tackle, forced and feared them from searching the port of Hatarask, to which they were sent. From that place where they abode, they brought Sassafras, Radix Chinae or the China root, Beniamin, Cassia, lignea, & a rinde of a trée more strong than any spice as yet knowen, with diuers other com­modities, which hereafter in a larger discourse may come to light.

A Treatise, conteining important induce­ments for the planting in these parts, and finding a passage that way to the South sea and China.

THe voiage which we intend, is to plant Chri­stian people and religion vpon the Northwest countries of America, in places temperatTemperate Climats. and well agréeing with our constitution, which though the same doe lie betwéene 40. and 44. degrees of latitude, vnder the Paralels of Italy and France, yet are not they so hot; by reason that the suns heat is qualified in his course ouer the Ocean, before he arriueth vpon the coasts of America, attracting much vapour from the sea: which mitigation of his heat, we take for a benefit to vs that intend to inhabit there; because vnder the Climat of 40 degrees, the same would be too vehement els for our bodies to endure.

These lands were neuer yet actually possessed by any Chri­stian prince or people,Her Maiesties title. yet often intended to be by the French nation, which long sithence had inhabited there, if domesticall warres had not withheld them: notwithstanding the same are the rightfull inheritance of her Maiestie, being first disco­uered by our nation in the time of King Henrie the seuenth, vnder the conduct of Iohn Cabot and his sonnes: by which title of first discouery, the kings of Portugall and Spaine doe holde and enioy their ample and rich kingdomes in their In­dies East and West; and also lately planted in part by the Colonies sent thither by the honourable knight, Sir Walter Ralegh.

The course vnto these countreys,A commodi­ous and safe course. is thorow the Ocean, al­together frée from all restraint by forren princes to be made; whereunto other our accustomed trades are subiect; apt for most winds that can blow, to be performed commonly in 30 [Page 16] or 35 daies. The coast faire, with safe roads and harbors for ships:Riuers. Many riuers.

These lands be faire and pleasant,Fertile lands. resembling France, in­termedled with mountaines, valleys, medowes, woodlands, and champians. The soile is excéeding strong, by reason it was neuer manured; and will be therefore most fit to beare at first, Rape-séeds, Hempe, Flax, and whatsoeuer els requi­reth such strong soile. Rape-oiles,Rape oiles. and all sorts of oiles, will be very commodious for England, which spendeth oiles a­boundantly about Clothing and Leather-dressing. In like sort, Hempe and Flax are profitable, whether the same be sent into England, or wrought there by our people; Oad also will grow there aswell or better then in Terçera.

The Saluages weare faire colours in some of their atire, whereby we hope to finde rich diesDies. and colours for painting.

The trées are for the most part, Cedars, Pines, Spruse, Firre and Oaks to the Northward. Of these trées will be drawen Tarre and Pitch, Rosen, Turpentine, and Soape­ashes: They will make masts for the greatest shippes of the world: Excellent timbers of Cedar, and boords for curious building.

The cliffes vpon the coasts and mountaines euery where shew great likelihood of Minerals.Minerals. A very rich mine of Cop­perCopper. is found, whereof I haue séene proofe; and the place de­scribed. Not farre from which there is great hope also of a Siluer mine. There be faire quarries of stone, of beautifull colours, for buildings.

The ground bringeth forth, without industrie, Pease, Ro­ses, Grapes,Grapes. Hempe, besides other plants, fruits, herbs and flowers, whose pleasant view and delectable smelles, doe de­monstrate sufficiently the fertility and swéetnesse of that soile and aire.

BeastsBeasts. of many kindes; some of the bignesse of an Oxe, whose hides make good buffe: Déere, both red and of other sorts in aboundance: Luzerns, Marterns, Sables, Beauers, Beares, Otters, Wolues, Foxes, and Squirrels, which to the Northward are blacke, and accounted very rich furres.

FowlesFowles. both of the water and land, infinit store and vari­etie; Hawks both short and long winged, Partriges in a­bundance, [Page 17] which are verie great, and easily taken. Birds great and small, some like vnto our Blacke-birds, others like Canarie-birds: And many (as well birds as other creatures) strange and differing from ours of Europe.

Fish, namely, Cods, which as we encline more vnto the South, are more large and vendible for England and France, then the Newland fish. Whales and Seales in great abun­dances. Oiles of them are rich commodities for England, whereof we now make Soape, besides many other vses. Item, Tunneys, Anchoues, Bonits, Salmons, Lobsters, Oisters hauing Pearle, and infinit other sorts of fish, which are more plentifull vpon those Northwest coasts of America, than in any parts of the knowen world. Salt is reported to be found there, which els may be made there, to serue suffi­ciently for all fishing.

So as the commoditiesCommodities in generall. there to be raised both of the sea and land (after that we haue planted our people skilfull and industrious) will be, Fish, Whale and Seale oiles, Soape a­shes and Soape, Tarre and Pitch, Rosen and Turpentine, Masts, Timber and boords of Cedars, Firres, and Pines, Hempe, Flaxe, Cables and Ropes, Saile-clothes, Grapes, and Raisens and Wines, Corne, Rape-séeds & oiles, Hides, Skinnes, Furres, Dies and Colours for painting, Pearle, Mettals, and other Minerals.

These commodities before rehearsed,Imploiment of our people, and repairing decaied ports. albeit for the most part they be grosse, yet are the same profitable for the State of England specially, aswell in regard of the vse of such commo­dities, as for the imploiment also of our people and ships; the want whereof, doth decay our townes and ports of England, and causeth the realme to swarme full with poore and idle people.

These commodities in like sort,The trade to Newfound-land shalbe remo­ued to vs. are of great vse and esti­mation in all the South and Westerne countreys of Europe; namely, Italie, France and Spaine: for the which all nations that haue béene accustomed to repaire vnto the Newfound-land for the commoditie of fish and oiles alone, will hencefor­ward forsake the Newfound-land, and trade with vs, when once we haue planted people in those parts: by whose indu­strie shall be prouided for all commers, both fish and oiles, [Page 18] and many commodities besides, of good importance & value.

Then will the Spaniards and Portugals bring vnto vs in exchange of such commodites before mentioned,Spanish com­modities. Wines, Swéet oiles, Fruits, Spices, Sugars, Silks, Gold and Sil­uer, or whatsoeuer that Europe yéeldeth, to supply our necessi­ties, and to increase our delights.

For which Spanish commodities and other sorts like­wise,English com­modities. our merchants of England will bring vnto vs againe, Cloth, Cattell, for our store and bréed, and euery thing els that we shall néed, or that England shall haply exchange for such commodities.

By this intercourse,Uent of our Cloth. our habitations will be made a Sta­ple of all vendible commodities of the world, and a meanes to vent a very great quantitie of our English cloth into all the cold regions of America extended very farre.

This intercourse also will be soone drawen together by this reason:Intercourse will soone be had with o­ther nacions. That néere adioining vpon the same coasts of New­found-land, is the greatest fishing of the world; whether doe yéerely repaire about 400 sailes of ships, for no other commo­ditie than Fish and Whale-oiles. Then forasmuch as mer­chants ar diligent inquisitours after gaines, they will soone remooue their trade from Newfound-land vnto vs néere at hand, for so great increase of gaine as they shall make by tra­ding with vs.In commodi­ties in the Newland trade. For whereas the voyage vnto the Newfound-land is into a more cold and intemperate place, not to be tra­ded nor frequented at all times, nor fortified for securitie of the ships and goods; oft spoiled by pirats or men of warre; the charges great for salt; double manning and double victual­ling their ships, in regard that the labor is great and the time long, before their lading can be made readie: they cary out­wards no commodities for fraight; and after sixe moneths voyage, their returne is made but of Fish and Oiles.

Contrariwise,Commodities by hauing trade with vs. by trading with vs at our intended place, the course shalbe in a maner as short; into a more temperate and healthfull climat; at all times of the yéere to be traded; harbors fortified to secure ships and goods; charges abridged of salt, victualling and manning ships double: because lading shall be prouided vnto their hands at a more easie rate than themselues could make it. They shall carry fraight also out­ward, [Page 19] to make exchange with vs; and so get profit both waies: and then euery foure moneths they may make a voy­age and returne, of both fish and oiles, and many other com­modities of good worth.

These reasons aduisedly waighed,Note. shall make our enter­prise appeare easie, and the most profitable of the world, for our nation to vndertake. The reasons we chiefly relie vp­on are these, namely.

  • 1 Those lands which we intend to inhabit, shall minister vnto our people, the subiect and matter of many no­table commodities.
  • 2 England shall affoord vs people both men, women and children aboue 10000, which may very happily be spared from hence to worke those commodities there.
  • 3 Newfound-land shall minister shipping to carrie away all our commodities, and to bring others vnto vs a­gaine for our supplie.

Now two of these reasons are already effected vnto our hands:An easie en­terprise, and great reward. that is to say: The place where we shall finde rich commodities, and ships to vent them. It remaineth onely for our parts, to carrie and transport people with their pro­uisions from England, where the miserie and necessitie of ma­nie crie out for such helpe and reliefe.

This considered,The English nation most fit for disco­ueries. no nation of Christendom is so fit for this action as England, by reason of our superfluous people (as I may tearme them) and of our long domesticall peace. And after that we be once 200 men strong, victualled and fortifi­ed, we can not be remooued by as many thousands.

For besides that, we haue séene both in France and the Low-countreys, where 200 men well fortified and victualled, haue kept out the forces both of the French & Spanish kings, euen within their owne kingdomes: it shall be also a matter of great difficulty, to transport an army ouer the Ocean with victuals and munition, and afterwards to abide long siege a­broad, against vs fortified within, where the very elements and famine shall fight for vs, though we should lie still and defend onely.

[Page 20]The Saluages neither in this attempt shall hurt vs, they being simple,The Salua­ges vnable to defend or offend. naked and vnarmed, destitute of edge-tooles or weapons; whereby they are vnable either to defend thēselues or to offend vs: neither is it our intent to prouoke, but to cher­rish and win them vnto Christianitie by faire meanes; yet not to trust them too far, but to prouide against all accidents.

Then to conclude, as we of all other nations are most fit for a discouery and planting in remote places; euen so, vnder the heauens there is no place to be found so conuenient for such a purpose; by reason of the temperature, commodities, apt site for trade, & repaire thither already of so many ships, which in any other frequented countrey, can not be procu­red in a mans age, nor with expense of halfe a million.

So as the onely difficultie now,This action but set on foot, will goe for­ward of it selfe. is in our first preparation to transport some few people at the beginning; the charges whereof shall be defraied by our first returne, of fish and some commodities of Sassafras, Hides, Skinnes and Furres, which we shall also haue by trading with the Saluages. The proofe of which commodities shall incourage our merchants to venter largely in the next. The supplie shall easily and con­tinually be sent by ships, which yéerely goe from hence vnto the Newfound-land and vs; and the intercourse & exchange we shall haue with all nations repairing thither, shall store vs with aboundance of all things for our necessities and de­lightes.Ouersight in choise of a new habitation. Which reasons if they had béene foreséene of them that planted in the South part of Virginia (which is a place destitute of good harbours, and farre from all trade) no doubt but if they had settled neerer vnto this frequented trade in the Newfound-land, they had by this time béene a flourish­ing State, and plentifull in all things; who also might then haue made way into the bowels of that large continent, where assuredly we shall discouer very goodly and rich king­domes and cities.

It may also séeme a matter of great consequence for the good and securitie of England; that out of these Northerly re­gions we shall be able to furnish this realme of all maner of prouisions for our nauies; namely, Pitch, Rosen, Cables,A matter of importance for England. Ropes, Masts, and such like; which shall be made within those her Maiesties owne dominions, by her owne subiects, [Page 21] and brought hither thorow the Ocean, frée from restraint of any other prince; whereby the customes and charges be­stowed by our merchants (to the inriching of forren Estates) shall be lessened, and turned to the benefit of her Highnesse and her deputies in those parts: which also shall deliuer our mer­chants from many troubles & molestations which they now vnwillingly indure in our East trades; and shall make vs the lesse to doubt the malice of those States whom now we may not offend, lest we should be intercepted of the same prouisi­ons, to the weakening of our nauie, the most roiall defence of this noble realme.

Of a conuenient passage and trade into the South Sea, vnder temperate regions part by riuers, and some part ouer land, in the continent of America.

Neither vpon the discoueries of Iaques Noel, who hauing passed beyond the thrée Saults, where Iaques Carrier left to discouer, finding the riuer of S. Laurence passable on the other side or branch; and afterwards, vnderstood of the inhabitants, that the same riuer did lead into a mighty lake, which at [Page 22] the entrance was fresh, but beyond, was bitter or salt; the end whereof was vnknowen.

Omitting therefore these hopes, I will ground my opini­on vpon reason and nature, which will not faile.

For this we know alreadie, that great riuers haue béene discouered a thousand English miles into that continent of America; namely, that of S. Laurence or Canada. But not re­garding miles more or lesse, most assuredly, that and other knowen riuers there doe descend from the highest parts or mountaines, or middle of that continent, into our North sea. And like as those mountains doe cast from them,A large course of a riuer tho­row a mightie continent, pro­duceth a port­able riuer. streames in­to our North seas; euen so the like they doe into the South sea, which is on the backe of that continent.

For all mountaines haue their descents toward the seas a­bout them, which are the lowest places and proper mansions of water: and waters (which are contained in the moun­taines, as it were in cisternes) descending naturally, doe al­waies resort vnto the seas inuironing those lands: for example; From the Alps confining Germanie, France, and Italie, the mighty riuer Danubie doth take his course East, and dis­chargeth into the Pontique sea: the Rhine, North, and falleth into the Germane sea: the Rhosne, West, and goeth into the Mediterran sea: the Po, South, is emptied into the Adri­atick or gulfe of Venice. other instances may be produced to like effect in Africk; yea, at home amongst the mountaines in England.

Seeing then in nature this can not be denied, and by expe­rience elsewhere is found to be so, I will shew how a trade may be disposed more commodiously into the South sea tho­row these temperate and habitable regions, than by the fro­zen Zones in the supposed passages of Northwest or North­east: where, if the very moment be omitted of the time to passe, then are we like to be frozen in the seas, or forced to Winter in extreame cold and darkenesse like vnto hell: or in the midst of Summer, we shal be in perill to haue our ships ouerwhelmed or crusht in pieces by hideous and fearefull mountaines of yce floting vpon those seas.

Therefore foure Staple-places must be erected, when the most short and passable way is found: that is to say, two [Page 23] vpon the North side, at the head and fall of the riuer; and two others on the South side, at the head and fall also of that other riuer.

Prouided, that ships may passe vp those riuers vnto the Staples, so farre as the same be nauigable into the land; and afterwards, that boats with flat bottomes may also passe so high and néere the heads of the riuers vnto the Staples, as possibly they can, euen with lesse than two foot water, which can not then be far from the heads; as in the riuer of Chagre.

That necke or space of land betwéene the two heads of the said riuers, if it be 100 leagues (which is not like) the com­modities from the North and from the South sea brought thither, may wel be carried ouer the same vpon horses, mules or beasts of that countrey apt to labour (as the elke or buffel) or by the aid of many Saluages accustomed to burdens; who shall stead vs greatly in these affaires.

It is moreouer to be considered, that all these countreys do yéeld (so farre as is knowen) Cedars, Pines, Firre trées and Oaks, to build, mast, and yeard ships; wherefore we may not doubt, but that ships may be builded on the South sea.

Then as ships on the South side may goe and returne to and from Cathay, China, and other most rich regions of the East world in fiue moneths or thereabouts; euen so the goods being carried ouer vnto the North side, ships may come thi­ther from England to fetch the same goods, and returne by a voyage of foure or fiue moneths vsually.

So as in euery foure moneths may be returned into Eng­land the greatest riches of Cathay, China, Iapan, and the rest which will be Spices, Drugges, Muske, Pearle, Stones, Gold, Siluer, Silks, Clothes of gold, & all maner of precious things, which shall recompense the time and labour of their transportation and carriage, if it were as farre and dange­rous as the Moores trade is from Fess and Marocco (ouer the burning and moueable sands, in which they perish many times, and suffer commonly great distresses) vnto the riuer called Niger in Africa, and from thence, vp the said riuer ma­nie hundred miles; afterwards ouer-land againe, vnto the riuer Nilus; and so vnto Cairo in Egypt, from whence they returne the way they came.

[Page 24]Or if it were a voyage so farre as our merchants haue made into Persia, euen to Ormus, by the way of the North, through Russia into the Caspian sea, and so foorth, with pai­ment of many tolles. But this passage ouer and thorow the continent of America, as the same shall be alwaies vnder temperate and habitable climats, and a pleasant passage af­ter it hath béene a little frequented: euen so it must fall out much shorter than it séemeth, by false description of that con­tinent, which doth not extend so farre into the West, as by later nauigations is found and described in more ex­quisit charts. Besides that, the sea extends it selfe into the land very farre in many places on the South side; whereby our accesse vnto the South ocean, shall be by so much the shorter.


Inducements to the liking of the voyage inten­ded towards Virginia in 40. and 42. degrees of latitude, written 1585. by M. Richard Hakluyt the elder, sometime student of the Middle Temple.

THe glory of God by planting of religion a­mong those infidels.

2 The increase of the force of the Christians.

3 The possibilitie of the inlarging of the do­minions of the Quéenes most excellent Ma­iestie, and consequently of her honour, reue­nues, and of her power by this enterprise.

4 An ample vent in time to come of the Woollen clothes of England, especially those of the coursest sorts, to the mainte­nance of our poore, that els sterue or become burdensome to the realme: and vent also of sundry our commodities vpon the tract of that firme land, and possibly in other regions from the Northerne side of that maine.

5 A great possibilitie of further discoueries of other regi­ons from the North part of the same land by sea, and of vn­speakable honor and benefit that may rise vpon the same, by the trades to ensue in Iapan, China, and Cathay, &c.

6 By returne thence, this realme shall receiue (by reason of the situation of the climate, and by reason of the excellent soile) Oade, Oile, Wines, Hops, Salt, and most or all the com­modities that we receiue from the best parts of Europe, and we shall receiue the same better cheape, than now we receiue them, as we may vse the matter.

7 Receiuing the same thence, the nauie, the humane strength of this realme, our merchants and their goods shal not be subiect to arrest of ancient enemies & doubtfull friends, as of late yéeres they haue béene.

[Page 26]8 If our nation do not make any conquest there, but only vse trafficke and change of commodities, yet by meane the countrey is not very mightie, but diuided into pety kingdoms, they shall not dare to offer vs any great annoy, but such as we may easily reuenge with sufficient chastisement to the vnar­med people there.

9 Whatsoeuer commodities we receiue by the Stéelyard merchants, or by our owne merchants from Eastland, be it Flaxe, Hempe, Pitch, Tarre, Masts, Clap-boord, Wainscot, or such like; the like good may we receiue from the North and Northeast part of that countrey néere vnto Cape Briton, in re­turne for our course Woollen clothes, Flanels and Rugges fit for those colder regions.

10 The passage to and fro, is thorow the maine Ocean sea, so as we are not in danger of any enemies coast.

11 In the voyage, we are not to crosse the burnt Zone, nor to passe thorow frozen seas encombred with ice and fogs, but in temperate climate at all times of the yéere: and it requireth not, as the East Indie voiage doth, the taking in of water in di­uers places, by reason that it is to be sailed in fiue or six wéeks: and by the shortnesse, the merchant may yéerely make two re­turnes (a factory once being erected there) a matter in trade of great moment.

12 In this trade by the way in our passe to and fro, we haue in tempests and other haps, all the ports of Ireland to our aid, and no néere coast or any enemy.

13 By this ordinary trade we may annoy the enemies to Ireland, and succour the Quéenes Maiesties friends there, and in time we may from Virginia yéeld them whatsoeuer commo­ditie they now receiue from the Spaniard; and so the Spani­ards shall want the ordinary victual that heertofore they recei­ued yéerely from thence, and so they shall not continue trade, nor fall so aptly in practise against this gouernment, as now by their trade thither they may.

14 We shall, as it is thought, enioy in this voyage, either some small Islands to settle on, or some one place or other on the firme land to fortifie for the saftie of our ships, our men, and our goods, the like whereof we haue not in any forren place of our trafficke, in which respect we may be in degrée of [Page 27] more safetie, and more quiet.

15 The great plentie of Buffe hides, and of many other sundry kinds of hides there now presently to be had, the trade of Whale and Seale fishing, and of diuers other fishings in the great riuers, great bayes, and seas there, shall presently defray the charge in good part or in all of the first enterprise, and so we shall be in better case than our men were in Russia, where many yéeres were spent, and great summes of money consumed, before gaine was sound.

16 The great broad riuers of that maine that we are to en­ter into so many leagues nauigable or portable into the maine land, lying so long a tract with so excellent and so fertile a soile on both sides, doe séeme to promise all things that the life of man doth require, and whatsoeuer men may wish, that are to plant vpon the same, or to trafficke in the same.

17 And whatsoeuer notable commoditie the soile within or without doth yéeld in so long a tract that is to be carried out from thence to England, the same riuers so great and déepe, do yéeld no small benefit for the sure, safe, easie and cheape cariage of the same to shipboord, be it of great bulke or of great weight.

18 And in like sort whatsoeuer commoditie of England the Inland people there shall néed, the same riuers doe worke the like effect in benefit for the incariage of the same, aptly, easily, and cheaply.

19 If we finde the countrey populous, and desirous to ex­pel vs, and iniuriously to offend vs, that séeke but iust and law­full trafficke, then by reason that we are lords of nauigation, and they not so, we are the better able to defend our selues by reason of those great riuers, & to annoy them in many places.

20 Where there be many petie kings or lords planted on the riuers sides, and by all likelihood mainteine the frontiers of their seuerall territories by warres, we may by the aide of this riuer ioine with this king héere, or with that king there, at our pleasure, and may so with a few men be reuenged of any wrong offered by any of them; or may, if we will procéed with extremitie, conquer, fortifie, and plant in soiles most swéet, most pleasant, most strong, and most fertile, and in the end bring them all in subiection and to ciuilitie.

21 The knowen abundance of Fresh fish in the riuers, and [Page 28] the knowen plentie of Fish on the sea coast there, may assure vs of sufficient victuall in spight of the people, if we will vse salt and industrie.

22 The knowen plentie and varietie of Flesh, of diuers kinds of beasts at land there, may séeme to say to vs, that we may cheaply victuall our nauies to England for our returnes, which benefit euery where is not found of merchants.

23 The practise of the people of the East Indies, when the Portugals came thither first, was to cut from the Portugals their lading of Spice: and heereby they thought to ouerthrow their purposed trade. If these people shall practise the like, by not suffering vs to haue any commoditie of theirs without conquest, (which requireth some time) yet may we mainteine our first voyage thither, till our purpose come to effect, by the sea-fishing on the coasts there, and by dragging for pearles, which are said to be on those parts; and by returne of those commodities, the charges in part shall be defraied: which is a matter of consideration in enterprises of charge.

24 If this realme shall abound too too much with youth, in the mines there of Golde, (as that of Chisca and Saguenay) of Siluer, Copper, Yron, &c. may be an imployment to the be­nefit of this realme; in tilling of the rich soile there for graine, and in planting of Uines there for Wine; or dressing of those Uines which grow there naturally in great abundance, O­liues for Oile; Orenge trées, Limons, Figs and Almonds for fruit; Oad, Saffron, and Madder for Diers; Hoppes for Brewers; Hempe, Flaxe; and in many such other things, by imploiment of the soile, our people void of sufficient trades, may be honestly imploied, that els may become hurtfull at home.

25 The nauigating of the seas in the voyage, and of the great riuers there, will bréed many Mariners for seruice, and mainteine much nauigation.

26 The number of raw Hides there of diuers kindes of beasts, if we shall possesse some Island there, or settle on the firme, may presently imploy many of our idle people in diuers seuerall dressings of the same, and so we may returne them to the people that can not dresse them so well; or into this realm, where the same are good merchandize; or to Flanders, &c. which [Page 29] present gaine at the first, raiseth great incouragement present­ly to the enterprise.

27 Since great waste Woods be there, of Oake, Cedar, Pine, Wall-nuts, and sundry other sorts, many of our waste people may be imployed in making of Ships, Hoies, Busses and Boats; and to making of Rozen, Pitch and Tarre, the trées naturall for the same, being certeinly knowen to be néere Cape Briton and the Bay of Menan, and in many other places there about.

28 If mines of white or gray marble, Iet, or other rich stone be found there, our idle people may be imployed in the mines of the same, and in preparing the same to shape, and so shaped, they may be caried into this realm as good balast for our ships, and after serue for noble buildings.

29 Sugar-canes may be planted aswell as they are now in the South of Spaine, and besides the imploiment of our idle people, we may receiue the commodity cheaper, and not inrich infidels or our doubtful friends, of whom now we receiue that commoditie.

30 The daily great increase of Woolles in Spaine, and the like in the West Indies, and the great imploiment of the same into Cloth in both places, may mooue vs to endeuour, for vent of our Cloth, new discoueries of peopled regions, where hope of sale may arise; otherwise in short time many inconuenien­ces may possibly ensue.

31 This land that we purpose to direct our course to, ly­ing in part in the 40 degree of latitude, being in like heat as Lisbone in Portugall doth, and in the more Southerly part as the most Southerly coast of Spaine doth, may by our diligence yeeld vnto vs besides Wines and Oiles and Sugars, Oren­ges, Limons, Figs, Resings, Almonds, Pomegranates, Rice, Raw-silks such as come from Granada, and diuers commodi­ties for Diers, as Anile and Cochenillio, and sundry other co­lours and materials. Moreouer, we shall not onely receiue many precious commodities besides from thence, but also shal in time finde ample vent of the labour of our poore people at home, by sale of Hats, Bonets, Kniues, Fish-hooks, Copper kettles, Beads, Looking-glasses, Bugles, & a thousand kinds of other wrought wares, that in short time may be brought in [Page 30] vse among the people of that countrey, to the great reliefe of the multitude of our poore people, and to the woonderfull en­riching of this realme. And in time, such league & entercourse may arise betwéene our Stapling seats there, and other ports of our Northern America, and of the Islands of the same, that incredible things, and by few as yet dreamed of, may spéedily follow, tending to the impeachment of our mightie enemies, and to the common good of this noble gouernment.

The ends of this voyage are these:

  • 1. To plant Christian religion.
  • 2. To trafficke.
  • 3. To conquer.

Or, to doe all thrée.

TO plant Christian religion without conquest, will bée hard. Trafficke easily followeth conquest: conquest is not easie. Trafficke without conquest séemeth possible, and not vneasie. What is to be done, is the question.

If the people be content to liue naked, and to content them­selues with few things of méere necessity, then trafficke is not. So then in vaine séemeth our voyage, vnlesse this nature may be altered, as by conquest and other good meanes it may be, but not on a sudden. The like whereof appeared in the East Indies, vpon the Portugals seating there.

If the people in the Inland be clothed, and desire to liue in the abundance of all such things as Europe doth, and haue at home all the same in plentie, yet we can not haue trafficke with them, by meane they want not any thing that we can yéeld them.

Admit that they haue desire to your commodities, and as yet haue neither Golde, Siluer, Copper, Iron, nor sufficient quantitie of other present commoditie to mainteine the yéerely trade: What is then to be done?

The soile and climate first is to be considered,Meanes to breed a spee­die trade. and you are with Argus eies to sée what commoditie by industrie of man you are able to make it to yéeld, that England doth want or doth desire: as for the purpose, if you can make it to yéeld good Wine, or good Oile, as it is like you may by the climat, (where wilde Uines of sundry sorts doe naturally grow already in great abundance) then your trade may be mainteined. But [Page 31] admit the soile were in our disposition (as yet it is not) in what time may this be brought about?

For Wine this is to be affirmed, that first the soile lying in 36 or 37 degrées in the temperature of South Spaine, in setting your Uine-plants this yéere, you may haue Wine within thrée yéeres. And it may be that the wilde Uines growing there al­ready, by orderly pruning and dressing at your first arriuall, may come to profit in shorter time.

And planting your Oliue trées this yéere, you may haue Oile within thrée yéeres.

And if the sea shores be flat, and fit for receipt of salt water, and for Salt making, without any annoy of néere freshes, then the trade of Salt onely may mainteine a yéerely nauiga­tion (as our men now trade to the isle of Maio, and the Hol­landers to Terra Firma néere the West end of the isle of Marga­rita.)

But how the naturall people of the countrey may be made skilfull to plant Uines, and to know the vse, or to set Oliue trées, and to know the making of Oile, and withall to vse both the trades, that is a matter of small consideration: but to con­quer a countrey or prouince in climate & soile of Italie, Spaine, or the Islands from whence we receiue our Wines & Oiles, and to man it, to plant it, and to kéepe it, and to continue the making of Wines and Oiles able to serue England, were a matter of great importance both in respect of the sauing at home of our great treasure now yéerely going away, and in respect of the annoyance thereby growing to our enemies. The like consideration would be had, touching a place for the making of Salt, of temperature like those of France, not too too colde, as the Salts of the Northern regions be; nor too too firy, as those be that be made more Southerly than France. In re­gard whereof, many circumstances are to be considered; and principally, by what meane the people of those parties may be drawen by all courtesie into loue with our nation; that we be­come not hatefull vnto them, as the Spaniard is in Italie and in the West Indies, and elswhere, by their maner of vsage: for a gentle course without crueltie and tyrannie best answereth the profession of a Christian,A gentle course best to be held. best planteth Christian religion; maketh our seating most void of blood, most profitable in trade [Page 32] of merchandise, most firme and stable, and least subiect to re­mooue by practise of enemies. But that we may in seating there, not be subiect wholly to the malice of enemies, and may be more able to preserue our bodies, ships, and goods in more safetie, and to be knowen to be more able to scourge the people there, ciuill or sauage, than willing to offer any violence. And for the more quiet exercise of our manurance of the soiles where we shall seat, and of our manuall occupations, it is to be wished that some ancient captaines of milde disposition and great iudgement be sent thither with men most skilfull in the arte of fortification; and that direction be taken that the mouthes of great riuers, and the Islands in the same (as things of great moment) be taken, manned, and fortified; and that hauens be cut out for safetie of the Nauie, that we may be lords of the gates and entries, to goe out and come in at plea­sure, and to lie in safetie, and be able to command and to con­trole all within, and to force all forren nauigation to lie out in open rode subiect to all weathers, to be dispersed by tempests and flawes, if the force within be not able to giue them the en­counter abroad.

THe Red Muscadell grape, that bishop Grindall procured out of Germanie; the great White Muscadell; the Yel­low grape: the cuts of these were woont yéerely to be set at Fulham; and after one yeeres rooting to be giuen by the bishop, and to be sold by his gardener. These presently prouided, and placed in earth, and many of these so rooted, with store of cuts vnrooted besides, placed in tubbes of earth shipped at the next voyage, to be planted in Virginia, may begin Uineyards, and bring Wines out of hand.

2 Prouision great of wilde Oliue trées may be made out of this citie so then to be caried, to encrease great store of stocks to graffe the best Oliue on: and Virginia standing in the same degrée that The Shroffe the Oliue place doth in Spaine, we may win that merchandise, grassing the wilde.

3 Sugar-canes, if you can not procure them from the Spanish Islands, yet may you by our Barberie merchants procure them.

4 There is an herbe in Persia, whereof Anile is made, [Page 33] and it is also in Barbarie: to procure that by séed or root, were of importance for a trade of merchandise for our clothing coun­trey.

5 Oad by the séeds you may haue; for you may haue hundreds of bushels in England, as it is multiplied: and ha­uing soile and labor in Virginia cheape, and the Oad in great value, lying in small roome, it will be a trade of great gaine to this clothing realme: and the thing can not be destroyed by Saluages. The roots of this you may haue in plenty and num­ber comming in the trade: so this may grow in trade within a yéere ready for the merchant.

6 Figge trées of many good kinds may be had hence in barrell, if now presently they be prouided; and they in that cli­mat will yéeld noble fruit, and feed your people presently, and will be brought in frailes home as merchandise, or in barrell, as Resings also may be.

7 Sawed boords of Sassafras and Cedar, to be turned in­to small boxes for ladies and gentlewomen, would become a present trade.

8 To the infinite naturall increase of Hogs, to adde a de­uice how the same may be fed by roots, acornes, &c. without spoiling your corne, would be of great effect to féed the multi­tude continually imployed in labour: and the same cheaply bred and salted, and barrelled there and brought home, will be well solde for a good merchandise; and the barrels after, will serue for our home Herring-fishing; and so you sell you woods and the labour of your cooper.

9 Receiuing the saluage women and their children of both sexes by courtesie into your protection, and imploying the Eng­lish women and the others in making of Linnen, you shal raise a woonderfull trade of benefit, both to carie into England and also into the Islands, and into the maine of the West Indies, victuall and labour being so cheape there.

10 The trade of making cables and cordage there, will be of great importance, in respect of a cheape maintenance of the Nauie that shall passe to and fro; and in respect of such Nauie as may in those parties be vsed for the venting of the commo­dities of England to be brought thither. And Powldauies, &c. made for sailes of the poore Saluages, yeeld to the Nauie a [Page 34] great helpe, and a great gaine in the trafficke.

But if séeking reuenge on euery iniurie of the Saluages we séeke blood & raise war, our Uines, our Oliues, our Figge trées, our Sugar-canes, our Orenges and Limons, Corne, Cattell, &c. will be destroyed, and trade of merchandise in all things ouerthrowen; and so the English nation there planted and to be planted, shalbe rooted out with sword and hunger.

Sorts of men which are to be passed in this voyage.

1 MEn skilfull in all Minerall causes.

2 Men skilfull in all kinde of drugges.

3 Fishermen, to consider of the sea fishings there on the coasts, to be reduced to trade hereafter: and others for the fresh water fishings.

4 Salt-makers, to view the coast, and to make triall how rich the sea-water there is, to aduise for the trade.

5 Husbandmen, to view the soile, to resolue for tillage in all sorts.

6 Uineyard-men bred, to sée how the soile may serue for the planting of Uines.

7 Men bred in the Shroffe in South Spaine, for discerning how Oliue trées may be planted there.

8 Others, for planting of Orenge trées, Figge trées, Li­mon trées, and Almond trées; for iudging how the soile may serue for the same.

9 Gardeners, to prooue the seuerall soiles of the Islands, and of our setling places, to sée how the same may serue for all herbs and roots for our victualling; since by rough seas some­times we may want fish, and since we may want flesh to vic­tuall vs, by the malice of the naturall people there: and gar­deners for planting of our common trées of fruit, as Peares, Apples, Plumines, Peaches, Medlers, Apricoes, Quinces for conserues, &c.

10 Lime-makers, to make lime for buildings.

11 Masons, Carpenters, &c. for buildings there.

12 Bricke-makers and Tile-makers.

13 Men cunning in the art of fortification, that may chuse [Page 36] out places strong by nature to be fortified, and that can plot out and direct workemen.

14 Choise Spade-men, to trench cunningly, and to raise bulwarks and rampiers of earth for defence and offence.

15 Spade-makers, that may, out of the Woods there, make spades like those of Deuonshire, and of other sorts, and shouels from time to time for common vse.

16 Smithes, to forge the yrons of the shouels and spades, and to make blacke billes and other weapons, and to mend many things.

17 Men that vse to breake Ash trées for pike-staues, to be imploied in the Woods there.

18 Others, that finish vp the same so rough hewd, such as in London are to be had.

19 Coopers, to make caske of all sorts.

20 Forgers of pikes heads and of arrow heads, with for­ges, with Spanish yron, and with all maner of tooles to be ca­ried with them.

21 Fletchers, to renew arrowes, since archerie preuaileth much against vnarmed people: and gunpowder may soone pe­rish, by setting on fire.

22 Bowyers also, to make bowes there for néed.

23 Makers of oares, since for seruice vpon those riuers it is to great purpose, for the boats and barges they are to passe and enter with.

24 Shipwrights, to make barges and boats, and bigger vessels, if néed be, to run along the coast, and to pierce the great Bayes and Inlets.

25 Turners, to turne targets of Elme and tough wood, for vse against the darts and arrowes of Saluages.

26 Such also as haue knowledge to make targets of horne.

27 Such also as can make armor of hides vpon moulds, such as were woont to be made in this realme about an hun­dred yéeres since, and were called Scotish iacks: such armor is light and defensiue enough against the force of Saluages.

28 Tanners, to tanne hides of Buffes, Oxen, &c. in the Isles where you shall plant.

29 White Tawyers of all other skinnes there.

30 Men skilfull in burning of Sope ashes, and in making [Page 36] of Pitch, and Tarre, and Rozen, to be fetched out of Prussia and Poland, which are thence to be had for small wages, be­ing there in maner of slaues.

The seuerall sorts of trées, as Pines, Firres, Spruses, Birch and others, are to be boared with great augers a foot or halfe a yard aboue the ground, as they vse in Vesely towards Languedock and néere Bayona in Gascoigne: and so you shall easily and quickly sée what Gummes, Rozen, Turpentine, Tarre, or liquor is in them, which will quickly distill out cléerely without any filthie mixture, and will shew what com­moditie may be made of them: their goodnesse and greatnesse for masts is also to be considered.

31 A skilfull painter is also to be caried with you, which the Spaniards vsed commonly in all their discoueries to bring the descriptions of all beasts, birds, fishes, trées, townes, &c.

A briefe note of the corne, fowles, fruits and beasts of the Inland of Florida on the backeside of Virginia, taken out of the 44 chapter of the disco­uery of the said countrey, begun by Fer­nando de Soto gouernour of Cuba, in the yeere of our Lord 1539.

THe bread which they eat in all the land of Flo­rida, is of Maiz, which is like to course Millet. And in all the Islands and West Indies from the Antiles forward there is this Maiz.

Likewise in Florida there be many Wall­nuts, Plummes,Their fruits. Mulberies, & Grapes. They sowe their Maiz, and gather it, euery man his owne croppe. The fruits are common to all men, because they grow abun­dantly in the fields without planting or dressing. In the mountaines there grow Chestnuts; they are somewhat smal­ler than the Chestnuts of Spaine, which are called Collarínnas. From Rio Grande toward the West, the Walnuts are diffe­ring from the other; for they are softer and round like bullets. And from Rio Grande toward Puerto del Spirito Santo East­ward, for the most part they are harder. And the Trées and Nuts are like in fashion vnto those of Spaine. There is in all the countrey a fruit which groweth vpon an herbe or plant like to the herbe called Dogs-tongue, which the Indians doe sowe. The fruit is like vnto the Peres Rial: it is of a very good rellish,These may be the Tunas. and of a pleasant taste. Another herbe groweth in the fields, which beareth a fruit néere the ground like to a Straw­berie, very pleasant in taste. The Plummes are of two sorts, red and gray, in fashion and bignesse of Walnuts, and haue thrée or foure stones in them. These are better than any in Spaine, and they make better Prunes of them. The want of [Page 38] dressing is perceiued only in the Grapes: which although they be great, yet they haue a great kernell. All the rest of the fruits are very perfect, and lesse hurtfull than those of Spaine.

There are in Florida many Beares,The beasts of Florida. Lions, Stags, Roe­bucks, Wild-cats, and Conies.

There be many Wild-hennes as bigge as Peacocks, small Partridges like those of Africa, Cranes, Ducks, Rolas, Black-birds, and Sparrowes. There be certeine Blacke birds big­ger than Sparrowes and lesser than Stares.

There be Sore-hauks, Faulcons, Gosse-hauks, and all fowles of pray that are in Spaine.

The Indians are well proportioned. Those of the plaine countreys are taller of stature, and better proportioned than those of the mountaines. Those of the Inland are better fur­nished with corne and wealth of the countrey, than those of the sea coast. The countrey on the sea coast toward the gulfe of Mexico is barren and poore, and the people more warrelike. The coast beareth from Puerto del Spirito Santo vnto Apa­lache, and from Apalache to Rio de Palmas almost from East to West; from Rio de Palmas vnto Noua Hi­spania it runneth from North to South. It is a gentle coast, but it hath many sholds and banks or shelues of sand.

A Note of such commodities as are found in Florida next adioining vnto the South part of Virgi­nia, taken out of the description of the said countrey, written by Mounsieur Rene Laudonniere, who inhabited there two Som­mers and one winter.

THe countrey of Florida is flat, and diuided with diuers riuers,The trees of Florida. and therefore moist, and is sandy towards the sea-shore.

There groweth in those parts great quanti­tie of Pyne trées, which haue no kernels in the apples that they beare.

Their woods are full of Oakes, Walnut trées, blacke Cher­rie trées, Mulberie trées, Lentiskes which yéeld Masticke, and Chestnut trées, which are more wilde than those of France.

There is great store of Cedars, Cypresses, Baies, Palme trées,Good Grapes Grapes: There is there a kinde of Medlars, the fruit whereof is better then that of France, and bigger. There are also Plumme trées, which beare very faire fruit, but such as is not very good.

There are Raspesses, and a little bery which we call a­mong vs Blues, which are very good to eat.

There grow in that countrey a kinde of Rootes, which they call in their language Hazes, whereof in necessitie they make bread.

There is also the trée called Esquine, (which I take to be the Sassafras) which is very good against the pocks and other contagious diseases.

The Beasts best knowen in this countrey are Stagges, Roes,The Beasts of Florida. Deere, Goates, Leopards, Ownces, Lucernes, diuers sorts of Woolues, wilde Dogges, Hares, Connies, and a cer­teine [Page 40] kinde of beast that differeth little from the Lion of A­fricke.

The Fowles are Turkie Cocks,The Fowles of Florida. Partridges, Perrots, Pigeons, Ringdoues, Turtles, Blacke birds, Crowes, Tarcels, Faulcons, Leonards, Herons, Cranes, Storkes, wilde Géese, Mallards, Cormorants, Herneshawes, white, red, blacke, and gray, and an infinit sort of all wildfoule.

There is such aboundance of Crocodiles, that oftentimes in swimming, men are assailed by them: Of serpents there are many sorts.

There is found among the Sauages good quantitie of Gold and Siluer,Gold and Siluer. which is gotten out of the ships that are lost vpon the coast: Neuerthelesse they say; that in the mountains of Apalatcy, there are mines of Copper, which I thinke to be Gold.

There is also in this countrey,Store of dies and colours. great store of Graines and Herbes, whereof might be made excellent good dies and pain­tings of all kinde of colours.

They sowe their Maiz or Corne twice a yéere, to wit, in March and in Iune: and all in one and the same soile: The said Maiz from the time that it is sowed, vnto the time that it is gathered, is but thrée moneths in the ground. They haue al­so faire Pumpions and very good Beanes: They haue cer­teine kinds of oile,Oile in Florida, wherewith they vse to annoint them­selues.

A briefe extract of the merchantable commo­dities found in the South part of Virginia, ann. 1585. and 1586. Gathered out of the learned worke of master Thomas Herriot, which was there remaining the space of ele­uen moneths.

SIlke of Grasse, or Grasse-silke, the like where­of groweth in Persia, whereof I haue séene good Grograine made.


Flaxe and Hempe.


Wapeih a kinde of earth so called by the naturall inhabi­tants, very like to Terra Sigillata, and by some of our Physiti­ons found more effectuall.

Pitch, Tarre, Rozen, and Turpentine: there are those kinds of trées that yéeld them aboundantly and in great store.

Sassafras, called by the inhabitants Wynauk: of whose soueraigne and manifold vertues, reade Monardes the Phisi­cian of Siuile, in his booke entituled in English: The ioyfull newes from the West Indies.


Uines of two sorts.

Oile: there are two sorts of Wall-nuts, both holding oile. Furthermore, there are thrée seuerall kindes of Berries, in the forme of Oake Acornes, which also by the experience and vse of the inhabitants, we finde to yéeld very good and swéete Oile. There are also Beares, which are commonly very fat, and in some places there are many, their fatnesse because it is so liquid, may well be termed Oyle, and hath many speciall vses.

[Page 42]Furres.

Ottars, Marternes, and Lucernes.

Déere skinnes.

Ciuet Cattes.


Copper. The foresaid Copper, we also found by triall to hold Siluer.

Pearle. One of our company, a man of skill in such mat­ters, had gathered together from the Sauages, aboue fiue thousand.

Swéet Gummes of diuers kinds, and many other Apothe­cary drugs.

Dies of diuers kinds.

There is Shoemake, well knowen and vsed in England for blacke; the séed of an herbe called Wasebur, little small rootes called Chappacor, and the barke of a trée called by the inhabi­tants, Tangomockonomindge, which Dies are for diuers sorts of red.

Commodities in Virgina, knowen to yeeld victuals.

PAgatowr or Mays, which is their principall corne.

Okindgier, called by vs Beanes.

Wickonzour, called by vs Pease.

Macocquer, called by vs, Pompions, Mellons, & Gourds.

An herbe which in Dutch is called Melden, being a kinde of Orage, &c.

An herbe in forme of a Marigold, sixe foot in height, taken to be Planta Solis.

Vppowoc, or Tabacco, of great estimation among the Sa­uages.


OPenauck, a kinde of Rootes of round forme, as bigge as Wall-nuts, some farre greater. Monardes calleth them Beades, or Pater nostri of Sancta Helena, and master Brereton Ground Nuts.

Okeepenank, are Rootes of round shape found in dry [Page 43] grounds, the inhabitants vse to boile and eat many of them.

Tsinaw, a kinde of Roote much like vnto that which in Eng­land is called the China Roote, brought from the East Indies.

Coscushaw, a Roote taken to be that which the Spaniards in the West Indies, doe call Cassauy.

Habascon, a Roote of hot taste, almost of the forme and big­nesse of a Parsney.

Léekes differing little from ours in England.


CHestnuts there are in diuers places great store, vsed di­uers waies for food.

Walnuts there are two kinds, and of them infinit store in many places, where are very great woods for many miles to­gether, the third part of the trées are Walnut trées, they vse them for meate, and make a milke of them of verie pleasant taste, and holesome.

Medlers, a kinde of very good fruit, they are as red as cher­ries, and very lushous swéet.

Mutaquesunnauk, These plants are called Tunas also, whereof there be three sorts: that which beareth no fruit bringeth foorth the Cochenile. a kinde of pleasant fruit, almost of the shape and bignesse of English Peares, but they are of a per­fect red colour, as well within as without, they grow on a plant whose leaues are very thicke and full of prickles, as sharpe as néedles: some, which haue béene in Noua Hispania, where they haue séene that kinde of red Die of excéeding great price, which is called Cochenile, to grow, do describe his plant right like vnto this of Mutaquesunnauk: howbeit the Coche­nile is not the fruit, but a graine found on the leaues of the plant, and stricken off vpon sheetes, and dried in the sunne.

Grapes there are of two sorts, which I mentioned in the merchantable commodities.

Strawberies there are, as good and as great as in any Eng­lish garden.

such as we haue in England.
  • Mulberies,
  • Apple-crabbes,
  • Hurts, or Hurtleberies,

Sacquenummener a kinde of berries almost like vnto Ca­pers but somewhat greater, which grow together in clusters [Page 44] vpon a plant or hearbe that is found in shollow waters, being boiled eight or nine houres according to their kinde, are very good meat and holsome, otherwise if they be eaten, they will make a man for the time franticke or extremely sicke.

A Réed which beareth a séed almost like vnto our Rie or Wheat and being boiled is good meat.

In our trauells in some places, we found wilde Pease like vnto ours in England, but that they were lesse, which are also good meat.

A kind of Berry like vnto an Acorne, of fiue sorts, growing on seuerall kindes of trées: the one sort is called Sagatemener, the second, Osamener, the third Pummuckoner. the inhabi­tants vse to dry them vpon hurdles like Malt in England. when they vse them, they first water them till they be soft, and then being sod, they make loues of bread of them. of these thrée kindes also the inhabitants doe vse to make swéet oile.

The fourth sort is called Sapummener, which being boiled or perched be like vnto rosted Chesnuts; of this sort they make bread also.

The fift sort is called Mangummenauk, the very Acorne of their kind of Oake; being dried as the rest, and after watered, they boile them, and their seruants, and somtimes the chiefe themselues eate them with their fish and flesh.


DEere, vp into the countrey very great, and in some pla­ces, great store.

Conies, of a gray colour like vnto hares: they make man­tles of the furre or flue of their skinnes.

Saquenuckot and Maquowoc, two kindes of small beasts greater then Conies, which are very good meat.

Squirels, which are of a gray colour, we haue taken and eaten.

Beares, which are of blacke colour. They are good meat. And being hunted they climbe vp into trées and are killed by the Saluages with their arrowes, and sometimes by vs with our Caliuers.

The Lion is sometimes killed by the Saluages and eaten. [Page 45] Woolues or Wooluish dogges.

I haue the names of eight and twenty sorts of beasts dis­persed in the maine, of which their are onely twelue kindes by vs as yet discouered.


TUrkie cocks and Turkie hennes, Stock-doues, and Par­triges, Cranes, hernes, and in Winter great store of Swannes, and Géese.

There are also Parrots, Falcons, and Marlin haukes.

Of all sorts of foules I haue the names in the countrey lan­guage of fowrescore and sixe.


STurgions, Herrings, Porpoises, Troutes, Rayes, Old-wiues, Mullets, Plaice, and very many other sorts of very excellent fish.

Seacrabs, Oisters, great, small, round, long: Muscles, Sca­lops, Periwincles, and Creuises.

Seekanauk, a kinde of crustie shell-fish, which is good meate, about a foot in bredth, hauing a crusty taile, many legges like a Crabbe, and her eyes in her backe. They are found in shal­lowes of water, and sometimes on the shore.

Tortoises both of land and sea kinde; they are very good meats and their egges also:

Certaine briefe testimonies touching sundry rich mines of Gold, Siluer, and Copper, in part found and in part constantly heard of, in North Florida, and the Inland of the Maine of Virginia, and other countreys there vnto on the North part neere adioining, gathered out of the works, all (one excepted) extant in print, of such as were personall trauellers in those countries

1 IN the second relation of Iaques Cartier the 12 chapter he reporteth that he vnderstood by Donnacona the king of the countrey,I take these to be the peo­ple toward Cibola, clad in mantels of cotten. and o­thers, that to the Southwest of Canada there are people clad with cloth, as the French were, very honest, and many inhabited townes, and that they haue great store of Gold and red Copper, &c.

2 In the discouery of the Inland of Florida farre to the North begun by Fernando de Soto, gouernour of Cuba in the yéere 1539. (and to be séene in print in the hands of Master Rich­ard Hackluyt) The Indians in many places farre distant the one from the other gaue them often and certaine aduertise­ment, that beyond the mountaines Northward there were mines of Gold at a place called by them Chisca, and some shewed the maner which the Indians vsed in refining the same. This place in mine opinion cannot be farre from the great riuer that falleth into the Southwest part of the Bay of Chesepioc.

3 The Indians enformed Mounsieur Rene Laudonniere in Florida, that there were mines of red mettall, which they call in their language Sieroa Pira, in the muuntaines of Apalatcy, which vpon triall made thereof by the French was found per­fect Gold, as appeareth Pagina 352. In the third volume of the English voiages, and in the same relation there is very of­ten [Page 47] mention of Siluer and excellent perfect and faire perles found by the french in those parts.

In the late discouerie of New Mexico made by Antonio 4 de Espeio on the backe side of Virginia extant in Spanish and English in the third volume of the English voyages paginis 303. &c. there is mention of rich Siluer mines (and some­times of Gold in aboundance) eleuen or twelue times found as they trauelled Northward, by men very skilfull in mine­rall matters, which went in the voyage for that purpose. The large description and chart of which voyage containing great numbers of townes and diuers great riuers discouered in that action made in Mexico by Francisco Xamuscado 1585 being intercepted afterward by the English at sea, we haue in Lon­don to be shewed to such as shall haue occasion to make vse of the same.

The constant report of many of the Saluages to the wor­shipfull 5 Master Ralfe Lane then gouernour of the English co­lonie in Virginia of the rich mine of Wassador or Gold at a place by them named Channis Temoatam, twentie daies iour­ney ouerland from the Mangoaks, set downe by himselfe at large in the first part of his relation of the said countrey of Vir­ginia, extant in the third volume of the English voyages pagi­na 258. is much to be regarded and considered by these that intend to prosecute this new enterprise of planting nere vnto those parts.

I could giue large information of the rich copper mine in 6 the East side of the Bay of Menan within 30 or 40. leagues to the Southwest of Cape Breton, whereof I my selfe haue séene aboue an hundred pieces of the copper, and haue shew­ed some part thereof to diuers knightes of qualitie, as al­so of Salt as good as that of Buruage in France, found néere that Bay, and could make proofe of the testimonie of the Sal­uages touching a Siluer mine in another Bay within two or thrée leagues to the west of the aforesaid Bay of Menan: But I reserue a further relation héereof to a more conuenient time and place.

Yf it please any man to read the Summarie of Gonsaluo de Ouiedo extant in part in the English decads, of the voyage 7 of Sebastian Cabote along this coast of Virginia and Norum­bega: [Page 48] And the short relation of Iohn de Verarsana, which ran­ged the said coast long after him in the yéere 1524. which is also to be séene in the third volume of the English voyages pa­gine 298. he shall finde often mention of rich Minerals and store of excellent copper, which so long agoe they saw among the Saluages, they being the first knowen Christians that euer saw those coasts. So that it were more then wilful madnesse to doubt of rich mines to be in the afore­said countreys.


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