By IOHN BOYS, Doctor of Diuinitie.

Augustine de lib. Arbit. lib. 3. cap. 15.

Qui Deo non reddit faciendo quod debet, reddet patiendo quod debet.

AT LONDON Imprinted by FELIX KYNGSTON, for VVilliam Aspley. 1613.

AN EXPOSITION of the last Psalme.

PSALME 150.‘O praise God in his holinesse, &c.’

ALL the Psalmes of Dauid are com­prised in two words,Gueuara. Halleluiah, and Hosanna, that is, blessed be God, and God blesse; as being for the greater part either praiers vnto God for receiuing mercies, or else praises vnto God for escaping miseries. This our present Hymne placed as aLyra in loc. Conclusion of the whole booke, yea the beginning, middle, end, to which all the rest (as In loc. Musculus obserueth are to be referred) inuiteth vs in prescript and postscript, in title, in text, in euery verse, and in euery Clause of euery verse to praise the Lord. Teaching these two poynts especially:

  • 1. For what
  • 2. With what

God is to be magnified.

For what, vers. 1, 2. O praise God in his holinesse, praise him in the firmament of his power, praise him in his noble acts, praise him according to his excellent greatnes.

With what, euen with all that is

  • Without vs, vers. 3, 4, 5. Praise him in the sound of the trumpet, &c.
  • Within vs, vers. 6. Omnis spiritus, &c. Let euery spirit praise the Lord, praise ye the Lord.

[Page 2] This in briefe is the whole texts Epitomie, I come now to the words Anatomie, cutting vp euery part and particle seuerally, beginning first at the first, O praise God in his holinesse. Of which one sentence the Do­ctors haue many (though not aduerse yet diuerse) rea­dings, especially three: Praise God in his saints, praise God in his sanctitie, praise God in his sanctuarie. S. Hie­rome, Augustine, Prosper, andChrysost. Basil. Euthym. Arabs apud Muscul. Lyra. Hugo Card. Turrerecmat. Anonymus. other as well ancient interpreters as moderne translate here praise God in his saints. For if he must be praised in all his creatures, how much more in his new creatures: if in the witlesse wormes, and senselesse vapours, Psal. 148. much more doubtlesse (as Theodorit here collects) in men, in holie men, in saints, vpon whom hee hath out of hisEphes. 3. 8. 16. vn­searchable riches of mercie bestowed the blessings of the1. Tim. 4. 8. life present, and of that which is to come.

First, almightie God is to bee blessed for giuing his saints such eminent gifts of grace for the good of his Church, and for the setting foorth of his glorie. So Chrysostome, Basil, Euthymius, Prosper, Placidus Par­mensis expound it.Iames 1. 17. Euery good and perfit gift is from aboue descending from the father of lights, a good thought in a saint is gratia infusa, a good word in a saint is gratia effusa, a good deed in a saint is gratia dif­fusa, through his grace which is the God of1. Pet. 5. 10. all grace saints are1. Cor. 15. 10. whatsoeuer they are. Wherefore praise the Lord in his saints, often remember their vertues as their true reliques, and as it were bequeathedEuseb. Emisen. hom. de S. Maximo. lega­cies vnto Gods people. So the wise man, Ecclesiasti­cus 44. Let vs now commend the famous men in old time by whom the Lord hath gotten great glorie, let the peo­ple speake of their wisdome, and the congregation of their praise. So the Confession of Bohemia, chap. 17.See Harmon. confess. sect. 16. pag. 486. Wee teach that the saints are worshipped truly, when the peo­ple on certaine daies at a time appointed, doe come toge­ther to the seruice of God, and doe call to minde and me­ditate vpon his benefits bestowed vpon holie men, and [Page 3] through them vpon his Church, &c. And for as much as it is kindly to consider, opus diei in die suo, the worke of the dayMaior praefat. in Psal. 22. in the same day it was wrought; it is well ordered by the Church of England, that the most illu­strious and remarkable qualities of the saints are cele­brated vpon their proper festiuals, that on S. Stephens day, we may learne by S. Stephens example to loue our enemies: on S. Matthewes day, to forsake the world and to follow Christ: on S. Iohn the Baptist his day, to speake the truth constantly, and to suffer for the same patiently. Thus in stedfastnes of faith and godlinesse of life (non legere modò sed degere sanctorum vitas, as Owin epigram. lib. 3. one wittily) to bee followers of them as they were followers of Christ; is (asSer. on Christ­mas day preach­ed at Bexterly, & ser▪ on S. Ste­phens day at Grimstorpe. blessed Latymer was wont to say) the right worshipping of Saints, and of God in his Saints.

Againe, for as much as there is a communion of Saints, as we cōfesse in the Creed, a knot of fellowship betweene the dead Saints and the liuing; it is our dutie to praise God for their good in particular, as theyApocal. 6. 10. pray to God for our good in generall. It is required on our part I say, to giue God most humble thanks for transla­ting thē out of thisPsal. 84. 6. valley of teares into Hierusalem aboue, where they beApocal. 7. 9. clothed with long white robes, hauing palmes in their hands, andApocal. 4. 4. crownes of gold on their heads, euer liuing in that happie kingdome with­out either dying or crying, Apocal. 21. 4. and this also (in the iudgement of Augustine, Hierome, Hugo, Ray­nerius, and other) is to praise God in his Saints.

These reasons are the grounds of certaine holy daies established in England by law, namely to blesse God for his Saints eminent grace while they were liuing, and exceeding glorie now they be dead. Wherein our Church ascribes not any diuine worship to the Saints, but all due praise to the sanctifier: in celebrating their memorie (saith Augustine) we neither adore their ho­nour, nor implore their helpe: but (according to the [Page 4] tenour of our text) wee praise him alone,De ciuit. lib. 8. cap. 27. who made them both men and martyrs. In the words ofTom. 2 fol. 118 Hie­rome to Riparius: Honoramus reliquias martyrum, vt eum cuius sunt martyres adoremus: honoramus seruos, vt honor seruorum redundet ad dominum: If thou de­sire to doe right vnto the Saints, esteeme them as pa­ternes, and not as patrones of thy life; honour them on­ly so farre,Philip Mor­naeus de missa, lib. 3. cap. 11. See Melanct. resp. ad art. Bauar. art. 25. that thou maist alway praise God in them, and praise them in God.

The gunpowder men erre very much in this one kinde of honouring God, for either they worship his Saints as himselfe, or else their owne saintlings, and not his Saints. In praying to the dead, in mingling the blood of their martyrs with the precious blood of their Maker, in applying their merits, and relying vpon their mercies; it is plaine that they make the Saints (as Melancthon tels them in hisTit. de sanct. inuocat. Apologie for the Con­fession of Auspurge) quartermasters with God, and halfe mediatours with Christ, I say ioynt mediatours not of incercession only but ofSee D. Fulke in 1. Tim. 2. 5. redemption also. Nay they make the blessed Virgin vpon the poynt their on­ly mediatrix and aduocate, so they sing, and so they say. They sing in their publique seruice,Bellar. de sanct. beat. cap. 17. Maria mater gratiae, mater misericordiae, &c. the which is Gods owne stile, 1. Pet. 1. 10. & 2. Cor. 1. 3. so they likewise say, Maria consolatio infirmorum, redemptio captiuorum, liberatio damnatorum, salus vniuersorum. Apud Magde­burg. Cent. 10. Coll. 275. Giselber­tus in lib. altercationis Synagogae et ecclesiae, cap. 20. Ma­ria quasi maria, saith Augustinus de Leonissa, sermon 5 vpon Aue maria, for as all riuers come from the seas, and returne to the seas againe, Ecclesiastes 1. 7:See Gospell Annunciat. so for­sooth (if you will vndertake to beleeue him) all grace is deriued from Mary, and ought to be returned again to Mary. We finde so much in Chemnit. exam. Con. Tri­dent. part. 3. pag. 151. Rosario Mariae, repa­ratrix & saluatrix desperantis animae, &c. That which is worse, their owne Pope (who cannot, as they teach, erre in a poynt of doctrine as Pope) calleth her expres­ly [Page 5] Deam. Pet. Bembus in his epistles written in Pope Leo 10. name, lib. 8. epist. 17. printed at Strasburg an. 1609. that which is worst of all, in their most approued Bible: they translate Gen. 3. 15. ipsa conteret caput tuum: she shall breake thine head, although (as their owne IesuitIn Habacuc. cap. 1. num. 32. Ribera confesseth honestly) the Hebrew text, the Chaldee paraphrase, the translation of the Sep­tuagint, and all good Latin copies reade ipse conteret, he shall bruise the serpents head, applying it to Christ, according to that of Paul, The God of peace shall tread downe Satan vnder your feete, Rom. 16. 20. by this eui­dence you may see that the gunpowder crue praise not God in the saints, nor the saints in God: but on the contrarie the saints as God.

Againe these S. Peter men (and as I haue warrant to terme them on this day Salt Peter men) erre from the true meaning of our text, because they doe not praise God in sanctis eius, in his saints: but dishonour God in sanctis eorum, in saints of their owne making, vsually praying vnto some who were no men, and to many who were not holy men. It is doubted by the two great lights in their glorious firmament, Bellarmine and Baronius, whether there were euer any such man as S. George, or such a woman as S. Catharine. Cardi­nall Bellarmine lib. de beatitudine sanct. cap. vlt. §. re­spondeo sanctorum doth acknowledge that they wor­ship certaine saints whose stories are vncertaine, repu­ting the legend of S. George apocryphall according to the censure of PopeCan. sanct. Ro­man. dist. 15. Gelasius: and Cardinall Baronius ecclesiast. annal. Tom. 2. ad an. 290. according to the impression at Rome, fol. 650. as also de Martyrologio Romano cap. 2. confesseth as much of Quiriacus and Iulitta, declaring plainely that their acts are written ei­ther by fooles or heretikes, and in his annotations vpon the Romane Martyrologie 23. Aprill, he taketh vp Iaco­bus de Voragine for his leaden Legend of our English S. George, concluding in fine, that the picture of Saint [Page 6] George fighting with a Dragon is symbolicall, and not historicall. If the Scripture be trueRom. 14. 23. whatsoeuer is not of faith is sinne: then assuredly these men (asTit. 3. 11. Paul speaks) are damned of their owne selues in their owne consci­ence, who (notwithstanding all their doubts) pray still in their publike seruice,Missal. Roman. ex Con. Triden. decret. restit. in festo Georgij. Deus, qui nos beati Georgij martyris tui meritis & intercessione laetificas, Concede propitius, &c. An Idoll as Paul affirmes, 1. Cor. 8. 4. is nothing, Ergo, the Papists in worshipping S. George which is nothing, commit (euen themselues being Iudges) abominable Idolatrie.

As they worship some who were no men, so many who were notDr. Sutclif ex­amin. of Rom. cap. 7. holy men, as a reuerendDr. Abbot An­tilog. pag. 3. Doctor of our Church accutely, Non matyris domini sed mancipes diaboli: the Souldiour who peirced Christs holy side was a Pagan,Sutclif. vbi sup. neither doth any storie which is authen­ticall speake of his conuersion, and yet they worship him vnder the name of S. Longinus, or Longesse, March 15. Papias (asHist. lib. 3. cap. vlt. Eusebius andCatalog. scrip. in vita pap. Hierome report) held the heresie of the Millenarians, and yet he is honoured as a saint in the Romane Calender vpon the 22. of Fe­bruarie. Becket was a bad subiect in his life, and no good Christian at his death, in that hee commended himselfe and the cause of his Church vnto S.Houenden annal part. poster. pag. 298. Denys and our Lady. Yet S. Thomas of Canterburie was ho­noured at Canterburie in the daies of popish ignorance more then either the worlds Sauiour, or the blessed Virgine his mother: in which relation I appeale to the records of that Church, as also to the very stones vn­der his shrine worne with the knees and hands of such as came thither to worship him. Boccace reporteth how one Sir Chappelet a notorious Italian Vsurer and Cou­soner came to be honoured as a Saint in France. San­ders among them is a saint, albeit he liued in plotting, and dyed in acting rebellion against his gracious Soue­raigne Queene Elizabeth of famous and blessed me­morie. Nay Dauus is Diuus, Saul is among the Pro­phets, [Page 7] pater personatus, father Parsons all the daies of his life was a perpetual Martyr, as his fellowCatalog. scrip. Iesuit. in vita Parsonij. Ribade­neira termeth him: and yet one (who sometime was his inner man, and knew him as I presume, better then euer did Ribadeneira) transposing the letters of Ro­bertus Pársonius Iesuita, found this anagramme, Perso­natus versuti oris abi: the wit-foundred drunkard, Henry Garnet (who did not according to the Counsell of1. Tim. 5. 23. Paul vse vino modico: but asEpist. lib. 3. epist. 6. Paulinus pretily modio) that lecherous treacherous Arch-priest, Arch­traitor, Arch-diuell in concealing, if not in contriuing: in patronizing, if not in plotting the powder intended massacre, is returned a Saint from beyond the seas with Sheldon pre­face before his motiues. à sancte Henrice intercede pro nobis: his action is iu­stified, his life commended, his death honoured, his mi­racles and memorie celebrated by that Ignatian spirit, (Eliens. epist. lector. ante resp. ad Bellar. apol. portentum nominis portentum hominis, hauing a great deale of name, though a very little modestie) Andreas Eudaemon Ioannes Cydonius: but notwithstanding his apologie, the saintship of Henry Garnet is so buffeted by the replies and antilogies of our accuratlie learned diuines, as that his straw face will hereafter hardly be worth a straw. Catesbie, Winter, Rookwood, and the rest of the Cole-saints and hole-saints (who laboured in the diuels mine by the Popes mint) are numbred a­mong the holy ones also: Babilon and Egypt praise God in them, and for them. I haue heard much of roa­ring gentlemen in London and Canterburie, but if the Lord himselfe had not watched ouer his Church, if the Lord himselfe had not written England in theEsay 49. 16. palmes of his hands, if the Lord himselfe had not kept King Iames as theDeut. 32. 10. apple of his eye,Psal. 124. if the Lord himselfe had not been on our side (now may Gods Israell in England say) if the Lord himselfe had not been on our side, when they rose vp against vs, if the Lord himselfe had not (out of his vnspeakeable goodnesse toward vs and our posteritie) broken their snares, and deliuered [Page 8] our soules out of that horrible gunpowder pit; these bellowing Buls of Basan, and Canon-mouthed hell-hounds would haue made on this day such a roare, that all Christendome should haue felt it, and the whole world haue feared it.Iudith. 13. 4. O Lord God of all power, blessed be thy name, which hast this day brought to nought the enemies of thy people, Iudges 5. 31. so let all thine enemies perish O Lord, that our Psalm. 126. 2. mouthes may be filled with laughter and our tongue with ioy. Sint diui modo non viui, let England hang such, although afterward Rome hallow such, he that hath an eye to see without the spectacles of a Ie­suit, will affoord as good credit to the register at Ti­burne as to the Calender of Tyber: for if these be Mar­tyrs, I wonder who are Murtherers? If these be Saints, I pray you who are Scythians? If these bee Catholikes, who are Canibals?

I passe to the second exposition of these wordes, O praise God in his sanctitie, so Munster, Pagninus, Beza, Tremelius and our old translation heere, Praise God in his holinesse: now God is holy formaliter & effectiue, holy in himselfe, and making other holy; the Lord is glorious in holinesse Exod. 15. 11. Wheras other Gods are famous for their vnholinesse, Venus was a wanton, Mercurius a theefe, Iupiter a monsterous adulterer, an ingenious man (asLib. de legend. libris gentilium. Basile writes) would blush to re­port that of beastes, which the Gentiles haue recorded of their Gods. If such imputations are true saithDe Ciuit. Dei lib. 6. cap. 6. Au­gustine, quàm mali how wicked are these Gods: if false quàm malè how wretched and foolish are these men, a­doring the same things in the temple, which they scoffe at in the theater, in turpitudine August. contra faust. man. li. 12. cap. 40. nimium liberi, in super­stitione nimium serui: so that their Gods are not as our God, euen our enemies being Iudges Deut. 32. 31. there is none holy as the Lord 1. Sam. 2. 2. calledEsay 1. 4. & 10. 20. often in holy Scripture the holy one, yea thrice holy; holy, ho­ly, holy, is the Lord of hosts Esay 6. 3. hisLuk. 1. 49. name is holy, hisPsal. 19. 7. law is holy, hisMark. 12. 36. spirit is holy, his will holy, his [Page 9] word holy, righteous in all his waies, and holy in all his workes Psalm. 145. 17. making vs also which are his ser­uants an holy people Deut. 7. 6. an holy priest-hood 1. Pet. 2. 5. his holy temples 1. Cor. 6. 19. our bodies, our soules, our selues, our whole1. Pet. 3. 2. seruice holy, wherefore praise God in his holinesse.

Idem Gene­brard et alij. Luther, Caluin, Vatablus, your English-Geneua bi­bles, & our new translation haue praise God in his san­ctuarie, the which in holy scripture signifieth either he­uen, or the temple, heauen is often called in sacred writ Gods sanctuarie, forEsay 57. 15. thus saith he that is high and ex­cellent, he that inhabiteth eternitie, whose name is the holy one, I dwell in the high and holy place. Christ in comming to vs is said to breake the heauens Esay 64. 1. and when he went from vs vnto his father a cloud tooke him vp into heauen Acts 1. and frō heauen he shal come againe to iudge the quicke and the dead 1. Thes. 4. 16. That his sanctuarie may be taken heere for heauen, is gathered out of the very next clause (praise him in the firmament of his power) the which (asIn loc. Caluin &Bellarmine in loc. other expositors haue well obserued,) is exegeticall, and ex­poundes the former, as if Dauid should haue said, praise the Lord in his sanctuary, that is in the firmament of his power, for the heauens declare the glory of God and the firmament sheweth his handy worke Psalm. 19. 1. let all people praise God our father in heauen, especially such as dwell with himGenebrard Agellius Acer­nensis epist. in loc. in heauen, O praise the Lord all ye blessed Angels and Saints inhabiting his sanctua­rie which is highest and holiest.

Luther Vata­blus chald. apud Genebrard eng­lish Com. dedi­cated to Mr. Herlakinden. Other apply the word sanctuary to the Temple, so termed for two respects especially. 1. because God ma­nifesteth his holines toward vs in that holy place more principally, calling it expreslyEsay. 56. 7. his house. 2. a sanctuarie in regard of our holy seruice toward God, for albeit e­uery day be to the good man a sabbath, and euery place a temple; yet the God of Order hath appointed cer­taine times, and certaine places also, wherein hee will [Page 10] bee worshipped publiquely, saying Leuiticus 19. 30. Ye shall obserue my sabbaths, and reuerence my sanctu­ary. For our holines toward God concerneth vsHooker eccles. pol. lib. 5. §. 24. one way in that we are men, and another way in that we are ioyned as parts to that visible mystical body which is his Church as men, wee are at our owne choyce both for time, and place, and forme, according to the exigence of our owne occasions in priuate, but the seruice which is to bee done of vs as the members of a publique body, must of necessity bee publique, and so consequently to bee performed on holy daies in holy places. and for this doctrine the scriptures afford both patent and paterne, the patent is reported by the Pro­phet Esay: Chap. 56. vers. 7. and repeated by Christ in Mark 11. 7. Luke 19. 46. Matth. 21. 13. three seuerall Euangelists: my house shall be called an house of prayer for all people. The paterns are manifold, I will enter into thine house in the multitude of thy mer­cies, and in thy feare will I worship toward thine holy temple, saith our Prophet, Psal. 5. 7. The Publican and the Pharisie went into the temple to pray, Luke 18. Pe­ter and Iohn went vp together into the temple at the ninth houre of prayer, Acts 3. Anna fasted and prayed in the temple, Luke 2. This one word sanctuarie teach­eth vs how we should behaue our selues in the Church as in Gods presence: Doest thou come to that holie place to receiue the blessed Supper of our Lord? re­member that the temple is sanctuarium, non promptua­rium, a sanctuarie, not a buttrie,1. Cor. 11. 22. haue ye not houses to eate and drinke in, despise yee the Church of God? Doest thou come to pray?Ecclesiastes 4. 17. take heede to thy foote when thou entrest into Gods house, compose thy knees, and eyes, and hands, and heart after such a deuout manner: as that thou maist not onely praise God vpon the loud cym­bals, but (as it is vers. 5.) praise him vpon the well tuned cymbals also. Doest thou come to heare the sermon? remember that the preaching of the Gospel is1. Thess. 2. 13. not the word of a mortall man, but theRom. 1. 6. power of the immor­tall [Page 11] God vnto saluation, and albeit the Preacher be ne­uer so simple, neuer so sinfull; yet the word is holy, the action holy, the time holy, the place holy, ordained by the most holy to make thee holy. Vpon whatsoeuer occasion thou commest into the temple, remember al­waies that the ground is holy whereon thou standest, it is a sanctuarie, the habitation of God, and place of his holinesse: and therefore not to beCanon. 88. prophaned with ordinarie though lawfull worlds businesse, much lesse with vnlawfull pastimes and enterludes, it is a place for praise, not for playes, O praise God in his sanctu­arie.

Or (asIn loc. Martine Luther interprets it) praise God in his sanctuarie, that is for his sanctuarie, forPsal. 147. 19. shewing his word vnto Iacob, his statutes and ordinances vnto Israel, for his adoption, and his couenants, and his pro­mises, and his seruice, Rom. 9. 4. O praise the Lord for hisChrist. Corn. in loc. true Church established for the present among the Iewes, and hereafter in the fulnes of time to be consti­tuted among Christians vntill the worlds end. For this clause may bee construed of the mysticall heauen and temple, so well as of the materiall heauen and temple. The good man (I meane the true Christian) is not on­ly GodsHeb. 3. 16. house, but also Gods1. Cor. 3. 16. temple, yea Gods hea­uen, asLib. 2. de ser. dom. in mont. Augustine expounds the words of Christ, Our Father which art in heauen, that is, in holy men of hea­uenly conuersation, in whose sanctified hearts hee dwelleth as in hisBellarm. & corn. in loc. vel hoc dicit de po­pulo, vel de vita sancta Chrysost. Basil. in loc. sanctuarie. Archimedes in his con­ference with Hiero said, Giue me a place where I may stand out of the world, and I will moue the whole earth: in like manner hee that will be reputed a Saint, and so take vpon him to remoue men earthly minded from their worldlinesse, must himselfe at the least haue one foote out of the world, seeking (as the blessedColoss. 3. 1. Apo­stle speakes) the things aboue, thatMat. 5. 16. other may see his good workes, and glorifie God which is in heauen, that is (according to the true soule of our text) praise [Page 12] God in his Saints which are his sacrarie, his sanctuarie, his house, his heauen.

Heere then all the three diuers lines (praise God in his Saints, praise God in his sanctitie, praise God in his sanctuarie) meete in one centree; namely, God is to bee praised in his sanctuarie for his san­ctitie conferred vpon his Saints, whereby they shi­ned asPhilip. 2. 15. lights in this heauen on earth, and now shine likeDan. 12. 3. starres in that heauen of heauen. If I were not (according to the text and the time) foreward to pro­secute the gunpowder men as the more dangerous e­nemies of God and his Gospell, I might vpon this ground take vp the bucklers against idle Nouelists, vt­terly condemning the festiuals of holy Saints, establish­ed in our Church by good order of law. Their princi­pall obiection is taken out of Pauls epistle to the Ga­lathians, chap. 4. vers. 10. Ye obserue daies and moneths, and times and yeares, I am afraid of you lest I haue be­stowed vpon you labour in vaine. To which answere is made, that there is aIlliric. in Ga­lat. 4. fourefold obseruation of daies

  • Naturall.
  • Politicall.
  • Ecclesiasticall.
  • Superstitious.

Of all which onely the superstitious is condemned, as Aretius and Illiricus, andSee Sir Christo. Heydos answere to Mr. Cham­bers, pag. 368. and how the fa­thers answere this. other Protestant Diuines vpon the place.Bellarmin. de sanct Cultu, cap. 10. Now the superstitious obseruation is either Iudaicall or Idolatricall, it is apparent that Paul meant the first hereof especially,English glosse. because the Gala­thians after they were conuerted vnto Christ, were se­duced by false teachers vnto the ceremonies of the Iewes, as concerning the Sabbaths & the new Moones and the like, the which were figures of Christ, and had their end in him.Galat. 3. 3. Are ye so foolish that hauing begun in the spirit, yee would now be made perfit by the flesh? As for Idolatricall obseruing of times, it is granted easily that the Pagans (in dedicating feasts vnto false gods, [Page 13] and in makingSee Ambrose in Galat 4 & August. epist. 119. cap. 7. differences of daies dismall and fortu­nate, either by curious arts, or by particular fansies, or popular obseruations) are worthily reputed supersti­tious. And theDr. Fulke in Galat. 4. 10. Papists also (solemnizing holy daies of the Saints in their Churches with idolatrous wor­shipping of the creatures, and their Images: and out of their Churches with Epicurelike belly-cheere, reuel­ling, and idlenes) turne againe to the beggerly rudiments and fashions of the world: but the festiuals of England (celebrated according to the doctrine and Iniunctions of our Church) are very farre from these and all other kindes of superstition,See Dr. Whit­gift defence of his answere to the admonit. fol. 538. 539. for then is God truly worship­ped in the publike congregation, I say the true God is truly praised in his true Saints, on our holy daies the sa­craments are rightly ministred, the Scriptures are fruit­fully read, the Word is faithfully preached; all which are maine meanes to withdraw men not only from su­perstition and idolatrie, but also from all sorts of error and impietie whatsoeuer.

Yea but the words of the Commandement are, sixe daies shalt thou labour: Ergo, there should be no holie day besides the Lords day.B. Babington in 4. Com. Caluins Cat. Dr. Whitgift vbi supra fol. 542. & 553. sixe daies thou maist labour. Protestant Diuines an­swere that the clause (sixe daies shalt thou labour) is a permission, or a remission of Gods right, who might chalenge to himselfe all our time for his worke, and not a restraint for any man from seruing of God on any day. For the Iewes beside the Sabbath had diuers other feasts; as Easter, the feast of vnleauened bread, the feast of first fruits, Whitsuntide, the feast of blowing trumpets, the feast of Tabernacles; all which (as we reade Leui­ticus 23) they kept by Gods appointment holy, not­withstanding these words of the law, sixe daies shalt thou labour. And so the Christian Church in all ages hath vpon iust occasions separated some weeke daies vnto the praising of the Lord, and rest from labour. Ioel 2. 14. Blow the trumpet in Sion, sanctifie a fast, call a solemne assemblie. Perkins aur. Cat. cap. 23. Daies of publike fasting for some [Page 14] great iudgement, dayes of publike reioycing for some great benefit, are not vnlawfull, but exceeding com­mendable, yea necessarie. Whosoeuer doubtes of the Churches libertie herein, or of the practise of this liber­tie, may peruse the ninth chapter of Ester, in which it will appeare that Gods people by the commandement of Mordecai did euery yeare solemnize and keepe holy the fourteenth and fifteenth day of the moneth Adar, in remembrance of their great deliuerie from the trea­son of Haman. Vpon these grounds the last euer re­nouned Parliament enacted, that wee should for euer spend the prime part of this present fifth of Nouember in praying and praising the Lord, for his vnspeakable goodnes in deliuering our King, Queene, Prince, and states of this realme from that hellish, horrible, bloody, barbarous intended massacre by Gunpowder. Now that I may for my part execute the will of the Parlia­ment (sparing the Nouelists, and referring such as de­sire to bee further satisfied in this argument of holy dayes, vnto the iudicious writings of my most honou­red and honourable maister, Archbishop Whitegift, in theFrom pag. 538 to 555. defence of his answere to the Admonition) I pro­ceede in the text, praise him in his noble acts, praise him according to his excellent greatnes.

Vulgar Latine Castalio. Some reade laudate eum in Pagnin. In fortitudinibus. virtutibus eius, praise him in his powers: Vatablus Munster. other ob fortitudinem eius, praise him in his power; and according to these two diuerse translations, I find two different expositions; one con­struing it of Gods gloriousTurrecremat. & Raynerius in loc. Angels, and the other ap­plying it to Gods glorious acts: for the first, it is eui­dent in holy writ that there bee certaine distinctions and degrees of Angles in the quier of heauen, there be Seraphins Esay 6. 2. Cherubins, Gen. 3. 24. Thrones, do­minions, principalities, and powers, Coloss. 1. 16. in all which and for all which God is to be praised, as being hisHeb. 1. 14. ministring spirits for the good of such as shall bee heires of saluation; as long as wee serue God, all these [Page 15] serue vs, euen the Cherubins, and Seraphins, Angels, and Archangels, I say, so long as we serue the Lord, these pages of his honour and parts of his courts at­tend vs, and pitch their tents about vs: a doctrine very profitable, very comfortable, yet for as much as I hold it lesse pertinent to the present occasion I thus ouer­passe it, and hast to that other exposition interpreting these words (as our Church readeth) of Gods noble acts.

Now the workes of God are of two sorts, ad intra & ad extra: some be confined within himselfe, other extended towards vs: works of the sacred Trinitie within it selfe (as that the Father begets, and the Sonne is begotten, and the holy Ghost proceeds from both) are wonderfull acts of such an high nature that it is our dutie rather simply to adore, then subtilly to explore them: all his acts extended toward vs are summarilie reduced vnto two, namely the works of creation and redemption.Aduancement of learning lib. 2. pag. 116. The worke of creation is attributed in the Masse of the matter to God the Father, in the dis­position of the forme to God the Sonne, in the preser­uation of both to God the holy Ghost. So likewise that of redemption, in election vnto God the Father, in the consummation vnto God the Sonne, in the application vnto the holy Ghost, all which are very noble acts▪ and God is to be praised in them according to his excellent greatnesse. The worke of creation is so mightie, that none could bring it to passe but the Father almightie: that God should haue nothing but nothing, whereof, wherewith, whereby to build this high, huge, goodly, faire frame; is a principle which nature cannot teach, and Philosophie will not beleeue. The worke of re­demption is of farre greater might and mercy, for the making of the world was (if I may so speke) onely lip-labour vnto God, he spake the word and it was done, be commanded and it stoodfast, Psalm. 33. 9. but Christ in redeeming the world said many words, and did ma­ny [Page 16] wonders, and suffered also many wounds. It is true that the least ake of his least finger is infiniti meriti, sed non definiti meriti, that is of an infinite merit, yet not that determined ransome for the sinnes of the whole world. It cost him more to redeeme soules,Rom. 4. 25. he dyed for our sinnes and rose againe for our iustification, hee suffered for vs, and that death, and that a violent death, and of all violent deaths the most accursed death on the Crosse.

The worke of sanctification is a noble act also, for euery man if you rightly consider his making is a won­der, I am saith ourPsalm. 139. 13 Prophet fearfully and wonderfully made: but a good man if you consider his new making is a wonderfull wonder, as1. Cor. 4. 9. Paul speakes a spectacle to men and Angles, as the vulgar Latine runnes in the 68. Psalme, at the last verse, mirabilis deus in sanctis, O God wonderfull art thou in thy Saints.

But Dauid Placid. Par­men. and the english Com. dedicated to M. Herlakinden. here meaneth especially the valiant acts of God in gouerning & garding his people from their enemies,Psalm. 66. 4. O come hither and behold the workes of God, how wonderfull hee is in his doing toward the Children of men, he turned the sea into drye land so that his people went on foot thorough the middest of the sea, theExod. 14. 29. waters were a wall vnto them on the right hand and on their left; but the waues of the Sea returned and couered the chariots and horsemen euen all the hoast of Pharaoh that pursued them. Almighty God raigned hailstones out of heauen vpon the cursed Amorites at Bethoran, and they were more (Iosua 10. saith the text) that dyed with the haile, then they whom the Children of Israell slew with the sword. And when Duke Iosua prayed, Sunne stay thou in Gibeon, & thou Moone in the valey of Aialon: the Sunne abode and the Moone stood still vntill the people auenged themselues vpon their enemies. When Zenacherib and his innume­rous hoast came to fight against Hezekiah King of Iu­da, Gods Angell in one night flew an hundred eighty [Page 17] and fiue thousand Assyrians. 2. Kings. 19.

And vndoubtedly (beloued) there is no nation vn­der the cope of Heauen hath had greater occasion to praise God in this kind then England, the preseruation of the most illustrious princesse the Lady Elizabeth vnder the fiery triall of her vnkind sister Queene Ma­rie was a noble act, and the seminary of much hap­pinesse vnto this kingdome for many yeares after, and so much the more noble because Philip King of Spaine hath often confessed that he spared her life (when wildy Winchester and bloodie Bonner had brought her into the snare) not out of any pietie or pittie, but onely out of policie. Her exaltation to the Crowne was another noble act, so noble that someSee M. Foxe Martyr. in fine. Popish Prelats in their enuie burst a sunder and dyed for very griefe of heart. Well might that good Lady sing and say with the bles­sed Virgine, He that is mightie hath magnified me, and holy is his name, he hath put downe the mightie from their seat and hath exalted the humble and meeke: her flou­rishing in health, wealth, and godlinesse, more then 44. yeares (in despite of all her foes abroad, at home, schis­maticall, hereticall, open, intestine) was another noble act: for after once the Bull of Pope Pius Quintus had roared, and his fat Calues had begunne to bellow in this Island: there passed neuer a yeare, neuer a moneth, neuer a weeke (I thinke I might say) neuer a day, neuer an houre, but some mischiefe was intended either a­gainst her person or her people: the resisting of the rebellion in the Northerne parts of England, was a noble act: the discouering and so consequently the de­feating of Campians treason a noble act: of Parris trea­son a noble act: of the Lupus Lopus his treason, a noble act: of Squires treason, a noble act. Her glorious victo­ries against her fell and insolent enemies the Spaniards in Ireland, in Flanders, in France, in their owne domi­nions of Portugal, Indies, and Spaine were noble acts. It was a wonder of wonders, that a Mayden Queene [Page 18] should at one time be both a staffe to Flanders, and a stay to France, a terror to Pope, a mirror to Turke, fea­red abroad, loued at home, Mistresse of the Sea, wonder of the world. Shee might truely bee called a Prince of Peace, for shee was Crowned in Peace, shee liued in Peace, she dyed in Peace, she was buried in Peace: and when shee had slept with her Fathers, it was another noble act of the Lord to send vs in the midst of all our feare so learned, so meeke, so pious a Prince as King Iames, in such exceeding sweet peace, that neuer a sword was drawn, happily neuer a word spoken against him. All these were noble acts, and ought to be had in a perpetuall remembrance. But of all other noble pre­seruations (Our deliuerance from that intended merci­lesse and matchlesse Massacre both in fact and fiction, the fifth of Nouember, in the yeare 1605. is most noblie noble. King Iames on this day might haue said with King2. Sam. 22. 41. Dauid, O Lord which art my rocke and my for­tresse, thou hast giuen me the necks of mine enemies, that I might destroy them that hate me, that I might breake them as small as the dust of the earth, and tread them flat as the clay of the streete.Psalm. 118.O giue thankes vnto the Lord, for he is gracious, and his mercy endureth for euer. Let Israel now confesse that he is gracious, and that his mer­cy endureth for euer. Let the house of Aaron now confesse that his mercy endureth for euer. Yea let all such as feare the Lord now confesse that his mercy endureth for euer. All the Congregations of the Saints in the whole world, haue good cause to thanke God our strength and deliuerer. Scotland hath good cause, for if England had been but a Tuesday breakefast, assuredly Scotland should haue been but a Fridaies drinking, one morsell as it were for the greedy deuourer. The Churches in France relieued often by vs, haue good cause to re­ioyce with vs. Our neighbours of Holland haue good cause to triumphe as they doe, for if our house had been set on fire, their house being the next would haue been [Page 19] quickly pulled downe. The Churches in Germanie, Den­marke, Hungarie, Geneua likewise haue good cause to praise God in this noble act according to his excellent greatnesse.

More principally the Common-weale of England, and in it all men of all factions, and all fashions what­soeuer. Atheists (if they thinke there be a God) haue good cause to thanke God, acknowledging his mercie toward them in sparing vs, and so sauing the bad for the Gen. 18. 26. righteous sake. Carnall Gospellers haue good cause to thanke God, confessing that so long asGen. 19. 22. Let is in So­dome, it cannot be destroyed, and so long as Moses stan­deth in thePsalm. 106. 23. gap, andExod. 32. 11. prayeth for his people, Gods wrathfull indignation cannot deuoure vs. Yea, let the Gunpowder men themselues (if they haue any sparke of grace) confesse that God is to bee praised in this noble act, for suppose (God be thanked we may suppose and dispose thus of these matters vnto our comfort) I say suppose, their diuelish plot had been acted, I assure my selfe our cause had been farre better, and our number farre greater then theirs, and as for our sinnes (which are indeede our greatest enemies) they would haue brought into the field so many as we: so that hauing so much armour of light, and more armour of proofe then they:Lucan. Causa iubet melior superos sperare secundos.

But suppose the least and the worst part had ouer­come the bigger and the better, yet (if they bee not hewen out of hard rockes, if these Romanists haue not sucked the milke of wolues (as it is reported of the first founder of Rome) they would haue relented to see their natiue Country made nothing els but a very shambles of Italian and lgnatian butchers, When Alexander saw the dead corps of Darius, and Iulius Caesar, the head of Pompey, and Marcus Marcellus, Syracuse burn; and Scipio, Numantia spoild, and Titus, Hierusalem made Lue. 19. 44. euen with the ground; they could not abstaine from weeping, albeit they were mortall enemies, But aboue [Page 20] all other in this kingdome the truely zealous, and zea­lously true hearted protestants haue greatest occasion of reioycing, for if the Lord had not (according to his excellent greatnes, and according to his excellent good­nes too) deliuered vs out of this gun-powder gulfe, our bodies happily might haue beene made food for the foules, or else sewel for the fire, and that which would haue grieued our posterity more, superstition and Ido­latry might in short time haue beene replanted in this land, I meane that vpstart Antichristian religion of Rome, wherein many things, especially foure (as iudi­cious Martyr. pag. 1. Fox well obserued) are most abominable.

  • 1. Vnlimited iurisdiction, derogatorie to all Kings and Emperours.
  • 2. Insolent titles, preiudiciall to all Bishops and Prelates.
  • 3. Corrupt doctrine, iniurious to all Christians.
  • 4. Filthie life, detestable to all men.

The greater was our danger, the greater was our de­liuerance: the greater our deliuerance, the greater our thankes should be, for as it followeth in my text, God is to be praised according to his excellent greatnes. It is true that our most and best praises are few for the number, and little for the measure, whereas God is infinite for his goodnes, and in his greatnes incomprehensible, so that the meaning ofBasil. Muscu­lus Placid. par­men. in loc. Dauid is that wee should praise him according to our capacity, and not according to his immensity: according to the grace bestowed vpon vs, and not according to the glory which is in him. Ec­clesiasticus 43. 30. praise the Lord, and magnifie him as much as ye can, yet doth he farre exceed. Exalt him with all your power and be not weary, yet can ye not attaine vnto it.

Now where the Lord giueth a greater meane, there he requireth a greater measure, where he bestoweth a greater portion of giftes, he doth expect a greater pro­portion of glory: wherefore seeing the Lord hath out of his abundant mercy conferred vpon this kingdome [Page 21] inestimable blessings in the preaching of his word for the space of more then fifty yeares, it is questionles hee lookes for no little thankes or small praise, but for great thankes and great praise according to his excellent greatnes manifested in this our deliuerance. I come therefore to the second part of this Psalme, shewing with what God is to be praised, in the sound of the trum­pet, &c.

God is to be praised (saithIn Psalm. 147. Augustine) totis votis de to­tis vobis with all your soules, & with al your selues. That therefore we may manifest our inward affections by such outward actions as are commendable, where there bee trumpets, let them sound: where there be lutes and harpes, let thē strike vp: where there be loud Cymbals and well tuned Cymbals, let them ring, let thē sing the praises of God for this our most happy deliuerance, let trumpet and tongue, viol and voice, lute & life witnes our harty reioycing in the Lord: If our true zeale were more fie­ry within, it would doubtlesse breake forth into moe publike workes, then it doth against that bloody brood of the gun-powder crue. There haue beene many col­lections in euery dioces for the reedifying of the Chur­ches of Saint Albanes and Arthuret, the which I as­sure my selfe were good workes: there haue bin in this latter age many gorgeous, I might say glorious buil­dings erected about and in this honorable City, to the great ornament of our Country, the which I thinke you may number among your good workes: there haue bin lotteryes to further Virginean enterprises, and these (for any thing I know) were good workes also: there haue bin many new play-houses, and one faire Burse lately built, Paris garden in a flourishing estate makes a great noyse still, and as I heare Charing Crosse shall haue a new coat too: but in the meane time while so many mo­numents are raised either to the honour of the dead, or else for the profit and pleasure of the liuing: dic mihi musa virum, I pray muse and shew me the man, who [Page 22] ioynes with that euer zealous, reuerend, learned Deane in founding a Colledge for a society of writers against the superstitious Idolatries of the Romane Synagogue, the which happily might be like theCant. 4. 4.Tower of Dauid, where the strong men of Israel might haue sheildes and targets to fight the Lords battaile.Haggai. 1. 4. Is it time for your selues to dwell in your seiled houses and this houselye waste?

Remember I beseech you the words of2. Chron. 15. 2. Azariah vnto King Asa and the men of Iuda, The Lord is with you, while you are with him, and if ye seeke him, hee will bee found of you: but if ye forsake him, he will forsake you. Bee not cold in a good cause, flie not out of the field, play not the cowards in the Lords holy wars, for albeit hap­pily your selues are like for your time to do wel enough in despite of the diuell and the Pope his darling: yet your posterity will assuredly rue it, and haue iust cause to curse their dastardly spirits, and worthlesse progeni­tours. I say no more concerning this point, only I pray with our forefathers in the first english Letany set out in the dayes of King Henry the 8. from all sedition and pri­uie conspiracie, from the tyrannie of the Bishop of Rome and all his detestable enormities, from all false doctrine and heresie, from hardnes of heart, and contempt of thy word and commandement.

Good Lord deliuer vs.

Where note by the way that the Popes abominable tyrannie is hedged in (as it were) on the one side with sedition and priuie conspiracy, and on the other side with false doctrine and heresie. I haue another prayer, and for asmuch as it is in Latine, I must entreat all such (if any such here be present who loue Bonanentures psalter and the Romish seruice) to ioyne with vs in this orison.

Papa noster qui es Romae; maledicetur nomen tuum, inte­reat regnum tuum, impediatur volunt as tua, sicut in Coelo sie et in terra, Putum nostrum in Coena dominicada nobis hodie, & remitte nummos nostr [...]s quos tibi dedimus ob in­dulgentias, sicut & nos remittimus tibi indulgentias, & [...] [Page 23] nos inducas in haeresin, sed libera nos a miseria, quoniam tuum est infernum, pix & sulphur in secula seculorum.

The word of God is aHeb. 4. 12. two edged sword, sharp in a literal, and sharp in an allegoricall exposition. Hither­to you haue heard the history, now there remaineth a mistery, nihil enim hic ludicrum aut lubricum saithIn loc. Au­gustine, and thereforeProsper Lu­ther Hugo Card. diuines vnderstand here by the sounding of the trumpet, the preaching of the Gospell, Rom. 10. 18. whose found went out thorow all the earth vnto the endes of the world: at the seuenfold sounding of this trumpet the walles ofIosua. 6. Strictior est tu­ba ex parte buc­cinantis quàm ex altera, quia praedicator stri­ctius se debet examinare. Hugo Card. in loc. sericho fal, that is all the pompes and powers of this world are conquered & brought to nought, this trumpet is mightie thorough God to cast downe holdes, and Imaginations, and euery high thing that is exalted against the knowledge of God. 2. Cor. 10. 4.

Augustin in loc. Other say that the Saints are these trumpets, and harpes, and Cymbals, and that theirChrysost. Eu­thym. in loc. members make this musicke to the Lord, our eyes praise the Lord, while they bePsalm. 123. lifted vp vnto their maker in heauen, and waite vpon his mercy: our tongues praise the Lord, in singingColos. 3. 16. Psalmes, and hymnes, and spirituall songs vnto the Lord: our eares praise the Lord, while they Mat. 13. 9. heare the word of God with attention: our hands praise the Lord, while they beEcclesi. 7. 32. stretched out vnto the poore, and while theyEphes. 4. 24. worke the thing that is good: our feete praise the Lord, when they bee notPsal. 14. 6. swift to shed blood, butPsal. 122. 2. stand in the gates of Gods house, rea­dy toPsal. 199. 32. run the wayes of his commandements. In Tym­paeno sicca & percussa pellis resonat, in choro autem voces sociatae concordant saidPastoral. part. 3. admonit. 23. Gregorie the great: wherefore August. Cassiod. Hugo. Card. in loc. such as mortifie the lusts of the flesh praise God in tym­pano, and they who keepe theEphes. 4. 3. vnity of the spirit in the bond of peace, praise God in choro: the Brownist in se­parating himselfe from the Church though he seeme to praise God in tympano, yet hee doth not praise God in choro: and the carnall gospeller albeit he ioyne with the [Page] Church in chere, yet he prayseth not God in tympano they praise God in well-tuned Cymbals who tune their soules before they preach or pray, whosoeuer desires to bee a sweete singer in Israel must bee learned in the schoole, before hee be lowd in the temple: the heart likewise must be prepared for praying, as the harpe for playing▪ if our instruments of praise be not in tune, then our whole deuotion is like the1. Cor. 33. 1.sounding brasse or as the tinckling Cymbal: in Gods quier there is first tune well, and then sound well, if once we can say withPsalm. 108. 1. Dauid, O God mine heart is ready, mine heart is ready, then our lute and harpe will awake right early: let thy soule praise the Lord, and then all that is either without or about thee will instantly doe the same.

Let euery thing that hath breath praise the Lord) that isAgellius▪ [...]a­tablus. omne spirans,Hieron. August.omnis spiritualis,Genebrard & aly plerique.omnis spiritus, let euery creature praise the Lord for his estate of con­fection, euery Christian praise the Lord for his estate of refection, euery blessed spirit loosed out of the worldes misery praise the Lord for his estate of perfection, let e­uery creature, man aboue all the Creatures, and the foule of man aboue all that is in man praise the Lord. Omnis spiritus, i.Hugo. Iunius.totus spiritus, Luk. 10. 27. all the heart, all the soule, all the mind, as the psalmistPsal. 86. 12. elsewhere, I will thanke thee O Lord my God with all mine heart, euen with myPsal. 111. 1. whole heart, or omnis spiritus the spirit of eue­ry man in euery place, for this saying isCaluin. Genebrard. in loc. propheticall, insinuating that God in time to come, shall not only be worshipped of the Iewes at Ierusalem with outward ce­remonies, in the sound of the trumpet and vpon the lute and harpe: but in all places, of all persons in spirit and truth as Christ expounds Dauid in the 4. of Saint Iohns Gospell at the 23. verse, whereas vnbeleeuing Iewes are the sonnes of Abraham according to the flesh only be­leeuing Gentiles are theGalat. 3. [...]9. seed of Abraham according to the spirit, and heires by promise, more Israel saith Psalm. 148. Augustine then Israel it selfe. The sonnes of Abraham [Page] (as Christ tels vs in the [...] 8. 39. Gospell, [...] they who doe the workes of Abraham, and Abrahams chiefe worke was faith, Abraham beleeued (saith theGen. 15. 6. Rom. 4. 3. text) and it was imputed to him for righteousnes, Ergo▪ the true belee­uer is a right Isralite, blessed with saithfull Abra­ham. Galat. 3. 9.Genebrard. some stretch this further, applying it not onely to the spirits of men in the Church mi­litant, but also to the blessed Angels and Saints in the triumphant, for this Psalme consists of a threefold apo­strophe.

1. Dauid inuiteth all the Citizens of heauen, O praise God in his sanctuarie, praise him in the firmament of his power.

2. All the dwellers vpon earth, praise him in the sound of the trumpet, praise him vpon the lute and harpe, &c.

3. Both and all, let euery thing that hath breath, euery thing which hath either the life of nature, or of grace, or of glorie, let euery spirit Placidus par­mensis & Bel­larmin. in loc. whether it be ter­restriall or celestiall, of whatsoeuer condition, age, sexe, praise the Lord.

It is aGenebrard. Rabbinical conceit that this hymne consists of 13. Halleluiahs, answering 13. Properties of God mentioned Exod. 34. 6. 7. verses, and in that our Pro­phet after a dozen Halleluiahs hath not done, but ad­deth a thirteenth, hee doth insinuate that when all our deuotion is finished, it is our dutie to begin againe with Gods praise, for asRom. 11. 36. of him, and thorough him, and for him▪ are all things, euen so to him is due all glorie for e­uermore: as his mercies are from euerlasting to euerla­sting, from euerlasting election, to euerlasting glorifi­cation: so likewise his praises are to bee sung for euer and euer. In this life we begin this hymne singing (as musitians speake) in breifs and semibriefs a staffe or two, but in the world to come standing before the throne of the Lambe, clothed in long white robes, accompanied with all the sweet voyces of heauens incomparable me­lodious [Page] quire: we shall eternally sing; Holy, holy, holy, Lord God almightie, which was, and which is, and which is to come,Apocalip. 7. 12.praise, and glorie, and wisdome, and power, and might, be vnto our God for euermore. Amen.


This keyboarded and encoded edition of the work described above is co-owned by the institutions providing financial support to the Text Creation Partnership. This Phase I text is available for reuse, according to the terms of Creative Commons 0 1.0 Universal. The text can be copied, modified, distributed and performed, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission.