An EXPOSITION OF THE FESTIVALL EPISTLES AND Gospels vsed in our English Liturgie.

Together with a reason why the Church did chuse the same.

By IOHN BOYS Doctor of Diuinitie.

The first part from the Feast of S. ANDREVV the Apostle, to the Purification of blessed MARY the Virgin.

Psalme 151.1.

Laudate Dominum in Sanctis eius.

LONDON, Printed by EDVVARD GRIFFIN for William Aspley. 1615.

TO THE MOST REVEREND FA­THER IN GOD, GEORGE BY the diuine prouidence, Lord Archbishop of CANTERBVRIE, Primate of all England, and Metropolitane, &c. My very good Lord.

I Finde three sundrie readings of the first words in the last Psalme; Praise God in vis Hieron. Augustin. [...] Saints, praise God in his An [...]nymus and our old En­glish translat. san­ctitie, praise God in his Vatabius, Caluin, English Gene­ [...]bib. & Ge­sebr..r [...]s ex Cl ald [...]. San­ctuarie. God is to be praised in his Saints, as hauing out of the riches of his mercie bestowed on them eminent gifts of grace, the which as their bequeathed [...]. Imi­ [...]en. him de S. maxim [...]. legacies and onely true reliques are to be remem­bred often in Gods Church vnto Gods people, that (as Ser. on C [...]rist­mas day prea­ [...]hed at Bex­terly. B. Latimer speakes) wee may worship the Saints in following their good ex­amples. [Page] And so these three lines meeting in one center, intimate that the most holy (being donor of euery good and perfect gift) ought to be magnified in his Sanctu­arie for his sanctitie conferred vpon his Saints, whereby they shined as Philip. 1.1 [...] lights in this heauen on earth, and now shine like D [...]. 12.3. starres in heauen of heauen. For this end I haue begun, and I hope to finish an expo­sition of the Festiuall Epistles and Gospels vsed in our English Liturgie. The which (howsoeuer herein I may seeme bold) yet am I bound to dedicate vnto your Grace for many re­spectiue considerations, especially for this one, because your honourable disposition in the middest of a crooked nation is euer­more to be both a patron and a paterne of vnfained sanctitie. Thus humbly besee­ching the Lord to blesse, and your Grace to sauour these my labours; I rest

Your Graces seruant in all dutie, IOHN BOYS.

S. ANDREVVES DAY.

The Epistle

ROM. 10.9.

If thou knowledge with thy mouth that Iesus is the Lord, and beleeue in thy heart that God raised him vp from death, thou shalt be safe, &c.

THE Gospell and Epistle chosen for this Fes [...]iuall, intimate the true reason of our Church, in ce­lebrating the memories of the blessed Apostles and Euangelists vnto Gods honour, namely, be­cause they were fishers of men, am­bassadours of peace, preachers of good tidings, euen the 1. Cor. 4.1. disposers of the riches of God in Christ indiff [...]rently to men of all sexes and sorts, in that their sound went out into all lands, and their words into the ends of the world; and so by consequent principall instru­ments of God in the worke of our saluation and eternall happinesse. Which our Apostle sheweth heere by this Martyr. Sar [...]rius. Caluin. Sorites or gradation:

Whosoeuer [...]all [...]th on the name of the Lord shall be saued,
Inuocation is by faith,
Faith is by hearing of the word,
Hearing is by the Preachers.

And Preachers are sent of God &c. Erg [...], such as haue learned Christ, in their minde beleeuing vndoubtedly, with their mouth acknowledging him vndauntedly for their Iesus; ought to praise God in his Apostles, as be­ing after Christ immediately the first, and vnder Christ [Page] absolutely the chiefe Trumpetors of the Gospell, which is the Rom. 1.16. power of God vnto saluation.

In the whole text two points are remarkable:

  • Cansa causa­t [...], the means of our iustifi­cation, and herein a
    • Proposition: If thou knowledge, &c. verse 9.
    • Proofe:
      • 1. From a sufficient enu­meration of the princi­pall heads of
        Aretius.
        Chri­stiani­tie.
        • Faith; for to bel [...]eue with the heart in­stifieth.
        • Good works; to knowledge with the mouth, &c. vers. 10.
      • 2. From the testimonie of the Pro­phets.
        • Cap. 28.16.
          Esay: Who­soeuer belee­ueth on him, &c. vers. 11.
        • Cap. 1.32.
          Ioel: Who­soeuer doth call, &c. vers. 13.
  • Causa causae, the
    Melancth [...]n. Parae [...].
    meane for these meanes, and that is the preaching of the Gospell, in this respect aptly termed the word of faith: vers. 8.

If thou knowledge] S. Paul hauing in the Chapter afore, sufficiently discoursed of the re [...]ection of the Iewes A priore, from Gods absolute decree (shewing Rom 9.18. mercie on whom he will, and whom he will hardening) he commeth in this present, to demonstrate the same point. [...] Areti [...]s. post [...]riore, from their obstinate incredulitie, vers. 3. stablishing their owne righteousnesse, and not submitting themselues vnto the righ­teousnesse of God in Christ, apprehended and applied by [Page] faith only, declaring it selfe in a twofold act; one which is Thomas 22. quaest. 3. [...]rt. 1. outward, to confesse with the mouth: another which is inward, to beleeue with the heart. D. Wi [...]e [...] in loc. Some confesse, but be­leeue not, as hypocrites: other beleeue but confesse not, as timorous and Peter-like professors in the daies of per­secution: other doe neither confesse, nor beleeue on Christ, as Atheists: other both confesse and beleeue, and they be true Christians. A Ardens. Theophylact. bare confessing with the mouth is not enough, except thou beleeue with thine heart. Esay 29.13. This people come neere to mee with their mouth, and honor me with their lips, but haue remoued their heart farre from me, &c. Neither is it sufficient vnto sal­uation, only to beleeue with the heart, vnlesse thou con­fesse with the mouth; according to that vnauoidable sentence, Math. 10.33. Whosoeuer shall denie me before men, him also will I denie before my father which is in heauen.

Now though in nature beleeuing with the heart pre­ceed confessing with the tongue: yet Paul mentioneth ac­knowledging in the first place, Martyr. Heming. Aretius. for that wee doe not know the faith of such as beleeue, but by their confes­sion; according to that of Cap. 2.18. S. Iames, I will shew thee my faith by my workes. Heere then obserue, that to confesse the Lord Iesus is necessary Sarcerius. both in respect of other and our selues. In respect of other, Occumen. as being herewith armed in the times of persecution, and instructed in the daies of peace. Christ is the fountaine of the waters of life; faith in the heart is as the pipes and cesterne that receiue in and hold the water; and confession with the mouth as the cocke of the Conduit that lets out the water vnto euery commer. And therefore Matth. 6.16. let your light so shine before men, as that they may see your good workes, and glori­fie your father which is in heauen. Againe to confesse, Pareus. that is, to praise Christ in thy words, and to doe whatsoeuer appertaineth vnto his worship, is needfull in regard of our selues, C [...]urch hom. s f [...]ith. & Cō ­fess. Anglican. art. 12. See Ro­gers ibid. & Caluin. Instit. [...]ib. 2. cap. 16. in that a true faith is neuer idle, but alway working by loue, Galath. 5.6. For although it iustifieth alone, yet is it no more alone, Caluin. apud Bellarmin. de Ius [...]ificat. lib. 1. ca [...]. 14. §. Iohannes. then the heat of the [Page] S [...]nne which alone warmes the earth is seuered from light [...]or then Christ is di [...]oined from his spirit: Cal [...] apud [...]. de Iustist at lib. 1 cap. 15. §. Caluinus: or men a hand when it alone doth apprehend any thing is separated from the bodie: Luther apu [...] Sander [...]m de Iu­stis [...] [...]. 4 cap. 4.

This doctrine makes against the [...]. 70. [...] in o'd time, defending this [...]; Iura, peruira. secretum [...]. And the Martyr in [...]. [...] in ourage who following the [...]. He [...], hold it l [...] full to distemble their faith [...] the Magistrate. As also the Nicodem [...]es ashamed of Christ, and exp [...]cating [...] forswer­ring their P [...]ie [...]hood, and the Pope their holy father vp­on e [...]e [...]y pretended occasion of danger. In a word, all weather [...]ise professors, adue [...]tring no more for the glo­rious Gospell, then one [...]tely did for his horrible blas­phemie, who being bound to the stake, suffered only the lingeing of his beard This open acknowledging of Christ is necessa [...]ie [...] not only [...] morris, at the point of de [...]h, as Lira [...]us: or in the daie, of persecution, as Lom­bard; but at all time, and in euery place, when occasion is offered lustly, [...]aith [...] 22. [...] [...]2. [...]. Forseeing it is an af [...]r­m [...]t [...]ue pr [...]cept. [...]. As Christ in his Mark 8.3 [...]. Gospel expres [...]ely. [...]

Whereas [...] [...] § [...] [...] [...], the faith not sufficient vnto [...] mouth and other [...]od [...] [...], as efficient cause concure with it in the [...] may be taken out of his old Schoole­ [...], and Cardinall [...], [...] [...] doth af­ [...] confession [...] act of faith, according to that of the [...] P [...]mi [...]. I [...] haue I spoken, And in his second [...] this Chapter, he that is [...] by faith ought to be [...] filled with the fruit [Page] of righteousnesse. Postquam homo per fide mest instificatus, oportet quod eius fides per dilectionem operatur ad consequen­dam sal [...]tem. And Cardinall In loc. Tolet in plaine termes: Oris confessio n [...]s non iustificat à peccato, &c. sed iustificati tenemur eam palàm profiteri, &c. Confession of the mouth doth not iustifie vs; but being iustified, wee are bound publikely to professe it afore we can attaine to saluation. Herein agreeing with our Melancth. Caluin. Heming. Piscator. Chytreu [...]. Tileman. Protestant Interpreters, af­firming that good workes are consequents and effects of a true faith, as if Paul should haue said here, we are iusti­fied by faith onely, but yet this faith is operatiue, bring­ing foorth liuely fruits, as the confession of the mouth, and the profession of the life; for they be necessarie to saluation, albeit faith alone be sufficient in the act of iu­stification, as you may see further Epist. Quinquages, and Sund. 2. in Lent.

In the words (and beleeue in thine heart that God hath raised him vp from the dead) three points are consider­able, namely, Faiths

  • Act,
  • Obiect,
  • Subiect.

Faiths act is to beleeue, and to beleeue hath these de­grees (as the Lombard. 3. sent. dist. 23. & Aquin. 22. q. 2. art. 2. Schoole teacheth out of Tract. 29. in Ioan. & ser. 181. de Temp. Augustine) Cre­dere Deo, credere Deum, & credere in Deum. A wicked man, and a wretched deuill, may so farre proceed in faith as to beleeue there is a God, and in grosse to beleeue God: but a true Christian, endued with a sauing faith, ascends higher, and beleeueth in God also. Perkins e [...]po­sit. Creed, art. 1. That is, he knowes God as hee hath reuealed himselfe in his word, acknowledging him onely for his God, and thereupon put his See Church Hom. of salua­tion, part. 3. whole trust in him, applying to himselfe Gods mercifull promise made to father Abraham and his seed, with the heart vnto iustification, and confessing the same with the mouth vnto saluation. He disclaimes not his part in Christ as the deuils, Mark. 1.24. Ab, what haue we to do [...] with thee thou Iesus of Nazareth? Mat [...]. 8.29. art thou come to torment vs be­fore [Page] the time? but he challengeth his portion in the bloud of his Sauiour, saying with the Church in her Cant. 6.2. loue­song, My welbeloued is mine: and with 1. C [...]r. 1.30. Paul, Christ is become to vs wisdome, righteousnesse, sanctification, and re­demption. H [...]s bodie is in heauen, there shall I finde it mine: his diuinitie is on earth, and heere doe I feele it mine: his word is in mine eare, to beget him mine: his Sacrament is in mine eie, to confirme him mine: his spirit is in mine heart, to assure him mine: Angels are mine: to fight for mee: Prince mine, to rule for mee: Church mine, to pray for me: Vniuersitie mine, to studie for me: Pastour mine, to p [...]each for me: all mine, 1 C [...]r. 3 [...]2. [...]3. whether it be Paul, or Cephas, or the world, or life, or death, whether they be things present, or things to come, euen all are mine, I am Christs, and Christ is Gods.

Faiths obiect is Church H [...]m of faith, part 1. all holy scripture, the Augustin ser. 115 de Temp & Am [...]r: sser. 38. summe where­of is the Creed, and this one point how God raised vp Ie­sus from the dead, is Mart. in [...]. [...]. nexus articulorum omnium, as it were the bond or tying knot, on which all other linkes of our beleefe depend. Church Hom. of Christs resur­rection. For if it were not true, that Christ is risen againe: then were it neither true that hee did ascend vp to heauen, nor that hee sitteth at the right hand of his father in heauen, nor that he sent downe the holy spirit from heauen, nor that hee shall come from thence to iudge the quicke and the dead. In a word, the matter of the whole Creed concerneth either God, or the Church his spouse. Now the raising of Christ from [...]he dead, is the worke of God the Father, Acts 2.32. of himselfe being God the Sonne, Iohn 10 18. of God the holy Ghost also, Rom. 1.4. Christ as Th [...]s 3 part. q 53. ar [...] 4. God, only raiseth and is not raised: as man, he is onely raised, and raiseth not: as the Pareus. Sonne of God or second person in the bles­sed Trinitie, both the Father raiseth him, and he raiseth himselfe. The Father raiseth the Sonne by the Sonne, [...]nd the Sonne raiseth himselfe by the spirit of holinesse, Rom 1 4. by which he was declared to be the Sonne of God. As for the Church: our Apostle sheweth Rom. 4.25. elsewhere, that [Page] Christ died for her sinnes, and rose againe for her iustifi­cation; and that Ephes. 4.8. ascending vp on high he bestowed on her gifts, as to be Catholike, holy, knit in a communion: and prerogatiues in her soule, namely, remission of sinnes: in the body, resurrection of the flesh: in both, euerlasting life. Wherefore Paul here mentioneth only the resurre­ction of Christ from the dead, not exclusiuely: but Piscator. sy­necd [...]checally, because this one article Gorran. presuppose [...]h all the rest, and takes them as granted; as if hee rose from the graue, then he died, and his death is a consequent of his birth. Or because this article was, and is most Anselm. Idem Augustin. apud Matyr. in loc. doub­ted in the world, for the Iewes and Gentiles acknow­ledge the death of Iesus; whereas the Christians only confesse his resurrection. Or because the Caluin. rest (vnlesle Christ had risen againe) would haue profited vs little: for he triumphed in his resurrection ouer death, hell, damnation, opening the kingdome of heauen to all beleeuers.

And so the meaning of our text is plaine, If thou con­fesse with thy mouth that Iesus is the Lord: Melanctbon. that is, that Lord, 1 Pet. 1.10. of whom all the Prophets inquired, as being the Haggai 2.8. desire of all Nations, euen the light of the Gentiles, and consolation of Israel. And if thou beleeue in thine heart, that this Iesus (whom almightie God hath made Acts 2.36. both Lord and Christ, offered Ephes 5. [...]. himselfe a sacrifice to Hib. 9.14.28. purge thy conscience from dead workes, and take away thy sinnes, Colos. 2 14 putting out and fastening vpon the Crosse the Lawes obligation against vs, and that hauing ouercome death and the deuill, he rose againe, [...]phes. 4.8. leading captiuitie captiue, that hee might heereby deliuer thee from the bands and hands of all thine enemies; I may tell thee from Paul, and Paul here from God, vnto the comfort of thy soule, that thou art now In praesenti inssi [...]m, in [...] salutim Anse [...]m in loc. presently iustified, and shalt be hereafter eternally saued. For the Scripture saith, whosoeuer beleeueth in him, shall not bee confounded: Melan [...]thon. That is, whosoeuer hath a sure trust in God that he will euen for his Christ sake pardon all his sinnes, and blot out all his offences: and out of this assurance calleth on [Page] the name of the Lord, he shall be safe. For the two testimo­nies of the two Prophets Theophylact. Ca [...]etan. answere the two clauses of Paul, Esay speaking of the beleeuing in the heart, and Ioel of acknowledging with the mouth.

And in these texts of the Prophets obserue their Lombar [...]. Martyr. Caluin. vni­uersal note whosoeuer, for God is Act. 10.34. no respecter of persons; he puts no difference betweene the Iew and the Gentile, but being Lord ouer all, is rich vnto all that call vpon him, Ardeus. O­ther Lords cannot reward all their followers as being Poore, many will not as being illiberall and sordide: but our God is Hyper. apul Marlorat. able, because Lord of all; and willing, be­cause rich vnto all of whatsoeuer condition or countrey. Poore Bartimeus begging, rich Zacheus climing, old Si­meon in the Temple, young Iohn in the wombe, couetous Matthew grinding his neighbour at the receit of Cu­stome, the louing Centurion Luke. 7.5. building his nation a Sy­nagogue, the people Mat. 27.54. watching vnder the Crosse, the Luke 23.42. theefe hanging on the Crosse, confessing the Lord Ie­sus, and walking in the sonneshine of his Gospell: in dif­ferently finde refreshing in the conscience, rest in the soule. For whosoeuer beleeueth on him shall not be confoun­ded, and whosoeuer calleth on his name shall be saued.

As for the subiect or seate of faith: it is said here, with the heart man beleeueth: Ergo, faith (as many Caluin. Pareus. D. Wille [...] in l [...]r. Prote­stant authors haue noted) is not placed in the minde, or vnderstanding only: but in the will and affections also. H [...]ming. For faith, as it is notitia, resides in the minde: but as fi­ducia, feared in the will. Perk. expo­s [...]. Creed. art. 1. D. Fulke in 2. Cor. 13.1. disallowes not this assor. [...] [...]n the R [...]em. Vid▪ Thim. 22. quest 4. art. 2. & Be [...]mia de Iuc [...]it. lib. 1. cap. 6. Other Interpretors (etiam no­te purioris, and no way branded with the markes of An­tichrist) hold it no [...] greatly to stand with reason, that one particular and single grace should bee placed in di­uers parts and faculties of the soule. It is true, that faith is not a meere prattle of the tongue, nor a floting Sarce [...]. Biz [...]. opini­on of the braine: but a certaine perswasion of the heart. Yet notwithstanding this perswasion, or particular knowledge whereby a man is resolued that the promises of saluation appertaine to him, is wrought in the minde [Page] by the holy Ghost, 1. Cor. 2.12. A sure trust, and a sted­fast hope of all good things to bee receiued at Gods hand, is Perkins vbi supra. not happily faith (if wee speake properly) but rather a fruit of faith, in that no man hath a [...]fiance in God, vntill he be first of all perswaded of his mercy to­ward him in Christ Iesu.

For mine owne part, I confesse with In Gal. [...].5. Luther inge­nuously, that it is exceeding hard to distinguish exactly between faith & hope, there is so great a [...]finitie between them, one hauing respect to the other, as the two Cheru­bins on the Mercy-seate, Exod. 25.20. Faith engendreth hope, and from hope proceeds affiance, which is no­thing else but hope strengthned. For whereas an Iob 8.14. hypo­crites confidence shall be like the house of a spider: Psal. 125.1. he that putteth his trust in the Lord, shall be euen as the mount Sion, which may not be remooued, but standeth f [...]st for euer.

And for as much as the word heart in my text (as is agreed on all sides) is put for the wholesoule, without limitation to any part: all that I will obserue from hence shall be, that as wee must loue God; euen so beleeue in God with all our heart, and soule, and minde. Caietan. For hy­pocrites haue forged faith, and deuils haue forced faith, acknowledging against their will out of horror vnto their condemnation, and not out of loue from their heart to their iustification, that Iesus is the Lord. A Recusant may be brought vnto the Church against his will, and compelled in despight of his teeth also to receiue the Sa­craments Bread and Wine: Lombard. but none can beleeue that Iesus is their Iesus, but with the heart only. See Gospell Sund. 8. and Epistle Sund. 10. after Trinitie.

How shall they call on him on whom they haue not belee­ued? A plaine text against the Melancthon. Gentiles idolatrie, pray­ing vnto gods Act. 17.23. vnknowne. As Hecuba in Euripides; O Iupiter quic quid es, siue hoc coelum, siue mens in coelo, quan­quam din iam ignauos opituiatores inuoco. And it is a preg­nant euidence to confute the D. Fulke. Kilius. Paraeu [...] in l [...]. dem Melanc. A [...]ol. August. confess. art. 21. & Perkin [...]re. for. Cal. lit. 14. Papists in their inuoca­tion of Saints also; for if they trust in S. Martin or Ma­ry, [Page] S. Catherin or Clare, they rob the Creator to clothe his creature, and 1 I [...]remys 17.5. cursed be man that puts his confidence in man, and makes flesh his arme. If they trust not, how doe they call on him in whom they beleeue not? Our heauenly Father saith in his Psal. 50.15. word, Call vpon me: Christ our aduo­cate with the Father in like fort, Mat. 11.28. Come vnto me, for I am the way, the truth, and the life, Iohn 14.6. August. tract. 22. in Ioan. Non est qua eas nist per me, non est quô eas uisi ad me: No way to God but by mee, no light but from mee, no life but in mee Christ is a mutuall helpe: to the Father one, to vs ano­ther. An hand to the Father, by which hee reacheth vs: an hand to vs, by which wee reach him. The Fathers mouth, by which he speaketh vnto vs: our mouth to the Father, by which wee speake to him. Our eye to see by, footway to goe by, the Exod. 13.21 piller of fire by night, and cloud by day gu [...]ding his Israel in the wildernes of this world. Wherefore let vs call on him in whom alone we beleeue, which is our Ier. 16.19. strength and refuge in the time of trouble, promising in his Matth. 7.7. Gospell, aske, and yee shall haue: seeke and ye shall finde: knocke, and it shall be opened vnto you. See Gospell on the 5. Sund. after Easter.

How shall they heare without a Preacher?] Heere you may behold the Mini­sters

  • Melancthon. Martyr. [...]ilemon.
    Dignitie, in respect of their
    • Commission, as being sent of God.
    • Errand, as being ambassadours of good things, euen such as bring tidings of peace.
      Aquin. [...]
      between
      • God and man.
      • Man and man.
      • Man and him­selfe. Wherefore
        Lilius.
        desire the Lord to send forth
        Math. 9.38.
        labourers into his haruest, honou­ring such Elders as rule well, and labor in the word, euen with double honour, 1 Ti­moth. 5.17. receiuing them as Angels, yea as Christ himselfe, Galat. 4.14.
  • Dutie; for if faith come by hearing, and hearing by [Page] preaching, so that the word of God vnto faith is as
    Chrysost.
    oile to the lampe: such as will haue their feet kissed, ought to bring tidings of good things. If they will haue the
    1. Tim. 3.1.
    worthie, good reason they should doe the worke. For assuredly such as croud into the Clergie without perfor­mance of their office, either through ignorance, that they cannot: or secular emploiment, that they may not: or negligence, that they will not: or feare of trouble, that they dare not preach the word of God, are
    Regersin Anglican. Con­fess. art. 23 pro­posit. [...].
    aduer­saries vnto the doctrine of the Church of England, and enemies of the Crosse of Christ, Philip. 3.19. See further in the Gospell ensuing.

The Gospell.

MATTH. 4.18.

As Iesus walked by the sea of Galile, he saw two bre­thren, Simon which was called Peter, and An­drew his brother, casting a net into the sea (for they were fishers) &c.

IN this Gospell is set downe the

  • Calling of four Apostles.
  • Comming of foure Apostles.

In their cal­ling these circumstā ­ces are co­siderable:

  • Who? Iesus.
  • Where? By the sea of Galile.
  • When? At the beginning of his preaching.
  • Whom, in
    • Name,
      • Peter.
      • Andrew.
      • Iames.
      • Iohn.
    • Number, two and two.
    • Nature,
      • Brethren.
      • Fishers.
  • Why? That they might become fishers of men.
  • How? He saw them, and said vnto them, fol­low me and I will make you, &c.

[Page] As Iesus walked.] There be foure sorts of Apostles (as Expos. prior. in Gaiat. cap. 1. Hierome and Postil. in loc. Luther obserue) some be sent only from God, and not by men: immediatly from God the Father, as the 2. Pet. 1.21. Prophets vnder the Law; Iob. 20.21. Iesus Christ, and I [...]. 1.6. Iohn Baptist in the beginning of the Gospell: immedi­ately from God the Sonne, in his state mortall, as the Matt. 10.5. twelue Apostles: in his stare glorious or immortall, as S. Paul, Acts 9.15. Other are sent by men, and not by God; as they who being vnworthie both in respect of their bad learning, and worse liuing, croud notwithstan­ding into the Ministerie, through alliance, fauour, or si­monie. Which occasioned one to say that horses are more miserable then asses, in that horses did post ordina­rily to R [...]me to get asses preferment.

Yet. p [...]mata de corrupto stat. ecclesiae per [...]yricum.
Cum Iesu Iudas, cum Simone fur Ananias,
In templo Christs semper sunt quatuor ists.

Other are neither chosen of God, nor called by men, as the false Prophets, of whom it is said in holy scripture, that they Ierem. 23.21 runne without a warrant; Phili. 3.2.18 euill workers, enemies of Christs Crosse, Iohn 10.1. theeues climing into the Church at the window, not entring in at the doore, Matth. 7.15 ra­uening wolues in sheepes clothing. See Gospell on the 2. Sunday after Easter, and 8. after Trinitie.

Other are both elected of God, and ordained by men, as the Bishops of Ephesus, Acts 20.28. and other Elders in the Primitiue Church, Acts 14.23. and all orthodoxe Preachers of the word in our age. For as the Gospell and Epistle well accord, how shall they preach vnlesse they be sent? No man (Luther & Larymer in loc. although he were more wise then ei­ther Salomon or Daniel) ought to take this honour vnto himselfe, Heb. 5.4. except hee be called of God. I say called of God, either immediatly by himselfe, so Christ here cal­led his Apostles: or else mediatly by A [...]glic. Con­fes. art. 23. Rogers ibidem. Luther & Ki­lim in l [...]c. such as haue pub-like authoritie giuen vnto them in the congregation, to call and send Ministers into the Lords vineyard, and so Christ at this houre calleth Apostles in our Church, in that the conformable Ministers of England are chosen [Page] according to his word, as we teach against the Brownists and Ba [...]rnists; as also canonically consecrated, as wee prooue to the proud pontifician aduersarie. See Doctor Fulke & W [...]r in Rom. 10. Perkins Treatise of Callings: R [...]g rs [...]a Anglican. Conf [...]ss. art. 23. proposition. 1. & 5. S [...]l [...]s is mo [...]iu [...], obseruant, of pontifician spirits, pa. 17. And surely God hath as it were set his hand and seale to the full approbation of our callings, in that hee blesseth our labours in the ministerie for the conuersion of many soules in England. For euery learned and industrious Pastor may tell his people which he begets vnto God in Christ, as 1. Cor. 9.2. Paul once told the Corinthians: If I be not an Apostle to other, yet doubtl [...]sse I am vnto you; for ye are the [...]al of mine Apostleship in the Lord.

By the [...] of Galile.] This (as Ra [...]anu [...] a­pra T [...]omam. Are [...]us. Ian­sen in lec. Interpreters obserue) was not the maine se [...], but a little creeke only, The lake Gemz [...]eth ▪ as wee reade Luke 5.1. but it is called a sea. for tha [...] the Gen. 1.10. Scripture terme [...]h all gathering together of wa [...]e [...]s▪ [...]eas: and the sea of Galile, for that it bounded vpon the borders of the Maldenat. two Galilees. Consule Plin. hist. lib. 5. cap. 15. Ioseph de bello Iudairo, lib. 3. cap. 18. Strab. [...] lib. 16. [...]. 504.

In this lake Peter and Andrew were fishing, Iames and Iohn mend [...] their nets. Here I no [...]e with Arctius and Ardius in l [...]c. o­ther vnto your comfort, that almightie God is wont to blesse men especially when they be busied in their pro­per element, and [...] in their owne vocations. An Angell being a messenger of gladnesse, appeared vnto [...]. Luke 1.8. [...] the Priests office before God and is [...] order. An Angell also deliuered the first [...] of Christs birth vnto Luke 2.8. shepheards are wha [...] [...] night in the field. While Saul ac­ [...] f [...]hers expresse commandement, sought for [...] found a kingdome. 1. Sam. 9. so Christ here se [...]ing Peter and Andrew not idle, but casting a net into the [...]: nor yet ouer-haste, medling in other men, trade; but only labouring in their owne calling (for they were [Page] fishers) he saith vnto them instantly, follow me, and I will make you to become fishers of men A laste person is vn [...]it for the Clergie, for none but Matth. 9.38. labourers are sent into the Lords haruest. On the contrary, the A [...]et. in lo [...]. curious and ouer actiue spirit is vnprofitable, for he will haue one foot in the Church, another in the Court, and if God had made him a Tripos, he would haue had a third in the Campe. Miles equi [...], [...], &c. an hammer is for the Smith, an Homer for the Schoole. Let the shoemaker attend his boot, and the fisher his boat P [...]rkins treat of [...] l [...]g [...]. He that comes, to the corne heape, the more he openeth his hand to re­ceiue, the lesse he doth hold: so he that in largeth himself to beare the most office, in a State, these wer shall he suf­ficiently discharge. The worme [...]. 29. cap. 6. [...] or [...], though it haue many feet, is of a very slow pase. [...] 1. pag. 203. So Lu­ther said of Erasmus: Qui [...]t [...]ust in omnibus sapere, sespsum decipit. And Bi [...]n. pref. loc. C [...]. M [...]lanc [...]hon of [...] [...]itaries in arts, in omni­bus aliqa [...], in [...]. The wittie Mar [...]u [...] [...] grace. lib. 3. Poet trimly,

Omnia cūmfacias, miraris cur facias nil?
(Posth [...]n [...]:) rem solam qui sacit, [...]lle facit.

Againe, Christ called his Apostles in the midst of their fishing, Chrys. apud Th [...]. [...]. that wee might heereby learne to preferre the following of him before the businesse of the world: or Iesus happily walked by the sea, for that he did intend to chuse fishers. Arlens. [...]. Hereby teaching vs not to shunne, but ra­ther to seeke those places where [...]e may doegood: As the poore cottage, that we may releeue the needie: the house of mourning, that wee may binde vp the broken hearted, and remooue the spirit of heauinesse: the dun­geon of Ioseph and Daniel, preaching libertie to the cap­tiues, and opening of the prison vnto them that are bound. Kilius. Flecte quod est rigidum, fone qu [...]d est frigudum, rege quod est deuium.

The next circumstance to be considered, is the time when, and that (as our Euangelist in the 17. verse) was so soone as Iesus began to preach. For [...]. as a King who re­solues to make warre against an enemie Prince, chaseth [Page] his Captaine, and musters his souldiers, and in euery point fits himselfe for the present action: euen so Christ Iesus the King of the Church, intending to Iohn 12.31. cast out of his hold Satan the Prince of this world, calleth his fol­lowers, and out of them electeth his Apostles, as chiefe Commanders and Coronels in the very beginning of his preaching, that being trained vp in his schoole, see­ing his wonders, and hearing his wisedome, they might bee made fit for that excellent and eminent calling. Latymers set. vpon this G [...]s­p [...]ll. They were first (as Cap. 1.39. S. Iohn reports) acquainted with Christ, For this was a second cal­ling, [...] Iuhym. & Anselm in l [...]c. afterward made Disciples, and last of all Apo­stles. And Museul. in loc. therefore Christ here saith, I will make you to become fishers of men. He saith not I doe now make you: but hauing instructed them all his life, and breathing on them the Holy Ghost after his resurrection, hee speakes in the present, Iohn 20.21. as my father sent me, so send I you, Mat. 28.19. goe teach all nations, baptising them in the name of the Father, and the Sonne, and the Holy Ghost. And that they might be powerfull and profitable teachers of other, he Acts 2.4. filled them also with the gift, of the Spirit after such a man­ner, and in so great a measure, that they Acts 4.20. could not but speak [...] the things which they had heard and seene of Christ. And that not in one corner, or in a few countries onely, but (as it is in the selected Epistle for this day) their sound went out into all lands, and their words into the ends of the world. In the beginning they were rude, Aretius. Museulus. first Disciples, afterward Doctors, a great while learners afore they were leaders. Hence fathers of the Church are taught not to haue [...], 1 Tim. 5 22. hastie hands and ouer easie for admittance into sacred orders without tryall and testi­monie, 1. Tim. 3. and the children of the Prophets also may learne to be Iames 1.19. swift to heare, slow to speake, neuer af­fecting, much lesse ascending Moses chaire, before God makes them apt and able to teach as well by their holy conuersation as wholesome doctrine. For as the weights and measures of the Exod. 30.13. Sanctuarie, to wit, the sicle, talent, and cubite, were of a Vatal [...]us. [...]. ad l [...]c. Ex [...]d ex I [...]se. [...]. double bignes to those for com­mon [Page] vse: so should the vertues in the Ministers of the Sanctuarie be of a sutable size. The which as some Di­uines imagine, is implied in the sacrifice for their s [...]n [...]es, appointed Leuit. 4. where the Priests offering is com­manded to be as much as all the congregations, a young bullocke without any blemish for the Priest alone, ver. 3. and no more for all the people, vers. 14. See Benedictus in the Liturgie, Gospell on Trinitie Sunday, and 8. after Trinitie.

The names of the Disciples heere called, are Simon▪ Andrew, Iames and Iohn: A s [...]mi [...] [...], Item [...] insinuating tha [...] a Preacher of the word must be Simon, that is, obedient to the will of God: Andre [...]s, a stout man in executing his off [...]ce [...] Iacobus, a supplanter of vises in h [...]s a [...]ditorie: last of all, a Iohn, a [...]cribing all these good gifts in him vnto the Fa­ther of mercies and God of all grace, [...] epist. 1 [...] vi [...]a merito mag­nus, humilitate infimus. [...]. Other assume that the some car­dinall vertues are designed by these foure chiefe Apo­stles, referring Prudence in Peter, I [...]stice to Andrew, For­titude to Iames, and Temperance to Iohn.

For their number, it is said he [...]e, that Iesus called them two and two: first he saw two, then other two: Aretius. signif [...] ing that as the binarie number is the least, euen so the Church of little beginnings increase [...]h vntill her num­ber be [...] 7 9 without number: Mat [...]. [...]3.31 as a graine of mustard seede when it is sowen is the least of [...], but when it is grow [...]n it is the greatest among herb [...]s and it is a tree so that the k [...]ds of heauen build i [...] the [...]. O [...] two and two, because they were Christs instruments in [...]ming together two people, the [...] and the [...], and so [...] making of [...]th one. Or Christ happily would neither elect nor send his Apostles one by one, because [...] him that is alone. Ecclesiast. 4.10. but by two and two and those bre [...]hren: [...] hereby teaching that Preachers of the word must accord as brethren, of one heart and one souls, Act. 4. [...]2 hauing one minde in many bodies, [...], in Psa [...]m. 132. inter mul­tacorporano [...] mul [...]a c [...]rda. Sa [...]rimentes in vnu [...], at [...] [Page] hominem faciant, as Augustine sweetly. For a Pro. 18.19. as the translat. Hen. 8. brother helping a brother is a very strong castle, and they that hold to­gether are like the barre of a palace.

For their condition: our blessed Sauiour (in Culoss. 2.3. whom are hid all the treasures of wisedome and knowledge) did Musculus. Beauxamu. Pontan. not chuse the disputants of the world, whose wit was great; nor the nobles, whose petigree was great; nor the Pharisies, whose credit was great; nor the Priests, whose authoritie was great: but he called ignorant and ignoble fishers, of little worth and lesse learning, to be the trum­petters of his Gospel, and bel-weathers of his flocke; that the 1. Cor. 1.27.28. foolish things of the world might confound the wise things, and the weake things ouerthrow the mightie things, and things that are not, bring to nought the things that are. Iudg. 15.16 Sampson in slaying a thousand Philistines with the iaw­bone of an asse, was a type hereof (as Apud Ecau­xam. H. r. tom. 1. sol. 140. Prosper obserues) insinuating that Christ by the 1. Cor. 1.21. foolishnesse of preaching should confound his enemies, and saue such as beleeue. Nay Christ chose some notorious sinners for his Apo­stles, as bloudie Saul, and couetous Matthew; that his abundant grace might be manifested in their persons, as well as in their preaching; demonstrating that in them­selues, which is the summe of all their sermons, namely, that Iesus Christ Matth. 9.13 came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance. This is a true saying, and by all meanes worthie to be receiued, that Christ Iesus came into the world to saue sinners, of whom I am chiefe, 1. Tim. 1.15. The greatest Apostle whilome was the greatest oppres­sor of the Church, a blasphemer, a persecutor, Act. 9.1. breathing out threatnings, and slaughter against the Disciples of the Lord: and therefore his auditors might well & cedere & credere grant and beleeue that Iesus is a sauiour of his people. But this extraordinary calling, and singular ac­tion of Christ is Caluin. Muscuius. no patterne for Prelates (as phantasti­call spirits imagine) to send into the Ministerie leud and ignorant persons, as if the more faultie were the more fit, and the more sillie the more sufficient: for the [Page] same Christ by the pen of his Apostle Paul in that excel­lent Epistle to Timothy (which [...]pist, [...]O [...] [...]. Hierom: calles speculu [...] Sacerdony, as the whole Scripture is Iames 1.23. speculum Christ [...] ­ni [...]) sets downe these directions for the choice of a Pastoar, h [...]e must be well reported of, euen [...]f them whi [...]h are w [...]thout, vnreproneable, watching, sober, [...]est, barbe­rous, apt to teach. And albeit at their first comming (a [...]d haue shewed a little before) these fishermen were rude, yet afterward they were so furnished with all parts of knowledge and varietie of language, that their heaven exceedingly A [...] 2.6. wondred at their wisdome, and A [...] 4 13. knew that they had beene with Iesus.

Lu [...] [...]. Other haue rendred other reasons, why Christ in the beginning of his preaching chose fishermen for his Apostles. As namely, to them that God is no respecter of persons: as also for that he knew the poore would follow him immediately, whereas Mat [...]. 19.24. it is easier for a camel [...] [...]o goe [...] [...]orow th [...]eis of a needle, then for a rich man to enter into the kingdom [...] of God. For being inuited to the great Supper, he saith, Lu [...]e 1 [...].1 [...]. I haue bought a farme, and I must needs go [...] to see it: or I haue bought fiue yoke of ouen, and I goe to pro [...]ise them, &c.

Let vs examine now why Iesus called them, and [...]ha is that they might be made [...] of m [...]n: not hunters but fishers. In old time the Prophets and Apostles were fishers, [...]. in our time more like hunters, [...]. according to that of the Prophet [...]eremy, 16.16. B [...]hold, [...] the Lord. I will [...]end out many fishers, an [...] them, and [...] I will end out many [...] they s [...]ll [...] them &c Here [...]ofore the Preachers as fishers inclosed many fish in their net a [...] one draught; but in our age [...]e resemble hunters, of er [...]a great no [...] long and loud crying. [...] catch either no [...]h [...]ng, or else very little. Io [...] was but one man, and he preached vnto [...] but one sermon, and that a short se [...]mon as coaching the number of words; and yet he turned all [...]he whole Citie, rich and poore, prince and people. [...]. Wee (God be praised) are [Page] many preachers, and we preach many sermons, and such as haue a tall bite, nipping inuec [...]iues against [...]nne; yet England repents not in sackcloth and ashes. Iohn Bap­tists sermon was short, Behold the Lambe of God, which taketh away the sinne of the world. Vide Ferum & Pontan. in loc. S. Andrews sermon shorter, We haue found the Messias: and yet (as wee read in the first chapter of Saint Iohns Gospell) Andrew was caught by the one, and Peter by the other. The sermon of S. Peter, Acts 2, was exceeding briefe, yet it caught about thre [...] thousand soules: in our time scarcely one soule taken in many sermons. And the fault is partly the fi­shers, and partly the fishes, as I haue shewed at large, Gos­pell 5 Sund. after Trinitie

I will make you fishers of men] Musculus in loc. Not of money, as if the sharing of the sheep and fish were the white they should aime at. Antichrist of Rome was not in a pulpit these Triall of truth. nine hundred yeares, and so by consequence succeeds not Peter in fishing with his net: but onely in fishing with his hooke, Matth. 17. where it is said, that Peter cast an angle into the sea, and tooke a fish in whose mouth he found a pi [...]ce of twenty pence. Such a kinde of fishing the Romane Peters vse; for Pope Leo the tenth exacted so much of the lay-men, and wasted so much of the Chur­ches treasure, that whereas other were Popes no longer then they li [...]ed, hee was G [...]i [...]ciardin. Fist. lib. 14. said to be pope many yeeres after he was dead. Which occasioned a learned Ac [...]s. Sy [...] c [...]us [...]i. [...]. 3. Poet to write thus of him:

Sacra sub extremâ si furiè requiritis, horâ
Cur Leo non [...]otuit sumere? vendiderat.

Iohn 22. left behind him (as Petrarcha reports) two hundred and [...]ftie tunne of gold, in so much that an C [...]ru. V cem apud [...]. ub. [...].d. Cat. [...] s. [...]at 4. odde fe [...]low made this iest of him, Erat Pontisex maxi [...], si non vi [...]tute: pecunia tamen maximus. Pope Sixtus Quintus (called of Englishmen in a by-word for selling ou [...] kingdome to Philip of Spaine, Six Cinque) throug [...] his into [...]lerable couetousnesse [...]elat. of re [...] ­g [...] [...] t [...]e [...]. §. 37. left in his exchequer fiue millions: his successor Gregory the 14. wasted foure of [Page] them in tenne moneths and lesse, beside his ordinarie re­uenewes, in riot and pompe. The pontificians excee­dingly condemne the Protestant Preachers, because be­ing maried & hauing children, they take care to prouide for their familie: but their See D. Suths. & rela [...]. of re [...] ­ [...]o [...], ibi sup & sar. An [...]. Cam. [...] 1520. cum pri­ [...]e [...]egio parl [...] ­ [...]in [...]i. own Popes and Prelates are more greedie to scrape for their bastards and minions, then our men haue bin to prouide for their honest wiues and legitimate issue. Happily some men of corrupt mindes among vs, as most among them, enter into the Ministerie, as Plu [...]r [...]. Stratocles and Dromoclidas into the Ma­gistracie, tanquam ad aure am messem, and so they be fish­ers of money, not of men; or if they fish after men, it is to finger their meanes. As the Friers in old time professed wilfull pouertie so long, [...]. prol. before the book of Numbers. vntill they robbed the whole world, and became Lords of all. And at this houre the Iesuites are so couetous, that they maligne all other or­ders, except the Capu [...]hi [...]. And the reason hereof is plain, [...] Qu [...]. because the Capuchin saith hee would haue nothing, and the Iesuite would haue all. S [...]eld [...]m [...] [...] concerning de pont [...]fi [...] [...], pag. 5. A wittle Libeller in Spaine described the Capuchin Friers shooting from the purse, the Franciseanes aiming wide of it, and the Iesuites hitting it in the very middest. I haue read of Wilying [...]am El [...]. 3. [...]ann. 1361. Vrbane the fifth, how that when hee was a poore Chaplaine in the Court of Rome, he should vpon a time say to a fami­liar friend, If all the Churches in the world should fall at once, [...] of them I thinke verily would light on my head. After being elected Pope, his old acquaintance told him at his in [...]hronization, Once (holy father) you complained that you were Parson of no Church, and now behold, God hath out of the riches of his wisedome and mercie so dispo­sed, as that all the Churches in the world are committed only to your charge. Let vs be Mat [...] 2 [...].21 faithfull in a little, 1. [...]et. [...].7. casting our care on God, who careth for vs. If any forsake with these Disciple [...] his nets and ship, & suos & [...]u [...], to follow Christ, hee shall receiue an hundred fold at this present; houses, and brethren, and sisters, and mothers, and chil­dren, and lands with persecutions, and in the world to [Page] come eternall life. Mark. 10.30. auarice is a sinne in any man, heresie in a Clergie man.

Fishers of men, in generall (as Com. in loc. Musculus obserues) not of great men and learned men onely: for that is Pe­ters fault to neglect his cure that hee may follow the Court, as if the [...]oules of poore men in the country were not worthie to be fished for. Not of good men and bre­thren only, for that is a schismaticall tricke, such I trow be caught already; we should therefore rather cast how to cast our net for other. A scabbie sheepe is of the flocke so well as the bell-weather, and because scabbie, wants our helping hand more then the whole.

Fishers of men, not of women only; for that is an here­ticall tricke, 2. Tim. 3.6. 10 leade captiue simple women laden with sins, and led with diuers lusts. As Simon Magu [...] the first here­tike broched his dangerous opinions by the helpe of the strumpet Helena; Nicolas the founder of the filthie Fami­lists had troupes of women euer accompanying him; Apelles had Philomene for his mate; Montanus had Prisea and Maximilla women of great birth and opulent estate; Donatus had Lucilla for his mistresse; Arius the Princes owne daughter for his Patronesse, as T [...]m. 2. f. 253 S. Hierome notes in his Epistle to Cresiphon against the Pelagians. Ies [...]ites Cit. lib. 1. cap. 10. Postelliu the lesuite had an old beldame called mother Iane, and the rest of that ranke (as the Quod. 3. art. 10. Quodlibeticall discourse auoweth) haue deluded many young gentlewomen, and deuoured many widowes houses. And this kinde of fish­ing they learned from Satan himselfe, who did first at­tempt the woman, and then tempt the man, vsing the wife as a trap to catch her husband. And the reason why the deuil and his agents are fishers of women rather then of men, is because they be lesse able to resist, and more willing to repo [...] a new▪fangled opinion: in one word, for that their [...]its are shorter, and their tongues longer

Fishers of men, not of children, as Seruetus absurd [...]y cauillesh: Ergo, sai [...]h he, P [...]e [...]hers may not baptise little infants. Answer is made by I [...]s [...]it. lib. 4. [...] 1 [...] § 3 [...]. Caluin and other, that men [Page] hee [...]e signifie [...]h all mankinde of wh [...]tsoeuer age or sex. Christs commandement is expresse, Matt. 28.19. reach all nations, baptising them, &c. and Mark. 10.14. suffer the little chil­dren to come vnto me. There be young Ioh 21.15. Lambes in his fold so well as old sheepe. Ma [...]. 18.14 it is not his Fathers will that one of these little ones should perish, for Mat. 19.14 of such is the king­dome of heauen. See Melancthon loc. com. tit. baptis. infant. Caluin. vbi [...]up. in margin. Master Iohn Philpots letter con­cerning this argument apud Fox in his martyrdome. Bu­can. loc. com. [...]it. baptis quest. 35.

Little children must be caught and brought vnto Christ, and after these minumes are baptised in the sa­cred font, they must be catechised and further instructed in the principles of holy religion, that they may know what a solemne vow they haue made by their godfa­ [...]hers and godmothers. And forasmuch as euery man is a Priest and a Prince in his owne house, you must bring vp your child [...]en in Ephes. 6 4. instruction and information of the Lord, drawing them vnto God while they be young, lest afterward being past correction, they say with the wic­ked in the second Psalme: Let vs breake their bonds a­sunder, and cast array their cords from vs.

Eur [...]p [...]d [...]pa [...]d [...] Cem. de lib. [...].
Ni [...] fundamenta stirpis l [...]cta sint probe,
Misero [...] necesse est esse deinceps posteros.

The Matt. 13 47 draw-net of the Church incloseth all kinde of fish, and therefore the Preachers are fishers of all sorts of men. None is too good, or too bad, or too rich, or too poore, or too young, or too old to be brought vnto God. I will make you fishers of men indefinitely, not of this or that man in particular. Andrew must fish for all, especially for such as are committed vnto his peculiar charge. Acts 20.28. Take heed to your selues, and to ak't he flocke, whereof the holy Ghost hath made you ouerseers. Our principall care must be to reduce such as are vnder our proper cure from the linke and seas of their sin, to righ­teousnesse and holinesse, I [...]er. Are [...] [...]. Musi [...]nus. by preaching of the word to draw them out of the shadow of death, out of the pit of [Page] ignorance to the maruellous light and sunne-shine of the Gospell. And that we may performe this, it is required on our part that we be painfull, either casting our nets in­to the sea, or else mending them in our ship; and skilfull al­so, that we may know to cast our nets on the Iohn 21 6. right side of the ship. Laure [...]. Pi­san. euangel. paradox. Omnis ignorantia mala, Sacerdotis autem pessima. The blinde leading the blinde drawes him not out of the puddle, but rather hurleth him into the ditch, Matth. 15.14.

Now the fishers of men for the catching of soules ought to preach and presse two points especially, Melanc [...]h. Comanl c. re­pentance and faith. Almightie God himselfe, the first fisher of men, in his very G [...]n. 3. first draught (when the worlds sea was not so tempestuous as it is now) stood vpon these two principally. First, hee rebuked Adam for his sinne, that he might repent: and then he shewed how Christ is the propitiation for his sinne, the seed of the woman shall breake the serpents head, that he might beleeue. The Pa­triarkes and Prophets vrged these points vnto the men of their age. Iohn Baptist, the last of the Prophets, and first of Apostles, a midling as it were betweene both, inculcated often these two, Matth. 3.2. Marke 1.4 repent, and Ioh. 1.29.36 behold the lambe of God All the sermons of Christ (as our Euange­list reports in the verse before my text) consisted of these two likewise, from that time Iesus began to preach and say, amend your liues, for the kingdome of heauen is at hand. If any then desire to know whether the fishers of men haue caught him or no, let him examine his owne heart, whether he be repentant and faithfull. If he feele sorrow for his sin, and comfort in his Sauiour; if he confesse his fault as the Iuke 18.13 Publican, O God be mercifull to mee a sinner: and confesse his faith as Iohn 1.41. Andrew: Wee haue found the Messias: if crying with teares hee can vnfainedly say, Lord I beleeue, helpe mine vnbeleefe: it is a manifest argu­ment that the fishers of men haue drawne him out of the dead sea into the land of the liuing, out of the darke wa­ters into the glorious light of the Sun of righteousnesse.

[Page]Heere the Gospell and Epistle meet againe: Preachers are fishers of men, because men are iustified by faith, and faith commeth by hearing of the word, and the word is brought vnto you by the mouth of the Preachers. And therefore you must honour their holy function, as Gods ordinance for the Epist. 4.12. gathering together of the Saints, and edifying of the body of Christ. Abhorre the positions of Me [...] c [...]en in Rom. 10. Stenckfeldius, S [...]e Angers in Ang [...]ean. C [...]n­fess. art. 23. Anabaptists, Familists, holding that the word is not taught by the sermons of Peter and An­drew, &c. but only by the reuelation of the Spirit. As also the practises of vncharitable Martinists, Barrowists, Brownists, openly breathing out slander, secretly threat­ning s [...]aughter against the Disciples of the Lord, ma­king it their greatest vertue to meddle with the Preach­ers vice: so that whereas Andrew should catch them, it is apparant that they labour principally to catch An­drew. But the best is, in the meane while they lose them­selues among themselues, hauing almost as many fa­ctions, as there be fractions in their seuerall inuectiues. Sedul. epist. lect. prefix a [...]. loge [...]. S. Fran­c [...]su [...]. In is [...]a Babylons sectae dissectae, their sects are now so di­uers and aduerse, that as I. Sc [...]rarus appa [...]at. pag. 14 one said, Luigando res non di­r [...]mitur, sed perimitur.

The last of all the remarkable circumstances in our text is, how Iesus called his Disciples, and that is, hee saw them, and saith vnto thens follow me, and I will make you &c. that is, as H [...]m [...]in loc. Ardens in a short glosse pithily, Vidit, per ele­ctionem: vocanit, per fidem: iussit se sequi, per obedientiam: pramium promisit, per ob [...]dientie reminerationem. Rom. 8.30. Ac­cording to that of Paul, whom he did predestinate, them he called: and whom he called, them also hee iustified: and whom hee iustified, hee also glorified. For faith is a consequent of election, obedience of faith, and remune­ration of obedience. He called his Apostles here by word only, follow me. Pin [...]an. Goe not before me nor beside me, but come after me, for I am the way, the tru [...]h and the life Where note the Ma [...]ras. power of his word, hee spake and it was done, he called and they came immediately. But we [Page] reade in the 5. of Luke, that he called these by working a wonder also; for whereas they laboured all night and caught nothing, he commanded them to let down their net, and they tooke such a multitude of fish, that they fil­led two ships vntill they did sinke. Where Diuines ob­serue that Christ accommodates himselfe euermore to his present auditors, as hee called the Mattb. 2. wise men of the East, addicted vnto the studies of Astrologie, by a starre: and conferring with a woman of Iohn 4. Samaria, who came to draw water at Iacobs Well, hee tooke occasion to speake of the water of life, saying, Whosoeuer drinketh of the water that I shall giue him, shall neuer [...]e more a thirst: and in the 6. chapter of S. Iohns Gospell, hee did instruct the Capernaits who followed him only for loaues, by a similitude taken from bread and meat, willing them to labour for the true bread of heauen, and for the meat that endureth vnto euerlasting life. By whose example fishers of men are taught to become 1. Cor. 9.22. as weake to the weake, that they may winne the weake: being all things to all men, that by all means they may saue some.

Hitherto concerning the calling of Simon▪ Andrew, Iames and Iohn. Let vs now come to their comming. Simon and Andrew straight way lest their nets, Iames and Iohn immediately lest their ship, and their father, and followed him. They came straight way, without Aresius. inquisition or Muscuius. delay, considering only who called, and not disputing why hee called. And they came willingly without any grudging or griefe, leauing nets, and ship, and father, and Matt. 19.27. all things or the world, to follow Iesus, whose kingdome was not of I [...]h 18.36. this world, whose pouertie was so great, that hee was borne in Luke 2.7. another mans house, and buried in another mans Matt. 27.60 tombe, as not hauing Matt. 8.20. wherein to rest his head. Aug [...]p. 89. They forsooke all that little they had, and all the great things they desired to haue. They did not C [...]i [...]tan. M [...]seulu [...]. Ar [...]ius in loc. abandon vtterly their estate (for S. Peter afterward vsed his ne [...]s and followed his trade, Iohn 21.3.) but they so subdued their will vnto Gods will, as that they counted [Page] all things, Philip 3. 8. losse to winne Christ. Apostoli (quoth Epist. ad Pam [...]si. tim. 1 fol. 166. Hie­rome) quantum ad d [...]u [...]s nibil, quantum ad voluntatem, totum mundum pari [...]er reliquerunt. Iesus euery day cal­leth vs vnto him, either by the good motions of his spi­rit, or by his word in the mouth of his Preachers, or else by strange iudgements, or extraordinarie mercies. And therefore let vs, I beseech you, forsake the vaine pompe of the world, the carnall desires of the flesh, and all other nets and lets whatsoeuer hindering our comming, that wee may follow him immediately. For if the Disciples heere followed him in his humiliation and pouertie; what a sinne, yea what a shame will it be, not to follow him now, sitting at the right hand of God in the heauen of heauens, a Lord of Lords, higher then the highest, a King of glorie, Rem. 10.12. rich vnto all that call vpon him, Ephes. 3.20. able to doe for his followers exceeding abundantly aboue all that they can aske or thinke.

These followed him Ardens. in

  • Bodie, being
    Act. 1.21.
    conuersant with him, and witnesses of all hee did and said.
  • Minde, for nothing could
    Rom. 8.35.
    separate them from the loue of Christ.
  • Life, learning of him to bee meeke, and mercifull as he was mercifull, exhorting their auditors to be
    1. Cor. 11.1.
    fol­lowers of them as they were fol­lowers of Christ.
  • Death, for as he suffred on the Crosse to make their peace: so Peter and Andrew were crucified, and Iames slaine with the sword in his quarrell, and Iohn (as wee finde in Ecclesiasticall historie) was by the commandement of the tyrant Do­mitian cast in feruent is olei
    Hieron. in Mat [...] 10. & Mat West [...]ad an. 95.
    dolium, or as other,
    Beronius an­nal com. 1. ad [...] 92.
    solium, into a vessell or bath of hot boiling oile, from which he was notwithstanding by Gods hand deliuered mira­culously without any hurt. Though happily neuer occa­sion [Page] shall be giuen vs to die for the Lord, yet let vs so follow him in our liues and in our loues, as that we may die in the Lord. Let vs
    Cel ss. 3.5.
    mortifie our earthly members, our feet, that we
    Psalm. 1.1.
    stand not in the way of sinners; our eies, that wee may not delight in vanities, or wantonly
    Iob 31.1. Matth 5 28.
    behold a woman: our hands, that we may
    Eph [...]s. 4.28.
    labour and worke the thing which is good: our mouth, that it bee not full of
    Psalm. 14 6.
    cursing and bitternesse: our hearts, that they be not exercised with
    2. Pet. 2.14.
    auarice: that forsaking our selues to follow him only, which is our saluation: as we
    R [...]m. 8 17.
    suffer with him, euen so wee may be glorified together with him. Amen.

Almightie God, which didst giue such grace vnto thy holy Apostle S. Andrew, that hee readily obeied the calling of thy sonne Iesus Christ, and followed him without delay: grant vnto vs all, that wee being called by thy holy word, may foorthwith giue ouer our selues obediently to follow thy holy commandements, through the same Iesus Christ our Lord.

The Epistle

EPHES. 2.19.

Now are ye not strangers, nor forreiners, but citizens with the Saints, and of the houshold of God, &c.

THis Epistle sets down the most happy condition of all such as truly be­leeue:

  • 1. Priuatiuely, shewing what they are not in the 19. verse. Now are yee not strangers, nor forreiners.
  • 2. Positiuely, describing in the rest of the text, what they are, namely, Gods
    • Citie.
    • House.
    • Temple.

Of which hea­uenly buil­ding the

  • Materials, are
    1. Pet. 2.5.
    liuely stones, all Gods elect, built together to be an habitation of God.
  • Foundation, is Iesus Christ himselfe.
  • Builders, Apostles and Prophets.
  • Properties, are to be built together, &c. answering ye three properties of the Church in the Creed.
    • Holy, a temple of the Lord, an habitation of God.
    • Catholique, all the building, &c. knit in a communion, coupled together and built together.

Now ye are not strangers] As In Psalm. 1. Augustine said, it is one thing to walke in the law, another thing to liue vnder the law: so likewise there is difference between being in grace, and vnder grace. Many men in our time who receiue the Gospell of God in 2. C [...]t. 6.1. vaine, liue vnder grace but not in grace: many Prophets and holy Fathers in old time liued in grace but not vnder grace. For (pro­perly) to liue vnder gr [...]ce is opposed vnto the state of the law, to liue in grace is opposed vnto the state of sinne. [Page] The men of Ephesus and other Gentiles in time past vn­beleeuing, were neither in grace, nor vnder grace: not in grace, for in walking according to the course of this world, and in fulfilling the lusts of the flesh, and will of the minde, they became dead in sinnes: not vnder grace, for they were without Christ, aliens from the common wealth of Israel, and strangers from the couenants of promise, hauing no hope, and without God in the world, as our Apostle disputes in the former part of this Chapter. But non (saith he) God which is rich in mercie, through his great loue, wherewith he loued vs euen when we were dead in trespasses, hath so quickned vs in Christ Iesus, that we be both vnder grace, released from the Rom. 8.8. condemnation of the law; and in grace, deliuered from the Rom. 6.14. dominion of sinne. We which once were farre off, are made neere to God and his people; not any longer strangers or forrainers, but fellow citizens with the Saints, of Gods houshold, yea Gods house. Zanchius. Wherein our Apostle doth allude to the goodly buildings of the terrestriall Hierusalem, in which all the whole Citie was faire, the Kings house fairer, the Temple fairest of all. And so by these three, wherof one doth excell another, he describes the blessed estate of Hierusalem which is Galat. 4.26. aboue.

The materials of this high and holy building are Gods Aretius. elect, Zanchius. as well his seruants on earth, as Saints in heauen. His elect in the militant Church are called by S. Peter, liuely stones, or (as Com. in cap. 28. Izechiel. Hierom reades liuing stones. A materiall house consists of blockes, and stockes, and other senselesse stuffe: but all the parts of the mysticall house, built vpon the foundation of the Prophets and Apo­stles, are moouing and free stones, in that they be Ephes. 2.5. quick­ned by God, and Galat. 2 20. liue by saith in his sonne. And this their faith is not dead, but liuely, working by loue, Galat. 5.6. Vide Lorin. in 1. Pet. 2.5. For as in other buildings one stone lieth vpon ano­ther, and all vpon the foundation: euen so in the spiri­tuall house, Christians Galat. 6.2. beare one anothers burthen, and Christ as the chiefe stone beares all. Vnusquisque & por­tat alterum, & portatur ab altero, quoth H [...]m. 1 3. in Ez [...]hiel. Gregory. The [Page] whole building is so compact, as that euery one beares another, and is borne of another. As for example, the rich and the poore man are thrust and piled together in Gods house, the poores butthen i [...] his begge [...]ie, he bur­ [...]hen of the rich is his ouergrowen estate. Wherefore the poore lieth on the rich, and [...]he rich is content to sustaine the poore; the rich h [...]th hi [...] bur [...]n le [...]ened by giuing, and the poore his butthen le [...]ened by taking, and so saith [...] 22. [...] [...] Augustine they beare one [...]nother▪ bur [...]he. A Christian must haue L [...]s er. [...] G [...] 6 1. strong shoulders, and mightie bones, that he may heare flesh, that is, the weaknesse of his brethren. It was excellently said of Li [...] de [...] pa [...]tum. one, when it was told him how his brother had committed a foule fault: He fell [...] sterda [...] (quoth he) and I may fall to day. The peble may not enuie the marble, nor the marble de­spise the peble: the pinne in the Temple s [...]rues for vse so well as the pinn [...]cle: 1 Cor. 12.21 The cie cann [...]t s [...]y to the band, I haue no need of thee: no the head to the feet, I haue no need of you. So that euery liuing stone must C [...]l ss. 3.12. put on tender mer­cie, kinda [...]e, hum [...]tie, me [...] [...], long suffering for bearing one another, and for giuing one another, of one Acts 4.31. heart▪ and [...]f one seule, of one [...] 1.2. accord, and of one iudgement. Thus all such as a [...]e truly faithfull, [...] Ans [...]m. tempore s [...]les, from the be­ginning of their faith, and first embracing of the Gospell, are translated out of L [...]nbar [...]. Babylon, and made citizens of I [...]e­r [...]salem, euen walking and working stones in the buil­ding of God house.

The next point to bee discussed is the foundation of the Church, and that i [...] not Peter alone, nor yet all the Prophets and Apostl [...]s iointly: b [...]t Christ I [...]sus him [...]f. [...]. Not the Christ of [...], or the Christ of [...] or the Christ of L [...]gat, or any false Christ, a [...]beit there be [...] 14.5 many such in the world: but onely the true Christ of the Prophets and Apostle, I say that Christ only which is [...] v [...]l [...]m in [...] stamento, re [...]latus [...], promi­sed by the mouth of all the [...] 3.18. Prophets in the old Testa­ment, and preached of all the blessed Apostles in the [Page] new. So the Doctors expound my text, built vpon the foundation of the Prophets and Apostles, L [...]mbard. Ans [...]lm. Cai [...]ana [...]e. that is, vpon Christ, a [...] being the foundation of the Prophets and A­postles, vpon the foundation which is laid by their Ca [...] in. [...] T [...]s [...]rt r. do­ctrine, as lalo [...]. F [...]em Aqui. & [...] s [...]l. m [...]i ri [...]e. S. Ambr [...]e plainly, jsper [...]o [...]um & ve [...] te­stamentum, vpon the co [...]ents of the two Testaments, the summe whereofi nothing else but Christ crucified, as be [...]ng the head corner stone, Aus [...]m. [...]r [...]ius. lapis summus & imus, euen the first and the last stone, the beginning and en­ding, Apocal. 1.8. Hierom ex­p [...]s [...]. 2 in [...]. by whom the Church is founded and finished. In Aq [...]ia. other buildings the foundation i [...] lowest in the ground: but the foundation of Hierusalem aboue, Galat. 4.26. descending downe from God out of heauen, Apocal 21.2. is higher then the highest, Eccle­siast. 5.7. As A [...]stotle said, a man is arbertransuersa: so we, that the Church is domus transuersa, an house turned vp [...]ide do vne; for that Christ is both a rocke on which his Church is founded, and a chief or head corner stone, in whom all the whole building is coupled together and gro [...]th, &c. 1. Cor. 2.11. other foundation can no man lay, then that which is laid, which is Iesus Christ, a Esay 28.16. tried stone, a precious stone, a sure stone.

This doctrine confuces the Papist, holding that Peter is the rocke on which the Church is built, for that vpon the confession of Mat. 16.16. P [...]ter (thou art Christ the sonne of the [...]a [...] God) our blessed Sauiour said, thou art Peter, and vpeni [...]i [...] rocke will I build my Church. Answer is made, that Peter in making this confession, thou art Christ, ei­ther spake Ambros. li [...]. in L [...]. cap [...]de [...] [...]e [...]r ga [...]i [...]ne [...] su. [...]raca [...]cris, or Au [...]us [...]i ser. [...]3. [...]er [...]. a [...]s [...]eu [...]d m Ma [...]. I [...]m [...] [...]ram Mat. 16. procateris, as prolocutor o [...] Chryst [...]. [...]. mo [...]h of the rest. And therefore whatsoeuer in that place [...] as promised vnto Peter, appertained to the whole Colledge of Apostles, a, O [...]g [...]n [...]m. 1. [...] Mat. the words spoken [...]o Peter are common to all. If wee confesse with Peter, & nobis d [...]tur tu es P [...]rus, p [...]ra cnim quique Christ [...] cip [...]lus est. And Com [...] Am. s. o. S. Hi [...]ren [...]: Pe [...]ra Christu st, qui [...]n [...]t em [...]us Apost l [...] vt [...] quique patr [...] vo­ [...]ar, [...]nu [...]re [...]rgous (faith [...] s [...]pra. Ambro [...]e [...] [...] sis petra: so [Page] euery confessor is a Peter, and euery Peter a liuing stone in the building of God, house. Touching the words, (vpon this rocke will I build my Church) Vbi supra. A [...]gustine the most accurate Doctor expound, them thus: Super bane Petram quam c [...]nfesse [...] es, super hano Petram q [...]im cogno­nisti, discus, tues Christus fil [...]s Deiviui, [...]d [...]f [...]cabo ecclesiam mean, id est, super m [...]ipsum ad [...]sieabo ecclesim meam: su­per me edisicabote, non me superte. So the Papists Anselm. Hugo. D [...]. Carth [...]. F [...]rus Suarez in Matth 16. owne Writers, vpon this rocke, that is, I will build my Church vpon my selfe the Sonne of the liuing God. See Gospell on S. Peters day.

Againe, this sentence (Christ is the foundation of the Prophets and Apostles) ouerthroweth (as Hier. &. Ca [...]uin Ar [...]t [...]us. Interpreters obserue) Marcion and other heretickes, affirming that two sundrie disagreeing Gods are Authors of the two Testaments. As if one God were preached in the Gos­pell, and another in the Law: whereas one and the same Christ is the very center of both, at which all the Pro­phets and Apostles aime principally.

The builders of Gods house, are the Prophets and Apo­stles, and all their lawfull successours the Ministers and Preachers of the word. Behold, saith the Lord to Ieremie the Prophet, Ierem. 1.9. I haue put my woreis in thy mouth, I haue set thee euer the nations, and ouer the kingdomes, to plucke vp. and to roote out, and to destroy, and throw downe, to build, and to plant. Ly [...]ain 1. le [...] m. That is, to roote out vice, to plant vertue, to Zanc [...]iruin l [...]. destroy the dens of S [...]tan, and build vp Gods rem­ple, to throw downe the kingdome of Antichrist, and to set vp the kingdome of Christ. And so 1. C [...]r. 3. Paul cals him­selfe a skilfull Architect, or a cunning master builder lai­ing the foundation, and hee faith of other Preachers of the word, that they build vpon his foundation gold, sil­uer, precious stones, &c. Mat [...]ratin 1 Cor. 3.12. that is, doctrines and exhorta­tions answerable to the foundation, and worthie of Christ. In a word, that the Pastors are Gods labourers, and the people God building, 1. Cor. 3 9. it is true that Christ himselfe is the chiefe builder, as hee saith in the [Page] Matt. 16.18 Gospel (vpon this rocke will I build my Church) he builds (as it is in our text) through his holy spirit, vers. 22. yet hee doth vse Prophets, and Apostles, and Euangelists, and Pa­stors, and Teachers, as vnder-workmen for the gathering together of his saints, and edification of his Church, Ephes. 4. 11.12.

The tooles or instruments which Apostles and Prea­chers vse toward this worke, are the Word and the Sa­craments especially. For so the Lord of these labourers hath appointed, Matt. 28.19 Goe teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and the Sonne, and the holy Ghost. His word i [...] his power to bring his elect to the founda­tion, and to build them vpon the foundation. His Sacra­ments are (fastnings as it were) to strengthen and con­firme them after they be laid in the building, that they fall not away, but grow to an holy temple of the Lord. Our doctrine must be according to the Rom. 12.6. analogie of faith, our exhortation according to the rules of good life: the Bible (which is our lanterne and our guide) furnisheth vs with both, and therefore wee must euer build vpon the foundation of the Prophets and Apostles.

Beside these tooles, a Minister ought to further Gods building with heartie Zanchius. praiers and good example. De verb. Dei, lib. 1. cap. 9. Bellarmine said of Erasmus falsely, that he was but halfe a Christian: but it may be said of a lewd Pastour truly, that he is but halfe a Preacher: he may peraduenture pull downe more building in one weeke with his bad life, then he can set vp againe in a whole yeere with his great learning. De benefic. lib 4. cap. 37 ex sententia Phi­lip Macedon. Seneca thought it impossible that any body should at onetime be both a good man and a good cap­taine: but a Clergie man is not a good Pastor, vnlesse he be a good paterne. God defend me and mine from a mangie Physitian, a ragged Alchimist, and a dissolute Diuine. If thou be a president of godlinesse to thy peo­ple, pray to the God of all grace that you may so re­maine: if you sometime were, and are now fallen, re­turne: if you neuer were, repent: if you neuer will be, pe­rish. [Page] Nam à Deo separabitur, qui à diabolo superabitur. Concerning the properties of the Church; it is built to­gether in such a A [...]tius. due proportion and concinne Calain. symme­trie, that euery part is content to keepe his ranke, and performe his function without any faction. It is a body fitly ioined together, and compacted by that which euery ioint supplieth, &c. Ephes. 4.16. See Epistle 2. Sund. after Epi­phanie. It is built together, in respect of her Zanc [...]ius. vnion with Christ the head corner stone: and coupled together, in re­spect of her communion with the members. See Com­munion of Saints in the Creed. And being thus inserted and built on Christ, it liueth and groweth from grace to grace, D [...]m [...] [...]eseit tem­plu [...] D [...], f [...]t; Occ [...]en in l [...]c. till it become an holy Temple to the Lord. The which Calui [...]. Marl [...]a [...]. Interpreters vnderstand of euery singular part, so well as of the whole body: for euery Christian is an habitation of God. If thou be then a consecrated Chappell vnto the Lord, how darest thou commit Idolatrie which is against the first table? 2. Cor. 6.16. What agreement hath the temple of God with Idols? Or how dinest thou commit adulterie, which is against the second table, 1. Cor. 6.19. Know yee not that your body is the temple of the holy Ghost, and that God is to bee glorified in your spirit and in your body? will you then take the members of Christ, and make them the members of an harlot? God forbid. Euery liuing stone that is built vpon the foundation of the Prophets and Apostles is holy. Primasius in l [...]e. Lapides in templo sancto non possunt esse non sanctificati. The temples of God are holy, both in regard of their righteousnesse imputed, in that their vnrighteousnesse is Psal. 32.1. forgiuen, and 1. Cor. 3.30 Christ himselfe made their holinesse: and in regard of sanctification and righteousnesse in he­rent, for that being deliuered out of the hands of all their enemies, they serue God in holinesse and righteousnesse all the daies of their life.

The Gospell

IOHN 20.24.

Thomas one of the twelue, which is called Didymus, was not with them when Iesus came, &c.

THis Scripture consists of a

  • Dialogue, Thomas one of the twelue, &c.
  • Epilogue, Many other signes truly did Iesus, &c.

The Dialogue is between a weake sinner, and a meeke Sauiour. And according to these two principall persons, it hath also two principall parts: one concerning Tho­mas, and another touching Christ.

In Thomas ob­serue his

  • Faults, which are two:
    • 1. His absence from the meeting of the other Apostles.
    • 2. His incredulitie, not beleeuing the resur­rection of Christ, oc­casioned by that ab­sence.
  • Faith, My Lord and my God.

That other part concerning Christ, is a relation of his second appearing vnto the blessed Apostles after his ri­sing againe from the dead.

And heerein is set down

  • 1. What he did: After eight daies he came againe, &c.
  • 2. What he said,
    • 1. To the whole companie: Peace be to you.
    • 2. To Thomas in particular: Bring thy finger hither, &c.
    • 3. In conclusion, to him, and them, and vs, and al; Bles­sed are they that haue not seen, and yet haue beleeued

[Page]In that our Euangelist hath set downe the fall of Cap. 18. vers. 25 27. Pe­ter, and fault of Thomas, wee may learne that euen the most holy men are but imperfectly perfect in this life. The Pontificians are true Donatists, and as it were the ve­ry spawne of the Vi [...]e A [...]gu­stin [...]eres 33. & Epiph [...]. [...]eres. 59. Cathari. For is any man so great a Pu­ritan as the Papist, highly conceiting that he can obserue all the commandements of God, and Be [...]armia. de [...] lib. 4 cap. 13. & Al­tein, [...]. ex. [...]. perer [...]gat. more then euer he commanded, as the precepts of the Church, and Euan­gelicall counsels, and so do works of supererogation? or is any so great a Puritan as the Pope, who maketh him­selfe a God in greatnesse, and a God in goodnesse? a God in greatnesse, in that his vnlimited authoritie doth dis­pence with the lawes of God in this world, and alter his iudgements in another, hauing power terrestriall, in vsur­ping the Harding con­ [...]ut. shewel A. [...] cap. 3. whole world for his Diocesse; vsupern [...]d, exten­ded to heauen in canonizing Saints: infernall, extended to hell in freeing soules out of Purgatorie: a God in goodnesse, for he cannot as Pope, Bellarmin de Rom p [...]n. lib. 4. cap. 3. quate [...]us Papa, erre in doctrine, and hee may not be told of his errors in man­ners: his holinesse is holy Iacob Gre [...]ser, respon. ad The­ses. Hu [...]. pag. 147. si non sanctit [...]ate propria. sanctus tamen sanctitate officij. H [...]us apu [...] Iewel pr [...]f. de­sen. apol. g. Whether the Pope be Iudas, or Peter, or Paul, thereof God neuer bade vs be carefull: onely this, that he sitteth in Peters Chaire, shall be suffi­cient for vs. 1. Iohn 18. If wee say wee haue no sinne, wee deceiue our selues, and truth is not in vs. Euen the Pro [...]. 14.16. iust fa [...]leth often, and the godly Fathers euermore complained of the corruptions in their age. Ap [...]d. Iewel in apud. Il [...]m. Hieron. [...] Celant. Tom. 1. f. l. 109. Tertu [...]in said, O not mi­seros, qui Christiani dicimur loc tempore, gentes agimus sub nomine Christi. Apud Iewel [...]apilog part. 3. cap. 7. Gregorie Nazianz [...]ne speaketh thus of the pitifull estate of his owne time: Wee that are Christi­ans, are hated of the Heathen for our owne vices sake, we are now become a wonder not onely to men and Angels, but euen to all the wicked and vngodly. More lately Gueuara: The Philosophers beleeued as Paganes, but liued as Christians: whereas we (quoth he) beleeue like Christi­ans, but liue like Paganes. Honoured Con. ad Cler. Cantabrig. Whitaker, exa­mining the dissolutenesse of al degrees in England, cried [Page] out in exceeding great passion, Aut hoc non est euangeli­um, aut nos non sumus euangelici. The reuerend Doctor E [...]des s [...]r. difference betweene good and cu [...]. Deane of Worcester, as yet more fully, The fatall miserie of these latter daies, hath made nothing good but in shew, no­thing true b [...]t in opinion; when for iustice betweene kingdome and kingdome, the longer sword hath eaten vp the law of nations; and for iustice betweene subiects vn­der the same gouernment, lawes are lost in the cases of the law; and for the preseruer of all both truth and iustice, religion it selfe is in a manner lost in the questions of religion. Of all men Christians are the best, of all Christians vn­doubtedly the primitiue professors, of all the primitiue professors Christs owne Disciple, of all the Disciples his chosen Apostles, and yet these men were but men, sub­iect to manifold sinnes, albeit they were Saints, and their infirmities are recorded in holy Bible, partly for the glo­rie of God, and partly for our good. For Pontan. Gods honour, that his Psal. 67.2. sauing health might be knowne vpon earth, and the riches of his mercie shewed in pardoning offen­ces: according to that of Psal. 51.4. Dauid, Against thee (my God) haue I sinned, and done this euill in thy sight, that thou migh­test be iustified in thy saying. In what saying, I pray, but in this, and the like, Rom. 5.20. where sinne abounded, there grace super­abounded. Againe, the sinnes of the blessed Apostles are registred in the Gospels historie for our good, Melanc [...]hon. Culman. that wee might neither presume, nor yet despaire: not presume, for we may feare falles, if these had their slips: not de­spaire, because Christ forgot and forgaue Peters blas­phemie, the proud ambition of the sonnes of Zebed [...]us, and heere Thomas his incredulitie, speaking so mildly, working so mercifully with him, as that his sore was made his salue, his vnbeleeuing at the first occasioning greater faith in him afterward.

P [...]trarche de remedijs lib. 1. d. aleg. 8.
Memento peccati, vt dole as:
Memento mortis, vt desinas:
Memento diuin [...] iustitiae, vt time as:
Memento miscricordiae, ne desperes.

[Page]Hitherto concerning the sinnes of godly men in ge­nerall. I come now to Thomas his faults in particular, and they be principally two. First, his absence from the meeting of the Disciples, according to the tenour of our Text, Thomas one of the twelve, was not with them when Iesus came. Christ had Mat. 10.17 M [...]r [...] 10.32. Luke 18.31. often foretold his Apostles, that he should be put to death, and that he should rise a­gaine the third day from the dead: and therefore a little before his passion he made promise to them, Mat. 26.32. [...]fter I am risen againe, I will goe before you into Galile. Now then according to this word (as wee read in the former part of this Chapter) euen the same day wherein hee rose a­gaine, hee came when the doores were shut into the place where the Disciples were gath [...]red together, and stood in the middes, and said to them, peace be vnto you: But Thomas, either vpon supine negligence, or Maldonat. cowardly feare, be­ing absent from their assembly, lost the sight of his Saui­our. Wherefore let vs (I beseech you) be diligent in fre­quenting the C [...]l [...]n, [...]. congregation of the faithfull, especially on the Lords day, Mat. 18.20. for where two or three are gathered to­gether in Christs name, there Christ is in the mids of them, and faith as here, peace be vnto you. Exo. 16.27. They who gathe­red Manna alone, lost their labour, and found nothing. Falleris sancte Thoma, falleris, si videre dominum [...]peras ab apostolorum Collegio separatus, non [...]mat veritas angulos, sed stat in medi [...], &c. saith De as [...]ens. [...]. 6. Bernard. Thou art deceiued Thomas, exceedingly deceiued, if thou thinke to see Christ out of the Church and Colledge of Apostles. He lurkes not in the dennes of the wicked, but stands in the mids of the godly, appearing in [...] Exod. 3.5. holy ground, found in the [...] [...].46. Temple, seen among the Disciples.

The second fault of Thomas arising from the [...]. former, is incredulitie, for his absence from the Disciples assem­bly, was the cause hee saw not Christ, his not seeing of Christ occasioned vnbeliefe, and then his vnbeleeuing heart breakes forth into malapert words, except I see in his hands the print of the nailes, &c. I finde that some [Page] Writers haue much excused this fact of Didymus, as Apud Mal­donat. in loc. Cy­ril, who thought he spake not thus out of incredulitie, but out of a sudden passion, as being extremely greeued for that he lost the sight of his Sauiour, and almost out of hope that hee should euer see him againe, because Christ had said, Ioh. 16.16. a little while and ye shall not see me, for I goe to my Father. And Ser. 156. de temp. S. Augustine saith also, that these words of Thomas argue not a denying, but a doubting only: Vox inquirentis est, non negantis; dum hoc dicit, do­cerivoluit, confirmar [...] desiderauit. And Lib. 10. in Luc. cap. 24. S. Ambrose most expresly, that Thomas doubted not of Christs resurre­ction, but of the manner of his resurrection onely: Non de resurrectione Domini, sed de resurrectionis qualitate vi­detur dubitasse. This I confesse is a charitable constructi­on of those holy Fathers, extenuating rather then aggra­uating the sinnes of others, especially the godly. But Christ himselfe, being truth it selfe, reprehends in our Text Thomas incredulitie, be not faithlesse, but faithfull: and therefore Ecclesiastes 1.15. that which is crooked can none make strait. This fact then of Thomas is a fault, and it is amplified heere by three circumstances especially.

1. That he was one of the twelue. Not to beleeue the resurrection of Christ is a sinne in an ordinary Christian, in a Disciple yet greater, but in an Apostle Pontan. so well in­structed, and so well beloued, it was greatest of all.

2. For that hee gaue no credit to the report of his fel­low Disciples, although his Master had often said, Luk 10.16. hee that despiseth you, despiseth mee. Moreouer, they were the Iansen. greater part of the companie, tenne against one, and each of those tenne had receiued afore the Holy Ghost, Ver. 22. and concerning the present businesse, had heard and seene more then he, Ver. 20.21.

3. For that hee did vent his incredulous thought in such a bold and peremptorie stile; except I see in his hands the print of the n [...]il [...]s, nay that is not enough, except I feele the print, except I put my finger into the print of the nailes, euery one being so bigge as my finger: except I [Page] thrust mine hand into his side, and search his wound so great as mine hand: except with hand and finger I Mald. nat. mea­sure both, and finde by due proportion that they are the same, I cannot beleeue; nay the truth is, I will not beleeue. From hence then obserue, that the 1 Cor. 2.14 naturall man (if Christ once leaue him) is not able to discerne the things of God, especially that hard article concerning the resur rection: it seemeth as a Luk 24.11. fained thing to such as with their senses only seeke their Sauiour.

Thus much of the fault. I proceed now to the faith of Thomas. And heere the Doctors haue moued a double doubt.

1. Whether Thomas did touch the wounds of Christ or no.

2. Whether his speech, my Lord and my God, were an exclamation, or an acclamation.

For the first, it is thought by Eub [...]m. sus [...]b. Emisen [...] [...] in lit. some, that hee did not touch the wounds of Christ, and that for these two rea­sons especially: First, because Christ saith in the 29, verse, Thom is, because thou hast seene me, thou hast beleeued: and not, because thou hast touched me. Secondly, for that it is probable that Thomas hearing his masters voice, and seeing his countenance was abundantly satisfied with­out any further enquirie. But these obiections in the iudgement of the most Augustin ser 146.155.161. [...]e [...]em. Ans. 12, [...]a Luc. [...].10 cap 24 [...] gel [...] 16. B [...]rmar. [...]. 2. [...]eheat [...]rg. [...]dm Christ [...], Ga [...]de [...]. [...] M. ld. [...]at. 11 les. ancient and best learned exposi­tors are very weake, because Christ in the 27. verse saith expresly, put thy finger hither, and see mine hands, &c. What (as Augustine disputes in 121. tract. in Ioan.) had Thomas h [...]s eies in his fingers? if not, then seeing in that text is nothing else but touching, put thy finger and see. For seeing is attributed to all the senses: Audi & vide qu [...]m bene sonet: Heare and see how trimly the bels ring. Olfac & vide qu [...]m bene cleat: Smell and see how sweet the flower is Gusta & vide qu [...]m bene sapiat: Taste and see the pleasantnesse of the fruit. And so Tange & vi [...]e, touch and see, reach hither thine hand, and christ it into my side.

[Page]For the second arguments, albeit happily Thomas at the very sight of his master instantly became satisfied in himselfe: yet that euery scruple might be remoued out of his and our minde, our blessed Sauiour suffered his glorious bodie to be touched, as S. Iohn in his Ca. 1.ver. 1. first Epi­stle, That which was from the beginning, which wee haue heard, which we haue seene with our eies, which we haue loo­ked vpon, and our hands haue handled of the word of life.

Yea but Christ said in this Chapter at the 17. verse to Mary Magdalene, Touch me not, for I am not yet ascended to my Father: is it likely that Thomas obtained more fa­uour then Mary so dearely beloued of the Lord? Di­uines answer this obiection diuersly: First, our Sauiour did not forbid all touching simply, but Caluin. immoderate embracing only: for Mary Magdalene and other holy women with her touched his feet, Matth 28.9. They tooke him by the feet, and worshipped him. It is plaine then that Mary was suffered to touch and onely forbidden when she did it too much. Secondly, Mary beleeued the resurrection of Christ, and Marlorat. therefore had no such need to touch him as Thomas had. Thirdly, Christ did inti­mate that his body being now glorified, he was not any longer to be respected carnally, but onely to be touched Aretius. spiritually with the finger of faith; according to that of Coloss. 3.1. Paul, If ye be risen with Christ, set your affections on things which are aboue, not on things which are on the earth. And lastly, there is an euasion in the text, Touch me not, for I am not yet ascended to my Father, but goe to my bre­thren, and say to them, &c. Bectarmin. de sacr [...]ment. Eu­charist. lib. 1. c [...]p. 14 § addi [...]st al [...]a. I [...]. mannota. M ldor. t. in Mat. [...]8.9. As if Christ should say, you need not be so fond and forward in touching mee now­for I meane not as yet to depart from you, but goe tell my brethren that I am risen againe from the dead, and then both they and you shall further handle and see me. For so we finde, Luk. 24.39. Behold mine hands and my feet, for it is I my selfe; handle me and see: palpet: & vide­te, see with your fingers that it is I. This expos [...]tion is proper and pertinent and therfore notwithstanding the [Page] former obiections, I conclude, if not demonstratiuely, yet probably, that Thomas did actually touch Christs wounds according to Christs words, bring thy finger hi­ther, and see mine hands, and reach hither thine hand, and thrust it into my side.

The next q [...]ere to be discussed, is whether the words of Thomas (my Lord and my God) are an exclamation, or an acclamation. Arius and his brood, who denie Christ to be very God of very God, make them an exclamation, as if Thomas should haue said; O Lord God, what is it that I touch and see I not an acclamation or acknow­ledgement that Christ is the Lord God. Answere is made: first, that the text hath not any note of exclama­tion, it is [...], not [...], which is prefixed to the two Greeke words. Secondly, Thomas acknowledged something which he did not afore beleeue, but he knew before th [...] the Father was God: and therefore this speech of his concerned God [...]he Sonne. Lastly, Christ commended his faith in confessing the sonne to be the Lord, Thomas, because thou h [...]st seene me, thou hast beleeued: hee did re­prehend Thomas for the manner, but yet approoue him for the matter of hi [...] beleefe. So that the words (my Lord and my God) are a plaine confession of Didymus his faith touching Iesus Christ the Sauiour of the world. He saith not, thou art my Lord and my God: but, as if he had not time enough to put in Creed enough, hee brake foorth into this abrupt and impe [...]fect speech, as being of Cal. [...]a. Meld [...]at. grea­ter force, my Lord and my God. And it is so sweet as it is short, v [...] [...], sie [...] conf [...]ssio [...], quoth Apud Mer­ [...].r [...] [...]. & Iesus. Bul­linger, a very briefe, yet a most absolute Creed.

For the further examination whereof, obserue first his knowledge, then his application, the which are the two principall parts, of faith. As for his knowledge, Thomas confessed here not only that Christ is a Lord and a God, for there be 1. Cor. 8.5. many Gods and many Lords in Euthym, in Psal. 49. opinion, analogie, title C [...]. us & Le [...]ti [...]s apud Mall. [...], i [...] [...]. But to distinguish Christ from all these kindes of Lords and Gods, he doth affirme that he is [...], [Page] the Lord and the God, that is, the Lord of Lords, and God of Gods, Psal. 50.1. Here then is a preg­nant text against vnbeleeuing Iewes, and misbeleeuing Arians. If Christ had not been very God of very God, euen one substance with the Father, he would haue con­demned, and not commended this confession of Thomas. If any shall aske why Thomas is not content with one word, but vseth two, Lord and God: and why first hee calls Christ Lord, and then God? Ferus ser. 1. in lot. Answere may be, that he called him Lord, in that he conquered hell and death: and God, in that hee knew the very secrets of his heart. For when Christ had said, put thy finger hither, and see mine hands, and reach foorth thine hand, and put it into my side; Thomas instantly remembring what hee had fondly thought, and foolishly said, confesseth his fault in confessing his faith, my Lord and my God. The Disciples vsually termed him Lord in his life, to signifie therefore that it was the same Christ, hee first according to his ac­customed manner calleth him Lord, and then after hee proceedes further then he was wont, and calleth him al­so God. In the word Theophylact. in loc. Lord acknowledging his humani­tie, in the word God his diuinitie. Faiths obiect is the re­uealed will and word of God, and the summe of his word is the new Testament, and the summe of the new Testament is Iesus Christ God and man. In that therfore Thomas confessed his Lord to be crucified, dead, and bu­ried, as a man; and that he did againe raise himselfe and loose the bonds of death as God: hee did vtter that in two words, which is the contents of the two Testaments, and summe of all summe of faith and holy beliefe.

Now for application, hee saith my Lord, and my God; Bullinger. Not onely God in generall, but my God in particular, mine by promise, mine by stipulation, mine by oath, mine by free gift, mine by purchase, mine by participation of grace; my Emmanuel, my Shilo, my Iesus. Of this parti­cular faith Cap. 24.16. Consul [...] Vata­blum in loc. Isaiah the Prophet spake, whē he said, Secre­tum meum mihi, secretum meum mihi: My secret to my [Page] selfe, my secret to my selfe. The Papists indeed terme this personall and particular assurance presumption: but the children of God in all ages haue thus applied the medicine to the maladie, saying with Psal. 63.1. Dauid, O God, thou art my God: and with Mary, my Sauiour. For as their owne Ferus vbisup. Frier notes vpon my text, it is not sufficient to beleeue that he is the Lord, except thou beleeue likewise that he is thy Lord; as Didymus here not only once, but twice, my Lord, my God: doubling as it were his faith, as he had before doubted his fall. O the deepnesse of the ri­ches of Gods mercie! Who would haue thought that Thomas who beleeued least, and last of all his fellowes, vpon so short a conference, should thus equall, if not ex­cell them all in his abrupt yet absolute confession? And therefore let not any man either discomfort himselfe, or Matth. 7.1. condemne his brother 1.Cor. 4.5. afore the time: for no man hath so weake a faith, or so wicked a life, but that one day Christ out of his infinite goodnesse may call him, and heale him, as he did S. Thomas, making him who did not beleeue so soone as the rest, to become notwithstanding in his beleefe so sound as the rest, apprehending and ap­plying the merits of his Sauiour to his soule, my Lord, my God.

After eight daies againe his Disciples were within, and Thomas with them, then came Iesus.] Hee came Calelan. before hee was vp sought, and that to seeke C [...]rys [...]ft, apud Th [...]m one lost sheepe only. Teaching vs heereby to [...]. recall such as are in errours, and to Rom. 15.1. beare the infirmities of the weake. But hee deferred his comming a whole weeke, that Thomas in the meanewhile might be better I [...]sen. Con­cord [...]ep 147. Idem Theoph. & Euthym. [...] loc. instructed, and indu­ced to beleeue the resurrection. Or happily for the grea­ter manifestation of his goodnesse, in tolerating such in­credulitie so long. Or as Aretius. other, to trie the faith of the rest, and to shew that humane reason is not able to per­swade this article.

The translation of Gods holy day from the Saturday to the Sunday, is not by patent in the Bible, but only by [Page] paterne, because the blessed Apostles vsually met toge­ther Act. 20.7. 1.Cor. 16.2. Ap [...]cal. 1.10. on this day. The which assuredly they did by the direction of Gods holy spirit, and as it may seeme heere by Christs Maldonat. in loc. approbation at the least, if not See Ded, ex­posit. Com. 4. institution, againe and againe manifesting himselfe to be risen on the eighth day. So that albeit happily some will grant that the Church assembled in a generall Councell, hath authoritie to constitute another day for the Sabbath, as the second or third of the weeke; yet I am sure wee can neuer haue so good a patterne, nor yet so great a reason for altering this our day, as was heere for the changing of that other day. The patterne is Christ and his Apo­stles, and the reason is the resurrection of Christ, euen that exceeding wonderfull worke of our redemption. Againe, Christs appearing on the eighth day is not with­out a Aretius. mysterie: wee labour six daies in this life, the se­uenth is the sabbath of our death, in which we Apoc. 14.13. rest from our labours, and then being raised from the dead on the eighth day, Christ in his owne body, the very same body that was crucified, dead, and buried, shall reward euery man Apoc. 20.13. according to his worke.

When the doores were shut.] Rhom. in loc. Papists vrge this place to prooue the carnall and grosse presence of Christ in the Sacrament, extremely condemning our incredulitie, who will not beleeue that Christs body and blood is vnder the formes of bread and wine; seeing his whole body heere perfect in all his lineaments, length, bredth, and thicknes, distinct and diuers from the substance and corpulence of the wood, was in the same proper place the wood was in, and passed thorow the same. To this obiection our Diuines answer diuersly; Beza. some, that the doore opened of it selfe to let him in: Apud Mar­ [...]rat. in loc. other, that the doore was vnbarred by some of the house within vn­knowne to the Disciples: Aretius. other, that to come in the doores being shut, is no more but that hee came in late in the euening, at what time men vse to shut their doores: but most acknowledge that he came in miraculously, not [Page] thorow the wood and iron of the doores, as the Papists absurdly conceiue: but through his C [...]ril. [...]thym. Marl [...]r. in l [...]c. Idem C [...]l [...]in. Iustus. lib. 4. cap. 17.§.29. omnipotent and al-commanding power the doo [...]es were opened to him, a [...] they were to Peter, Acts 12 9. and to some other Apo­stles, Acts 5.19. Creatur acessit Creators, Hieron epist. ad Pammac. tom. 1. fol. 178. D. Falke in loc. Or as Malchus eare was so soone healed, that an incredulous lew would not be­leeue that Peters sword euer went betweene it and his head: so the place thorow which his body passed, might be shut and whole before and after he passed, but not in the instant of his passing, because that is contrary to the nature of a true body, such as his was. I know God can doe whatsoeuer he will, but his word is his reuealed will, and that telleth vs expresly, that Christs body was like our body in Heb. 1.17. all things, only Heb. 4.15. sinne excepted. And if it be like our body, then it cannot be without distance of space and place: for (saith Epist. [...]7. Augustine) That is no body, which is no where. Lastly, the plaine text is against them, for it doth not say that Christ came thorow the boords and barres of the doore, but only that he came and stood in the midst, after or when the doore was shut; not de­termining the manner how he came, but only reporting the matter that he came, and the time when he came. So that hauing so many and those so manifest euasions o­therwise, we need not say that Christ came in at the win­dow: that is a Popish forgerie crept into the Rhemists annotations thorow the wicket of our aduersaries owne mouth.

For the conclusion it selfe: Anglican. Confess. art 28. & Com. Cat. [...]it. Sacrament. wee teach, as the Scrip­tures and holy Fathers, that the sacrament all bread and wine are signes and seales of Christs body and blood, and we receiue them in thankfull remembrance he died for vs. As for his crucified body, it is now in heauen a glorified body, Act. 3.21. where it shall remaine till hee come in the last day to iudge and end this and all other contro­uersies. In the meane while, wee must as Church h [...]m. of the Sacra­ment & art. [...]. Eagles flie to the place where the dead body lieth, ascending vpon [Page] the wings of faith vnto it, and not expecting that it should locally descend vnto vs. See Sursum corda in the Liturgie.

And stood in the middest.] We reade in the Gospels hi­storie, that Christ was often in the midst. In the midst of the Luk. 2.46. Doctors, in the midst of his Apostles, in the midst on the Crosse betweene two Luk. 23.33. theeues, and shall at the last day be likewise in the midst Math. 25.33. betweene the sheepe and the goats. In his natiuitie, life, death, resurrection, and comming to iudgement in the midst. Aretius. Heereby signifi­ing that he is our Messias and medius, like Ps. 106.23. Moses stan­ding in the gap betweene God and vs. Hee stood in the midst here, that Euthym all might the better heare him and see him, as the Vide postil. Pontan. & Veg. Dem. 1. post Paseh. Sunne in the midst of the firmament, and the heart in the midst of the members, affoording his comfort indifferently to the whole company: for hee came not only for the benefit of Thomas, but for the common good of other. And this may teach all Pastors and parents, to seeke the good of all that are committed vnto their charge.

Christ standing in the midst of his Apostles, openly rebuked Thomas for two causes especially: first, Musculus. Maldonat. that as Thomas had offended afore them, hee might also be re­prehended afore them all. A priuate fault is to be cen­sured priuatly, but a publike scandall openly: 1. tim. 5.20. them that sinne rebuke publikely, that the rest also may feare. Second­ly, Aretius. that Thomas his vnbeleefe might strengthen others faith, & that his doubt might put all other out of doubt. So infinite is God in greatnes and goodnes, that he can bring light out of darknes, and vse the weaknes, yea the wickednes of other for our good, and his glorie. Vnius interrogatio, vniuersitatis instructio, saith Serm. 156. de tem. Augustine, Ones ignorance was all others instruction: for except Thomas had doubted so much, other should neuer haue knowne so much, and seene so many demonstrations of Christ his resurrection, as the Church in the Collect: Almightie God, which for the more confirmation of the faith, didst suf­fer [Page] for the holy Apostle Thomas to be doubtfull in thy Sonnes re­surrection, &c.

Peace be vnto you.] This salutation was vsuall among the Iewes, and at this instant of all other vndoubtedly most Maldonat. fit. For [...]erus ser. 1. in loc. hereby Christ did insinuate, that howso­euer in the world they had trouble, yet hee had made their Ephes. 2.14. 15. peace with God: as also that they need in their troubled estate to pray for peace of Church, O Psal. 112.6 pray for the peace of Hierusalem; and peace of conscience, for that is a Prou. 15.15. continuall feast. Or happily, Theophylact. Euthym. Bullinger. that they might the better know him after his resurrection, heespeakes vnto them as a little before his death, Ioh. 14.27. I leaue peace with you, my peace I giue vnto you, let not your hearts be trou­bled, nor feare. Christ is our peace, preaching peace in his life, making peace in his death, assuring peace in his re­surrection, and consummating our peace in his com­ming againe to iudge the quicke and the dead, when he shall say to the sonnes of peace, Matt. 25.21 Well done good seruants, and faithfull, enter into your masters ioy. Now the Lord of 2. Thes. 3.16. peace giue you peace alwaies by all meanes.

Bring thy finger hither.] After Christ had saluted the whole Colledge of Apostles in generall, he turnes him­selfe to Thomas in particular, repeating euery word Tho­mas had vttered in his absence. Teaching Aretius. him hereby, that he was risen againe through his omnipotencie, for the dead haue no sense, much lesse reason, and least of all vnderstanding the secrets of anothers heart. And teach­ing Kilius. vs hereby, not to commit any sinne though it may be done neuer so closely, for he seeth all our workes, hea­reth all our words, and knoweth all our thoughts, Lipsius de Conf [...].lib. 2. cap. 16. & aperta & operta. Remember the speech of God vnto Da­uid, 2. Sam. 12.12. Thou didst it secretly: but I will doe this thing before all Israel, and before the Sunne.

Our Sauiour did neither reiect Thomas finally, nor yet correct him fiercely for his incredulitie: but C [...]lm. Co [...]. 1. in loc. & Per­kins exposit. Creed, art. re­surrect. of Christ. accom­modating himselfe to Thomas infirmitie, seeks to winne him, and to bring him home to his sheepfold. O Thomas, [Page] thou hast thy faith at thy fingers end, seeing, that thou wilt beleeue no more then thou feelest, I pray thee there­fore bring thy finger hither, and see my hands, &c. Heere then is a paterne whereby Rom. 15.1. Paul might giue his precept, We that are strong ought to beare the infirma [...]es of the weake, that we may make them, as Christ did Thomas, of faith­lesse faithfull.

And this supporting is Caietanin Rom. 14. by

  • Patience,
    Coloss. 3.13.
    for bearing them.
  • Pitie,
    Rom. 12.15.
    weeping with them that weepe.
  • Pietie, relieuing them as well with our counsell if they want wit, as with our almes if they want wealth.

Thomas, because thou hast seene me, thou hast beleeued] Faith is an Heb. 11.1. euidence of things not seene; how then did hee beleeue that which he saw? can you touch God as the wicked Arians obiect, and feele him with a finger? Answere is made by the Gregor. hom. 26. in euangel. B [...]da. Maxentius apud M [...]ld [...]t­in loc. Fathers, that Thomas touched one thing, and beleeued another. Videbat hominem, con­fitehatur Deum, as Tract. 121. in loan. Augustine vpon my text. He touched Christ as man, but beleeued in him as God; saying, my Lord and my God: acknowledging the diuinitie which he did not see, by the wounds he did see. So that Christ here commends the faith of Thomas, in saying thou hast beleeued: and reprehends only his Ar [...]tius. Mar [...]r [...]at. slacknesse of faith in adding because thou hast seene me. First handling the wounds of Christ, afore hee would credit the words of his Apostle [...]. A [...]g [...]stin. tract 40. in loan Quid enim est fides nisi credere quod non vi­des? Mallonat. eo plus habit merui, quo nanus argumenti. Thomas in beleeuing after he saw Christ, is a type of the Rupert. in loc. Iewes: and the rest of the Disciples in beleeuing afore they saw Christ, a figure of the Gentiles. Augustin. tract. 121. in Ioan circa sin.

Blessed are they that haue not seene, and yet haue belee­ued] The [...]phylact. Muscu [...]us. Culman. He denieth not Thomas to be blessed in this sen­tence, but only preferreth other Apostles, and Aretius. Ferus. Maldonat. all other Christians afore him, in that they haue not seene, and y [...]t [Page] haue beleeued. For Rom. 10.9. if thou knowledge with thy mouth that Iesus is the Lord, and beleeue in thine heart that God hath raised him vp from the dead: O Psal. 128.2. well is thee, and happie shall thou be. So blessed as Iohn, whose head lay neere his Masters heart: so blessed as Ioseph of Ari­mathea, who buried his bodie: so blessed as old Simeon, who lulled his Sauiour in his armes: yea so blessed as the Virgin her selfe, that bare him in her wombe: for thee was more blessed in being the daughter, then in being the mother of Christ. Here the Gospel and Epistle meet, all they that haue not seene, and yet haue beleeued, are fellow citizens with the Saints, and of Gods house, built vpon the foundation of the Prophets and Apostles, Iesus Christ himselfe, being the head corner stone, in whom they grow to be an holy temple of God, 1 Tim: 4.8. hauing the promises of the life present, and of that which is to come. See Gospell, Sun­day 13. after Trinitie.

By this it doth appeare, that the resurrection of Christ is the chiefe obiect of a blessed faith, as also the maine subiect of all this out present Gospell. And it is excee­ding profitable for confutation, and instruction. As first it doth ouerthrow the wicked error of Epiphan. [...]res. 28. Corinthus, who taught Christ should not rise againe till the generall re­surrection; of whom Epiphanius worthily, Stol [...]dus est, & stolidorum magister. Secondly, Idem Epiphan. [...]aeres. 44. Apelles heresie, who said Christ rose againe, but not in his owne flesh, or (as Haeres. 23. Idem Alp [...]n [...]. decaste [...] [...]it. de Chris [...]re [...] 12. Au­gustine reports his opinion) without any flesh. Thirdly, that of Idem al­ph [...]s [...]d. [...]t. haer [...]s 2. Cerdon, and the Passionists, affirming that Christ ascended into heauen in soule only. Fourthly, that asser­tion of B [...]an [...]c. [...]m [...]ie [...]re­surrect Christ q. [...]. 23. Eutychian heretikes, holding that Christs hu­mane nature was dei [...]ied after his resurrection, and made not glorious only, but meerely diuine also.

Againe, the doctrine of Christs rising againe from the dead, serues for instruction in matters of holy faith and good manners. In articles of be [...]iefe concerning Christ, and our se [...]ues. First touching Christ: whereas he did abide among the dead at [...]. exp [...]. 5. of the Creed. least thirtie three, or thirtie [Page] foure houres: as he continued among the liuing thirtie three, or thirtie foure yeeres; I say whereas Christ being starke dead, raised himselfe to life by his owne power: it is a manifest demonstration of his Godhead, as Paul disputes, Rom. 1.4. and God said in the second Psalme, Thou art my sonne, this day haue I begotten thee. The which text ought to be construed not so much of Christs eternall generation afore all worlds, as of the manifesta­tion therof in time. This day, Caluin, in Psal 2 & Sua­res. Tim 2. in 3. Thom. disput. 45 sect. 8. that is, at the time of thine incarnation, but at the day of thy resurrection especial­ly, haue I begotten thee: that is, I haue made knowne vn­to the world, that thou art my sonne, as Paul expounds it, Acts 13.33. for none euer raised another from the dead, but by God: none euer raised himselfe from the dead but God.

Secondly, this doctrine Perkins on the Creed, art. Christs resur­rection. proues euidently, that Christ was a perfect Priest, and that his passion was an omni­sufficient sacrifice for the sinnes of the whole world. For if hee had not fully satisfied for them all, if there had re­mained one little sinne only, for which he had made no satisfaction, he could not haue risen againe: for death and the graue, which came into the world by sinne, and are daily strengthened by sinne, would haue held him in bondage. To this purpose 1. Cor. 15.17 Paul saith, If Christ be not risen againe, your faith is vaine, and you are yet in your sinnes. That is, Christ had not answered fully for your sins, or at least you could not possibly know that hee had made satisfaction for any of them, if he had not risen againe.

As for points of faith appertaining to thy selfe more neerely, the resurrection of Christ is a demonstration of our resurrection, according to that of Paul, If it be prea­ched that Christ is risen againe from the dead, how say some among you, that there is no resurrection of the dead? 1. Cor. 15.12. Behold, saith the Deut. 32.39 Lord, I kill, and giue life: I wound, and I make whole: that is, as Lib de caruis resurrect. Tertullian aptly, kil­ling by death, and giuing life by resurrection. If a man be cast into the sea, though all his bodie sinke vnder the [Page] water, yet there is hope of recoue [...]ie so long as his head is aboue the waues: in like manner, if wee beleeue that Christ our head is the first fruits of those that sleepe, let vs not doubt, but vnfainedly beleeue, that we which are his members, in our due time shall be raised out of the dust also. Moreouer, the resurrection of Christ is a proofe of our iustification before God, Rom. 4.25. he was deliuered for our offences, and raised againe for our iustification. As in his death he stood in our place, Esay 53 5. wounded for our trans­gressing, and broken for our iniquities, and 1. Pet. 2.25. bearing our sinnes in his body on the tree: so likewise in his resurrection, he is not to be considered as a priuate, but as a publike person representing the whole Church, making his righteous­nesse a cloke to couer all our vnrighteousnesse. If death could not keepe Christ fettered in his prison, it is eui­dent that his power was ouercome. Now then if death be conquered, it followeth necessarily, that sinne the Rom. 6.23. wages of death is also destroied. If death and sinne be vanquished, then the tyrannous kingdome of Satan is subdued, who had the power of death, and was author of sinne, and ruler of hell. So that euery true Christian may reioice with Paul; O death, where is thy sting? O graue, where is thy victorie? the sting of death is sin, and the strength of sin is the law: but thankes be to God, which hath giuen vs victorie through our Lord Iesus Christ. And lastly, con­cerning matters of honest and holy conuersation; this doctrine teacheth vs to Coloss. 3.1. seeke those things which are aboue, where Christ sitteth as the right hand of God, and to rise from dead workes vnto Rom. 6.4. newnesse of life. See Epistle on Ea­ster day, and Epistle Sunday 6. after Trinitie. Touching our Euangelists epilogue, see Gospell on S. Iohns day.

The Epistle

Heb. 1.1.

God in times past diuersly and many waies, spake vn­to the Fathers by Prophets: but in these last daies he hath spoken to vs by his owne sonne, &c.

THE whole world in old time was distinguished by three principall languages (as it appeares in Pilates inscription or title Iohn 19.20. written on Christs Crosse) Latine, Greeke, Hebrew. The Latine tongue was famous in re­gard of the Gorran. pro­em. 2. in epist. Pauli. Romane Empire, which ouerspread and ouertopt all other kingdomes on earth; according to that of Aenead. li. 1. Virgil: Romanos rerum Dominos, &c. or as Apud I [...]yri­cum p [...]m. at corrupt. statu [...]. ano­ther Poet wittily:

Roma tibi quondam suberant domini dominorum,
Seruorum serut nunc tibi sunt domini.

The Greeke tongue was especially regarded, because Greece was the worlds Vniuersitie, the seat of Wisdome, the mint of Arts, and as it were the common Nurserie of all humane learning. In which respect Archititre­mius apud Munster. cosm. one commen­ding Paris in France, called it Graeca libris, and

Attica philosophis, rosa mundi Balsamus orbis.

The Hebrew most honoured, in that it is Gods owne language, wherein his owne law was written, and where­with it was expounded vnto his owne people. Now Paul preached sermons, and penned Epistles in all these languages, as being a Act. 9.15. chosen vessell of the Lord, to beare his name before the Gentiles, and Kings, and children of Israel. He preached and wrote to the Romanes, and so he did beare Christs name before Kings, for they were Lords of the world. He preached and wrote to the Gre­cians, as to the Church of Corinth, Ephesus, Philippi, Thes­salonica, &c. and so he did beare the name of Christ be­fore the Gentiles. He preached and wrote to the faithfull Hebrewes, as 2 Epist. 3. cap. vers. 15. S. Peter telleth vs, and so he did beare the [Page] name of Christ before the children of Israel. I say Paul wrote to the Iewes, holding with the most and best [...] 5. [...] ex­positors, that he was author of this excellent Epistle.

Now the reasons are Apud Pri­ [...]s [...] [...] Pre [...] [...]pst ad H. b & [...] 1. de [...] [...]b [...] D [...]i, cap. 17. & [...] 7. [...] 8. man fold, why Paul did not heere set downe his name: First, because hee was not an Apostle of the Iewes, but of the Gentiles, as he saith him­selfe, Galat. 2.7. The Gospell ouer the vnc [...]rcumsision was commaunded vnto me, as the Gospell ouer the circumcision was vnto Peter. Secondly, for that his name was odious vnto the le [...]ses (as we reade in the 21. and 22. Chapter of the Acts) often crying out against him, away with such a fel­low from the earth, for it is not meet hee should liue. Third­ly, Paul was an Hebrew, 2. Corinth. 11.22. They are He­brewes, so am I. He therefore concealed his name, because a Prophet is not honoured in his Mat. 11.57. owne countrey. But whether [...] m [...] & [...]q [...]. [...] Ca [...] & Ma [...]r [...] ar­g [...]m [...]t [...]st. [...] H [...]b Barnabas, or Clem [...]ns, or Luke wrote it, as ma­ny thinke; or Paul, as most affirme, De [...]r [...]ng lect. 1 Heb. the matter is not great: for if the name had beene here, what had it shewed but that God vsed the ministerie of such a man? and no the name is not knowne, it teacheth vs expresly the do­ctrine is of God. And for this cause to the bookes of ho­ly Scripture names are sometime prefixed, & sometime not, that we might I [...]. 2.1. not haue the faith of our glorious Lord Ie [...]us Christ in respect of persons. Whether it be Paul, or Apollos or Cephas all are 1. Cor. 3.22. yours: happily Paul first plan­ted it in Hebrew, then Luke watered and Prima [...]us. L [...]mbard. [...]. translated it into Greeke, but God giue the grace to both. And there­fore we must not attend who, but what. For R [...]m. 15.4. whatsoeuer is written afore time, is written for our learning: especially this Epistle penned of purpose to maintaine the chie [...]e point of holy beleefe, namely, that forgiuenesse of sinnes is by Christ only. These Hebrewe, had ioined the ceremonies of the Law with the Gospell of Christ, as the Christians in the kingdomes of M [...]t. D [...]e­r [...]. P [...]st [...]r Iohn at this houre retaine Circumcision and Baptisme. For albeit Act. 21.10. many thousands of the Iewes beleeued, yet were they still zealous of the Law, not enduring to heare of the [Page] abrogation of it, in so much that they made this a point of faith, and it is the Deering lect. 1. Heb. ninth article of their Creed at this day, God gaue his Law to Moses his faithfull seruant, and he will neuer change nor alter it for another.

Now true Christianitie reades a contrary lecture, namely, that the ceremonies of the law were primò mor­tales, postea mortuae, postremò mortiferae. So that to leaue Christ for them, or to ioyne Christ with them, is the plaine way to destruction. Apud Io. C [...]mb. Comp [...]nd. Theolig. lib. 6. cap. 8. Augustine excellently, Le­galia fuerunt ante passionem Domini viua, stati [...] post passio­nem mortua, hodie sepulta. That is, the Iewish ceremonies afore Christ came were aliue; when hee suffered on the Crosse they were dead, and now they be buried. And so by consequent they may not rise vp againe to be put in the ballance with his glory: for the gold, siluer, precious stones, and all other ornaments of the magnificent Tem­ple compared with his rich mercies, are but beggerly rudi­ments, as our Apostle speakes, Galat. 4 9. Nothing in earth, or vnder earth, or in heauen, or in the heauen of heauens is so glorious as he, Act. 4.12. no name else that is named, in which, or by which, we can be saued, but onely the name of Iesus Christ.

[Page]The whole tract [...] in Heb. 1. Idem Deering & al [...]. is di­uided in two parts:

  • The first is concerning Christs excellen­cie, shewing in the ten first Chapters what he is, in
    [...] [...]ez [...]. Ps [...]a [...].
    re­spect of his
    • Nature,
      • Diuine, cap. 1.
      • Humane, cap. 2.
    • Offices,
      • Propheticall, in the third and fourth chapter.
      • Sacerdotall: chap. 5.6.7.8 9.10.
      • Regall, of which our Apostle writes not as of the former two purposely and copiously, but incidently and briefly: chap. 1. vers. 2, 3, 8, 13. chap. 2. vers. 9. chap. 7. vers. 2. chap. 8. vers. 1.
  • The second, how saluation is onely through him in the residue.

The Law was ordained by glorious Angels, written by Moses, obserued by the Priests, expounded by the Prophets. In the first and second chapter Paul compares our Sauiour with Angels and Prophets In the third with Mos [...]s. In the 4 5.6.7.8.9.10. with the Priests and their ceremonies; intimating in all, that the Law is deficient, and that Christ in the worke of our saluation is only suf­ficient and efficient. Our only Prophet, in whole word we must rest: our onely Priest, in whose sacrifice we must rest: our only King▪ vnder whose protection wee must rest: who with his blessed Spirit leadeth vs in waies of [Page] eternall life, working in vs all in all. [...] Kay­maudum de Sa­ban de Theolog. natural. Tit. 277. Quemadmodum e­nim membrum ipsius corporis recipit ab epate humores, à corde vitam, à capite sensum & motum: sic homo recipit ab homne carnem, à Deo animam, à Christo homine & Deo sensum & motum, id est totum bene esse & gratiam: & sicat membrum habet duos motus, vnum de natura sua cadere deorsum, & alium à capite, s [...]ilicet motum sursum, & iste motus est supra naturam membri: conformiter homo quoad amimam habet duos motus, vnum de natura sua, & Christe mo­tus est cadere deorsum ad nihil, ad non esse, ad preprum vo­luntatem, & elongari à Deo; & alium habet à Christo, so­licet moueri sursum ad Deum, &c.

In this text appointed fitly for this time, Christ is first L [...]nbard. G [...]rram. conferred, and then preferred before the Prophets and Angels. In the comparison betweene Christ and the Prophets, ob [...]erue the Aretius. consent, and dissent between the old Testament and the new. The consent and agree­ment is, in that one God spake in both, in the one by his seruants: in the other by his Sonne. The same God is author of both, and the same Christ is subiect of both, in so much that each Testament is in other; in the Law there is an hidden Gospell, and in the Gospell a reuealed Law. So like as the two Exod. 25.20. Cherubins on the mercy seat, whose faces looked one to another. And like the Seraphims, Esay 6.3. one crying to another, holy, holy, holy, both hauing one voice saith In Psal. 49. Augustine. Or re­sembling each other, as Iesus and Iames: who were so like that they were one anothers Ignatius epist. ad I [...]b [...]am. se­nier [...]m. glasse. God in times past, and God in these last daies hath spoken to vs. And whosoeuer hee be to whom this ministry shall bee com­mitted, if hee will be numbred with Patriarkes, and Pro­phets, Apostles and Pastors, and with our Sauiour Christ himselfe: whatsoeuer hee speake, let him speake 1 Pet. 4.11. as the word of God. For this couenant hath God made with his seruants, Esay 59.21. My spirit that is vpon thee, and my words which I haue put in thy mouth, shall not depart out of thy mouth, nor out of the mouth of thy [Page] seed, nor out of the mouth of the seed of thy seed from hence­forth euen for euer. And indeed whose word else should discerne the Heb. 4 12. thoughts of the soule, but his onely who is the Psalm. 7.10. searcher of the heart? and whose word should kill our carnall affections, but his onely who giues the sword of the spirit?

God spake] The word God here may be taken either essentially for the whole Kilius. Trinity; because God the sonne (being a Isas 40.3. crier in the wildernesse) spake by the Prophets as well as God the Father, and God the holy Ghost as well as either of them, according to that of S. 2 Epist. 1 cap. vers. 21. & Act. 1.16. Peter, Prophecie came not in olde time by the will of man, but holy men of God spake as they were moued by the holy Ghost. Or it may be construed in respect of Christs office personally. God, Primasius. Anselm. Pisca [...]er. that is, God the Father, spake to the fathers by Pro­phets, and by his owne sonne to vs.

The dissent and diffe­rence be­tweene the two Testa­ments is in regard of the

  • manner for
    • Time, sundry times.
    • Fashion, many waies.
  • men
    • Vnto whom, vnto the fathers in times past, but in these last daies vnto vs.
    • In whom, or by whom, God spake by the Prophets in the one, by his owne sonne in the other.

The Aretius. Deering. first dissent is in respect of time, the times of the Fathers are olde and past: but the time of Christs prea­ching passeth not, it is for euer, alway continuing rew; Heb. 13.8. Iesus Christ yesterday, and to day, and the same [...] for euer. The doctrine taught by the Prophets in old time was reuealed multis vicibus, as Beza translates, at sundry times as our English Bible. But that which Christ him­selfe deliuered, is reuealed but once. The which is in [...]i­nuated heere, but expressed else where by this author, as [Page] in chap. 9. vers. 26. But now in the end of the world hath Christ beene once reuealed. And in chap. 12. vers. 26. Yet once will I strike, not the ca [...]th onely, but also heauen. And this it is which Epist. of Iud. vers. 3. Iude saith of the Christian faith, that it was once giuen vnto the Saints. Once, Aq [...]ine. Caistane. Aret. in epist. Iude. that is, perfectly, so that wee need not another Gospell. Almightie God hath spoken last in his sonne; that is, in the Galat 4.4. fulnesse of time so fully, Sa [...]e [...]us. L [...]mbard. Marlorat. that we may not expect hee should vent in time to come any new doctrine. For albeit the spirit was giuen after Christs ascension; yet the same spirit taught that onely, which Christ had taught afore. See Gospell 4. Sunday after Easter.

From hence we may learne boldly to refuse whatso­euer is 1. Tim. 13. [...], that is, an after, or another do­ctrine sprung vp since. A [...] the new Gospell of Anabap­tists, and idolatries of Mahomet, and the reuelations of S. Briget, and all superstitious positions and expositions of Papists. In a word, Deering. lect. 1. Heb. whatsoeuer bastard religion is contrary to Christs once preaching vpon earth, which because it was once, confutes all after it, and abrogates all afore it which had diuersitie of time, as our Apostle gathereth in the 12. chapter of this Epistle, vers. 27.

The second difference betweene the two Testaments is, that God in the one spake many waies and diuersly, ei­ther by Angel, or by the Cloud, or betweene the Che­rubins, or by visions, or by dreames, after sundry kindes of speech, and diuers kindes of actions: but the doctrine of the other is taught after one sort, euen by preaching of the Gospell; Rom. 1.16. which is the power of God vnto salua­tion to euery one that beleeueth, and it worketh more mightily then all those kinds of reuelations, and pierceth into he heart of man more deepely then any manner of perswasion; yea though one should rise from the dead and seeke to vs.

The third dissent is, that God in old time spake only to the Fathers, Abraham, Isaac, Iacob, vnto some few men, and one nation. Psal. 147.19 He shewed his word vnto Iacob [Page] his sta [...]es an [...] ordinances vnto Israel, hee dealt not so with any people, neither had the heathen knowledge of his Lawes. But in these last daies he hath spoken vnto vs indefinite­ly, to Iew, to Gentile, to bond, to free, to male, to female, being Galat. 3.28. a [...]one in Christ Iesus, hauing all through faith one entrance vnto the throne of grace, Heb. 4 16. So that I need not say now, Lord remember Dauid, or the coue­nant made with Abraham: but in time of need I may go boldly to the throne of grace, saying, Luk. 23.42. Lord remember me, Luk. 18.13. O God be mercifull to me, Mark. 10.47. Iesus haue pitie on me. For vnto those that are nigh, and vnto those that are farre off, there is but one couenant in Iesus Christ, Eph 2.13.17.

The fourth difference betweene the two Testam [...]nts is, that God in the one, spake by Prophets his seruants: in the other, by Christ his owne sonne, by meere men in times past vnto the fathers: but vnto vs hee hath spo­ken by that eternall word which is God, whom hee hath made heire of all things, by whom also hee hath made the world, &c. Aretius. The maine proposition of this chapter is that Christ who reuealed the Gospell is the sonne of God, yea, God himselfe. Now the first part, namely, that Christ is he who brought into the world the Gospell: is concessum & confessum. The faithlesse Hebrew complai­ned of it, and the faithful Hebrew beleeued it. And ther­fore taking this as granted, hee doth insist in the latter part only, prouing at large that Christ is God. And that

In respect of the

  • Glorie of his name, being Gods owne sonne, and heire of all things.
  • Worthinesse of his person, as being The brightnesse of the glorie of God, and the very image of his person.
  • Greatnesse of his power, vpholding all things by his mightie word.
  • Benefit purchased for vs, hauing by himselfe purgedous sinnes.
  • Dignitie procured to himself, in that he sit­teth at the right hand of the maiesty on high.

[Page]In all which he doth excell Angels, as first hauing ob­tained a more excellent name then they. For albeit An­gels are called sonnes of God in respect of their crea­tion, and Israel the Exod. 4.22. first borne of God, and all elect the Rom. 8.14. children of God, in respect of adoption and grace: yet no man or Angell is the sonne of God by nature, but Christ alone begotten of the substance of the Father, as being the brightnesse of his glorie, and expresse image of his person. Of whom the Father said in the second Psal. Thou art my sonne, this day haue I begotten thee. And in another 2. Sam. 7.14. & 1. Chron. 22. 10. text, I will be his father, and he shall be my sonne. And when hee bringeth in the first begotten sonne into the world, Psalm. 97.7. he saith, and let all Angels worship him. Insinua­ting that Christ is not onely greater then Angels, but also God, to be honoured of all Angels. Againe, where­as Christ is an eternall King, whose Psalm. 45.7. scepter is a right scepter, and whose throne is for euer and euer: Angels are but subiects and seruants, according to that of the Psal. 104.4. Psal­mist, He maketh his Angels spirits, and his ministers a flime of fire.

Moreouer, Christ in the beginning laid the foundation of the earth, and the heauens are the workes of his hands, and Exod. 10.11. all that in them is, Coloss. 1.16. things visible and inuisible, whe­ther they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers, all were created by him and for him; and there­fore seeing Christ is Creator, and Angels his creatures; hee doth excell them, as farre as things infinite can ex­ceed things finite. Lastly, Christ sitteth at the right hand of the Maiestie on high: heereby signifying that God hath giuen him all power in heauen and in earth, Mat. 28.18. and taken him into the f [...]llowship of his glorie, for all things that the father hath are mine, saith Ioh. 16.15. our Sauiour: where­as Ang [...]ls, howsoeuer the, Mat. 18.10. he hold the face of our hea­uenly father, and enioy his presence; yet are they but m [...]ss [...]ngers and mi [...]ters, extending about his throne, for the good of such as are [...]eires of saluation, as the Du. Batt [...]. 1.day. 1. weeke. [...]ag. 29. Nightin­gale of Prince swee [...]ty: [Page]

The sacred tutors of the Saints, the guard of Gods elect, the pursuiuants prepar'd
To execute the counsels of the highest, Gods glorious Heralds, heauens swift harbingers,
Twixt heauen and earth the true interpreters.

And here let vs according to the present occasion of text and time, magnifie the Father of mercy, for that the Sonne of God on this day for our sake became the sonne of man, yea seruant vnto men, in that he came into the world not to be serued, but to serue, Matth. 20.28. For that the brightnesse of Gods glorie tooke vpon him the vilenesse of our nature, being made Psal. 22.6. a worme and no man, a very scorne of men, and outcast of the people. For that he who was more excellent then Angels, at this time became lesse then Angels, that hee might make vs so great as Angels. Ans [...]lm spec. euang. cap. 1. Vt not equaret Angelis, minoratus est ab Angelis: for that he who laid the foundation of the earth, and made the world, was himselfe now made. August ser. 27. de temp. Factor ter­ra, factus in terra, Creator coeli, creatus sub coelo, Le [...]ser. 6 de nat. Don [...]. being the childe of Mary, who was the father of Mary. Aug. ser. 16. de temp. Sine quo pater nunquam fuit, sine quo mater nunquam fuisser: so that whereas Dauid, Psalme 118.24. This is the day which the Lord hath made: Fuseb. Emis. hem 2. de nat. D [...]m we may say, This is the day wherein the Lord was made, wee will reioice and be glad in it. For that he who sits on the right hand of the maiestie on high, and Esa. 40.12. measureth the waters in his fist, and heauen with his spanne, was now lodged in a stable, crouded in a cratch, and swadled in a few ragges. O beloued, if we were not in this great light of the Gospell, almost so blinde as the Bat, we would wish our selues all eie, to behold the babe Iesus in the manger. If wee were not as deafe as the stubborne Adder, we would wish our selues all eare, to heare the tidings of great ioy to all people; namely, Luk. [...].11. that vnto vs is borne this day in the citie of Da­uid a Sauiour, which is Christ the Lord. If we were not in some sort possessed with a dumbe spirit, wee would wish our selues all tongue, to chaunt that heauenly caroll of [Page] the glorious Angels, Luk. 2.14. Glory be to God on high, and in earth peace, and good will toward men.

It is the fashion of many men, at this festiuall especi­ally, to boast of their rich attire, great attendance, good fire, large cheere: yet (seeing Christ is heire of all things in the world) they cannot in their owne right enioy so much as a Christmas log, or a Christmas pye, till they be first ingraffed in him. I may haue from man, my war­rant on earth heere, that my land is mine, my benefice mine, my coate mine, house, horse, hose mine: and he is a very theefe that taketh away these from me: But all the men in the world cannot giue me my possession be­fore the liuing God, but his sonne Christ onely, who is heire of all; and therefore that our land may bee our owne, our apparell our owne, our meate our owne, our men and money our owne: let vs be Christs, that in him wee may haue the good assurance of all our substance: that I may pronounce that vnto you, which our 1 Cor. 3.22. Apo­stle to the Corinthians: All are yours, and yee Christs, and Christ Gods.

The Gospell.

IOHN 1.1.

In the beginning was the word, and the word was with God, and the word was God, &c.

SAint Peter was an Apostle, but not an Euangelist: S. Luke an Euangelist, but not an Apos [...]le: S. Mat­thew was both an Euangelist and an Apostle, but not a Prophet: Hieron. lib. 1. aduers. l [...]uin. but our S. Iohn was all these; in his Epistles an Apostle, in his Apocalyps a Prophet, in compiling his Gospell an Euangelist. In which (as Interpretors haue with one consent obserued) he mo [...]nts as an Fagle, [...]. for wh [...]r [...]as his felow Euangelists specially treat of the conception, birth, education, and other points of Christ [...] incarnation in the world: Saint Iohn flying higher then [Page] these, beginneth his h [...]storie with Christs eternall gene­ration before the worlds, in the beginning was the word, &c. a [...] Tra [...]t. 1. in loan. Augustine vpon my text, transcender at om [...] cacumin [...] mo [...]ti [...]m terrarum, transcender at omnes [...]ampos [...]eris, transcender at omnes al [...]s [...]dines syderum, tran [...]c [...]nd [...] ­rat omnes choros & legiones Angelorum, nisi enim transcen­deret [...]sta omnis que creata s [...]nt, non pervenires [...] p [...]r quem facta sunt omnie. For as an Iob 29.30. Eagle, Rupert. pro­log in euangil. loan. so Iohn remai­neth vpon the top of the rocke and tower, from thence h [...]e spieth his meate, and his eyes behold a farre off. He was apt­ly called the Mark [...].17. sonne of thunder, Alcuen [...]s ap [...]d Be [...]xam. har. Tom. 1. fol. 3. for in saying in the begin­ning was the word, and the word was with God, and the word was God: hee seemes to speake not words, but wonders, yea thunders, as H [...]m. v [...]t. in [...]. Ardens excellently, filius tontruiest qui loquitur, & tenitruum est quod loquitur, a preamble so strange and stately, that some Christians in olde time (which had happily zeale but not according to know­ledge) Hieron. in Mat. 23. hung it about their necke as an amulet, or as Maldonat. in loc. o­ther, as a Symbole to distinguish them from Ar [...]ans. And a certaine Pl [...]tonist (as Augustine reports in lib. 10. de ciuitate dei cap. 29.) reading this one line, said it was wor­thy to be written in letters of gold, and to be represented in the most eminent places of all Churches in the world.

[Page]In the text allotted for this day, two points are remarkable:

  • 1. What Christ is in himselfe,
    • God, In the beginning was the word, and the word was with God, and the word was God, &c.
    • Man, the same word became flesh, and dwelt among vs, &c.
  • 2. What Christ is vnto vs, openly reuealed by the witnesse of Iohn the Baptist, and his owne dwelling among vs in the world. to be
    • 1. Our Creator ad esse, for all things were made by him.
    • 2. Our
      Aretius. Marlorat.
      preseruer in esse, for he is our life,
      Heb. 1.3.
      vpholding all things in their being.
    • 3. Our Redeemer in bene esse, for he gaue power to them that beleeue in his name to bee the sonnes of God.

In the beginning.] The word [...] is potestatiuum as well as ordinatiuum, in which acception higher powers, espe­cially Princes, are called [...], and so Apud Be [...] ­x [...]m. ha [...]. T [...]m. 1. fol 5. some take this in principio to be nothing else but in principatu, because Christ the word hath vpon his garment and vpon his thigh a name written, The King of Kings, and Lord of Lords, Apoc. 19.16. Apud Mal­donat. in loc. Origen, Cyril, Augustine, Gregor Nyssen, and many Beda. Ardens. [...]. moe construe it thus, in the begin­ning, that is, in the Father, according to that of the Thom. 1 p [...]r. [...]est 3 [...] 4. Schoole, Pater est principium sine principio, silius est prin­cipium de principio. Atlanasius [...]. The Father is of none, the Sonne is of the Father alone, not made nor created, but begotten. Beleeue mee (saith our blessed Sauiour) that I am in the Father, and the Father in me, Iohn 14.11. I am in the Father, Ar [...]tius [...]n [...]. 14. as the riuer in the fountaine: the Father in me, as in his ingraued image, Heb. 1.3. God the Sonne then is de principio principium, as Symb. Ni [...]en. lumen de lumine, ligh [...] [Page] of light, and very God of very God. C. [...]s. [...]. [...]. Mar. [...]rat. Other expound in the beginning of eternitie, for the word being the true Melchisedec, is Nonnus pa­r [...]ra me­ [...] angel. lom. [...], hauing neither b [...]ginning of daies, nor end of life, Heb. 7.3. Pr [...]uerb. 8. vers. 22.24. & [...]. Vile Ec [...]atm. [...]ib. 1. de Christ ca S. §. gita [...] [...]ter­nitas. The Lord (saith he) hath possessed me in the beginning of his way, I was before his workes of old, when there were no depths I was be­gotten, when he prepared the heauens I was there, when he gaue his decree to the sea, that the water should not passe his commandement, then was I with him, &c. In­sinuating that he was in the beginning without any be­ginning, in a time when there was no measured time.

P [...]ll [...]dius lib. 1. de [...]ne person. d [...] ­ [...]un in Christ [...]ator.
Principio rutih cùm nondum lumin [...] coeli,
Et nondum grauides extarent lumina terris,
I am tum patris er at sanctain & venerabile verbum.

Arenius. Mald [...]nat. Beza. Idem A. [...]. ract. 1. [...] I an. & [...]. qe [...]. 122. Other vnderstand by beginning ▪ the beginning of the world: as if our Euangelist had said, in the begin­ning when all things were made, the word was, and there­fore not made, but all things on the contrarie were made by it, and without it was made nothing that was made. The creatures are from the beginning, but Christ (who made the world) was in the beginning, before there was a be­ginning. This exposition is agreeable to the plaine words, as also most answerable to S. Iohns intent. For if hee penned his Gospell (as the [...]ren. [...]. 3. ca. 11. Epip [...]an. [...]res. 51. Hie­ron. in [...]al [...] in Euangelist. Fathers haue noted) against E [...]ion and Corinthus: he confounds them in one word, and that the very first, in principio: for that had no beginning which was in the beginning, Ergo, Christ had not his first being from his mother Mary, nam quod ante omnia erat, semper erat, quoth [...]o [...] supra. Augustine, hee was alwaies, who was before all workes.

Was.] It is probable that Saint Iohn in this exordium B [...]a. [...]xamis in l [...]c. alludes Maldonat. per antithesin vnto Moses preface, Genes. 1. In the beginning God created heauen, &c. C [...]ry [...]st. The [...]. Arb [...]tens. hereby shew­ing the difference betweene the Creator and the crea­ture. For whereas Moses wrote, in the beginning God made heauen and earth, and all that in them is: our E­uangelist on the contrary saith, in the beginning was the [Page] word, not in the beginning God made the word. Khem. in loc. Insinu­ating that the word had his being already, when other creatures (of what sort soeuer) had but their beginning. And here Basil. Cyril. E [...]da, Aleui [...]us apud Mald [...]nat. Id m Iansen. Con. cap. 1. diuines haue distinguished acutely between fuit and erat, affirming that fuit imports a thing that once was, and is not now: so Scaliger in his Motto, Virgil. Aenead. 2. suimus Troes; whereas erat implyeth eternitie; which was, and which is, and which is to come, Apocal. 4.8. Saint Lib. 1. de fide ad Granat. cap. 5. Ambrose notes excellently, that this one verbe erat, is repeated heere foure times, in the beginning was the word, and the word was with God, and that word was God, the same was in the beginning, &c. Erat, erat, erat, erat, vbi impius invenit quod non erat?

The word] He saith not in the beginning was the son, Theophilact. Euthym. lest his reader should dreame of a carna [...] generation: but in the beginning was the word. Holy Scriptures or speeches of the Prophets and Apostles vttered by Gods appointment for the reuealing of his diuine will towards man, are called Gods word: but to [...]eza. distinguish God the Son from these words, hee is termed after a more e­minent sort [...], the word, or that excellent word, Erasmus. Jansen. Beaux [...]m. from whom euery diuine truth issueth, and in whom are hid all the treasures of wisedome and knowledge, Coloss. 2.3. Christ is not a vocall word, Donatus apud Rupert, in loc. verbum eò quod verberato a [...]re plectroque linguae formetur: for hee was in the beginning before there was any sound or aire. But Christ is the mentall, and substantiall word of hi [...] father, August. [...]pist. 112. cap. 12. Consule Mal­donat. Beauxam. [...]dib [...]r. Lud [...]lph, in loc. verbum non sonus auribus strepens, sed imago mentibus in­notesceus. As our Epistle for this day doth vnfold the Gospell, the brightnesse of his glory, and expresse image of his person.

Palladius vbi s [...]pra vtrum [...] clius [...] [...]bum, qu [...]m sermo. Vide I [...]nsen. Concord. cap. 1. & [...]r [...]s. an. in loc.
[...] ipse paterni
pectoris essigies, lumenque à lumine vero.

And the word was with God] Concerning the diuerse significations of the preposition apud: I referre you to Thomas Beauxamis, and Maldonat in their commenta­ries vpon this text. It imports here not a locall, but a [Page] [...]. M [...]a [...]. [...]. Beza. personall distinction. I and my Father (saith Christ) are one, Ioh. 10.30. v [...]um of one substance, not v [...] one person; and therefore he saith not in the singular, I and my father a [...] one: A [...]gus [...] re­tra. [...].lib. 1. [...]p 4. but in the plural, are on [...]. The Sonne is A [...]gus [...]in. de [...]. Des lib. 11 cap 10 & Lomb [...]rd. sent. 1 [...] 2. alius then the Father, not uliud, and her person albeit not another essence, [...] C [...]n [...]. non alius in natura sed alter in perso­na: for it is written here the word was so with God, as that it was God, first said to be with God, and then to be God, L [...]ius. [...] ­pal Mald [...]a [...] & B [...] C [...]r [...]st lib. 1 cap 6 § 9 an­tum ad [...]. signifying that the word was the same God with whom it was in the beginning. Am ros [...]ub [...] [...] sacrament. c. 3 Semper cum patre, sem­per in patre, semper apud patrem, & semper quoad pater. Here then obserue concerning the word Aqui [...]. three points especially.

  • 1 When it was in the beginning.
  • 2 Where it was, with God.
  • 3 What it was, and the word was God.

The pith of [...]. all is, that God the Son is a distinct per­son from God the Father, and yet of the same substance with the Father, equall in glory, coeternall in Maiesty. This one verse then ouerthroweth many blasphemous hereticks; [in the beginning] confureth Ebimites and Ce­rinthians. The clause [was with God] [...] [...]. Sabellians and o­ther denying a Trinitie in vn [...]ie, that is, a distinction of perso [...]s in the deity [was God] confoundeth Arians, and all such as with Augu [...]in. vers. 44. [...] affirme that Christ was a meere man [in the beginning with God] all [...]. [...]on­cord cap 1. Ennemians and A [...]s. such as hold Christ to be but a temporall God by grace, and not an eternall God by nature.

All th [...]ngs were made [...]y it, and without it was m [...]de no­ [...] made] As the epistle doth expound the Gos­pell, he [...]d the [...] of the earth, and the h [...]auens are the works of his hands, [...] 16. all things as well invisible as vi­sible▪ were created by him and for him, he made what [...] ­euer was made, and it was exceeding good, Genes. 1.31. But Satan as hee is a deuill, and sinne which came in­to the world by the suggestion of the deuill, and [Page] and death also which is brought vpon man as a curse by sinne, are not his workes. And the reason is plaine, be­cause that which is euill is a Augustin. Sololoq. cap 5 nothing, mali nutta natura est, sed amissio boni (quoth Deci it. Dei lib. 11 c. [...].9. Augustine) mali nomen acce­pit. And Apud Cu [...]aub. n [...]t. in epist. Nos [...]er. al Iustat. Gregorie Nyssen, Mali essentia in eo posita quod essentiam non habet: euery good and perfect gift is from aboue, comming downe from the father of lights, and with him is no variablenesse, neither shadow of ru [...]ning: Ard [...]sl [...]m. 4. Natal. d [...]m. It a confert b [...]na, quod non infert mala. See S. Augustine, tract. 1. in Ioan Bibliothec. Sixt. Senen. lib. 6. annot. 174. Mc­lan [...]. postil. & Eras. c [...]nnot. in loc.

The clause more proper to this Festiuall, and most pro­fitable for vs to be further examined, is, that the word be­came flesh, and dwelt among vs, &c. And this was Athanasius in symbo [...] vide B [...]arm. de in­carnat. Clnist. cap 4. not by conuersion of the God head into flesh, but by taking the manhood into God. August. ep. 120 cap. 36. Naturam suscipiendo nostram, non mutando suam. A [...]g [...]p 3. Homo quippe Deo accessit, non Deus à se recessit. For in the word made flesh all the fulnesse of the Godhead dwelleth (as the Scripture speaks) bodily, Col. 2.9. that is, Melanc. Com. in Ioan. 1. personally. For albeit he be God and man, yet is he not two, but one Christ: one, not by confusion of substance, but by vnitie of person. For as the reasona­ble soule and flesh is one man: so God and man one Christ. See Epist. Sund next before Easter.

The first newes of Christs actuall natiuitie was broach­ed and brought into the world (as we read in the second lesson appointed for this morning praier) by the tongues of Angels, and that with an ecce, Luk. 2.10.11 behold, I bring you ti­dings of great ioy, that shall be to all the people: that is, that vnto you is borne this day in the Citie of Dauid a Sauiour which is Christ the Lord. Reioice grandfather Adam, for on this day, according to the word of thy gratiou Cre­ator, the Gen. 3 15. seed of thy wife Eua hath bruised the serpent­head: reioice father Abraham, for on this day in thy seed all the nations of the earth are blessed, Ge. 22.18 Reioice King Dauid, for on this day God hath Ps. 132.11. fruit of thy body set a King vpon thy throne. Reioice ye Prophets [Page] of the Lord, for [...]ct 3.24. Luk 1.70. all your prophecies on this day were fulfilled. Reioice yee that are sicke, for on this day the Physitian of the world was borne. Reioice yee Virgins, for a Virgin on this day brought forth a sonne. Reioice ye children, for on this day the great God became a lit­tle babe. Let all people reioice, for that he who was in the beginning, and (as it is in the former lesson appointed for this morning praier) Esay [...].96 an euerlasting father, in the ful­nesse of time Gala [...]. 44. was made of a women, and Luk. 2.7. wrapped in swad­ling clothes. For that he who was the word, became an in­fant not able to speake one syllable. For th [...]t hee who was with God, did vouchsafe to dwell among vs, appearing in the shape of a man, Philip. 2.7. For that hee who was God, and therefore most mightie, became flesh, and so most weake, for all flesh is grasse, and the grace thereof as the flower of the field, Esay 40.6.

Saint Ser. 1. in na­ta [...]. D. m. Bernard preaching on this day, said the short­nes of the time constrained him to shorten his Sermon: and let none (quoth hee) wonder if my words be short, seeing on this day God the Father hath abbreuiated his owne word: for whereas his word was so long, as that it Ier 23.24. filled heauen and earth; it was on this day so short, that it was laid in a manger. I wish vnfainedly with the same deuout Ser. 3 in na­tal. D [...]m. Bernard, that as the word was made flesh, so my stonie heart might be made flesh also, that it might alway meditate on this heauenly Gospell, Vnto you is borne this day in the Citie of Dauid a Sauiour, which is Christ the Lord For all our sound comfort stands in hap­pinesse, and all our happinesse is in fellowship with God, and all our fellowship with God is by Christ. For God the Father (if wee consider him in his iustice) heares not sinners, Iohn 9.31. He therefore remembring his mer­cie, got as it were new eares, and set them on our head Iesus Christ, who being flesh of our flesh, is such an high Priest, as is Heb. 4.15. touched with the feeling of our infirmities, openly professing Ma [...]. 9 13. that hee came not to call the righte­ous, but sinners to repentance: Come to me all yee that [Page] are laden, and I will ease you▪ Mat. 11.28. Whatsoeuer yee shall aske the Father in my name he will giue it you. Iohn 16.23.

If thou wert invited to some great wedding, thou wouldest I am sure be very carefull what apparell to put on; but if thou wert to be maried thy selfe, thou woul­dest be very curious in thine attire: behold (saith Ser. 2. & 4. de temp. Au­gustine) all of vs are bidden on this day to a marriage, for Christ came out of the Virgins wombe as a bride­groome out of his chamber: the Godhead was ioyned vnto the flesh, and the flesh vnto the Godhead, and these two were coupled together, and after an ineffable man­ner in an ineffable marriage made one. Beleeue this, and thou shalt haue power to be Gods owne sonne, as it is in our text. My (beloued) if thou put on this wedding garment, thy soule shall be Christs own spouse, so nere, so deare to him, as that he will say to it Psalm. 35.3. I am thy saluation: and it may also tell him, I am my Can [...]. 6.2. welbeloueds, and my wel­beloued is mine. For if Hores last. ad an. 38. Pilate by wearing Christs coate without a seame did appease the wrath of angry Caesar: how much more shall euery true beleeuer please God our heauenly King, if he Rom. 13.14. put on Christ himselfe. Augus [...]in. ser. 9. de temp. O the blessed crying of a blessed babe, by which euery faithfull seruant and sonne of God escapeth eternall howling in hell. O glorious manger, in which our soules Manna lay; the Iohn 6 35. bread of life that came down from hea­uen, on which if a man feede hee shall not hunger a­gaine. O how rich are the ragges, which haue made plaisters for our sores, for our sinnes. I conclude with an hymne of P [...]ristep. hym. 10. Prudentius.

Mortale corpus sumpsit immortalitas,
Vt dum caducum portat aeternus Deus,
Transire nostrum posset ad coelestia.

The Epistle,

Act. 7. 55.

And Steuen being full of the holy Ghost, looked vp stedfastly with his eyes into heauen, &c.

YEsterday you heard how Christ was borne, to day you shall vnderstand how Steuen died: In Christs natiuitie, who was borne in a little village, and in an Inne of that village, and in a stable of that Inne, and laid in a cratch of that stable: wee may learne humilitie not to boast of our great birth. In S. Steuens martyrdome wee may behold an excellent patterne how to behaue our selues at our death, hauing faith in God, and loue to­ward our neighbours, the which assuredly will breed such a Christian resolution in vs, as that wee shall depart this life cheerefully, lying downe in our graues as in a bed to sleepe; for so the text here, when hee had thus spo­ken, be fell a sleepe. The Church then in ioyning these two festiuals, is desirous that wee should learne to liue well as Christ: and dye well as Steuen. In the words of Ser. 1. de S. Stephane. Au­gustine, Celebra [...]imus hester na die natalem quo rex mar [...]y­rum natus est in [...]ndo, hodie cel bramus natalem quo primi­carius martyr [...]um migra [...] ex mundo. Oportebat enim v [...] pri­ [...]um immortalis pro mortalibus susciperet carnem, & sie mortalis pro immortals contemneret mortem. Et ideo natus est Dominus vt more [...]etur pro seruo, ne ser [...] timeret mori pro domino. Na [...] est Christus in terris, vt Stephanu [...] nasce­retur in c [...]lis, &c. And I pray with the Ser. 3. de S. Stephan [...]. same Father hartily, donet mihi dominus p [...]ca dicere salubriter, qui do­ [...]uit Stephane tanto dicere fartiter.

[Page]In the whole text two points are to be consi­dered especi­ally the

  • bloudy behauiour of the Iewes in martyring Steuen.
  • godly behauiour of Steuen in his mar­tyrdome. toward
    • God in
      • generall, hee sted­fastly looked vp into heauen, and called vpon God.
      • particular, Lord Iesus receiue my spirit.
  • Men, heartily praying for his enemies on his knees, with a loud voice, Lord, lay not this sinne to their charge.
  • Himselfe, vndergoing his martyrdome so comfortably, that gi­uing vp the ghost hee laid downe his head vpon the hard stones as vpon a soft pillow to sl [...]epe.

The Iewes in their blind zeale were so furious and mercilesse, that they put Steuen to death, who sought to bring them to eternall life; stoning him as a Act. 6.11.13. blasphe­mer against God and his law, who was a man full of faith, and power, and the holy Ghost. An harsh and an hard fact of a stonie people saith Apud Lori [...]. in loc. Augustine, ad lapides currebant, duri ad duros, & Petris [...] qui pro Petra, qui Christus est moriebatur.

Arat. [...]. lib. 1. [...]m. [...]ct.
Lapides Indaearebellis
In Stephanum lymphata rapis, quae crimine duro saxe [...] semper eris.

[Page]But of their crueltie toward Steuen, and other Pro­phets of God: in the Gospell appointed for this day more copiously. The most obseruable point in our pre­sent text is the godly behauiour of Steuen in his martyr­dome, 1. to God, he looked vp stedfastly with his eyes into heauen, &c. Para [...]us ser. de S. Stephans. As to the place where his Mat. 6.10. treasure was, his Philip. 3.10. conuersation was, his helpe was. Aretius. Hereby teaching vs whether we should flie for succour in aduersitie, not vnto men here below: but vnto God in heauen aboue. so Dauid, Psal. 120.1. When I was in trouble, I called vpon the Lord, and hee heard me, Psal. 121.2. my helpe commeth euen from the Lord. So Iob, my witnesse is in heauen, and my record is on high. And so S. Iames, euery good gift is from According to which our most idustrious Queene Anne gaue for her word in the lot­tery 1612. La mia Gran­dezza dal et­celsa. aboue.

Calling vpon God, and saying Lord.] Thomas Becket a renowned Vide Baron, Mars R [...]m an­not, in decem. 29. & Stapleton in vita Th. m. cantuar. Martyr and Saint among the Papists, at his death earnestly Reg. Heuen­den, annal. part. poster pag. 298. commended himselfe and his cause to the protection of S. Mary, but our protomartyr heere (knowing that shee was Erentius as [...] Marlorat in loc. neque magistra neque ministra, neither mistresse of his soule, nor yet a ministring spi­rit to his soule) forgetting our Lady, calleth vpon our Lord only, saying, Lord Iesu receiue my spirit, the which is not an invocation of God the Father, (as Disputat. Alb. na 3. Fran. Dauid impiously taught, making Iesu the Genitiue case, and the meaning thus, O Father in heauen which art the Lord of thy sonne Iesu) but (as Lib. 3. de fide algrat. cap. vit. Ambrose notes) a pray­er vnto God the Sonne, for besides infinite places of ho­ly Scripture (whe [...]e Christ is called Lord, and called vp­on as the Lord.) S. Iohn Apocalips, 22.20. vseth as Ste­uen here Iesu in the vocatiue Case, etiam veni Domine Iesu, euen so come Lord Iesus. Where (Domine Iesu) cannot bee construed the Lord of Iesus, but the Lord Iesus. See Lorin, in loc. & Bellarmine de Christo, lib. 1. cap. 8.

If the Lord be considered without Iesus, howsoeuer in regard of his power he is able, yet in regard of his iu­stice not willing: the good Angels and blessed Saints in heauen are willing but not able: wretched vncharitable [Page] men on earth are neither able nor willing: onely Christ the Mediator betweene God and man is both able and willing to heare vs and helpe vs; able, because Lord: willing, because Iesus. And therefore Steuen here doth not inuocate the Lord, but in the name of Iesus, neither doth he call vpon any Iesus but the Lord Iesus: he lookes not for any succour either from men on earth, or blessed spirits in heauen: onely hee poureth out his soule to the redeemer of his soule, Lord Iesu receiue my spirit.

Receiue.] He knew that his life was Coloss. 3.3. hid with Christ in God, and therefore commendeth his soule to him alone who created it, and redeemed it, and iustified it, and san­ctified it, and will in his good time glorifie it. O Lord Iesu, take thine owne into thine owne custodie; seeing I am now to leaue this life, receiue my spirit. Heere then against the Sadduces in Christs age, and Atheists in our time, we may note the soules immortalitie, Mat. 22.32 for God is not the God of the dead, but of the liuing. Again, that al soules departed are in certaine receptacles vntill the generall iudgement, they do not obambulate and wander vp and downe, but remaine in places and states of happinesse or vnhappinesse, either in the hands of God, or in the De­uils prison: and therefore all the daies of our life, but especially at the houre of our death, it behooueth vs to say and pray with S. Steuen, O Lord Iesu receiue my spirit.

My.] Charitie begins with it selfe, malice with ano­ther: in our idle busie time men are very sollicitous lest God lay this or that sinne to their enemies charge; but wee may tell them as Christ did other in another cause, Luk. 23.28. W [...]epe not for me, but for your selues. If your deuotion be so great, and your praiers so good, pray first for your selues, for you peraduenture haue more need; and then wish well and do well vnto your enemies, as Steuen here, first, Lord Iesus receiue my spirit: and then Lord Iesus forgiue their sinne.

Spirit.] Most men are all for the bodie, nothing for their soule: but S. Stephen is all (as it should seeme) for [Page] the soule, and nothing for the bodie. For what is a man profited if he should gaine the whole world, and lose his owne soule, i Mat. 16.26. saith our blessed Sauiour: by which Apophthegme it doth appeare, that euery soule in it selfe is of greater price then a whole world, but thy soule vnto thy selfe ought to be of greater account then a million of worlds, if (as Empedoiles and La [...]t. in vi­sa Dem [...]crit. Dem [...]critus imagined) there were so many: saue this, and saue all; lose [...]his, and lose all: and therefore let thy whole life be nothing else but a me­ditation of death; and that thou maist die well as Steuen, endeuour to liue well as Steuen Howsoeuer it goe with thy goods, or good name, be sure to looke well vnto thy soule; that whether thou die for the Lord, or in the Lord, thou maist cheerfully deliuer it vp vnto the Lord, as Steuen here, Lord Iesu receiue my spirit.

Vnto faith in God he doth adioine loue to men, with­out which all his praying, and kneeling, and crying, yea dying had been but as a 1. Cor. 13. l. 3. sounding braise and a tinckling Cimball. Of loue there be two principall offices, one to giue, another to forgiue. S. Steuen is an excellent pat­terne of both, of the latter especially, praying for his hatefull enemies August. ser. 5. de S. Steph. euen at that houre when hee could scarce gaine time to thinke on his friends. It is said, 1. Peter 2.21. That Christ suffered for vs, leauing vs an example. Now Christ on the Crosse praied for his per­secu [...]ors earnestly, Luke 23.34 Father forgiue them, for they know not what they doe. Pendebat, & samen patebat, a, Ser. 4. de S. Stephano. Au­gustine sweetly. S. Steuen followed his masters example, Lord, lay not this sinne to their charge. The which praier is clothed with two circumstances, hee kneeled downe, shew­ing his reuerence to God: and cried with a loud voice, manifesting his vnfained affection toward them. Vnto the top of which exceeding great charitie there are three degrees.

  • 1. He praied for enemies.
  • 2. For mortall enemies who stoned him.
  • 3. In hot bloud, at that time when they did wrong [Page] him most, as being more sory for their riot, then for his owne ruine. For
    Iller: mim­pietatem [...]. or [...] sequebau. [...] e­terna, buius eu­tem moriem vita perpetua. Aug. ser. 5. de Stephano.
    eternall death is the wages of such a sinne, but euerlasting life, the Crowne of such a suf­fering.

Hee kneeled downe] God is the Lord of the body, so well as of the soule, and therefore challengeth as well reuerent gesture, as inward deuotion: in praying then either stand as a seruant before thy Master, or kneele as a subiect to thy Prince. Dan. 6.10. Daniel prayed kneeling, Act. 9.40. Pe­ter prayed kneeling, Act. 20.36. Paul prayed kneeling, Luk 22.41. Christ himselfe kneeling, and the Cont. 2. col. 117. Magdeburgenses acknow­ledge this gesture to be most ancient, and most vsuall a­mong the children of God in all ages, and therefore not to kneele in the congregation argueth either ignorance, or arrogancei. For seeing all of vs are Gods adopted sons, and not borne to the good we possesse: it behoueth vs when we come before our Father, especially to craue his blessing, to be dutifull and humble in our cariage.

Concerning kneeling at the Lords Supper: if the Church haue power and authority to change the time, commanding vs to receiue the Communion in the mor­ning, whereas Christ administred it in the 1 Cor. 11.23. night: to change the place, for whereas Christ ordained his Sup­per in a Mat. 26.18. priuate house, wee communicate in a Temple: to change the number and qualities of the persons, deli­uering the Sacrament vnto more then twelue, and to women as well as men: I see no reason but it hath au­thoritie likewise to change the gesture. The time was altered because for this sacrifice the morning is the most fit time: the place was altered, because the Church is the most fit place: The gesture was altered also (being a matter not of the Sacraments essence, but of outward order onely) because kneeling is the most fit gesture, for Protestants especially, who deny the grosse reall pre­sence, and hold the Lord, Supper an Eucharist, or thanksgiuing vnto God for the redemption of the world by the death of his Sonne: giuing of thankes is a part of [Page] prayer, and in prayer no gesture so fit as kneeling. De­uout Hi. ron. episted Marcel. de la. astus As [...]a Asella did vse geniculation in prayer so much, as that her knee; were made brawnie like the knees of a Camel. See Step durant de ritibus Eccles. lib. 3. cap. 24.

It is very remarkeable that Steuen here stood when he prayed for himselfe, but kneeled when he prayed for his enemies: hereby shewing the greatnesse of their Augustin ser. 2 de S. Ste­phano. impiety which easily could not be forgiuen, as also the greatnesse of his Caseta [...]s. in [...]c. piety, Augustin se [...]. 5. de S. Ste­phano. Qui plus illorum dolebat pecea­sa quam sua vulnera. For this end hee cryed also with a loud voice, magnus clamor magnus amor: Or as Iuses. Caie­tan, he cryed with a loud voice for others instruction and example, that we might be followers of him as hee was a follower of Christ.

Lay not this sin to their charge] The Mat. 5.43. Scribes in their glosses on the Law said expresly, thou shalt loue thy neighbour, and hate thine enemie. Lombard. 3. sent. dist. 30. Thomas 22. quest. 25 art. 9 gloss in Mat. 5. S. 25. sen. [...]. theo. lib 6. a [...]t. 27. Some Papists also thinke that the words of our Sauiour (resist not euill, and loue your enemies) are not absolute precepts, but onely counsels: according to this doctrine the Castilians (as I haue Exhortation to the Princes of Europe by a pilgrim [...] Spa­niard pag 25. read) since the battell of Alijabarto would not suffer any to preach vpon the friday in the first weeke of Lent, because the Church on that day sings inimicos dili­gite, loue your enemies. And Lanquet. ad an. dem. 706. Iustinian being restored againe to his Empire, shewed extreame crueltie toward his aduersaries and their allies; for as often as he moued his hand to wipe the filth from his nose which was cut off, hee commanded one of his enemies to bee put to death. Wherefore seeing to loue our enemies in the iudgment of some men is against Gods law, and of o­ther beside the law: seeing many men in their precepts, and most men in their practise manifestly shew that it is an hard saying: Saint Steuens charity doth appeare to be great in blessing such as cursed him, and in praying for such as did hurt him.

Iob renowmed in holy Scripture for his patience, said, Iob 31.35. If mine aduersarie should write a booke against me, would I [Page] not take it vpon my shoulder, and binde it as a crowne vnto me? But Steuen surpassing Iob (as Orat. de S. Stephano. Gregorie Nyssen ob­serues) esteemed the very ring of his persecutors, where­with he was enclosed on euery side, his crown, and euery stone flung at his head a pretious diamond, Lorin. in lec. so that it might haue beene said of him, as it was of Dauid: Psal. 21.3. The Lord preuented him with the blessings of goodnesse, and set a crowne of De lapide preti. so. vulgar. Latin. Consule Acostam. con. de S. Stephano. pretious stones vpon his head. Our goods are sweet vnto vs; and therefore wee can hardly forgiue the theese: our good name sweeter; and therefore wee doe more hardly forgiue the slanderer: but our life most sweet, (Iob 2.4. Skinne for skinne, and all that euer a man hath will he giue for it) and therefore most hardly doe we forgiue murtherers and martyrers: in hot blood especially while they wring vs and wrong vs: and yet Steuen full of the holy Ghost, and therefore full of loue, Augustin. ser. 5. de S. Steph. in persecutione po­situs pro persecutoribus orabat, in the middest of his per­secution heartily praied for his persecutors, O Lord Iesu, lay not this sinne to their charge. Our sinnes not forgiuen are Psal. 50.21. set before vs, and as enemies in Lorin. in loc. battell fighting a­gainst vs, a pillar of infamie to disgrace the wicked in this, and the next life: the which (as In Psal. 33. Basil thinkes) is more grieuous to their soule then hell fire. So that the Aret. in loc. meaning of S. Steuen is in saying (lay not this sinne to their charge) that God would giue them a better minde, and not impute this offence, but rather to burie this and all other their sinnes in his death and graue, that they neuer rise vp againe to worke desperation in this world, or destruction in the world to come. Ser. 1. de Stephano. S. Augustine brings in Steuen speaking thus vnto God: Ego patior, ego lapidor, in me sauiunt & in me fremunt; sed ne statuas illis hoc peccatum, quia vt dicamtibi à te primo audiui. Ego ser­uus t [...]us patior, sed muleum interest inter me & te; tu domi­nus, ego, eruus; tu verbum, ego auditor verbi; tu magister, ego discipulus; tu Creator, ego creatus; tu Deus, ego homo; multum interest inter peccatum istorum qui lapidant me, & illorum qui crucifixerunt te: quando ergo dixisti, Pater [Page] ignosce illis, quia nesciunt quid faciunt, pro magno peccato pe­tisti, & me pro minimo petere docuisti: domine ne statuas illis hoc peccatum; ego patior in carne, isti non pereant in mente. Now the Lord heard his praier, and granted his request, Caluin. in loc. in that Saul had not this sinne said to his charge, as 1. Tim 1.13. himselfe witnesseth I was a blasphemer, and a perse­cutor, and an oppressor: but I was receiued to mercy, for I did it ignorantly through vnbeleefe. So that Vbi sup. Au­gustine is bold to say, Si Stephanus non sic orasses, ecclesia Paulum non haberet. And Ser. de S. Stephano. Fulgentius, Quo pracessis Ste­phanus trucidatus lapidibus Pauli, illuc sequutus est Paulus adiutus orationibus Stephani.

When hee had thus spoken.] Vttering such excellent words, and with such a resolute spirit, and in such a re­uerent fashion: after he had thus spoken for the matter, and thus for the manner; giuing vnto God the life of his soule, forgiuing his persecutors the death of his bo­die, hee sweetly slept in the Lord. Christus pro nobis ho­minem induit. Stephanus pro Christo hominem exuit, as Orat. de S. Stephano. Gregorie Nyssen elegantly. Christ became man for Ste­uen, and Steuen became no man for Christ, hominem ex­uit, he so willingly put off his flesh, as a man would put off his clothes at night, and so death as welcome to him as steepe to the wearie: when he had thus spoken, hee fell asleepe.

To Aret in loc. mitigate deaths horror, it is called often in holy Scripture sleepe. So the text saith of 1 King. 2.10 Dauid, and of 1. Kin. 11.43 Sa­lomon, and of other Kings of Israel and Iuda, that they slept with their fathers. In the new Testament also such as are dead in the Lord, are said to 1. Cor. 15.18 sleepe in Christ. I would not haue you (saith 1 Thess 4.13 Paul) ignorant concerning them which are asleepe, &c. For this cause many are weake and sicke among you, and many sleepe, 1. Cor. 11.30. For man in his graue sleepeth, and waketh not againe till the heauen be no more, Iob 14.12. So great a resemblance the Gentiles acknowledged between dying and sleeping, that Ouid cals sleepe Lib. 2. de art. amant. mortis imago, deaths image; Aenead. 6. Idem re [...]at. Aug epist. 120 cap. 33. Virgil [Page] consanguineus lathi, the kinsman of death: Her furen. act. 4. in Chore. Idem Homer. & O [...]pleus. Seneca the brother of death, and Hesiode the sister of death. Among infinite comparisons I finde that death is principally li­kened vnto sleepe,

In Caiet in loc. respect of the

  • Rest of the dead.
  • Resurrection of the dead.

Concerning the first: it is said by the Apec. 14.13 spirit, Blessed are the dead in the Lord, for they rest from their labore, and so God Psal. 127.3. giueth his beloued sleepe. The coffin is a couch, Ambros. ser. 28. in que mollius ille dormit, quisquis durius in vit a se gesserit. I finde in the records of antiquitie, that a Se­pulchre is called Vide Lorin. in loc. requietorium, a bed of Tul. lib. 2. de legibus. Cambriitem v [...]cant sepul­chrum, B [...]. sacred rest and securitie, which Valerius Probus expressed in these let­ters, H.R.I.P. Hic requiescet in pace, and Pet. Diaconus in other, D.M.S. Dormiunt mortus securi.

G [...]ienardin. de Iacob. Triul. milite.
Hic mortuius requiescit semel,
Qui viuus requieuit nunquam.

But here we must obserue, Caluin. Arolius. that our soule sleepes not in the dust, as our body till our last dome: For the soules of the reprobate at their death are Luk. 12 20. fetched away from them, and carried into Luk. 16.23. hell. But the soules of such as die in the Lord, instantly liue with the Lord, conueied by the glorious Angels into Abrahams bosome, Luk. 16. 22. So Christ Luk. 23.43. expresly to the theese on the Crosse, Ve­rily I say to thee, this day shalt thou be with me in Para­dise. Ambros. de bono matu, cap. 8. Anima absoluitur, corpus resoluitur: quae absoluitur, gaudet; quod resoluitur in terram suam, nihil sentit. And so the Saints departed are dead in their worst part onely, but liuing in their best: euen in that wherein they de­sire to liue most, as an Heathen Marti [...]. E­pigram. lib. 6. Epigram. 18. Poet diuinely:

Sed lugere nefas, nam quite (Prisce) reliquit,
V [...]t qua volnit viuere partemagis.

And therefore though the Psalm. 79.2. dead bodies of Gods ser­uants haue beene giuen as meat to the sowles of the aire, and their flesh vnto the beasts of the land; yet Psal. 116 13 right deare in the sight of the Lord is the death of his Saints. And these things (as Lib. de [...]. ra [...], cap. 2. Augustine note,) are spoken in the [Page] Psalme not to shew the Martyrs infelicitie, but in ampli­fication of the murtherers inhumanitie. For the Apos. 20.13. sea shall giue vp the dead in it, and the glorious Angels in the last day shall Mat. 24 31. gather together all Gods elect from the foure winds, and from the one end of the heauen to the other, and then this 1. Cor. 15 53 corruptible shall put on incor­ruption, and this mortall immortalitie; then our bodie which hath a long time slept in the graue, shall be rou­sed vp againe by the sound of the 1. Thes. 4.16 trumpet, and raised vp againe by the power of our blessed Sauiour, who di­ed for our sinnes, and rose againe for our iustification. And then he shall change our Philip. 3.21. vile bodie, that it may be fashioned like vnto his glorious bodie. Then he which is the Iohn 11.25. resurrection and the life, shall giue vs our perfect consummation in bodie and soule in his eternall glory. Iob 19.25. Iob in his greatest extremitie said, I am sure that my Re­deemer liueth, and though after my skinne wormes destroy this bodie, yet shall I see God in my flesh. Possidonius in vita Aug. cap. 17. Ambrose being readie to depart out of this world, told his acquaintance, Non sic vixi vt me pudeat inter vos viuere: sed nec mori ti­meo, quia bonum dominum habemus: I haue not so liued among you, that I am ashamed to liue: neither doe I feare to die, because we serue a good Lord. Perkins tract. of dying well. Idem re­feri Simon Grinaeus de cius vita & obitu. Oecolam­padius to his friend visiting him at the point of death, What shall I say to you, newes, I shall be shortly with Christ my Lord. The renowned Martyr Babilas (when Baron. annal. Tom 1 ad an. 253 & marty­releg Rom. Ianuary 24. Decius the cruell Emperour had commanded his head to be chop­ped off) Magdeburg. cent. 3. col. 305. vsed the words of the Psal. 116.7. Psalmist, O my soule returne to thy rest. And Steuen here stoned to death, is said Terminis terminantibus, to sleepe in the Lord. Pet. Damian. ser. de S. Steph. Felix somnus cum requie, requies cum voluptate, volupt as cum ater­nitate.

The Gospell

MATTH. 23.34.

I send vnto you Prophets, and wise men, and Scribes, &c.

IT is a good obseruation in the Churches historie, that these three commonly succeed each other. Magdeburg. epist. prefix. cent. 5. Ingentia beneficia, ingentia peccata, ingentes pocnae. The present Gos­pell is an example hereof, in which all the same points are very remarkable.

1 Ingentia beneficia, Christs exceeding great mercy toward the Iewes in seeking their conuersion as well by himselfe, as his messengers. And those Prophets, and wisemen, and Scribes, and that not once but often: how often would I haue gathered? and that not cursorily, but Theophylact. Euthym. Aquin. earnestly; Ierusalem, Ierusalem, not coldly, but affecti­onately, like as the benne gathereth her chickens vnder her wings.

2 Ingentia peccata, the Iewes exceeding great malice toward Christ, abusing his

  • meanes, ye would not.
  • ministers
    • of all sorts
      • Prophets.
      • Wisemen.
      • Scribes.
    • with all kind of iniury,
      • Killing.
      • Crucifying.
      • Stoning.
      • Scourging.
      • Persecuting.
    • in all places, not sparing so much as the Sanctuarie, whom yee shew be­tweene the temple and the altar.
    • At all times, for it is not heere, thou that hast killed in time past, or thou that wilt kill in [Page] time to come: but in the present, thou that killest and sto­nest.
      [...].
      Intimating their continuall habit in killing the Prophets, and stoning such as were sent vnto them. As if he should haue said,
      Math. at.
      qua occidissi, & occides, & occi­sara es.

3. Ingentes paere, both in respect of the

  • Guilt, that vpon you may come all the righteous bloud, &c.
  • Punishment, behold, your house is left vnto you deso­late.

Or as [...] 3. in loc. other, their punishment is threefold,

  • Temporall, your house is left vnto you desolate.
  • Spirituall, yee shall not see mee hence­forth.
  • Eternall, that vpon you may come all the righteous blood.

Wherefore behold] This Maldorat. Idea renders not there son why Christ did send Prophets vnto this people; but im­ports the true cause why they persecuted such as were sent: namely, because they were serpents, and a generation of [...]pers, as it is in the words immediately going be­fore. [...] [...] 10. cap. 62. Vipers are conceiued by byting off the males head, and borne by renting the females belly: so they killed their spirituall Fathers the Prophets,a [...] M [...]r. 3.7. and rent in sander the compassionate bowels of their deare mother the Church.

I send] [...] 10.15. How shall they preach except they be sent, no man ought to take that honour vnto himselfe but he that is called of God. Heb. 5.4. [...] [...] Here then obserue that Christ is very God, taking vpon him as the master of the Math. 10.8. vineyard, and Lord of the Math. 9.32. haruest, to thrust forth la­bourers into the Church. [...]. It is a token of his mercy to send Prophets, and Wisemen, and Scribes vnto any nation, and an infassible demonstration of his seuere iudgment not to send: according to that of the Prophet Amos in [Page] his 8. chapter at the 11. verse: Behold, the daies come, saith the Lord, that I will send a famine in the land, not a fa­mine of bread, nor a thirst for water, but of hearing the word of the Lord.

Prophets, and Wisemen, and Scribes.] Howsoeuer all these may be Acost. in loc. ex Hilar. & Chrys [...]st. confounded, and meet in one, yet I thinke with Coman loc. Hierome, and Soarez. Musculus. Marlot. in loc. other expositors, that Christ vsed so many tearmes to shew the riches and 1. Cor. 12.4. diuersities of his grace, ordaining some to be Apostles, and some Pastor, and teachers, Ephes. 4.11. As if hee should haue said, I will omit no meanes for your conuersion, I will send vnto you messengers endued with all varietie of gifts, administrations, and operations. Some distinguish Prophets, and Wisemen, and Scribes after this sort: Perus ser. 3. de S Stephano. Pro­phetae sunt, quifutura praenunciant; Sapientes, qui recte prae­sentibus vtuntur; Scribae, qui praeterita nobis in memoriam, reuocant.

God hath dealt with England as with Iewrie, speaking vnto vs Ier. 7.13. early and late by his Wickliffes and Whit gifts, Bilwys and Bradfords: giuing vs his Latymors and Rid­leys, and other Iewels of all sorts: vsing all kindes of mes­sengers, adorned with all kindes of gifts; sending zea­lous Preachers endowed with the spirit of prophecie, po­liticke Prelates endued with the spirit of wisdome, iudici­ous and accurate writers endued with the spirit of know­ledge, who like learned Scribes Mat. 13.52. taught vnto the kingdome of heauen, are able to bring forth out of their treasure things both new and old. Ierusalem had many Prophets, and great is the number of our Preachers. England affoords an Eli for an Eliah, and a Matthew for a Matthew, &c. In the first obseruable point of our text concerning In­gentia beneficia, Gods owne people, the Iewes and wee parallell.

And some of them shall yee kill and crucifie.] Some they killed, as Act. 12.2. Iames the brother of Iohn, with the sword. Some they crucified, as Peter, and Christ him­selfe the Lord of life, Act. 3.15. Some they scourged, as [Page] Paul, for thus hee p.c. writes of himselfe: Of the Iewes fiue times receiued I fortie stripes saue one; I was twice beaten with rods. Some they persecuted from Citie to Citie. as Bar­nabas. Act. 13.50 Some they vexed with all these kindes of cruelties, as S. Steuen on this day. They gnashed at him with their teeth, Act. 7.54. and scourged him with their tongues, suborning men which said, we haue heard him speake blasphemous words against Moses and God, Act. 6.11. They brought him to the Act. 6.12. Councell, and Act. 7 58. cast him out of the Citie. They persecuted him in words, dispu­ting against him; and in deed, despighting him, vntill in fine they stoned this holy Prophet sent vnto them. In a word, they made such Act. 8.3. hauocke of the Church, as that the messengers of God complained out of the bitternesse of their spirit; Psal. 44.22. R [...]m. 8.36. For thy sake are wee killed all the day long, and are counted as sheepe appointed to be slaine.

Sanguine fundata est ecclesia sanguine creuit,
Sanguine decres [...]it, sanguine finis erit.

Yet for all this let no Preacher or professor discourage himselfe, for S. Steuen in the middest of his afflictions (as it is recorded in this daies Epistle) saw the heauens o­pen, and Iesus standing at the right hand of God. It is said in the Creed, that Christ sitteth at the right hand of God: but when his faithfull seruant Steu [...]n was martyred, hee was standing. Now then if Christ stand with vs, who can withstand vs? happily we may weepe for a time, but all teares shall be wiped away from our eies: Apoc. 21. the Father of mercies, and God of all comfort shall assist vs in our tribulation so gratiously, that a [...] the sufferings of Christ abound in vs, euen so our consolation shall abound through Christ. 2 Cor. [...].3.5.

[...]. Mystically heretick scourge Catholicks with their ve­nomous tongues, & by labouring to thrust them out of their holds [...] 2.10. built vpon the foundation of the Prophets and Apostle, into new found habitations, raised vpon the Ma [...]. 7 26. sands of humane C [...]los. 2.8. philosophie; what doe they but persecute them (as it were) from Citie to Citie? The Pagans [Page] first, and the Papists afterward did actually kill, and cru­cifie and scourge, and persecute the Saints of God in this Iland, as well Abel as Zachary, Ardens. Anselm. Caietan. in loc. that is, the laymen and the Clergie, the lowest of the people, so well as the high­est of the Priests. And albeit in our time wee need not happily feare their murthering; yet wee still feele their murmuring against vs. And with them are ioyned ano­ther generation of Vipers, I meane the schismaticall brood, whipping vs in their words, and scourging vs in their writings, according to their will and wit hourely killing the Prophets, and stoning such as are sent vnto them. For whereas there be two kinds of death, one naturall, another ciuill. If any discredit the good life, or discoun­tenance the sound doctrine of his Pastor, by raising false tales, and suborning false witnesses against him, as the Iewes against Steuen: what doth hee but ciuilly, or ra­ther indeed vnciuilly like a Iew murther his Preacher. And such a Minister as patiently beares these wrongs, and suffers these dilapidations in his credit, is a very Ste­uen, a meere Martyr. For (as Apud disci­pul [...]m ser. 13. de S. Stephano. Gregory notes) there bee three kinds of martyrdome without any shedding of blood. 1. To be patient in our owne misery. 2. To bee compassionate in anothers aduersitie. 3. To loue our enemies hartily. Thus in the second part of our text al­so touching ingentia peccatae, the Iewes and English are parallels.

That vpon you may come all the righteous blood, which hath been shed vpon earth, from the blood of the righteous Abel vnto the blood of Zacharias.] Here two questions are moued: First, who was this Zacharias. Secondly, how all the righteous bloud shed vpon earth is required of this generation. Concerning the first: it is thought by Apud Hier. & Euthym. in loc. some that this Zacharias is that Zacharie numbred among the twelue lesser Prophets, in that his Zach. 1.1. fathers name well agrees with this historie. But that opinion is censured as improbable, because the Scripture saith not any where that this Prophet was slaine between the Tem­ple [Page] and the altar. [...] Other affirme that this Zacharias is the father of Iohn the Baptist, mentioned Luk. [...].5. of whom it is reported by tradition, that the Iewes [...]lew him betweene the Temple and the Altar, for that as hee was a Priest, he did ranke Mary the mother of Christ, af­ter she had conceiued and brought forth her sonne, with vnspotted Virgins in the Temple. But saith In [...]. Hierom [...], [...] de scripturis non habet [...] [...]o [...]itatem, eadem facili­tate c [...]temnitur qu [...] probatur. [...]. Other hold that this Za­charias is that zealou Zacharias the sonne of Ieho [...]ada, who (for that hee did openly rebuke the Iewes for their abominable Idolatrie) was stoned by them in the court of the house of the Lord 2. Chro. 24.21. Neither is their a­ny contradiction between the sonne of Barach [...]as, and the sonne of [...]: seeing Ieho [...]a might haue two names, or else called Bar [...]chi [...] (in the Hebrew signify­ing blessed of the Lord) because [...] the Priest 12 C [...]ro 24.16. had done good in Israel, and toward God and his house. For mine owne part, I coniecture that this Zacharias is hee, who was martyred at the beginning of the siege of Ie­rusalem in the daies of Vespasian the Romane Empe­rour. For the [...] lib. 5. cap. 1. story saith expresly, that he was the sonne of Baruch or [...]arachias, and that hee was slaine by the Iewes in the mi [...]est of the Temple. The clause (whom yee [...] serue [...] to crosse this exposition a little, but it is auoi­ded easily, [...]. because Christ here speaking prophetically, reports that to be done, which was yet to come. This interpretation of all the rest, amplifieth most as well the sinne, as the punishment of the Iewes; in that all the righteous blood from the first Martyr among them vnto the last, euen from [...] vnto [...] while the [...] City was [...] is laid vnto their cha [...]ge.

Touching the second doubt: wee read in holy Bible that there be two generations, one good, another bad: a [...]. blessed generation of the faithful, e [...]en of such as Psal. 24.6. feare God; and a generation of [...], as Christ in thi [...] present chapter. As then the generation of such as Heb 13.17. obey [Page] their ouerseers, and kisse the R [...]m. 10 15. feet of such as bring glad tidings of peace, shall receiue the Mat. 10.41. reward of a Prophet: euen so the generation of such as kill the Prophets, and [...]one such as are sent vnto them, if they fulfill the Mat. 23.32. mea­sure of their fathers sinne, they shall haue their portion and proportion in their fathers punishment also. For al­beit Ez [...]ch. 18.20. the sonne shall not beare the iniquitie of the fa­ther, neither shall the father beare the iniquitie of the sonne: Hieron. Caluin. Musculus in l [...]c. yet if the sonne [...] are partners with their pa­rents, in imitation the Mat 23 31. children of such as murthered the Prophets, as the Iewes were the sons of Cain, in slay­ing the righteous Abels. If Cain and all the bloudy Iewes a [...] well after as vnder the Law, make the same generation, vnited in fact and faction, it is in God very good iustice that all the righteous bloud shed from the Luk. 11.50. foundation of the world should be required of this genera­tion. Euthym. in loc. For he who readeth often, and seeth almost daily the seuere iudgments of God vpon sinners, and yet him­selfe continueth in the same sinne, deserues worthily to be punished with as many stripes as he neglected exam­ples. He that knowes how Cain was a runagate on earth, and how the clamour of his brother Abels bloud entred into the eares of God in heauen, and how this cry was a voice; vox sanguinum, a voice of bloods in the plurall, namely, the voice of the bloud shed, and of all the bloud which might haue come of that bloud, if it had not been shed. Againe, hee that hea [...]e of the lamentable destru­ction of Ierusalem, how her magnificent Temple was made d [...]selate, and the glorious Towers of her Citie were laid Luk. 19.44. euen with the ground; and all this for that shee killed the Prophets, and stoned such as were sent vnto her. Hee that reads and beleeues the [...]e things, and yet is an obstinate despiser of prophecie, killing, crucifying, secur­ [...], persecuting the m [...]ssengers of the Lord from City to City: shall receiue greater damnation then either Cain or Ierusalem, as hauing negle [...]ed greater m [...]nes of sal­uation. For Rom. 15.4 all things are written for our learning, but [Page] these things (I meane Gods extraordinarie iudgments vpon notorious sinners) are written more principally 1 C [...]r. 10.11. for our examples vpon whom the ends of the world are come. See Epist 9 Sund. after Trinitie.

How often would I haue gathered thy children] How often by the mouth of my Origin. B [...]llinger. P [...]scat [...]r. Prophets, how often by mine Apostles, how often by mine owne selfe: C [...]nsule Aug. quaest. euangel. lib. 1. cap. 36. & Marlorat. in loc. as the louing Hen is alway caring for her chickins, alway clucking and calling them if they wander out of her [...]ight neuer so little, that she may gather them vnder her wings, and so guarde them from the mischiefe of the Kite: euen so Ierusalem, I would haue gathered thy Children vnder the wings of my protection, I would haue kept thee and thine from the iawes of thy rauenous enemie Sathan, and from the hands of all such as hate you, but yee would not. Hos. 13.9. O Israel, thou hast destroyed thy selfe, but in me is thine helpe: now this ought to be construed either of Christs humane will as he was man, or else of his condi­tionall and reuealed will as he was God; otherwise Gods absolute will is effected alway, Psal. 135.6 both in heauen, and earth and hell: it was the conditionall will of God the Iewes resisted, according to that of Saint Steuen in the second Lesson allotted for euensong this day. Act. 7.51. Yee stiffe­necked and of vncircumcised hearts and eares, ye haue alw [...]y resisted the holy Ghost, a [...] your Fathers did so doe you: this (I would) of Christ is voluntae signi, not voluntas benepla­citi. See Melanct. C [...]ietan, P [...]scator, Marlorat, in loc. Ians [...]n, Concord. cap 41. & 90. didac, Aluarez de anxilys diuinae gratiae lib. 5. d [...]putat. 33.34.

O Father of mercies, increase our faith, and graunt vnto vs in this thy day of our visitation, vnfai­ned repentance▪ that howsoeuer England hath equalled Ierusalem in being dissolute, yet shee may not parallell Ierusalem in being desolate.

The Epistle

1. IOHN 1.1.

That which was from the beginning, which we haue heard, which we haue seene with our eyes, &c.

SAint Iohn euer like himselfe, Aquin. in loc. that his Gospell and generall Epistle might be sutable, August. tract. 1. in hanc epist. confirming each other in the maine scope: makes (in the beginning was the word) the beginning of words vnto both: omitting here an ordinarie salutation, that hee might at the very first entrance treate of Vide Lorin. cap. 5. prolog in 1. epist. Ioan. more necessary points of salua­tion: and yet this exordium à re ipsa, preamble raised from the matter it selfe, is agreeable to the rules of arte, Aretius. Zenchius in loc. wherewith he makes his readers attentiue, docile, bene­uolous: attentiue, for that he writes not of a trifle, but of Christ Iesus, the word of life who cleanseth vs from all sinne: docile, for that the subject of his doctrine is Marlor. in loc. nei­ther new, nor vncertaine: not new, for we shew vnto you that which was from the beginning; not vncertaine, for we preach vnto you that which we haue heard, which we haue seene with our eyes, which wee haue looked vpon, and our hands haue handled. Beneuolus, for that hee penned this Epistle for their good, namely, that they might haue fellowship with the Saints, and that their ioy might be full. I Pet. Aureolus apud Lorin. vbi [...]up. cap. 6. finde the whole tract diuided into three parts, answe­rable to the three chiefe christian vertues, Faith, Hope, Charitie: but for as much as our Apostle writes of these Piscator. promiseuously without distinction and order, I rather amit of Aquines plaine partition.

Into a

  • Commendation of the Gospell, Chap. 1.
  • Exhortation [...]o the fruitfull and faithfull ob­seruing of the same, Chap. 2.3.
  • Disswasion from the contrarie Doctrine, Chap. 4.5.

[Page]In the present text there be two descrip­tions:

  • One of Christ, in respect of his
    • Natures,
      • As God, that which was from the be­ginning.
      • As man, which we haue heard and seene, &c.
    • Office, being our light and life, cleansing vs from all sinne.
  • Another of a Christian, hauing fellowship with God, his Saints, and his Sonne, in whom are Two re­markeable properties:
    • 1. A studiousnesse to doe good, Ergo, not a carnall Epicure: For if we say we haue fellowship with God who is light, and walke in darknesse, we lie, and doe not the truth.
    • 2. A sorrowfulnesse when hee doth ill, Ergo, not a spirituall Puritane: For if we say w [...] haue no sinne, wee deceiue our selues, and the truth is not in vs.

I haue spoken enough of the first description in my notes vpon the Gospell on Christmas day: the pith of it is, that Christ Iesus eternally God, in the fulnesse of time made man, is our only mediator and aduocate with God the Father; insomuch as our fellowship with God in this world, and fulnesse of ioy in the next, is attained by fai [...]h alone first apprehending, and after applying his merits. Here then our Apostle commends the doctrine of the Gospell in three respects especially.

First, in regard of the subiect, as being most ancient and excellent, euen that which was in the beginning God [...] [Page] owne sonne, the word of life, yea that eternall life which was with the father afore all worlds.

Secondly, in regard of the certainty, that which wee haue heard, which we haue seen with our eyes, which we haue looked vpon, and our hands haue handled: declare wee vnto you. For Christ who was in the beginning that eternall word with the Father, in these H [...]b. 1.2. last daies appeared vnto vs. And as S. 1 Tim. 3.16. Paul expounds S. Iohn, he was manifested in the fl [...]sh: Or as S. Iohn in his Cap. 1. ver. 14. Gospell expounds him­selfe, hee became flesh, and dwelt among vs. And Aretius. so wee haue seene and heard him Aquin. immediatly speaking in the world, as well as mediately, speaking in his word. For he spake to the Fathers by the mouth of all his Pro­phets euer since the beginning: but in our daies he hath spoken with his owne mouth vnto vs: our eares haue heard him in his Sermons, our eyes haue seene him in acting of his miracles, our hands haue touched his pre­tious body both afore his death, and after his resurrecti­on; and so that which wee so Erasmus. many waies assuredly know to be true, declare we vnto you. For albeit the word of life being very God of very God, is neither visible nor palpable: yet in respect of the Marlorat. Piscator. personall vnion of the two natures in him, it may be safely said againe and againe that which we haue seen and heard. And we saw the glory of it as the glory of the onely begotten sonne of the Father full of grace and truth. Iohn 1.14. And in this sense the word of life, yea the Lord of life is said Act. 3 15. 1 Cor. 1.8. elsewhere to be killed and crucified.

Thirdly, in regard of the profit, because Christ is the word of life, not onely formaliter, in respect of himselfe: but in respect of vs effectiue, being authour of our natu­rall life, for in him we liue, and mooue, and haue our being. A [...]t. 17.28. Of our spirituall life, Thus I liue, yet not I now, [...] Christ liueth in mee saith Paul, Galath. 2.20. Of our eternall life, for he is the way, the truth, and the life, Iohn 14.6. The resurrection and the life, Iohn 11.25. yea that eternall life, [...] it is in our present text. So that if we [...] [Page] will embrace the Gospell, and receiue these glad tidings of peace, we shall haue fellowship with the blessed Apo­stles, and in conclusion it will bring vs vnto fulnes of ioy. Caietan. Zanchius The which is not in this life, for here many sorrowes are mixed with a few ioyes. Hee was a blessed man who said, O [...]m. 7.24. wretched man that I am, who shall deliuer me from this body of death? Our reioycing is in part, as our 1 Cor. 13.5. knowing is in part, and our prophecying in part. Here God giueth his children sometimes a good measure of ioy▪ shaken together and pressed downe ▪ but hereafter in his kingdome of glory, when all teares shall be wiped from our eyes, and all cares from our heart: then onely our ioy shall be full, and (as Luk. 6.38. Christ speakes elsewhere) run­ning ouer. Let all Doctors of Diuinitie learne by this Diuine, to shun new, dubious, vnprofitable quirkes of learning; and to deliuer vnto Gods people that which was from the beginning, a true Gospell and a certaine, pro­curing an happy communion with God, and a fulnesse of ioy.

God is light] Almighty God is compared vnto light in many respects. As first for that Heb. 4.13. Prou. 15.3. all things are naked and open vnto his eyes as to the light. Secondly, as wee cannot see things earthly without ligh [...]: so wee cannot 1 Cor 2.14. discerne things heauenly, vnlesse the father of Iam 1.17. lights illuminate our minde, and giue vs an 1 King. 3.9. vnderstanding heart. Thirdly, for that as the light of the sunne dasseth our eyes if they gaze too much vpon it: euen so the Di­uine Maiestie 1 Tim. 6 16. dwelling in the light which no man can approach vnto, confoundeth all such as curiously pry too much into it, according to that of Pro [...]. 25.17. Salomon in the vulgar latine, qu [...] serutator est maiestatis epprimetur à gloria. But God is called Caluin. Aretius. Zanchius. here light ▪ as expelling [...]ll darknesse of sin & ignorance, being in himselfe pure, sincere, Psal. 145.17. righ­teous in al his waies, & holy in al his works Our Apostle then argueth against hypocrites and tale-gospellers often and openly boasting of their Communion with God, à natura Dei, from the properties of God after this sort. [Page] God is light, Ergo, none can haue fellowship with him except they walke in the light. If we say we haue commu­nion with him, and walke in darknesse, we lie, and doe not the truth Our wilfull ignorance and sinnes vnrepented are called in Rom. 13.12 Ephes. 5.11. holy Scripture darknesse, as hauing their be­ginning from Satan the Prince of darknesse, and their end in hell, which is the pit of darknesse: and therefore though hypocrites out-mouth (as it were) true Christi­ans in bragging of their familiaritie with God and his Sonne; yet the truth is, as long as they walke in darknes, it is impossible they should be children of God; for in him is no darknesse, nor so much as a shadow, Iam. 1.17. 2 Cor. 6.14. What communion hath light with darknesse? or what concord hath Christ with Belial? or what fellowship hath righteousnesse with vnrighteousnesse? God is Deut. 32.4. without wickednesse himselfe, and hateth all manner of wicked­nesse in other, according to that of the Prophet in the fifth Psalme: thou art the God that hath no pleasure in wic­kednesse, neither shall any euill dwell with thee. Such as be foolish shall not stand in thy sight, for thou hat [...]st all them that worke vanitie. Thou shalt destroy them that speake leasing: the Lord will abhorre both the bloudthirstie and deceitfull man. I conclude this point in the words of our 1. epist. cap. 3. vers. 7. Apostle: Little children, let no man deceiue you: he that doth righte­ousnesse, is righteous. It is not sufficient to say that hee is righteous: for if wee say we haue fellowship with God, and walke in darknesse, we lie, and doe not the truth, Lorin. that is, we lie to our selues, and doe not the truth vnto other, be­cause they be misled through our example, mentimur commissione, ve [...]itatem nor facimus omissione.

If we walke in the light.] An Zanchius. argument from the effect to the cause: for our studiousnesse to walke in the light, and to doe good in our callings, is not the cause of our fellowship with God, and of the remission of our sinne by the bloud of Iesus Christ his sonne; but an effect or consequent. It is a signe that we are the sonnes of God, if wee bee Ephes. 5.1. followers of God as deare children, if wee [Page] will embrace the Gospell, and receiue these glad ridings of peace, we shall haue fellowship with the blessed Apo­stles, and in conclusion it will bring vs vnto fulnes of ioy. Cai [...]an. Zanctius The which is not in this life, for here many sorrowes are mixed with a few ioyes. Hee was a blessed man who said, O R [...]m. 7. [...]4. wretched man that I am, who shall deliuer me from this body of death? Our reioycing is in part, as our 1. Cor. 13.9. knowing is in part, and our prophecying in part. Here God giueth his children sometimes a good measure of ioy, shaken together and pressed downe: but thereafter in his kingdome of glory, when all teares shall be wiped from our eyes, and all cares from our heart: then onely our ioy shall be full, and (as Luk. 6.38. Christ speakes elsewhere) run­ning ouer. Let all Doctors of Diuinitie learne by this Diuine, to shun new, dubious, vnprofitable quirke; of learning; and to deliuer vnto Gods people that which was from the beginning, a true Gospell and a certaine, pro­curing an happy communion with God, and a fulnesse of ioy.

God is light] Almighty God is compared vnto light in many respects. As first for that Heb. 4.13. Prou. 15.3. all things are naked and open vnto his eyes to the light. Secondly, as wee cannot see things earthly without light: so wee cannot 1. Cor 2.14. discerne things heauenly, vnlesse the father of Iam 1.17. lights illuminate our minde, and giue vs an 1. King. 3.9. vnderstanding heart. Thirdly, for that as the light of the sunne dasleth our eyes if they gaze too much vpon it: euen so the Di­uine Maiestie 1. Tim. 6.16. dwelling in the light which no man can approach vnto, confoundeth all such as curiously pry too much into it, according to that of 1 Prom 25.27. Salomon in the vulgar latine, qus serutator est maiestatis epprsmetur à gloria. But God is called Caluin. Aretivis. Zandius. here light, as expelling all darknesse of sin & ignorance, being in himselfe pure, since [...]e, 1 Psalm. 45.17. righ­teous in al his waies. & holy in al his works Our Apostle then argueth against hypocrites and tale gospellers often and openly boasting of their Communion with God, à natura Des, from the properties of God after this sort. [Page] God is light, Ergo, none can haue fellowship with him except they walke in the light. If we say we haue commu­nion with him, and walke in darknesse, we lie, and doe not the truth Our wilfull ignorance and sinnes vnrepented are called in Rom. 13.12. Ephis. 5.11. holy Scripture darknesse, as hauing their be­ginning from Satan the Prince of darknesse, and their end in hell, which is the pit of darknesse: and therefore though hypocrites out-mouth (as it were) true Christi­ans in bragging of their familiaritie with God and his Sonne; yet the truth is, as long as they walke in darknes, it is impossible they should be children of God; for in him is no darknesse, nor so much as a shadow, Iam. 1.17. 2. Cor. 6.14. What communion hath light with darknesse▪ or what concord hath Christ with Belial? or what fellowship hath righteousnesse with vnrighteousnesse? God is Deut. 32.4. without wickednesse himselfe, and hateth all manner of wicked­nesse in other, according to that of the Prophet in the fifth Psalme: Thou art the God that hath no pleasure in wic­kednesse, neither shall any euill dwell with thee. Such as be foolish shall not stand in thy sight. for thou hatest all them that worke vanitie. Thou shalt destroy them that speake leasing: the Lord will abhorre both the bloudthirstie and deceitfull man. I conclude this point in the words of our 1. epist. cap. 3. vers. 7. Apostle: Little children, let no man deceiue you: he that doth righte­ousnesse, is righteous. It is not sufficient to say that hee is righteous: for if wee say we haue fellowship with God, and walke in darkenesse, we lie, and doe not the truth, Lorin. that is, we lie to our selues, and doe not the truth vnto other, be­cause they be missed through our example, mentimur commissione, ver itatem non facimus omissione.

If we walke in the light.] An Zanchius. argument from the effect to the cause: for our studiousnesse to walke in the light, and to doe good in our caliings, is not the cause of our fellowship with God, and of the remission of our sinne by the bloud of Iesus Christ his sonne; but an effect or consequent. It is a signe that we are the sonnes of God, if wee bee Ephes. 5.1. followers of God as deare children, if wee [Page] walke in the light euen as he is light. It is a seale to my soule that the bloud of Christ hath purged mee from all sinne, if I doe but Matt [...]. 5.6. hunger and thirst after righteousnesse, if I feele but an vnsained desire to put off the workes of darknesse, and to put on Gods armour of light. I know that I shall sinne still as long as I carrie this flesh about me; for if we say we haue no sinne, we deceiue our selues, and the truth is not in vs: but I am sure so long as I walke in the light, that I shall not commit any sinne which is im­pardonable: so long as I haue communion with God, I cannot commit the sinne against the holy Ghost; as long as I am in Christ, his bloud el [...] [...] me from all sinne: from Bu [...]ing. [...]. Latin. all sinne, originall and actuall, à culp. 1 & pun. 1, from the fault, and from the paine due to the same From all sinne, Bi [...] not only committed before baptisme, but al­so from all sinne committed of frailtie, since baptisme. For as Cardinall [...] Ca [...]etan notes, impiu [...] est d [...]m [...] learn. [...] Deo per are veniam: and therefore [...]. Po [...]ish satisfactions either by workes done, or paines suffered in this life, or in purgatorie after this life, to purgemen of their sinnes, haue no firme ground in Gods holy word, they be works of supererogation, or if you will, happily workes of superarrogation. It is not said here, the blood of Christ hath cleansed in time past, or w [...] cleanse in time to come: but in the present, it cleanseth. [...] Ma [...]at. Hereby signifying that it daily purgeth all the sinnes of all such as truly beleeue, who walke in the light, and haue felowship with God.

If we say we haue no sinne.] Some say, let vs Rom. 61. continue still in sinne, that grace may abound, seeing the bloud of Christ cleanseth vs from all sinne, let vs walke in darknesse. Ephes. 4.19. working all vncleannesse euen with greedinesse. Other on the contrary side say, we haue no sinne, whose puritane pride S. Iohn opposeth heere, shewing plainly that the [...] 38. & [...] [...]ate. 59. Ca [...]hari both iniurie God, and deceiue themselues, in a [...]firming that they he without any sinne: they wrong God, because (so much as in them is) they make God a lier. and his truth a lie; for his word expresly concludeth all [Page] vnder sinne, Rom. 3.9. Galath. 3.22. reporting that all men haue gone astray like lost sheepe, Esay 53.6. And that there is none that doth good, no not one, Psal. 14.2. Iam. 3.2. In many things all offend, and who can say mine heart is cleane, Prou. 20.9. It is true that our Apostle saith in the third chapter of this Epistle, vers. 9. Whosoeuer is borne of God, sinneth not: that is, the regenerate man as hee is regenerate, sinnes not obstinately with a plenarie con­sent, he suffers not sinne to Rom 6.12. & 7.19. raigne in him, as it is in our text, he walkes not in darknesse: Zanchius. yet he may stumble, yea sometime fall through infirmitie while he walketh in the light; and therefore such as auow that they haue no sin, giue the lie to God, and the truth is not in them: Hugo. Aquin. Gloss. interlin. that is, God who is Iohn 14.6. truth is not in them: and the reason hereof is euident, because God resisteth the proud, Iam. 4.6. and so neither God, nor his word is in them, as Aquine pithily, neither Christ his eternall word, nor the Scripture his created word dwelleth in them.

Againe, Puritans who say wee haue no sinne, deceiue themselues; according to that of Galath. 6.3. Paul, If any man seeme to himselfe that he is somewhat, when he is nothing, he decei­ueth himselfe in his imagination; or they deceiue them­selues, because Christ Matt. 11.28. easeth onely such as feele their heauie load, and groane vnder the burthen of their sins; and therefore the true Christian, as our Apostle teacheth here, first makes a confession, and then he seekes for an absolution.

In confession obserue these circumstances:

  • 1. Who, we.
  • 2. What, sinnes, and our sinnes.
  • 3. To whom, to God, If we ac­knowledge our sins, he is faith­full, &c.
  • 4. How, acknowledge and say.

[Page]In abso­lution:

  • 1. Of whom an absolution is to bee got, of God for his Christs sake, whose bloud cleanseth vs from all sinne.
  • 2. Why? because God is faithfull and iust so forgiue vs our sinnes.
  • 3. What? a plenarie, not a partiall absolu­tion, a pardon for all vnrighteousnesse.
  • 4. When? in this present life, while wee walke in the light.

Our selues must acknowledge for our selues, and not another: we must indeed confesse Iam. 5.16. one to another, but not one for another: wee must also confesse A [...]n. sinnes, and not vertues, as the proud Pharisie, Luk. 18. I fast twice in their [...], I pay tithes of all that e [...]r I possesse: and our owne sinnes, not our neighbours offences, as the same Pharisie, who did accuse the Publican, and in compari­son of his faults excuse himselfe. This confession is to be made to God, as being the searcher of our hearts, vnder­standing all our secret sinne so well, yea better then our selues. O Lord, Psal. 19.12. who can tell how of [...] he offendeth? O cleanse me from my secret faules: and to God, as being very wil­ling, and mostable to purge vs from all vnrighteousnesse. It is true, that we must acknowledge our faults one to a­nother, as hauing trespassed one another; and in some cases it is expedient also that wee resort to deuour, lear­ned, discreet pastors for the releefe of our distressed con­science: yet by Lib. 1. de pa­nis. cap. 13. § hav. m [...]d [...]. & lib. 3. [...].4. § ga [...] li­ [...] quent. ad fi [...]. cap Bellamines leaue, this our text is not a pregnant Scripture for popish auricular confession vsed in the Church of Rome. For the Ministers of the word may both openly pronounce absolution vnto true peni­tents, and in secret also when occasion is offered iustly. Though annuall and auricular confession of euery sin­gular and single sin were thrust out of the Church, as it was for twelue hundred yeeres after Christ, See Gospell 3. Sund. after Epiphanie.

Wee must acknowledge, [...] that is, say with our mouth, and acknowledge in our heart, that wee haue sinned in [Page] Adam, and doe sinne for the present, and may sinne here­after as long as we liue. For faith Confess. lib. 5. cap. 10. Augustine, Iderat pec­catum insanabilius, quo me peccatorem esse non arbitrabar, it is our dutie to feele sinne, to feare sinne, to flie sinne so farre as wee can, in one word, soundly and seriously to repent vs of all vnrighteousnesse. Augustine, de vera & falsa paenitent. cap. 13. Non fit satis quod do­leamus, sed ex side doleamus, & non semper doluisse doleamus, & de dolore gaudeamus: Wee must hartily griue for our offences, and grieue for that we grieue no more, and ioy for that we grieue so much.

After such a confession a penitent ought to seeke for an absolution of God, as being faithfull and iust to for­giue vs our sinnes. Happily some will obiect, God (if wee consider him as iust) is more ready to punish then to par­don, for the Rom. 6.23. wages of sinne is death, and the Church hath taught vs euery day to pray with the Psalmist, Psal. 143.2. enter not into iudgement with thy seruants O Lord, for no flesh is righteous in thy sight. For answere to this obiection, I find the word iust, expounded diuersly. Em. Sa. Somesay God is iust, as being able to iustifie sinners. Caietan. Other thinke that God is called iust in forgiuing our sinne, because Christ hath paid a iust and sufficient price for the sinnes of the whole, world. Lorin. Other construe iust, here to bee nothing else but a comely thing, or a propertie besitting the goodnesse of God; according to that of In pros [...]log. cap. 9. vbi sua­uiss. me hac de re multa. Anselme, Iustum est ō Deus, vt parcas malis. And so Aritius. some read, God is faithfull and facile, ready to forgiue. But I follow Caluin. B [...]za Zanchius. their Glosse, who thinke that faithfull and iust in this place signifie the same. God is faithfull in his promise, iust in his word to forgiue. Now God saith in his word, [...] 1.18. though their sins were as crimson, they shall be made white as snow: though they be red like scarlet, they shall be as wooll. Mat 9.13. I am not come to call the righteous, but the sinners to repen­tance: Wherefore come to me all yee that labour, and are laden, and I will ease you: yea that which is more then his word (if any thing can be greater) his oath is, Ezech. 33.11. As I liue saith the Lord God, I desire not the death of the wicked, but [Page] that the wicked turne from his way and liue. Now God euer dealeth with his seruants according to his word, and ha­uing bound his word with an oath it is due debt, and then it is Lorin. iustice to pay debts: he is faithfull, and there­fore can no more deny his promise then himselfe, who saith, at what time soeuer a sinner doth repent him of his sinne from the bottome of his heart. I will put all his wickednesse out of my remembrance. Wherefore let vs Heb. 4.16. boldly come to the throne of grace, let vs Mat. 5.25. agree with our aduersary quickly while wee are in the way, while wee walke in the light, while it is called Heb. 3.13. to day, for after this life there is no purgatorie for sinne in another. And let vs aske not onely some parcell of a pardon, but an absolute absoluti­on, and a plenarie discharge from all vnrighteousnesse.

Larga Dei piet as veniam non dimidiabit. aut [...], ant totum (se lachrymante) dabit.

The Gospell.

IOHN 21.19.

Iesus said vnto Peter, Follow thou me, &c.

THis Scripture containeth a

  • Corre­ction of
    • Peters curiositie, What is that to thee? Follow thou mee.
    • The disciples error touch­ing the death of Iohn, yet Iesus said not vnto him, he shall not die, &c.
  • Commenda­tion of Iohn in respect of his
    • Grace with Christ, the Disciple whom Iesus loued, which al­so learned on his breast at supper, &c.
    • Place in the Church, as being an Apostle that testified of these things, & an Euan­gelist who wrote these things.
  • Conclusion of the Gospell, intima­ting that so much is written as is necessarie to saluation, and other things omitted, and those many: for that if they should bee written euery one, the world could not con­taine the bookes that should bee written.

Our blessed Sauiour in the words immediately going afore, shewed Peter in what vocation hee should liue, Feed my sheepe: as also by what death he should die, When thou shalt be old, thou shalt stretch forth thine hands, and [Page] another shall gend thee, and leade the [...] whither thou wouldest not: And when hee had spoken thus, alluding to Theoph [...]lact [...] [...]. both, especially to the A [...] sir [...]. L [...]m. Caluin. latter, he said vnto Peter, follow me: that is, be thou such a Pastor in feeding my sheepe, and such a Pastor in suffering for my sheepe, as I haue giuen example, Christ said vnto Peter in the 13. chapter of this Gospell, at the 36. verse, Whither I goe thou caust not follow me now: but thou shalt follow me afterwards. Vnto whom Peter answered, Lord, why can I not follow thee now? I will lay downe my life for thy sake. Iesus replied, wilt thou lay downe thy life for mysake? Verily, v [...]rily I say vnto thee, the Cocke shall out crow [...] thou haue deared me thrice.

Now Iesus remembring this conflict and conference with his Disciple, said vnto him in the words a little before our tex. W [...] thou wast rou [...] thou girdeast thy selfe, and walke li [...] who here [...] &. P [...]p [...]t & M [...]nat. [...] That is, when thou wast a y [...] angling in faith, and diddest gird thy selfe with thine owne strength, it was thy follie to thinke that thou couldest [...] me whither I went: and therefore by denying me thrice, thou diddest proue my words to be true, We [...]ther I [...]e thou canst not sodow me now: but when thou shalt be old, thou shalt stretch forth thine hands, and another shall gird thee, &c. that is, when thou shalt feele thine owne weaknesse, and grow strong in the Lord, my other saying also shall be found true: Thou shalt follow [...]ce afterwards. I therefore now command thee Peter againe and againe, follow mee whither I [...].

But Peter (as it may seene) neglecting this charge concerning himselfe. but of a curious humour enquites after the doing and dying of other, saying vnto Iesus, Lord, what shall we here [...]? to whom his matter answe­red. And [...] haue him to [...] I come, what is that to [...]. [...]. Teaching vs hereby to follow him in the same calling, and in the same way that hee doth appoint. [...]. It is not said, examine others imploiment: but [...]. Cor. 1.2 [...]. see your owne calling, [...] 1. Cor. 7.20. let euery man abide in the [Page] some calling wherein he was called, Ephes. 4.1. walking in his vocation worthily, studying to be quiet and to meddle with his owne bu­sinesse, 1 Thess. 4.11. The which apostolicall apoph­thegme being a parallel vnto the words of Christ here (what is that to thee. follow thou mee) may serue to direct vs in all matters of this life.

  • Whether they be Theologicall, Concer­ning God.
  • Whether they be Ecclesiasticall, Concer­ning The Church.
  • Whether they be Politicall, Concer­ning Common-weale.
  • Whether they be Morall, Concer­ning Our neighbours & friends.
  • Whether they be Occonomi­call, Concer­ning Our priuate fami­lie.
  • Whether they be Monasti­call, Concer­ning Our single selues.

In matters appertayning to God, it teacheth vs not bee curious inquisitors after the secrets of his will vn­knowne, for what is that to thee? but to keepe the words of his Law, doing his will which is knowne, for of this onely Christ speakes here, follow thou mee. The Deut. 29.29 secret things belong to the Lord our God; but the things re­uealed belong to vs and to our children for euer.

In affaires of the Church, it sheweth, how the Iohn 10.11 good sheepheard should spend his life for the benefit of the flocke committed vnto his charge, Peter follow mee, for­bidding 2. Sam. 6.7. Vzzab to put his hand to the arke of God, re­calling the Lacke not onely from incroaching vpon the Clergie mans benefice; but also from intruding into the Clergie mans office; for what is that to thee?

In businesse of the Common-wealth, it correcteth o­ [...]ercurious Euesdroppers of State for what is that to thee? Teaching vs to giue the things of Mat. 22.21. Casar vnto Caesar, Rom 137. honour, to whom honour: custome, to whom custome: tribute, to whom tribute: though (as Christ Mat. 17.27.) wee fish for money; for in performing this office like wise Iesus, said vnto Peter, follow thou mee. The soole (saith P [...]. 20.3. Salomon) will euer be medling, but hee that i­wise will not walke Psal. 131.2. in magris & mirabilibus, in great [Page] affaires and such as are too high and huge for him: hee plots not how to dispose of the Scepter, but possessing his soule in patience, desires the Scepter should rightly dispose of him, as being assured that Princes are the Rom. 13.4. mi­nisters of God, euen fingers of that great hand that gouerns all the world.

In morall offices or duties of charity between neigh­bour and neighbour, it inhibits thee to be a busie body, or (as 1 Pet. 4. [...]5. Peter speakes) a busie Bishop in another mans diocesse, for what is that to thee? aduising on the contra­rie to Gal [...] 6.10. doe good vnto all, vnto such as are of the houshold of faith especially. For in this respect Christ Iesus our great patrone and patterne speakes vnto all, as to Peter here, follow me. Mat. 11 29. Learne of me to be humble and meeke, Ephes. 5 2. wal­king in loue euen as I haue loued you, giuing my selfe for you to bean offering, and a sacrifice of a sweet smel­ling sauour to God: in all other businesse appertayning either to the priuate house, or single selfe, the counsell is wholesome, res [...] age, plough in thine owne ground, fish in thine owne boat, looke to thy selfe, ouerlooke not other: vnlesse they bee such as are committed vnto thy proper charge. For in this exempt case Christ expects not of Pete [...] a [...]tendance to the former clause, what is that to thee? but obedience to the latter onely, follow thou mee.

Then went this saying among the brethren, that that Dis­ciple should not [...]] H [...]ing. Hence wee may lea [...]ne to take good heede how [...]ereid and heare holy Scripture. For by misconthing the words of our Sauiour many false ru­mours are spread among the brethren. A [...]us P [...]n. If the Disciples easily were deceiued, how much more wee? Let vs im­brace therefore those things which are cleare, and such things as are spoken darkly, let vs conferre with p [...]ai­ner places, alway calling vpon God to giue vs the key of true knowledge, that wee may d [...]scerne the thing [...] of his spirit. The Disciples here made that an absolute af­firmatiue, which indeed is but a A [...]us. conditionall proposi­tion. [Page] If I will haue him to tarry, &c. not I will haue him to tarry. For wee may not reade (as the vulgar Latine Iansen. cen­cord. cap. 148 Id [...]m Erasnius & Mald nat. in loc. quippe m [...]la similitud [...] inter iar & [...]. corruptly) sic cum volo manere: but si cum volo mane­re. Againe, Iesus said not, hee shall not die: but if I will that hee tarry till I come, what is that to thee? In this cor­rection of the Disciples errour, obserue, first S. Iohns Aretius. in­genuitie, who would not suffer a false report to be spread among the brethren though it were for his honour. Se­condly, that it is not alway safe to follow the most in all things, one Iohn here is opposite to the rest of his com­panie; one Lot opposite to the rest of his Citie; one Lu­ther opposite to the rest of his country; one Noah op­posite to the whole world. Thirdly, wee may learne by this example to bee diligent and patient in reuoking all such things as haue been mistaken either in our words or writings. Augustine hath his retractations, Parimpar. Bellar­mine his recognitions, Annal. Tom. 9. fol. 863. Tom. 10. fol. 939. Tom. 11. fol. 723. Baronius his Emendanda, the Disciples here their Errata, sic corrige. This saying went among the brethren, &c. yet Iesus said not, hee shall not die, &c.

The Disciple whom Iesus loued] The word, Iohn 1.3. by whom all things were made, Wisd 11.21. loues all that he made. Aug. [...]10. in l [...]an. Yet men more then vnreasonable creatures, and his Saints more then other men, and his chosen Apostle more then other Saints, and Iohn more then other of his Apostle. He loued all his Disciple, as the Father hath loued mee. [...] haue I loued you: continue in my loue. Iohn 15.9 But h [...] loue to Iohn, (as the T [...]m part 1. [...]ua [...]i 20 art. 3 schoole speakes) was greater [...]x­tensiue, though not intensiue: shewing more signes of fa­miliaritie to Iohn then to the rest of his company. For whereas Mat. 3.11. Iohn the Baptist held himselfe not worthy to beare the shooes of Christ, and Iohn 12.3. Mary thought herselfe blessed in annoynting the feet of Christ, and Iohn 20.25. Tho­mas only desired to touch the side of Christ: o [...]r Apostle Iohn is said here to haue leaned on his breast at supper, as being best acquainted with the secrets of his Sauiour. For when Iohn 13.24. [...]d. Pet. a [...] palu. l. s [...]r. in loc. Peter and all other his fellowes were silent▪ [Page] onely he d [...]rst aske, Lord, which is he that betrayeth thee? When the Eagle broodes (as A [...] [...] n. in [...]. Plutarch reports) the chicke that comes of the egge lying nearest her heart is best beloued of her: and so S. Iohn leaning on that breast (in which are [...] 2.3. h [...]d all the treasures of wi [...]edome and know­ledge) is the beloued Disciple, so much honoured, that Christ his Sauiour which had not in the world Mat. 8.10. where­on to re [...]t his head; did notwithstanding Ep [...] 3.17 dwell in his heart by faith, and leane (saith Ser. 18. Ambrose) in his bo­some, Si [...] in quo Christ [...] equi sei [...], erat tripl [...] [...] in E [...]an­ [...]lista leanne sides, i [...] paire [...], in Maria matre vir­ginitas.

It is said Ephes. 4 11 that Christ ascending vp on high, gaue some to [...]e Apostl [...]s, and some Prophets, and [...]ome Euangel [...], and some Pastors and Doctors, 1 Cor. 12.11. according to his will distributing to euery man a seuerall gift. D [...]z C [...]n. 2. in [...] Eua [...]g. Peter was an Apostle, but not an Euangelist: Marke an E­uangelist, but not an Apostle: Matthew both an Euan­gelist and Apostle, yet not a Prophet: Augustine a Do­ctor, but not a Martyr: L [...]urence a Martyr, but not a Doctor. But behold the beloued Disciple was T [...]ria [...]. & De [...] de [...]a [...]de. [...] supra. all these: In his Epistles an Apostle, in his Apocalyps a Prophet, in his Gospell an Euangelist, in his faith a Confessor, in his preaching a Doctor, in his chasli [...]ie a Virgin, in his readinesse to suffer for the truth a very Martyr, yea the I [...]an. Os [...] in [...]. protomartyr suffering for Christ vnder the crosse, when hee saw Christ suffer on the crosse; a [...] [...]ns quippe plus [...] amato quam in seip [...] patitur: all which are so many rea­sons why wee should praise God in this holy Saint. but especially because the same Di [...]ciple is hee that testifi­eth of these things, and wrote these things. I say for that hee penned this heauenly Gospell, I [...]. 20.31. that wee might beleeue that [...] Christ is the sonne of God, and that in beleeuing, wee might haue life through his name. For as Me [...]a. lib. 1. cap. 1. Aristotle said, it timotheus had not been, we had not had so much sweet musicke: but it [...] (timotheus his master) had not been, we had not had timotheus. Euen so (be­loued) [Page] if S. Iohn had not beene, wee might haue wanted happily such an Euangelicall harmonie: but if Iesus the master of Iohn had not beene gratious vnto the Church, it should not haue had such a Iohn.

It is an argument of S. Iohns Marl [...]rat. humilitie, that hee tear­meth himselfe not a master in Israel, or a Doctor; but a Disciple, and that fiue times in this one Gospell, as cap. 13.23. cap. 19.26. cap. 20.2. cap. 21.7. & 20. Cyril. yet it winnes honour to his historie, for that the beloued Disci­ple penned it, euen hee who leaned on his masters bosome restifi [...]th of these thn [...]gs. Diez. vbi supra. Among all his honourable titles hee mentioneth in the first place that hee was beloued of Iesus, acknowledging it onely to be the fountaine from which all other his grace, originally were deriued. For hee was not beloued of Iesus for that hee leaned on his breast. or for that hee durst aske himany question, or for that he was the penman of this historie: but on the contra­rie, he therefore leaned on his masters bosome, and was acquainted with his secrets, and testifieth of these thing [...], for that he was the Disciple whom Iesus loued. It is Christs grace, by which alone we are whatsoeuer we are, 1. Cor. 15.20.

There are also many other things which Iesus did.] Eue­ry thing that Iesus did is not recorded in the Gospels historie, but only so much as is necessarie for vs to know; namely, that wee might beleeue that Iesus Christ is the sonne of God, and that (in beleeuing) wee might haue life through his name: for so S. Iohn expounds himselfe, chap. 20. at the last verse. The Scripture then is written principally for this end, that wee might vnderstand the mysterie of our saluation consisting in Vide Caiet. Marlorat. Aret. in I [...]an. 20.31. two points especially. First, in beleeuing that Iesus is the Christ, that is, the Messia▪ promised vnto the Father [...] euer since the world began. Secondly, that this Messias albeit hee were the seed of Dauid, is not a meere Terence Iesus, but the sonne of God: and so being both God and man, he is our onely Mediator, through whose name we must be saued. The [Page] Gospell hath abundantly both affirmed and confirmed these points, and therefore we need not any Piscat [...]. further re­uelations of the spirit in the businesse of our saluation. Men talke much of the Philosophers stone, that it tur­neth copper into gold; of Cornu-copia, that it had all things necessarie for food in it; of Panaces the hearbe, that it was good for all diseases; of Catholicon the drug, that it is instead of all purges; of Vulcans armour, that it was an armour of proofe against all thrusts and blowes, &c. Seepref [...]te to the re [...]der be­fore the tran­slation of our new English Bible. Well, that which they did attribute vainly to these things for bodily good, we may with ful measure ascribe iustly to the Scripture for spirituall. It is not an armour onely, but an whole armorie of weapons as well offen­siue as defensiue, whereby we may saue our selues, and put the enemie to flight. It is not an hearbe, but a tree, or rather a complete paradise of trees of life, which bring forth fruit Apocal. 22.2 euery moneth, and the fruit thereof is for meat, and the leaues for medicine. In a word, it is a panarie of wholesome food, against fenowed traditi­ons; a physitians shop of preseruatiues, against poiso­ned heresies; a pandect of profitable lawes, against re­bellious spirits; a treasurie of most costly iewels, against beggerly rudiments. Euery thing indeed that Iesus did is not set downe, yet so much is written as is sufficient for our learning, so much as may serue for a Psa 19.105. lanterne to our feet, and a light vnto our paths, able to teach, improue, correct, instruct in righteousnesse, that the man of God may be perfect, thorowly furnished vnto all good workes, 2. Tim. 3.16. I will end this obseruation in the words of Ser 139. de Te [...]. Augu­stine: Tanta facta sunt, quantatun [...] furs deb [...]erunt: tanta scripta sunt, quanta nune legi debuerunt. A [...]g [...]sti [...]. epist. [...]bi [...]. His salubriter▪ & pra [...] corriguntur, & parua nutriuntur, & magna ob­ [...]ct intur in [...]ni [...]. Nay (saith hee) the Scriptures are so fit and full. V [...] [...]eis quotidie proficerem, sicas solas abincunte pue [...]tia [...] que ad d [...]repitam s [...]necturem maximo otio, sum­mo studi [...] m [...]reingeni [...] co [...]arer ad discere.

The whi [...]h if they should be written euery one, I suppose [Page] that the world could not containe the bookes that should bee written] I finde three diuers constructions of this one verse. The first is metaphoricall, the second hyperbolicall, and the third literall. Tract. 124. in I [...]an. Augustine, In loc. Theophylact, Beda, Ru­pert metaphorically, or metonymically; vnderstanding by the world men of the world. Mundus non capit, idest, non intel [...]git, the world cannot comprehend, that is, ap­prehend the bookes that should be written. A very lanke conceit, for the world in this sense cannot vnderstand so much as one line of the Gospell; according to that of 1 Cor. 2.14. Paul, The naturall man perceiueth not the things of the spirit of God.

Euthym. Caluin. Ar [...]. Pis [...]ater. Other take these words as spoken hyperbolically, for the spirit of God (accommodating it selfe to the rude­nesse of men) vseth elsewhere this kind of figure. Deut. 1.28. The Cities of the Canaanites are said to haue been walled vp to heauen, Exod. 3.17. The land of the same Ca­naanites is tearmed a soyle flowing with milke and honie. Psal. 107. The men who goe downe into the sea in ships, and occupie their businesse in great waters; are so tossed in the deepe by the stormie winds and waues, as that Da­uid saith in the 26 vers. They mount vp to the heauen, and are carried downe againe to the depths. And so S. Iohn in auowing the world could not containe, &c. doth intimate, that if all the things which Iesus did should bee written euery one, the number of the bookes in folio would be without number. As high walles, and huge waues are said to reach heauen: euen so these bookes hyperboli­cally to be greater then all the world.

Is [...]dot. Pelus. lib. 2 epist. 99. Di [...]n [...]s. Alex. epist pr [...]ri ad­uers. Heres. Sa­mosaten. E [...]ron. annal. Tom. [...]. ad an. 34. fol. 214. Other construe this verse literally, Iesus is that e­ternall word in the beginning, by whom all things were made, Iohn 1.3. and by whose mighty word all things are sustained. Heb. 1.3. working from the founda­tion of the world hitherto. Iohn 5.17. So that if euery thing which Iesus did as God, both afore the world, and in the world should be registred: all this huge vniuerse (though it be Gods faire library) could not containe the [Page] bookes that should be written. And thus (as you see) the conclusion of this Gospell is answerable to the begin­ning, both intimating Christs incomprehensible diuini­tie. Hee made the whole world at the first, and hee go­uernes all things in the world euer lithens; and therefore most impossible that all his words, and works, and won­ders should bee recorded in bookes: albeit euery plant were a pen, euery drop of water inke, euery foot of land paper, and euery liuing creature a ready writer. The Dis­ciplethen who wrote these things (as Horace said of Ho­mer) hath so fitly disposed of his whole storie,

The Epistle

APOCAL. 14.1.

I looked and loe, a Lambe stood on the mount Sion, &c.

THis text is no­thing else but a de­scription of

  • Christ, a Lambe sitting on mount Sion.
  • The Church, in
    • quantitie, an hundreth fortie and foure thousand.
    • qualitative, for
      • Faith in that her cōfessi­on, is
        • Open, hauing his name and his fathers name written in their fore­heads, & a voice like the sound of many wa­ters, and great thun­der.
        • Harmonicall, singing a new song of diuerse parts, and yet all a­greeing as the voice of harpers harping with their harps.
      • Good workes, in that her chil­dren [Page] are not defiled with women, and in their mouthes is no guile, for they follow the Lambe whithersoeuer he goeth: and the reason of all is, because they were redeemed from the earth, and from men, that they might be the first fruits vnto God and to the Lambe.

A Lambe stood on the mount Sion.] Christ the Sonne of God is the Iohn 1.29. Lambe of God, euen the Lambe Rupert. Bullinger. A [...]etius. here mentioned, as it is apparant by his correlatiue father. For so the text, hauing his name and his fathers: a Ardens. Lambe in figure, and a Lambe in fact. In figure, for Christ Iesus is our Pascall Lambe, 1. Cor. 5.7. slaine from the beginning of the world, Apocal. 13.8. prefigured in the sacrifices of the Law, so well as now presented in the Sacraments of the Gospell. As one pithily, Prius profuit quàm fuit: A Lambe indeed, so meeke as a Lambe, Act. 8.32. Like a Lambe d [...]be before his shearer. A Lambe, for that hee feedeth all his with his Iob. 6.54.55 flesh, and clotheth all his with his Apoc. 7.9. white robe of 2. Cor. 5.21. righteousnesse, whereby wee stand (as it is in our text) without spot before the throne of God. And this Lambe sits not idle, nor lieth asleepe: but standeth, alwaies in a Ardens. Bu [...]inger. Aretius. readinesse to protect his followers. He that keepeth Israel, shall neither slumber nor sleepe, Psalm. 121.4. Hee standeth not as the beast in fickle sand or Apoc. 13.1. sea; but on mount Sion, which cannot be remoued, Psal. 125 1. In the middest of his inheritance the Napier. Church, against which Matt. 16.18 hell gates shall not preuaile: For Sion is a type of Christs Kingdome, called often in Galat. 4.26. holy Scripture, Ierusalem aboue, Isay 2.2. prepared in the top of the mountaines, and exalted aboue the hils. He stands on a mount, Marl [...]rat. high­er then either earth or sea, from whence the two beasts his opposites arise So that he is willing to defend his fol­lowers, as standing; and able, for that he stands on a mount. and left any should doubt of this, our Apostle saith, I loo­ked, and loe. Two words of Aretius. attention, assuring vs here­by that the woman persecuted in the wildernesse, that is, the Church afflicted in the world, shall at the last haue the victorie, though all the red Dragons on earth, and [Page] al the blacke deuils in hel furiously rage together against the Lord, and against his anointed. And here giue mee leaue to remember an Apud Io [...]n. Ra [...]in [...]er. 1. in [...] Ioan. [...]u [...]ngelist. obseruable note touching the writings of S. Iohn, how that in his Gospell he teacheth especially faith: in his Epistles, especially loue: in his Apocalyps, especially hope. This booke being (as reue­rend In Apoc. con. 61. Bellinger censure h) Euangeli [...]ssine [...]ss liber, of all holy Scripture the fullest of consolation.

And with him an hundred fortie and foure thousand.] This affoords Bullinger. comfort, that the Lambe stands not a­lone, but hath on his side Matt. 8.11. many from East and West, as well Gentiles as Iewes, hauing his fathers name written in their foreheads. It is thought by Ardens. Rupert. Marl [...]rat. some that this number is mysticall, insinuating the perfection of Gods elect, because both the duodenarie number and millinarie are numbers of perfection. It is a Ar [...]tius. certaine number because the Lord knoweth who are his, 2. Tim 2.19. as hauing their Luk. 10.10. Apocal. 3.5. names written in his booke: yet a definite for an infinite (as almost all haue noted) in that the number of such as are with the Lambe is a multitude which no man is able to number, Apocalyps 7.9. it is in it selfe a very great number, but in comparison of the company fauou­ring lies and following Antichrist, it is a Luk. 12.32. little flocke, a Matt. 7.14. few people which are redeemed from the earth, selected out of those innumerable troops of small and great, rich and poore, bond and free, whose names are not writ­ten in the booke of life of the Lambe, Apoc. 13.8 16.

Hauing his name and his fathers name written in their foreheads.] The vulgar Latine, Aretas, Ardens, and Deusius & Brightman in loc. o­ther reade (as the translation of Hen. 8 and our Commu­nion booke) His name, and his fathers name: the which is more significant then that in other copies, hauing on­ly his fathers name. And the Ardens. meaning is, that they pro­fesse themselues openly to be Christians, acknowledg­ing aperto fronte, that God is their father in his sonne le­su [...], in their Marl [...]rat. deeds and doctrine appearing outwardly to the world, what they are inwardly to themselues, ac­cording [Page] to that of 2 Cor. 4.13. Paul, We beleeue, and therefore speake. Bu [...]inger. Faith in the soule breaking forth into R [...]m. 10.9. confession with the mouth, is the note whereby the friends of Christ are distinguished from the followers of Antichrist. He that dependeth vpon Saints as much as vpon his Sauiour, and trusleth in the pardon of the Pope more then in the merits of Christ, hath in his forehead the Apoc 13 16. marke of the beast, and not the Apoc. 7.2. seale of God. If Christ once dwell in our hearts by faith, his name will instantly be written in our forehead.

And I heard a voice from heauen.] The militant Church on earth is called often in holy writ, Mat. 22.2. See Gospell 20. Sund. after Trinit. heauen, as being the way to the kingdome of heauen, and as hauing her Phil. 3.20. conuersation in heauen, and her affections set on things Coloss. 3.2. aboue. This heauen hath a voice, Bullinger. for the Church is not mute, but vocall, openly professing her faith, and praising God before the seat, and the foure beasts, and the el­ders. Hauing a voice like the sound of many waters, and of great thunder, and of harpers harping with their harpes. Brightman. in loc. Some by these three kindes of voices vnderstand three degrees of the Churches progresse persecuted by the Dragon in the wildernesse. First in the daies of Athena­su [...]s, Basile, Chrysostome, Ambrose, Hierome, Augustine, &c. Her voice (say they, but how truly iudge yee) was indi­stinct and confused. For albeit the learned writings of these most accurate Doctors in their age made a great noise in the world, like the sound of many waters, yet ma­ny points of doctrine were not so well explicated vnto the common people then, as afterwards they were. Se­condly, in the daies of Wickliffe and Husse, and other Bo­ [...]ges, her voice resembled the voice of great thunder. But now since her deliuerance from the wildernesse, and her comming out of Babylon; her voice in the harmony of confessions is like the consent of harpers harping with their h [...]rpes.

Rupert in loc. Other say that the Scriptures voice speaking by the Church, is like to waters, in that it refresheth all such as [Page] hunger and [...]s. [...]. 55.1. Mat. 5.6. th [...]rst after righteousnesse: and like to great thunder, in being B [...]g [...]r. A [...]us. M [...]r [...]r [...]. terrible to the [...]icked: and like to the m [...]i [...]ke of h [...]rpers, in being d [...]le [...]table to the godly. The Preachers of the word are vnto God the s [...]reet sau [...]ur of Christ, is th [...] n [...] that are s [...]ed, and in them that perish: to the ou [...] the sauour of death vnto death, and to the other the sauour of lif [...] vnto life, 2. Cor. 2 15 16.

X [...]pier.Other thinke that many [...]sers are m [...]ny nations, as in the 17. chapter of this b [...]oke, vers. 15. The [...] which thou [...]w [...]st are people, and mu [...]udes, and nations, and tongues. And the great thunder is nothing else, but the thundring voices of zealous and holy Preacher [...]. And the harpers h [...]m [...] doth intimate spirituall reioicing to­gether in the Lord. The Church then h [...]th a voice which is much a being of m [...]ny: yet mu [...]icall, in that those many concord in the maine, lik [...] h [...]rpers h [...]r [...]ing with their [...]r [...]s. It is Ardens. M [...]av [...]xex p [...]all [...]ntium mul [...]tudine, sed de­l [...]ct [...]b [...]l [...] exco [...]son [...]su [...]it [...]te.

And they sung as it w [...]re a new song] In regard of the matter a new song: Brigh. ma [...]. it was Adams old song before his fall, to praise God for his creation in holinesse and righ­teousnesse; but meeting a new song to the Lord for our redemption and regeneration, whereby Gods image lo [...]t by sinne is restored in vs againe. O [...] in regard of the manner, a new song: R [...]r [...]. N [...]ier. for whereas the lewe [...] in [...]he old Testament H [...]gg i [...] S L [...] 1 25. 1. P [...] 1.10. exp [...]cting the consolation of Israel, sung praises vnto God [...]or that their Messias & Sauiour sho [...]ld come: Christians in the new Testament magnife the Lo [...]d for that Christ i [...] come: Bl [...]ssed [...]e the Lord God of I [...]ra [...]l, for he hath v [...]ed and r [...]de [...]m [...]d h [...] people; for that the [...]r I [...] [...] 30. eies haue seene his saluation, and their 1. [...]h. 1.1. hands haue h [...]ndled the word of life. Or in regard of the men, a n [...]w song, [...]. 18 in A [...] al. being sung by such as haue put off the old man, and are new creatures in Christ, 2. Cor. 5.17 a new song A [...] for that it makes the partie who sings it a new man. Or a new song, A [...] [...]s. Bu [...]ger in [...]. in that it seemeth vnto the world new; for Christ crucified the chiefe subiect of their new [Page] song seemeth vnto the worldly wise meere foolishnesse,g 1 Cor. 1.23. as it followeth in our text. No man could learue the song, but the hundred fortie foure thousand which were redeemed from the earth. As our Popish aduersaries hauing the Apoc. 13.16. beasts marke both in their forehead, and in their right hand, impudently call our most ancient and apostolike faith a new Gospell, and our diuines Iurgiuiciu [...]. Euangelij quinti pro­fessores. But as learned Scaliger answered them acutely, Nos nouatores non sumus, Responsad Serar. sed vos estie veteratores: A Monke devoted to his superstitious order, and trusting in his owne merits is neuer able to learne how faith only iustifieth. A carnall man addicted onely to naturall rea­son, is not able to discerne the things of God. A lew re­lying altogether vpon his Circumcision, is not able to sing another note. No maruell then if the song of Sion seemes new to them all.

These ar [...] they which were not defiled with women] Areta [...]. This clause makes not any thing against honourable marri­age, for how can that be truly called a defiling, when as the bed is vndefiled. Hebr. 13.4. and therefore Hist. Tripart lib. 2. cap. 14. Paph­nutius openly pronounced in the Councell of Nice, Ca­st [...]tatem esse cum vxore propria concubitum: And Hom. de in­uent. crucis. Chry­sostome (though a great admirour of Virginitie) saith al­so primus graaus castitatis, est syncera virgimt as: secun­dus, fidele coniugium. And D' Fulk. in l [...]c. so married couples are vir­gins as well as single persons, and ordinarily more chaste in hauing Gods appointed remedie for 1 Cor. 7.2. auoyding for­nication. Before the Law the Patriarkes had wiues: vn­der the Law the Priest [...] had wiues: after the Law, to wit, in the daies of the Gospell (as In 2 Cor. 11. Ambrose peremptorily writes) all the twelue Apostles (except Saint Iohn) had wiues.Baleus in vita N [...]c. 1. And it was euer thought commendable for the Preachers of the word to marrie at their owne discretion, as they did iudge the same to serue better vnto god­linesse, vntill Pope Nicholas the first, Idem iu vita [...]rig 7. Hildebrand alias Hel- [...]rand and Innocentius the third forbad Priests mar­riage. Whe [...] upon a Ap [...]d [...]de [...]m in v [...]ta [...]no­c [...]nt. 3. witty fellow made this od old time: [Page]

Pri ci [...]nire gula penu [...]s cassatur,
Sac [...]rdos per hic & hec ol [...]n decli [...]atur:
Sed perhi [...] solu [...]m [...]do [...] articulatur,
Cum per nostrum [...]ra [...]lens [...] amo [...]eat [...]r,
Non est In [...]censius i [...]o [...]oc [...]rs [...]
Qui q [...]od f [...]cto doc [...], verbo [...]:
E [...] quo [...] o [...]m iu [...]e [...]is [...]l [...]t habere,
Mo [...] [...]tus po [...]fex stu [...] [...]prohibere.

What kind of Virgins Popes and popish Priests haue been, you may read enough Epistle [...]. Sand [...]y in [...]ent. Happily more than enough in [...]l [...] his Treatisecon­cern [...]ng English votaries. A profession of virginitie wi [...]h. out true chastitie, is no be [...]ter than an apple growing in the lake of Sodome. [...] [...]e De [...]. N [...]m est prorsus religionis ge [...], li­c [...]ta n [...]n facunt, & [...], [...]qu am [...]is nec hee fac [...] m [...]alu [...] & n [...]n temperant a ra­ [...]in [...]. If the notation p [...]a [...]u [...] [...] be good: and the r [...]le true H [...]r n V [...]nter [...]era [...] [...]ro tac [...] [...]: I would not with many Popes to b [...]t of their puritie.

Paphia [...] [...]'e [...], Veneris pr [...]l [...]s qusque Papaest.

We [...]l, Ne [...]r. such as follow the Lambe, are neither def [...]led carnally with [...]o [...]en [...] 1 Te [...]. 4.4 [...] [...] no [...] yet spiritually with idols. In which respect the Church i [...] called a 2 C [...]r. 11.2 p [...]re [...], for that shee run [...] no [...] a P [...]l 1. [...].33 who [...]ing with he [...] owne in [...]ntions, com­mitting [...] 6.36. fornica [...]ion with [...] her louers: but i, prepared for [...]us [...]ad [...]ach w [...]ch is Christ. F [...]e. [...]. [...]a [...]i [...]s. In this sense to worship idols and to serue strange Gods is to be defiled [...]ith wom [...]n, a [...] our Apostle do [...]h insin [...]e in the 17. th [...]er of th [...]s booke, vers. 4. And therefore the Papists ( [...]beit vn maried) de [...]nding vpon many Sain [...]s, [...]re not so good vi [...]gins a [...] mar [...]d Pro [...]est [...]nes wholly trusting in one Sauiour, and [...] hee [...] obeying his w [...], and in their best en [...]eauo [...]rs euer ready to ke [...]e [...]he word [...] of h [...] [...]aw, neuer fo [...]sa­k [...]ng him or his in w [...]nt, in [...]on, in sicknesse in de [...]h. [Page] And this he will acknowledge at the last day; saying to them openly, Come yee blessed of my Father, inherit ye the kingdome prepared for you, for yee haue followed me whi­thersoeuer I went. I was an hungred, and ye gaue me meat: I thirsted, and ye gaue me drinke: I was a stranger, and yee lodged me: I was naked, and ye clothed me: sicke, and ye vi­sited me: in prison, and ye came vnto me: whithersoeuer I went I had your companie.

In their mouthes was found no guile.] As they were chaste in minde, 1. Ioh. 5.21. keeping themselues from idols; and chaste in bo­die, not defiled with women: so likewise chaste in Ardens. tongue; for they did not 2. Cor. 4.2. adulterantes verbum, vti vulgar. Latin. adulterate the word, or professe the faith in Marlorat. hypocrisie; but hauing their Eccles. 21.26. mouth in their heart, they Psal 116.10 spake because they beleeued, embracing the Gospell in simplicitie, being also studious of truth in their carriage toward men; Louing without dissimulation, Rom. 12.9. Casting off lying, Ephes. 4.25. and all guile, 1. Pet. 2.1. Iust in their promise, not disappointing a neigh­bour though it were to their owne hinderance, Psalm. 15.5. Before men in respect of any scandalous offences or o­pen crimes Luk. 1.6. vnblameable, saying with the Lambe whom they follow, Ich. 8.46. See Gospe [...] 5. Sund. in Lent. which of you can rebuke me of sinne? Indeed their secret faults onely knowne to God are many, while they be clogged with flesh and bloud, who can tell how oft he offendeth? and yet in the world to come they shall appeare without spot before the throne of God, as hauing all their spots couered with long white robes of the Lambe, yea 1. Iohn 1.7. cleansed and made no spots by the blood of the Lambe, redeemed from earth and from men, to be the first fruits vnto God.

The blessed Innocents on this day murthered by cru­ell H [...]rod, were witnesses to the Lambe, non loquendo, sed m [...]riendo, (saith Ser. 11. de sanc [...]is. Augustine) not by speaking, but by suffering for Christ, and so both his name and his Fathers name were written in their fort heads, and their voice was li [...]e the sound of many waters, and as the voice of great thun­der, as it is in the Gospell allotted for this Festiuall, In [Page] Rama was there a voice heard, lamentation, weeping, and great mourning: and their crying was a song, a dolefull dittie to their parents eare, Rachel weeping for her chil­dren, and would not be comforted, &c. yet Psa 116.13. pretious in Gods eie, so sweet as the voice of harpers harping with their harpes. And this their sighing was a new singing, be­cause they were A [...]gust. [...] supra. Primitie ma [...]tyrum, euen the first fruits of martyrs vnto God. And they followed the Lambe whi­thersoeuer he went: the Lambe was white and ruddie, Cant. 5.10. that is (as Rup [...]rtus vpon the place) candidus sanct [...]tate, rubisunius passions: 1 [...]ephon gi­r [...]. c [...]n. 1. in fest S. In [...]cent. So they were white in their innocencie being virgins in their chastitie, without any guile in their mouth, or guilt in their life; but in re­spect of their blood shed for the Lambe, ruddie. So that (as Dauid sings in the Psal 8.2. Mat. 21.16. Psalme) out of the mouthes of very babes and sucklings he hath made perfect his praise. Christ assuredly got great praise by that hymne which Angels sung, Glorie be to God on high, and great praise by S. Ste­uen his protomartyr, and by S. Iohn the Disciple whom hee loued, as you haue heard in their seuerall holy daies: but his praise was made perfect by the mouthes of babes and Innocents, of whom he saith in the Gospell, Mat. 19.14. Suffer the little children, and forbid them not to come to mee, for of such is the kingdome of heauen. O blessed babe [...], O [...]orius [...]on in se [...]t. I [...]no­cent. who came to the wished hauen without any tempest, Vide did [...]s. de [...]e [...]gu [...]. c [...]n. d [...] [...]uga Chr [...]st. enioi­ing the comforts of another life, before ye knew the mi­series of this life: Gir [...]n [...]b [...] s [...]p. Qui prius in [...]apitibus caronas, qu [...]m capistos accepisti [...], hauing your heads crowned with hap­pinesse, before they were couered with haire. Hero [...] could neuer haue pleasured you so much in his kindnes, as hee did in his crueltie; for where his impietie did a­bound, there Christs pitie did superabound, translating you from your earthly mothers armes in this Psal 84.6. valley of te [...]res, vnto your heauenly fathers bosome in his king­dome of glorie.

P [...]u [...]e [...]ius [...]y [...]. i [...] Le [...]ph.
Saluete flores martyrum,
Quos lucis [...]pso i [...] lumine
[Page]Christi insecutor sustulit,
Seu turbo nascentes rosas.
Vos prima Christi victima,
Grex immolatorum tener,
Aram ante cuius simplices
Palma & coronis luditis.

The Gospell

MATTH. 2.13.

The Angell of the Lord appeared to Ioseph in a sleepe, saying, arise, and take the childe and his mother, and flee into Egypt, &c.

THe Priests in the law were cōmanded that the Leuit. 6.13. fire should euer burne vpon the Altar, & neuer goe out. And Ferus ser. 1. de 5. Ioan. Euang. so that the fire of our deuotion (at this holy time) kindled vpon the altar of our heart might not be quen­ched by the water (which vsually the cold serpent casteth out of his mouth, Apoc. 12.15.) The Church adioyneth vnto the celebratiō of Christs birth, other three festiuals in one weeke. Wherein her meaning is not to withdraw our loue from the Creator to the creature (for all the twelue daies are called Christmas, dedicated onely to Christs honour) but that wee might hereby praise this our Iesus vncessantly both in himselfe and in his Saints. And the reason (as Ioan. R [...]ulin. ser. 2. de beatis Inn [...]cent. some coniecture) why S. Steuen, and S. Iohn, and the blessed Innocents are named aboue the rest, is happily to shew that Christ came into the world to saue all sorts of men, of whatsoeuer degree. The Chi­ualdrie represented by S. Steuen, a resolute Knight and warriour in the Lords battell: the Clergie represented by S. Iohn, stiled the Diuine: the Commonaltie or Infan­trie represented by the sillie children H [...]rod slew; or in­timating that Christ was borne for men of euery seueral age, for men of perfect strength, as Steuen: for old men on their crouches, as S. Who liued af­ter [...] on 63 [...], [...] H [...]ro [...] i [...] [...]us [...] [...] Bi­ [...] I [...]m. [...] in 99. [...] 49 Iohn: for Infants in their cradles, [Page] a▪ the blessed Innocents. Or it may bee that these Saints are mentioned at [...] [...]up [...]a Christmas rather then other, because Christ faith in the Gospell, If any man will follow me, let him forsake himselfe, and t [...]ke vp his crosse. Mat. 16.24 the seruant is not greater th [...]n his Master, if they haue persecuted me, they will persecute you also, Ioh. 15.20. Now there bee Br [...] rd sr. [...]. Jon cert. [...]em [...]r [...]n. J [...]n [...] & [...] [...] [...] i.e. three kinds of suffering or martyrdome in Christs cause. The first, Volunta [...]is & operis, in will and in act, as that of S. Steu [...]n. The second, Voluntatis sed n [...]n operis, in will but not in act, as that of S. Iohn. The third, Operis sed non voluntatis, in act but not in will, as on this day the death of the Bethlemitills Innocents. And for as much as S Steuens martyrdom come [...] nee est vnto the suffe [...]ings of Christ, his festiual is next to Christs in the first place, S. Iohns in the second, the blessed Inno­cents in the third. And so Christ (as it is Cant. 5.10.) is white and ruddie, the chiefest among ten thousand. L [...] part. 10 13. Cand [...]d [...] in Io [...]nne, rub [...]undus in Stephano, electus ex mi [...]us in Innocentibus. In the Gospell allotted for this [...]ay, Two points are more principally remarkable:

  • 1. Christs humanitie, for that hee was a child, and did
    Ar [...]eus. [...].
    si [...]e.
  • 2. Herods in­humanitie m [...]rthering
    • T [...] [...], &c.
    • [...].
      Innocēt babes who neither would nor could hurt him.
    • Ha [...]us, All the children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts thereof, f [...]u [...] two [...]ee [...]es o [...]d and vnder, according to the [...]me which hee had [...]gently knowne of the Wiseme [...]. All in euery place nere the place where Christ was borne, not sparing his owne
      [...]
      child, flesh of his flesh, and bone of his bone; which occasioned
      [...]sa [...] [...] 2 c. [...]. 4.
      Augustus Caesar tauntingly to say, [...] hi [...] este [...]e H [...]rod [...]s p [...]rcum qu [...]m puerum. It is better to bee H [...]rod, [...]o [...] then his sonne.

The A [...]gell of the Lord appeared vnto Ioseph in a sleepe] [Page] Lut [...]er, Cul­man, Bea [...]xa­mis. Hence wee may learne what a tender care God hath o­uer his children in their greatest affliction, Psalm. 3.47. his Angell [...]arrieth round about them that feare him, and deliuers them; and therefore let vs 1 Pet. 5 7. Psalm. 55.23. cast all our care vpon him, for hee careth for vs: Psal. 103.13. as a father pitieth his owne chil­dren; euen so the Lord is mercifull to them who feare him. It may besaid of our heauenly Father, as the Virgil. Po­et of an earthly parent,

Omnism Ascanio chari stat cura parentis.

Take the child and his mother] He who was in the be­ginning that eternall word and Esay 9.6. euerlasting Father, a­bout this time for our sake came downe from heauen, and became an infant and a childe. Nobis puer natus, Esay 9.6. Vnto v [...] a childe is borne, and vnto vs a sonne is giuen: a childe, not in meeknesse only (for so the greatest man ought to be as a little childe. 1 Cor. 14 20. Concer­ning ma [...]tiousnesse bee children, and Mat [...]h. 18.3. except yee become as little children, [...]e shall not enter into the kingdome of heauen) bat a childe in weaknesse also, Luk 2.7. wrapped in swadling clothes, and lai [...]d in a cratch. It is not said take thy childe and thy wife: but the childe and his mother: Hieron. in l [...]c. Sec Gospell, d [...]m. 1. p. i [...] pip [...]an. hereby sig­nif [...]ing, th [...]t Ioseph was not the naturall, but onely the nursing father of Iesus. It is true that this Angell appea­ [...]ing to Io [...]ph at another time before Marite was deliuered of her childe, said vnto him expresly (for auoyding suspition of incon [...]inencie) Mat. 1.20. feare not to take Mary for thy wife; but after the birth of Christ (as the H [...]lariu [...], The p [...]ylact. I [...]sen. Do­ctors [...]bser [...]e) [...]o shew that hee was borne of a Virgine, M [...]i [...]s [...]le is the mother of Iesus, not the wife of Io­ [...]ep [...]. Againe, it is not take the mother and her childe, but the ch [...]e and his m [...]th [...]r: Chrys [...]st. insinuating that his grea­ [...]e [...] care [...]hou [...]d be to p [...]ou [...]de for the babe, both in re­ [...]e [...] of d [...]ger (for Herod sought to destroy him) and in respe [...] of d [...]rie, because the child is greater then hi me [...]he [...], [...]b [...]ing her Luke 1.47. Sauiour so well as her sonne.

And [...]] Christs ha [...]d ente [...]ta [...]nment at [...] into the world, [...]ewes that h [...] [...]ing­dome [Page] was not of Iohn 18.36. this world: hee had (as Ser. i [...] f [...]r. 4. beb [...]. Bernard sweetly) while hee liued pass [...]uam a [...]tionem, and when hee died actiuam passionem. It is obserued by S. Luke, Acts 1.1. that Christ alway first did and then taught, hee that would haue vs to Mat. 10.13. flee from Citie to Citie, fleeth him­selfe from Country to Country: before hee grants the patent, hee giues the Ardens. Anselm. paterne, fleeing, and that in the night Asusculus. warily; or hee did flee now for that his houre was not yet come; hee had not as yet Iohn 17.4 done the worke, and the will of his Father, for which hee came into the world, Beauxami [...] Christus enim [...]otam causam nostra salutis occi­derat, s [...] se paruulum permisisset occidi. But whether doth he flee? into Egypt: as being out of Herods Aretius. Mald [...]nst. iu­risdiction; or into Egypt, to Jansen. signifie that Gods king­dome should bee translated from the Iewes vnto the Gentiles: and so Ioseph in carrying Iesus and his mo­ther into Egypt, Anselm. represents liuely the blessed Apostles and Preachers, in conueying the Gospell vnto nations in time past, Ephes. 2.11. alians from the Common-wealth of Israel, and strangers from the couenants of promise, without Christ, and so without God in the world. O the deepnesse of the riches of Gods mercy! Babylon and Egypt whilome were T [...]phylact. in loc. malorum officine, the very shops of all villanie: but now behold the Wisemen come from the one, and Christ here fleeth into the other. Chrys [...]st. V [...] populus qui ante fu [...]rat persecutor populi primogeniti fier et custos fi [...] vni­geniti: but what need wee such a quare, seeing heauens messenger in the text hath vttered a quare, namely, that is might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the Pro­phet, saying, out of Egypt haue I called my Sonne. How that word, Numb. 23.22. or Hosea 11.1. originally spoken of Israel his Exod. 4.22. adopted sonne, is well applied vpon this oc­casion vnto Christ his naturall sonne; See Rupert, Ri­bera, Caluin in Hosea 11.1. Ia [...]sen. Concord cap 11. Bea [...]x­amis harmon. Tom. 1. fol. 73. Caietan, Arboreus, Maldonat. in loc.

Rupert. Mystically] God calleth his children out of the [Page] worlds Egypt, deliuering vs from the power of Colos. 1.13. dark­nesse, and calling vs into maruellous light, 1. Pet 2.9 Maldonat. or out of Egypt, for that his children grow best in grace when they be taught in the schoole of affliction: or (as Rupert obserues) it may be that Hierusalem is cal­led here, as it is Apoc. 11.8. elsewhere, Egypt spiritually, for that her Prince and people were so cruell as Egypt, in seeking to destroy the childe Iesus.

Then Herod when hee saw that bee was mocked of the Wisemen.] It is vsuall with God to Iob 5.13. take the wilie in their owne craftinesse; and therefore seeing Herod mocked the Wisemen, it pleased the Lord to direct the Wisemen in such a course, that they likewise mocked Herod. The craftie Fox deluded the Wisemen in telling them he would (if after their diligent search hee should vnderstand where he was) Matth. 2.8. adore the babe, for his in­tent was Raulin. ser. 3. de B. Innocent. sauire, non seruire, to woorie, not to worship, that innocent Lambe. And the Wisemen deluded He­rod in returning to their Country not by Hierusalem as they went, but another way. Then Herod seeing hee was mocked of the Wisemen, was exceedingly wroth, and sent foorth men of warre, &c. Culman. for when once tyrants cannot preuaile with craft, they come to crueltie: when Politi­cians Rhetoricke failes, Carters Logicke must doe the feat.

Ioan. Osorius.Great bodies are discerned easily with a little light, but small things are not found in the darke without a great light. God the Father in the Creation of the world is so glorious and so great, that the little light of nature sheweth his handie worke, Psalm. 19.1. but God the Sonne in our Redemption is so little, that we need a great starre to direct vs vnto the babe Iesus lying in a manger, a large measure of faith and grace to finde the great God made a little childe. No maruell then if He­rod could not finde, seeing he did seeke not in Deus enim non crudelitate sed cred [...]litate quare [...]dus. I [...] ­seb. I [...]s. [...]om. 1 de Epiphania. faith, as hoping to be saued by Christ; but in furie, meaning to destroy Christ. And the reason heereof is rendr [...]d in [Page] this present Chapter at the 3. verse, When Herod heard of Christs birth at Bethlehem, hee was troubled, and all Herusalem with him, as fearing that this babe being li­neally descended from the seed of King Dauid, should in time, challenging the Scepter of Iudea, thrust him out of his kingdome.

Pr [...]dentius [...].
Successor instat, pellimur,
Satelles i, f [...]rrum rape,
Perfunde C [...]nas s [...]nguine.
Mas om [...]is infans occ [...]de [...],
Scrutare nutricum [...]inus,
Inter [...] materna [...]ber [...].
Ensem cruenter pusi [...],

O foolish Herod, wilt thou not suffer the King of heauen and earth, and the whole world, to reigne in [...] [...]ie? wilt thou be so barbarous, as fearing thy successour, to kill thy Sauiour? Well maiest thou M [...]. seeke, but thou thalt not see the destruction of his Kingdome: Heb. 1.8. for his Scepter is a right Scepter, and his Trone is for euer and euer. Well maiest thou destroy the bodies of poore children, but their liues are C [...]l [...]. 3.3. h [...]d with the babe Iesus in God: and [...]o thy mischiefe shall turne to mercie. Leo set. 1. [...] epipha [...]. Quo [...] Rex impius eximit ma [...]do, Christus inserit Carlo: for they died for him who was to die for them, and so death had no conquest ouer them: Lu [...]er [...]. in loc. Moriuntur propter Christum, qui [...] facit vt ips [...] mi [...] morte teneri pos­sent.

Herod R [...], Os [...] ­tiui, G [...] in l [...] & Leos [...]. 6 de e [...]p [...]n. represents the deuill, who Ap [...]. 12.4. stands before the woman in the wildernesse great with childe, readie to deuoure her babe. Hee knew that the G [...]. 3.1 [...]. seed which should breake his head, was to be borne of the Iewes; and therefore caused Pharao to murther all the Hebrew males, Exod. 1. and stirred [...]p Haman to destroy the whole Nation of the Iewes, Ester 3. and Athalia to kill all the sonnes of Dauid, 2. Kings 1 [...]. and here so soone as the noise was of Christs birth, hee did cut the throats of all the children in Bethlehem, and in all the [Page] co [...]sts thereof from two yeeres old and vnder. Mystically, Satan as soone as he seeth in an [...] any good motion, he stands (as Herod here) ready to kill it although it be ne­uer so little a babe.

In R [...]man as there a voice heard] That is, Hieron. Muses [...]. I [...]nsen. in excelso, for the voice of bloud is loud, and Gen. 4.10. c [...]ieth euen from earth vnto heauen: euery murther is sacriledge, for that our bodie are the temples of the holy Ghost 1 Cor. 6.19. Herod then at once committed many fo [...]le sacri­ledges, in slaying so many both in towne and countrey, who were so great innocents, in being so little children, that as Hym, in ep [...]p [...]an. Prudentius excellently,

Locum minutis a [...]rubus
Vix interemptor invenit
Que plagade seendat patens,
Iugloque maior p [...]gio e [...]t.

This barbarous outrage caused lamentation, weeping, and mourning: Chrysost. that is, lamentation of the mothers, wee­r [...] of the children, and such a mourning on all sides, as that the cry penetrating the clouds, and knocking at hea­uen, gate did Iames 5.4. enter into the cares of the Lord of hostes.

Iuutnous. Horrendis grauiter Coelum pulsasse querelis.

The Epistle

Rom. 4.8.

Blessed is the man to whom the Lord will not impute sinne, &c.

OVr Apostle M [...]larct. [...]il man. P [...]. [...] in loc. con [...]mes in this Chapter that do­ [...] which hee deliuered in the former, namely, [...] of the Law, but freely [...]: and this he prooues in our text by [...] [...]pecially,

1. From Psalm. 32.1. [...] monie, [...] is the man, &c.

2. From [...] example, Wee say that faith [Page] was imputed vnto Abraham for righteousnesse, &c.

Now Paul mentioneth Abraham and Dauid in this controuersie, Partus, Pes [...] ­can, Grymus [...] D [...]ctor Wilet [...]n loc. because their workes were most glorious among the Iewes, in somuch as they called Abraham Ioh [...] 8.53. father, and Dauid is stiled a man Act [...] 13.22. according to Gods owne heart. The paterne then of Abraham accounted righteous before God by faith, and the precept of Dauid, affirming that our blessednesse consists in the remission of our sinnes, and not in the perfection of our vertues; are both exceeding fit, and well accommodated vnto the present purpose.

Blessed is the man] By blessed in the Psalme, Paul vn­derstands heere iustified: Martyr, [...] loc. for iustification is blessednes begun, glorification blessednesse perfited. In this life blessednesse is but begun; and therefore Dauid faith in the cited Psalme, For this shall euery one that is godly make his prayer vnto thee in a time when thou mayest bee found. And Christinioyneth vs daily to pray, for giue vs our tres­passes: in the world to come blessednesse is consumma­ted, for when we shall haue no more sinne, then we shall haue no more sorrow.

Whose vnrighteousnesse is forgiuen] Some Apud Prim as. & O [...]cumen is loc. id [...]m Hieron & Ge­nebra [...]us re­citant in Psal. 31. distinguish thus; iniquities are forgiuen in Baptisme, couered in re­pentance, not imputed in martyrdome A [...]selm. in loc. Other thus, [...], are transgressions against the word written, ac­cording to that, 1 Iohn 3.4. and so the Iewes hauing Gods Law did offend: [...], are trespasses against the rule of nature, not ingrauen in stone, nor written with inke; but imprinted in the conscience: and so the Rom. 2.14. Gen­tiles hauing not the law were sinners. G [...]an in loc. Other thus, ori­ginall iniquities are forgiuen in Baptisme quoad Cul­pam and actuall transgressions are couered in loue, quo­ad p [...]nam: or iniquit [...]t [...]t, are faults of infidelitie, called in holy Scripture sinne Catex [...]chen, Iohn 16.8. He will repro [...]: the world of sinne, that [...], as Christ expounds himselfe of vnbeliefe, peccata, are faults in manners. Caitla [...]. as other, our sins are forgiuen, in respect of the wrong [Page] done to God, and couered in respect of the shame due to vs; Hieron. in Psal 31. vt sic velentur, n [...] in indicio reuclentur. For in sinne three things are to be considered especially:

  • 1. An iniurie done to God,
    Aquin. in loc.
    and that is for giuen.
  • 2. An inordinate act, the which once being done, cannot be vndone, but is a blot or staine whereby the soule is defiled, and that is laid here to be couered, and elsewhere to be
    1 Iohn. 17.
    washed away.
  • 3. The guilt of eternall death, and that is not imputed.

Whosoeuer then is in Christ, hath all his sinne and euery thing in all his sinne for giuen. couered, not imputed: for these three signifie the Ambro [...] & Lombar. in loc. same, because that which is couered, is not seene; and that which is not seene, is not imputed; and that which is not imputed, is forgiuen. All his sin is put out of Gods Ier. 31.34. remembrance, cast as it were behinde his Esa. 38.17. backe, so couered with Christs grace, so bu­ried in Christs graue, that not so much as the print of one little fault appeares in the words of In Psal. 31. Augustine; Sitexit peccat a Deus, noluit aduertire: si noluit aduertere, noluit animaduertere: sinoluit animaduertere, noluit puni­re, neli [...]t agnoscere, malutt ignoscere: so that the saying of the Prophet (Blessed is the man whose vnrighteousnesse is forgiuen, and whose sinne is couered) containeth a M [...]lanct. de­finition of iustification It is Gods free pardon in remit­ting our iniquities; Marl [...]rat. & Piscater. in loc for the Publican is said expresly to be instified, in that God was mercifull to him a sinner, Luke 18.13.14.

[...]m [...]n. & M [...] [...]ct in loc. This makes against Osianders deified righteousnesse, as also the Popi [...]h inherent iustice; for God is our Psal. 4.1. righ­teousnesse, and Christ our holinesse, 1. Cor. 1.30. Being iustified Rom. 3.24. freely by grace, through Rom. 4.5. faith in him who iustifieth the vngodly. O [...] m [...]n. in loc. Imputat 'D [...]us homini iustiti [...]m vt compati [...]ns. vt dissensans, vt beneu [...]lens: Dimissio ete­nim ad compassion [...], obiectio ad dispersion [...]m, non impu­tar [...] ad bene [...]lentt [...]m pertinet. See Epistle 25 Sund. after Trinitie.

Whereas it is obiected that the blessed man is iustis­ed [Page] by workes in part, because in his spirit there is no guile, as the text runnes in Dauid, how soeuer omitted here by Paul; Vtis [...]pra. Idem Martyr. in loc. Augustine answereth aptly, that the blessed man hath in his heart no guile, for that he doth not disse [...]nble his sinne, but humbly confesse his faults. I said I will ac­knowledge my sinnes vnto the Lord, and so thou for gauest the wickednesse of my sinnes. Euery Christian may [...]y with our 1. Cor. 11.10. Apostle, When I am weake, then am I strong. And God also saith vnto such as feele their infirmities, as hee did vnto Paul, My grace is sufficient for thee, for my power is made perfect through weaknesse, 2 Cor. 12.9. And there­fore the true penitent bragges not or his vertue [...] as the Pharisie, but of his infirmities as Paul, acknowledging ingeniously that his happinesse consists in the remission of his sinnes. Hieron. epist. ad [...]res [...]phen. He [...] omnibus sol [...] perfectio, si se mueriur imperfectos. And whereas some further obiect how Da­uid saith elsewhere, Psal. 1.1. Blessed is the man that hath not walked in the counsell of the ungodly, &c. And blessed is he that Psal. 41.1. considereth the poore, &c. And blessed are they that are Psal. 119.1. vndefiled, &c. Melinct. Caluin. Martyr. Our Diuines answer, that those place; and the like presuppose faith a waies, according to that Apostolicall axio [...]e, Rom. 14.23. Whatsoeuer is not of faith is sinne. Faith is the Ho [...]. of god workes, part. 1. ne [...]t of [...]: albeit our birds be neuer so faire, yet they will bee lost, except they bee brought forth in true b [...]l [...]efe. The sparrow hath [...] an house, and t [...]e swallow a rest where [...]he may lay her young, euen thine Altar, O Lord, &c. Psalm. 84.3. Such as are faithfull, hauing their [...] for giuen, and their sinne couered, are blessed men, and all their worker as being laid vpon Christs Altar, are most acceptable to God. But faith In P [...]. 83 & I [...]mbard, [...]. [...] 41 Augustine, Heretickes and [...]dels in doing glorious acts and honourable deeds, haue not where to lay their young; and therefore they must of necessitie come to nought, as the Fathers of our Common Law speake, Meritur act [...] cum person [...], their a lions are dam­nable with their persons. See Gospell on all Saints day.

[Page] Came this blessednesse then vpon the Circumcision? It is fit in vrging Abrahams example, to reconcile S. Iames, af­firming in his Epistle, cap. 2. vers. 21. that Abraham was instified through workes: and S. Paul auowing heere that faith was reckoned to Abraham for righteousnesse. Caluin. Beza Mar [...]rat in 2. Iacob. Our Diuines answer, that S. Paul speakes of the causes of his iustifying before God: but S. Iames of the signes of his iustifying before men. S. Paul of Abrahams iustification, exprior [...]: S. Iames of Abrahams iustification, ex Ar [...] in 2. l [...]c [...]. posteri­ori. S. Paul of the iustifying of Abrahams [...] ­ [...]d D. W [...] in loc. person: Saint Iames of the iustifying of a particular act in offering Isaac be sonne.

Now Paul proues Abraham to be iustified by faith, M [...]a [...]ct. Martyr. Ar [...]t. ex ordine can [...]arum, in the 9.10.11.12. verses. And then ex causa promissionis, in the 13.14. The cause pre­ceeds, or at the least is alway conioined with his effect; but Abraham was iustified when he was yet vncircumcised, Ergo, Circumcision was not the meritorious cause of his iustification. Abraham (as Melan [...]thon obserues out of the Scriptures euidence) was called out of Haran, and iustified when he was seuentie fiue yeeres old, Gen 12.4. But circumcised in the ninetie ninth yeere of his age, Ge­nesis 17.24. Abraham then was iustified 24. yeere be­fore Circumcision was instituted, and (as our Apostle Galat. 3.17. theweth elsewhere) foure hundred and thirtie yeeres afore the Law was giuen: Ergo, father Abraham had the pardon of his sinne not by Circumcision, or any other worke of the Law; but only by faith, apprehending and applying Gods holy promise concerning the blessed seed. See Epistle 13. Sunday after Trinitie.

Wherefore then serued Circumcision? It was vnto him a signe and a seale of the righteousnesse of faith, verse 11.

[...]
[...]

[Page] Pere [...]. Idem [...]re L [...]m­b [...]rd [...]n I [...] & Hem [...]g [...]r de C [...]em. D. m. Signum,

  • Memoratiuum, a signe of commemora­tion of the Couenant betweene God and Abraham, and of the promise which he receiued: to wit, 1. Of the multi­plying of his seed. 2. Of inheriting the land of Canaan. 3. of the Messias which should be borne of his seed. And for this cause the signe was placed in the
    Th [...]mas par [...]. 3. q [...]est 70. art. 3.
    gene­ratiue part.
  • Representatinum, a signe representing A­brahams excellent faith, as it is after­ward called a seale of the righteousnesse of faith.
  • Distinctinum, a signe whereby the Iewes were distinguished from all other peo­ple.
  • Demonstratinum, a signe shewing the natu­rall disease of man, euen originall [...]inne, and the cure thereof by Christ.
  • Prafiguratinum, a signe prefiguring Bap­tisme, and the spirituall circumci [...]ion of the heart.

A Seale:

  • For that it is a
    Chry [...] The [...]hyl [...]ct.
    witnesse of faith receiued.
  • As being an
    Aq [...].
    expresse signe of the thing signi­fied: Abraham beleeued his seed should be multiplied, & ideo congrueuter accep it signum in membro generationis.
  • As
    Ger [...]an, Lom­bard, Aquin.
    sealing vp secretly this mysterie, that the Sauiour of the world should be borne of the seed of Abraham.
  • Because it was a
    Caluin, [...]eza, Piscat [...]r.
    confirmation of Gods pro­mise to father Abraham, as the Letters Pa­tent of Kings are sealed for better assu­rance. Vt obsignaret iustitiam fidei, to seale the righteousness of faith in his heart.

[Page]And Melanct. in loc. here we may learne the true doctrine of the Sa­craments against Anabaptists, ascribing too little to them, and Papists attributing too much. Anabaptists af­firme that Sacraments are bare badges of Christianity, distinguishing a Christian from an Infidell, as a gowne did a Romane from a Grecian. But Anglican. Co [...]sess. art. 25. signa n [...]n m [...]re significati [...]: sed exhibitius Musculus in Matth. 26. we teach out of our Apostle, that the Sacraments are not onely signa, but also signacula, certaine sure witnesses and seales of grace, whereby God inuisibly worketh in vs, and doth not only quic­ken, but also strengthen our faith in him. And against our aduersaries of Rome wee conclude from hence, that the Sacraments iustifie not, ex opere operato; for if they bee the seales of the righteousnesse of faith, how can they saue by the bare worke done without faith? Hugo cited by Hooker, Eccles. pol. lib. 5. § 60. Ista non tribu­unt quod per ista tribuitur, in the wordes of reuerend V [...]i supra. § 57. Hooker, they bee not physicall instruments of our sal­uation as hauing in themselues any vitall efficacy: but onely morall instruments of Gods grace, the vse where­of is in our hands, the effect in his; according to that of Tract. 27. in Ioan. Augustine, Multi nobiscum manducant & bibunt tem­poraliter sacramenta, qui bababunt in fine aeterna tormenta. Touching Circumcision see further in the Gospell ensu­ing, and concerning the second argument vsed here, ta­ken from Gods promise made to father Abraham. Epistle 13. Sund. after Trinity.

The Gospell

Lvke 2.15.

And it fortuned, assoone as the Angels were gone away from the shepeards into heauen, &c.

AL [...]eit this text commend vnto your consideration a great many of remarkeable vertues of the glori­ous Angels in preaching Christ, of the good sheep­heards in seeking Christ, of blessed Mary the Virgine [Page] in keeping Christ, as his mother in her louing armes, as his handmaid in her lowly heart; yet the more proper and proportionable parts accommodated vnto the pre­sent feast are principally two:

  • 1 The C [...]c [...]ci [...]ion of Christ.
  • 2 The imposition of his name Iesu [...].

Of these first I purpose to speake ioyntly, then seue­rally. These two were ioyned together, [...]. to thevv that Christ our Mediatour betweene God and man, was both a man in be [...]ng circu [...]d, and God in being Ie­sius [...]. that is, a Sau [...]r of his people from th [...] [...]: [...] or Christ happily was called I [...]sus, and [...] at the [...]a [...]me to [...]gnitie that there is no remission of sinne [...] it [...] of blood. Heb. 9. [...]1. Hee could not therefore become Iesus, vntill hee had giuen vs a taste of his blood; for wee haue redemption through his blood, euen the forgiuenesse of sinnes according to his rich grace [...]phe [...]. 1.7. or the dolorous Circumcision and sa­uing Iesus are coupled together, insinuating that there should be persecution and bloodshed in the world for the preeching of this name. So Christ in the M [...]. 10. [...]. Gospell assured his Apostles expresly, Yee shall [...] [...]ted of [...]men [...] my name. And [...] 1 [...].9. Paul saith of himselfe while hee was an oppressour of the Church, I [...]r [...]ly thought in my selfe that I ought to doem [...]: or these two were conioyned, to put vsin minde ho [...] God doth exalt the humble and mecke. Christ humbled P [...]. 2.5.9. himselfe (quoth Paul) and became obedi­ent, W [...]efore Go I hath also highly exalted him, and g [...]uen him a n [...]me [...]houe euery name, that at the name of Ie­ [...]us euery [...]nee should bow, both of things in [...]en, and things in earth, and things vnder earth. Or it may be that these were both at once, to witnesse that Christ is the true L [...] 5.31. Physition of the world. For when all mankinde was exceeding sicke in head, and heauy in heart, when from the sole of the foot vnto the head, there wa [...] no­thing whole but wounds, and swellings, and sores full of [Page] corruption, as it is in the Esay 1.5.6. Prophet; then our blessed Sa­uiour came to Lu [...]. 1.68. visit his people, Luk 10.34. binding vp their wounds on this day, Pelaculae carnis, and powring in oile and wine, washing them euen with the wine of his blood, and mollifying them also with the sweet oile of his sauing name Iesus. For V [...]de Case [...] ­ [...]on, not [...]n epist. § [...]issen. ad [...]u [...]at. some deriue [...] of the Greeke [...]. Or (as almost all Interpreters ob­serue) these two went together, [...] Cal [...]in. Ar [...]t [...]i [...]l [...]e. for that it was vsuall among God people the Iewes to giue names vnto chil­dren in their circumcision, as it is among vs in Baptisme. So wee reade in the first lesson appointed to be read this morning praier, that God altered Abrams name when he did institute Circumcision. Thy name shall not any more be called Abram, but Abraham: for a father of many nations haue I made thee. Now the reason hereof is plaine, F [...]ming. p [...]s [...]la. that as often as we heare our selues named, we might instant­ly call to minde the Couenant betweene God and vs in holy Baptisme: to wit, how God on his part promised to be our God, and we vowed on our part by Godfathers and Godmothers, that wee would forsake the deuill and all his workes, the vaine pompe of the world, the carnall desires of the flesh, and continue Christs faithfull souldi­ers and seruants vntill our liues end. Hitherto concer­ning Circumcision, and the name Iesus iointly: let vs now treate of these parts apart, and first of Circumcision which is

  • Ardens [...]em. d [...] Circum. Dem.
    Threefold, Carnall, vnder the Law.
  • Threefold, spirituall, vnder grace.
  • Threefold, Celestiall, in the kingdome of glorie.

The first is, S [...]cram [...]ntum [...]acr [...]res: the second, sacra [...]: the third, res sacramenti. The first, in it due time was good: the second, at all time [...] is bet­ter: the third, in eternitie best of all. The first is [...]a [...]lin. se [...]. 1. i [...] [...]u [...]cum. Dem. nascen­ [...], euery manchild of eight d [...]ies old among you shall [...]he circumcised, Gene [...]. 17.12. The second is renascenti [...], a circumcision of the heart in the spirit, Rom. 229. when as the regenerate by the sword of the spirit (which [Page] is sharper then the [...]. sharpe kniues vsed in circumcision, yea sharper then any Heb. 4.12. two edged sword as being a dis­cerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart) doe not onely circumcise the fore, kinne: but [...] all the power of the soule, and all the parts of the body. Circumcising their eye, [...] they looke vpon a lib 31.1. damse [...], or behold va­nitie. Circumcising their eares and their lips, hedging their possessions [...]rit [...] t [...]ornes, and making doores and bars for their mouth, Ecclesiast, 28.24. Hedging their eares a­gain't heresie, backbiting, [...]ttery: barring their mouth against E [...]. 4.2 [...]. lying, [...] 20.7. blasphemie, Eph [...]. [...].4. foolish [...]lking. Circum­cising their hands that they steale no more, but worke the thing that is good, Ephes 4.28. Circumcising their feet that they be not P [...]. [...]4.6. swift to shed blood. Circumcising their very thoughts, Esay 1.16 Wash you make you cleane put away your [...]tents out of my sight, as our olde Eng­lish translation according to the vulgar Latine. In a word, cutting of all A [...]. superfluous lusts of the flesh, and all superfluous cares of the world, casting off all the old man which is corrupt, and putting on the new man which after God is created in righteousnesse and true holinesse Ephes. 4.22. The third kind of circumcision is resurgentium, in the world to come, when all superfluity shall be cut off vtterly, when as wee shall appeare before Gods throne without any A [...]. 14. [...]. spot in our soule, or 1 C [...]. 15.53. corrup­tion in our body.

Now the circumcision of Christ heere mentioned is that of the flesh: Hem [...]g. [...]t. [...]. for Almighty God before mans fall, and after is fall; before the Law, vnder the Law, and after the Law, certified his will vnto man, especially by two things, an vnderstanding minde, and a perceiuing sense. When God had created A [...]m hee put him in Pa­radise, giuing him his Ge [...]. 2. [...]ord as a witnesse of hi [...] will, and vnto the word hee did adde a twofold outward signe namely, the tree of life, and the tree of knowledge of good and euill. After Ad [...]ous fall, he gaue him a pro­mise touching the blessed seede, Gen. 3.15. and added [Page] thereunto sacrifices as outward signes of his worde. When the floud was ouerpast, hee made a promise neuer to destroy the world againe with water, and hee made the Gen. 9.13. Rainbow a signe of the same. Hee promised deliue­rance from the bondage of Egypt, which hee performed also: but he sealed the promise with the Paschal Lambe. Exod. 12. To father Abraham hee gaue his promise that his seed should be multiplied, and in perpetuall remem­brance thereof hee did institute Circumcision. Gen 17. At the length in the fulnesse of time he giueth his owne Sonne, and by him he promiseth Iohn 3.16. euerlasting life to such as beleeue, the which hee confirmes with two Sacra­ments, as seales of his grace; Baptisme, and the Lords supper. Thus the father of mercies in all ages euermore prouided for our weaknesse, that wee might (Aug H [...]ming. & T [...]rrecrem. ex ponunt third de sacramento c [...]rporis Chrisii. as it is in the Psal 34.8. Psalme) taste and see how gratious the Lord is; and therefore such as are so spirituall as that they cannot en­dure significant ceremonies and outward rites in the Church: haue runne a violent course quite contrary to the goodnesse of God and meeknesse of his holy spirit, who doth instruct the conceiuing minde by the percei­uing sense. For the Sacraments (as Apud Marty. [...]m in Rom. 4. Augustine speakes) are visible words, and Circumcision (in the iudgment of In Rom. 4. Chrysostome) was a Preacher of the righteousnesse of faith. I confesse that the Iewish ceremonies are now no more necessarie ndal pro­log. in L [...]uit. then a token left in remembrance of a bargaine is necessarie when the bargaine is fulfilled: but christian rites ordained by lawful authority for outward comelinesse in the Church ought to be retained, as ha­uing Hooker Eccl. p [...]lit. lib. 5. §. 65. more in weight then in sight.

In the C [...] [...]ti [...]on of [...]h [...]t ob­ [...]e [...]ue these [...] po [...]n [...]s.
  • [Page]1 The [...]i [...]e when, the e [...]ghth day.
  • 2 The [...] [...]e [...]he [...]e, implyed here for that C [...]i: but exp [...]essed in the first Lesson a [...]o [...]e [...] for this a [...] nin [...]rayer. ( [...]en 17.11. to be the [...]
  • 3 The e [...]se [...]hy, [...] that is ( [...] in the wo [...]d [...] fo [...]o [...] [...]r the L [...].

When the eighth [...]] Ch [...]e en were circum­e [...]sed on the e [...]ghth day, fo [...]th [...] in this tender age they co [...]d more e [...]stly b [...]re the g [...]ese of circumcision, or e [...]re [...]meised on the e [...]gh [...]h d [...]y, [...] h [...]use tha [...] is the day [...]h [...]rein our ble [...]sed Sauiour [...]ofe [...]m the dead. Seuen daie signifie the time o [...] this [...]efe [...]e wor [...]d and the [...]gh [...]h d [...]y the re [...]e [...]ion, when al [...]co [...]uption of the [...]eth shall he e [...]o [...], accord [...]g to that o [...] Paul [...] C [...]r 15.5 [...]. T [...]s [...] [...] For th [...]s end [...]he circumci [...]on kni [...]e [...] m [...]de of [...] Exod 4.25. I [...] [...]a 5.2. To si [...]niti [...] [...]h [...] [...]ece [...]e [...] C [...]cumc [...]on is by Chri [...]t the [...]ocke [...]nd [...]h [...]ad co [...]e [...] [...]en [...].

C [...]cumci [...]on [...]s placed in the generatiue p [...]t for th [...]eere [...]on e [...]ally. First, for that it [...]as a se [...]e of G [...] [...]e th [...] C [...]t h [...]d [...]e [...]o [...]ne of Ab [...]m [...] [...]. Se [...]nd [...]ee [...]e the prop [...]tion of original [...] [...]nne [...]. Thi [...]dly, Q [...] ­ [...] [...] co [...]ci [...]i [...] [...] O [...] [...] o [...]he [...] [...]o [...] tha [...] i [...] [...] [...]ne of G [...] [...] the [...]ent and h [...] [...]e [...] [...]. Gen. 17.7. [...]

Th [...] [...]ns [...] h [...] C [...] [...] [...]ecei [...]ed and b [...]rne [...], are [...]ni­ [...].

  • [Page]1 To shew that he was of the seede of Abraham [...]. Heb. [...].16.
  • 2 To declare himselfe a member of the Iewish. Church, in which euery man child was circum­cised.
  • 3 To
    [...] [...] an. [...]. 30.
    demonstrate that hee had true flesh, against [...]: and such a flesh as was not of the same substance with his deitie, Co [...] [...] corpus, against Apol [...]naris: or fetched from hea­uen, as Val [...]ntinus imagined; hee was, I say cir­cumcised, to shew that he was made of the seede of [...] accor [...] to the [...]. Rom. 12.
  • 4 For that he was the truth, of which Circumcision was a type,
    Ca [...] c [...]n. [...] [...]. d [...].
    V [...] [...]rami [...] [...]ritas [...]ir [...].

But the principall reason i [...] in [...]nuated in the text, for that thei [...] required that eue [...]y man child should be cir­ [...]s s [...]d. He therefore was circumcised to [...]e [...]hi [...] obe­di [...]nce to the l [...]w; Ca [...]a [...]h. 4.4 W [...] the [...]al [...]es of ume wa [...] come, God [...] [...]th his [...] m [...]e o [...] a [...]oman, make vnder the Law, t [...]at [...]e [...]i [...] re [...] m [...]t [...]m th [...]t were v [...]der the Law. As then he [...]a [...] borne for [...]s, Esay 9.6. Puer natus [...]st ne [...] is; And Luk 2.11. V [...]s n [...]tu [...], Vnto you is borne, that i [...], vnto yo [...] a men a [...] an Ange [...]l expounds the Prophet: euen f [...] [...] hee [...]m [...]sed for y [...], Ki [...]ius con. de Circ [...]m. Chris [...]. h [...]reby giuing a publike [...]y [...]no [...]i [...] [...]h [...] he would fu [...]fill all the whole Law for vs, fo [...] Galat [...]. 52. eue [...]y [...] i [...] circumc [...]s [...]d [...]s b [...]d to keep the whole L [...]w.

Ho [...] the cons [...]la [...]orie name Ie [...]us, inuented by God, [...] p [...]ed b [...] the Ang [...]l, invocated by men, is proper to Ch [...]i [...]t [...]: S [...]e Gospell on the Sunday next after [...]. And how his named aboue all name Epist. [...] will end here with a diuine [...] [...]ccurate Poet.

[...];
[...] of content,
[...] rent.
[...] p [...]ne.
[Page]O take thy crosse, and nai [...]es, and therewith straine
My hearts desire to his full extent,
That thy [...]ea [...]e loue therein may not be [...]ent.
But thoughts man haue free scope thy loue t'explaine.
Ah new my heart more p [...]uneth then before,
Because it can receiue, and hath no more.
O fil [...] this emptinesse, or [...] [...]e:
Now stretch my heart againe, and now supply.
Now I want [...]pace now grace to end a [...] smart,
Since my heart [...] not thee, hold thou my heart.

Almighty God, which madest thy blessed sonne to he circumcised and obedient to the Law for man: gran [...] vs the true circumcision of the spirit, that our hearts and all our members being mortified from all worldly and carnall lusts, may in all things obey thy blessed will through the same thy sonne Iesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

The Epistle

EPHES. 3.1.

For this cause I Paul am a prisoner of Iesus Christ for you heathen, &c.

THE maine drift of all this exceeding Consul proem. Hieron. in epist. ad Ephes. profound Epistle written vnto the Saints of the Church of Ephesus, is to Aquin. Are­tius, Maricrat. argum. [...]p [...]. ad Ephes. confirme their in the Ephes. 1.13. word of truth, euen the Gospell of their saluation and faith in the Lord Iesus. And this our Apostle doth in the present text by two reasons especially; [Page]

  • 1. From his owne mini­stery, in
    Quant [...]m ad [...]r [...]bulation [...]s q [...]s pertulit, [...]t d [...]na qua Deus [...]b [...] c [...], Aquin in l [...]c.
    re­spect of the
    • Bonds or disgrace hee suffered of men, I Paul am a prisoner, &c.
    • Boon or grace he receiued of God, If yee haue heard of the ministration of the grace of God which is giuen mee to you­ward.
  • 2. Fom the Gospels mystery, which hee shewes to bee most excellent in regard of
    • Himselfe, Vnto mee the least of all Saints is this grace giuen.
    • Other,
      • God, Vnsearchable riches of Christ [...]idde in God, &c.
      • Angels, Vnto rulers and powers in heauenly things &c.
      • Men, to make all men­see what the fellow shippe of the mystery is, and that by Christ wee might haue boldnesse &c.

The summe of all which is, seeing I haue receiued so, much good, and endured so much euill for your sake: seeing the great mystery concerning the common sal­uation (as S. Iude speakes in his Epistle) was not in times past opened vnto the ionnes of men on earth, or to the bles­sed Angels in heauen as it is now declared by the spirit: see­ing I say, yee may see what is the fellowshippe of the mysterie which euen from the beginning hath [...] hid in God: I desire you not to faint in your course, but to continue stedfast in the profession of this holy faith vnto your liues end.

For this cause] Apud Hieren. [...]t Zanch. in loc. Some Diuines haue troubled them­selues and other in examining the context heere, but it is among words as among men, affinnity which is neerest ought to be dearest: and therefore seeing the first words of this chapter agree very well with the last of the for­mer: [Page] I take the coherence to b [...] [...] [...] [...]uer preach­ed that you Gentile in [...] [...] are no [...] citizens with the Saints, [...] together in Christ the ch [...] corner stone, to be the [...]. And for th [...] [...], namely, for that I have together that you Gentiles are [...], I [...] hated of my countrimen, accused in their Synagogue, [...] [...] their councels, iniured by their off [...]cer [...], [...] appeale to Casar, I was sent to [...], where I am ap [...] ­ [...]er, as you may reade at large in the fast eight chap [...] of the Acts of the Apostles.

A pri [...]ner of Iesus C [...]r [...]) He was the prisoner of Ca­ [...]ar, but Caes [...] had his authoritie from I [...] 19.11. aboue, for there is [...] 1. no power but of God Who [...]oeuer then is in prison is [...]t [...]s Ie [...]u Christs, though otherwise lib [...] [...]e [...]u Christs, suffering by Gods A [...]m [...] power and permittance, [...]ho can wh [...]n he w [...]ll, and will as shall make mo [...]t for [...], glorie, [...]say 61.1. proclame lib [...]rtie to the captues, and o [...]ni [...]g [...] the prison vnto them that are [...]d. Or he was [...]e pri [...]o [...]e [...] Ch [...]. as enduring his [...]ond for Christs faith and ser­uice, G [...]r [...], [...] D [...]sius. V [...]s no [...] Chrs to, [...]e [...]pro Christo. Namely, for preaching among the Gentiles the e [...]searchable [...]hes of Chr [...]st, as it is in the S. verse. So that whereas A [...] [...]n [...]. two thing especially commend a Ma [...]tyr, saith in Christ, and lo [...]e to the Church; bo [...]h are me [...] in the Apostle. Hee suffe [...]ed for the true faith, a p [...]i [...]on [...]r of Ie [...]s Christ; and out of vnfained loue to God [...] people. F [...]r [...]u Gentiles, as it i [...] in the hitteen [...]h verse, [...]or your sake [...], euen for your An [...] good and [...] example, tha [...] yee likewise may con [...]nue con [...]tant in the sincere p [...]fe [...]ion of Christianitie. F [...] [...], [...] is your glorie, that ye h [...]e such [...]n in [...]tru [...]tor as is the pri [...]ner [...] Ie [...]us Christ [...]n bo [...]d no [...] for any faction of your [...] or fault of his o [...]ne; but [...]r 1 Pe [...] [...] 1 [...]. confe [...]ence to [...]d God, euen for the [...]ir [...]n [...]f the gr [...]e wh [...]h [...]s [...]en [...]ee to you­ward. [Page] See Epistle S [...]nday 16. after Trinitie.

Hitherto concerning the griefe which our Apostle suffered in Christs cause for the Gentiles, I come now to treate of the grace which he receiued.

In Aquin in loc. respect of his

  • know­ledge being
    • Certaine, By reuelation shewed he the mysterie to me.
    • Full, euen so perfectly reuealed that in a few words you may read and vnderstand [...]y know­ledge in the mysterie of Christ.
    • Excellent, which in other ages was not made knowne vnto the sonnes of men, as it is now declared, &c.
  • Practise, whereof I am made a Minister ac­cording to the gift of the grace of God which is giuen vnto me, &c.

If you haue heard of the ministration of the grace] The calling of 'aul to be the Doctor of the Gentiles, as it was knowne vnto himselfe by reuelation: so to them by report. If yee haue heard &c. Aretius. As if he should haue said, if ye doubt not of my calling, ye may be well assured of my doctrine. But ye cannot doubt of my calling, as ha­uing often heard how Act. 9. Christ in a vision appeared to me, saying, Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me? And when I had answered, Lord, what wil [...] thou haue mee to doe? Ie­sus told Anani [...]s in another vision, Hee is a chosen vessell vnto mee to beare my name before the Gentiles, and Kings and the children of Israel. And so God Galat. 1.15. separated mee from my mothers wombe, and called me by his grace to reueale his sonne among the Gentiles: Gal 2.7. as the Gospell ouer the circumcision was committed to Peter, so the Gospell ouer the vncircumcision was committed vnto me being an Apostle (not of men, or by man, Galat. 1.1. Or after man, Gal. 1.11.) but the ministration of Gods grace was giuen vnto me by the reuelation of Iesus Christ.

[Page]The word mimstration or dispensation, may bee con­strued either passiuely, being a grace giuen, and O [...] m [...]. A [...]m. Ares. dispen­sed to Paul: or [...] actiuely, for that Paul was dispenser of it vnto other, 1. Cor 4.1. Let a man so thinke of vs, as of the ministers of Christ, and disposers if the secrets of God. His office then is called a dispensation. [...]. [...] For that it con­sisteth in the dispensing of Christs vnsearchable riches And the Gospell is called here [...] [...] [...]. Gods grace, for that it is faithfully deliuered and fruitfully receiued nor by mans merit; but onely through Gods free grace. 1 Cor. 5.10 Preaching in the teacher, and [...]. 2.8. Mat [...]h. 13.11. beleeuing in the hearer are both the faire gifts of God. Or the Gospell is called Gods grace, [...]. because the summe thereof is nothing else but the preaching of Gods exceeding rich mercies in Christ, intimating that our iustification is not by the workes of the Law, but Rom. 3.24. freely by grace through faith.

As I wrote afore in few words] I finde that A [...]ad Mar­iorat [...]. some con­strue this of that which is written in other Epistles, vnto other men, as to Philemon: and other Churches, as to that of Colossus, and Philippi. Marlorat is of opinion that our Apostle wrote another Epistle (though it bee not extant) vnto the Church of Ephesus. Calet [...]n. Other referre this clause to that which is deliuered in this present Epi­stle; to wit, vnto that which is sayd in the [...] two former chapters, A [...]h [...]s. Or to that in chap. 1. vers. 9. [...] [...]. or chap. 2. vers. 14. He is our peace, which hath made of both one, and hath broken the step of the partition wall. In this little briefe is contained all that great mysterie which in times past was not opened vnto the sonnes of men, as it is now declared by the spirit, that the Gentiles should bee fellow heires, and of the same body, and partakers of the same promise in Christ by the Gospell.

Which mysterie in times past was not opened vnto the sonnes of men] This verse cannot easily bee digested (as [...]. one sayd) without a graine of salt; for if wee shall vn­derstand this of the whole mystery of Christ 1. Tim. 3.16. manifested in the flesh, it is certaine that Abraham with faiths eye [Page] Iohn 8.56. saw Christ and was glad, and the Prophets 1. Pet. 1.10. enquired and searched when or what time the spirit which was in them should declare the sufferings that should come to Christ, and the glorie that should follow. Nay the very common people did expect the consolation of Israel, as it is apparant by that of the Iohn 4.25. Samaritane woman, I know well that Messias shall come which is called Christ. Or if we construe this of that part of the mysterie which onely concernes the vocation of the Gentiles, it is as plaine that Abraham beleeued Gen 12.3 & 22.18. all the families of the earth should be blessed in his seed. And the Prophet C. p. 2. vers. 8 Haggai cal [...] the Messias expresly the desire of all nations. And in the first lesson allotted for euening praier on this day, Thus saith the Lord, Esa. 49.22. Behold, I will lift vp mine hands to the Gentiles, and set vp my standard to the people, &c. Kings shall be their nursing fathers, and Queenes their nursing mo­thers, &c.

Hi. ron. expo­sit 1. in loc.Answer then is made, that this mysterie was opened in times past vnto the sonnes of God, but not (as it is in the text here) to the sonnes of men. It was knowne vnto the spirituall lew, but not vnto the carnall. For the Pro­phers spake not Trimasius in loc. as the sonnes of men, but as they were moued by the spirit of God, 1. Pet. 2.21. Occumen. Other thinke this mysterie was opened vnto the lewes, as hauing the Law and the Prophets testifying of Christ: and that it was hidden onely to the Gentiles, as wanting the light of Gods word to direct them in their night of igno­rance. Other say that the Prophets in old time knew that the Gentiles should be partakers of Gods promise concerning the blessed seed, Ambros. Lanchius. but they did not vnder­stand how this could be without circumcision, because Gen. 17.14. God said, Euery person which is not circumcised should be cut off from his people. Yea the knowledge in this my­sterie was hidden vnto the chiefe Apostle till it was in a vision reuealed vnto him, as we reade Act. 10.

Hieron, Theo­phyla. Anselm.Other finde a direct answer couched in the words of Paul here, which mysterie was not in times past opened [Page] vnto the s [...]aues of [...], as it is now declared vnto his holy Apo­tles and Prophets by the spirit. It was opened before, but not as now: not so fully manifested vnto the Pa [...]iarkes and Prophets in the old Testament, as in the light of the Gospell vnto blessed Apostles and Preachers: in which respect Iohn the Baptist is said to be [...] [...].16. greater then a Pro­phet. For wherea [...] they shadowed out Christ in figures obscurely, he shewed our Christ with his finger openly,

[...] 1.19. [...] of God, which taketh away the sinne of the world. So Christ himselfe to his Disciples; [...] 10.23 Blessed [...] the [...] that [...] you that many Pro­phets and Kings haue desired to see those things which ye see, in [...] not [...] them, and to heare those things which yee heare, and haue not heard them. The blessed Apostles are called in the fifth verse Prophets, [...] [...]. as propheeying in their Creed of things to come, to wit, of the resurrection of the [...] and euerlasting life or Prophets, as being [...] 21.12 [...] Rom. Idem. [...]. [...] [...]. ex­pounders of the Prophets, as the word is vsed elsewhere, Rom. 12.6. Ephes. 4.11. 1. Cor. 14.1. See Epistle second Sunday after the Epiphanie.

That the G [...]nt [...]les should be follow-heires, and of the same body, and partakers of the same promise.] The Gentiles are said to bee follow-heires in respect of future glorie, [...] [...]. re­pectulum futuri, because they shall be Heb. 1.14. heires of salua­tion, and inhe [...]itors of the kingdome of heauen so well as the Iewes, euen heires of God and ioint heires with Christ, Rom. 8.17. Of the same body, in respect of present grace, respectu boni praesentis, as being built together in Christ, and made one Church and habitation of God, Ephes. 2.14.22. Partakers of the same promise, in respect of mercie [...] die, respectu boni praeriti: forasmuch a, Gods Couenant made to father Abraham, apparantly concerned all the nations of the world, Genes. 12.3.18. 18 22.18. Heere the Gospell and Epistle meet, and both are well accommodated vnto Christs Epiphanie: for the Wisemen shewed that in deed which our Apostle heere saith in word.

[Page] Vnto the rulers and powers in heauenly things.] Whether this ought to be construed of damned deuils, or blessed Angels, I referre you to Com. in loc. S. Ambrose, P [...]rap [...]ras. in loc. Erasmus, I [...]xp [...]sit in loc. Mar­lorat. Or if spoken of the good Angels onely, whether it concernes all at all times, or in times past only such as were not imploied in the publishing of Christs incarna­tion: I desire you to reade the Commentaries of Hie­rome, and Haymo vpon this text, Lombard sent lib 2. di­stinct. 11. Alussiodorensis, Aur. sum. lib. 2. Tracti. 5. quaesi. [...]. & 6. Sixtus senensis bibliothec. lib. 6. annot. 165.182.29 [...]. And whether this knowledge be reuealed or experimen­tall only, Thomas part. 1. quast 117. art. 2. Lexicon Theo­log. Astenstanc. verb. Angelus. Perkins exposit. Creed art. 1. Tit. Creation of Angels, Aretius, Marlorat, Zanch. in loc. For mine owne part, where I see not my selfe, I loue not to leade other. If these cited Authors afford your vnderstanding good paiment, I shall be so well pleased as when I borrow ready coine of one friend to lend it vnto another. If not, I say with Epist. ad [...]er Vigilant, T [...]m. 2. [...] 313. Hierome, Non parum est scire quid nes [...]as: and with Epist. [...]0. Augustine, Non videtur mihi quisquam errare, cum aliquid nescire se scit, sed cum putat scire quod nescit.

The Gospell

MATTH. 2.1.

When Iesus was borne in Bethlehem a Citie in Iurie, in the time of Herod the King, behold, there came Wise-men from the East to Ierusalem, saying, who is he that is borne King of the Iewes, &c.

AFter the celebration of Christs birth and circumcisi­on, it seemed good vnto the Church to constitute a Feast in honour of his Epiphanie, August. ser. 30 de [...]t [...]m [...]. Eus [...]b. I mis [...]n. lom. 1. de Epi­plan. Heming. post. in loc. that his glory might be manifested in the flesh, so well as his infirmitie. Now this Feast is called by three sundry [...]udolph. de rua Caristi. part. 1. cap. 11. & Pet. de Pa­lua. Enar. 1 de Epiphan. names, according to the Diez con. 1. Giron con 3. le [...]u [...] con. 6. de Epiphan Id [...]m Augustin. & [...] & [...]. Mart. not. in lan. 6. three principall appearings of our Lord in this [Page] kinde on this day: 1. Epiphania, because Christ as this day did appeare to the Wisemen that sought him by the lea­ding of a starre. v [...]s. 2. Theophania, for that as vpon this day 29. yeeres after his birth his glorie appeared in his Mat. 3.16. 17. bap­tisme by the witnesse of the Father speaking from hea­uen, this is my beloued Sonne, in whom I am well pleased, and by the descending of the holy Ghost vpon him in a visible shape like a done. 3. Bethphania, for that on the same day twelue moneth after his baptisme, his glorie appeared at the marriage in Cana by turning water into wine, Iohn 2.11. We must according to the present text onely treat of his appearing to the Wisemen, in whom I note

These 7. cir­cumstances:
  • 1. At what time they came to seeke Christ, in the time of Herod the King.
  • 2. From what part of the world, from the East.
  • 3. To what Citie, to Ierusalem.
  • 4. By what guide, by the leading of a star.
  • 5. For what end, to worship him.
  • 6. What gifts they presented vnto him, gold, frankincense, myrrhe.
  • 7. What way they returned home, after they were warned of God in a sleepe, that they should not goe againe to Herod, they returned into their owne country another way.

In the time of Herod the King.] The Patriarke Iacob prophecied of the Messiah, Gen. 49 10. that the kingdom should not depart from Iuda, not a langiner from his fe [...]t, vntill S [...]lo come. Now Herod was not a branch of the Kings of Iu­da, but an alien from their Common-wealth, a stranger and a tyrant, crept in by the fauour of the Romane Em­perour: and therefore the Wisemen enquiring after the birth of Christ in the daies of Herod the King, obserued their right Le [...]ser. 3. de Epiphan. The [...]hylact. [...]. [...]. quando, because now the scepter had depar­ted from Iuda. Heming. The which as it confutes the Iewes, ex­pecting [Page] as yet that Christ should come: so it confirmes the faith of Christians, assuring vs vndoubtedly that this same whom the Wise-men sought, is the very Sauiour of the world: and as the Wise-men in seeking, euen Diez. con. 1. de Epiphan. so Christ in comming kept his right quando. For when He­rod was King, and sinne most abounded, Iesus was borne in Bethlehem a Citie of Iurie: when his Israel sate in dark­nesse and in the shadow of death, then he visited and re­deemed his people, Luk. 1.68.79. according to that of Psal. 102.13. Dauid, Thou shalt arise, and haue mercy vpon Sion, for it is time that thou haue mercy vpon her, yea the time is come, and why? Thy seruants thinke vpon her stones, and it pittieth them to see her in the dust.

Euseb. in Chron. & Epi­phan. haeres. 30 & 51.Some thinke these Wise-men came to Ierusalem a­bout two yeeres after Christs birth, and the ground of this assertion is in the 16 verse of this present chapter, Herode seeing that hee was mocked of the Wise-men, was ex­ceeding wroth, and sent forth, and slew all the male-children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts thereof, from two yeeres old and vnder, according to the time which hee had diligently searched out of the Magi. But the Wise-men had proued themselues none of the wisest men, if they should at that time haue sought for Christ in Iurie, when hee was in Egypt. For so the Mat. 2.14.15. text plainely, Ioseph accor­ding to the direction of an Angell appearing to him in a dreame, tooke the babe Iesus and his mother by night, and departed into Egypt, and was there vnto the death of Herod, and that was in Lib. 1. cap. 14. Nicephorus account 3 yeeres, as C [...]c [...]rd. cap. 11. Ianse­nius 5 yeeres, as Apud Mus­culum in Mat. 2.15. Sabell [...]c [...] 7 yeeres. I thinke therefore that the Wise-men came to Ierusalem according to the Churches institution of this feast vpon tht twelfth day af­ter the birth of Christ. If any desire to bee satisfied how they could performe in so short a time so great a iourney, let them at their leasure peruse the Commentaries of Maldonat vpon this text, and Cardinall Baron, annal. Tom. ad an. 1. fol. 53.54.

From the East] The first sinne committed by man in [Page] the world was eastward for [...] 3.6. Adam and Eua did eate of the forbidden fruit in Paradise planted Eastward, Gen. 2.8 [...] her Abel was an inhabi­tant of the East. Gen 4. [...]. The builders of the Tower of Babel also came from the [...] Gen. 11.2. And [...] there­ [...] Christ ( [...] that hee might [...] and take away the sinne of the world called at his [...] appearing Wise-men from the East: and hee was crucified [...] toward the [...], as hauing put all our sinnes behind his b [...]cke: E [...]a, [...].17. And for this [...] happily [...] with [...] other, whereas the [...] toward the South, and secta­ [...], to the West: [...] (and tha [...] from the very time of the [...] Apostles) vse to pray toward the [...]. And it [...] that such as were to bee baptized should in their renunciation of the de­uill and all his workes, euer turne their face toward the W [...]l, and on the contrary when they made their con­ [...] of the faith of Christ [...] the East, as [...] and Cyr [...]l. apud Baron. [...] 58 fol. 564.

Our Sauiour said Matth. 8.11. that mary shall [...] from [...] and [...]. and shall sit downe with [...], Isa­ac and Iacob in the kingdome of heauen. These [...] came from the East, and [...] from the West and [...] ­knowledged Christ to bee King of the Iewes. [...] Magi ab [...] hoc est nas [...]ents the autem occidenti, hoc est [...] regi Iudeorum. That these Magi came from Per­sia most accord; but whether they were Kings, or Phi­losophers, or both, it is vncertaine. It was a receiued o­pinion among the Popish Friers heretofore that these Magi were Kings, and that Matthew in terming them Wise-men, [...] gaue them a title more honourable then that of Kings. [...], A scepter may be put into the hands of a foole. The name then of Ma­gus in [...]. that age when Philosophers did raigne, was of [Page] greater account then that of Magnus. Other Papists of better note for their learning confesse that they were not reges, but [...] in [...], & Mantu [...]. reguli, not puissant Princes of a whole Country, but pettie Lord of some little Towne, Ear [...]. an [...]l. [...] 1. ad an. 1. fol. 52. a [...] Gen. 14. Bera King of Sodome, Birsha King of Gom [...]rrah, Sh [...]ab King of Adm [...]th. But that these were crowned Kings, and but three, whose names are [...]. Melchior, Gas­par, Balthasar: Const. [...] Giron [...] 1. in [...]. pictura, [...]. ser. 1. in [...]. sed no [...] ex scriptura, is a tale painted on a wall not written in the word. That I say these were but three, [...] & Gi­r [...]n. [...]. whereof one was an olde man, another a yong man, and the third of middle age; whose dead bodies haue been P [...]d. Pal [...]d, [...]ar 1. Epi­phan. D [...]. translated, first from In­dia to Constantinople. Secondly, from Constantinople to Millane. Thirdly, from Millane to Colon, and thereupon commonly called the three Kings of Colon: is thought by Protestant Diuines a ridiculous fable, better fitting the signe of a Tauerne then the wall or window of a Tem­ple.

That they were Wise-men is said in this text and pro­ued also; for in seeking the Lord, when and where hee was to be found: they Diez cen. 1. in Epiphian. shewed themselues wisemen in­deed, according to that of the Ierem. 9.23. Prophet, Let not the wise man glory in his wisedome, but let him that glo [...]uth, glory in this, that hee vnderstandeth and knoweth mee, that I am the Lord which exercise louing kindnesse, iudgement and righteousnesse in the earth: for in these things I de [...] saith the Lord. It is likewise consonant to the text that these Magi were aliens from the Common-wealth of Israel, as the shepheard, were the first fruits of the Iewes: so these Wise-men the F [...]tius [...] an. [...] L:, Lu­ [...]. first fruits of the Gentile. They were neere, these came from farre, both met in Christ the chiefe corner stone, who made of both I [...]p [...]es. 2.14. one: that is, of two walles one house; for the Iewes and Gentiles are all one in Christ, Galat. 3.28 A mysterie which in times past (as you haue heard in this daie, Epistle) was not opened vnto the sonne; of men, as it is now declared by the spirit. Read ser. 2.4.6 7 of Augustine de Epiphania [Page] Dom. And herein appeares the goodnesse and vnsearch­able riches of Christ, in that he manifested himselfe to the shepheards albeit ignorant, and to the Wise-men [...] impious. [...]. In rus [...]citate pastorum imperitia praeualet, in sacril [...]g [...] imagorum impietas, and yet he who [...] chose the foolish things of the world to confound the wise, and came not to call the righteous, Ma [...]. [...] 13. but sinners to repen­tance: appeared vpon Christmas day to shepheards, and on this day to wise, but wicked Astrologers. Vt nullus magnus [...], nullu, infirm [...]u desperaret, as [...]. Augustine and Cate [...]. Aquine sweetly.

To Ierusalem] See Heming & Ar [...] [...] As to the Citie of God acquainted with the diuine oracles, hauing Moses and the Prophets which [...]. 5.39. witnesse of the Messias. And here they did learn [...] that Christ should be borne at Bethlehem in Iu­rie, for [...] it is written by the Prophet, and thou Bethlehem in the land of Iurie are not the least among the Princes of Iuda: for out of thee shall come vnto me the Captaine that shall gouerne my people Israel. And so hauing the light of Gods holy word added to the starre, they went on their iourney with cheerefulnesse, vntill they came to the place where the childe was.

Di [...]as de Yangu [...] 2. de [...]. Or to the Scribes and Pharisies at Ierusalem to con­demne their [...]ggishnesse and carnalitie, who standing hard by, saw not so much as they who came from farre. Le [...] 3. de [...] an. [...] Ver [...]s ill minat magus, insi [...]litas ob [...]at magistros. Carnales [...], quod [...] ve [...]. 1. quod often­det: v [...]tur paginis, quarum non ere dis eloqu [...]. In which respect S [...]r. 6. de Epipha [...] Augustine compared the Iewish Doctors vnto stenes erected in common passages, that teach other how to walke in the right way, but themselues stand still. And he [...] vs vpon bowed knees intreat the Father of mercies and God of all grace so to lighten our darke vn­de [...] [...]ng with his heauenly star [...]e, that wee may [...] and spiritually disc [...]ne the things of the Scrip­tures [...] the Lord (as [...] Augustine prophecied a great while [...]) four our [...] and carnalitie take his [Page] word from vs Christians, as hee did his kingdome from the Iewes, and giue it to such as wee thinke to bee most alien from God and his Gospell. Examine the cited pas­sages and passions of that holy Father againe and againe, Decies repetita placebunt: and then in thy serious medita­tions apply them vnto the present Romish Synagogue, and thou shalt easily find that the Protestants estate in re­spect of the Papists, is very like to this of the Wise men in respect of the Iewes. For as the Iewes euer boasted of the Temple: so the Papists of the Church, as the Iewes and onely the Iewes in times past had Gods Law: so the Papists in latter ages (and if you will beleeue them­selues) onely the Papists imbrace the Catholike faith. As the Iewes were magnificent in their Ceremonies: euen so the Papists exceeding glorious in their orna­ments, orders, outsides of the Church. And yet such as are Wise-men, and haue Ap [...]. 12.18. wit to count the number of the Beast, know that Antichrists seate is the Romane sea. Hee whose pencill is not inferiour to many, standing in so fit a place as any to take Romes picture, portrayeth her thus;

  • Roma, in Hebrew, Signifieth Height.
  • Roma, in Greeke, Signifieth Strength.
  • Roma, in Latine, Signifieth Loue, if it bee read backward.
  • Roma, in English, Signifieth Roome, or place.
Foure tongues like trumpets Rome doe sound thy name.
In Hebrew thou art Height, in Greeke a power,
And Loue in Latine speech-and Place in our,
Foure squares of hundred yeeres doe sit the same.
The first in Height exalted Christ his name,
The next in Strength augmented worldly power.
The third Gods loue cast Backward on thy flowre,
The fourth in empty place hath shewed thy shame.
And now foure waies thou wouldest fall conceale,
With Scriptures vpper Height and strength of schooles.
And forme of Zeale, and Rome the head of fooles:
The Height mants, ground, to reason truth, to zeale.
S [...]ente and Roome cone. cyueth [...] no grace,

Thy height of strength is backward loue of place.

We haue seen his s [...]arre! Cardinal Ia Gen. Prost 30. Abacus and [...] Al­bertus haue written that these Wise men endowed with extraordinary skill in Astrologie, might foreknow the time when our blessed Sauiour should be borne by the position of starres and constitution of the planets. But this assertion is vtterly condemned by S.Corin [...] Pa [...] ­& mab. 2. cap. 5. & de [...]. D [...] lib. 5. Augustine and other holy Fathers of the Church, as you may finde in Beauxanis Har. Tom. 1. fol. 60.61. Sixt. sinen. bibliothec. lib. 6. annot. 10.

It is apparent that this starre was not ordinarie, but in The [...] first. quest. 26. art 7. Chryst. [...]. La [...]s [...] and in lec many properties, especially Her. ing. p [...]. in lec. three, differing from all other in the skie, to wit In

  • Place, for it could not haue shewed the direct way to such as trauelled by it, vnlesse it had been in the lowest region of the aire.
  • Mouing, for it moued not circle wise, but went right forward as a guide of the way, none otherwise then the cloud and piller of fire went before the people of Israel at their go­ing out of Egypt.
  • Brightnesse, for whereas other starres appeare to shine by night onely, this gaue light euen in the broad day.
Psal [...] [...]m a [...] Kyeth
Hac stella quae solis votam Vinest decore ac lmiue.

[...]a [...] act [...] cta Cta [...] 4. Gregorie Nissen and [...] Aquine thinke that it was a new hure created onely for this purpose. [...] Theophylact and Ial [...]. [...]uthymiue, that it was an Angel or fome other hea­uenly power, appearing not in the nature, but in the fi­gure of a starre. S. Augustine saith it was manifica lia­gaacali the stately tongue of heauen. Other coniecture [Page] that it was the holy ghost,Ser. 3. in Epi­phan. appearing in the likenesse of a starre at Christs birth, A [...]lar de mi­ [...]. [...] 3.cap 4. in­ter Augustin. pra [...]m. 3. [...] 536. [...]pan [...] as in the likenesse of a Doue at Christs baptisme. For (as A [...]nal Tam [...] adan. 1. f [...]l 5 [...] Baronius out of the great o­pinion of his owne reading is bold to write) all the Fa­thers agree that these Magi were lead to Christ here by an inward light of the spirit, so well as with an outward light in the skies. L [...]ser. 3. d [...] [...] in cap. 2. Agente hoe sine dubio in corum cordi­bus inspinui we dr [...]ina, vt costantae v [...]sionis mysterium non laterei, & quod oculic estendebatur insolitum, animis non set obscerom [...]. And therefore when they found the babe Iesus in a seely cottage, they were not any whit discouraged at his contemptible pouertie, but instantly they saw (August ser. 7. [...] an. non terra portante sed caelo narrante; magnum aliquid in parne latere, that this little childe was a great King, yet a great God, and a great King aboue all Gods. And hereapon a [...] followeth in our text, They fell do [...] slat, and worshipped him, and opened their treasures, and offered vnto him gifts, gold, frankincense, myrrhe: That is (as Ser. 1. in E [...]pian. Augustine glosseth) A dorant corporious, honorant mu neribus, venerantur officijs, oculis hominem vident, & deum abseguijs consiuentur.

Christ (as being the word in the beginning by whom all things were made) bestowed on these Wise-men euery good and perfect gift, corporall, spirituall, temporall. And therefore they did honour him (as L [...]d I [...]I. us & I [...]usen. in lec. interpretors obserue) with all these kinds of goods. In falling downe sl [...]t, they did honour him with the good, of the bodie: in adoring him, with the goods of the minde: in offering to him gold, frankincense, mirrhe, with the goods of the world. They did offer Bernard. ser. 3. Paratus & Raulin. ser. 2. de Ep [...]han. gold to relieue. Maries necessitie: frankincense, to sweeten the stable: myrrhe, to comfort the swadled babe. Pulgentius ser de Epipb. [...]dan b [...]a ka­ [...]. In offering frankincense, they confounded Arius holding that sacrifices are onely due to God the Father. In offering myrrhe, they con­founded Manichaeus, who denied that Christ truly died for our sinnes. In offering gold, they confounded them both, as denying that Christ is our King. In offering all [Page] these, they confounded Nestorius diuiding Christ into two persons, one diuine, another humane; for the Magi gaue not here some gifts vnto God, and other vnto man: but all vnto one Christ. Ergo, non diuidatur in personis qui non invenitur diuisus in donis. as Pulgentius excellently.

Or as Euthym. Anselm. Caletan in lec. other, they did offer gold to Christ, as being a King: Frankincense, as being God: myrrhe, as being man: according to that of the Christian Fune [...]us. Poet.

Auruen. Thus, Myrrhem, regique deo, homini (que)
Dona ferunt.

It is an idle conceit that one did offer gold, another myrrhe, and the third frankincense: for seeing each of them acknowledged Christ to bee a King, and God, and a passible man; it is more probable that all of them offe­red all these gifts euery one three, Rendgius. Leo. Ansolm. singuliaria.

They returned into their owne country another way

Tat. 1.11. The grace of God appearing teacheth vs that wee should deny vngodlinesse, and worldly lusts, and that wee should liue soberly, and righteously, and godly in this present world. Leo ser. 3. de Epiphan. Wherefore the Wise-men hauing found Christ, and being taught of God not to returne a­gaine to Herod, that is, any longer to serue the deuill: they renounce their owne wills and their olde waies, and walke according to Gods will in new waies. Immu­tatio via emendatio vitae, quoth Hom. 1. de Epiphan. Euseb. Emisen: Hereto­fore they walked in errour, but now they walke in truth. Heretofore they went a whoring after their owne inuentions, but now they follow the word and warning of God.

The summe then of Homing. post. in lec. all this Gospell is, that wee must seeke Christ by the guiding of a starre, that is, by the light of his word: and when wee haue found Christ, it is our duty to Luther, Cul­ma [...]. in lec. Idem Leo, ser. 7. de Epiphan. manifest our faith by good workes, in pre­senting vnto Christ our King gold, that is, a pure confes­sion of a true beleefe: frankincense, that is, humble prayer and inuocation: myrrhe, that is, a chast and a mor­tified life. Wee must also giue to Mary, that is, to the [Page] Church, vnto the Preachers of the word, and all other members of Christ in want, a part of our temporal estate. And all this ought to be done cheerefully; for the Wise­men opened their treasures, and our heart is our treasure, Matth. 12.35. Rupert. in lec. & didac. de Yangnas. con. 3. de Epiphan. So that wee must euen with exceeding gladnesse, from our heart offer gold, frankincense, myrrhe: Iansen. con. cap. 9. That is, almes, praier, fasting: Praier respects God, almes our neighbours, fasting our selues. And Pulgentius ser. de Epiphan. in fine. thus ha­uing changed the whole course of our inordinate con­uersation in time past, and walking in another way which is the path of Paradise: wee shall in fine returne to our owne Countrey, which is Heauen in Heauen, and there wee shall enioy Christ our King, God and man in eternall happinesse euermore.

There be many points in this text as yet vntouched, and I might as Ruth 2.3. Ruth, happily gleane after such as haue reaped before me: but I am so deuoted to breuitie, that I rather chuse to wonder a little with another, then to write any more my selfe vpon this Gospell.

O strangest thing that God doth now begin,
In being which, he hath no godheads grace:
O strangest Roome, this subiect takes his place
In want of Roome, for none was in his Inne.
O strangest colour to be viewed in,
For humane darknesse vailed hath his face.
O strangest middle of respectiue space,
Where as a starre more then the sunne could win.
O strangest starre that must reueale this sight,
That by disorder from the rest giues light.
O strangest eies that saw him by this starre,
Who when by-standers saw not, saw so farre.
And since such wonders were in seeing him,
No wonder if my wondring thought grow dim.

[Page]O God, which by the leading of a starre diddest mani­fest thine only begotten Sonne to the Gentiles: merci­fully grant, that we which know thee now by faith, may after this life haue the fruition of thy glorious God-head, through Christ our Lord. Amen.

FINIS.

THE PVRIFICATI­ON OF SAINT MARIE THE VIRGINE.
The Epistle being the same which is appointed for the Sunday, is expounded among the Dominicals in due place.

The Gospell is written, LVK. 2.22.

When the time of their purification after the Law of Moses was come, &c.

IT is the saying of S. Bartholmew, reported by Myst. Theo­log. cap. 1. Dionysius Areopagi­ta, that the Gospell is little, yet large: If we consider only the syl­lables, it is a very small booke; but if we examine the profound sense, Iohn 21.25. mundus non capit, it is so great, that (as S. Iohn speakes) the world cannot containe it. Example hereof is found in this present Chapter, abounding with as many wonders al­most as words. Here you may reade, that Marie was at once both a wife and a maide, at once both a wife and a midwife, bringing forth a sonne who was her father, by whom all things were made, swadling him in cloutes, and laying him in a cratch, who Ierem. 23.24. filled heauen and earth. Here you may reade how the Word in the be­ginning infinite and incomprehensible. was not onely circumscribed, but also circumcised. Here you may [Page] reade, Ardens hom. in Euangel. purifie. that the pure was purified, God offered, and the Redeemer redeemed. Here you may reade, that a glo­rious Angell attended silly shepheards, and that a child of twelue yeeres old confounded the Doctors in his dis­putations, and that a dying man vttered songs in stead of sobs. In the words allotted for our text,

  • 3. points are to bee consi­dered espe­cially, the
    • Purifica­tion of
      • Marie: When the time of her purification was come.
      • Christ: They brought him to Hierusalem to pre­sent him to the Lord, &c.
      • Simeon: Behold, there was a man in Heirusalem whose name was Simeon, and the same was iust and godly, &c.
    • Presen­tation of
      • Marie: When the time of her purification was come.
      • Christ: They brought him to Hierusalem to pre­sent him to the Lord, &c.
      • Simeon: Behold, there was a man in Heirusalem whose name was Simeon, and the same was iust and godly, &c.
    • Commē ­ndation of
      • Marie: When the time of her purification was come.
      • Christ: They brought him to Hierusalem to pre­sent him to the Lord, &c.
      • Simeon: Behold, there was a man in Heirusalem whose name was Simeon, and the same was iust and godly, &c.

And this feast hath accordingly three names, as the Baronius na­tationan Rom. Marry [...]. Pobr. 2. Masters of ceremonies obserue. 1. The purification of Marie. 2. The presentation and induction of Christ in­to the Temple. 3. Saint Simeons holy day.

When the time of their purification.] Apud, Eras. & Ma [...]de. at in lec. Some reade, [...], his purification, our latter English Bibles and old Latine, [...], her purification; Origine, Theophilact, En­thymius and many T [...]ar [...]let. Hen. 8. Castahe. Ra, Stephan. Mat. at. moe, [...], as the text of our Com­munion booke here, their purification. And the reason hereof is plaine, Caluin [...] because Christ is presented in the Temple, so well as Marie purified, both vndergoe the Law, though in equitie neither of them are bound to the rites of the Law concerning purification.

After the Law of Moses.] The Law, saith Mat. Com. Tit. Meos. spiritual. [...]egos, see Epist. 13. [...]. Luther, is not adius orium sed monitorium it takes not away sin, but only bringeth vs to the knowledge of sinne, and to the remedie for sinne; vnto the knowledge and true fee­ling of sinne, Rom. 3.20. Gallath [...]. 19. [...]. Tem. 1. [...] 1. because God wrote the Law not so much to forbid offences to come, as to make vs acknowledge our sinnes alreadie past, and now present: that considering our owne miserie wee [Page] might flie to his mercie. By the Law wee know sinne, by sinne we learne to know our selues, and in knowing our selues, wee renounce our selues, and come vnto Christ the salue for sinne, being the Ioh. 1.29. lambe of God, who taketh away the sinnes of the World, refreshing all such as groane vnder the burden of their offences, Mat. 11.28. and thus (as Galat. 324. Paul speakes) the Law is our schoolemaster vnto Christ, and Christ is the Rom. 10.4. ende of the Law: Finis perficiens non interficiens, quoth Contra ad [...]. ers. legis & prophet. lib. 3. cap. 7. Augustine, not the destruction of the Law, but the consummation, as be­ing the very marke, at which all the ceremonies of Mo­ses aimed: as in this Melancthon. Mart. Mollerus post in loc.. rite concerning the purifying of women, almighty God insinuated to the Iewes his peo­ple their originall corruption, how they were Psal. 51.5. concei­ued in sinne, and borne in iniquitie, prius damnati quam nati, being the sonnes of Ephes. 2.3. wrath afore they were seene in the world, vncleane in their conception, vncleane in their birth, vncleane in their life, and so consequentlie that they need the blood of Christ, prefigured in their daily sacrifice, to cleanse them from all sinne both origi­nall and actuall. 1. Iohn 1.7.

The children of Israel had continued among the su­perstitious Egiptians a long time without any Law of God written, and therefore being now deliuered from them, and yet inclined to their idolatrie, God out of his admirable wisdome (as most interpretours auow) did so charge them with a multitude of sacrifices and ceremo­nies in his written word, Tindal. prolog. in Exod. Dr. Whitgift. def of his an­swere to the admo. fol. 305. as that they should neither haue leisure to make new of their owne, not yet lust to to follow the fashions of other. And in this almost in­finite number of Iudicials and Ceremonials, euery one (though in appearance neuer so little) hath a moral: as, thou shalt not take the dam with the young. Deut. 22.6. thou shalt not seeth a kid in his mothers m [...]lke, Exod. 23. 19. moueth vs to compassion and pitie. Thou shalt not muzel the mouth of the oxe that treadeth out the corne, Deut. 25.4. teacheth in 1. Tim. 5.18. Paules exposition this lesson, [Page] that the labourer is worthie of his wages, especially the Preachers of the Word, for that law was not written out of Gods care for oxen, but altogether for C [...]. 9.12. our sakes, insinuating. That hee which eareth should care in hope, and that the who the thre [...]e [...]h in hope, so [...] be partaker of his hope: if we haue downe and you [...] things, is it a great thing if [...]e scape your [...] thing [...] [...] So like­wise in the ceremonie touching purification, Leuil. 12. there is something moral as namely, that the workers [...] w [...]nes of women after their childbirth might be reliued, and the lust of intemperate husbands a while restrained. Now that which is ceremoniall is abrogated v [...]erly, but the moral is perpetual, and ought to continue still in the Church vntill the worlds end: and therefore howsee­uer women in our age bee not tied either by the law Common or [...]. 5. cap. hee qu [...]. Cannon, (much lesse by the Gospell is selfe) to the precise number of daies, and particular ob­lations of the Iewes: yet it is meet (I might say, more necessarie) that they should keepe in a conuenient time for the recouering of their strength, and when they come to the Church in [...]ea [...] of the Iewish offering, to present vnto the Lord Christian sacrifices of prayer and praise, for preseruing them in the great danger of child­birth, [...] as also for their deliuerance by Christ from that sinne, where of Gen. 2.1 [...]. that infinnitie is an euerlasting [...]lino­nie: and assuredly whoseouer shall our of insolent con­tempt neglect this dutie sinneth against the rules of na­ture, yea the God of grace. For it is a conclusion ortho­doxall in Diuinity that the politicall and ceremoniall lawes of the Iewes are abrogated in the particular on­ly, not in the generall: in the circumstance, not in the substance: Me [...] [...]. quo [...]d and spe [...]em, non quod geneus: as in ob­seruing the sabbath, in paying of tiches, in purifying of women and the like. Or as Sec [...]s [...] [...]. other abolished as concer­ning the letter, but in force concerning the spirit.

Whereas it is [...]. obiected, If there should bee solemne and expre [...] giuing of thankes in the congregation for [Page] euery benefit either equall or greater then this which any singular person in the Church doth receiue, we should not onely [...]ise no preaching of the word, nor ministring of the Sacraments, but we should not haue so much leisure as to doe any corporall or bodilie worke, but should bee like the Messalian heretikes who did nothing else but pray; an­swere is made, that these schismaticall oppos [...]rs are to themselues opposite. Elsewhere they mislike the booke of Common Prayer for want of thankesgiuing for be­nefits receiued, and heere they condemne it for appoin­ting thankes to bee giuen for deliuerance from sinke, from manifold perils and dangers, and for the encrease of Gods people; the which are publike blessings though a priuate person more particularly giue the thankes. A­gaine, it would trouble their heads exceedingly to find out so many benefits greater or equiualent to the goodnesse of God toward women in child-bed; for as Postil. in loc. Mela [...]hon is bold to write, Child-bearing is mag­num miraculum, a miracle so great, that the Psal. 139.13. Prophet faith in consideration hereof, I will giue thankes vnto thee, for I am surefully and wonderfully made. But how­soeuer it be this one thing is certaine, that it is better to be like su [...] heretikes as doe nothing else but pray, then to be such schismatikes as doe nothing else but prat [...].

Concerning the wearing of the vaile, we say Dr. Whitgift. [...]sap. fol. 537. that it is not an ecclesiasticall Canon, but a ciuill custome: not an iniunction of the Church, but the fashion of our countrie, as wearing of new gloues at mariages, and blackes at funerals. An attire for such a time not onely decent and graue, but also most viefull and conuenient. As for the name of offring, applied to the Curates accu­stomed dutie: wee say that as the life of the Clergie is spent in the seruice of God, so it is sustained with his re­uenew. Hocker. [...] supra. Nothing therefore more proper then to giue the name of oblations vnto such payments, in token that we offer vnto God whatsoeuer his Ministers receiue. In a word, the thanksgiuing of women after child-birth [Page] according to the doctrine and discipline of the Church of England, performed not out of custome, but out of conscience: not to make the act of honourable mariage vncleane, but to blesse God for deliuerance from so manifold perils; is not a Iewish ceremonie, but a Chri­stian dutie: the which (I thinke) distasteth onely such as haue either an ouer flowing of their gall, or an out [...] ­weening of their wit.

The Law saith in the 12. of Leuiticus, If a woman by the seed of man shall conceiue and beare a child, she shall be reputed vncleane. A sus [...]pto semine p [...]perere [...], &c. but the power of the most high [...]. ouer shadowed Mary, Christ was conceiued in her wombe not by the polluted seed of man: but by the vertue of the holy Ghost: and so by consequence [...] not tied vnto the law, for (as the lawyers say) where the reason of a statute. doth cease, there the statute hath his end. But the rea­son of the law concerning purification had no place in Mary, being a pure Virgine, both in her conception and in her childbirth also. See S Ambros epist. 81. Augu [...]in [...], contra Iulian. lib. 1. cap. 2. de cum lib. 22. cap. 8. Thomas part [...] quaes [...]. 28. [...]rt. 2. Erasmus. [...] de sur [...]m. Euchari [...]. 1. b. [...] cap. 6. That Christ might appeare to be man, hee was b [...] of a woman: and yet that he might appeare to be God, he was borne of a [...] Virgin [...] [...]. See Creed, born of the Virgin, and Epist. allotted for the Annunciation.

Mary then obserued the [...] of purification (as [...] Bernard excellent [...] not for her selfe, but for our ex­ample. Christ was circumcised for vs, and Mary purifi­ed for vs, he needed no Circumcision who was the end of Circumcision; and she needed no purification as ha­uing conceiued by the holy Ghost: yet hee did vnder­goe [Page] the one, and shee performe the other.Lather, Melarct. [...]. Hereby teaching vs to submit our selues vnto the present go­uernment of the Church vnder which we liue; teach­ing vs I say so farre to seeke the peace of Ierusalem, as that wee should bee content to depart euen from our owne priuate right, rather then in any sort Arb [...] in l [...]c. scanda­lously preiudice the common good of the Church, en­during rather a mischiefe in our selues then an inconue­nience in the state.

Mary (knowing 1. Sam. 15.22. obedience to bee better than sacri­fice) performed the rites of purifying, albeit shee was not bound to the same. But schismatikes in our daies enioyned to keepe the ceremonies of the Church euen by that law which saith expresly, Let euery soule be sub­sed vnto superiour authority; hold dissolutenesse a reso­lutenesse, and breaking of ecclesiasticall orders a point of deuotion and piety, shedding (as it is said of 1. King 2.5. Ioab) the blood of warre in peace. But if their zeale were such vnto the Gospell, as Maries was to the Law; they would rather wring themselues in the particular, then wrong the Church in the generall. I read in Nat. hist. lib. 8. cap. 50. Plin [...] ▪ how two Goates meeting on a narrow bridge, non vim sed viam fecere, they did not make a way each other, but make way one for the other: as Mutianus an eye wit­nesse tels the tale, the one lying downe on his bellie suffered the other to passe ouer his backe, and so both escaped the danger of the ditch. In the time of the Go­ [...] wa [...]s I find also, that a Romane souldior and a Bar­barian casually falling into the same pit as they mar­ched along the countrie, were so farre from conten­ding one with another, as that they both agreed mu­tually to relieue each other, and so necessity making them friends (as De bello Go­thor [...]. lib. 2. [...]ca pr [...]. Procopius reportes) they were drawne out of that hell, and safely deliuered againe to their Captaines and Companies. I would to God the separa­tist [...] case had so much good wit as the Goat, or else [...] much good will as the Go [...]h.

[Page] They brought him to Ierusalem to present him vnto the Lord, as it is written in the Law of the Lord, euery man-child that first openeth the matrix shall be called holy is the Lord Almighty God in deliuering his Israel out of Egypts bondage Exod. 12.29. sinate all the first borne in the land of Egypt, from the first borne of Pharaoh that sat on his throne, vnto the first borne of the captiue that was in prison. And therefore [...] that his people might al­way remember this benefit, hee commanded in his law that they should consecrate all their first borne to him. Exod. 13.2. For this reason is rendred by God himselfe, Numb. 8.17. All the first borne of the children of Israel are mine both of man and of beasts: since the day I smote euery and horne in the land of Egypt, I sanctified them for myselfe. Now Christ is the [...] borne in [...] many respects, first, in his Diuinity, being Gods [...] onely begotten sonne. Secondly in his humanity, being Maries [...] first borne sonne, for she bare none before him or after him. Third­ly, the first borne in grace, for he was the first man borne which being [...] offered vnto God was accepted of him­selfe. Fourthly in power, being the first borne of the [...] dead. Fifthly the first borne, for that all of vs are [...] new borne through him. And therefore though he were not tied vnto the rites of the law, yet he suffered himselfe to be presented in the Temple for these reasons especially.

First, to shew that the [...] same God is author both of the Gospell and of the Law.

Secondly, in that the Law giuer himselfe obeyed the law, he [...] reacheth all Princes to giue good example in obseruing their owne statutes. For an Emperour faith [...] Euagrius is not to be counted thereafter as he gouer­neth other, but as he ruleth and guideth himselfe ma­king his life a light for his subiects to follow. For [...] this cause the chiefe Magistrates among the Romans had burning lamps carried before them.

Publica minurum rectum, ibi con [...]t [...]t & aquum
Imperium, cumrex quod suber, ipse facit.

[Page]Thirdly, he submitted himselfe vnto the law, that hee might Galat. 4.5. redeeme those that were vnder the law. God became man, that men hereby might bee made Gods. He who was free, became seruant vnto all to make all free.

Fourthly, because the first borne presented in the Temple was a Thom. part. 3. quae [...]. 37. a [...]t. 3. figure of Christ, the first borne among many brethren. Rom. 8.29.

Fifthly, that hee might Idem ibidem, a [...]t. 4. auoid occasion of scandall among the Iewes, and exhibite a patterne of meeknesse vnto all.

Sixthly, that being presented in the publike Temple, many good people might beare witnesse to him, as here you see Simeon and Anna did.

Seuenthly that the world might be put in Rau [...]in. ser. 1. in purific. possession and sesin of the Sauior. He was offered twice: first in the Temple, which is called his morning sacrifice: then on the Crosse, which is termed his euening sacrifice. In the one he was redeemed, in the other he did redeeme, giuing himselfe for vs an offering and a sacrifice of a sweet smelling sauour to God, Ephes. 5.2.

By this precept of Moses, and practise of Mary, Heming. pa­rents ought to learne that they beget children vnto God, and not to themselues or Satan; and therfore they must bee Mollerus in declar. [...]uang. purific. forward in bringing their children to holy Baptisme: as Ioseph and Mary were in presenting Christ: consecrating them in their infancie to God, that afterward they may serue him in holinesse and righteousnesse all the daies of their life: that the ground may bring forth fruit in due time, you must haue both a good feedsman and good seed: Plutarch. com. de liberis [...]du­candis. in education of chil­dren a good instructor is the seedsman, and good disci­pline the seed. For as base sluggishnes corrupts the best nature, so liberal instruction is able to correct [...]he worst.

Horat. epist. lib. 1.
Inuidus, iracundus, iners, vinosius, amator,
Nemo adeo ferus est. vt non [...],
Si modo cultar [...] patientem co [...]modit aurem.

[Page]It is reported of [...] Sulpho Megareus, a great Philo­sopher in his age, that hee was exceedingly giuen by nature to women and wine; but hee so [...]amed his vn­bridled affections by good discipline, vinemo vnquam [...]. Now for as much as children are taught more by [...]pat­terne then by precept, by that they see men doe, rather then by that they heare men say; parents ought in their priuate families especially, to be lights and ensamples in all holinesse and honestie. For (as it is in the prouerbe) [...] the colt will not amble. You desire that your children may haue strength and beautie, yet both are suddenly consumed, either through ache or age. You purchase titles of honour for your posterity, yet [...]blood corrupted by treason or felonie cannot bee restored againe by the Kings bare grant without authoritie of Parliament. You rise vp early and goe to bed late, that you may leaue wealth e­nough vnto your babes, and yet one sparke of fire may deuoure all their houses; and one quirke of law carry from them all their lands at a trice. Manners onely makes a man; if thou shalt afford thy sonne religious and ingenuous education, it will euer sticke by him a­mong all the changes and chances of this mortall life. no sicknes can blast this beautie, no malice blot out this honour, no fire consume this tenement, no law wrest this inheritance from him. It will bee his comfort vntill he die that you brought him vp [...] [...].4. Literae si bona­fide [...] traverint ani­num, nun­quam amplius [...]in instruction and in­formation of the Lord.

[...] [Page] his age, because they performed onely that kind of de­uotion which is without cost, as to pray for fashion, and to sa [...]t out of miserie; but they would not afford one halfpenie to the poore. So many men in our daies are content to heare Gods holy word read and preached with their elbowes on a cushion, and hats on their heades, and if need bee they will also make bitter inuectiues against Atheisme and Poperie: but if the pa­rish impose but an ordinarie charge toward the repai­ring of the Church, or the Pastour require but accu [...]o­med offrings for his necessary maintenance; you shall haue them as the [...]. 20. bulrush in a wet place so drie, that an oblation is as hardly got from them as a sword from a souldiour, or a new coat from a child. Mary did offer according to her estate; for whereas the Leuit. 12.8. law requireth of the rich a lambe, but of the po [...]re two turtles, or two young pigeons: it is said heere that shee brought the poores offring. And therefore the Papists vsually pain­ting her in exceeding rich attire, and in making her a great Ladie of stately port: feed the peoples eyes with bables, & their eares with fables: for (to make thēselues in this case Iudges of themselues) it is not our obserua­tion onely, but also their Pet. de pa [...]d. Di [...]z. Dormisecure. Raulin. Didat de Yan g [...]as, Gi [...]on & al [...]. owne collection in their po­stils and sermons vpon this scripture. Nay their famous Iesuite Com. in loc. Maldonate doth affirme that all expositors haue this glosse, further adding out of his owne conie­cture that Marie did not offer two Turtles, but two young pigeons, & quia sa [...]lius reperiri, & quia minore pretio [...] potucrum: because young Pigeons are proui­ded more easily both in respect of paines and price. Here then is matter of comfort for the Heming. poore, of feare for the rich, of instruction for all. Of comfort against pouerty, because the Lord of Lords hauing all things at his command vouchsafed to bee borne of a poore Virgin, according to that of 2. Cor. 8.9. Paul, he being rich for [...]r sakes became poore, that wee through his pouertie might be made rich. Of scare for the wealthie, because Mary [Page] descending of a noble line yea from princely loynes, is said heere to bee so beggerly, that shee was not able to buy a lambe for her offering. It is the fashion of great men (as the [...] [...] 8. Prophet complained in his time) to lay field to field, and to ioyne house to house, Psal. 49.11. calling their lands after their owne names, entailing their estate to childrens children, & making [...]t (as the lawyers speake) a perpetuitie But [...] 1.4. one generation passeth, and another generation succeedeth; hee that is higher then the high­est, often Luk. 1.52. puls downe the mighty from his [...]eat [...], and exalteth the poore man out of the Psal. 113.6. mi [...]e, that hee may set him euen with the Princes of his people. For in one age you may behold the gentlemans heire serue his owne farmours, issue. Lastly, this affords instruction for all, intimating that wee must offer vnto God the sacri­fice due to God. If we cannot giue much, he will accept of a little, of the Virgins two pigeons, of the widdowes one Mark. 12.42. fasthing. Wee may not spend all in our house, much lesse in the top-house; some thing is to be laid out vpon Gods house, for his seruice, for his honour, if not a lamb, yet a paire of Turtle doues, or two young pigeons.

[...]. Mystically, the blessed Virgin did offer a lambe, but it was her owne sonne the Lambe of God, [...] Agnus que praesiguratus est ab origine [...] bl [...]tusest in fine mun­d [...]: and she did offer a young pigeon, but it was her owne sonne conceiued of the holy Ghost, appearing in the likenesse of a doue, Matth. 3.16. And shee did offer a Turtle, but it was her owne sonne, of whom [...] is said, [...]. 2 12. the voice of the Turtle is heard in our land. Our bles­sed Sauiour being [...] & sacerdos & sacrific [...] ▪ & victor & victims, the sacrificer and the sacrifice for the sinnes of the whole world [...] was offered, first by God his fa­ther; secondly, by the Virgin his mother, thirdly, by his [...]. God sent him into the world, the Virgin present, and the legall sacrifice represent him in the Temple, but himselfe did offer himselfe actually for our sinnes on the Crosse.

[Page] And behold, there was a man in Hierusalem whose name was Simeon Two things are requisite in a suffici­ent witnesse, vnderstanding to know the truth, and ho­nestly to speake what he knoweth. Old Simeon] in testi­fying of Christ had both, a good vnderstanding, as ha­uing a reuelation giuen him of the holy Ghost that hee should not see death vntill hee first saw the Lord Christ: and a great honesty, being iust and godly, or deuout, Arctius. outwardly to the world iust, inwardly to himselfe god­ly. Heming. For his workes, he was iust [...] dealing with men: for his faith, he was dexout in the seruice of God. These C [...]duin. Beza. two deuotion and iustice, comprehend all the whole law: deuotion all the duties of the first table; iustice all the duties of the second. Deuotion is the mother, Iustice the daughter, Calman. because the true feare of God bringeth forth alwaies vpright cariage toward men. It is not re­ported here that he was so righteous as that he needed not another righteousnesse, for he looked for the conso­lation of Israel, acknowledging in his song, Christ for his sauiour; Heming. but that he liued (as it is said of Zachari­as and Elizabeth in the former Chapter) vnblameable before men. The word [...] is translated Erasmus. pius, Castalis. religi­osius, Vulgar latin. rimoratus, one who Geneua bib. feared God: and this feare was not seruile, but siliall. Hee did not feare God as a bad seruant fearing the stripes of his great master: but as a louing sonne, fearing to displease his good father. Ardens. [...]im [...]bat cumdilectione, & diligebat cum timore. He was in his course so carefull to doe the will of our hea­uenly father, as that he feared with a pious loue, and lo­ued with a reuerent feare. Aretius. Solicite pius & omnia ti­mens ne non satis pius sit, Pet. de pa [...]ad. ser. de purifie. in doing good a iust man, in eschewing euill one that feared God.

And looked for the consolation of Israel] Hee was a Iust man in deed, giuing euery one his right, vnto God, as being deuout: vnto himselfe, as expecting the consola­tion of Israel: vnto other, in preaching Christ openly to be both a light to the Gentiles, and a glory to the Iewes. [Page] all the chiefe Christian vertues appeared in him emi­nently. Faith, hope, loue: faith, as fearing God: hope, as looking for the Messias of the world: loue, as being Iust, communicating his gifts of [...]. prophecie to the benefit of the the Church in singing his nunc dimittis, and in say­ing mine eyes haue seene thy saluation. My corporal eyes thy manhood, my spiritual eyes thy Godhead; the Ardens. con­iunction of which is Salutare titum, thy saluation, as gi­uing it; and Salutare [...]rism, our saluation, as recei­uing it. And this Salutare is not singulare, but as Saint Iude tearmeth it a Common saluation, and as old Sime­on in his Hymne, prepared before the face of all people.

The Epistle

ACTS 1.15.

In those daies Peter stood vp in the middlest of the Disciples and said, &c.

THis Epistle containeth a short yet a sweet narrati­on, how Matthews a Disciple, was elected into the traitor Iudas Apostleship and Bishopricke. Wherein three things are more principally remarkeable.

  • 1. His Conge de le [...]re, deliuered in an eloquent speech, in which ob­serue the
    • Time, In whose daies.
    • Orator, Peter stood up.
    • Auditorie, Disciples and brethren about an hundred and twentie.
    • Oration. partly
      • hortatorie, perswading that one must bee chosen, verse 16, 17, 18, 19, 20.
      • doctrinall, intimating what an one must be chosen, vers. 21, 22.
  • 2. H selection, and in it the
    • processe, by
      • nomination. vers. 23.
      • prayer. vers. 24.25.
      • lots. vers. 26.
    • success, the lot fell on Matthias.
  • [Page]3. His installation, hee was counted with the eleuen A­postles.

In those daies] To wit, in the space betweene Christs assension and his sending of the holy Ghost, at that time the Disciples being gathered together at Hierusa­lem in an vpper parlour, they continued with one accord not in supplication onely, but in consultation also for the Gospels aduancement. Arctius in loc. Hereby teaching all men, espe­cially preachers of the word, to spend their houres pro­fitably for the benefit of the Church, in supplanting her foes, and in supplying the number of her friends.

Peter stood vp in the middest of the Disciple and said Heere the Bellarin. de Rom pon. lib. 1. cap. 22 in prin. Eck [...]s loc. com. tit. de primat. sed. apost. Lorinus Khem. & aly in loc. Papists obserue Peters supreme power o­uer the rest of the Disciples and Apostles, and so by consequence though inconsequent the Popes absolute command ouer all other Bishops in the whole world. But if we will exactly consider and examine his beha­uiour in this assembly, wee shall vnderstand that he ca­ried himselfe not as a Pope, but as a peere toward them. I. in calling them brethren, and frater is fere alter, as Lorinus vpon the place. 2. for that he standeth vp in the middlest of the Disciples, equally referring all things vn­to their Chrysost. Dr. Fulke. Marlorat. common consent and free choice, terming himselfe a fellow pastour, 1. Pet. 5.1. Whereas euery Bishop assembled in the Tridentine Conuenticle tooke a corporall Dr. Hum­phred. aduers. Campian. & Or­raeum cat. 4. oath that he would not dispute any point to preiudice the Romane sea, nay there was nothing determined in that irregular meeting, except it was first handled and hammered at Rome by the Pope, for then it was ordinarily said in a by-word, that the holy Ghost in a bull, or Popes breue was sent from Rome to Trent, as Praesat. in 1. part. exam [...]. T [...]ident. Chemnitius plainly told Andradius, In illo concilio idem actor re [...]est [...]. Our Diuines therefore say that Pe­ter was elected prolocutor of this connocation either by Beza. secret reuelation of the holy Ghost, or else by ex­presse iudgement of the Caluin. congregation; or for that hee was vsually more seruent then the rest in such a busines, [Page] [...]. & ardentior & rebus agendes aptior reliquis extiterat. [...]. For it became [...]im of all the Col [...]edge best, as hauing de [...]ied Christ heretofore most. He [...]tood vp and spake, as the mouth of the companie, but hee played not the Pope, but onely the perswader, exercising not a supre­macy of authoritie, but a primacie of order, as Chryso­stome and other note. See Gospell 1. Sund. after Easter.

The number of names that were together were about an hundred and twentie.] The vulgar Latine reading turba hominum, answeres not the Greeke so well as our text, turba nominum, the number of names. [...]. For in exquisite numbring vsually men are mustred by their seuerall names, in [...]. Councels especially the names of such as giue voices are full enrolled in a bill or registers table. But by names, our Euangelist vnderstands men, as the holy Ghost Apocal. 3.4. elsewhere, [...]hou hast a few names yet in Sardi which had not defiled their garments. A few names, that is (as [...]ullinger and Are [...]a [...]. Ma [...]. [...]. other vpon the place) a few persons. And [...] & [...] in Apocala [...]. 16. it may bee that the sacred spirit in vsing this phrase doth insinuate that they were men of eminent note, as Gen. 6.4. The Gyants are called men of renoune, that is (as Munster translates according to the Hebrew) viri nominate, men of name. Well, how­soeuer their names were great, their number was but small, being about an hundred and twentie. By which it doth appeare that the kingdome of heauen is like vnto a Mat. 13.31. graine of mustard seed, the which in sowing is in­deed the least of all seeds, but in growing it is the g [...]ea­test among herbs, euen a tree, so that the birds of hea­uen come and build in the branches thereof. Vnto these 1 [...]0. [...]. 2.47. The Lord added daily such as should bee saued, at one Sermon of Saint Peter, Act. 2. The number of bre­thren was encreased about 3000. soules. A [...]. ship doth a [...] thy resemble the Church of Christ; for as a ship is small in the foredecke, broad in the middle, little in the sterne: so the Church in her beginning (as you see) was [Page] exceeding little, in her middle age flourishing, but in her old age her companie will bee so small, and her be­leefe so weake, that when the Sonne of God shall come to iudge the sonnes of men, he shall scarce find any faith on earth.

This Scripture must needs haue been fulfilled] S. Pe­ter in his oration heere first sheweth how Iudas Apo­stleship became void. Secondly, that it is needfull ano­ther should be chosen into his place. Iudas Bishopricke was lost by treason, as being guide to them who tooke Ie­sus. Whereupon (as wee read in the Mat. 27. Gospell) hee did first accuse himselfe, I haue sinned in betraying innocent blood: secondly, arraigning himselfe, hee repented, and brought againe the thirtie plates of siluer to the chiefe Priest, and cast them downe in the Temple: thirdly, exe­cuted himselfe, he departed, and went, and hanged him­selfe. Now to take away thy Caluin. Beza. scandall of this horri­ble sact, our Euangelist intimates that nothing in Iudas treacherie came to passe casually, but it was foreseene of God, and foretold in his word, This Scripture must needs haue been fulfilled. And Aretius. Kilius. yet the fall of Iudas is not excused hereby, no more then the fault of Herod and Pilate, who did whatsoeuer Gods owne hand and coun­sell had determined before to be done, Act. 4.28. For Iu­das committed not this outragious crime by the com­pulsion of prophecy, but through his owne motion and malice. Psal. 109.16. His delight was in cursing, and it did happen vnto him: he loued not blessing, therefore was it far from him. It is true that Peter saith, hee was numbred with vs, and had obtained fellowship in this ministration: but hee receiued the grace of God in 2. Cor. 6.1. vaine, abusing it to co­uetousnes and worldly lusts, he did open a dore to Luk. 22.3. Sa­tan, and gaue him as it were possession of his heart.

This necessity then is not necessitas absoluta, sed Aretius. consequentis & Lorin. in loc. & in act. 4.12. idem Thom. part. 1. quaest. 19. act. 3. suppositionis, a necessity hypotheti­call and by consequent, not an absolute or a simple ne­cessity. So the holy Ghost elsewhere, 1. Cor. 11.19. There must be he­resies, [Page] Mat. [...]8.7. it must needs be that offences shall come, Mat. 24.6. ye shall heare of warres, and of rumours of warres, for all these things must come to passe. That is, supposing the malice of Satan and wickednesse of man, it is impossible but that there should bee warres and offences, and heresies in the world. Kilia [...] cole [...]. [...]. An Astrologer expert in his art foretel­leth an ecclips of the Sunne, yet his prediction is not a­ny cause why the Sunne is ecclipsed: euen so God fore­seeth all the workes of darkenesse, and ecclipses (as it were) in the reprobate, but his prescience compels not any to commit any sinne. It is the prince of darkenesse who E [...]hes. [...]. worketh in the children of disobedience, taking them in his snares at his will, 2. Tim. 2.26. All our waies are known vnto the Lord, our going out, and our com­ming in, Esay 37.28. being of euery good pace bonus author, but of euery bad passage [...]ustus vltor. I will end this argument in the words of [...]. 5. ca [...]. 16. Augustine, Viuit (O Domine Deus) apud te semper bonum nostrum, & quia inde auersi sumus peruersi sumus. For saith [...]. 8. cap. 5. he ligatus e­ram non ferro alieno, sed mea ferrea voluntate, velle me­um tenebat inimicus, & inde mihi catenam fecerat & constrinxerat me, quippe ex voluntate peruersa facta est libido, & dum seruitur libudini facta est consuetudo, & dum consuetudine, non resititur facta est necessitas. How the fall of traterous Iscariot may serue to terrifie the pa­stour, and teach also the people: See Gospell 6. Sund. in Lent.

Wherefore of these men which haue companied with vs] Christ in his life chose Mat. 10. [...]. [...] 3.14. twelue Apostles, one there­fore must be ordained and elected into Iudas [...]oome, to fill vp the number againe, [...]. answerable to the twelue tribes of Israel, of which (as our Sauiour Mat. 19.28. promised) they shall be Iudges, and to the twelue Ap [...]cal. 1 [...].12. gates of hea­uenly Hierusalem, of which also the twelue Apostles were builders, according to that of Paul, Ephes. 2.20. built vpon the foundation of the Apostles and Prophets, Iesus Christ himselfe being the chiefe corner stone. See [Page] Epistle on S. [...]homas day. There bee manie moe resem­blances [...] the twelue Apostles, as you may read in my [...] vpon the Gospell, Sund. 6. in Lent; and in [...] part. 3. considerat. 29.

One must be chosen, and one of these men, ergo not a Pope Io [...]ne, [...]or a woman must bee 1. Cor. 14.34. silent and not a 1. [...] 2. [...]2. teacher in the Temple, one of these men, ergo, not a boy Bishop, not a A [...]lers. yonker in yeeres, or 1. m 3.6. scholle [...] ­ship, for pastours are called elders, and Christ himselfe preached not vntill he was thirtie yeeres olde: one o [...] these [...] c [...]mpa [...]ed with vs, ergo, S [...]r [...]e [...]us. [...]. not a stran­ger, but a domesticall, one that is knowne, a man of note liuing among vs all the time that the Lord Iesus was conuersant among vs, [...]. ergo, not a leaud or igno­rant person, but a proficient in Christs owne schoole, brought vp euen from his 2. Tim. 3.15. youth in E [...]h [...]. [...].4. instruction and information of the Lord. See Gospell on S. Andrew, & 8. Sund. after Trinity.

But why should one being such an one chosen into Iudas roome? to witnesse with vs of the resurrection of Christ. A Prelate then Caluia. Marlorat. ought to bee predicant, not an Idle or an Idoll Apostle, like the dumbe Doctors, and Abbey-lubbers, and lasie lay Bishops vnder the gouern­ment of the Pope. Right prelating (as old Father Sermon of the plough. La­timer said) is labouring▪ and l [...]rding or loytering, it is L [...]wer. ser. 4. before K. Ed. horrour rather then honour, for an Apostle to leaue the text▪ and onely to follow the tithe. A witne [...]e hee must be, Aretius. yet not a witnesse alone, broaching insolent no­uelties and 1. Tim. 1.3. other doctrines of his owne braine: but a witnesse with vs, of one Act. 4.32. heart and of one Philip. 2 2. mind with vs, Ephes. 4.3. endeauouring to keepe the v [...]itie of the spirit in the bond of peace. For hee who se [...]kes in the trouble­some sea of this world to schismaticall Apostles affect­ing singularity. Non portum sed plan [...]tam inueniet, as Tract. 1. in loan. Augustine pithily.

Well the new chosen ought to record and accord, to witnesse and to witnesse with vs, agreeing with the rest of [Page] his Colledge and companie. But whereof is hee to be a witnesse, of the resurrection of Christ, [...]. in all his words, and in all his workes: in his preaching and in his life so behauing himselfe as one that beleeues the resurrecti­on of Christ, and hopeth also for his owne redemption, euer [...]. [...] 20. looking for his Sauiour, euen the Lord Iesus, who sha [...]l change our vile body that it may be like to his glori­ou [...] [...]. Or a witnesse of the resurrection of Christ, be­caus [...] this one point is, [...]. primarium Euangeli caput, as it were [...]. the predominant article, [...]. 10. presupposing all the rest as being the [...]. 10. tying knot, on which all other linkes of holy beleefe, depend, as I haue shewed often else­where; but especially Gosp. on S. Thomas, and Epist. on S. Andrewes day.

And they appointed two] They nominated more then one, Dionys. [...]eo. pag. and [...] ­ [...]. 34. [...]. lib. 4. that the Lord who knew the hearts of all men, might chuse the party that should take the roome of the mini [...]tration and Apostleship from which Iudas by trans­gression fell. And that Matthias might acknowledge that he receiued it (as Paul speakes) not of man, but by the reuelation of Iesus Christ, Galath. 1.12. [...]. §. 13. & [...] er. 1. in [...]. Mat. [...]. 5. & [...]. 6. The world is a circle, God is as it were the center of this circle, the waies of men are lines deduced from this center. [...]. If then euent of the Lotterie hee not expected of diuels, nor of the starres, nor of any force of fortune: but loo­ked and prayed for to be directed by God, it is lawfull to vse lots in temporall things; as in diuision of lands and inheritance, Prou. 18.18. The lot causeth contenti­ons to cease, and maketh a partition among the mighty. And in spirituall affaires also; for it is reported of Za­charias the Priest, that his lot was to burne Incense, Luk. 1.9. And though ordinary chusing of Prelates and Preachers ought not to be by lots, as both Dio [...]ys. H [...] ­cap. Rom. [...]. [...]. Heathens and Cap. Eccles. [...]. Christians in this agree: yet in some cases extra­ordinarie; to wit, (if two or three shall happen to stand in election of such equall holinesse and other sufficien­cy, that humane wisedome cannot any waies discerne [Page] and so decide which is most fit) it is Iustus Ionas in loc. Ambros. in 1. Luc. Bellarm. vbisup. lawfull accor­ding to the president in our text to cast lots, and so commit the disposition of the choice to God. In the lawfull vsing of a Lottery then obserue these remarke­able See Kilius. collect. in loc. Sixt. senen. bib. sanct. lib. 5. annot. 166. caueats.

  • 1. We must expect the lots euent from God onely: Prou. 16.33. The lot is cast into the lap, but the whole disposition thereof is of the Lord.
  • 2. We may not vse lots in affaires ordinarie, but in cases of necessity, when as the businesse cannot other­wise be transacted.
  • 3. Wee must abandon all vncharitable conceits, and all dishonourable deceits: Psalm. 5.6. The Lord will ab­horre the deceitfull man, and destroy such as speake lea­sing.
  • 4. We must before we cast lots (as the blessed Apo­stle heere) call vpon God in hearty prayer for a blessing on our endeauours.

I could adde easily more, but I remember Epist. 7. Augu­stines rule, Secundas habeat partes modestiae, quae primas non potuit habere sapientiae. If any know lesse then I, they may be bold to peruse this, and such as vnderstand more then I, may read, Augustin. epist. 180. & de doct. Christ. lib. 1. cap. 28. & con 2. in Psalm. 30. Thomas 22ae. quaest. 95. art. 8. Bellarmin. lib. de clericis cap. 5. Sixt. senen. vbi supra in marg. Aretius, Marlorat, Kili­us in loc.

And the lot fell on Matthias. In the Tabernacle the Exod 26. curtaines of fine twined linnen, and blew silke and purple were couered with curtaines of Goats haire. Some men are great ornaments in the Church, and yet vnfit to gouerne the Church. Gregor. Moral. lib. 25. cap. 22. Ornent Ecclesiam qui so­lis rebus spiritualibus vacant, regant Ecclesiam quos & labor rerum corporalium non grauat, &c. Didac. de Yanguas con. 1. in sest. Mat. It may bee Ioseph as being iust was a fine curtaine in Gods Taber­nacle, but Matthias a couering: as being apt and actiue for gouerment. Alia ratio boniciuis & boni viri, quoth [Page] A [...]th [...]. lib. 5. ca [...] 2 Aristotle, euery good man is not a good magistrate. 1. Cor. 12. [...]9. Are all Apo [...]les, are all Prophets, are all teachers? There be di [...]rsities of gifts, and diuersities of admini­strations, and diuersities of operations. Happily Ioseph excelled in one kind, and Matthias in another. He who k [...]ew to iudge best of the best for this ministration, in his [...]ecret wisedome cast the lot on Matthias. Or in e­lecting Matthias, hee did insinuate that his [...] 55 8. waies are not as our waies, and that hee iudgeth according to the hea [...]ts of all men, and not [...] 8 1 [...]. after the flesh, or titles, or [...]u [...]side, Ioseph is called [...]. Barsabas, that is, the sonne of rest and innocency, surnamed also for his singular ho­nesty [...]u [...]tus. And yet Matthias is chosen of God, how­soeuer not adorned with such commendations before men. [...]. 1. [...]. Mat. Here the Gospell and Epistle meet. I thanke thee Father Lord of heauen and earth, because thou ha [...] h [...]d these things from the wise and prudent, and hast shewed them vnto babes euen so was [...]t thy good pleasure. The lot falleth on the sonne of labour, afflicted with the load of sinne, not on the iust, or on the sonne of rest, on Mat­thias, and not on Barsabas.

The Gospell

MATTH. 11.25.

In that time Iesus answered and said, I thanke thee (O Father) Lord of heauen and earth, because thou hast had these things from the wise and prudent, and hast sh [...]wed them vnto babes, &c.

CHrists exceeding rich mercy toward vs is manife­sted in this Scripture by two things especially: to wit, his inuocation of God. I thanke thee O father &c. And his inuitation of men, Come vnto mee all ye that labour, &c. In both ioyned together, hee that hath an eye to see may behold the chiefe Areti [...] in loc. causes of our [Page] effectuall vocation

  • Efficient, the good pleasure of God the father, Lord of heauen and earth, &c.
  • Materiall, babe [...], and all such as labour and are heauie laden.
  • Instrumentall, Iesus, vnto whom all things are giuen.
  • Finall, refreshing and rest in soule.

I thanke thee] Melanct in loc. Prayer and thankesgiuing vnto God for benefits obtained in prayer ought alwaies to con­curre. Christ had often heretofore prayed for the ga­thering together of the Church, as it was prophesied of him in the second Psalme; Desire of me and I will giue thee the heathen for thine inheritance and the vttermost parts of the earth for thy possession. And now his prayer being heard, he rendreth vnto God his praise, Father, I thanke thee Lord of heauen and earth. In which one line Pet. de pa­l [...]d. in loc. three wicked errours are consuted: first, the words, I thanke thee) consound the Iewes assuming that Christ was a Mat [...]h. 26. blas [...] Secondly, father, ouerthroweth Arrians, an [...] [...]ch as deny Christ to bee Gods eter­nall sonne. Thirdly, heauen, crosseth the Manicheans opinion▪ holding God to bee Creator of visible things onely, but not of inuisible.

Because thou hast hid those things from the wise] Hee did not absolutely thanke his father for hiding the my­steries of his sauing grace from the wise: Illephons. Gi­ [...]. fragment. in [...]sens euan­gel. idem Pet. de palud. ex Chrysost. but for that be reuealed them vnto babes. You may reade the like phrase, Rom. 6.17▪ God be thanked that ye haue been the seru [...]nts of inne, but ye haue obtained from the heart vn­to be forme of the doctrine which was deliuered vnto you. Caluin & Ca­ietan in Rom. 6. [...] blessed Apostle did not giue thankes vnto God for that the Romans had made their members as wea­pons of iniquitie: but because they who sometime were the seruants of sinne, through his grace were now the seruants of righteousnesse, as Primasius vpon the place, Gratias Deo quia fuist is, sed ipso liberatore iam non estis. Euen so Christ heere thankes his father primarily, not [Page] for hiding these things from the wise (that is, wise in their Prou. 3.7. owne eyes, or wise men after the 1. Co. 1.26. flesh, endued with a wisedome which is earthly, sensuall, & diuellish, Iames. 3.15.) but because though he suffer the prince of darkenesse to 1. Cor. 4.4. blind the mindes of the worldly wise: yet he doth openly sh [...]w the glorious light of the Gospell vnto babes ▪ that is, vnto such as became 1. Cor. 3.18. fooles that they may be wise, wholly renouncing their owne wit, and solely submitting themselues vnto Gods will. If Iesus Luk 10 21. reioyced in the spirit, and magnified the Lord of heauen and earth for vs; [...]. Mat. O what thankes ought our selues to present vnto God for our selues. Praise the Lord O my soule, and all that is within me praise his ho­ly name. For mine eyes haue seene thy saluation, and mine heart hath often endited a good matter, and my pen some­times is the pen of a readie writer. O father of mercie, whereas these things are yet hid from the Iewes, and from the Turkes, and from the superstitious Heathen, and from carnall Christians; I haue, to the great refresh­ing of my soule, through thy grace (sweet Iesu) both heard by the Gospell, and imbraced the Gospell, and preached the Gospell, and in some measure practised also the Gospell. Psal. 103.2. O my soule praise the Lord, and for­get not all his benefits. I will sing vnto the Lord as long as I liue, I will praise my God while I haue any being, Psal. 104.33.

The sweetest of honie lieth in the bottome; I passe therefore from Christs inuocation, to the latter part of his Gospell his inuitation. In which obserue the

  • mouer, Iesus.
  • moued, all that labour and are laden.
  • motion, Come take my yoke vpon you, learne of me.
  • motiues, I will ease you, yee shall finde rest vnto your soules, for my yoke is easie, and my burthen light.

The person inuiting is Iesus, he saith heere come, not [Page] to mine, Vide respon. Eliensis ad apo­log. B [...]llar. cap. 8. but to me: not to my Saints, or Angels, or Martyrs, or Mother: but to my selfe. Send not other, it is my pleasure that ye come: seeke not for helpe from o­ther, I will ease you. Come vnto me, Iob. 14.6. for I am the way, the truth, and the life. The way by which, and the t [...]uth in which, and the life for which all of you come. None can come but by me, none finde ease but in me, none rest in ease but with me. Come therefore, for I am the way: learne of me, for I am the truth: and ye shall find rest vn­to your soules, for I am the life. Come to me, Musculus in loc. for I am (as you see) willing, in saying come, and able to relieue you: for that all things are giuen vnto me. So that Mat. 7.7. aske, and ye shall haue: seeke, and ye shall finde: knocke, and it shall be opened vnto you. Ioh. 16.23. Whatsoeuer ye shall aske the Father in my name, he will giue it you.

None can come to the Father except it bee by the Sonne; for no man knoweth the Father saue the Sonne, and he to whomsoeuer the Sonne will open him. In saying saue the Sonne, he doth not exclude the holy spirit be­ing the third person in Trinitie, for it is a good conclu­sion in Diuinitie, Caietan. Ludolphus. Beauxamis in loc. dictio exclusiua siue exceptiua addita termino personali in essentialibus non excludit ab altera persona diuina. God the Father, and God the holy Ghost, as being all one with the Sonne, are in the words (nisi filius) included, and onely the Creator exclu­ded. For none know the Father by Hieron. in loc. nature, but by the reuelation of the Sonne. Wee speake the wise­dome of God in a mystery (saith 1. Cor. 2.7. Paul) which none of the Princes of this world knew, hunc magnus Pla­to nesciuit, eloquens Demosthenes ignorauit. It is true that wee may know by the light of humane dis­course that there is a God, for the Rom. 1.20. Godhead is seene by the creation of the world: The heauens de­clare the glory of God, and the firmament sheweth his handie wo [...]ke, Psalm. 19.1. Yet none know the Father, Caietan. that is, a distinction of the persons in sacred Trinity, but by the spirit of him in whom are hid all the [Page] treasures of wisedome and knowledge, Coloss. 2.3. And [...] our reuealed knowledge is but 1. Cor. 13.12. imperfect in this life. They who saw most of God obtained onely the sight of his hinder parts. And in the kingdome of glory, when as we shall enioy the beholding of his fore­parts also, seeing him euen face to face; our knowledge shall not be Pet. [...]. i. [...] 12. [...] 8 [...]. comprehensionis cognitio, sed apprehensio­nis, an apprehending rather then a comprehending of his infinite Maiesty. Wee shall not euen in that day know so much of the Father, as the Father knoweth of himselfe, [...] gal. [...] 10. Sola quippe trinitas in vn [...]atis diuinitate se­ipsam nouit. In this life we shall attaine by Christs grace to such an vnderstanding [...] God as is fit, and in the world to come we shall [...]a [...]e so much as is full euen so much as any created vessel is able to containe▪ yet none shall euer [...] comprehend that incomprehensible Trinitie, none can as it selfe know it selfe.

H [...]herto concerning the party calling: I am now to speake of the perso [...]s inuited All ye that labour and are lader. He doth ex [...] [...]. [...]one, who came to bring 1. [...]. [...].4. [...]. all vnto the knowledge of the truth, [...] [...]al that l [...]our, then all that liue. For man borne of a woman is full of trou­b [...]e, Iob 14.1 Come therefore all ye that labour in your [...]. actions and are laden in your passions. All ye [...]. Iewes who labour vnder the yoke of the law, and all ye Gen­tiles opp [...]essed with the burthen of your sinnes. All yee [...]hat labour where [...], and whensoeuer, and howso­ [...]er afflicted or aff [...]d [...] misery. For these two la­b [...]ur and l [...]d [...], [...]. cap. 47. [...] ( [...] [...]one conceiue) simply the [...]me, sign [...]f [...]ing all kind [...]f [...]efe, s [...]res, and sorrow [...]hatsoeuer. As in the 6. and 9 Psalmes, [...] weary of my gream [...]g, I am weary of my [...]. &c. To speake more distinctly, there is a [...]. threefold burthen, namely, the burthen of

  • [...]ffliction.
  • the law.
  • [...].

Christ easeth all such as come to him of all these. [Page] Concerning the sir [...], great trau [...]ile (saith the sonne of Eccles 40.1. Sirach) is created for all men, and a hea [...]ie yoke vp­on the sonnes of Adam, euen from the day that they goe out of the mothers wombe, till the day that they returne to the mother of all things. But Christ, a Psal 9 9. re­fuge in due time of trouble, yea a Psal. 46.1. present helpe, doth either take away this burthen frō our shoulders, or else giueth vnto such as come to him abundant strength and patience to beare it. Art thou crossed in thy goods? it is Iob 1.21. the Lord who giueth, and the Lord who taketh a­way. 1. Pet. 5.7. Cast all your care vpon him, and hee will so care for you, that this burthen shall be made light, and this yoke easie. Art thou wronged in thy good name? say with 2. Sam. 16.12. Dauid, it may bee the Lord will looke vpon mine affliction, & do me good, for Shemi his cursing me this day. Come to Christ, and he will bring it to passe, that thy greatest enemy shall (if he haue any sparke of grace) confesse ingeniously to thee (as 1. Sam. 24.18. Saul once to Dauid) thou art more righteous then I, for thou hast rendred me good, and [...] haue rendred thee euill. Hee shall make thy righteousnesse as cleare as the light, and thy iust dealing as the noone day, Psalm. 37.6. Art thou much afflicted with sicknesse? Deut. 32.39. I (saith the Lord) am he who kill, and giue life, wound, and make whole, 1. Sam. 2.6. bring downe to the graue, and raise vp againe. I am the resur­rection and the life, hee that beleeueth in me, though he were dead yet shall he liue, Ioh. 11.25.

The 2 burthen is that [...]f the law, a yoke which neither our fathers nor we were able to beare ▪ saith S. Peter, Act. 15.10. a yo [...]e of Galath. 5.1. bondage▪ a Matth. 23.4. heauie burthen, and grie­uous to be borne. Now Christ easeth vs of this burthen also, being Galath. 4.4. made vnder the law to redeeme them vn­der the law. He Coloss 2.14. blotted out the handwriting of ordi­nances that was against vs which was contrary to vs, and tooke it out of the way nailing it to hi [...] cr [...]ss [...]. So that if Satan, that informer and common accuser of vs all, obiect the lawes obligation against vs our answere [Page] may be that the debt is payed, and the bond cancelled. If his euidence be good, let him if he can shew it in the court. Christ is the end of the law, Rom. 10.4. For the law was added because of the transgression, vntill the blessed seed came, to the which, the promise was made, Galath. 3.19. The Prophets and the law did endure till Iohn, but since Mat. 11.12. the kingdome of heauen suffereth vio­lence, and the violent take it by force. The blessed seed is come when once Christ Ephes. 3.17. dwelleth in our hearts by faith, and then it is time for the law to bee pa [...]king out of the conscience, then her kingdome is at an end Come ther­fore to Christ all ye that labour vnder the yoke of the law written, and all ye which are laden with the bur­then of pharisaicall traditions vnwritten, and yee shall finde rest vnto your soules.

The third burthen is of sinne, the which is so weigh­ty, that Zechar. 5.7. Zecharias calles it a talent of lead, and Psal. 30.3. Da­uid who felt the load himselfe saith of it expresly, there is no health in my flesh because of thy displeasure, neither is there any rest in my bones by reason of my sinne, for my wickednesses are gone ouer my head, and are like a sore burthen too heauie for me to beare. And heere let vs ob­serue with In loc. Euthymius that sinne is first a labour in ac­complishing, and then a load when it is accomplished. The couetous, incontinent, ambitious, exceedingly la­bour to compasse their vnlawfull desires, and yet when all is done, they remaine still as men vndone. For no man is more beggerlike, then a couetous wretch in an opulent fortune, nor more base, then a proud man in the midst of his honour. There is a labour in geering these things, and when once they be got, a load. Ecclesiast. 1.14. All is but [...]nity and vexation of spirit. They who truely re­pent them of their sin feele this burthen in this world, and they who being irrepentant, are in a [...]am. 1. [...]8. reprobate sense, shall at the last day notwithstanding confesse to their endlesse shame, Wis [...]. 5.7. We haue wearied our selues in the waies of wickednesse and destruction. Now Christ saith [Page] vnto such as grieue and groane vnder the burthen of their sinnes, Mat. 9.13. I am not come to call the righteous, but sin­ners to repentance. Luk. 4.18. the spirit of the Lord is vpon mee that I should preach the Gospell vnto the poore, he hath sent me that I should heale the broken hearted, that I should preach deliuerance to the captiues, and recouering of sight to the blind.

He calleth all that labour Ludolph. de vita Christ. part. 1, cap. 58. siue secundum naturam in qua nascimur; siue secundum culpaem qua transgredi­mur; siue poenam in qua morimur. All men, as you haue heard sufficiently, Masculus. Calain. Giron. yet onely such as labour and are la­den with the burthen of their sinnes efficiently. The carnall and carelesse haue Mat. 13 14. eyes and see not, eares and heare not, hearts and vnderstand not. Mat. 23.37. How often would I (saith hee who calleth all) haue gathered you together as the hen gathereth her chickins vnder her wings, and ye would not. And in this present chapter at the seuenteenth vers. We haue piped vnto you, and ye haue not danced, we haue mourned vnto you, and ye haue not la­mented. That is, (as Ser. 80. Ambrose construeth it) we haue preached vnto you the sweet comforts of the Gospell, and ye haue not reioyced in spirit: we haue denounced vnto you the terrible iudgements of God contained in the law, and yee haue not trembled at our words. O thinke on this all yee that forget God, all yee that stop your eares and harden your hearts at his voice; repent and exhort one another Heb. 3. [...]3. while it is to day, seeke the Lord while hee may bee found, and call vpon him, and come vnto him while he is neare, Esay 55.6.

Yea but where shall wee find thee sweet Iesus? I am (saith he) found in my workes, and in my words, and in my Sacraments. In my workes. Ioh. 10.25. for they beare witnesse of me, they shew that by me the blind receiue sight, and halt go, and the leapers are cleansed, and the dead are rai­sed vp, Matth. 11.5. In my word, for the Ioh. 5.39. Scriptures are they which testifie of me. There you shall reade how God so loued the world, that he gaue his only begotten Son, [Page] that whose euer beleeueth in him should not perish but haue euerlasting life, Iohn 2.16. in my sac [...]ar [...]is, [...] 6. [...]6. he that eare [...] blood dwelleth in me, and [...] ye come to my table ye shall be refreshed [...] my blood [...] ref [...]teris [...] necesseris de­ [...].

[...] to the comming or motion, and that is by [...] and not by feet, moribus non pedibus by loue not by leggs: come to me then in saith, [...] and [...] yoke [...] to hope and learne [...]f me meek [...]es and lowlinesse in [...]one: [...] he that comes to God must beleeue that God is, and that he is a rewarder of such as seeke him: hee must in h [...]pe beare Christs yoke, the which in respect of the present labour is heauen but in respect of the [...] f [...]ture retribution hope [...] [...]: to saith he must adioyne loue, whereof there be two principall obiects, and two principall offices: the principall obiects of our loue are God and our neighbours, [...] lowlinesse in heart disposeth aright of our loue toward God, and meeknes sheweth how wee should demeane our selues in our cariage to­ward our neighbours: the two principall offices of our loue are to giue and to forgiue; lowlinesse is ready to giue euery man his due, meeknesse to forg [...]ue euery man his debt: or we must be [...] mites [...] humiles men­tibus, in our outward behauiour toward other meeke, in our inward conceit of our selues humble: lowly not in complement or habit only, but in heart: for as the Eccles. 19 25. wiseman telleth vs there be some that being about wic­ked purposes doe bow downe themselues and are sad, whose inward parts burne altogether with deceit [...] he looketh downe with [...] face, and fameth himselfe deafe: yet be­fore thou perce [...] [...] vpon thee to hurt thee.

[...]Christ wou [...]d not haue vs imitate him in his mi­ [...], as [...]n walking vpon the waters, in raising the dead, [...]n making a new world: but in his morale, in his meeknes and lowlines especially, for these vertues are the lessons he [...]eacheth, in whom are hid all the treasures [Page] of wisedome 2nd knowledge: it is so great a thing in our owne eyes to be little, that no man is able to learne it of any but of him only, who being in the Philip 26. forme of God tooke vpon him the forme of a seruant and be­came man, yea a Psalm. 22.6. worme and no man, a very scorne of men and outcast of the people, termed Apocalyp. 1.8. the first and the last: in maiestie the first, in Gloss. meeknes as the last, his whole life being nothing else but an open booke, or rather an open shop of humility: descend then if thou wilt ascend, if thou desire to build high and to seeke the things aboue, lay thy foundation low, hum­blenes of mind is Bonauent. diet salat. cap. 36 schola and scala coeli, the schoole tea­ching and the scale reaching heauen.

Hildebert. in epitap. Berenga­ry apud Malmes. in vita. Wil. 1. Quo minor est quisquis maximus est hominum.

I will ease you Bernard. the world crieth, ego deficiam, I will leaue you: the flesh crieth, ego inficiam, I will corrupt you: the deuill crieth, ego interficiam, I will destroy you: but he (which is August. de verb. apost. ser. 22. verax verus veritas, euer speaking the truth as euer being the truth) opposeth himselfe against all these mortall enemies and saith ego reficiam, I will ease you: this one clause then is the very close, yea the very Culman. in loc. summe of the whole gospell in as much as all our learning and labouring is for this end, that we may find refreshing and rest vnto our soules in the end, the latine ref [...]ciam hath Vide Giron. con. 2. in [...]est. Mat. three significations.

  • 1 Reficere is to repaire or renew, Mat. 4.21. reficien­res retia, Iames and Iohn were mending their nets &c, and so Christ as being
    H [...]b. 1.3.
    the brightnes of Gods glory, and expresse character of his person, restoreth againe Gods Image defaced in vs through Adams fall, vt recreatio creationi responderet saith
    Part. 1. quaest. 3. a [...]. 8.
    Aquine, that the redemption of the world might answere the creation: he who first made, now mendeth vs, all of vs being the
    Ephes. 2.10.
    workman­ship of God in Christ as creatures and as new creatures: as Creatures, for in the beginning was the word, all things were made by it, and without it was made nothing that was made: as
    2. Cor. 5.17.
    new creatures, for Christ Iesus is the new [Page] man we must
    Rom. 12.14.
    put on, of whom wee must learne meek­nes and lowlines that we may walke in newnes of life, Rom. 6.4.
  • 2. Reficere, doth signifie to strengthen with meat, in which acception a common hall in a colledge where the society meet and eat together, is called a refectorie; now Christ hath a twofold refectorie for all such as come vnto him, one in his kingdome of grace, when he
    Psalm. 23.5.
    pre­pareth a table for vs in despite of our foe, refreshing vs with the food of his word of his supper, of his exam­ples vntil we are made fat, Prouerb. 28.25. euen so full and faire, that the Church in admiration hereof asketh her best beloued,
    Cant. 1.6.
    shew me where thou feedest? another refectorie, Christ hath in his kingdome of glory, Luke 22.30. Ye shall eate and drinke at my table in my king­dome, there God hath prepared for those that loue him a banquet of such delicates as eye hath not seene, neither eare hath heard, neither heart of man able to conceiue. 1. Cor. 2.9.
    R [...]pe [...]t. in Mat. 11.
    Sentiri potest, dici non potest. Come then vnto me all ye
    Mat. 5.6.
    that hunger and thirst after righteous­nes, and I will feed you, feast you, fill you, feed you with the
    1. Pet. 2. [...].
    sincere milke of my doctrine, feast you with a cheerefulnes of conscience which is a
    Prouerb. 15.15.
    continuall feast, fill you with an ouerflowing cup in the state of glory: come to me, nay if ye will open the wicket of your heart when I knocke and desire to come to you, I will sup with you, and you shall also sup with me, Apoca­lip. 3.20.
  • 3. Reficere, signifieth as our text runneth here, to re­fresh and to ease such as labour and are laden, and this
    [...]ansenius. Marlorat.
    expresseth the word [...] best, and is most agree­able to the clause going afore labour and laden; and the words following after, rest, easie, light, as if he should haue said,
    Sua [...]e contra laborem, [...] contraonus. Ca [...]etanin loc.
    I will ease such as labour, and giue rest vnto such as are laden, I will make their heauy burden light, and their hard yoke easie, so that they shall count it ex­ceeding ioy to fall into diuers temptations, Iames 1.2. [Page] as sorrowing and yet alway reioycing, 2. Cor. 6.10.
    Psal. 128.2.
    blessed in eating the labours of their hands: as men of the world are
    Augustin. in Psalm. 127.
    infeliciter felices, vnhappie in being so much happie: so the children of God are feliciter infeli­ces, happie in feeling their load, and vnderstanding their vnhappines, for
    1. Cor. 10.13.
    God is faithfull, and will not suffer his children to be tempted aboue their ability, but will euen with the temptation make away to escape, that they may be able to beare it. This ease Paul found vnto the rest of his soule, 2. Cor. 4.8. We are troubled on euery side, yet are we not in distresse: perplexed, but not in des­paire: persecuted, but not forsaken: cast downe, but yet not cast away. A
    Musculus in loc.
    Physitian (albeit he be neuer so skil­full in his arte) cannot absolutely promise that he will ease you: his comforts are I will endeuour to giue you rest, if I can I will helpe you, neither inuention of wit, nor intention of will, I assure you shall be wanting: but Christ heere saith I will, I can, as hauing all things giuen vnto me of my father, and I will as being
    Esay 61.1.
    sent into the world to comfort such as mourne in Sion.

Ye shall finde rest vnto your soules] Pet. de palud. some finde rest in their body, but not in their soule, as the glutton menti­oned, Luke 16. his body was richly clothed, and deli­ciously pampered euery day, but his soule (so full of sores as Lazarus at his gate) found no rest: Luther loc. com. tit. de furijs malae conscien. one drop of a bad conscience did drinke vp as it were the whole sea of his worldly delights, some finde rest in their soule, but not in their body, so the seruants of God are said to Rom. 5.3. reioyce in tribulations, as the blessed Apostles Act. 5. afflicted in body, reioyced in spirit, because they were counted worthy to suffer for Christs name: some neither in body nor soule, as the damned in hell, hauing Bonauent. diet. salut. cap. 49. poenarum & diuersitatem & vniuersitatem, a fire to torment the body, a worme to torture the soule Esay 66.24. some both in body and in soule, as Gods elect in heauen, who rest from their labour, Apocalyp. 14.13. and from their griefe, for Apocalyp. 21.4. God shall wipe away all teares [Page] from their eyes, and there shall be no more dying or crying: and from their feare, Iob. 11.19. when thou takest thy rest none shall affright thee: come then vnto me all ye that labour and are laden, and ye shall find rest here begun, hereafter accomplished fully: ye shall find, Musculus. not by your owne industry: but through my grace, first I will ease you, then ye shall find rest vnto your soules: vnlesse I giue you meanes to seeke, ye can not find, if you will haue it, I pray come to me for it.

For my yoke is easie and my burthen light] Theophyla [...]t. Euthym. Some con­strue this of Christs humility, because meek and lowly persons haue more rest and ease then the proud and am­bitious, euer labouring for higher place; per quot pericu­la peruenitur ad grandius periculum? as Confess. lib. 8. cap. 6. Augustine sweetly. The Courtier is in deed restie, yet restlesse: See resolued gentleman. pag. 14. if he turne gallant, he shall be condemned as vaine: if o­therwise, disgraced with the titles of basenes: if he fol­low his studies, he shall be thought dangerous: if not, argued of ignorance: it he haue traueiled, his seruice will be questioned: if not, he shall be reputed vncapable of employment. So miserable is his estate, that his im­perfections are hated, his vertues suspected, and either of them both alike able to barre him from preferment. [...]. He must euer study not so much to haue friends, as to beware of his enemies: in a word, there is lesse trauel in seruing of God, then the King: for the King hath only some few houres of audience, whereas God saith, at what time soeuer a sinner doth repent of his sinne from the bottom of his heart, I will put all his wickednes out of my remembrance.

But Augustin. Hieron. [...]ansen. Musculus. Mal­donat. &c. most interpretors vnderstand this of Christs Gospell and doctrine, D [...] Falk. in loc. for his burthen is light vnto such as hee refresheth and easeth from the burthen of sinne, his commandements are not heauie to them whose faith ouercommeth the world, 1. Iohn 5.3. A Gueu [...]ra. epist. yoke when it is greene is heauie, but when it is some­what worne, easie. Now Christ himselfe did first weare [Page] this yoke, that it might be seasoned and made light for vs. If he commanded other to fast, himselfe fasted: if he commanded other to pray, himselfe prayed: if he com­manded other to forgiue, himselfe pardoned: if he com­manded other to die, himselfe also died, &c. And there­fore saith he, learne of me. Caluin. For this yoke will appeare to be sweet, if once you bee well acquainted with it as I am. It Didac. Yan­guas con. 2. de S. Matth. is my yoke, not yours. I put my shoulder vnto the burthen and beare more then you, factus est princi­patus super humerum eius, Esa. 9.6. Christ doth as 2. Cor. 11.29. Paul saith, Who is weake, and I am not weake? who is offended, and I burne not? I beare the yoke when yee suffer, Act. 9.4. Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me? To this pur­pose Epist. lib. 4. epista. Paulinus excellently, Christus & patiens & tri­umphans in sanct is suis: in Abel, occisus á fratre: in Noe, irrisus à filio: in Abraham peregrinatus, In Isaac oblatus, in Ioseph venditus, in Moyse fugatus, in Pro­phetis lapidatus, in Apostolis terra marique iactatus. When as then ye labour and are laden heauily, learne of me, yea leane on me: Psalm. 55.23. Cast thy bur­den vpon the Lord, and he shall nourish thee, Come to me and I will ease you. So S. De verbis dom. secund. Mat. ser. 9. Augustine doth expound this clause, Christs burthen in it selfe (saith he) is excee­ding troublesome, for 2. Tim. 3.12. all that will liue godly in Christ Iesus shall suffer perscution: but his spirit Rom. 8.20. helpeth our infirmities, and sweetneth affliction for vs; hee maketh vs willing, and so by consequent able to beare his bur­then, and vndergoe his yoke. For Bernard. ser. 85. in Cant. vbi amor est, non est labor sed sapor, vnto the willing all things are welcome. The way to heauen is August. vbi supra. angusta paucis eligentibus, facilis tamen omnibus diligentibus. O come then vnto Christ, and take vp his yoke. Ambros. de Elia cap. 22. Feare it not as being a yoke, but bea [...]e it as being easie. Respect not the present paine, but expect the future pleasure. For our light affliction which is but for a moment, causeth vnto vs a farre more excellent and eternall waight of glory, 2. Cor. 4.17.

It is very remarkable that Christ saith in the Gueuara epist. singu­lar [Page] yoke, for hee doth not command vs to plough with many yokes. The diuell enticeth vs to many vices which are contrary, the world hath many troubles which are contrary, the flesh also many desires which are contra­ry: but God hath vpon the point but one commande­ment, namely, that 1. [...]ob. 3 23. we beleeue in his Sonne Iesus Christ, and expresse this faith in louing one another. All that Christ on our part requireth is, that wee come to him, and learne of him. Rom. 10.9. Si credis lu­ [...]us [...]s. Luther. If thou shalt acknowledge with thy mouth the Lord Iesus, and shalt beleeue in thine heart that God hath raised him vp from the dead, thou shalt bee saued. The Gospell is called a burthen and a yoke, E [...]thym. lest we presume: yet light and easie, lest wee despaire. Marlorat. By this one sentence two sorts of men are confuted especi­ally: the carnall Gospellers on the right hand, who be­cause iustification is by faith onely, hold themselues free from all burthens; and the superstitious Monkes and merit-mongers on the left hand, loading the con­sciences of men with too many burthens. O sweet Iesu, so guide me with thy holy spirit, that I may walke be­tweene these two rocks in thy mid way. Thou ( [...]o whom all things are giuen) giue me thy grace, that I may come to thee, learne of thee, rest in thee. That I may so beare thy crosse on earth, as that I may weare thy crowne in heauen, Amen.

The Epistle

ESAY 7.10

God spake once againe to Ahaz, saying, require a token of the Lord thy God, &c.

IN this Scripture two things are more chieflie con­siderable; namely, the

  • goodnesse of God
    • particularly toward Ahaz King of Iuda, God spake againe to Ahaz, saying, aske a signe, &c.
    • generally toward all the house of Dauid, euen the whole Church, a Virgin shall conceine, &c.
  • wickednesse of Ahaz
    • Open
      Caluin. in loc.
      vnthankfulnesse and
      Hieron. in loc.
      in­solent
      Hyperius. Vatablas.
      impiety, then said A­haz,
      Vatablas.
      will aske none.
    • Secret
      Musculus. Hen. Mollerus.
      hypocrisie, couering his contempt and Atheisme with a cloake of deuotion and duty, neither will I tempt the Lord.

God spake againe to Ahaz] In the daies of Ahaz the sonne of Iotham, the sonne of Vzziah King of Iudah (as wee read in the beginning of this present chapter) Rezm the King of Aram, and Pe [...]ath the sonne of Re­maliah King of Israel came vp and fought against Hie­rusalem. Now God (as being a Psal. 46.1. present helpe in troub [...]e) sent his Prophet Esay to comfort King Ahaz in this ex­tremitie, saying vers. 4. Feare not, neither be faint hear­ [...]ed for the two tailes of those smo [...]ing firebrands, for the furious wrath of Rezin, and of Remaliahs sonne. For al­beit they determine to depose thee, and to dispose of thy Kingdome, purposing to set vp in thy throne the sonne of [...]abeal. vers 6: Yet thus saith the Lord God, their counsell shall not stand, neither shall it bee: for the head of Aramis Damascus: and the head of Damascus [Page] is Rezin, and within threescore and fiue yeeres Ephraim shall be broken from being a people. Cal [...]in. As if he should say, these two kingdomes shall haue their limits, and their two Kings must be content with their owne greatnesse, they both aspire to the Crown, but I haue set them their bounds which they shall not passe. Beleeue my words and it shall goe well with you, but if ye will not beleeue, surely ye shall not bee established, vers. 9. And therefore that Ahaz and his people might giue credit to this pro­mise, the Lord (saith our text) spake once more to A­haz.

[...] Where note Gods long suffering and patience to­ward an Idolatious and a wicked King, [...] who did not vp­rightly in the sight of the Lord his God [...] Dauid his fa­ther [...] but made his sonne goe thorow the fire after the a­bominations of the Heathen, whom the Lord had cast out before the children of Israel, and offered, and burnt in­cense in the high places, and on the hilles, and vnder euery greene tree. The Lord Ez [...]b. 33.11. desired not the death of a sin­ner but that he may turne from his euill waies and liue, speaking to him as heere to Ahaz, againe and againe; turne you, turne you, for why will ye die O yee house of Is­rael? He doth inuite to mercie, not onely such as are godly men, according to the prayer of Psal. 125.4. Dauid, Do well O Lord vnto those that be good and true of heart. But he maketh his Sunne to rise on the euill, and sendeth his raine on the iust and on the vniust, Matth. 5.45. Hee is not slacke faith 2. Pet. 3 9. Peter in comming to iudgement (as some men count s [...]icknesse) but is patient toward vs, and would haue no man to perish, but would all men to come to repentance. Wherefore thou, whosoeuer thou bee which art in the Act. 8.2 [...]. gall of bitternesse, 1. King 21.25. selling thy selfe to worke wickednesse, nay [...]. 4.19. giuing thy selfe to wantonnesse to commit all vncleanenesse, euen with greedinesse. Rom. 2.3. How dost thou thin [...]e thou shalt escape the iudgement of God? or despisest thou the riches of his boun­tifulnesse, and patience, and long sufferance, not knowing [Page] that the goodnesse of God leadeth thee to repentance? The Lord spake to Ahaz againe, yet not onely for his sake, nor for the wicked alone: Caluin. but rather to prouide for the weake which had some seeds of Godlinesse. For al­beit they did offend the Lord very much in their di­strust and Idolatrie: yet God as being the father of 2. Cor. 1.3. mercies, in wrath remembers mercy. Habac. 3.2. Com­passion and forgiuenesse is in the Lord our God, albeit wee haue rebelled against him. Dan. 9.9.

Require a token of the Lord thy God] Musculus. As if Esay should haue said. I perceiue you giue credit to my re­port, entertaining my speech as the words of a meere man, and not as the word of God. Wherfore to demon­strate that I come not in mine owne name, but from the Lord of Hosts, Aske a signe, Hierome. not of Idols, or of strange gods vnable to helpe thee: but of thy God Aske a signe not of me, but of the Lord Psal. 72.18. which onely doth won­drous things. Aske of him, Ahaz, and thou shalt vn­derstand that it is the Lord who speakes vnto thee. God for the confirmation of our faith Mollerus. Caluin. addeth vnto his pro­mises as proppes of our infirmitie, signes and tokens, which Tract. 80. in Ioan. Augustine calles aptly visible words. And these signes are of two sorts, extraordinarie, whereof the Prophet in our present text, and that which was giuen to Hezekiah in the 38. chapter of this prophesie, vers. 7. Ordinarie, in daily vse, as Baptisme and the Lords Sup­per, the which are signes and seales of Gods holy co­uenant with vs. And wee must so ioyne faith vnto the word, that wee despise not the Sacraments which Al­mighty God offereth as helps for the strengthening of of our faith. 1. Tim. 1.15. It is a true saying that Iesus Christ came into the world to saue sinners. And this saying ought by all meanes to bee receiued and one chiefe meane is the ministration of the Sacraments: and therefore the fran­tick spirits in our time who make no reckoning of Bap­tisme, nor of the blessed Eucharist, but esteeme them abces onely for little children, are worthily censured by [Page] reuerend [...] Caluin to separate those things which God hath ioyned together.

Whether it be toward the depth beneath, or toward the height aboue] The Prophet prescribes not what token Ahaz should aske, [...]. lest happily the truth of the mira­cle might be suspected: but hee leaueth it to the Kings owne free choice, whether hee will haue it toward the depth or height, [...]. that is in earth or heauen. Or it may be the word depth is of some deeper signification; Hieron. Caluin. as if Esay should say, God will openly shew thee that his do­minion is farre aboue all the world; yea that it reacheth euen from the heauen of heauens, to the very depth of depthes, insomuch as hee can at his good pleasure fetch Angels out of heauen, and also ra [...]e the very dead out of their graues, [...]. Here then obserue Gods omnipo­tencie, who can doe whatsoeuer hee will in heauen and in earth, and in the sea, and in all deepe places, Psal. 135.6. [...]. 32.17. O God the great and mighty, great in Counsell, and mighty in wor [...]e. Behold thou hast made the heauen, and the earth, by thy great power and stretched out arme, and there is nothing hard vnto thee. This doctrine is comfortable to the godly, who Psal. 91.1. dwell vnder the de­fence of the most high, and abide vnder the shadow of his wings, hauing his spirit for their guide, and his An­gels for their guard. But it is very terrible to the wic­ked, in that all the creatures in heauen, in earth, and vn­der earth attend the Lord of Hosts, euenmore readie to fight against such as fight against him.

I will require none [...] This argueth his Hieron. pride, rather then humblenesse. Or as [...]. other, his trust in the strength of the King of 2. King 16. Ashor, rather then his affiance in the King of Kings. And yet hee colours his foule contempt [...]. hypocritically with a faire pretence, saying▪ I will not tempt the Lord, alluding doubtlesse to the text, Deut. 6.16. ye shall not tempt the Lord your God. He forgate the words in the some chapter a little before, yee shall not walke after other gods, &c. and only wrested that clause [Page] which he thought would fit his turne, wrest I say, for to require a signe when God inuiteth and inioyneth vs, is not to tempt the Lord; but to trust and obey, which is 1. Sam. 15.22. better then sacrifice. Gedeon is commended for asking signes of the Lord, Iudges 6. the Pharities on the con­trary condemned euen by Mat. 16.4. Christ himselfe, the wicked generation and adulterous seeketh a signe: now the rea­son hereof is exceeding plaine, their actions differed in their Mollerus. Musculus. endes: for whereas Gedeon asketh a signe to bee confirmed in Gods promise; the Pharisies required mi­racles of Christ out of curiositie to betray, rather then to be taught of him: in this acceptable time of grace we need not aske for new miracles, it is sufficient to beleeue those which are recorded in holy Bible. The blessed Sacraments are Gods ordinary signes appointed in his word for the strengthening of our faith▪ hee that refuseth them as a superfluous helpe commits the sinne of Ahaz, he that vseth them according to Christs ordi­nance, spiritually receiues Christ himselfe, as Apud Elien. respon. id apo­l [...]g. Bellarmin [...] pag. 11. Duran­d [...]ss pithily, verbum andimus, motum sentimus, modum nescimus, praesentiam credimus.

Heare ye now O house of Dauid] For as much as it was an intollerable wickednes to shut the gates against the might and mercies of God vnder colour of honesty and modesty; the Prophet is iustly displeased, and sharpely rebukes these painted Mat. 23.27. sepulchres▪ and saith, heare ye now O house of Dauid, &c. for albeit it was an honour for them to be held the race of Dauid (if they had wal­ked in the steps of Dauid) Ca [...]in. yet notwithstanding he now cals them house of Dauid rather by way of reproach then otherwise. And in very deed the contempt and vn­thankfulnes in refusing a signe was so much the more hainous, because this fauour was reiected by that house, out of which the saluation of the whole world should come. Note then here the Prophets order and exquisite method in teaching: first he begins with doctrine, take heed, be still, and feare not, &c. then he proceeds to the [Page] confirmation of his doctrine, [...] a token of the Lord thy God, &c. [...] when he saw [...] both his offered sayings and signes vnto King Ahaz were fruitlesse, hee comes to reproofe, grievously [...]ding this obstinate man; and [...]o him [...]lone, but also all the royall house defiled with this impietie: we must in our ministry take the l [...]ke course: first beginning with doctrine, then pro­ceeding to confirmation, and when these two faile, we must (as our Prophet speakes Esay 58.1. elsewhere) lift our voice like a trumpet, s [...]ewing Gods people their transgressions, and to the house of Iacob their sinnes, after proofe wee must (as Esay here) come to reproofe [...] [...] lachri­mae laudes tuae sint, as [...]. Tom. 1. fol. 14. Hierome doth aduise Nepotian, for saith he, melius est ex duobus imperfectis rusticitatem sanitam habere, quàm eloquentiam peccatricem, and Loc. com. tit. de of [...]. minist. in tavan. vit [...]. Martin Luther that sonne of thunder was wont to say, cortes meus esse potest durior, sed nucleus mollis & dulcis est.

Is it not enough for you that ye be grieuous vnto men, but ye must grieue my God also?] Caluin. He doth vse compari­sons between God and men, not as if the Prophets could in deed be separated from God, for they be nothing else but his instruments, hauing one common cause with him as long as they discharge their duties, accor­ding to that of Christ, Luke 10.16. He that heareth you, heareth me: and he that despiseth you despiseth me: the Prophet then shapes his speech according to the wic­ked opinion of Ahaz. and his followers, imagining that they had to doe with men only, as if hee should say, though I am a mortall man as you conceiue, yet in re­iecting the signe which is offered vnto you, yee greiue God himselfe, for asmuch as the Lord speakes in mee: [...] [...]. Luther is our comfort and credite, that in de­ [...] Gods errand, our tongue is Gods tongue, and our [...] Gods voice, [...] hee therefore that despiseth our preaching, despiseth not men▪ but God; as the Lord said to 1. Sam. 8 [...]. [...], they haue not reiected thee, but they haue [Page] reiected mee, that I should not raigne ouer them: and this ought to moue the Prophets and preachers of the word, Musc [...]. that a wrong done to them in executing their holy sunction is an iniury done to God himselfe, and they must grieue not so much in respect of their owne [...]isho­nour, as for that God is grieued, according to that of Psal 119.136. Dauid, mine eyes gush ou [...] with water, because men keepe not thy law: it is well obserued, that whereas Esay said before whilest Ahaz rebellion and ingratitude was hidden, aske a signe of the Lord thy God: he now takes this honour to himselfe, saying my God, not thy God, in­sinuating that God is on his side, and not with these wicked hypocrites; and so testifies with what a confi­dence and conscience hee promised deliuerance to the King, as if he should haue said, I came not of my selfe but I was sent of the Lord, and haue told thee nothing but out of the mouth of my God, all preachers of the word should haue the same boldnes, not in appearance only: but effectually rooted in their hearts: as Vbi supra. Luther excellently, Summa summarum haec est inestimabilis glo­ria conscientiae nostrae contra omnem contemptum in mun­do, quod Christus nos praedicatores plane deos creat, dicen­do qui vos recipit, me patrem (que) meum recipit.

Therefore the Lord shall giue you a signe, behold a vir­gine All orthodoxal interpretours aswel ancient as mo­derne construe this of Christs admirable natiuity, here­in being taught by the spirit of truth, in the 1. Chapter of Saint Matthews Gospell at the 22. verse, all this was done that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the Prophet, saying, behold a virgine shall con­ceiue, &c. I know the Iewes haue many cauils against this exposition he that desires to know them, as also the Christians answere to them: at his opportune leisure may read the Commentaries of Hierom and Caluin vp­on this text, of Aretius, Marlorat, M [...]ldonat, in Mat. 1.22. Pet. Galatinus de arcanis cat. verit lib. 3. cap. 18. & lib. 7 cap. 15. Suarez in 3. Thomae disput. 5. sect. 2.

[Page] [...]That which here troubleth interpretours most, is how this token is a confirmation of Gods promise to King Ahaz: examine the circumstances of the place say the Iewes, Hierusalem is besieged, and the Prophet is to giue them a signe of their deliuerance; to what end then is the Messias of the world promised now, who should be borne fiue hundred yeares after? answere is is made by [...]. some that the coherence may be thus, O A­haz, thou art exceedingly deceiued in thinking that God is not able to deliuer thee from the furious wrath of Rezin, and of Remaliahs sonne; for hee will in time to come shew greater arguments of his power vnto thy succeeding posterity, for behold a virgine shall con­ceiue and beare a sonne, who shall deliuer his people from more dangerous enemies then the two tailes of these smoaking firebrands; he will in the fulnes of time send a Sauiour to deliuer vs Luke 1.71. from all that hate vs, euen our spirituall enemies, as sinne, death and the deuill: he shall be called Emmanuel, [...] Mat. 1.23. which is by interpretation God with vs, not God against vs, but with vs and for vs, as Musculus vpon the words of Saint Matthew, non siue nobis, non contra nos, sed nobiscum & pro nobis.

Mollerus. Caluin. Other obserue that it is the custome of the Prophets in confirming the particular promises of God, euermor [...] to lay this foundation that he will send his sonne the re­deemer. By this generall prop the Lord euery where ra­tifies that which he specially promiseth vnto his chil­dren, according to that of 2. Cor. 1.10. Paul, an Christ all the promi­ses of God are yea and amen: that is, Aretius. categoricall and true, Lombard. Anselm. Cal [...]. complete and implete, and assuredly whosoeuer expects help and succour from God, must also be per­swaded of his fatherly loue: but how should hee be fa­uourable without Christ, in Ephes. 1.4. whom he hath adopted vs his sonnes, and Rom. 8.17. heires before the foundation of the world? so louing vs that hee hath giuen his only begot­ten sonne to [...]. dewell among vs, and to be God with vs, and when his houre was come to [...]. 4 25. dye for our sinnes, [Page] and to rise againe for our iustification: so that vpon these premises we need not at any time doubt of Gods holy promises, but infalliblely conclude with the blessed A­postle Rom. 8.32. If God spared not his owne sonne, but gaue him for vs all to death, how shall he not with him giue vs all things also?

Hyperius in loc. Other hold this signe most agreeable to the present occasion of Iudahs promised deliuerance, because the Patriarke Gen. 49.10. Iacob had prophesied, that the scepter should not depart from Iuda, nor a law giuer from betweene his feet vntill Shilo come: as if Esay should thus argue with Ahaz, the Messias of the world is to bee borne of the tribe of Iudah, and of the linage of Dauid, it is impossi­ble therefore that either Rezin or Pekah, or any other prince whatsoeuer should rent thy Kingdome from the successours of Dauid, vntill a virgine conceiue and beare a sonne, who shall bee called Emmanuel. It is reported Mat. 2. that the wise men enquired after the birth of Christ, in the dayes of Herod the King, wherein they shewed themselues to bee wisemen in deed, obseruing their right Leo ser. 3 de epiphan. The [...] ­phylact. Euthym. Anselm. in Mat. 2. quando, because now the scepter had depar­ted from Iudah, and was in the hands of Herod an alien and a tyrant crept in by the Romane Emperour: this then is a fit and a full signe to confirme Gods promise touching Iudahs deliuerance from the furious wrath of Rezin and of Remaliahs sonne. For there be two kindes of signes, vnum prognosticum, alterum remoratiuum, as De arcanis cat. verit. lib. 7. cap. 15. Petrus Galatinus in his examination of this text aptly distinguisheth: one which is a prognostication of an euent to come, so Iudges 6.37. Gedeons fleece was a signe to him of a future victory, another which is a memoriall of a thing past, so the Lord said vnto Moses Exod. 3.12. This shall be a token vnto thee, that I haue sent thee, after thou hast brought the people out of Egypt, yee shall serue God vpon this mountaine: now the signe mentioned here was a rememoratiue, not a prognosticke. Ahaz saw not this token, but his posterity might say with Psalm. 48.7. Dauid, as wee [Page] haue heard, so haue wee seene in the city of the Lord of Hosts, in the city of our God: God vpholdeth it for euer. And heere the fathers Ire [...]aus. lib. 3. cap. 27. [...] in P [...]. 18. [...]. 8 Epithan. heus. 30. Basil. in loc. [...] obserue that Christs admirable natiuity was a signe both in the depth beneath, and in the height aboue. For in being a man, eating butter and honis, nourished after the same manner that other chil­dren are, he was a signe on earth: and in being Emma­nuel, conceiued of a Virgin without the seed of man, hee was a signe from heauen. Thus as you see this token is accommodum, aptly fitted to the present occasion of the Prophet, I proceed now to shew that it is also commo­dum, as profitable for vs as it is pertinent for Hierusa­lem.

A Virgin shall conceiue] That is, [...]. Maldo [...]t. in Mat. 1.23. Hiabna. [...] &c. the Virgin, or that Virgin, for the Hebrew particle [...] added in the text ori­ginall, and the Greeke article - prefixed by the Septua­gint interpretors are both emphaticall, and import so much as this excellent Virgine. So the fathers vseth to speake, Ephyhas. [...] 78. Quis vnquam, aut quo seculo ausus est proferre nomen S. Maria, & interrogatus non siatim intulit vir­ginis vocem? In what age did any man name the blessed Mary without adding her surname Virgin. Nay the blessed Apostles in their Creed haue taught vs so to be­leeue, borne of the Virgine Marie. For she was a See C [...]d art. borne of the Virgin. per­petuall Virgine: Aretiu [...] [...]. 1.17. ante partum in part [...]. post partum. All which is concluded, at the least included in our present text. A Virgin before she conceiued, and when she con­ceiued her sonne our Sauiour, as we defend against vn­beleeuing Iewes and Gentiles; and against misbeleeuing hererickes also; namely, the Cerinthians, Ebionites, Car­pocratians, holding that Christ was the naturall sonne of Ioseph, & verus & mer us home, contrary to the words of our Prophet here, behold a Virgin shall conceiue. Psal. 132. [...]1. The Lord hath made a faithful oath vnto David, and he shal not shrinke from it, Of the fruit of thy belly shall I set vp­on thy seat. Where the [...]word. [...] in [...] 131. & [...]. 3. cap. 27. Doctors note, that he saith ac­cording to the Hebrew, de fruitu ventris, and not de [Page] fructu femoris, aut renum, because the promised seed is the seed of the woman, Gen. 3.15. made of a woman, Gal. 4.4. hauing the materials of his body from Mary, but his formale principium, of the holy Ghost agent in his admirable conception, as it is in the Gospell allotted for this day, the holy Ghost shall come vpon thee, and the power of the most high shall ouershadow thee. See Gospell on the Sunday after Christmas.

2. We say that Mary was a Virgin in her childbirth, against Iouinian, and Durandus, according to the tenor of our text, A Virgin shall conceiue and beare a sonne. The which is not to be construed, in Suarezan 3. Thom. disp. 5. sect. 2. idem Ardens intuan gel. annunti. sensu diuiso, sed in sensu composito: to wit, a Virgin shall conceiue, and continuing a Virgin shall bring forth her child, Bernard. hom. 3. super missas est an­gelus. gra­nida sed non granata. So runnes our Creed, borne of the Virgin. For otherwise what wonder had it beene that one who sometime was a Virgin, should afterward knowing a man, haue a sonne. Consule S. Irenae. lib. 3. cap. 18.21.24. Epiphan. haeres. 30. Circa sinem. Neque virgi­nit is partum prohibuit, ne­que partus vir­ginitatem soluit. Grego. Nyssen. orat. de sanct. Christi natiuitat. Basil. & Hie­rom. in loc.

Partus & integritas discordes tempore longo. virginis in gremio foedera pacis habent.

3. Mary was a Virgin after the birth of Christ, as the Church hath euer taught against Hieron. ad­uers. beluid. & August. heres. 84. Heluidians, and Epiphan. heres. 78. An­tidicomarianites. And some probable reason hereof also may be gathered out of this Scripture, thou shall call his name, &c. that is (as our Communion booke) thou his Ita Munste­rus, tu mater. mother. Or as our new translation hath it, A Virgin shall conceiue and beare a son, and shall call his name, &c. For (as In loc. Caluin notes) the verbe is of the feminine gen­der among the Hebrewes, which occasioned happily the translators of Geneua to reade, she shall call his name. Now the naming of children is an office properly be­longing to fathers, and not to mothers. In that there­fore this charge was wholly referred and transferred to Mary: wee may note that Christ was so conceiued of [Page] his mother, as that hee had no father on earth; as also that Ioseph affianced to Mary, was rather an helpe then an absolute head, a wedded, but not a bedded husband. I say not a bedded husband after the birth of Christ, as Hierome notablie proues in a tract of this argument, against Heluidius. And for the strengthening of this reuerent opinion, I finde a tradition entertained by the most ancient Doctors, Tract. 16. in Mat. Origine, Them. de human. Christi generat. Basile, In Mat. 23. Theophy­last, and Greg. Nyss. de sacta Christi natiuit. other, that whereas the married women had one seuerall in the Temple for their deuotions, and the Virgins another: Mary not onely before, but after the birth of her sonne also did vsually troupe with the mai­dens, and not with the married, Perkins re­form. cat. tit. tradit. liuing and dying a Vir­gin. This Epistle then is all one with the Gospell, Esay and Gabriel are messengers of the same errand; for that which Esay speakes of Mary, Gabriel speakes vnto Ma­ry; Thou shalt conceiue in thy wombe, and beare a sonne, and shall call his name Iesus. And they both are so fit for the present feast, that he who runs and reades, may see the reason why the Church allotted them for this day.

The Gospell.

Lvk. 1.26.

And in the sixth moneth, the Angel Gabriel was sent from God, vnto a City of Galilee, named Naza­reth, to a Virgin, &c.

ALmighty God in the twelfth chapter of Exodus, enioyned his people to eate the pascall lambes head and feet and purtenance. Christ is our Pascal lamb, 1. Cor. 5.7. Wherefore wee must as Mary did, anoint Christs Mat. 26.7. head & Iob. 12.3. feet, that is, meditate on his birth and death, on his ingresse into the world, and egresse out of the world. This scripture principally speakes of his birth, and of the purtenance thereof, an euangelicall and [Page] angelicall annunciation of his admirable conception.

In which obserue these 4. circum­stances especially.

  • When, In the sixth moneth.
  • Where, In a City of Galilee, named Nazareth.
  • Who, saluting, Gabriel an Angel sent from God.
  • Who, saluted, A Virgin espoused, &c.
  • What, Haile full of grace, &c.

In the sixth moneth] That is (as Gabriel expounds himselfe, vers. 36.) in the sixth moneth, Theophylact. Euthym. in loc. from the con­ception of Elizabeth. And it is an Luther. Melanct. [...] ost. in loc. argument to per­swade Mary that shee may haue a sonne, for that her consin Elizabeth had conceiued a child in her old age, by her old husband. Iohn the Baptist Aretius. (as it is thought) was conceiued about the latter end of September, and Christ according to the Churches account, about the latter end of March. In the very same moneth (as Vide Io. Thom. friegium lib de cos­mopaeia. some coniecture) the world was created, and so the second Adam was conceiued, about the time the first Adam was deceiued. For 1 Cor. 15.22. as in Adam all die: euen so in Christ shall all bee made aliue. The Quid lib. 1. sasti. Poet saith of the spring which alwaies beginneth in this moneth,

Omnia tune florent, tune est noua temporis atas, & noua de grauido palmite gemma tumet.

And so Christ incarnate making a Esa. 65.17. new heauen and a new earth, ecce ego facio noua, Behold saith the Lord, I make new things, Esay 43.19. See Tho. Caten. & m. Moller in loc. Ludolph. de vita Christi part. 1. cap. 5. Giron. ser. 1. Raulin. ser. 3. Ferus ser. 5. in annun.

The Tremellius in Exod. 12. Iewes for religious vses, and festiuall times counted Nisan the first moneth, ( [...]atahlus in Exod. 12. which for the most part answereth our March) and so forward; but for ci­uill they counted the seuenth the first. It is worth ob­seruing therefore that the Annunciation vnto Zacharie was in the beginning of the Ciuill, and this Annuncia­tion vnto Mary in the beginning of the religious or [Page] ecclesiasticall yeere, Teaching vs hereby that our whole life is onely ciuill, and not truly religious, vntill Christ be conceiued and Galat 4.19. formed in vs, vntill hee Ephel 3.17. dwels in our heart who Psal. 51.10. reneweth a right spirit within vs.

The Angel Gabriel was sent from God Gabriel in He­brew signifies the power of God, a fit ambassadour for such an errand, because the conception of Christ, and through it the redemption of the world is called ex­presly the strength of Gods arme, Luk. 1.51. Luther past. in loc. Euery Preacher of the Gospell ought to follow this example, for his commission, he must bee sent from God: and in execution of it, hee must bee Gabriel that is, a man of good courage, powerfull in doctrine and exhortation. An Angel was sent about this businesse, and not a man for sundry reasons, especially thice.

1. Thom. pert. 3. [...]. 3. [...]. 2. That our humane nature might bee repaired af­ter the manner it was ruinated, as a serpent was sent by the diuell vnto Eua to worke our woe: so Gabriel an Angel was sent from God vnto Mary, to bring glad tidings of our weale. Pulgeatius de [...]. Christ. Ad Euam angelus malus accessit vt per eam homo separaretur [...] Deo, ad Asariam angelus banus venit vt in ea Deus vmretur homini.

2. An Angell sent vnto a Virgin, [...] because Virgins are as Angels, according to that of [...] 10. [...]. C [...]elibatus qua i c [...]lobeatus. And Mat. 22.30. Christ also saith, in the resur­rection when there shall be no more marrying, that we shal be then as the Angels of God in heauen.

3. To Giron con. 1. [...]. shew that Angels are ministring spirits sent forth to minister for their sakes who shall bee heires of saluation, Heb. 1.14: and therfore seeing we haue such a guard attending vs on euery side. we [...]. Angels. should do what­soeuer we doe, in a reuerent and seemely fashion, alway remembring that wee are made a spectacle to men and Angels, 1. Cor. 4.9.

Vnto acity of Galilee, named Nazaret] The Iewes held this country and city so [...]. contemptible, that the Iob. 7.51. Pharisies said of the one, out of Galilee ariseth no Pro­phet. [Page] And Ioh. 1.46. Nathaniel of the other, Can there any good thing come out of Nazaret? Heere then obserue that e­uen Pharisies and learned men may be deceiued, as also that God is not tied vnto any place, but his spirit Ioh. 3.8. blow­eth where it listeth. And therefore we may not iudge of men either by then countrie or county; Ioseph and Ma­ry liued in Nazaret a city of Galilee: good people though they dwell in bad parishes and places, are the same. Mytically Nazaret is by interpretation a Ludolphus de vita Christ. part. 1 cap. 5. & Beauxam [...]s har. ful 22. flower; it was fit therefore that he (which is the Cant. 2.1. lilie of the val­lies, and the rose of the wild) should be conceiued in flo­re. i. in Nazaret: de flore. i. de beata virgine: cum flo­ribus, i. tempore florum, in the spring or flower time. Galilee was the marches of the Iewes, abutting and ad­ioyning neere to the countrie of the Gentiles, and so Bonauent. Beauixamis. Christs conception in Galilee doth insinuate, that in him all the nations of the world shall be blessed, Gen. 22.18. And that hee should breake downe the stop of the partition wall, and to make the Iewes and the Gen­tiles both one, Ephes. 2.14: or Galilee signifieth an end or confine; so Christ a Galilean is the end of the law, Rom. 10.4. See this and many moe like this, apud pont. in sed. annun.

To a Virgin espoused to a man whose name was Ioseph] Mary though a Virgin was affianced to Ioseph of the house of Dauid for sundry causes: [...] left her selfe should be iudged an Hieron. aduers. Helind. & Aret. in loc. adulteresse, and so stoned to death accor­ding to Moses law.

2. Left her sonne should be reputed a Ambros lib 2. in Luc. cap. 1. bastard, and so consequently not admitted for the Messias. He who came into the world not to Mat. 5.17. destroy the law, but to ful­fill all righteousnesse, Matth. 3.15: would not himselfe be borne vnlawfully.

3. Basil. hom. de [...] Christi [...]. That Christ heereby might honour both estates, of maiden head, and marriage; of maiden head, in that shee was a Virgin; of marriage, because she was es­poused.

[Page]4. That Ioseph might be to her selfe and her sonne a Theophylact. Eathym. curator and a guardian in the time of trouble; for so we reade in the second chapter of S. Matthew, that the Angell of the Lord appeared to Ioseph in a dreame, say­ing, Arise, and take the babe and his mother, and flee into Egypt, &c. Againe, arise, and take the babe and his mo­ther, and goe into the land of Israel, &c.

5. That her husband might Basil. [...] Cap. witnesse her virginity. Bernard, Rom. 2. [...] Angelus. Sicut Thomas dubitando, palpando, constantissimus fa­ctus est Dominicae confessor resurrectionis: Ita & Ioseph Mariam sibi desponsando, eiusi [...] conuersationem in tem­p [...]re cuiodie sindiosius comprebando. factus est pudicitiae fidelissimus testos. Pulchra viriusque rei conuenientut & dubitatio Thomae, & desponsa [...]ia Mariae. See Bernard v­bi in marg. Beauxam. har. Tom. 1. fol. 22. Maldonat. in Mat. 1. Sixt. seuen. Bib. lib. 6. annot 64.

Of the house of Dauid S. Luke sets downe the names of so many places and persons exactly, that wee might attend his relation more diligently. [...]. Noluit nos negli­genter audire, quod tam diligenter sinduit enarrare. Be­cause Christ is the promised seed and sonne of Dauid, Mary was espoused to Ioseph of the house of Dauid. Hieron [...]. & Aret. [...]. Hereby shewing her owne petegree by her husbands genealogie; for the Iewes according to [...]. 36. Gods law were to take wiues out of their owne tribes. Dauid is [...]iled a man according to Gods owne heart, Act. 13.22. And so Ioseph, a man of Dauids house was a man according to Gods owne hart, to whom he did reueale [...]. & [...]. Secret [...] [...] atque sacratisimum sui cordis arcanum, a mysterie which 1. Cor. 2.7. none of the Princes of this world vn­derstood. And Mary being thus affianced to Ioseph she proue in good housewife, being in this respect like the Snaile which this [...]. She was not of the tribe of [...] [...]. 5.13. busy gossip [...]ing about from house to house, pro [...]ing and speaking things which are not comely: [...]; (as almost all [...] vpon the words of our text, [...] thee was [Page] within, either at her holy deuotion, or at her daily worke.

I come now to the salutation it selfe. Haile Mary, &c. the which (as Luther said of the Pater noster) is made by the Papists a very great Martyr. I purpose therefore to demonstrate these two points especially: First, their foule abuse: secondly, the true vse of Aue Maria. The Papists iniurie this angelicall salutation

  • in Groce, by misconstruing the whole sentence ioyntly.
  • in Parcell, abusing euery particular word seuerally.

For the first they patch it vp together by fetching in other stitches out of other places, as Luk 1.42. blessed is the fruit of thy wombe, and adding the name, Maria, Iesus, amen. And all this that it may be repeated often vpon their beades, as a maine point of holy deuotion, and why so? Rhom. in loc. because forsooth it was vsed by the Greeke Church in their Masse daily, for so they find it recorded in the Liturgies of S. Iames, and Chrysostome. Dr. Fulke in loc. & Mornae­us de sac. Eu­charist. lib. 1. cap. 2. Our answere is, that those Liturgies are counterfeit, the one being a sufficient consutation of the other. For if the Greeke Church had a Liturgie written by S. Iames the blessed Apostle, who would imagine that Chrysostome would haue made a new; and if Chrysostome had penned a Li­turgie, he would not haue made a prayer for Pope Ni­cholas, who liued almost fiue hundred yeeres after him, and for the Emperour Alexius, who liued seuen hun­dred yeeres after him. It were very much (as B. Art. priuate Masse diuis. 5. Iewell obiected against D. Harding) to say Chrysostome pray­ed for men by name so many hundred yeeres before they were borne.

But to trace the Papists a little neerer euen from step to step, if Aue Maria bee a prayer, it must either bee a prayer for Mary, or to Mary. It cannot be a prayer for Mary, whether wee consider the words as vttered by Gabriel while shee liued: or as babled by them now shee is dead. If in her life shee was full of grace, and [Page] [...]. free from all sinne as they teach impiously; then assu­redly she did not need any prayer of man or Angell, as abounding with all mercy, and abandoning all misery, much lesse now being a Saint in heauen, and (as they would haue vs to beleeue) a queen of heauen, ouerru­ling and commanding Christ himselfe to shew mercy on such as she will haue mercy.

As Aue maria could not be a prayer for Mary, so it should not be a prayer to Mary, because praying to Saints hath in Gods holy bible [...] neither precept, nor praise, nor paterne. Not to dispute this point, Eckius a [...]ancke pay [...]st acknowledgeth in his [...] Enchiridon that innocation of Saints is not inioyned in the Scriptures expresly, not in the old Testament, because the Patri­arkes and the Prophets afore the comming of Christ (as the Church of Rome beleeues) were not in heauen but in limbo. Not in the new testament, least happily the Gentiles lately conuerted vnto the faith of one God, should instantly returne to the worshipping of many Gods; as the men of Lycaonia would haue sacrificed vnto Paul and Barrabas, Acts 14 [...] 190 Petrus Asoto like­wise, and other Romanists of most eminent note for learning confesse, that praying vnto Saints is not taught in Gods booke plainly, but insinuated only. So that (as Apol [...] consist. Aug. l. 1 con [...]. sol. 102. Melancthon obserues) the Papists are saine to ride post vnto the Court for an example. We cannot come to the Princes presence, but by the mediation of some fa­uourite: in like sort (say they) we must exhibite our pe­titions vnto Peter, or Paul, especially to Mary; that she may commend them vnto Christ her sonne: God himselfe hath answered this idle conceit for vs, Osea 11.9 I am God, and not man, the holy one in the mids of thee: and Esay 55.8. My wayes are not as your wayes, &c. Earthly princes out of necessity must employ many me­diatours and officers about them, as tongues and eares and eyes vnto them: but the King of heauen is all eye, and all eare, seeing, hearing, vnderstanding all things, [Page] euen the very secrets of our hearts afore we speake: your heauenly father (saith our Mat. 6.8. Sauiour) knoweth whereof ye haue need, before ye aske of him. Againe Melanct. & Clementius vli [...].p. if a King ap­point a master of Requests, he wil not ordinarily receiue petitions from other: and therefore seeing the King of Kings is pleased to make Christ our only 1 Tim. 2.5. mediatour and 1. Ioh. 2.1. aduocate, the sole master of the requests in heauen Heb. 7.25. euer liuing to make intercession for vs; it cannot bee but dishonourable to Gods choice, and Christs office, to substitute any other halfe mediatours either of re­demption or intercession, as Saint Ambrose, com. in Rom. 1. Misera vtantur excusatione, dicentes per istos posse ire ad Deum, sicut per comites peruenitur adregem. Yea but although Aue Maria bee not a supplication, it may be taken as a thankesgiuing, and that is a kind of prayer, according to that of 1. Tim. 2.1. Paul, I exhort that sup­plications, prayers, intercessions, and giuing of thanks bee made for all men, &c. Answere is made that it is not a thankesgiuing and if it were, yet should it not bee babled vnto Mary, but vttered vnto God, as Luther post. in loc. conteining his praise to whom all honour is due, king dome, power and glory. Well, Aue Maria notwithstanding all this may be vsed as a salutation: our answere is noe for that a salutation is ciuil, whereas the Papists appoint this to be said as a religious office. 2. Salutations are to per­sons present, but the vergine is absent, and therefore the Papists may not, nay the Papists indeed cannot vse these words in the same sense they were deliuered by Gabriel and Elizabet; that there should bee ten Anemaries to one Pater noster, and that 150. Auemaries with fifteene Pater nosters make a Ladies psalter, and that after the Pater noster which Christ himselfe taught vs by his owne mouth, Bellermin. [...]at. exposit. Aue Maria. Aue Maria is the most excellent pray­er, and that in Iedesina. cat. cap. [...]. it we speake with the mother of God as the Queene of heauen and our aduocate; is now know­en in the world to be such intollerable soppery, that (as Epist. ad [...]usepho. aduer­sai Pelagianos. Hierome said of [...] heresies) a repetition of [Page] it is a sufficient refutation.

I know that reuerend Foxe in his Calender of Saints annexed to his Martyrology cals the blessed Virgin our Lady, and the Church of England also tenneth vsually this present feast our Ladies day: but herein we doe not (as the Papists) ascribe to the Virgin [...]. Fulk. in Mat. 1. any diuine ho­nour, making her our Lady as God is our Lord. It is a ciuill vse not a religious office, for in a holy seufe to speake properly there is but one Lord, and neuer a La­dye, [...] 4.5. one Lord, one faith, one baptisme: or the Virgine is stiled our Lady, because she was (as Elizabet cals her) the mother of our Lord, Luke 1.43.

Hitherto concerning the wrong done by the Papists in grosse to the haile Mary, let vs examine now their in­iuting of euery word in particular, the first is [...], which they transtate Aue, turning vpside downe the letters of Eua, the woman who did occasion the worldes woe, was named Eua, Augustin de [...] [...]er. 4. [...]. therefore it was fit that Mary who bare Christ, the worlds ioy, should be saluted with Aue; being opposite in name so well as in nature, this play­ing vpon the word is pretie, but not pithie, because Aue is latine, whereas Eua is Hebrew, and [...] greeke, so that the Fryars wit hath out runne the holy spirits wise­dome in this exposition and transposition of Eua and Aue. The Greeke predicant Cor. 2. insesio. [...] vide & ride. Illephonso Giron obserues in the three letters of Aue the three persons in holy Trinity. A, altitudo patris: V, veritas filty: E, aeternitas spiritus sancti. Dicz. Pet. de [...] Some Fryers haue profoundly deriued Aue of (A) priuatiuely taken, and ve, quasi sine va, that is without woe: now there is a threefold woe denoun­ced. Apocalips 8.13. Vae, vae, vae ix colis terrae, woe, woe, woe to the inhabitants of the earth, and this woe is for sinne in the world, as the 1. Iohn. 12.16. lust of the flesh, the lust of the e [...]es, and pride of life. Woe to the couetous, woe to the luxurious, woe to the proud: all which Esay sets downe in his 5. Chapter expresly. Woe to them that ioyne house to house, and field to field, till there be no more place for o­ther [Page] in the mids of the land, &c. that is a woe to the co­uetous: Woe to them that rise vp early to follow drunken­nesse, &c. that is a woe to the luxurious: woe to them that are wise in their own eyes, &c. that is a woe to the proud, Raulin. ser. 1 [...] in annun. do [...]. now the Virgin as being poore, chast, and humble, was exempted from all these woes; & therefore worthily sa­luted by Gabriel with an Aue: or as Augustin. de 1. conissa. ser 2. de Aue Maria. other popish expo­sitors, inhabitants of the earth haue deserued a woe for their originall sin, and that is the woe which is in Lim­bus: a woe for their venial sin, and that is the woe which is in Purgatory: a woe for their mortall sinne, and that is the woe which is in hell: but Mary the Virgine (say they) was free from all these kindes of sinne, and so con­sequently free from all these kindes of woe; the which assertion is contradictory to the text of holy scripture concluding all vnder sinne, Rom. 3.9. Galat. 3.22. Yea but say Tom. 2. in 3. Thom. disp. 2. sect. 4. Suarez and De amiss. grat. & stat. per. l. b. 4. cap. 15. Bellarmine, Mary was exempted ex speciali Dei priuilegio: let them if they can shew her patent, and wee will instantly beleeue it, otherwise, Gods word is a lanterne to our feet, and a guide to our pathes: if either man or Angell preach a new Gospell, let him be Galat. 1.8. accursed. That Mary was a blessed Virgine, and the mother of the worlds Sauiour; we beleeue, be­cause we read so: but that she was impeccabilis, concei­ued without sinne, borne without sinne, liuing without sinne, dying without sinne, we doe not beleeue, because we do not read it in the Bible, nay we reade the contra­ry, for Mary saith in her hymne, my spirit reioyceth in God my Sauiour, &c. If she needed a Sauior, vndoubtedly she was a sinner, for the whole need not a physitiā, Mat. 9.12. and therefore the popish annotation of Aue thus applied vnto the virgin is both vnlearned and vntrue.

The next word is Maria, the which is so magnified and extolled by the Romanists as that King Diez. con. 1. in incarnat. Alphonso the sixt would not haue his wife called by that high and venerable name. Dom. ser. de annun. B. Maria. Petrus de Palude (whose wit as it should seeme dwelt in a sen) hath this muddy conceit [Page] the fiue letters of Maria, designe the fiue singular priui­ledges almightie God granted vnto the Virgine (M) mater omnia sanctorum, (A) aduocata omnium peccato­rum, (R) regula omnium morum & virtutuos, (I) inter­fectrix omnium vitiorum, (A) harmonia spiritus sancti donorum. The Portugal Frier and flower Philip Diez, approued by Didacus Caro, Dominicus Bannes, and o­ther great Clearkes of Spaine for an exquisite preacher, [...]word. [...] affirmes that Maria is compounded of the first letters in the names of fiue most illustrious and holy women in all the Scripture, Michel, Abigail, Rachel, Iudith, Abi­shag. Hauing all their eminent qualities in her nature, and all their prime letters in her name, taking (M) from Michol, (A) from Abigail, (R) from Rachel, (I) from Iudith, (A) from Abishag. I must here quit Philip Diez with an olde time which vndoeth his name with a great deale more wit.

Phi not a fetoris, Lippus malus omnibus horis,
Phi malus & Lippus, t [...]tus malus ergo Philippus.

Saint [...] 1 [...]. Ambrose faith of the Diuel, that hee is nox, and [...] 66. in [...]word. [...] Bernard of bad diuines that they be tenebrae mun­de, I am vnwilling to lay the nox vpon Diez, but his ob­scure foppery deserues I thinke verily Bernards tenebrae.

Well, as the Friers haue taught vs how to spell Ma­ria, so let them informe likewise what it signifieth, Ser. 5. de Aue Maria. A [...] ­g [...] [...]in. de Leoni [...]a faith acutely, Maria quasi Maria, for as in the sea there is a Ge [...]. 1.10. gathering together of all waters: euen so in the Vergine a congregation of all vertues. A­gaine, as Declessiaster 1.7. all riuers come from the seas and returne to the seas againe: so likewise all grace is deriued from Mary, and ought to be returned againe to Mary, for she for sooth (if you will beleeue the Church of Rome in our publique deuotions) is [...] mater grat [...]e & wisericor­ [...] the mother of mercies, and goddesse of all grace, Christ is the head, but Mary (saith [...] 4. [...] Ozorius the Iesuit) is the necke. Now whatsoeuer descendeth into the whole body from the head is conueled by the necke, so [Page] whatsoeuer blessing or fauour is conserred vpon other is conueied thorow the hands of the Virgin. Aitemstair. [...]. Theolog. in verb. Maria. Vi si quid gratiae, si quid spei, si quid salut is in alias redundauerit, non nisiper mamus Mariae transierit, &c. And therefore most of their schollers vsually begin their sermons and writings with an Aue Maria, and end them with Iaus Virgini. Their voluminous Historiographer Cardinall Baronius, concludeth his 1. Tom. of Annales imprin­ted at Antwerp, an. 1597. Sanctissimae Virgini Mariae vt hae omnia accepta fecimus, it a pariter & osserimus: That is, as I haue receiued al from the most holy Virgin Ma­ry, so likewise I returne all to her againe. Cardinall Bel­larmine also doth annex this postscript vnto the 1. Tom. of his Controuersies imprinted Lugdun. an. 1587. and vnto Tom. 2. Ingol [...]tad. 1591. laus deo, virginique matri Mariae. And Apud Dr. Morton Apolog. cat. part. 1. pag. 321. other setting the cart before the horse, laus beatae Virgini & Iesu Christo. It is well if Christ haue the second place, if any place, when his mother Mary commeth in place. These are the positions, in some respects as blasphemous as the worst in the Turks Alcoran. And these their practises, as idolatrous as any we find in the Pagans schoole.

The third word is, [...], which they translate gratia plena, full of grace. And hence Augustin. de leonissa ser. 8. de Aue Maria. they collect a threefold plenitude of grace in Mary, to wit, a fulnesse in regard of

  • Multitude, abounding with all kinds of grace.
  • Magnitude, as hauing the greatest in the greatest measure.
  • Latitude, exercising them in earth, hea­uen, hell.

All which is to shew, that whereas other holy Saints and seruants of God had grace by measure: Mary like to Christ was endued with grace beyond measure, be­ing medium & causa gratiae, as Apud Chem­nit. part. 3. exa­min. Tit. de sanct. inuocat. pag. 147. Antoninus and Alber­tus impiously teach.

Yet some [...]aictan. Iansen. Giron. popish interpretors as well as Protestants [Page] obserue that [...], signifieth gratificata, Bezagratis ditect. 1. freely be­loued as the Geneua translation. Or as our new, highly fauoured, or much graced, one which hath Munster. Caluin. obtained, and is A [...]etias. adorned with grace. Cul [...]n. con. 1. in [...]word. [...] annun. Not one that giues grace, but receiues; Theophylact. as Gabriel in the 30. verse construeth himselfe, thou hast found fauour with God. And so Saint Paul expounds this word, Ephes. 1.6. God hath pre­destinated vs to be adopted through Iesus Christ vnto himselfe, according to the good pleasure of his will, to the praise of the glory of his grace, [...], wherewith he hath made vs accepted in his belo­ued. And gratiosus in Latine doth import a fauorite which is graced out of his friends abundant loue, rather then one who merits fauour out of his owne worth, as Caluin and Erasmus in their annotations vpon this text accurately.

But suppose the translation be good, and that we may reade as indeed our Malegit. Am­bros. [...]word. [...] & Augustin [...] ­chirid. cap. 36. & ser. 13.14.15. de tempore. Communion booke doth here, full of grace. Yet the popish annotation is false; for it is recorded in this present chapter, that Iohn the Baptist, Elizabeth and Zacharie were ful of the holy Ghost, and Act. 6.8. elsewhere that S. Stephen was full of faith and of po­wer, and the seuen Deacons full of wisedome, Act. 6.3. and that the blessed Apostles were filled with the holy Ghost, Act. 2.4. All these were full of grace, yet they re­ceiued it by measure. So that as their owne Ma [...]on [...]t. in [...] idem Ianst [...]. con. cap. 3. Iesuite ob­serues truly, Maria suit gratia plena in se, non à se, Ma­ry was full of grace in her selfe, but not of her selfe. Fountaines are full of water, and riuers are full of wa­ter, and brookes are full of water: Christ is full of grace as the fountaine, but Mary full of grace as a riuer issu­ing from the fountaine of grace. Shee was a vertuous woman, yet a woman; a sinner, not a sauiour; one that was endued with excellent grace, not by her owne me­rit, but by Gods especiall mercy. Marlorat. in. loc. Cul [...]an. [...]word. [...] 2. isset. annun. Therefore full of grace, because the Lord is with thee.

The [...]. Papists abuse likewise dominus tecum, in ma­king [Page] it an extraordinary salutation vnheard in the world before. Whereas Boaz vsed the same to the rea­pers, the Lord be with you, Ruth. 2.4. And a glorious An­gell to Gedeon. Iudg. 6.12. The Lord is with thee thou valiant man. And the Psalmographer insinuates the commonnesse of this phrase among Gods people, Psal. 129.8. They which goe bye, say not so much as the Lord prosper you. But why should I fish any longer in the popish puddle; you may see by that which I haue deli­uered already, that the Friers and Iesuites haue made 2. Cor. 2.17. merchandise of Aue Maria, both in parcell, and in groce. Let vs now come out of Babell into Gods city, from their foule abusing of this Scripture to the true construction of the same. Note then in Gabriels saluting of Mary two things especially, to wit, his

  • Formes, Hale, the Lord with thee.
  • Titles, full of grace, blessed among women.

And because both are double, wee may learne that these Christian complements are not to be neglected or omitted. A glorious Angell saluted a poore Virgin; su­periours ought to salute inferiours, and inferiours to reuerence superiours, and all out of loue to respect one another. See Gosp. Sund. 6. after Trinity.

2. This angelicall Aue teacheth vs to vse good formes in saluting, not such as are idle, prophane, vnsauourie. Not a pox, instead of haile: nor the diuell take you, for the Lord be with you; not a curse, but a blessing; Haile, full of grace, blessed art thou among women.

3. We must vse salutations as sent from God, and not according to the worlds fashion only. For some Psal. 38.3. speake friendly to their neighbors, but imagine mischiefe in their hearts. Mat. 16.49. Iudas had an hade master, as well as Gabriel an haile Mary. Christians in their complements ought to be hearty, not hollow. See Gospell Sund. 4. after Tri­nity.

Haile, the Greeke, [...] signifieth (as Annot. in loc. Erasmus ob­serues) [Page] gaudere, saluere, valere. If wee take it in the first acception, it is Gabriels giuing of the ioy to Mary. Teaching vs to wish much ioy to the good, and to la­bour for true ioyes in our selues, alway reioycing in the Lord, Philip. 4.4. If in the two latter, health is a good blessing of the Lord, to bee desired in our owne selues, and for our other selues in this world, without which all our whole life is but a lingring death. O Lord grant thy seruant health and heauen. It was good for Psal. 19.71. Dauid that he was in trouble: so likewise it is good for the health of our soule that our body bee sometime sicke. [...] Affli­ction is the true purgatorie of the flesh; [...] infirmit as car­nus vigoremmentis exacuit. Vpon this ground [...]word. [...] de le­genias lib. [...]word. [...] Plato scared his Academie at Athens in an vnhealthy place. We must especially wish haile to the soule, praying al­waies, Vi sit mens s [...]na in corpore sano.

The Lord with thee] [...]span. [...] Some construe this clause by way of enunciation affirmatiuely, the Lord is with thee. [...]span. [...] Other imprecator [...]e, by way of a good wish or saluta­tion, the Lord be with thee. They who take this affirma­tiuely, make it a reason of Maries haile, reioyce Mary, because full of grace, because the Lord is with thee, be­cause blessed among women. God is Beau [...]amis in loc. in beat is per glori­am in electis per gratiam, in assumpta carne per vnionem, in omnibus per prouidentiam: sed in virgine per supere­minentem quandam op [...]ratiouem. As if Gabriel should haue said, I am sent from God, and so the Lord is with me: but he is with thee much more. The Lord is in mee, because hee made mee: but with thee, because within thee, because he shall bee borne by thee. 4. [...]word. [...] sec. 18. de temp [...]e. Is a domenies est secum [...]t is in corde tuo, sit in vtero tuo, adempleat mentem tuam, adempleat car [...]m [...]. God the son is with thee, for thou shalt conceiue him in thy wombe: God the holy Ghost is with thee, for the holy Ghost shall come vpon thee, and the power of the most highest all ouershadow thee. God the father is with thee, making his sonne thy sonne. [...]span. [...] Demmus silim tecum, quem c [...]t ne tua indu [...] [Page] dominus spiritus sanctus, de quo concipis: & dominus pa­ter, qui genuit quem concipis. But I follow their iudge­ment which vnderstand this imprecatorie, because the blessed Virgin her selfe tooke it so, vers. 29. She cast in her mind what manner of salutation that should bee, ergo, all the words spoken by Gabriel vnto her hitherto were Caietan. salutatorie.

Blessed art thou among women] In comparison, or Aretius. a­boue other women happie. The like phrase is vsed, Iudg. 5.24. Iael the wife of Heber the Kenite shall be blessed a­boue other women. It doth insinuate that Mary was highly fauoured of God, as also that she shall be praised of men throughout all generations. Elizabeth ex­pounds Gabriel in this present chapter, at the 4 [...]. verse, Blessed art thou among women, because the fruit of thy wombe is blessed: and Wbisupra. Bernard expounds Elizabeth, Non quia tu benedicta, ideo benedictus fructus ventris [...]i: sed [...]y [...]tia ille te praeuenit in benedictionibus dulcedi­nis, ideo [...]ubened [...]cta. Mary was blessed of God, in that she was chosen to bee the mother of God. Other wo­men haue bin and are the daughters of God, but Ma­ry was both a daughter and a mother. The one is a spe­ciall fauour, the other a singular honour, and Mary was blessed in respect of both. Albeit we doe not beare Christ bodily, yet if wee spiritually beare him in our heart by faith, it is a great mercy, which wee must ac­knowledge both in our selues and others. Mat. 12.50. For he that doth the will of God is a brother, and a sister, and a mother vnto Christ. As Mary was highly graced of God, so she was, and is, and shall bee magnified of men. And from hence we may learne that there is a time to com­mend, so well as to condemne, namely, 1. when the party praised needeth encouragement: 2. when his gifts extolled are most excellent and eminent, as in Mary fulnesse of grace. 3. When he that is commended hath the grace to giue the glory to God, acknowledging himselfe to be freely beloued, & therfore blessed. 4. When [Page] the party praising doth it as Gabriel heere, not to flatter men, but to magnifie God.

I haue spoken of three remarkeable persons in this Gospell, of the party sending, God: of the party sent, Gabriel and Angel of the party to whom he was sent, A Virgin whose name was Mary, full of grace, blessed among women. It remaineth I should now treate of the partie to whom all this annunciation was, and that is man. For all this was said, and all that followeth in our text was done for vs men and our saluation. I will heere briefly glosse this Gospell in the words of Apud Do [...] ­misec. ser. de annun. B. Maria Bernard, Felix est qui mittiter, felix à quo mittitur, felix ad quam mittitur, vt home fiat felix pro quo mittitur.

Wee beseech thee Lord, powre thy grace into our hearts, that as we haue knowne Christ thy sonnes incarnation by the message of an Angel; so by his Crosse and passion wee may bee brought vnto the glory of his resurrection through the same Christ our Lord. Amen.

The Epistle

ACTS. 10.34.

Peter opened his mouth, and said, of a truth I per­ceiue that there is no respect of persons with God, &c.

THe Aretius. summarie pith in this accurate speech of saint Peter vnto Cornelius is, that all men indifferently, whether they be Iewes or Gentiles, haue remission of their sinnes by faith in Christ, which is Lord ouer all things, and ordained of God to bee the iudge of all men quicke and dead. The whole sermon is diuided into three parts. A

  • Proeme, vers. 34.35. wherein obserue
    • what is said for the matter, there is no respect of per­sons with God, &c.
    • how it is said for the man­ner, Peter opened his mouth, and said, of a truth I perceiue.
  • Narration, ye know the preaching, &c. Wherein S. Peter
    Tertul. de Co­rona militis cap. 11.
    catechizeth his auditour Cornelius in the chiefe points of holy beleefe concerning the
    • doctrine, verse, 36.37. of Iesus Christ.
    • miracles, vers. 38. of Iesus Christ.
    • life, vers. 39. of Iesus Christ.
    • death, ibid. of Iesus Christ.
    • resurrection, vers. 40.41. of Iesus Christ.
    • comming to iudgement, v. 42. of Iesus Christ.
  • Confirmation, by production of witnesses,
    • new, the blessed Apostles, v. 39. Wee are witnesses of all things which he did, &c. and such wit­nesses as were chosen before of God. vers. 41.
    • old, the holy Prophets, v. 43. to him giue al the Prophets witnes.

[Page] Peter opened his mouth [...] This phrase doth intimate a Caluin in loc. weighty seriousnesse in the speech, and a Vide Lo [...]it. in act. cap. 8. vers. 35. free liberty in the speaker. In the speech, a weight and grauity; so Christ (in whom are hid all the treasures of wisedome and knowledge) when he made that excellent sermon vpon the mount, is said to haue Mat. 5.2. opened his mouth. And Psal. 78.2. Dauid in the person of Christ, I will open my mouth in parables, I will declare hard sentences of old. In the spea­ker, a liberty to deliuer his mind freely; so the Lord pro­mised Ezechiel, Ezech. 29.21. I will giue thee an open mouth in the middest of them. And 2. Cor. 6.11. Paul saith, O Corinthians, our mouth is open vnto you. So that to speake ore rotundo, with an open mouth, is nothing else but after silence to speake out of mature deliberation and freedome of spi­rit ponderously, fully, cheerefully. So S. Peter hauing scene a vision, and heard a voice from heauen instruct­ing and assuring him in the truth of the doctrine he was now to preach: opened his mouth, and said of a truth I perceiue. That euery successour of Peter may doe the like, he must often pray with [...] 51.15. [...] 6.19. Dauid, O Lord open thou my lips: and entreate his people likewise to pray for him, as [...] Paul did his Ephesians, that [...]tterance may bee giuen vnto him, and that he may open his mouth boldly to publish the secret of the Gospell.

Of a truth I perceiue Peter assuredly knew before that there is no respect of persons with God; but by this experiment he did vnderstand it better, [...] Id nunc sciri dicitur quod scitur magis. As Almighty God knew that Abraham was a good man before hee would haue sacrificed his sonne, yet vpon that occasion he did ex­presse it more, saying, [...]. now I know that thou fearest God, seeing thou hast not withheld thy sonne, thine onely sonne from me. Truth is more cleerely perceiued in a particu­lar experience, then in a generall notion, in which re­spect the new testament is called truth, in comparison of the old, Iohn 1.17. The Law was giuen by Moses, but grace and truth came by Iesus Christ. The law prefi­guring [Page] Christ was a truth conceiued, but the Gospell ex­hibiting Christ, a truth perceiued. The law was truth in the theorie, but the Gospell a truth in experience, veri­tas facta saith the beloued Disciple, because Christ on­ly shadowed in the law, was actually shewed in the Gospell. And so Peters (of a truth I perceiue that there is no respect of persons with God) is like to that of Galath. 3.28. & 5.6. Paul, In Christ Iesu there is neither Iew nor Grecian, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female, neither circumcision auaileth any thing, neither vncir­cumcision, but faith which worketh by loue. Or wee may take the clause (of a truth I perceiue) for an earnest asse­ueration, answerable to that of Iob. 16.7. Christ, I tell you the truth, and to that of 1. Tim. 2.7. Paul, I speake the truth in Christ, and lie not. As if S. Peter should haue said, I deliuer no­thing vnto you but that which I certainly know to bee true, by manifold reasons, and infallible signes, as ha­uing read it in the Prophets, vers. 43. and seene it in a vi­sion, vers. 11.12. and heard by voice from heauen, vers. 13.15. By this example Preachers of the word are taught, first exactly to know the truth, and then earnestly to de­liuer it vnto Gods people. The sermons of the Prophet Nahum are tearmed Nahum. 1.1. the booke of the vision of Nahum, because saith Proaem. in Nahum. Hierome, hee well vnderstood and saw whatsoeuer he said. A Pastour in like sort must see with Nahum, and say with Peter, of a truth I perceiue. For it is a shame that any should bee doctors of the law (but a greater offence that any should bee Preachers of the Gospell) and vnderstand not what they speake, neither whereof they affirme. 1. Tim. 1.7. Imitate this patterne of Peter, and eschew Tit. 1.10. vaine talkers, teaching otherwise for filthie lucres sake. It may be said better of a Minister then of a Monke: Laurent. Pi­san. in Euang. paradox. Versus ecclesiastes non videt nisi alie­na bona, & sua mala: illa amuletur, haec v [...]emendet.

There is no respect of persons with God] That we may well vnderstand and learn this lesson once, the spirit re­peats it often. As Deut. 10.17. 2. Chro. 19.7. Iob 34.19 [Page] Rom. 2.11. Ephes. 6.9. Coloss. 3.25. 1. Pet. 1.17. Acetius C [...]l [...]in. [...] Iex as in l [...]. By person is meant not the substance but the quality, to wit, whatsoeuer is about or without a man: as his birth, edu­cation, honour, wealth and the like; God respects not any because they be Iewes or gentiles, high or low, rich or poore: but in euery nation he whosoeuer hee be, that feareth him and worketh righteousnesse, is accepted with him. He that is the Ieremy 17.10. searcher of the heart, iudgeth not after outward appearance: Whereas Pelagius obiected that God is a respecter of persons in giuing grace to some, and in denying it vnto other; answere is made, that this comes to passe, non ex dignitate humana, sed ex dignatione diuina, it is a [...]. donation of bounty, not a do­tation according to the rules of iustice. Now God saith in the [...]. 10 [...]. Gospell, is it not lawfull for me to doe as I [...] with mine owne? mans merite workes not this mercy, [...]. by grace ye are saued thorough saith, and that not [...]f your selue [...], it is the gift of God. And so God in giuing sa­uours, and forgiuing faults vnto this man and not vnto that, is not an accepter of persons: for herein he [...]. 34 19. regar­deth not the rich more then the poore, nor the Iew more then the Gentile, nor a man of peace more then a man of warre; as here you see Cornelius a captaine, Cornelius a man of Caesarea, Cornelius an alien from the common-wealth of Israel, is accepted with him as well as Peter borne among Gods own people, and brought vp [...] Christs owne schoole: See S. Augustine contra du­as epitolas pelagianorum lib. 2. cap. 7. Thom. vbi sup. in margin. & part. 1. qu est. 23 [...]. art. 5. ad. 3. Pet. Martyr. & Pareus [...] Rom. 2.11. Zanchius in Ephes. 6.9. Caluin. & Loria in loc.

Princes and Magistrates are stiled Psal. [...] 2.6. Gods, as being the deputie liueftenants of God on earth, and (as it were) the fingers of that hand which rules all the world: and therefore they must be Ephes. [...]. [...]. followers of God as deare chil­dren, [...]. mercifull as our father in heauen is mercifull, [...]. 11.44. holy for that he is holy, no respecter of persons, as there [Page] is no respect of persons with him: as they stand in Gods place, so they should walke in Gods path: ye shall heare the sin all as well as the great, Deut. 1.17. wrest not the law, nor respect any person, neither take reward, Deut. 16 9. Thou shalt not fauour the person of the poore, nor honour the person of the mightie, but thou shalt iudge thy neigh­bour vprightly, Leuit. 19.15. for it is not good to haue res­pect of any person in iudgement, Prouerbs 24.23. The Reusner. in symbol. Thebans hereupon vsually pourtraied their Prince blinde, with eares, and the Iudges assisting him in Iu­stice without hands. Blinde, l [...]st he should haue re­spect of persons: with eares, that hee might heare both parties indifferently: the Iudges without hands, lest o­therwise they might be corrupted with bribes, Exod. 23.8. for the gift blindeth the wise, and peruerteth the words of the righteous: and for this end our forefathers ordayned wisely that euery Iudge should ride his circuit in a Countie farre distant from his owne home, whereby he might administer iustice freely without any fauour or feare. It was an olde complaint of Laertius in vitae Diog. cynic. Diogenes, that the greater theeues of the state did ordinarily punish the lesser: and another after him, that secret pillers of the Common-weale sit on the bench to condemne open robbers standing at the barre. Magistrates in our dayes haue their houses seated so neare to Saint Bribes, as that few can say with Iob. 29.14. Iob, I put on iustice, and it couered me, my iudgement was a robe and a crowne, I was eyes to the blind, and feet to the lame: feuer with 1. Sam. 12.3. Samuel, whose oxe haue I taken? or whose asse haue I taken? or to whom haue I done wrong? or whom haue I hurt? or of whose hand haue I receiued any bribe to blind mine eyes there­with? and I will restore it you. None I feare with Xi [...]hilinus in vita Nerua. Nerua, who was so good a Prince that hee did auow boldly▪ se nihil fecisse, quo minus possit imperio depostio priuatus iu­to viuere. Some Magistrates vse the lawes as cobwebs, only to catch little flies: other as fox-nets, only to take great ones in a trap: and so the statutes of our king­dome [Page] (as a [...] reuerend father of our Church once said) haue a good, prologue, but bad epilogue: their inuen­tion is wise, their intention honourable, but we saile in execution; and a [...] law without execution is as a bell with­out a clapper. A Iudge must haue two kindes of salt in him as [...] Baldus truely, the salt of science to know the law, and the salt of conscience to determine according to the same; neither respecting the person, nor expect­ing the gifts of any.

He that feareth him and worketh righteousnes is ac­cepted with him [...] To feare God and to keepe his com­mandements is the whole duty of man, Ecclesiast. 12.13. and therefore these two the fearing of God, and working [...]f righteousnes [...]. comprehend our whole duty. The first all religious offices of piety toward God, the second all righteous offices of charity toward our neighbour. Cor­nelius feare was not seruile, but filial: he feared God as an obedient child feareth a kind father, and God is not our father after this sort but in Christ, in whom he is Mat. 3.17. well pleased, and in whom he doth [...] 1 5. adopt vs his chil­dren, giuing vs his spirit [...]. 8.15. whereby we cry Abba father: in a word, Cornelius feare was [...] [...]aith, and by this faith he was accepted with God, and this faith openly shewed it selfe in working righteousnesse toward men. And there­fore such a [...] build vpon this exam, [...]e free will and iusti­fication by workes are [...] deceiued exceedingly, [...]. for Cornelius is said here first to feare God, and then after­ward to worke righteousnes. Hee had heard among the Iewes of Gods holy promise concerning the sending of his sonne our Sauiour, the which hee beleeued as the Patriarkes and the Prophets, and other of Gods peo­ple who liued before Christs comming into the world; and this faith (as Paul speakes) wrought by loue. Galat. 5.6.

It is worth obseruing that this commendation of Cornelius is remembred often in holy Scriptures as a speciall infallible marke of Gods children▪ Iob. 1 1. Iob a iust [Page] man and one that feared God, Luke 2.25. Simeon was a iust man and feared God, but euermore the fearing of God as being the Prouerb. 1 7. beginning of wisedome is mentioned as the chiefe note. Father Abraham a man who feared God, Gen. 22.12. Ioseph a man who feared God, Gen. 42.18. The Midwiues in Egypt feared God, Exod. 1.17. If the fearing of God once goe before, working of righteousnesse will instantly follow after, accor­ding to that of the wiseman, Ecclesiasti [...]us 15 1. hee that feareth the Lord will doe good. If thou seest a man in a desperate course selling himselfe (as it is said of 1. Kings 2 [...].25. Ahab) to worke wickednes, Esay 5.11.18 rising vp early to follow drunkennes and continuing at the [...]auerne till it bee night, drawing ini­quitie with cordes of va [...]ity, and sin as it were with cartropes▪ it is a sure signe that the true feare of God is not rooted in his soule, for whosoeuer hath a ca [...] to liue religiously toward God, will also (so farre as hu­mane frailtie will suffer) liue soberly toward himselfe, and righteously toward his neighbour.

Yee know the preaching] The narration and confirma­tion ensuing are a little creed containing the chiefe ar­ticles of holy beliefe, but the point vrged by the blessed Apostle most, is the resurrection of Christ expresly set­ting downe. 1. The author of his resurrection, him God raised vp. 2. The time when, the third day. 3. Before what witnesses, openly shewing him vnto vs witnesses cho­sen before of God. 4. What he did after he rose frō death, he did eate and drinke with as. 5. What he said, he com­manded vs to preach vnto the people, & to testifie that it is he which was ordained of God to be the iudge of the quicke and the dead. In this argument of Christs resurrection the Gospell and Epistle meet, and both are full and fit for the present feast of Easter. In that S. Peter maketh Apostles and Prophets ioynt witnesses of all these things, he doth insinuate that Christ is the beginning and end of the whole Scripture, Paulinus epist. lib. 4. Epist: 1. qui in lege velatur & in euang [...] [...]. See Gospell 1. Sun. in aduent.

The Gospell

LVK. 24.13.

Behold, two of the Disciples w [...]nt that same day to a towne called Emmaus, &c.

THis Scripture containeth a sweet conference be­tweene Christ and two Disciples, as they iourneyed in the way from Hierusalem to a town [...] called Emmaus. The Culman. ce [...]. 1. in. lo [...]. summe whereof is, that Christ Iesus is truly risen ag [...]ine from the dead as hauing [...] all things which Moses an [...] the Prophets haue spoken of him. The whole may be diuided into three parts: A

  • Prologue which occasioned the conference, verse, 13.14 wherein these circumstan­ces are con­siderable:
    • Who, two of the Disciples.
    • When, that same day.
    • Where, in the way betweene Hierusalem and Emmaus.
    • What, they talked together of all the things that had happened.
  • Dialogue, or the conference it selfe wherin Christ sheweth his tender care toward his Disciples, in
    • drawing neere to them, vers. 15.
    • walking & talking with thē, v. 17.19.
    • correcting them for their errour, v. 25
    • directing them in the truth, and that by
      • words arguing
        Ardens.
        frō
        • reason, v. 26.
        • authority, v. [...]7
      • deeds, hee s [...]t at table with them, hee tooke bread ▪ &c vers. 30.
  • Epilogue, declaring what ensued vpon the confe­rence, to wit, [Page] an
    • ingenuous confession of the faith in the two Disciples, did not our harts burne within vs? &c.
    • earnest desire to confirme the same truth in other, and they rose vp the same houre, and returned to Hieru­salem, and found the eleuen gathered together, and them that were with them, and they told, &c. verse, 33.34.35.

Behold two of the Disciples went the same day] Ecclesiast. 4.9. Two are better then one, for if they fall, the one will lift vp his fellow. And ther [...]fore the Disciples here went not a­lone, but in company, two, that they might by their mu­tuall helpe and conference mittigate one anothers griefe. And for this end they went to Emmaus, which is Bernard. hom. deduobus Disc. euntibus in Emaus. interpreted, a thirsting after good aduice; signifying hereby, that their afflicted soule desired earnestly to bee relieued with healthfull and heauenly counsell in this extremity. Two they were, and two of the Disciples: not of the twelue, (for Mat. 27.5. Iudas had hanged himselfe before this; and it is said in our present text, at the 33. verse, that these two found the other eleuen gathered toge­ther) but of the Luk. 10.1. seuentie Disciples, as almost all inter­pretors obserue. Yet (as Maldonat. in loc. one notes) it may bee that these were Disciples of Christ in secret, as Ioseph of A­rimathea was. Ioh. [...]9. [...]8. One of the two Disciples is named here Cleophas, and he was (as In epitap Pau­lae ad Eustoc. other, apud Maldonat. in loc conie­cture that hee was brother to Io [...] husband to Mary. Hierome writes) a Citizen of Emmaus, in whose house Christ was en­tertained at table, and so knowne by breaking of bread. That other Disciple not named is thought by Praes [...]t. in [...]b. lib. Gregory the great, In loc. Theophylact and [...] [...]rus lib. [...]. cap. 34. other, to be S. Luke con­ce [...]ing his owne name out of modesty. But it is appa­rent in the proem of this euangelicall history, that Saint Luke receiued his relations from other, and therefore not [...]robable that he was one of these two. See Iansen. conco d. cap 146. & Maldonat. in Luc. 1▪1.

[Page] [...]. 23. Epiphantus saith expresly that this disciple was Na­thaniel, [...] Origene coniectures it was one Simeon, [...] 12. [...]. Am­brose calleth him Am [...]on, [...] in this dissention of opini­ons obserue two things especially. 1. That it is fruit­lesse to search after this name curiously seeing the spirit of truth and wisedome concealeth it. 2. That traditi­ons are vncertaine though ancient, and therefore wee must build our faith vpon the word written, and not vpon tales vnwritten. These two disciples went the same day Christ arose from the dead out of their Colledge, but they went not out in Aposta [...] like to them of whom Saint Iohn 1. Epist. 2. cap. 19. vers. They went out from vs, but they were not of vs: for if they had bin of vs they would haue continued with vs. Neither went they forth in curiosity like to Gen. 34.1. Din [...] who went out to see the daughters of the land; but they went out from the rest of their company like Arde [...]. bees out of their [...]iue, that they might returne home laden with honie: for their com­munication is answerable to the present doctrine and griefe of their Colledge, they gather sweet from the flowers of Christs speech, hearing him expounding the law and the Prophets attentiuely, compelling him im­portunately to stay with them, & neuer leauing him vn­till in breaking of bread they knew him. And then as be­ing filled with heauenly food (which is Psalm. 19.10. sweeter then hony and the hony combe) they returned home to the blessed Apostles and other disciples at Hierusalem, and [...] things were done in the way.

To a towne called Emmaus] Hist. lib. 5. cap. 14. Pl [...]nie reckoneth Em­maus among the Toparchies of Iudea, called afterward [...] [...] vpon the [...] victory which Augusthus Caesar [...] Antonius and Cleopatra. This [...] was [...] famous as I finde in the records of [...] antiqui­ [...], but our Euangelist [...]eth it here not for the [...] of the towne, [...] but for the certaincie of the truth.

And [...] of all the things that had [Page] happened Augustin. ser. 144 de temp. of the death of Christ, and of the Iewes in­humane cruelty who put him to death, of the [...] womens going to his sepulchre, and of their report vnto the bre­thren: their heart was fixed on Christ, and out of their hearts abundance their mouth spake.

Quicquid agit Cleophas, nihil est Cleophae nisi Christus,
Si gaudet, si stet, si tacet [...]unc loquitur.

The newes at Hierusalem how Christ was crucified, dead, buried, and risen againe, are called things that happened and chanced A [...]tius. in respect of the disciples igno­rance, not in respect of Gods knowledge: for as con­cerning the passion of Christ, it is said expresly by Saint Peter Acts 3.23. that hee was deliuered, and crucified, and slaine by the determinate counsell and foreknowledge of God, and so nothing happened casually, seeing euery thing was aforetime Luk. 24.44. written of him in the law of Mo­ses, and in the Prophets, and in the Psalmes. And as for the Suarez Tom. 2. in 3. Thom. disp. 45 sect. 1. resurrection of Christ, himselfe saith in this present Chapter at the 25. verse, O fooles and slow of heart to be­leeue al that the Prophets haue spoken, ought not Christ to haue suffered these things and to enter into his glory? and he began at Moses and all the Prophets and interpreted vnto them in all Scriptures which were written of him. Bernard hom. de duobus disci­peuntibus in Emaus. Mistically these two disciples are prayer and meditati­on, the which are two so neerely coupled together as that they talke together often. In prayer our meditati­on is illuminated, and by meditation our deuotion in praying in flamed. Meditatio ruminat liuores vulne­rum fixuras clauorumdanceam [...] acetum, persecutorum sauitiam, Apostolorum [...] & [...]oortem turpissimam, corporis sepulturam: oratio [...]undit suspiria, piae deuotio­nis stillat aromata tota resoluitur in l [...]menta.

And it chanced while they communed together and rea­soned, [...]esus himselfe drew neere Psalus. 34.17. the Lord is nie to such as are of a contrite heart, and in the Mat. 18.20. mids of such as are gathered together to praise him. In the tap-house where the communication is idle prophane, scandalous, [Page] and in euery respect vnsauorie: there the diuell is in the drunkards heart, and eares and tongue: Beda Bernard. Calman. but in Gods house when wee meet together to magnifie his name, nay in our owne house when as we meditate on Christs precious death and buriall and other mysteries of holy beliefe, Iesus himselfe Ca [...]. [...].9. standeth behind our wall, looking forth of the windowes, shewing himselfe thorow the grates, and Cant. 5.4. putting in his hand at the hole of the [...]ore to helpe vs, he drawes neere to vs, and walketh along with vs as hee did with the two disciples here, neuer leauing vs vntill he perceiue that we be thoroughly confirmed and comforted in the truth. August ser. 140. de temp. Ambulat cum illis in via & non dum illi ambulabant in via, inuenit enim eos exorbi­tasse de via: he which is the way seeing his disciples out of the way, shewes them his Psalm. 25.3. pathes, and Psalm. 23.2. leades them forth beside the waters of comfort: and for this end he doth aske what manner of communications are these? Calain. L [...]dolphus. not as doubting himselfe, but only to put them out of doubt: Augustin. ser. 144. de temp. quaerit ab eis quid inter se loquerentur, vs quod ipse sciebat idi faterentur. He doth aske them and vrge them againe and againe, Aretius. that he might haue fit occa­sion and ample matter of discourse: and when he found them vpon conference to be dullards in his schoole, he chides them, O fooles, and slow of heart, &c. fooles in vn­derstanding▪ slow in affecting the truth. Caietan. Arguit eos a­mentiae in parte cognoscitiua, & tarditatis in parte affecti­ [...]a. But yet in calling them fooles he brake not his owne law Mat. 5.2 [...]. (whosoeuer shall say foole to his brother is worthie to be punished with hell fire) because this rebuke proceeds out of a Marlorat. spirituall zeale for their good, and not out of any carnall hatred for their hurt. And such a reproofe is not a reproch, it is officium, and not conuitium, a worke of charity, and not a marke of malice. So Gala [...]. [...].1. Paul called his Galathians foolish, and hee gaue this precept vnto [...]. Tim. 4. [...]. Timothie, improue, rebuke, but with all long suffering and doctr [...]ne, for Christ here did not only correct his di [...] ­ciples [...]our, but also direct them in the truth, and that [Page] by words and deeds. By words, vrging the truth of his death and resurrection. First, by reason; ought not Christ to haue suffered these things and to enter into his glory? 2. From authority, hee began at Moses and all the Pro­phets, and interpreted vnto them in all Scriptures which were written of him. Here first note the sweet harmonie betweene the two Testaments, in that both agree to­gether, and meet together in Christ, as being alpha and omega, the beginning of the Gospell, and the end of the Law. 2. That the grounds of all our sermons are to be taken out of holy writ; the 1. Cor. 4.1. Ministers and messengers of God ought o deliuer the 1. Pet. 4.11. words of God. 3. That in our preaching we should vse such scriptures as are most apt and fit for our present occasion, as Christ heere cited not all the Scriptures in all the law, but onely such as were written of him, euen those which euidently proued his death and resurrection. He did interpret vnto them in all Scriptures, and yet named none, Aretius. that hee might incite vs hereby to the diligent searching and examina­tion of them.

Secondly, Christ instructed his Disciples in this pre­sent controue [...]sie with his actions; for as it is said at the 19. verse, hee was a Prophet mighty in deed, and word. C [...]. That is, in soundnesse of doc [...]rine, and sanctity of life. First (as In loc. idem [...]ansen. & al [...]. Theophyla [...]t obserues) powerfull in deed, and then powerfull in word. For he perswadeth vnto vertue most, who liueth best. As in this place Christ himselfe was knowne by breaking of bread, Ardens. sooner then by preaching of the word. Or as Euth [...]m. [...]do [...]ph. A [...]t. other, powerfull in his miracles, and powerfull in his teaching. His actions here mentioned concerning the bread, are foure; He tooke it, and blessed it, and brake it, and gaue to them. Among all which, he was onely knowne in breaking of bread, C [...]tan. for that hee did miraculously breake bread with his hands, as other cut it with a knife. The which hee did often in his life, and so by this easily knowne after his rising from death.

Cuba [...]. con. 4. in loc. By this dialogue you may see that Christ is especi­ally knowne in the Scriptures, and yet not in the Scrip­tures, except he first open our eyes, and breake and giue to each one the bread of life. And in the conclusion or epi­logue following, you may see likewise the fruit of inter­preting Scriptures, how the Marlorat. ministry of the word ma­keth the fire of Gods spirit to burne, first in our selues, and then ofterwards to shine towards other. As the two Disciples heere, so soone as their eyes were opened to see Christ, instantly the same houre they rose vp, and re­turned to Hierusalem, and found the eleuen gathered to­gether, and they told what things were done in the way, and how they knew him in brea [...]ing of bread, the circum­stance of the time, and distance of the place manifestly shew; their [...]ealous affection in relating these newes vnto the brethren. Emmaus (as our Euangelist in the 13. verse) was about threescore furlongs from Hierusa­lem, [...]ide Maldo­ [...]at. in loc. eight furlongs make an ordinary mile, and so threescore furlongs are about seuen miles and an halfe. Some Diuines affirme that it was a iourney of [...]. three or Ar [...]. foure houres on foot. If then it were towards night when Christ vpon their importunity sat at table with them, as we read at the 29. verse; then it was (as we may coniecture probably) midnight before they could come to Hierusalem; and yet (saith our text) they went the same houre, neither deferring the time, nor preferring their priuate businesse before the publike good. How­soeuer they were (doubtlesse) after trauell wearie, and after meate in the night sleepie: yet they P [...]. 132.4. would not suffer their eyes to sleepe, nor their eye lids to slumber, nor the temples of [...] head to take any rest, vntill they had published vnto the brethren how Christ was risen againe from the dead, and how they knew him in brea­king of bread. That we may performe the like diligence toward Gods people, as occassion is offered in our seue­rall esta [...]es and callings, let vs pray with our mother the Church: [Page]

Almighty God, which through thy onely begotten sonne Iesus Christ, hast ouercome death, and o­pened vnto vs the gate of euerlasting life: wee humbly beseech thee that as by thy speciall grace preuenting vs, thou doest put in our minds good desires: so by thy continuall helpe, we may bring the same to good effect, through Iesus Christ our Lord, &c.

The Epistle

ACTS 13.26.

Yee men and brethren, children of the generation of Abraham, &c.

THis text is part of that excellent sermon made by the blessed Apostle S. Paul at Antioch, a City of Pi­sidia, to the Iewes assembled together in their Synagogue, on the Sabbath day. The maine scope whereof is, that Ie­sus Christ is the Sauiour of Israel, and Messias of the world, promised vnto the fathers, and exhibited in the ful­nesse of time to their children, euen vnto vs, as being by faith a generation of Abraham, and that through him all that feare God and beleeue, receiue forgiuenes of their sinnes, and are iustified from all things, from which they could not be iustified by the law of Moses. The whole sermon hath especially two parts:

  • Explication, from the 16. verse, to the 26. in­timating that Iesus Christ is the blessed seed promised in old time by the Pro­phets, and preached in these last daies by Iohn the Baptist, who was
    Mat. 11.9.
    more then a Prophet.
  • Application, in the words allotted for our present text, wherin three points are prin­cipally regardable, to wit, [Page] an
    • insinuation, ye men and brethren, &c.
    • preoccupation, for the inhabi­tors of Hierusalem, &c.
    • commination, beware therefore lest that fall vpon you, &c.

The Gospell of Christ is a proclamation in writing common to all, and the Preacher is the [...] 1.23. voice of a cry­er, euen the mouth of God to giue notice to the peo­ple, that the contents of the proclamation concerne them and euery one of them. As Act. 2.39. The promise is made to you, and to your children, and to all that are a farre off euen as many as the Lord our God shall call. And Act. 3.26. Vnto you hath God raised vp his sonne Iesus, and him hee hath sent to blesse you, in turning euery one of you from your iniquities. And here, Ye men and brethren, children of the generation of Abraham, and whosoeuer a­mong you feareth God, to you is the word of this saluation sent. And vers. 38. Be it knowne vnto you, that thorough the man Iesus is preached vnto you the forgiuenesse of sins. Now that our Apostle might the better [...]. insinuate him­selfe into the minds of his hearers, and thereby more powerfully perswade the truth of his doctrine: hee cals them brethren, children of the generation of Abraham, and such as feare God. [...]. The first title was among the Iewes held gratious; the second and third glorious, e­steeming it euer the greatest honour to be the seruants of God and sonnes of Abraham. And whereas Christ crucified is vnto the Iewes a 1. Cor. 1.23. stumbling blocke (for what Iew will out of his owne iudgement admit him for the Sauiour of Gods people, who was condemned by the chiefe Priests, and rulers, and inhabitors of Gods owne City Hierusalem: of which it is said Esay 2 3. the law shall goe forth of Sion, and the word of the Lord from Hierusalem) our Apostle remoues the scandall of Christs crosse, retorting and answering this obiection in his ensuing discourse. First hee retorteth it, and ma­keth [Page] it aduantage in his present businesse. Caluin. As if hee should say, ye men of Antioch, children of the generation of Abraham, especially such as feare God among you; I say ye should the rather embrace the word of saluation sent vnto you, because the men of Hierusalem and their rulers killed the Act. 3.15. Lord of life, condemning him in whom they found no cause of death. Hierusalem Luk. 19.42. vnderstood not the things appertaining to her peace, but Mat. 23.37. murthe­red the Prophets, and stoned such as were sent to her. Take heed therefore ye men of Antioch, that ye commit not the like sinne and ingratitude, lest that fall on you which is spoken of in the Prophets; behold ye despisers, and wonder, and perish.

Secondly, S. Paul heere giueth answere to this obie­ction. It is true that the men of Hierusalem and their rulers haue crucified the Lord of 1. Cor. 2.8. glory; but it was out of their ignorance, because they knew him not, nor yet the voices of the Prophets which are read euery Sabbath day. They killed him indeed, but heerein they fulfilled all the Scriptures that were written of him, especially that Scripture, Psal. 118.22. the same stone which the builders refu­sed, is become the head stone of the corner. And lastly, though it be granted vnto you that the Sauiour Iesus (through whom is preached vnto you forgiuenesse of sins) had a death full of ignominy, for that hee was hanged on a tree: yet his rising againe from the dead the third day was exceeding glorious, in that hee Ephes. 4.8. lead captiuity cap­tiue, triumphing ouer death, hell, and the graue. Now that Christ is risen againe from death he proues by the witnesse [Page] Of

  • Apostles
    • himselfe, we declare, &c. For Christ after his resurrection was seene of Paul, 1. Cor. 15.8.
    • Other, who went with him from Ga­lilee to Hierusalem, of whom hee was seene many daies, as being witnesses chosen of God for the same purpose, Act. 10.41.
  • Prophets,
    • Esay, chap. 55.3.
    • Dauid, Psal. 2.7. & 16.11.

The first testimonie cited by Paul is in the second Psalme, thou art my sonne, &c. Caluin. i [...] Psal. [...]. the which I finde ex­pounded of Dauid and of Christ. If we take this spoken of Dauid, he may be called the sonne of God, as A

  • King, for Princes haue their
    Iob. 19.11. Rom. 13.1.
    power from God, and so stiled the children of the most high. Psalm. 82.6.
  • Man, for we are the
    Act. 17 18.
    generation of God, it is he who made vs, and not our selues, Psal. 100.2. and is not hee thy father that made thee, Deut. 32.6.
  • Regenerate man, for euery one that is new borne is
    1. [...]. 3 9.
    borne of God, adopted his sonne, and made his heire. Rom. 8.15.17.

Thus it may be said by God vnto Dauid in type, this day haue I begotten thee, but onely to Christ in truth. And therefore [...] [...]. lib. 3. cap. 7. Rabbi Solomon, and other Doctors a­mong the Iewes vnderstand this of the Messias, and as­suredly Paul in his Epistle to the Hebrewes, chap. 1. vers. 5 did the rather cite this text to proue that Christ is God, for that hee knew their Rabbines vsually con­st [...]ued it of Israels Sauiour. The maine proposition of the second Psal. is, th [...] the Messias is the King of Kings, and Lord of Lords, euen Gods onely begotten sonne, very God of very God. The which is concluded in this Vide Bellarm. de Cor. [...]. lib. 1. cap. 5. in prin­cipio. argu­ment. [Page] Hee that is to bee worshipped and kissed of all Princes on earth is doubtlesse the King of Kings: but the Messias ought to be worshipped of all other Kings and Rulers and Iudges of the earth, ergo, the Messias seated vpon Gods holy hill of Sion, is the King of Kings, euen the Lord who dwelleth in heauen. If the Princes of the world stand vp and take counsell together against the Lord, and against his anointed, it is but in vaine. For if his wrath be kindled (yea but a little) they shall in­stantly perish, hee shall bruise them with a rod of iron, and breake them in peeces like a potters vessell. On the con­trary, blessed are they who kisse the sonne, and put their trust in him; happie men, and wise Kings are they, who serue the Lord in feare, and reioyce before him in reue­rence. 1. Sam. 2.6. God onely killeth, and maketh aliue; bringeth downe to the graue, and raiseth vp. Ergo, the Messias hauing his absolute power of life and death, is vn­doubtedly Gods onely begotten sonne, whom he hath made Heb. 1.2. heire of all things, and Act. 10.42. iudge of all men. And therefore Diuines interpret the cited words as properly spoken of Christ, and that in respect of his

  • generation,
    • temporall.
    • eternall.
  • Resurrection.

Euthym. Genebrard. in Psal. 2. Chrysost. Cyril. Alex. Greg. Nyssen. apud Suarez. Tom. 2. disp. 45. sect. 1. Some construe this of his temporary birth, in say­ing thou art my sonne, God sheweth his diuine genera­tion: and in saying this day haue I begotten thee, his hu­maine natiuity. For hodie, signifieth in holy Scripture the present life, Heb. 3.7. Psalm. 95.8. to day if ye will heare his voice. So that I haue begotten thee this day; as if he should haue said, I haue Heb. 1.6. brought my first begot­ten sonne into the world; I haue caused thee to become Ioh. 1.14. flesh, and in the fulnesse of time to be borne of a Galath. 4.4. wo­man.

August. in Psal. 2. & En­chirid. cap. 49. Athanas. ser. 3. contra Arianos Ruffinus apud Lorin. in loc. Other vnderstand this of Christs eternall generati­on. Suarez. Tom. 1. disput. 2. sect. 3. As if God should haue said, other are my sonnes [Page] improperly, but thou art my sonne properly; [...]. de [...] in Psal. [...].2. filius me­us naturalis, singularis, substantialis: A sonne not by creation as the whole world, nor through adoption as the whole Church: but a sonne by nature, my begotten, and onely begotten sonne, Iohn 3.16. The very bright­nesse, and expresse character of my person, Hebr. 1.3. Whereas Arrians and other obiect against this inter­pretation the word hodie; Saint Orat. de [...]. 4. [...]. 6. [...]. [...]6. Augustine answereth appositly, that with God (vnto whom all things are present) there is neither yesterday, nor to morrow, but onely today, Apud Deum nunquam erastinus, nunquam he lernus dies est, sed semper bodie. And in his Enchiridi­on cap. 49. Vbi dies nec he [...]ternis [...]e inchoatur, nec initio era [...]terminatur, semper bodieraus est.

[...] Hilary, [...] Eusebius, [...] Ambrose, with [...] other expound this of Christs resurrection, as Paul here. We declare to [...] the promise made to the fathers, God hath fulfil­ [...] vnto their children, euen vnto vs, in that her [...] vp Iesus againe, euen as it is written in the second Psalme, thou art my sonne, this [...] haue I begotten thee. For to [...] vp againe from death vnto life euerlasting is a new begetting; and in this sense Christ is called elsewhere the [...] [...] begotten, and the [...] borne of the de [...]. Againe, the circumstances of the place leade the Reader to this construction, Why doe the heathen so furiou [...] rage to­gether, and why do the people imagine a vaine [...] that is, as Peter and Iohn haue well applied it, Act. 4.27. Her [...]d and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles, and people of Israel gathered themselues together against the Lord and against his Christ, euen his holy son Iesus: and when they had filled all things that were written of him (as Paul in our text) they tooke him downe from the tree, and put him in a sepulchre, Mat. 27.60 66. rolling a great stone to the doore thereof, and sealed it, and making it sure with the watch. In all which (as the Prophet speakes) their ima­ginations and actions were vaine; for hee that dwelleth in heauen did laugh them to scorne, the Lord had them in [Page] derasion: he raised his Christ againe the third day, ma­king him a King ouer his holy [...] of Sion, [...] Augustine. Genebrardus in Psalm. [...]. that is, abso­lute head o [...] his Church, giuing him all the heathen for his inheritance, and the vttermost parts of the earth for his possession. And so God in raising Christ vp againe from the dead, euidently shewed that he was his onely begotten sonne. As if he should haue said, thou wert e­uer my sonne before to day, before there was any day: Vide Caluin. [...] Psal. 2. & Suarez Tom 2. in 3. Tom. [...]p. 45. sect. 1. but yet in this day of thy resurrection, I haue most es­pecially manifested vnto the world that thou art my son whom I haue begotten. It is then an Apud Sixt. [...]nen bib. sanct. lib. 7. he [...]as. 8. obiect. 11. idle conceit to thinke that Paul is not author of that Epistle written to the Hebrewes, because the words of Dauid vrged here to proue Christs resurrection, are cited heere, chap. 1. vers. 5. to shew Christs eternall generation. For (as Paul in his Epistle to the Romans, chap. 1. vers. 4.) Christ is declared mightily to be the sonne of God by rising againe from the dead. His resurrection is an infallible demon­stration of his diuinitie, seeing none euer raised another from the dead but by God; none euer raised himself from the dead but God. I conclude this obseruation in the words of Lib. 3. de sa­ [...]am. cap. 1. [...]mbrose, Pulchre pater dicit ad filium, ego [...] genui te, hoc est, quando redemisti populum, quando ad ca [...]ere [...]um vocasti, quando implesti volunta­ [...]em meam, prob [...]. 1 meum te esse filium.

The next Scripture quoted heere by Paul is, Esay 55.3. The [...] of God made to Dauid concerning the sending of Israels Sauiour are, sure mercies, and faithfull wo [...]: he must of necessity therefore fulfill them in e­uery respect, Aretius. the which hee could not haue done but in raising vp Iesus againe, for the resurrection of Christ is the [...]orin. complement, and (as it were) Amen of all his promises; according to that of Rom. 4.25. Paul hee died for our sinnes, and is risen againe for our iustification. See con­clusion of the Gospell on S. Thomas day.

The last authority cited in this place to proue Christs resurrection, is taken out of the 16. Psalme, verse 11. [Page] thou shalt not suffer thine holy one to see corruptio [...]. The Iewes vnderstood this of Dauid, but (saith our Apo­stle) Dauid albeit he was a King, and a Prophet, and a Act. 2.29. Partriarke, a man according to Gods owne heart, as it is recorded of him in this present chapter, at the 22. verse; yet (after hee had in his time fulfilled the will of God) he fell on 1. King. 2.10. sleepe, and was laid vnto his fathers, and saw corruption. Earth he was, and to earth hee returned againe. But Christ Iesus although he was hanged on a tree, and put in a sepulchre▪ yet he saw no corruption. Hee rose againe the third day, triumphing ouer all his ene­mies Colos 2 15. openly, saying, O Hosea 13.14. death, I will bee thy death, O graue I will be thy destruction. And therefore this Iesus is he through whom is preached vnto you forgiuenesse of sinnes, and by whom all that beleeue are iustified from all things, from which ye could not be iustified by the law of Moses.

Mors mortis morti mortem nisi morte dedisset, à nobis vitae Ianua clausa foret.

Beware therefore, lest that fall on you which is spoken of in the Prophets] This text is taken out of the first of Habakuk, vers. 5: Caluin. in loc. but for as much as all the prophesies were collected together into one volume, he saith in the Prophets. Ri [...]era in Ha­ [...]acu [...] 1. Num. 5. Or according to the Hebrew phrase, in the Prophets, is as if he should haue said, in one of the Pro­phets, as Genes. 23.6. In the chiefest of our sepulchres bu­ry thy dead, that is, in one of the chiefe. He doth alter the words of the Prophet according to the sound, but not according to the sense. Haba [...]u [...] saith, behold among the heathen, Paul heere, behold ye despisers. In which our Apostle doth expound and not confound the Prophet: for whereas the Iewes despised the word of God, hee sent them to be taught by the Caldeans; Caluin. in Habacu [...]. [...]. as if Habakuk had said, ye will not obey Gods voice, ye will not learne any thing in his schoole: wherefore yee shall ere it beelong b [...] made to know his iudgements among the hea­then: [...]ee (saith the Lord) I will raise vp the Caldeans [Page] that better and hasty nation, which shall march through the bredth of the land, to possesse the dwelling places which are not theirs. And Ribera. vbi sup. Num. 7. this their ouerthrow was a type of their future reprobation and spirituall vastity for the contempt of the Gospell.

These things are 1. Cor. 10.6.11. ensamples, and are written to ad­monish vs vpon whom the ends of the world are come. Let vs therefore beware, that these heauie iudgements fal not vpon vs as they did vpon the Iewes. Videte & as­picite, admiramini, admiramini, take heed, & againe I say take heed, 1. Thess. 5.19. quench not the spirit, despise not prophe­sying, receiue not the grace of God in vaine. Saluianus lib. 5. de Gu­bernat dei. Nemo malus nisi stultus, he that is a despiser of the sauing word is an arrant foole; for if hee were wiser hee would kisse the sonne, and beware lest that fall on his head which is spoken of in the Prophets, behold, ye despisers, and won­der, and perish.

The Gospell

LVKE 24.36.

Iesus stood in the middest of his Disciples, &c.

COncerning the chiefe parts and passages of this Scripture: See Gospell 1. Sund after Easter: and Gospell on Saint Thomas day. Here pause, and pray.

Almighty father, which hast giuen thine onely sonne to die for our sinnes, and to rise againe for our iu­stification: grant vs so to put away the leauen of malice and wickednesse, that we may alway serue thee in purenesse of liuing and truth, through Ie­sus Christ our Lord: Amen.

The Epistle

E [...]HES. 4.7.

Vnto euery one of vs is giuen grace, according to the measure of the gift of Christ, &c.

SAint Paul doth especially [...] two things in all his E­pistles. 1. treate, 2. entreate. Hauing sufficiently trea­ted in the former Chapters of doctrinals, he commeth in this present to morals; entreating his Ephesians in ge­nerall, to walke worthy of the vocation whereunto they were called: in more particular, to support one another thorough loue, keeping the vnity of the spirit in the bond of peace: pressing this one point with arguments of [...]. two sorts.

The first (of which epist. 17. Sund. after, Trin.) is taken from such things as are common vnto the whole Church, as being in all the faithfull one and the same, there is one body, and one spirit, and one hope, one Lord, one faith, one baptisme, one God and father of all, which is aboue all, and through a [...], and in you all. As if he should argue thus, if the Church your mother bee but one, God your father but one, Christ your Lord but one, the holy spirit your comforter but one, if ye haue but one hope, one faith, one baptisme: I see no cause why ye should not liue together and loue together as all one, labouring to keepe the vnity of the spirit in the bond of peace.

The second, (contained in our present text.) is taken from such graces as are in euery one diuerse, Aretius. Marlorat. shewing that this inequality of gifts is not an hindrance, but ra­ther a furtherance to vnitie: for asmuch as all of them are giuen by the same author for the same end. Vnto e­uery one of vs is giuen some gift, vnto none all, he that hath most hath but a measure. As then in the naturall body, 1. Cor. 12.2 [...]. [...]. the eye can not say to the hand, I haue no need of [Page] thee: nor the hand againe to the feet, I haue no need of you: but euery part seeketh anothers and not his owne good. Euen so in the Church (which is Christs mysticall body) God made not all Apostles, or all Prophets, or Euange­lists, &c. but some Apostles, some Prophets, some Euange­lists, &c. There be diuersities of gifts, and diuersities of administrations, and diuersities of operations, 1. Cor. 12. euery one standeth in need of anothers gift, and there­upon is occasioned to support one another in loue, pre­seruing the vnity of the spirit in the bond of peace. See epist. 2. Sun. after Epiphan. and 10. after Trinity.

In the whole 4. points are to be consi­dered espe­cially.

  • 1. Who, Christ, and that is proued out of the 68. Psal. verse 18. hee led captiuitie captiue, and gaue gifts vnto men.
  • 2. When, when hee ascended vp on high, euen aboue all heauens to fulfill all things.
  • 3. What, hee made some Apostles, some Prophets, some Euangelists, &c.
  • 4 Why, for the perfiting of the Saints, for the worke of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ.

Concerning the first: in that our Apostle doth auowe here that the diuersity of grace bestowed on the Church is the gift of Christ, whereas he saith elsewhere that God the father ordained Apostles, and Prophets, and teachers, and that the spirit worketh ad these things, vnto euery one seuerally distributing as he will: we may learne two con­clusions in diuinity. 1. Occ [...]en. in loc. That all the workes of the sa­cred Trinity quoad extra without it selfe▪ are common and communicable to euery person of the three. 2. That God the sonne is Primasi [...]et in loc. equall in might and mercy to God the father, he being ascended aboue all heauens is the giuer of gifts vnto men: and here we must accord the Prophet and our Apostle. The one saith, he receiued gifts for men, the other, he gaue gifts vnto men: and these two seeme to contradict each other. Hierom. expos. 1. in loc. Answere is made that Dauid [Page] speakes of this deuotion in time to come, but Paul of thi [...] donation already past and accomplished; Dauid of the promise, Paul of the performance. Aquin. in loc. Or Christ as he was God gaue gifts in he [...]n and as man he re [...]ed gifts on earth: or he receiued Augustin Psalm. 67. in that his members recei­ued: according to his owne saying, Mat. 25.40. [...]n as much as ye haue done it vnto one of the least [...] these my bre­thren, yee haue done it vnto mee: or he receiued Hieron. in [...]. 67. to giue, as Exod. 25.2. Speake to the children [...]f [...]srael that they re­ceiue an offering for me, that is (according to the transla­tion of our Serm. Ca [...]a­lion. & 3.6. [...]. 8. present Church bible) [...]at they bring [...] where reioycing (as Apud Gene­bra [...]d. A Psalm. 67. Abb [...]n Ez [...]a notes) is giuing, and so Paul alluding rather to the [...]. Marlorat. in loc. sense then to the words of Dauid saith he [...].

Touching the second point: it is demanded how Christ is said here to haue made some Apostles and some Prophets &c. When he went [...] and led captiuity [...]aptiue, seeing wee reade in the Gospels history, that he chose his Mat. 10.1. Apostles and Luke 10.1. Disciples, and gaue them a commission to preach in his life time; and that after his resurrection he confirmed them in his office by Iohn 20 21. brea­thing on them, and giuing the holy Ghost, and saying, as my father sent mee: euen so send [...]y [...], Mat. 18 19. goe teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the father, and the sonne, [...] the holy ghost. Answere may bee, that Christ is reported in this Scripture to haue giuen Apostles vnto the Church after he went vp on high, in respect of their gifts, extension, and [...].

Extension, as hauing after Christs ascens [...]ou receiued the gifts of the holy ghost after a more glorious man­ner, and in a farre greater measure. So the Iohn 7 39. text the [...] ­ly ghost was not yet giuen, because that Iesus was not yet glorified, and [...]hn. 16.7. If I goe not away, the comforter will not come vnto you: but if I depart I will send him vnto you. And Christ at his ascension also charged them to waite for this promised power of the holy ghost. See gosp. Sun. after ascension day.

[Page] O [...]tension, and that 1. in respect of the Zaenchius. solemne in­auguration into their Apostleship, on the feast of Acts. 2. Pen­tecost in the sight of Gods people gathered together at Hierusalem out of euery nation vnder heauen. It is re­ported of Dauid that he was first annointed King of Is­rael in the middest of his brethren, 1 Sam. 1.10. and after­ward in Hebron 2. Sam. 2. But hee was not called King vntill he was annoynted solemly before all the tribes of Israel. 2. Sam. 5. Euen so, though it bee granted that the Apostles were nominated and elected to their office be­fore Christs death, and confirmed in their calling after Christs resurrection; yet they were not apparantly knowen vnto Gods people to bee so, till he went vp on high and gaue the gifts of the holy Ghost vnto them in the visible formes of clouen and fierie tongues, Acts 2.3. see. epist. on Whi [...]sunday.

2. Ostension, in regard of execution of their office, for albeit they had a commission before to preach first vnto the Mat. 10.6. lost sheepe of Israel, and then vnto all nati­ons in the world, Mat. 28.19. yet they did not execute this commission in gathering together a Church out of both vnto God, Mark 16.20. vntill Christ had ascended farre aboue all heauens to fulfill all things: and the reason hereof is rendred in our text, because Dauid had so prophesied of him in the 68. Psalme, when hee went vp on high he led captiuity captiue and gaue gifts vnto men. And in deed it was at this time most fit for him, and best also for his, to giue gifts, it was exceeding fit for himselfe, because glorious conquerours in their solemne triumphes vsu­ally lead their chiefe enemies settered either in iron chaines, as Liuius Decad. 5. lib. 5. Paulus Aemilius triumphed ouer Persius: or in iron cages, as Knoles in the life of Batazet. Tamberlane the great, vsed proud Batazet king of the Turkes. And so leading captiuity captiue, they deuided the spoile to their friends and fol­lowers as it is in the Psalm. 68.12. Psalme, Christ ascending on high led captiuity captiue, Hierom. Primasius. Ap [...]ine. that is, the diuell and all his com­plices, hell, death, and the graue, triumphing ouer them [Page] openly. Giuing also gifts vnto the Church, as Apostles, and Prophets, and Euangelists, and Pastors and Teachers, who might Mat. 18 19. loose such as Satan Luke 13 16. bindes: and it was at this time [...] for his followers, as not depending any longer vpon his bodily presence. See Gospell 4. Sun. af­ter Easter.

The 3. remarkable point in this Scripture is what he gaue to men, vnto euery one is giuen grace, according to th [...] measure of the gift of Christ, &c. He doth vnderstand by grace not liuing grace, for that (as he shewed in the former [...]art of this Chapter) is in all the members of the Church one and the same: one faith, one hope, one bap­tisme, &c. [...] But [...] is taken here for [...] namely for the diuers gifts of the holy Ghost, as inter­pretation of tongues, and discerning of spirits, and the gifts of healing, prophe [...]ie, the word of knowledge, and the like, of which hee disputeth at large, 1. Cor. 12. and so Paul [...]. expoundeth himselfe in our present text at the 11. verse, the same made some Apostles, some Prophets, some Euangelists, &c.

Apostles were such as he called himselfe (either in his state mo [...]all, as the 12. disciples: or in his state glori­ous, as Paul Acts 9.15. and Matthias Acts 1.16.) to preach his Gospell, and to plant his Church in euery nation of the world. Prophets were such as [...] interpret the scripture of the Prophets. 1. Cor. 14.4. He that pro­pheseth, [...] the Church ▪ and Mat. 23.34. I [...]hold. I send vnto, [...] Prophets, that is preachers. [...] Or Prophets were such as had marue [...]lous wisdome, and could fore­tell things to come, as Agabus Acts 11.28. signified by the spirit that there should be great famine thorough o [...] all the world [...] which also came to passe vnder Clau­dus Caesar. Eu [...]ngeli [...]ts are so called either of preaching the Gospell, and so [...] Paul exhorted Timothie to doe the worke of an Euangelists or else of [...] writing the Gospell, and so there [...]ee but 4. Euangelists only, Mathew, Marke, Luke, Iohn. And here we may note the reason [Page] why the Church appointed this scripture to be read at this time, namely, because Saint Marke was an Euan­gelist. Pastours are such as are placed ouer a Caluin. Zanchius. certaine cure, whereas Apostles had the whole Church for their charge, So Acts 20.21. Paul speakes vnto the Elders of the Church at Ephesus, take heed to your selues, and to all the flocke whereof the holy Ghost hath made you ouer seer [...]. And so [...]. Lombard. Bishops in their dioces, and A [...]lm. Priests in their parishes are Pastors. Or as In loc. Theophylact, Pastors and Doctors are Presbyters and Deacons. Or (as some Aretius. Zanchius. late Diuines ob­serue, Pastors are rectors of the whole congregation, Doctors are catechists, and teachers of the youth and o­ther new comes into Christs schoole. Pastors are such Anselm. as feed Christs sheepe, and Doctors are such as feede Christs lambes: or (as Annot. in loc. Beza) Pastors are they who go­uerne the Church▪ and Doctors are they who gouerne the schooles. But I rather embrace their opinion Augustin. Ch [...]s [...]m. Musculus apud [...]whitgift d [...]fense of his answere to the adm [...]nition. fol 234. [...] Bullinger. & Piscator in loc. who think Pastor [...] & Doctors are diuers names of one office, See [...] of pretended ho­discipli [...]e. cap. 9. euen as feeding and teaching are all one: for otherwise Paul (as Hierome, Lombard, Anselmo haue noted vpon the place) would haue distinguished them as he did the rest, and haue said, he gaue some Pastors, some Teachers: as well as some Apostles, some Prophets; some Euange­lists, &c. but he ioyneth them together Pastors and Tea­chers, Anselm. Lombard. insinuating that Pastors should teach, and that (as our Church speakes) both by their preaching and liuing, ensamples in word, in conuersation, in loue, in spirit, in faith and purenes, 1. Tim. 4 12.

Beza. Z [...]nch [...]us. Some Diuines obserue that these functions are part­ly temporall and extraordinary, as Apostles, Prophets, Euangelists: and partly continual and ordinary, as Pa­stors, and Teachers: but herein I tread in the steps of that holy father my most honoured and honorable master Archbishop Whitgift, who Defense of his answere to the admonition. fol. 229. writing against the schis­matickes of his age saith, and proueth out of this our present text also, that all these degrees of ministers re­maine still in some sort vntill the worlds end. For first [Page] (as Nouelists acknowledge) Paul in this place maketh a perfite platforme of a Church, and a full rehearsall of all offices therein contained, and he saith expresly that Christ ascending vp on high gaue them for the gathe­ring together of the Saints, and for the worke of the mi­nistry, &c. tell we all come to the vnity of the faith, and knowledge of the sonne of God, vnto a perfect man, vnto the measure of the full age of Christ. That is, as Caluin, Zanchius, and Aretius. Beza. other, vntill wee meet in that other world to come.

I know there were certaine things in the blessed Apo­stles which were proper vnto themselues, as their imme­diate calling from God, the power of working miracles and their commission to goe into the whole world, &c. but to preach the Gospell of Christ in places where need requireth (although it be not peculiarly commit­ted to them) or to gouerne the Churches already plan­ted: I see no cause why it should not be perpetuall a­mong the Ministers of the word.

Likewise the function of an Euangelist, if it be taken for the writing of the Gospel, it was temporal and hath his ende. But if it be taken for preaching to the people plainely and simply, as In loc. Bullinger thinketh: or gene­rally for preaching the Gospell: as Loc. com. tit. de verbi mi­nistris. Musculus supposeth, in which sense Paul said vnto Timothie, do the worke of an Euangelist: or for preaching more zealously then o­ther, as In loc. Bucer imagineth; I make no doubt but that it still remaineth in the Church.

Moreouer, Prophets if they bee taken for such as our Apostle meaneth in his Rom. 12.6. 1. Cor. 11.4. & 1. Cor. 14.1. Epistles often, I say for such as haue an especiall gift in interpreting the Scripture, whe­ther in vnfolding the deepe mysteries thereof vnto the learned, or in expounding the plaine sense thereof vnto the people: then it must of necessity be granted that they be perpetuall officers in the C