A TREATISE, CONCERNING the causes of the Magnificencie and greatnes of Cities, Deuided into thre bookes by Sig: Giouan­ni Botero, in the Italian tongue; now done into English By Robert Peterson, [...] [...] [...]. [...] [...] [...] [...] [...] [...] [...]

To The right honorable, my verie good Lord, Sir Thomas Egerton knight, Baron of Ellesmere, Lord high Chauncelor of England, and one of his Maiesties most honorable Priuie Councell.

MY very good Lord, when I had enterteyned some of my free howers of vacati­on from other businesses, with the reading of this Author in his owne lan­guage; and that my li­king led me into this fur­ther trauaile with him, to translate him into our owne tongue: I thought I had yet done little for him, ex­cept I did also set him before the common eye of my coun­try, that the pleasure and proffit, which I reaped in this worke, might by this communication thereof, redownd to many. And, that I might do so worthy a writer all right, the matter consisting of Policie and State; I could not ad­dresse my selfe & my translatiō of him, to one whose wise­dome, and graue, both experience and Iudgment, might be more parallell to the substance of this worke, or whose ho­norable [Page] fauour to my selfe, might require of me more loue and dutie, then your good Lordship. To expresse this, I haue been bold to commend these my labours to your honorable fauor, beseeching you to make them happy in your protection of them, and with them, to receaue my humble dutie and seruice; which resteth euer

Your Lordships to be commaunded, Robert Peterson.

A Table of all the Chapters contei­ned in these three bookes, of the Causes of the greatnes of Cities.

In the first Booke.
  • What a Citie is, and what the greatnes of a Citie is said to be. Fol. 1.
  • Of Authoritie. 2.
  • Of Force. 4.
  • How the Romanes encreased the Citie of Rome, by wast­ing their neighbour Townes. 7.
  • That some haue gotten the Inhabitants of other Townes in to their owne Cities. 8.
  • Of Pleasure. 9.
  • Of Proffit. 11.
  • Of the commoditie of the Scite. 13.
  • Of the fruitfulnes of the Soyle. 15.
  • Of the commodity of Conduct. 17.
In the second Booke.
  • The proper meanes the Romanes vsed to appopulate their Cities. 30.
  • Of Colonies. 33.
  • Of Religion. 36.
  • Of Schooles and studies. 41.
  • Of the place of Iustice. 45.
  • Of Industrie. 47.
  • [Page]Of priuiledges. 53.
  • Of hauing in her possession some Merchandize of mo­ment. 55.
  • Of Dominion and power. 60.
  • Of the Residency of the Nobility. 62.
  • Of the Residency of the Prince. 65.
In the third Booke.
  • Whether it be expedient for a Citie, to haue few or many Citizens. 87.
  • What the reason is, that Cities once growen to a greatnes, encrease not onward according to that proportion. 89.
  • Of the causes that doe concerne the magnificency & great­nes of a Citie. 97.

THE FIRST BOOKE of Iohannes Boterus of the causes of the magnificencie and greatnes of Citties.

CAP. I. What a Citty is, and what the greatnes of a Citty is sayd to be.

A Citty▪ is sayd to be an assem­bly of people, acongrega­tion drawen together, to the end they may thereby the better liue at their ease in wealth and plenty. And the greatnes of a Citty, is sayd to be, not the largnes o [...] the [...]ite or the circuit of the walles; but the mul­titude and number of Inhabitants and their power, Now, men are drawen together, vpon s [...]ndry cau­ses, and occasions therevnto them moouing▪ [...]ome by authority▪ some by force, some by pleasure, and some by profit, that proceedeth of it.

CAP. II. Of Authority.

_ [...] Ain was the first Author of Cittyes; but, the Poets (whome Cicero therein followed) fable that in the old world, men scattered here and there, on the mountaines, and the plaines; led a life little different from brute beastes, without lawes, without conformity of customes, and manner of ci­uile conuersation. And that afterward there rose vp some, who, hauing with their wisdome and their eloquence, wonne a speciall Reputation and Autho­rity aboue the rest, declared to the rude and barba­rous multitude, how much & how great profit they were like to enioy: if drawyng thēselues to one place, they would vnite themselues into one body, by an in­terchangeable cōmunicatiō ▪ & cōmerce of all things that would proceed thereof. And by this meanes they first founded Hamlets and Villages, and after Townes and Cittyes, and therevpon these Poets fur­ther seyned, that [...] and Amphi [...]n, drew after them, the beasts of the fields, the woods and stones: meanyng vnder these fictions, to signifie & shew the grossenes of the witts, and the roughnes of the man­ners of the same people. But▪ besides these fables, we read of T [...]eseus, that after he had taken vpon him the gouernment of the Athenians, it came into his mynd, to vnite into one Citty, all the people that dwelt in the contry there about, dispersedly in many [Page 3] Villages abroad: Which he easely effected, by ma­nifesting vnto them, the great cōmodity & good that would ensue of it.

The like thing is daily at this time put in practise in Brasill. Those people dwell dispersed here & thereBrasill. in caues & Cottages, (not to call them houses) made of boughes & leaues of the Palme. And for asmuch as this manner of life, to liue so dispersedly, causeth these people to remaine in that same sauage mynd of theirs, and roughnes of maner and behauiour; and bringeth therewith much difficulty & hinderāce to the preaching of the Gospell, to the conuersion of the Infidells, & the instruction of those that trauaile pain­fully, to conuert them, and to bring them to know­ledge and ciuility: The Portugalls & Iesuits haue vsed extreame diligence and care, to reduce & draw them into some certaine place together, more con­veniēt for their purpose; where liuing in a ciuile cō ­uersation, they might more easely be instructed in the christian faith, and gouerned by the Magistrate & ministers of the King. So that to this purpose I might here remember those citties that haue been built by the power, and inhabited by the authority of great Princes, or some famous cōmon weales. For the Grecians and Phaenicians, were the authors of an infinit sight of Citties. And Alexander the great and other Kings, erected a number more besides, where­of beare witnes the Alexandriae, Tholomai [...]s, An­tiochiae, Lysimachiae, Philippopoles, Demetriade [...], Caesareae, Augustae, Sebastiae, Agrippinae, Manfredoniae, and in our time, Cosmopolis and the Citty of the Sonne.

[Page 4]But none deserueth more prayse in this kind, (af­ter Alexan er the great, who built more than three scoare and ten Cittyes,) then the King Seleucus, who besides many other▪ built three Cittyes called Apa­ [...]iae, to the honor of his wife, & fiue called Laodiceae, in memory of his mother; and to the honor of him­selfe fiue called Seleu [...]tae: and in all more than thirtie magnificent and goodly Citties.

CAP. III. Of Force.

THrough force and ineuitable necessity people are gathered other while to­gether into one place, when as some imminent pe [...]ill, especially of wars or ruine and vnreconerable wast and deuastacion, enforceth them to flye vnto it, to put in safty their liues or their goods: and such safety is most found in mountaines & craggy places, or small and little Ilands, or such other like, that are not easily to be approched or come vnto.

After the generall deluge of the world in the timeNoe. of Noe, while men feared their might a fresh happen such another ruin again vpon thē, th y sought to se­cure thēselues, some by building their habitations v­pon the tops of high hils, & some by aduancing huge Towers of incredible height and greatnes, euen vp to the heauens▪ And without doubt, for this respect, the Cittyes seated vpon the mountaines, are for anti­quity the most noble: And the Towers are of the [Page 5] most ancient forme and kind of buildings that euer were vsed in this world But after the feare of a new deluge was past and gone, men began to draw them selues downe, and to erect their habitations in the plaines, vntill the Terror of Armies, and the swarme and feare of fyerce and cruell people, enforced thē a fresh to saue them selues, on the steepenes of the hilles, or in the Ilands of the Seas, or in the maryshes and bogges, or other such like places.

When the Moores subdued Spaine, & brought it into miserable seruitude & bondage: Such as escaped with their liues, out of the lamentable slaughter, that was made of them: Some retyred themselues vp to the highest mountaines of Biscay and of Aragon; andBiscay▪ Aragon. some betaking them to their shipping, saued them­selues in the Iland of the seauen Cittyes, so called, by­cause seauen Bishoppes seated themselues therein with their people.

The cru [...]ll Ruine that Tamberlan carryed withTamberlan. him wheresoeuer he came, made the people of Per­sia, & the coūtryes bordering therupon, to abandon and forsake their ancient natiue countries, (like birds that are scattered▪) and to saue their liues by flyght: Some, vpon the mount Taurus, some vpō Antitaurus, and some fled into the little Ilands of the Caspian Se [...]. And, as the people of Istria, at the cōming of the Slaui retyred to the Iland Capraria, and th [...]re builtGiustinopoli. Gallia trās­padana. Giustinopoli: So the people of Gallia Transpadana at the entry of the Lombards into Italie, saued them­selues within the maryshes, where they built the Towne of Crema.

[Page 6]But, forasmuch as to the naturall strength of those places, neyther great conueniencie, either of Terri­tory or Trafique, or good meanes to draw Trade or entercourse, lent (for the most part) any helpe vnto them: there was neuer seen Citty there, of any great fame or memory. But if the places whereto men are driuen of necessity to fly, haue in them besides their safety, any cōmodity of importance: it will be an easy thing for them to encrease, both with peo­ple, and with riches, and with buildings.

In this manner, the Citties of Leuant, and of Barba­rie, became populous and great thorough the multi­tude of Iewes, that Ferdinando the King of Spayne, and Emanuel the King of Portingall, cast out of their Kingdomes, as in particuler, Salonica & Rhodes. And in these our dayes in England many Cittyes haue much encreased within fewe yeares, both in people and in Trade, through the resort of the lowe coun­try people to it: and especially London, wherevnto many thousands of famylyes haue resorted them­selues.

About the yeare of the Lord. 1400. while theSaracenes. Saracenes did put to fyer & sword the Genouaes, & all the country there about; Pisa did mightily encrease: For to the strength of the place, the country yeelded also plenty of al good things, & cōmodity of trafique.

At the cōming of Attyla into Italy, the people of Lombardy being wonderfully affrayd, thorough the horrible wast and ruine he brought with him: fled to saue themselues, into the Ilands of the Adriaticke Seas, and there built many Townes & Cittyes. And [Page 7] after that, in the warres that Pypin raysd against thē, forsaking the places that were not secure and safe y­nough,Rialto. Venice. as Ex quilinum, Heraclea, Palestin, & Mala­mocco, they drew themselues neere to Rialto, into one body, and so by that meanes grew Venice mag­nificent and great.

CAP. IIII. How the Romanes encreased the Citty of Rome, by wasting their neighbours Townes.

THe Romanes, to make their owne country in any sort great & famous, furnished themselues very carefully euer, with strength and power. For to make their neighbour people of necessity glad, and willing to draw themselues to Rome, and there to dwell: they ouer-threw their Townes euen downe to the ground. So did Tullus Alba. Cornicolo. Pometia. Veios. Hostilius cast Alba downe to the earth, a most strong Citty: Tarquinius Pris [...]us laid also playne Cornicolo, a Citty abounding in mighty wealth. Seruius Tullus made Pometia desert: and in the tyme of liberty they vtterly destroyed Veios, a Citty of such strength and power, that with much a doe, after a siege of ten yeares, it was by cunning more than strength van­quished and ouerthrowen.

Now these people and such other, hauing no dwelling place to draw themselues vnto, nor to liue secure and safe, they were enforst to chaunge their [Page 8] countryes with Rome, which by this meanes won­derfully waxed great, both in people and in riches.

CAP. V. That some haue gotten the Inhabitants of other townes in to their owne Citties.

THe like meanes to the former, but somewhat more gentell, the Romains vsed to appopulate and make great their owne Citty: And that was, to bring the people home, whome they had subdued, or the most of thē to Rome. Romulus in this manner, drew into the Citty the Seninenses, the Antennates, and the Crustumini. But no country am­plified more the Citty of Rome, then the Sabines. For in a sharpe and mighty fight with them, after a longe and hard conflict, he made a peace; And the condi­cionTatius King of the Sa­bines. was, that Tatius the King of the Sabines, should come with all his people to dwell in Rome. Which condicion Tatius did accept, and made choyse of the Capitoll, and of the mount Quirinalis for his Seat and Pallace. The same course did An [...]us Martiu [...] take, who gaue the hill [...] [...] to the Latines, when they were taken from their cittyes Politorio, Tellena, and Fic [...]na.

The great Tamberlan also, he amplified & enlargedTamberlan. Sarmacan­da. Ottoman. mightely the great Sarmacanda, in bringing to it the richest and the wealthiest persons of the cittyes he had subdued. And the O [...]tomans to make the citty of [Page 9] Constantinople rich and great, they haue brought to it many thousand families, especially artificers out of the cittyes they haue subdued: As, Mahomet the se­condMahomet. Selim. from Trebisonda; Selim the first, from Cairo; and Soliman from Tauris.

CAP. VI. Of Pleasure.

MEn are also drawen to liue together in Society, thorough the delight and pleasure that eyther the Scite of the place, or the art of man doth minister and yeild vnto them. The Scite, by the freshnes of the ayre, the pleasant view of the valleis, the pleasing shade of the woodes, the cōmo­dity to hunt, and the abundance of good waters; Of all which good things, Antioche in Soria, is liberally endowed, and Damascus no lesse, & Bursia in Bithinia, Cordoua and Siuill in Spaine, and many other good townes elsewhere. Vnto art, belongeth the strayte and fayre streetes of a cittye, the magnificent & gor­gious buildings therein, eyther for Art or matter, the theaters, Porches, Circles, Rases for running hor­ses, Fountaines, Images, Pictures, and such other ex­cellent and wonderfull things, as delight and feede the eyes of the people with an admiration and won­der at them.

The citty of Thespis, was frequēted for the excel­lentThespis. Samos. Alexandri­a. Menisis. workmanship sake of the Image of Cupid. Sa­mos, for the merualous greatnes of the temple. Alex­andria, for the tower of Pharo. Menisis, for the Pyra­mides, [Page 10] Rhodes, for the Colossus. And, how many shallRhodes. Babilon. we thinke, haue gon to Babilon, to see the wonder­rous wailes that [...] had made about it? The Romans many times willingly went for their recrea­tion sake to [...], [...], Smyrna, Rhodes and [...], euen to take the benyfit of the ayre, and to behold the bewty of those same cittyes. To con­clude, all that euer feedeth the eye, and delighteth the sense of man, and hath any exquitite and curious workmanship in it: all that euer is rare, strange, new, vnwonted, extraordinary, admirable, magnificent, great, or singular by cunning, apperteyneth to this head.

And, amongest all the cittyes of Europes Rome and [...], are the most frequented, for the pleasures and delightes they minister to all the beholders of them.Rome. Rome, for the exceeding wonderfull reliques of her ancient greatnes. And [...], for the gloriousnes of her present and magnificent [...]. Rome, filleth the eye with wonder and delight at the greatnes of her [...], the rarenes of her [...]athes, and [...]enes of her o [...]ossi; a [...] also at the Art of her admirable works, both in Marble and in [...]rasse, wrought by excellent [...]; [...]t the hei [...]th and [...]enes of her Obelis­ [...]es, at the [...] and variety of pillers; at the di­versity and [...] of strange marble, the exquisite & curious cutting of it; The [...] or [...]ery, Alablaster, Marble, White, Black, Grey, Yellow, and mixt, and Serpen­tyne; The great ruines, the hel-gates, and a number of other sorts and kinds besides which were too hard to recount, and impossible to distinguishe. What [Page 11] shall I say of the triumphall arches, of the seauen Zo­anes or circles? of the Temples? and what of a num­ber of other wonders else? And what shall we ima­gyne that Citty was, when she floryshed and trium­phed; if now, while shelyeth thus defaced, & is none other then a Sepulture of her selfe, she allureth vs to see her, and feedeth vs vnsatiably with the ruynes of her selfe.

On the other side Venice, with the wonder ofUenice. her incomparable Scituation (which seemeth the Act of nature, by giuing lawes to the waters, and setting a bridell on the Sea) ministreth vnto vs no lesse admiration and wonder at it. The greatnes also of her inestimable Arsenall, the multitude of ships both of warre, of trafique and of Passage: The incredible number of warlike instruments, ordinance and mu­nition, and of all manner of preparacions for the Seas: The heygth of the towers, the ryches of the Churches, the magnificēcy of the [...]allaces, the beau­tifullnes of the Streetes, the variety of Artes, the or­der of her gouernment the beauty of the one and o­ther sexe, doth dazell and amaze the eyes of the be­holders of them.

CAP. VII. Of Profite.

THis Profit is of such power, to vnite and tye men fast vnto one place; as the other causes aforesayd, without this accompany them with all, are not suf­ficient to make any city great. Not Authority alone: For, if the place whereto [Page 12] men are drawen thorough the Authority of any, af­ford them no commodityes, they will not abyde nor tarry there.

Neyther yet necessity: For, such a congregation and collection of people encreaseth, multiplieth, and las [...]eth for many yeares. And, necessity is violent; And violence cannot produce any durable effect. So that it comes to passe, that not only citties do not en­crease, but also States & Principalityes gotten with meere strength and violence, cannot be long main­teyned. They are much like Land floodes, that haue no head nor spring, as Riuers haue that minister per­petually plenty of waters to them; But casually, and in a moment ryse and swell, and by and by asswage and fall againe. So that, as they are to trauaylers fearefull in their swellings, so do they fall againe wthin a while to fast as trauailers may soone passe away on soote againe drye.

Such were the conquests of the Tarters▪ that haue so vast inuaded [...], and put it to the sword: Of A­lexand [...] the great, of Att [...]la, of great [...], of [...] the eight and of [...] the twelueth King of france. And the reason therof is, that our na­ture is so great alouer, & longeth after commoditye so much, as that it is not possible to quiet & content her with that which is no more but necessary. For▪ as Plants, although they be set deepe ynough within the ground, cannot for all that, last and be long kept without the fauour of the heauens, and the bene­fyt of raine: Euen so, the habitacions of men, en­forst at first by meere necessity, are not maynteyned [Page 13] long, if profit and commodity go not companions with it; much lesse then is pleasure and delyght of any moment. For man is borne to labor, and most men attend their businesse: and the ideler sort are of no account nor reckoning, and their idlenesse is built and founded vpon the labours and the industrie of those that worke. And pleasure cannot stand with­out profit and commoditie, whereof she is as it were the verie fruit.

Now, suppose that profite is the verie thing from whence, as from the principall cause, the greatnesse of citties groweth▪ (For the same profite is not sim­ple and of one sort, but of diuers formes and kindes.) It resteth therefore now, that we see what manner of commodity and profit is most fit, for the end wher­of, we haue disputed all this while. We say then, that to make a cittie great and famous, the commo­ditie of the scite, the fertilitie of the soyle, and easi­nesse of conduct, helpeth sufficiently ynough.

CAP. VIII. Of the commoditie of the Scite.

I Call that a commodious Scite, that serues in such sort as many people haue thereof neede for their traf­fique, and transportation of their goods, whereof they haue more plenty than they need; or for recei­uing of things wherof they haue scarsitie: so that this scite standing thus betweene both, partaketh with both, and groweth rich with the extreames. [Page 14] I say partaketh with the extreames, because it cannot otherwise increase the greatnesse of a cittie: [...]or as­much as it must either remaine desert, or else not serue but for a simple passage.

Derbentum, a Towne seated in the Ports of theDerben ū. Caspian Seas, is a verie necessarie place▪ to goe from Persia into [...]artary, or from [...]artary into Persia: yet notwithstanding it neuer grew great, nor no famous cittie, and in these our dayes there is no reckoning made of it: and the reason is, for that it partaketh not of these extreames, but serueth for passage onely, and receiueth those that ttauaile too and fro, not as mar­chants, and men of commerce and traffique, but as passengers and trauailers; and to speake in a word, it is seated sure in a verie necessarie place, as the case standeth, but not profitably vnto it selfe.

For the selfe▪ same cause, in the streyts of the Alpes, which for the most part doe compasse Italy, although the Frenchmen, Swyzers, Dutch men, & Italians cō ­tinually do passe by them: there neuer yet was found a meane cittie; much lesse any great and stately one.

The like may be sayd of many other good cittiesSues. and places. For Sues is a verie necessarie place for them that came out of the Indies by the red Sea, to C [...]yrus. The Ilands of Saint Iames, and the Palme and Terzeras, are necessarie for the Portugals, and Spani­ards to sayle to the [...], Brasill, and to the new World: yet neither is there, nor neuer will bee in those same places, cittie of good importance. As neither also is there in the Ilands, between Denmark, and Suetia, nor yet betweene Mare Germanicum, and [Page 15] Mare Balticum. And Flushing, although it be scituated in a passage of incredible necessity, for the commerce and traffique that is between the Flemings, English­men, and other Nations: yet neuer grewe it great, but still remaines a verie little towne. But contrary­wise Geneua is a great cittie, and so is Venice, because they partake of the extreames, and serue onely for passages, but much more for Store houses, Cellerage, and Ware houses of marchandize, most plentifully brought vnto them: And so is likewise Lysborne, An [...] ­werpe, and some other. It sufficeth not inough there­fore to the making of a cittie magnificent and great, that the scite thereof be necessarie; but it must withall be commodious to other countreys that are borde­rers or neere vnto it.

CAP. IX. Of the fruitfulnes of the Soyle.

THe second cause of the greatnes of a city, is the fruitfulnes of the country. For, the Sustenance of the life of man, consisting on Foode and Cloa [...]hing, and both of them gotten out of those things the Earth doth produce; the fruitfulnes of the country cannot but be a mighty helpe vnto it. And, if it fall out to be so great, as it not only well suf­ficeth to mantaine the Inhabitants thereof, but also to supply the wants of their bordering neighbours: It serueth our purpose so much the better. And, for­asmuch as all Soyles produce not all things; How [Page 16] much more rich and more able a country shalbe to produce diuers and sundry things of profit and com­moditie: So much the more sufficient and fyt it will be found to rayse a great citty. For, by that meanes it shall haue the lesse need of others, (which enfor­ceth people other while to leaue their habitations,) and be able to afford the more to others (which draweth our neighbors the sooner to our country.)

But, the fruitfulnes of the Land, sufficeth not sim­ply of it selfe alone to rayse a citty vnto greatnes: For many Prouinces there are, and they very rich, that haue neuer a good citty in them. As for Example, Premont is one: And there is not a country throughPremont. out all Italy, that hath more plenty of Corne, Cattell, Wine, and of excellent fruits of all sorts, than it hath. And it hath mainteined for many yeares, the Armies and forces both of Spaine and Fraunce. And in Eng­land (London excepted,) although the country do a­boundEngland. London. in plenty of all good things: yet is there not a city in it that deserues to be called great. As also in Fraunce (Paris excepted) which notwithstanding,Fraunce. Paris. is not seated in the fruitfullest country of that great kingdome. For, in pleasantnes, it giueth place to Turen; in abundāce of all things, to Xanton and Poi­tiers; In varyety of Fruites, to Languedock; in cōmo­diousnes of the Seas, to Normandie; In store of wine, to Burgundie; in abundance of Corne, to Campagna; In eyther of both, to the country of Orliens; in Cattell, to Brittaine and the territorie of Burges.

By all which it doth appeare, that to the aduan­cing of a city vnto greatnes, it sufficeth not simply of [Page 17] it selfe alone, that the territorie be fruitfull. And the reason thereof is plaine; For, where a countrie doth plentifullie abound with all maner of good things, the Inhabitants finding all those things at home that are fit, necessary, and profitable for their vse; neyther care, nor haue cause to goe any where else to seeke them, but take the benefit and vse of thē with ease where they grow. For, euery man loues to procure his cōmoditie with the most ease he may: and when they finde them with ease at home, to what end should they trauaile to fetch them else­where? And this reason prooues the more stronge, where the people affect and long least after vaine and idle delights and pleasures.

It sufficeth not therefore to the gathering of a So­cietie of people together, to haue abundance of wealth and substance alone; But there must be be­sides that, some other forme & matter to vnite and hold them in one place together. And that is, the easines and commodiousnes of conduct, the carying out and bringing in I meane of cōmodities of wares too and froe.

CAP. X. Of the Commoditie of Conduct.

THis commoditie is lent vnto vs, partly of the land, and partly of the water.

Of the Land, if it be plaine. For, by that meanes, it conduceth easely the marchādize and goods of all sorts and kinds, vpon Carts, Horses, Mules, & other beasts of burden. And men make their iorneys the more [Page 18] commodious you foote, on Horse, in Chariot, and in other such like sort and maner.

The Portugalls do write, that in some large and spacious plaines of China, they vse Coaches withCoaches with failes failes: Which some assaid not many yeares since in Spaine.

Of the water: this commoditie is lent vs, if it be nauigable. And without comparison, the commo­ditie is much better, and more worth far▪ which the water doth assord vs, than which the earth doth giue vs both for ease and speedines▪ for as much as in lesse time, and with lesse charge and labor (without proporcion in it) greater cariages are brought from countries most remote, by water, than by land.

Now, your nauigabl water is either of the Sea, [...] or of the riuer, or of the lake, which are naturall helps and means: or of Chanells or of Pooles as that of Mi­ [...] [...], which was 45 [...] ▪ miles about, made by art▪ and mans industrie and labor.

It seemes in very truth, that God created the wa­ter, not only for a necessarie Element to the perfecti­on of nature▪ But more than so, for a most readie meanes to conduct and bring goods from one coun­trie to another. For his diuine maiestie, willing that men should mutually embrace each other, as members of one body▪ diuided in such sort his blessings as to no nation did he giue all things, to the end that others hauing need of vs, and contrarywise [...] we hauing need of others, there might growa * Cō ­munitie, and from a Communitie Loue, and from Loue an vnitie betweene vs.

[Page 19]And to worke this cōmunity the easier, he produ­ced the water. Which of nature is such a substance, that through the grossenes thereof, it is apt to beare great burdens: And through the liquidnes, holpen with the windes, or the oares, fit to carry them to what place they list. So that by such a good meane, the West is ioyned with the East, and the South with the North. And a man might say, that what so growes in one place, growes in all places, by the easie meanes prouided to come by them.

Now without doubt, the Sea, for her infinit great­nes and grosnesse of the water, is much more pro­fitable than the Lakes, or the Riuers. But, the Sea serues you to little purpose, if you haue not a large and safe Port to ride into: I say large, either for the greatnes, or for the depth in the entrie thereat, the middest and the extreames. And I say safe, either from all, or from many windes, or at least from the most blustering and most tempestuous.

It is held, that, amongst all windes, the Northerne is most tollerable, and that the Seas that are trou­bled on the Greekish coast, cease their rage and wax quiet assoone as the winde is laide, But the Southern windes trouble them, and beate them so sore (wher­of the Gulfe of Venice is an vndoubted witn) esthar euen after the winde is laid, they swell and rage a great while after.

Now the Port shalbe safe, either by nature, as that of Messina and Marsiles; or else by art, the Imitato [...] of nature, as that of Genoua and of Palermo.

Lakes are, as it were little Seas. So that also theyLakes. [Page 20] for the proporcion of the place, and other respects besides, gaue a great helpe to appopulate townes and citties; As it is found in Noua Hispania, where asNoua His pania. Mexico. is the Lake of Mexico, which extendeth nine hun­dred miles in compasse, and conteineth 50. faire aud goodly townes in it: Amongst the which there is the Towne Themistitan, the Metropolitan seate ofThemistitā. that great and large Kingdome.

The Riuers also import much; and most of all theyRiuers. that runne the longest course, especially through the richest and most merchantable Regions, such as is Po in Italie, Scaldis in Flanders, Ligeris & Sona in France, Danubius and the Rhene in Germanie. And as Lakes are certaine seuerall remembrances of the bo­somes of the Gulphes of the Seas, formed and made by nature: Euen so Chanells, whereinto the waterChanell. of the Lake or the Riuer runneth, are certaine Imi­tations, and as it were shadowes of the same Riuers made by skill and cunning.

The ancient Kings of Egipt made a ditch that fromNilus. Heroum. Mareru­brum. Nilus ranne to the city Heroum: & they assaid to draw a Chanell from the Red Sea to Mare Mediterraneū, to knit our Seas with the Indian Seas, and so to make the easier transportation too and fro of all kindes of merchandize, and by that meanes withall to enritch their owne Kingdome. And it is a thing well knowē, how ost it hath been attempted to breake vp Isth­mus, to vnite the Sea Ionium with Mare Aegeum. ACayrus. Alepo. Gant & Bruges. Souldier of Cayro drewe a Chanell from Eufrates to the cittie of Alepo. In Flanders you may see both at Gant and at Bruges, and in other places else besides, [Page 21] many Chanels made by art, and with an inestimable expence and charge; but yet of much more profit for the ease they bring to merchandizing, and to the tra­fique of other nations. And in Lombardy many cities haue wisely procured this ease vnto them: But none more then Milan, that with one Chanell (worthy ofMilan. the Romaines glorie) draweth the waters to it ofThesinum. Lago mag­giore. Thesinum and of the Lake called Lago Maggiore, and by such meanes enricheth it selfe with infinit store of merchandizes, and with an other Chanell also be­nefiteth much by the Riuer Adda: through the op­portunitie and meanes it hath thereby to bring in the fruites and the goods of their exceeding plenti­full countrie, home vnto their houses: And they should make it much the better, if they would clense and scower the Chanell of Pauia and Iurea.

Now in Chanells and in Riuers, for their better ease of conduct and of trafique, besides the length of their courses we haue before spoken; the depth,Depth. Pleasātnes. Thicknes. Largenes. the pleasantnes, the thicknes of the water, and the largnes thereof is of much moment to them. The depth, bycause deepe waters beare and susteine the greater burdens, and the nauigation is the more safe without perill. The Pleasantnes, bycause it makes the nauigation easie vp and downe which way soe­uer, you bend your course. Wherein it seemes to some, they haue been much mistaken that had the ordering of the Chanell that comes from Thesinum, to Milan. Forasmuch as by the great fall of the wa­ter, and the great aduantage giuen to the water, it hath so strong a currant, and is so violent, that with [Page 22] infinit toyle, and labor and losse of time, they haue much a do to saile vpward. But as towching Riuers, nature hath shewed her selfe very kinde to Gallia Cel­tica Gallia. Belgica. Celtica. and Belgica: for asmuch as in Gallia Celtica, the ri­uers for the most part, are most calme and still, and therefore they saile vp and downe with incredible facilitie, because many of them come forth, as it were in the plaines & euen grounds: By the meanes where of their course is not violent, and they runne not between the mountaines, nor yet a short and lit­tle way, but many hundred miles through goodly and euen plaines. Where, for their recreation and their pleasure, otherwhile men take their course one way, another while another, now go on forwardes, and then turne back againe: and so, by this winding and turning too and fro, they helpe diuers cities and prouinces with water and victualls, or other such things as they need. But there is not a country in Europe, better furnished and prouided of Riuers, than that part of Gallia Belgica, that cōmonly we call Flanders. The Meuse, the Schelde, the Mosella, Te­vora,Flanders. Ruer and Rhene, deuided into three great Armes or branches, runne pleasantly and gallantly forthright and ouerthwart the Prouince, & mightely enritch it by the cōmoditie of nauigation & trafique of infinit treasure, which certainly wants in Italie. For, Italie being long and strait, and parted in the middest with the Apenine Hills: the Riuers of Italie, through the shortnes of their cou [...]se, cannot neither much encrease, nor yet abate the violence of their Streames.

[Page 23]The Riuers of Lombardy, come all as it were, ei­therRiuers of Lombardy. out of the Alpes, as Thesinum, Adda, Lambro, Ser­uo, & A [...]liga: or out of the Apenine hills, as Tarro, Lenza, Panarus, & Rhene, and but a short way nei­ther, wherein they rather deserue to be called land floods, than Riuers: For, they soone find out the Po▪ which takes his course between the Appenine hils, & the Alpes. So that he only resteth nauigable. For wa­shing this Prouince ouer by all his whole length, he hath time to growe great, and enrich himselfe with the helpe of many Riuers, and to moderate his na­turall swiftnesse by the long way he maketh. But this take withall, that forasmuch as the sayd Riuers, tho­rough the shortnesse of their course, enter and meet together with a mightie rage and violence, they wax great otherwhile, and swell and runne with such a raging course, as they make the strongest Citties a­fraide of them, much more the Country thereabout. But the Riuers of Romagna, and of other parts of Ita­ly, Riuers of Romagna. falling like raging Land-flouds, partly on this side, and partly on that side of the Appenine hils, soone find out the Adriaticke, or the Tyrrhenian, or the Ionian Seas. So that the most of them haue no time to slake their rage, nor none of them haue so much time to grow great, as might make them nauigable. For that little that is nauigable in Arn [...], or in Tiber, it is not worth the speaking.

The thickenesse of the water, is also a verie good helpe in this case. For, it cannot be denied, that the water of one Riuer, beareth great and waighty bur­dens much better, than the water of some other. [Page 24] And in particuler, when the Obelisk (set vp in the time of Sextus the fift) which is to be seene at this day in Saint Peters street, was brought to Rome; It is well knowen by good experience, the water of Tiber was of more strength and of more force andTiber. Nilus. firmenesse, than the water of Nilus.

And Seina a meane riuer in France, beareth ships of such bulke, and carieth burdens so gr [...] the that sees it not, will not beleeue it. And the [...]e is not a riuer in the world, that for proportion, is able to beare the like burden. So that, although it exceede not a mediocritie, and be but a small riuer; yet not­withstanding, it suplieth wonderfully all the necessi­ties and wants of Paris, a citie that in people and in abundance of all things exreedeth far all other cities whatsoeuer within the scope of Christendome.

Here a man might aske me how it comes to passe,Questio. that one water should beare more burden than an­other?

Some will, that this proceedeth from the nature of the earth that thickneth the water and maketh it stiffe, and by consequence firme and solide. This reason hath no other opposition but Nilus, the wa­terNilus. whereof is so earthie and so muddie, that the Scripture calleth it the Troubled riuer. And it is not to be dronke before it be purged and setled well in the Cesterne. And it doth not only water & mellow all Egipt ouer with its liquidnes, but more than that maketh it fertile, and mucketh as it were the ground with its satnes. And yet it is not of the fittest nor the strongest to susteine and beare shipps, boats, or barks [Page 25] of any good burden, wherevpon I should thinke, that for such effect and purpose, wee should not so much preferre the muddinesse of the water, as the sliminesse thereof: for that doth glew it, as it were together, and thicken it the better, and maketh it more fit, and more apt to beare good burden.

But some man might aske me here again▪ frō whēce cometh this quality, this diuersity (I mean) of waters? I must answere, it comes of 2. causes. First, frō the very breaking or bursting of it out, and passage along tho­roughResolutio. rich, rank, & fat Countreys. For, riuers partici­pating of the nature of the grounds that make them their beds & banks, become therby thēselues also fat and slimy, & of quality much like to oyle. The next cause, proceedeth frō the swiftnes & the shortnes of the course. Forasmuch as the lengh of a voiage, & the rage of the Riuers maketh thin, & subtileth the sub­stance, and breaks & cuts in sunder the slimines of the water: (which happeneth in Nilus) For, running in a maner as it doth, 2000. miles by a direct line, (for by an oblique & crooked line, it would be a great deale more) and falling from places exceeding steepe and headlong, where (through the vehemency & violent force of the course, & by the inestimable rage of the fall, it breaketh & dissolueth all into a very small and fine raine as it were) it waxeth so fine and subtile, and so tyreth his waters, that they loose all their slimie properties, which resteth all at the Riuers of Almaigne and of Fraunce. For, they grow and walke thorough most rich and pleasant Countreys, and they be not ordinarily swift nor violent. Now, that [Page 26] this is the true reason thereof: the water of Senna shall make a true proofe of it: for if you wash your hands with it, it scowreth like soape, and clenseth you of all manner of spots.

But let vs now passe to the widenesse: and that is necessarie to beginne withall in Riuers, and in Cha­nels of which we speake of, that they should be wide and large, that Shippes may commodiouslly winde and turne heere and there at their will and pleasure, and giue way each to other. But the widenesse of a Riuer without depth, serues not for our purpose: for it dissipateth and disperseth the water in such sort, that it maketh it vnfit for nauigation, which happe­neth to the riuer of Plate, which through ouer much widenesse, is for the most part lowe, and of vneuen bottome, and full of rocks and little Ilands. And for the selfe same cause, the riuers of Spaine, are not gret­ly nauigable; for they haue large bellies, but they spread wide, and vneuen they are, and vncertaine. And thus much sufficeth to haue sayd of Riuers.

Now, forasmuch as the commodities and profits are such and so great which the water bringeth to aduance the greatnesse of a Cittie: of consequent those citties must be the fa [...]rest and the richest that haue the most store of nauigable Riuers. And euen such are those citties that are seated vpon good Ha­uens of the Seas, riuers, or lakes, that are commodi­ous, apt and fit for sundrie nauigations

It may seeme to some, that with the easinesse of conduct, the foundation is now found out, and full complement and perfection of the greatnesse of a [Page 27] cittie. But it is not so, for it behoues besides that, that there be some matter of profite, that may draw the people, and cause them to repaire to one place more than to another. For where there is no commoditie of conduct, the multitude of people cannot bee great, which the Hils and Mountaines teacheth vs; on which wee may well see many Castles and little townes, but no store of people, that we might there­by call them great. And the reason is, because of the craggidnesse and steepnesse of their scites, such things as are necessarie and commodious for a ciuile life, cannot bee brought vnto them without an infiniteFiesole. toyle and labour. And Fiesole became desert, andFlorence. Florence frequented vpon none other cause, than that Fiesole standeth on too steepe, and too high a place almost vnaccessible: & Florence in a verie plaine, easie to haue accesse vnto it. And in Rome we see the peo­pleRome. haue forsaken the Auentine and other hils there, & drawne themselus altogether downe to the plaine and places neerest vnto Tyber, for the commoditie which the plaine and the water affordeth to the conduct of goods and traffique.

But where conduct and carriage is easie, you see not for all that, a notable and famous cittie by and by. For without question, the port of Messina is farreMessina. much better▪ than the port of Naples, that notwith­standing Naples, if you behold the people, exceedethNaples. more than two Messinas. The port of Carthagena Carthage­na. exceeds in all respects, the porte of Genoua: and yet Genoua for multitude of people, for wealth, andGenoua. for all manner of good things besides, mightily ex­ceedeth [Page 28] Carthagena. What Port is more faire, more safe, or more spacious, than the Chanell of Catharo? Catharo. And yet is there not any memorable Cittie in that place.

What shall I say of Riuers? In Perù, there is the Ri­uerPerù. Maragnone a riuer in Perù. Maragnone, which (it is sayd) doth runne (a mar­ueilous thing to report) six thousād myles in length, and is in breadth, at the mouth thereof, three score myles and more. You haue the Riuer of Plate thereThe riuer of Plate. by▪ which though it giue place to Maragnone for the length of his streame and course: it beareth yet more water a great deale. And, at the mouth of it, they say it is one hūdred & fiftie myles wyde. In new France, there is the Riuer of Canada, wyde at the mouthRiuer of Canada. thirtie fiue myles, and 200 fathame deepe. In A­frica, there are also verie great Riuers, Senaga, Gam­bea, and Coanza, which last, is a riuer late found out in the Kingdome of Angola, which is thought to beAngola foce. wyde at the mouth 35 myles: And yet amongst these, there is not a famous citie to be found. Nay further, on the riuer of Coanza, the barbarous people there,Riuer of Coanza. liue in dennes, and hyde themselues in caues coue­red with boughes, in the companie & fellowship, as it were, of crabbes and lobsters, which through vse and custome grow wonderous familiar and secure with them.

In Asia, although Menan, which in their languageRiuers. Menan. Meicon. Indus. Obuius. signifieth the mother of riuers, and Meicon, which is nauigable for more than two thousand miles, and likewise Indus, and other royall riuers be sufficiently inhabited: yet for all that Obuius, which is the great­est [Page 29] there amongst them. (For, where it falleth into the Scithian Ocean, it is 80. myles broad: which makes some men think the Mare Caspium disburde­neth it selfe that way into the Ocean) hath not any famous citie in it.

After this, another question also ryseth; how it comes, if the commodious meanes of conduct doe at full accomplish the greatnes of a citie; How, I say it comes to passe, where vpon the Shoare of one selfe riuer, the conduct is euen easie, and a like; that one Citie yet, is greater than an other? Without doubt, it sufficeth not alone that the transportation of goods too and fro, be easie and commodious: but there must be else besides that, some peculier vertue at­tractiue, that may draw men, and allure men more to one place than to another, where­of we shall in the next booke speake more at large.

OF THE CAVSES OF the greatnes and magnificencie of Cities. THE SECOND BOOKE.

HYtherto haue we spoken of aptnes of the scite, of the fruitfulnes of the soyl, & of the commodious transportaci­on of commodities, too and fro, for the helpe and encrease of our Citie. Let vs now se what those things are, that may allure the people (who are of nature in­different to be heere or there) to the choyse of one place before another, to make their habitacions in; and what causeth commerce and traffique. And let vs first declare the proper meanes, the Romaines tooke, and then afterward, the meanes that generally were common to them and others.

CAP. I. The proper meanes of the Romanes.

THe first meanes the Romanes vsed, was the opening of the Sanctuary and giuing libertie & fredome to all that would, to come vnto them which Romulus did, to the end (his neigh­bours at that time euill entreated by Tyrants▪ and the countrie swarming full with discontented per­sons) [Page 31] Rome might by that meanes, be the sooner peopled through the benefite of their safety they were sure to finde there, neither was he therein de­ceiued a whit; for thither flockt with their goods a number of people that were either thrust out of their habitations, or vnsafe and vnsure of their liues in their countreys. But when they found afterward a want of women necessarie for propagation; Ro­mulus Romulus. proclaimed certaine great and solemne feasts, at which he stole and held away by force, the grea­test part of the youngest women that did resort to see them: so that it is no maruaile, if out of so fierce and stoute a people, there rose so fierce and stoute an yssue.

The verie same reason in a manner in these our daies, hath encreased so much the city of Geneua: for­asmuchGeneua. as it hath offered entertainment to all com­mers out of Fraunce and Italy, that haue either forsa­ken, or been exiled their countreys for religion sake. And the same Countrey of Germany (they call Fran­corum Vallem) by the sufferance of Cassimire one ofCassimire. the Count Palatins of Rhene, later erected by the Belgians, that were for Religion thrust out of their countreis▪ hath doneth like.

Cosmus the great Duke of Tus [...]an, to appopulateCosmus. the Port Ferato, gaue protection to such as would flye theth [...]r and confined a number, that for their offences had worthily deserued punishment. Which course the great Duke Franciscus his Sonne obser­ued afterward for the peopling of Pisa and Liuorno. But as we haue afore sayd, it is neither strength nor [Page 32] necessity, that haue power to make a citie frequen­ted, or to rayse it vnto greatnes. For a people en­forst, and violently driuen to rest in one place: is like vnto seede sowen in the Sands, wherein it neuer ta­keth root to grow vnto ripenes.

But let vs returne vnto our sanctuarie. It cannot be denyed▪ but that a moderate libertie and a lawfull place of safetie, very greatly helpeth to draw a mul­titude of people to a resting place. And, hereof it comes, that free Cities are (in cōparison of other pla­ces) more famous & more replenished with people, then Cities subiect vnto Princes & to monarchies.

The secōd means wherwith Rome increased was, that they made the townes that well deserued of thē, (which they after called Municipia) to be partakersMunicipiū. is euery City or towne hauing the liberty that Rome had. of their Franchises and of their offices. For, these honors, to be Citizens of Rome, and to enioy the great priuiledges annexed to their enfranchisemēt, drewe into the City all such, as through adherencie, through fauour, or through seruice done vnto the common weale, might haue any hope to beare of­fice or rule therein: and such as lookt not so high, re­sorted yet thither, to serue their kinsmens turnes or their friends with their voices, to aduance them to some good office. And, thus Rome was frequen­ted and enriched with concourse of an infinit sight of people, both noble and rich, that in particular or in common were honored with the enfrāchisement and freedome of Rome.

The third meanes, was the continuall entertain­ment the Romaines gaue to curiositie. And, that [Page 33] was the great number of admirable things they did in Rome: The triumphes of the victorious Cap­taines; the wonderfull buildings; the battailes on the water; the fights of sword players; the hunting of wilde beastes; the publique shewes and sights; the playes of Apollo: the Seculars & others, which were performed with vnspeakable pompe and preparati­on, and many other such like things that drew the curious people vnto Rome. And for asmuch as these alluring sights, were as it were perpetuall: Rome was also as it were perpetually full of stran­gers and forreine people.

CAP. II. Of Colonies.

WHat shall we say of Colonies? were they a good help to the greatnes of Rome, or no? That they were a great helpe to the encrease of the power, it can­not be doubted: But, that they multi­plyed also the number of the Inhabitants, it is a thing somewhat doubtfull. How beit for mine owne opi­niō, I should think they were a great helpe & meanes vnto it. For, if any man thinke, by taking the people out, & sending them to Colonies else where, that the Cittye thereby comes rather to diminish then en­crease: happely for all that, the contrary may happē. [Page 34] For, as plants cannot prosper so well, nor multiply so fast in a nurserie, where they are set and planted nere together, as where they are transplanted into an o­pen ground: euen so men make no such fruitfull pro­pagation of children, where they are inclosed and shut vp within the walles of the Cittie, they are bred and borne in; as they doe abroad in diuers other parts, where they are sent vnto. For, sometimes the Plague, or other contagious sicknesse or disease con­sumeth them; sometimes Famine enforceth them to change their habitations; sometimes forraine Warres takes out of the world the stowtest men a­mongest them; sometimes ciuile warres make the quietest sort forsake their dwellings; And, from ma­ny, pouertie and miserie taketh away the minde, the meanes, and the spirite to wedde, or thinke on pro­gation.

Now, they that might haue died in Rome, with the aforesayd euills, & without children; being re­mooued to other places, escape the foresayd perils; And, beīg bestowed in Colonies, & prouided for both of house & ground to it; betake themselues to wiues and children, & to propagate & breede them vp, and so increase infinitely, & of ten, become an hundred.

But, what is this to the purpose (may some man say?) Let vs suppose that they that are sent into Co­lonies, would not encrease their Countrey, if they tarried at home? How should they then encrease it, when they are sent thence abroad to other pla­ces? well vno [...]gh. First, because Colonies with their mother, out of which they yssued, make, as it were, [Page 35] but one bodie. Then next, because the loue of our originall Countrey, which euerie man affecteth, and the dependencie thereof (which many waies help) and the desire and hope to aspire to dignitie and ho­nour, which euermore draw vnto it the worthiest & most noble minds. By which meanes the Countrey growes to be more populous and rich.

Who can denie, but that the 30. Colonies, that ys­sued as it were out of one stocke, from Alba Longa, Alba longa, and so many desides as Rome hath sent out; brought not much magnificencie and greatnesse, both to the one and the other? And, that the Portugalls yssued out of Lysbone, to possesse and inhabit the Ilands of Astori, Capo Verde, Medera, and others; haue not am­plified and encreased Lys bone a great deale more, than if they had neuer remooued thence to those same Ilands?

How beit, true it is, if Colonies must increase their mother; It is verie necessarie then they beeneere neighbors: otherwise, through longe distance of place, loue waxeth cold, and all commerce is cut off cleane. And, therefore the Romanes for the space of 600. yeeres, sent not a Colonie out of Italy, andThis chat­ter here mē ­cioned, is written at large in the end of this bo [...]ke. the first were Carthage and Narbona; as is at large be fore declared, in my sixt Booke Di Ragion di stato, in the [...]hapter of Colonies.

And these be the means, wherewith the Romanes either through their singuler dexteritie, or excellent wits haue drawne strange Nations vnto their Cittie. Let vs now speake of the meanes that other Nations also, aswell as they, haue vsed in this case; where it [Page 36] shall not bee from the purpose, that we beginne at Religion first, as at the thing, that ought to be the head and spring of all our workes and actions.

CAP. III. Of Religion.

REligion, and the worshippe of God, is a thing so necessary & of such importance; as without all doubt, it not onely draweth a number of people with it, but also causeth much commerce together. And, the Cities that in this kinde excell and florish in authoritie and reputacion aboue others: haue also the better meanes to encrease their power & glory.

Hierusalem (as Plinie writeth) was the chiefest & most florishing Citie of all the East, and principally for religion, whereof she was the Metropolitan, as also of the kingdome. The high priests, the prelates & the Leuites, kept there their residence; there of­fered they their beasts: there celebrated they their Sacrifices, & rendered vnto God their prayers & pe­ticions; thyther repayred thrise a yeare, all the peo­ple2. Millions and a halfe of people in Hierusalem which was but 4. myles about. almost of Israell. Insomuch as Iosephus reckoneth, that at the time that Titus Vespasian laid his siege vn­to it, there were in the Citie two millions & a halfe of people: a nūber in truth very strange, that I may not say incredible, in respect the Citie was not much a­boue 4 miles about. But, it is written by a man that [Page 37] might haue perfect knowledge of it, and had no cause to lye.

Ieroboam, when he was chosen King of Israel, ad­uisedly considering his subiects could not liue with­out exercise of religion & vse of sacrifice, and that, if they should repayre to Hierusalem to celebrate and make their sacrifice, his people wold soon vnite thē ­selues with the Tribe of Iuda, and the house of Da­uid: casting religiō off, he set vp straight Idolatry. For, he caused to be made two calues of gold, &, sending thē to the vttermost parts of his kingdome, turning to his people, he sayd vnto them: Nolite vltra ascen­dere in Hierosolimam: Ecce dij tui Israel qui te eduxe­runt de terra Aegypti.

Religion is of such force & might to amplifie Ci­ties, to amplifie Dominions, and of such a vertue at­tractiue: that Ieroboam, to giue no place to his com­petitor, in this part of allurement & entertainmēt of the cōpanie, impiously brought in Idolatrie in place of true religion. And this man was the first, that, for desire to reigne, did openly tread downe the lawe, and all due worship vnto God, and thereof gaue a lewd example to posteritie: A notable note in truth, not so much of follye, as of extreame impiety.

Some that arrogat too much wisedome to them­selus in matters of state and gouernment, spare not to say and teach, that, to hold the subiects in due obe­diēce to their Prince, mans witt & pollicye preuai­leth more, then dyuine or godly counsell: A speech & an inuention in very truth, rather of a miscreant & caterpiller of a common weale, than of a louer and [Page 38] a fauorer of the maiesty of a state. For, such are the Ruines of Kings, the plague of Kingdomes; the scan­dall of Christianitye; the sworne enemyes of the church, nay rather of God, against whōe, to the Imi­tacion of the ancient Gyants, they build vp a new Tower vnto Babell; which shall breed and bring vn­to them, in the end, confusion and vtter Ruine. Qui habitat in coelis irridebit eos, & dominus sub [...]anna­bit eos. Heare ye Princes, what the prophet Isay sayth of the councellors of King Pharao. Sapientes consiliarij Pharaonis, dederunt consilium insipiens: Dece­perunt Aegyptū, angulum populorum eius. Dominus mis­cuit in medio eius spiritum vertiginis, & errare fecerunt Aegyptū in omni opere suo, sicut errat ebrius vomens.

Yf this place would suffer it, I could easilie shew, that the greatest part, of the losse of States and ruines of christian Princes, haue proceeded of this accursed variance in religion. Through the which we are disarmed and depriued of the protection and fauor of allmighty God; And, haue thrust into the hands of the Turkes and Irreligious people. [...], the weapons and the scourges of Gods diuine Iustice against vs. But it sufficeth here to aduise Princes, that tread down the lawes of God by that preposterous & wicked kinde of gouernment; that they learne of Ieroboam, & feare the issue of him, whose acts they imitate: that they may hereafter the better beware by other mens harmes. For, in reuenge of his impietie, God raysed vp against Nadab his sonne▪ the King Baassa, who slew him and all his race. Non dimisit ne vnam qui [...]em animam de semine eius, donec deleret cam. But let vs [Page 39] returne where we left.

Of what strength and power, to make a place po­pulous, Religion proues to be, and to haue the opi­nion of some famous relique, or notable argument and token of Gods diuine assistance, or some autho­ritie in the administration and gouernment of eccle­siasticall causes: Loretto in Italie, Saint Michaell in France; Guadalup, Monferrato & Compostella in Spayne, doe all of thmēdeclare and manifest it plaine; and ma­ny places moe besides, though solitary and desert, though sharpe and rocky: vnto the which, for no respect but for deuotion sake and pietie, people dai­ly do resort infinitelie in flockes frō the farthest parts that are.

And no maruaile, if you looke into it thoroughly. For, there is not any thing in this world of more ef­ficacy and force to allure and draw to it the harts of men, then God, which is the Summum bonum. He is carefully desired and sought for continually of all creatures whatsoeuer, with soule or without. For, all regard him as their last end: Light things, seeke their Summum bonum aboue; heauy things, beneath, within this centre of the earth; the heauens, in their Orbiculary period. Reuolucions; the Hearbes, in their flowers; the Trees in their fruits: Beasts, in the preseruacion of their kinde; and man, in seeking his tranquillitie of minde and euerlasting ioye.

But, forasmuch as God is of so hyghe a nature, as the sense of man cannot attaine it▪ so sh [...]ning bryght, as the eye of mans vnderstanding cānot conceaue it euery man directly turnes him to that place, where [Page 40] he leaues some print of his power, or declares some signe of his assistance; which ordinarily haue been and are seen in the mountaines, or the deserts.

Is not then Rome indebted much for her magnifi­cencyRome. and greatnes, to the blood of the Martyres? to the reliques of Saints? to the holy consecrated places? and to the supreame authoritie in beneficiall and spirituall causes? Would she not become a very wildernes, if the opinion of the holines of the places▪ drew not the innumerable sight of people from the vttermost parts of the Earth? Would she not be­come a desert, if the Apostolicall seat, and the power of the keyes, caused not an inestimable multitude of people dayly to repaire vnto it, for some buisines or other?

Mylan, a most populous and famous Citie, shall e­uer be a witnes what praise and glorie, and how much encrease it hath gotten, by the singuler pietie and religious life of that great Cardinall Borromeus. Princes resorted, euen from the vttermost ends of the South, to visite him; Byshops made accesse from all parts, to consult with him for his opinion in any controuersies that sprang amongst them; The Cler­gie likewise harkned vnto his counsells; And the re­ligious people of all nations, held Milan for their country, and the house of that godly man for their Port, his liberality for their refuge, and his godly life, for a most faire and cleare glasse of ecclesiasticall discipline for al men to looke into, and to take exam­ple by.

I should happely be too long, if I should declare [Page 41] vnto you with what singuler praise and comendati­on, he celebrated euery yeare his Synodes, and with what magnificency he visited euery yeare his Pro­uinces, how many churches he eyther built new, or being old, set in good order; how many he adorned and bewtified: How many monasteries of men and women he erected; how many well ordered Col­ledges of young men, & Seminaries of priests he in­stituted; how many sorts of Academies he set vp and foūded, to the inestimable good of the people; How many kindes of entertainments and promotions he bestowed vpon arts, and on artificers; And, I should neuer end, if I should recount the manner and the meanes wherewith, by amplifying Gods seruice and aduācing of religion, he encreased also the City, and doubled the concourse of people vnto Milan.

CAP. IIII. Of Schooles and Studies.

THe commodity of learned Schooles, is of no small moment to draw people, especially young men to a Citie, of whose greatnes we are in speech. For, inasmuch as there be twoo meanes for men of wit and courage to rise by to some degree of honor and reputation in the world, the one by armes▪ the other by booke: the first is sought for in the field, with the speare & the sword; and the last, in the Academy, with pen and booke.

And, forasmuch as men long for honor, or for pro­fit: [Page 42] And of liberall arts and sciences, some bring cer­taine wealth to men, and some promotions and pre­ferments to honorable functions: It is a thing of no small importance; that in a Citie there be prouided an Academy or such a schoole, as young men, desi­rous to attaine to vertue and learning, may thereby haue occasion to repaire, rather thither, than to any other place. And that wilbe effected soone, if be­sides the commodity of the schoole and good tea­chers, they may enioy▪ conueniēt immunities & pri­uiledges: I say conuenient, for that I would not haue impunitie afforded vnto faults, nor licence geuen to fall to vice and wickednes, but honest libertie allow­ed to them, that they may the more commodiously and cheerefully attend their studies.

For, to say truth, studie is a matter of great labor and trauaile, both of the minde & body. And ther­vpon, our forefathers in times past, called the God­desse of Artes & Sciences Minerua, bycause the toyl [...] of speculation, weakeneth the strength, and cutts the synewes: For, an afflicted body afflicteth many times the minde, whereof groweth melancholy and sadnes. And therefore it standes with good reason, that all conuenient priuiledge and libertie be gran­ted vnto schollers, that may maintaine thē in contē ­ted & cherefull mindes: but no dissolutenes▪ allowed in any wise vnto them▪ whereof the Academies in Italie are growen too full. For, the penne is there turned into a poynado; and the penner, into a flaske and tutch-box for a gunne: the disputations, in to bloody brawlings; the Scholes, into listes; and the [Page 43] Schollers, into cutters and to hacksters: Honesty is there flowted at and scorned: and bashfulnes & modesty, accounted a discredit and a shame. [...] that a young man that were like ynough to lead the modest and sober life of a good student, shall haue much to do, if he scape to be vndone. But, let vs leaue complaints: And yet I must needes say thus much first, no Academy can florish aright, without quar­rels, cards and dice be banisht quite, & clean cast out.

Francis the first, king of France, bycause the schol­lers of the vniuersity of Paris (which in his time were almost an infinite sight) should haue commodi­tie and meanes to take the ayre, and to recreate thē ­selues with honest exercises; he assigned them a great meadow neere the Cittie, and the Riuer; where without let or trouble to them, they might disport and solace themselues at their will and pleasure. There they fell to wrastling, there they plaid at the barriers, at the ball and the foote ball; there did they cast the sled, and leape and runne, with such cheere­fullnes and pastime, as it delighted the beholders thereof, no lesse then themselues. And so ceaseth by this meanes, the clatter and the noyse of weapons and of Armor, and also playe at cardes and dice.

For the same reasons, it is necessarie that the Citie wherein you will found an Academy, be of an wholesome ayre, and of a pleasant and delightful [...] [...]ci­tuatiō; where there may be both riuers, fountaines, springs, and woods. For, these things▪ of themselues without any other helpe, are apt to delight & chere vp the spirits and mindes of Students. Such were [Page 44] in times past, Athens and Rhodes, where all good artes and learning florished most aboue all other.

Galeazzo Viscount (besides these inuitings and al­lurements,) being earnestly desirous to illustrate and appopulate Pauia, was the first that forbad his subiects, vnder a great paine, to goe any where else to studie: which course, some Princes else of Italie, haue since his time followed.

But these are meanes full of distrust and trouble. The honorable and notable meanes to reteine sub­iects in their country, and to draw strangers also home to it, is to procure them meanes of honest re­creation, to prouide them plenty of victuall to main­taine to them their priui [...]edges, to giue them occasi­on to ryse to degrees of honor by their learned exer­cises, to make account of good wi [...]ts▪ and to reward them well: but aboue all, to store them with plenty of doctors and learned men of great fame and repu­tation.

The great Pompey was not ashamed to enter into the Schooles. For, after he had conquered all the East, he went to the Schooles at Rhodes to heare the professors there dispute.

But, for a far greater reason, Sigismond king of Po­lonia gaue a strait commaundement, that none of his subiect [...] should wander abroad out of his kingdome to study any where else. (And the King of Spaine. Catholique king commaunded the like not many yeares since.) And it was to this end▪ that his Subiects should not be infected with the New Doctrine. Sectes. Heresies that beganne in the time of king Sigismond, and are at the heigth in these [Page 45] our dayes throughout all the Prouinces of the North.

CAP. V. Of the place of Iustice.

OVr liues, our honor, and our sub­stance, are all in the hands of the Iudge. For, loue and charitie fayling in all places; the violence & couetousnes of wicked men doth daily the more encrease: from whome, if the iudges doe not defend vs, our busines what soeuer we do, will ill go forward. For this cause, Cities that haue royall audience, Senators, Parlia­ments or other sorts and kindes of Courts of Iustice, must needes be much frequented; aswell for con­course of people that haue cause of Suite vnto it, as also for the execution of iustice. For, it cannot be ministred without the helpe of many presidents▪ I meane, Senators, Aduocates, Proctors, Sollicitors, Notaries and such like. Nay more then that (which it greeues me to thinke on) Expedition of iustice cannot be had in these our daies, without ready mo­ney. For nothing in the world doth make men run so fast as currant money. For, the Adamāt is not of such force to draw Iron vnto it, as gold is to turne the eyes & the mindes of men, this way, & that way and which way they list. And the reason is plaine, bycause gold, euen thorough the very vertue thereof, conteineth in it all greatnes, all cōmodities, and all earthly good [Page 46] whatsoeuer: To be short, he that hath money, hath, you may say, all worldly things that are to be had.

In these dayes, through the plenty of money, which the administration of iustice doth carry with it, the Metropolitan Cities, if they may not haue the whole administration of Ciuile and Criminall causes: they will yet reserue at least vnto them, the chiefest causes, and all appeales. Which is well done for matter of State (whereof the iudiciall authority is a principall member; by the meanes whereof, they are the patrones and protectors of the life and goods of the Subiect:) But there must be a regard to the proffit that we haue poynted at.

This goes currant in all places, especially where in iudiciall causes they do proceed, according to the common vse and cours of the lawes of the Romans: For, that course and forme is longer, and requireth more Ministers than the other.

In England and Scotland, but especially in Turky, where a short course is taken in tryall of causes, euen as it were, at the first sitting of the Iudge: It profiteth little, to encrease the greatnes of a Citie, to hold pleas there. Forasmuch as difficult and hard cau­ses, are in an after none, as it were, decided there and ended, if sufficient witnes be produced at the hea­ring of the cause. These adiornaments and many Termes, are there cut off: And Instruments, Pro­cesse, Officers and Mediators, haue there no place. Within a few blowes giuen, they come to the halfe Sword. So that the time, the expence, and the num­ber of persons, are far lesse and much fewer, then [Page 47] the ciuile Lawes do require.

I speake not these things, to the end I would haue causes prolonged, and suites made eternall. For, they are to long already without more a doe: And in doing iustice; delay (which receiueth no excuse, by colour or pretence of warines and care to commit no error) is very plaine Iniustice. And therefore in our Citie we speake of here, it shalbe very necessary and expedient, to haue in it a principall seate of Iu­stice and course of suites and pleas depending in it.

CAP. VI. Of Industrie.

FOrasmuch as I haue already suffici­ently sayd my minde concerning In­dustrie and Art, in mine 8. booke of the Reason of state, wherein I haue at large discoursed concerning the propagation of States: I will therefore for breuitie sake, refer the gentle reader vnto that same chapter▪

Bycause the Chapter aboue mencio­ned, is pertinent to the purpose; and happely the reader hereof may longe as much to vnderstande it, as be desirous to read this booke: I haue thought good, aswell for the coherencie of the matter, as for the satisfaction of the reader, to in­sert it here in this place▪

Of Industrie. CAP. III. LIB. VIII.

THere is not a thing of more importance to encrease a state, and to make it both po­pulous of Inhabitants, and rich of all good things; than the industrie of men, and the multitude of Artes; of which, some are necessary; some commodious for a ciuile life; other some for a Pompe and ornament; and other some for delicacy, wan­tonnes, and entertainment of idle persons; by the meanes whereof doth follow, con [...]ourse both of mony, and of people, that labor and worke, or trade that is wrought, or minister and supply matter to Laborers and worke-men; or buy, or sell, or transport from one place to another, the artificious and cunning parts of the wit and hand of man.

Selim, the first, Emperor of the Turkes, to appopulate and ennoble Constantinople, procured some thousand of excellent Artificers to send vnto it, first from the kings Citie of Tauris, and after from the great Cayrus. The Polonians were also of that same minde. For, when they elected Henrie Duke of Angio for their King; amongst o­ther things which they required of him, one was, that he should bring with him into Polonia, an hundred families of good Artificers.

And, for asmuch as Art doth contend and striue withQuestion. nature, a man may here well aske me, which of these twoo do most import to encrease a place with multitude of peo­ple;Resolution. the fruitfulnes of the Land, or the Industrie of man? The Industrie of man without all doubt. First, for that [Page 49] such things as are wrought by the cūning hand of man, are of much more, and of far greater price and estimation, then such things as nature doth produce. For asmuch as nature giueth the matter and the subiect, but the Art and Cunning of man, giueth an vnspeakable variety of formes and fashions.

Wooll, is but a simple fruit and rude of nature: but,Wooll. what a sight of good things, and what variety and sundry formes and fashions, doth Art make therof? How many and how great commodityes, doth the Industrye of the Clo­thier draw out of it, who doth get it carded, pickt, spunne, warpt, weaued, dyed, fulled, thickt, fashioned, and formed after a thousand wayes. And do not the transportation of it from place to place encrease a great proffit too?

Sylke, is also a simple fruit of nature: But, what vari­etyeSilke. of most gallant & beautifull cloathes doth Art frame thereof? It makes the very excrement of a base and baggage worme, hyghly esteemd with Princes, and greatly apprizde of Queenes; to be short, it makes euery man to braue him and bedeck him in it.

A number of more people far, do liue vpon their In­dustrye and labor, then vpon their rents or reuenewes. Whereof, many Cities in Italie can beare good witnes: but principally Venice, Florence, Genoua, and Mylan, of whose magnificency & greatnes I will not speake here: And yet with the Art and skill to dresse Sylke and Woll, two third parts in a manner, of the Inhabitants amongst them, do liue vpon it.

But, to passe out of the Cities vnto the prouinces: They that haue made [...]n exact account of the strēgth of Frāce, say, the fruits of that kingdome amount to 15. millions of [Page 50] Crownes a yeare. And they themselues affirme, that France hath in it more then 15. millions of Soules. But, admit it haue no more then 15. By that reckoning, there should be one Crowne a peece for euerye Powle. All therest then must needes proceed of Industrie. But who is so voyde of reason, that hee sees not this in all things?

The reuenew gotten out of the Iron Mynes, is not the greatest. But of the proffit that is drawē out of the worke, and vpon the trade and traffique thereof, a number of peo­ple liue and are maintained; such I meane, as digge it out of the Myne, scowre it, melt it, forge it, cast it, sell it by whole sale, or by retayle; Such as make engynes thereof for Warre; Armor for defence and offence; And an innume­rable kynde of Iron workes and tooles besides, for husban­drye, for building, and for all manner of Artes, for daily vse and busines, and for Innumerable necessities of life, that haue no lesse neede of Iron, then of bread: In somuch as he that should compare the reuenews the owners reape of their Iron Mynes, with the proffit the Artificers draw out of the workemanship thereof, and the merchants with their Industrie (and hereof the Princes are mightely en­riched also, by the custome that growes vpō it) shall finde, that Industrie and Art exceedeth Nature far.

Compare Marble with the Images, with the Colosses, with the Pillers, the caruing, and the infinite and curious workemanship, the Artificers doe set vpon it: Compare Tymber with the Gallies, Galliownes, Ships, and other vessels of infinit sorts and kindes, both for warre, burden, and for pleasure: together with the carued Images, furni­tures of house and other things without count, that are built and made thereof, with the plane, the chisell, the [Page 51] caruing toole, and turners wheele: Compare colors with the Pictures, & the price of thē, with the worth of the colors: And you shall soone perceaue how much more the workmā ­ship is worth than the matter: And what a number of peo­ple are maintained more vpon the meanes of Art, thē vpon the immediat benefit of Nature. Zeuxes the excellent paynter, gaue his best workes away for nought, bycause he valued them aboue any pryce that could be set vpon them.

At a word, such a wealth there is in Art and Industry, that neither the mynes of Siluer, nor the mynes of gold in Noua Hispania nor in Peru, can be compared with it. And the custome of the merchandize of Milan, bringes more mony to the king of Spaines cofers, than the Mines of Zagateca and of Salisco.

Italy is a prouince, in which (as I haue before declared) there is not a myne to speake of, neither of gold nor siluer: No more there is in France. And yet both the one and the other, through the helpe and meanes of Art and In­dustrie, abound exceedingly in mony, wealth and Trea­sure.

Flaunders also hath no vaines of Mettall; And yet, before the troubles there, while it stood in peace and qui­etnes; for, and in respect of the number and the sundry and the admirable workes there wrought with inestima­ble Art and Cunninge; It gaue not a iot of ground to the mynes of Hungary, nor yet of Transiluania. There was not a Country throughout all Europe, neither more rich, nor more inhabited then it: no not one part of Europe, nor of the world, that had so many good Cities, so great and so well frequented of forreiners and strangers. So that, not without good cause, by reason of the incompara­ble [Page 52] treasure the Emperor Charles drew out of it, some called those countryes, the Emperors Indies.

Nature bringeth forth her formes in Materia prima: And mans Art and cunning, worketh vpon the naturall compound, a thousand kindes of artificiall formes. For, nature is to the workeman, the same, that Materia pri­ma is to the naturall agent. A Prince therefore that will make his City populous, must draw to it all sorts & kindes of Art & cunning. Which he shall bring to passe, if he bring out of other countries excellent artificers, & giue thē en­terteinment & conueniēt seate to dwell vpon: if he reckon of good witts, and est [...]eme of singuler and rare inuentions and workemanship: if other while also he doe reward per­fection and excellen [...]y in things of Art and cunning.

But aboue all things, it is very necessarie the Prince suffer not rude & vnwrought things to be caried out of his domi­nion, Viz: neither Wooll, nor Silke, nor Timber, nor Mettall, nor any other such like thing. For, with such mat­ter, the artificers will also goe away. And, vpon the trade of vnwrought stuffe or matter, liue a greater nūber, than vpō the simple matter it selfe alone. And the Princes reuenew comes to be much greater, by the exstraction of the worker, than by the stuffe or matter: As for example by the Vel­uets, then by the Silkes; by the Rash, thē by the Woolles; by the Linnen, then by the Flaxe; by the Cordage, than by the Hempe.

The Kings of England, and of France, aware of these things, not many yeares since made a law against the cary­ing out of Woolles out of their dominions. And the King of Spaine did afterward the like. But these lawes could not be obserued so strictly by and by. For, these [Page 53] prouinces abounding with an infinite deale of fine Wooll, they had not so many workemen, as could ouer come it all. And although the Princes afore said happely made this law for their owne particuler good, bycause the profit and the custome that ryseth of the clothes, is far greater then that, which riseth of the wooll alone: yet notwithstanding, this lawe was good for the benefit of the whole countrie; inas­much as a nūber of people more, doe liue vpon the wrought cloathes, then vpon the rude and vnwrought Wooll, out of which, growes the riches and the greatnes of the King. For, the multitude of people, is it, that makes the Earth fruitfull, and it, that with the hand and with Art, giueth a thousand formes to the naturall stuffe or matter.

And thus far the 3. chapter of the 8. booke of Boterus, of the reason of State.

CAP. VII. Of Priuiledges.

THe people are in these our daies so greeuously opprest and taxed by their Princes, who are driuen to it, partly of couetousnes and partly of necessitie that they greedely imbrase the least hope that may be of priuiledge and freedōe whensoeuer it is offered. Whereof the Martes, Faiers and Markets beare good witnesse, which are frequented with a mighty concourse of trades men, marchants and people of all sorts, not for any respect else, but that they are there free and franke from [Page 54] customes and exactions.

In our daies, the Princely Citie of Naples, through the exemptions and freedomes granted to the Inha­bitants, is most notably encreased, both in buildings and in people: And it would haue encreased a great deale more, if through the greeses and suits of the Barons there, whose lāds were vnfurnished of peo­ple, or for some other peculiar reason; the King of Spaine had not seuerely forbidden to enlarge it with further buildings.

The Cities in Flaunders, are the most merchant­able and the most frequented Cities for commerce and traffique, that are in all Europe. Yf you require the cause: surely, the exemptions from custome is the cheefest cause of it. For, the merchandize that is brought in, and carried out (and it is infinit that is brought in, and carryed out) payd but a very small custome.

All such as haue erected new Cities in times past; to draw concourse of people to it; haue graunted of necessitie, large Immunities and priuiledges, at least, to the first Inhabitants thereof. The like haue they done, that haue restored Cities emptied with the plague, consumed with the warres, or afflicted otherwise with some other scourge of God.

The plague mencioned by Boccas, that languished all Italie neere 3. yeares together, was so fierce; that from March to Iuly, it tooke out of the world about an hundred thousand soules within Florence. It slew also such a number within Venice, as in a maner it became a desert. So that the Senat, to haue it [Page 55] reinhabited, caused proclamation to be made, that all such as would come thither with their families, and dwell there two yeares together, should haue the freedome of the Citie. The same cōmon weale of Venice, hath been also more than once deliuered out of extreame necessitie of victualls, by promising priuiledge and freedome to such as brought them corne.

CAP. VIII. Of hauing in her possession some merchandize of moment.

IT will also greatly helpe to drawe people to our Citie, if shee haue some good store of vendible mer­chandize alwaies in her possession. Which happely may be, where, through the goodnes of the soyle, either all of it doth grow, or a great part, or that at least, which is more excellent than other: All, as theCloues. Incense. Balsame. Pepper. Sinamom. Salt. Suger. Wooll. Cloues in the Moluccaes: the Frankinsence and sweet smelling goomes in Sabea: the Balsam in Palestin: Or where a good part of it doth grow▪ as Pepper doth in Calicut, and Sinamom in Zeilan: or where it is most excellent, as Salt is in Ciprus: Sugers at Madera; and Wooll in some Cities of Spaine and England. There is also to be added vnto this, the excellencie of Art and workemanship; which, through the qualitie of the water, or the skill & cunning of the Inhabitants, or some hidden misterie of theirs, or other such like [Page 56] cause; chaunceth to be in one place more excellent then another: As the Armor in Damascus and in Scy­ras; Armor. Tapestry. Veluet. Cloth of gold ad sil­uer. Ch [...]a. Tapestrie in Arras; Rash in Florence; Veluets in Genoa; Cloth of Gold and Siluer in Milan; and Scarlet in Venice.

And to this purpose I cannot passe it ouer, but I must declare vnto you, that in China, all Artes in a maner, florishe in the highest decree of excellency that may be, for many reasons, but amongst the rest, chiefely for this, bycause the children are bound to follow their fathers mistery and trade. So that, foras­much as they are borne, as it were, with a resolute minde to follow their fathers Art, & the fathers hide not from them any thing, but teach them & instruct them with all affection, assiduity, diligence and care: workmāship is by this meanes there growen to that fulnes of excellency and perfectiō that may be possi­bly desired. As it may be seene in these fewe workes that are brought out of China, to the Philipinas, from the Philipinas, to Mexico, & from Mexico, to Siuile. But let vs returne to our purpose.

There are also some other Cities, maisters of some commodities; not bycause the goods do growe in their coūtrie, or be wrought by their inhabitāts; but bycause they haue the cōmaund either of the coun­trie, or of the Sea that is neere them: the commaund of the Countrie, as Siuil, vnto which infinit wealth and riches are brought from Noua Hispania & Perù: the commaund of the Sea, as Lisborne, which by this meanes draweth to it the Pepper of Cocin, and the [...]i­namom of Zeilan, and other riches of the Indies, [Page 57] which cannot be brought by Sea, but by them, or vnder their leaue and lycence.

After the same sort in a manner, Venice, about a fower score and tenne yeares agone, was Lady of the Spyceries. For, before the Portugalls possessed the Indies, these things being brought by the Red Sea to Suez, and from thence vpon Camells backes to Cayrus, and after that by Nilus, into Alexandria; there were they bought vp by the Venetians, who sent thither their great Argosyes, and with incredi­ble proffit to them, caryed them in a manner, into all the partes of Europe.

But all this commerce and trade, is now quite turnde to Lisborne; vnto which place, by a new way, the Spiceries, (taken as it were, out of the hands of the Moores and the Turkes) be yearely brought by the Portugalls, & then sold to the Spaniards, French­men, Englishmen, and to all the Northerne partes. This commerce and trade is of such Importance, as it alone is inough to enrich all Portugall, & to make it plentifull of all things.

There are some other Cities also, Lords as it were, of much merchandize and Traffique, by meanes of their commodious Scituation to many Nations, to whome they serue of warehouse Roome and stoare houses; such are Malacca and Ormuze in the East; Alexandria, Constantinople, Messina, and Genoa in the Mediterranean Sea, Andwerpe, Amsterdam, Danske, and the Narue in the Northerne Seas; and Franckford and Norimberg in Germany. In which Cities, many and great merchants exercise their tra­ffique [Page 58] and make their ware houses; vnto the which the nations thereūto adioyning vse to resort to make their prouisions of such things as they neede, by­cause they haue commodious meanes for transpor­tation of it. And this consisteth in the largenes and the safenes of the Ports; in the opportunitie and fytnesse of the Gulphes and Creekes of the Seas; in the nauigable Riuers that come into the Cities, or runne by or neere them; in the Lakes and the Cha­nels: As also where the wayes be playne and safe.King of Cusco.

And heere to the purpose, bycause I speake of wayes, I cannot passe ouer those two wayes, which the Kings of Cusco (called in their language, Inghe,) in longe processe of time cut out throughout their dominion, about 2000▪ miles in length, so pleasant, so commodious, so plaine, and so leuell; as they giue no place to the magnificent workes of the Romans. For, there shall you see steepe and high hylles, layd euen with the plaine; and deepe valleyes filled vp; and horrible huge stones cut in peeces: There shall you see the trees, that are planted heere and there, in excellent good order euen by a lyne, yeald both with their shade, a comfort; and with the charme of the birds, that there abound in great plenty, a mar­uailous delight and pleasure to the trauailers that passe those waies. Neither are there wanting on those waies, many good Innes for lodging & for en­tertainment, plentifull of all necessary things; Nor Pallaces and goodly buildings, that in eminent and open places, as it were to meete you, present you with a pleasant and bewtifull shew of their excellen­cye [Page 59] and rarenes; nor pleasant Towne [...], nor sweete countries, nor a thousand other delights and plea­sures to feede both the eye with varietie, and the minde with admiration at the infinit effects, partly wrought by nature, and partly by the handy worke of man. But, to returne to our purpose.

It is a good matter and a great helpe to a Prince, to know the naturall Scite of his countrie, and with iudgment to haue an vnderstanding how to amend it by art and industrie. As for example, to defend his Ports with Rampiers and with Bulwarkes; to make the Ladyng and vnladyng of Merchandize both quick and easie; to scoure the Seas of Pyrates and of Rouers; to make the Riuers nauigable; to build storehouses apt and large ynough to conteine great quantitie of wares; and to defend and main­taine the wayes, aswell on the plaines, as on the mountaynes and hilly places.

In this poynt, the Kings of China haue deserued all prayse that may be. For, they haue with an in­credible expence and charge, paued with stone all the highe waies of that most famous Kingdome; and haue made stone bridges ouer mighty great Riuers; And cut in sunder hilles and mountaines of inestima­ble heigth and craggednes; They haue also strewd the plaines and bottomes with very fayer stone: So that a man may there passe either on horse or a foote, aswell in the Winter as in the Sommer time, and merchandize may be easily carryed too and fro there, by loade, eyther on Cartes, or on Horse, Mules or Camels.

[Page 60]And in this point no doubt, some Princes in Italy are much to blame; in whose countries in the winter time, horses are bemired in sloughes vp to the bellie, and carts are stabled and set fast in the tough durte and myre. So that cariadges by cart or horse, are thereby very combersome: And a iorney that might be well dispatched in a day, can hardlie be perfor­med in three or fower. And the wayes are as bad in many parts of France, as in the country of Poytiers, Santongia, Beaussia, and in Burgondy. But this is no place to censure so famous Preuinces. And therefore let vs proceed.

CAP. IX. Of Dominion and power.

THe greatest meanes to make a Citie populous and great; is to haue a su­preame Authority & power: For, that draweth dependency with it, And dependency, concourse, & cōcourse greatnes: In the Cities that haue iurisdiction & pow­er ouer others; aswell the publique wealth, as the wealth of priuat men, is drawen by diuers Artes & meanes vnto them. Thyther doe repaire the Em­bassadors of Princes, & the agents of Dukes and cō ­mon weales▪ there are the greatest causes heard, as­well criminall as ciuile, and all appeales are brought to tryall there. There are the suits and causes, as­well of men of qualitie, as of the common weale and common persons debated, and decided. There­uenues [Page 61] of the State are there laid vp, and there spent out againe when there is need. The richest Citi­zens of other countries, seeke to ally themselues, and to get an habitation there.

Out of all which causes here recited, there must needes follow an abundance of wealth and riches; a most strong and forcible bayte to allure and drawe forth the marchants, the artificers, and the people of all sorts that liue vpon their labor and their seruice, to run amaine from the furthest coastes, vnto it. Af­ter this sort, a Citie soone encreaseth both in magni­ficency of building, in multitude of people, and a­bundance of wealth, and also groweth to the pro­portion of a principallity.

The truth whereof, these Cities all of them de­clare it plaine, that eyther haue had or haue any no­table iurisdiction in them, Pisa, Siena, Genoa, Luke, Florence, and Bressia: Whose countries do extend an hundred miles in length, and fortie in breadth, and not onely conteine the most fruitfull and fertile playnes, but also many rich and goodly valleis, ma­ny townes and castles, that haue aboue a thousandDraudius, sexce [...]ta milia. houses in them, and do feede very neere three hun­and fortie thousand persons: Many free and impe­riall Cities in Germany are like to these; Norimberg, Lubeck, and Augusta. And such was Ga [...]nt in Flan­ders, that, when the Standard was aduanst and spred, sent out at once an hundred thousand men of warre.

I speake not here of Sparta, Carthage, Athens, Rome, nor Venice; whose greatnes grew as fast as their pow­er: euen so far; that, to passe the rest, Carthage, in [Page 62] the height of her pride and glorie, was 24 myles a­bout; Carthage 24 miles a­bout. Rome 50. miles about besides the Suburbs. and Rome was 50 besides the Suburbes, which were in a manner so infinit and great, as, on the one side, they extended euen to Hostia, and on the other side in a manner to Ottricoli [...]; and round about they occupied and possessed a mighty deale of the coun­trye. But, let vs proceede. For, to this chapter, belongeth all that shalbe sayd hereafter, of the resi­dence of Princes.

CAP. X. Of the Residency of the Nobilitie.

AMongest other causes why the Cities of Italy are ordinarily greater then the Cities of France, or other parts of Europe; it is not of small importance this, that the gentlemen in Italy doe dwell in Cities; and in France, in their castles, which are for the most part Pallaices, com­passed and surrounded with moates full of water, and fenced with walles and towers sufficient to sus­teine a suddaine assault.

And although the noble men of Italy, doe also themselues magnificently dwell in the villages, as you may see, about the countries of Florence, Venice, and Genoa, which are full of buildings, both for the worthynes of the matter, and the excellencie of the workemanshippe, fit to bee an ornament and an honour rather to a Kingedome, than to a Cittie: yet not withstanding, these buildings generally, are more sumptuous and more common in France, then [Page 63] they are in Italy. For, the Italion deuideth his expence and indeuours, part in the Citie, part in the country, but the greater part he bestowes in the Citie. But, the Frenchman imployes all that he may, wholy in the country, regarding the Citie little or nothing at all. For, an Inne serues his turne whē he needs. How be­it, experiēce teacheth the residence of noblemen in Cities, makes them to be more glorious & more po­pulous; not onely by cause they bring their people & their families vnto it, but also more, bycause a noble man dispendeth much more largely, through the accesse of friends vnto him, and through the emula­tion of others in a Citie where he is abiding, and visi­ted continually by honorable personages, then he spendeth in the country, where he liueth amongst the bruite beasts of the field, and conuerseth with plaine country people, and goes apparelled amongst them in plaine and simple garments. Gorgeous and gallant buildings necessarily must also follow, and sundry arts of all sorts and kynds must needs encrease to excellency and full perfection in Cities, where noblemen do make their residence.

For this cause, the Inga of Perù, that is, the king of Perù, meaning to enoble and make great his roy­all Citie of Cusco: would not only that his Cacichi andCusco, a princely Ci­tie in Perù. Cacicha, viceroy, or Lieuetenāt. his Barrons should inhabite there; but he did also command that euery one of them should erect and build a Pallace therein, for their dwelling; which when they had performed, each striuing with the other, who should erect the fairest; that Citie in short time grew with most princely buildings, to be mag­nificent [Page 64] and great. Some Dukes of Lombardy, haue in our daies attempted such a thing.

Tygranes King of Armenia, when he set vp theArmenia. Tygrano­certa, great Tygranocerta, enforst a great number of gentle­men and honorable persons, with others of great wealth and substance, to remooue themselues thy­ther withall their goods whatsoeuer, sending forth a solemne proclamation withall, that what goods so euer were not brought thither, and could be found of theirs else where, should be confiscat cleane.

And this is the cause, that Venice in short time, in­creasedVenice. so notably in her beginning. For, they that fled out of the countries there adioyning, into the Ilāds, where Venice is miraculously seated, as it were; were noble personages and rich, and thither did they carrie with them, all their wealth and substance; with the which, geuing themselues, thorough the opportunitie of that Gulfe, to nauigation and to traf­fique; they became within a while, owners and masters of the Citie, and of the Ilands thereunto ad­ioyning; and with their wealth and riches, they ea­sily enobled the countrie with magnificent and gor­geous buildings, and with inestimable Treasure; And, in the end, brought it to that greatnes and power, in which we doe both see it, and admire it at this present.

CAP. XI. Of the Residencie of the Prince.

FOr the very selfe same causes we haue a little before declared, in the chap­ter of dominion and power; it doth infinitely auaile, to the magnifying and making Cities great and popu­lous, the Residency of the Prince therein; accor­ding to the greatnes of whose Empire, she doth in­crease. For, where the Prince is resident, there also the Parliaments are held; and the supreame place of iustice is there kept; all matters of importance haue recourse to that place; all Princes and all persons of account, Embassadors of Princes and of common weales, and all Agents of Cities that are subiect, make their repaire thither; all such as aspire and thirst after offices and honors run thither amaine with emula­tion and disdaine at others; thither are the reue­newes brought that appertain vnto the state; & there are they disposed out againe. By all which meanes, Cities must needs encrease a pace it may easiely be conceiued by the examples in a maner, of all the Ci­ties of Importance and of name.

The ancientest kyngdōe, was that of Aegipt, whoseEgipt the ancientest Kingdome. Thebes. Memphis. Princes kept their Court partly in Thebes, and partly in Memphis. By meanes whereof those two Cities grewe to a mightie greatnes, and to beautifull and sumptuous buildings; Forasmuch as Thebes (which Homer calles poetically the Citie of a hundred gates)Thebes 17. miles about. was in circuit (as Diodorus writeth) 17. miles about, [Page 66] and was beautified with prowd & stately buildings, both publique and priuate, and also full of people. And Memphis was but little lesse.

In after ages, other kings succeding (which were called Ptolomei) they kept their court in Aelxandria, Alexan­dria. which did by that meanes mightilie increase in buildings, in people, in reuerent reputation taken of it, and in inestimable wealth and riches; and the other two Cities afforesaid, that by the ruine of that kingdome, falling first vnder the Caldaeians, and after­ward vnder the Persians, were exceedingly decaied, are now vtterly defaced

The Soldanes after that forsaking Alexandria, drew themselues to Cayrus, which, euen for this very causeCayrus. became (within a little time to speake of) a Citie so populous, as it hath gotten, not without good cause, the name of the great Cayrus. But the Soldanes, bycause they thought themselues not to be secure, in respect of the innumerable multitude, if so great a people should perchance rise vp in armes against them; deuided it with large and many dicthes filled full of water, so that it might appeare not to be one Citie alone, but many little townes vnited and ioyned together. ‘At this daie it is deuided into [...].Draudi­us. townes, a little mile distant one from another, whose names are these: Bulacco, old Cayrus, and new Cay­rus. It is said there are 16. thousand, or (as Ariosto writeth) 18. thousand great streets in it, that are eue­rieThe great­nes of Cay­rus. night shut vp with iron gates. It may be 8 miles about, within which compasse, for that these people dwell not so at large, nor so commodiously for ease [Page 67] as we do, but for the most part within the ground, stowed vp as it were, and crowded and thrust toge­ther; there is such an infinit multitude of them, as they cannot be numbred.

The plague in a manner, neuer leaueth them; but euerie seauēth yeare they feele it most exceedingly. And, if it dispatch not out of the way aboue 3. hun­dred thousand, they count it but a flea▪byt. In the time of the Soldanes, that Citie was accounted to stand to health, when as there died not in it aboue a thousand persons in a daye. And let this suffice that I haue said of Cayrus, which is of so great a fame in the world at this day.

In Assiria, the Kings made their residence in Ni­niue:
Niniue 60. miles about.
whose circuit was 480. furlongs about, which comes to three score miles: And in length it was, (as Diodorus writeth) one hundred and fifty fur­longs. The Suburbes thereof no doubt, must needs besides that, be very large. For the Scripture af­firmeth that Niniue was great; three dayes iorney to passe it ouer. Diodorus writeth, there was neuer
any Citie after that, set vp of so great a circuit and of so huge a greatnes. For, the heighth of the walles was a hundred foote, the breadth able to conteine 3. cartes a brest together; Towers in the walles a thou­sand and fiue hundred, in heighth an hundred foot as Viues saith.

The residence of the Kings of Caldaeia, was in Ba­bilon.Babilon was 480▪ fur­longs in cir­cuit. This Citie was in compas foure hundred and foure-score furlongs; so writes Herodotus: her walls were wide fifty cubits; high two hundred & more. [Page 68] Aristotile maketh it much greater. For, he writes that it was said in his time, that when Babilon was taken, it was three daies eare one part tooke knowledge of the conquest. The people thereof were such a num­ber, as they durst offer battell vnto Cyrus, the greatest and the mightiest King for power that euer was of Persia. Semiramis did build it; but Nabucodonoser did mightely encrease it. When it was ruinated afterward at the comming in of the Scythians and o­ther people in those countries, it was reedified byCaliffe. one Bugiafar Emperor of the Saracines, who spent vpon it, 18. Millions of Gold. Giouius writeth that euen at this day it is greater then Rome, if you res­pect the compas of the ancient walles. But there are not only woodes to hunt in, and fieldes for tilladge, but also orchardes and large gardens in it.

The Kings of Media, made their residence in Ecba­tana: Media. Ecbatana. Persepolis. the Kings of Persia in Persepolis; of whose greatnes there is no other Argument then coniec­ture. In our time, the Kings of Persia haue madeTauris in Persia 16. miles in compas. their residence in Tauris. And, as their Empire is not so great as it hath been, so also neither is their Citie of the greatest. It is in compasse for all that, a­bout sixteene miles; yea some say more. It is also very long, and hath many gardens in it; but it is without any walle, a thing common, in a manner, to all the Cities in Perfia.

In Tartaria, and in the Orientall Asia, thoroughTartaria. the power of those great Princes, are far greater Cities, then in any parts else in the world. The Tartars hauea [...] this day two great Empyres, where­of the one is of the Mogoriā Tartars, the other of the [Page 69] Cataians. The Mogorian Tartars, haue in our timeMogora▪ Cataia. incredibly enlarged their dominion. For Mahamud their prince, not contēted with his ancient confines; sudued not many yeares since, in a manner all that e­uer lieth between Ganges & Indus. The chiefe Citie of Mogora, is Sarmarcāda, which was incredibly en­richedSarmarcan­da enriched by Tamber­lane. by the great Tamberlane, with the spoyles of all Asia; where, like an horrible tempest, or deadly raging flood, he threw down to the ground the most ancient & worthyest Cities, and carried from thence their wealth & riches; And, to speake of none other, he onely tooke from Damascus eight thousād Camells laden with rich spoyles, & choisest moueable goods.8000. Ca­mells laden with spoyle. 60. M. Draudius. This City hath been of such greatnes & power, that in some ancient reports wee read, it made out fortie thousād Horse; But, at this day, it is not of such mag­nificency & greatnes, through the dominion of the Empire. For, as after the death of the great Tamber­lane, it was sodainly deuided into many parts, by his sōnes: So is it likewise in our time deuided amongst the sonnes of Mahamud, who hath last of all subdued Cambaia.

And, forasmuch as I haue made mention of Cam­baia, I must tell you there are in that kingdome, twoThe King­dome of Cambaia. Citor. memorable Cities; the one is Cambaia, the other is called Citor. Cambaia, is of such greatnes, that it hath gotten the name of a prouince. Some write that it doth conteine one hundred and fiftie thousand houses; to the which allow as commonly the maner is, to euery house fiue persons, and it will then come to little lesse then eight hundred thousand inhabi­tants. But, some make it to be much lesse. How­beit, [Page 70] in any sort howsoeuer, it is a most famous Citie, the chiefest of a most rich kingdome, and the Seate of a most mighty King, that brought to the enterprise a­gainst Mahamud King of the Mogorians, fiue hundred thousand footemen; and a hundred and fifty thou­sand horsemen, whereof thirty thousand were ar­med after the manner of our men of armes.

Citor is 12. miles about, and is a Citie so magnifi­centCitor, a Ci­tie 12. miles about, of buildings, so beautifull for goodly streetes, and so full of delights and pleasures, that few other Cities do come neere it; and it is for that cause called by the people that inhabit there, the shadow of the heauens. It hath been in our time, the Citie of re­sidency of the Queene Crementina, who by cause she rebelled from the said King of Cambaia, was with maine force depriued thereof in the yeare 1536.

The Emperour of the Cataian Tartars (common­ly called the great Chame) deriueth himselfe fromThe great Cham. the great Chiny, who was the first, that 300. yeares agone, came out of Scythia Asiatica with a valiant expedition and power of armes, and made the name of the Tartars famous. For, he subdued China, and made a great part of India tributary vnto him; he wasted Persia, and made Asia to tremble. The suc­cessors of this great Prince, made their residence inChiambalù 28. miles in compasse, be­sides the suburbes. the Citie of Chiambalù, a Citie, no lesse magnificent, then great. For, it is said, it is in compasse twentie eight miles, besides the suburbes; and▪ that it is of such traffyque and commerce, as besides other sorts of Marchandize, there are euery yeare brought in to it, very neere a thousand Carts all loaden with Silke, [Page 71] that come from China. Wherevpon a man may gesse, both the greatnes of the trades, the wealth of the Marchandize, the variety of the Artificers & Artes, the multitude of people, the Pompe, the magnifi­cency, the pleasure, and the brauery of the inhabi­tants thereof

But let vs now come to China. There is not inThe king­dome of China. all the world a Kingdome, (I speake of vnited and entyer Kingdomes) that is either greater, or more populous, or more riche, or more abounding in all good things, or, that hath more ages lasted and en­dured, than that famous and renowned Kingdome of China. Hereof it growes, that the Cities where­in their Kings haue made their residence, haue euer been the greatest that haue been in the world. And those are Suntien, Anchin and Panchin. Three great Cities in China.

Suntien (by so much as I can learne out of the vn­doubted testimonies of other men) is the most anci­ent, and the chiefest and the Principallest of a cer­taine Prouince, which is called Quinsai, by which name they cōmonly call the same City. It is Seated as it were in the extreamest parts almost of the East, in a mighty great Lake, that is drawen out of the foure Princely Riuers, that fall there in to it, whereof the greatest is called Polisanga. The Lake is full of little I­landsPolisanga. which, for the gallātnes of the Scite, the fresh­nes of the ayer, & sweetnesse of the gardens; are very delightfull without measure. His bankes are [...]apes­tred with verdure, mantled trees, watered with cleare running brookes, and many springes, and a­dorned with magnificent and stately Palaces. This [Page 72] Lake, in his greatest breadth is foure leagues wyde at the mouth, but in some places not aboue twoo. The Citie is from the mouth of the riuer, twentieSuntien a Citie in Circuit 100. miles about. eight miles or there about. In circuit it is an hun­dred miles about, with large passages both by wa­ter and by land; The streetes thereof, are all of them, paued gallantly with Stone, and beautified with very fayer benches or seates to sit vpon. The Chanells of most account are happely fifteene, with bridges ouer them, [...]o s [...]ately to behold, that Shipps vnder all their sailes passe vnder them. The greatest of these Chanells, cutteth thorough the middest, as it were, of the Citie, and is a mile wide, a little more or lesse, with foure score bridges vpon it: A Sight, no ques­tion that doth exceed all other.

I should be to long, if I should here declare all that might be said of the greatnes of the walkes and galle­ryes, of the magnificent and Stately buildings, of the beautie of the Streets, of the innumerable multi­tude of Inhabitants, of the infinite concourse of Marchandize, of the inestimable number of Shipps and vessells, some in laid with Ebony, and some with Iuory and chekered some with Gold, and some with Siluer, of the incomparable riches that come in thi­ther, and are carryed out continually; to be short, of the delightes and pleasures whereof this Citie doth so exceedingly abound, as it deserues to be called proud Suntien, and yet the other two Cities, Panchin and An [...]hin, are neuer a whitlesse then this is.

But, forasmuch as we haue made mention of China, I thinke it not a misse in this place to remem­ber [Page 73] the greatnes of some other of her Cities, accor­ding to the relations we receaue in these dayes. Can­tan Cantan. then (which is the most knowen, though not the greatest) the Portugalles that haue had much com­merce thither these many yeares, confesse it is great­er then Lisborne, which yet is the greatest Citie that is in Europe, except Constantinople and Paris. San­chieo, Sanchieo. is said to be three times greater then Siuile. So that [...]ith Siuile is six miles in compasse; Sanchieo must needes be eighteene miles about▪ They also say, Vechieo exceedes them both in greatnes. Chin­chieo, Vechieo. Chinchieo. although it be of the meaner sort, the fathers of the order of Saint Augustine, who saw it, do iudge that Citie to conteine three▪score and ten thousand houses.

These things I here deliuer, ought to be not thought by any man to be incredible. For, (be­side that, that Marcus Polus in his relations affirmeth far greater things) these things I speake, are in these dayes approued to be most true by the intelligences we do receaue continually both of seculer and reli­gious persons, as also by all the nation of the Portu­galles. So as he that will denie it, shall shew him­selfe a foole. But for the satisfaction of the reader, I will not spare to search out the very reasons, how it comes to passe that China is so populous and full of such admirable Cities▪

Let vs then suppose, that, either by the goodnes of the Heauens, or by the secret Influence of the starres to vs vnknowne, or for some other reasons else what soeuer they be; that part of the world that [Page 74] is orientall vnto vs, hath more vertue, I knowe not what, in the producing of things, than the west. Hereof it proceedeth, that a number of excellent things, grow in these happy countries, of which o­thers are vtterly destitute and voyde: As Sinamome, The Indian Nut is cal­led Cocus & is full of milke, and sayd to be restora [...]e. Nutme [...]ges, Cloues, Pepper, Camph [...]re, Saunders, In­cense, [...] Aloes, the Indian Nuts, and such other like. Moreouer, the things that are common vnto both, to the East, I say, and the West; they are generally much more perfect in the East, than the West; as for proofe thereof, the Pearles of the West, in compa­rison of the East, are as it were, lead to siluer. And likewise the Bezàar that is brought f [...]om the Indies, is a great deale better far, than the Bezàar that comes from Peru.

Now, Chyna comes the neerest to the East of any part of the world. And therefore doth she enioye all those perfections that are attributed to the East. And first, the Ayer (which, of all things importeth the life of man so much as nothing more) is very temperat; whereunto the neerenes of the Sea, ad­deth a great helpe, which imbraceth as it were, with armes cast abroad, a great part thereof▪ and lookes it in the face with a cheerefull aspect, and with a thou­sand creekes and gulfes penetrateth far, within the very Prouince.

Next that: The countrie is for the most part plaine, and of nature very apt to produce not onely things necessarie for the vse and sustenance of the life of man; but also all sorts of daintie things for mans delight and pleasure. The Hilles and Mountaines [Page 75] are perpetually arrayed with trees of all sorts, some wilde, and some fruitfull: The plaines manured, tilled and sowen with rise, barley, wheate, peaze and beanes: The Gardens, besides our common sortes of fruites, doe yeald most sweet Mellons, most delicat Plommes, most excellent Figges, Pomeci­trons, and Orenges of diuers formes and excellent taste.

They haue also an herbe, out of which they presse a delicate iuyce, which serues them for drincke in stead of wyne. It also preserues their health, and frees them from all those euills, that the immoderat vse of wyne doth breed vnto vs.

They also abound in cattell, in sheepe, in fowle, in deere, in wooll, in rich Skinnes, Cotton, Linnen, and in infinit store of Sylke. There are Mines of Gold and Siluer, and of excellent iron. There are most pretious pearles. There is abundance of Su­ger, Honny, Rewbarbe, Camphire, red Leade, Woad, Muske, and Aloes; and the Porcelan earth is knowen no where but there.

More then this: The Riuers and the waters of all sorts, runne gallantly through all those countries, with an vnspeakeable profit and commoditie for na­uigation and for tillage. And, the waters are as plentifull of fish, as the land is of fruites. For, the Riuers and the Seas yeild thereof an infinite abun­dance.

Vnto this so great a fertilitie and yeild both of the land & water, there is ioyned an incredible cultùre of both these elements. And that proceedeth out [Page 76] of two causes, whereof the one dependeth vpon the inestimable multitude of the inhabitants (for it is thought that China doth conteyne more then three­score Millions of Soules,) and the other consisteth in the extreame diligence and paines that is taken, aswell of priuat persons in the tillage of their groūds, and well husbanding their farmes; as also of Magis­trates, that suffer not a man to leade an idle life at home. So that there is not a little scratt of ground that is not husbandly and very well manured.

Now, for their Mechanicall Artes, should I com­mit them heere to Silence? When as there is not a countrie in the world, where they do more florish both for varietie and for excellencie of skill and workmanship? Which proceedeth also out of two causes, whereof the one I haue commended before, in that idlenes is euery where forbidden there, and euery man compeld to worke; no man suffered to be idle, no not the blinde, nor the lame, nor the maimed, if they bee not altogether impotent and weake. And the women also, by a law of Vitei KingVitei. of China, are bound to exercise their fathers trades and Artes, and how noble or how great soeuer they be, they must at least attend their distaffe and their needell. The other cause is, that the sonnes must of necessity follow their fathers mysteries. So that hereupon it comes, that Artificers are infinit; and that children, aswell boyes as gyrles, euen in their infancy, can skill to worke, and that Artes are brought vnto most excellent and hygh perfecti­on.

[Page 77]They suffer not any thing to goe to losse. With the dong of the bus [...]es and oxen, and other cattell, they vse to feed fishe; and of the bones of dogges aud other beasts, they make many and diuers carued and engrauen workes, as we doe make of Iuory. Of ragges and cloutes, they make paper; To be short, such is the plentie and varietie of the fruites of the earth, and of mans industrie and labor, as they haue no need of forreine helpe to bring them any thinge: For, they giue away a great quantite of their owne, to forreine countreys. And, (to speake of no things else) the quantitie of Silke that is caried out of China, is almost not credible. A thousand quintals of silke are yerely caried thence for the Portugalls Indies; for the Philippinaes they lade out fifteene shippes. There are carried out to Giapan an inestimable summe; and vnto C [...]taia as great a quantitie as you may gesse by that we haue before declared; is yearly carryed thence to Chiambalù. And they sell their works andChiambalù. their labors (by reason of the infinit stoare that is made) so cheape and at so easy price, as the Mar­chants of Noua Hispania that trade vnto the Philippi­naes to make their martes (vnto which place the Chinaes themselues doe traffique) do wonder at it much. By meanes whereof, the traffique with the Philippinaes, fals out to bee rather hurtfull then profitable vnto the King of Spaine. For, the bene­fit of the cheapnes of things, is it, that makes the peo­ple of Mexico (who heretofore haue vsde to fetch their commodities from Spaine) to fetch them at the Philippinaes. But the King of Spaine, for the desire [Page 78] he hath to winne vnto familiarity and loue, and by that meanes to draw to our christian faith and to the bosome of the catholique church, those people that are wrapt in the horrible darkenes of idolatrie; esteemeth not a whit of his losse, so he may gayne their soules to God.

By these things I haue declared, it appeareth plaine, that China hath the meanes, partly by the benefit of Nature, and partly by the industry and Art of man, to susteine an infinit sight of people. And that for that cause, it is credible ynough, that it becometh so populous a countrie as hath been said. And I af­firme this much more vnto it, that it is necessarie it should be so, for two reasons; the one, for that it is not lawfull for the King of China to make warre to get new countries, but onely to defend his owne, and thereupon it must ensue, that he enioyeth in a manner, a perpetuall peace. And what is there more to be desired or wisht, than peace? VVhat thing can be more profitable than peace? My other reason is, for that it is not lawfull for any of the Chi­naes to goe out of their country, without leaue or lycence of the Magistrates. So that, the nomber of persons continually encreasing, and abyding still at home; it is of necessity, that the nomber of people do become inestimable, and of consequence, the Cities exceeding great, the townes infinit, and that China it selfe should rather in a manner, be but one bodie and but one Citie.

To say the truth, wee Italians do flatter our selues too much, and do admire too partially those things [Page 79] that do concerne our selues; especially when we will preferre Italy, and her Cities beyond all therest in the world. The shape and figure of Italy, is long and streyte, deuided withall in the middest with the Apenine Hills. And the pancitie and rarenes of Nauigable Riuers, doth not beare it, that there can be very great and populous Cities in it. I will not spare to say, that her riuers are but little brookes in comparison of Ganges, Menan, Meacon, and the rest: And that the Tyrrhenian and the Adriatick Seas are but gullets in respect of the Ocean. And of conse­quence our trade and traffique is but poore, in res­pect of the Marts and fayres of Cantan, Malacca, Calicut, Ormuze, Lisbon, Siuill, and other Cities that bound vpon the Ocean.

Let vs adde to these aforesaid, that the difference and enmity betweene the Mahumetanes and vs, de­priueth vs in a manner of the commerce of Africk, and of the most part of the trade of the Leuant. A­gaine, the chiefest parts of Italy; that is, the King­dome of Naples, and the Dukedome of Milan, are subiect to the King of Spaine. The other States are meane, and meane also the chiefest of their Cities: But, it is time wee now returne from whence wee haue digressed long.

The residence of Princes is so powerfull and so mighty, as it alone is sufficient ynough to set vp and forme a Citie at a trice. In Aethiop (Francis Alua­rez Aethiop. writeth) there is not a towne (although the countrie be very large) that conteineth aboue a thousand and six hundred houses, and that of this [Page 80] greatnes there are but few. For all that, the King (called by them the great Nego, and falsely by vs theThe great Nego. Prete Iohn) who hath no setteled residence; repre­senteth with his only court, a mighty great Citie; for­asmuch as wheresoeuer he be, he shadoweth with an innumerable sight of tents and pauilions, many miles of the country.

In Asia, the Cities of accompt, haue been all ofAsia. them, the Seates of Princes; Damascus, Antioche, Angori, Trebysonda, Bursia, & Hierusalem. But let vs passe ouer into Europe. The translating of the impe­riall Seate, diminished the glory of Rome, and made Constantinople great, which is mainteyned in her greatnes and Maiesty with the residēce of the great Turke.

This Citie, standeth in the fairest, the best, andConstanti­nople. most commodious Scite that is in the world. It is Seated in Europe; but Asia is not from it aboue foure hundred pases. It commaundeth two Seas, the Euxin and Propontis. The Euxin Sea, compassethMare Eux­inum. Propontis. twoo thousand and seauen hundred miles. The Propontis stretcheth more then two hundred miles, euen till it ioyne with the Archipelagus.

The weather cannot be so fowle, nor so stormy,Archipela­gus. nor so blustering, as it can hinder in a manner, the shippes from comming with their goods to that same magnificent and gallant Citie in either of those two Seas. Ys this Citie had a royall and a Nauiga­ble Riuer; it would lack nothing. It is thirteeneConstanti­nople 1 [...]. miles about. miles about; and this circuit conteineth about a sea­uen hundred thousand persons. But, the plague [Page 81] makes a mighty slaughter euery third yeare amongst them. But to say truth, seldome or neuer is thatPlague eue­ry third yeare in Cō ­stantinople. Citie free of the plague. And hereupon is offered a good matter worthy to bee considered, how it comes to passe, that, that same scourge, toucheth it so notably euery third yeare like a Tertian AguePlague eue­ry seauenth yeare in Cayrus. (as in Cayrus, it cometh euery seauenth) especially bycause that Citie is seated in a most healthfull place. But I will put off this speculation, to another time, or leaue it to be discussed, by wittes more exercised therein than mine.

There are within Constantinople seauen Hills; neere the Sea syde towards the East, there is the Serraglio of the great Turke, whose walles are in compasse three miles; There is an Arsenall consisting of more then one hundred and thirty Arches to lay their shipps in. To conclude, the Citie is for the beawty of the Scite, for the opportunity of the Portes, for the commodity of the Sea, for the multitude of the Inhabitants, for the greatnes of the traffique, for the residence of the great Turke, so conspicuous and so gallant; as without doubt, amongst the Cities of Europe, the chiefest place is due to it. For the very Court alone of that Prince, mainteineth of horse­men and of footmen, not lesse than thirty thousand very well appoynted.

In Africa, Algier. lately become the Metro­politan of a great State, is now by that meanesTremise. growen very populous. Tremise, when it florish­ed,Tunis. conteined a sixteene thousand housholds. Tunis, nine thousand; Marocco, an hundred thousand; Morocco. [Page 82] Fess, which is at this day the seate of the mightyFess. King of Africa, conteineth threescore and fiue thou­sand.

Amongst the Kingdomes of Christendome (I speake of the vnited, and of one body) the greatest, the richest and most populous is France. For, itFrance. conteineth twenty seauen thousand parishes, inclu­ding Paris in them. And the country hath aboue fifteene Millions of people in it. It is also so fertile, through the benefit of Nature, so rich, through the industrie of the people, as it enuieth not any other country. The residence of the Kings of so mighty a Kingdome, hath for a long time hitherto been kept at Paris. By the meanes whereof, Paris is becomeParis 12. miles in compas. the greatest Citie of Christendome. It is in compas twelue miles, and conteineth therein about foure hundred and fiftie thousand persons, and feedeth them with such plenty of victualls, and with such a­bundanceParis con­taineth 450 M. persons. of all delicate and dainty things, as he that hath not seene it, cannot by any meanes imagine it.

The kingdomes of England, of Naples, of Portugall, England. Naples &c. and of Bo [...]mia; The Earledome of Flaunders, and the Dukedome of Milan, are States, in a manner, a like of greatnes and of power. So that the Cities, wherein the Princes of those same kingdomes haue at any time made their residence, haue been in a mannerLondon▪ also a like, as London, Naples, Lisbon, Prage, Milan, and Gaunt, which haue each of them a sonder, more or lesse an hundred and threescore thousand persons in them. But, Lisbon is in deede somewhat largerLisbon▪ [Page 83] then the rest, by meanes of the commerce and traf­fique of Aethiop, India, and Brasil; as likewise London London. is, by meanes of the warres and troubles in the lowe countries. And Naples is within these thirty yearesNaples. growen as great againe as it was.

In Spaine, there is not a Citie of any such greatnes,Spaine. partly bycause it hath been till now of late, deuided into diuers little kingdomes; and partly, bycause through want of nauigable Riuers, it cannot bring so great a quantitie of foode and victuall into one place, as might mainteine therein an extraordinary number of people. The Cities of most magnificen­cie, and of greatest reputation, are those, where the ancient Kings and Princes held their Seates; as Bar­celon, Saragosa, Valenza, Cardoua, Toledo, Burges, Leon, all honorable Cities and populous ynough, but yet such as passe not the second rancke of the Cities of Italy.

Ouer and besides the rest, there is Granada, whereGranada. a long time the Moores haue Reigned, and adorned the same with many rich and goodly buildings. It is scituated, part vpon the Hilles, and part vpon the plaine. The hilly part, consisteth of three Hilles deuided each from other. It aboundeth of water of all sortes, with the which, is watered a great part of her pleasant and goodly country, which is by the meanes thereof, so well inhabited and manured, as none can be more.

Siuil is encreased mightily synce the discouery ofSiuilia 6. miles about. the new world. For, thyther come the fleetes that bring vnto them yearely so much treasure as cannot [Page 84] be esteemed. It is in compas about six miles; It conteineth foure score thousand persons and aboue. It is scituated on the left shore of the Riuer Betis, which otherwise some call Guadalchilir. It is bew­tified with fayre and goodly churches, and with magnificent and gorgeous Palaces & buildings. The country there about it, is as fertile, as it is pleasant.

Vagliadolid is not a Citie; but for all that, it may compare with the noblest Cities in Spaine; And that,Uagliado­id. by reason of the residence the King of Spaine hath long tyme made there in it: As Madrid is at this day much encreased and continually encreaseth by theMadrid. Court that King Phillip keepeth there: Which is of such efficacie and power, as although the coun­try be neither plentifull nor pleasant, it doth yet draw such a number of people to it, as it hath made that place, of a village, one of the most populous places now of Spaine.

Cracouium and Vilna are, the most popuous Cities of Polonia. The reason is, bycause Cracouium wasPolonia. Cracouium. Vilna. the seate of the Duke of Polonia, and Vilna the seate of the great Duke of Lituania.

In the Empire of the Muscouites, there are three great and famous Cities; Valadomere, the great No­uoguardia, and Muscouia; which haue gotten their reputation, bycause they haue been all three of them the seates of great Dukes, and Princes of great do­minions. The most renowned of them at this day is Muscouia, thorough the residence the Duke hol­deth there. It is in length fiue miles, but not so wide. There is vnto it a very great castell that serues for aMoscouia. [Page 85] Court and Pallace to that same Prince; and it is so populous, that some haue reckoned it amongst the foure Cities of the first and chiefest ranckes of Europe; Moscouia, Cōstantino­ple, Paris & Lisbon the chiefest Ci­ties in Eu­rope. Scicilia. Siracusa. which, to their iudgments are, Moscouia it selfe, Constantinople, Paris, and Lisbon.

In Scicilia, in ancient times past, the greatest Citie there, was Siracusa, which as Cicero doth write, consisted of foure parts deuided a sunder, which might be said to be foure Cities. And, the cause of her greatnes was, the residence of the Kings, or of the Tyrants (as they were termed in tymes past) call them as you will. But, when the commerce with the Africanes did fayle them afterward, through the deluge of the Infidels; and that the royall seate was remoued to Palermo; Palermo did then encrease apase her glory, and Siracusa did loose as fast her luster.

Palermo is a Citie, equall to the Cities of the secondPalermo. ranke of Italy; beautified with rich temples and mag­nificent Palaces, with diuers reliques and goodly buildings made by the Saracines. But, two things chiefely made of late, are worthyest to be noted. The one, is the streete made throughout the whole Citie, which, for streyghtnes, breadth, length, and beautifulnes of buildings is such, as I know not in what Citie of Italy a man should finde the like. The other is the Péere, edified with an inestimable ex­pence and charge; by the benefit whereof, the Citie hath a very large and spacious Port a worke in truth worthy of the Romanes magnanimity.

But, what meane I to wander thorough other [Page 86] parts of the world, to shew how much it doth im­port the greatnes of a Citie, the residence and a bode of a Prince therein? Rome, whose Maiesty ex­ceeded all the world, would she not be more like a desert, then a Citie, if the Pope held not his residence therein? if the Pope, with the greatnes of his court, and with the concourse of Embassadours, of Pre­lats, and of Princes did not ennoble it and make it great? If with an infinit number of people, that serue both him and his ministers, he did not reple­nish and fill the Citie? If with magnificent buil­dings, Conduits, Fountaines and streetes, it were not gloriously adorned? If amongst so many riche and stately works, belonging aswell to Gods glory, as the seruice of the common weale, he spent not there a great part of the reuenewes of the church? And, in a word, if with all these meanes, he did not draw and entertaine withall, such a number of Marchants, trades men, Shop-keepers, Artificers, workmen, and such a mul­titude of people, for labor and for seruice?

OF THE CAVSES OF the greatnes and magnificen­cy of Cities. THE THIRD BOOKE.

CAP. I. Whether it be expedient for a Citie, to haue few or many Citizens.

THe ancient Founders of Ci­ties, considering that lawes and Ciuile discipline could not be easily conserued and kept, where a mighty multi­tude of people swarmed. (For, multitudes do breede and bring confusion) they lymited the number of Citizens, beyond which, they supposed the forme and order of gouernment they sought to holde within their Cities, could not be else maintayned? Such were Licurgus, Solon, and Aristotle. But, the Romanes, supposing power (without which, a Citie cannot be long maintained) [Page 88] consisteth for the most part in the multitude of peo­ple, endeuoured all the wayes and meanes they might, to make their country great, and to replenish the same with store of people, as we haue before, and more at full declared in our bookes della ragion distato.

Yf the world would be gouerned by reason, and all men would content them selues with that, which iustly doth belong vnto them: Happely the iudg­ment of the ancient law makers were worthy to be imbraced. But, experience shewes, through the corruption of humane nature, that force preuailes aboue reason, & armes aboue lawes; & teacheth vs besides, the opiniō of the Romanes must be preferd before the Grecians; Inasmuch as we see the Atheni­ans and the Lacedemonians (not to speake of other cōmon weales of the Graecians) came to present ru­ine, vpon a very small discomfiture & losse of a thou­sandDraudius 17. thou­sand. & seuen hūdreth Citizens or little more. where, on the other side, the Romāes triumphed in the end though many times they lost an infinit number of their people in their attemptes & enterprises. For it is cleere, more Romāes perished in the warres they had against Pyrrhus, the Carthaginensians, Numan­tians, Viriatus, Sertorius, and others, than fell with­out comparison of all their enemies. And yet for all that, they rested alwaies conquerors by meanes of their vnexhausted multitude▪ with the which, sup­plying their losse from time to time, they ouercame their enemies asmuch, though they were strong and fyerce, as with their fortitude and strength. In [Page 86] these former bookes, I haue sufficiently declared the waies and meanes whereby a City may encrease to that magnificency and greatnes that is to be desi­red. So that I haue no further to speake thereunto, but only to propound one thing more that I haue thought vpon, not, for the necessitie so much of the matter, as that, bycause I think it will be an ornament vnto the worke, and giue a very good light vnto it. And therefore let vs now consider.

CAP. II. What the reason is, that Cities once growen to a greatnes, encrease not onward according to that pro­portion.

LEt no man thinke, the wayes and meanes aforesaid, or any other that may bee any waye deuised, can worke or effect it that a Citie may go on in increase, without ceassing. And therefore it is in truth a thing worth the consideration, how it comes to passe, that Cities growen to a poynt of greatnes and power, passe no further; but either stand at that staye, or else returne backe againe. Let vs take for our example Rome.

Rome at her begynning, when she was founded and built by Romulus (as Dionisius Halicarnasse [...]s wri­teth) was able to make out 3300. fit men for the warres. Romulus reigned thirty seauen yeares, with [Page 90] in the compas of which time, the Citie was encrea­sed euen to 47000. persons fit to beare armes. A­bout 150. yeares after the death of Romulus, in the time of Seruius Tullius, there were numbred in Rome 80. thousand persons fit for armes. The num­ber in the end, by little and little grew to 450. thousand.

My question therefore is, how it comes to passe, that from three thousand and three hundred men of warre, the people of Rome grew to 450. thou­sand; and from 450. thousand, they went no fur­ther: And in like manner, syth it is 400. yeares, since Milan and Venice made as many people as they do at this day; How it doth also come to passe, that the multiplycation goes not onward accordingly.

Some answere, the cause hereof, is, the plagues, the warres, the dearthes and other such like causes. But this giues no satisfaction. For, plagues haue euer been: And, warres haue been more common and more bloody in former times, than now. For, in those dayes they came to hand strokes by and by, and to a maine pictht battayle in the field, where there were within three or foure houres more peo­ple slaine, than are in these dayes in many yeares. For, warre is now drawen out of the field to the walles, and the mattock and the spade, are now more vsed than the sword. The world besides, was neuer without alteration and change of plenty and of dearth, of health, and of plagues. Whereof I shall not need to bryng examples, bycause the hi­stories are full.

[Page 91]Now, if Cities with all these accidents and chances begun at first with few people, encrease to a great number of inhabitants; How comes it that propor­tionably, they do not encrease accordingly?

Some others say, it is, bycause God the gouernor of all things, doth so dispose, no man doth doubt of that. But, forasmuch as the infinit wisedome of God, in the administration and the gouernment of nature, worketh secondary causes: My question is, with what meanes that eternall prouidence maketh little, to multiply; and much, to stand at a stay, and go no further.

Now, to answere this propounded question; I say, the selfe same question may be also made of all man­kinde: Forasmuch as within the compasse of three thousand yeares, it multiplyed in such sort from one man and one woman, as the prouinces of the whole continent, and the Ilands of the Seas, were full of people: Whence it doth proceed, that from those three thousand yeares to this day, this multiplycati­on hath not exceeded further.

Now, that I may the better resolue this doubt; I purpose so to answere it; As, mine answere, may not only serue for the Cities, but also for the vniuersal theater of the world.

I say then, that the augmentation of Cities, pro­ceedeth partly out of the vertue generatiue of men, and partly out of the vertue nutritiue of the Cities. The vertue generatiue, is without doubt to this day, the very same, or at least, such as it was before three thousand yeaeres were past. Forasmuch as men [Page 92] are at this day as apt for generation, as they were in the times of Dauid or of Moses. So that if there were no other impediment or let therein, the propagati­on of man kinde, would encrease without end, and the augmentation of Cities would bee without terme. And, if it do not encrease in infinit; I must needs say, it proceedeth of the defect of nutriment and sustenance sufficient for it.

Now, nutriment and victualls are gotten, eyther out of the Territories belonging to the Citie, or out of forreine coūtryes. To haue a City great & popu­lous; It is necessary that victualls may be brought frō far vnto it. And that victuals may be brought frō re­mote & forraine parts vnto it; It behooues that her vertue attractiue bee of such power & strength▪ as it be able to ouercome the hardnes & the sharpnes of the regions, the heigth of the moūtaines, the descent of the valleies, the swiftnes of the Riuers, the rage of the Seas, the dāgers of the Pyrats, the vncerteinty of the windes, the greatnes of the charge, the euill pas­sage of the waies, the enuie of the bordering neigh­bours, the hatred of enemies, the emulation of cōpe­titors, the lēgth of the time that is required for trans­portation, the dearthes & necessities of the places frō whēce they must be brought, the naturall dissension of nations, the contrariety of sects & opinions in reli­gion, and other such like things, all which encrease as he people increase and the affaires of the Citie. To conclude, that it grow to be so mighty and so great, as it can ouercome all the diligence and all the indus­trie that man can vse whatsoeuer. For, how shall [Page 93] Merchants be peeswaded they can bring corne, for exaple, out of the Indies or Cataia to Rōe, or the Ro­manes expect to haue it thence? But, admit that either of them could so perswade themselues; who can yet assure them, the seasons wilbe alwayes good for corne, that the people stand to peace & quietnes, that the passages be open, and the waies be safe? Or what forme, or what course can be taken to bring prouision to Rome, by so long a way by land, in such sort and manner as the conductors thereof may bee able to endure the trauaile and to wyeld the charge thereof? Now, any one of these impediments or lettes, without adding moe, to ouertwhart and crosse it more; is ynough to dissipate and scatter quite a sonder the people of a City destitute of helpe and subiect to so many accidents and chances. Euen one dearth one famine, one violence of warre, one interruption or staye of trade and traffique; one cō ­mon losse to the Marchants, or other such like acci­dent, will make (as the winter doth the Swallowes) the people to seeke an other country.

The ordinary greatnes of a Citie, consisteth in these termes, with which it can hardly be contented. For, the greatnes that depēdeth vpon remote causes or hard meanes cannot long endure. For euery man will seeke his commoditie and ease, where he may finde it best. We must also adde to these things aforesayd, that great [...]ities are more subiect vnto dearthes then the little For, they neede more sus­tenance and victualles. The plague also, afflicteth them more sorely and more often, with greater losse [Page 94] of people. And to speake in a word, great Cities are subiect to all the difficulties and hardnes wee haue before declared, bycause they need a great deale more.

So that, although men were as apt to generation in the height and pride of the Romanes greatnes, as in the first beginning thereof: Yet for all that, the people encreased not proportionably. For, the vertue nutritiue of that Citie, had no power to go further. So that in successe of time, the Inhabitants finding much want, and lesse meanes to supply their lacke of victuall, either forbare to marry, or, if they did marry, their children opprest with penury, their parents affording them no reliefe, fled their country, and sought abroad for better fortune. To the which inconuenience, the Romanes willing to prouide a remedy; they made choyse of a number of poore Citizens, and sent them into Colonies; where, like trees transplanted, they might haue more roome to better themselues both in condition and commodi­tie, and by that meanes encrease and multiply the faster.

By the selfe same reason, man kinde growen to a certaine compleate number, hath growen no fur­ther. And it is three thousand yeares agone and more, that the world was replenished as full with people, as it is at this present. For, the fruites of the earth, and the plenty of victuall, doth not suffice to feede a greater number. In Mesopotamia, man kinde did first beginne to propagate. From thence by successe of time, it increased and spred apase daily [Page 95] both far and neere. And hauing replenished the firme land, they transported themselues into the I­lands of the Sea; & so from our countries, they haue at length arriued by little and little, to the countries we call the new world. And what is there vnder the Sunne, that doth make man, with more horrible effusion of blood to fight for, and with more cruel­ty, than the earth, foode, and commodity of habi­tacion? The Sueuians accounted it an honour and a glory to them, to bring their cōfines by many hun­dred miles into a wast and wildernes. In the new world, in the Ile of Saint Dominick and the borders thereabout, the people chase and hunt men, as wee do deere and hares. The like doe many of the people of Brasill, especially they, whome we call Ay­murij: Who teare in peeces and deuour young boyes and young gyrles aliue, and open the bellies of the women great with childe; And take the crea­tures out, and in the presence and sight of the fathers themselues, eate them roasted vpon the coales; a most horrible thing to heare, much more to see it.

The people of Ghynea for the most part, liue so poore and needy, as they dayly sell their owne chil­dren for very vile price to the Moores, who carry them into Barbary, and to the Portugals, who send them to their Ilands, or sell them to the Castiglians for the new world. The people of Perù do the like, who for little more than nothing, giue their children to them will haue them: which procee­deth of misery, and of the impotency they haue to bring them vp, and to maintaine them. The Tar­tarians, [Page 96] and the Arabians, liue vpon stealth and ra­pine. The Nasomonj, and the Cafrj; the most sa­uage and barbarous people of all Aethyop, liue vpon the spoyles of others Shipwrackes, as the Portugalls haue many times felt.

It is also a thing knowen to all men, how oft the French, the Dutche, the Gothes, the Hunnes, the A­uarj, the Tartars, and diuers other nations, vnable, through their infinit multitude of people to liue in their ownes countries, haue left their confines, and possessed themselues with other mens countries, to the vtter ruine and destruction of the inhabitants therein. Hence it came to passe, that within few Ages, all the Prouinces of Europe and of Asia, be­came possessed in a manner, of strange people, fled and run out of their countries and habitations, ey­ther for the mightie multitude of people their coun­trie could not sustaine; or for desire they had to lead a more commodiouse and easie life else where, in greater plenty of good things.

The multitude againe of theeues and murderers, whence doth it I pray you, for the most part grow, but of necessitie and want? differences, Suites, and quarelles, whence do they proceede, but out of the streightnes and the scantnes of confines? boūdaries, ditches, hedges, and enclosures, which men make about their Farmes and Manors: watchmen of the viniardes and of ripe fruites, Gates, Lockes, Bolltes, and Mastiues kept about the house; what do they argue else▪ but that the world is hard, apd either mi­nistreth not sufficient to our necessities, or satisfieth [Page 97] not our greedy couetous desires? And what shall I rememberarmes, of so many kindes, and of so cru­ell sortes? what shall I speake of continuall warres both on Sea and Land, that bringeth all things vnto vtter ruine? what of fortes on passages? what of Garrysons, Bulwarkes and Munition?

Neither doth this Lake of mischeifes containe all. For, I must adde to these, the barrennes of Soyles, the Scarcitie and dearthes of victuall, the e­uill influence of the ayre, the contagiouse and daun­gerous diseazes, the Plagues, the Earthquakes, the Inundacions both of Seas and Riuers, and such other accidents which destroy and ouerthrow, now a Ci­tie, now a kingdome, now a people, now some other thing, and are the let and stay, that the number of men cannot encrease and grow immoderatly.

CAP. III. Of the Causes that do concerne the Magnificency and greatnes of a Citie.

IT now only resteth, hauing brought our City to that dignity & greatnes, which the condition of the Scite and other circumstances afford vn­to it: that we labor to conserue, to maintaine and vphold the digni­tie and greatnes of the same. And, to speake all at a word; these helpes may very well serue to do it: that is Iustice, Peace, and Plenty. For, Iustice assureth [Page 98] euery man his owne. Peace causeth tillage, trade and Artes to florish. And, Plenty of foode and victuall, susteineth the life of man with ease and much contentment to him. And, the people im­brace nothing more gladly, than plenty of corne. To conclude, all those things that cause the great­nes of a Citie, are also fit to conserue the same. For, the causes, aswell of the producti­on of things, as also of the conser­uation of them, are euer all one and the same, whatsoeuer they be.


CAP. IIII. Of Colonies.

THe Romanes, to kepe their ene­mies vnder, and to hold the stout and warlike people downe; In the beginning of their Em­pire, they founded and set vp Colonies in their confines: where, placing a good number of their owne Citizens, or of the Latins their fellowes and companions (on whome they be­stowed the lands and goodes they got and tooke from their enemies by warre) they did the better secure themselues from sodaine assaultes.

Here a question may very well be made, which is the greater safety of the twaine, the Colonie or the Fortresse? But without doubt, the Colonie is the better. For, that includeth a Fortresse, but not è contra.

The Romanes, (expert men in gouernment of States) vsed Colonies a great deale more, and tooke more good by Colonies, than they did by Fortresses. But in our time, Fortes are a great deale more in vse, then Colonies. For, they are more easily prepared, and happely of more present good. For, Colonies require much dexterity and wisedome in the establishing and setting them in or­der. And, the benefit and good that proceedeth of them (for they cannot grow to maturity and perfection without [Page 100] some time) is not had by and by. Howbeit, Colonies are much much more safe; and almost a perpetuall profit is euer in them; As Septa and Tanger can witnes the truth hereof; Townes of much importance to the Portu­galls in the Coast of Mauritania; which, reduced to the forme of Colonies, haue valiantly fought against the pow­er and force of Seriffo, and the Barbarians.

Calys witnesseth asmuch, an English Colonie, brought thither by Edward the third. An. Dom. 1347. And it was the last Towne that country lost in the firme land.

It is no wisedome yet, to set vp Colonies far off, in places too remote from your state and gouernment. For, in that case, it being no easie thing for you to succor them; they must either become a praye to their enemies, or else gouerne themselues as the occasion and time doth offer, without respect had of their originall beginning, or of whome they depend. A number of the Colonies, of the Graecians and Phoenicians, which they had planted vp­on all the regions almost of the Mediterranean Seas, haue done the like. But, the Romanes considering this incon­uenience, established more iudicially, more Colonies in Italie, then in all the rest of their Empire else besides. And out of Italy they carryed none, till after the sixt hundred yeare that Rome was built: And the first were Carthage in Africk, and Narbona in France.

In the lawes of the Gracchians, Paterculus found fault that they had made Colonies out of Italie. Which the ancient Romanes did auoyde; finding how much more powerfull Carthage was become, then Tyrus; Marsiles, then Phocèa; Siracusa, then Corinth; Bizantium, then Miletum; Vt Colonos Romanos ad censendum ex [Page 101] prouineijs in Italiam reuocarent. That they might recall into Italie out of their Prouinces, there to be taxed, those Romanes, who were translated into their Colo­nies.

I will not leaue vnspoken what Tacitus writeth of the disorders growē in the planting of Colonies. The Cities of Taranto and of Anzo greatly wanting of inhabitants, Nero sent thither the old trayned soldiers; who for all that, yealded small helpe to the solitarines of those for­saken places. For, the most part of them returned into the Prouinces, where they had ended the time of their warfare. For, not being vsed to the lawes of iust matri­mony, nor to the charge of education of children, they left their houses without posteritie.

This mischiefe grew, bycause the entier legions with Tribunes, with Centurions, and with Soldiers, each in his order, were not sent, as in ancient times past was wont to be, to the end that common weales might be founded and maintained with concord and with charitie; But men, that kn [...]w not one another, onsisting of diuers compa­nies, without a hedd, & without mutuall affection, drawen vpon the sodaine into one place toge­ther, made rather vp a number, than a Colonie.

Forasmuch as mention is made in this Treatise, of diuers Townes & Cities not descri­bed therein at full, which happely the reader would long to heare for the rarenes and nouelties of them: Hauing perused another booke of the author here­of entituled: Relationes Vniuersales: wherein I found some of those Townes and Cities dispersedlie in diuers pla­ces of that booke, described more at large: I haue for the readers better satisfaction and delight, cho­sen out some such as I found to my like­ing, which here present them­selues as follow­eth.


THere followeth in 17. degrees Southward, the Citie of Cuzco; in a scituacion enuironed with mountaines. It hath a Castle built of Stone, so great and so huge; that it seemeth rather the worke of Gyants, than of ordinary men: especially foras­much as those people had neither Beastes to drawe them to the place, or vse of Iron tooles to worke withall. This Citie was the Seate of the Inga, or King of Perù, and the Metropolitan of the Empire. There was not in it any thing else, that, either for greatnes or for policy deserued the name of a Citie. [Page 103] It had great streetes, but narrow, and houses made of Stone ioyned together with maruailous care and di­ligence. But the ordinary dwellings were built of timber, and couered with thatche. There was in Cuzco the rich temple of the Sun. There was also diuers other Palaces of the King of Gold and Siluer without end. There was a large and spatious mar­ket place, out of which were drawen foure waies, to foure Ports of the Empire. The Kings of Perù, to appopulate & ennoble this Citie, ordayned that e­uery King or Prince should build his Palace, and send his children thither to inhabit there. And, to shew the largnes of the Empire, and the sundry na­tions that were subiect thereunto; commaunded that euery one should apparell thēselues, according to the attire and fashion of their owne natiue coun­trie, and that they should also carry some certaine note thereof vpon their hedds: An inuention that bare a braue and gallant shew. This Citie was re­edified after a new forme in the yeare 1534. by Francesco Bizzaco. It containeth 50▪ thousand inha­bitants, and within the compasse of ten leagues a­bout it, two hundred thousand. It hath a territory full of pleasant, rych, and goodly valleis: I meane these Andaguayla, Xaguisana, Bilcas, and Succay. This last, is of such a notable good ayre, so pleasant, so temperat, and of such a gallant and delightfull scite, as it would not be sleightly passed ouer here. It is all bestrewed ouer thicke, as it were, with sumptu­ous country houses of the Spaniards, and full of great and well peopled townes of Cuzca [...]es. Our [Page 104] countrie fruits prosper aswell there, as they do in Spaine.


Ormùz, imbraseth a part of Arabia Felix, and the best Ilands of the Persian Sea, with that part of the coast of Persia which is watered with the Riuers Tubo, Tissnido, and Drutto. The chiefest part of the Kingdome, is the Iland of Ormùz, which is scituated in the mouth of the hauen, distant from Arabia, thirtie, and from Persia, nyne miles. It hath two Portes, diuided with a long ridge of land running into the Sea like a tongue, the one in the East, the other on the West. It hath a hill, that on the one side is of brimstone, and on the other side of salt. It hath no other water than of three welles. And it is barren allmost of euery thing else, & for all that, it aboundeth with all manner of delica­cies and deinties, aswell as it doth of all necessaries else besides, thorough the goodnes and opportunity of the Scite. Forasmuch as great wealth and riches are brought thither out of Arabia, Persia, and out of Cambaia, and out of the Indies. Inasmuch as the Moores say, that if the world were a Ring, Ormùz should be their Inell. The Marchants of all nati­ons vse to trade thither. The naturall people there, are partly Arabians, and partly Persians, (the Ara­bians of a yealowish colour, & the Persiās of a white) of a good aspect and much giuen to Musick, to neat­nes and to cleanlynes, to the knowledge of Histories [Page 105] and other such like pleasant studies. The King (which is a Mahumetan) draweth out of the cus­tomes of the Citie of Ormùz 140. thousand Serafi; Serafo, is [...] coy [...]e in In­dia worth 4. shillings Sterl. and of Spanish m [...] ­ny a peece of 8. which is 4. shillings. out of Arabia twentie eight thousand; out of Mo­gosta a countrie in Persia, seauenteene thousand. Babaren yealded vnto him 40. thousand. His reue­nues would be doubled, if exemptions had not been graunted to the Kings of Persia, and to other States, and the Portugalls for the goods they enter in their names. He payeth to the King of Portugall, who holdeth a very strong Fortresse there, twenty thou­sand Seraffes euerie yeare.


THere followes alongst the Sea, which some call Mar maggiore, Media. The chiefest Citie whereof is Tauris, some would that Tauris should be Echatana, the Seate of the ancient Kings of Media. This Citie is Scituated at the roote of a hill, seauen daies iourney from the Mare Caspium, or little more. It hath an wholesome ayer, but wyndy and colde; And the soyle aboundeth with all things. It is sixteene miles about; but some do make it more. It conteineth about two hundred thousand soules. But it hath no building of importance. For many inhabit within the earth, and their houses are of mudd, according to the manner of the East. They lack no Springes, Brookes nor gardeins. Is was sometime that Seate of the Kings of Persia. But, Tammas transferred it to Cusbin. it was first destroy­ed [Page 106] by Selim, and afterward by Soliman. (For, it hath no walles) and after that taken by Osman the gene­rall of Amorat King of the Turkes, who hath there erected a very strong Castell.


Derbent: is seated vnder the commaund of a Hill; And with two walles, that do extend euen downe to the Sea; It imbraseth the sub­urbs & the Hauen. One wall is distāt from another, 300. pases. It hath two Iron gates with perpetuall watch & ward. Arasse & Ciro, two notable & famous Riuers, do make this country fruitfull. It was some­times vnder the King of Persia: But it hath been destroyed by the Turkes in the last warres.


Comagena: is that part of Siria, that followeth the course of Euphrates, euen to the cōfines of Ar­menia. The chiefest City therof, is the rich City of Aleppo. This City (which holdes the third place a­mongst the Cities of the Turkish Empire) lieth vpon the Riuer Singa, & hath a Chāell vnder groūd, which produceth diuers fountaines publique & priuate. It containeth foure hills; vpon the one of which, is raysed a goodly castell▪ and it hath great suburbes. It hath no building there of importance, except the Temples and the storehouses for Marchants of for­reyne countries, all of hard quarry stoane, archt and [Page 107] vaulted, with foūtaines in the middest of the courts. It aboundeth of corne, and of the best wynes, and of herbes and [...] fruites; which are notwithstanding exceeding deere, by reason of the quantity that is thereof there spent and eaten. For traffique, he that hath not seene it, will neuer beleeue it. For, the Sope only that is made in that country, bringes in 200. thousand crownes a yeare. But, the Art of Silke, is an infinit woorke. There hath been brought from Venice, Marchandize for 350. thousand crownes. This great manner of traffique is mighte­ly holpen by the neighborhoode of our Seas, and of Euphrates. For, from vs, it is not aboue fiue reasona­ble daies iourney; And from Euphrates also lesse. The multitude of the people may be comprehended by this, that in the yeare 1555. betweene the Citie and the Suburbes, there dyed more then an hundred and twenty thousand persons in three monethes.


Fess: is the fayrest, the greatest, the most populous, and the richest Citie of all Barbary; consisting all of it, except the middest, which is playne, in Hilles and mountaines, with a Riuer that crosseth it cleane thorough, and serueth it wonderfull commo­diously. It consisteth of three parts, the one, on the East side of the Riuer; And that contayneth foure thousand housholdes, and is called Beleyda; The o­ther on the west side, and hath 70. thousand houses, and is called the old Fess; The third is new Fess, [Page 108] consisting of eight thousand neighbors. It hath 700. Moschees. The principall is Carue, which is a mile and a halfe in compasse, and hath [...] and thir­tie gates vnto it. The Marchants haue there a Court enclosed with a wall, with twelue gates and fifteene streetes. There is also a Colledge, amongst ma­ny other, whose buildings cost the King Abu­henon 400. thousand crownes. There are to be seene in the Cities, more thē six hundred springs of water, & it is 360. miles vpon the Riuer.


A Briefe Table, directing the Reader of this Booke, to the principall things in the same.

  • Abundance of Corne, Cattell, Wyne, and Fruits in Piemont, more than in other places of Italie, Fol. 16.
  • Academy of Paris well prouided for, for the sollace and recre­ation of the Schollers. Fol. 43.
  • Academies of Italie, full of dissolutenes and great disorder. Fol. (42. & 43.
  • Academies of Athens and Rhodes, florished most. Fol. 44.
  • Academies would be seated in a good Ayer and pleasant Scitu­ation. Fol. 43.
  • Alexandria, by what meanes it encreased. Fol. 66.
  • Africk, how many people it doth yeild. Fol. 81.
  • Anchin, a Citie in China. Fol. 71.
  • Antwerpe, a great Citie, and by what meanes. Fol. 15.
  • Babilon, her greatnes. Fol. 67.
  • Balsame, the best from Palestine. Fol. 55.
  • Bezaar, from whence the best cometh. Fol. 74.
  • Brescia, the description thereof. Fol. 61.
  • Cayrus, why it is called great. Fol. 66.
  • Cayrus, euery seuenth yeare visited with a mighty plague. Fol. 67.
  • Cantan, a great Citie in Chyna. Fol. 73.
  • Cain, built the first Citie. Fol. 2.
  • Chanells made for transportation of goods & Merchandize. Fol. 20.
  • Chanells in Flaunders. Fol. 20
  • Chanell in Milan. Fol. 21.
  • [Page]Castells and Towers on Hills and Mountaines, little peopled. Fol. 27.
  • China and the prayse thereof. Fol. 71.
  • China, how many people it doth conteine, and the multitude thereof. Fol. 76. & 78.
  • China, the description thereof and of her great ryches. Fol. 74. 75.
  • Chiambalù, the description thereof. Fol. 70.
  • Citie, said great, not for the Scite and compasse of the walles, but for the multitude of the inhabitants thereof. Fol. 1.
  • Cities how necessary they were to be erected. Fol. 2.
  • Cities built by many Princes, and by whome. Fol. 3. & 4.
  • Cities inhabited and built by the authoritie and power of great Princes. Fol. 3.
  • Cities seated on Hills and Mountaines, for antiquitie most no­ble. Fol. 8.
  • Cities, which are said fayre for Scite, and which for Art. Fol. 9.
  • Cities by what manes they become great. Fol. 13.
  • Cities that serue for passage only, few of them proue great. Fol. 14.
  • Cities grow great by granting freedomes and immunities vnto them. Fol. 30.
  • Cities that are free, more eminent, and better stored with peo­ple, than Cities subiect vnto Monarchies. Fol. 3 [...].
  • Cities made great by imparting their freedomes and their offices, to others. Fol. 32.
  • Cities made great by erecting goodly monuments & buildings in them. Fol. 33.
  • Cities made great by the helpe of neere Colonies about them. Fol. 35.
  • Cities made great by erecting vniuersities in them. Fol. 42.
  • Cities made great by the residence of the Nobility in them. Fol. 63.
  • Cities made great by the residence of the Prince in them. Fol. 65.
  • Cities seated on the Ocean, are the best for Marchandize. Fol. 79.
  • Cities exceeding great, are more subiect to Plagues and dearth, than the lesser Cities are. Fol. 81. & 93.
  • Commodious conduct of ware, is not ynough to make a Citie great, but there must be some other vertue attractiue vnto it. Fol. 29.
  • [Page]Cities once growen to a certaine number, encrease not fur­ther on, and the cause why. Fol: 92. 94.
  • Cities are maintained by iustice, peace and plenty. Fol: 97.
  • Cities that haue delight and pleasures in them, drawe forrey [...]ert to come vnto them. Fol: 9. 10. 11.
  • Cities which are of greatest reputation in Spaine. Fol: 83.
  • Crema and her beginning. Fol: 7.
  • Children in Chyna, bound to learne their fathers art and oc­cupation. Fol: 56.
  • Cloaues had from the Moluccaes. Fol: 55.
  • Constantinople, the principallest Citie in Europe. Fol: 80. 81.
  • Constantinople and the description thereof. Fol: 80.
  • Constantinople euerie third yeare visited with the plague. Fol: 81.
  • Dominion maketh a Citie great, and by what meanes. Fol: 60.
  • Dominion gotten by meere strength and force, holdeth not long. Fol: 12.
  • AEthiop hath no greate Cities. Fol: 79.
  • Europe and her great Cities. Fol: 82.
  • Fraunce, the Nobility and gent. there, do mostly inhabite the country, and not the Cities. Fol: 62.
  • Fraunce, plentifull of all necessary things. Fol: 17.
  • Fraūce, and the greatnes therof, with the number of people it doth containe. Fol: 82.
  • Gaunt, how many people it doth containe. Fol: 82.
  • Genoua, serueth for passage, and yet a great Citie. Fol: 15.
  • God, how he is desired of all creatures. Fol: 39.
  • Hierusalem, the greatest Citie of the East. Fol: 36.
  • Honor, is atteyned by Armes and by learning. Fol: 41. 42.
  • Immunity, increaseth a Citie. Fol: 42.
  • [Page]Immunitie, the meanes to cause people to come together. Fol: 42.
  • Incense from Sabea. Fol: 55.
  • Idolatry, by whome and for what cause it was set vp. Fol: 37.
  • Industrie of man of more importe than the fruitfulnes of the land. Fol: 48. 49.
  • Italie, the description thereof. Fol: 79.
  • Iustice ministred with expedition in Rome, England, Scot­land, and Turky. Fol: 46.
  • The Tribunall seat of Iustice, is the most principall member of a State. Fol: 46.
  • The s [...]at of Iustice, makes great repaire to Cities, and makes Cities great. Fol: 45. 46.
  • Lisborne, a great Citie. Fol: 15. 82.
  • Lisborne, how many people it doth conteine. Fol: 82.
  • London encreased by the resort of the Hollanders. Fol: 6. 83.
  • London how many people it doth containe. Fol: 82.
  • Lakes are in a manner little Seas, auaile much to people a Ci­tie. Fol: 19.
  • Media, the Kings thereof made their residence in Echata­na. Fol: 68.
  • Memphis and the greatnes thereof. Fol: 66.
  • Milan aduanced by the religious life of the Cardinall Boro­ [...]meo. Fol: 40.
  • Moscouia, three famous Cities in that Empire. Fol: 84.
  • Mony makes men trudge from place to place. Fol: 45.
  • Multitude breedeth confusion. Fol: 87.
  • Merchandize helpeth greatly to thencrease of a Citie. Fol: 55.
  • Naples, how many people it doth conteine. Fol: 82.
  • Necessity enforceth men to draw themselues together. Fol: 4.
  • Nilus the riuer and his effects. Fol: 24. 25.
  • Niniuie, and the greatnes thereof. Fol: 67.
  • [Page]Palermo, and the description thereof. Fol: 85.
  • Panchin, a mightie great Citie in China. Fol: 72.
  • Paris exceedeth all the Cities of Cristendome in people and plenty of all things. Fol: 24. 44.
  • Pepper, a good part thereof doth grow in Calicut. Fol: 55.
  • Pearles, where the best are had. Fol: 74.
  • Persia, the Kings therof made their residēce in Persepolis. Fol: 68.
  • Pysa grew great vpon the sacking of Genoua. Fol: 6.
  • Plague mencioned in Boccace, most fierce and cruell. Fol: 54.
  • Poloma and her Cities. Fol: 84.
  • Ports of the Sea, which are good. Fol: 19.
  • Power consisteth in the multitude of people: Fol: 87. 88.
  • Prage how many people it doth containe. Fol: 82.
  • Reputation of a religious zeale and feare of God, maketh a Citie great. Fol: 36.
  • Residency of the Nobility causeth the encrease of a Citie. Fol: 62.
  • Residency of the Prince, magnifieth a City. Fol: 65.
  • Residency of the Pope causeth the greatnes of Rome. Fol: 86.
  • Rhodes grew great thorough the multitude of Iewes that re­paired thither. Fol: 6.
  • Rome and the prayse thereof. Fol: 10.
  • Rome great by the ruine of her neighbour Cities. Fol: 7.
  • Rome great by meanes of her reliques, and the Popes residency therein. Fol: 40.
  • Riuers how much they import for caryage of goods. Fol: 20.
  • Riuers some better then some for transportation. Fol: 23.
  • Riuers of name. Fol: 28.
  • Riuers in Spaine not greatly nauigable. Fol: 26▪
  • Romanes, how they came fierce. Fol: 31.
  • Riuers in Italy, but few that are nauigable. Fol: 79.
  • Salonicha grew great by the multitude of Iewes that fled thy­ther out of Spaine and Portugall. Fol: 6.
  • [Page] Sarmacanda and the greatnes of it. Fol: 69.
  • Sena a riuer, and the properties thereof. Fol: 24.
  • Scituation, what manner of one is fit to make a Citie great. Fol: 13.
  • Spaine containeth no very great Cities. Fol: 83.
  • Suntien, a Citie in China, which is in circuit an 100. miles a­bout. Fol: 72.
  • Sinamom, a good part thereof doth grow in Zeilan. Fol: 55.
  • Tartaria, and the Empire thereof. Fol: 68.
  • Tauris a Citie in Persia 16. miles about. Fol: 68.
  • Tamberlane, the mighty spoyle and pray [...]e made vpon Da­mascus. Fol: 69.
  • Thebes and the greatnes thereof. Fol: 65. 66.
  • Towers the most ancient manner and forme of building that we haue. Fol: 4. 5.
  • Trades & occupations brought into a City, make it great. Fol: 48. 52.
  • Venice by what meanes it grew great. Fol: 7. 64.
  • Venice and her prayse. Fol: 11.
  • Venice serues for passage, and yet a great and mighty City. Fol: 15.
  • Usages and manners most barbarous, and horrible of the new world and other countries. Fol: 95.
  • Water created of God not only for an Element, but also for a meanes of transportacion of goods out of one country into another. Fol: 18.
  • Water more commodious then the land. Fol: 18.
  • Water, one sort more apt to beare burdens then an other. Fol: 23.
  • Wayes: 2. most famous, made and cut out of about 2000. miles in length, by the King of Cusco.
  • Waies very bad thorough out Italy. Fol: 60.
  • Wooll most excellent in England, and in Spaine. Fol: 55.

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