RELATIONS OF THE MOST FAMOVS KINGDOMES AND Common-wealths thorowout the WORLD: Discoursing of their Situations, Religions, Languages, Manners, Customes, Strengths, Greatnesse and Policies.

Translated out of the best Italian Impression of Boterus. And since the last Edition by R. I.

Now once againe inlarged according to moderne observation; With Addition of new Estates and Countries. Wherein many of the oversights both of the Author and Translator, are amended. And unto which, a Mappe of the whole World, with a Table of the Countries, are now newly added.

LONDON, Printed by IOHN HAVILAND, and are to be sold by IOHN PARTRIDGE at the signe of the Sunne in Pauls Church-yard. 1630.


THat this Author hath beene so carefully trans­lated into the Latine, Spanish, French and English languages, is a concluding argument (to me) that no man of those Nations hath hi­therto written so well in this Argument: else, what needed they to translate him? Nay, and doubly translated hee hath beene; not onely in­to their tongues, but into their bookes; seeing that all the Writers of Geographie, since his time, have translated no small part of him into their Writings. Of some of which, what is from hence borrowed, is their very chiefe credit and orna­ment. How much (I pray) hath that voluminous [Page] French Writer (translated into Latine by Godo­fredus, and into English by The States of the world. our Mr. Grime­stone) beene beholding unto this Author? How much hath that Petrus Bertius. Turncoat Apostatizing Pla­giarie, that Enemie and Threatner of our English Nation, closely lurcht out of this Author? Some of our owne have beene more ingenuous, to name him when they quote him: and thats faire play.

What the Setters forth of the two former Edi­tions, in our language, meant in concealing his name, we will not doe them so much wrong as to ghesse at. Our Title page acknowledges him to be that famous Borero, the Italian: a Writer, that still passes amongst his owne people not only for a Wit, but for a Iudgement. His way of writing is his owne; for tis New: and to com­mend the usefulnesse of it let this be enough, that the nimblest Politico's of these active times could (perchance) have wisht, That the Relations of Gio­vanni Botero had only beene in their owne Libra­ries. That in this third Edition we have taken upon us to adde some new Discourses, and to Aug­ment divers of the old; we were emboldned unto by the voyces and judgements of the Buyers, [Page] whom we perceived to be better pleased with those inlargements in the second Edition, than with the first. In what we have done, we have bound our selves to the Authors way and method: and how much wee have added, the next Page shall tell you.

We must not in the meane time conceale from you, how that divers of the Italians (who are as naturall haters, as they are fearers of the Spanish greatnesse) have taken the same exceptions to Botero, that the French of old did to Proislart: who for writing so gloriously of the English victories, and so truly of the French over­throwes; have thought to disgrace his whole sto­rie, by calling him a Pensioner of England, and a man hired to write by the good Rose-nobles of England: In like manner hath Botero (say some) beene suspected to have had a feeling of the Spanish Pistolets, for that hee hath written so magnificently of that Nation. This hath made us so wary and so carefull withall, by the truth of history to examine whatsoever might that way seeme hyperbolicall. Some things in that kinde wee had rather leave to be amended by your judge­ments, than either too much to wrong that Nation, [Page] or to correct our Copie by bringing it under our Index Expurgatorius.

Our Author deserves rather to bee numbred among the Polititians, than amongst the Histo­rians or Geographers. Tis to his purpose some­times to deliver you the situation of the Coun­trey he discourses upon; so to shew you, first the Greatnesse of each Kingdome: Secondly, how formidable or helpefull each Prince is likely to prove to his next neighbour; out of which two considerations, arise most of those leagues, Alli­ances, and those other Tyes of State, betwixt Kingdome and Kingdome. Thirdly, wee hence learne, how suddenly either Forces or Mer­chandizes may bee transported from one Nati­on to another. And all these helpe him to relate of the Greatnesse and Riches of each King­dome; which to doe, bee two of his maine pur­poses. The Historie that hee makes use of, is to shew you the valours of people, the power of taking opportunities, the advantages of the use of severall weapons, &c. and that is also to his purpose. Both Geographie and History together (which bee the two favourite studies of the times) doe serve finally for the delight [Page] of the Reader; and doe altogether make up our Author into a complete and a fine compa­nion for Gentlemen, for Souldiers, for Schol­lers, and for all men to passe the time withall: and for such an one we here commend him to your acquaintance. Fare well; and make him your owne.

Relations newly added, or very much inlarged in this Edition.

Newly added.
  • MOst of the Chapter of Observation.
  • Navarre. 194
  • The Lords the Estates part of the Low-Countries. 200
  • Vrbine. 361
  • Mantua. 362
  • Millaine. 316
  • Savor. 364
  • Malta. 373
  • Transylvania. 394
  • Estate of Bothlen Gabor in Hungaria. 399
  • A briefe Chronicle of his birth and fortunes. 399
  • The Palatinate. 285
  • Brandenburg. 300

  • ROman Empire. 284
  • Bavaria. 301
  • Genoa. 337
  • Tuscanie. 324
  • Sicily. 369
  • Bohemia. 376

With divers others altered and amended thorow out the whole: and some new Additions in the Indies, not here mentioned.

RELATIONS of the World.


Of Observation.

BEing to relate of the Customes, Man­ners, and Potencies of Nations and great Princes, my scope shall not bee to trouble your Readings with proofes out of such obsolete Authors as are accounted very ancient, for with these Themes (by reason of In­discoverie) those Ages were not so well acquainted: Againe, their Observations, Rules, and Caveats being not so well digested, nothing so certaine as ours of these lightsomer times, were neither so pleasant nor so usefull as these more assured & more moderne Relations. Time and the Warres have altered much since Aristotle and Ptolomies dayes; whose Rules and Observations have since growne partly out of use, and beene partly bettered. I can­not certainly subscribe to the opinions of such Philosophers, who building all upon Influences and Constellations, will have the faculties of Soules and Bodies to bee governed by the Starres and Climates: But my meaning is to lay downe some few Observations arising from the immutable provi­dence [Page 2] of Nature, which remaineth constant, immortall, and is never changed, unlesse by Accident, Violence, or Times tyrannie; which notwithstanding in the revolution of an Age or two, returneth againe to its prime operation. From thence I will descend to discourse of such Reasons, as may in all probabilitie give occasion or advantage to one Prince or Nation to excell another either in keeping or inlarging. Thirdly, I will lay downe some Instructions for travell. And comming in the last place to the particular Relations of our Author, wee will premise a more exact and large description of the Countrey, and the chiefe Cities of note in it: Lea­ving all to your favourable construction.

Of the diuision of Temperature.

FIrst therefore, according to best Authoritie, let us firmely beleeve, That the Creator of all things hath not bestowed upon any particular Region like and semblable bles­sings to another; but that (as experience may warrant) to some one Countrey he hath given this good favour, to another that; partly in re­gard of situation, partly by operation of his ministers, as starres, winds, heat, cold, water, aire, diet, &c. Athenis tenue coelum, Thebis crassum: Athens enjoyes a cleare skie, and Thebes a foggie. And therefore without offence, by the testimonie of good Authors, wee may bee bold to conje­cture, that the people & Nations inhabiting divers climates of this vast Vniverse, are endowed with divers, strange, and opposite dispositions: It is naturall to the Inhabitants bounding upon the North, to be biggest boned, strongest set, and aptest for labour: and to the nations of the South, to bee weake, yet more subtill. Acuriores Attici, valentes Thebani; The Athenians are the sharper witted, but the Thebans are the abler bodied.

[Page 3] Now, how farre these Influences of North and South stretch in operation; or wh [...]re the East and West put periods to their owne potencies; or what, in generall truth, is to be affirmed of their divers manners and qualities, is hard to say; and the harder, for that no man hitherto hath presumed to undertake the taske amidst so many obscurities. For if all credit should be given to Hippocrates, (whose authoritie was ever held oraculous) he will tell you, That the people of the North are slender, dwarfish, lean and swarthie: And Aver­rois will be bold to affirme, That the mountaine people are most pious and wittie: whereas universall experience doth condemne them of rudenesse and barbarisme. The ignorance of the Ancients (saith Bodin) was once so grosse, that not a few of them deemed the Ocean a River, all Iberia but a Citie.

And because all the Ancients in like error (except Possi­donius and Avicen) limited the possibilitie of habitation, to consist wholly betweene the Tropikes and the polar Cir­cles; affirming, that beyond there was no health, no place peopled, &c. let this erroneous imagination for evermore be silenced, by the authoritie of all moderne Navigators, who have found the wholsomest and best peopled Coun­tries of all those parts, to lie under the Aequator: and the regions situated under the Tropikes, to bee tormented with more rigorous heat. Alvarez reporteth, that the Abassine Embassador arriving at Lisbon in Portugall, was that day almost choaked with heat; and yet is Abassia or Prester Iohns country from whence he came, neere upon 30. degrees more Southerly than Lisbon is: yea, and be­tweene the Tropike of Cancer and the Aequator also, part of it lying even beyond the Line. And Purquer the Ger­mane reported, that he had felt the weather hotter about Dantzike, and the Baltike Sea, than at Tholouza in a fer­vent Summer; notwithstanding that Dantzike be farre more Northerly than Tholouza. And this is no paradox: The cause with good iudgement being to bee ascribed to the grossnesse and thicknesse of the aire; considering that Europe and the North are full of waters; which bursting out from [Page 4] hidden and unknowne concavities, doe produce infinite bogs, fens, lakes, and marishes, in the Summer seasons cau­sing thicke vapours to ascend. Which (without doubt) be­ing incorporated with heat, scorch more fervently, than the purer aire of Affrike, being stored with no such super-abundance of watry elements: Even so fire, being invested in the body of liquors, or metals, scaldeth more furiously than in wood; and in wood, more fervently than in flame. And if the keepers of stoves and hot houses, doe not sprin­kle the ground with water, that the vapour being contra­cted and the aire thickned, they may thereby the longer and better maintaine heat, and spare fuell; you must (for me) wander into the schooles of more profound Philosophers for further satisfaction.

Of the Situation of Nations.

NOw to the South-wards, wee will limit the hithermost Spaniards, the Siculi, the Pe­loponnesians, the Cretensians, the Syrians, the Arabians, the Persians, the Susians, the Gedrosii, the Indians, the Aegyptians, the Cirenians, the Africans, the Numidi­ans, the Libians, the Moores, and the people of Florida in America, to be situated: but with this caveat, that those wholly to the West-wards in the same latitude, live in a more cold temperature.

The people of the North, I meane to be those, which live under the fortieth degree to the sixtieth: and those of more temperature, who extend to the seventieth. Vnder the first are situated, Brittaine, Ireland, Denmarke, part of Gotland, Netherland, and those Countries, which from the River of Mase stretch to the outmost borders of Scythia and Tar­taria, containing a good portion of Europe, and the greater Asia.

[Page 5] The inhabitants of the Middle Region, as being subject neither to extreme heat, not to extreme cold, I place be­tweene both Extremes, and yet able to endure both, with indifferent content. I also terme that the Middle Region, which lieth betweene the Tropike and the Pole; and not that which lieth betweene the Tropike and the Line: because the extremitie of heat is not so forcibly felt under the Line (as aforesaid) as under the Tropikes. So that, that cannot be accounted the temperate climate, which ex­tendeth from the thirtieth degree to the fortieth; but that which beginneth at the fortieth, and endeth at the fiftieth: and the neerer East the more temperate. Vnder which tract, lie the further Spaine, France, Italie, the higher Ger­manie, (as farre as the Mase) both Hungaries, Illyria, both Mysiaes, Dacia, Moldavia, Macedon, Thrace, and the bet­ter part of Asia the lesse, Armenia, Parthia, Sogdiana, and a great part of Asia the great. And the neerer the East, the more temperate, although they somewhat incline to the South-ward, as Lydia, Cilicia, Asia, Media, &c.

The ancient Greekes and Romanes both to set forth their owne skill in Geographie and Philosophie, and withall to make shew of the largenesse of their conquests; with igno­rance and idlenesse enough, did like the Chinois at this day represent their owne kingdome in the map, as bigge as all the rest of the world besides. They therefore dividing the heavens into five Zones, made three of them utterly inha­bitable: In those two next the Poles their philosophy judged not much amisse; for though no man of Europe hath beene neere to either of them, yet at that distance were the discoverers, yea the Seas themselves frozen up with most insufferable cold; and these the Ancients rightly called, The frozen Zones. But in that which is called the Torride Zone, their philosophy was much mistaken. This Zone takes up all that space which is betwixt the two Tropicks, and is e­qually divided by the Aequinoctiall line; the whole breadth of the Zone being 47. degrees, that is, 2820. Italian miles of ground. Now in this vast tract to imagine, all heat and no [Page 6] temperature sufficient for a man to live in, was but an er­rour of the times, bewraying their owne unexperience, and the uncertainty of speculative philosophie.

It is true indeed, that neere unto the North pole men thinking to draw in their breaths, are in danger to have their throats pluggd up with an Isicle: and the Dutchmen wintering in Nova Zembla, had their house covered with snow for nine or ten moneths together, nor could they get themselves a heat with all the fire they could make. But there is not the same reason for the insufferablenesse of heat, that there is of cold. Heat is the friend of life and nature, and cold the great enemie and nipper of vegetation: And whereas cold can without doors receiue no temperer; heat on the contrarie is capable of very many. For so hath the most wise God ordered his Creation, that under the Torride Zone, there is most abundant plentie of waters; Rain-water, Snow-water, Sea-water, Lake-water, River-water, and Spring-water. As for their raines, even the heats cause them; for in those moneths, when the Sunne is verticall, and right over their heads, and at that time of the day when he scorches from the height of his Meridian, at high noone dayes, even then most plentifully doth hee dissolve the clouds; and the raines at that time quench his flames most temperately. At mid-day also have they (and that constantly) those coole and gentle winds, which the Spani­ards call the Brizes. In those parts have they the most mighty Rivers; witnesse the Orelian 70. leagues in bredth, and that of Plate, 40. leagues over; with divers others not much streighter than our narrow Seas. There have they the Lake Ticicaca, 80. leagues compasse; Nicuragua, 300. miles long; and the Lake of Mexico 1100. miles about. To come on this side the Line (yet still under the Torride Zone) where can you finde such impetuous raines continually falling for some whole moneths together, and such vast Lakes and Rivers as in Aethiopia? the mouth of the River Zairo is 20. miles wide; nay, and in these places the rivers content not themselves with their owne chan­nels, [Page 7] but in the hottest moneths they then overflow the whole country, witnesse the Nile and the Niger: Another commoditie of these waters is this, that the winds skim­ming over the face of them, fannes the coole vapour all over those quarters. Nay, as if this were not enough, wee see that God hath provided water even in living and growing Cesternes; the hollow truncks of most tree-like canes being full of water, and those coole a little also; such be plentifull in the Moluccas, even under the Aequinoctiall. Besides all this, hath nature provided those parts of many high moun­taines, which cast long shadowes, and mightily keepe off the Sun; yea, and which you would wonder at, even in that continuall neighbourhood of that great Thawer have you hils perpetually covered with frost & snow: so is it in the Ile of Saint Thomas, which is just under the Aequinoctiall; and so are the silver hills of P [...]tossi also. The generall causer of these snowes and colds is held to be the length of the nights (whose long and frequent intermissions be another maine occasion of temper and cooling) and these are generally, and all the yeare, the neerer the Line, the longer, being there equall with the dayes themselves; so that there it snowes and freezes as much in the night, as the Sun thawes in the day; these snow-waters being naturally more cold than other waters also. For these and other reasons have our men of Europe found not people alone, but even white people, and most delicate and temperate dwelling (per­chance the best in the world) in this Torride Zone, yea, un­der the very Aequinoctiall; yea, much cooler Summers, than in Estramedura in Spaine, or Apulia in Italy. To conclude this point, the ancient Romanes who lookt for nothing but rost-meat in that Zone, and that raw men could not possi­bly live there, were a great deale worse scorched in their owne Italy; nor have those under the Torride Zone so much need of the Romane Grottaes or-Freskataes for to coole them.

Of the Constitutions, Complexions, and Natures of the Northerne man.

GEnerally, both in the North, in the South, as also in the Middle, you shall observe great difference both of fashion and qua­litie, occasioned (no question) through the intermingled resort from both Ex­tremes. But in the Extremes you shall see. no such apparant diversitie. For the assured token of a Scy­thians countenance is, his reddish eye like those of the Owle, which also doe dazle at the sight of the light. Such eyes (saith Plutarch) haue the Cimbrians, and such at this day the Danes. The Germanes and the Brittish have them not so fierie, but rather grey, intermixed with a bright blacknesse, most resembling the colour of water. And this bright-shining colour (saith Aristotle) argueth heat: but blacke (the colour of the Southerne people) betokeneth want thereof. The grey eye (and such is theirs who inha­bite betweene both) is sharpest of sight, seldome troubled with dimnesse; and according to Aristotle, denoteth good qualities: the Red, crueltie and austeritie, as Plinie and Plutarch observed of Sylla, Caro, and Augustus.

The bloud also of the Scythian is full of small strings, such as are discernable in the goare of Bulls and Boares, and betokeneth strength and courage. The people of the South haue their bloud thinne and fluent, like to that of the Hare and Hart, and denoteth feare. Whereupon it may be conjectured, that those Nations which are spread from the fortieth degree to the seventie five Northward, are hot within: but the people of the South, what they borrow from the Sunne, that they want in themselves; the inward heat being dispersed and drawne into the outward parts by the vehemencie of the outward heat: A reason why [Page 9] in frosty weather our minds and joynts are couragious and strong: in heat, idle, and lazie; and so our appetites and digestion more vehement in Winter than in Summer, (espe­cially if the Northerne winds be stirring.) The Southerne winds effect the contrary in all living creatures (saith Ari­stotle) as may daily be observed amongst the English, the Germans, and the French, travelling into Italy and Spaine: where if they live not sparingly, they fall into surfets; wit­nesse Philip Duke of Austria, living in Spaine after his Germane gourmandizing fashion.

Againe, the Spaniards, who in their owne Countries live most niggardly, in our parts of the world prove better tren­cher-men than the natives. And this experiment falleth not out true in men onely, but also in beasts, which (as herds­men affirme) being driven towards the South, fall away and lose flesh: but if they feed towards the North, they prosper and wax fat. Which I the rather beleeve, for that Leo Afer writeth, that throughout all Afrike you shall almost see no herds of Cattell, nor Horse, few flocks of Sheepe, and scarce any milke at all. On the other side, the goodly droves of the English, the Germans, and the Scy­thians, are celebrated of all writers: not because their pa­stures are better, or sweeter than those of the South, (by the censure of Plinie) but for the nature and temperature of the Heavens, and the Ayre.

And as the Northerne man by nature is hot and moist, (the Elements of fecunditie) so there is no question, but that of all people they are, and have beene, the most popu­lous. For from the Goths, the Scythians, the Germans, and the Scandians, not onely vast desarts, and goodly Cities have beene founded, and inhabited, but from their loynes also have Colonies beene derived thorowout all Europe. Well therefore might Methodius, and P. Diaconus resemble their Armies to swarmes of Bees. And most true it is, that Iornandes and Olaus terme the North, the Store-house of mankinde; because from thence the Goths, the Gepidae, the Hunnes, the Cimbrians, the Lombards, the Alani, the Bur­gundians, [Page 10] the Normans, the Picts, the Heruli, the Swevi­ans, the Slavi, the Swizzers, and the Russians have not denied to fetch their pedigrees.

Which maketh me to muse, upon what reasons Hippo­crates could build to say, That the Northerne Nations were unapt for generation, causa frigiditatis; whereas the conjectures of heat and moisture, argued in their hot and fervent breathings, proceeding from the stomacke, and more apparant in Winter than in Summer, are not so effe­ctually verified in any people, as in the inhabitants of the North. The true motives, I say, of promptnesse to genera­tion, and not of sensuall concupiscence, as Aristotle also would have us to imagine: A vice more proper to the Southerne man: performance to the Northerne man.

Which indifferent limitation, was (without doubt) al­lotted to either climate by the handy-worke of God; that those who were of sufficiencie for generation, should not greatly be addicted to pleasures; & the residue which wan­ted of that measure of heat and moisture, should delight in wantonnesse, to raise their appetites; without the which, they would neither propagate their issue, nor by inter-mar­riages maintaine humane societie.

And that this inward heat also maketh the people of the North more couragious, taller, and stronger, than the Na­tions of the South, is apparantly discernable, not in our parts onely (by the operation of nature) but also in the peo­ple dwelling beyond the Tropike of Capricorne: where the more they decline from the Aequator, the more they spread in stature and tallnesse. For the land of the Pentagones (of some termed Giants) is situated under the same latitude that Germanie is.

Which assertions holding true, it is no wonder that this strong and couragious people, the Scythians, have from the beginning cruelly invaded the South, erecting therein ma­ny goodly Trophies: whereas from the South hath scarce ever beene attempted a journey worth speaking of, to the indammagement of the North.

[Page 11] The Assyrians vanquished the Caldeans: the Medes, the Assyrians: the Greeks, the Persians; the Parthians, the Greekes: the Romans, the Carthaginians: the Goths, the Romans: the Turks, the Arabians: the Tartars, the Turkes: and beyond Danubius, the Romans were ever un­willing to attempt. Indeed Trajan erected an admirable bridge of stone over that River; for it had twentie arches, the rumes whereof (by report) are to be seene at this day. But after that the same Trajan perceived, that those Nati­ons were neither easily beaten, nor being beaten, would or could away with subjection, he commanded the bridge to be broken. Semblably, the English have given the French, and Spanish, many famous overthrowes, especially to the French in France it selfe, even to the hazard of their State; and yet never could either of both the Nations, at any time, (though often attempted) set sure footing in England.

These inrodes of the aforesaid barbarous Nations, I would not reiterate, but that in them (to mine understan­ding) the grievous threats of Ezechiel, Ieremie, Esay, and the rest of the Prophets, That from the North should arise warres, footmen, horsemen, and the ruine of kingdomes; have beene, in, and by them accomplished: and most pro­perly ought to bee referred to that fore-divided partition, which stretcheth from the five and fortieth degree, to the fiftieth and five, where Biarmia is situated. For those which dwell beyond (being either none, or very few) are dried up (to use Hippocrates his terme) with as vehement cold, as the people living under the Tropikes are with heat: Not by reason of their inward heat, (as Aristotle in his Meteors dreamed) but by the rigour of the cold, piercing their bo­dies, and wasting their humours; unto which humours, the Northerne people are generally subject. A manifest signe whereof, is their immoderate drinking, which in the Saxons, and the inhabitants of the Baltike Sea, could never yet be moderated by time, nor statutes. And that these hu­mours cause the body to spread, let the Monsters of the Sea resolve our doubts, who grow to that immensive vastnesse, [Page 12] above all other living creatures, propter humiditatis copian [...].

But (as I take it) this overmuch moisture in the Nor­therne people, turneth them often into many grievous in­conveniences. For if you observe any of those Nations to travell towards the South, or to make warres in hot Coun­tries, you shall finde them to faint and perish through im­moderate sweating: as Plutarch, in the life of Marius, ob­served in the Rhewmatike bodies of the Cimbrians: And as experience manifesteth in the Horse, who being by na­ture hot and moist, liveth barely in Aethiopia, and liketh well in Scythia; whereas on the contrary, the Asse, being cold and drie, is lustie, and of good service in Afrike; in Europe, poore and base; in Scythia, not to be found.

And what now we have spoken of the strength and cou­rage of men, is observed also to be true of horses. The Tur­kish and Barbary horses, are like their Masters, rather well limbd and well spirited, than for labour or long journeyes. The Spanish Iennet, like the men of his nation, quickly proves good for a souldier, both best, when best caparisond. The Hungarian is a fierce assailant, and his horse must bee lookt too for feare of running away with the Coach. The high and low Dutch are bigge boned, but foggie people, and the Germane horse is not to travell above thirtie miles a day; that nation admires a poore English Hackney. The Tartar is a stubbed squat fellow, hard bred, and such are their horses. And so for our English.

Of the people of the South.

THe people of the South, as concerning the constituti­ons of their bodies, are said to be cold, drie, thicke­skin'd, thinne and short hair'd, weake, browne, small tim­bred, blacke eyed, and shrill voiced: the Northerne men contrarie, and the middle people indifferently participa­ting of both. The Spanish women terme the Germane [...], Mallespisces, that is, spongie fishes, for their continuall drinking; and in Italy and Provence, the inhabitants doe [Page 13] much wonder at the English, the French, and the Flem­mings, for their nightly complaints of the bitings of the Gnats and Cimeces (a kinde of wormes breeding in their beds and bedsteads) whereas they themselves doe little re­gard them.

But as the bodies of the Northerne people are endued with strength and courage; so the weake constitutions of the Southerne Nations are supplied by the extraordinarie gifts of the minde; terme them what you please, either wit, or subtiltie.

Of crueltie also they have ever beene taxed: Reade Leo Afer his Historie of Afrike, and the Carthaginian dissen­tions: or if Antiquitie please you not, then turne your eyes to the late butcheries of Muleasses and his children, and diligently weigh, if ever your eares heard of more hellish furies than those which these Princes have put in execution, either upon their vassals, or against their own linage. Which if you undertake, then you shall see miserable Muleasses deprived of his kingdome, with his eyes burnt out, his face disfigured, and in lamentable distresse (by the cruelty of his brother) prostrating his complaints at the feet of Charles the Emperour.

For to speake uprightly, from these Nations (more than from any other) have tortures of more exquisite device ta­ken their originals: as exoculations, tearing of memb [...]s, flayings, gashings with swords, slow fires, and impale­ments on stakes: all which the Italians, the French, the Spanish, the Greekes, and the people of Asia, have ever ab­horred, and never admitted, but upon occasions of horri­ble treasons, and that unwillingly too, as borrowed from their neighbours.

And, that no man should conjecture, as doth Polybius, that evill education should produce this disposition of cru­eltie, I would advise him to looke into the nature of the Southerne Americans, who also bathe their children in the gore of their slaughtered enemies, then drinke their bloud, and lastly banquet with the quartered carkasses of their [Page 14] enemies. But if peradventure any man will object the like crueltie in the Northerne man, I would wish him to put this difference: that the man of the North is transported into fury by the heat of courage, and pursueth his revenge in open field; where being provoked, and passion asswaged, he is easily pacified: whereas the Southerne man is not ea­sily provoked; nor once in passion, is easily to be reconci­led: and in actions of warre, he wholly setteth his hopes on policies and stratagems, tormenting with great indigni­tie and crueltie his slaine or vanquished enemies, and that in cold bloud. A disposition base and brutish, arising part­ly (I denie not) from that instinct of fury, which evill education, and their inveterate desire of revenge, doe in­gender in nature, but more properly increased by the un­equall distribution of humours, and these humours by the inequalitie of the elements. By the influence of celestiall providence, these elements are proportioned, and by these elements humane bodies are transported and bloud infused in the bodie, life in the bloud, the soule in life, and under­standing in the soule: which, although it be free from pas­sion, yet by proximitie it cannot but participate of neigh­bour-imperfection: the reason wherefore the people dwelling on either side our Middest, are more prone to vice and foule behaviour.

For as melancholie can no more be wanting to bloud, thanlees to wine; no otherwise can these passions, which arise from melancholie, be extracted from the body.

Now, the Southerne people having the greatest portion of their other humours drawne out by the heat of the Sun, the melancholike (wherewith they most abound) remaine, and as dregges settle at the base of all their actions, being the more exasperated by their froward and perverse dispo­sitions. That men of these constitutions are utterly implaca­ble, Ajax and M. Coriolanus may serve for presidents; the former of whom, for that he could not have his will on his enemie, in a madding mood fell upon droves of cattell: the other would in no wise be reconciled to his Countrey, [Page 15] before he saw the Cities thereof on a flaming fire, in danger of irrecoverable destruction.

But that the Northerne people have also their faults, and are subject to choler, I must not gaine-say, but advise you to consider, that when this passion happeneth to over-rule rea­son, it burneth the bloud, and incenseth the minde to quar­relling and revenge, but in a farre fairer measure (as I said before) than melancholie doth in the nature of a Southerne man. According to Cicero: Passion may over-beare a wise man; madnesse cannot.

Now, that the people of the South have beene given to the studies of contemplation, (a profession befitting their melancholike humours) let their excellent Writers, and In­ventors of many noble Sciences, as the Historie of Nature, the Mathematikes, Religion, and the operation of the Pla­nets, plead their properties.

The Northerne people, being lesse given to contempla­tion, by reason of their plentie of bloud and humours, dis­tempering their minds, and hindering it's faculties, have, without teaching, found out such Arts, as fall within the compasse of understanding and apprehension; as Mechani­call workmanships, Ordnance, casting of metals, Printing, and Minerals.

Being also the Darlings of Mars, they have alwayes, and that with incredible eagernesse of courage, embraced the Art Militarie, loved Armes, levelled Mountaines, and turned Streames; giving themselves wholly to Hunting, to Tillage, to Grasing, and to those Arts which are managed by la­bour: insomuch, that a man may well affirme, That their wits consist in their hands. The reason why the Astrologers (if you please to beleeve them) affirme, That those who have Mars Lord in their Nativities, become either Souldiers or Trades-men.

Of the people of the Middle Region.

OF this division are those, who at this day, understan­ding the reciprocall bounds of Government and Sub­jection, [Page 16] and inured to civill and sociable conditions, are suf­ficiently enabled to frustrate the policies of the South, and to oppose against the furies of the North. Out of this mould would Vitruvius have a Commander to be chosen; and how judiciously, let others say: wee will only maintaine by hi­storicall experience, that the Goths, Hunnes, Heruli, and Vandals, wasted Asia, Afrike, and Europe; and yet for want of good counsell, could never maintaine their Con­quests: whereas farre weaker forces, assisted by wisdome and politike government, have not only brought barbarous Nations to civilitie, but likewise perpetuated most flourish­ing Empires.

In approbation whereof, the Poets fained Pallas to be ar­med, and Achilles to be by her protected. It is recorded also of Cato Censorius, that he was a valiant Captaine, a sage Senator, an upright Iudge, and a great Scholer: of Caesar, that he was a Politician, an Historian, an Orator, and a War­rior: of Agamemnon, that he was a good Governour, and a tall Souldier. And therefore no wonder, if the Scythians, hating Learning, and the Southerne Nations, abhorring Armes, could never make good their conquered acquisiti­ons. The Romans embraced both, to their great good for­tunes, and according to Platoes rule, intermingled Musicke (as the saying is) with Martiall exercises. From the Greci­ans, they deemed it no discredit to borrow Lawes and Let­ters: from the Carthaginians and Sicilians, the Art Marine: the Militarie they had in perfection by continuance and as­siduitie. Before these times, Scythian-like, they strucke downe-right blowes: afterwards, they learned of the Spa­niards (saith Polybius) to thrust with the point.

Thus much, by way of Reading and Observation, for Inclination and Industrie: for mine owne part, I cannot but attribute these qualities of Strength in the Scythian, Wit in the Southerne man, and Indifferencie in the Middle man, to the Divine providence; who in his praescience adjudged it best, upon cruell and barbarous men, as upon Bulls and brute beasts, not to bestow these good gifts of the Minde: [Page 17] neither upon subtle and vafrous people, Courage, and Strength of body; left both should abuse both, to the de­struction of each other. For as Aristotle saith, There is no­thing more dangerous than armed furie.

Wherefore, sithence all Nations have their faults, as well as their vertues, let us neither reproach the laudable sobri­etie of the Southerne man, nor tax the free drinking of the Northerne man; faculties (without controversie) peculiar to either people: but rather, according to reason, let us weigh with our selves, that the Southerne man, for want of naturall digestion, if he should gourmandize, would fall in­to Surfets, Apoplexies, &c. and the Northerne man, if hee would, cannot constraine abstinence, by reason of thirst, proceeding of inward heat. And this should have beene the consideration of all Authors, before they had proceeded to rash condemnation.

So againe, if the Greeke, the Aegyptian, the Arabian, or the Chaldean, be to be taxed of Superstition, Sorcerie, Cowardize, Trecherie, or Lasciviousnesse; yet let them not be so rejected, but that wee vouchsafe in them, to imitate what hath beene commendable, what excellent: For from these Nations, in truth, have Letters, Arts, Learning, Disci­pline, Philosophie, Religion, and the rules of humane Soci­etie beene derived, over the face of the habitable earth.

Neither let us detract from the industries of the Nor­therne Nations, neither take exceptions against the frailties of those whom God hath allotted to possesse the Middle Regions. For albeit (as I said at first) that no over-weening credit be to be given to Starres and Planets, yet so farre let us leane to the learned, as experience may seeme to verifie what they have observed.

The Aphorismes of the Signes in the Zodiake (saith Bo­din) are intricate, and not understood by us, considering, that by the Astronomers owne observations to these times, all the points of the Zodiake, and the Signes, have wholly changed their stations.

To the Southerne people, they place Saturne as Lord and [Page 18] Governour: To the Middle, Iupiter: To the Northerne, Mars. And these in generall. But because of particulars, they put Venus in conjunction with Saturne, Mercurie with Iupiter, and Luna with Mars. The Sunne, as Moderator, they have confined as indifferent.

The Chaldeans say, That the influence of Saturne opera­teth in apprehension: the influence of Iupiter, in action: and the influence of Mars, in execution. The Hebrewes terme Saturne, quiet, peaceable, contemplative; Iupiter, just, wise, &c. and Mars, strong, and full of courage. Saturne (they say) is cold, Mars hot, and Iupiter moderate.

But the people of the Middle Region are neither borne so apt to the studying of arcane Sciences, as are the Southerne men; nor so eagerly given to Mechanicall labours, as are the Northerne men: but in management of civill affaires they prove most eminent. Let any man conferre Time and Hi­story, and he shall finde, that by this people the rudiments of civill behaviour, of Lawes, good Customes, Statizing, Merchandizing, Oratorie, and Dialect, have beene bette­red, if not invented. And no marvell: for Iupiter and Mer­curie are said to bee the Schoole-masters of Sciences, and they that are borne under either, are exceeding apt there­to of their proper inclinations. Witnesse Asia, Graecia, Assyria, Italy, France, and the higher Germanie (which lieth betweene the Pole and the Aequator, from the 40. de­gree to the 50.) From hence the greatest Empires, the best judges, the wisest Lawyers, the eloquentest Orators, the skilfullest Merchants, and finally the most exquisite Hi­storians and Actors of Comedies, that ever were, have pro­ceeded. In Africa have few such beene found: In Scythia, fewer, no, not one, Anacharsis excepted.

Thus hath God and Nature decreed, That the Scythian (or Northern man) should carrie the reputation of Strength; the Southerne man, the praise of Contemplation; and the people inhabiting betweene both, the Attributes of Wis­dome. And yet in all places (according to their Situations) shall you finde, some more strong, some more contempla­tive, [Page 19] and some more wise. Sed à particulari non est syllogi­zandum.

Of East, and West, what more can be spoken? To places parallel, the Sunne neither riseth, nor falleth. When it ap­proacheth the South with us, (being about noone-tide) then is it said to fall, by the Easterne people; and contrari­wise, then to rise by the Southerne. And therefore, as well to reconcile the doubts of the Ancients, as to satisfie the Curious, in these unrevealed workes of God, and his ser­vant Nature; the Moderne Cosmographers have beene bold to suppose the finite limitation of the East, to deter­mine in the Islands of the Molucca; and of the West in the Hesperides. For herein (say they) standeth the centre of the Globe, the Meridian of both Islands being 180. de­degrees distant one from another. On the other halfe of the Globe lieth America, divided from either angle by so im­mensible a tract of Sea, that it deserveth by it selfe, peculiar Bounds of East and West.

As for that great Globe (commonly termed Australi [...]) I had rather say with Bodin, That as yet, it is better set forth for shew than for certainty.

And therefore in excuse of oversight to bee objected to the Ancients, in attributing peculiar influences to diversities of Climates, as the North-east, North-west, South-east, or South-west; let all be referred to the operation of the Car­dinall points of neerest situation, and all (without doubt) may passe for tolerable construction.

Of the world, and the greatest Princes therein; and of the meanes to inlarge dominion.

IT now remaineth, that I undertake the second branch of Observation; which is to relate un­to our traveller, of the greatest Princes and Potentates, which at this day sway the world, [Page 20] and how they have attained to their Soveraignty.

This earth, all created by one God, was not all given to one man; nor did God for ever intaile the possession and soveraignty over the same people, unto the same family. Foure Monarchies we have had, & this last much mangled and invaded in the declination of the Empire; those Com­manders who at first built their nests with the Eagles fea­thers, falling out afterwards amongst themselves about the division of the spoile. Hence the Risings, and the Ruines, the Decayings and Inlargements of severall kingdomes, just as mens ambition and meanes did enable them. Since the de­cay of the foure Monarchies, the greatest Princes of the world are these at this day; The King of Spaine, and the great Turke, both risen out of the ruines of the Romane and the Macedonian Monarchies. Next is the Emperour of Russia, and the Tartar in the North of the world; The great Mogore in East India, and the great Xeriff in Africa. And these be the most renowned Potentates; and yet, me thinks, that in this one respect, no one nation comes neere the honour of the Persian; which (first) was once a Monar­chy; and secondly, since the decay of that, it hath ever conti­nued, a rich, a great, an active, and a glorious kingdome, which neither Assyria, Macedonia, nor Rome it selfe can boast of. This one thing let me note, that the glory of these Northerne Princes hath beene much more powerfull, but nothing comparable to the state and Majestie of the Ea­sterne Monarchs. That of Assyria was planted in the very garden and treasurie of the world, both for wealth and de­licacie; and whereas the meanest subject may put a petiti­on into the hands of one of our Princes, the Kings of Persia kept such state, that it was death even for the Queene her­selfe to come neere the throne, untill Ahashuerosh held forth the golden scepter. The King of Spaine weares at this day (perchance) a homely Cassocke of blacke Serge, many a Curate in his Country having a better; whereas the King of China gives not presence, but rarely at the great suit of his people, and that out at the window of a gilded cham­ber, [Page 21] himselfe gloriously shining in Rubies, in Gold and Diamonds; and that at such time too, as the Sunne shi­ning upon him, even dazles the eyes of his adoring subjects, with the glitter of the reflection; and this they thinke the Sunne doth in favour of him, whence they call him, The Sonne of the Sunne. No Northerne or Westerne Prince at this day keeps state, but the Emperour of Russia, and the great Turke; nor are any so obeyed: but their govern­ments (as those of Assyria and Persia of old, and the great Mogore and China at this day) are rather Tyrannies than Monarchies.

Now most certaine it is, that all these Monarchies and mighty kingdomes arrived not to that height of Empire, but by time, by meanes, and by degrees: Time indeed per­fected the designe, but twas the meanes that effected it. Let this be therefore laid for the ground of our discourse, that there be many (though secret, yet) irresistable causes of enlarging of Empire; which being made the right use of by a wife Architect of State, presently shewes the advantage to lie on his side, that hath the true knacke of King-craft. Tis true, That no man by taking thought can adde one cubite unto his stature; but yet in that vast frame of common­wealths, by observing off me naturall and casuall advan­tages, and by introducing of some good ordinances and constitutions, there may be found out that Art of Themi­stocles; To make a small towne to become a great Citie, and to sowe greatnesse to posteritie.

And these means conducing unto the enlargement of Em­pire, we will reduce unto seven heads: First, numbers of men. Secondly, valour of the Natives. Thirdly, pretence of Religion. Fourthly, plentie of money. Fifthly, advantage of weapons. Sixthly, happinesse of situation. Seventhly, the prudent apprehending of an opportunitie.

The inlarging of Dominion, Numbers. is the uniting and establi­shing of divers Territories under one Soveraigne govern­ment; whereunto is necessarily required such numbers of men, and those not mercenarie, if it may be avoided, as may [Page 22] exceed the fatall dangers and doubtfull chances, incident to casualties. For small numbers are soone consumed by dis­eases, or oppressed by a more mighty enemy; overthrowne in one battell, or extenuated by a long warre: to which in­conveniences great numbers and populous Nations are not so subject. By these advantages, the Barbarians, the Aegyp­tians, the Assyrians, and the Persians, have for the most part brought their attempts to happy ends. The Romanes (if in respect of their honour) they did not ordinarily use huge Armies, yet they alwayes prevailed, by reason of their populous territories, or their indefatigable continu­ance; being thereby able the second and third time to re­inforce their Legions, and finally with fresh supplies to overcome their enemies, being weakned with overcom­ming. And to multiplie and maintaine these numbers, as they sometimes received into their territories their very enemies, so at other times they sent forth Colonies of their owne people. By meanes whereof, and other such like po­licies, they grew to such multitudes, that in the eighth yeare of the reigne of the Emperour Claudius, the people were numbred to be six millions; a number at this present, not to be found in the bounds of all Italy; whereby they became conquerours of the parts of the world then discovered. Conquest (say I) undertaken by them, as much in regard of their numbers, as of their valour.

A good Manroode is an inexhaustible stocke. By popu­lous armies did the Northerne Nations (called officinae ho­minum, the shops of men) overrunne farre greater Nations than their owne. Small numbers are quickly consumed by mortalitie, or one overthrow: whereas the Romanes by frequent re-inforcing their legions with new Recruites, put Pyrrhus (who had often overthrowne them) to confesse at last, That if he overcame the Romans once more, he should be utterly undone; Saepius possunt vinci, quàm tu vincere: Multitudes can indure to be overcome oftner, than a few are able to overcome them. But most expedient it is, that the bo­die and flower of the Armie, be made up of the natives, and [Page 23] not of strangers: for he that trusts to mercenaries, may sud­denly rise and spread his feathers, but he will mew them soone after. The Auxiliaries that the Romanes made use of, were either first made their owne by Indenization, or as good as their owne, by entring a league offensive and defensive, against a common enemie. Necessary it is with­all, that amongst those numbers there be a race of military men: such be the Timariotes amongst the Turkes, and most of the Gentry amongst the Polonians and Hungarians. Let every Prince thinke soberly of his forces, unlesse his militia of natives be good and valiant souldiers, able, and hardy bodies, and stout and sturdy stomacks. The plough ('tis true) breeds the souldier, that is the Foot which makes the bodie of the Armie, but they must expect much time to harden, to drill and exercise them; and therefore the sud­den French nation, though they must have an Infantery of Foot, yet their maine trust and glory of service they lay upon their Cavallery, which bee their Gentry, which use themselves to horse and Armes continually. But the chiefe secret of all for enlarging of Empire is, the maintaining of a sufficient number in Armes, such as hath beene on both sides in the Low Countries these 60. yeares; and such an Army may well deserve the name of a Schoole of Warre, and of a true Militia indeed. The Venetians (contrary to the for­mer discipline) doe with great wages levie sudden forces, and when the service is done, as suddenly disband them: but they doe it meerely to keepe Empire, and not to en­large it: their subjects be but few, and therefore their do­minion enlarges not.

True Valour consisteth partly in judicious apprehension,Valour. (whereby both convenient opportunities are discerned and entertained, and all difficulties discovered and preven­ted:) and partly in the forward resolution of the minde: by conjunction of which two Vertues, great enterprizes are undertaken with good successe; dangers almost inevi­table made light, and waighty attempts brought to hap­py conclusions. Of these two I doe not know which to [Page 24] Preferre as most necessary, and of greatest importance: but most certaine it is, that the one without the other, little availeth, to the atchieving of any matter worthy enter­prize. For wisdome without courage, may rather be ter­med subtilty, than judicious carriage: and courage with­out discretion, is rather furious rashnesse, than true valour; neither let any man suppose, that from wilinesse without force, nor force without judgement, can proceed any pro­ject of worthy consideration. For all designes which have in them greatnesse, have also in them difficulty and hard­nesse, and to master uneasie actions, it is necessary both to use judgement in fore-seeing of dangers, and courage to overcome them once undertaken. These two joyned in one man, or in one Nation, are apt meanes to raise their fortunes above their neighbours. As we see amongst birds, the Ea­gle; among beasts, the Lion; among fishes, the Dolphin; (in whom doe appeare some shadowes of wit and cou­rage) are esteemed as it were Princes above their Fellow-creatures.

But if any man affirme, that true judgement cannot be severed from true valour, yet give me leave to affirme, that ordinarily the one doth appeare more discernable above the other in divers subjects. For we may note in Philip King of the Macedons, and in Amilcar the Carthaginian, great foresight and wisdome, and in Alexander and Hannibal (their sonnes) more courage and valour; In Fabritius, judi­cious warinesse; in Marcellus, couragious forwardnesse: both which were alike fearefull and disastrous to the vali­ant Hannibal.

Yet I say not, but some actions are better dealt in, by the one, than by the other. For generally, to conquer and winne, courage is more availeable than wit; but to esta­blish and keepe that which is gotten, discretion is more to be desired than it; as may well be discerned in Spaniards, who have surer setled themselves in that which they have gained by their warinesse and judgement, than did the French by their fury and hazzard.

[Page 25] But, if any man should urge me to speake my opinion, whether courage or wisdome be more necessarily to bee re­quired; I would give my consent with courage: My reason is, that wisdome is given but to few, and that must be got­ten by travell, by long time and studie, whereas courage naturally is by divers meanes, and upon sudden casualties imparted and dispersed in the mindes of many: which ma­ny having to deale with few, will casually finde opportu­nitie to vanquish and overcome. As we read of the Goths ▪ the Vandals, the Tartarians, and the Turks, who with cou­rage onely have atchieved great conquests, and have brought to passe such enterprises, as a man would have thought unpossible: The reason whereof is, that their sud­den and speedy movings, and their unexspected boldnesse, hath confounded the Counsels, and amazed the judgements of the wisest Commanders. Besides, in sudden hurly-bur­lies of war it is commonly seene, that courage openeth more gaps, and affordeth more releefe, than policie; for that in such cases, reason is jealous, suspicious, and fearefull, and men stand as it were amazed at the greatnesse of the present danger: whereas courage doth oft-times gather strength in extreme despaire. Vna salus victis nullam sperare salutem.

Yea, it is commonly seene,Wisdome. that those people who are more commended for their wit and policie, than for their courage and valour, have given place to those who have beene more esteemed for their resolution, than for their skil­fulnesse as the Greeks and the Macedons doe at this day to the Turks: the Gaules of old, to the French: the Aegyp­tians, to the Persians: the Sarazens, to the Chaldeans: and other Nations to the Persians and Parthians. Yea, it is the received opinion, That the French did range Italy at their pleasure under Charles the eighth, and gave them the Law, because in those times the Italian Princes did wholly give themselves to the studie of good Letters.

Multitudes are nothing without valour: it never trou­bles the wolfe how many the sheepe be; and surely a small Armie of well trained and resolved old souldiers, under a [Page 26] prudent Generall, will not much care for a confused rabble and multitudes of a Barbarous enemie. Let the Turks come into Epyre with 50. or 60000. men, Scanderbeg never ca­red for above 9000. to goe against them; and his few well led men came ever off with victory: When Tigranes the Armenian, having encamped his mighty Army of 400000. men upon the advantage of the hils, saw the Romans up­on their march towards him not with above 14000. in their whole Armie, in a pleasant humour sayes he, These men be too many for an Ambassage, and too few for a fight. But before night he found them enough, for they gave him both the chace and slaughter. True valour (now) is a due mixture of judgement for the discovery of difficul­ties, with a quicke resolution to execute. Part them, and they are but subtilty, and fury; where they light together, they both advance the cause, the man, and the Nation. Both these have their severall activities: Courage, is able at a pinch to man up it selfe, and with a sudden assault to sur­prise the unperfected consultations of the enemie. Iudge­ment hath its scouts ever abroad, to prevent such like fallies and cavalcadoes, that he be not taken sleeper. Resolution atchieves the victorie, and judgement keepes it. Shall wee goe lesse? and for Iudgement take Policy, and for valour courage? which of the two now is to be preferred? The question was anciently answered by the Orator; Parva sunt foris arma, nisi sit consilium domi; an army in the field is nothing so potent, unlesse the Generall receives his instructi­ons from the councell-table at home. Policies office is to pre­vent dangers, and to plot designes: in both which it may be abused, either by feare, or want of intelligence. Against the first, courage is provided; the second it regards not, as accounting no difficultie insuperable. The French slan­der our English victories with imputation of rashnesse, ra­ther than valour; saying, We overcame dangers, because we were ignorant of them. And let us doe so still: Dum­modo pugnando vincam, tu vince loquendo; We can give lo­sers leave to talke. Finally, politike enemies, have still gi­ven [Page 27] way to resolute, yea even when they were vanquished: A resolved or a famished enemie that would get loose or die, make him a bridge of gold to flee upon. Certainly, a couragious enemy is never despised, a politike one may bee.

Moreover, their is a certaine fiercenesse, or rather fury,Rashnesse. which commeth neere to valour: for that excesse of bold­nesse, where with the Gaules, and afterward the French­men, have atchieved notable exploits, is in some sort com­mendable. But withall it is worthy of observation, that such like acquisitions are commonly of small continuance. Whereupon it was well said; Moderation to be the Mother of continuance, to States and Kingdomes. The Swissers shew­ed themselves notable herein, especially in the warres of Navar; insomuch as Iames Trivultio reporteth, that their battell seemed rather to consist of Giants, than of ordinary Souldiers. Neither hath any Nation ever dealt more at ad­venture, or hath used more boldnesse and blinde fury, than the Portugals, whose voyages beyond the Cape of Good-Hope, and the Straights of Sinca-Pura; their conquests of Ormus, of Goa, of Malacca, and the Moluccos; the defence of Cochin, of Diu, of Chaul, and of Goa, are more true and commendable, than in reason likely to have prospered.

Military valour (now) is usually increased by some such like means as these. First, by using them to the wars: Second­ly, by treating them like free men, & not like slaves: Third­ly, by inuring them to Arts manly: Fourthly, by appoin­ting military rewards and honours for the souldiery.

When people are inured to the warres,I Vse. it takes away the horrour and hideous feare of it, and makes it but a kinde of trade to the followers, who desire it, to live by it. One of our lusty ploughmen of mid-England, would at fifty-cuffes or cudgels soundly beclowt a Hollander: but yet for that he never saw men with iron faces, he durst as well take a sheet of an hedge, as come within the cracke of a pistoll: where­as tis usuall for the Bores of Holland, some with firelocks, & some with Loapestaves, to make out parties of foot to goe [Page 28] a-bootehaling, and even to set upon the horse of the enemie. And all this is, because the Englishman is not used to it, and the Hollander is. For the same reason there is much diffe­rence betwixt the same people in time of warre, and after a long and effeminating peace. That felt Hannibals souldiers after their long and lazie quarter in Capua. Before Da'lvaes comming into the Low-Countries to provoke the Hollan­ders, there was not a more simple cullion in the world than a Dutchman, and now, no where a braver man: and what hath effeminated our English, but a long difuse of armes. Finally, though in a hard battell there would appeare a great deale of difference betwixt an old beaten souldier, who had seene men die familiarly, (even the sight of bloud making men fierce and fearelesse) and a man of our traine bands of London: yet surely would the Londoner much sooner prove fit for a battell, than the unexperienced coun­try-man, even for that little use which he hath had of his Armes in the Artillery garden, and Military yard: of such force is use and custome to the increase of military valour.

Most requisite it is, that what people a Prince would make valiant,2 [...]. he should use freely, and not like slaves. A Nation overlaid with taxes, will never prove military. In France therefore where the peasant is but the day-labourer for his Land-lord the Monsieur, and never suffered to eat good bit, to weare good ragge, or scarce to lay up a quart-deseue at the years end; the Prince does not much trust to the Enfantery, which is made up of this slavish people. Infor­ced impositions, mightily abate peoples love and courages: and the blessing of Iudah and Issachar will never meet, That the same people should prove the Lions whelpe, which is used like an Asse betweene two burthens. But where the yeoman or husbandman may eat what he breeds, spend what he earnes, and have the benefit of the Law against the best gentleman of the Country, there are they fit for an hel­met. And all this is in England: in no Nation under heaven does the common man live so freely, or dares spend so frankly; no where so free minds, or so able bodies.

[Page 29] Three other usages have we had in England, which have kept our people in spirit and valour. One was, the tenure of Knights service: by vertue of which, when the Lord of the Mannor was called to serve the King, he drew his Te­nants after him, who would not budge a foot, but live and die with their Land-lord and Captaine: for if they proved cowards to their Land-lord, how should they looke his sonne in the face, and how disgraced should they be at their returne into their owne Country? Thus proved we vi­ctorious in France.

The second usage was perfected by King Henry the se­venth, which was to reduce the Farmes and houses of hus­bandry to a standard, assigning such a proportion of land to each, as might breed a subject to live in a convenient plen­ty; neither with so much, as should effeminate him into the ease of a gentleman; nor with so little, as should discourage him with beggery.

The third usage was, the frequency of Serving-men and Retainers, who before that the sinne of drunkennesse had overflowed their gals and courages, were no whit for valour and service inferiour to the Yeomanrie. All these being kept in freedome, were maintained in courage, able and willing to serve both their Prince and Country.

A third thing necessary to breed courage in a Nation,3 Manly arts. is (if other reasons of State will beare it) that there be more addicted to arts manly, than unto sedentary and within-doores occupations. Such I mean, as require the strength of the backe, and brawne of the arme, rather than the fine­nestle of the braine or finger. Some have thought that the multitudes of Monkes and Friers, would if need were, be a great strengthening to the Papacie, and fight hard for their Grandfire of Rome. But most assuredly those cage-birds have no military minds at all. When Rome was beleagred by the Duke of Burbon in Charles the fifth his time, and ta­ken too, not a Frier came to the rescue. The Kings of Eng­land have sometimes made bold with the treasure of the Monasteries, but never thought their persons serviceable. [Page 30] Had they beene martiall-minded, such multitudes would never have suffered themselves to be turned out of their warme nests, in King Henry the eighths time, without stroke striking. And surely the taking in of the Dutch and Waltons into our Cities of England, was more out of charity than policie: for they being all given to neat and delicate ma­nufactures, may seeme rather to bring riches than strength to the kingdome. Nor have our Kings hitherto tryed any of them in their souldierie. Studious, delicate, and sedentary arts, are not fit for armes: tis the whip, the plough-stafte, the slayle, the hammer, and the hatchet, that breeds the lusty souldier, that makes able bodies and couragious spirits.

Another great maintainer of courage is,4 Military re­wards. the invention and worthy bestowing of military honours and rewards, after the service is done.

The Romanes had their Triumphs and Ovations, their Garlands and their Donatives to inhearten their souldiers. Orders of Knighthood were also invented for this purpose. But what's all this to the common Souldier, who hath no reward assigned untill he be lame, and that a little from the Treasurer. As for releefe in an hospitall, a serving-man can make better meanes to get into it than a poore souldier after twenty or thirty years service. This is a discouragement. But nothing so bad as the Spaniards, whose practice hath beene for these many ages, to reward most of his great Captaines (especially if they were not naturally Spaniards) first with an empty title, and lastly (being not otherwise able to pay or recompence them) with a Spanish sico.

A great and a maine advancer of a cause and enlarger of Empire,3 Religion. is Religion, or the pretence of it. Religion is well called the soule of the State; and is ever the prime thing to be looked into; most bitter dissentions and hinderances of all great actions, still proceeding from discontentments in Religion. Anima est actus corporis, sayes the Philosopher; Tis the soule that gives action and motion to the body; and if the affections and passions of the soule bee composed to a [Page 31] well ordered and contented tranquillity and serenity, there followes health, strength, and growth in all the limbs and members of the body. The conscience is an active sparke, and can easily man up all the powers of soule and body, either for the maintenance or enlargement of it's libertie. Bonum est sui communicativum; Religion (contrary to coun­sell) desires ever to be made publike: the spirituall man as well as the naturall, ever having a desire generare sibi simile; to beget others in his owne likenesse; to compasse Sea and Land to make a Proselyte. As therefore Princes have still ac­counted it a dangerous thing to arme Religion against themselves; so have they most willingly accepted of the countenance of Religion. No such encouragement could come to the Israelites, or disheartning to the Philistines, as when the Arke of God was in the host of Israel: who is able to stand against these mighty gods, say they. Most surely is the kingdome of the Pope founded, whose ground is layed in the conscience. The Turke pretending to pro­pagate his Religion with fire and sword, we see how that hath advanced his conquests: and what advantage hath the Spaniard more made use of in these late warres, than a specious pretence of rooting out the Protestants, and the re­establishing of the Catholike Religion; by which secret he hath not onely staved off the popish Princes and Erectors of Germany, not onely from defending the common libertie of their country, but to enter that which they call the ho­ly league with him, whereby for zeale of enlarging their Religion, they in the meane time weaken themselves, that he at last picking a slight quarrell with them, may swallow them up one after another, having long before designed them (Papists as well as Protestants) to a common destruction; for though the Spaniard pretends Religion, yet he intends Monarchie. This plot beginning to be discovered, we see most of the Princes of Christendome drawing to a leaguer, war, that is, to a cōfederacy of all Protestant Princes against all Popish; & who sees not, that if the Romish religion pre­vailes, the King of Spaines Monarchie must needs prove as [Page 32] Catholike (that is, universall) as his religion; and then will he prove the Catholike King indeed.

Now that the pretence of Religion may take the better, 'tis necessary that there be an union in it among all the sub­jects of the grand pretender; or at least, that those of the adverse opinion be so few and weake, that they be not able to put an Armie into the field: tolerations of Religion are most dangerous: and surely, should the King of England much exhaust his land forces, to make a potent invasion up­on the Spanish dominions, the Iesuites would presently stirre up our Papists to call him backe againe for the stinting of a domestike rebellion: for to be feared it is, that though all our Recusants be the King of Englands subjects, yet too many of them be the King of Spaines servants. No sooner (on the otherside) did the French King this present yeare lead his Army over the Alpes into Italy, but the Duke de Rohan thought it a fit opportunity for the Protestants to struggle for their liberty. And therefore plainly as of all good causes Religion is the chiefe, so in Religion there must be unitie; and that makes it irresistable. Fi­nally, as naturall bodies are best nourished by things of that nature and kinde whereof they consist; even so that Empire which is gained or inlarged by Religion, must ever be maintained by it: Twas therefore the old rule a­mongst the Conquerours, to bring in their owne language, lawes, and religion among their new subjects. The Ro­manes did this every where, and the Norman did it in England. The Spaniard indeed hath not much stood upon lawes and language, but hath ever beene diligent for his Religion: and though in the Palatinate he suffered some Protestant Ministers awhile, (to make the conquest the sweeter) yet those being either dead or wearied out, he ne­ver suffered another Protestant to succeed. The diligence and fury of the Emperour for rooting out those of the Augu­stane confession in Bohemia, &c. may well confirme the truth of this observation.

The qualities of weapons,4 Weapons. and the order of discipline are [Page 33] important instruments of this martiall greatnesse. Advan­tage of weapons is like good casting, and strict discipline like skilfull playing, both which must needs winne the game. The Macedonians by their Pikes, and the Romans by their Pyles; the Parthians and English by their long bowes, have still beene victorious. The same thing doth en­gine and fortification. The gunne hath brought all wea­pons to an equality: that onely domineeres now. No­thing resists it but the spade. Tis a weapon of terrible execution, serviceable both by Sea and Land; & yet are not the slaughters made by the gunne, any way comparable for numbers, to those bloudy battels wonne by the sword. The charges of this, disables Princes from levying Armies equall for multitudes to the Ancient; which now adayes beginne to be incredible. Infinite were it to speake of the new invented engines and fire-workes, and of the severall provisions to prevent them: and whether after-ages shall invent a more terrible weapon than the gun, is to us uncer­taine: which if it proves, the Inventor gets incredible ad­vantage.

Treasure is an advantage of great importance:Treasure. forasmuch as there is nothing more necessary in warres, or of more use in peace. By meanes hereof the Florentines became Lords of a great part of Tuscany: they bought many Cities; they freed themselves from the incursions of divers enemies; they maintained the warres many yeares against the Pisans, and against the prowesse of those peoples, and the power of those Princes which did aid them; and at the last brought that warre to good end. By meanes hereof, the Venetians made themselves Lords of a good part of Lumbardy, and en­dured the forces of the King of Hungary, the Arch-duke of Austria, and of divers other Princes. Whereby it appea­reth, that money worketh two notable effects, to the aug­mentation and continuance of the greatnesse of kingdomes and estates: The one, to provide and gather forces, and those being gotten, to uphold and maintaine, with supplies of Souldiers, victuals, munition and armes: The other, [Page 34] that it doth offer us opportunity, (if not to weaken and vanquish the enemy, having gotten the advantage) yet at least, it doth enable us to endure and withstand him; that by drawing out the warre in length, wee may make him weary of continuance, and gives us benefit of time. By this temporizing, the Venetians being overthrowne in all places by the league of Cambray, in the end became Conquerours. So that, as to him that hath a populous army, and finds himselfe mighty and strong, it is most convenient to hasten the encounter, and to fight without prolonging of time; for delay (the overthrow of many actions) can afford him no other, but losse, sicknesse, infection, scarcity, famine, mu­tinies, and dissolution of forces: So for him that is better furnished with money than with men, it is most advanta­gious to prolong the warre, and to stand upon the defen­sive; for in the end, his money may gaine him victory.

Finally, although some men will not suffer money to be called the sinewes of warre; because as Solon answered once to Croesus, (who in ostentation shewed him his gold) Sir, if another comes that hath better iron than you, he will be master of all this gold: yet notwithstanding, where numbers, po­licy, valour, and weapons have not either singly or alto­gether prevailed, there hath money alone done the feat. For this, have Townes and Kingdomes beene bought of trai­tors: with this, purchase we either peace or victory. No place is to be held impregnable, whither an Asse laden with gold may get up. Two great effects it workes: First, it le­vies forces suddenly, and withall, keeps them long together: Secondly, a monied enemie may fight when he will, and but when he will, and must needs therefore weary out his adversary, and so at last endanger either to overthrow him, or force him to a faire composition. For want of pay Ar­mies mutinie, and will neither muster nor fight; and espe­cially the Germans. But Spinola hath made great use of a secret of warre, how in scarcitie of moneys to awe these mutiniers; and that is by paying and contenting the horse, and they shall keepe the foot in obedience. But this tricke [Page 35] will not alwayes serve, for in an Armie a man can hardly tell which is most necessary, armes, victuals, or money; this last alwayes fetches in both the other.

The advantage of site, is of much importance,Situation. for the defending or inlarging of dominion, and doth chiefly consist in this; that it be convenient for the making of an assault, and uneasie to be againe assaulted. For a Country being as it were naturally fortified, hath easie meanes to make con­quests, and get victory, to the inlargement of their owne dominions, and to the overthrow of anothers. Of this qua­lity are the situations of Spaine and Araby, for both these are (as it were) pene-Insulaes, having their greatest parts in­compassed with the Sea, whereby they may assaile the Countries neere adjoyning, and cannot without great diffi­culty be assaulted againe. The one hath dangerous shores without harbors, and is invironed with mountaines (ha­ving few and secret passages) the other is inclosed with sands and desarts. Of like quality is Italy: And among the Islands, England. But this advantage of situation I hold not sufficient (of it selfe) to effect any notable exploit: for be­sides, there is required plenty of victuals, store of munition, armes, horses, and divers other necessaries, without which, there is no hope to accomplish any famous expedition. Moreover, such a disposition and quality of the country is necessarily to be required, that the aforesaid habiliments may easily be brought together, and removed to places, whither occasion shall command. And although those, which possesse the mountaines and higher places, may with advantage come downe upon the plaine and low countries, and by reason of the craggednesse and hard passages of their country, can hardly be assaulted againe; yet have not such people done any thing which may worthily commend them. For the mountaines be ordinarily long and narrow, or at the least, much broken and divided amongst them­selves (which must needs hinder the speedy drawing toge­ther, and uniting of their forces and necessaries;) againe, are they unprovided of victuals, and of all other things requi­site [Page 36] of the warres, and therefore altogether unable to con­tinue in action. So that they warre rather after the man­ner of robbers and theeves, than of true souldiers: It may also be added, that the mountaine-men cannot live any long time, without intercourse and traffike with the men of the plaine Countrey. And therefore if upon any attempt, they doe not prevaile at the first brunt, their best course will bee to capitulate with their enemies, and to returne home a­gaine, although with losse; as did the Helvetii at the over­throw of Mount S. Claud.

So wee may see, that the Englishmen which inhabit a plaine and plentifull soile, have alwayes prevailed against the Scots and Welshmen, who upon presumptions of their naturall situations, have divers times molested them. For the plaine Country by reason of the fruitfulnesse, doth minister all things requisite for warre, and to defray charges; con­veniencie to joyne forces, and being gotten together, able long time to maintaine them: Whereas on the contrary, the Mountaines (by reason of their barrennesse) afford no provision for a long journey, nor are any way able to beare the charge of any notable enterprise.

Wherupon it doth proceed, that small Islands having the foresaid qualities of situation, have never attained any great Soveraignty; because the advantages of the Land are farre greater than those of the Sea. Moreover, their com­mand cannot be great, unlesse it be enlarged by meanes of the firme Land; for Islands hold the same proportion with the Continent, that the part doth with the whole. Besides, they be for the most part long and narrow, as Candy, Cy­prus, Spagniola, Cuba, S. Laurence, and Sumatra, and there­fore cannot readily bring their forces together. Neither will I sticke to say, that Islands (if not strong in shipping, as England and the Netherlands) although they may with ad­vantage come forth and assaile others, are not withstanding, as it were Cities without wals, laid open to the spoile of all Invaders. As it happened to Sicil being assailed by the A­thenians and the Lacedemonians, and afterwards by the Car­thaginians, [Page 37] and the Romans. But the Provinces of the firme Land, being for the most part of a proportion more round, and square, have their forces continually neere to­gether, and to be speedily united; and therefore more rea­dy and apt for opposition.

Yet to small purpose are all these aforesaid advantages, if opportunity give not aid thereunto. This opportunity is a meeting and concurring of divers cadences, which at one instant doe make a matter very easie, and at another time, being overslipped, it will be impossible, or at least very hard, to bring to like facility. Wherefore amongst many and divers, I will here note the most principall. The first groweth by the basenesse and negligence of the neighbour Princes, arising either by reason of a naturall jealousie, de­fect, and dulnesse, or of too long a peace. So Caesar possest himselfe of Italy, and of the Common-wealth, being ready, and in Armes, the State being disarmed, not looking for any such innovation. So the Barbarians, subdued the Em­pire of Rome: The Arabians the Empire of the East, of Aegypt, and of Spaine: Charles the eighth King of France, gained Italy: The Portugals, India; The Castilians, the new world; and Soliman, the Kingdome of Hungary.

The division of the neighbouring States,Pettie Seig­niories. either into Common-wealths, or into petty Seigniories, and those of small power, gave courage to the Romans to make them­selves Lords of Italy, and made an easie passage for the Ve­netians into Lumbardy. This also made the attempt of Thus­ian light unto the Florentines, and no lesse that of Barbary to the Castilians; which they would have found very hard, of either the one, or the other, had expected them with ar­med forces.

The variance and jarring of the adjoyning Princes did open the way to the Turks to enter so farre into Christen­dome, and with little trouble to invest himselfe of many kingdomes therein. So Amurath the third, presuming up­on the civill discords of the Princes of the bloud Royall of Persia, made that attempt with great advantage. So againe [Page 38] the Persian, upon the difference of the Scrivano, and the Bashawes of Syria, hath resumed the advantage, and accor­dingly prospered. Neither doth the whole mischiefe arise out of these intestine jarres onely, but in all factions one part will be sure to intreat the aid of some forren Prince against the other: than which, no man can have a better occasion, because then he commeth armed into the owners house at his owne request. So the Romans, set foot in Sicil, being cald in by the Mamertines: In Greece by the Athenians: In Numidia by the sonnes of Micipsa: In Provence by the Marsilians: In France by the Hedui, and so from time to time by divers others. So Amurath the first King of Turks got hold in Europe, being requested in aid by the Emperour of the East, being then in warre with the Princes of Greece. So Soliman, in Hungarie, being intreated by Queene Isabel, and afterwards by King Iohn. So the Ara­gons, in the kingdome of Naples, being drawne thither by Queene Ioane the second: and so Henry the second King of France, made himselfe Lord of three great Cities of the Empire. Often hath it beene seene, that he that is now cal­led in as a friend, does after prove an enemie; and if one par­ty in a civill warre cals in a forren arbitrator, both parties cannot get him out againe.

But another no lesse successefull opportunity hath also beene made use of, and that by way of marriage. By appre­hending the opportunity of a marriage, were the two houses of Yorke and Lancaster, and the two kingdomes of England and Scotland united. But no Prince hath made so great advantage of marriage as the Spaniard. The match of Ferdinand and Elizabeth was the very foundation of their greatnesse. By marriages were the severall Provinces of the Low Countries united, all which fell to Spaines at a clap. Fi­nally, for this advantage hath the house of Spaine three times purchased dispensations from Rome for incestuous marriages, and more they intended too: Charles the fifth Emperour, was solemnly contracted to our Queene Mary, and Philip the second King of Spaine, sonne to the said Em­perour, [Page 39] both wedded and bedded her: nay, upon strong ap­pearances suspected it then was, that King Philips curte­sies to Queene Elizabeth were for his owne ends, that if Queene Mary should die without issue, he might marrie her also; which he afterwards attempted by the Count de Feria, promising to obtaine a dispensation: so should Eng­land have beene laid to Spaine, and what should then have hindred his Monarchie?

Now besides those advantages of humane policie and strength (before mentioned) God himselfe hath reserved a power at his owne disposing, in the giving away of victo­ries, and in the cutting short, or inlargement of Empire. And to this end hath ordained these naturall Agencies and Assistances of Seas, Rivers, Mountaines, Marishes, Wilder­nesses, and the sandie Desarts. By these, helps he the weake to hedge and ditch out their incroaching neighbours; and by granting the mastership over these to another Nation, he can at pleasure scourge the rebellion or unthankfulnesse of those people, whom before he defended by them. And of these helps of nature something will we say, and in their order. And first for the benefit of the Sea.

Concerning the profits of Merchandize, (both for impor­ting and exporting of commodities) I will not here speake;1 The commo­dities of the Sea, for the defending or inlarging of Empire. (though even that tends so much to the inrichment and aug­mentation of the honour of the State, that in all treaties of warre and peace, I see, that the articles concerning traffike, are sometimes two thirds of the treatie; for so were they I am sure, in that politike and nice-driven negotiation of the peace betwixt England and Spaine, in the beginning of the Reigne of King Iames; the Lord Treasurer Cecil, Northamp­ton, and the greatest Sages of the kingdome, being Com­missioners on our partie; and the best pates of Spaine, for theirs:) but here I will onely treat of the Sea, as of a Sove­raigne friend and bulwarke to that Nation that is neerliest situated unto it; and a maine helpe towards the keeping or inlargement of dominion. The Poets you know made a God of Neptune that obtained the soveraingty of the Sea [Page 40] as well as of him that had the government of the Land: and truly to be Lord of the narrow Seas, and to enjoy a roy­alty, That the ships of all Nations shall strike faile to one of the Kings ships, is none of the least honours: and to bee master of the Sea, is more of it selfe than a pettie Monarchie. He that is so indeed may give the law, as well as he that is master of the field. The Sea-fight at Actium was it that made Augustus Caesar sole Emperour of the world: and Pompey learned it of old Themistocles, that he that had the best Navy, would in the end prove the Conquerour: The victory that the Christians got at Lepanto, so arrested the in [...]aching of the Turkish greatnesse, that they have done little upon Chirstendome never since. I mention not 88. nor that the resistance that the Hollanders have beene able to make against the greatest Monarch of the world, pro­ceeds meerly from the advantage they have of him by their commodious situation upon the Sea, and by having more havens and ships than he.

This certainly will prove true; that if ever the Monarchie of Spaine be broken, it must be by Sea, even by the Fleets of England and Holland; and that know the Counsellours of the Emperour and Spaine well enough; who to make them­selves masters of some good ports, have supplied their de­fect of a Navy, by a chargeable land army. For what thinke you else should be the designe of Monsieur Tilly, but to take the Sea by Land, to make his master Lord of Stoad, Hamborrough, Luckstadt, with other Hansee townes, and the Sowndt of Denmarke? and what makes the Emperour (who yet had never greater vessel than a Punt or Yaugh up­on the Danuby) to buy and hire ships so fast at this very present, at Lubecke, Rostocke, and other coast townes, and to appoint Mansfelt for his Admirall? Such a friend is the Sea to those that border upon it; and of such importance to­wards the defending or enlarging of Empire. But as for Islands (such as ours) wholly situate in it; certainly that wall of water and sand about us, is a surer fortification, than Frier Bacons wall of brasse could have beene. Our Almighty [Page 41] Creator (in an humble and a thankfull sense bee it spoken) hath even married us to his owne providence & protection; the sand about us seemes to be our wedding Ring, and the ri­ches of the Sea our Dowrie. By benefit of the Sea (as long as we have kept our selves masters of it) we have enjoyed peace, and have heard of, rather than felt, the miseries of other Na­tions: and (certainly) so long as we keepe our selves so, wee are at liberty to take as much or little of the warre, as wee please: and at length (verily) even the wealth of the In­dies will be but an accessary to the command of the Seas. The Indies being but like the Bets at play; he that winnes the game, gets not only the maine Stake, but all the Bets by follow the fortune of his hand. This finally, is the advan­tage of an Iland, that it cannot be taken if it be master at Sea: tis not so much matter what the Land-forces be (in the resisting of the landing of an invading enemie,) seeing one Fleet is worth three Armies. Wee had two Armies drawne together on foot in 88. and one of traine bands to be called for upon occasion; yet our Fleet (blessed be God) did more service than they all; and good reason is there for it; For suppose an enemie this evening he discovered at Sea upon the coast of Kent, thitherwayes presently make the Land forces; but ere morning the wind chops about, and the enemy is ready within foure and twenty houres to land Northward, or Westward, where the Army cannot possi­bly be to attend him; but a Fleet (now) is ever ready to dogge him with the same wind; and is ever and anon bea­ring up to him, still beating upon his Reare; and if it be able to doe no more, can yet at least hold him play, till the beacons be fired, and the Country forces come in to hinder the landing. And thus much for situation upon the Sea, and the strength which that affords us either in offending or defending, in keeping or inlarging of Empire.

Of all creatures in the world,2 Rivers. a River most resembles a monster. The head (like that of Rumor) is oftentimes not to be found; the mouth farre bigger than the head, and withall, farthest off from it; The head hath no motion; the [Page 42] veines feed the bodie; the mouth serves not but to void the supersfluities: How monstrous not withstanding soever it be, yet most beneficiall it is. The next advantage to that of the Sea, being the commodity of great, navigable, & impassable Rivers. The Roman conquests never made stand in Germa­nie till they came to the banks of the Rhine and Danuby. but there they did for many ages. The swift River Oxus in the East of the world, hath beene the fatall bounder of two Monarchies: the River Don in Russia, hath the honour to part Europe, and Asia; and the River Dee by Chester, did a long time keepe our Welshmen thereabouts unconquered. Nothing awes a great River so much as a bridge; whose Arches he labours to overthrow with all his forces: for a bridge is the saddle to ride this Sea-horse: The Emperour Hadrian thought he had done such an act, when he had laid a bridge over the Danuby, that he expressed the memory of it (as of a victory) in medals and coynes. That mighty Ar­mies have beene defeated in their passing of Rivers, need not be stood upon. When Spinola in these late warres, (being guided by a country butcher) had once passed the Rhine, and undisturbed set footing in the Palatinate: Be of good comfort fellow souldiers, (saith he to his Army) Ile warrant you that we shall never be fought withall by this enemie. For in passing of a River the enemy hath so many disadvantages, what by the swiftnesse of the streame, the smalnesse of the boats, the unsteadinesse of the footing, and the disorder in the approaching; that he that to save his owne will not then fight, will never fight: And thus see wee, that though Rivers be not (like the Sea) so apt to inlarge Empire, they bee most commodious to guard it, being once acquired: and that's no small benefit, seeing wise men have anciently accounted it, That Non minor est virtus quàm quaerere, parta tueri: Tis an argument of no lesse valour or fortune, to keepe what a man hath, than to get that which a man hath not.

None of the weakest boundaries to Conquerours and Monarchies are the Mountaines;3 Mountaines. for were all the world a levell and Campania, what should hinder him that were [Page 43] strongest in horse, to scowre it all over; and (as tis seene in the Low Countries) to make all men pay contribution to the master of the field, or the stronger party of horse even at pleasure?

Mountaines be naturall swellings of the earth, above the usuall levell or surface of it: which make the same excepti­on to the definition of the roundnesse of the earth, that a wart or pimple may to the smoothnesse of a young face. They may seeme to be some heaps of rubbish and offals, left of the creation of the world. The difficulty of the ascent up to them, the horridnesse of their cragges, the savagenesse of their wilde inhabitants, (beasts or people,) the chillnesse of their frostie tops, with the inhospitable barrennesse of their rugged sides, may give scandall, or leave an imputa­tion of beggery and barbarousnesse to that country that hath most of them; if their commodities be not thought upon as well as their discommodities. For as they keepe their neighbours poore, so they keepe them safe; witnesse our unconquered Wales and Scotland, which, nor Romans, nor Danes, nor Saxons, durst ever throughly set upon. The Empe­rour Severus lost the greatest part of his Army in the hils of Scotland: and how have our English Armies beene moyled in the Welsh mountaines? and we have finally, rather con­quered the people, than the Country: Mountaines are na­tures bulwarkes, cast up (as the Spaniard sayes) at God Al­mighties owne charges; the Retreats they are of the op­pressed, the scornes and turne-againes of victorious Armies. That knew the Barbarians in Q. Curtius well enough, who having retreated from Alexander the great, to the fastnesse of an inaccessible mountaine, and Alexanders Orator in his parly and perswasive to them to yeeld, telling them of his masters victories, and of the Seas and Wildernesses that he had passed; It may be so (said they) but can Alexander [...]? Over the Seas he might have ships, and over land horses, but he must have wings if he get up hither.

Where (now) mountaines have naturally wanted, there hath Art supplied the defect: either by military Fosses, as [Page 44] in that great bank or trench upon New-market heath, which served for a boundarie to the kingdome of the East-Angles: and by raising up wonderfull and stupendous wals, as namely in that wall of China, which where the hils brake off, was continued and fortified for six hundred miles to­gether: and that admirable Roman wall in the North of England, (even crosse the Iland from Sea to Sea) for the keeping out of the Picts. To conclude, mountaines and wals made good by the natives, preserve them in safety, but being once mastered and overpassed by the Conquerour, give way to a fatall and a sudden inlargement to his Em­pire, and set a small period to the others liberty. When Hannibal had once passed the Alpes, within a little after, he presented his Army before the gates of Rome. When Ta­merlane had wonne the wall of China, he did what he list afterwards in the Country: the Brittains losing their wall, could not hinder the Picts from setting up their kingdome: and surely since the Spaniard hath gotten the passage over the Alpes, and made himselfe master of the Valtoline, hee hath in expectation swallowed up all Germany, and in a manner besieged even France it selfe.

Of those other fortifications of nature,4 Marishes. Marishes, Wil­dernesses, and Sandy desarts, I have lesse to say. Tis well knowne what advantage the Irish Kernes have made of their bogges and woods. Two famous Cities in Europe are built in marishes, namely, Venice in Italy, and Dort in Hol­land; and both of them be called maiden Cities; for that hitherto they could never be ravished, never conquered. La Fert one of the strongest townes in France ▪ is thus situated: and in our Barons warres, have many sheltred themselves in the Ile of Elie. He that is to beleaguer townes thus situa­ted, fights not against men, but nature. Marishes admit no drie lodging for the foot, no approaches for the horse, no sure ground for Ordnance, or heavie carriages: The towne feares no undermining; and a marish (finally) is not (ex­cept by long siege and famine) otherwise to be conquered but as heretikes be, and that's with faggots: and when that [Page 45] way approaches be made over it, the towne is ours, and Empire is inlarged.

Amongst Woods and Wildernesses, those of Hercynia and Ardenna have of old beene famous,5 Wildernesses. and were sometime bounders to the unlimited Roman Empire it selfe: nor have they beene conquered by force, but by time.6 Desarts. As for Desarts and Sands, I will mention no more but those vast Desarts of Arabia, which the Turke cals his, but cannot conquer. An unknowne Sea and solitude of heath and Sand, is said to keepe the two mighty Empires of the Chinois and great Mogor, from incroaching one upon another. In such sands have whole Armies and Caravans beene buried: over these they travell (as at Sea) by observing the starres, and by Card & Compasse. Of all the rest before named, these be the surest fortresses, and the most insuperable: no Army (that's wisely led) dares venture to march over the hot sands of Lybia. Desarts afford no towns for shelter, no food for men, no pasture, or so much as water for horses; all must be brought with them: and he that shall thinke to in­large his Empire by making an invasion this way, shall finde it worse than a long suit for a dribling debt, the charges will amount to more than the principall. To con­clude this tedious discourse: man looks upon the world, up­on Seas, Rivers, Mountains, Marishes, &c. as upon things set there casually, or by chance; but God made them there, up­on most wise designe: here he casts up a mountaine and that barres a conquerour; here he powres out a River, and in passing of that, overthrowes an Army; there plants he a wood, and by dressing an ambush in it, gives away a victory; and upon changing the fortune of the field Em­pires take their beginnings or periods; lawes and religions their alterations; the pride and policies of men are defea­ted; that his owne power and providence might onely be acknowledged. For by helpe of these naturall causes, sayes God silently unto Tyrants and conquerours, as at first he said unto the Sea; Hitherto shall thy proud waves goe, and no further.

Of Travell.

LAstly, sithence Plato, one of the Day-starres of that knowledge, which then but dawning, hath since shone out in cleerer brightnesse; thought nothing fitter, for the bettering of our understanding, than Travell: aswell by having a conference with the wiser sort in all kindes of lear­ning, as by the Eye-sight of those things, which other­wise a man cannot attaine unto, but by Tradition. (A sandy foundation either in matter of Science, or Conscience.) Let me also in this place be bold to informe you, that all pur­pose to Travell, if it be not, ad voluptatem solùm, sed ad uti­litatem, argueth an industrious and generous minde. Base and vulgar spirits hover still about home: Those are more Noble and Divine, that imitate the Heavens, and joy in motion.

Hee therefore that intends to Travell out of his owne Countrey, must likewise resolve to Travell out of his Coun­trey fashion, and indeed out of himselfe: that is, out of his former intemperate feeding, disordinate drinking, thriftlesse gaming, fruitlesse time-spending, violent exercising, and ir­regular misgoverning whatsoever. He must determine, that the end of his Travell, is his ripening in knowledge; and the end of his knowledge, is the service of his Countrey, which of right, challengeth the better part of us.

This is done, [...]. by preservation of himselfe from Hazards of Travell, and Observation of what he heares and sees in his Travelling. The Hazards, are two: of the Minde, and of the Body: that, by the infection of Errours, this by the corruption of Manners. For who so drinketh of the poyso­nous cup of the one, or tasteth the sower liquor of the other, [...] the true rellish of Religion and Vertue, bringeth [...]ome a leaprous Soule, and a tainted body, retaining no­thing [Page 47] thing but the shame of either, or repentance of both: where­of in my Travell I have seene some examples, and by them made use, to prevent both mischiefes, which I will briefly shew: And first of the better part.

Concerning the Travellers Religion,Of Minde. I teach not what it should be, (being out of my Element) nor inquire what it is, (being out of my Commission;) only my hopes are, he be of the religion here established: and my advice is, he be therein well setled; and that howsoever his imagination shall be carried in the voluble Sphere of divers mens dis­courses; yet his inmost thoughts (like lines in a Circle) shall alwayes concenter in this immoveable point; Not to alter his first Faith: For I know, that, as all innovation is dangerous in a State; so is this change in the little Common­wealth of a Man. And it is to be feared, that he which is of one Religion in his youth, and of another in his manhood, will in his age be of neither.

Wherefore, if my Traveller will keep this Bird safe in his bosome, he must neither be inquisitive after other mens Re­ligions, nor prompt to discover his owne. For I hold him unwise, who in a strange Countrey, will either shew his minde, or his money. A true friend is as hard to finde as a Phenix, of which the whole world affoords but one, and therefore let not this my Traveller, be so blinde as to thinke to finde him every where, in his owne imagination. Damon and Pithias, Pilades and Orestes are all dead, or else it is but a dead Story. And therefore let him remember that Nature alters, like humours and complexions, every minute of an houre.

And as I would not have him to change,Of Religion. so would I wish him, to beware how he heare any thing repugnant thereto: for as I have tied his tongue, so must I stop his ears, left they be open to the smooth incantations of an insinuating Sedu­cer, or the subtill arguments of a sophisticall adversarie. To this effect, I must precisely forbid him the fellowship or company of one sort of people in generall; those are the le­fuites, underminers and inveiglers of greene wits, seducers [Page 48] of men in matter of Faith, and subverters of men in matter of State; making of both a bad Christian, and a worse Sub­ject. These men I would have my Traveller never heare, except in the Pulpit; for being eloquent, they speake excel­lent language; and being wise, (therefore best knowing how to speake to best purpose) they seldome, or never handle matter of controversie.

As for other orders of Religion, Friers of Monkes, or whatsoever, let him use them for his bettering, either in mat­ter of language, or other knowledge. They are good com­panions, they are not so dangerous; they talke more of their cheere, than of their Church; of their feasts, than their Faith; of good wine, than good workes; of Curtisans, than Chri­stianitie. The reason is, because few of them are learned, ma­ny carelesse in their profession, almost all dissolute in their conversation.

I have excepted against the Persons: I will now protest against the Places.Of Persons and Places. These are, Rome, Rhemes, and Doway, but these two last, being out of all ordinary road of Travell; I say, he that goes that way, goes doubly out of his way, and shall neither have this discourse for his direction, nor me for his companion. Let me only say of Rome, because it is the Seminary and Nursery of English Fugitives, and yet a place most worthy to be seene, (vel antiquitatis causa, vel novitatis) that it is suspected of all, knowne to many, and proved by some, to be dangerous that way.

Thus much of the Persons and Places have I noted, hee that shall meet with others of like condition and danger, let him see and shun. It remameth I speake of bettering the minde, by the knowledge and understanding of tongues: for, as for learning the liberall Sciences, he hath much bet­ter meanes at home; their manner of teaching, and orders of Vniversities, being farre inferiour to ours.

For the attaining therefore of Language,Of Language. it is convenient, that he make choice of the best places: These are, Orleans for the French; Florence for the Italian; and Lipsicke for the Dutch tongues: for in these places is the best Language spo­ken. [Page 49] And as we observe a difference of speech in our Coun­trey; of the North, from the South; and the West, from both: or as wee have learned of the Greeks, that they had five severall kindes of Dialects: so differ they infinitely in Germany, but that of Misnia is the best, where Lipsicke stands. More in France, where the Picard speakes one, the Norman another, the Eri [...]an his, the Gascoigne his, the Pro­venciall and Savoyard theirs, the Inlanders theirs: but of all these, the Orleanois is the best. As also in Italy, the Roman hath one kinde of phrase and pronunciation; the Neapoli­tan, another; the Venetian a third; the Bergamasco, a worse; but the best of all is the Tuscan, where Florence stands: yet I prescribe not these places so precisely, as that he may not live in others, and learne the Language as well: for in Tus­cany, Stena, and Prato, are some places, where the speech is as good, as that of Florence, and more retired, and of lesse charge: therefore fitter for some, whose proportion for ex­pence is but small. So have ye in Germany, Heidleburge as good as Lipsick. And in France, Blois as good as Orleans.

Having made choice of the place,Of Reading. his next care must be to make choice of a good Reader, whereof he shall finde in Travell great scarcity. Let good acquaintance, or good for­tune, bring him to the best.

For were it, that there were good Readers, it were here needlesse to set downe a course of learning: for hee might have a better direction from them. But for the cause allea­ged, I will presume to advise him, that the most compendi­ous way of attaining the tongue (whether French, or Itali­an) is by Booke; I meane for the knowledge. For as for the speaking, he shall never attaine it, but by continuall practice and conversation. He shall therefore first learne his Nounes and Verbs by heart, and specially the Articles, and their uses, with the [...] words, Sum and Habeo: for in these, con­sist the greatest observation of that part of speech. Let not your Reader reade any Booke of Poetry and the first, but some other kinde of Stile; and I thinke meetest, some mo­derne Comedie.

[Page 50] Let his Lecture consist, more in questions and answers, either of the one or the other, than in the Readers conti­nued speech; for this is for the most part idle and fruitlesse: by the other, many errours and mistakings, either in pro­nunciation, or sense, are reformed.

After three moneths, he shall quit his Lectures, and use his Master, only to walke with, and discourse, first the one and then the other: for thus shall be observe the right use of the phrase in his Reader, heare his owne faults reproved, and grow readie and prompt in his owne delivery: which with the right straine of the accent, are the two hardest things in language.

Privately hee may for his pleasure reade Poetry, espe­cially, if at his returne, hee meane to Court it: but for his profit, if hee be a man of meanes, and likely hereafter to beare charge in his Countrey: or if a man of endevours, and willing to preferre himselfe by service, I wish him to Histo­rie: If one that would make a fortune by the warres, I com­mend him (beside History) to the Mathematicks, discour­ses of warre, and bookes of fortification.

To this Reading he must adde a continuall talking, and exercising of his speech with all sorts of people, with bold­nesse, and much assurance in himselfe: for I have often ob­served in others, that nothing hath more prejudiced their profiting, than their owne diffidence and distrust. To this I would have him adde an often writing, either of matter of translation, or of his owne invention, where againe is re­quisite to the Readers eye, to censure and correct: for who so cannot write the language he speakes, I count he hath but halfe the language.

These then, are the two only meanes of obtaining a lan­guage, of speaking and writing: but the first is the chiefest, and therefore I must advertise the Traveller of the one thing, which in other Countries, is a greater hinderer there­of: namely, the often haunting, and frequenting of our own Countrey-men, whereof he must have a speciall care, nei­ther to distaste them by a too much retirednesse, nor to [Page 51] hinder himselfe by too much familiarity.

It is thought also, that one language is a hinderance to the pronunciation (if not learning) of another: which if it be in any, is in the pronouncing, not the learning: and in the Italian to the French, not contrary. To this effect therefore, I would wish the Traveller, first to spend his time in France, which language will much helpe to the understanding, and nothing hinder the speaking of the Italian, especially in us; who of all other Nations pronounce this language best next themselves, by their owne confession.

There is also another reason, why I would have him see Italy last, because we best remember the last impressions; and I would rather he should come home Italianate, than Frenchified: I speake of both in the better sense: for the French is stirring, bold, respectlesse, inconstant, sudden. The Italian, stayed, demure, respective, grave, advised. I would wish the Traveller therefore (because I speake now of bet­tering his minde by conversation) observe with judgement, what he seeth in these Nations of Italy, France and Germany, (for further I guide him not) & out of their better parts, lea­ving the worse to themselves, gather so much to his use, as may make him a complete Gentleman. For example, he shall observe, that the French hath valour; but he hath withall, Vanitatem & Levitatem. The Italian hath a discreet fashion of carriage; but, with this he hath Proterviam & libidinem: The Dutch hath an honest and reall manner of dealing, but non sine commessatione & ebrietate. Let him now of these three, learne their three vertues, so shall he come home a Valiant, Wise and Honest man. This is a better purchase than the Italian huffe of the shoulder, or the Dutch puffe with the pot, or the French Apishnesse, which many Tra­vellers bring home.

Touching conference, observe these rules: For the time,Of Confe­rence. let it be, when you give leave to your minde to recreate your spirits, that you may the better conceive what you heare, and best digest things subject to your understanding. Let therefore the houres be in the morning, and in the Evening, [Page 52] when the senses are fresh, and the wits quiet. But if you finde your senses dull with melancholy passions, quicken them shortly with some good societie. Touching the per­sons, let them be of some good yeares for the most part, though sometime to heare a young man, will prove no pre­judice. Observe opportunitie, sometime discoursing with the learned concerning History, the better to benefit me­mory by application of examples. At other times, frequent the company of the expert, that by noting their observati­ons, and suting them to particular judgement, you may discerne the difference betweene Art and Nature, Experi­ence and Learning. Sometime discourse with the souldier, that in hearing of a drumme, you be not daunted in a skir­mish. Conferre much with Travellers, that by their discourse of forren natures, you may the better discerne of domesti­call disposition: Forget not the Divines for the comfort of your soules, nor neglect the reading of Scripture, for the better direction of your life and conscience. Talke not with women upon idle occasions, lest you trouble their wits, or displease their humours. To conferre with fooles is frivo­lous; with the wicked dangerous; but with the honest availeable, for they are vertuous; and with the wise profi­table, for they are gracious.

It now followeth,Of the body. that I speake of the Body, which is preserved in good state, by diet and exercise: For his diet, I neither prescribe what, nor how much to eat, I presume him able before he set out, to keepe his nose from his sleeve, feed himselfe, and be his owne carver: Onely, I must ad­vise him to beware of their Wines, which agree not with some natures, & are hurtfull to all, in those hotter Countries, except sparingly taken, or well qualified with water. As for his viands, I feare not his surfetting; his provision is never so great, but ye may let him loose to his allowance. For I would not have him live at his owne provision, (especially in France) it will hinder his profiting, and onely further him with some few kitchen and market phrases. Let him be still in pension with others, so they be such, whose language he [Page 53] learneth. His care shall be the lesse, his profit the greater, & his expence nothing the more. I shall not need to tell him before, what his diet shall be, his appetite will make it bet­ter than it is; for he shall be still kept sharpe: onely of the difference of diets, he shall observe thus much; that that of Germany is full, or rather fulsome; that of France, allow­able; that of Italy, tolerable; with the Dutch, he shall have much meat, ill dressed; with the French, lesse, but well handled; with the Italian, neither the one, nor the other.

As for his Exercises, there is danger but of one in France, Of Exercises. and this is Tennis play: this is dangerous (if used with too much violence) for the body: and (if followed with too much diligence) for the purse, a maine point of the Travel­lers care. There is another exercise to be learned in France, because there are better teachers: and the French fashion is in most request with us, and that is Dancing. This I meane to my Traveller that is young, & means to follow the Court; otherwise, I hold it needlesse, and in some ridiculous.

These former therefore are two exrcises, which I per­mit, but with their limitation. There remaine two other, to which I perswade: those tolerable, these commendable; those of grace and complement, these of use and necessity, to him that will returne ably qualified for his Countries service in warre, and his owne defence in private quarrell. These are Riding, and Fencing. His best place for the first (excepting Naples) is in Florence: and for the second (ex­cepting Rome) is in Padua.

I must now aduise him,Of outward necessa [...]ies. of such things as are without himselfe, but within the compasse of his owne care: Those are Money, Bookes, Apparell.

Money, the finewes of warre, and soule of Travell, as at home, so abroad, is the man. They say he should have two bagges, the one of Crownes, the other of Patience: but howsoever this last bee empty, I could wish that other were still full, whereout he must proportion his yearly ex­pence, not exceeding the limits of his propounded allow­ance. If hee Travell without a servant, fourescore pounds [Page 54] sterling is a competent proportion, except he learne to ride: if he maintaine both these charges, he can be allowed no lesse than an hundred and fifty pounds: and to allow above two hundred, were superfluous, and to his hurt. And thus ratably according to the number he keepeth.

The ordinary rate of his expence,Of Money. is this: ten gold Crownes a moneth his owne diet, eight for his man, (at the most) two Crownes a moneth his Fencing, as much for Dancing, and no lesse for his Reading, and fifteene crownes monethly for his Riding: but this exercise hee shall discontinue all the heat of the yeare. The remainder of his hundred and fifty pound, I allow him for Apparell, Books, Travelling, Charges, Tennis-play, and other extraor­dinary expences.

Let him have foure bils of exchange with him, for the whole yeare, with Letters of advice, to be paid him quar­terly, by equall portions: so shall he not want his money at the day, nor be driven to those shifts, which I have seene divers put to, by long expecting Letters out of England; which either their friends forgetfulnesse, or the Carriers negligence, or the miscarrying of their letters, by intercep­ting or other accident, hath caused.

If he carry over money with him (as by our Law he can­not carry much) let it bee in double Pistolets, or French crownes of weight: by these he is sure to sustaine losse in no place: and in Italy to gaine above twelve pence in the pound.

Concerning his bookes,Of Bookes. let them be few or none, to car­ry from place to place: or if any, that they be not such as are prohibited by the Inquisition: lest, when his Male is searched (as it is at every Cities gate in Italy) they bring him to trouble: whatsoever they be, they will put him to charge, for he payeth Tole for them at every such Towne. I would only have him to carry the papers of his own obser­vation; especially a Iournall, wherin from day to day, he shall set downe the divers Provinces he passeth, with their com­modities; the Townes, with their manner of buildings; the [Page 55] names, and benefit of the Rivers; the distance of places; the condition of the soyle; manners of the people, and: what else his eye meeteth by the way remarkable.

When hee commeth to the place of his residence, let him furnish himselfe with the best bookes of that profession, to which he addicted his study, or other he shall finde, not to be got here in England; and at his departure, send them home by his Merchants meanes.

I must advise as well for his Apparell, as for his Bookes:Of Apparell. that upon his journey, he be not overcharged with over­much luggage; even a light burthen farre carried, is heavy: beside, somewhat is like wise to be paid for these, at the en­try of every City gate. Let him also take heed, that the ap­parell he weares, be in fashion in the place where he resi­deth: for it is no lesse ridiculous to weare clothes of our fa­shion among them, than at our returne to use still their fa­shion among us. A notorious affectation of many Tra­vellers.

And lastly, because it is not amisse,Manners of Nations. to be acquainted as well with the divers natures of Nations, soyles, and people, as with theorike of instructions: first, I counsell my Tra­veller, not to make any long abode in any Region, which he findeth not agreeable to his naturall constitution; nei­ther let him be ignorant of such comforts, as may prove best preservatives for his health: for although I hold it not best discretion to use the body to much physicke, yet in causes of extremity, to know the helpe of Nature, I hold it no vanity.

For the Soile (wherein Townes and Cities are seated) if it be sandy or gravelly ground,Nature of Soiles. and neere unto some fresh brooks, springs, or river, it may probably promise health, both to the inhabitant and stranger: but if the earth bee moorish, and stand much upon springs, and low towards the Sea, it may prove healthfull to the inhabitant, yet hurt­full to the stranger, comming from a more healthfull Soile.

For the people, let him chuse chiefly,Of people. and longest to stay amongst those kinde of Nations, who stand most affected [Page 56] to the nature of his native Country, and let him bee never perswaded, that his neerest neighbours are his greatest friends; for you shall often finde no greater an enemy, than within the wals of thine owne house.

I will first speake of the Spaniard: Of the Spa­niard. Him you shall finde in nature proud, yet cunning. He will ordinarily use a kinde of courtesie, and seeme wise touching the world, and poli­tike in plotting his will: valiant where he may either pur­chase riches, or reputation: jealous of his mistresse, envious of worthinesse, malicious upon suspition, and bloudy in execution.

The Italian is more courteous,Of the Italian. but no lesse cunning, affa­ble where he seems to affect, but deadly dangerous where he growes jealous: thrifty in his purse, valiant in his kinde, and onely bountifull to his masters. Sharply conceived, of fresh memory, and for the most part excellently spoken. Many of them are good Schollers, some very good horse­men, and for such Courts as their Dukedomes afford, you shall finde many fine Gentlemen. Their Ladies and chiefe women for the most part are painted, but witty in speech, modest in carriage, and where they affect, very bountifull. The chiefe men (as the Lords, Governours, and great Magi­strates) are commonly ambitious, covetous, and vitious. And if you have the good hap to come into their houses, you shall seeme to see the nature of a devill solacing in Para­dise: For you shall observe a stately house, richly furni­shed; a Lady fairely painted, and gorgeously attired; you shall see a Garden full of sweet flowers, and dainty fruits, a cage of singing birds, and perhaps a consort of sweet mu­sicke; a banquet of excessive charge, and amidst all those, you shall see an old sheep-biter, with a nose too tedious for his face, his beard like the bristles of a hog, with a slavering lip, a bleare-eye, & of a swelling speech, courting of a come­ly Lady, and couching of a cold peece of comfort, being no lesse youthfull in desire, than aged in performance. But take heed that in too much eying of his Lady, he grow not jea­lous of your affection, and suspitious of her favour, to the [Page 57] assured shortning of your dayes, by a poysonsome tricke of an Italian fico, when he pretends most kindnesse.

For the younger sort, rather follow their good exercises, than conferre with their capacities: and above all compa­ny, avoid the haunting of brothell houses, which are there most infinite in number, & common in use. They will impaire your health, impeach your purse, abase your credit, and in­crease the ruine of your content and fortunes.

For France, The French­man. you shall finde the people proud, and phan­tasticall, kind, but variable, jealous in being a friend, and lost upon a light humour, cunning in policie, and bloudy in revenge. The Noblesse commonly learned, the Souldier more desperate than valiant: much given to venery and ir­religion; and making no conscience of abuse for the pur­chase of a commodity. The Governours wise, the Mer­chant rich, and the peasant a poore slave. The Ladies witty, but apish, and in their fancies as humorous as amorous: few of them beautifull, and commonly all painted and deceit­full, except some few of rare worth; which may bee the wonder of the country: And therefore as you finde them, so let them have their due honour. For Germany, The German. you shall finde the Nobles and chiefe Gentlemen, either great Schol­lers, or valiant Souldiers; rather resolute to gaine honour, than proud of Authority: their Cities strong, and their Merchants very rich, and their Countries well peopled. For their Ladies and Gentlewomen, by the grossenesse of their diet, and too much delight in drinking and banquetting, they are for the most part a corpulent kinde of people; yet many of them strong and of bigge bone, (as we commonly say) good bearers, and good breeders. The younger sort, as well men as women, very industrious, and the elder sort ra­ther politike than Religious: their Lawes very severe, and therefore the people in better order and obedience.

For Poland, the Cities are strong,Of the Pole laque. and the people rather wise than wealthy: the Gentlemen for the most part given to armes, and the peasant in much subjection to the Gen­try. The Merchant rather covetous than honourable, and [Page 58] the Schollers rather beloved than advanced: the women in­different faire, and better witted than spoken: the old men studious, and the younger sort seldome idle; little given to drinke, and as little accounting of honour, except it be in the field.

For the Low-countries and Denmarke, Of the Ne­therlander and Dane. you shall finde them much to agree in nature, but that Denmarke will ad­mit a King, which I finde not willing in the Low-countries. Their Magistrates are rather wise by experience than by study; and the Souldier fitter for the Sea than the field. Denmarke is governed by the Kings law set downe: but the Low-countries have divers formes of Government, in a manner according to the disposition of the States and Go­vernours: much given to drinke, and yet serving their times: politike in their government: their old men wise and co­vetous; their young men thrifty and industrious; and their Merchant very ambitious. For their religious, thinke of them as you finde them; I have seene them much reveren­ced, and well maintained. And as for their Ladies, they are wittie and of a good complexion; for the most pa [...] many of them are very faire, and much given to honour vertue; rather neat than proud in their attire; very kinde where they take affection.

The Muscovite is proud,The Musco­vite. stately, malicious: and those which be slaves are slaves indeed, especially when their Emperour or Lord controlleth: Superstitious, tending al­most to idolatry; jealous, as having many wives; and bad performers of promise; nor must you challenge him of the same; for the good which floweth from him, commeth commonly from the fountaine of free will. Their women are very private, fearefull to offend; but once lascivious, intolerably wanton, beastly, idle, and ill attended.

The Greeks are merry,The Grecian. lyers, blasphemers, promise-breakers, buggers, strong membred, and blacke haired. Their women are stately, comely of person, proud without doores; no lovers of dalliance, yet desirous of the compa­ny of men; cleanly in washing and shaving themselves: [Page 59] whom the Italians imitate, as also doe the East hot Coun­tries, by reason the company of many men, may grow o­therwise to great inconvenience, mercenary, fantasticall in apparell, and loving those who speake their language.

The Turke is a warlike proud man;The Turke. a scorner of other Na­tions and languages; no idle talker, or doer of any thing su­perfluous: a judiciall sound fellow, hot and venerious; comely of person; majesticall in gate; a slave to his Empe­rour, and a lover of Mahomets race and Religion. Their wo­men small of stature, for the most part of good complexions, and not to be seene or spoken to abroad: jealous, revenge­full (when they have opportunity) lascivious within doores or in their baths; very pleasing in matters of incontinency, and cleanly.

The Persian is lordly in his complement;The Persian. rather fantasti­call than curious in his apparell, yet sumptuous; and in his expences magnificent: maintainers of Nobility; lovers of learning and good qualities: fearfull of troubles, desirous of peace, and superstitious in his Religion. Their women gorgeous in attire, with high Tiaras and veiles, like the Sultaneses amongst the Turks: long sitters at feasts, de­lightsome in sequestration of pleasure; as beginning with a modest shamefulnesse, but ere you have concluded, deli­cately wanton; cleanly in much washing, but withall using perfumes and odours; loving truly, and desirous to be pre­ferred in the first place of her husbands affection: For ha­uing many wives, they are desirous to please.

The Armenians are very merry, sluttish,The Arme­nian. carelesse of greatnesse, desiring peace and ease, though it tend to slave­ry and bondage: having great bodies, comely, and willing to be soothed in any thing. Their women tall, and not faire, soone old, poore, loving their children, and incon­tinent.

The Tartars are swartish, illfavoured, with a great thick lip,The Tartar. flattish nose, carelesse of outward ornaments, swift on foot, vigilant, laborious, warlike, yet loving presents, and desirous to be much made of: their women sutable, only wanting [Page 60] or scorning money, they will bedecke themselves like the people of Virginia, with gewgaies of copper and latton about their armes and necks.

The Moore is comely of body,The Moore. stately of gate, of sufficient constitution to endure any worke or travell, implacable in hatred, treacherous, tumultuous, and superstitious. Their women have delicate soft skins, sumptuous in jewels, odors and perfumes, incontinent, good bed-fellowes in the darke, beautifull in blacknesse, and revengefull; yet being bought a slave, extraordinary loving to their masters, so they be well pleased and used accordingly, but being once got with childe, they expect manumission according to the custome of the Mahometan Law.

The Savoyen is penurious,The Savoyen. foolish, and ill-nurtured, yet doe the better sort imitate the Spanish pride, and by reason of his neighbour-hood to France and Millane, are reasona­ble good Souldiers, and the better enabled by the hardnesse of the mountaines. The women are strangely apparelled, ill-favoured, scolding, must be discommended, and for the most part wenny, that is, having great bunches under their chinnes with drinking snow water, like the Helvetians and 13. Cantons.

The Switzer is strange in his attire,The Switzer. yet not transgressing the limits of his inheritance; have great bodies, and are mercenary, as performing what he is commanded, and one that best approveth of his owne Country and habit; even preferring his owne snowy hils and coldnesse, before the fertillest places of Lumbardy. Their women are honest somewhat better favoured than the Savoyen, ill brought up, plaine dealers, and so loveth her husband or friend, that she will goe with him to the campe, and dresse his meat.

As for the Kingdomes of Saca, Bactriae, Sogdiana, and ma­ny like Nations, invironing the East and South of the Cas­pian, I meane not to relate of, because I finde the best Au­thors unacquainted with their properties and discoveries. The Armenians report them to be tyrannous, their chiefe exercise to be rapine, and murthering of passengers; with­out [Page 61] forme of government, or controll of superiours. Which done, they flie to the mountaines, and in despight of any forces, continue unsubjected; howsoever, unpunished.

And therefore since I have deciphered the persons, let me in a word advise thee of their properties: that is, to take heed of the pride of Spaine, the poyson of Italy, the trea­son of France, and the drinke of Flanders. Beware of com­pany, and let not rash trust in friendship produce matter of fruitlesse repentance: Remember that Damon and Pithias, Pilades and Orestes, are all dead, or else it is but a dead sto­ry. Nature alters like humours and complexions, every minute of an houre. And should I not speake too much to the worlds shame, I would advise thee to thinke, that there is no one man faithfull to another in the world. And there­fore in this dangerous age, since every man is neerest, and onely neere unto himselfe, and hee is held the onely wise man, who hath the world at most command, let no man so presume of his owne sufficiency, as to neglect the benefit of counsell. Take a young man for thy companion, rather than for thy friend. The world affordeth but one Phenix, and let not any man be so conceited, as to thinke to finde him in his owne imagination. Serve God with devotion, and then care not for the devils illusion.

When thou returnest from these forren men, and forren places, resolve then also to leave their forren manners. First, come home to thy selfe, and then fashion thy carriage, thy apparell, thy studies, thy conscience, and thy conversation, to the best patterne of the place, from whence at first with good intent thou began'st thy pilgrimage. So shall the re­membrance of thy travell be pleasant, the profit infinite, and thy returne an ornament to King and Country.

Of Europe. The Commendations, Bounds, Religions, and Languages of it.

IT now remaineth, that I beginne to tell you, how according to our best and latest Cosmographers, this great Globe (for parts and parcels where­of, so great and universall quarrels have from the beginning beene en­tertained amongst Princes, Peoples, and Nations) hath beene divided into seven parts: The first three whereof, viz. Europe, Africa, and Asia, were knowne to the Ancients. The fourth is America Septentrionalis, containing the Provinces of Estotilant, Terra de Labrador. Terra de Biccaleos, Nova Fran­cia, Norimbega, Florida, Nova Hispania, and others. The fifth is, America Meridionalis, which is a pene­insula, and disjoyned from the former by a small Isth­mus or necke of Land, containing the Regions of Brasil, Tisnada, Caribana, Peguana, and Peruvia. The sixt, is termed Terra Australis, wherein lieth Psitaicorum regio, Terra del feugo, Beach, Lucach, and Maletur, situate betweene Iava major, and Iava minor. The last being under the Northerne Pole, is the least of the residue, all almost unknowne, and divided by Mercator (upon a [Page 63] meere fabulous report of one that was never there.) into foure Islands, lying in a manner under the very Pole. This part hath not hitherto beene discovered, the neerest ap­proach that any man of Europe ever yet made to the North Pole was by one Marmaduke, who in a ship of Hull arrived in 82. degrees, that is no neerer than within 8. whole degrees of the Pole, mountaines of Ice keeping him from discovering further.

Of all these seven parts, because Europe is farrelesse than any of the rest, and yet exceedeth them all in Noble­nesse, Magnificence, multitude of people, in might, puissance, and renowne; we will first beginne with the description thereof. It is bounded on the North, with the North Ocean Sea, on the South with the Mediterranean, on the East with the floud Tanais, and on the West with the West Ocean. It containeth more than foure and twenty Christian Kingdomes at this day, as farre excelling the re­sidue of the Provinces in Religion, Arts, Valour, and Ci­vilitie, as in elder age it did surpasse them in Prowesse and Reputation.

The principall Provinces, are Spaine, France, Bel­gia, Germany, Italy, Sclavonia, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Lituania, Moscovia, and that toward the North, called Scandia; wherein are Denmarke, Nor­wey, Swethland, Iutland, &c. The Islands are Brit­taine (containing the Kingdomes of England and Scotland) Ireland, Island, and Engroneland, in the North Ocean. In the Mediterranean, are Sicilie, Candia, Corsica, Sardinia, Majorca, Minorca, Nigropont, Malta, Corsu, Salamine, Mit [...]lene, Sci­ros. with many other in the Archipelago. The aire hereof is passing good, wholesome, temperate, and soile exceeding [Page 64] fertile. Therein are many goodly Cities, famous Mart-Townes, and learned Vniversities. The people thereof have in all ages excelled all other Regions, in Courage, Arts, sharpnesse of Wit, and all other gifts of Nature. In times past, it commanded Asia, and Afrike, by the Armes of the Greeks and Romans; and at this day, it is of great force by the power of the Turks and Muscovites, and of no lesse reputation by the Navigations of the English, Dutch, Spaniards, and Portugals: so as it seemeth, that Nature hath given unto this people a precedency to rule and governe forren Provinces, as men farre surpas­sing all other Nations, in wisdome, courage, industry, and invention.

This least and best part of the greater portions of the world, was so named of Europa daughter of Agenor King of Phoenicia, brought into these parts by Iupiter; in honour of whom the Phoenicians (being the first Na­vigators, and discoverers of these countries) might as well leave her name to all their new discoveries, (the ha­bits, manners, and languages of these parts especially, at those times being all one, or not much different) as the Turks, Aethiopians, and all those of the East, call us by one name of Franks, and the Kingdomes of France, Eng­land, Spaine, Germanies, &c. are in the histories of the warres of the Holy Land, all together called the Kingdome of the Franks, our Languages the Franke tongue, and our Religion the Franks Religion. The figure of Europe is fancied to resemble a Queene, and so is she indeed, of all the world; her Princes having some dominion or other in all parts of the world, and they none in her: The Crowne and Head of this Queene is Spaine; her Necke must bee that part of France under the Pyrenaean mountaines; her [Page 65] Brest, France it selfe; her Armes Italy and Brittaine; her Belly Germany; her Navell, Bohemia; the rest of her Body hidden under her lower garments, are Den­marke, Sweden, Lituania, Prussia, Poland, Hunga­ria, Dalmatia, Grecia, Moldavia, Tartary, and Mus­covia. This Queene at this day commands 28 King­domes, all gathered up by three Emperours, the German, Turke, and Muscovite; and eight Kings, France, Eng­land, and Spaine, hereditarie; Bohemia, Hungaria, Poland, Denmarke, and Sweden, elective Princes. States and Common-wealths in Italy and the Germanies, many and potent, some one of them (Venice, or the Low Countries by name) too hard a match for the most potent Prince of Asia, or Africa, could they but come at him. For Riches, we have the most usefull and substantiall; for goodly Cities, Italy alone hath more than Asia, Africa, and America, all together; if other parts have any for­tified townes, thye here saw the first patternes. Vniversi­ties indowed, we onely have. Our Armes and Navigati­ons have made us Lords of the Vniverse. Our Arts mecha­nicke are incomparable. And all these hath God Almightie blessed with the seat of the Christian Religion among us.

Europe is much inlarged to the Northward since Pto­lomees time. The bounds are best seene in the map; the length of it is about 3600. Italian miles, the breadth 2200. miles.

The Religions are such as are professed in severall na­tions, either by toleration, as the Iewish, by the Turke, Emperour, Pole, Pope, Venetian, and Amsterdam: or the Heathen, in some remoter parts of Lapland, Fin­land, and Norwey, where they are rather Witches than Christians. Religions established by command, are, first [Page 66] Mahometisme under the Turke. Secondly, the Greeks religion in the same parts, and in Russia. Thirdly, the Ro­mish, in Spaine, Italy, France, Poland, most of the dominions of the Emperour and other Princes of Germa­nie, the Wal [...]ns and Archduchesse Countries Fourth­ly, the reformed Churches, and they follow the doctrine ei­ther of the Scriptures, Fathers, and Councels, according to their pu [...]ty, as in England; or else have they a relati­on to the opinions of Doctor Luther, as those of Sweden, Denmarke, the dominions of the Electors of Saxony, Brandenburgh, and divers others of Germany: or of Master Calvin; as in France especially, the Palatinate, Hessenland, and Low Countries; Calvinisme is also received in Hungaria, and Transilvania; where there be many reliques withall of Antitrinitarians, Arrians, Ebionites, and Anabaptists: Lower likewise in five of the thirteene Cantons of Helvetia, and amongst the Gri­sons, doe the Calvinists professe publikely. In Bohemia, Mo [...]avia, Silesia, &c. the Protestants of the Augustane confession were esteemed two third parts. Of these seve­rall Churches, though some follow the Augustane con­fession, as the Lutherans; some the Helvetian, as the Switz [...]s; some the Gallicane, as the Calvinists; yet all of them agree in the fundamentall and saving points, and all accord in their detestation of the Roman; as is to bee seene in the Harmony of Confessions.

Of the Languages of Europe, Scaliger finds eleven mother tongues, the foure noblest of which, be the Greeke, Latine, Sclavonian, and Dutch; each subdivided into her daughter-dialects. [...]e learned Greeke is no where vulgarly spoken at this day: The moderne, is nothing but a barbarous composition of Turkish, Sclavonian, and Ita­lian, [Page 67] with the old Greeke corrupted. The Latine (worne also out of vulgar use) is degenerated into the Italian, Spanish, and French, all which three were anciently cal­led Romanse. The Sclavonian is a large & a stately tongue; it hath these dialects, the Bohemian, Russian, Polonian, [...], Windish, and the Dalmatian: The Chara­cters be of two kindes; the ancient, called the Dalma­tian; and the Russian letter, corrupted from the Gree­kish. These Sclavonian dialects and tongues doe differ, yet not so much as the Italian and Spanish. The worst of the foure best is the German tongue, and that varied in­to the high and Low Dutch; as also into the Saxish, Fri­s [...]an, English, North-Albing, and the Danish; which last is variously spoken by the Danes of Denmarke, Swe­den, and Norway; whence the Island speech also com­meth, if these two last be not the ancient Gothish.

The other seven of meaner elegancie are, first the Al­banian, spoken by the Epirotes. Secondly, the Tartarian. Thirdly, the Hungarian, brought out of Asia by the H [...]nnes. Fourthly, the Finns and Laplanders speech in the North of Sweden. Fifthly, the Irish. Sixthly, the Welsh, whose worth (being most expressively significant, and having beene the language of the ancient Celtae, and [...]oken in the most part of Europe) could not be valued, because not understood, by the learned Scaliger. Dialects if this (but much varied) are our Cornish, and that of Brittaigne in France. Seventhly, The Biscaigners in­hibiting for seven dayes journey on both sides the Pyre­ [...] mountaines. Tis the reliques of the ancient Spanish, before it was altered by the Latine. Scaliger never heard of the Monks language, spoken by ours of the Ile of Man, the most of which is surely derived from the Irish. The [Page 68] Wallons also of the Low Countries have a French dialect, scarce to be understood by a peasant about Paris.


THis kingdome, by the English, Spanish, and French, is tearmed Irland, or Ireland; by the Brittish Yuerdhon, by the Inhabitants Eryn. According to the Celestiall Globe, it is situated betweene the Artike Circle, and the Tropike of Cancer, but neerer the Artike, containing in Latitude foure degrees and an halfe, and according to the computation of our late Writers, be­tweene the twentie and the 25. Paralels. In the South parts, their longest day is of sixteene houres, with three fourths: In the Northerne, of almost eighteene. According to the Ter­restriall, it stands between the greater Brittanie and Spaine: on the East, disjoyned from England wich a tempestuous sea, termed Hibernicum, not above one dayes sailing: up­on the West beateth the vast Ocean: upon the North (where the Deucalidon Ocean disgorgeth) it hath Island, disjoyned no further than a ship in one day may saile unto: upon the South, it beholdeth Spaine (distant three dayes sailing) and the Vergivian Sea: From South to North it representeth an Ovall forme, and by halfe is lesse than Brit­tanie. Amongst many writers Camden, whom a man may best relie upon, reporteth that it containeth 400. miles in length, and in breadth 200.

The aire hereof is most wholsome, the situation milde, the weather temperate, but not altogether good to ripen fruit: For neither in Summer season, the heat is so parching that it driveth the Inhabitant to seeke the shade, neither the cold in Winter so rigorous, but that he may well live from the fire side: By the influence of the aire, all parts of the yeare are tolerably warme. It bringeth forth no venomous [Page 69] creature, neither nourisheth any brought from other places. The quality of the soile and constellation of the Heavens is moist with the most; whereupon it commeth to passe, that both inhabitants and strangers are troubled with the flix and Rheumes, and holpen or prevented with drinking Aqua-vitae. The Land is of divers Natures, in some place rough and mountainous, in others, boggie and wa­terish; shadowed with huge woods, and exposed to the winds, with intermixture of many great Lakes. Yea, in the ridge of their highest hils (mountaines indeed I cannot terme them) you shall find pooles & marishes. It hath good­ly havens, and delectable plaines, but neither comparable to the woods for largenesse, nor greennesse. It is generally fer­tile except Vlster, (which in some parts is fertile, in other­some barren;) And Conaght, which (in times past) through idlenesse hath beene lesse manured than any other Country, is fuller of hils and bogges, and for the greatest portion woody. The hils swarme with cattell and sheepe, from whence they reape plenty of butter, cheese, and milke. The wheat thereof is small and short, and those vines which they cherish, serve rather for shade than profit. For in those countries the sunne entring into Virgo, causeth cold gales to blow, and in Autumne the' after-noones heat is so faint and short, that it cannot ripen the clusters of the vine. It bringeth forth a race of excellent horse, fit for journies in re­gard of their ambling paces, but not commendable for in­durance. It breedeth the injurious Wolfe, and the Fox, as also all other creatures tame and gentle, necessary for life, but of lesser growth except the Grey-hound. Almost all the woods are replenished with Deere, (and those so fat, that they can frant runne for fatnesse,) with Bores, Hares, in great abundance, Goats, Fallow-Deere: Hedg-Hogges, and Moales, are seldome seene, but Mice infinite. it aboun­deth also with Falcons, Merlins, Eagles, Cranes, and in the Northerly parts with Swannes. Storks are very rarely heard of thorow the whole Island, but such as are there found are blacke. Pies and Nightingales are altogether [Page 70] wanting. By reason of the Sea, their famous Rivers, and spacious Lakes, it is served with most excellent Fish, and that peculiar to this Island onely. For to let passe many o­ther, in Vlster, the Ban being a most faire and cleare water, and arising out of the Lake of Eaugh, is the most plentifull River for Salmon that is to be found thorowout all Europe. For plenty and varietie, the like is to be reported of Sineus and Erno, a Lake by Camdens report, thirty miles long, and fifteene broad: Report saith, that this was once a delicate plot of ground, and well inhabited, but for the bestiall abuse of the people, it was suddenly swallowed in the wa­ters. And to prove this true, men say that in faire seasons, the Turrets and tops of houses, are in the bottome to bee discerned.

The Island became subject to the Crowne of England, about the yeare of our Lord 1175. Henry the second then reigning. At what time Roderic, King of Conaght, intitu­ling himselfe King of Ireland, inforced the residue of those petty Roytelets, to crave assistance of the King of England, under whose protection they voluntarily yeelded their obeysance.

It hath fifty Bishopricks, whereof Armach is a Primacy, and Metropolitan of the whole Island. Cassils is another Archbishopricke, authorized by Pope Eugenius, and hath under it nine suffragan Bishops: Dublin is another, and Toam another.

It is divided into foure Provinces, (viz.) Leynster, which Eastward respecteth Englād. Mounster, which lieth towards France Southward. Conaght, exposed to the West. And Vlster, situated in the Northerly part of the Island. Some adde a fifth, placed in the middest, and terme it Meath.

Every one now is subdivided into Counties, and each Countie into Baronies, and hundreds; and every Barony into Parishes, consisting of Manors, Townes, and Villages, after the manner of England. [...] That parcell of territorie which an­ciently was termed the Pale, is about the quantity of Yorke-shire in England, and is a Country at this day inha­bited [Page 71] by Noblemen and Gentlemen, descended of Engli [...] race, being civill men, and have continued their obedienc [...] to the Crowne of England, and retained their English lan­guage since the first conquest. This people doe commonly marry within themselves, and not with the meere Irish, who could never in their sundry rebellions, draw the said inhabitants to joyne with them by flattery, or expell them by force. The first Colonies planted therein, were composed of worthy and noble Englishmen, and especially seated in Dublin, and other Cities, and borough townes thorowout the Realme: whose progeny having the mannagement of the affaires of the kingdome, subdued by degrees the grea­test part of the Irish, and brought them under subjection to the Crowne of England. And so long as they and their po­sterity were imployed, as principall Officers in time of warre and peace, (being men throughly informed of all pas­sages within the Kingdome, and acquainted with the dis­positions of the people) the Realme was worthily gover­ned, and duly increased in civility, and yeelded some profit to the crowne without charge. Other English Colonies at sundry times have there beene since planted, and especially by our late and moderne Soveraignes, in the Provinces of Mounster and Vlster, by the name of Vndertakers: where­upon it groweth, that the Realme is now inhabited with English, and Irish descended of English race; and with the meere and ancient Irishmen, unto whose Nobilitie and Gentry, the sir-names of Mac or O are commonly ad­ded. Vpon the Conquest,Government. Henry the second established the lawes of England, then being divided into kinds, viz. the Common law, (as that the elder should inherit his fathers lands) and Custome law, that (by the particular custome of Manors and Townes,) lands should be divided by the cu­stome of Gavelkinde, amongst all his sonnes; or that the youngest sonne onely should inherit the same, by the cu­stome of Borough-English: whereunto is to bee added a third, viz. the Statute law.

He and his successors held the possession thereof, with [Page 72] [...] soveraigne royalty, and kingly prerogatives, by the n [...]me of Lords of Ireland; untill the day of king Henry the eighth, who by act of Parliament was acknowledged, intituled, and entred King of the said kingdome, and so continueth it unto this day, being governed as a distinct kingdome by a Lieutenant, for Authority (Traine, Furni­ture, Provision, &c. farre surpassing any Deputation tho­rowout Christendome) wherein Courts of Parliament are & have there beene held, con [...]sting of the three Estates of the kingdome, in the same forme as is used in England, by com­mission from the King under the great seale of England, au­thorizing the Viceroy, or Deputie, to summon a parlia­ment there, and to give the Royall assent unto such acts, as are agreed upon in that Parliament: wherein the King and his Councell of Estate of England, are to bee informed by certificate under the great seale of Ireland, by force of a Statute made in Ireland, in the tenth yeare of Henry the se­venth. And after the kings allowance, the bils to be enacted and propounded in the Parliament there; So the Lord De­puty by force of the said Commission, gives the Kings royall assent, to such acts as are agreed upon in the said Parliament there.

So (as I said before) Ireland is not onely governed by the Common lawes of England, by certaine ancient customes of that realme and this; and by divers statutes here and there also, upon occasion enacted; but also the like Courts and formes of Iustice are there (according to the said lawes) used and administred: And also the Iudiciall records are made in Latine, and the Iudges and Lawyers doe plead in English, as is accustomed in England.

For the studying of which Lawes, the Irish Gentlemen doe send their sonnes to the Innes of Court in England, be­ing alwayes such as are descended of English race, and not of meere Irish: who are allowed to practise in England, af­ter they are called to the Barre, as Englishmen are also al­lowed to practise in Ireland.

Neither the Nobility nor Commons of Ireland have any [Page 73] suffrage in the election of the Viceroy, or blazing of Sove­raigne Magistrates, but all is done by the King, and such as are especially authorized. And the inhabitants of Cities, and Borough-townes in Ireland, by their charters, (which they have from the Kings of England) doe elect their Ma­gistrates and Officers, as the Cities and townes of England doe.

In England, the ancientest Earles of Ireland do give prece­dency to the Earle [...] of England, for that they have no voice in the Parliament of England: neither hath the Nobility of England any voyce or prerogative in the Parliaments of Ireland. so Irishmen borne, are denizens by birth in Eng­land, and may beare Office, and inherit lands in England, (as experience teacheth) without charters of denization, as Englishmen are, and doe in Ireland. And so Irishmen pay onely such customes and duties in England, as Englishmen doe, and ought.

The Wards of the Nobilitie are disposed of by the King; and of inferiour persons, by the Viceroy, and certaine of the Councell there, according to their Commission. Even so titles of honours, lands and offices are usually granted by the Kings of England, under the great seale of England, or Ireland, according to pleasure.

The incivility (wherewith this so goodly a kingdome hath beene much branded) hath chiefly arisen from want of education and learning: And secondly, for that the Country aboundeth with idle men, having no trade where­upon to live: which onely abuse hath incouraged rebellion, the Ring-leaders not doubting to bee followed by these swarmes of dissolute persons, ready to take armes upon any occasion for desire of spoile.

But verily, sithence that now of late the King of Peace and Pietic, hath wiped away all distrust of former neg­lects, by his continuall industry to plant Religion and Arts, to re-people the wasted Provinces, and to extirpate the in­nated idlenesse of the worst bred Irish; there is no questi­on (under God) to be made, but that this beautifull Island, [Page 74] being so neere a neighbour, so fruitfull in soile, so rich in pa­sture (more than credible) beset with so many woods, in­riched with so many Minerals, watred with so many Rivers, invironed with so many Havens, lying fit and commodi­ous for Navigation into most wealthy Countries, will in time prove profitable to the Church, advantag [...]ous to the Prince, pleasing to the Inhabitants, and comparable to any the best and civillest kingdomes of the Christian Common-weale.

Great Brittaine.

THe whole Island of Brittaine once divided, now re-united,The Situation of England. under the name of the kingdome of Great Brittaine, is an Island situated in the maine Ocean, over against France, and divided into foure great Pro­vinces: The first whereof the Englishmen doe inhabit; the second, the Scots; the third, the Welshmen; and the last, the Cornishmen. Every one of those doe differ from other, either in language, in manners, or in customes.

England, so termed of the Englishmen (the Inhabitants thereof) is by much the greater and goodlier portion, and divided into nine and twenty Provinces, which they terme Shires. Of the which, ten doe make the prime part of the Kingdome, and inclining towards the South, have their existence betweene the Thames and the Sea. Next as farre as the Trent, which runneth thorow the middest of Eng­land, are sixteene other Shires proportioned, whereof the first six lie towards the East, and the other ten lie more to the Inland, other six border upon Wales, and are bounded towards the West. About the heart of the Kingdome lie Darbishire, Yorkeshire, Lancashire, and Cumberland. And upon the left hand, inclining towards the West, Westmer­land. Vpon the contrary side lie Durham, and Northumber­land; Provinces opposed to the North, and sometime ap­pertaining to the Crowne of Scotland.

[Page 75] These Shires are two wayes divided: first, into six cir­cuits, parted among the Iudges, who twice a yeare goe over them for the holding of Assises. Secondly, into two Archbishopricks; Canterbury, who hath two and twenty Bishoprickes under his Province; and Yorke, who hath three in his. These are by the Grecians termed Dioceses,Bishopricks. and take their denominations from the Cities wherein the Bishops have their Seas; the chiefe whereof is London, and was once the seat of an Archbishop, now translated unto Canterbury.

This prime part, upon the East and the South is bounded with the Ocean: upon the West with Wales and Cornwall; upon the North with Tweed; the bounder also of England and Scotland.

At this River of Tweed endeth the length thereof; which being accounted to beginne at the Shore which lieth most Southerly, is from thence reckoned to containe about three hundred and twenty miles.

On this side the Humber it is accounted the fertilest for corne; beyond, mountainous, but excellent for herbage. For albeit, to one that beholdeth it afarre off; it seemeth all champi [...]n, notwithstanding, it hath many hils, and those for the most part destitute of wood; as also most pleasant vallies, wherein especially the Gentlemen have their man­sions: who according to their old customes dwell not in Townes, but approach the Vallies and Rivers, and inhabit the Villages, as I thinke, the better to avoid the furie of tempestuous winds, whereunto the Island is sometime sub­ject. Wherby it commeth to passe, that the Yeomen conver­sing with the Gentry, doe in every place savour of some good fashion, and the Vpland Cities are the lesse famoused.

The land generally is exceeding fertile, and plentifull in beasts: whereby it commeth to passe that the English peo­ple are more addicted unto Grazing, than unto Tillage: so that almost the third part of the soile is reserved rather for Cattell, Deere, Conies, and Goats a (for of this sort also there is great store in Wales.) And in every Shire you shall see Parkes impaled, and Forrests replenished with these [Page 76] beasts; in the hunting whereof, the Nobility and Gentry doe much delight; there being more Parks in England, than in all Europe besides.

For provision of the Inhabitants, neither is it lesse stored with corne, wilde fowle, and fish, so that for plenty, good­nesse, and sweetnesse, it needeth neither the helpe of France, no, nor of any neighbour-bordering Country. Among other things, the flesh especially of their Swine, Oxen, and Veales, have the best rellish of any part of Christendome; and of Fish, their Pike and Oysters. It bringeth not forth Mules nor Asses, but of Horse, for pace the best in the world, and of those infinite proportions, for service, running, and cour­sing.

Wealth. The wealth hereof consisteth in the never-decaying Mines of Tinue and Lead, of Copper, Iron, and Coales; On the Downes groweth a small and tender kinde of grasse, neither dunged nor watred with spring or river; but in Winter nourished with the moisture of the aire, and in Summer with the dew of Heaven; which is so gratefull and pleasing to the Sheepe, that it causeth them to beare fleeces of singular goodnesse, and exceeding finenesse. The Island breedeth no Wolves, nor any other ravening beast; and therefore these their flockes wander night and day, by Hils, Dales, and Fields, as well inclosed, as common, without feare or danger. Most delicate Cloths are woven of this Wooll, which from thence are transported in great abundance, into Germany, Poland, Denmarke, Sweveland, Italy, Turkie, and the Indies, where they are in high re­quest. There grow all sorts of pulse, great store of Saf­fron; yea, infinite quantities of Beere are transported from thence into Belgia; as also Pelts, Hides, Tallow, and Sea­coale. The Island is so commodiously seated for the Sea, that it is never without resort of Portugall, Spanish, French, Flemmish, and Easterling Merchants. The traffike betweene the English and the Flemmish, ariseth to an inestimable va­lue: for Guicciardin writeth, that before the tumults of the Low-countries, they bartered for twelve millions of crownes yearely.

[Page 77] The aire is somewhat thicke, and therefore more subject to the gathering of clouds, raine, and winds; but withall, lesse distempered with heat or cold, for the same reasons of crassitude. The nights are lightsome, and in the Norther­most parts of the Land, they are so short, that the falling and rising of the Sunne is discernde but by a small intermis­sion; for that the Island is situated almost full North, and the Sunne in the Summer time moving slowly, and staying long in the Northerne Climates, doth almost compasse it round above. In the Winter, it is as farre removed, when approaching neerer the South, it runneth towards the East. I my selfe have observed, that in the City of London (being seated in the Southerly part of the Island) about the Summer Solstice, the night hath not beene above five houres long. At all seasons of the yeare the Country is most temperate, being subject to no extraordinary evill influence of the Heavens, so that diseases are not there very common, and therefore lesse use of Physicke than in other places: yea, many times some people there are, who attaine unto one hundred and ten yeares of age; yea some to one hundred and twenty.

Earth-quakes are here seldome heard of: and light­nings almost to speake of, as seldome. The soyle is very fruitfull and plentifull, and of all necessaries it yeeldeth a­bundance, except of those things which are peculiar to hot­ter, or colder Regions. Vines are fostered rather for the pleasure of their shadowes, than for the increase of their profits: yet prosper they in all places, and bring forth Grapes; which notwithstanding hardly wax ripe, unlesse an unusuall hot Summer, or an artificiall reflexion doe helpe them. Wheat, Rye, Barley, and Oats, are sowed in their seasons: other graines they commonly use not; and of Pulse, onely Beanes and Pease. The fruits suddenly knot, but ripen slowly; the cause of either is the overmuch moi­sture both of the soile and the aire. Wine (as aforesaid) the Land affordeth not; in stead whereof, beere is in request; without controversie by use, a pleasant and wholsome Be­verage. [Page 78] Wines are transported from France, Spaine, and Canaie. The Woods are full of fruit trees, and most plen­tifull of Mast. The Rivers faire, and runne through many Provinces. The Downes are many, yet neither cumbred with wood, nor overlayed with water, which by reason therof bringeth forth a tender and short grasse, gratefull and sufficient for the pasturage of infinite flockes of sheepe; And whether it be by the influence of the Heavens, or the good­nesse of the land, they yeeld the finest and softest freeces thorow the whole world.

And first I must put you in minde of a Miracle; how this beast, besides the dew of Heaven ordinarily tasteth of no other water, so that the shepherds of purpose doe drive them from all watry places, upon true observation; That to let them drinke, is to let them bane. Without doubt this is the true golden Fleece, wherein the maine wealth of the whole Island consisteth. And for to buy this commoditie, immensive treasure is yearely reconveyed into the Land by Merchants; from whence it is never conveyed, because it is provided by the Lawes of the Kingdome; That no per­son transport Gold or Silver, Plate, Iewels, &c. Whereby it commeth to passe, that no Countrey under the Cope of Heaven is richer than England. For, besides those masses of Coyne, which passe this way and that way, through the hands of Tradesmen, Merchants, and Gentlemen; there is almost no person of meane condition, but for the use of his daily table, he hath either a Salt, Cups, or Spoones of Sil­ver, and according to his estate, more or lesse, for divers services.

It is no lesse stored with all kinde of Beasts, except Asses, Mules, Camels, and Elephants. It bringeth forth no mate­riall venomous Creature, or Beast of prey, save the Fox, worthy talking of: for the race of the Wolves is quite ex­tinguished, and therefore all sorts of cattell stray as they list, and are in safetie without any great care-taking for an Heards-man: so that you shall see Heards of Rother Beasts and Horses, and Flocks of Sheepe, in all places wandring by [Page 79] day and by night, upon Hils and in Vallies, in Commons, and inclosed Grounds, (by ancient Customes laid open after Harvest) wherein every Neighbour claimeth communitie to feed his Cattell.

For in truth, the Oxe and the Weather are Creatures especially ordained for the Table, than whose flesh there is not in any place a more savourie or delicious service. Of the two, the Steere is the best, especially if it be seasonably pow­dered: of which there is no marvell, for that this choice is altogether exempted from labour, and fed up for food, and withall the diet of the English Nation consisting most upon flesh.

The people are tall of stature, faire of complexion,Qualities of the English. for the greater part gray-eyed; and as in pronunciation they ap­proach the Italian, so in constitution of body and fashion they doe well-neere imitate them. They are civilly quali­fied, and take counsell by leasure; knowing that profitable proceedings have none a more dangerous adversary [...]han rashnesse. Of their owne dispositions, they are courteous, and in all good offices forwards, especially the Gentry, even towards strangers. Their acquaintance they invite to their houses, and there entertaine them kindly, and feast them both at noone and at night merrily, neatly, heartily, and bountifully: and this they terme courtesie, or neighbour­hood. In battell they are fearlesse, excellent Archers, and in service unindurable of temporizing, and therefore the sword being once drawne, they forth with set at all upon the haz­zard of a battell, knowing that all good successe attendeth the fortune of the Victor. Fortresses they build none, but rather suffer those which heretofore have beene built, and are now by age growne ruinous, utterly to perish: but be­ing once in forren parts, they retaine all military discipline to the utmost. For Booke-men, their maintenance is boun­tifull, their proficiencie commendable, and their number numberlesse. Their attire differeth not much from the French; their women are amiable and beautifull, and atti­red in most comely fashion. Their Cities are honourable, [Page 80] their Townes famous, Hamlets frequent, and Villages every where magnificent.

So that if any courteous Traveller would desire of mee to behold an Idea of happinesse in abstracto, fitting for the ge­nerall necessitie of life and upright conversation, viz. the use of diet, clothing, sociable feastings, solemne festivals and banquets, with approbation of magnificence: Or de­mand to see the place, where Law, indifferent to all sorts, permitteth the private man to thrive, to purchase estates, to devise chattels and inheritances to his children and kins­folkes; to reward servants; or to countenance followers; with libertie of civill conversation, of comely burials and mourning for the dead, of rejoycings at mariages, of honest and friendly visitations, and harmlesse recreation; where every man eateth under his owne Vine, and doth what see­meth good in his owne eyes, so it tend not to scandall: Then let mee be bold to shew him the noble Kingdome of England; which to approve, I intend by way of compari­son, (wherein most of our Gentrie are well acquainted) to make good what, I thinke, without offence, may be truly avouched.

And first wee will begin with those Countries,England com­pared with Russia, and Aethiopia. of which wee have only knowledge by way of traffike, and so tra­vell into Russia and Aethiopia. But there (alas to say no­thing of the government, the sole load-starre of goodnesse and happinesse) the two extremities of heat and cold de­barre both Plentie and Abundance, from unloading their laps amongst the Inhabitants, comparable to our happinesse and satisfaction. As for their government, and uniformitie of a Common-wealth (the name of Emperours only excep­ted) there is nothing worthy observation, more than the ty­rannous controlling of Lawes, and the immediate prostitu­tion of all sorts to the imperious will of the prevailer; nor in truth have they temple, palace, wisdome, peace or tran­quillitie, such as Royaltie or good government intendeth, but both Empires (especially Russia) have suffered many convulsions from ambitious Vsurpers and unworthy Prin­ces, [Page 81] who have traiterously supplanted one another, and by indirect courses brought the subject into the house of slaughter; which undoubtedly is the maine reason why they cannot come neere magnificence, provision in house­keeping, navie, multitude of Princes, Nobles or subjects, with the equality of obedience to advance a true Scepter, or to manifest the glory of a king, by the flourishing con­dition of all estates. In a word, their Cities and Townes are subject to such bestiality and confusion, that they seeme rather routed troopes of deformity, than men orderly dis­posed to the mannagement of affaires, either of commerce, or of Noble trade: And so, in all other particulars, there is a meere disparity betweene them and our proposition.

Shall we come neerer home,With Germa­nie. and with prying eyes (like the Censors of Rome) looke into the Empire of Germany? there the Princes are so absolute, and the Emperour so ti­morous to raigne (as Asueroth did) from India to Aethi­opia, over 127. Provinces, that neither the Queene of Saba will come to heare his wisdome, nor to view the order of his Palace; neither will the King of Arabia send him pre­sents, nor the Confederates admire his magnificence: The Merchant will not bring him horse, and fine linnen from remote places, nor supply his wants according to the prero­gative of Kings: Nor are the Cities ordered by the appoint­ment of his Ministers, nor can he send his chariots to this place, nor his horse-men to that; nor his Army whither he lists, nor fill the streets of Ierusalem, when he would solem­nize a Passeover? for the people live divided, and the Bur­ger boasteth of his policie, in manumitting themselves, and giving their Townes the usurpation of chiefe commandery; as for the having of many commodities, tending either to necessity or pleasure, alas, the commutation consisteth in the inriching one another, wherin all the corruptions of ava­ [...]ice are put in practice, finally (God wot) to the augmen­tation of the Empires Majesty. So that their Marts and Faires, are as so many boothes of drunkards, where with in stead of Ships at Sea, they fill the fields with wagons full of [Page 82] strange creatures, who make their bellies as great devou­rers, as the Sea. Nor can he goe with the wise King to view his navie at the red Sea shores, not in person visit the Cities which want fortification or repairing; nor in truth, doe any thing to come neere the six steps of gold on Solomons throne, but eat and carouse, yet farre from the meane of mirth.

Shall we venture over the Alpes, With Italie. and the gulfe of Venice into Italy; and there search the Apennine Hils, the fields of Campania, the garden of the World, Lombardy; the territo­ries of Rome, or attractive Naples, for an instance of this our Greatnesse and Happinesse? No surely, For through­out this goodly territory, in one corner ruleth the Spaniard, at another end the Savoyen; then is intermingled a confused government of pettie Princes. Next lieth the Venetian state, who meerely out of parsimonie (like their adjoyning neigh­bours, the Florentines) have obtained the reputation of wealth and greatnesse. As for the Duke, he is but a voice unsignificant; for the Senate carrieth the sword. And last­ly, the Church, with the mercenary contraries of blessing and cursing, keepeth Saint Peters patrimony as safe, as if the indubitate heire of some noble family, should maintaine the privileges of his deceased Ancestors.

But should I knit all these models together, and set up the wals of Rome, incompassed with her seven hils in such an order, that the fabricke might boast of twenty miles circuit, and the government lift up a head of Daniels visi­on againe: Or that in a yeare of Iubile, I could settle you under the wings of an Angell on the top of the Popes Pa­lace, as the Devill carried our Saviour to the pinacle of the Temple; And there shew you the consistory of Cardinals, triumphs of a Popes Inauguration; his stately carriage (adorned with his triple crowne) on mens shoulders, with all the appurtenant shewes and ceremonies; yet would all come short to our example. For the very provision of our Kings Palace would exhaust the Country, consume the commodities, and like barren ground, drinking up the raine, [Page 83] devoure the plenty of the Land, and pull in peeces their best compacted husbandry. As for their drinking in ves­sels of gold, well may it serve to divulge the glory of some ambitious triumph, but nothing verifie the bounty of an overflowing cup; considering the wines are not onely small, but the vintage so barren and penurious, that to con­ceale the scarcity thereof, by parsimonious custome of the Country, women and children are forbidden to drinke thereof. As for the Villano, he is glad of water to quench his thirst, fetcht from muddy channels, falling from the moun­taines of snow, and cleansed with much adoe by the swift course of Eridanus.

Many other defects doe bespot the face of this goodly creature, and debarre it from the boast of our essentiall hap­pinesse. For though the Inne-keepers daughter goe in a satten gowne, and that the bravery of Italy be discovered in the attire of the people, as if every burre had golden ker­nels, and every corner were full of silkwormes; yet is there neither method of government, nor can the inhabitans re­joyce under unity, or any privileges of a strong compacted Administration, tending to the assurance of love, true alli­ance, or obedience: so that in a manner all the defects, de­forming the beauty of Kingdomes (more than some private blessings, and those scattered as it were by the hands of di­vine goodnesse) may be here lookt upon with pitifull eyes, and much lamented with judiciall hearts. And however the ostentous heaps of stone transport the sleight credulity of the ignorant; that it surpasseth for Cities, buildings, and outward magnificence; yet when you come to examine par­ticulars, you shall finde it like a rotten post gilded on the out-side. For what saith Tacitus; Cities are compacted of men, and obedience of people, subject to a good forme of govern­ment, and not of houses and palaces made of lime and stone, unfurnished of dwellers, void of hospitality, and jealous of each others best inclinations. So that besides all naturall imperfection in Italy, there is neither roome in the house for servants, nor litter forthy Camels; neither canst thou fetch [Page 84] the well-sed Veale from thy droves, nor dresse fine Veni­son, nor kill the fat Calfe, as in other Countries; which makes me to remember a pleasant jest of one of the same Country, spoken to a stranger, demanding the reason why the Muttons and Cattell were so small and leane: Because (quoth he) we (Italians) eat up the grasse in sallets, and by robbing the pastures, deceive the Cattell. In another place, a Curtizan being questioned of the conditions of men in her faculty, concerning businesse of Incontinency, onely answered, Seignior Il Italiano pisciarum molto. Neither to slatter them (according to the ridiculous soothing of Princes) can I exemplifie any of their glorious actions abroad, or fa­mous attempts at home, more than the ruining one of ano­ther, and making of forts and fortifications, which some­times have proved as fatall as Perillus his Bull to the Inven­tor; imboldning disobedience to relie on a wrong security, and at all times augmenting distrust and foule suspitions a­mongst their best Cities and governments. How is Millan and Naples curbed, and the brave liberty of the Gentry strangely fettred, by the terror of late built citadell? Of which notwithstanding even the Spaniard himselfe is trans­ported to imagine; That souldiers may be corrupted, and no place to be so impregnable, but the endevours of men can fru­strate and overcome.

And were it not to overlooke them with a malevolent aspect, I could informe you, that notwithstanding their dis­persion of their wares and Merchandizes, throughout all the Ports of Europe and Turkie, yet is is bounded with such wants and oversights, and that within the compasse of their Mid-land Seas (except in pursuing of some small pyracies) as that I never read nor heard, that ever they made true use of navigation, nor admitted the just conditions of Saylers and Souldiers. In so much, that on my knowledge, even the po­tentest state there, boasting of the bravery of 200. gallies, and eight or ten galleasses, neither hath sufficient men to man twenty, nor can without time and great expences (a­mongst themselves) fill up the inventory of that scarcity.

[Page 85] Shall we then come to Spaine, With Spaine. where the Grands of the Kings Court have golden keyes to his chamber, and are privileged by patent to stand covered before his Majestie? where the Exchequer is full of gold from India, and the Treasurers bring in accounts of 100000. Souldiers in garri­son with other imployments yearly paid, & orderly suppli­ed? where the Nobleman insulteth for his Gotish-bloud, and will prove a true Castilian, more ancient in Gentry than the race of Othoman, and every man weareth his sword point-blancke, looking as high, though not so bigge as a German, who hath eat and drunke more at a meale, than a Don doth in a weeke? where so many kingdomes are united, making a more perspicuous shew over the universe, than the seven starres doe in the Firmament, over the single planets in their separated spheres? where they can without boasting, I will not say vaine-glory, tell you divers Histories of their voy­ages at Sea, discoveries and plantations of Countries, con­quests of both the Indies, and Armies in the field: shall wee (I say) here cast Anchor, and looke out a match for our example? Me thinkes I am answered by every man that weares a great ruffe, and a full paire of hose; If Spaine doe not equall it, who can doe it? I will not tell you that as yet, but presuming to shut Spaine out of doores, for entring into the privy chamber of our example; let me assure you upon subsequent proofe, that (would Apollo pardon the comparison) I can compare his Indian wealth, to nothing so like, as to Midas wish, who (notwithstanding his gol­den fortunes) wanted, as all men know, the use of natures benefits, and could neither eat nor drinke without choa­king. But to particulars.

What hath Spaine worthy commendation, much lesse what prerogative of happinesse? Canaan flowed with milke and honey, blessings of food and increase, that the King had not only his provision without repining, but Israel (as the sand of the Sea) ate, dranke, and made merry, which Spaine cannot doe. The burnt hils, and desart places will pregnantly prove the assertion. The Country man hideth [Page 86] his garlike and onions, as ashamed of his diet. The Citizen powders fish, and buyeth cheese of the Dutchman. The Gentry is limited what he shall eat, and how much meat he shall carry home. The Court hath much adoe to be sup­plied, and many concussions are put in practice from the Kings prerogative, to furnish the offices with reasonable allowance; and in truth the provision is farre short from the expences of other places. For in generall, they are some­times afraid to want bread, inploying certaine Agents for transportation both of corne and victuall, even from remote Countries; tempting us with gold and payment of ready money: For which purpose onely is there a Proviso in their Acts of Parliament, concerning the exportation of coyne. Of which, at a word, though they have great cause to boast, yet by the way let me demand, how came the dis­contents in Flanders, Brabant, &c. who incited the garri­sons of Antwerp, Brussels, and other Townes to mutinie? who distasted sundry times whole Armies upon their mar­ches and imployments? who counselled the Treasurer to be so slacke in payment of Liberances, and Souldiers pensi­ons? who doth every yeare thrust the garrisons into penury and scarcity, in so much that not only in the Low-countries, but even in the governments of Millan, Naples, and Sicil, the Souldier wanteth, and many times is compelled to remit the one halfe, to purse up the other? Is it not for lacke of Treasure, the pride whereof hath made his heart fondly to swell, or by disorderly distributions? Or more truly, to procure humane necessities, the magazin whereof continu­ally lyeth in the English and Dutchmans hands. Let not man therefore be afraid of this monster Opinion, nor sedu­ [...]ed with the vanitie of reports. For put them to skirmish [...]f understanding, and the wealth of Spaine will prove but false fire; according to the late and neere experimented Proverbe; The King of Spaines pay is the greater, but the Dutch the better.

As for their hungry boasting of fruits and herbs, it is in a manner an offence to Nature; For God made the beasts of [Page 87] the earth to have sustenance from the same, but man to com­mand all: So that Adams wisdome gave them titles, and his superioritie prescribed subjection; but how? to mans use, for mans sustenance, for mans necessitie; and lastly, for mans delight. Thus doth oile make a cheerefull counte­nance, and wine a gladsome heart. Thus did the Kings ta­ble furnish it selfe, in this sense the songs of David praise God for his many blessings. Thus were incense and odours pro­vided, and the love of brethren compared to the dew of Hermon, and the costly ointment on Aarons vestures: which blessed allowances, make mee to remember a speech of Sir Roger Williams to an idle Spaniard, boasting of his country citrons, orenges, olives, and such like: Why (saith he) in England wee have good surloines of beefe, and dain­tie capons to eat with your sauce, with all meat worthy the name of sustenance; but you have sauce and no sustenance: and so mich God dich you with your sustenancelesse sauce.

Canaan had neighbourly meetings, feasts of triumphs, and times of private rejoycings: Spaine dares not, nor can bid you welcome. Idle jelousies, private hate, or hatefull pride, feare of expences, and vaine-glorious speeches, will quickly debarre you from the pleasure of invitation, from the freedome of conversing one with another, which cannot savour the noble entercourses of mutuall amitie. Canaan had the Temple furnished, as God commanded, the Priest obe­dient to the King, the Prophets in estimation, and the Feasts orderly celebrated: Spaine is polluted with worse severitie than Paganisme hath invented, viz. the cruell Office of In­quisition, wherewith the Kings themselves have beene so over-awed by the insolence of the Clergie, that some of them have not spared to commit repentant error, to please the Pope. Canaan was a receptacle of strangers and Princely solemnities; Spaine hateth all men, commits them to fire and sword, and cannot order one solemne Festivall, unlesse at a Kings Coronation, a Princes mariage, or a Cardinals jollitie; where yet an Italian invention shall fill a table with painted trenchers and dishes of China, but a hungry belly [Page 88] may call for more meat, and he never the neerer.

Canaan had cities of refuge, cities of store, cities of strength, cities for horses, and all for the Kings magnifi­cence; to all which the wayes lay ordered, and men passed to and fro without danger and want: In Spaine you must have a guide, yea sometime a guard, and are so farre from expecting releefe after your dayes travels, that if you have not a Borachio before your saddle, and made your provi­sion on the backe of an Asse, you may happen to be tired for want of sustenance, and faint with Ismael for lack of water.

Canaan had beautifull women, and the Scripture sets it downe, as a blessing of God: But Spaine must mourne for strange disparity, and either lament that her women are painted, (like the images of the grove) or sit in the high­way as Thamar did, to deceive Iuda. For in truth they are for the most part unpleasing & swartish, or else by comming to be Curtizans, dangerous and impudent. Thus as yet Salomon must sit without compare, and his kingdome un­matchably triumph with a noble prerogative.

But what must we thinke of France, With France. (sayes one) is not your breath now almost spent? and will you not be satis­fied with the goodliest kingdome of the world? The an­swer shall not be peremptory, nor derogate from the merit of its least worth of vertue: yet are they traduced for many defects, and I beleeve will fall short to our expectation, at least I am sure dare not abide the touch of triall.

In Salomons Court, the Queene of Saba commended the obedience of the Princes, the sitting of the Kings servants, the ordering of the Palace, and the multitude of the provi­sions daily brought in: In France the Princes contest with the King, & the Clergie affront the Princes, & beare downe the States; the Pages mocke the Gentlemen, and the Gen­tlemen are proud of nothing but slovennesse, unbeseeming familiarity, and disorder. So that with much adoe, the mechanicall man stands bare to the King, and the Princes sit at meat like Carriers in an Hostry, without reverence, silence, or observation, and a vile custome having got the [Page 89] upper hand, hath depressed the Majestie of such a place, which indeed reduced to uniformity, would much augment the glory of Europe.

A wise State, and potent Kings, have built Navies, and travelled themselves in person to view them, raising cu­stomes from their Merchants, loving and maintaining good Mariners and Pilots, contracting leagues with remote Princes, and making the confirmation of them honourable and advantagious: But France wanteth shipping, is care­lesse of Navigation, can raise no good Sailers, seldome at­tempteth voyages or discoveries, and consequently hath its Cities and Merchants conversing without forme or no­ble condition. For in Paris they dare talke of the Kings mi­stresses, intermeddle with all tractates of Parliaments and State, call any Prince Hugonet, who dares onely say, That Nostre Dame is but a darke melancholike Church; and finally, justifie very monstrous and abusive actions. So that to tell you of their inconstant and refractorie dispositions at all times, would sooner discover their loathsome effusions of Christian bloud, than prevent the customary and mischie­vous practices of this people.

As for the Court, by reason of inveterate disorders, it is a meere map of confusion, and exposeth many actions, more ridiculous, than worthy of imitation.

The Husbandman, he is termed a Peasant, disparaged in his drudgery and servile toilsomnesse, liveth poore and beastly, is afraid of his owne shadow, and cannot free the Vineyards from theeves and destroyers. Yea, all the Coun­trey swarmeth with Rogues and Vagabonds, whose despe­rate wants drive them to perpetrate many hainous murthers, although for the most part the Provosts of every govern­ment are very diligent. The cause, as I conjecture, for that the passages are toylesome and disordered, yea, many times dangerous, to which may be added, the much connivencie at notorious crimes, with many particulars choaking the breath of happinesse, from giving life to a glorious king­dome indeed, if the reciprocall duties betweene Prince and Subject were but moderately extended.

[Page 90] But now to produce England, shall we say, that it is match­lesse, or faultlesse? Surely no; we have (no doubt) our im­perfections as well as other Nations. But certainly, by that time the Reader in the ballance of judgement hath poysed the differences of plenty and scarcity, of necessaries and abi­lities for Peace and Warre, the one for life, the other for defence:M Paris fol. 68 [...]. I make no question, but for the first, when he hath read the censure of the Pope, how that England was verè hortus delictarum; vere puteus inexhaustus; his Holinesse, if he might have it for catching, had no reason but to con­clude: Ergò ubi multa abundant, de multis multa possunt ex­torqueri.

For the second, how ever France and Spaine have beene alwayes accounted the ballances of Europe, yet hath Eng­land stood as the beame to turne the Scale: which particu­larly to prove, I will never goe about, by recitall of our Ancestors undertakings, or our Merchants adventures over the face of the universe of French or Spanish Victories, re­leevement of neighbours, or expatiating of honourable re­putation amongst the M [...]s [...]ovites in the North, or the Mo­gores in the East; but unpartially bid you looke upon the face of the kingdome as now it stands.

If the glory of a King consist in the multitude of sub­jects,The King. how honourable is the State of England at this day, which most harmoniously and absolutely commandeth o­ver the English, Scotch, Irish, Welch, & the French of Gernsey and Iersey: If you desire to behold Palaces & goodly buil­dings, where are so many, & so good belonging to any king­dome in the world? If a Court,The Court. I verily beleeve for State, good order, expences, entertainment, and continuall attendancie, other places will be found to come farre short. If shipping, & a Royall Navie, I hope you may depart with satisfaction, especially if you were instructed in the secrets of their ser­vice and strength. But let late triall performed in the face of the world make due report of those vertues. If you will m [...]ter us at land: who can shew such companies of foot, such sufficient troops of serviceable horse, and so many wor­thy [...]tors, and so well appointed? what subject living [Page 91] in a civill Common-wealth, can shew me (as I can doe ma­ny in England) a Gentleman of his owne tenants, able to bring such faire companies of men into the field?

If martiall spectables be distastefull, then looke upon the Nobility, and grave Counsellors;The Nobility. but withall prepare a reverent respect, and settle your esteeme so resolutely to­wards them, for their orderly life, their sweetnesse of man­ners, integritie in deciding of controversies, and affability in admitting of Sutors; that although you come from the Grands of Spaine, the Princes of France, and the ostentous pompe of Cardinals, yet be not too prejudicate, nor trans­ported with selfe-conceited wilfulnesse, and you shall see as great bravery, retinue, and observation amongst us, as any subject in the world dare challenge.

After them, looke upon inferiours, you shall see them generally so many, and so well attended and appointed, that I protest them farre exceeding other places, both for gracefull shew, and sufficiency of execution.

Will you be ravished indeed, and transported with the love of the world? Come, and behold the beauty of our La­dies, and their disposing at a night of solemnity: to which if you adde the generall contentment, which our English women afford, without sophisticate and adulterate favours, there is no man can hold his peace, but proclaime our pre­heminence.

If you would see justice proud of her entertainment,Courts of Iustice. and how she presents both praemium and poenam to the severall attendants at the barre; looke into our Courts, and view the same in most perspicuous eminence, without so much as the least cloudy respect of persons.

If you will enter our Gentlemens houses, I hope there are no such cupboords of plate, beds of velvet or imbroidery, hangings of tapestrie, variety of roomes, duty of servants, order of house-keeping, store of pastime, and all in grosse (that man can desire) in any Country in the World.

If you will search our Cities and Townes,The Gentry. what they want in outward deceit of formality, it is supplied in sweet­nesse [Page 92] and delicacie within doores, surpassing the best of them in wealth and furniture. As for expences, I am sure some Citizens of London are at more annuall charge of diet, than the Dukes of Venice, Florence, or Genoa. If you will examine our Merchants, however some great Fowker or Agent for a whole Kingdome, for Genoa, Antwerp, Brussels, or other Cities, may surpasse us for usury, and supposition of wealth, there died not two such in one yeare, and out of one Towne in the world, as Sir Iohn Spencer, and Master Sutton. Generally all the rest surpasse for curious fare, state­linesse, education, and orderly contributions. Besides, they live at home in case, purchase Land with security, bring up their children daintily and decently, maintaine their families in obedience, and cannot be matched by any forren opposition.

Finally,The Citizens. if you would bee acquainted with the trades­man, artizan, and other of manual occupations; looke how he lives, looke how he fares, looke where he dwels, looke what he weares, looke where he goes to buy his meat; to such markets and shambles, that the very sight astonisheth all strangers, being once made acquainted with their rarity and goodnesse.

But indeed if you would have cause of wonder,The Husband­man or Yeo­man compa­red. then looke upon the husbandman, and compare him to men of like ranke in other places, and I beleeve upon mature consi­deration, our adversaries will repine at their felicities, and our friends embrace our noble freedomes with desire of limitation.

In Turkie, Compared with the Turk. with the rest, hee is a poore and unfortunate slave; and whether Muscelman, or Christian, he dare not manure his ground to the best profit, and therefore liveth poorely and sluttishly.

In Hungary, With the Hun­garian. and those parts, they resemble carrion; for living under the Turke, nothing is his owne, and in the Christian government all is taken from him, either to fur­nish the warres, or to maintaine the souldier.

In Italy they are a little better,With the Ita­lian. as long as they be able to [Page 93] pay their rents, and husband their grounds. Yet doe they seldome live of their owne, or lead a life beseeming the freedome of conversation. Besides, in many places they are so terrified with the wretched troopes of the Bariditie, who make prey of their labours, that they know the robbers, yet dare they neither detect them, nor deny to entertaine them. After the fashion of Italy, they will be a little gaw­die (especially the women) in apparell, and are very in­dustrious, as having in one selfe-same field, (if the soile will yeeld it) though it consist but of an acre, both Corne, Vines, and Fruit-trees; Honey, Roots, Sallets, Bees, and Silk-wormes. He is now called a Villano, and serveth to no other use than to inrich his Lord, feeding himselfe upon Garlike and Onions, and is acquainted with no good thing, but superstition, a few gawdy cloaths, and the incontinent life of Curtizans.

In Spaine it is farre worse;With the Spa­niard. the Contadini are numbred amongst the reproaches of their government, and esteemed almost as the Asses, that bring their Cabages, Melons, and such like trash to the markets. For he dare not attempt to cheapen any thing appropriate to the use of the Gentle­man; As flesh, fish, wheat, or excellent fruits. Nor must he, if he have of his owne, but furnish the market with the best, feeding himselfe on the worst and vilest stuffe. Be­sides (the errour of Italy) if the mother have a comely daughter (or worse) she is contented for money to yeeld to prostitution, &c.

In France, the peasant is not onely beastly within doores,With the Frenchmen. but churlish, savoring nothing but his labour, with base and servile behaviour, with poore and miserable expences, with obscene and filthy lodging, with jealous and mali­cious entertainment, with illiberall and ill-becomming freedome of speech against both Court and Common­wealth.

In Germanie the Boore is somewhat better,With the Ger­man. for he eateth flesh sometimes, though vilely dressed; will be drunke and merry; must be alwayes imployed, and alwayes an hun­gred, [Page 94] or desirous of drinke; And can apparell himselfe handsomely to goe to Church on Sundayes, or Holy­dayes. But they are dangerous in their tumults and rages, and not to be trusted upon reconciliation after a wrong.

In Ireland he is termed a churle,With the Irish­man. in England a Clowne: but looke on him truly, as he liveth indeed, and you shall finde him a carefull maintainer of his family, in continued descents, and in times past he would not have altered his ad­dition of rich Yeoman, for the vain-glorious title of poore Gentleman: You shall see them dwell in neat houses, Ma­nors, Lordships, and Parks, to the annuall value of a thou­sand pounds sometimes: their sonnes knighted, their daugh­ters well bestowed, their other children so dispersed, that Lawyers, Citizens, Merchants, are raised throughout the kingdome, from the sonnes and kindred of these countri­men. Yea, you shall see them invited to the Court by ser­vice, or promotion, and knowing that the breath of Kings advanceth or dejecteth, can attend the good ho [...]re, and such graces, as a Princes favour may distribute to a well-deserving subject.

Thus liveth our Countriman, and is able, though but a Farmer, to lodge you sweetly and handsomely, to set a peece of plate on the Cupboord, five or six dishes of good fare on the Table, with fresh and fine linnen, and a cheere­full welcome. He is so nurtured besides, that he can tell his Lawyer a formall tale, and complaine to the Iustice, if a farre better man wrong him. And finally, in a carowse of good liquor of his owne brewing, can chaunt it with the Poet; Anglia Liberagens, cus Liberamens, &c.

Concerning traffike and imployment at Sea;Concerning traffike. what king­dome hath more commodities within it selfe, wanteth lesse, or is better furnished from forraine parts? So that whether for gaine sake they make sale of the best things, or that there is a secret in importation, or that our Merchants are curious in selecting the choicest, I know not, but am sure, that our England is the very shop of the World, and Maga­zine of Natures dainties. If it be a blessing for every man to [Page 95] eat under his owne roofe, to sit with the pleasure of conver­sation in his Orchard or Garden, to enjoy the fruits of the earth with plentie, to live in neighbourly gratuities, having in a manner our doores open all night, to have many chil­dren, servants, and store of cattell, to purchase great estates, marry our daughters beyond expectation, and strengthen one another in worthy families, and sutable kindred; Then looke upon England, and tell mee, where is the like? If it be a blessing not to be suppressed with superiours, not to have the Common-wealth rent in peeces by tyrannie, not to see others enjoy the fruits of our labours, not to be tor­mented with intrusion, usurpation, or malicious lookes of covetous Landlords; Looke amongst us, and demand, Who can complaine? Or at least, who is so wronged, but he may have satisfaction or redresse? If it be a blessing, to enjoy the preaching of the Gospell, to be freed from corrupt and ab­surd ceremonies, to rejoyce in the libertie of an upright con­science, to continue in a true, perfect, and established Reli­gion, to abound with reverend learned men, to have liberall exercise and dispute of our faith, to be resolved of our doubts, with moderate perswasion, and disswasion, and to have all controversies tried upon the touchstone of Gods truth; Come and heare us, and tell mee wherein you are not satisfied. If it be a blessing to have sociable conversation, and yet with convenable respect, to continue the freedome of neighbourly meetings, exempted from the intolerable yoke of jelousie, to love one another with those comforta­ble conditions of charitie, to feast without scandall, to en­tertaine without repining, and to be merry without incon­tinencie, examine the conditions of us all generally, and setting mens imperfections aside, which follow life, as the shadow doth the Sunne, and tell mee, where is offence? If it be a blessing to make the best use of Natures blessings, to be rather helpfull, than stand in need of others, to take and leave warre with all Kingdomes of the World, to have con­fining Princes congratulate us by Embassage, and to wel­come all commers with a noble and correspondent invita­tion; [Page 96] take up our example, put us to the triall, and see whe­ther I speake vaine-gloriously. To conclude with the best of all blessings, if it be a blessing to live under a Royall Mo­narch, to rejoyce in the kindred, alliance, and strong confe­deracie of Kings; to have adjoyning Countries studie our observation, and to see our Country and people flourish in all good things; Looke upon us, pencell out our defects, (if you can) and let not emulation, which attendeth on vertuous desires, be turned into envie, or so corrupted with malice, that you will not yet confesse our blessed preroga­tives.

But you will say for all this, we neither fetch gold from Oph [...]r, nor are our Cities of sufficiencie to march in the first ranke of magnificence. To the first I answer directly, wee may if we list, either fetch treasure where it is, or bee the cause that it shall be brought us, even to our owne doores in peace. For I am sure wee have not onely Ships and Men, but such hands and spirits, as with Davids Worthies can pull the speare out of the hands of the Philistines, and sweetnesse from the strong [...] and who sh [...]ll hinder us? I hope neither Spaine, if there were occasions, not the Gallies of Messina or Malta; nor the Confederate Princes of Italy, nor the Navie of Turkie, nor the fortifications of China, nor any one worldly Prince, unlesse our sinnes and profanation cause the Angell of the Lord to keepe us backe, or strike us with terrour: But happy be the conditions of true wor­thinesse: true valour, even for conscience and honours sake, will doe no wrong.

As for our buildings, and Cities, I answer, Ars non habet mi [...]cum [...]s [...]gnorantem, and men are too prejudicate, that either say or thinke so. For of my owne knowledge, there are not so many beautifull Churches, and stately houses, within the circular dimension of so much ground in the world: so that if our Gentlemen admitting the custome of living in Cities, as they doe in most parts of Europe, could range all the edifices of eminence in a Shire, with­in a wall; or that wee were sited in a Continent like [Page 97] the thorow-fare of France, Germany, or Italy; we should questionlesse have more glorious, great and populous Ci­ties, than any Kingdome: which with Ahasuerosh can hold up a Scepter of potency, to keepe Majesty from vio­lence, though a decree of defiance were published never so terribly: yea I will avow, that our Townes and Villages, (esteeme of them as you please,) considering the use and ne­cessity of travell, doe farre surmount the Hosteries and en­tertainment of all other nations: And am sure, if you will let loose the Queene of Cities, as they terme Paris, to looke bigge and angerly upon us, our London can affront her with a matching countenance, and over-match her in many seve­rall excellencies.

And surely,The dispositi­on of Male-contents abroad. if any man should materially object against these my assertions, I should deeme him either some young humorist, some petulant factor, discontented traveller, or head-strong Papist: of which profession, I misdoubt not, but to finde many amongst men, who being either distressed at home, or unsetled abroad, to their private ends will not blush with the King of Assyria, to laugh at the weaknesse of Iuda, for being confident in the promises of God, will raile on religion, condemne government, extoll petty Princes, and with Naaman the Syrian, preferre the waters of Babylon, before the wholesome River of Iordan. But come to parti­culars, they sticke in the clay, and like an unbroken colt, fl [...]ging up and downe, and sweating with rage, and neither able to goe forward in a handsome course, nor remaine pa­tient in expecting the will of the Rider: Or, open them but one window, to let in but the light of our glory, by dis­coursing of our Navie, the generall musters of the Country, the arming of every Gentlemans house, a Noblemans at­tendance, a Ladies jewels; the Majestie of our Vniversities, the happinesse of our Husbandman, the wealth of our great Cities, and order in the administration of the same [...] Then stand they with Niobe transhaped into stone, and remaine confounded, by reason of their former perverse and igno­rant wilfulnesse. But I will not be uncivill in exprobration, [Page 98] only let me tell them, that because in beastly Galata and Constantinople, the Merchant may goe into divers Bashawes and Greekish houses, and there by entertainment transpor­ted with outward deceit of colours (as painting, gilding, in-laid workes, and such like) hee maketh a wonder at the cost and pompous expences; not remembring how their best masters in England, are scarce admitted up staires into many worthy houses of our Noblemen and Gentlemen, which being admitted, would afford other manner of dis­coveries, both magnificent and wealthy, even to true ad­miration. Because in Venice they have overlooked the Bu­centaure, S. Marks Palace, and Piazza (a dainty front of buildings on the grand Canale) the College of Iesuits, a Mer­cer or two that selleth Copes and rich cloaths of gold for high Altars, the fundamento novo, the Arsnall, &c. Therefore England hath but poore furniture, wanteth the essentiall meanes of Princelinesse and Majestie, is onely gawdie in colours, a little imbroidery, and gold lace, which they al­low to Players and Mountebanks, both in Venice, Florence, Verona, and the rest of her Cities.

Because in Genoa, Naples, Rome, and some other places, they may see an even street of houses, with a pillar or two of jet, jasper, and hard marble; a Cardinals Palace, and six moils in a Carosse, to attend him but to the conclave: a stately Mosque in Turkie, the Domo in Florence, new Saint Peters at Rome, and some other ostentous buildings, they say our beauty is eclipsed, and wee must submit the contro­versie to the apparant bravery of forren magnificence: whereas in truth they hold no more comparison for Maje­sty, (though dispersedly) either with our Courts, late Country buildings, demesnes adjacent, and commodious houses about the Citie for receit, capacity, and entertain­ment, than bird-cages doe to delightsome Arbours.

But who are they that so entertaine Tables with this re­turne of discourse? surely none but our fashion-follow-Travellers, who with many long lookes, expecting in an Almanacke for a yeare of Iubile, flie over Sea by flocks [Page 99] towards Rome. Where by the way, in Ausburg, Norem­berg, and some other Cities of Germanie, meeting with a flaggon of wine, wherewith the Burgers (according to custome) with such entertainment use to welcome strangers, they presently write over, with what state they were feast­ed, and how graciously admitted into Cities resembling new Ierusalem, in respect of our disproportion of building, and unequall fashion of our streets.

Because in France they may drinke wine of Orleance, or Lyons, and for their money satisfie incontinencie, (wherein yet they confesse Italy to surpasse) Oh! say they, England is a barren Countrey, and farre from becircling her fore­head with the garland of Bacchus, or wreath of Abundance, but sitteth desolate like a widow, having the curse of bald­nesse inflicted upon her.

Because in Padoa they are told of Antenors Tombe in the streets, seene the Amphitheatres in Verona or Rome, (mo­numents truly resembling the wrinkles of an old face) or beheld the wals of Constantinople, the ruinous Colosses of the Citie, with the Aquaduct in the Country; Oh! these be Kingdomes that make aged Time young againe, and sur­passe our new Nation for wonders and works of Majestie.

Because they have beheld, though peradventure with little understanding, the forts of Mount-m [...]lian, and Saint Katherines; the citadels of Millan and Antuerp; the Castles of Naples and Saint Angelo; and have beene acquainted with the examination of passengers at Lyons, Millan, and the frontier Townes of the Princes of Italie; They presently exclaime against our weaknesse, and ill-advised discipline, which leaveth our Country (as it were naked) to all incon­veniences of wind and weather.

In the next ranke, come up our male-contents, and they are such as being meerely gulled with pride, selfe-conceit, and fantastick vaine-glory, have run a prodigall hunting-journey with Esau, untill being weary and hungry, they have beene inforced to sell their birth-rights for a messe of pottage. Then with Yorke and Stanly, and thousands more, [Page 100] they enter into violent courses, curse David, raile on their Countrey, and accuse Authoritie of injustice and partialitie: With the Dukes of Guise and B [...]ron, they set up the praises of the Spanish King, and the tender-heartednesse of the Pope for the decay of Religion, supposing themselves suffi­ciently magnified for contesting with Kings, and sleighting the Princes of the bloud.

In the reare, slily stealeth up the obstinate Papist: To him urge honestie, reason, yea the Scriptures, and hee will discharge no other shot, but the Ordinance of the Church. Put him from that slanker, and you shall see him like an Ad­der lurking in the grasse, to sting the heele of the passenger; And that is with telling you, that in France the Church at Amiens hath delicate Pictures; the nostre Dame at Roan and Paris maintaine brave processions; Our Lady at Sichem works only miracles; yea, more than miracles: for they will tell you of a Virgin got with childe in a Nunnerie by one of her sisters: For (say they) she protested before our Lady, that she never knew what the company of man meant.

But leaving these men to themselves, and the sting of their owne consciences, we will proceed to shew you with what affections other Nations doe at this day Court us.

France is so strengthened and beautified at home,What other Nations con­ceive of us. by the multitude of Princes and noble Gentlemen, that now (at this day enjoying the Kingdome intirely to themselves) they are confident to defend it, not seeking ambitiously to offend others, though haply envying to see the contraction of both Nations unto unitie and obedience; fearing thereby lest wee should the rather be imboldned and incouraged to revive our old claimes, or else to erect our remembrances to search the records of our former fortunes.

Spaine both knowes us,Spaine. and hath of late had some feeling of us, retaining the opinion of our wealth and forces. By reason whereof, for that his dominions lie more open, by dispersion into many numbers, he standeth in doubt, that we may not only put him to the double charge of a Navie; (the one abroad, for convoy of his Treasure; and the other [Page 101] at home, for safetie of his Harbours:) but also that we may attempt the uncharitable visitation of his chiefest Townes, and richest Ports. Therefore he will continue correspon­dencie amongst us, and corroborate his friendship whatso­ever it cost. Of which minde is also the Arch-duke, though covertly repining a little more against us; as knowing that our affection to the Hollanders hath somewhat crossed his first resolutions, and indeed abated his absolute hopes of binding the seventeene Provinces together in one sheafe.

The Emperour and Germans, The Emperor. or if you please the Impe­rials, have a reasonable good opinion of us, as worthy Sea­men and resolute Souldiers, especially upon hope of glory or purchase: Yet thinke they us factious, unconstant, the Apes of the World, and wonder at our patience, especially to see us endure the imposturing deceits of the Catholike pretences.

The Pole and Moscovite are so farre off,The Pole and Moscovite. that they can give us small occasion of offence, and are both afraid of our intrusion amongst them, or against them, as somewhat fear­full of our desperate wanderers. And being well acquainted with our state at home, cannot endure wee should be sharers abroad.

The Grand-Seignior never nameth us with dignifying titles, as being proud in himselfe,The Turke. and wee too remote from him. He supposeth us only fit for merchandize, and that our Island is a barren place, as sequestred from the pleasures and opulent commodities of the South and East Countries. Nei­ther doth he stammer in his comparison of twenty Ba­shawes within his conquests, whose severall commands and jurisdictions lift up such Crownes of principalities, as sur­mount us in number of people, and expence of Treasure.

The States of Italie, Italy. (birds of a feather) most upon envy of Trade, and generally all, in despight of Religion, are thus induced. The Duke of Savoy, and Gran-Prior of Malta, (the first in midst of troublesome mountaines, the other of a turbulent Sea) are as carelesse of us, as wee of them, yea, many times wreake their hatred where they may, viz. upon [Page 102] our Merchants; whom they spare not, if they can over­master, either fraighted with Turkish goods, or supplying their wants with prohibited wares. To whom in such busi­nesses the Florentine is not only presidiarie, but picketh other quarrels upon collaterall imployments.

In the Duchie of Millan, Millan. the Governour is very politike and severe, in searching after bookes and uncustomed wares, though it tend but to a paire of stockings: from whence arise so many inconveniences, that the office of Dacii is growne odious, and subject to the abusive conditions of very base companions. As for falling into the snare of the Inquisition, it is a danger irrecoverable, as those our Country-men can witnesse, who of late yeares were in sudden danger, both here, at Rome, and at Florence, for having Frier Pauls books about them (though printed at Venice) against the Popes temporall jurisdiction. The trust of some friends, and the helpe of a darke night, were their best securities.

Besides, he entertained Tyrone, and all his attendants, though not with such sufficiencie as the expectation of such a guest deserved, yet with malice enough against us not­withstanding: he is a dogged examiner of the English, not trusting our fugitives, though allowing their unnaturall de­fections; railing upon them (even the Kings Pensioners) as the Prince of Parma long since taught him, in the tumultu­arie businesse of the Low-Countries.

Mantua. The Duke of Mantua and Modena (as lesse interessed in affaires of Sea, or passages by Land) and now allied with Savoy, thinke not of us, either as friends, or enemies; but questionlesse willing to assist their owne allies, as occasions may offer themselves.

The Venetians seeme to hold good correspondencie,Venice. if not outward: for in termes, they have not spared to expro­brate us with the nick-name of Cursore Englese, since Ward and other English Pyrats have so much, indammaged them. In divers shipwracks about Candie, they have sometimes dealt very unkindly with our Merchants.

And in the late businesse at Constantinople (about prece­dencie [Page 103] betweene England and France) the Bayliffe was my L. Embassadors absolute enemie: yea, and in their last peace with the Pope, although they would pretend to stand on our helpe, and to entertaine our Captaines, yet proves it a matter of difficultie and dispute amongst them.

The Florentine, or great Duke, is a meere hater of us, ex­cept it be to serve his owne turne,The Floren­tine. and hath ever beene for­ward to entertaine factious persons amongst us.

In the latter end of her Majesties reigne, you shall finde him a meere neglecter of us, nothing respecting how the Queene was distasted, or the State disturbed. Afterward he succoured divers Rebels, and discontented English. When the Merchant Royall was sunke in the harbour of Ligorne, he was so transported with passion, that he would have laid an imposition upon the English, for the waying of her up. And presently he imployed Sir R. D. about the new buil­ding of a Man of Warre, a ship of 600 Tunns: but disap­pointed him in the command, making him an apparent sub­ject of disgrace and discontent; yea, although at first he had welcomed him with the offensive title of Earle of Warwick. And many times, by pretext of confederacie with the Gal­lies of Malta, the Popes, and his owne imperious preroga­tive, he affronteth our Merchants, and impeacheth their trades, as farre forth as he may.

The Pope is our irreconcileable enemie both wayes;The Pope. I meane in animating turbulent and traiterous Papists within our owne bosomes, teaching them, with the Viper to de­voute their owne mother; And in exciting of forren Prin­ces, as much as in him lieth) to violent courses of open ho­stilitie against us, as against all others professing the same Religion. As for entertaining of fugitives, inticing over of young wits, and unstayed students, gracing of Iesuites, ad­vancing of Traitors, searching and imprisoning of Travel­ler [...], railing at our King, and traducing Henry the eighth, and Queene Elizabeth: these absurdities are not onely frequent and familiar in all places amongst his partisans, but every day blundered out of Pulpits by the Fryers and Iesuites.

[Page 104] Naples and Sicil, N [...]ples, Sicil. though under the King of Spaines pro­tection and Viceroyes, yet are all conspiring against us, and runne one race with their neighbours. Witnesse the taking of our ships, and the ill usage of our Merchants, when Ma­ster Wali was Consull: with the reviling of our Religion, and their usuall imprecations: One day to see a smoke of througing discontentments, turne to a flame of furious dis­consolation amongst us.

Neither is this the full scope of their continued envies: Religion is the pretence, but malice and private respects procure these bad effects: Saevit post funera virus. At Venice the English have no buriall allowed them, but the Sea: neither at Zante are they better used, but faine to be carried up into Morea amongst the Turks. At Lygorne, and other places of Italy, an Englishman dying without confession, is throwne into some ditch, to be devoured of beasts and birds: And in Spaine he is interred in the strond, the field, or a Garden. How farre more charitable was Alexander to Darius, Hannibal to Marcellus, Caesar to Pompey, Turks to Christians, and Man to Man, if not a Ro­manist?

But now (leaving these premonitions to your better considerations) as I have made you acquainted with those blessings, which in truth doe make a Kingdome really happy; So again for the strength of situation, I hope to make you as perfect beholders of the two properties which Ari­stotle wished (above all projects what ever) to be regarded in the building of a Citie. The one is, that it be difficult to besiege; the other, that it be easie for conveying in, and transporting out of things necessary.The situation of England. These two commodi­ties hath England by the Sea, which to the Inhabitants is a deep trench against all hostile invasions, & an easie passage to take in, and send out all commodities whatsoever, being situated in the bosome of the maine Ocean, which even by naturall courses fortifieth the Iland, more than any Sea doth any other Kingdome. For, on the West lieth the Irish Ocean, a Sea so turbulent, and so full of rocks and [Page 105] flats, that it is very dangerous for great Ships; and on the East, South, and North, the flowing and ebbing of the Brittish Ocean, is so accidentall, the removing of the sands and shelves so uncertaine, and the rising and falling of the water betweene twelve and fifteene fathome (a thing won­derfull to be spoken of) so ordinary every twelve houres, that without an English Pilot, no stranger shall bee able to bring in a vessell in safety: And he likewise must bring his Tide justly with him, or otherwise it is impossible to land without perill. The Sea coast on every side is cliffie and in­accessible, except in some certaine places which are strongly fortified, as Barwicke, Dover, Dartmouth, Plim­mouth, Portsmouth, &c. so that the whole Iland may well be reputed for one impregnable fortresse.

To this strength of situation,Forces. sithence of late a worthy Gentleman (and that truly) hath not doubted to averre, that ten such Merchants ships well provided of munition and men, as in these dayes trade into the East-Indies, would not much feare the Navy royall of some Kings in Christen­dome; why should we feare to rejoyce in the flourishing estate of that Kingdome, in whose Havens (besides the Na­vie Royall) two thousand vessels are reported to traffike yearely?

And be it as it may, to prove what we speake, and to passe over the much famoused passages of Edward the third to Callis, and Henry the eighth to Bulloigne; we will flie no further for examples, than the fourth yeare of Queene Elizabeth, when in her journey to New-haven, the Navie lately neglected, was now againe so well furnished, as both the Spaniard and Frenchman envied her Abilities.

But 88. was the yeare which gave both terrour and admiration unto all our neighbours. A yeare, by the Ger­mans foretold, to be the worlds climactericall, & by Regio­montanus, Admirable. And so indeed it proved; full of ru­mours, anxieties, and menaces. The King of Spaine having of late dayes added unto his Seigniories of Spaine, the kingdome of Portugal, and boyling in revenge against this [Page 106] kingdome, suggesting unto his imaginations, that if his de­stinies would vouchsafe as facile a victory against England, as elsewhere upon like suppositions they had bestowed up­on him at the Terceras and Portugal; then, even then at once had the life of the Low-Countries lien a bleeding, his navigation to the Indies warranted, and his hopes finished. To the accomplishment whereof he presseth, forceth, hireth, and borroweth from sundry Nations, the strongest vessels, and therein imployeth his utmost meanes to have tamed the English, and confounded the Netherlands.

But that ever memorable Lady, wary and provident, summoneth her subjects, relieth on their loves, and to the Westward opposeth a Navie consisting of 100. saile, there to wait the approach of this Invincible Armada: And be­cause from Flanders the Duke of Parma threatned no lesse danger, upon that coast also she laid twenty other good ships to attend his attempts, besides those of the Low-Countries.

From the West the enemy was discerned, and fight with present courage entertained, but precisely ordered, that none of the English ships should voluntarily (if otherwise it might be avoided) lay any Spaniard aboard, but alwayes fight at best advantage; endevouring by all meanes to keepe into the weather; whereby at all times soundly to have interrupted them, if they had offered to land; So to leave and take as occasions presented; they comming to invade, and the English ends being onely to keepe them from landing. The which directions were so punctually observed, as that this invincible fleet for all their force and appearance, without either gaining or sinking one of our vessels, was faine to flie away by the backe doore, I meane by the North Seas; wherein they found a miserable and tedious flight, lost an hundred and odde of their best ships, and in recompence, never got so much as one dishfull of fresh water, not ever landed one man (prisoners except) upon the English coast.

Whereat, neither let the Papist mutter, nor the ignorant [Page 107] detract by saying, That is was the onely stormy winds, and tempestuous Seas, that afflicted our enemies, and drave them from our coast. These excuses argue bad spirits; for it could not be avoided, but that the English ships should also bee ingaged to like violent accidents of wind and waves, as were the Spaniards. The English had no determination to leave them, no, not to looke into any of their owne ports, or those of their friends for succour. And surely, foule wea­ther, and high growne Seas did more hinder us than them. For then could not we carry out our lower ports, being our best tyres; which the Spaniards might doe, their ordnance lying nothing so neere the water as the English did. Not­withstanding we alwayes affronted them, and galled them with our great ordnance, as our best opportunities served; our ships being more proper for these Seas, than their huge Lee-ward Carts. Alwayes in spight of their hearts we kept into the weather of them, to our great advantage; which in truth was no small meanes of victory, and of their disgrace, that made so great preparations to so small purpose.

If they longed to be fought withall, and were not; why did they never offer to dispatch the businesse, whereabout they made the world beleeve they came so resolutely de­termined? why did they not make a triall for landing, or adventure the surprisall of some famous port, for want whereof in former ages Xerxes suffered that terrible defea­ture at Thermipola? Before this was done, why ranne they away? of what were they so fearefull, who came like soul­diers and resolute men, under the title of assurance, to con­quer such a Nation? Did the terrour of a storme onely drive them from hence in such haste? were they not resolved to endure such weather (as should happen) in so great an en­terprise? Did they thinke to winne England with bigge lookes, or to have tamed the people by tricks and dalliance, as they had done the surly Portugues and fine Italians their neighbours? Surely, it seemed the Southerne winds had only inflated their minds, as it is reported, it doth their mares in the Asturies.

[Page 108] Where, let us leave them, and wish that some of those Worthies who yet live, and were eye-witnesses of those great and fortunate expeditions, undertaken and effected, within the 44. yeares space of Her Royall government, would take the paines to commit the Relation thereof to everlasting record. Which done, I make no doubt, but that it would appeare beyond all objection; That although the English Nation had long breathed under the milde aspect of so gracious a Lady, yet [...] it no lesse exercised in mi­litarie discipline abroad, than in peaceable pleasures at home. Yea, that the politike Regiment, and heroicall acti­ons of a maiden Queen, have hardly since the conquest been exceeded by any her Majesties most famous progenitors. For be it either in the wise reformation, or wonderfull re­establishment of Christian Religion (wherein she shewed no lesse constancie, than true sincerity:) or otherwise, in con­tinuall comfort, or liberall assistance of her distressed neigh­bours and allies, (whereof she had a royall and Christian-like regard) or else in resolute repelling, and fortunate in­vading her most mighty enemies, wherein she was alwayes blest from above with happy and victorious successe, her enterprises evermore were crowned with happinesse; and in regard thereof (throughout all nations) her Counsellors were reputed grave and prudent, the Realme flourishing and powerfull, and herselfe magnanimous and renowned; the fruits whereof, I doubt not, but we enjoy at this day.

The force at land is nothing inferiour to that at Sea;At land. for the kingdome is divided into 52 Shires, in one only where­of (commonly called Yorkeshire) it is thought seventy thousand foot-men may be levied. Every shire hath a Lieu­tenant, who seeth to the election and training of souldiers when necessity requireth. In chusing of souldiers, they take the names of all the inhabitants: In the Country, from above sixteene yeares of age to sixtie; and out of these they chuse the likeliest and ablest for service. The taller and stronger are chosen for footmen, and these divided into foure kinds. The first are Archers, by whose dexterity they [Page 109] conquered the greatest part of France; tooke King Iohn cap­tive, and held Paris sixteene yeares in subjection. The Ar­rowes of the Parthians were never more dreadfull to the Romans, than the Bowes of the English to Frenchmen. The second sort used browne Bils, well headed with Iron, with which they would strike, and also plucke a man from his horse. This was the ancient weapon of the Britons. The other two, use and experience of latter times hath taught them; the one is the Harquebuze, the other the Pike, a fit weapon for their constitution, by reason of their tall, strong, and man-like stature. For their service on Horsebacke, they chuse men of small stature, but well set, active, and nimble. These horsemen are of two sorts; some heavie armed, & those for the most part are Gentlemen; other lighter armed, and some riding after the manner of the Albannesses; some af­ter the fashion of Italie, using a Scull, a Iacke, a Sword, and long light Speares. And although they are able to bring to the field 2000. men at Armes, and infinite troopes of light Horsemen; yet their Horsemen never carried reputa­tion to their Footmen: For Edward the third, and Henry the fifth (which made so many journeyes into France, and obtained so many famous victories) to shew what confi­dence they reposed in their Infantely, ever left their horse, and put themselves into the battell of their footmen: wher­as the French Kings not daring to inure the Commons to warfare (left leaving their manuall occupations and trades, they should grow insolent in the warres, to which humour they are greatly addicted) alwayes put themselves & their hopes upon the fortune of their Cavalry, being all almost Gentlemen. But, forasmuch as the French maintaine no good races of horse, and to purchase them from other pla­ces, is a matter of great charge, and good cannot alwayes be gotten for money; for these reasons, and for that Horse­men are nothing so serviceable in the field as footmen, I thinke the French have often beene so defeated by the English.

To shew what force the Kings of England are able to [Page 110] bring into the field, let these examples stand for many. Hen­ry the eighth passed to Bullvigne, with an Army divided into three Battalions: In the Vantguard passed twelve thousand footmen, and five hundred light-Horsemen, cloathed in blew Iackets with red guards. The middle ward (where­in the King was, and passed last over) consisted of twentie thousand footmen, and two thousand horse, cloathed with red Iackets and yellow guards. In the rereward was the Duke of Norfolke, & with him an Army like in number and apparell to the first; saving that therein served one thou­sand Irishmen, all naked save their maneles, and their thicke gathered skirts: Their Armes were three Darts, a Sword, and a Skeane. They drew after them one hundred great peeces, besides small: an Army by the censure of Guic­ciardini, not more notable by the multitudes of souldiers, and consideration of their valour, than most glorious by the presence and Majesty of their King, in whose person ap­peared at that instant, being in an age disposed and active, all those tokens of honour and magnanimity, which rising after to their full ripenesse and perfection, by degrees of time, study, & experience, made him the most renowned and mighty Prince that lived in his age, in all this part or cir­cuit of the earth, which we call Christendome. Their car­riages were so many, that therewith they intrenched their Campe like a wall. And for the conveyance of their Ord­nance, their baggage, and their provision, they transported into the Continent, above five and twenty thousand horse, beside all other kinde of cattell.

In the aforesaid yeare of 88. after that Queene Elizabeth had provided fully and sufficiently to prevent her enemies at Sea, then ceased she not to be as carefull at Land, over her owne and her peoples safeties. And therfore to be ready against any sinister accident, which it might have pleased the Almighty to have given her at Sea: at land she appoin­ted five and twenty thousand souldiers to attend the enemy all along the Southerne coast. At Tilbury lay the Earle of Leicester, with one thousand horse, and two and twenty [Page 111] thousand foot, there to have entertained the enemie, if hee had kept his resolution; which was by the Thames mouth to have assailed London upon the sudden. For the guard of Her person (under the command of the Lord Hunsdon) she levied out of the Inland shires, fioure and thirty thou­sand footmen, and two thousand horse, besides those good­ly troops which the Nobility and Gentry presented unto her Majesties view, to their meere love and zeale to Prince and Country.

For neighbourhood in France, Neighbour­hood. it may be supposed that the Princes of the reformed Religion will be alwayes glad to finde good correspondency from those,France. who are interes­sed in like disadvantages as themselves. What may be done by the perswasions of the pestiferous Iesuites, God onely knoweth. But this is certaine, that betweene nations in­gaged in ancient quarrels, and both aspiring to one and the same greatnesse, Alliances may easily be made, friendship never. At worst, the Frenchman is a tolerable friend, though a doubtfull neighbour. Francum amicum habe, sed non vi­cinum. The like saith He, for us.

As for the Spaniard, it is a proverbe of his owne,The Spanish. That the Lion is not so fierce, as in printed. His forces in all parts of the world (except those in the Low-countries) are farre under fame. And if the late Queene would have be­leeved her men of warre, as she did some others addicted to peacefull courses, she might peradventure have broken that great Empire in peeces, and made their Kings as in old times, Kings onely of home-bred commodities. Well was it for them, that her Majesty (alwayes inclinable to peace) did all by the halfes, and petty invasions, which indeed was her onely errour; for future to teach the Spaniard how to de­fend himselfe, and to see his owne weaknesse; which till her attempts had taught him, was hardly knowne to him­selfe; foure thousand men would have made a shrewd ad­venture to have taken his Indies from him; I meane, all the ports by which his treasure passeth: wherein he is more hated by the natives, than the English are by the Irish. And [Page 112] then, what shall his Low-countrie Armies doe, if the Indies pay them not? nothing but mutinie, and spoile their owne territories as they have often done, and that of late yeares, almost to the ruine of the Archduke.

So againe, in 88. if that Queene would have hearkned to hazard, yet not without reason, we had burnt all his ships and preparations in his owne ports, as we did after­wards upon the same grounds and intelligence in Cadiz. He that knowes him not feares him, but excepting his Low-countrie army (as aforesaid) which hath continued in dis­cipline since Charles the fifth his time, he is no where strong, they are but follies that are spoken of him elsewhere: Hee knoweth that we are too strong for him at Sea, and have the Hollanders to helpe,The Nether­lands. who are now by their industries in way to be strongest of all. They are a wise people, and tooke it somewhat in ill part, that we made peace without them; which in truth forced them to conclude their long truce: They were the last that put downe armes, and though they compounded upon the greatest disadvantage, (France and England having first capitulated) yet they made a farre more noble peace than their associates did. Since that time (we finde) the people to be more provident, and by degrees lesse respective of their neighbors. All histories will tell you, it is a point worth the looking unto. For unto whom they fasten themselves, he that enjoyeth them will be the grea­test, and give law to the rest. If any man doubt it, he knowes not much, all nations have their imperfections, and so have we; faults have at all times troubled the eye of understan­ding. For whereas in her Majesties time, it is well knowne, that one of her ships hath commanded forty of theirs to strike saile, they will now undertake us one to one, and, but for the jealousies of time, scant vouchsafe us a good word. But Kings are not like private men, they forsake not one another in adversity; though not alwayes for their sakes who are oppressed, but for their owne securities, because they watch (and reason good) the surmounting power of confining neighbourhood.

[Page 113] These are the greatest States to bee looked after:The Arch­duke. As for the Archdukes, these united Provinces for their particular interests, will well enough attend him.

Let us no more therefore be frighted with the Spaniards greatnesse, the Venetians wealth and Arsenall, the confede­racie of Florence, Malta, Genoa, the Pope, Naples, and Sicil; yea, worst of all, with report of the Mahumetan invincible fleet. Let none save fooles admire wonders without know­ledge. Why, Ward and the rest of the Pyrats, who at their first comming into the Seas, might easily have beene cho­ked, from becomming a terrour to all the Levant, let wise men judge: for my part, I can give no other ghesse, but the president of that admirable fight, which Captaine Iohn King (when he was Master of the Merchant Royall) made against three great ships and fifteene gallies, layed pur­posely in wait in the mouth of the Straits, to intercept all English passengers. And surely some Sea-men have beene of opinion, with twenty good men of warre, in contempt of the proudest Armada, or frie of Gallies (as they have ter­med them) that those Seas can afford, to performe actions beyond credit.

Neither let fugitives flatter themselves with conceits of forren greatnesse. No people were more beholding to Ty­rone and Terconnel than the Spanish, in their miserable ship­wracke upon the Irish coast. No men received larger pro­mises; The great King should remember his humanity and noble respect: The Pope himselfe shall gratifie him with a Phenix plume, as he did King Iohn with a crowne of Pea­cocks feathers, yea, they can complement with him, that he is more worthy of a Diadem, than a subjects prostitution. But is Tyrone in distresse, and after shipwracke of his loyalty, dri­ven to make triall of his Spanish and Romish requitall? At Millan hee is like to lie without doores, if his stomacke cannot brooke the entertainment of a common Inne; and at Rome bee welcomed with the allowance of a subject of charity.

As for defamations breathed from the poyson of malice, [Page 114] I make no question, but by the generous disposition of noble Governours, they will returne to the disgrace of the brocheri. As it fell out to Captaine R. Yorke, by the worthinesse of an honourable enemy Count Mansfield: who hearing this traiterous Captaine to transgresse the bounds of patience, in undecent railing upon the government of England, and the life of the late Queene: Sir Rowland (quoth he) in plaine termes I assure you, that the custome of my table will allow of no such irregular behaviour.

Thus have I shewed you the love of some, and the malice of others abroad, with our owne happinesse at home, if we can be thankfull for it. Amongst the which, as last, but not least, I account the continued tranquillitie of England, especially to consist in the moderate, yet honourable respect of our No­bilitie; wherein though they possesse few Castles or strong places, invironed with rampiers and ditches; neither that the Titles of Dukes, Marquesses, or Earles, are more than titular, as bestowed (upon desert) at the pleasure of the Prince; yet have they the government of Provinces, with subordinate authoritie over the people, to the great quiet of the State, and the prosperitie of the kingdome: where, on the contrary, the Nobilitie in France, possessing some absolute, and some mixt jurisdiction, with hereditary titles, &c. being Lords not only of Townes, but of great and goodly Cities also, and re­ceiving homage and fealtie of their tenants, doe (as wee have often seene) but badly and at pleasure acknowledge the sove­raigntie of the King, and the Arrest of the Parliaments.

SCotland, Scotland. another portion of Brittaine, in times past be­gan at the Mountaine Grampius, and from thence to its utmost border was extended Northward: But in future times, by the extinguishment of the Picts, it reached also unto Tweed, and sometimes also to Twine: the chance of warre so moderating in these counterchanges, as in all other worldly occurrences. Whereupon its longitude from Tweed unto the utmost limit, is thought to be foure hundred and fourescore miles. But, as this Province is longer than Eng­land, [Page 115] so is it narrow, for that it endeth like unto a wedge. For the unshapeable and rough Mountaine Grampius (whereof even Tacitus in the life of Agricol [...] made mention) runneth thorow the very heart thereof, even from the Ger­man shore (that is, from the mouth of the River Dee) unto the Irish coast, and unto that Lake which the Inhabitants call Lomund, which lieth betweene that country and the said mountaine.

The Kingdome hath every where safe harbours, creekes, lakes, marishes, rivers and fountaines replenished with fish: As also mountaines, and in tops thereof large plaines, yeel­ding abundance of grazing to cattell, and woods wonder­fully abounding with venerie. By the advantages of which place, the people being sustained, could never be fully con­quered; for every Province, Woods and Marishes, were ready refuges to their safeties; and wilde beasts, and plentie of cattell, remedies against famine for their bodies.

Those who inhabit the Southerne part, as by much the best, so are they the better qualified, the civillest, and speake the English language. And sithence that Nature hath de­nied them plentie of fewell, their firing is of a blacke stone, which they digge out of the earth.Pit coale, or Sea-coale. The people who dwell in the Northerne and Mountainous parts, are a very savage and uncivill kinde of men, and termed Silvestres, viz. Highland-men. These after the Irish fashion were accu­stomed to be cloathed with a mantle, and a shirt coloured with Saffron, and to goe bare legged as high as their knees. Their weapons are Bow and Arrowes, with a very broad Sword & Dagger, sharpe but on one edge. They all speake Irish, and feed upon fish, milke, cheese, and flesh, and have great store of cattell.

They differ from the English both in Lawes & Customes; for the one retaineth the Civill Law, as almost doe all other Nations: but the English have their peculiar or Municipall Lawes. In other things they differ not much. Their Lan­guage (as aforesaid) is one and the same, the same constitu­tion of body, equall courage in battell, and semblable addi­ction [Page 116] unto hunting, even from their Childhoods.

Their houses in the Villages are very small, and covered with straw or reed; wherein as well their cattell as them­selves, in manner of stables, doe reside. Their townes (ex­cept that of S. Iohns) are invironed with no walls; so that it should seeme, that their couragious minds doe repose the safetie of their lives in the only vertue of their bodies. They are also ingenious, which their learning manifesteth, so that unto what Art soever they doe addict their capacities, they easily profit therein. And those also who meditate nothing but sloth, ease, and lazinesse, (though by refusall to take any paines, they live most basely and beggerly) yet will they not let to boast of their Gentrie, and that so presumptuously, as if it were more commendable for a man well descended to beg, than to betake himselfe to any ingenious profession, for the sustentation of his carkase. But withall they are accounted naturally to be very zealous in Religion.

About Scotland, in the Irish Ocean, are more than forty Islands, by Pliny termed Britaniae, but by others Meraniae, and Herbrides. The biggest of these in length exceeds not thirty miles; in bredth, not above twelve. Amongst them is Iona, famous for the ancient sepulture of the Scottish Kings. All the Inhabitants speake the Irish tongue: a pregnant argu­ment that they are descended from the Irishry.

Beyond Scotland Northwards lie the Orcades, in num­ber (saith Ptolomy) thirty, being partly seated in the Deuca­lidon Ocean, and partly in the German. The chiefe whereof is called Pamonia, and therein is an Episcopall Sea, being sub­ject unto the King of Great Brittaine. The Islanders speake the Gotish tongue; a record, that they are descended from the Germans. Of stature they are all, of a sound constitution; whereby it commeth to passe, that for the greater part they are long-lived, although most commonly they live upon fish. The soile is in a manner alwayes covered with snow: in many places it will scarce beare graine, but of trees almost none.

Beyond the Orcades heth Thule, from whence but one dayes saile (saith Pliny) is the Frozen Sea, and therein Island, [Page 117] whereunto at this day, our Merchants doe make an annuall trading, to fish themselves, or to buy fish of others. Which for that it is neerest unto the Pole, some doe judge to bee Thule. And this is all that I have to say concerning the situ­ation of Scotland: now will I turne my pen to the nature and fashions of the Inhabitants.

WAles is accounted the third portion of the Island;Wales. In regard of the heart of England, it lieth upon the left hand, and in manner of a Peninsula stretcheth into the Ocean, on all sides incircled with the Sea, save towards the East, where it is bounded with the Severne, the separatresse of Wales and England; although many late Writers, (as abovesaid) make the City of Hereford the bounder there­of; and will have Wales to beginne at Chepstow, where the River Wy being united with Lugge, and passing by Here­ford, falleth into the Sea. This River (as Severne) ariseth from an Inland part of Wales, from one and the selfe-same Mountaine, but whether from one and the selfe-same Foun­taine, I am not able to shew; and it Cornelius Tacitus (as aforesaid) termeth Antona. For even thither reacheth a huge arme of the Sea, which cutting in betweene the Land by the West, watreth Cornwall on the right hand, and Wales on the left. This Topography we follow, as the Moderne, and therefore say, that Wales from Chepstow (where it taketh beginning) is extended Northward a little above Shrews­bury, as [...]arre as Chester. Hither it was (as Memory recor­deth) that the reliques of those Brittons, who over-lived the generall slaughter after the losse of their Country, in their utmost extremities retired themselves; and there, partly by the strength of the Mountaines, and partly by the fastnesse of the Woods and Bogs, (where with that Province was for the most part replenished,) they purchased unto themselves places of safety, which unto this day they have made good, and retaine. Thence-forth the English stiled the Countrey Wales, and the Inhabitants Welshmen, which denomination in the German language, signifieth a Stranger, an Alien, a Guest, or a New-come person, that is to say, one that speaketh [Page 118] a different language from that of the German; for in their un­derstanding, Walsh signifieth a Forrainer, or Stranger, whe­ther it be Italian or Frenchman, if he differ in language from the German; and Man is as Homo, in Latine. The Angles therefore being a people of Germany, becomming Lords of Brittanie, after their Country manner, termed those Brittons who escaped the ruine of their Country, Wallons, or Welsh­men; for that they spake a language contrary to that of their owne; and also the Soile, whither they fled to inhabit, Wal­lia; which Name the Nation as well as the people, retaine unto this day. And so the Brittons lost their name, toge­ther with their Empire.

The soile of the Country, especially of that which adjoy­neth unto the Sea, or consisteth of Champian, is most fer­tile, which both to Man and Beast supplieth great store of provision: but contrariwise, for the Major part it is bar­ren, and lesse fruitfull, and (peradventure) for that good husbandrie is wanting, which is the cause that the Hus­bandmen live hardly, eat Oaten-bread, and drinke Milke, sometime mingled with water. In it are many fine Townes, with fortified Castles, and foure Bishopricks; if Hereford be accounted in England (as aforesaid) according to the Moderne description.

The people have also a different language from the Eng­lish, which they (who boast to derive their pedegree from the Trojan Line) doe affirme to participate partly of the Trojan antiquity, and partly of the Grecian. Verily, how­ever the case standeth, their pronuntiation is not so sweet and fluent, as is the pronuntiation of the English; for that the Welsh in my opinion, do speak more neere the throat; where­as on the contrary, the English truly imitating the Latines, doe pronounce their words a little betweene their lips, which to the Auditor yeeldeth a pleasing sound. Thus much of Wales, the third portion of Brittany.

THe fourth and last part followeth, and that is Corne­wall. This Province taketh its beginning upon that part of the Iland which looketh towards Spaine, and the [Page 119] setting of the Sunne. To the Eastward it stretcheth ninetie miles, even a little beyond Saint Germains, a fine Village, and seated towards the right hand upon the Sea-shore; where its greatest breadth is but twenty miles over. For this por­tion of ground upon the right side is incircled with the Oce­an; upon the left, with that inlet of Sea, which (as before we told you) pierceth into the Land as farre as Chepstow; where taking the similitude of a horne, it runneth along, first narrow, and afterwards broader, a little beyond the Towne of Saint Germaines. Eastward it bordereth upon England; upon the West, the South, and the North, the maine Oce­an incompasseth it. The Soile is very barren, and yeel­deth profit rather by the toyle of the Husbandman, than its owne good nature. But for Tinne, it is admirable boun­tifull, in the Mines whereof consisteth the better part of the Inhabitants happinesse.

However the Language is greatly different from the Eng­lish, but with the Welsh it participateth with no small affini­tie: for either language hath the denomination of many things in common. The onely difference is, that a Welshman hearing a Cornishman speaking, rather understandeth some words, than his whole speech: A thing worthy admiration, that in one and the same Iland, there should be so different a confusion of Languages.

Cornewall pertaineth unto Exeter Diocesse, and in times past was thought worthy to be accounted for a fourth part of the Iland; partly for the dissimilitude of the language, and partly for that it received the first inhabitants (as afore­said.) But afterwards the Normans, who constituted a new forme of a Common-wealth, admitted Cornewall amongst the number of the Counties.

THe first are the Sorlings, & lie against the Cape of Corne­wall. Ilands belon­ging to the Crowne of Great Brit­taine. They are now termed Silly, and are few lesse than 145. covered with grasse, and inclosed with huge and mas­sie rocks. They are fruitfull enough for Corne, but are used altogether to the feeding of Conies, Cranes, Swannes, and [Page 120] Sea-Fowle. Some of them yeeld Tinne, and the fairest thereof is called Saint Maries, being fortified with a Castle and Garrison. The residue of lesse fame, for brevitie we will willingly omit.

In the Severne Sea lie Chaldey, and Londay: Londay is two miles long, and as many broad; full of good pasture, and abounding with Conies and Doves, and those Fowles which Alexander Necham termeth Ganimed his birds. And though it be wholly incircled with the Sea, yet it yeeldeth fresh water from the Mountaines, and openeth but one on­ly passage, where thorow two men can hardly passe afront, the residue is inclosed with high and horrible overshuts of Rocks.

MOna or Anglesey is a famous Iland separated from Wales by a small fret, the ancient dwelling place of the Druides. It is two and twenty miles long, and threescore broad.Camden and Gyraldus. Although that in ancient times, this Iland seemed barren and unpleasant, yet in these dayes it hath beene so well husbanded, and become so fertile, that it is stiled the Mother of Wales. It is sufficiently stored with Cattell, it yeeldeth the Grind-stone, and the Minerall earth whereof Allom and Vitriall are confected. It once contained 363. Villages, and is at this day reasonable populous. The Ilan­ders are wealthy and valiant, and altogether speake the Welsh tongue.

MAn lieth just betweene the Northerne parts of Ireland and Brittaine: In length it containeth little lesse than thirty Italian miles, in bredth where it is broadest, not a­bove fifteene, and in some places hardly eight. In Bedas time (saith Camden) it contained three hundred families, but now it can shew not above seventeene parish Churches. It yeeldeth plentifull store of Flax and Hempe, Tillage and Pasture, Wheat and Barley, but especially of Oats, where­of for the most part the inhabitants feed. There are also droves of Rother beasts to be seene, & flocks of sheep with­out [Page 121] number, but generally all sorts of Cattell are lesse of growth than in England. In stead of Wood they use a bitu­minous Cole, in digging whereof, sometimes they light up­on trees buried in the earth. The Inhabitants above all things hate theft and begging, being but weake by nature. Those which inhabit the Southerne parts, speake the Irish tongue, those wh [...]ch dwell towards the North speake the Scottish.

THe Hebrides are foure and forty in number, and lie upon the South of Scotland: the Orcades are thirty, and ex­tend towards the North. The Inhabitants of the former speake Irish: the people of the latter, Gottish.

Wight is seated in the Brittish Ocean: the Inhabitants (saith Camden) are warlike, the soile gratefull to the Plough­man, and well replenished with pastures. It hath in it six and thirty Villages, Hamlets, and Castles: in Beda's time twelve hundred families.

Iarsey, lying over against Constans, an ancient Citie of Normandy, containeth about thirty miles in circuit, and is environed with Rocks and dangerous Shallowes. It is very fruitfull in fruit and cattell, in plenty of fish, and by reason of their many Orchards, abounding with that kinde of wine which the English call Sider. In stead of wood, which the Iland wanteth, they make their fewell of Sea-weed dried in the Sunne, and growing so thicke upon the Rocks, that a farre off a Sea-man would judge them to be whole Acres of Copice. With the ashes hereof they manure their grounds. It containeth twelve Parishes.

Garnsey is twenty miles distant from I [...]rsey, somewhat lesse, and nothing so fruitfull. It nourisheth no venomous creature, as doth the former. It is better fortified by nature: and from the tops of the broken Rocks (wherewith it is in­circled) doe the Lapidaries and Glasiers fetch that most hard stone, where with they cut their Iewels and Glasse. The Ha­ven likewise is more secure and safe for shipping and Mer­chants, especially at the harbour of S. Peter, where by anci­ent [Page 122] privileges of the Kings of England (saith Camden) is con­tinuall truce, be the warre never so open and furious be­tweene the French and the English. For in these times may the Merchants of either Nation resort without wrong or danger. They want wood likewise, and therefore either use the foresaid weed for fewell, or Sea-coles brought out of England.


FRance hath beene much larger than now it is; as of old containing Switzerland, Piedmont, and Lumbardy beyond the Alps; and on this side extending to the banks of Rhine; yea, the Wallon Countries were then reckoned unto France, and some others, which later Geographers have laid unto Germany. France as now it is, is on the North bounded with Lou-Germany, a strait imaginary line (in stead of a better bounder) being drawne from Calais all along be­yond Lorraigne within a league of Zaverne in Alsatia, three or foure leagues short of Strasburg: on the left and North side of which line, lie Flanders, the Wallons of Hannow and Luxemburg: and on the right side, Picardy, part of Cham­paigne and Lorraine: on the North-west it is washed with the Brittish Ocean; on the West with the Sea of Aquitaine: on the South it is thwarted by the Pyrenean Mountaines, which part it from Spaine: being toward the East lickt with the Mediterranean Sea. On the fu [...]l East doe the Alps divide [...] from Italie; being on this side trenched upon by that part of Germany which lies betweene it and the Rhine, which was the old bounder of this kingdome: And this is the accu­ratest limitation. It lies under the Northerne temperate Zone, within the 13. and 19. Parallels: The latitude begin­ning about the middle of the fifth Climate, where the long­est day is fifteene houres, and extending to the middle of the eighth, where the longest day is sixteene houres and an halfe. [Page 123] In longitude it taketh up all those Meridians which are be­twixt the fifteenth and the nineteenth. There is no Country in the world better situate than that of France; for it partici­pateth of the Climate, both hot and cold. It is in length, from Bologne to Marseilles, two hundred leagues, after the rate of three English miles a league; and in breadth, from Mount S. Bernard, to S. Iohn de Luze as much: for it is holden by some Authors to be of figure quadrate; which notwithstan­ding Bodin denieth, avowing it to be in forme of a Lozenge, with whom La Nove consenteth, measuring it thus; From Calais to Narbone, North and South, it is two hundred leagues: from Rochel to Lions, West and East, it is 120. leagues: from Mets to Bayon North-East, and South-West, it is two hundred leagues; and from Morley in Bretagny to Antibe in Province, North-West, and South-East, it is as much. True it is, that many places within this compasse are not holden of the King, as Avignon, and what else the Pope hath. Toul, Verdun, and Mets are holden of the Empire: and Cambray, of the house of Austrich: in like case of pro­tection, as Constance in Swisserland, Virich in the Low-Countries, and Vienna in Austria; and as Lucca and Ge­noua in Italy, are protected by the King of Spaine, so doe Lorraine also and Savoy hold of the Empire. As contrarily, there be places out of this circuit, which notwithstanding hold of this Crowne in right, and owe him fealty and ho­mage; as the Spaniard for the Counties of Flanders and Ar­ [...]o [...]s, which he hath ever since the time of Francis the first, denied to render.

The divers Provinces of the Country, are very many:Provinces. the chiefe are these; Picardy, Normandy, Ile of France, Beau­ois, Bretaigne, Anjou, Maine, Poictou, Lymosin, Zantonge, Champaigne, Berry, Salogne, Auvergne, Nivernois, Ly­onnois, Charrolois, Bourbonois, Dolphein, Provence, Langue­docke, Tourraine, and Burgundy.

The thing of best note in each of these,Commodities. is their singular Commodities and fruits, where with they are blessed for the sustenance of the Inhabiter. Insomuch, that as they say [Page 124] of Lombardy, that it is the Garden of Italy: so may we truly say of France, that it is the Garden of Europe. Picardy, Nor­mand [...], and Languedocke, are goodly Countries of Corne, as any in Christendome; All the Inland Countries are full of Wine, Fruits, and Graine: in some great store of Wood; in others of Flax; in others of Mines of Salt; in others of Iron: Insomuch as one saith; All things necessary for mans life over [...]low there in such abundance, that in counterchange onely of the Corne, Wine, Salt, and Wood, transported into forren Countries, there is yearely brought into France, twelve hundred thousand pounds sterling. And another no lesse ap­proved, and as well practised in the state of France, saith; The springs of Salt, Wine, and Corne, are not to be drawne drie. In which place he complaineth, that the Kings of France were wont in times past to helpe their need with sales of wood, which are now of late yeares so spoiled, as France shall shortly be forced to have their Lard from other Coun­tries, as also wood to build and burne: a complaint which I have often heard in England. Other Provinces have also their especiall commodities, wherin they excell their neighbours: as in [...]nosin, the best Beeves; about Orleans, the best Wines, in Auv [...]rgne, the best Swine; in Berry, the best Muttons; where there is such store, as thereof they have a Proverbe, when they would tax a fellow for his notable ly­ing, that tels of a greater number than the truth, they say; [...]ie, there be not so many Sheepe in Berrie. They partake also in Sea Commodities: as upon the coast of Picardy, where the share is sandy, they have store of flat fish: upon the coast of Normandy and Guyen, where it is Rockie, Fish of the Rocke, (as the French call them) and upon the coast of Bretaigne, where it is muddy, store of round fish, as Lam­prey, Conger, Haddocke; so likewise in divers seasons, di­vers other sorts, as Mackerels in the end of the Spring, and Herrings in the beginning of Autumne, as wee have in England. &c.

And this Countrey must needs be well stored with Fish; for besides the benefit of the Sea, the Lakes and Ponds be­longing [Page 125] only to the Clergie, which at the most have but one third of France, are reported to be one hundred fifty five thousand.

The Rivers also of France are so many,Rivers. as Boterus repor­teth of the Queene Mother, she should say, here were more than in all Christendome, but we hold her for no good Cos­mographer. True it is, that the Rivers here are many, and very faire, and so fitly serving one the other, and all the whole, as it seemeth, Nature in the framing of our bodies, did not shew more wonderfull providence, in disposing Veines and Arteries throughout the bodie, for their apt con­veyance of the bloud and spirit from the Liver and Heart, to each part therof, than she hath shewed in the placing of these waters, for the transporting of all her commodities, to all her severall Provinces. Of all those, these are the principall; the Seine, upon which standeth the Citie of Paris, Roven, and many other. It hath his head a little above Chatillon in the North-west of Lingonois, and receiveth nine Rivers of name; whereof the Yonne, the Marn, and the Oyse are na­vigable; that is, doe carry Boats with saile.

The Soane whereupon standeth the City of Amiens, Abbevile, and many other. It hath his head above S. Quin­tin, divideth Piccardy from Artois, and receiveth eight les­ser Rivers. The Loire hath standing upon it the Cities of Orleans, Nantes, and many other: his head is in Auvergne, it parteth the middle of France, his course is almost two hundred leagues, it receiveth seventy two Rivers, whereof the chiefe are Allier, Cher, Maine, Creuse, Vienne, all na­vigable. The Garond, upon which standeth Bourdeaux, Thoulouse, and other Cities; it hath his head in the Pereney Mountaines, it divideth Languedocke from Gascoine, it re­ceiveth sixteene Rivers, whereof Iarne, Lot, Bayze, Der­donne, and Lis [...]e are chiefest.

And lastly, the Rhosne, upon which standeth the Citie of Lions, Avignon, and divers others: It hath his head in the Mountaines; the Alpes dividing Dolpheny from Lyonnois, and Province from Languedocke, it receiveth thir­teene [Page 126] Rivers, whereof the Seane, the Dove, Ledra, and Durance are the chiefest.

All the other Rivers carry their streames into the Ocean: Some at S. Vallery, Seine at New-haven, Loyre beneath Nan­tes, and Garona at Blay: only the River of Rhosue payeth his tribute to the Mediterranean at Arles.

The Seine is counted the richest, the Rhosue the swiftest; the Garond the greatest, the Loyre the sweetest; for the dif­ference which Boterus makes of them, where he ornits the Garond, and makes the S [...]ane a principall River, is generally rejected.

The Ports and Passages into France, Havens and Ports. where Custome is paid to the King, were in times past more than they be now: the names of them at this present, are these: In Picardie; Calais, Bologue, Saint Vallerie. In Normandie; Diepe, Le Haure de Grace, Honnesleux, Caen, Cherbrouge. In Bre­taigne; S. Malo, S. Brieu, Brest, Quimpercorentine, Vannes, Nants. In Poi [...]tow; Lusson, les sables d'Olonne. In Rochel­lois; Rochell. In Xantogne; Zonbisse. In Guyenne; Bour­deaux, Blay, Bayonne. In Languedocke; Narbonne, Agde, Bencaire, Mangueil. In Provence; Arles, Marseilles, Fransts. In L [...]onnois; Lions. In Burgogne; Ausonne, Lau­gers. In Campagne; Chaumons, Chalons, Trois. In the Ter­ritory Metzin; Metz, Toul, Verdun. In all thirty seven. Of all these, Lions is reputed to be the most advantagious to the Kings Finances, as being the Key for all Silkes, cloaths of Gold and Silver and other Merchandize whatsoever, which come or goe from Italy, Swisserland, and all those South-east Countries into France, which are brought to this Towne by the two faire Rivers of Rhosne and S [...]n: the one comming from Savoy, the other from Burgundie, and here meeting.

For profit, next to Lions, are Bourdeaux, Rochell, Mar­seilles, Nants and Newhaven: But for capabilitie of ship­ping, I have heard that Brest excelleth; and for strength, Ca­ [...]a [...], especially as it is now lately fortified by the Spaniard, which was not let long since to be called, The goodliest go­vernment [Page 127] in the world, at least, in Christendome.

There are requisite in all Ports, to make them perfect, these foure things: 1. Roome to receive many and great Ships: 2. Safe Riding: 3. Facilitie of repelling forren force: 4. Con­course of Merchants. The most of the French Ports have all foure properties, except only the last, which in the time of these civill broiles, have discontinued: and except that wee will also grant, that Calais failes in the first.

The Cities in France (if you will count none Cities, but where is a Bishops See) are onely one hundred and foure; there be so many Arch-bishops and Bishops in all, as shall in more fit place be shewed: But after the French reckoning, calling every Ville, a Citie, which is not either a Burgade, or a Village, we shall finde that their number is infinite, and in­deed uncertaine, as is also the number of the Townes in ge­nerall. Some say, there be one Million and seven hundred thousand: but they are of all wise men reproved. Others say, six hundred thousand; but this is also too great to be true. The Cabinet rateth them at one hundred thirtie two thousand of Parish Churches, Hamlets, and Villages of all sorts: Badin saith, there be twentie seven thousand and foure hundred, counting only every Citie for a Parish: which will very neere agree with that of the Cabinet; and there­fore I embrace it as the truest.

By the reckoning before set downe, of two hundred leagues square (which France almost yeeldeth) wee must compute, that here is in all fortie thousand leagues in square, and in every league, five thousand Arpens of ground, which in all amounteth to two hundred millions of Arpens: which summe being divided by the numbers of the Parishes, shew­eth, that one with another, each Village hath one thousand five hundred and fifteene Arpens, which measure is bigger than our Acre.

We may, if we will, abstract a third, because Bodin will not admit France to be square, but as a Lozenge: For in mat­ter of such generalitie as this, men doe alwayes set downe suppositions, not certainties.

[Page 128] If a man will looke thorowout all France, I thinke that (some Castles excepted) he shall not finde any Towne halfe perfectly fortified, according to the rules of Enginers.

The Citie of Paris, Paris. seated in a very fruitfull and pleasant part of the Ile of France, upon the River of Sein, is by the same divided into three parts: that on the North, towards Saint Denis, is called the Burge: that on the South, towards the Fauxburges of S. Germaines, is called the Vniversitie, and that in the little Ile, which the River there makes, by dividing it selfe, is called the Vil [...]e.

This part no doubt, is the most ancient; for saith my Au­thor: Lutetia is a City of the Parisians, seated in an Ile of the Seine: We may distinguish it thus: into Transequana, Cise­quana, and Interamnis: The part beyond the Seine, that on this side the Seine, and that in the Ile incompast with the River. It is reputed not onely the Capitall Citie of France, but also the greatest in all Europe. It is about the wals some ten English miles: these are not very thicke; the want where­of, is recompenced with the depth of the ditch, and good­nesse of the Rampart, which is thicke and defensible, save on the South side, which no doubt, is the weakest part of the Towne, on which side it is reported, that the Lord Willough­by offered the King in foure dayes to enter, at such time as he besieged it. Whereunto the King condescended, not by the counsell of the old Marshall Biron, who told him, it was no policie to take the bird naked, when hee may have her fea­thers and all. On the other side, especially towards the East; it is very well fortified with Bulwarke and Ditch, faire and moderne. The Ramparts of the gates S. Anthony, S. Michel. and S. Iames, and elsewhere: were made 1544.

This Bastile of Saint Anthonie was built (some say) by the English; and indeed it is somewhat like those peeces which they have built elsewhere in France; as namely, that at Roven: howbeit, I read in Vigner his Chronicle, that it was builded by a Provost of Paris, in the time of Edward the third of England; at what time our Kings began their first claime, and had as yet nothing to doe in this Citie.

[Page 129] So in this Towne, the Chastelet was built by Iulian the Apostata: the Vniversitie was founded by Charlemaigne, Anno 800. who also erected those of Bologna and Padoa.

The Church of Nostre Dame, was founded Anno Dom. 1257. If you would know the greatnesse of the great Church of our Lady, the roofe thereof is seventeene fadome high, it is foure and twenty fadome broad, threescore and five fadome long: the two Steeples are foure and thirty fa­dome high above the Church, and all founded upon piles.

The Towne-house was finished by Francis the first, Anno 1533. with this inscription over the Gate, S.P.E.P. that is, For his well-deserving Senate, People and Burghers of Pari [...]: Francis the first, most puissant King of France, com­manded this House to be built from the foundation, and fi­nished it, and dedicated it to the calling of the Common Councell, and governing the Citie; in the yeare aforesaid.

This is as you would say, the Guild-Hall of the Towne. The Hostel Dieu in Paris, was augmented and finished in 1535. by Antoine de Prat, Chancellour in this Citie, his pourtraict with Francis the first, is upon the doore as yee enter. This is (as we call it at London) the Hospitall. The Palace de Paris, was built by Philip le Bel, 1283. purposing it should have beene his Mansion-house; but since it hath beene disposed into divers Courts, for the execution of Iu­stice, just like Westminster Hall, which likewise at first, was purposed for the Kings Palace.

Here you have such a shew of Wares in fashion, but not in worth, as yee have at the Exchange. Here is a Chappell of the Saint Espirit, built by Saint Lewis, 1242. Here are all the seven Chambers of the Court of Parliament (which was first instituted by Charles Martel, father to King Pep [...], Anno 720.) but of them all, the great Chamber of Paris is most magnificently beautified and adorned by Lewis the twelfth. At the entry, is a Lion couchant, with his taile be­tweene his legs, to signifie, that all persons how high soever, are subject to that Court.

The Chamber also of Compts, built by this Lewis, is a [Page 130] very faire roome; at the entry whereof are five pourtraicts with their Mots. The first is Temperance, with a Diall and Spectacle: her word, Mihi spreta voluptas; I despise plea­sure. Secondly, Prudence, with a Looking-Glasse and a Sive: her word, Consiliis rerum speculor; I prie into the counsell of things. Iustice, with a Ballance and a Sword: her Mot, Sua cuique ministro; I give to every man his owne. Fortitude, with a Tower in one arme, and a Serpent in the other: her word, Me dolor atque metus fugiunt; Both paine and feare avoid mee. And lastly, Lewis the King, with a Scepter in one hand, and holding Iustice by the other, and this written for his word;

My happy Scepter in calme peace doth flourish,
While I these Heaven-bred Sisters foure doe nourish.

The buildings of this Citie are of stone, very faire, high, and uniforme, thorowout the Towne; only upon the port N. Dame, our Ladies Bridge, which is, as it were, their Cheapside: Their building is of brick-bat, all alike, notwith­standing the fairest Fabrick in the Towne (and worthily) is the Kings Castle or Palace of the Louvre at the West: It is in forme quadrangular, the South and West quarters are new and Prince-like, the other two very antique and prison-like. They were pulled downe by Francis the first, and begun to be re-built, but finished by Henry the second, with this in­scription: The most Christian King Henry the second began to repaire this time-ruined Edifice.

The Vniversitie in times past was wont to have (by re­port) above thirty thousand Schollers of all sorts,Vniversitie. but many of these, children, such as our petty Schooles in the Coun­tries are furnished withall. The streets both in the Citie, Vniversitie, and suburbs, are very faire, strait, and long very many of them; the shops thicke, but nothing so full of wares, nor so rich, as they of London; in comparison whereof, these seeme rather Pedlars than otherwise: But for number, I sup­pose, there be three for two of those.

The Faulxbourges are round about the Citie, ruined and utterly desolate, except those of Saint Germaines, which [Page 131] was very fairely builded, and was very neere as great as the faire Towne of Cambridge.

The benefit of this Towne is very great, which it hath by the River; as by which all the commodities of the Country are conveyed: whereupon Monsieur de Argenton reports of it:

Of all the Townes that ever I saw, it is environed with the best and fertilest Country.

And he there reports, that for twenty moneths that hee was prisoner, he saw such an infinite company of boats passe and repasse, but that he was an eye-witnesse, he would have thought it incredible: which he also after proves, by the maintenance of the three Armies, of the three Dukes of Burgundie, Guiennae, and Bretaigne, which consisted of an hundred thousand men, against the Citie of Paris, wherein they had besieged Lewis the eleventh, and yet neither the Campe nor Towne had any want of victuals.

Some say, this Towne was builded in the time of Amazias King of Iuda, by some Reliques of the Trojan warre, and that it was called Lutece (à Luto) because the soile in this place is very fat, which is of such nature, as ye cannot well get it out, it doth so staine: whereof they have a By-word, It staineth like the durt of Paris. Others say, it was called Paris of (Parresia) a Greeke word, which signifieth (saith this Author) hardnesse or ferocitie, alleaging this verse:

Et se Parrisios dixerunt nomine Franci,
Quod sonat andaces, &c.

And the Franks called themselves Parrisians, which sig­nifieth Valiant. And by this Etymologie would inferre, that the French is a warlike Nation. But he is much mistaken in the word; for it signifieth only a boldnesse or libertie of speech: which whether they better deserve, or to be accoun­ted valiant, you shall see when I come to speake of the Frenchmans humour and nature in generall. As for the na­ture of the people of this Towne, their Histories tax it of in­finite mutinies and seditions, matchable to the two most re­bellious Townes of Europe, Liege, and Gant; and yet this [Page 132] last is praised in one thing, That they never harme their Prin­ces person: whereof the Baricades, as also the late assasinati­ons of Henry the third, and Henry the fourth, make Paris most unworthy. And du Haillan saith of them, when they stood fast to Lewis the eleventh, against the three Dukes above named; That the Parrisians never held good side, nor never shewed any honestie but then only. But I can read no such matter in Commines; for I well remember, that even then divers of the chiefe of the Towne had practised secretly with the enemie, and were upon termes of concluding, when by the Kings wisdome they were prevented.

The Armes in this Citie were given them, Anno 1190, by Philip le Bel, who creating them a Provost and Eschevins, (like Office as our Maior and Aldermen) Gave them for Armes, Gules, a Ship Argent, and a Cheefe seeded with Flower de Lyce Or. Yee shall heare the French bragge, that their Citie hath beene besieged an hundred times by the enemie, and yet was never taken since Caesars time. The reason whereof, one of their best Writers gives; because (saith he) i [...] is very weake, and therefore alwayes com­poundeth.

I compare Paris with London, London compa­red with Paris. thus: Theirs is the greater, the uniformer built, and stronglier situate: ours is the richer, the more ancient: for I hold antiquitie to be a great honour, as well to great Cities, as to great Families.

Yea, if to some comparisons would not seeme distastfull, I dare maintaine, that if London and the places neere adjoy­ning were circum-munited in such an orbicular manner as Paris is, it would surely exceed it, notwithstanding all its attributes of a Winding river, and the five Bridges, sorting forsooth to uniformitie of streets, as indeed we now behold it. And more than that, I am nothing doubtfull in opinion, that the Crosse of London is every way longer, than any you make in Paris, or in any other Citie of Europe. By this word Crosse, I meane, from Saint Georges in Southwarke, to Shoreditch, South and North; and from Westminster to Whitechapell, West and East, meeting at Leaden-hall: All [Page 133] the way she environed with broader streets, comelier monu­ments, and handsomer buildings, than any you can make in Paris; or ever saw, either in Millan, at this houre being the greatest Citie in Italie; in Noremberg, or Ausburg, for Germanie; in Madril, or Lisbone, for Spaine; or finally, in Constantinople it selfe.

Concerning populousnesse,For populous­nesse. if you please to take London meerely as a place composed of Merchants, Citizens and Tradesmen, (and so unite the Suburbs adjoyning) it farre exceedeth Paris: But taking all'together, and at all times, it must be confessed, that there be more people of all sorts, two for one, if not more, in Paris than in London. Or if you will behold it in a Terme-time, (according to our custome of speciall resort) I doubt not but you may be encountred with equall numbers of callings and professions. As for Paris, the better halfe are Gentlemen, Schollers, Lawyers, or Clergie-men: The Merchant liveth obscurely, the Trades­man penuriously; and the Craftsman in drudgerie: yet all insolent, and tumultuously affected upon the least unaccu­stomed imposition, or supposall of alteration of their ridicu­lous ceremonies.

Instead of a beastly Towne and durtie streets,For neat and cleane streets. you have in London those that be faire, beautifull, and cleanly kept.

Instead of clouds, ill aire, and a mirie situation,For Aire. London (for the greatest part of the yeere) affordeth a Sun-shining and serene element, a wholsome dwelling, a stately ascen­tion, and a delicate prospect.

In stead of a shallow River,For River. bringing only Barks and Boats, with wood, cole, turfe, and such Country provision, you have in London a River flowing twenty foot high, ador­ned with stately Ships, that flie to us with merchandize from all the parts of the world. And to descend to inferiour observations, I say, that the River only Westward matcheth that of Paris every way, supplying the Citie with all the fore-mentioned commodities at easier rates.

In stead of ill-favoured woodden bridges,For Bridges. many times indangered by tempests and frosts, we have at London such a [Page 134] bridge, that without exception, it may worthily be accounted the admirablest Monument, and firmest erected Collosseum (in that kinde) of all the Vniverse; whether you respect the foundation, with the continuall and substantiall reparation of the Arches; or behold the imposed buildings, being so many, and so beautifull.

For a Castle. In stead of an old Bastile and ill appearing Arsenall (thrust as it were into an out-cast corner of the City) wee have in London a Fabrike of greatest antiquity, for forme majesti­call, and serving to most uses of any Citadell, or Magazine, that ever you saw. It containeth a Kings Palace, a Kings Prison, a Kings Armory, a Kings Mint, and a Kings Ward­robe, besides many other worthy Offices; so that the resi­dents within the wals have a Church, and are a sufficient Parish of themselves.

In stead of an obscure Louvre,For places of Retreit. lately graced with an ex­traordinary and immatchable gallery, the onely Palace of the King; In London his Majesty hath many houses, Parks, and places of repose; and in the shires confining, such a number, for state, receit and commodiousnesse, that I pro­test amazement, knowing the defects of other places.

Nor doe I here stretch my discourse on the tenter-hookes of partiality, but plainly denotate what many my coun­try-men can averre; that to the crowne of England are an­nexed more Castles, Honours, Forrests, Parks, Palaces, Houses of state, and conveniencie to resort unto, from the incumbrances of the Citie, than any Emperour or King in Europe can at this day challenge proprio jure.

In stead of an old ruinous Palace (as they terme their House of Parliament,For seats of Iustice, and concourse of Merchants. Hall of Iustice, concourse of Lawyers, and meeting of certaine Tradesmen, or Milleners, like an ex­change) London hath such a Cirque for Merchants, with an upper quadrant of shops, as may make us envied for de­licacy of building, and statelinesse in contriving. For a state­house, we have in London the Guild-hall, and for Courts of Iustice, Westminster hall, two such fabriks, that without further dispute, they make strangers aske unanswerable que­stions: [Page 135] when being brought to the light of understanding by particulars, they lift up their hands and say;For Colleges for students of the Lawes. Oh happy Eng­land! Oh happy people! Besides these publike Receptacles, we have private and goodly Colleges for Lawyers, fitted for their private and publike uses, receit of their Clients, conveniently appropriated to their Offices. All workes ra­ther of oftentation amongst our selves, than of imitation in others.

In stead of obscure Churches,For Churches. we have first the goodliest heape of stones, namely Pauls, next the most curious, viz. Westminster Abby, in the world: and generally, all out Churches exceed for beauty and handsomnesse.

In stead of Gentlemen riding on durty foot-cloaths,For decent riding. and women footing it in the mierie streets, the one with an idle Lackey, the other with no company at all; we have fashi­onable attendance, handsome comely passage either in Ca­rosse, Coach, or on horsebacke; and our Ladies and Gen­tlewomen are never seene abroad, without an honourable retinue.

In stead of confused intermixtures of all sorts;For unconfu­sed intermix­tures. as Citi­zens, Lawyers, Schollers, Gentlemen, Tradesmen, and Religious persons, (so that you can scarcely know the one from the other, nor the master from the man) in London the Citizen lives in the best order, with very few houses of Gentlemen interposed; But in our suburbs the Nobility and Gentry have so many, and such stately buildings, that one side of the River may compare with the gran Canale at Venice: but if you examine their receit and capacity, Venice, and all the Cities of Europe must submit to truth: for in London, and the places adjoyning, five hundred severall houses may beare the attribute of Palaces, wherein five thousand persons may conveniently be lodged.

In stead of a poore Provost,For a Maior. and a disorderly company of Merchants and Tradesmen, we have a Podesta, or Maior, that keepeth a Prince-like house, accompanied and attended with grave and respective Senators, and comely Citizens, having severall Hals; where every craft and mystery is go­verned [Page 136] by ancient persons of the same society and professi­on: At time of yeare producing such solemne and rich tri­umphs, that strangers have admired the brave spirits of Me­chanicall men.

To conclude, if you looke on, and in our London truly, as it is composed of men following trades and occupations; there is not such a Citie, such a Government, such a me­thod of conversation, such an unity of society and good neighbourhood, such a glasse to see lovelinesse and beauty in, such a chamber of wealth, and such a store-house of ter­restriall blessings under the Sunne againe.

Or, if you please to view it without at all times, and yet consider the keeping of our Country houses, you may bold­ly say; There are not so many Gentlemen to be seene in any place, nor to so good purpose generally: for speaking somewhat liberally, like an Orator of Contentation, I aske, if the pleasures of Paris can bring you into walkes of such variety, with so little charge and expence, as London can: Surely no. And with us, our riding of horses, musicke, lear­ning of all Arts and Sciences, dancing, fencing, seeing of comedies or enterludes, banquets, maskes, mummeries, lotteries, feasts, ordinary meetings, and all the singularities of mans inventions to satisfie delight, are easie expences: and a little judgement with experience will manage a very meane estate, to wade through the current of pleasure, yea, although it should runne unto voluptuousnesse.

But shall I dare to speake of our Court,For the Court. the map of Ma­jesty, in respect whereof, Biron compared all others to con­fusion? If I doe, for stately attendance, dutifull service, plentifull fare, orderly tables, resort of Nobles, beauty of Ladies, bravery of Gentry, concourse of civill people, princely pastimes, and all things befitting the Majesty of a King, or glory of a Nation; I may say for England, as the King of France once answered the Emperours tedious Title; France, France, France, and nothing but France: So Eng­land, England, England, and nothing but England, to their proudest comparisons. Affirming, that if ever Countrey, [Page 137] Kingdome, or Prince, came neere Salomons royalty, plenty, peace, and beatitude; England, and in England London hath the preheminence.

Besides the Cities and Ports of France well fortified,Castles. there be also infinite numbers of Castles & Cittadels (which the people call The nests of Tyrants, and the Prince Chasti­villains.) Of the Castles, the number is therefore most great, and as uncertaine, by reason that every Noblemans house of any age, is built in defensible manner. An example of one for many hundreds, you may take that of Roch-fort, be­longing to the Seigneur de la Tremouville, which in the ci­vill warres endured a siege, and five thousand Cannon shot, and yet was not taken. It is judged by the wisest, that in great Kingdomes, such as France, no places should bee fortified but the frontiers: after the example of Nature, who armeth the heads and heeles of beasts, but never the bowels nor middle part: as in England, where except fron­tier places, none but his Majestie have fortified places.

You must understand, that here in France, Charges. all Inhabi­tants of Cities are liable to the common charges of the for­tification of their Cities, reparations of Bridges, Fountaines, High-waies, & such like. And because the richer sort should not levie the money, and then keepe it to themselves, or imploy it as they list; they must give information to the Chancellor of the necessity of the Levie, and procure Let­ters Patents for the same, by authority whereof they gather the money, and use it, yeelding after to the Kings Procurer their account.

And for their Watch and Ward, it goes by course, as in the City of Embden, and divers other in those low coun­tries. As for Castles, the Seigneur or Captaine, may not force Vassall, (faire le guet, to watch and ward) except in frontier places, upon forfeiting of their estates.

After this generall Survey of the Country it selfe,Governments. wee must observe something of the government, wherein I will not trouble you with fetching their first Pedigree from be­yond the Moone, as many of the [...]r Histories labour, nor by [Page 138] disputing the matter, whether it bee true or no, that they came from Troy, into the marishes of Maeotis, whence, af­ter some small abode, they were chased by the Roman Emperour into Bavaria, and after into Frankeland in Ger­many.

It shall suffice, that from hence this people came into France, wherein all Writers agree. For after the declinati­on of the Roman Empire, when the Ostrogothes conquered Italy, the Visigothes Spaine, and the Vandals Affrike: then did the Burgundians and Franconians divide this Country betweene them, conquering it upon the old Inquilines (the Gaules) who from Caesars time till then, had not tasted the force of a forren power.

The Government was under Dukes till the yeare 420. when as Pharamond caused himselfe to bee intituled King. In this race it remained till 751. when Pepin suppressed his M. Chilpericke, and usurped. His line lasted till 988. when Hugh Capet gave the checke to the succession of Charle­maignes line (who was Pepins sonne) and invested himselfe with the Diadem. From him it hath lineally descended by heires males to the house of Valois, and for want of issue mal [...] in them, is now come to the house of Burbon. In this space of time, you must observe the three ages of France: her child-hood, till Pepin; her man-hood, till Capet; her old age, till now. For, in the first age the Kings were like children, content to be taught by others in matters of Re­ligion, (as then ye may note, that Clovis received the Faith, and was Baptized) as also in matter of policie, they were content that others should beare the whole sway, and rule them also, such were the Maieurs de Palais, whereof Pepin was one that usurped.

In their man-hood they did like men, conquer King­domes, releeve distressed Christians, overcome Saracens and Infidels, defend the Church against all assailes, as ye [...] may perceive by the History of Charles the great, and his successors.

And lastly, now in her old age she grew wise, erected [Page 139] Courts for Iustice, made Lawes and Ordinances to governe her Inhabitants, wherein no Countrey in Europe hath excel­led her: for so saith my Author; There is no Countrey in the world, where Iustice is better established, than in ours: which is true (but with this addition of a later Writer,) if the Officers thereof were not too too many, and if their pla­ces were rightly executed.

To force this Relation, with many notes of things here hapning in former ages, were both impertinent, and tedious; only I would wish you note, that in 482. the Christian Faith was here received, and in the yeare 800. the Roman Empire hither translated.

Concerning the Countrie of France, the State is a Mo­narchie, and the government mixt: for the authoritie of Maieurs, Eschevins, Consuls, Iureurs, &c. is Democrati­call: the Paires, the Councels, the Parliaments, the Cham­bers of Counts, the Generalities, &c. are Aristocraticall. The calling of Assemblies, giving of Offices, sending Embassages, concluding of Treaties, pardoning of offences, ennobling of Families, legitimation of Bastards, coyning of moneys, and divers other, to the number of foure and twentie, are meere­ly Regall, called of the French, Droicts Royaux.

And sure it is, that no Prince in Europe is a more perfect Monarch than he: for besides all these Privileges named, as we say of the Parliament of Paris, that it hath the preroga­tive to be appealed unto, from all other Courts, which they call (the last appeale,) so is it likewise true, that the King him­selfe hath the meere and absolute authoritie over this. For though no Edict or Proclamation, no Warre or Peace which he makes, be good, without the consent and Arrest (as they call it) of this Court: Yet true it is, that when he, sending to them for their confirmation and ratifying thereof, if at first they refuse, and send Deputies to his Majesty to informe him of their reasons, with humble suit to revoke the same, he returnes them upon paine of his displeasure and deprivation of their Offices, to confirme it. Sic volo, sic jubeo.

As touching the Lawes, we must know,Lawes. that most of them [Page 140] are grounded on the Civill Law of the Emperour: but so, as this State ever protesteth against them: insomuch as in for­mer times it was ordained, that he which alleaged any Law of Iustinian, should lose his head. Of the Lawes in force, some are fundamentall, as they call them, and immortall▪ Such as nor King, nor assembly can abrogate: others are Temporall.

Of the first sort, I will only remember you of two exam­ples: the Law Salique, and that of Appennages. As for the first, they would needs make the world beleeve, that it is of great antiquitie, where with they very wrongfully tromped the heires of Edward the third, from the enjoying of this Crowne, which to them is rightly descended by the Mother; and whose claime is still good, were the English sword well whetted to cut the Labels of this Law. Of which Haillan himselfe confesseth, that before the time of Philip le Long, 1321. That the Law Salique was never heard tell of, before this Kings time, who caused it to be ratified by all the No­bles of his Kingdome, some by faire promises, and others by force and threats. Whereupon, they have since this pro­verbe, The Kingdome of France cannot fall from the Launce to the Distasse [...] which another would needs as soundly prove out of Scripture, for that it is said, The Lillies spinne not: that is, the Lillies or Flowerdelyces, being the Armes of France, cannot descend to a Spinster, or woman.

Touching the Appennages, it is also a Law of great conse­quent for the Crowne: for by this, the Domaine cannot be aliened, and by the other, the Crowne cannot fall into the hands of strangers. You must note, that this Law imports, that the younger sonnes of the King cannot have Partage with the Elder; which till the time of Charlemaigne (when this was made) they might; they must onely have Appen­nage suas propriete. By which Charter of Appennage is gi­ven all profits arising of the said Apannes; as Domaine, the Hundreth, Rents, rights of Seigneurie, parties Casuelles, [...]ots, Sales, Homages, rights of Vassalage, Forrests, Ponds, [...]vers, Iurisdictions, Patronages of Churches, Provisions, [Page 141] and Nomination of Chappels, Goods of Mayn-mort, Fifts of Lands sold, and all other profits and commodities what­soever, to returne to the Crowne, for want of heires male: But the levying of Taxes and aids, the minting of money, and all other things of Regalitie are reserved.

Concerning the other sort of Lawes in this Realme, they are infinite, which argueth (à consequente) that they be ill kept: for Gens humana ruit per vetitum nefas: and (ab an­tecedente) that the people of this Countrey have beene ill inclined: for Evill manners cause good Lawes.

These French Lawes are too full of Preambles, Processes, Interims, and Provisoes, as by all their Ordinances and E­dicts appeareth: There is nothing (me thinkes) colder, than a Law with a Prologue: Let a Law command, and not per­swade. Of all these Lawes I will only name you this one: That the minority of the King, shall be assisted with a Councell, chosen by the States of France, wherein the Princes of the bloud ought to hold the first place, and strangers to bee excluded: Which was enacted at Toures, by Charles the eighth, Anno 1484. I tell you of this, as of the true source and spring of all the late civill warres, because the Cadets of Lorraine by insinuation with the young Kings, Francis the second, and Charles the ninth, under the favour of the Queene Mother, took upon them to manage all publike matters at their own pleasure, and thrust out the first Princes of the bloud of the house of Burbon. Whereupon Navarre and Condie, the Princes of this Family, assisted by many of the French Nobles, embarqued themselves in the action of reforming such an abuse, and displacing the Gursard out of this au­thorite, tooke it upon themselves, to whom it rightly be­longed.

Howbeit, out of that which I there saw,Officers of Court. which I have heard of others, and read in Authors; I will adventure to relate, concerning the Officers of this Court; for as for o­ther great Offices, as of Constable, Admirall, Marshall, Grand Master of the Eaues and Forests, Grand Master of the Ar­tillerie, and others, I shall speake of them, when I come to [Page 142] relate of the Kings Forces in generall, to which place these Offices especially appertaine.

The first Office then of Court,Great Master. is that of the great Ma­ster, which in elder times was called Earle of the Palace, and after changed into the name of Grand Seneschall, and now lastly into Grand Maistre. It is his Office, to judge of mat­ters of difference, betweene other Officers of Court. He had also the charge to give the word to the Guard, to keepe the Keyes of the Kings private Lodging, and to determine in disputes among Princes that followed the Court, for their Lodgings. In assemblies, he sitteth right before the King, a staire lower, as you reade in the Dern. Trobl. Great Butler or Taster, was in former times a great Office in the Kings House, they had place in the Courts of Iustice, as Peeres. This Office was long in the Counts of Seulis: It is now va­nished, and only there remaines that of the Grand Panetier. This Office is ancient: he hath besides the Kings House su­per-intendence over all Bakers in the Citie and Suburbs of Paris. They which were wont to be called Pantlers, Ta­sters and Carvers, are now called Gentlemen Wayters of the Court.

The Office of great Chamberlaine was long in the House of Tankervile: he lay at the Kings feet, when the Queene was not there. His Privileges are now nothing so many as in times past.Gentlemen of [...] Those which were then called Chamberlaines, are now Gentlemen of the Chamber. The Office of great Esquire, is not very ancient, though now it be very honou­rable, and is the same that Master of the Horse is in the Court of England: for it is taken out of the Constables Of­ [...] ▪ to whom it properly appertained. It was first instituted at the time of Charles the seventh. In the Kings entrance in­to the Citie, he carries the Sword sheathed before him, The Cloth of Estate carried over the King, by the Maior and Sherifes, belongs to his Fee. No man may bee the Kings Spur-maker, Mareschall, and such like Officer, but he must have it of him, as also other inferiour Offices belonging to the Stables. He had in times past, the command over Stages [Page 143] of Post-horses: but now the Controller generall of the said Posts, hath it.Mast [...]r or Ste­w [...]d of the Kings House. The Office of Master or Steward of the Kings House, hath charge over the expence of the Kings House: For a marke of his authoritie, he carries a truncheon tipt at both ends with silver and gilt, and marcheth before the Sewer, when the Kings dinner comes to the Table.

No Sergeant can arrest any of the Kings House without their leave. They serve quarterly: they were wont to be but foure, but now I have heard it credibly said, they be eightie in name, but all of these doe not execute the Office. The Great Provost of France, and of the Kings House,Great Provost of France. was so cal­led since Charles the ninth: for before, he was called Roy des rebauds, King of the Rascals. His Office is to stickle a­mongst the Servants, Pages, Lacquies, and Filles de joye (Punkes or pleasant sinners) which follow the Court, and to punish all offences in these people.

I should have named before these last, as a place more ho­nourable, the Office of Great Faulconer, and Common Hunt, Great Faulci­ner, and Com­mon Hunt. who have authoritie over all Officers of Chase. They of the Kings Chamber, are either Gentlemen of the Chamber, of whom I spake before, or Groomes of the Chamber, which are but base Groomes and Yeomen.

The hundred Gentlemen of his Guard (though there be two hundred of them) they hold and use a weapon,Gentlemen of the Kings Guard. called Le bec de corbin: They march two and two before him: they are part French, and part Scots. The Scot carries a white Cassocke, powdered with silver plates, and the Kings device upon it: The French weare the Kings Colours. There is also a Guard of Swisse, attired in partie-coloured-Cloth, drawne out with silke, after their Countrey fashion: these follow the Court alwayes on foot, the other on horse.

There belong to the Court also, the Marshals of Lod­gings, and Harbingers: they have like Offices as the Har­bingers in the English Court: there bee also divers others which are here needlesse to be spoken of.

It followeth I speake of his Forces, aswell horse as foot,His Forces. of which this Country is very well furnished, and indeed vaun­teth [Page 144] (and I thinke worthily) to be the best and greatest Gens d'armerie of any Realme in Christendome: but on the other side, their foot have no reputation; Insomuch, as at the Siege of Amrens, we should heare the Spaniard within the Towne, speake over the wals to our English Souldier in their Trenches, after we had saved the Kings Cannon, from which the French were shamfully beaten by them within, fallying out upon them:

‘You are tall Souldiers (say they) and we honour you much, not thinking any foot to come neere us in reputati­on, but you; and therefore, when you of the English come downe to the Trenches, we double our Guard, and looke for blowes: but as for these base and unworthy French, when they come, we make account we have no­thing to doe that day, but play at Cards, or sleepe upon our Rampart.’ Of both these Forces of horse and foot of France, you are to note this which followeth.

It is reported of the great Turke, that when he conque­reth any Province or Country, he divideth the Lands upon his horsemen, and to each his po [...]tion, [...]ith an exemption of paying either Rent, Tax, or [...]allage whatsoever; only they are bound to serve the Grand Seig [...]ior, with a propor­tion of horse at their owne charge, and in their owne per­son in his warres, except either age or sicknesse hinder, which are the two only excuses admitted. These are called his Timariots: of like Nature were the Calasyres, or Mama­lucks of A [...]gypt.

So did the Kings of France in former times bestow upon Gentlemen divers lands and possessions, freeing them like­wise from taxes and aids, upon condition to have their per­sonall service in time of need. These Lands were called Feifs, instituted before Charlemaigne his time, but till then they were given onely for life (as at this day are those of the Turks:) but since, they bee hereditary. The word Feif, hath his Etymology of (Foy) Faith: signifying Lands gi­ven by the King to his Nobility or men of desert, with Hau [...] et basse [...]ustice, with an acknowledgment of fealty [Page 145] and homage, and service of the King in his warres at their owne charge. Some Feif was bound to finde a man at Armes; some an Archer, some the third, and some the fourth of a man at Armes, according to the quantity of Land he held. He that had Land from the value of five to six hundred Livres rent, (that is, from fifty to sixty pound sterling) was bound to finde a man on Horse-backe, furni­shed for a man at Armes: and from three to foure hundred a good light Horse-man; who, if it please the Prince, and upon occasion of service, shall quit his Horse, and serve on foot, provided that he have with him a vallet Harquebusier. But they that had lesse than three or foure hundred, had a lesse proportion of charge. There be foure exceptions where a man is not bound to serve in person; If he be sicke, if aged, if he beare some Office, if he keepe some frontier place or other Castle of the Kings; for in this case hee may send another.

They are bound upon forfeiture of their Feif, to serve three moneths within the Land, and forty dayes without; not counting the dayes of marching. You must observe, that as the Seigneurs hold their Feif of the King in Haute justice, so other Gentlemen hold of them in Basse justice, upon charge to follow these Seigneurs at all times to the wars. For the Feif is the thing, by the acceptation whereof, they that hold it, are bound in oath and fidelity to their Lords; and therefore are called their Vassals, of Wessos the old Gaule word, which signifieth Valiant: for to such were the Feifs given. As for Serfes, Slaves or Villaines, they [...] domesticke, and serve upon baser condition, for wages and victuals. There is also the subject, that is, the poore pe [...]sant that laboureth and tilleth the Feifs, and there­fore yee shall heare Monsieur le Gentleman speake of ses terres, ses hommes, & ses subjects: His lands, his men, and his subjects: and yet himselfe is Vassall to the Seigneur, that holds in haute justice. But you may note, that no word of service whatsoever in this discourse, doth prejudice the li­berty naturall of the Vassall. Neither the subject nor the [Page 146] Serf are bound to goe to the wars, but only the Vassall. The mustering and gathering together of these forces, obliged by these Feifs, is called the Ban, and Arrier-Ban, of the Alm [...]e words H [...]r [...] exer [...]i [...]us, an Army; and Ban, con­v [...]atio, a calling together. This Ban and Arrier-ban, con­sisted anciently of twelve, and sometimes fifteene thou­sand Gens d'armes: But after the corruption thereof, when the Feifs came to be in the hands of unable and unworthy men, the Kings of France were forced of later times, to erect the Gens d' armes des Ordonnances, the men at Armes of his Ordinances, in Charles the seventh his time. For ye must consider, that there have beene foure principall causes of the overthrow of this Ban and Arrier-ban. The first, were the gifts to the Clergy, who, as is reported, have the sixth part of these Feifs in their hands, and contribute no­thing to the warres: for as one saith, they will lose no­thing, pay nothing, contribute nothing toward their guar­ding, and yet notwithstanding they will be guarded. The next, was the voyages to the Holy-land; for when one had made a vow to goe thither, to serve against the Saracens and I [...]tidels, he sold his Feif, to furnish him to that purpose. The third, was the warres with the English, wherein by force they lost them. The last cause is, the sales of them to all sorts of people, without exception; as the Lawyer, the Yeoman, or any other unable person whatsoever that will buy them; which till Charles the seventh they might not doe. Ye see then how necessary it was (this old institution being corrupted and quite decayed) to erect a new; which they called, Les Gens d' armes des ordonnances: be­cause at their first erection, there were divers Lawes and ordinances made for them to observe, which who so brake, was severely punished. They were at first only 1500. But after, they were increased to an hundred cornets, and gi­ven to divers Princes of the bloud, and Nobles of France to conduct and command, with an honourable pension. In these troops should bee 6000. for in some there are an hun­dred, in others but fifty. Howbeit it is thought, in each [Page 147] troope there are some dead payes, for the benefit of the Of­ [...]cers, and that in truth there be not above foure thousand in all. For the maintenance of this Gens d' armerie, there is a tax yearely levied upon the people throughout all France, called the Taille.

Concerning both the number of the Gens d'armes, and their proportion of allowance, by the Taille, it is thus, as La Nove judgeth: The horsemen in the time of Henry the second, exceeded the number of 6000. launces, but they are now but 4000. and in mine opinion, it were fit to en­tertaine in time of peace, foure Regiments of Infantery, of six hundred men apeece.

As touching the Infantery,His Infantery. Francis the first was the first that instituted the Legionaries, which were in all eight, and every Legion to containe six thousand, according to the rate of the ancient Romans. The first Legion was of Normandy: The next of Bretaigne. One in P [...]cardie. One in Burgundie. In Champaigne and Nivernois one. In Dolphenie and Provence one. In Lyonnois & Auvergne one. And one in [...]ang [...]docke. These companies were shortly after cassed, and againe within eighteene yeares erected; and are now againe of late yeares dissolved, and in their place the Re­giments now entertained, are five in number: The Regi­ment of the Guard, the Regiment of Picardie, the Regi­ment of Champaigne, the Regiment of Piemont, and lastly, the Regiment of Gasco [...]ne, commonly called the Regiment of Navarr [...]: In each of these is twelve hundred.

These are all now in time of peace bestowed in garrison-townes, and frontier places, except those of his guard. Bo­ [...] op [...]ion is, that foure Legions of 5000. apeece, would [...]usfice to be maintained in this land: for (saith he) the Ro­man Empire, which was twenty times as great, had never but eleven Legions in pay: but this is to be understood of them which were in pay ordinary in Italy, besides those Legions which they had in other their Countries, as Eng­land, Spaine, Low-Countries, &c. For otherwise, we read of [...]hose Emperours that had thirtie one Legions; and Bodin [Page 148] himselfe confesseth, that Augustus had at one time enter­tained in pay forty Legions, at eleven millions charge the yeare. But this Writer though he be approved, as he well deserves, yet I thinke if he failed in any of his discourse, it was in matter of warre, the profession whereof did ill agree with his long robe: yee shall therefore take the judgement of a discreeter souldier of France for your direction, what force the French can make, or entertaine of others, which is this. If our King perceived that any neighbour of his meant to invade his Frontiers, I thinke he might easily compose an Army of sixty companies of men at Armes, twenty Cor­nets of light horse, and five troops of Harquebusiers on horse-backe, amounting all to ten thousand horse. To which he might adde three or foure thousand German Rut­ters, and one hundred Ensignes of French foot, and forty Ensignes of his good Confederates, the Swissers, and yet maintaine his other Frontiers sufficiently manned.

So that ye may conclude, that foure thousand men at Armes, well complete, and with a proportion of light-horse and foot answerable, sheweth the whole flower, beauty and force of France. Howsoever the Author of the Cabi­net confidently avoweth, that there may easily be mustred and maintained fourescore and odde thousand horse of one sort or other; that is, launce, and light-horse. But I feare me we may say of them, as Plutarch saith of the Nobles of Athens, having usurped upon the Democracie of that Ci­tie: They were indeed but foure hundred, and yet caused themselves to be stiled, the five thousand. So I feare me, hee reckoneth after the Athenian rate, ten for one.

The Cabinets reason is this: There be in France 50000. Gentlemen that are able to beare Armes: for (saith he) rate this proportion at a Gentleman in each league, by the mea­sure of [...]rance, (which are forty thousand in square) and it wanteth but a fifth. Howbeit, saith he, in some Countries, yee shall have thirty or forty within the compasse of one league, besides their children. Out of these, if the King would, he might compose a Gens d' armerie of 8000. men [Page 149] at Armes, and 16000. Archers: which body of 24000 Gentlemen, would represent in the field 60000. horse. Hee aught also have a cavallerie Legiere, of foure or five thou­sand Gentlemen. He might also furnish the Ban and Ar­ne [...]- [...]an, according to the old fashion, with twelve or fif­teene thousand Gentlemen. And yet might he have besides all this, foure or five thousand for the state of his Court, and government of his Provinces. This is his computation: But you shall see it proved, when we come to speake of the No­bility of France, that it is exceedingly shortned in number, and decayed in estate, and therefore nothing able to come neere this number. As good a consequent it were to say, [...]hat because ye have two or three millions of men in Eng­land able to fight, that therefore our State can bring so ma­ny into the field, without considering the provision of Armes, and all other things necessarie. But this Cabinet was made by one of the Religion, that was transported out of himselfe, by the heat of his zeale, and hate to the temporall livings of the Church: Whose projects and drifts are much like those of the Supplication of Beggers (a booke made in King Henry the eighths dayes) where he frameth in his fan­ [...] an Vtopia and felicity, not to be hoped in France, buil­ding Castles in the Aire; and concluding, that if it would please the King to alien the Church temporall livings, and unite them to the Domaine, (nihil est dictu facilius, a thing easily said, but not easily done) that over and besides the forces o fourescore thousand horse abovesaid, he might al­ [...]o maintaine an Infantery of the French Gentlemen of tw [...]lv [...] thousand: Item, another of the popular, of forty [...]ght thousand: and lastly, yet another Infantery legionarie of forty eight thousand.

The Supplication was answered by Sir Thomas Moore his booke, called, The Pitifull complaint of the puling soules [...] Purgatory: How well I know not, but of this I am sure, that if such a number of horse and foot should either bee [...]aintained upon the Church living, or upon the poore people, (upon whom all these charges of the Gens d'armes [Page 150] lieth) here would be many more p [...]li [...]g soules, and pitifull complaints in France, than are in Sir Thomas Moores Pur­gatory.

It then remaines, that wee hold our selves to the judge­ment of La Nove, afore set downe, who also confesseth, that in Charles the sixth his time, there were in the field twenty two thousand Launces; but since the Gens d'armerie was in­ [...]ituted, were never, but once at Valencie [...]nes above ten thousand. For as for that great number, whereof yee reade in M. d' Argenton, that besieged Lewis the eleventh in Pa­ris, they were the forces of three great Princes, and the better part Burgognions.

The French reckon above an hundred and twenty strong Townes, some very strong already, all the rest easie to be made defensible. Their Ordnance and Field-peeces they have reduced to a proportion of boare and length, that so the gartridges and bullet of the same weight may be service. able for most of their peeces; and if a carriage breakes, the peece may be readily mounted upon another. The usuall length of their Field-peeces is almost ten foot, & the length of the carriage fourteene foot; so that both together take up nineteene foot being mounted upon the Batterie. Of all Na­tions, the French confesse that they feare none but the Swit­zers, and them they doe, for that being so neere neighbours, they may fall upon them at unawares. To prevent which, they have fortified the Frontiers next to them; knowing well, that the nature of the Switzer is, rather to hazzard a field, than to sit downe about a lingring siege. But these Frenchmen have forgot that England is farre too hard for them at Sea, and that Spaine and the Emperour together have in a manner besieged them round about by Land.

I must now remember you of the Officers for the warre in France: Officers of wa [...]e. and because warre is made both by sea and by land, I must also reckon the sea Officers: but as for the French Kings forces at sea, I have not yet learned that he hath any, and therefore can say little thereof.

The first and principall,Constable. and which commandeth all in [Page 151] the Kings absence, even the Peeres and Princes of the bloud wha [...]soever, is the Constable; who, as hath before beene remembred, hath his name of Comes stabul [...]: for in former t [...]nes the Kings chiefe Officers were called Counts, with an addition of their Office, as Comes Palatit, Comes Praesidii, Comes re [...]m privatarum, Comes sacrarum largitionum, Co­m [...], Comes navium; Count of the Palace, Count of the Guard, &c. And though he hath not now the com­mand of the Kings horse, yet keepeth he still the name. This Office was erected in Lewis le Gros his time: it was bestow­ed upon the house of Memorencie, in Francis the first his time, and remaineth still in the same.

The ancient device of the house of Memorencie is this; God and the prime Christian, and ancientest Baron of France. He hath the keeping of the Sword Royall. And as the great [...]squire hath the Sword in the Scabberd, Azure seeded with Flowers de Lyce, Or, added to his Armes; so beareth the Constable for an honour, the naked Sword. The Mar­shals beare the Battell-axe; and the Admirals, the Anchor. The Constable and Marshals give the oath to the King: He sitteth chiefe Iudge at the Table of Marble, upon all per­ [...]s, [...]its, actions, and complaints whatsoever touching the warres. When the King entreth a Citie in his greatest pompe, or upon a deliverie, he goeth before with the Sword naked: and when the King sitteth in Assembly of the three States, he is placed at his right hand. He that killeth the Constable, is guiltie of high Treason.The Marshall. The Marshals are na­med, as some say, of Marc. Cheval, a Horse, and Schal, Master, or Commander of the Horse. Others of Marcha, that is, March or Frontier, quasi Praefectus limitum, as it were, Governour of the Marches. Till Francis the first, there were but two in all France; afterward foure; and now ten: for as is said before, when any that held either some strong Towne or place of importance, came into the King, he did alwayes capitulate, to have some one of these Offices, besides summes of money and governments also: such was the ne­cessities of the times, saith Haillan. These, under the Con­stable, [Page 152] have the command over all Dukes, Earles, Barons, Captaines, and Gens d'armes; but may neither give battell, make proclamation, or mustermen, without his commande­ment. They have under them Lieutenants, whom they call Pr [...]vost [...]-Marshals, Admirall. who have the punishing of mutinous souldiers, such as quit their colours, Rogues, and such like. There is the office of Admirall: Looke what the Marshals are in a Land-Armie, the same is the Admirall in a Sea-Ar­mie: and these two offices are severall, because the subject of their imployment is differing and unlike.

This office is the most ancient of all France: for Caesar speaketh thereof; The Admirals of Provence, Bretaigne, and Narbon, are much commended for their practice and skill in Sea-service.

I marvell therefore, why du Haillan reporteth, that they were first made in Charlemaignes dayes, and that one Mon­sieur Ritland was the first that was made. There are now foure Admiralties, France, Bretaigne, Guyenne, and Pro­vence: This last is alwayes annexed to the governourship of that Countrey: So, that of Guyenne likewise, till the King that now is came to the Crowne, who before was Gover­nour and Admirall of Guyenne: but since he hath divided the commands. Yee may observe in Histories, that all the while the French voyages were upon the Levant Seas, either to the Holy-Land, Sicilie, or Naples, or whithersoever, the French alwayes had their Vessels and Commanders out-of Italie. France borrowed their Admirals from Genoa, Pisa, Venice, and Luca. These have the tenth of all wrack, prize, or prisoners, that are taken at Sea.

Before the invention of shot, there was an Officer in France called, Great Master of the Crosse-bowes and Engines: which office is now called, the Great Master of the Artil­lerie; who at first also, immediatly after the invention of shot, was called Captaine Generall of the Artillerie.

You have also Treasurers for the warres, which are either ordinary, or extraordinary: Those pay the Gens d'armes; and these, the Regiments of the Infanterie. Treasurers ordi­nary [Page 153] are so many, as there be places where they muster: of extraordinary there be alwayes foure.

The Heraults of France are six; Normandie, Guyenne, Va­lois, Bretaigne, Burgogne, so called of the Countries, (as with us in England) and Mont-joy, who is the chiefe of the rest. Their ancient office was, to be present at all Iusts and Tour­naments, to denounce warre or peace, to summon places, to defie enemy-Princes, to give Armes to men new enobled. But now they be only used at Feasts, Coronations, Solem­nities, Funerals, and such like; for they are no more used in the Treatie and negotiation with forren Princes: I thinke the reason is, because the office hath of late yeares beene be­stowed upon unworthy and insufficient persons. It shall here be needlesse to name all other his Officers of the Wars, which are all one with those of other Countries, as Colonel, Captaine, Sergeant, Lieutenant, Ensigne, Corporall, &c. I will only remember in a word the French manner of Mu­stering, March, Charge, and service in generall, and then proceed to the next branch of this Relation. Wee must ob­serve, that (excepting the Gens d'armes, and the Regiments above named) when any souldiers are taken up for the warres, they are not pressed, as with us, but the Captaine having his Commission gathereth them up by found of Drumme, entertaining only such as will; (which may be some cause of the badnesse and basenesse of the French foot) for being commonly the Rascall sort, and such as have no other meanes, there cannot settle in their abject minds, that true and honourable resolution requisite in a souldier. This Commission must first be shewed to the Governour, Lieu­tenant generall, Bailiffe, or Seneschall of the Province, upon paine of death. Neither is it good, except it be signed by the King, and one of the Secretaries of Estate, and sealed with the great Seale. The souldiers levied, are at the charge of the Province where they be taken up, untill they depart the same. Their March (it should seeme) is somewhat more sharpe than ours: for I remember I have heard say, that up­on a time the old Marshall Biron should bid Sir Roger Willi­ams [Page 154] bring up his Companies faster, taxing the slow March of the English. Sir (saith he) with this March our fore-fa­thers conquered your Countrey of France, and I meane not to alter it: A memorable answer of an honourable Souldier. For the French charge, ye shall heare the Spaniards opinion out of La Nove; The French Infantery skirmisheth brave­ly a farre off, and the Cavallery gives a furious on-set at the first charge; but after the first heat, they will take Egges for their money. And indeed, this is that which all Writers give them, and which best agrees with their Nature: for we may say of them, as is said of Themistocles; He was so hot at the on-set, that he lost his wind in the midst of the carriers. Or say of them, as Fabius of Hannibal; his valour is like a fire of straw, and a flame kindled in matter of small conti­nuance.

Concerning the French discipline,Discipline. Caesar himselfe saith, They had it first from us. It is said, the discipline of the Gauls was first invented in Brittanie, and from thence trans­lated into Gallia; and now such as desire to attaine the perfe­ction thereof, commonly travell thither to learne it. But they have long since degenerated from their old discipline of war, and they themselves confesse, that since the beginning of the civill warres, where souldiers in all disordered and dissolute manner have beene given to pillage and thee every, that it is very much abastardized; whereof La Nove complaineth in his discourses. As for the Military discipline, we must con­fesse, that she keepes her bed, sicke of a very deadly disease. The Noblesse fight alwayes on horse-backe, and thinke it a dishonour to serve on foot. But Commines saith of the No­bilitie of Burgundie, in the warres with Lewis the eleventh, that they all qu [...]t their horses: for they were then most ho­noured that lighted on foot, to the end the people might be the more encouraged, and fight more valiantly: and this they learned of the English. And it is no question, but if some of the French Nobilitie would doe so, it would much confirme their foot, by the example of their valour and abiding, and recover that reputation which now their foot have lost in the [Page 155] world. Neither doe I thinke this the least reason, why our Ancestors have wonne so many battels upon them; name­ly, for that ever we have had men of Noble Houses, to lead and serve on foot with our forces. A notable cause to con­firme and assure the unsteadie headinesse of a multitude.

And for the opinion that the world hath of our foot, yee shall observe what the same Writer elsewhere saith; They be good foot, and better than their neighbours, as we may say now adayes, of the English and Swissers.

And in another place, where he opineth of the manner of service, he saith: My opinion is, that in battels, Archers are the weight that turnes the balance; And of Archers, the English are the flower: where he likewise discourseth, how dangerous a thing it is to abide a battell, except your foot be much the better: which in my opinion was no little cause, why the French King fought not with the Cardinall in the yeare 97, before Amiens, because the enemies foot were holden in number eighteene thousand (though I hardly thinke they were so many.) A number full as great as the French, and the souldier farre better, they being all French, except some three thousand English and Swissers; and theirs, the choice men of all his Garrisons, and experienced soul­diers in those Low-Countries. For true it is, that the Kings Gens d'armes were two for one, and holden also much the better men, as well because there was in a manner all the No­bilitie and flower of France, as also that they had the advan­tage in the manner of weapon; for that the French serveth with the Pistoll, and the Spaniard still holds him to his Launce. But I make no question, that the consideration of the oddes on foot was not the chiefe cause, why there was no battell that day: for wee had a goodly faire field, and plaine as might bee possible, as also large; a singular ad­vantage for him which is strongest in Horse: So had wee the wind and Sunne in our backes, which are holden no small helpes.

But this was the reason: the King thought it no policie to play all his Rest at once, where hee might have lost more at [Page 156] one Game, than he had got in eight yeares; he had no rea­son, but to make the Card that was now going, a Bridge of Gold, (as the Proverbe is) considering, that by this meanes he should gaine the Towne of Amiens, re-assure other Ci­ties that then stood wavering, and recover his reputation in the world, which by the losse of that Towne was much disputed.

It now remaineth I speake of his Expence,His Expence. which chiefly consisteth in these two things before spoken of, namely, his Court and his Forces: wherein it is very hard to relate an exact proportion, considering not only the variety and diffe­rence of Writers, but also the uncertaintie of the number of Pensionaries, or provisioned: And lastly, the change and al­teration of their allowance, not continuing alwaies the same. Howbeit, that which is most commonly reported, and see­meth neerest the truth, is this: The maintenance of five Re­giments of foot, at six crowns the moneth, commeth to foure hundred sixty eight thousand crownes the yeare, besides the pension of five Collonels, at two thousand crownes a­peece; thirtie Captaines at one thousand pension a man; as many Lieutenants at five hundred, and Ensigns at three hun­dred apeece; which is in all, seventie foure thousand: which added to the first summe, makes the whole charge of these Regiments, yearely to amount to the summe of five hundred fortie two thousand crownes. This proportion differeth not much from that of Bodin, where he saith: The King might maintaine in ordinary twentie thousand foot, at the rate of three million, and five hundred thousand Livres, which if you reduce to crownes, and to one number of six thousand foot, commeth to a lesse rate than that other, namely, to foure hundred eight thousand three hundred thirty three crownes: but I thinke, that former is neerer the truth. For the allowance of his Gens d'armes, which are reckoning at six thousand, as is before said (though in truth there bee but foure) for he payeth thus many, I follow the proportion of them that say, that 51750. crownes is the ordinary allow­ance for one company of an hundred yearely: for where are [Page 157] six thousand men at Armes in the field, are eighteene thou­sand Horse in all. After this rate then of the hundred before set down, the whole Gens d'armery amounteth to 3105000. crownes.

For the expence of his Court, you shall heare it to be thus rated: The Table of the King, and those of the Gentlemen of the Chamber, at 112000. crownes: for his pettie pleasures, a thousand crownes a day: in all 165000. (But this was a proportion for the last King, who was a great giver.) For the great and little Stable, 190000. For the Constable, 24000. For the Gran Maistre, great Master, 20000. For the Marshals of France, 18000. apeece, when they were but foure; for now it is a Title only, without either pension or command, save only in the foure chiefe. For the Admirall, 15000. For the Grana Veneur, great Hunt, 16000. For the Governours of his Provinces in all, 188000. For the Gen­tlemen of his Chamber, their pension 1200. crowns a peece; in all, six hundred thousand. For the Captains of his Guards on Horse, two thousand apeece. For their Lieutenants, eight hundred. For two thousand Swisses of his Guard, ten crowns a moneth, 24840. For all other domesticall Officers, one hundred thousand. For Heraults, six thousand. For Mar­shals of lodgings and Fourriers, 4600. For Prevost Mar­shals of Provinces, a thousand apeece, in all twentie foure thousand. For twenty foure hundred Archers, to attend these Prevosts in the execution of their Office, seven hundred and twenty thousand crownes. For his Ambassadours in divers Countries, two hundred and fiftie thousand. For his Officers of Finances, Treasurers, Receivers, Controllers, and such o­ther like Offices thorow France, an infinite and incredible summe: As also for such numbers of horse and foot, as the Cabinet setteth downe, besides these Gens d'armes and Re­giments, which ye heare provided for, and in the Kings pay.

But yee must observe, that of all these Court-charges and others here before mentioned (except those of his forces) yee are not to make any ground as of a truth: they being only the supposed charges, set downe by the said Author, [Page 158] who for his errours in other matters, hath also lost his credit in this.

To speake either particularly of the Court-expences, or generally what they be certaine, I cannot, not having heard any thing thereof, but only that it is supposed, the charge of the Kings House, is five hundred crownes a day.

It now remaineth to speake of his Entrade,His Revenue. or Revenue: for a Prince cannot have peace without warre, nor warre without men, nor men without money, nor money without meanes: nor are there any meanes but these: Domaine, Con­quests, Gifts of his friends, Pension of his Confederates, Traf­ficke, Impositions upon Merchandize, brought in, or carried out; Impositions upon Subjects. And yet one other, which the Kings of France have lately invented, to helpe when all other failed; which is Sales of Offices, more dangerous and prejudiciall to the State, than any other.

Of these eight meanes, I will give you particular observa­tions, and then conclude, what is generally holden to bee the whole Revenue of the Crowne of France, by all these meanes.

First,The Domaine. the Domaine, is as it were the Dowre which the State brings to the King her Husband, for her tuition, de­fence, and maintenance: And therefore one saith: It belongs not to the King, but to the Crowne.

There are two sorts of Domaines; first, the Rent which the King holds in his hands, of the Feifs given for service: Secondly, that which is united and incorporate to the Crowne. The rights of the Domaine are these: Rents, Feifs, Payments at alienations, Tributes, Penages, Toll of whatsoe­ver enters or comes out of Cities, Woods, Forests, and di­vers other.

That is Domaine, which belongeth to the Crowne: First, either by Possession, time out of minde: Or secondly, by Re­union, for want of heires males, as the Apennages when they returne: or by Confusion, for want to such as can make just claime, much like our concealed Lands in England: Or last­ly, by Confiscation of offenders inheritances.

[Page 159] Of this last sort we reade, that in the time of Saint Lewis, there were confisked to the Domaine, the Countries of Dreux, Bray, Fortyonne, and Monstrevil, Languedocke, Guyenne, Anjow, Maine, Turraine, Auvergne: And after in the time of Philip, the Dutchy of Alencon, the Countries of Perche, Perigort, Poutieu, La Marche, Angoulesme, and the Marquisat of Saluzzes. But Bodin saith, most of this came to the Crowne by force: La siur [...] Serre saith, it came by way of Exchange or purchase. But the Author of the Commentaries of the estate of the Religion, and po­licie of France, is of the first opinion. Thus great was the Domaine in former times, that of it selfe, without oppres­sing the people with impositions, it was sufficient to main­taine the State and greatnesse of the Kings of France, but it is now utterly wasted. It is well knowne, that the Domaine, which alone maintained heretofore the beautie and lustre of the Royall Estate, is not now such as it was in the reignes of King Lewis the eleventh, Charles the eighth, and Lewis the twelfth. The continuance of our warres hath caused it to be engaged in many hands, in such sort, that there is need of more than 15. or 16. thousand pounds sterling, to redeeme that which is worth above five millions of pounds. And Bo­din saith, that almost all the Countries, Baronies and Seig­neuries of the Domaine, are aliened for the ninth or tenth part of that they be worth. Yee must observe, that the lands of the Domaine are not alienable, but in two cases. 1. For the Apennage of the Kings brother. 2. For the warres. And these must be confirmed by the Arrest of the Parliament. For all other cases, all Lawyers and Historians of France agree, That it is inalienable, and many Arrests have beene made of late yeares to confirme it. I have read, that the Charta Mag­na of England saith, the Kings when they are crowned, take an oath, not to alien ti: so doe they here in France. And there is no prescription of time, to make such sales or aliena­tions good, but that they may be recovered and repurcha­sed, whensoever the Crowne is able.

To this purpose Plutarch saith well, Men cannot pre­scribe [Page 160] against God, nor particulars against the Respublique.

2 Concerning the second meanes of raising Money by conquests,Conquest. the present State of France can yeeld no example, it hath beene long but on the saving hand.

3 For the third meanes, it is now out of season; it was used in that good old world, when men wiped their nose on their sleeve, (as the French man sayes:) for now Princes are so farre from giving, as they hardly pay that they owe.

4 The fourth meanes also of Pension,Pension. which Princes have upon some consideration of their Allies, helpeth the French Kings coffers nothing at all, for they rather give than take: As for example, to divers Cantons of the Swisses, to whom at first they payed not above one hundred and twentie thou­sand Livres yearely: but for these sixtie yeares, they never pay lesse the yeare than two Millions. For saith Commines, Lewis the eleventh entered league with the Swisses, and they into his Pension: to whom he yearely gave forty thousand Florins, whereof 20. went to the Cities, and 20. to particu­lar men, upon condition to have a certaine proportion of their forces to serve in his warres upon all occasions. An ad­vantagious alliance for the Swisse in my opinion, who by this meanes enrich themselves, cleare their Countrey of ma­ny idle and bad members; and lastly, breed good souldiers, to serve themselves upon need at another mans cost. The Turke hath also a Pension of the Emperour of Germany, for certaine Lands hee holdeth in Hungary: which hee notwithstanding vaunteth to be a Tribute. Many examples might bee alleaged of this kinde, as of Philip of Mace­don, that by Pensions got all Greece partiall on his side: and the Kings of Persia by Pension, got ever the forces of Asia diverted.

5 The fifth,Trafficke. which is of Trafficke, availeth nothing the French Kings: for they hold it here a base and sordid kinde of profession for a Gentleman, much more for a King, to trade by Merchandize. And by the Lawes of England, France and Germanie, he loseth the quality of a Nobleman, that doth Trafficke.

[Page 161] Notwithstanding these Lawes, and the disparagement that it brings to Nobility, yet so sweet is the savour of gaine, that many have used this, as no small meanes to increase their Finances. The great Duke of Tuscane present, gaines infi­nitely this way, and the more by his most unlawfull and ty­rannous Monopolies: for he commonly buyeth up all the Graine of his owne Countrey, at his owne price: yea, and that which commeth from other places also, and then sen­deth out a Bando or Proclamation, that no man shall sell any corne thorowout his State, till his owne be sold, forcing also all Bakers, and other people to buy thereof. This manner of ingrossing Alphonsus of Arragon also used, by the testimony of Bodin. The Kings of Portugal also, and the Seignory of Venice, have beene great Traders by Mer­chandize, but it hath beene in an honester fashion, at sea, and not to the grinding of their poore subjects. The Nobi­litie also of Italy, in all Cities (except Naples) hold it no dishonour to Trafficke in grosse.

6 The sixth meanes of raising money upon all Wares and Merchandize, that come in and goe out of the Coun­trey, is the most ancient and best agreeing with reason, and used by all Princes in the World. The particulars com­prised under this branch, are these: Customes inward, and outward. By these the Prince is to have Impost, five in the hundred: So much just had the Romans, as Cicero witnesseth in his Praetorship of Sicilia. The Turke takes Ten in the hundred of the stranger, and five of the sub­ject: the French quite contrarie. You must observe, that which here I call the Domaine forraine, is generally called, the Aides; first, granted by the Estates to Charles Duke of Normandie, when Iohn his father was prisoner in England: which was the payment of twelve Deniers, upon all Merchandizes and Wares which should bee sold in this Kingdome, except upon Wine, Corne, Salt, and all manner of drinke: but since, it hath beene made perpetu­all, and augmented by the imposition upon Wine sold eve­ry where, and in Normandie by retaile.

[Page 162] This is like the slavish Gabell upon all manner of food, which the Princes take of their subjects through Italy, or the Assize upon Bread and Beare, which the States have in the Low-Countries: a grievance, whereof we smart not in England, as also we are free from many other burthens, which the people of this Country are forced to beare.

Touching the Gabell of Salt (which is also comprised under this head;) Some say it was first erected by Philip le Long: Others by Philip de Valois, 1328. True it is, that the Ordinance of Francis the first, 1541. sets downe an Impost of 24. Livres upon every Muy: and in the yeare 1543. an ordinance was made, for Gabell to be taken upon all sea­fish salted. And in 1544. it was ordained, that all Salt should be sold and distributed into the Magazines, or Storehouses of every severall generality. The benefit of this one commodity hath beene very commodious to the crown, till the yeare 81. when the king was forced for want of mo­ney, to let it out to others; whereby he lost, as is in my Authour proved, eight hundred thirty six thousand crowns yearely. Here is also a kinde of tax, called the Equivallent, that is, an imposition laid upon some persons and places (but not generally) to have liberty to buy and sell salt, and to be exempt from the Magazines.

The Impost of Wine is laid upon all, without exception or exemption whatsoever, it is the twentieth part to the King; besides all other rights, as of Billots entring into Cities, passages by Land, River, and such like: Besides a later im­position of five Sols upon every Muy, levied by Charles the ninth, 1516.

Concerning the (Traicte forraine) it is of like nature with the Aids, save that it is leviable upon more particular sorts of merchandize: Besides, the Aids is an Impost upon things spent in the Land; and the traicte forraine is of such com­modities as are transported out: as of wheat, rye, barley, oats, wine, vineger, verjuce, cider, beeves, muttons, veales, lambes, swine, horses, lard, bacon, tallow, oyle, cheese, fish of all sorts, silks and cloaths of all sorts, leather of all sorts; [Page 163] and finally, all other merchandize, as fruits, parchment, paper, glasse, wood, ropes, &c.

7 The seventh ground or foundation of Finances, is the Imposition upon the subject: that is, not upon the wares or commodities, but upon the persons themselves, according to their abilitie; and it is much like the levying of the tax and subsidy in England, where every one payeth ratably to the lands and goods he possesseth. And therefore Haillan judgeth well, to say, they be neither personall, nor reall, but mixt: Assessed in the place of their dwelling, according to all the goods of the partie assessed, in what part soever they lie or abide.

These Tailles were first raised by Saint Lewis, but by way of extraordinary subsidie. Charles the seventh made them ordinary for the maintenance of his Gens d'armerie. And whereas at first they were never levied but by con­sent of the three States, and to endure but while the warre lasted, he made them perpetuall. Therefore saith one, that which was at first yeelded of favour, is since exacted as patrimoniall and hereditary to our Kings. Yet is it to bee observed, that these Tailles are only liable upon the Flat Pais, all Cities are exempt; as also all Officers of the Kings house; all Counsellors, Lawyers, and Officers of Courts of Parliament; all the Nobility, the Gens d'armes, the Offi­cers of warre, the Graduates of Vniversities, &c.

The Taillon is another imposition, raised by Henry the second, Anno 1549. which was to amend the Wages of Gens d'armes, who by reason of the smallnesse of their pay, lay upon the poore Villages, and eat them up; for the ease whereof, this imposition was devised: which also lieth up­on the poore Country-man; whereby at first he was some­what eased, but now all is perverted; the poore is still op­pressed, and yet he payeth still both Taille and Taillon.

Lastly, there is the Sold, or pay of 50000. foot, which were erected by Lewis the eleventh, into eight Legions; six thousand to a Legion, which with their Officers came to about this number. To maintaine these Legions, there [Page 164] was a tax levied upon all sorts of persons privileged in the Taille, but only the Nobles.

There are also of the Decymes (Tenths) levied upon the Church. For the levying of the Taille, Taillon, and wages of 50000. foot, you must note, that the King sends his Let­ters Patents by Commissioners, to the Treasurers of each generality. These according to the summe, rate each ele­ction (this is, as ye would say, every hundred in a Shire, or Bailywicke) and then send to these elections, to have the said summe gathered in their severall Townes and Hamlets, ac­cording as they be rated.

So doe they to the Maicures, Consuls, Eschevins and chiefe Officers of every City, that are liable to any of these payments; who rating every man according to his ability, give these Rolles to certaine Collectors to gather it up; these are bound to bring it quarterly to the Receivers. These carry it to the Receivers generall, in the same species that they received it; and from them to have an acquittance, after the accounts have beene perused by the Controler ge­nerall.

And these are all the meanes by which Princes raise their Finances, whereof ye see some nothing to pertaine to the French King, but to others: and some to him only, not to others.

There yet remaineth one other meanes (though extraor­dinary) to a Prince to get money,Sale of Offices which the necessities of the times, and the want of other meanes, have forced the French Kings of late yeares to use. This is the vent or sales of Offices, a very dangerous and hurtfull merchandize, both for the Prince and subject. This Lesson (saith Bodin) the French Kings first learned of the Popes, with whom it is still as familiar as old, to sell Bishopricks livings, and Ec­clesiasticall promotions. This the Popes first beganne at Avignon in France, where their means was scant, and they in many necessities: which still continues both in the Courts of Rome and France, when there is no such necessity. Better is a bad President, than none at all. A course, saith one, of [Page 165] great and dangerous consequence, but clothed with necessity. It is indeed thrice dangerous, because sales of Offices cause sales of Iustice: for what these Purchasers pay in grosse, they must needs get in retaile, forgetting what was said to So­phocles the Governour of Athens: A Governour must not; onely have his hands cleane, but his eyes also. They cannot say as Pericles did on his death bed, Hee had never made, any Athenian weare mourning Robe. For these by selling Iustice, and robbing the poore of their right, give the Fa­therlesse and oppressed. Widow just cause to complaine, and of wearing that mourning robe whereof Plutarch speaketh.

It is a strange thing to consider, and incredible to be­leeve, what infinite masses of money have beene made here in France by these sales, where there is not that Collector, Controller, Treasurer, Sergeant, or subalterne Officer what­soever, but he hath bought it of the Prince, and at no small rate: for I have heard it credibly reported, and yee shall read also in late Writers, that these Offices are bought in France at a dearer rate, than our Lands in England of twen­tie yeares purchase. Yee must observe, they have them for terme of life, and after to returne to the King who is againe to sell them. A man in his sicknesse, or in danger of death, or upon any need whatsoever, may sell this his office, or resigne it to his sonne or friend whatsoever: which sale is good, if the partie live forty dayes after the sale or resignation is confirmed, otherwise not.

Now we are to consider, what Entrade or Revenue the French King yearely maketh by any, or all of the meanes abovesaid.

The Estate of the Finances, Domaine,Riches. and all in Charles the sixth time, Anno 1449. was but 1400000. Livres. Henry the second, Raised upon his people by way of ordinarie Revenue, fifteene hundred thousand pound sterling a yeare: whereof some part hath since beene aliened for the debts of the Crowne, which notwithstanding the King raiseth as much now.

[Page 166] But we may observe, that this summe is of late yeares growne much greater (by two thirds) as is generally belee­ved: For whereas in those dayes, some three or fourescore yeares since, the ordinary summe was fifteene millions of Francs and Livres, it is now so many of Crownes. And Monsieur Rivault, Treasurer to the Duke of Mayen, sha­med not (some twenty yeares since) to say, that his Master had improved the Realme of France, to a better rent than any Prince had done before times: For, saith he, Where as it was worth but two millions of pounds, it is now worth five mil­lions sterling.

And another saith, that only by the sales of Offices in twen­ty yeares space, The King hath raised one hundred thirty and nine millions, which is after the rate of seven millions the yeare. So that it is probably to be inferred, that the Reve­nues are at least fifteene millions of Crownes; wherein all late Writers agree. Neither must wee thinke that men are mistaken, by counting Crownes for Livres, considering that Bodin and La Nove, and most elder Writers speake only of Livres, not of Crownes. For the manner of ac­count in France, is by especiall ordinance commanded to be made by Crownes, and that of Livres to cease: So that whensoever ye read in the stories of France, of any summe of thousands,A good note. millions, or such like, without naming either Francs or Crownes, you are to respect the times when it was written: for if it was above thirty years past, they mean Livres or Francs: If of later yeares than thirty, it is al­wayes to be understood they spake of Crownes; this rule will not faile them.

Having sufficiently spoken of these,Officers of his Finances. it remaineth I keepe the same course I have done hitherto; that is, after the Re­lation of the Court, to reckon up the Officers of Court, and after the discourse of his forces, to speake of his Officers of Warre. So here likewise, after mention made of his Finances and Revenues, to remember his Financers and Officers used for the collection, keeping, and disposing of the same. Of which Officers wee may say, as the Philosopher saith of [Page 167] Wives; that they be Necessarie evils. And as hee saith of them; The lesse of evils is the best: so say we of these, The fewer the better. But when we reade, that the old Romans had of these but one in a Province, you shall observe here in some Province, not so few as one thousand.

The chiefe of these is Treasurer of the Exchequer, The Treasurer insti­tuted in Francis the first his time, in place of the Receiver generall. There is also another Treasurer of Casualties. The third sort are the Treasurers generaux des Finances, whom they also call Treasurers of France. For, as for the Treasu­rers ordinary and extraordinary of the Warres, we have al­ready spoken of them in the relation of his forces, and of the Treasurer of his petty pleasures, when wee spake of his Court. The number of these Treasurers generall, as also of all other Officers of Finances, yee may partly conceive by the number of generalities which are in France, and the se­verall offices of each one of these.

Of these Generalities are twenty and one in all France;Generalities. Paris, Roven, Caen, Nants, Toures, Burges, Poictiers, Agen, Tholouse, Montpellier, Aix, Grenoble, Lion, Ryon, Dyon, Chalons, Amiens, Orleans, Soissons, Lymoges, Maulin.

In each of these Generalities are divers Elections;Elections. that is, divers places for the receit of Finances: as in that of Or­leans, are eleven Elections; in the rest some more, and some lesse, to the number of 170. in all.

In every generality are ten Treasurers;Receivers. three Receivers generall of the Finances; three Receivers generall of the Taillon; one Receiver generall of the Dismes; two Recei­vers generall of the Woods: and for every Receiver, so ma­ny Controllers generall; two Treasurers generall extraordi­narie of the Warre, for the payment of Garrisons and soul­diers in time of Warre.

Bes [...]des all these generall officers,Controlle [...]s. there are also in each particular Election, three Receivers of the Taille, three of the Aids, two of the Taillon, and as many Controllers, besides all other inferiour Officers. If then there bee thus many in one Election onely, ye may judge the infinite num­ber [Page 168] in all France, upon which they lie, as thicke as the Grashoppers in Aegypt.

I must here also remember the chamber of Accounts, the chiefe Court of the Finances: wherein are foure Presidents, twelve Masters, eighteene Auditors, four [...] Correctors, one Procuror generall, one Advocate, one Gressier, six Huissiers or Sergeants, and other inferiour Officers, to the number (as Bodin saith) of two hundred, besides servants; and it is likely the number is not lessened since his time.

In conclusion, the Officers here, and of other places, are so exceeding many, as a President of this Court shewed the Estates of F [...]ance, in the assembly at Blois, that of the Escu (six shillings) which was payed by the Subject, there came but a Teston (one shilling six pence) to the Kings coffers.

The Court of Aides also is as full of Officers, as that other. These Finances (saith one) haue beene so shuffled, al­tered, changed, and reduced into so obscure an Art, that very few either doe, or can understand it, except they have beene brought up in their Cabale that have obscured it. No marvell therfore, though there be much difference among men about the certainty thereof, either for the truth of the summe, or number of the Officers.

The Coines of France are either gold,His Coine. silver, or brasse. In those of gold I must be better instructed my selfe, for I know none but the Crowne (which is of three or foure sorts, whereof that of the Sunne is the best) and the halfe Crowne. Those of silver are the Livres or Franc, which is two shillings sterling: The quart d'escu, which is one shil­ling six pence. The Teston which is halfe a sous lesse: The peece of ten sous, which is one shilling sterling: the halfe quart d'escu, the halfe Teston, and the peece of five sous, that is six pence sterling. Those of Brasse is the price of six Blanks, which is three pence: that of three blanks, three halfe pence. The sous of twelve deniers: the liard of foure deniers, the double of two: and lastly, the denier it selfe, whereof ten make one penny sterling. This baser and smal­ler [Page 169] kind of money, hath not beene used in France, but since the beginning of the civill warres. The Teston is the best silver.

It remaineth I speake of the Administration and Exe­cution of Iustice, and of those places and persons where and by whom it is done: I will therefore beginne with their assemblies, as the highest and greatest Court of all, which well resembleth the Parliament of England, the Dyet of the Empire, or the Councell of [...]e Amphythrions in Greece.

There are three especiall causes of calling these Assem­blies. The first, when the succession of the Crowne was doubtfull, and in controversie, or when it was to take order for the Regency, during the Kings Captivity or Minority, or when they had not the right use of their wits. Hereof yee have examples, Anno 1327. Saint Lewis an Infant: and Charles the sixth, An. Dom. 1380. a Lunaticke: and 1484. Iohn a prisoner. For all which occasions Assemblies were called, to determine who should have the Regency of the Realme in the meane while.

The second cause is, when there is question of reforming the Kingdome, correcting the abuses of Officers and Ma­gistrates, or appeasing troubles and seditions.

The third cause is, the want and necessitie of the King or Kingdome, in which case the Estates are exhorted to give subsidies, subventions, aids, and gratuities. For in for­mer times, the Kings contenting themselves with their Do­maine, and impost of such wares as came in, or went out of the land, (the two most ancient and most just grounds of Fi­nances) were not accustomed to levie and impose upon their Subjects any tax whatsoever, without the consent of the three States thus assembled.

The next Soveraigne Court (for so the French call it) is the Court of Parliament; The true Temple of French Iu­stice: Seat of the King and his Peeres: And as Haillan cals it, the Buttresse of Equity. This Court very much resembleth the Star-Chamber of England, the Arcopage of Athens, the Senate of Rome, the Consiglio de' dieci of Venice.

[Page 170] There are no Lawes (saith Haillan) by which this Court is directed: it judgeth, according to equity and conscience, and mitigateth the rigour of the Law.

Of these Courts of Parliament, ye have eight in France. That of Paris, the most ancient and highest in prehemi­nence, which at first was ambulatory, (as they call it) and ever followed the Kings Court whithersoever it went: but since Philip le Bel, it hath beene sedentary in this Citie. That of Grenoble was erected, Anno 1453. That of Tho­louse. Anno 1302. That of Bourdeaux, Anno 1443. That of Dijon, in the yeare 1476. That of Roven, in the yeare 1501. That of Aix, the same yeare. And lastly, that of Bre­taigne at the yeare 1553. Anciently all Arch-Bishops and Bishops, might sit and give voices in this Parliament of Paris: but in Anno 1463. it was decreed, that none but the Bishop of Paris, and Abbot of Saint Denis might sit there, except he be of the Bloud; for all these are privileged.

The Presidents and Counsellors of the Court of Parlia­ment of Paris, may not depart the Towne without leave of the Court, by the ordinance of Lewis the twelfth, in the yeare 1499. The Senators ought alwayes to bee present, be­cause things are carried with more Majesty when the Court is full.

To this Parliament they appeale from all other subal­terne Courts throughout the Realme, as they doe in Venice to the Consiglio grande. Neither can the King conclude any warre, or peace, without the advice and consent hereof: or at least (as Haillan saith) he demandeth it for fashion sake, sometime when the matters are already concluded.

The Parliament of Paris consisteth of seven Chambers: the Grande c [...]ambre, and five others of Enquests; and the Tournelles, which is the chamber for the criminall causes, as the other six bee for the civill. It is called the Tournelles, because the Iudges of the other Chambers sit there by turnes, every three moneths: the reason whereof Bodin giveth, that it might not alter the naturall inclination of the Iudges, and make them more cruell, by being alwayes ex­ercised [Page 171] in matter of condemnations and executions. There be of this Court, of Presidents, Counsellors, Chevalliers of honour, Procureurs, Advocates, Clerks, Sergeants, and o­ther Officers of all sorts, not so few as two hundred.

Besides this Court, there are also other Courts for the administration of Iustice in this Citie, as the Chatellet of Paris, with a Lieutenant civill, and another criminall; and the Hostel de Paris, with a Prevost, and other inferiour Of­ficers; which is, as ye would say, the Guild-Hall of the Citie. So have ye throughout the Realme certaine places, (as all Cities in generall) where there be Chatellets (like our pla­ces of Assise) and in them a Lieutenant, civill and criminall, to judge and determine all causes reall and personall; and here many Lawyers and Procurers (as our Counsellors at Law, and Atturnies) who plead before those Lieute­nants and Prevosts, and certaine Counsellors, which are the Iudges in these Courts, whereof the number is incredible in France. Insomuch, as you may well say of them, as is said of Sienna; There be more Readers, than Auditors: so here be more Pleaders, than Clients. This Chiquanery (Petti-fogging) & multiplicitie of Pleaders, came first from the Popes Court, when his seat was at Avignon, (as my Author saith) who in the same place cals these Advocates, The Mice of the Palace.

The processes and suits in these Courts throughout France are innumerable, wherein wee come nothing neere them; and yet there is no want of these in England. For I have heard of 340. Nisiprius between parties tried at one Assize in Nor­folke: as many I thinke, as in halfe England besides. But these are onely twice in the yeare, that causes are tried at Assises in our Country, whereas here they are tried every day in the yeare, that is not festivall. So that it is not much unlikely, that here are as many Processes in seven yeares, as have beene in England since the conquest.

There are besides these Courts of Chatellets in Cities, the Courts also of Bailywicks, and Sheriffalties, who as Haillan saith, keepe Courts in each Province, and judge in all mat­ters civill and criminall.

[Page 172] Here is also the Privie Councell, or Councell of affaires: of the Counsellors (among which are his foure Secretaries) he calleth certaine every morning at his rising, to whom he communicates apart, his principall and most importing af­faires, where are read all letters which come from other Prin­ces, and such like publike businesse, and after a conclusion what is to be done, the dispatch thereof is committed to the Secretaries.

The other, is the Great Councell, or Councell of Estate; which at first, was, as it were, a member of the Parliament, and consisted of the Princes of the Bloud and Nobility, ha­ving only to deale in the matters of the policy generall of France, or of warres; or of the enacting and publishing of Edicts. But the faction of Orleans and Burgundy, cau­sed it to bee changed to a choice number of Counsellors▪ provisioned of 1000. crownes pension apeece yearely. Of this Councell the Chancellor is chiefe, for neither the King himselfe, nor any Prince of the Bloud comes there. This is the Court of which the Frenchman saith, every time it is holden, it costs the King a thousand crownes a day. And now, (saith Haillan) he cannot keepe them so cheape, so infinite is the number of them growne. Where he also com­plaines, that this Conseil d' Estat, which was wont only to determine publike affaires, as the establishment of justice, the Reglement of Finances, and redressing of common grie­vances, is now so charged with private contentions, as the glory thereof is much diminished.

The Chancellor anciently served as a Secretarie, and so was called in the old Charters of France, where hee is like­wise called the Grand Referendaire. The Secretary doth signe, and the Chancellor doth seale.

The Secretary is next in office, who at first were called Clerks. They are either of the Finances (which have their place among the Officers of the Finances, before remem­bred) or of Affaires which we heare speake of. Of these are foure, which are called principall.

Governours and Lieutenants generall of Cities and Pro­vinces, [Page 173] are as it were, Vice-royes and Regents of those places committed to them: and indeed the persons sustaining these charges, are much more Noble than those of the Secre [...]aries, as being for the most part conferred upon the Princes of the Bloud, and Peeres of France.

The Governours of Cities were in old time called Dukes, and they of Provinces, Counts. They were at first only in Frontier Provinces, but now since the troubles of France, they have had the command over Cities and Countries, even in the midst and bowels of the Land: So that now, saith Haillan, France is become a Frontier to it selfe on every side.

There are but few Cities, whereof anciently there were Governours, as Rochel, Calais, Paronne, Bologne, Mondidier, Narbonne, Bayonne, and two or three others: Others, that had keeping of some small Castle or Fort, was onely called the Keeper, or Captaine at most. But now, saith Haillan, lib. 4. every paltry fellow that hath the keeping of a Pigeon­house, must forsooth be called, My Lord the Governour; and my Mistresse his Wife, My Lady the Governesse.

The Governour of Daulphenie hath greatest privile­ges; for hee giveth all Offices in his Province: in other pla­ces they can give none, except they have it by expresse words in their Patent. The Governour may not be absent above six moneths in a yeare; but the Lieutenant must never be ab­sent, without leave of the Prince, except teh Governour be present.

There is yet an Office, whereof I must remember you, which is one of the chiefest in France, either for honour or profit, called grand Maistre des Eaues & Forests. All mat­ters concerning the Kings Chases, Forests, Woods and Wa­ters whatsoever, are determined by him, by the Grand M. Enquesteur, and by their Reformateur, at the Table of Mar­ble under him are infinite sorts of Officers, and divers others: As the particular Master of each Forest, their Lieutenants, Overseers of the sale of woods, and the other Officers here spe­cified.

But I will not load this short Relation, with reckoning [Page 174] up all the divers and infinite sorts of Officers, where with France herselfe seemeth t [...] be over-loaden, as partly ye have heard already:and yee shall reade in Bodin, how hee com­plaines, not only of the multiplicitie of Offices in generall; but also, that even the Councell of Estate is surcharged with number: where you may likewise observe, how he approves the Privie Councell of England erected some foure hundred and odde yeares since, where are never, saith he, above twen­tie, by whose sage direction, the Land hath long flourished in Armes and Lawes. And for the execution of Lawes, and administration of Iustice, yee may remember what hath beene said before, that the Lawes are good and just, but not justly executed. Where Haillan comparing the time, saith: Then great ones were punished, but since, only pettie fellowes; and great ones goe Scot-free.

Th'ensnaring Lawes let Crowes goe free,
While simple Doves ent [...]ngled bee.

HAving thus related of the Topography and Policie of France, it remaineth I speake somewhat of the Oecono­mie; that is, of the people of France, comprised under the three Estates, of the Clergie, the Nobilitie, and Comminaltie: of the severall humour, profession, and fashion of each of them, which is the third and last branch of this Relation.

The Church Gallicane, The Clergie. is holden the best privilege of all those of Christendome, that have not yet quit their subjecti­on to the Pope. It hath alwayes protested against the Inqui­sition; It is more free from payments to the Pope, than the Church of Spaine, as also to the King: For here in France they only pay the Disme: but in Spaine, the King hath his Tertias, Subsidio, Pil [...], and Escusado: in all, a moitie of the Church living. Indeed it is reported of this Catholike King, that he hath founded many Abbeyes and Religious Houses: but what saith his Subject? He steales the sheepe, and gives the Trotters for Gods sake.

In this Church of France are twelve Archbishopricks, one hundred and foure Bishoprickes, five hundred and fortie [Page 175] Archpriories, one thousand foure hundred and fifty Abbeys, twelve thousand three hundred and twenty Priories, five hundred sixtie seven Nunneries, one hundred and thirtie thousand Parish Priests, seven hundred Convents of Friers, and two hundred fiftie nine Commendums of the Order of the Knights of Malta. There are, saith the Cabinet du Roy, three millions of people, that live upon the Church of France: where he particularly setteth downe in each Dio­cesse, the number of all sorts of Religious people, as also the number of their Whores, Bawds, Bastards, and Servants of all sorts: And why not? (saith he) as well as the Magiti­ans undertake in their Inventory of the Diabolike Monar­chie, to set downe the names and surnames of 76. Princes, and seven millions, foure hundred and five thousand, nine hundred, twentie and six Devils.

The Church hath, for all this rabble to live upon,The Temporal livings of the Church. these two things: First, her Temporall Revenues, and secondly, her Spirituall, which they call the Baise-mani. Of her Tem­porall Revenues, divers men judge diversly.

The Cabinet, The grosse er­rors of the Ca­binet of France. who in all his computations makes of a Mouse an Elephant, saith, that they are fourescore milli­ons of crownes the yeare, besides the Baise-mani, which is as much more, and besides an infinite provision, which they reserve, and is paid them over and except their Rents, by their Farmers and Tenants; as of Wheat, foure millions, five hundred thousand quarters: of Rye, two millions, three hundred thousand quarters: of Oats, nine hundred thou­sand: of Barley, eight hundred thousand: of Pease and Beanes, eight hundred sixtie thousand: Capons, one hun­dred sixty thousand: Hens, five hundred sixtie thousand: Partridge 50000. Beeves, 12000. Muttons, one million two hundred thousand: Wine, one million two hundred thou­sand Cuues: Egges, seven millions: Butter, 230000. Quin­taux: Cheese, five hundred thousand: Hogs, one hundred thirty six thousand: Pigges, three hundred forty thousand: Tallow, sixty thousand Quintaux: Hey, six hundred thou­sand loads: Straw, eight hundred thousand: Wood, two [Page 176] millions: with an infinite proportion of other necessaries, imaginary only, and incredible. And yet he there a voweth all things, with as great confidence, as if himselfe had had the true abstract from all the Bookes of Accounts in each Monastery and Benefice in this Land. For how is it possible, the Church should have 200. millions of crownes yearely Rent, when as by the computation, here are but just so many Arpens of Land in all France, which to rate one with ano­ther, at a crowne an Arpen, comes to this account, which he allowes the Clergie, and then is there nothing left for the o­ther two States, of the Nobilitie and people.

But inasmuch as the better halfe of their Revenue is by the Baise-mani, there remaineth the better halfe of the Land to the other two States; which notwithstanding is a pro­portion small enough.

Neere unto this reckoning commeth that which we reade in Bodin, of Alemant, a president of accounts in Paris, whose judgement must carry good authority in this case, as a thing belonging to his profession, and wherein he was best experi­enced:‘The Church Revenues in Land are reckoned orderly, at twelve millions and three hundred thousand Livres: but I dare justifie (saith he) that of twelve parts of the Revenues of France, the Church possesse seven.’

This opinion Bodin seemes to allow: But it is rather thought to be true, that the Comment de l' estat saith, who of the two hundred millions of Arpens, allowes the Church forty seven millions, which by particulars of their Vine­yards, Medowes, arable-Pastures, and Heaths, with their Woods, is there set downe: which here to follow in particu­lar were too tedious. Besides this Temporall, they have their Baise-mani (as is said) that consisteth in Churchings, Christnings, Marriages, Burials, Holy-bread, Indulgences, Vowes, Pilgrimages, Feasts, Processions, Prayers for cattle, for seasonable weather, for Children, against all manner of diseases, and infinite such purposes; for which the supersti­tious people will have a Masse said, which they pay the Priest for particularly: over and besides all this, there is [Page 177] scarce that Arpen in all France, upon which there is not some Dirige, or de profundis; some libera me Domine, or some rec­koning or other liable.

Concerning them of the Reformed Religion, whom here in contempt they call Hugnonets; yee may note, that the number is not small, considering that after the conference of Poissie, above forty yeares since, here were found 2150. Churches of them; whereof not one hath escaped without some murthers or massacres: and we may imagine, that since that time this number is much increased.

But as for Religion, it hath onely beene the cloake and shadow of their ambitious pretences, without the which, they could never have insinuated themselves so farre into the hearts of the people, who are alwayes the gros de la bataille, the maine Battell: and without whom, the Nobilitie may well quarrell, but they cannot fight.

And therefore yee shall reade in some of the same Religi­on reformed, That there were Huguonets, as well of Estate [...] as of Religion.

These have now free permission to professe, and places al­lotted for exercise, with all libertie of conscience possible, save that in the chiefe Cities of France they have no Chur­ches allowed, neither can be buried in Christian buriall (as they call it) if any of them die among the Catholikes, with whom not withstanding they now live peaceably, thorow­out the Countrey. But me thinkes, they have here small rea­son to let them live together in a house, and not suffer them to lie together in a Church-yard.

And as for warring any long [...]r for Religion; the French­m [...] utterly disclaimes it; he is at last growne wise, marry he hath bought it somewhat deare; The Italian is wise b [...] ­forehand: the Almaine, in the doing: and the French [...] after the thing is done, saith one of their own writers, let us p [...]s [...]aetor sap [...]

Concerning the Nobilitie of France (saith La Nove; [...]. They are exceeding valorous and courteous; and there is no State in Christendome, where they are in so great number.

It hath beene argued before in this Relation, that there be [Page 178] at least 50000. able to beare Armes, but that is thought with the most. Monsieur du Fay thinks them about thirty thousand: in which number, ye must conclude all degrees of Gentlemen, from the highest to the lowest that beare Armes: for so the French call their Noblesse, whereas we in England make two distinct orders of the Nobility & Gentry (as they call it:) Those are Noble, which can prove a long tract of time, wherein a Fee and Knights service thereto be­longing, hath resided in their family. And another Writer saith, In France men are esteemed Noble by bloud and pro­fession of Arme [...].

And sure, if there be difference in Nobility, as there must needs bee, because the causes be different; for some are enno­bled by their valour and Martiall knowledge, and others by their Offices and prudence in the manage of matters of Estate: I see no reason, but that these last should be holden the more Noble Nobility, (if I may so say) alwayes giving the first place to them that are of Noble Houses by Race.

For of all these three sorts the French Writers speake, when they say; There is a difference of Nobles: The first by Race: The second by Ennobling: and of Ennobling there are two sorts: One by Patent, duly proved in the Court of Parlia­ment: The other, by meanes of Offices to which they are ad­vanced.

And howsoever Turquet hereof inferreth, that it is la vertu que fait la Noblesse, car [...]ily a de nobles vilains, et de vi­lains nobles: Vertue that maketh Nobility, for there are No­ble Peasants, and peasantly Nobles: yet sure it is, that the degenerating of one from the Vertue of his Ancestors, can­not prejudice the Nobility, nor Eclipse the glory of his Suc­ceeder, who, as Histories shew, many times excell all the former of their house.

The highest degree of honour in France, [...]ec [...]es of [...]ance. is the Pairrie, in which order have beene sometimes seven, sometimes eleven, never above seventeene, and most commonly twelve. Whereupon they are called the Twelve Peeres of France. These have the precedence before all the rest of the Nobi­lity, [Page 179] and of these, they of the Bloud, although they were latest called into the Pairrie. Of these Peeres, there be six of the Clergie. 1. Arch-Bishop and Duke of Rhemes. 2. Bi­shop and Duke of Laon. 3. Bishop and Duke of Langres. 4. Bishop and Comte of Beauvais. 5. Bishop and Comte of Novon. 6. Bishop and Comte of Chalons.

Of Temporall. 1. Duke of Burgundy. 2. Duke of Nor­mandie. 3. Duke of Guyenne. 4. Count of Tholouse. 5. Count of Champaigne. 6. Count of Flanders. Since these were first instituted, many other houses have beene ad­mitted into the Pairrie, by the Kings of France, and the old worne out: As to them of Burgundie and Flanders, were added the Dukes of Bretaigne, Burbon, Anjow, Berrie, Or­leans, the Counts of Arthois, Ereux, Alenson, Estampes, all of the Bloud in Charles the fifths time.

Since also, in the times of Charles the ninth, and Henry the third, have new Pairries beene erected, as Nevers, Van­dosine, Guise, Monpensier, Beaumont, Albret, Aumal, Me­morencie, Vzes, Pentheur, Mercoeur, Ioieuse, Espernon, Rets▪ M [...]nb [...]son, Vantadoure, and others.

Ye must observe, that the five ancientest Pairries of the Temporality, are returned to the Crowne, the sixth which is of Flanders, doth recognize it no longer, as now being Spanish.

Some say, these Pairres (quasi pares [...]inter se) were first erected by Charlemaigne, others by Hugh Cap [...]t, and others (which is holden for the truest) by Lewis le yeune, 1179. to aid and assist the King in his Councell (saith Bodin.) And therefore the Session of the King with his Pairres, was cal­led The Parliament without addition: as the Kings Bro­thers and Sisters are called Monsieur, and Madame sans queve: whereas all other Soveraigne Courts are named with an addition, as Le Parlement de Paris: le Parl. de Roven, &c.

Yee may also observe, that they of the Laity have the right hand of the King, and the Clergie the left, in all as­semblies or solemne Sessions whatsoever.

[Page 180] I thinke this division of the Pairrie, into these two sorts, was derived from that ancient order of the Gaules, of whom Caesar speaketh: Of the Nobility of Gallia, are two sorts; the D [...]des, and Gentlemen: where he likewise discourseth of their divers Offices.

This Honour of Pairre of France, was at first given for life onely, afterwards for them and their Heires Males; and lastly, to the women also for default of Males: who likewise are called to sit in Councell and Assemblies (as are the Queenes of France;) as at the Assembly at Blois, and at the the Arrest of Counte de Clermont, in the time of Saint Lewis, where the Countesse of Flanders is named present among the other Peeres.

Ye must note, that Peeres and Princes of the Bloud bee privileged from being subject to any Writ or Processe, but in case of high Treason: and then also no Processe can bee commenced against them, before any other Iudges what­soever, but before the King, sitting in his Court of Parlia­ment, sufficiently assisted by the Peeres of France. All other Iudges are incompetent.

But to leave the discourse of this highest honour in France, and speake of the Noblesse in generall, ye shall read in history, that at the end of the second Race of Kings, they beganne to take their surnames, of their principall Feifs: Since when, of later yeares, some have contrarily put their surnames upon their Feifs, which hath so confounded the Nobl [...]sse (saith Haillan) as it is now hard to finde out the ancient and true Nobility.

These are they among whom the Proverbe is still cur­rant, A man of W [...]rre should have no more learning, but to be able to write his owne name: And therefore their profes­sion is onely Armes and good Horsemanship, wherein if they have attained any perfection, they little esteeme other vertues, not caring what the Philosopher saith: One only, Anchor is not sufficient to hold a great ship. Nor conside­ring that the old Gallants of the World, were wont to joyne the one with the other: and ancient Painters were accusto­med [Page 181] to paint the Muses all together in a troope; to signifie, that in a Nobleman they should not be parted.

Hereof it commeth, that the French Noblesse glorying in their Armes, call themselves, The Arme of their Country, the Guardians of Armes, and Terrour of their Enemies; but they never stile themselves the Professors of vertue.

This Estate of the Nobility, saith one, of all the three Estates is smallest in number of men, and poorest in living: which no question must needs be true, after so long a civill warre: and herewith accordeth he that wrote the late trou­bles. The French Noblesse is fallen from their ancient wealth, wherwith they were adorned in the times of Lewi [...] the twelfth, and Francis the first. And I durst affirme, that if all they that bear this Title were divided into ten parts, eight of them are impaired by sales, morgages, or other debts.

The same Author yeeldeth five reasons of the poverty of the Noblesse of France. First, the Civill Warres. Secondly, Superfluous expences in apparell. Thirdly, Houshold-stuffe. Fourthly, Building. Fifthly, Diet and Followers. And in another place, taxing the extreme prodigality & superfluity of the French in their Apparell, Building, and Diet, he saith, If the Warre hath brought us foure ounces of poverty, our owne follies have gotten us twelve. I will not herein bee mine owne judge, (saith hee) but let us doe as Players at Tennis, be judged by all the lookers on, and they will con­fesse, that by these excessive expences a great number of the Noblesse goe a foot pace, others trot, and many runne post to the downfals of poverty.

I should in this relation of the French Nobility, doe them great wrong, to beleeve and report for truth, what the Cabinet du Roy, one of their owne Country, saith of them; who according to the severall Provinces, giveth them severall Epithites.

‘The Noblesse of Berry (saith he) are Paillards; Lea­chers: they of Tourraine, are Voleurs, Theeves: they of Guyenne, Coyners: they of Tholouse, Traitors: they of Narbonne Covetous: they of Province, Atheists: they of [Page 182] Lyonnois, Treacherous: they of Rhoimes, Superstition [...] they of Normandie, Insolent: they of Pr [...]die, Proud▪ and so forth of all the rest.’

But I will doe them more right, and conclude of them, that for privilege and noblenesse of Race, they may com­pare with any Nobility of Christendome. For proofe of the first; The King hath nothing of his Noblesse, but Sword-ser­vice. And for the second, saith another; The French No­blesse is composed of so famous houses, that there are a do­zen of them descended by right line from Kings, that have peaceably possessed Kingdomes.

Having briefly spoken of the two first Estates of France, the Clergy and Nobility: It lastly remaineth, I speake of the people in generall, and namely, of their freenesse of Speech; manner of Diet; kinds of Buildings; sorts of Ex­ercises; fashion of Apparell; diversitie of Language; sud­dennesse of apprehending; rashnesse in executing; impa­tience in deliberation, and divers other natures and hu­mours proper to the Frenchmen; wherein ye shall not looke for a methodicall and large discourse, but a briefe and com­pendious remembrance of such things, as I have read and observed in this Nation.

It is incredible to beleeve, and odious to heare, how the Frenchman will talke, & impudently utter what he foolish­ly conceiveth, not onely of all forren States and Princes of the World, but even of their owne State and King him­selfe; of whom he will not spare to speake whatsoever hee heareth, and sometimes also more than the truth; which insufferable vice of theirs, I here put in the first place, be­cause I hold it of all others the most disloyall and unlaw­full. Hereof the wisest so [...] of them much complaine, and wish reformation: but it is a thing so naturall with them, as

—Expellas furca licet, usque recurret.

He hath besides this liberty of speaking, a propertie in­cident to such like natures: namely, an inquisitive listning and hearkning after newes, which is an old fashion of theirs, and hath continued with them many hundred yeares. It is [Page 183] usuall with all the Gauls, both to constraine Travellers (though unwilling) to stay, and to inquire of each of them, what hee hath heard or understood of every matter: and with the popular in Townes, to flocke about Merchants, and compell them to tell from what parts they come, and what newes they heard there: And led by these rumours and heare-sayes, they determine many times of most weightie affaires, of which determinations they must needs eft-soones repent them.

Concerning the diet, it is, to keepe no diet: for they feed at all times, there being among them very few which (be­sides their ordinary of dinner and supper) doe not Gouster, as they call it, and make collations, three or foure times the day, a thing as usuall with the women as men, whom yee shall see in open streets before their doores, cat and drinke together. No marvell therefore though the Italian cals them the only Gourmands.

The French fashion is to lard all meats; whose provision ordinary is not so plentifull as ours, nor his Table so well furnished: howbeit, in Banquets they farre exceed us; for he is as friand (licourish) as the Trencher-men of Media, or Aesope the Tragedian, who spent fifteene thousand crownes at one feast, in the tongues of Birds only. He liveth not like the Italian, with Roots chiefly and Hearbs: nor like the La­cedemonian, that weares his haire shaven close to his skinne, bathes himselfe in cold water, eats browne bread, and sups blacke broth. Nor like the Scythian, who faith, hunger is my best cheere, the ground my bed, Beasts skins my clothing; but rather like Alcibiades, of whom Plutarch reporteth, that hee was over-delicate in his dyet, dissolute in love of wanton women, excessive in banquets, and over-superfluous and [...]ffeminate in apparell.

As for the poore Paisant, hee fareth very-hardly, and fee­deth most upon bread and fruits, but yet hee may comfort himselfe with this; that though his fare be nothing so good as the Plough-mans and poore Artificers in England, yet is it much better than that of the Villano in Italy.

[Page 184] Of the French Buildings I have spoken before in the Re­lation of Paris, both that it is lately growne to be more mag­nificent, than it was in former times, and that many thereby have much weakened their estate.

You may therefore observe, that as I there said, the Citie of Paris was better built than that of London: so are in ge­nerall, all the Cities and Villages in France, fairer than ours in England, comparing the one with the other.

As for the manner of Building here, how beautifull soe­ver it be to the eye, the Offices and roomes, me thinkes, are not so well contrived as ours, to the use. One thing there is, by which they are much beautified; namely, the blewish kinde of Tyle, which here they have in great quantitie, the which is very hard, and therefore durable; and very thinne and light, and therefore not so burthensome to a house, as is our Tyle in England.

Concerning their Apparell,Their Apparel. if yee well observe that of the Citizen, both men and women, it is very seemely and de­cent: that of the Paisant, very poore, all whose apparell for the most part, is of Linnen: As for that of the Noblesse, yee shall heare what La Nove saith; The Noblesse in their ex­pence in apparell, are excessive and very rich. And yet mee thinkes, nothing so rich and costly as ours; the onely excesse whereof, is the greatest prejudice and hinderance to the Common-wealth.

This Author reproveth two things in the French Appa­rell. First, that every Gallant, forsooth, must have many sutes at once, and change often in the yeare: and therefore (saith he) if in the Court they spie one in a sute of the last yeares making, they scoffingly say: We know him well enough, he will not hurt us, hee's an Apple of the last yeare.

The second thing he dislikes, is this; that every two yeare the fashion changeth. And hereof it commeth, that when yee see all other Nations painted in the proper habit of their Countrey, the Frenchman is alwayes pictured with a paire of Sheeres in his hand; to signifie, that he hath no peculiar habit of his owne, not contenteth himselfe long with the [Page 185] habit of any other, but according to his capricious humour, deviseth daily new fashions.

This varietie of fashions, a man may well note in the Fripperies of Paris, whereof saith La Nove, if one would make a pourtraict in a Table, it would be the most sportfull thing that may be.

I am now by order to speake of his Exercises: wherein,Their Exer­cises. me thinkes the Frenchman is very immoderate, especially in those which are somewhat violent for yee shall see them play Sets at Tennis in the heat of Summer, and height of the day, when others were scarce able to stirre out of doo [...]es. This immoderate play, in this unseasonable time, toge­ther with their intemperate drinking and feeding, is the on­ly cause, that here yee see them generally itchie and scab­bed; some of them in so foule a sort, as they are unfit for any honest Table.

Among all the other exercises of France, I preferre none before the Palle-maille, both because it is a Gentleman-like Sport, not violent, and yeelds good occasion and opportuni­tie of discourse, as they walke from the one marke to the o­ther: I marvell, among many more apish and foolish toyes, which wee have brought out of France, that wee have not brought this sport also into England.

Concerning their shooting with the Crosse-bow,Shooting. it is used, but not very commonly. Once in a yeare, there is in each City a shooting with the Peece at a Popingay of wood, set upon some high Steeple (as also they doe in many places of Germanie.) He that hitteth it downe, is called the king for that yeare, and is free from all Tax: besides, he is allowed twentie crownes towards the making of a Collation for the rest of the shooters. And if it happen, that three yeares to­gether he carry the Prize, he is free from all tax and imposi­tion whatsoever, all his life after.

This custome, no question, is very laudable, whose end tendeth much to a publike benefit: for by this practice and emulation, he groweth more ready and perfect in the use of his Peece, and so more able and fit to doe his Country service. [Page 186] And I suppose, if in times past we had had like Prizes for the long Bow (the ancient glory of our English service) we had not so soone quit the exercise thereof, nor degenerated so far from ancient custome. So doe I thinke, that in these dayes, wherein the Peece is only prized, if we have this fashion of France and Germanie, in England, to reward him in every place that should best deserve therein; that our Country­man would grow more perfect and expert in the use thereof: at whose unaptnesse and aukwardnesse in their first training, before they come to have served some time, I have often marvelled.

He hath also his sports of Bowling, Carding, Dicing, and other unlawfull, and unusefull games; whereof I will omit to speake, being too common both with them and us.

As for the exercise of Tennis-play,Tennis-play. which I above remem­bred, it is more here used, than in all Christendome besides; whereof may witnesse the infinite number of Tennis-courts thorowout the Land, insomuch as yee cannot finde that lit­tle Burgade; or Towne in France, that hath not one or moe of them. Here are, as you see, threescore in Orleans, and I know not how many hundred there be in Paris: but of this I am sure, that if there were in other places the like propor­tion, yee should have two Tennis-courts, for every one Church thorow France. Mee thinkes it is also strange, how apt they be here to play well, that yee would thinke they were borne with Rackets in their hands, even the children themselves manage them so well, and some of their women also, as we observed at Blois.

There is this one great abuse in their exercise, that the Magistrates doe suffer every poore Citizen and Artificer to play thereat, who spendeth that on the Holy-day at Ten­nis, which hee got the whole weeke, for the keeping of his p [...]o [...]e family. A thing more hurtfull than our Ale-houses in England, though the one and the other be bad enough. And of this I dare assure you, that of this sort of poore peo­ple, there be more Tennis-players in France, than Ale-drin­kers, or Malt-wormes (as they call them) with us.

[Page 187] Neither would I speake of Dancing, save only,Dancing. that I pre­sume, yee will give me leave, for Methods sake, having un­dertaken to speake of the French exercises, not to omi [...] that of Dancing, wherein they most delight, and is most gene­rally used of all others. And I am perswaded, were it not for this; That they of the Reformed Religion may not dance, (being an exercise, against which their strait-laced Ministers much inveigh) that there had long since many of the Catholikes turned to their side: so much are they all in generall addicted hereunto. For yee shall onely see the Gentlewomen and them of the better sort, but every poore draggle-taile, even to the Cobblers daughter, that can dance with good measure and Art, all your Quarantes, Levaltics, Bransies, and other dances whatsoever: not so much but the Chamber-maid, and poore Citizens wife, dance usually in the City-streets, in a round, like our Country Lasses on their Towne-greene, about the May-pole, making musick of their owne voices, without any Instrument. And rather than saile, the old women themselves, both Gentle and base, who have moe toes than teeth, and those that are left, leaping in their heads, like Iacks in Virginals, will beare their part. This argueth (I will not say a lightnesse and immodestie in beha­viour, but) a stirring spirit, and livelinesse in the French na­ture: whereof also the musicke and songs they have,Musicke. is no small argument: for there is not almost a Tune in all France, which is not Ienicke, or Lydian, of five or seven tunes: a note forbidden youth by Plato and Aristotle, because, saith Bo­din, it hath great force and power to soften and esseminate mens mindes. The tune Doricke, which is more grave musick, and was commanded for the singing of Psalmes in the Primitive Church, their inconstant and stirring humour cannot brooke by any meanes.

It remaineth, I speake of their Language,Their Lan­guage. of whom the Italian hath a Proverbe: The French neither pronounce as they write, nor sing as they pricke, nor thinke as they speake. In which first point, they differ from the Lutine, Italian, Spa­nish, and Greek, who fully pronounce every letter in the word: [Page 188] whereas the French to make his speech more smooth, and Ceulante, (as he termes it) leaves out very many of his con­sonants, whereby it now is growne almost as sweet a tongue to the care, as the Italian or Greeke: which two, by reason of the many vowels, are questionlesse the most delicate languages of the World.

It now remaineth I speake of the French nature and hu­mour; which by the change of his speech, apparell, and building, by his credulity to any tale which is told, and by his impatience and haste in matter of deliberation, whereof I shall not omit presently to speake, ye may judge to be ve­ry idle,1. In delibera­tion. wavering, and inconstant. Saith one, As the French­mens pronuntiation is very fast, so are their wits very wave­ring. And ye shall reade in Caesars Commentaries very of­ten, how he taxeth them of this leality and suddennesse: Caesar being informed of these matters, and fearing the unsta­blenesse of the Gaules, (as being sudden and wavering in their resolutions, and generally desirous of innovations) he thought fit not to trust them: And in another place, Caesar understanding that almost all the Gaules were naturally hungrie of change, and unconstantly and suddenly stirred to war, &c. And againe, Vt sunt Gallorum subita & repentina consilia: As the resolu­tions of the Gaules are sudden and unlooked for, &c.

To conclude, if yee will rightly know the Nature and Humor of the ancient Gauls, ye must reade the sixth of these Commentaries, and you shall observe how strange it is, that though all other things in the world are subject to change, yet the same naturall of lightnesse and inconstancie still re­maines in the French. This is aptly shewed by Haillan, in his description of Lewis the eleventh: If he had one thing, he straight casts his affection to another, being violent, busie­hea [...]ed, and impatient.

To this accordeth another of their owne Writers;2. In matter of Warre Such is the condition of France, that if she have no Wars abroad against powerfull Neighbours, shee must have broiles at home among her owne Subjects, and her working spirits can never remaine long quiet. And therefore Tacitus cals them, Levissima homi­num [Page 189] gene [...]: The most sickle kinde of Men; sudden to be­ginne, and more sudden to end, apter to apprehend the acti­on, than comprehend the cause, ready to lay hold, not able to hold fast: as by the making and revoking of so many Edicts, against the Reformed Religion in so short a time, and by many other their actions appeareth.

For ye must observe of the French, that he entrech a Coun­trey like thunder, and vanisheth out againe like smoke: He resembleth the Waspe. who after the first stroke, loseth her sting, and can hurt no more.

He sheweth this his lightnesse and inconstancie,3. Entertai­ning of friend­ship. not only in matters of service and warre, but also even in other his actions and carriages: But in nothing more than in his fa­miliarity, with whom a stranger cannot so soone be off his herse, but he will be acquainted; nor so soone in his cham­ber, but the other like an Ape will be on his shoulder: and as suddenly, and without cause ye shall lose him also. A childish humour, to be won with as little as an Apple, & lost with lesse than a Nut: Quite contrary to the nature of the Italian, of whom ye shall in your travell observe, that he is of too fullen and retired a fashion, and a loupgarou (as the Frenchman cals him) wherein I would wish you to observe the vertue of the Englishman, (for vertue is a mediocrity be­tweene two extremes) who is neither so childishly and [...]pishly familiar as the French, nor so scornfully and Cya [...] ­ [...]ally solitary as the other.

So are we in matter of Duell and private quarrell,4. In mana­ging [...] in a [...] me thinks, betwene these two Nations: for we are [...] to devillishly mind fall of re [...]e [...]ge, a, notarry seven or [...]n yeares for an opportunity upon our enemy, as doth the Italian not so inconsiderately hasty, as we must needs either fight to day, or be friends tomorrow, as doth the French.

Of the French carriage, and manage of a quarrell, how childish and ridiculous it is, I have seene two or three ex­amples; wherein the parties have neither shewed judge­ment to know their owne right, nor valour to revenge their wrong: whereas the English Gentleman, with mature de­liberation, [Page 190] disputeth how farre his honour is ingaged, by the injury offered, and judiciously determineth his manner of satisfaction, according to the quality of the offence: which done, he presently imbarketh himselfe into the acti­on, according to the prescription of the old rule, Post quam consulueris, mature opus est facto: wise resolutions should be speedily executed.

I will here remember you of one other instance more, wherein our Country-men keepe the golden meane, be­tweene the two extremes of defect and excesse, and wherein these two Nations of Italy and France are culpable, and here worthily to be taxed.

Wee may say of the Italian, [...] his wife. who maketh his house his wives prison, as Plutarch saith of the Persians: They are by nature strangely and cruelly jealous of their Women, not onely of their Wives, but also of their Slaues and Concubines, whom they guard so strainly, that they are neuer seene abroad, but remaine alwayes locked up in their houses: Whereas the French liberty on the other side is too much: for here a man hath many occasions offered upon any small entrance to come acquainted; and upon every least acquaintance to enter, where he may come to her house, accompany her arme in arme in the streets, court her in all places, and at all leasons, without imp [...]tation. Wherein me thinks, the French married man doth as Plutarch reports of Pericles, take away the Wals and fences of his Orchards and Gardens, to the end every man might freely enter and gather fruit at his pleasure.

No marvell then, the bridle being left in their owne hands, though sometimes they be saddled, and their Hus­bands know not. You may observe therefore, that in this matter of Wedlocke also, the English use is better than ei­ther the Italian or French.

It is also naturall to the French, 6. In aptnesse to scoffe. to be a great scoffer; for men of light and unsteady braines, have commonly sudden and sharpe conceits. Hereto also their language well agreeth, as being currant and full of proverbs; to which purpose I will [Page 191] remember you of two answers, not long since made by two Frenchmen, wherein you may observe how little esteeme they hold of the Roman Religion in heart, though they make profession thereof in shew.

The one of these being very f [...]ke, and, as was thought, in danger of death, his ghostly father comes to him with his Corpus Domini, and tels him, that hearing of the extre­mity wherein hee was, hee had brought him his Saviour to comfort him before his departure. The sicke Gentleman with-drawing the curtaine, and seeing there the fat lubber­ly Fryer with the Host in his hand, answereth; I know it is our Saviour, he comes to me as he went to Ierusalem, C [...] est, vn asne qui le porte: He is carried by an Asse.

The other Gentleman upon like danger of sicknesse, ha­ving the Frier come to him to instruct him in the Faith, and after to give him the Host, and the extreme unction (it was on a Friday) told him that he must beleeve, that this Corpus Domini which he brought, was the very reall flesh, bloud, and bone of our Saviour. Which after the sicke man had freely confessed, the Frier offered it him to receive for his comfort. Nay, quoth the other, You shall excuse me, for I [...] eat no flesh on Fridayes. So that yee see the French will ra­ther lose his God, than his good jest.

The French humour also (faith one) Cannot away with pa­tience vid modesty. And therefore another saith of him, that he is as shamefast and modest, As a Page of the Court. Or as Hiperbolus, who, Plutarch saith, for his boldnesse and faucie impudency, was the onely subject in his time, for all Satyricks and Comedians to worke upon.

He is also such a one, as Theophrastus cals immundus, un­cleanly; Who being leprous and scabby, and wearing long un­pared nailes, thrusts himselfe into company, and sayes, those diseases come to him by kinde; for both his Father, and his Grand-father were subject unto them.

He is loquax, Talkative, who had rather seeme more chat­ting than a Swallow, than hold his peace: so willing is he to make himselfe ridiculous. With which people (it is strange) [Page 192] yee shall talke all day, and yet at night not remember whereof he hath talked; such multiplicity of words he hath; and so idle is the matter whereof he treateth.

Hee is also I [...]t [...]mpest [...]vus, unseasonably troublesome: Who [...] to his friend f [...]ll of businesse, will give him coun­ [...], before hee have imparted the ma [...]er unto him: Of which kinde of people, Theophrasrus bids us beware, where he saith: If you will not bee troubled with a sit of an Ag [...]e, you must runne as fast as your legs can carry you from such kinde of men, for it is very troublesome living with fel­lowes, that cannot distinguish the seasons of leasure and affaires.

He is Microphilotimos, that is, proud of trifles: Who, if he have sacrificed an Oxe, useth to naile up the head and hornes at his gate, that all that come to him, may take no­tice that he hath kild an Oxe. And if hee bee to pay forty shillings, will be sure to pay it in new-coined money. This is he that comes to the Tennis-Court, throwes his purse full of coine at the line, which giveth a found as if there were no lesse than thirty or forty crounes, whenas sometimes by mis­chance we have discovered that it was nothing but Paper, and a few Sols, and doublesse of Brasse that made it so swell, in all scarce eighteene pence sterling.

Hee is Oftentator, a Craker: who comming to such as have great horses to sell, makes them beleeve he will buy some: And at great Faires, drawing to their shops that sell apparell, cals to see a sute of an hundred pounds; and when they are agreed of the price, fals out with his boy, for following him without his purse. Such a one was the Gallant, who in the middest of his discourse with many Gentlemen, suddenly turned backe to his Lackie, and saith, Fetch me my Clocke, it lies in my lodging in such (or such) a place, neere such (or such) a Iewell. The Lalero bethinks himselfe that it is in his pocket: (which hee knew well enough before) presently he puls it out, not so much to shew how the time passeth (whereof he takes little care) [Page 193] as the curiousnesse of worke, and the beauty of the case, whereof hee is not a little bragge and enamoured. To speake thus particularly of all his severall humours and cu­stomes, would be very prolix, and not much necessary: I will onely referre you to the fourth of Tullies Rhetorick, where he speaketh of a bragging Rhodomonte, and to the first Booke of Horace Satyres, speaking of an endlesse and needlesse Prater, a fastidious & irksome companion. Where you shall see the French naturall, very lively, and admirably well described.

I will only speake of his impatience and precipitation in deliberations of Warre or Peace, and such other affaires of greatest importance, and so end. To this effect Bodin saith of him: The French is of so sudden and busie disposition, that he quickly yeelds to that a man demands, being soone tired with messages to and fro, and other delayes peculiar to the Spaniard. And in another place; The Spaniard had need of a more ready dispatch than he hath, and the French of more moderation in his actions and passions. And whereas Com­mines saith of us, that we be not so craftie in our treaties and agreements as the French; I thinke, saving the credit of so great an Author, he might better have said, so head-strong and precipitate. But where he saith, that he that will treat and determine matters with us, must have a little patience; I yeeld unto him, hee hath good reason so to say; for his Countrey-men, the French, can endure no delay; they must propound & conclude all in one day. By this haste of theirs, they lost more, saith Bodin, by one Treatie at Cambrey, Anno 1559. to the Spaniard, than he had before got of the French in fortie yeares by warre.


TO the Title and Armes of France wee see these of Navarre annexed; notwithstan­ding that this Kingdome lies Westward of the P [...]rencan mountaines, touching upon Arragon on its South, and Biscar on its North part, two of the Spanish Provinces. The old Inhabitants were the Vascones, the Berones, &c. The present name of Navarre, it hath either from the Spanish word Navas, signifying a Campagnia, or woodlesse champaigne Country or field, naturally fenced with trees round about, of which divers are in this King­dome: or else from Navarrin, a towne in the mountaines, and a chiefe Fort against the Moores of old time. About the yeare 716. Garcia Ximenes, freeing it from the Moores, gained it the honour of a petty Kingdome; which his An­cestors so well increased, that within three hundred yeares after Sancho the great wrote himselfe King of Spaine, for Leon he held by force, Arragon had beene before united by marriage; and himselfe obtained Castile in right of his wife: out of other parts hee had driven the Moores also. But this union himselfe againe disjoynted, by a division of [...] amongst his owne sonnes. Navarre thus againe disseve­red, came about the yeare 1483. unto Katherine Countesse of [...]ix and Bigorre, and Princesse of Bearne; who unhap­pily marrying with Iohn Earle of Albret, (a French Coun­ [...] [...] those three of his wives also) lost the Kingdome to the Spaniard. The quarrell was this; Lewis the twelfth of France falling at warres with the Spaniards, Venetians, and Germans, was seconded by this Iohn of Albret, and both for this opposed and excommunicated by the Pope Iulius t [...]e se [...]o [...]d; Navarre being by a Bull exposed to the Invader. Vpon this hint Ferdinand of Spaine puts in; demands pas­sage thorow Navarre for his Army pretended against the [Page 195] Moores: which upon deniall of his request, he turnes upon Navarre: and before the slow succours could come out of France, carries the whole Kingdome, not so much as a box on the eare being given in resistance. Thus the Spaniard ga [...] the possession, though Henry of Albret (sonne to Katherine and Iohn aforesaid) retaines the title: from whom also the French King challengeth it; as being descended of this Hen­ry, and his wife Margaret of Valois, Sister to King Francis of France: from whom came Ioan Albret, Queen of Navarre, whose husband was Anthony Duke of Burbon: whose son was Henry the great, King of Navarre first, and of France afterward, whose sonne in Lewis the thirteenth, the present King of France.

The chiefe Citie of Navarre is Pampelona: the strength is made use of by the Spaniard, as a Bulwarke against France; there being but two passages thorow the Pyrenean moun­taines out of this kingdome into Bearne in France, which he easily keepes fortified.

Belgia, Netherland.

NExt lyeth the seventeene Provinces, called the Low-Countries, the Netherlands, or Germania Inferior, concerning whom, the world can but wonder, how any Prince would neglect such a benefit and inheri­tance of goodnesse, greatnesse, and wealth, which united with the love of the Inhabitants, would have exceeded Spaine for Revenues, multitude of people, Cities, shipping, and all things else tending to worldly felicitie. In observing the distraction whereof, a discreet Reader may truly learne the inconstancie of worldly prosperitie, most commonly procured by Princes themselves in following ill counsell and youthfull distemperature.

The Region containeth the Dukedomes of Brabant, Lim­burk, Luzzenburg, and G [...]lderland: the Earledoms of Flan­ders, [Page 196] Artoys, Hennalt, Holland, Zealand, Nemours, and Z [...]ph [...]: the Marquesa [...]e of the Empire; the Lordships of Friesland. M [...]e [...]lin, Virech, Over-isel, and Groning, East Friesland belongeth to a Prince of its owne, who ever dis­claimed to bee united to the residue, belike to prevent all claime, that either Empe [...]our or King might by cavill lay thereunto. They invented the Art of Printing, restored Mu­sicke, framed the Chario [...], devised the laying of colours in Oyle, the working of colours in Glasse, the making of Ta­pestrie, Sayes, Searges, Woosteds, Frisadoes, and divers sorts of Linnen-cloth, with innumerable other small trifles: all sorts of Clocks and Dials, and the Mariners Compasse.

In these Provinces are numbred two hundred and eight great Townes munited with wals,Townes. ramparts, ditches, war­like ports, draw-bridges, and in which are continuall guards, either of the Burgers, of Souldiers lying there in garrison, ac­cording to the proximitie of the enemie, the importance of the place, of necessitie of the time.

The Villages (or Dorps) are six thousand three hundred, beautified with Churches imbatteled, and of many severall fashions, besides Granges, Castles, Religious houses, Towers, and Gentlemens Manours. The aire seemeth moist, yet not prejudiciall to the health of the inhabitants: for in the Cam­paine of Brabant, men live an hundred yeares, and glory in the same, as if the promise were fulfilled in them, to haue their dayes long in the Land which the Lord God hath gi­ven them [...].

The Emperour Charles had an intention to erect it into a Kingdome, but the difficultie consisted herein, that every of th [...]se Provinces being governed by peculiar customes, pre­rogatives, and privileges; would never have yeelded unto one Royall Law, common to all, especially those that had the largest privileges: for which cause he gave over his de­termination. It is seated commodiously for all the Provinces of Europe and containeth in circuit about a thousand Italian miles. The aire of later times is become much more whole­some and temperate than in times past, whether it be by rea­son [Page 197] of the increase of Inhabitants, or industry of the people, who spare no charge to amend whatsoever is amisse.

Whosoever shall consider what commodity they raise by the fishing and traffike onely, may well say, that no Na­tion through the whole world may compare with them for riches. For Guicciardine writeth, that of their Herring-fishing, they make yearely 441000. pound sterling; their fishing for Cod 150000. pound sterling: and of their fishing for Salmon more than 200000. crownes, which is of sterling money 60000. pound. The continuall riches that groweth in the Country, of other sorts of fish taken all the yeare, is in­finite. The value of the principall Merchandize yearely brought in, and carried out, is likewise infinite; the afore­said Author esteemeth it to be about foureteene millions; one hundred and thirty crownes: whereof England only bringeth to the value of five millions, and two hundred and fifty thousand crowns. It is a wonder to see, how that the In­habitants of all these Provinces (especially of Brabant and Flanders) understand and speake two or three languages, and some foure or more, according to their entercourse with strangers, yea, in Antwerp you shall heare the wo­men speake Dutch, French, Italian, Spanish, and English. The Countrey is everywhere bettered by navigable Rivers,Nature of the soile. and those not empty handed, but affording delicate wa­ter, and excellent fish. It is reasonably beautified with woods, affording materials to build withall, and pleasure for hunting. It is smally, or not at all mountainous, ex­cept about Namurs, Lutzenburg, and Henalt: fruitfull of corne, grasse, and herbs fit for medicine: in some places of Brabant and Gelder-land full of heath, yet not so barren but cartell are well sustained there, their flesh having an ex­dinary sweet taste.

It is free from those creatures which are either noysome or dangerous to man, and wanteth none of those blessings wherwith the God of all blessings indoweth a country, but a noble Prince, unity of Religion, and a quiet Government. Which if it might please the Almighty to regrant, it would [Page 198] questionlesse shine as the Sunne amongst the inferiour Pla­nets, with the rest of their adjacent neighbours, in treasure, potencie, content, and ordinary felicitie.

For their Forces at Land,Forces. of them it may truly be repor­ted, that they have not only made their parties good against the potent wealth and exact discipline of the Spanish, but have also at all times prevented the intimations, intrusions, and underminings of all their neighbours, and lately regai­ned the freedome of their ancient libertie, even to point of admiration; That where all other Nations grow poore by warre, they only thrive and become rich.

For the store of shipping they are also immatchable. In the yeare 1587. the King of Denmarke upon some pretences of displeasure, arrested one with another 600. in the Sunds at one time. In 88. upon short warning they rigged to the narrow seas 100. good men of warre. And if suggestion de­ceive not, at this day, Holland, Zealand, and Freesland, are said to rejoyce in the possession of 2500. good ships, from 150. to 700. tun a peece.

In regard whereof, other nations professing the same reli­gion, and accommodated with like advantages, may first observe, to what height of courage and confidence this peo­ple is growne, by good order and faithfull dealing; who in truth (being but two or three small shires) have for forty yeares space resisted and beaten the forces of a mighty King, who keepes Millan, Naples, and Sicil, under great bondage, in despight of all the Italians, for valour and policie not­withstanding proclaiming themselves to be the sole Minions of the habitable world. But truth is; These petty Princes have not now those daring spirits which they had in former times, when the Visconti, Neapolitans, Fortibrachio, Francis Sforza, with other Lords and Common-weales, were of power to invade the territories of the Church, and inforce the Romans themselves to thrust their Pope Eugenius out of Rome, to save their citie from sacking.

The Country now representeth unto all Christendome nothing more livelier than a Schoole of Martiall Discipline, [Page 199] whereunto all Nations resort to learne and see the practice of Armes, and the models of Fortifications.

Whereupon no few considerations are to be observed: first, into what follies and extremities Princes run, by inuring their people to the assiduitie of warfare: and secondly, what great advantages a small or weake Estate gaineth, by forti­fying places and passages: for surely there is nothing that sooner undoeth a great Price, than to be forced to besiege a Towne which is excellently defended; because herein he consumeth his time, and most commonly loseth his reputa­tion. As did Amurath before Belgrade: Soliman before Vi­enna: Charles the fifth before Mets: Francis the first before Pauie: Maximilian before Padoa: The Catholikes before Rochel: The Protestants before Saint Iohn de Angeli: And Albert before Oastend. This manner of defence grew in use first in Italie, by occasion of the comming of Charles to the Conquest of Naples, whose manner of warfare, together with the terrour of his Ordnance (never before that time practised in Italie) gave the Inhabitants occasion to raise their wits to the utmost of resistance. Then followed the famous overthrow of the Venetians at Caravaggio; where in an adverse battell, they almost lost all they held upon the sinne Land. By which examples, Princes being instructed in the danger that came by fields so foughten, the most part afterward turned all their imaginations of defence from the field to fortresses. And the first that put this in practice to his highest commendation, was Prosper Collouna, who at two severall times most honourably defended the Duchie of Milla [...]ne against the French, only by shutting them from victuall, wearying them with all manner of distresses, and opposing them to the want of all things requisite for an Armie.

Whether the Netherlands borrowed this discreetnesse from the Italians, or more lately provided for their best safe­ties, being by long time beaten with the rod of experience, I will not here dispute; but sure I am, that by this manner of discipline, they only of all Christendome have made best [Page 200] use thereof; As the people to whose glory, industry, pa­tience, and fortitude, and that in a good cause, too much ho­nour and commendation can never be attributed.

The States of the Low-Countries.

ALL the seventeene Provinces of Netherland were sometimes under one Lord: but pri­vileges being broken, and warres arising, the King of Spaine, (the naturall Lord of all these Low-Countries) was in the treaty of peace, Anno 1606. inforced to renounce all pretence of his owne right to these confederate Provin­ces; Since when, we may well handle them by themselves, as an absolute and a free State of Government, as the Spani­ard himselfe acknowledged them. The Provinces united are these; Zeland, Holland, Vtrich, Over-Isell, Zutphen, Gro­ningen, three quarters of Gelderland, with some peeces of Brabant and Flanders: This union was made Anno 1581. The Fleets and Forces of which Confederation, are from the chiefe Province altogether called Hollanders.

The first of these is Zeland, whose name given it by the Danes of Zeland in Scandia, notifies its nature, A land over­flowed with the Sea. Broken it is into seven Ilands: whereof those three to the East beyond the River Scheld, and next to Holland are Schowen, Duvelant, and Tolen: the other foure be Walcheren, Zuyd-beverlant, Nort-beverlant, and Wolferdijck.

1 1. T'land van Schowen is seven of their miles about, parted with a narrow fret from Nort-beverlant. The chiefe towne is Zierickzee, the ancientest of all Zeland, built 849. The Port sometimes traded unto is now choaked with sand, 2 which they labour to cleare againe. 2. Duveland (so named of the Doves) foure miles about, hath some townes, but no 3 City. 3. Tolen, called so of the chiefe towne; as that was of the Tolle, there payed by the boats comming downe the [Page 201] Scheld. 4. The chiefe of the seven is Walcheren, ten miles 4 compasse; so named of the Walsh or Galles. In the middle of it is Middleburgh, the prime Citie of Zeland, and a goodly Towne; other Cities it hath, as Vere, Armuyden, and Flushing, all fortified. 5. Zuyd-beverlant, & Nort-bever­lant, 5 so named of the Bavarians. The first is now ten miles about: The Cities are Romerswael, much endangered by the Sea, and divided from the Island; and Goesse or Tergoose, a pretty and a rich towne. 6. Nort-beverlant, quite drow­ned 6 in the yeare 1532. but one towne. 7. Wolferdijck, that 7 is, Wolfers-banke, hath now but two Villages upon it. Zeland hath ten Cities in all. The land is good, and excel­lently husbanded, the water brackish. Their gaines comes in by that which brought their losses, the Sea. Their wheat is very good; some store they have the Cowes, but more of Sheepe; great store of Salt-houses they have, for the refi­ning of Salt; of which they make great merchandize. The Zelanders were converted to the faith by our Coun­try-man Willebrord, before Charles the greats time.

HOlland, so named, either quasi Holt-land, that is,Holland. the Wood-land; which woods they say were destroyed by a mighty tempest, Anno 860. the roots and truncks of which being often here found; or quasi Hol-land, Hol­low and light land, as it is indeed. But most likely it is, that the Danes also comming from Olandt in their owne Countrie, gave name to this Province, as they did to Ze­land also. The whole compasse is not above sixtie of their miles; the breadth in most places is not above six houres travelling with a Wagon; and in some places scarce a mile over. The whole is divided into South-Holland, Kinhey­mar, West-Freesland, Waterlandt, and Goytland. The chiefe Towne is Dort, but the goodliest and richest is Amsterdam; one of the greatest Townes of merchandize in the whole world; they have almost twenty other Cities strong and elegant. At Leyden there being a College and Vniversity. Their banks, mils, and other workes for keeping out the [Page 202] Sea, be most admirable, vast, and expensive. Three of the foure Elements are there and in Zeland starke naught; then Water brackish, their Aire foggie, & their Fire smokish, made of their Turses, for which they are said to burne up their owne land before the day of Iudgement. The men are ra­ther bigge than strong; some accuse them to love their penny better than they doe a stranger. Their women are the incomparable huswives of the world; and (if you looke off their faces, upon their linnen and houshold stuffe) are ve­ry neat and cleanly. At their Innes they have a kinde of open-heartednesse, and you shall be sure to finde it in your reckoning. Their land is passing good for Cowes: they live much upon their butter, and they bragge mightily of their cheeses. As for flesh-meat, I thinke that a Hawke in England eats more in a moneth, than a rich Boore, nay, than a sufficient corporall Burger does in six weekes. The industry of the people is wonderfull: so many ditches have they made thorow the Country, that there is not the most I [...]land Boore, but he can row from his owne doore to all the Cities of Holland, and Zealand. The Dutchman will drinke indeed, but yet he still does his businesse, he lookes still to the maine chance; both in the City and Country, by Sea and Land, they thrive like the Iewes every where; and wee have few such drunkards in England: too many wee have apt enough to imitate their vice, but too too few that will follow them in their vertue.

THis Duchie lies on the East of Holland and Braban [...], touching also upon Cleve and Iuliers. G [...]lde [...]lan [...]. It hath two and twenty Cities and good Townes, whereof Nimwegen, Zutphon, Ruremond, and Arhneim are the chiefe. Some pee [...]es the Spaniard here hath [...] and the whole Country having heretofore beene infe [...]ted with the warres, makes [...] a little to come behinde his fellowes. The land and people differ not much from those of Holland, saving that towards Cleveland it is more mountainous: the Champian is very rich pasturage for grazing.

[Page 203] THis touches Gelderland upon the South,Over-Isel. West-Frees­land upon the North, Westphalia upon the East, and the Zuydersee on the West. The chiefe Citie is Deventer; o­thers of the better sort be Campen, Zwol, Steinwick, Oet­marse, Oldenzeel, Hessel [...], Vollenhoven, &c. This Coun­trey was of old inhabited by the Franks, or Frenchmen; of which there were two tribes, the Ansuarii, which gave name to the Hanse-townes, whereof Deventer was first: and the Salii, which tooke name from the River Isala, up­on which Deventer stands: and these gave name to the Salique Law; which you see did rather concerne these Countries than France it selfe; and was made by a barba­rous people, in an age as barbarous: though this onely was pretended to barre women from the crowne of France; and to hinder our Kings, and occasion those warres and bloudsheds.

THe Bishopricke of Vtrecht hath Holland on the North,Vtrec [...]. and Gelderland on the West. The circuit is but small, yet hath it five pretty Cities, whereof Vtrecht it selfe is large, delicate, and rich; inhabited by most of the Gentry of Holland. Much harassed hath it beene, but now well re­covered since it came into the union.

GRoningen is a City of West-Freesland, Groningen. and the head of 145. villages about it: It hath had a chargeable neigh­bour of the Spanish garrisons in Lingen, & Oldenzeel, but by benefit of the Sea they obtaine both liberty and riches. Tis very full of Cattell and of Mechanicks; their breed of Oxen and Horses are the largest of Europe. And so much for the descriptions of these united Provinces.

The chiefe Entrata or revenue of this people is gained out of the Sea, which is not onely invaluable, but incredible:The Riche [...] it being reported that there be more ships belonging to Amsterdam alone, than to all England; almost a thousand ships going in and out every tide. The Custome paid by the [Page 204] Merchant is very great; and their Excise upon victuals doth almost maintaine their warres; the Inholder paying as much for the Excise, as he did at first for the thing. Tis be­leeved, that for very butter and cheese sold out of Holland alone, they receive a million of Gold yearley. All the people be wonderfull indu [...]rious; scarce [...] poore mans childe of five or six yeares old, which cannot earne the best part of his owne living. Their gaines by fishing is inestimable; their Linnen, Salt, and other curious manufactures, are good merchandize all the world over: and finally, none of their least commodities is the Warres, for whereas all other Na­tions are undone by them, they have the secret to thrive, and to grow exceeding rich by them.

These are of two sort,Their forces. Land-forces, and Sea-forces. In their severall garrisons they cannot have fewer than foure and twenty thousand in continuall pay;By Land. and their times of leaguer or being in the field, costs them a thousand pound a day more than odinary. This very yeare 1629. the Prince of Orange is said to have had off and on, neere upon 60000. men at the siege of S'Hertoghenbosch, his trenches being 18. or 20. miles about, and yet hath hee left his Townes well garrison'd. They have had an Army on foot continu­nally for these 60. yeares together, and such a one, as were it imploy [...]d in an invasive, as it hath beene in a defensive warre, I see no reason but it might long agoe have over­tunne even Spaine it selfe. It hath still beene the prime schoole of warre for all Europe.

Their Sea-forces increase every day, [...]y Sea. and yet were the three Provinces of Holland, Zeland, and Freestand able ma­ny yeares agoe to make three thousand lusty ships fit for warre and burthen. They have for these eight or ten yeares tog [...]ther had two or three severall Fleets about the West Indies; as namely, that whereof Monsieur L'Ermite was Admirall, which sent home many a rich prize. That which tooke Todos los Santos, and those two which this very yeare tooke those two mighty prizes from the Plate Fleet, and the Brasile Fleet, within the same space having often­times [Page 205] twentie or fortie ships imployed against the Dunkir­ker. All this while have they maintained their Trades and Factories in New Holland, the East-Indies, Muscovia, &c. where oftentimes have they beene so strong, that they have beaten our English from the Trades; once broke they our Muscovia Company: what they did at Amboyna is too fa­mous, and how much our East-India Company hath beene indammaged by them, let them tell you. This I repeat, not to refresh the complaint, but to set forth their power; and plain­ly they are at least, Quarter-masters of the Narrow Seas.

Finally, the Low-Countries may say as Tyrus did in the Prophet, I sit like a Queene in the midst of the Sea; So that were the Spaniard but Master of their Ports, nothing could hinder him from his designed Monarchie. This is their ho­nour; that for these many yeares they have inforced the King of Spaine to spend his Indies upon them; they have still kept him at the staves end; if hee hath besieged one of their Townes, they have besieged another of his; for Ostend they tooke Sluce, Groll for Breda: and at this very instant all the Spanish power was not able to beat them from the siege of S'Hertoghenbosch. But at Sea, they are ever terrible to him, ever aforehand with him; and their Coines are made of his Gold and Silver. They have still fiftie saile of ships upon the Coast of the West-Indies, fiftie saile more going out, and fiftie more comming home: with their Fleets they have this Summer beaten his Armada, troubled Carthagena, and migh­tily inricht themselves by his Prizes. Finally, they are the people, that next to the Spaniard, have the honour of it, both by Land and Water; the greatest Monarchs are glad of the Friendship of this Nation, whom our finicall people stile no better, than a company of Boores and Mechanicks; and this also makes for their honour. For no where such Boores to be found, no where such Mechanicks: others derive honour from their Ancestors, but they from their owne valour and vertue.

Their Government is administred according to the Rules of the Civill Lawes of the Empire; respect being had to the [Page 206] privileges of each private people and Citie, who enjoy the [...] ancient Customes and Lawes municipall. The stile of their principall Governours is, The high and mightie Lords the States Generall. These are chosen by the particular States of the severall Provinces of the Vnion, out of the Nobilitie and primest Magistrates both of the Provinces and Citizens. And these receiving power from the rest, doe in their meetings at the Hage plenarily conclude upon all the great Actions of State, either for Peace, Warre, Religion, Treasure, Leagues, Trafficks, and all publike things whatsoever. Amongst these the Legier Ambassador of England hath hitherto beene ad­mitted in all consultations; and so hath the Prince of Orange, as being Generall of their Armies: These States doe every weeke choose a new President among themselves: the pro­position is made, and the Votes are collected by an Advo­cate, who is a standing Officer for the purpose. From their Placaerts, Proclamations, or Edicts, there is no appeale, as carrying the same power of Law with them, that Proclama­tions and Acts of Parliament doe with us. To enter into the Governments of the Courts of Iustice, and of the severall Provinces and Corporations, would require a volume by it selfe.

Libertie of Conscience being one of the maine pretences of their falling off from the Spaniard, Belgian. they might seeme to deale hardlier with others, than they did with themselves, should they not now give what themselves tooke, Libertie of Conscience. Publike profession therefore of all Religions (except the Popish and Arminian) even of Iudaisme, is there tolerated. Each Faction cals it selfe a Church; and every new-f [...]ngled giddie Enthusiasticall Button-maker, is able enough to make a Faction. The generall Religion of the States and best people, is Calvinisme; the profession where­of (though fatall to Monarchies) agrees well enough with the parity of Free States, where the people and citizens have so much voice and authoritie. Their Ministers are here bet­ter respected than in the French Churches. But our men at home (zealous ones of the Geneva discipline) are much de­ceived [Page 207] if they looke for such a face of a Church, such de­cent Service of God, such devotion, or strict observation of the Lords day, in any of the Calvinist Churches, as in the Church of England: the Faires (and Kirck-masses, as they call them) are on Sundayes in the after-noone as much fre­quented there, as the Churches were in the fore-noone. The States (I suppose) cannot on the sudden reduce perfecti­on in the profession of Religion: for that the Papists are both subtill and diligent to work upon the discontents of the peo­ple, and to turne them to a rebellion; unto which the Histo­rians have noted these Nations to be naturally not indis­posed.


ALthough it may seeme needlesse to make mention of Scandia, which is that whole Pen-insula of huge circuit, which is al­most incompassed with the waves of the Sea, and abutteth Northward and East­ward upon the German and Sarmatian Coasts, because it is as it were situated in another World; and with whom there is no great enter­course of trading; yet for the spacious largenesse thereof, containing two Kingdomes (viz.) Norway and Sweveland, with part of Denmarke, it may well deserve a place amongst other Kingdoms spoken of in these Relations. It is situate in that part of Europe which some terme Scandia, others Scan­davia or Balthia; from whence issued the Gothes and Van­dales, the very rooters up of the Roman Empire. It is subject both to the Danish and Swevian Crowne. The King of Den­marke, besides the Cimbrian Chorsonesse, (where Holsatia, Ditmarsen, the Dukedome of Slesia, Flensburge, Friesland, and Iuthland, Regions fruitfull and replenished with store of cattell, and wilde beasts, doe lie) retaineth other spacious Islands, the best whereof-stand in the entrance of the Baltike [Page 208] sea, being fifteene in number, all comprehended under the name of Denmarke. The chiefest of them is Seland, contai­ning threescore miles in length, and little lesse in breadth. It excelleth the rest, both for number of Villages, the mild­nesse of the aire, and because that Copenhagen stands in it, which hath beene and is the Seat of their Kings. He hath al­so Gothland under his jurisdiction, which is placed right o­ver against Gothia. One of his Kinsmen hath the Govern­ment of Osilia or Oesel, a prettie Island in the greater Gulfe of Livonia; and ruleth those fat and plenteous Counties, which lie on the Continent of Livonia. Scania likewise ac­knowledgeth his Soveraigntie, extending from Nihuse to Timale, and hee holdeth the Kingdome of Norway, which from the Confines of Scania extendeth and stretcheth North­ward a thousand three hundred miles to the Castle of Ward­house, upon which, border the Lappians. The Isles adjoy­ning thereto, Sania, Shetland, and Faria, (lying in the maine Sea) are in his tenure. In times past the people of Norway have beene of great puissance: they afflicted England, scoun­ged France, and therein obtained a Province, called to this day Normandie. In Italy they conquered the Kingdome of Sicil and Apulia. And in the holy Warre Boemond Leader of the Normans, wonne the Principality of Anti [...]ch. In the North Ocean (besides that of Friesland, and the Sea-coast of Island and Groineland) he holdeth the Dominions of the foresaid Islands of Shetland and Faria. The Orcades ac­knowledged the Kings of Norway for their Lords, although they are now subject to the Brittish Crowne. Sithence then the Kingdome of Norway became Elective, and turmoiled with civill warres and intestine discords, it came to the pos­session of the Danish Kings, who, that he may hold it surely, intreateth the Inhabitants cruelly, spoiling them of their substance, and to leave no hope of better fortune to this mi­serable people, hee holdeth fortified all the Creekes, and Havens of the Sea-coast.

The wealth of the Kingdome consisteth in the abundance of cattell and sea-fish,Riches. whereof there is such store, that of the [Page 209] herring-fishing only, a mighty masse of money is yearely gathered; so huge is the number of all sorts of fish, that at some times of the yeare a ship can make but slow way in the Sea: and the Marishes and Medowes adjoyning thereunto are very pleasant and savourie to the feeding of their cattell. Scandia is rich in corne and pasture, and well replenished with people. Norwey hath no riches of any moment, except Timber fit for the erecting of houses and building of ships, (from thence transported into Holland and Flanders) and cattell affording great store of cheese and milke. Some pro­fit also ariseth of a kinde of fish dried in the wind, which the Dutchmen call Stock-fish. It is taken in Ianuarie, and laid in the wind and cold, untill it be indurate and hardned like Wood, and then carried into divers Regions as a kinde of sustenance. The greatest matter of gaine to the King of Den­marke, is the narrow Sea or Strait betweene Cronburg and Eltzenburg, commonly called the Sont, or Sound, which is a passage so narrow, that no shipping can passe that way, without the licence and favour of the Watchmen, keeping Garrison on either side, there to receive the imposts and customes of the arriving Vessels. It is easily gathered, to what summe of money that impost amounteth, by the infi­nite number of shipping, of Holland, Zealand, France, Eng­land, Scotland, Norway, and the Balticke Sea, that saile in those Seas, and of necessitie must passe the jawes of that nar­row Strait. The Inhabitants are as greedie of Rhenish, French, and Spanish Wines, the Spices of Portugal, and the Fruits of Andaluzia, as they againe are needie of the Wax, Honey, Skins and Corne, which are brought thither from Prussia, Livonia, Moscovia, and the bordering Nations.

The Entrada or Tribute due to the King, ariseth; First, out of the Sowndt, thorow which sometimes passe two hun­dred, sometimes three hundred vessels in a day, many of which are to pay a Rose-noble of gold, not only in value, but in specie for their passage, and some more, some lesse, which cannot but amount to an incredible summe. His gaines likewise upon Herrings and other fish (of which there [Page 210] is infinite store in all those Northerne Seas) comes to a great matter. Adde to this his Customes upon Mast and Cordage, Pitch, Tarre, &c. fetcht from him by the Hamburgers, Lu­beckers, and others. Mighty droves of Beeves and other Cattell are out of his Dominions sold into Germany, out of every one of which he hath his Geldt or tribute. In Diet­mars [...]n (a Countrey for store of cattell like our Rumney­marsh) is a place called the Gap, thorow which their infinite droves must passe; where the Kings toll is about twelve pence English for every hoofe of greater cattell, that is, foure shillings for a beast. Innland also is as beneficiall unto him in the same kinde, and much more.

It hath beene observed, that 50000 Oxen have been driven out of these Provinces into Germany, for which toll hath beene paid at Guithorp. He reapeth some profit like­wise of Ward-house, whither the English now of late yeares have sailed betweene Norwey and Groenland; some to Col­mogro, others to Stockholme, not farre from Saint Nicholas, where they traffique with the Russies for Wax, for Hony, and for Flax: thither resort likewise Hollanders, Scots, and French-men. Almost in the middle of this Bay is also an Iland and Towne called Warde-hu [...]s, which Fredericke the second caused to be very strongly fortified, and here the Merchants doe also pay their Customes. In Scandia hath he some silver mines, about which were his late warres with the King of Sweden. Besides all this, the Kings of Denmarke of this present Familie, have thought it no disroyaltie to set up divers manufactures, for which they take up the children of such parents as are unable to keepe them, whom the King brings up till they be able to worke, he in recompence ta­king the profits of their labours afterwards. Finally, twas ever held, that Magnum vect [...]gal parsimonia, Sparing was equall to a great tribute: And truly the cold winters and durti [...] wayes of [...] expect no great Gallanterie; nor is his Court and Retinue very chargeable to him. By these and other wayes came the King of Denmarke (before these warres with I [...]lly [...] to have the reputation of the greatest [Page 211] monied Prince of Europe.

Touching his Forces for matter of Invasion by Land,Forces at Land it hath seldome beene seene that he enterprized any journey of reputation, but only that against Dietmarsen, upon whom King Valdemar laid the yoke of subjection: but they falling againe into rebellion, after many chances of warre begin­ning in the yeare 1500, were againe utterly vanquished by Frederick the second, in the yeare 1558. before which over­throwes, they once discomfited Iohn the sonne of King C [...]ris [...]terne the first. Since these troubles of Europe, this pre­sent King hath beene inforced to take up Armes in defence of his dominions of Holsteyn and Dietmarsen, and in favour withall of the lower Cre [...]z, or circle of Saxony, and those parts with which he was confederate. But his Army of Danes and Germans being base and cowardly, Aids also from other places failing him, he was still put to the worst by the Imperialists, many of his Townes, much of his Land being taken from him; which upon composition were all re­stored in the yeare 1629, the Emperour having his hands full otherwhere, being glad enough of a peace with him.

What this King is able to performe at Sea,At Sea. may be gathe­red by the Navie which upon occasion he once rigged up at the intreatie of Henry the second, King of France; when Christierne the second sent a Navie of 100 Saile into Scot­land against the English, and 10000 Land-souldiers with them. And certainly forasmuch as it is apparent that hee is Lord of so ample a Sea-coast, and possessor of so many Ha­vens in Denmarke, Scandia, Norwey, and the many Ilands both within and without the Baltike Sea; it is most likely that he is able to assemble a great Fleet. It concerne, him also to have a sufficient Sea-force ever in pay and readinesse for defence of the Sowndt, and his many Ports; especially upon the coast of Norway, where they willingly yeeld him no better obedience than hee is able to [...]ct of them by strong hand. As for surprize or sudden invasion, hee needs not much feare, seeing that Denmarke is nothing but broken Ilands, and those sufficiently fortified.


NOrwey upon the East respecteth Denmarke, on the West it is bounded with the Ocean; on the South lieth Swevia, upon the North it is separated from Lapland, by high and steepe craggie Rocks. The Westerne and Easterne Tracts are rockie and hard to travell, yet is the Aire there temperate, insomuch that the Sea freezeth not, neither doe the Snowes long continue.

The Land it selfe is not very fruitfull to sufficiencie; for it is poore, and towards the North, what by reason of the rocks and cold, yeeldeth no sort of Corne. And therefore the Inhabitants (except the better sort) in stead of Bread, eat dried Fish, (viz.) Stock-fish; which to their great profit they transport thorow Europe, and exchange for Corne. The Countrey, especially the Southerne parts, transport rich Furres, Tallow, Butter, Tan'd-Lether, Traine-Oile, Pitch, Clapboord, all sorts of Timber-works, and Masts, Fire­wood, and Timber for building, and that with great ease and little charge.

Their owne buildings are base and poore, and the Inha­bitants honest, lovers of strangers, liberall of gift, and most serviceable. Amongst them are neither Filchers, Theeves, nor Pyrats, though they dwell in a most convenient situa­tion for Pyracie. Birgis was once their Metropolis, a Hanse-Towne, and for its safe harbour, one of the foure chiefe Ma [...]t-Townes in Europe, (viz.) Birgis in Norwey, London in England, Nugardia in Moscovic, and Burgis in Flanders: But it is now decayed.

The cold, Northerly, and smally-frequented Ilands of Schetland, Friesland, Island, and Groneland, with the Navi­gations (such as they are) thereunto for Fish, I imagine every man can conceive, and therfore forbeare further to write of.


THe King of Swethland reigneth in part of Scandie, being a larger Province than Den­marke; for it is accounted to be a journey of five and forty dayes from the borders of Scandia to Lapland; and the Coast of the Balticke Sea is little lesse than foure hun­dred leagues long, a tract of Land estee­med larger than France and Italie. Swethland is incompassed with the Balticke Ocean on the South, the Mountaines on the West, the Icie Seas on the North, and Russia on the East. In Livonia he possesseth Rivalia, the Narve, Danovia, and other peeces of good estimation; the Ilands Vlander, Alan­des, and other places (not worthy speaking of) situated in the S [...]r [...]ve [...]an and Finland Sea. These Regions (besides Li­vonia) are divided into three severall Kingdomes, (viz.) Gothland, Sweveland, and Vandalia, which againe are sub­divided into eleven Provinces, and twelve Counties, amongst which the Lappians are not accounted, because this people (though inhabiting a larger Countrey than Sweveland) can­not be termed to live under any certaine dominion, by rea­son of their miserie, povertie, and wandring from place to place, thorow woods and mountaines; but they who have any manner of certaine abode, or setled habitation, are under the Swevish dominion, and pay rich skins for their tribute. These are those Lapps which inhabit the Countries of Biar­mia and Scrisinia; the other Lapps being under the Russian. Both of them are Idolaters. The Swethlanders are Lutherans in opinion, and Dutch in language, but with a different Dialect.

Of the three Kingdomes whereof wee spake,Got [...]. Gotland bordereth with Scandia, and is divided into East and West, as also into the Iland of Gothia lying in the Baltike Sea, five of their miles (which in some places of Sweden be seven or [Page 214] nine of our English) broad, and almost 18. long. Sometimes the Danes, but now the Sweden possesse it: The Metropolis is called Wi [...]sbich. The firme land of Gothland is the hither part of that which is called Scandia, and next to Denmarke: In this is the mighty Lake Weret: in the middest whereof the King (delighting in the pleasantnesse of the place) kee­peth his Court. Twenty foure Rivers doe runne into this Lake, yet it emptieth it selfe but by one mouth. The Inha­bitants for the excessive noise of waters, call it in their tongue, the Devils Head. Gothia signifieth a good Coun­try, which doth well agree thereto for the abundance of sustenance; no Region being comparable unto it for ferti­lity of Flesh, Fish, and Corne.

Next followeth Sweveland, which is larger than Norwey and Gotland both together. In Sweveland is Vpsalia, their chiefe Citie, an Archbishopricke, and an Vniversity, and Stockholme the Kings seat. Stringa, Envecopia, Orogundia, Arboia, Arosia.

Then comes Finland situated betweene the Balticke and Finland Bay,Finland. where stand Abo the chiefe City, Rangina and Augo, both famous Mart-Townes: Vames, Viburge, and Castelholme, in the Alandian Islands. The Husband­men doe not inhabit in Townes, but by reason of the plen­tie of Timber and Woods, the Vallies and other places are so well defended from the fury of the Northerne wind, that they live here in very good sort, keeping in their houses flocks of Cattell, and all sorts of instruments to digge, to build, or to make any thing necessary for the life of man; and this is the reason that Townes here are nei­ther so faire nor so frequent, as in Germanie or England. Over and above, the Cities and Villages there are accoun­ted 1433. Parishes; in some of which, a thousand people, or (as they terme it) a thousand housholders or fires doe inhabit, but there are few of these Parishes, in which at the least there are not one hundred families. By this a man [...] judge the number of this people, especially if he consi­der the fruitfulnesse of their generation; for the Women of [Page 215] Finland by a secret operation of their Beere (as some think) become exceeding fruitfull. The men live here very long chiefly in the most Northerly parts; neither is it miraculous amongst them, to see a man live above an hundred & thirty, or forty yeares. And in truth, this long living is the cause of their propagation: for where men live shortest lives, there the vertue of generation must needs soonest decay: and therefore our Lord God in the beginning of the world, did permit mankinde to live seven hundred yeares and more, that the world might the sooner be peopled, and the act of generation (which now for the shortnesse of our lives is de­termined within forty yeares) was then more vigorous at one hundred and upward, than in this our age at twenty.

There is not onely Finland, but Finmacke also bordering upon the North Ocean and lying beyond the Arctike cir­cle, whose barbarous inhabitants be Witches and Idola­ters. They usually sell winds to Merchants to carry their ship to any Port, and to bring them backe againe, which some making just scruple of, have laid wind-bound in the harbour, whiles others have made prosperous voyages. Bothnia or Bodia, (which gives name to the Sinus Bodicus) is also under his dominion. To these may be added these new conquests which this present King Gustavus Adolphus (the gallantest and most warlike Prince of these times) hath already made, or shall make hereafter in Prussia, where he hath taken Elbing, and other Townes and Lands from the Polander, with whom he is still in warres; and now ready to come with an Army also into Germany. He hath under him eleven Dukedomes, twelve Earledomes, and seven Bi­shopricks: The whole is from Stockholme one way a thou­sand Italian miles, and twenty dayes journey another.

The riches of this kingdome consisteth in plenty of victu­als,Riches. which this word Gothia (signifying an heavenly Re­gion, as we said before) and Finland (signifying a fine land or Country) doe well witnesse. Their provision is Flesh, fresh-Fish, salt-Fish, Fish dried in the smoke and Sunne, Corne and Beere; whereof there is so great abundance, [Page 216] that it is a hard thing to see a begger amongst them, and Travellers are there freely entertained: The Innes at this day in the Villages being the Parsons houses, who expect some rare toy by way of gift, rather than of pay, for they doe it of courtesie. It is so rich in Mines of Lead, Copper, Silver, and some Gold, that no Province in Europe may compare therewith. And these Mines are to be found in every place, if the Country people (bound to carry wood to the Mines, and to servile works) did not hide and hinder the discoverie thereof as much as in them lieth. Most fine Silver is found in the Province of Vestros, and more would be, were it not for the envie of the Inhabitants, who though they know not the use of trying of M [...]ttals, doe notwith­standing murmure that any strangers should imploy their la­bours therein. And this their frowardnesse toward strangers ariseth not of hat [...]ed, but upon a jealousie that they should be over-reached, or otherwise abused: for by nature they are simple and well meaning, not given to ambition, nor infected w [...]th avarice.

The Kings revenue consisteth in foure things; the tenths of Ecclesiasticall livings, Mine, Tributes, and Customes. The profits of the Church-livings amount to a great summe of money: for in this Kingdome there were seven Cathe­drall Churches; threescore Monasteries of Men and Wo­men, endowed with most rich revenues. First Gustan, and after his sonne Eric, seized the greatest part thereof into their possessions. Of the Mines, some are wrought at the Kings charges, some at the charge of private persons, allow­ing the tenth part to the King.

Of three Copper-works,Co [...]per. I have knowne the tenth part (which is the Kings) to amount to the value of three thou­sand Dolars yearely: hereby estimation may be made of the Silver and Lead. But his taxes doe farre surpasse all his other In-comes: for he levieth the tenth of Rie, Wheat, Barley, Fish, Oxen, Skinnes, and such like. Of the tenth of Oxen, at some times he hath gathered eighteene thousand, and with them maintaineth his Court, his Officers, his Navie, [Page 217] and his Armies: for in the time of warre either with the Dane or Moscovite, he alloweth his Souldiers victuals, and by this meanes provideth it at very easie rates, as well of­fending as defending. The mariage of the Kings daughters is at the disposition of the people, and they allow them be­sides Silver, Plate, and other gifts, one hundred thousand Dolars for a Dowrie. Of the Vplandish people and others which pay not the imposition of victuals, the King is accu­stomed to exact of every poll according to his ability, five Dolars or more yearely. The customes are paid in the Ha­ven-Townes; the chiefe whereof are Calmar, Loabuis, and Stockholme, (whereat sometimes three hundred ships of burthen are to bee seene) Abo, Auge, Revalia, Parnovia, and Narve. It is thought that the King doth lay up in his Treasury, six or seven hundred thousand Dolars, over and above the expences upon the fortresses of Revalia and Vi­burgh; for so did he in the yeare 1578. out of two or three Mines onely, and yet this was but the Kings tenth: whereas if need be, he may take all the silver, and pay the masters of the worke with victuals, C [...]pper, or other commodity.

There are maintained in Sweveland and Gothland, Forces at land. about thirty two Companies, every troope consisting of five or six hundred Souldiers, all Harquebusiers, alwayes ready to march whither occasion calleth. Because of the thicknesse of the Woods, the Horsemen serve with Petronels, and sel­dome use Pikes or Launces. These are most excellent Foot­men; for every souldier is able to make and furnish him­selfe with any furniture whatsoever, even the making of his owne Flaske and Touch-box; as likewise the common people in Pervina, and the neighbouring Provinces, being contented with a little, have alwayes accustomed to make all implements for their houses and bodies; to build, to weave, to play the Tailors, to sow, to reape, and to forge tooles fit for their businesse. And as for these Trades, which are neither common nor necessary, a to paint, to worke in silver, and such like, there are notwithstanding found a­mong them very good worke-men, wanting rather matter [Page 218] than Art to worke upon. The Swevian Horse-men are di­vided into thirteene Companies: Sweveland and Gothland maintaine eleven, and Finland two; and upon necessitie they can raise a greater force: for the Dukedome of Vrme­land (as report goeth) is able to furnish better than ten thousand men with Horse. In Marchland there is such plentifull breed of Horse, that there they are sold at a very low rate: both these Provinces are in Gothland. Their Horse is not so bigge bodied as the Frieslander. but exceeding har­die; active, able to endure travell, and fed with a little. I will not omit to speake of two Noble usages of the King of Swethland towards his Souldiers: one is that if a Souldier be taken prisoner, he is ransomed at the Kings charges; the other, that if his Horse be slaine, the King bestoweth ano­ther upon him. To his Captaines, and those which serve on Horse-back, in part of payment of their wages, hee giveth yearely a Garment, which the Germans terme Idolis, and may be taken for a Cassocke.

The rest of the Captaines meanes, if he serves within the Kingdome against the Dane or Moscovite, is but foure Dol­lars a moneth, and exemption for himselfe and family from other duties and payments to the King. The common soul­dier is not thus exempted, unlesse in time of warre or danger: his other pay is one Dollar and a quarter for a moneth: small pay, if you consider not the cheapnesse of victuals. In their marches in loose troopes, they are billetted in the next hou­ses at the countries charges: But when the Armie is in the field altogether, the King findes them victuals, without de­ducting it out of their meanes. It was not long since that the Horseman in time of peace received more than twenty Dol­lars standing for a yeare, with a Horsemans coat and his ex­emptions: but this is increased in the warres. The Officers of Horse-troopes receive monethly pay for themselves, their servitors, horse-boyes, &c. The Nobilitie and Courtiers also (Privie Councellors excepted) which may be about three hundred in all, are bound to wait on the King on horseback; every of which for himselfe and followers, receiving each [Page 219] five Dollars a moneth. Every Captaine must be a Gentle­man borne.

As touching their Sea-affaires,Sea-forces. by reason of their huge Sea-coast, and infinite Havens, the Kingdome swarmeth with Mariners and shipping, which the King may arrest in his Dominions, as other Princes are accustomed to doe: hee maintaineth commonly fiftie Ships of warre, whereof every one carrieth fortie peeces of Ordnance, more or lesse. King Gustavus first brought in the use of Gallies. In the Warre which King Iohn waged with the Danes (before the Peace treated on at Stetin was agreed) he put to Sea seventie great ships, besides other of smaller burthen, in which were 22000. fighting men. In the Summer time they warre at Sea; in the Winter at Land: for then the Rivers are frozen, as likewise the Sea neere the shore for a great space. Seeing I have spo­ken of Guns, I will adde thus much, that the King is thought to have about eight thousand great Peeces, the most part of Brasse, and that hee could cast many more if hee had more store of Tin. In the Castle of Stockholme only are numbred foure hundred. Certaine it is that the King can on the sud­den rigge up a sufficient Fleet both for defence and offence; and that cheaper than any Prince of Christendome. For first he hath store of Mariners, and they easily paid; as desiring little more than cloaths and victuals. Their cloathes are sim­ple enough; and their victuals the Countrie is bound to send them; a proportion namely of Beefe, Bacon, Salt-fish, But­ter, Barly and Peason. As for materials for building a ship, he either hath them of his owne, (timber, pitch, iron and cor­dage,) or else they are brought him but from the next doore. Brasse peeces (such plentie of metall he hath) that they cost him little or nothing. So that well might King Iohn the third of Swethland affirme, that he would set out and maintaine as good a Fleet for 100000. Dollars, as the King of Spaine could for a million of pounds. The chiefe of the Kings Na­vie in time of peace, rides (like our Kings at Chatham) com­monly in two places; either at Stockholme, where they may lye safe, even afloat without mooring, or so much as ancho­ring, [Page 220] the Harbour being thirty English miles within Land, and the high cliffes keeping off all winds: The other Stati­ons are in Finland, still in a readinesse against the Muscovite, and to watch that nor Armes nor munition be brought them out of Germanie.

The chiefe Fort of this Countrey is the Finnish Sea,Fortifications. which breaking in about Dantzik, runs up with a long gut or free thorow the midst of his Countrey, from South to North, a great deale beyond the Arctick Circle, into Finmarch and Lapland: another Arme of it, neere the first entrance parting Liefland and Finland (of which it is called the Finnish Bay) flowing even to the Frontiers of Russeland: Both of them are wonderfull strengths, eases, and riches to his Countrey: Fortified Townes and Castles he hath in all his Frontiers up­on the Dane and Muscovite, some twentie in all.

Vpon the West-side of Swethland is Denmarke;Borders. on the East Moscovie, with both which he hath had long war. The Swevians have suffered much losse by the Denmarkes: for King Christian the second besieged Stockholme, and forced it, committing all kinde of cruelty against the Inhabitants, filling the Citie with bloud and dead carkases. The title which the Dane pretendeth to the Crowne of Swethland, is the cause of their enmities. The Havens, the situation of the Countrey, and especially Gothland (which is a member of Gothia, and therefore the Swevian claimeth it as his right) affordeth the Dane this facility of invading at his pleasure. After Gustavus recovered the Kingdom, he and his son Hen­ry and John reigned successively: and although bloud enough hath beene sh [...] in the warres betweene Gustavus and the Paris, yet the Kingdome hath retained her honour: and the Cit [...]e of Lubeck (the mightiest State in that Sea) sometimes by consederating with the one, sometime with the other, doth in so even a ballance poise the differences of these two Nations, as it suffereth not the one to practise against the o­ther, upon the perill that may ensue to the offender. In waiting with the Moscovite, the Swevian hath most advan­tage, because Finland (which bordereth upon Russia) by rea­son [Page 221] of the great Marishes, whereof it is full, yeeldeth hard and perillous passage to the Enemie, oftentimes swallowing up whole Armies in those congealed Waters: there be Kee­pers of the Castles of Viburge, Narve, Ravelia, and other piles and peeces upon the borders of the great Duke of Mo­scovia, excellent well fortified, as bridles to stop his violent courses. In which, hee doth very wisely; for those peeces which lie in the Territories of our Enemies, are to be regar­ded most carefully, because they bring forth two notable effects: first, they defend what is ours, and offend what is the Enemies. The further they are distant from our borders, the better they stand us instead: for while the Enemie is oc­cupied in besieging thereof, our owne State standeth in quiet, and time affordeth meanes for rescue, or delivery thereof at leasure, and that without spoile to our owne people, or losse of our proper revenues. They grieve the Enemie with so much the more dammage, by how much the neerer they are situated unto him. Of this effect was Calais in the possessi­on of the English, and the places which the Spaniards and Portugals hold in Africke. But the Fortresses built in our owne borders, serve to no other end, than to defend what is already ours, and that to our great disadvantage: for as of­ten as they are invaded, all things are done at a sudden, and it cannot be avoided, but somewhat will fall to the spoile of the Enemie. To end with the King of Swethland, he is so much better able than the Moscovite to defend his Ter­ritories, by how much Sea-forces joyned to Land-forces are able to prevaile against a State furnished with Land-forces only.


EVROPE is in the Mappe shaped something like a Queene; and there is Spaine made the head of it; and perchance there may prove some fatalitie in it. The shape of Spaine doth indeed resemble a Dragon, which is a creature of prey, and for devou­ting. Spaine indeed hath in hope and designe, already de­voured all Europe, and would be head of the Monarchie. B [...] stay! the proverbe is, That Serpens nisi serpentem come devis, non fit Draco: Vnlesse one Serpent eat another, hee never proves a Dragon: there be many Countries that Spaine must first eat up, before it proves the European Dragon and Mo­narch; England, France, Netherland, &c. all must be care [...] first. But soberly to consider of the matter, Spaine hath al­ready done very well towards it: for [...]hence the remem­brance of later times, a larger Empire hath not befallen any Christian Potentate, than that which the Spanish enjoyeth at this day, especially since the union of the Kingdome of Portugal (with the dependencies thereof) unto this Crown. For besides the large and faire Provinces in Europe, the good­ly Regions of Asia, and divers rich Territories in Africke; he enjoyeth in peace and securitie, without any corrivall o [...] competitor, the New World, in circuit more spacious than either Europe or Africke.

In Europe hee is sole Soveraigne of Spaine, His dominions in Europe. holding it whole and entire; A thing worthy observation, for that by the space of eight hundred yeares before our age, it never o­beyed any one Prince, but was dismembred and peece-meale claimed by divers Seigniors: Hee hath very much shaken Belgia, and Lordeth it over the Kingdome of Naples, con­taining in circuit a thousand and foure hundred miles: and retaineth Insubria, otherwise called the Duchie of Mil­ [...]une, comprehending three hundred miles in circuit. Of the Islands, he holdeth Majorique, Minorique, and Evisa: [Page 223] the first of three hundred miles circuit; the second of an hundred and fifty; the third of eight. Sicil is reported to containe seven hundred: Sardinia five hundred threescore and two.

In Africa he holdeth the great Haven called Masalqui­vir, In Africa. Within the Streights. the most secure and safe harbour in the whole Mediter­ranean Sea. Hee hath also Oran, Mililla, and the rooke commonly called the Paevion of Velez: And without the Streights, he possesseth the Canary Islands, twelve in num­ber; and the least of seven, containing ninety miles. In the right of the House of Portugal, hee possesseth the famous places of Sepra and Tangier: and of late he hath conque­red Alarach: the which may rightly bee surnamed the Keyes of the Streights, yea, of the Mediterran Sea, and Atlantique Ocean.

Without the Streights, he holdeth the Citie of Mazaga, Without the Streights. and by the same Title in the vast Ocean, he claimeth the Ter­ceraz, Port-Santo, and Madera, famous for the Wines which grow therein, and the Lady-like Iland of all the Atlantique, containing by estimation 160. miles in compasse: Then the Ilands of Cape Verd, seven in number.

Vnder the Aequinoctiall, he holdeth the Iland of S. Tho­mas, Vnder the Ae­quinoctiall. some what more spacious than Madera, but most plen­tifull in Sugar, and from thence rangeth over that huge tract of Land, which tendeth from Cape Aguer, to Cape Guar­dafu. Lastly, he pretendeth to be Lord of all the Traffique, Merchandize, Negotiation, and Navigation of the whole Ocean, and of all the Ilands, which Nature hath scattered in these Seas, especially betweene the Cape of Good-hope, and the promontory of Guardafu.

In Asia, in the aforesaid right of the Crowne of Portugal, In Asia. he ruleth the better part of Westerne Coasts (viz.) Ormus, Diu, Goa and Malaca; Ormus for his commodious situati­on is become so rich, that these verses are growne to a com­mon proverbe among the Arabians:

As in a Ring, the well set stone appeareth to the eye,
Such (to the worlds round circle) doth rich Ormus-Ilandlie.

[Page 224] A great portion of Arabia Felix belongeth to the Prin­cipalitie of Ormus, as likewise Balsara, the Iland-Queene within that Gulfe, for plentie, circuit, varietie of fruits, and the rich fishing of Pearle. But this goodly Iland and Castle of Ormus is since taken from him by the Persians, with the aid of our East-Indian Fleet: and there are continuall fights with the Portugall Frigats, maintained by the English and Hollanders. So that on those coasts he rather exerciseth Py­racie, than Dominion. In this Sea the Portugals possesse Damian, Bazain, Tavaan, and Goa; which Citie (to omit Chial, Canora, Cochin and Colan) is of so great esteeme, that it is thought to yeeld the King as great a revenue as many Provinces in Europe doe their Lords: and finally, the Portu­gals hold all that Sea-coast, which lieth betweene the Citie Damian and Malepura; wherein no Prince (except the King of Calecute) challengeth one foot of Land. The Iland of Zeilan, wherein they possesse a strong Haven and a Castle, commonly called Columbo, may rightly be called the de­light of Nature: They enjoy also Malaca, which in those places is the bound and limit of their Empire, as also the staple of the Traffique, and the Navigation of the East Oce­an, and of all those Ilands, being so many and so spacious, that in circuit of Land they may well be compared to all Europe.

To continue their Trade with the Chinois, and the Ilan­ders of Tidore, and for their entercourse to the Moluccas and Banda, they have erected certaine strong places in all of them, but indeed resembling rather Factories than Castles.

Certainly it would amaze a man to thinke how many puissant Kings and fierce Nations are bridled and yoked by the Armes of twelve thousand Portugues; (for in so huge a tract of Land and Sea, there neither are, nor ever were, a greater number inhabiting) and those few, not only to have discovered and conquered the Atlanticke, Indian, and the East-Seas, but also ever since, till now of late, to have kept and defended the Soveraigntie thereof against all Invaders. How ever their fame and fortunes at this day seeme to be [Page 225] eclipsed by the trading of the Dutch & English Merchants; they will not sticke to relate unto you, how by the vertue of their Armes, they tooke the kingdome of Ormus from the Vassall and Confederate of the King of Persia: as also how they drowned and defeated at Diu, the Navie of the Sultan of Aegypt, fully furnished with Mammeluks, a kinde of Souldierie no lesse famous for their valour and discipline, than the Pretorian Turkish Ianizars: As also that they made good the said place against the leagues of the Turkes and Guzarits.

In the Red-sea they have often foiled the Turkish Arma­da. In the yeare 1552. they defeated his whole Fleet at Or­mus. In Taproban they affronted the Kings of Decan, Cam­baia, Calecute, and Achem; Princes favoured, & throughly assisted with the forces of the said Emperour: Yea, such have beene their expeditions into Cambaia, India, that Ocean, and along the coasts of Asia, that in desert of glory and admira­tion, they are (by their owne Writers) censured to be no­thing inferiour to the victorious Alexander; yea, so much the rather to be preferred, because neither in circuit, nor num­bers of people, they were ever comparable to the Macedo­nian: for with nineteene ships they overthrew the Aegyp­tian Navie, farre more powerfull in number and furniture: with two thousand Souldiers they forced Goa, and recove­red it (being lost) with fifteene hundred. With eight hun­dred they won Malaca; and not with many more, Ormus.

But little need the Portugals bragge of their victories at­chieved upon effeminate, barbarous, and naked men, such as in the West-Indies would by troopes run away from one of the Spaniards horses or dogs: I wonder that twelve thou­sand Portugals have done no more against so little resistance. But let the Portugals bragge of their victories against the English and Hollanders. And though there be but twelve thousand Portugals inhabiting there, yet are they continu­ally supplied from home, and they make the poore Blacks and Natives of those Indies, to serve them in their Gallies, Warres, and drudgerie. Lastly, the King of Spaine can com­mand [Page 226] his subjects at home in Portugal, yet these [...] yeeld him but little obedience; so that here the Spa [...] hath no dominion.

Another member of the Spanish-Dominions lieth in the New-World;In the New-World. wherein because he hath no corrivall able to make head against him, he challengeth as his owne, what soever either by discoverie, or conquest, he attaineth unto. This New-Worlds dominion is divided into Continent and Islands.

In the North-sea are so many Islands,Islands. (most of them of forty miles in compasse) that their number can hardly be ascertained or knowne: and some of them are rich and spa­cious, sufficient to erect a great and stately Kingdome. Of these, Boriquen is three hundred miles long, and threescore broad: [...]amaica is little lesse: Cuba is three hundred long and twenty broad: Hispaniola containeth a thousand and six hundred miles in compasse. On the Continent he is abso­lute Lord (say they) of all that Sea-coast which watereth Florida, Nova-Hispania, Iucatan, and all that spacious So [...] ­therly Peninsula, to the Cape of California, and Quivira. For even so farre have the Discoveries and Navigations of this Nation pierced. The coast of Nova-Hispania counting his beginning at the Towne of Santa Helena, and cutting by Panama to Quivira, containeth about five thousand and two hundred miles in length, to which if you please to adde the upland Regions, coasting towards the North, you shall finde no lesse than nine thousand miles.

Peru, beginning at Panama, containeth by the Maritime coast twelve thousand and six hundred miles: of which three thousand lying betweene the River Maragnon and the Ri­ver of Plate, and including Brasil, doe acknowledge the Soveraigntie of Portugal.

In the Continent are many Kingdomes and Seigniores,Continent. amongst which, those of Mexico and Peru (once most pow­erfull and wealthy Dominions) were counted chiefe, and as it were two imperiall Monarchies. These Kings lived a long while in great Majestie, inhabited sumptuous Palaces, and [Page 227] maintained a mighty troope of their vessels for the guard of their persons.

On one quarter they inlarged their bounds, and transfer­red their Religion and Language to the skirts of Iegnan Pe­can, two hundred leagues remote from Mexico: and on another quarter as farre as Guatimall, 300. leagues distant. In these places they made the North and South Seas their bounds; but Mecoican, Tapcalan, and Terpeacan, they could never bring under their yoke. Their differences with the citie of Tascala, incouraged the Spaniards to invade their dominions: and being entered, made their victorie easie, and the end fortunate: this happened in the yeare 1518. This people (divided into seven Tribes) came into those Regions, from that part of the North, where of late yeares the Spani­ard d [...]scovered a most wealthy and populous Province, which at this day they call New-Mexico.

Besides Merchandize, incredible treasures of Gold and Silver are transported out of Nova-Hispania and Peru. The riches of these places. Of those treasures, commonly Peru yeeldeth two parts, and Nova-Hispania the third, which is more rich in Merchan­dize than Mexico. Amongst the rest, it yeeldeth Cochi­nolla, a commoditie of inestimable value, and infinite store of Hides. The Islands also afford plentie of Hides, Cotton, Wooll, Sugar, Cana-fistula, Hard wax, and Pearles.

Amongst these riches and treasures of Peru, Peru. two things are wonderfull: One, that in the Silver-Mines, which were discovered in Potosie, in the yeare 1545, there is, and hath beene found so huge a masse of Bullion, that the fifth part (which is the Kings) in the space of forty yeares amounted to one hundred and eleven millions of Pezoes: neither yet did two third parts pay their customarie due to his Majestie. The other is the Quicksilver-Mines in Guas-valcan, found in the yeare 1567. out of which the King hath received forty thousand Pezoes, all charges defrayed.

And in truth, were it not for the tribute of these Westerne Mines, neither could the pride of Spaine be divulged, nor the Cities of Sivil or Lisbone, cum multis aliis, be enriched, [Page 228] nor the Escurial blazoned, no nor life haply maintained, nor the Ports frequented, nor the native commodities to satisfa­ction of forien importation countervailed, nor the Garrisons paid, nor such frequent troopes of strange souldiers yearely entertained.

But it is a strange thing to note, [...]. that whereas Nature hath interlaced so riotously her golden and silver Veines in the bosome and wombe of Peru, it hath bestowed no su [...]h bles­sing upon her neerest daughter Brasile; but instead thereof hath inriched it with a most temperate and wholsome aire, with many pleasant Springs and large Rivers, not without sufficiencie of wood: she hath divided the land into fruitfull and delightsome hils, cloathed it with the beautie of conti­nuall greennesse, abounding above beleefe with Sugar­canes, which the Portugals have there planted, and now transport in infinite quantitie into forren Regions.

The Philipinae may well be termed the appendances to this New-World;Philipinae. for although in respect of their site and proximitie, they may be thought a part of Asia; yet the discoverers thereof travelled thorow New-Spaine, before they could discover them: of which Islands, more than forty are subject to this Soveraigntie, and by them have beene re­duced unto civill kinde of life and policie.

Having thus generally run over the spacious (or rather boundlesse) members of this Empire,His greatnesse in Europe. I will now relate unto you the true qualitie and State of this great Prince of Chri­stendome, (the matter being so much the more hard, by how much the more copious in it selfe.) And not to wearie your patience with long discourse, I will restraine my selfe to things of most importance, with all possible varietie. In performance whereof, forbearing to tell, how out of this House of Austria, in the space of three hundred yeares, ten Emperors have already successively succeeded one another, from Father to Sonne; As also by what casualties so many Kingdomes and Provinces have beene united unto this Crowne; And in particular, how the Houses of Austria and Burgundie have in such sort beene conjoyned, that had his [Page 229] enterprises against England and France fallen out conforma­ble to expectation, without question he had beene much in­abled to have marcht on with large paces, to the Monarchie of the whole world.

This his Empire is divided into foure parts;Division of his dominions. the King­dome of Spaine, the Estates of Italie, the Dominions of the Indies, and the Countries of Flanders. Spaine is by the Spa­niards (for the greater grace) divided into ten Kingdomes,Spaine. and hath beene alway acknowledged for so wealthie, puis­sant, and so spacious a Kingdome, that the Romans and Car­thaginians continued so long and so cruell warres for the possession and royaltie thereof. The Goths and Vandals, when (with the streame of their over-flowing multitudes) they swarmed over the greatest part of the Roman Empire, here sate them downe, and made it the place of their habita­tion. Trebellius Pollio termed it and France, The joynts and finewes of the Roman Empire. Constantine, when he divided the Empire, preferred it before Italie: and in the division, when England, France, Spaine, and Italie fell to his lot, hee little esteeming the last, and voluntarily leaving it to his competitor, contented himselfe with the three formost.

The Estates of Italie (the finewes and nurseries of his warres) comprehend the Kingdomes of Naples, Sicilie, Sar­dinia, The Estates of Italy. the Dukedome of Millaine, and the three Forts situ­ate upon the Sea-coast of Tuscain, Orbatello, Vrcole, and Telemon.

The dominion of India is divided into the East and West:The dominion of India. In the East he hath but some Islands farre distant from the firme Land, but in the West he hath divers Provinces ad­joyning upon the Sea-coast, yet not penetrating farre with­in the Land. And although he doth daily conquer some of the neighbouring places, yet they be of no great value nor consequence.

From the Low-Countries he reapeth small profit;The Low-Countries. for hee hath there lost his ancient Revenues with his reputation, be­ing faine to acknowledge the States of Holland, Zeland, &c. for free, before they would yeeld to capitulate with him.

[Page 230] To intreat first of Spaine, (because it is the centre of this spacious Empire) it is conserved by two meanes; that is to say, by Iustice and Religion, keeping this people in obedi­ence more with severity and chastisement, than with cle­mency and mercy. The Province it selfe is barren, if we con­sider each part thereof by it selfe, but being reduced into one grosse, it aboundeth with all things necessary, especially towards the Sea coast: being also stored with divers Mi­nerals. True it is, that it hath few men, and is not populous, both by reason that a great number are drawne from thence to serve in the warres, to re-enforce the garrisons, and to de­fend the forts abroad, as well amongst the Indies, as in ma­ny other places of his dominions: as also, for that many of them doe exercise Merchandize and Navigation; Which although it bring some dammage to the State, because so many leave the Country, yet proveth it very beneficiall and commodious by their enricht returne unto their owne houses, and ridding by that meanes the Country of the more slothfull sort of home-livers. Two parts are incom­past with the Ocean and Mediterran Seas, the third is se­cured from the power of the French Armes, not onely by reason of the craggy situation of the Pirenean, of Scialon, Pargnan, and Pampelone, where it is mountainous and hard to passe, and by the forts: but also through the difficulty that they should there finde in journeying, and the incom­modity and want of victuals, entring into a Country so ste­rill and unfruitfull. The other part (confining (as aforesaid) upon the Mediterran Sea) remaineth onely exposed unto the Turkish Navie; from which it is well secured by ha­ving few Ports, and those diligently kept and guarded with powerfull forces. But amongst all the offensive Potentates, the Kingdome of England is able to infest it more than any other: for in the late warres, it did beyond measure trouble the Kingdome of Portugal, in pitying the quarrell of Don Antonio (a man much favoured of that Crowne) in such sort, that the City of Lisbon, once famous and well inhabi­ted, became poore, and well-nigh dispeopled. For whereas [Page 231] in [...] past one might number a thousand vessels within her Ports, 500 of them were consumed & taken by the ene­mie, which did not much displease his Majestie: for (some said) he was well content to see the Portugals so impoveri­shed and abased, because they live male-contentedly under his obedience and government. Whereupon at all times his Majesty is constrained to maintaine a strong Armada in these Seas, to safeguard the Navigation to the Indies, and to secure the Merchants comming from thence into these Countries, over and besides twenty foure Gallies, which he keepeth to guard the coast, and to defend it from the Tur­kish fleet, and the incursions of Pyrats; the charges where­of, with the maintenance of the fortifications and defences, amount yearely to halfe a million of Gold. The number of souldiers in all the presidiarie places of Spaine, amount to eight thousand, not reckoning any man of sort, nor Mari­ners; for instead of these, the Moores and Turkish slaves doe serve in the Gallies. This Kingdome doth never send forth any Horsemen, because there be but few, and yet not sufficient for their owne affaires.

In the next ranke follow the Italian Provinces; Na­ples, Millaine, and Sicilie; wherein nature hath confined,Italian Provin­ces under the Spaniard. and heaped up as it were into her Closet, all those delight­full happinesses, which with her owne hands she hath here and there scattered and dispersed through the residue of the European Provinces, whereof in their proper places.

The Revenue which his Majestie doth principally raise upon the Ecclesiasticall livings,Revenues or­dinary. (viz.) the Tithes of the Church, the Buls of the Crosse, both amongst the Indies, through all Spaine, and the Kingdome of Sicilie, doe amount to two millions by yeare: and these may be well numbred amongst his ordinary revenues, because they be yearely raised, and be the surest and most certaine that this Crowne enjoyeth. Commendums and presentations unto benefices, doe yeeld yearely to his Majestie a great quantity of mony. The whole revenues of the Clergie are valued at six milli­ons of gold by yeare, there being foure and thirty Cathe­drall [Page 232] Churches all very rich, of which some have fifty, some one hundred, and some two hundred millions of crownes of yearely revenues: as in particular, the Arch­bishop of Tiledo hath more than three hundred millions, remaining over and besides free to his substitute Prelate two hundred. Neither doth his Majestie care to bring these Churches to a greater number, for then should hee with greater difficulty make use of the revenues and riches there­of when occasion required. And it is said, that the Cardi­nall Birago gave to his Majestie at divers times, more than a million and a halfe of gold, upon some simoniacall oc­casion.

So it is thought that the ordinary revenues of Spaine doe amount to six millions of gold, whereof much hath beene pawned for the debts of the Crowne, the rest is spent in charges of the warres, in the government of the Kings houshold, and in the Gallies, which he maintaineth to safe­guard the coast of the Kingdome, as aforesaid.

In extraordinarie revenues he raiseth much more;Extraordinary. for in the Kingdome of Castile alone in one yeare, his Majestie had nigh eight millions of Gold. And while I was at his Court, his Majestie sent a Iesuite through all Spaine, who went from house to house, requiring their benevolence, as an almes for the expences in his warres: by which meanes he raised a million and a halfe of gold, but with much dis­honour, saving that it was said, that hee did better to de­mand this money for the love of God, than to take it by force: yet was not the request such, but that it had in it the effect of a command; his Majesty excusing himselfe, that the Emperour his Father whilest he lived, did the selfe-same thing in his greatest and most urgent affaires and necessities. There doe not want also other meanes and devices to raise money, as the imposition of the Milstone; which as it is supposed, if it once take effect, will amount to two millions of gold yearely. There be also sales of Offices, Escheats, Penalties, Amerciaments, and other like meanes to raise money, as in other Kingdomes.

[Page 233] His Majestie hath orders of Knight-hood also,Orders of Knighthood. (viz.) of Saint Iames, of Alcantera, of Callatrava, of Montesea, and of Christ: this last Order is in Portugal, which all together doe yeeld him yearely 275. millions of crownes, and ac­crueth to them in rents paid by the Iuccarie. The Order of the Crosse is much desired, and greatly sought for by the great men of Spaine, because it yeeldeth both honour and profit, being in number two hundred and fifty, which have in yearely revenues 15000000 crownes of gold. But to some he giveth the Order, and not the Fee; to others the Fee, not the Order; but to many for their good service, both Fee and Order. There is also the Order of the Toison, of which his Majestie is chiefe, which is the most honou­rable, and most sought for of Princes, although it yeeld­eth no profit. Of this is made great account, and herewith onely Princes and personages of quality are honoured.

In these Kingdomes are found divers discontented per­sons,Malecontents. and ill satisfied with the government, for that all those Moores which there inhabit (being forced to turne Chri­stians, and by the same force constrained so to continue) are wonderfully displeased. And such as are called Iewes,The Iewes. or halfe Christians, doe daily increase in number, and multi­ply in riches; For they all marrie, and never goe to the warres, but continually intend their traffike and commodi­tie. Besides these, there be all the descendants of them, that have at any time beene condemned by the Inquisition, which live in Spaine most desperately, because they are thereby held infamous, even to the third and fourth gene­ration, and disabled to receive any dignity, honour, or of­fice. Of these sorts, it seemeth by the late proscriptions and banishment of the Inhabitants of Valentia into Barbarie, that he is most jealous.

Next these, the Portugals may be comprised in this num­ber,The Portugals. by reason of their ancient hatred which they have al­wayes borne to the Castilians, and for the bad usage of the Spaniards, being alwayes held under their command, with minds cruelly affected.

[Page 234] The Provinces of Aragon also,The Arrago­nou. for their privileges bro­ken and annulled, for rising in Armes by meanes of Antonio Perez, late Secretary to his Majestie, doe evilly brooke this government. The chiefe Citizens whereof (having with losse of their lives, paid the debt of that punishment due un­to them) have left a memoriall behinde them of that their fact, the stroke whereof is imprinted in all the rest, which are yet for a long time ready to lay downe their lives upon occasion.The Nobles. Last of all, bee the Nobles of Spaine, which in times past were many in number, and in great estimation with their Kings, are now much abased, and brought to the number of 36. only, being unimployed by his Majestie, and receive small charges from him, and those in places farre remote, and of little or no reputation: some of which doe much blame the King therefore, inferring that thereby he maketh the people more insolent, in hating them and their greatnesse, indeed because they would not, that they should much increase it power; the State being served in most af­faires with common persons, and those of no great estima­tion; because these Kings for the most part suppose, that by them he is the better served, as also, are very jealous of the greatnesse of their Officers. For in truth the Spanish Na­tion by nature is very proud, yet base, and such as careth not to be hated, so it be feared: in all passages above all o­ther Nations, using and imitating a kinde of decorum, which they call Respect, we complement, or a pish courtesie; be­ing full of servility, yet in publike shewing more severity over their owne, than over strangers: which may well be, if well understood. For where he conquereth and com­mandeth, no people so intolerable as they; but mastered and subdued, no Nation of the world so submissive and [...]ouching. At home, in generall, poore, timorous, and un­warlike; abroad (by hardning and custome) a very hardy and valiant souldier on foot, obedient to his Commander, and patient in the distresses and labours of warre; but by night they never goe upon any service. By it selfe alone this Nation hath done nothing of reckoning, but accompanied [Page 235] with others, it hath made good assaies of its owne valour, alwayes boasting of the taking of the French King, of the victories of Germany, of the enterprise of the Tercers, and of the happy fight at the Curzolary, without once remem­bring their contrary successes of Goletta, Algiers, and England.

Of ordinary revenues from Italy, Revenues from Italie. it receiveth foure mil­lions of gold. Much of that of Naples is pawned; the which the Kingdome of Sicilie doth yearly supply, by sending thi­ther ordinarily foure thousand crownes, and the Councell of Spaine taking order for the rest. These States in Italy are defended from the forces of bordering Princes, partly by nature of site, and partly by the aid of strong Forts; ordi­narily maintaining in the presidiarie places ten thousand Spanish foot-men, 1200. men at Armes, three hundred light-horse, and thirty six Gallies for guard of the Sea-coasts: Of sixteene are of Genoa, twentie five of Naples, twelve of Sicilie, and three of Savoy. This is the appointed number, but you shall seldome see it so strong. For not­withstanding this Armada, the coasts are badly secured; as it appeared by the late yeares example, in the dammages done by the Turkish Navie upon Puglia, and Calabria; a­mounting (as it is reported) to the summe of more than a million and a halfe of gold. He serveth himselfe also (when occasion requireth) with the Gallies of Malta, with the Popes, (which are eighteene) and sometimes also with those of the great Duke of Tuscan. And all these charges are no­thing neere defrayed by the foure millions of revenue; so that Italy stands the Spaniard in much more than hee gets by it. The witty Boccalini brings in Lorenzo Medices weighing the Estates of Europe; and when the Spaniards saw the revenue of Spaine alone, to weigh within a few millions as much as France, with great chearefulnesse they gate on their spectacles, and would needs cast their domi­nions of Italie into the scale; but perceiving the beame to turne contrary to their expectation, all ashamed they tooke them out againe, and durst not put in their dominions in [Page 236] Africa, and the Low-Countries.

The mindes of these his Italian subjects are exceedingly exasperated through the insolencie of their government,The Italian hu­mou [...]. their intolerable charges, and the burthen of infinite taxati­ons, which are continually imposed upon them, finding out daily one meanes or other to raise new summes of money. The Neapolitans are most doubted for revolt, by reason of the instability of that people, alwayes desirous of change and novelties. Millaine is also suspected, by reason of the dammage which they undergoe by lodging of souldiers at discretion, being growne to a custome, with the small deso­lation of divers families.

The Indies are divided into Orientall and Occidentall, The Indies. the King pretending to be sole Lord, both of the one and the o­ther. The Orientall not only are indangered by the English Navies, (which in time of warre doe continually trouble them) but in hazard also, if not to be lost, yet to be forced to share quiet and peaceable Trafficke, both to the English and Netherland Merchants. The King maintaineth there, for custodie of those Countries, many ships of Warre, ha­ving also distributed eight thousand foot-men, for the ordi­nary safegard of the Forts.

The West-Indies (exceeding rich and abounding with gold and silver) are divided into two parts: Peru, and New Spaine. These Countries are full of Mines, in which is found great store of gold, keeping therein the Indians continually at worke, living very barely, and undergoing the punish­ment of their ignorance and pusilanimity, in suffering them­selves to be easily overcome, and so basely subjected. The King hath the fifth part of all extracted from the Mines. These Indies, [...] yeare [...] is [...] made of another. in the time of Charles the fifth, ye [...]ded no more than five hundred thousand crownes of gold by yeare, but they now yeeld an exceeding commodity to this King; for in some yeares past (comprehending the Buls of the Crosse, and other confiscations in those parts) he hath received from thence ten millions of gold, yea, fifteene and seventeene mil­lions many yeares since that. His Highnesse Ministers doe [Page 237] still procure some new gaine in those parts, and the people, still continue their Navigation thither with more gaine upon their returne, than one hundred for another. The Merchants carry thither Wines, Woollen-cloth, and other merchandize of these parts, and bring from thence in lieu thereof (over and besides divers sorts of Spices) a great quantitie of Goldi [...] by extraction of which, the fruitfulnesse of the Mines is no whit diminished, but it seemeth that they doe rather daily more and more increase and multiply; in such sort, that the Countrey-men in tilling the ground, doe finde great-store thereof, together with the clods of earth, when they dig it up; and in my time, there was discovered a Mine of Quick­silver, which will yeeld exceeding profit, and incredible gaine. True it is, that all these profits have their interest, but they arise not to above twenty in the hundred laid out, by reason of Convoyes, for security of the Fleet. For there is alwayes maintained strong guards in the Isle of Iava, apt by reason of the situation, to give the Empire of all these parts to him, that can make himselfe once Master thereof. The souldiers which hee sent into these parts, have for their pay two crownes a moneth, in such sort, that the Land-souldiers, the guarders of the Forts, and the Gallies which he main­taineth for this purpose, is a speciall cause, that his Majestie expendeth in interests and charges amongst the Indies, more by a great deale than a million and a halfe of gold: Which maketh me nothing to wonder, that although this King by reason of his abundance of Treasure, and many other infinite riches brought yearely from the Indies, should seeme to be richer than other Princes, and his state much more wealthy and aboundant; yet in truth the great Turke, not having any mines of gold, is more mightier and farre wealthier: And so in true interpretation is France, England, and Netherland, as late experience (the touch-stone of ambiguities) hath fully discovered. Whereupon it must needs follow, that this Crowne is either much hindred by ingagement in war, want of home-bred necessities, or by uncertaine returnes of its Fleets, subject every yeare to the casualties of Seas, currents [Page 238] and surprisals. If these be not the causes of so many crosses, as our eyes have lately discovered; then surely, his neigh­bouring Princes must be thought to be Lords of a valianter people, than are his Spanish.

For, say they, it appeareth by record, from time to time, kept in the Citie of Sivil, that in threescore and fourteene yeares space there have come into Spaine two hundred and threescore millions of gold. Of all which summe there re­maineth now in Spaine, by conjecture, in ready money and plate (wherewith this Nation is much delighted) about six and fifty millions: Five and twenty the Genoese have had for interest: Seven millions were spent in the French warres, and the conquest of Portugal: Eight were bestowed on that glorious and stately building of the Escuriall. And the rest (which is more than an hundred millions) hath beene all spent in the fruitlesse warres of Christendome and Flanders. So that it may be truly said, that all the enterprizes which this State hath undertaken, since the dayes of Charles the Emperour, have beene performed with Indian gold: being certainly to be affirmed without contradiction, that Philip the second, during his raigne alone, spent more than all his predecessors, being in number sixty two, that have reigned since these Kingdomes shooke off the Roman yoke; consi­dering that he alone spent more than an hundred millions: and notwithstanding all this here spoken of, Spaine is very poore and smally stored with wealth. For although his Na­vigation to the Indies was upheld, yet the Trafficke which he had with England and Flanders, (which brought him ex­ceeding and most secure gaines) was all cut off. Whence it seemes true that the Spaniards say in discourse of this Gold, (brought from India into Spaine) that is worketh the same effects upon them, that a showre of raine doth upon the tops and coverings of houses, which falling thereon doth all at last descend below to the ground, leaving no benefit behind, to those that first received it.

Flanders, O [...] Flanders. once the true correlative of the Indies, but being now divided and alienated, yeeldeth no profit to this Prince, [Page 239] yet Charles the fifth, by his good government drew from thence by extraordinary grievances and Imposts (occasio­ned by his manifold warres) more than twenty foure milli­ons of gold.

This Country, though by Nature it be not very fruitfull, yet by Art, it proveth to the Inhabitants very profitable and commodious, exercising with all travell and industry the Trade of Merchandize; by which in former times infinite riches arose to their Princes, who alwayes held it deare, and sought by all meanes to conserve the Dominion thereof. And so Philip the second would faine have done, supposing that those warres would the rather have drawne to an end, when hee gave his daughter Isabella for wife to the Arch-Duke (with the assignment thereof) for her Dower; and that the people would the sooner have quieted themselves under the obedience of that Prince, if they might be suffered to enjoy the libertie of their consciences; but time hath re­vealed what effects those projects have produced.

It now remaineth to speake of the Councell,Councell. and quality of his Councell, and the conditions of his Counsellors, a matter both of great importance, and worthy of understan­ding, being the very Seat of the soule of his government.

The government is absolute and royall:Government. matters of seve­rall qualities are handled in severall Councels, and they are seven in number, besides the Privie Councell: That the King may bee the better informed of all affaires, they keepe al­wayes neere about his person in severall Chambers under one roofe. Their names are these: The Councell of Spaine, of the Indies, of Italy, of the Low-Countries, of Warre, of the Order of Saint Iohn, and of the Inquisition: In these the slow and considerate advisoes of Fabius, rather than the rash and heady resolutions of Marcellus are received. As much as may be, innovations and change of ancient customers are a­voided. In regard whereof, Innocent the eighth was wont to affirme, the Spanish Nation to be so wary in their actions, that they seldome committed any over-sight therein. By this course the King rangeth under his obedience, Castilians, [Page 240] Arragons, Bisca [...]nes, Portugals, Italians, the New-world, Christians, and Gentiles, people utterly different in Lawes, Customes, and Natures, as if they were all of one Nation, and his naturall subjects.

And whereas some object, that this Empire cannot long endure in so flourishing an estate, because the members there­of are so farre disjoyned: to such objections, let this Maxime be opposed; That spacious Dominions are best preserved a­gainst forren attempts, as those of meane capacitie have the like advantage, against intestine divisions. But in this Empire thus divided, spaciousnesse and mediocrity are well united. The spaciousnesse is apparent in the whole body compoun­ded of severall members: the mediocrity in the greatest part of the severall members: For seeing that the portions there­of (as Spaine, Peru, Mexico) are so great and goodly States of themselves, they cannot but bee stored with all those good things, which are requisite either for greatnesse or me­diocritie; that is to say, with a puissant union to resist for­ren attempts, and sufficient inward force to provide against domesticall discontents. For who knoweth not, that by meanes of Sea-forces, all these members may strengthen one another, and stand as it were united, even as Caesar Augustus by maintaining one Fleet at Ravenna, and another at Messina, awed the whole Roman Empire, and kept it in assured tranquility: As also wee have seene, the Por [...]gals, by reason of their Sea-forces, which they maintained in Persia, Cambera, Decan, and other places of the Indies, in those parts to have given the Law to many fa­mous Princes.

This State layeth claime also to the Duchie of Burgundie, a part of that Countrey whereof the House of Austria re­ [...]ain [...]th Heire. He doth the like to the Citie of Tunis in [...]a, to the Island of Corsica, possessed by the Genoese, to the base and higher Britaine, as also to the Kingdome of Hieru­salem, whose Title he taketh upon him; and finally (as it is above mentioned) pretendeth himselfe the Monarch of the World. But this mightinesse of his, hath many disturbances [Page 241] in it selfe, which hinder motion, and cruelly curbe designe­ments, by reason wherof he sets forward with such dulnesse of speed, that for the most part the provision which is pre­pared for effecting of future enterprises, commeth alwayes too late. For if he be to provide Souldiers in Italie, after they be pressed, inrolled, and set on wards, they lie waiting three or foure moneths at the River of Spaine, before they be embarked for their voyage, their pay still running on, to the great dammage and prejudice of that Crowne; so that wee may very well avouch, that what another Prince per­formeth with two hundred thousand Crownes expence, his Catholike Majestie can scarce execute so much with the cost of five hundred thousand.

Of no lesse danger is the dammage which that Crowne may very easily receive by a sudden and unexpected losse of their Fleet, because on it are grounded all the hopes and de­signes of the said State, that are of any importance. But more pernicious and fuller of trouble would be the losse of the In­dies, which with ease, either by Forren Fleets may be taken from them, or much molested and hindered: Or if neither of these, yet that the Spaniards themselves, sent thither in Co­lonies, combining themselves in one bond of unitie, having all the Fortresses in their owne hands, together with the Ports and Ships that are there, may one day resolve to be governed by themselves, denying all obedience to their Kings commandements. Another contrarietie also doth this great State incurre; That the Prince thereof hath farre bet­ter meanes to get Money than Men. For howbeit upon every occasion, and when need serveth, he is served by the Swiz­zers, the Wallons, and Italians, yet these of themselves are little or nothing worth, being upon every sleight occasion of slack pay, ready to make commotions, and in their furie to forsake his service. Of other Nations (besides that his Ma­jestie dareth lesse trust them) he cannot (although he would) have such a sufficient number as should supply his need and occasion. So, howbeit that this Prince be sole Lord and Master of so many mighty States, and of so great and potent [Page 242] an Empire, yet liveth he full of continuall travels and dis­contents.

Now having taken a full view and mature consideration both of the States,Correspon­dencie. as also of the ends and intents of this mighty Monarch, together with those contrarieties which these States doe suffer; it resteth, that in this last place wee should intreat of the correspondencie which hee holdeth with other Princes: which as it is of all other knowledges the most necessary, so is it the hardest to be discovered, bringing with it for the most part greater difficultie, to be able fully and judiciously to pierce into the purposes and in­ward thoughts of Princes, but especially into the secret Councels of the State of Spaine, being full of cunning dissi­mulation.

To begin therefore with this point:With the Pope. I say, that generally (to instance first of all the Pope) his Catholike Majestie will have him to be such a one, as may wholly depend upon him, and be confident of his fastnesse. And therefore in their Ele­ctions, his endevour is, that not any ascend to that dignitie, that doth any way savour of the French faction, (and there­fore alienated from his devotion) nor any that are of singu­lar Nobilitie, left their spirits might be too generous to be basely abused by him: nor any of the Kingdome of Naples, for feare (taught by former examples) of some new distur­bance in that State: But his principall desire is, to create one of base linage, and of meane respect, and such a one, as shall (if it be possible) acknowledge his Cardinalship, and all other dignities, to proceed from him: and such a one, whose parents and kinsfolkes are poore, that by the bountie which he shall bestow upon them, and the pensions which he shall conferre on their friends, he may binde them unto him, and confidently assure himselfe of their favour and partaking, when occasion serveth.

And for this cause (in all that he can) he seeketh to weaken the Popes, and to detract from their dignities, to make them inclinable to his will, and wholly to depend upon him, pro­curing them to continue in this office of their love, by fur­nishing [Page 243] their State with Corne out of Puglia and Sicilie, and by upholding the authoritie of the holy See; in defending their Coasts from the incursions of the Turkish Fleets, and from the depredations and inrodes of Pyrats: and lastly, by giving them to understand, that it is in his power to call a Councell, and in it to take an account of their actions, and to call their prerogatives into question. And howbeit the absolution and re-benediction of the late King of Navarre did much move, nay beyond measure trouble the minde of Philip the second, who in those times did hope for great things at the Popes hands, yet did he dissemble this offence; As on the contrary, did his Holinesse the prejudice that was and is done him in Spaine, in regard of holy Church, where­by not only his orders and decrees are broken and modera­ted by the Councell, but also sometimes rejected and con­temned; whereof his Holinesse hath made often complaint to the Spanish Ambassadour, but to small purpose.

In the College of Cardinals,With the Col­lege of Cardi­nals. the King at this present hath not much authoritie, by reason of his imperious proceeding, and lesse will have hereafter, the French Nation being now rise to some greatnesse, which will now every day more and more be able strongly to oppose themselves against the Spanish, by whose jealousies, greatnesse, and dissimulation one with another, that See hath gained such greatnesse and reputation in the world.

In requitall whereof, his Holinesse in favour of Philip the second (wasted forsooth in warre against the Luthe­ráns) cut off by his authoritie I know not how many mil­lions of debt, due to the Genoese. He hath given him also all Pardons sent to the Indies, worth by yeare halfe a mil­lion, with the collations of Benefices and Bishopricks, and the enjoyment of the two rich Orders of Saint Iames and Calatrava.

With the Emperour (howbeit all be of his blou [...]) his Catholike Majestie hath not had (till of late) any great in­telligence,With the Em­perour. because in many occurrences that have beene offered, he hath given him but slender satisfaction, neither [Page 244] would ever seeke any counsell of his Majestie, which prin­cipally is by him desired, to the intent that he might seeme to relie upon him. But true it is, that these gusts are now over-blowne, and the distastes are at length somewhat les­sened, in consideration of entermariages.

But since these late warres about Bohemia and the Pala­tinate, he hath made great use of the Emperour. The Spani­ard knowes well, that to attaine his designed Monarchie, he must first conquer Germanie, and make himselfe Master of those Ports and Han [...]e-Townes, from thence to annoy England and Holland. To prepare the way to this, necessary it was that some quarrell should be pickt with some of the Protestant Princes for matter of State, and with all of them for matter of Religion. The plot hath taken, and by this meanes hath the Spaniard brought forren forces into the Empire, (though this was objected by the Princes in their Dy [...]ts, to be against the Constitutions of the Empire.) By these forces of his (having first gotten himselfe to be made Executioner of the Imperiall Ban against the proscribed Palatine, Baden, Hessen, Iegerensdorff, and others) hath he in the Emperours name gotten possession of div [...] Townes, which he holds as his owne. Knowne it is, that there was a Mint set up at Vienna, the Coine whereof though it bare the Emperours stampe, yet the Bullion came from Spaine. To make himselfe neerer unto the Emperour, he hath made himselfe Master of the Valtoline, that by that passage hee might unite his owne forces of Millane, with those of the Emperours hereditary States next to the Alps in Germanie. By the Emperours meanes hath he also made himselfe a partie in the present quarrell of the Dukedome of Mantua in Italie: and it shall goe hard but he will get all or some good part of it, to joyne to Millane and Naples. And this is the use that the Spaniard since the yeare 1620. hath made of the Emperour. The Emperour growes great by the Armes of Spaine; but this is but personall, and to die with Ferdinand of Gratz: in the meane time all the world knows that the Spaniard hath the reputation, and will at last r [...]ape the whole benefit of it.

[Page 245] For the Arch-duchesse,With the Archduchesse. wee know shee beares but the name of Governesse of his Provinces, being her selfe other­wise wholly governed by Spanish Counsell: and were the Kings younger brother but old enough to be Governour, wee know that she must be thrust into a Monasterie.

However France seemeth now to rejoyce in a new alli­ance,With France. yet let the world not doubt but that out of ancient emulation, which hath ever beene betweene these two Kingdomes, being exasperated done against another, by so many injuries, so many wrongs, and so many jarres and brawles, new occasions of discontents will evermore arise: For can the French (thinke we) ever forget their expulsions out of Italie, their deprivation of Navarre, or the intrusion of the late King upon the maine body of the Kingdome? But fresh in memory, and yet unrevenged (as one this present yeare 1629.) is the defeat of the French troopes sent into Italie in favour of the Duke of Mantoa: nor does the Spaniard looke that the crosse mariages with the French (the Kings marying one anothers sisters) can make any at­tonement; but lookes either that the French should invade Flanders, or the Wallon Countries, unto which hee hath so good and ancient pretencion; or watch him some other good turne at his best opportunitie.

Betweene him and the Savoyard (notwithstanding their neere alliance) have there beene late warres;With Savoy. the Spaniard depriving him of some Townes in Montferat; and the Duke of Savoy in revenge on the other side distressing Genoa with an Armie, which is under the Spaniards protection, and the place from whence he borrowes his great summes of mony. But these differences are so farre reconciled, that contrary to all expectation, the Savoyard in consideration of the re­storing to him of those Townes in Montferat, is now at this present turned on the Spaniards side, hath levied an Armie in favour of him, and blockt up the passages of his owne Countrey, by which the French Armes should enter Italie, to the aid of Mantoa. But to be knowne it is, that this Duke of Savoy is an old, a subtill, and an inconstant Prince, [Page 246] jealous enough (as all the States of Italie are) of the Spani­ards greatnesse; and for his owne advantage will as readily turne to the French, as he did now to the Spaniard.

With the King of [...] he hath not any negotiation,Polonia. save good correspondencie. And because betwixt these two Crownes there is not any pretencion of State, or interest of Consines, which are wont to be causes from whence dis­cords arise, and also for the most part evill intelligence a­mong Princes.

As the Turke is Lord of a larger Sea-coast than the King,With [...] Tu [...]ks. so can he hardly compare with his Majesty either in furni­ture or mariners. Along all the coast of Africke, he hath not an harbour, where he can build or keepe a couple of Gallies, except Algier, and Tripolie. In the Euxine sea, what place of name is there, besides Capha and Trapezond? What bet­ter report can we give to the coast of Asia? More imple­ments than a spacious Sea-coast are incident on either part to this businesse: he must have plenty of Timber and Cor­dage; he must be furnished with a people practised in Sea-affaires, able to endure the labour and working of the waters; delighting in traffike and navigation; chearefull in tempests and rough weather, which dare dwell as it were amongst perils, and expose their lives to a thousand dan­gers, and here in true judgement, I take the King to exceed the Turke: For the Turkish subjects, as to the better part never saw Sea, and those that have used it are not to bee compared to the Biskaines, Catalonians, Portugals, and Geno­ [...]ais; (I adde this people for their good services and affecti­ons at all times to this Crowne.) To conclude, in two things the King excelleth the Turke; the first is, that al­though the Turke can command more men, yet the best and greater part of them being Christians, he dare hardly trust; the second, that the Sea-coasts of the King are neerer con­joyned than those of the Turke, and in that regard hath his forces sooner incorporated. By this facilitie, experience hath proved, that the Easterne Navies have been often overthrowne by the Westerne, the Southerne by the Nor­therne, [Page 247] the Carthaginian by the Roman, the Asian by the Grecian. Octavius Caesar with the Navie of Italy, defeated the Fleet of Aegypt, and in our times the Armada of the Christians, the Fleet of the Turke. The Turkes themselves confesse, that in Sea-fights the Christians excell, and are unwilling to deale with those forces. As often as Charles the fifth rigged forth his Navie, it was so puissant, that the Turke never durst leave the harbour. In his journey of Al­gier, he rigged five hundred vessels; in his Tunis voyage 600. Andrew Dorie conducted 10 gallant an Armada into Greece, that the Turke not daring to move out of his station, the Christians tooke Patras and Coronna in Morea.

At this day they are at peace: The Spaniard is doubtfull of the Turkish forces, especially by Sea, if he be not assi­sted by the league of Italie: And againe, the Turke is feare­full of him alone, and of his associates. For he knowes he is to deale with a Potentate of much estimation, and well practised in the world; and although of late there have fallen out betweene them certaine jarres and differences upon dammages done by the one and the other Prince reci­procally in each others dominions, yet it is to be thought, that these two so powerfull Princes will not easily bee brought to take Armes, seeing they emulate each others greatnesse, and contented with equall strife, to bring all Christendome to their subjection; pretending both one and the selfe-same end, viz. Religion. Besides, it is suffi­cient for the Catholike King to have revenged his wrongs, and for the Turke, that he is no more molested by the Spa­nish Armadaes. As the one hath a warlike and well armed Empire, so hath the other an united and most rich King­dome. But herein the Turke hath the greater advantage, that he spendeth but little in the warres, in regard of that, that not onely the King of Spaine disburseth, but even all the Princes of the world. For his souldiers receive for their pay, those lands which he hath given them to hold for life, with condition annexed, alwayes to bee in readinesse to serve at an instant. Certaine it is, that the Turke being [Page 248] dreadfull to Christendome, the Spaniard is the ablest to op­pose him. For which reason Andreas Hoia would needs perswade us, that it were best for Christendome to chuse the Spaniard for their universall Monarch: but Boccalini argues better; that it had beene more convenient for Europe, if the Moores had still beene Lords of Spaine. Most sure it is, that the Protestants, yea, all Christians in Hungaria, live better under the Turke, than under the house of Au­stria. The Spaniards bee intolerable masters, witnesse the poore Indians. Hoia therefore vented this in an Oration at Doway, to inflame our English fugitives to treason.

His Land-forces consist in Cavalrie and Infanterie:Forces at land. the best footmen of all the German Nations is the Wallon, and it is well knowne that in all ages the Spanish have beene ac­counted one of the most valourous Nations of the world. The French in nine yeares were subdued to the Roman yoke, the Spaniards held out two hundred. The power and person of Augustus Caesar were requisite to the subdu­ing of the Cantabrians, whereas they not onely delivered their owne Country from subjection of the Moores, but invaded Africke, and therein tooke many strong pla­ces. So the Portugals invaded Barbarie, tamed the coast of Guinea, Aethiopia, and Cafraria; they conquered India, Malaca, and the Moluccas. The Castilians sailing through the Atlanticke sea, subdued the New-world, with all the Kingdomes, Provinces, and people therein: and finally, drove the French from Naples, Sicil, and Millaine.

This people is much inclined to melancholy,Humours of the Spaniards. which ma­keth them solemne in their conversation, slow and advised in action: they love complement, and stand much upon appearance, presuming greatly of themselves, and excee­dingly boasting of their owne doings: and to maintaine their reputation, they will imploy all they have in furniture and apparel [...]: in suffering of hunger, thirst, heat, cold, labour, and extremities, they will lay up any Nation in Europe. By these vertues they have atchieved the glory of so many victories, and although somtime they have beene overcome, [Page 249] notwithstanding they vanquished their vanquishers, as it fell out at Ravenna. They never suffered any famous de­feature, but in the journeys of Algier, and England; the one by the casualty of Tempest; the other by the skilfull prowesse, and Sea-faring dexterity of the English. Three or foure thousand of them turned topsie-turvie the better part of Germanie, and made way with their Swords thorow the thickest of their enemies. In the journey of Carven in Bar­barie, being foure thousand foot souldiers of great valour, they made a brave retreit the space of foure or five miles, be­set and charged with twenty thousand horse by the King of the Moores, at least five or six times, with the losse onely of eighty men, and the slaughter of eight hundred of the enemie. They serve better on foot than on horsebacke, (al­though they have horses of excellent courage) and better with the Harquebuze, than with any other kind of weapon. With great care they will cover their losses and weaknesse.

As concerning their Cavalrie, it cannot be gain-said,Their Caval­rie. but that the Spanish Genet is the noblest horse of Christen­dome, farre excelling the Courser of Naples, or the horse of Burgundie, so much esteemed of the French, of the Frees­lander, and in so great request with the Germans. It should seeme that nature herselfe hath armed this people, in giving them the Iron Mines of Biskay, Guipuscoa, and Medina, with the temperature of Baion, Bilbo, Toledo, and Calataiut; the Armories of Millan, Naples, and Boscoducis; the corne and provision of the inexhaustible Garners of Apulia, Sicil, Sardinia, Artesia, Castile, and Andaluzia; with the plen­tifull vintages of Soma, Calabria, San Martin, Aymont, and sundry other places. To conclude, this Prince is so mighty in gold and silver, that there with (to spare his owne people, in­gaged in the defence of so many Territories, Provinces, and Frontiers, from undoubted destruction) he is able to wage what numbers of horsemen and footmen of the German and Italian Nations it pleaseth him.

The Princes whose dominions are bordering,Borderers. and in re­gard of their forces are any way able to endanger his domi­nions, [Page 250] are the Venetians, the Kings of France and England, and the Turke.

The Venetians. The Venetians (long since the Duchie of Millan came to the possession of this Crowne) have set them downe with great quietnesse, rather looking to the strengthning and keeping of their owne Townes and peeces, than-to the winning of others from their neighbours. And good rea­son it is, sithence peace is the surest anchor-hold of their Common-wealth.

Concerning France, The French. sithence the French Nation hath put an end to their civill discontents, what Trophee or Tri­umph can the Spaniard boast to have carried from them? Indeed it cannot be denied, but in elder dayes, the warinesse of the one, hath turned the furious attempts of the other to matter of too late repentance. For the great Captaine sur­prizing Barletta, and then encamping upon the banks of Gariglano, first tooke from them the possession of the King­dome of Naples, and afterwards all hope of regaining it againe. By the same temporizing, Anthony Leva wearied King Francis at Ticinum, and Prosper Collonna cleared the Duchie of Millan.

In assaulting of Townes and Fortresses, I confesse fury to be of great moment; I confesse likewise, that by this vertue the French prevailed at Ioious, Momedium, and Caleis; but in set battels, as at Graveling, Saint Quintins, and Siena, most commonly they have had the foile: for in the field good order & skilfull conduct doth more prevaile, than va­lour and furious resolution: In all assaults, fury and reso­lution, more than counsell or temporizing.

In the East Indies he confineth with the King of Persia, The Persian. betwixt whom there is not any evill intelligence, but contrariwise, rather great tokens of much love and ami­tie, as by whose helpe that King hopeth to finde meanes to overthrow the Turke. Howbeit hee hath very oftentimes denied him assistance and aid in those warres, which hee made against the house and family of Ottoman, being very much urged and sought unto by the Persian, to send unto [Page 251] him some of his people, men expert and skilfull in casting of great Ordnance, as also in building of Forts, and other the like matters of defence and assistance. Excusing himselfe with the perill of his Religion, which doth not permit Christian Princes to lend aid unto Infidels: though indeed the true cause was, because he would not thereby give an oc­casion of future trouble & molestation to himselfe (by com­municating these two advantages, so important in war) in his navigation to the Indies, which are adjoyning to the Per­sian Sea. But the Persians taking Ormuz from the Portugal, shews that they do not at this day much regard the Spaniard.

With the King of Fesse and Morocco his Catholike Ma­jestie is in league,In Barbarie. upon interest of those States which hee possesseth in Africa.

His Catholike Majestie would very willingly that the great Duke of Tuscanie should wholly depend upon him;In Tuscanie. but he is so farre from that, that he doth not onely depend, but in many occasions hath still shewed himselfe opposite unto this Crowne, and hath lately discovered himselfe to be a welwiller to the Crowne of France, by joyning alliance with the most Christian King: and therefore it is not likely that any good intelligence can bee betwixt them. In like manner, the Ambassadour of Tuscanie is but of indifferent regard in that Court, but since the Emperour and the Duke are allied by marriage, there is greater respect.

The Duke of Parma is not onely a devout servant,Parma. and a neere kinsman, but also a subject to this Crowne, by the Citie of Placentia, and therefore wholly depends thereup­on, having taken a secret oath to obey him in all com­mands. Proceeding with all possible respect, not to give the least occasion of offence, by reason that the investiture of Placentia was not granted absolutely to the house of Farnesi, but only to the fourth descendencie after which it returnes againe to the King of Spaine, as Duke of Millan. And there­fore his Excellencie (that hee may not separate himselfe from his Majesties good liking) did lately refuse to linke himselfe in alliance with the great Duke, lest hee should [Page 252] displease the King, whose minde he saw was bent against [...]

The Duke of Vrbine being a Prince of small power,Vrbine. wholly relies upon his Majestie, as receiving his greatest benefit from him, to whom he hath committed the charge of all his Italian Cavalrie.

The Common-wealth of Genoa is like a ship beaten at Sea,Genoa. and tost with contrary winds, & tempestuous stormes, placed as it were betwixt two anchors; which are, Prince Doria, a true borne Citizen, and the Ambassadour of the Catholike King, who hath the protection thereof in his Ma­sters name, to his great benefit. If ever he chance to become Sole-Lord thereof it will adde a greater Dominion to his greatnesse, for the nature and quality of the situation of that Citie, whereof the Spaniards were wont to say; That if the King their Master were but once Lord of Marsettes in Pro­vence, and of Genoa in Italy, by the benefit of these two fa­mous ports, hee might easily arrive to the Monarchie of the whole World. But howbeit the King of Spaine be not Lord thereof, nor yet hath so great a part therein, that he can as­suredly say, that it wholly rests at his command, yet by fa­vouring and upholding the greatnesse of the Prince Doria, he maketh him the Instrument to serve his turne, and by his meanes obtaineth what hee will, or can in reason desire of that people deeply interessed, in regard that his Majestie hath taken up great summes of money upon interest of them, and therefore will take heed how they breake with him; lest they be hindred of their gaines, peradventure of their princi­pall: It hath beene thought, that some Kings have beene be­hinde hand with them, for more than a million and a halfe of gold. How much Genoa depends upon him, was seene in these late warres, in which they were wholly protected by him.

Of the Religion of Malta, Malta. the said King taketh a particu­lar protection, as that in like sort depends wholly upon his pleasure, and doth readily execute his royall commande­ments, serving his turne oftentimes, in keeping the Coasts of Spaine, and the Kingdomes of Naples and Sicily, from [Page 253] the incursions of Pyrates; and that without any one penie cost or charges to the said King; whereof in proper place.

The Seigniory of Lucca hath placed both it selfe and allLucca. that it hath (fearing the potencie of the great Duke) under the protection of his Majesty.

In generall,Venice. the Spanish Nation beareth little love to the Venetian Common-wealth, as suspecting it to favour the French, and for the strict friendship which it holds with the most Christian King, and the most renowned State of Eng­land, of late his apparant and professed Enemies.

Againe,From him. there is also little inclination of love towards this State, because they thinke, that it maketh profession to bal­lance the States and Forces of the Princes of Italy; and though they esteeme well enough of it, yet they love it not a jot. Notwithstanding, the Spaniards know, that in those warres which may happen betwixt the Turks and this peo­ple, they cannot (out of their particular interests) but aid and assist them, and that on the contrary from them, they have no hope of retribution, unlesse in like occasion. But withall they assuredly beleeve, that the aids which they shall afford it, shall be but feeble; and slowly subministred, in such sort, that they shall not give it any great re-enforce­ment, but only such as may be sufficient to save it from ruine, yea scarce that.

Finally, for a perfect review of this tedious discourse, I wil recite unto you, these weighty, secret, and last instructions given by Philip the second, King of Spaine, to his son Philip the third, father of this present King: teaching him how to governe himselfe and his Kingdomes after the decease of his said father; brought to light by a servant of Don Christo­phero di Mora, called Roderigo, and translated out of Spanish and Dutch into English, that the world may see how judici­ously this manuscript of the Kings owne hand agreeth with the purport of these Relations.

SOnne, I have often troubled my mind, and entered into most deepe and serious considerations, how to leave a [Page 254] quiet and setled estate unto you after my decease: Howb [...], neither the long time of my life, nor the opportunity of Princes affected to my service, would afford me sufficient as­sistance in this behalfe. I confesse; that I have spent more than 594. millions of Duckets; in lieu whereof, I have en­joyed nothing the space of three and thirty yeares, but heart-sorrow, and vexation of spirit. True it is, that I recovered Portugal; but as lightly as France is escaped from me, so likewise may Portugal slide backe. Would to God I had followed the counsell of Charles the Emperour, my Lord Father of famous memory: for then could I much more quietly brooke those my sorrowes, and die with a more wil­ling minde, leaving to you the succession of this mortall life.

This then, besides so many stately Kingdomes and Seigni­ories, as a perpetuall testament I leave behinde unto you, as a mirrour and Looking-glasse, wherein you may see how to frame your actions, and to carry your selfe in your govern­ment after my death.

Alwayes looke well to the charges and alterations of o­ther States and Countries, to the end you make use, and reap good profit thereby, as occasion shall serve; and withall, have a cautelous and circumspect eye over them that be in Counsell with you.

Two meanes you have whereby to maintaine your Spa­nish Kingdomes; the one is Government; the other, the Trade of the Indies.

Touching your Government, you must draw unto you, and relie either upon the Nobilitie, or the Spiritualtie of your Dominions.

If you leane unto the Spiritualtie, you must seeke to bri­ [...]ile and curbe the other, as I have done: but if you meane to strengthen your selfe with the Nobility, cut short the Li­vings and Revenues of the Spiritualtie, as much as is pos­sible. For holding them both in equall favour, they will consume you; and besides, you shall set your Realmes out of quiet, and never come to resolution, the ballance being over-weighed, sometimes by the one, and sometimes by the other.

[Page 255] My Counsell is, that you hold in league with the Provin­ces of the Netherlands, especially if you meane to helpe your selfe with the Nobilitie: for they be friends to France, Eng­land, the German Princes. And neither Italy, Poland, Swe­den, nor Denmarke, can stand you much in stead: As for the King of Denmarke, hee getteth his Revenues by forren Nations.

Sweden is alwayes at division, and unfit in regard of si­tuation.

The Polacks be as Masters over their Kings. Italy, though it be rich, yet it is farre distant from these before named; be­sides that, all the Princes therein are of divers humours and dispositions.

But on the other side, the Netherlands are exceeding po­pulous, and abound mightily in shipping: the Inhabitants being a people most constant in labours, diligent in search­ing out things profitable, couragious in their attempts, pa­tient in adversitie.

True it is, that I have bestowed those Provinces upon your Sister Isabella Clara Eugenia, howbeit in the transport thereof are comprized an hundred meanes, whereby you may helpe your selfe: The principall whereof be, that you are Tutor and over-seer of all her children; and that shee may alter nothing in the Catholike Religion: These two maine points being taken away, you are absolutely dispos­sessed and quit of the Netherlands; and other Kings would be so forward to draw them unto their allegeance, that it may haply redound to your overthrow.

Contrariwise, if you meane to rely and cleave to the Cler­gie and State Spirituall, you shall purchase your selfe many enemies: I have had the experience thereof: but hold all correspondencie with the Popes: Give them much; bee friendly alwayes to them: Entertaine such Cardinals as be most in credit with them: Make your selfe Master of the Conclave: Make much of the German-Princes Bishops, and use to bestow no more pension on them by the hand of the Emperour, but deale so; as they may acknowledge your selfe [Page 256] for the giver; surely they will serve you the more willingly, and receive your gifts with greater gladnesse.

As for them that be of baser degree and qualitie, let them not come neere you, and so shall you seeme to give your Nobilitie and Commons the better countenance. For cer­tainly I must needs say, their pride is great, they are mighty in substance, whatsoever they desire must be done, they will be chargeable unto you, and in the end will seeke to rule your Scepter. Wherefore make your partie good, by the meanes of such as are descended of Noble parentage, and great Families, and promote them now and then to some Spirituall livings. The common sort is not so serviceable; for they will procure you such unspeakable hatred, as that there­by you might be forced to consume your treasure, and there­fore repose your trust in none of them, unlesse they be of great qualitie.

Abandon and shake off your English Spies.

Cleare your selfe of the French charges.

Vse the service of some part of the Netherlandish Nobili­tie, so that you may joyne and knit them unto your best and, most trusty subjects. Now as concerning the travell and Na­vigation to the East and West Indies, therein doth consist all the power and might of the Kingdome of Spaine, as like­wise the straining and bridling of the Italians.

France and England cannot be debar [...]ed from medling with the aforesaid Trade and Navigation, their powers be great, their Sea-men be many, their Seas be too large, their Merchants too rich, their Captaines and souldiers too gree­die of money, and their subjects too trustie.

I have for your sake, in the transport of the Low-Countries, put down a proviso, altogether to restrain the Netherlanders from dealing in the aforesaid Trade: but I feare that time and men will prove changeable: wherefore you must doe two things. First, alter often your Governours. Secondly, those which you draw from thence, you shall put in Office here at home, and make them of the Councell of India in Spaine. So shall you never (in my opinion) be deceived, [Page 257] but both parties will discover your profit, and seeke their owne honour.

If you perceive the Englishmen prepare to bereave you of these commodities, as being strong both in shipping and Mariners, (for the French I make small account) see that you strengthen your selfe with the Netherlands, notwithstan­ding that a great part of them be Hereticks, and would so continue, with condition, that they shall have full liberty to utter all their commodities in Spaine and Italy, paying their royall Incomes and Customes, and all duties belonging un­to you: and then also you may grant unto them passage to travell and trade unto your East and West Indies, provided that they put in good security in Spaine, and take upon them a corporall oath, that upon their returne from the In­dies, they shall arrive in some part of Spaine, and there to unload upon paine of death, if they shall be found to doe otherwise. Mine opinion is, that they will never refuse to accept of this easie condition, and to accomplish the same: and by these meanes shall the Indian and Spanish be linked and knit to the Netherlandish trade: and England and France must then live upon their owne purses.

My Sonne, I could relate unto you more secrets for the conquests of other Kingdomes and Countries, but all such advertisements, with the discourses thereupon delive­red unto me, and by me amended, you shall finde in my Cabinet. Cause Christopher de Moro immediately to de­liver the key unto you, lest these so weighty secrets come into the hands of some other.

Vpon the seventeenth of September, I caused the transcript or last scribled coppy of these remembrances, being in di­vers places int [...]rlined, amended, and altered, to be cast in­to the fire: but I feare somewhat thereof might underhand be kept and reserved: wherefore set your eares to hearken thereafter.

I have this present day added thus much. If you can; deale with Antonio Peres, to draw him into Italie, or at least to procure him to doe you service in some other Coun­tries, [Page 258] but into Spaine or the Netherlands [...] come.

Touching your marriage, the particular writings thereof remaine under the custodie of the Secretarie.

Moreover, remember that you often read over this sig­ned Bill, and these Writings, here-about was never any bo­dy in counsell with me, but mine owne hand.

Have alwayes an especiall care over your Counsellors, and over those that are neere unto you.

The deciphering of Letters you must your selfe take up­on you.

Doe not offend nor anger your Secretaries; deliver them alwayes worke of small or great importance, make proofe of them rather by your enemies, than by your friends. And although you be enforced to discover your secrets to your dearest favourites, yet locke the chiefest alwayes within your owne brest.

Thus much gentle Reader, as it is thought hath beene saved out of those notes and writings which were seene to be burned, and this I thought good to publish for the com­mon understanding.


THis Kingdome (which is not above 320. miles long, and sixtie broad; not very populous, and but meanly rich in essentiall revenues:) by navigation and Acquisiti­on of late dayes, it held equall ranke with the most famous Provinces of the world: yea, this humour of industrie so possessed their minds, that they solely undertooke the fa­mous expeditions of Barbarie, Aethiopia, India, and Brasile. Wherein within these hundred yeares, they have taken and fortified the principall places and harbours of those Pro­vinces, challenging unto themselves the peculiar traffike of the Atlanticke and East Ocean. They seised upon the Ter­ [...]craz, knowing that without touching at those Islands; no ship could safely passe into Aethiopia, India, Brasil, or the [Page 259] New-world. Returning from the Countries towards Spaine or Lisbon, they put into releeve their wants and sicke pas­sengers, and outward they touch to take in fresh water, and fetch the wind. In Africke they are Lords of those places, which we spake of before in the description of Spaine: In Cambaia, they have Diu, Damain, and Bazain, the hi­ther India, Chaul, Goa, and the fortresses of Cochin, Colan, the Island Mavar, and the haven Columbo in Zeilan.

Amongst these Goa is the chiefest, as the place where the Viceroy keepeth his Court. Cochin and Colan for their plen­ty of Pepper: Mavar for the Pearle-fishing: Columbo for the abundance of Cinamon: Damain and Bazain, for fertill provision. In these quarters they have some Princes their Confederates, others their Feodaries. The chiefe and wealthiest of Allies is the King of Cochin, sometime tributarie to the Calecute, but now by the entercourse and traffike with the Portugals, he is growne so rich and mighty, that the other Princes doe envie his prosperity. The King of Colan is likewise their confederate.

Their cheife Force consisteth in situation and strength of places, and in number and goodnesse of their shipping.Forces. As concerning situation, this people wisely foreseeing, that in regard of their contemptible numbers, they were not of power to make any famous journey into the Inland Regi­ons, neither able to match the Persians, the Guizarites, the Princes of Decan, the King of Narsinga, and other barba­rous Potentates in Cambaia, turned all their cogitations to immure themselves in such defensive places, that therein with small forces they might ever have hope to divert great attempts, and make themselves Lords and Commanders of the Sea and Navigation: which when they had done, they entertained and maintained so strong a Navie, that no Prince in those parts was able to wrong them; yea, they furnished those vessels so throughly, that one single ship would not refuse to cope with three or foure of the Barbarians. With this Armada (of one and twenty ships) Francis Almeida defeated the Ma [...]lucks, neere the towne of Diu. Al­fonse [Page 260] Alburquerick with thirty great ships wonne [...] cute: with one and twenty he tooke Goa, and regained it (being lost) with foure and thirty. With three and twenty he tooke Malaca; with six and twenty he entred the Red Sea;These Galle­ons I suppose were but poore [...]gats. and with two and twenty recovered Ormus. In pro­cesse of time, as their mightinesse increased, Lopes Zu [...]e­zius made a journy into the Red-sea with seven and thirty Galleons. Lopes Sequeira with twenty foure ships, but with greater number of souldiers than ever before, laid siege to Guidda in the Red-sea: Henry Menesius wasted Patan with fifty ships. Lopes Vazius Sampaius left in the Arsenall 136. vessels of warre, whereof the greatest part were excellent well furnished. Nonius Acunia undertooke a journey to Diu with three hundred ships, wherein were three thou­sand Portugals, and five thousand Indians, besides a great number of his Guard and Servants, which ordinarily fol­low the Viceroyes in those Countries.

Thus have they much talked of their victories and pur­chases, and so should still for mee, if truth and time proclaimed not, that indeed they are but poore possessors of some Harbours and Townes by the Sea shore; standing on their Guard now more than ever, as fearing to lose them with more terrour, than ever they entertained com­fort in the facile acquisition of them.

Besides his confederates and feodaries,Borderers. hee is confined with most mighty Princes, his enemies: as the Persian, the King of Cambaia, who maketh title to Diu, and other places, which were once under his jurisdiction: Nizza­maluc and Idalcam (for so the Portugals call the two Prin­ces of Decan) and the Kings of Calecute and Narsinga.

As for the Kings of Persia & Narsinga, they never waged warre against them, because they have alwayes had to doe with more dangerous enemies: other Princes though they have enterprized to their uttermost, to regaine Diu, Chial, Goa, and other places, and have left no meanes unattemp­ted to bring their designes to effect, yet their abilities could not worke any prosperous successe to their laborious [Page 261] endevours, by reason of situation, so commodious for the transportation & receit of continuall succours from the Sea. And though they have undertaken the like actions in the deepe of Winter, hoping by tempests and other casualties, to barre the Portugals from their Sea-succours, yet they ne­ver prevailed; because the ships and courages of the Portu­gals, the one resolute to endure the siege, and by patience to overcome [...] the other determining (hap what may) never to forsake their distressed Countrey-men, have set all up­on hazard, and exposed their fortunes to the mercy of wind and waves in those tempestuous seasons. Their worst, grea­test, and fiercest enemie is the Turke, who (being backed with the like advantage of situation, which the Citie of Aden affordeth him, and sometime pricked on by his owne proper envie, emulation, and ambition, sometime egged on by the perswasion of the King of Cambaia,) hath often endevoured to dispoile them of the Soveraignty of the Red-sea, and finally to drive them out of the East India. The greatest Navie that ever he sent against them, was to reco­ver Diu, consisting of sixtie foure ships, but by them defea­ted. Afterwards he sent a Navie of greater vessels to the conquest of Ormuz, and that likewise was almost wholly beaten, bruised, and drowned.

In the further Indies they hold nothing but Malaca, and the Moluccas. In times past Malaca was farre greater than now it is: for it lay scattered three miles alongs the Sea-coast; but the Portugals, that they might the better defend it, have brought it into a round forme, containing not above a mile in compasse. Here the King hath two pu­issant enemies, Ior, and Achem, tho one mighty at Land, and the other far mightier at Sea, by whom the Towne, not without great danger, hath more than once beene besieged, but by the aid sent from India, alwayes releeved, with great slaughter of the Enemie. At length Paul Lima defeated King Ior, and raced the Castle built by him neere Ma­laca, wherein besides other spoiles, he found nine hundred brazen cast-peeces. This territorie is subject to great dan­ger, [Page 262] by reason of the puissance of this King of Achem, ben­ding all his cogitations to the rooting and finall destructi­on of the Portugals out of this Province, and therefore the King of Spaine of late yeares sent Matthias Alburquerk with a great power into India, with authority either to se­cure the territory of Malaca, or to fight with the King of Achem.

To secure their trade of Spice and Nutmegs in the Mo­luccas and Banda, they have built many Castles, yet for many yeares past they have beene mightily molested by the Dutch and English Nations, who by no meanes will bee excluded from the free traffique of the Sea. The English by reason of their great puissance, have of late builded the fai­rest ships of the World for that onely trade, and therein (as now) seated a hopefull and peaceable Factorie.

The Roman Empire, or Germanie.

THis Empire in its greatest glory (viz.) in the dayes of Trajan, stretched from the Irish Ocean; and beyond, from the Atlantik, to the Persian Gulfe, and from Catnes in Scot­land, to the River Albis, and beyond, to the Danubie. It began first to decline by the civill warres of Galba, Otho, and Vt­tellius: for in those times the Legions of Britanie were transported into the Continent; Holland and the bordering Countries revolted, and immediately after, the Sarazens fin­ding the Frontiers of the Empire without Garrisons, passed over Danubius. The Alani won the Streights of the Caspi­an Hils: the Persians endevoured to get them a name and reputation; the Goths wandered thorowout Moesia and Macedonia; the French-men entred Gallia. But Constantine the Emperour restored it to the former glory, made an end of civill Warre, and tamed the barbarous and cruell Nations; and had hee not committed two great faults, this Empire [Page 263] might long have flourished. The first was, the translating of the Imperiall Seat, from Rome to Constantinople; which action weakened the West, and overthrew the Empire: as Plants removed out of their naturall soile, and transported into Regions contrary in temperature and aire, retaine small vigour of their radicall vertue: as also because the manly and martiall people of Europe if they should rebell, could not be reduced to obedience by the power of the effeminate Asians; whom, or none, the Emperours of Constantinople must of necessity make use of, by reason of their situation. In which regard, the Roman Senate would never consent, that the people should leave Rome and dwell at Veij, a Citie farre more pleasant and more commodious than Rome, especially after the sacking thereof by the French-men.

The second fault of Constantine, was, the division of the Empire to his children, Anno Dom. 341. By this division, of one Empire he made three, and withall, a memorable di­minution of his authoritie and forces. For when his sonnes fell to civill dissention, they consumed one another so cruel­ly, that the Empire resembled a bloudlesse, yea, a livelesse body. And though sometime, under some one Prince, it stood on foot againe, yet it remained alwayes subject to division, and parted into two Empires, the East and the West, untill the comming of Odoacer, King of the Herules and Turingi, into Italy, with a mightie Hoast: by which invasion, Au­gustulus suffered such irrecoverable losses, that in extreme despaire hee was forced to cast himselfe into the protection of the East Empire. This happened in the yeare of our Lord 476. And about this time the Hunnes passed Danubius; A­laricus King of the Gothes tooke Rome: the Vandals first spoiled Andaluzia, afterwards, Africke: the Alans wonne Portugal: the Gothes conquered the greater part of Spaine: the Saxons, Britanie: the Burgundians, Provence. Anno 556. Iustinian restored it somewhat to a better State, driving the Vandals out of Africke, and the Gothes out of Italy, by his Captaines. But this faire weather lasted not long: for in the yeare 713. the Armes and Heresies of the Mahumetans [Page 264] began to vex the East Empire, and shortly after, the Sa [...] zons wasted Syria, Aegypt, the Archipelago, Africke, Sie [...], and Spaine. In the yeare 735. they vanquished Narbon, A­vignon, Tolouse, Burdeaux, and the bordering Regions. Thus by little and little began the Westerne Empire to droope, and as it were, to draw towards his last age. As for the Easterne, it stood so weake and tottering, that with all the force it had it was scarce able to defend Constantinople a­gainst the Armes of the Sarazens, much lesse to minister aid to the Westerne Provinces. But in the yeare of our Lord 800. Charles the Great, King of France, obtained the Title of the Westerne Empire, and in some sort mitigated the fury of these barbarous Nations.

And thus the Westerne Empire stood then divided: That Naples and Sipont East-ward, with Sicil, should belong to the Greek Empire; Bononia should remaine to the Lumbards; the Venetians were Neuters: the Popedome free; the rest Charles should possesse. Blondus saith, that the Empresse Irene gave the first counsell to this division which after­wards was confirmed by Nicephorus. For before Charles his time, there was one forme of Government; and the Laws, Magistracies, and ordinances which were enacted for the well-fare of one Empire, tended to the good and honour of both, as to the members of one body; and if one Emperour died without issue, the whole Empire remained to the survi­vour. But when Charles the great was chosen Emperour of the West, there was no more regard taken of the East Em­pire, neither the Emperour of the East had to doe with the West, nor the West with the East. The Empire of the West continued in this line above one hundred yeares, and failed in Arnolph, the last of that house. In the yeare 1453. Ma­humet Prince of the Turkes tooke Constantinople, and utter­ly extinguished the succession of the Easterne Empire.

And as for the West (viz. Italy) the Emperour hath no more to doe therein, than hath a pilgrime, who is admitted to visit the wonders of our Lady of Loretto.

For, in the yeare of Christ. 1002. all claime of inheritance [Page 265] rejected, the Creation of the Emperour was granted to the free election of seven Princes, termed Electors. The reason why the Empire became elective, which had so long conti­nued hereditary in the House of Charles, was because Otho the third left no issue male: After whom the Westerne Em­pire was marvellously curtailed and diminished: nothing be­ing left but Germanie, and a part of Italy. The Pope held Romagnia; the Venetians lived free, possessing great Domi­nions joyned to their State: the Normans (taking Naples and Sicil from the Greekes) held them in Fee of the Church, first under Clement the Antipope, then under Nicholas the se­cond, and his successours, who for their private gaine rati­fied the former grant of Clement Antipope.

In Tuscane and Lumbardie, partly by the quarrels be­tweene Henry the fourth, Henry the fifth, Fredericke the first, and Fredericke the second, with the Roman Bishops: partly by reason of the valour of the Inhabitants, the Empe­rour reaped more labour than honour, more losse than profit. And therefore Rodulphus terrified with the misfortunes and crosses of his predecessours, had no great minde to travell in­to Italy, but sold them their liberties for a small matter. They of Luques paid ten thousand crownes; the Florentines, but six thousand. And so every State by little and little forsa­king the Emperour, no part of Italy remained, but the bare Title. The Dukes of Millaine (and so every other state) usurped what they could catch, without leave asking, only they desired their investiture of the Empire. But Francis, af­ter the conquest therof, did little regard this investiture, say­ing. That hee was able to keepe it by the same meanes that hee had got it. The Princes beyond the Mountaines also with­drew their obedience, so that at this day the Empire is inclo­sed in Germanie.

Whereupon,Situation. sithence the glory thereof at this day consi­steth only in Germanie; It is good reason to say somewhat of this most ample and flourishing Province. It lyeth be­tweene Odera and Mosa; betweene Vistula and Aa; and betweene the German Sea; the Baltick Ocean, and the Alpes. [Page 266] The forme thereof is foure-square, equall in length and breadth, stretching six hundred and fifty miles every way [...] That it aboundeth with Corne,Plentie. Cattell, and Fish, let experi­ence shew. For Charles the fifth had under his Ensignes at Vienna ninety thousand foot-men, and thirty five thousand horse. Maximilian the second at Iavorin, had almost one hundred thousand footmen, and thirty foure thousand horse, and yet no man complained of dearenesse or scarcitie. In the warre betweene Charles the fifth and the Protestants, for certain moneths, one hundred and fifty thousand men sustai­ned themselves abundantly in the field.

And surely, of all Europe it is the greatest Countrey, and beautified with the best and richest store of Cities, Townes, Castles, and Religious places. And in that decorum and or­der (for in a manner see one, and see all) as if there had beene an universall consent to have squared them, like Courts, to one anothers proportion: whereto may be added a secret of moralitie; That the inhabitants for honesty of conversation, probity of manners, assurance of loyaltie, and confidence of disposition (setting apart their imperfect customes of drin­king) exceed our beleefe. For notwithstanding these their intemperate meetings, and phantasticalnesse in apparell; yet are they unoffensive, conversible and maintainers of their Honours and Families: wherein they steppe so farre, as if true Gentrie were incorporate with them, and there had his principall mansion. And wanted they not an united and he­editary succession of government, having sometime an Em­perour by partiality of election, and sometime by the abso­lute command of the Pope; I should stand as forward as the best, to say with Charles the Emperour, That they were indeed a valiant, a happie, and an honourable Nati­on. But in respect of these apparant and materiall defects, in some abatement of their ostentation, concerning their owne glory, and the honour of Majestie (in my judgement) they should not doe amisse, to reforme the custome of inti­tuling the younger sonnes of Dukes, Earles, and Barons, by the honourable Titles of their Ancestours: especially [Page 267] sithence the Italians in facetiousnesse doe jest; That these Earles of Germanie, the Dukes of Russia, the Dons of Spaine, the Monsiers of France, the Bishops of Italy, the Knights of Naples, the Lairds of Scotland, the Hidalgos of Portugal, the Nobles of Hungarie, and the younger Brethren in England, make a very poore company. O­therwise, if noveltie transport you to view their Palaces of Honour, you shall eft-soones bee brought into their well fortified Cities, wherein you shall finde Armorie, Munition, &c. with a presence of the very Burgers ex­cellently well trained in Militarie discipline: you shall see brave musters of Horse, with their exercises of Hun­ting, Hawking, and Riding; yea, how every man liveth of his owne, the Citizen in quiet, and the women blessed with plentifull issue.

The Nature of this Climate is temperate enough,Climate. some­what of the coldest, yet tolerable and healthie.Soyle. No place thereof, unlesse by nature it be utterly barren, lieth unma­nured; insomuch, that few remainders of that huge wood of Hercynia are to bee seene at this day, unlesse in place where humane necessitie requireth their growing, or Nature hath made the Earth fit for no other imployment; as are the Blacke-Wood, the Ottonique Wood, and the Woods of Bohemia. And yet doe they neither carry that horrid face of thicknesse, as in old times, neither are they so untravelled, or unhabitable, but exceeding full of Habitations, Hamlets, Villages, and Monasteries.

It is rich in Mines of Gold, Silver, Corne, Vines, Bathes,Commodities. and all sorts of Metall, and therein surpasseth the residue of the Provinces of Europe. Nature hath also bestowed upon the Vp-land Countries, many Springs and pits of Salt Wa­ter; of which hard Salt is boiled. Neither is it lesse stored with Merchandize; for the Inhabitants more than any o­ther Nation, doe excell in curious workmanship, and mecha­nicall invention: and it is so watered with Navigable Rivers, that all sorts of merchandize & wares are with ease conveied from one place to another. The greatest of them is Danow, Rivers. [Page 268] next the Rhene, which runneth cleane through the Coun­try, from the South to the North, as the Danow from East to West. Albis riseth in Bohemia, passeth by Misnia, Saxo­nie, Marchia, and the ancient Marquisat. Odera springeth in Moravia, watereth S [...]sia, the two Marquisats, and Pomeran. Then followeth Wesar, Neccar, Mosa, Moselia, Isara, C [...]nus, Varia, the Mase. This divideth Germanie into two parts, the higher and the lower: The high stret­cheth from the Mase to the Alpes: the low from the Mase to the Ocean. It is divided into many Provinces, the chiefe whereof (I meane the true members of the Empire) are Al­satia, Swevia, Bavaria, Austria, Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Lusatia, the two Marquisates, Saxonie, Masaia, Thurin­gia, Franconia, Hassia, Westphalia, Cleveland, Magunce, Pomeran. In these Provinces (besides Belgia and Helve­tia) are esteemed to bee ten Millions of men, and eightie great Cities; Villages innumerable, and those plentifully stored with all sorts of Mechanicall Occupations.Cities. Those which are seated neere Rivers, for the most part are buil­ded of Stone; the Vp-land, part of Stone, and part of Tim­ber. The Houses thereof are very faire and high, the Streets strait, large, and paved with stone; yea, more neat and handsome than those of Italy. Strabo writeth, that the Ro­mans excelled the Grecians, in cleanlinesse of their cities, by reason of their Channels to conu [...]y away the soile; but at this day, the Dutch-men doe farre exceed the Romans herein.

These Cities are of three sorts, viz. free Cities, (yet those stiled imperiall) Hanse-townes, and Cities by inheritance immediately holden of Princes and Prelates. The free Ci­ties are those which are by time and prescription immedi­ately subject to the Emperour, and have no other prote­ctor but him onely. In times past they have beene accoun­ted 96. now 60.

Of Hanse cities there were 72. mutually bound by an­cient leagues to enjoy common privileges and freedomes, both at home and in forren Countries. In ancient times [Page 269] they were of high estimation in England and other Pro­vinces, in regard of their numbers of shipping & Sea-trade, whereby they stored all Countries with their Easterne commodities, and served Princes turnes in time of warre with use of shipping: But at this day wee shall finde neither themselves, nor their meanes so great, that the English should either feare them, or favour them, especially in cases of prejudice. I write this because of their continuall grudges and complaints against our Nation. For if the State upon occasion (as of late yeares) after the example of other Princes, should forbid them all offensive trade into Spaine, (which is their chiefest support) they would in short time be quit of that indifferent proportion which as yet re­maineth. As for that true estimation which is so much spo­ken of beyond Sea, and vaunted of in Historie, almost no­thing remaineth at this present but bare report. For of those which in some good measure seeme to hold up their heads, and appeare by their Deputies in their assemblies, they are seldome of one minde, as being in truth unable (unlesse with much adoe) to bring up the charges and contributi­ons necessary and incident for the defence and maintenance of their leagues, privileges, and trade, in forren parts and at home.

Maidenburg is one of these Hanse-towns, and the Coun­tie wherein it standeth is also Maidenburg. It is one of the most ancient townes of Germany, and containeth in circuit about three miles, The streets are very large, but durtie; and the houses built partly of stone, and partly of timber, ma­ny of them being ancient and faire: The wals are strong and upon them are mounted many good peeces of brasse Ord­nance. It hath ten Churches, the Inhabitants for the most part being Lutherans. It standeth upon the river Elve, over which it hath a faire and large bridge of timber. The Em­perour this summer laid siege to it, which upon compositi­on he afterwards raised.

Hamburg standeth in the land of Holst upon the River of E [...] also. It is foure miles in compasse, and of great strength, [Page 270] and much resorted unto by forren Nations for traffique of Merchandize. In it are nine Churches, and many large streets, which are very durtie in foule weather. The grea­test part of the Inhabitants are Brewers: for here are said to bee 777. Brewers, forty Bakers, two Lawyers, and one Physitian: for most of their quarrels and contentions, as they beginne in drinke, so they end in drinke. And being sicke and ill at ease, their physicke is to fill their guts with Hamborow Beere: if that helpe not, their case is desperate. It is one of the Hanse-townes also, and the people are Lutherans.

Stoad, being neither faire nor great, standeth within the ju­risdiction of the Bishop of Br [...]me, but not subject unto him, by reason it is one of the Hanse-townes. It standeth about two English miles from the river of Elve, and hath a small creeke called the Swing, which runneth through the citie into the river, and beareth small barques for transportation of Merchandize. In it are foure Churches, and a Monaste­ry of Lutheran Friers. It was this last yeere taken by the Emperour.

Of other goodly Cities there are a farre greater number, some by inheritance belonging to the Temporall Princes, and some to the Spirituall.

In criminall causes they inflict most sharpe torments, and unusuall kinds of death; a signe of the cruelty of their Na­tu [...]. They were the inventors of Printing, of Guns, and of [...]lockes, things of notable use for mankind.

The people is divided into foure sorts, Husbandmen (they beare [...]o office) Citizens, Noblemen, and Prelates: The la [...] th [...]ee sort, make the Assembly & States of the Empire.

O [...] Prelates, [...]. the Archbishops Electors have the chiefest place. The Archbishop of Ments is Chancellour for the Empire, the Bishop of Colen is Chancellour of Italy, and the Bishop of Treuers is Chancellour of France. The Arch­bishop of Saltzburg is of greatest jurisdiction and revenue. The Bishop of Maidenburg writeth himselfe Primate of Germany, Breme and Hamburg had jurisdictions: next fol­low [Page 271] above forty other Bishops, the Great Master of the Dutch Order, and the Prior of the Knights of Ierusalem: then seven Abbots, and they likewise are States of the Empire.

Of secular Princes, the King of Bohemia is principall,Temporall Princes. who is chiefe Tasier: the Duke of Saxonie, Marshall: the Mar­quesse of Brandburg, high Chamberlaine: the Earle Pala­tine, Sewer. Besides thes [...] places, there are thirty other Dukes, amongst whom, the Arch-Duke of Austria hold­eth the highest place: and of these Dukes, the King of De [...] ­marke by his tenure of the Dukedome of Holsatia, is recko­ned to be one. The Marquesses, Lantgraves, Earles, and Barons are innumerable.

It is thought that the Empire receiveth every way above seven millions, which is a great matter:Revenue. yet besides or­dinary, the people, not over pressed as in Italy, doe pay o­ther great subsidies to their Princes in times of danger. The Empire was bound (at least wise accustomed) to furnish the Emperour, when hee went to Rome to bee crowned, with twenty thousand footmen, and foure thousand Horse, and to maintaine them for eight moneths, and therefore it was, called Romanum subsidium. The revenues of the Cities and Lay-Princes, have beene greatly augmented since the sup­pressing of Popery, and bringing in of new impositions, which taking their beginning from Italy, (evill examples spread farre) quickly passed over to France and Germany. In times of necessity great taxes are laid upon the whole Em­pire, and levied extraordinarily; And that they may bee gathered with the greater ease, Germany is parted into ten divisions (or circuits) which have their particular assem­blies for the execution of the Edicts made in the generall Diets of the Empire.

As concerning their multitudes,Forces. it is thought that the Empire is able to affoord two hundred thousand Horse and Foot, which the warre (before spoken of) may prove to be true: As likewise the forepassed warres of France and Bel­gia, which were ever continued in those two Provinces, for [Page 272] the most part with German souldiers. Their forces may the better be transported from place to place, by reason of the commodiousnesse of many faire and navigable rivers. At one time, Wolfang Duke of Bipont led into France an Ar­my of twelve thousand footmen, and eight thousand horse­men in behalfe of the Protestants; and at the same time, the Count Mansfield was leader of five thousand horsemen of the same Nation, in behalfe of the Catholikes. William of Nassaw had in his Armie eight thousand German horse­men, and ten thousand foot-men: the Duke of Alva had at the same instant three thousand. What should I speake of the numbers that entred Flanders with Duke Casimere? Or those that entred France under the same Leader, in the yeere of our Lord 1578. Or to what end should I make mention of that Armie, whereof part served Henrie the fourth, part the league? But to prove that this Nation must be very populous, seeing that warres are continually open in some one or other part of Christendome; and no action under­taken therein, wherein great numbers of Germans are not waged and entertained. To speake nothing of the Nether­lands, who in times past have resisted the whole power of France, with an Armie of fourescore thousand men; or of the Swissers, who in their owne defence, are thought able to raise an Army of one hundred and twenty thousand souldi­ers; I will only put you in minde of that expedition, which they made out of their owne Territories into Lumbardie, in defence of that State, against Francis the French King, with an Armie of fifty thousand foot-men.

The best foot-men of Germany are those of Tirol, Swevia, and Westphalia: the best horse-men, those of Brunswicke, Cleveland, and Franconia. But plainly the best horsemen of Germany will play the Pultrones, and the best foot, the co­wards. They are both the meanest souldiers of Christendom.

Of Weapons, they handle the Sword and the Pike, better than the Harquebuze. In the field they are very strong, as well to charge, as to beare the Shocke: for Order is of great effect, which is as it were naturall unto them, with a stately [Page 273] pace and firme standing. They are not accounted of for the defence of fortresses; and for their corpulent bodies, I hold them not fit for the assault of a breach. And therefore they are to be accounted rather resolute and constant, than fierce and couragious; for they will never come to the service wherein courage and magnanimitie is to be shewed. After the victorie, they doe kill all whom they meet, without dif­ference of age, sex, or calling. If the warre be drawne out at length, or if they be besieged, they faint with cowardize. In Campe they can endure no delayes, neither know they how to temporize. If their first attempts fall not out to their mindes, they are at their wits end, and lose courage: if they once begin to run, they will never turne againe. He that re­taines them, must be at extraordinary charges and great trouble, by reason of their wives, who consume so much provision, that it is a very hard thing to provide it, almost unpossible to preserve it; and without this provision they stand in no stead. Their horses are rather strong than coura­gious; and because of ten which goe to the warre, eight are prest from the plough, they are of small service; and when they see their bloud, their heart quaileth. The Spanish Ge­nets in this case wax more fierce.

In Sea-forces they are not much inferiour to their Land-forces,Forces by Sea. although they use no Sea-fights: the Cities of Ham­burg, Lubeck, Rostoch, and some other places, are able to make an hundred ships; some say an hundred and fifty, equall to the forces of the Kings of Denmarke and Sweth­land. When these strong and invincible forces are united, they feare no enemie; and in imminent perill they are sure of the aid of the Princes of Italie, Savoy, and Lorraine; for these Princes never forsooke the Empire in necessitie. To the Zegethan warre Emanuel Duke of Savoy sent six hundred Argolitrees. Cosmo, Duke of Florence, three thousand foot-men, paid by that State. Alphonsus the second, Duke of Ferrara, was there in person with fifteene hundred horse-men; better horse-men there were not in the whole Campe. William Duke of Mantua was there also with a gallant [Page 274] troope of foot-men; and Henry of Lorraine, Duke of Guis [...] had there three hundred Gentlemen. The Common-weales of Genoa and Lucca assisted them with money. With the aid of these Princes, and with those whom Pius the fifth sent to his succours, Maximilian the second had in the field ond hundred thousand footmen, and five and thirty thou­sand horse. Anno 1566. the States of the Empire at the Diet of Ausburg granted him an assistance of forty thousand foot-men and eight thousand horse-men for eight moneths, and twenty thousand foot-men and foure thousand horse-men for three yeares next following.

Austrich. And now because the Westerne Empire hath continued in the most noble Familie of the House of Austrich, and eight Emperours have successively succeeded one another of that line; for the delight of the Reader, wee will speake somewhat thereof.

This House grew famous almost about the same time that the Ottoman Prince began his Empire, and (as it may seeme) was raised up of God, to stand as a Wall or Bulwarke against these Turkes and Infidels.

Philip the first, King of Spaine, Arch-Duke of Austrich, &c. had two sonnes, Charles the fifth, afterward Emperour, and Ferdinand the first, King of Romans. To Charles (as to the eldest) fell Belgia and Spaine, with their dependances; Ferdinand succeeded him in his Lordships of Germanie, as Austrich, Boheme, Tirol, and other Provinces, whereunto by the mariage of his wife Anne, Hungarie was adjoyned. This Ferdinand left three sonnes behinde him, who although they divided their inheritance into three parts, yet their suc­cessours even to this day did and doe governe them as one intire government: their counsels are one, their mindes one, their designements one, most lively representing the ancient Gerion, where for the common safetie, if any part be affli­cted, every member runneth to the succour of the other, as if it were to their peculiar tranquillitie. Their dominion stretcheth so large, and is of such force, that if (by reason of the great tract of Land lying betweene the Carpathie Moun­taines [Page 275] and Segonia) they did not border upon the great Turke, (who alwayes constraineth them to stand upon their guard, and to be at excessive charges) no Potentate thorow­out the Christian World could goe beyond them for num­bers of people, for Wealth and Treasure, or for magnificent Cities. Any man may perceive this to be true, that conside­reth the distance from Tergiste to the Borders of Lusatia, from Tissa to Nobu [...], from Canisia to Constantia upon the Lake Podame.

Austria was sometimes a kingdome of it selfe, and called Ostenrick; made so Anno 1225. It held this honour but eleven yeares. Duke Albert sonne to the Emperour Rodol­phus, by mariage united Tirole, Stiria, Carinthia, and Car­niola; whose descendant Frederike 3. Emperour, raised it to an Arch-dukedome. This House is divided into foure illu­strious Families: The first is Spaine; The second Gratz of Stiria, of which House this present Emperour Ferdinand is; The third Inspruck; And the fourth Burgundie. It is a goodly and a rich Countrey, yea the best of all Germanie, both for Corne, Cattell, Wine, and Fish. Divers good Cities it hath, whereof Vienna is small, but for strength the very Bulwarke of Europe, at the siege of which the Turke lost 60000. Soul­diers. The first walls were built with the ransome of our King Richara the first. The Protestants were much gotten into these parts before these late warres, and the Emperour had much adoe to suppresse the Boores, who in the yeare 1627. under Student Potts (a Scholer) stood stoutly for their conscience. His revenue must needs be good, as having some silver mines: the transportation of Wine and Beeves yeelds much to him. His Forces are still in Garrison in Hun­gary against the Turke. The Sea comes not neere him.

Under the Emperour at this day are Lusatia, Silesia, Bo­hemia, Moravia, Austria, and a great part of Hung [...]rie, Territories large and ample) abounding with people, corne, and riches. Then follow Stiria, Carinthia, Carniola, the Countries of Canisia, Tirol, Slesia, the Princedomes of Swe­via, Alsaria, Brisgovia, and Constantia.

[Page 276] The Kingdome of Bohemia, Bohemia. being in a manner round, is incompassed with great Mountaines and the Hercynian woods: it containeth in the whole circuit five hundred and fifty English miles; the length is three dayes journie. Those Mountaines (as I have said elsewhere) as also the whole soile, are pleasant and fruitfull, abounding with corne, wood, wine, and grasse; and afford gold, silver, copper, tinne, lead and iron, in great quantities: only here is no salt, but such as is brought out of Germanie. The Countie is so populous, and so replenished with buildings in all places, that here are credibly affirmed 29237. Cities, Townes, and Villages to be numbred. Others say, 780. Castles and wal­led Townes, and 32. thousand Villages. Here is also plentie of Fowle, and great store of Fresh-water Fish, by reason of the great Lakes which are found in many places of this Kingdome. The people are for the most part Lutherans, and their language is more than halfe Polish. They are a free people; and after the death of their King, they may make choice of whom they will to be their Governour. So did they lately chuse Matthias. And for their more strength and better securitie against the Romanists, they linked themselves with the Silesians their next neighbours in a perpetuall and firme bond of amitie, offensive and defensive, against all men whatsoever.

The people of Bohemia live in great plentie and delicacie; they much resemble the English: the women be very beauti­full, white-handed, but luxurious, and that with libertie of their husbands also. They are divided in opinion of Religi­on; the Protestants of the Augustane Confession being so potent, that they were able to chuse a King, and to put out the Emperour. Their Kingdome is meerely elective, al­though by force and faction now almost made hereditary to the House of Austria; which it seemes it was not, when as within these two Ages that State made choice of one M. Tyndall and English Gentleman, father to M. Doctor Tyndall, Master of Queenes College in Cambridge, sending over their Ambassadors to him, and by them their presents: [Page 277] which story is famously knowne in Cambridge. Their chiefe Citie Prague is one of the greatest of Christendome, as be­ing three townes in one, each divided from other by the River Multaw, and all three conjoyned by a goodly wood­den bridge of foure and twenty arches: by it runnes the famous Elve, which receives two others into him in that Country, Eger and Wattz. The Kingdome hath many mighty men of estate; into whose Lordships the Countrey is altogether divided, and not as others into Shires and Counties. The King hath three silver Mines, and one of gold, some pearles are there found also. The tinne Mines there were first found by an English Tinner, who fled thi­ther for debt, and is the best of Europe next our English. All the Nobilitie and Gentrie are by their tenures obliged when their King is in the field, to wait upon him on horse­backe completely armed; which are enow to make an Army of twenty or thirty thousand. This service the Pro­testants promised to King Fredericke of late, but the tenth man appeared not. They serve willinger on horsebacke than on foot; and are rather for a Summer service, than to lie in the field all Winter; and yet are every way better souldiers than the Germans. The Protestants were suffered to plant and increase there by the craft and plot of Cardinall Glessel, (who was governour to the Emperour Matthias) his pretence was, that they would bee a sure bulwarke a­gainst the Turke, & should spare the service and lives of the Catholikes; this was his pretence: but his plot was an ex­pectation of some stirres to be raised by them; which some lay he did in hatred of the house of Austria, whom hee desired to see set besides the cushion: others imagine it was but a tricke to make the great men of the Protestants to forfeit their Estates. Howsoever the plot tooke, and the Cardinall after the taking of Prague, being invited to a banquet by the Elector of Mentz, was by him sent priso­ner to Rome, where he remained two yeares, but was after­ward both inlarged and rewarded. And this was one of the secrets of the Mysterie of iniquitie.

[Page 278] Moravia lying on the East of Bohemia, Moravia. so named of the River Mora, for the bignesse thereof affordeth more corne than any Country of Europe. It aboundeth also with good and pleasant wine, like unto Rhenish: and is wonderfully replenished in all parts with faire Cities, Towns, & Villages, all built of stone or bricke. It is very mountainous and woody, but the South part is more champian. It containes two Earledomes, one Bishopricke, divers Baronies, two good Cities, and foure or six faire Townes. The people be very martiall and fierce, especially the mountainers, who stood so stoutly to King Frederick at the battell of Prague, that had all the rest of the Army done so, the Kingdome had not beene lost. It is a free State like Poland, and may make choice of whom they will to be the Lord, whose stile is to be called Margrave of Moravia. And for that infor­mer times the Emperour and Matthias his brother offered them some wrongs concerning religion, they have sithence contracted a league offensive and defensive with the No­bility of Hungarie and Austria, as well against the inva­sions of the Turke, as the oppressions of the Romanists. A­mongst these Provinces, Silesia, and Lusatia, are as large as Bohemia, but in strength and numbers of people farre infe­riour. These two Provinces with Moravia, are incorporate to the Crowne of Bohemia. Silesia lies on the East of Bo­hemia, Poland on the South of it, to which it sometimes belonged; Hungaria and Moravia on the East. It is two hundred miles long and fourescore broad. It is a most de­licate and a plentifull Country, finely divided in the mid­dle by the faire River Oder: on which stand foure or five handsome Cities; the chiefe of which is Breslaw, the Bi­shop whereof is for his revenue called the golden Bishop: here is also an Vniversity. Niesse is also another Bishopricke, who now is a Cardinall. The people (especially of the Ci­ties) be civill and generous; nor is there any where a more gallant or warlike Gentry, which the Turke well tried in the warres of Hungarie: for very sufficient serviters they be both on horse and foot, and they are able to levie great [Page 279] numbers. The government is Aristocraticall, that is, by the States; yet in most things a dependant upon the will of the King of Bohemia. It was sometimes divided amongst fifteene Dukes, but all their families being extinct, nine of those Lordships are escheated to the King of Bohemia, the other six still remaine, amongst three of the heires of the an­cient owners. The two Dukedomes of Oppelen and Rati­bor, in this Country, were by this present Emperour given to Bethlem Gabor, in consideration of his relinquishment of the Crowne of Hungaria. For which two Dukedomes, and for the lands of the old Marquesse of Iegerensdorff in Lusatia, who being prescribed by the Emperour, and beaten out by the Duke of Saxony, fled to Bethlem Gabor, who had newly married his neece; that is, the sister to the present Elector of Brandenburgh, whose fathers brother this Iegerensdorff was: For these lands (I say) came part of the discontents still depending betweene Bethlem Gabor and the Empe­rour. Tis reported, that if King Frederick would have laid downe his right to Bohemia, the Emperour would have beene content to have made him King of Silesia.

Lusatia is on the South bounded with Silesia: tis neere up­on two hundred miles long, and fifty broad: it lies be­tweene the Rivers Elve and Viadrus, and is divided into the Vpper and Lower; both given to Vratislaus (as Silesia also was) King of Bohemia, by the Emperour Henry the fourth, Anno 1087. It still retaines the honour of a Marqui­sate. Gorlitz is the chiefe Citie, and a faire one. Bandzen, Sutaw, Spremberg, and Tribel, bee neat and well peopled Townes. The people as in Northerly situation they are nee­rer to the Germans, so are they like them more rough man­nerd than the Silesians and Bohemians. Their Countrey is fruitfull enough; and there may upon necessity be levied twenty thousand foot, as good as any in that Kingdome. All these incorporate Provinces use the Sclavonian tongue. S [...]ria is rich in Mines of Silver and Iron, threescore miles broad, and an hundred and ten long: Carinthia a hilly and woody Countrey, is seventy five miles long, and fifty five [Page 280] broad: Carniola, with the bordering Countries up to Ter­gis [...]e, is an hundred & fiftie miles long, and forty five broad. They are plentifull of Corne, Wine, Flesh, and Wood.

The Country of Tirol is full of Mines of Silver, [...] and Salt­pits, and is eighteene German miles long and broad. The territories Swevia, Swevia. Alsatia, and Rhetia, doe pay little lesse than two millions and a halfe of ordinary revenue, and so much extraordinary, besides the eighteene Cantons of Rhetia, are under the same jurisdiction. They are so well peopled, that upon occasion they are able to levie an hun­dred thousand footmen, and thirty thousand Horse. I know no other Province in Europe able to say the like. And there­fore the Emperour is not so weake a Prince, as those, ig­norant of the State of Kingdomes, doe suppose him to be, reporting his Territories to be small, unprovided of necessaries, poore in money, and barren of people. But this is certaine, that as he is Lord of a large dominion, fertill, rich, and infinite of people; so let every man thinke, that by the neighbourhood of the Turke, bordering upon him from the Carpathian Mountaines to the Adriatike Sea, the forces of a mightier Prince may seeme small & be over­laid. For what Prince is there bordering upon so puissant an enemie, but either by building of fortresses, or by enter­taining of Garrisons, is not almost beggered; I will not say in time of warre, but even during the securest peace; espe­cially considering that the forces of the Turke are alwayes ready, strong, and chearefull; yea, better furnished in the time of peace, than any other Nation in the hottest fury of warre? Wherefore it stands him upon, who is a borderer upon so powerfull an enemie, either for feare or jealousie, to be ever watchfull, & to spare no charges, as doth the Empe­rour; retaining in wages continually twenty thousand soul­diers, keeping Watch and Ward upon the borders of Hungarie. These aske great expences, and yet lesse than these are not to be defraied for the strengthning of other places; besides other expences not meet here to bee spo­ken of.

[Page 281] To conclude with the State of the Empire, though it can­not be said to be hereditary, nor to have (which is strange) any chiefe City appropriate to the residence or standing Court of the Emperour, (as Rome sometimes was:) yet for neighbourhood and conveniences sake, the Emperours have in this last age beene chosen out of the house of Austria; yea, when there have beene severall brothers of them, they have all lookt for the Empire one after another, and have had it too. And for the same reasons have the Bohemi­ans made choice of the same person, yea, and sometimes the Hungarians also; the Austrian being the ablest Prince to defend them against the Turks. So that Bohemia, though in possession of the Emperour, yet is no more part of the Empire than Hungaria is, but a Kingdome absolute of it selfe, free to chuse a King where it pleases. So that the Emperour in Germany is to be considered two wayes: first, as a German Prince; secondly, as the German Emperour. First, as a Prince he hath by inheritance the lands and ho­nours of his family; such bee Austria, Alsatia, Tirol, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, with some parts of Rhetia and Swevia: and these dominions are like other principalities, subjects of the Empire; and for them, the Emperour is his owne subject. Secondly, as a German Prince (though not by inheritance, but by election) may the Emperour be con­sidered when he is King of Bohemia: Which though it be an independant kingdome, yet being included within Germany, and the King of Bohemia by office chiefe Taster to the Emperour, and one of the seven Electors of the Ger­man Empire, (as having the casting voice, if the other six be equally divided, nay, and with power to name himselfe if he be one of the two in election,) in consideration hereof may he thus also be brought within the Empire. But yet neither of these wayes can the Emperour or Empire so pro­perly be considered. Thirdly, therefore to speake of him as the German Emperour, is to consider of him as Lord of those portions and States of the Empire properly so called. And those be either the States, or Imperiall Cities of Ger­manie. [Page 282] The States and Princes of Germanie are naturally subjects to the Emperour, yea, and officers to his per­son too, (which is a part of their honour,) so the Palsgrave is chiefe Shewer, and Brandenburgh Sword-bearer, &c. They are also as subjects, to be summoned to the Imperiall Diets, their lands are to be charged towards the Empe­rours warres, made in defence of the Empire. But yet on the other side, the German Princes bee not such subjects as the Lords of England and France, but much freer. Lorraine is a member of the Empire, and yet will not that Duke suf­fer the Emperour to have any thing to doe in his domini­ons; and if any other Prince should take up Armes against the Emperour, (as Saxonie did in the case of Luther:) yet cannot the Emperour escheat their lands (as other Princes may serve their Rebels) by his owne private power, with­out the consent of the other Electors & Princes in a Diet. So that the German Princes be subjects, and no subjects; The Emperour is as it were the Grand Land-lord, who hath made away his right by lease or grant, but hath little to doe till the expiration or forfeiture.

The second member of the Empire be the Imperiall and Hanse-townes, in which, because they have lesse power, the Emperour hath more than in the Princes Estates. The [...]e acknowledge the Emperour for their Lord, but yet with divers acceptions. For first, they will stand upon their owne privileges, and for them will deny any request of the Em­perour. Secondly, they depend and trust unto their owne private confederacies amongst themselves, as much as to the Emperour; as the Switzers, and Grisons leaguers a­mongst themselves; and the Princes of the lower Creitz, or circle of Saxony, amongst themselves; in defence of which the King of Denmarke, as Duke of Holstein being one of them, tooke up just Armes of late even against the Empe­rour. Subjects these Cities and States are, but yet were they no freer than the subjects of other Princes, they durst not make leagues amongst themselves to the prejudice of their Emperour. Thirdly, even these Imperiall Cities have some [Page 283] other Lords besides the Emperour, or the Maior, or Offi­cers of their owne Townes. Thus the Marquesse of Onspach being of the House of Brandenburgh, stil challengeth the an­cient Office and Title of his Family, which is to be Burgrave of Nurembergh, which is a principall Imperiall Citie. We see also what power and favour the King of Poland had in these warres with Sweden, in the Imperiall Citie of Dantzik, which put it selfe under his protection. Wormbs also in the Palatinate under protection of the Palsgrave, received an Armie of the Princes of the Vnion in favour of him, even against the present Emperour.

Finally, the House of Austria holds the Empire in that fashion, that Adonias laid claime to the Kingdome, wherein another sate confirmed, and perished for want of supporta­tion. For besides that it is not hereditary, neither can he af­ter Coronation command like an absolute Soveraigne, nor expect or inforce the reciprocall duties betweene Prince and Subject; nor is hee powerfull enough to countermand the Privileges of the Empire; no nor to call the Diet without the consent of the major part of the Electors. For some Pro­vinces are as it were members of the Empire, yet disunited: for neither doe they, nor will they acknowledge that they belong at all to the Empire; as the Kings of Denmarke and Sweden, the Duke of Prussia, the Elector of Brandenburg that now is (who requires Investiture of the Polander, not of the Emperour) the Switzers and the Netherlands. Others confesse the Emperour for their Soveraigne Prince; but they come not to the Diets of the Empire, nor will beare the Tax and Tallages of the Empire: as the Dukes of Savoy, Lor­raine, and the Princes of Italy. Others come to the Diets and pay all impositions: and these are properly the Princes' and Cities of Germanie. But the King of Bohemia, by the grant of Charles the fourth, is exempted from all contribu­tions. As for the other Princes, they be so many, and by leaguing together so mighty, that they attend in Court at pleasure, contest with the Emperour at pleasure, raise forces at pleasure, and supply his wants of Exchequer at pleasure. [Page 284] Some of them have to doe both in the Diets, and at the Ele­ction of a new Emperour: those be the Electors; three Bi­shops, and three Princes. But as at first Wenceslaus the Empe­ror was faine to bribe them with many Privileges and Lord­ships for their voices in his Election: so still they must be courted, if the Emperour desires to have his sonne or brother chosen after him, or any great favour done unto him. If they be displeased, they are strong enough to ruffle with him. The other Princes live of themselves, and the Emperour is oftner beholding to them, than they to him: so that these be but Lordly Subjects of the Empire. To speake now in a word,: These are truly termed the States, the Princes and Cities of the Empire; who have to doe in the Diets or Parliaments, and as members of one b [...]die participate of good and evill, of advantage or disadvantage, thorowout the whole Em­pire. These, living after the manner of a Commonwealth well united, make use (in manner aforesaid) of the Emperour for their head and common safetie.

And such be divers of the lesser Princes, together with the Hanse-townes, and Imperiall Cities. Free or Imperiall Cities, are they, which are not directly within the Inheri­tance of any Prince, though they stand within his Territory. For example: Heidleberg, Wormbs, and Spiers, are all in the Palatinate; whereof the first is the Princes owne, and not Imperiall; the other be Imperiall, and not the Princes. Such Cities have obtained their freedome either for money, or for service done to the Emperour: whereupon, some of them are so strong, so privileged, and so populous, that out of ob­stinate repining at Taxes and Impositions, they have many times opposed against their naturall Lords; yea, and in ho­stile manner excluded them from the superioritie of com­manding: witnesse the contentions heretofore betweene the Citie of Brunswicke, and their owne Duke; the exclamati­ons of the Cities and Princes, when the Landigrave of Hes­sen was imprisoned; and the generall cause of the Protestants, protesting in every place against the Ecclesiasticall procee­dings, and Imperiall threatnings. These Cities governe [Page 285] themselves by their owne Lawes, being bound no further, than to pay two fifth parts of whatsoever generall contribu­tion is assessed in the Imperiall Diets. They pay tribute to the Emperour (some say) fifteene thousand Florens: but they have for the most part sufficient revenue of their owne to defray the charges. The nature of other Cities you have before read of.

The Diets now be the things by which the Emperour rules all, if he be able to make a partie. The ordinances of these Diets cannot be frustrated but by another Diet: but of putting the Decrees in execution, the Emperour hath the full power and the sole authority. And therfore as touching pre­heminence and dignity, hee is to be accounted the first and chiefe of the Christian Princes, as the person upon whom the Majestie of the Roman Empire resteth, and who ought to defend the Nation of the Germans, the Church of God, the Catholike Faith; and to procure the peace and wel-fare of the whole Christian world. And this is something to­wards the understanding of the State of the Empire in Ger­many. Go we now to relate of the other chiefe Princes there. And first of those which worthily challenge the next place, the Electors: of which the Palsgrave is chiefe.

The State of the Prince Elector Palatine.

HIs Dominion containes the Vpper and the Lower Palatinate. The Lower is the chiefe of the two, as be­ing both the richest, the largest, and the Seat of the Elector. A goodly and a delicate Country it is, almost two hundred miles in length, and about halfe so much in breadth, lying on both sides of the famous Rhine; and watered besides with the Neccar, whose bankes are inriched with the most generous Wines. It touches upon Lorraine at the South­west, and hath the Duchie of Wirtenberg upon the East. Of this Countrey, because of the armie of the Destroyer, may we speake in the Scripture phrase, The Land is as Eden be­fore them, and as a desolate wildernesse behind them; her goodly [Page 286] and strong Cities, her pleasant fields, and delicate vineyards, are fallen into the possession of those that reaped where they did not sow. To this Principalitie, was the Title of the first Ele­ctor incorporate. It and Bavaria were made a Kingdome, Anno 456. which Charles the Great conquered; in whose Line it continued from the yeare 789. till Otho's time, Anno 955. whose heires continued in them (but not as a Kingdom) till the yeare 1043. at which time Henry the third deprived Prince Conrade of them: to whose heire, Fredericke Barba­rossa restored the Palatinate in the yeare 1183. since which time (as Munster saith) it ever continued in that male Line; untill these unfortunate warres. The Lower Palatinate hath beene twice augmented; once by the Emperour Wenceslaus, who bestowed Oppenheim and two other Imperiall Townes upon the Elector for his voice in the Election. The second augmentation was by the ransome of the Duke of Wirten­berg, and the Archbishop of Mentz, both taken in one bat­tell by Prince Frederike, Anno 1452. out of both whose Countries lying next unto the Palatinate, the victorious Pa­latine tooke some what to lay to his owne: For which, and other quarrels, there hath still continued a grudging in the Archbishops towards the Palsgraves; Mentz (whose Ar­chiepiscopall Citie is also in the Palatinate) laying a claime to a Monastery, and the lands upon the Bergstraes, or moun­taine, within two English miles even of Heidleberg. The Palsgrave hath many prerogatives above the Electors of [...] ­ther sort. He taketh place of the Duke of Saxony, and the Marquesse of Brandenburgh, because Henry the first Pala­tine was descended of Charles the Great; for which cause in the vacancie of the Empire, he is also Governour of the West parts of Germanie, with power to alienate or give Of­fices to take fealty and homage of the Subjects; and which is most, to sit in the Imperiall Courts, and give judgement of the Emperour himselfe.

The Land naturally is very rich, the Mountains are full of Vines, Woods, and such excessive store of red Deere, that Spinola's souldiers in the late warres had them brought to [Page 287] them like Beefe or Bacon. How famous the Rhenish Wines are, I need not say. Of Corne they have no want: Silver al­so is here digged up. Goodly Townes and strong it had such store, as if they had had nothing but Cities. All which are now divided betwixt the Emperour, the Bavarian, and the Spaniard. The Prince also was said to have two and twenty Palaces. But the chiefest ornament was the incomparable, Library of Heidleberg; not for the beauty of the roome, (for it was but in the roofe of the chiefe Church, and that by a long wall divided into two parts) but for the numbers of excellent Manuscripts and printed bookes; with which it was then better stored, than Oxford yet is. The Princes Re­venue arose first out of his owne Lands and Customes of his Manours. Secondly, out of the tenths and wealth of the Monasteries and estate of the Church confiscated: which perchance made up one quarter (if not more) of his whole estate. Thirdly, from the Toll of one Bridge over the Rhine, he yearely had about twentie thousand crownes. Fourthly, some say that one silver mine yeelded him threescore thou­sand crownes. All together the revenues of this and the Vp­per Palatinate (lying next to Bavaria, and some thirty Eng­lish miles distant from this Lower) were valued to amount unto one hundred sixtie thousand pounds sterling of yearely Revenues. Finally, of the three Temporall Electors goes this common proverb in Germanie, That the Palsgrave hath the honour, Saxony the money, and Brandenburgh the land: for Saxony indeed is richer, and Brandenburghs Dominions larger, than those of the Prince Elector Palatine.

The State of the Elector of Saxonie.

THe Dominion of the Dukes of Saxonie, Saxonie. containeth the Marquisat of M [...]sen, the Lantgravedome of Turinge, Voitland, part of Nether Saxonie, (almost within two Dutch miles of Maigdburg) part of the Lands of the Earles of Mansfielt, pawned to Augustus for some summes of money, and a parcell of Frankhenland. The whole Country is seated [Page 288] almost in the midst of Germanie, on all sides very farre from the Sea, except Voitland, very plaine and Champion, sprink­led here and there with some few of them navigable. The chiefest of them all is the Elve, [...]o which all the rest pay the tribute of their waters. All of it together is imagined to bee in bignesse about a third part of England, or somewhat more.

The climate in temperature is not much differing from ours of England. Situation. It confineth on the South-East with the Kingdome of Bohem, and is parted with many high hils and great woods: on the South with the Bishop of Bam­bergs Countrie, and on the South-west with the Lantgrave of Hesse: on the North and North-west with the Counts of Mansfielt, the Princes of An [...], and the Citie of Maidburgh (of which this Duke writeth himselfe Bur­grave, and the Marquesse of Brandeburghs eldest son Arch-Bishop) yet is it not under either Iurisdiction, but freely governed within it selfe: On the North-east lyeth the Mar­quesdome of [...]randeburgh and the Lansknites, who partly belong to the Marquesse, and partly to the Emperour.

It is in peace at this time (as all Germanie beside) with all the Neighbour-Princes.Borderers. Betweene the Bohemians and them there is a great league, but betwixt the Emperour and their Dukes, great jealousies under hand. The Duke of Saxonie, the Marquesses of Brandeburgh, and the Lantgraves of Hesse, have many yeeres (they and their ancestry) beene linked together, and both Lutherans, howbeit the Lantgrave is thought to f [...]vour of Calvinisme. The Bishop of Bamberge, both himselfe and his Countrie are all Catholiques, but of no power to hurt, though they were Enemies. The Counts of Mansfielt have a grudge to the house of Saxonie, be­cause most of their land being pawned to Augustus, is, as they pretend, wrongfully detained, the debt being long, since satisfied: but they are so many, and so poore, as they may well have the will, but not the power to annoy Saxonie; in Religion, Catholiques.

Anhault. Mansfield. The Princes of Anhault (as also the Counts of Mansfield) [Page 289] are homagers to this Duke, but of small power or riches. In Religion, Calvinists.

For home defence and strength,Force. this Dukedome is so strong by nature, on Boheme side, and upon the frontiers, and within Land so well fortified by Art, with reasonable strong Cities, Townes, and Castles; so well peopled, and all places of strength so well looked unto, and kept in so good order, that it seemeth provided to withstand the Ene­my, not onely of any one, but of all the Neighbour-Pro­vinces. The greatest and chiefest Citie within this Duke­dome is Erdford seated in Turing, not subject to the Duke,Erdford. but a free and Hanse-towne; the next unto it is Leipsique, the Metropolis of Mis [...]n; a Towne very well seated both for profit and pleasure, yet of no great strength, though it held out Iohn Fredericke, a siege of two or three moneths with small disadvantage: of building very faire and stately, most of the houses of seven, eight, or nine Stories high, but all of Bricke and no Stone. It is greater than Dresden, and hath many faire and large streets, and yet inferiour in beautie and strength: for the Duke will not suffer the Inhabitants neither to fortifie nor to repaire the walls, left they should againe rebell, as in former times: within the walls are nine hundred Houses; it hath three Churches, five Colleges, and about foure hundred Students; as also a faire Castle with a small garrison to keepe the Towne in obedience. To it re­sort divers Merchants for traffique, and many Gentlemen to lea [...] the [...]uage.

There are besides, divers other pretty and reasonable st [...]o [...]g Townes, but above all,Dresden Dresden the ancient seat of the Dukes of Saxonie: It standeth in the Countie of Mis­ [...]a, round, and containing in compasse about the walls the circuit of two English miles. These Walls are of faire and large squared stones, wel countermined with earth on the in­side, and wonderfully fortified with seven strong Bulwarks, and as many great Mounts on the outside. On the which (as also on the walls) are one hundred and fifty goodly peeces of Brasse artillerie, with a garrison of five hundred well ap­pointed [Page 290] Souldiers in continuall pay. This City within the walls hath eight hundred houses, foure Churches, three Gates, two faire Market places, and a great Bridge of stone over the Elve.

The Mote which incompasseth the wall is deepe and cleere without any filth or weeds, and is on all sides wal­led with faire stones to the bottome. The streets are not many, but very faire, the houses not very great, but of one uniformitie, and pleasing to behold. In most of the streets runneth from the River a small streame of water, and in ma­ny of these streets are tubs placed upon sleds full of water, alwaies ready to be drawne by horses or men, whither oc­casion of fire should crave imployment. For prevention whereof, they maintaine men of purpose to walke every night in the streets, and some to watch carefully on the highest Towers. The Palace of the Duke is of great beauty and majesty: the Chambers are flowerd with coloured Marbles, and garnished round with Stags heads of extra­ordinary greatnesse; many bed-steds and tables also are of divers coloured Marbles, most curiously carved and poli­shed. Within the Palace is an Armory for horsemen of un­speakable magnificence, with a great number of horses cu­riously framed in wood, and painted to the life, with as many woodden men on their backes, furnished most richly with all furniture fit for a horseman to use in the warres. A­mongst these are the lively portraictures of many of the Dukes of Saxonie carved and painted to life, covered with such robes, armour, and furniture for their horses made of gold and silver, and set with precious stones, as they used to weare when they were living.

There are also thirty six sleds for pleasure of great beauty, and rare invention, with two carved and painted horses to every of them, richly furnished with silver bits, and the bridles and capar sons imbrodered with silver and gold, hanging full of silver bels according to the German custome. Here are also many Chambers full of Masking garments, and other abiliments for triumphs and pastimes both for [Page 291] Land and Water. In this Armory also are many costly weapons, both offensive and defensive; such, so good, and so rich, as mony can procure, or the wit of man invent.

Vnder this Armory standeth a most princely Stable ar­ched with stone, and supported with goodly pillars of Mar­ble. Out of every of which pillars runneth sweet and fresh water for the daily use of the Stable: The rackes are of iron, the mangers plated over with copper, the stalles for the Horses of strong carved timber; every Stall having a faire glazed window, and every window a greene curtaine. The ground betweene the stalles is paved with faire broad stones. In this Stable are an hundred eight and twenty hor­ses, and yet no wet nor filth to be perceived, nor dung to be seene or smelt.

Neere unto the Palace standeth the Arsenall, wherein is seene such plenty of great Artillerie, yellow as gold, such strange Engins, and such wonderfull qualities of all kind of Armour and Munition whatsoever, necessary for the Wars, or a long siege, that for Land-service it farre excelleth the Arsnall of Venice, or any other Storehouse in Europe, able to arme 300000. Horse and Foot at a dayes warning. And as the Armory and Arsenall excell all others, so the City for its quantity (in my judgement) is to be accounted the fai­rest and strongest of Europe, and that far surpassing No­remberg, Anwerp, or Lubech, at this day reckoned to bee the prime Cities of Christendome. Besides this Armory, all the Cities and Townes have their Armories very well kept and provided: neither are the Noblemen, Gentlemen, and Country people unfurnished.

There are in Saxonie three Vniversities, Wittenberg, Vniversities. Wittenberg. Liep­ [...]que, and Iene. The first is supposed to be the prime-Vniver­sity of all Germany. It is about two miles compasse within the walls, being neither strong nor faire. In it are only two Churches, and foure Colleges, being neither rich nor beau­tifull, and in them about a thousand Students of all sorts. It hath a strong Bridge of Timber over the Elve, and a faire Castle or Palace appertaining to the Duke. In the Church [Page 292] of this Castle are interred the bodies of M. Luther, and, P. Melancthon, under two faire Marble stones, with su­perscriptions of copper upon them, and their pictures from head to foot in great tables set up by them.

The other two have some six or seven hundred Schollers a peece; [...]. but in Colleges, Lectures, Order, Proceeding, and all things else, infinitely inferiour either to Cambridge or Ox­ford: There are all professions in each of them, but Witten­berg is esteemed the chiefe Seminary of Divines; Iene of Civilians; and Liepsiege of Philosophie.

All the Dukedome,Fertilitie. but especially Misen, is one of the pleasantest and fruitfullest parts of all Germany, and in truth much exceeding any that I saw, but onely the Dukedome of Wittenberg. It hath great store of very good Corne of all sorts, reasonable good and convenient store of most sort of Cattell: of Horses they have plenty, and those strong and tall of stature, but fitter to draw than to serve, yet very well fitting their manner of service, being heavily armed (viz.) with a Petronell, a case of Pistols, a Courtle-axe, and divers times with a Battle-axe; over and above all which, his Horse must be able to carry two or foure bottles of Wine or Beere in his great heavy Saddle, left in any case his Ma­ster should faint for want of liquor in his journey: But their best races they have out of the nether Saxonie, where there be exceeding store. The Bullocks are but small and nothing good. Of sheepe they have in some places indifferent store, especially within these few yeeres; of body little, and but reasonable good, yet so, as bearing indifferent good wooll; either the sheepe themselves, or their fleeces, are bought up by the Netherlands, and imployed in the making of cloth, to some prejudice of ours in England.

They have great store of Mines of most sorts,Riches. as Silver, Copper, Tin, Lead, Iron, and (as they say) some Gold. The chiefe places of the Silver Mines are Tiberg, Aviberg, Ma­riaberg, and other Townes at the foot of the Bohemian Mountaines. In Voitland there are also some Hills very rich in Minerals, especially one called which being [Page 293] much celebrated for having some Rivers running out of it, East, West, North, and South, is exceedingly spoken of for Silver and Gold Mines, insomuch as in a Storie written of the Mines of Saxonie, called Berg-Cronicon, it is affirmed, that this Hill yeelded to the Dukes of Saxonie in eight yeares, twenty two Millions of Florens, only for the Tenths. Besides these Mines, the Duke hath the Mine of Mansfielt, pawned to divers Merchants of Norimberg and Augusta, and are thought to be worth yearely thirty thousand pounds sterling. It is held, that all his Mines of Saxonie (besides those of Mansfielt) yeeld the Duke one yeare with another seven hundred thousand Florens, which is about an hundred and thirty thousand pounds sterling.

Other commodities of worth they have none, but flax,Commodities. and a kinde of thicke course cloth, which by reason of the exceeding falsifying and dearenesse of ours, groweth every day into more and more request with them.

The whole Dukedome, but especially Misen, People. is very po­pulous, full of Cities, walled Townes, and Country Villa­ges, and all of them very well peopled. It is certainly affir­med, that the Duke at twenty dayes warning is able to make an Armie of fourescore thousand men very well armed and furnished.

The people generally are reasonable faire of complexion and flaxen haired, but not well favoured,Manners of the people. either men or wo­men: in behaviour as civill as any part of Germanie what­soever; especially the women, who taking themselves (as they are indeed) for the fairest and best spoken of all Dutch­land, are in their apparell and entertainment indifferently gracefull. For their disposition, (as indeed almost all the rest of the Germans) it is very honest, true, and not ordina­rily given to any notorious vice, but drinking; nor willingly offering any injurie, either to their owne country-men, or to strangers, but when they are drunke; and then very quar­relsome, and (as it is said) more valiant than when they are sober. Wise in mediocritie, but not of any great sharpnesse or subtiltie of wit: Of body strong, and big boned, especi­ally [Page 294] the Countrey people, but of a kinde of lumpish, heavie, and unactive strength, fitter for husbandrie, and other toile­some labour, than fighting.

In their chiefe Cities, some few give themselves at their great and principall Feasts, to a little use of their Peece, in shooting at a marke; but otherwise, by reason of their long peace, altogether untrained to the warres, or any warlike exercises. But the use of the pot serveth for all other pastimes and delights; in which notwithstanding they have very small store of wine, yet they are nothing inferiour to any other part of Dutchland.

They have great store of Artizans and Handy-crafts men of all sorts,Artizans but in their severall trades nothing so neat and artificiall as the Netherlanders and English, or those of No­rimberg and Augusta. Merchants. Of Merchants they have great store, especially in Liepsiege, and other chiefe Cities, and those for the most part very rich; whereof this reason is yeelded, that though they have no commodities, save those before mentio­ned, nor are neere the Sea, or any great Rivers, (by which they may have cheape and commodious importation or ex­portation of wares) yet Germanie is so seated in the midst and heart of all Christendome, and Saxonie in the bowels of it, as by continuall trafficking with England, France, the Low-Countries, Italie, Poland, and all the Easterne Countries, and by daily conveying all the commodities of each Coun­trey over-land to others that want them, they grow very wealthy.

For such as give themselves to the warres, and have no other profession of living, though generally all the Germans are mercenary souldiers, (and so their service accordingly) yet I heard of as few in this Province, as in any part of Ger­manie; whether it were that the wars of Hungarie imployed them all, or that other Princes growing weary of their ser­vice, their occupation began to decay.

Touching the Nobilitie,Nobles. I can say nothing in particular of their numbers, names, titles, dispositions, &c. only in generall, there be Earles and Barons. Some are meerely [Page 295] subject to the Duke; others are borderers, which are only but homagers; as the Princes of Anhalt; the Counts of Mansfielt, the Counts of Swarzenberge, &c. Of Gentils there are good store, to the number (as it is supposed) of three or foure thousand at the least, by which meanes the Duke is alwayes in his warres well furnished with Horse­men, every one (one with another) bringing three or foure good horses with him to the field.

The Nobilitie and Gentilitie generally thorow all Ger­manie, and particularly in this Dukedome, have great roy­alties and revenues. The lands, goods, and chiefe houses are usually equally divided amongst all the children, reser­ving but little prerogative to the eldest brother. The Ho­nours likewise descend equally to the whole Familie; all the sonnes of Dukes, being Dukes; and all the daughters, Duchesses: all the sonnes of Counts, Counts; and the daugh­ters, Countesses, &c.

They are exceedingly had (both Noblemen and Gentle­men) in extraordinary reverence and estimation amongst the vulgar people, which both in their Gate and Seats in publike places, they very religiously maintaine. In time of Peace they are but little used in counsell or matters of State, being almost all utterly unqualified, either with wisdome, learning, or experience; only contenting themselves with shadow of honour which their ancestors have left them. And if they have beene famous (as by the raising of their Houses to that greatnesse it should seeme they have [...]eene) they imitate them in nothing, but in only continuing their so long and so holily observed order of carowsing.

In time of warre (which hath beene for many yeares till the late warres of Hungarie very small, or rather no [...]) [...]e­cause of their greatnesse both in Revenues and number of Tenants, their service hath beene usually imployed: but now by reason of their long disuse of Martiall matters, (which therefore seemed to make some amends, or at least some excuse of their other defects) they are become, if I ghesse not amisse, not to fit for their greatnesse, as unfit for [Page 296] their want of knowledge every way, either in experience or contemplation. And truly I cannot so much as heare almost of any of them, either Noble or Gentlemen, that give them­selves to any Noble studies, exercises, or delights, except now and then to the hunting of the wilde Boare; by which, and by accustoming their heads to the wearing of their hea­vie thrummed Caps in stead of a head-peece, they take themselves to be greatly enabled for service.

For the valour and warlike disposition of the people of this Dukedome,Valour. I cannot commend them above the rest of their Country-men; neither shall I (as I thinke) need to stand much upon that point, sithence their actions shall plead their sufficiencie in generall. The great matters which they have undertaken, and the little that they have perfor­med, will produce sufficient testimonie. What they did one against another in the time of Charles the fifth, is not much materiall to prove their courage; since without question, Bulrushes against Bulrushes are very good Weapons. But in the same time, and under the same Duke and Captaine, they performed very little against the Spaniards, though with farre over-ballanced numbers, as in divers places of Sleyden manifestly appeareth. Touching their actions in the Low-Countries, in the Prince of Orange his time, & in France during the civill warres, and sithence for the King, (if I mis­take it not) it hath alwayes beene praise enough for them, if they have helped to keepe their enemies from doing any great matters, though they have performed nothing them­selves. Of latter time they have rather increased than dimi­nished this opinion, in the warres ten yeares since in Hunga­rie, besides many other times of notable disorders amongst them by false Alarmes. They fled most shamefully out of the Island of Komora, being charged by a few Tartars, who with infinite hazzard and inconvenience swam over a part of the Danubie to come at them. The Summer after, Count Charles of Mansfielt, their Generall, had them in such je­lousie, as when the Turkes only with some twelve or four­teene thousand men came to victuall Gran, and past almost [Page 297] close by their Tents, and they being at least fifty thousand strong, he durst not set upon them till they retired, having performed the project of their journey, left the Germans (who were by farre the greater part of his Armie) being lustily charged, might give backe, & so indanger the whole Campe. To omit many other particularities about this point, too long to dwell upon in this discourse, they are no more to be commended for their discipline, than for their valour: for though they be commonly very well armed, and keepe indifferent good order in their march, yet are they for the most part no more watchfull and provident in their Campe, than if they were safely intrenched in an Ale-house. Quar­relsome exceedingly, and in a manner given to drinking con­tinually, and almost every common souldier carrying with him his she-baggage, besides his bagge and other furniture. Of their unreasonable spoiling and free-booting, the French Stories make sufficient relation; and it hath alwayes beene hard to discerne, whether those Nations that have called them to their succour, have received more detriment by them, or by their professed enemies. For instance of their spoiling humour, the Marquesse of Turloch taking in the Marquesdome of Baden, and being constrained to keepe some foure or five thousand men in sundry places in garrison, they all offered (though he gave them very extraordinary pay) to serve without any wages, so they might have free libertie of pillage. Therefore let it not seeme strange, that I produce these generall examples of this Nation; for though in divers Provinces they are much differing in complexion, in stature, and many other circumstances, yet for warre, especially for their vices in warre, they are in a manner all of the same aire.

They have greatly affected the English Nation,Conceit of the English. but of late were they not a little distasted, upon pretence of inju­ries done them about prizes, Sea matters, and suppressing their privileges of the Stillyard; wherein though they themselves (as being Inland people, and trading little by Sea) are nothing interessed; yet their neighbours of Ham­borough, [Page 298] Lubech, and divers other Hanse-townes, making all these matters farre greater and worse than indeed they are, have spread even into their minds the contagion of their owne grudge.

The Councell of Saxony are at this time few:Councell. Amongst them there are some that are of the Nobility, Counsellours rather in name than effect. For in that they live in their Countries, they are seldome present at any consultations, and meddle little in the ordinary government of the State. The rest, after the manner of Germany, are most Civilians. The whole government of the affaires (as also the Court) is very private. Other particulars I cannot specifie, neither in truth if a man consider their outward portlinesse, though otherwise I doubt not, but wise enough, doe they merit the setting downe of any. For being (as all Germans are) plaine and homely in their behaviour and entertainment, they are both in their retinue, apparell, and all things else very su­table; so that not onely in this Court, but in the Courts of divers great Princes of Germany, they goe usually apparel­led in blacke Leather, or Linnen died blacke, the chiefest having only an addition for ornament sake, of the Princes picture in gold, or a chaine of one or two boughts, whereby they seeme such leatherne and linnen Gentlemen, as, if they were in England, all men would take them for honest fa­ctors unto Merchants, or else some under-Clerke of an Of­fice, rather than such great and chiefe Counsellours, to so great Princes and Estates. But as it should be great folly for a man to judge the preciousnesse of a Iewell by the case wherein it is kept, and much greater to esteeme it by the co­ver of the case (sed) even so by the same reason, it were an e­quall indiscretion, to estimate a mans worth either by their body or apparell, the one being but an earthen case of the heavenly minde, the other but the outward cover of that worthlesse box. So on the other side, it is an undeniable certainty, that not only the common people and strangers, but even wise men are moved and stirred up with outward shewes, and their mindes according to those exterior mat­ters, [Page 299] prepared to receive a deepe impression, either of like or dislike, favour or disfavour, of reverence, or carelesse retchlesnesse, and debased dispositions.

The Revenues of this Dukedome are,Revenues. as most men af­firme, very great, and without comparison the greatest of any German Prince whatsoever. The meanes whereby it ariseth to that greatnesse, are divers; first the great quan­tity of Silver Mines, and such like, whose profit notwith­standing is very uncertaine, according to the goodnesse or badnesse of the veines: the great impositions upon all sorts of Merchandize, and the assize upon Beere, which only in the Citie. Liepsiege, being a little Towne of two Pa­rishes, amounteth yearely to above twenty thousand pounds sterling. The tenths of all sorts of increase, as Corne, Wine, &c. The Salt-houses at Hall, and some other places, which being all to the Duke; besides the Lands of the Dukedome being very great, and the Taxes and Subsi­dies assessed at their Parliaments or Diets, with divers other casualties, which fall not within my knowledge. But above all, the greatest is an imposition which hath long time beene laid upon the people, towards the maintenance of the warres against the Turke; which notwithstanding they have beene suspended for a long space lately, yet un­der colour of being sufficiently provided and furnished against future necessities, they have beene continued, and the treasure converted to the Princes private use, arising in all this time to that quantity, that if it had beene reserved to the pretended use, the warres might be continually very royally maintained, (I speake as much as is required on the behalfe of that Dukedome) and the people freed these ma­ny yeares from the imposition; which notwithstanding is not onely still continued, but since the last warres increa­sed. What the generall summe of all the revenues arise unto I have nothing certaine, neither indeed is it certaine in it selfe, a great part thereof (as aforesaid) consisting upon casualties, as the Mines and Tenths, &c. But for mine owne particular conceit, being not altogether unconfirmed by other mens [Page 300] opinions, I cannot imagine how that it can arise to lesse than foure hundred thousand pound sterling yearely at the least.

Thus have I briefly runne over some few particulars of the great and noble Dukedome of Saxony, worthy a much more ample discourse, and a farre more worthier and bet­ter informed discourser; being (all things considered) not onely the greatest and mightiest Princedome under the Empire, but even greater and mightier (I meane as it stood united in the time of Christianus) than the Empire it selfe. For though the Emperour by his sacred Imperiall Seat bee his Liege-Lord, and in greatnesse of dominion farre su­periour, yet is he in revenue, in great love of his people, in warlike provision, and in German leagues and confederacies farre inferiour.

The State of the Marquesse Elector of Brandenburg.

THis Prince possesseth a larger tract of land than doth the other Electors, and hath more Noblesse, Gentry, and people, yet is a great deale of his land very wilde and barren, much of his people poore, and himselfe though of great revenue, yet farre short of that of Saxony. Branden­burg lies on the East limited with Poland, on the West with Saxonie, touching upon Lusatia on the South. The com­passe is about five hundred miles, wherein are reckoned fifty Cities great and small, and threescore and foure walled Townes. The whole Marquisate is divided into the Old, the chiefe Towne whereof is Brandenburg; and the Nen, the greatest Citie therein being Franckford upon Oder; fa­mous for the Mart and Vniversity. The Princes Seat is at Berlin. This twofold division is againe subdivided into eight Provinces, from which the Nobilitie take their titles; one of these (Crossen by name) being a Dukedome. For in Germany (you are to understand) a Dukedome may be contained within a Marquisate, yea, and a Duke come behinde a Count: for that in the Empire precedencie goes [Page 301] not (as with us) by title, but by bloud and antiquity. The name of the present Elector is Iohannes Georgius, in whose line the title hath continued these two hundred and eleven yeares. Besides now the bare Country of Brandenburg, this Prince hath other dominions: many townes and lands both in Lusatia and Silesia; which with that of Onspach by Nurenberg, goe commonly away to the younger of the fa­mily; all which write themselves Marquesses of Branden­burg. The three Dukedomes of Cleve, Iuliers, and Berg, have also beene united to this family; though now almost twentie yeares since the Duke of Cleve dying without issue, these three States are yet in controversie betwixt this Mar­quesse, and the Duke of Newenburg. Besides these, is hee Duke of Prussia, which is a great Country; into which the King of Poland is to give him investiture. So that hee and the Archbishop Elector of Cullen, be Lords of the greatest tracts of lands of all the Princes of Germany. The revenues out of Brandenburg are thought to amount to forty thou­sand pounds sterling; and certainly his profits out of all his other Estates cannot but double that summe: A sufficient rent for such a Prince, if you consider the cheapnesse of all things in his Country. He is Lord of much people, and therefore of many souldiers.

The Duke of Brunswicke hath a large dominion,The Duke of Brunswicke. well peopled, well furnished, and himselfe of a great revenue; but both in place much inferiour (being no Elector) being as of body the strongest, so also of minde the vilest natured people of all Germanie. In other things likewise he is inferi­our to the Duke of Saxonie, a great part of his Country be­ing barren, and his subjects poore.

The Duke of Bavaria hath a large, rich,Bavaria. and goodly Country, lying in great length on both sides the Danubie, a great revenue, and his subjects in good estate: but (as be­ing almost the only Catholike great Prince of the temporal­ty) of no great party, and unfurnished of warlike provision, but much more of treasure, being exceedingly behinde hand, principally through the abuse of his Iesuites, by whom be­ing [Page 302] wholly governed, he hath spent, and daily doth infi­nitely in building them Churches, Altars, and Colleges, and endowing them with large revenues.

What is above written of the Duke of Bavaria's estate, was something to the truth at the time of the former edi­tion of this booke; for certainly the house of Bavaria is wholly Iesuited, insomuch as the father of this present Duke giving over the government, retired himselfe into a house of Iesuites: and this present Duke, besides other his large bounties and buildings, hath already estated eigh­teene hundred pound sterling a yeare upon the English Ie­suites, with condition, that it shall goe to the Vniversity of Oxford, so soone as that shall be converted to Popery. So that the case is now altered with the Duke of Bavaria, hee hath gotten part both of the Vpper and Lower Palatinate into his hands; yea, and the Electorship it selfe is estated upon him. Thus (for the time) are the Palatinate and Bavaria fallen both upon one person againe, as they were before the yeare 1294. when as Lewis the Emperour, Prince of both of them, gave the Palatinate to his elder sonne, and Ba­varia to the younger: after which the Palatine marry­ing the heire of Bavaria, againe united them. But about 125. yeares since the Emperour Maximilian againe parted them, giving Bavaria to the Ancestor of this present Maxi­milian. He is Vncle to King Frederike: himselfe hath no issue; his second brother is the Elector of Cullen, and a third brother he hath who is not childlesse. Bavaria tou­ches both Austria, Bohemia, and the Vpper Palatinate; too aptly situated for the late warres, both to distresse his nephew, and to aid the Emperour. What forces he is able to make, did then appeare; and his revenue must bee answe­rable.

The Duke of Wirtemberg, Wirtemberg. as in dignitie he is inferiour to all these, so doth hee (if I be not deceived) approach nee­rest in most particulars of greatnesse to the Duke of Saxo­nie: having a Country in circuit but small, being not much bigger by ghesse than Yorkeshire, but very full of neat [Page 303] Townes and rich Villages, very well peopled, and they ge­nerally very rich: The land is not so fruitfull as in other pla­ces, but farre excelling the best in England, that ever came under my view; abounding exceedingly (especially about Stutgard) with wine, and the Countrey so pleasantly diver­sified, as that the hils (whereof it is full) and River sides be­ing only imployed to Vines, the plaines are every where full of corne of all sorts, of excellent meadow and pasture, with sufficient store of wood. The Duke himselfe is well loved of his people, very rich in treasure and yearely revenue, so that setting the mines aside, he is thought to be equall, if not su­periour to the Duke of Saxonie. But for provision of warre (excepting powder, whereof there is some store) very mean­ly furnished, and for many respects not loved of his neigh­bour Princes. This Prince (as the Palatine) is also of the Or­der of England.

The rest of the Princes of Germanie, as the Duke of Mi­chelburg, Michelburg. the Lantgrave of Hesse, the Marquesse of Baden, Hesse. the Marquesse of Ansbach, or any other whatsoever,Baden. being in all respects much inferiour to these already named,Ansbach. need not to be brought into competition with the Dukedome of Saxonie, which makes the case more lamentable, that so mighty a Princedome having beene many yeares wholly united in Maurice, Augustus, and Christianus, should now by the ill ordered custome of Germanie, be distracted and divided into parts, and likely in time to be more disunited by subdividing it againe to future Issues.

Endlesse it were to write of all the Princes of Germanie, which be about forty in all, besides seven Archbishops, and seven and forty Bishops; all men of great power and posses­sions. The Imperiall Cities be also Seigniories by them­selves, each able to make Levies of men by Sea and Land. Thus much therefore for Germanie.


GEneva is also an Imperial City in Savoy, Situation. situated at the South end of the Lake Lemanus, Circuit. hard by the Lake. It is in circuit about two English miles, reasonable strong by Nature and Art, as well for that it is seated on a hill, which on the West is not easily accessible, as also for that it is in­differently well fortified with ravelings,Strength. Bulwarkes, and Platformes, besides a deepe ditch. The East and West parts thereof, standing continually full of water: The South part remaining dry continually, and is well defended with Casemats, the better to scoure the Curtaine: it is so much the stronger, for that it standeth almost in an Island, having the Lake aforesaid on the North, the River of Rhosne upon the West, and the River of Arba upon the South, being from the Towne halfe a mile, and by reason of the swiftnesse of the currant, and great moveable stones in the bottome, which are violently carried downe the River, it is not passa­ble but with great danger.

The River Rhosne divideth the Towne into two parts, the one is called the high Towne, and the other Saint Ger­vais. Betweene the River (in passing) it divideth it selfe in­to two branches, making a little Island, wherein are some few houses, and seven or eight mills to grinde corne. The weakest part of the Towne is upon the East-side, and out of the West by Saint Gervais Church; and for that it might have beene surprised from the Lake, Mounsier la Nove cau­sed a new Fort to be made in the mouth of the Lake, by rea­son whereof, that part is most secure. The Towne is well peopled, especially with women; insomuch as they com­monly say, that there are three women for one man: yeel­ding this reason, that the warres have consumed their men. They reckon some sixteen thousand of all sorts.The Territo­ries. The Territo­ries are small, being no way above two leagues and a halfe; yet by reason the soile is fruitfull, being well manured, it bringeth graine of all sorts, and great store of Wine. There [Page 305] is likewise plenty of pasture and feeding grounds; by meanes whereof, the Inhabitants are very well provided of all sorts of good flesh at a reasonable rate: no want of good Butter and Cheese, and for most part of wild-fowle; as Partridge, Quaile, Phesant, and Mallard, in great abundance.

There are all manner of good fruits,Fertilitie. and especially excel­lent Pearmaines: besides, the River and the Lake afford di­vers sorts of fresh Fish; as Pike, Roch, Carpe, Tench, &c. and above all, the best and biggest Carpes of Europe. The commodities of the Dukes Countrey, and of the Berne­si, with ten or twelve miles next adjoyning, are brought to this Tower, by reason the Peasant can get no money in any other place, which maketh the market to be well served. The Towne standeth very well for trade of Merchandize, and if it might have peace, it would grow rich in short time; for, the ordinary passage to transport commodities out of Germanie to France, especially to Lions, and so back againe into Swizerland and Germanie, is by this Towne: beside, all Savoy, in a manner, and a good part of the Countrey of the Bernesi resort hither to buy their armour, apparell, and other necessaries, the Inhabitants being for the most part mechani­call persons, making excellent good Pecces; as Muskets, Ca­leevers, &c. They likewise worke Satten, Velvet, Taffata,Handicrafts. and some quantity of Cloth, though not very fine nor dura­ble. There are many good Merchants, especially Italians, who have great dealings some others are thought to bee worth twenty thousand crownes, and in generall, the Towne is reasonable rich notwithstanding their warres.

The ordinary Revenue of the Towne,Revenue. is some threescore thousand crownes, which ariseth of the Gables of Merchan­dize, flesh, demaine, and tithes: and if there might be peace, it would amount to twice or thrice so much.

There is reasonable provision against a siege, the Towne being able to make some two thousand men, and one hun­dred horse, and furnish them with all necessaries; and having the Lake open, they want no provision of corne, or any vi­ctuals. In the Arsenall there is Armour for some two thou­sand [Page 306] men, with Muskets, Pikes, Caleevers, &c. Some twelve or fourteene Peeces of Ordnance, whereof there are about eight or nine Canons and Culverings: plenty of small shot, bullets and fire-works, besides some sixty Peeces in the Bul­warkes. There was in former times provision of corne for six moneths, but of late yeares they have not beene so provi­dent. The people generally are marvellous resolute to de­fend their Towne, especially against the Duke of Savoy, whom they hate exceedingly, and he them, not only in re­spect of the difference of Religion, but in matter of State: for the Duke counteth them Rebels, and pretendeth a Title to their Towne, alleaging, that till the yeare 1535. they were under the rule of their Bishop, who was Lord both in Temporall and Spirituall matters, and the Bishop acknow­ledged him for his chiefe Lord, and d [...]d him homage, till the yeare thirtie, at which time, and before, the money which was coined in Geneva, was stamped with the Dukes name and figure upon it. Besides, till the time aforesaid, the Duke of Savoy might pardon offenders that were condemned: and further, there was no sentence of Law executed, but the Dukes Officer was made acquainted therewith, in whose power it was to disanull, as hee liked best. Likewise in the yeare 1529. when as those of Geneva had leagued themselves with Friburge, the Duke disliking thereof, because it was done without his privitie, caused the league to be broken, alleaging, that the Towne of Geneva could not conclude a matter of such importance, without his allowance and ap­probation. Besides, all these reasons before remembred, this also is alleaged as most materiall, that Duke Charles com­ming to Geneva with the Duchesse Beatrice his wife, those of the Towne presented him the Keyes thereof, therby acknow­ledging him their chiefe Lord and Master. During the civill warres in France, the Towne was marvellously peopled, in­somuch as there were to the number of twelve or fourteene thousand strangers, the greatest part whereof were Gentle­men: but since those troubles began to diminish, the num­ber likewise hath decayed, and at this instant there are not [Page 307] many besides the Inhabitants, by reason whereof, the Towne is very much impoverished.

The Towne is governed by a Councell of two hundred,Government. called the great Councell, out of which is chosen another Councell, composed of five and twentie, and of these, foure especiall men, called Sindiques, who have the managing of the whole Common-wealth, unlesse it be in some great matters, wherein the whole State is deeply interessed, as in making of peace or warre, in leagues offensive and defensive, appeales, &c.

The people are governed by the Civil Law: the Iudge whereof is called a Lieutenant Criminall, before whom all causes are tried, and from whom there is no appeale, unlesse it be to the generall Councell of two hundred. When the Towne was besieged in eightie nine, the Venetians did not only send them intelligence of sundry practices against them, but also sent them twenty foure thousand crownes to main­taine their warres; and out of England they had thirteene thousand crownes. The Great Duke of Thuscan did like­wise send them many intelligences at the same time: and heretofore when as the Pope, the King of Spaine, the French King, and the Duke of Savoy, have joyned their powers to­gether, with purpose to besiege them, the Emperour hath not only revealed all their practices, but offered to aid them with men and money: yea, and sometime the Dukes of Sa­voy have lent them money to maintaine them against the o­thers. For hee had rather the Towne should remaine as it doth, than fall into any other mans hands than his owne.

Queene Elizabeth highly favoured it, and releeved it: so did all the Protestant German Princes, together with the French King. Who though [...]ee be of a contrary Religion, yet hath he had it alwayes in especiall protection.

The people are very civill in their behaviour, speech,Behaviour. and apparell, all licentiousnesse being severely corrected, and especially dancing: Adultery is punished with death, and the Women drowned in the Rosne; simple Fornication with nine dayes fasting, bread and water in prison; for the second [Page 308] offence whipping out of the Towne, and the third time with banishment. The Towne lent unto Henry the third, King of France, a little before his death, 450000. crownes, and twelve Canons, which are not yet restored: the Bernesi seeme to be their friends, but those of Geneva are very jea­lous of them, and dare not trust them.

The Ministers have a consistorie, unto which they may call publike offendors, and such as give scandall unto others, and there reprove them: and if the crime be great, and the partie obstinate, they forbid him the Communion; if not­withstanding hee persist, they may excommunicate him. But the Ministers cannot call any before them into the Con­sistory, but by the authoritie of a Sindique, who must assist them; otherwise the Ministers have power to summon any Man. They have their maintenance out of the common Treasury, and meddle with no Tithes. Master Beza in eighty seven had some 1500. Florens for his stipend, which a­mounteth to some seven or eight and fiftie pounds sterling, besides twenty coupes of corne, and his house; All which will hardly amount to fourescore pounds: the rest of the Ministers had some six or seven hundred Florens, twenty coupes of corne, and their houses. The Ministers in the countrie have three hundred forty and five Florens, and twenty coupes of corne. The Professor in Divinity hath per annum 1125. Florens, and twenty coupes of Corne; The Professor in Law 580. Florens; The Professor in Greeke 510. Florens; The Professor of Philosophy 600. Flo­rens, and twenty coupes; The Professor in Hebrew 510. Florens.

All honest exercises, as shooting in Peeces, Crosse-Bowes, Long-Bowes, &c. are used on the Sabbath day, and that in the morning, both before and after the Sermon, neither doe the Ministers finde any fault therewith, so that they hinder not from hearing the word at the time appointed.


IN the daies of Caesar, this Province contained two hundred and forty miles in length, and one hundred and fourescore in breadth; which circuit or territorie seeming too narrow a roome to containe so valiant and a warlike people, that not long before had overthrowne L. Cassius a Roman Consull, slaine the Consull himselfe, and sold the souldiers for bond­slaves; upon these apprehensions, and the conceit of their owne valours, they began to entertaine a resolution, by con­quest to gaine a larger territory, correspondent to the ambitious greatnesse of their minds, and to forsake their owne country, which first gave them breath and being. In heat whereof they prepare for their departure, they provide victuals, study tillage two yeeres, buy carts and cariage beasts, and left any mans courage should decline with the time, they make a law, that every one should be in readi­nesse to set forward in the beginning of the third yeere. Be­ing upon their way, and hearing that Caesar (then Procon­sull of France) had caused the bridge of Geneva to be hewne downe; and to debarre them of passage, had raised that fa­mous fortification betweene the Lake and Mount Iura, they sent some of their greatest Commanders to Caesar, to intreat a quiet passage thorow the Roman Province. At their ap­pointed day of Audience hearing Caesars deniall, they re­solve to open the way with the power of their forces. In tri­all of which project, after they had received divers defea­tures, they againe sent their Ambassadors to Caesar, to in­treat an acceptation of submission, throwing themselves at his feet, and with many supplications, craving such favo [...] ­rable conditions of peace, as might best comfort so distres­sed a people, and beseeme the glory of so mighty a conquests which requests Caesar upon delivery of pledges mercifully granted, injoyned them to returne to the Country from whence they came, and to build the cities and villages, which before their comming forth they had destroyed. [Page 310] Ever since which time they retained the reputation of their ancient glory, but never enterprized to forsake their limi­ted habitations. The number of Men, Women, and Chil­dren, that were in that journey, was 3680000. whereof 920000. were fighting men: of them that returned, and saw the fortune of both their States, was 110000. Some hold opinion, that this Nation is utterly extinguished, and that the present Inhabitants (whereof we now intreat) both for their resemblance in manners and phrase of speech, are descended from the Germans.

It is almost all situated amongst the Alpes, Situation. and therefore supposed to be the highest Region in Europe, and the rather for that the most famous Rivers of this part of the World, (viz.) Rhone, Rodan, and Po, falling from these high pla­ces, doe disperse their chanels thorow divers Provinces of Christendome. It is called in Historie, Confoederatorum Regio, a State popular, and subject to no one Prince. And although it seeme to bee environed with steepe and barren Mountaines alwaies covered with Snow, yet in truth it is fertile enough, and intermixed with fruitfull places full of excellent Pastures, wherein they bring up infinite numbers of Sheep and Cattell to their inestimable profit, by venting of Butter, Cheese, and other white meats to forren Na­tions. Of Wheat and Wine they have no such plenty, but are glad to crave in aid of their neighbours to releeve their wants.

From the times before spoken of, untill the comming of the Sarazens into Italy, at what time the Pope sent an ho­nourable Embassage of Cardinals to intreat their favour and assistance, they seemed to live contented within theior owne limits; and onely in reward of their many good ser­vices (imployed for the defence of the Church and Christen­dome) they desired of his Holinesse, that they might live in liberty in these places which they then inhabited, with the use of their owne Lawes and ancient Customes. Which the Pope not onely granted, but in token of their worthinesse and valour he gave them a red banner, with the Image of [Page 311] the Crucifix painted therein. After this service, they againe gave themselves to a quiet and peaceable life, to follow til­lage, and to husband their granges, untill such time as cer­taine Noblemen their neighbours began to incroach upon them, and to exercise tyrannicall jurisdiction over them. Which kind of servitude (as people bearing in fresh remem­brance their ancient and generous [...]utation) being unable to endure, and inured to give and not to take the law of their neighbours, opposed their forces against the insolency of this Nobilitie.

The discontentment first burst out in the yeere of our LordThe Causes of their first Re­volts. 1300. about which time the Counts of Aspurgh (afterward Dukes) had placed in one of their Castles of Vrania in Val­street, a Gentleman proud above measure, unsociable, and in lust insatiable. At first he was secret, but by custome im­boldned, in Feasts and publike Banquets hee would boast, how he had now abused one Woman, then another: at last, amongst the rest, having ravished a very young and beauti­full Damsell, he was slaine by her two Brethren. The Count agrieved hereat, offered to doe justice upon the offenders, but the Inhabitants of that Vallie valiantly resisted, over­threw two or three of his Castles in one day, and slew divers of his Officers. Which president the Vndervaldenses imita­ting, committed the like outrage upon the Gentlemen of their Territorie, exclaiming that the tyranny of the Nobi­litie had inforced them to this action. The first of the Con­federates were, the Suavi, those of Vro, Zurich, and Vnder­vald; who so well as they might in so sudden an innovation gave themselves to peace, and to respect the good of the league and the confederate Cities.

The residue of the Noblemen and Gentlemen, fearing if this example were left unpunished, the sore would grow incura­ble, as an evill which could bring forth no lesse a mischiefe than the utter losse of their jurisdiction, mustred all their friends and followers, determining either to tame or to raze these confederated Cantons. But the Swizers well acquain­ted with the difficult passages of the Country, easily fru­strated [Page 312] the attempts of their enemies: thereby rather increa­sing than diminishing their liberty.

Lupold Duke of Austria, enterprizing upon them with a mighty Army for the same quarrell, had the like fortune. So in succeeding ages had Charles Duke of Burgundy, by their service undertaken and performed for the defence of Rhene Duke of Lorrain [...]. They are men of large stature, and very seldome goe armed, but serve onely with the Pike or two-hand-sword, because they feare no other forces save the fury of the great Artillery, from which (say they) a brest-plate or curace is not able to defend them. And be­cause of their order, they thinke it a matter impossible for any forces to breake them, or to enter upon them neerer than a Pikes length. In a pitcht field, without doubt, they are excellent good Foot-men, but to invade a Province they have little courage, and lesse to defend it; and commonly, where they are not able to maintaine their accustomed or­der of fight, they availe nothing; as in the warre of Italy was plainly manifested, especially when they were put to assaults (as at Padoa, and other places) wherein they gave but weake testimonies of valour: whereas when they fought it out in open field at the Pikes length, they carried themselves valiantly; insomuch that at the battell of Ra­venna, if the French had beene without their assistance, they had questionlesse lost the glory of that daies victory. For before both Armies came to handy-strokes, the Spanish had already overthrowne the French and Gascoine Foot-men, and if the Swizers had not seconded them, they had beene all slaine or taken. So in the warre of Guien it plainly ap­peared, that the Spanish were more afraid of one band of Swizers, whereof the King had waged ten thousand, than of any of the rest of the French Regiments. Thus by the reputation of these and their former exploits, they wonne unto their Nation so glorious a perpetuity of their Armes and valour, that ever since they have beene called unto the aide of divers Princes, and in continuall action under some one State or other bordering upon them; but especially [Page 313] under the Kings of France, of whom they entertaine some­times more, and sometimes lesse. Sithence the reigne of Lewis the 11. they have beene in perpetuall league, and in their pension; to whom they give yearly fortie thousand Florens, twentie thousand to the Cities, and twentie thou­sand to particular persons. They againe are divided into thirteene Cantons, eight whereof are Catholike, the residue of the Religion. But those of the Religion are much grea­ter; and out of these it is that the Kings of France are sup­plied: the residue are in pension, with the King of Spaine.

When the French King demandeth any forces out of their Cantons, they call a Diet, the charge whereof,Levying of souldiers. as like­wise the souldiers wages, the King defrayeth. These forren bands, more or lesse, to whom he alwayes committeth the battell, and the guard of his Cannon, (as for entring of breaches, and giving assaults, they doe expresly capitulate to be exempt) with the five Regiments before spoken of in the discourse of France, are his maine moderne forces on foot: but when he would have greater numbers, he giveth his Captaines Commissions to take up souldiers thorow the whole Realme, not by presse, as with us, but by striking up the Drumme, when if any come voluntarily, and take pay, they are inrolled, and injoyned to serve, otherwise not.

The government of these thirteene Cities,Government. with their de­pendances, (which they terme Cantons) is meerely popu­lar: for though the members seeme to be separated, yet live they as one body firmly knit and united, having a chiefe Magistrate over every Territorie chosen by the commonalty of every particular Citie, and every Citie hath his particular Councell and place of assemblie, save only when they are to sit upon matters of importance, and such as concerne the ge­nerall estate, then they appoint a generall Diet, and that to be held in some one of the Cities which they thinke most convenient; whereunto foure or five of the most principall of every Citie are bound to resort. In their consultations, for the most part, they are comfortable one to another; and because one Citie is as free as another, having no one chiefe [Page 314] Governour superiour to any other, in case the cause (be it peace or warre) concerne the universall State of all the Can­tons, looke how the major part of voices shall sway in the Senate, so it prevaileth, and that which the greater number resolve upon, is without more adoe put in execution. The benefit which they gaine by a common warre, Is divided in common: but if sometimes two or three united Cantons purchase any bootie by their peculiar Armes, of that pur­chase the residue can claime no share. Yet hath it happened, that the residue thinking themselves injured in not partici­pating generally, have raised divers controversies; and be­cause (as aforesaid) they are equally free, and as great is the soveraigne authoritie of one Citie as of another, both par­ties have appealed unto the French King, who upon hearing of the cause in question, gave judgement, That a particular gaine appertained to particular persons. And so the rest.

Therefore when they are either occasioned or determi­ned to make any particular warre, the united Cantons erect lights and make bone-fires: but when they are to raise for­ces in generall, (as suppose they should for the French King) first they strike up their Drumme, then all the Cities doe presents as many persons as they thinke good, which may be to the number of five and thirtie or fortie thousand, of whom after the Captaines have culd out their limited portions, the residue are licensed to depart to their owne homes. Every Citie hath his principall Standard, with their peculiar armes and devices therein, to distinguish one people from another. And because no politike body can stand without a head,Their Sove­raigne Magi­strate. al­though in no case they will tolerate one absolute Governour over the whole, yet are they contented to submit them­selves to the government of one particular Magistrate in every particular Citie: him they terme Vnama. The ele­ct on of which Officer is on this manner: On the first Sunday in May, the principall of all the houses and families tho [...]ow every Canton, of all sorts and qualities, assemble themselves either in some meadow, or else in the chiefest streets of their Citie, where all of them taking their places in order, the [Page 315] Vnama, whose time of office is now expired, seating him­selfe in a place somewhat above the rest, after some stay, ri­seth up and maketh a speech to the people, excusing himselfe in good termes of his insufficiencie to discharge the weight of the office committed unto his charge, and craveth pardon of that which he hath through ignorance or negligence committed, to the prejudice of the common good, and there­withall offereth to resigne his determined office into the hands of the people. Immediately upon this resignation, with a loud voice hee nominateth the partie, whom in his judgement he thinketh worthy to succeed in his place. He that is nominated, commeth forth before the multitude, and presenting himselfe before them, after some speeches, nomi­nateth a second, & the second (with like ceremonie) a third. The nomination being ended, the chiefe of the companies demand of the people, which of these three thus nominated, they are willing to elect: So naming them anew, one by one, the multitude lift up their hands at the naming of him whom they desire to be their Governour. And oft-times it falleth out, that he that hath beene once Vnama, in desert of his justice and good carriage towards them, hath beene cho­sen againe the second time. This election finished, they pro­ceed to the choice of other Officers.

This Officer continueth in his place three yeares, and al­though he be the chiefest amongst them, yet goeth hee but little better attired than the meanest, only attended with five or six persons. He dwelleth in his owne house, because they imploy the publike places for the holding of the Diets, the keeping of their Munition and Artillerie, and other fur­niture belonging to the warres. In criminall causes he can doe nothing without the counsell of the fifteene, but in civill matters he hath larger limitation.

Next the Vnama, is that Officer of Iustice, who is as it were the Chancellor, and the second person in that State. After him are certaine Counsellors, men well experienced in affaires of Princes, and occurrence of Provinces. Then the Chamberlaine, and his is the charge of the Munition and [Page 316] publike Treasure. Next to him are the foure Deputies, in authoritie greater than the Counsellors, and may doe many things in absence of the Vnama, so as the Chancellor be pre­sent. These with the Vnama make the fifteene, which go­verne the State as well in peace as in warre, and are ever pre­sent at the hearing and deciding of all occurrences arising within the Territorie of their owne Canton.

These are from yeare to yeare confirmed by the people, although (as doth the Vnama) they continue their office for three yeares. These send Governours to the Castles on the Frontiers, and (to decide inferiour matters) they allow ten persons chosen out of the meaner sort; but the parties in controversie may appeale to the fifteene: other Iudges, or further appeales (as in the Civill Law) they have not to flie unto. For their chiefest care is their tillage and warfare, co­veting to live simply and plainly, and not to intrap one ano­ther in quarrels and suits of Law. The partie evicted is se­verely punished. Neither will they suffer any of their people to appeale out of their owne Countries; and if any offend therein, he is grievously chastened.

Thorow the whole world Lawes are not observed with lesse partialitie; for they are never-altered according to the humours of the inconstant multitude, nor violated without due penaltie inflicted: for as of those five sorts of popul [...]r governments which Aristotle discourseth of, there is none more dangerous than that wherein the will of the people beareth sway above reason, and standeth for Law, as Ze­nophon writeth of the Athenians; so no forme of government can be compared to that wherein the Commonaltie without d [...]tinction live subject to the censure of the Law: in regard of which policie, wee ought not to marvell, if this Com­mon-weale have flourished now these two hundred and fif­tie yeares, in great reputation of valour.

For [...]y two meanes hath this estate beene preserved, viz. by unpartiall administration of justice, and frequencie of neighbourly feastings; whereas the scornfull ambition of great men hath heretofore ruinated the popular estates of [Page 317] the Megarians, the Romans, the Florentines, the Syennois, and the Genoese. Of which sort, the Swizzers have none at all, or if there be any (as there are but few which escaped the generall massacre) yet are they contented (without lay­ing any claime to their ancient gentility) to range them­selves with the residue of the basest commonalties, and can but seldome be admitted to the chiefest magistracies, being commonly bestowed upon Butchers, and such like Mecha­nicall Artizans.


ITaly, (according to Plinie) the most beau­tifull and goodliest Region under the Sun, the Darling of Nature, and the Mother of hardy Men, brave Captaines, and va­liant Souldiers, flourishing in all Arts, and abounding with Noble wits, and men of singular spirits,Situation. is situate under a Climate most wholesome and temperate, commodious for Traffike, and most fertile for Corne and Herbage: containeth in length from Augusta Pretoria unto Otranto, one thousand and twenty miles, and in breadth, from the River Vara in Pro­vence, Length and Breadth. to the River Arsia in Friuli, (where it is broadest) foure hundred and ten miles; and in the narrow places, as from the mouth of Pescara, to the mouth of Tiber, an hun­dred twenty six miles. So that to compasse it by Sea from Vara to Arsia, are three thousand thirty eight miles, which with the foure hundred and ten by land, maketh the whole circuit three thousand foure hundred forty eight miles.

Thus it appeares to bee almost an Iland in shape of a legge; bounded on the East with the Adriatike Sea, on the South and West with the Tirrhene Seas, and on the North with the Alpes: the which, for that it is described by others, we will but point to, and so much the rather, be­cause [Page 318] there is no Country in the world better knowne; and more frequented by strangers.

Inheritance there descend to the children,Natures and manners of the people. as Lands holden by Ga [...]nd with us in some parts of England, so that one brother hath as good a share as another, and if the older be borne to the title of a Co [...]e, so is the younger, and so called; yea, if there be twenty brethren; (except it be in the Estates of Princedomes, as Mantua, Ferrara, Vrbin, and such like, which evermore descend to the eldest entirely.) By this meanes it commeth to passe, that often times you shall see Earles and Marquesses without Lands or goods, yet most strictly standing upon descents, and the glory of their names, for themselves and their issues for ever. But the Gentlemen which have whereof to live, are repor­ted to surpasse the Gentry of any other Nation in good car­riage and behaviour, and for the most part professe Armes, and follow service. And to bee discerned from the vulgar, they all in generall speake the Courtisan, which is an ex­cellent commendation, considering the diversitie of Dialects amongst them. For leaving the difference betweene the Flo­rentine and the Venetian, the Milanois and the Roman, the Neapolitan and the Genois, (which may well be likened to the difference betweene a Londoner & a Northerne man) yet by the tongue you shall not lightly discerne of what part of the Countrey any Gentleman is. No more diffe­rent are they in manners and behaviour; honourable, cour­teous, prudent, and grave withall, that it should seeme each one to have had a Prince-like education; to their superiours obedient; to equals respective; to inferiours courteous, to strangers affable, and desirous by kinde offices to winne their love. Of expence and lone of his mony, very wary, and will be assured to be at no more cost than he is sure either to save by, or to have thanke for. In apparell modest, in fur­niture of houshold sumptuous, at their table neat, sober of speech, enemies of ill report, and so jealous of their reputa­tions, that whosoever speaketh ill of one of them, if the par­ty slandered may know it, and finde opportunitie to per­forme [Page 319] it, the party offending shall surely die for it.

The Merchants likewise for the most part are Gentlemen:Merchants. For when of one house there bee three or foure brethren, lightly one or two of them give themselves to traffike. And sometimes, if they chance not to divide their Fathers sub­stance and patrimonie, (as many times they doe not) then doe they which professe themselves Merchants, travell for the welfare of their brethren, joyntly participating of losse and profit. But in outward shew, these carry not like repu­tation to the Gentlemen afore spoken of: for they professe not Armes, but desire to live in peace, and how to vent their wares, and have new traffike into strange Countries; yet have no lesse reputation of Nobility for their trade of Mer­chandize, but by reason they stay at home, and use the ri­chest Farmes, and follow Husbandrie by their Bailises and Factors, they become the best and wealthiest Merchants in all Christendome.

Their Artificers are thought the best workmen of the world, and are so well paid,Artificers. that many live by their labours as well as many doe by Revenues; yea, and grow very rich, and within two or three descents to the reputation of Gentry.

The poorer sort are the husbandmen,Husbandmen. for they are oppres­sed on all hands, & in the Country liveth no man of wealth. The Gentry and wealthier sort dwell in Townes and wal­led Cities, leaving the Villages, fields, and pastures to their Tenants, not at a rent certaine, as we doe in England, but to halfes, or to the thirds of all graine, fruit, and profit ari­sing of the ground, according as it shall be, either barren or fertile. And this the poore Tenant must till and manure at his owne charge, so that the Lords part commeth cleare without disbursing one penny; yet shall you see many faire houses in the villages, but they are onely for the owners pastime in Summer: For then they leave the Cities for a moneth or two, where under the fragrant hedges and bowers, they solace themselves in as much pleasure as may be imagined. And for the most part, every man hath his [Page 320] Mistresse with instruments of musicke, and such like plea­sures as may serve for recreation and delight. Thus much of the manners and nature of the inhabitants: now will wee speake of the estates of the Country.

The King of Spaine hath the greatest part for his share,Sharers. as Naples and the Duchie of Millaine. The King of Spaine.

The Pope hath the Citie of Rome,The Pope.Campagnia, part of Maremma, part of Tuscan, the Duchie of Spo [...]et, Marca d' Ancona, Romagnia, and the Citie of Bononia.

The Venetians have for their part the Citie of Venice, The Venetians. with the townes in and about that Marish, called La con­trada di Venetia, La marka Trivigrina, a great part of Lom­bardie, and part of Istria. They likewise are, and have beene Lords of certaine Islands, some whereof the Turke hath wonne from them.

The Common-weale of Genoa hath the territorie about them,Genoa. called at this day Il Genovosaio, and anciently Liguria.

Tuscan, Florence. once He [...]ruria, is divided into divers Seigniories, whereof the Bishop of Rome holdeth a small part, but the greatest is under the jurisdiction of Florence.

Then are Common-wealths of Sienna and Lucca, Sienna. whose Territories are not great.Lucca. 13. The Duke of Ferrara hath part of Romagnia, Ferrara. and part of Lombardie. 14. The Duchie of Mantua lieth wholly in Lombardie, Mantua. and the Duchie of Vrbin betweene Marca d' Ancona and Tuscane. Vrbine. 15. The Duchies of Parma and Placentia are in Lombardie, Parma. and hol­den of the Church.

Of these Princes and Common-wealths every one hol­deth himselfe in his owne Territorie absolute Prince and Governour, and maintaineth his estate upon the custome, taxes, and impositions of the people. For lightly they have little or no Lands of their owne.

THe Estate of the Pope is twofold;The Bishop of Rome. the one consisteth in Temporall Dominion, the other in Spirituall Iuris­diction. His Temporall Dominion is likewise divided into [Page 321] two kinds; the one profitable, and as a man may terme it, an hereditarie: the other immediate, and holden in fee of he Church. As touching his Temporall Dominion, hee is Lord of a great part of Italie; as of all that lieth be­tweene the River Fiore and Cajetta, betweene Pre [...]est and the Truentian streights (except the Duchie of Vrbin.)

In that compasse are incircled the Provinces of Bonnonia and Romandiola, Marchia, Vmbria, the Duchie of Spo­leto, S. Peters patrimonie, Tuscan, and lately Ferrara. It is seated in the heart of Italie, stretching from the Adriatike to the Tirrhene Sea; and in regard of situation, as also in plenty of provision, as corne, wine, and oyle, it is compa­rable to any State of Italie: For Romandiola imparteth great store unto their neighbours, the Venetians and Scla­vonians; And yet have the Inhabitants sufficient for their owne provision.

Marchia reacheth from Tronto to Foglia, Marchia. betweene the Apenine and the Sea; it is divided into little hils and plaines. It is rich of Wine, Oyle, and Corne, having divers great Townes and Castles therein. The Citie of greatest trading is Ancona, by reason of the Haven to which many Lasterne Merchants doe repaire. The fairest is Ascoli, the most powerfull Fermo, because of many Fortresses subject unto it. Macerata is a new Citie, and because it lieth in the middest of the Province, it is the Governours seat. In some yeares it hath supplied the Venetians wants, with many thousand measures of Corne and Oyle. And although Vm­bria is not so plentifull of graine, as to spare for their neigh­bours, yet is it able to maintaine it selfe without buying of others, and in stead thereof it is abundantly stored with Wines, Cattell, and some Saffron. S. Peters Patrimonie, and Tuscan, often releeved Genoa, and at some seasons Naples: This territorie bringeth forth fierce and warlike souldiers; and herein it is reported to excell all the residue of the Italian Provinces. Bonnonia, Romania, and Marchia, are able to levie twenty thousand foot-men, and the other Pro­vinces as many. In the time of Pope Clement, Marchia [Page 322] alone aided him with a thousand souldiers. The chiefe Seat is Rome, once the Lady of the World, and at this day inha­bited with two hundred thousand soules, but two parts thereof consisting of Church-men and Curtizans. The se­cond Bononia, wherein are eighty thousand of both sexes. Next to these are Perugia, Ancona, Ravenna, and some fiftie others. The defensible places are the Castle and Borough of Rome, Ovietta, Teracine, &c. It is a great credit and com­mendation to this State, to have many Noblemen therein to excellent in Negociation of Peace and Warre, that the re­sidue of the States and Princes doe most commonly choose their Leaders and Lieutenants out of these Provinces. If the Prince hereof were secular, both for people and power, hee might very well be compared with any State of Italy.

Besides these Dominions, the Pope hath the Territory of Avignon in France, wherein are foure Cities, and fourscore walled Townes. In Naples he hath Benevent.

Romagna extendeth from Foglia,Romagna.Panora, and from the Apenine to the River Po. For temperature and fertilitie, it is like to Marchia, but hath generally more famous Cities, as Rimini, Cesana, Faensa, Ravenna, Turly, Imola, Sarsina, Cervia, Bertinoto, once a Bishops Seat, but now translated to Forlimpoli. The Noblest of all these is Ravenna, where some Emperor have kept their Courts, and after them their Exarches or Lieutenants. When Pipin having expulsed A­stolpho, put the Church in possession thereof, this Territorie comprehended Bolognia, Regio, Modena, Parma, Piacenza, Ravenna, Sarsina, Claesse, Forli, Forlimpoli, and made one estate called Pentapoli, which indured an hundred eightie three yeares, even to the yeare of our Lord 741. in which yeare, it ended by the taking of Ravenna, by Astolph King of Lombards. So that first the Roman Emperours, especi­ally Honorius, and after him the Kings of the Gothes, and then Exarches, amongst all the Cities of Italy, chose this for the Seat of their Courts, which from amongst other respects, I suppose to proceed by reason of the plentifull Territory, (now covered with water) and the conveniencie of the Ha­ven, [Page 323] which at this day is likewise choaked. This Province was first called Flaminia, but Charles the Great, to raze out the remembrance of these Exarches, and to make the people willing to obey the Roman Prelats, called it Romagnia.

As touching his immediate Soveraigntie, he is Lord Pa­ramount of the Kingdomes of Naples and Sicil, and the Duchies of Vrbin, Ferrara, Parma, Placentia, and many others.

Where his authoritie is maintained, he hath supreme go­vernment of all religious Orders, and bestoweth the Eccle­siasticall Benefices at his dispose. Having many strings to his Bow, he hath many meanes to raise money,Riches. so that Xistus the fourth was wont to say, That the Popes should never want Coine, as long as their hands were able to hold a pen. Paul the third, in the league betweene him, the Emperour and the Venetians, against the Turk, bare the sixth part of the charges of that warre. Against the Protestants, and in aid of Charles the fifth, he sent twelve thousand foot-men, and five hun­dred horse-men, bearing their charges during the warre: this was he that advanced his house to that honour, where­in it continueth to this day in Florence. Pius the fifth, aided Charles the ninth, King of France, with foure thousand foot­men, and a thousand horse. Xistus the fifth, in five yeares and a halfe of his Pontificacie, raked together five millions of crowns, and spent bountifully notwithstanding, in bring­ing Conduits and Water-pipes into the Citie, and in buil­ding Pyramides, Palaces, and Churches.

So that it should seeme, that the Entrado could not but amount to much above the value of ten hundred thousand crownes per annum; for Newman, a late Writer, would have this surplusage to be raised upon use money, yearely la [...]d up in the Castle of Saint Angelo. And this to arise of his ordi­nary Revenues within his Territories of Italy. Since those times it cannot but be much more augmented by the additi­on of the Dukedome of Ferrara; as also for that in those dayes, the monethly expence of the Court (being thirtie thousand crownes) is in these times defalked unto five thou­sand.

[Page 324] A State,The State of Rome. wherein you shall see Religion metamorphosed into policie, and policie meditating nothing but private greatnesse: the Man-seeming-God affecting Honour, Ma­jestie and Temporall riches, with no lesse ambition and effu­sion of bloud, than any the mercilesse Tyrants of the former Monarchies.

As for the College of Cardinals;The College of Cardinals. It stretcheth out the Westerne Churches on the Tenter-hookes of Vain-glory and Authority; suffering no man, no not so much as in thought (if it were possible) to depresse, or question, the privileges of religious persons: who (according to their meanes) live in great State, keepe Curtizans, travell in Carosses (though but for a quarter of a mile) to the Con­sistory, solemnize feasts and banquets, make shew of cere­monies, and are, in truth, of no Religion. So that, if a man were an Atheist, and had no conscience to beleeve that God must one day call us to account for our transgressions, I had rather live a religious man in Rome, than be a Nobleman in Naples; who of all men living wash their hands most in carelesnesse, being never disturbed with worldly cares or in­cumbrances.

The great Duke of Tuscanie.

IT lieth betweene the Apenine and the Sea:Tuscan. and contai­neth (from Magra to Tenere) above two hundred three­score and ten miles. It hath larger Champians than Liguria, because the Apenine stretcheth not so neere the Sea, and so inlargeth the plaine. In it are many large valleyes, populous, and rich in commodities. But to speake of particulars: when we are past Magra, Sarazana offereth it selfe to our view, a Citie holden by the Genoise with great jealousie, by reason of the neighbour-hood of the great Duke, and a little higher lieth Pentrimoli, a Castle belonging to the King of Spaine, of great account, and situated not farre from the Sea; then Massa and Carrara, places famous for their quarries of white Marble. Lucca standeth on the River Serichio, Pisa on Ar­no, [Page 325] and beyond the Citie of Florence. To the State whereof belongeth Pistoia, Volterra, Montepulcino, Arezzo, Cortona. Those of Lucca doe stand upon their guard for maintenance of their liberties. The Citie is three miles in compasse, strong in situation and wals, and well stored with Artillery and Munition. On the North it confineth Carfagnana, a fruitfull Valley, and well inhabited with serviceable people, on the other parts it is incompassed with the Territories appertai­ning to the Great Duke. Pisa was once of such wealth,Pisa. that at one instant, the Citizens thereof held warre against the Venetians and the Genois. They grew great by the over­throw which the Sarazens gave to the Genois, in the yeare 1533. the remainder of which defeature, was received in­to the protection of their Citie; and declined by the slaugh­ter of their people, and also of their Navie given them by the Genois neere to the Isle Giglio. For thereby they became so weake, that not able to sustaine their wonted reputation, they were forced to submit themselves under the protection of Florentines, against whom (when Charles the eighth in­vaded Italy) they rebelled. But being againe reduced to their former obedience, the Citie notwithstanding was in a man­ner left desolate, because the Citizens (impatient of the Flo­rentines government) passed into Sardinia, Sicil, and other places to inhabit. So that the place wanting Inhabitants, and the Countrey people to manure it, the situation thereof being low and moorish, by reason of Fens and Marishes, it became infectious. Cosmo the great Duke, undertooke to re-people it againe, and to further his intention, he builded there a stately house for the receit of the Knights of Saint Stephen, gracing it with many privileges, which yet to this day remaine unaltered. As also by founding an Vniversitie, by easing the people of many taxes, and by dwelling him­selfe amongst them two or three moneths in the yeare.Florence. Flo­rence is the fairest Citie in Italy, it is in compasse six miles. It is divided into foure and fortie Parishes; and into one and twentie Companies. It hath in it threescore and six Mona­steries, and seven and thirtie Hospitals. The Citizens bought [Page 326] their freedome of the Emperour Rodolfe for six thousand Crownes, as they of Lucca theirs for 10000. In whose time and ever since it hath flourished in great prosperity. For upon occasion, the City is able to arme 30000: men, and the Country 60000. It is strongly walled, the situation thereof being low, especially on the North side: but on the other parts is somewhat subject to the command of certaine hills which overlooke it, the inconvenience whereof they have prevented by fortifications. It hath a Citadell built by Duke Alexander, and after inlarged by Cosmo. The streets thereof are straight, large, and very cleane kept. There are to be seene the most artificiall buildings of all Europe, both publike and private. Charles Arch-Duke of Austrich was wont to say, that it was a City not to be showne but on Ho­lidaies. No soile is tilled with more art, diligence, and cu­riosity: for you shall see one little peece of ground to bring forth Wine, Oyle, Corne, Pulse, and Fruits. Notwithstan­ding it will not afford sufficient victuals for a third part of the yeere: to remedy which scarcity, it was not without good reason that they spent two millions of Crownes for the recovery of Pisa. The last Duke became an earnest Pe­titioner to the Pope, that he might be created King of Tus­canie; but the Pope not brooking so lordly a Title in so neere a neighbour, answered, that hee was content that hee should bee King in Tuscanie, but not King of Tuscanie; which scholler-like distinctions great Princes cannot well digest.

The qualities of the Tuscans appeare by the excellency of the Florentines, Manners of the Florentines. whom Nature above all the Provinces of Italy hath adorned with sharpnesse of wit, frugality, pro­vidence, industry, and speciall insight into the Negotiations of Peace and Warre; yea, their continuall dissentions and hazzards, wherein they have almost lived from the first foundation of their city, I doe, to nothing so much attribute as to the sharpnesse of their wits. So the civill discords of the Pistolians did not onely ruinate their owne estate, but therein likewise ingaged Florence; yea, and as a man may [Page 327] say, drew all Tuscanie after it by the factions of the Neri and Bianchi: for thus it happened; Two young men descen­ded of Noble Families falling out, the one of them chanced to be lightly hurt: the Father of the other to extinguish all sparkes of malice, and that no further inconveniencie should arise upon that quarrell, sent his sonne to aske forgivenesse of him that was hurt, but the effect insued contrary to his ex­pectation: for the Father of the wounded Gentleman cau­sed his servants to lay hold on him; and cut off his hands, and so sending him backe againe, willed him to tell his Fa­ther; that wounds were not cured with Words, but with Wea­pons. Hereupon grew betweene those two Families a mor­tall and cruell warre, which drew the rest of the Cities into the quarrell, and was the cause of great effusion of bloud: yea, the Florentines in stead of executing due punishment upon the principall authors of the faction, received the ba­nished on both sides into their City; where the Donati un­dertaking the protection of the Neri, and the Chersi of the Bianchi, all the City became to bee divided into Neri and Bianchi, this sedition was not of long time after pacified.

Arezzo, Arezzo. being by long dissention amongst themselves al­most brought to wracke (as the other cities of Tuscane like­wise were) was sold to the Florentines by Lewis of Anjou for forty thousand Florens of gold, and not many yeeres af­ter Cortona, by King Ladislaus.

With the State of Florence, doth confine that of Sienna, Sienna. a City builded by the Senoni, and of late time become subject to the house of Medici. It is five miles in compasse, strong by situation, and whereunto Cosmo the great Duke adjoy­ned a Citadell. From Florence it is not above thirty three miles distant; but the people thereof are much differing in Manners, as also disposition; they sparing, slow, and unsocia­ble towards Strangers; these bountifull, and of kinde en­tertainment: they loth to part with money, and provident; these liberall, and onely caring for the present: they grave, melancholie, and alwaies expecting their profit; these plaine and of cheerefull countenance: the one inclined to traffique [Page 328] and gaine; the other content with their Revenues, and the fruits of their Farmes. Sienna hath a large and fruitfull Terri­tory, wherein are contained in the Cities of Pienza, Mon­talcino, Chiusi, Soana: and in Maremma, Massa, and Cros­se [...]o, the ports of Orbetelio, Portercole, with twenty six other walled Townes. The coast beginneth at Capiglia, and extendeth to the little River of Fiore, being all good soile for Corne, but the aire is so infectious, that none live long therein. The ports doe all belong to the King of Spaine, together with the Hill Argentino, a place famous by the dis­course which Claudius Ptolomeus made thereof, for the ex­cellency of the situation fit for the building of a royall Citie. Next this Province beginneth the patrimony of Saint Peter, bequeathed to the Church by the Countesse Matilda.

These may be partly ghessed at by the numbers of peo­ple:His forces at land. which (not to over-reach with the Italians) are valued 800000. soules, or perchance a million in all his dominions. So then out of every 16000. people to allow three hundred souldiers (which is the proportion of the Muster-books in Prato) then will 800000. people allow 15000. souldiers: and though the Duke (as some writers affirme) hath some­times confessed that he hath thirty or 36000. souldiers: yet I suppose you shall doe him no wrong not to allow him above 20000. in ordinary; seeing a Captaine of their owne at once confessed but 15000. These are trained once a moneth, except in Florence, where they are not suffered to weare Armes; the liberty to weare which causes divers to sue to be souldiers; those in ordinary pay are bestowed in his Garrisons. Thirty Castles and Forts he hath, and in some of them fifty, in others but fifteene souldiers. Sixteene Ci­ties with Garrison also he hath, in some of which he keepes not much above the said number, though in others two or three hundred. He hath in ordinary for his Guard one hundred horse, at six and thirty shillings nine pence apeece a moneth; and foure hundred light horse more, at fifteene shillings nine pence; one other troope of horse he hath, for [Page 329] what service, and in what pay I know not. The Garrison Souldier hath one and twenty shillings a moneth, the traine Souldier nothing.

His Force at Sea he never recovered since the defeat given by the Turkes, where hee lost two of his best Gallies,At Sea. and one Galleon. His whole Fleet is about twelve Gallies, and five Galleasses; for honour and increase of his power by Sea, hath hee instituted the Knights of the Order of Saint Stephen, who are his Commanders. His chiefe Port and Arsenall is Porto Ferraro, in the Ile of Elba. Of great Ord­nance were told in the Castle of Livorno threescore and foure, and in that of Florence one hundred and fifty, by which may be ghessed that hee hath no want of munition. The charge of his Gallies for these six moneths, in which they be commonly at Sea, is about 18000. gold Crownes, each Crowne worth six shillings sterling.

There is not so much as a root,His Revenues. nor the dunging of an Asse, for which something is not paid to the great Duke: Victuals, Lodging, Weddings, Bargaines, Law-suits, set­ting up of young Tradesmen, all must be paid for. So that his ordinary and knowne revenue is valued at 1100000. Ducats, which comes to 279000. pound sterling a yeere, besides his extraordinaries. A wonderfull summe for a petty Prince, especially in such a thrifty place, where all expences defrayed, he may in times of peace put up one halfe, if not two thirds of his intire Revenue; Ordinaries and Extra­ordinaries arising to one thousand pound a day. His neigh­bour Princes are all jealous of him, hee of them, and all watchfull one over another. But the greatest eye-sore his greatnesse is to the State of Lucca which lies in Tuscany, and all the whole length (being fifty miles) surrounded by this Dukes dominions. This makes them at great and con­tinuall charge of Garrisons, and to put themselves under the protection of the Spaniard, the feare of whose power slaves off the Duke from attempting upon that State; which might hee once obtaine, hee might truly then write him­selfe Great Duke of Tuscany. Whereas now having but part [Page 330] of it, he may be answered as the Pope did his Predecessor. So he may write himselfe the Greatest Duke of all Tuscany, rather than The Great Duke of all Tuscany.

The State of the Kingdome of Naples.

THe chiefe place hereof in ancient time was Capua, the pleasant situation whereof was the overthrow of Han­ [...]bal and his army. Cicero writeth, that the Romans were Lords of three imperiall Cities, Carthage, Corinth, and Capua. The two first being farre off, they utterly ruinated: of Capua they long consulted; in the end they concluded that it were extreme tyrannie to spoile so noble a city of Italy. But for their better security, they confiscated the Ter­ritories thereof, and deprived it of all forme and Majesty of Common-wealth. They let the buildings stand to serve for receit of those which should till the ground.Naples. Naples is now the chiefe seat not onely of Campagnia, but of the whole Kingdome, and is indeed a princely City: it is in compasse se­ven miles, but narrow: of late times it is much augmented, and would increase continually, if the King of Spaine had not forbidden a further increase by building; whereunto he was moved, partly by the complaints of the Barons (whose Tenants to injoy the liberties granted to the Neapolitans, did forsake their owne dwelling to seat themselves there:) partly by the danger of rebellion, which in so mighty a City cannot easily be repressed. It is strongly walled, and hath in it three Castles, the chiefe whereof is Castle-Novo, builded by Charles of Angcow. The haven is not large nor safe, but that inconvenience is somewhat eased by an artificiall key. It hath likewise an Arsenall, wherein all In­struments of warre are forged.

Amongst other religious places (of which sort there are many, and those well maintained) there is the house of Piety, called Il monte della pieta, House of Piety which by ordinary Revenues and gifts, may dispend yeerely 60000. Crownes, where­with (amongst other charitable workes) it maintaineth [Page 331] thorow the Kingdome two thousand Infants.

It is one of the regions belonging to the Kingdome of Naples; It is bounded with the River Iano, Calabria. and the Ter­rhene and Ionian Seas;Compasse and conteinue▪ it is in compasse above five hundred miles, and is divided into two Provinces; the one lieth on the Terrhene Sea, where in ancient times the Brutians did inhabit, and that part is properly called Calabria; the other lieth on the Ionian, and called Magna Graecia. It is divi­ded into the higher and lower. Of the higher, the chiefe seat is Cosenza, of the lower Catanzara. Cosenza is a large Citie, Catanzara a strong. Betweene the Cape of the Pil­lars, and the Cape Alice is Corone, a place of very whole­some aire. Vpon this territorie, Anno 1551. the Navie of the Great Turke landed and made some stay: which was the cause that moved Charles the fifth to fortifie this Citie. It is a thing worthy to be noted, how much the In­habitants of this country in former ages, exceeded the num­bers of this present: for in those dayes this Citie sent more men against the Locrians, than the whole Kingdome of Naples is now able to afford, being numbred to an hundred and thirty thousand. A little above that doe inhabit the Sa­barits, who were alwayes able to arme thirty thousand.

At Tarent beginneth the Country of Otranto, Calabria superior. in ancient times called Iapigia. It containeth all that corner of land almost invironed with the Sea, which lieth betweene Tarent and Brundusium. In it (as Strabo writeth) were once thirteene great Cities, but in his time onely two, Tarent and Brunduse. The aire is very healthfull, and though the superficies of the soile seeme rough and barren, being bro­ken with the plough, it is found to bee excellent good mold. It is scarce of water, neverthelesse it yeeldeth good Pasture, and is apt for Wheat, Barley, Oats, Olives, Ce­dars, excellent Melons, Oxen, Asses, and Mules of great estimation. The people are in their manners dangerous, su­perstitious, and for the most part beastly. The Gentlemen lovers of liberty and pleasure, scoffers at Religion, especi­ally at that which we terme the reformed: and yet them­selves [Page 332] of their owne great blasphemers. For outward shew they live in great pompe, and make the City more stately, because they are not permitted to live in the Countrey: yet (as they dare) they bitterly grone under the Vice­royes controll; who exerciseth the Spanish pride amongst them, so that in these dayes they come nothing neere their native glory, nor customary wantonnesse. In this Coun­try is bred the Tarantola, whose venome is expelled with Fire and Musicke, as Gellius reporteth out of Theophrash his History of living creatures. There are likewise bred the Chersidi, serpents living both on the land, and in the Sea: yea, there is no part of Italy more cumbred with Grashop­pers which leave nothing where they come, but would ut­terly consume in one night whole fields full of ripe corne, if Nature by sending the birds called the Gaive into those quarters, had not provided a remedie against this misery. The place at all times of the yeare endureth much dammage by Haile: Thunder is as usuall in Winter as in Summer.

This Province is situated betweene two Seas:Situation. The Citie is seated in an Island like unto a ship, and joyned to the Con­tinent with bridges, where the tide setteth violently; on the other side, the two Seas joyne together by meanes of a trench cut out by mans hand, and is of largenesse sufficient to receive a Gally. Where the Citie now standeth was before a rocke, and is holden to be the strongest fortresse of the Kingdome.Caesaria. From thence along the shore lieth Caesaria, now ruined by them of Gallipoli.Gallipolis.Gallipolis is seated on a ridge of land, running into the Sea like a tongue; On the furthest point whereof standeth the Citie, and is of great strength by reason of the situation, being fenced with unaccessible rocks, well walled and secured by a Castle; with which motives of encouragement in the warres, betweene the French and the Arragons, the citizens thereof to their great honour, continued ever faithfull to the fortunes of the Ar­ragons. It hath beene counted one of the chiefest Cities of Italy; it is now by their civill dissentions almost deso­lated, the cause, as I take it, wherefore the aire thereabouts [Page 333] is become so unhealthfull: an influence incident to all great Cities. For as nothing doth better temper the aire than the frequencie of Inhabitants, because (by husbandry and industry) they drie up Fennie and unwholesome places, prune such woods as grow too thicke and obscure; with their fires purge noysome exhalations, and with their high buildings extenuate grosse vapours: So on the contrary, there is nothing apter to breed infection than desolation: for so the places are not onely deprived of the aforesaid helps, but even the houses and their ruines are receptacles of infection, and matter of corruption. Which appeareth to be true by the ruines of Aquilea, Rome, Ravenna, and Alexandria in Aegypt. For which inconvenience, the Gre­cians never built huge Cities; Plato would not that his should exceed 500. families, and Aristotle wished that all his people might at once heare the voice of one Crier.

This Province extendeth from the confines of Brunduse, Apulia. to the River Fortore. It is divided into two territories;The extent. the one at this day called Bari, and by the Latines Peucetia; the other Puglia, and by them Dawnia, divided each from other by the River Lofanto.

In the second part it comprehendeth Capitanato, Capitanato. con­taining in it many great Cities, places of trade, and Fortres­ses of good account. Amongst the number whereof is Man­sredonia, Mansredonia. built by K. Manfredi in a high place, & healthfull, with a convenient and safe harbour. It lieth under the hill Gargano, at this day called S. Angelo, because of the appea­ring of S. Michael, who is honoured there with great de­votion. It should seeme that in this hill all the riches of Pu­glia are heaped together: it hath plenty of water, an ele­ment rare in this Province. The Sarazens finding the op­portunitie of the situation thereof did there fortifie, & there­in maintained themselves a long time: for in truth there is no place better to molest the Kingdome, and to command the Adriatike Sea. Puglia is another Province of this King­dome;Puglia and Abruzze. it is bounded with the River Fortorie, and the Ri­ver Tronto: in which circuit are contained many people. [Page 334] Towards the Sea it is a fruitfull Country, in the middest rough and mountainous, and the coldest Region in the Kingdome. The wealth thereof consisteth in Cattell and Saffron.

The Country of Malsi is divided with the River Pesca­ra, Malsi. the Governour thereof resideth in San-Severino. This Province hath no famous place upon the Sea-coast, but in the Inland.Benevento. Benevento was given to the Church by Henry the fourth in recompence of a tribute which Leo the ninth did release to the Church of Bamburgh, which in those daies, being by divers casualties often usurped, was at last resto­red againe to the Church by the Armes of the Normans.

It was the habitation of the Lucans, extending from the River Sarvo, to Lavo: it is a territory rough and mountai­nous. Towards the Sea-coast are Nico, Sorento, Massa, Almasi, and Salerne, the aire whereof is very temperate; in the upland are Cava, Nocera, San-Severino; and more neere the Sea, Peste, where Roses blow twice a yeare; Agropoli, Possidoniat, now Licosa, Policaster, Capace Nov [...] Venosa, Accella, and Melsi, holden second to Naples.


NAples was first the receptacle of Philosophie; second­ly, of the Muses; and now of Souldiery; the moderne inhabitants having their eares daily inured to the sound of the drum & fife, and their eyes to the management of Horses, and glittering of Armours. For the ambitious Spaniard now governeth this Kingdome by a Viceroy, di­rected (upon occasions) by the Councell appointed for Italy, which innovation hath principally befallen them, by their dependancie upon the Popes; who knowing (by reason of the brevitie of their lives) not otherwise to govern than by spleene, passion, and private respect, have continu­ally disquieted the estate, untill a third man hath bereaved both parties of their imaginary greatnesse. And this is the Spaniard, who making right use of former defaults, hath [Page 335] secured the peece: first, by taking all power and greatnesse from the Nobility, (more than titular;) and secondly, in suppressing the popular throughout the whole Kingdome by forren souldiery.

A regiment consisting of foure thousand Spaniards, be­sides sixteene hundred quartered in the maritime Townes and fortresses. To these one thousand great horse, and foure hundred and fifty light-horse are inrolled.

They say, through the whole Kingdome,Forces at Land. two hun­dred thousand, five hundred and threescore persons (able to beare armes) may bee levied and trained; but are not in pay, nor raised but in time of service; and then but in part, according to occasion.

To make good this proportion, every Hundred, fires (or families) are charged with five foot-men, & there are foure millions, eleven thousand foure hundred fifty and foure fires in this Kingdome. Over whom Captaines are appoin­ted, who have their entertaiments as well in times of peace as of warre.

Their strength at Sea consisteth of thirty seven Gallies;At Sea. yet more than trouble and title the King of Spaine reapeth not from this Kingdome. The revenue, and donatives,Revenue. (now made revenue) with impositions, amount yearly to two millions and fiftie thousand ducats, one million and thirty thousand thereof are ordinarily given away in pension and other largesses; the remainder cannot suffice (by much) to discharge the Garrisons, Gallies, Horsemen, and the residue of the Souldierie.

The body of their Nobilitie consisteth of fourteene Prin­ces,Nobilitie. five and twenty Dukes, thirty Marquesses, fifty foure Earles, and foure thousand Barons: too too many to thrive one by another; for as they increase in number, so great Princes will be sure they shall decrease in authoritie. No office is allotted them, neither any command assigned them, whereby they might ascend to estimation. Every Officer is countenanced against them, all their misdemeanours lookt into, severely examined, and justice rigorously inflicted. [Page 336] Their ancient vassals (their ancient honour and confidencie) are now alienated from them, and being backt against them in their pretensions, are growne neglectfull of them. They have lost their stings; and being either desperate of their li­bertie, or farre degenerated from their ancient glory, dare not expresse, much lesse put in hazzard, any action tending to redemption. Indeed they have no likelihood of forren as­sistance, all the Princes of Italie in these dayes either fearing, or flying into the protection of the Spaniard. A pregnant president of the many calamities incident to all Kingdomes governed by Deputies.

The riches of the Kingdome are especially silks,Riches. wrought and unwrought, and wines. The taxes now imposed upon these wares have so inhaunced the prices, that the forren Merchant néglecteth to trade, to the no small impoverish­ment of the Tradesman and Merchant, whose especiall live­lihoods consist in workmanship, and the quicke returne thereof. What rates may be imposed hereon, as also upon victuals and wines, let reason judge, when upon herbs only spent in Naples, foure thousand pounds sterling are annually levied by way of imposition. As for Wines, twelve thousand Buts are reported to bee transported from thence at every season.

Among all men that professe Christ,Calabria. there is not a more un­civill creature than the Calabriar. Over land there is no tra­velling, without assured pillage, and hardly to be avoided murder, although you have not about you (& that to their knowledge) the worth of a dolar. More silke is made from the silke-worme in this Province, than in all Italy besides.

The State of the Duchie of Millaine.

NOt to doe the Spaniard wrong, we will adde his Du­chie of Millaine to his Kingdome of Naples. The cir­cuit of this State is three hundred miles of good, fruitfull, and well watered land; under which are nine good Cities, and in them two Vniversities, Pavia and Millan. This [Page 337] latter a goodly Citie and a rich, almost seven miles in com­passe, and inhabited by two hundred thousand soules, indu­strious and of the best Artizans of Italy. It claimes to be the first Duchie of Europe. In the weaknesse of the Empire, Millane withdrew its obedience, An. 1161. Fiftie six yeares after that, the Visonti usurped upon the common libertie. For want of heires the French claimed and conquered it. But King Francis being taken prisoner by Charles the fifth, was faine to release Millane to gaine his owne libertie: And thus came it to the Spaniard. His certaine Revenue out of it (besides Escheats and gratuities) are eight hundred thou­sand Ducats: but the maintenance of it costs him much more than that summe: and the French for that reason were glad they were rid of it: For the Spaniard is at continuall charges of three thousand foot, one thousand light-horse, and six hundred men at Armes, besides the expences upon the Forts; whereof the Castle of Millane is held to be one of the su­rest peeces in the world. The natives are proud, and the Spa­niards are proud too; and it was never yet knowne that two proud persons loved one another: and this makes the Spa­niard to curbe them with Forts and Garrisons. But since he is Master of the Valtoline, he can quickly bring German for­ces into Millane, if he perceived any inclination to insurre­ction. The Governour is Generall of the Forces; and hee alwayes a Spaniard. Law-matters are decided by sixteene Doctors of Law, and other chiefe men of the Clergie and Nobilitie.

The State of Genoa.

THe places of most note therein are Nizza, Genoa. having a Castle of great account; Villa franca, a Haven of great re­ceit, but dangerous; Monaco, a notable fort; Ventimilia, a good Citie. The Champion of Arbenga is fertill, but the aire infectious. Finale is a famous Lordship; Noly hath a convenient Harbour for shipping, but Savona had a better, if the jealous Genoise had not choaked it.

[Page 338] The people are wittie,M [...]ine [...]s of the [...]. active, high minded, tall of stature, and of comely personage. They build stately: At home they live sparingly, abroad magnificently.

Genoa is now the Metropolitan Citie of the Province, and by reason of situation was holden to be one of the Keyes of Italy. The people thereof were once very famous for their manifold victories, and great command by sea, inso­much that wrastling with the Venetians, they had almost bereaved them of their estate, and taken their Citie: But (Fortune favouring the Venetians, and crossing the Genoise, even to their utter undoing) ever since this Citie hath decli­ned, and that not only in regard of their former defeature, and their continuall and civill discords, but also, for that they have given over their trafficke and care of their publike good; and have betaken themselves to live by usury, retaile, and mechanicall Trades, altogether regarding their private benefit; whereupon, not being of puissance, as in former ages, to make good their actions, they were forced to put themselves under the protection, sometimes of the Kings of France, and sometimes of the Duke of Millaine, and now under the Spanish.

This hath sometimes beene much more potent; and Mi­stres not only of divers lands in Tuscany, as also of the Ilands of Corsica and Sardinia, upon the Coast of Italy; but of Lesvos, Chios, and other Ilets in the Greekish Seas: of Pera likewise hard by Constantinople, & of Capha and other places in the Taurica Chersonesus. These last places they have lost to the Turkes, Sardinia to the Arragonians; their possessions in Tuscanie, to the great Duke; nothing is now left them but Liguria and Corsica. Liguria is on the East, divided from Tuscanie by the River Macra, touching the Apenine hils on the North; and on the South open to its owne Sea. The length is about fourescore miles, the breadth threescore and five. It hath some halfe dozen of eight good Townes besides Genoa, which Citie being six miles in compasse, is for the wealth and buildings called Genoa the proud. The people are many: whereof eight and twenty Families of Gentle­men, [Page 339] out of whom the Councell of foure hundred is chosen. The men noted for hastie chopping in of their meat, are therefore of bad complexions; the women better; and in this freer than the rest of Italy, that they may be made Court, unto; whence the proverbe, Genoa hath a Sea without fish, Mountaines without grasse, and Women without honestie. They are governed by a Duke; but hee is no other but a Maior, chosen every yeare, and directed by a Councel of 16. Their several factions have brought them to this passe. They are great Bankers and mony Masters: and seldome is their Protector, the King of Spaine, out of their debt. Their Mer­chants hold up one another by Families. Their Revenues are about 430000. crownes. Their force is nothing so great as when they conquered Sardinia, Corsica, and the Baleares; or as when they were able to maintaine seven Armies in the warres of the Holy Land; or set forth an hundred threescore and five Gallies in one Fleet. They must by law have al­wayes five and twenty Gallies in their Arsenall: foure of which are still to scoure the Coasts. In Genoa, they have a Garrison of the Ilanders of Corsica, and there, of Genoise. Some troopes of horse they keepe to guard their shore. But their best strength was five yeares since seene to be the King of Spaine.

The State of Venice.

IN the very bottome of the Adriaticke, called at this day,Venice. the Gulfe of Venice, is a ridge of Land, reaching from the Lime-kils, called by them Fornaci, to the mouth of the River Piane, in forme of a Bow; and containeth in length thirty five miles, and in bredth two where it is broadest, and in some places no more than what an Harquebuze can shoot over. This ridge is parted and cut (what by the falling of Ri­vers, & the working of the Sea) into seven principall Ilands: the Ports of Brondolo, of Chiozzo, of Malamoco, of the three castles, of Saint Erasmus, the Lito Maggiore, or great shore, and the Treports. Betweene that part of this ridge, which is [Page 340] called Lito, and the Continent, standeth the Lake of Venice, in compasse ninety miles. In this Lake is seated the City of Venice, upon threescore and twelve Ilands, distant from the shore two miles, and from the firme land five; divided with many Channels, some greater, some lesser. It was begunne to be built in the yeere 421. the five and twentieth of March about noone.

It increased in people with the report of the Hunnes com­ming into Italy, The increase thereof. and more afterwards by the desolation of Aquily, and the bordering Cities; as Padoa and Monselice destroyed by Agilulfus King of Lombardy. Some are of opinion, that anciently the Lake reached up as high as Ori­ago, which standeth upon the Brent: which being true, then was Venice ten miles distant from the Continent.The descripti­on. The City, amongst many other Channels which doe incircle it, is divi­ded by one maine Channell (for his largenesse called the Grand Canale) into two parts, whereof the one part looketh South-west, the other North-east. This Channell in his winding maketh the forme of the letter S. backward: And it is the more famous for the admirable prospect of so many most curious and goodly Palaces, as are built all the length of it on either side, to the astonishment of the behol­ders. Some report, that the Channell was the bed of the old River Brenta, which it made before the course thereof was turned, by making the banke of Leccia fusina, and so broke out and emptied it selfe by the mouth, which is cal­led the three Castles. On the middle of this Channell stan­deth the bridge of Rialto, built first of wood, but in our time re-edified and built of stone, and that with such excel­lency of workmanship, that it may justly bee numbred a­mongst the best contrived Edifices of Europe. This Bridge joyneth together the two most and best frequented parts of the City, the Rialto and Saint Markes. Many lesse Chan­nels fall into this, which are passed over either by Bridges or Boats appointed for that purpose. The City hath in cir­cuit seven miles, and yeeldeth an inestimable Revenue. A­bout the City, especially North-ward, lie scattered here [Page 341] and there in the Lake seventy five other Ilands, the chiefe whereof are Murano and Burano, both for circuit, building, and number of Inhabitants: Especially Murano, Murano. aboun­ding all over with goodly Houses, Gardens, and a thousand other objects of delight and pleasure.The Glasse-houses. Here are these so fa­mous Glasse-houses, where so many admirable inventions in that kinde are made in Gallies, Tents, Organs, and such like; whereof the quantity yeerely vented, amounteth to 60000. Crownes.

Now the City of Venice, Venice. which from her Infancy hath maintained her selfe free, and as a Virgin, for one thousand and three hundred yeeres, and that hitherto hath beene un­touched with any injury of War or Rapine, amongst other advantages required in the situation of a City, hath those two which are required in a well seated City, whereof ha­ving already discoursed in the site of England, wee will here surcease further to dilate of. The safety then of this City groweth from the Waters, and the situation thereof in the Water, where neither it can be well approached or as­saulted by Land, for the interposition of the Water be­tweene it and the Land: nor yet by Sea,The site there­of, and hard­nesse to ap­proach. for that the streames are not navigable, but by Vessels of the lesser size onely: for greater ships riding out of the Channels (where the Water is somewhat deepe) would drive; and riding within the Channels, with every turning water should bee on ground. So that a Navie of lesser shipping would doe no good, and greater shipping cannot well there be mannaged. In con­clusion, these Waters are rather made for the places and en­tertainment of peace, than for motions of warre. We may adde to these difficulties (which nature and the situation doe present) another as great, which ariseth from the power and provisions of the City, which are ever such as will bet­ter inable the Inhabitants to offend another in those Wa­ters, than any man can invent to offend them. All which young Pepin tasted to his losse:

Who with his ships and men fild all the Coast,
From the Fornaci to the greater shore,
[Page 342] And Laid a bridge to passe his ventrous boast
From M [...]lamocco all the Channellore,
Even to Rialto: yet for all this boast
Hee's faine to flie with shame: the Seas doe drowne
His men: His bridge the waves have beaten downe.

And lastly wee may adde the continuall Art and care which the Seigniorie doth use, ever to augment something to the fortification of this their Citie and State.

The whole Dominion of the Venetian Seigniorie is divi­ded into firme land and Sea.Division of the State of Venice. By the firme land we under­stand all that which they possesse in Lombardie, in Marca Tr [...]vis [...], and in Friuli; for that all those parcels doe make one continued country, passable from one to the other, with­out helpe of Sea. Wee will terme that Sea, which confineth with the Lake Sea-ward, or that which cannot be approa­ched without passing by Water. This State is againe divi­ded into Continent and Island. On the Continent they have Istria, Dalmatia, Sclavonia, Albania, or at least some parts thereof: The Islands stand partly within the Gulfe, not farre distant from the Continent; and part of them are without the Gulfe, which are Corfu, Cephalonia, Zante, Candia, Ce­nigo, Tine, and other in the Adriatique.

The State of the firme Land containeth one of the Mar­quisats of Italie, to wit, Trevisa, which besides the head Citie, whereof it taketh its name, hath also in it the Cities of Feitre, Belluno, and C [...]n [...]da. It hath moreover two of those Cities which are of the first ranke of the Cities in Italie, namely Venice and [...]res [...]la. Nor let it seeme strange to any man, that Treckon [...]r [...]scia amongst the said Cities, conside­ring that for largenesse of Territorie it giveth place to no Citie thorow Ital [...], containing in length one hundred miles, and in bredth fiftie; considering also the number of Inhabi­tants, and the entrade it yeeldeth to the Seigniorie; besides the private revenue of the Citie it selfe: In all which, few other Cities come neere it.

There is also in the firme Land the Citie of Verona, called so for its superemment conditions, as Ver [...] una: and is the [Page 343] first of the second ranke of Cities of Italie.

The Citie of Padoa, which for goodnesse of soile excee­deth Bolognia it selfe. There are also the Cities of Bergamo, Vicenza, and Crema. There is againe the State of Friuli, with two honourable Cities, Vdine, where the Lieutenant of the State resideth, and Cividal; besides a number other populous Townes, little inferiour to Cities. Lastly, there is the fruitfull Polesine, with the noble Citie of Rovigo there­in, with other places of good respect.

If wee consider the water, there are few States of Italy that have more abundance in that kinde, either for standing Waters, or Rivers. In the Territorie of Bergamo is the Lake of Iseo; in the Country of Brescia, the Lake of Idro. In the Veronesse and Brescian, is the Lake of Guardo. It is also wa­tered with many great Rivers, that not only serve to make the fields fruitfull, but also to fortifie the place. And those Rivers are Oglio, Chiese, Navilio, Mincio, Seri, Mela, and Garza, which indeed is rather a Mountaine Bourne, than a River, &c. The Countrey of Polesine and Padoa are so stored with Lakes and Rivers, that therein is no Burg or place which standeth not within five miles of some fresh Water. And all this Countrey of the firme Land (whereof I have spoken) is also for aire exceeding wholesome and temperate, as the complexions and cheerefull countenances of the Inhabitants can well witnesse, together with the quicknesse of their apprehension and wit, as well for matter of Armes as Learning.

Touching the Land, this State hath in it many parts that are very diverse in qualitie; some-where exceeding happy and fruitfull, but lesse industrie in the people; other-where the people are exceeding industrious, but the ground defe­ctive. Againe, some parts there are, where both the people are exceeding carefull & industrious, and the soile also good.

Of the first sort is the Territorie of Crema, of Padoa, of Vicenza, of Trevisa, and the Polesine.

Of the second sort is the Countrey of the Bergomasche, the Veronise, and Friuli.

[Page 344] Of the third sort is the Country of Brescia.

And touching the first, it is almost incredible what the riches and increase is of those grounds; what fresh Mea­dowes, what fruitfull arable, what abundance of Cattell, of Flesh, of all things that come of Milke; what plenty of Corne, of Pulse, of Fruit, Wood, Flax, Linnen, and Fish. Amongst all which particularities, the Padoan doth not­withstanding excell; which for goodnesse of soile, doth car­rie the praise from all the rest of Lombardie. The wealth of this Territory may hence be conjectured, that it hath the richest Bishopricke and Prebendaries of Italy. It hath one of the richest Abbeies of Saint Benet in Italy, which is Saint Iustina. It hath one of the most beautifull Convents of the same order, (viz.) that of Praxa. It hath the richest Mona­stery belonging to the Austen-Friers, which is that of Cau­diana. It hath two of the greatest Churches that may bee found in Italy, which are Saint Iustina, and Saint Anthony, with one of the greatest Customes of salt in Europe.

In the time of the Roman Common-wealth, no City of the Empire had more Knights of Rome, than had Padoa. For that (as Strabo testifieth) there were sometimes counted five hundred of them at once. Which must needs proceed from the extraordinary goodnesse of the soile, and the greatnesse of private livelihoods. But at this day, the great­nesse of the Venetian Nobilitie, hath in great part dimini­shed the Nobilitie of other Cities. Amongst which Aqui­leia in old time tooke in compasse twelve miles, and made an hundred and twenty thousand Citizens. And Ravenna, which was situated in a Lake (as Venice is) was once of such respect, that it was thought fit, and chosen first by Honorius, and afterwards by the Gothes and Exarchs for the seat of the Empire. In our daies by the conjuration of Cambraie, it was besieged by Maximilian with seven hundred French Launces, a thousand two hundred men at Armes, Italians: 18000. Dutch foot: six thousand Spaniards: two thousand Italians in pay: and six hundred Adventurers of divers Na­tions, with a huge quantitie of Artillery, and all other [Page 345] Munition. Against this force the Seigniory opposed as great a force for defence, and put into the Citie six hun­dred men at Armes, fifteene hundred light-Horse, as many Carabines, under very expert Commanders: And for foot they had above twelve thousand Italians, ten thousand drawne out of the Gallies, a great number of Gentlemen of Venice, and Peasants of the Country without number; together with an Army of inestimable quantity of Muni­tion and victuall: with which quantity of men and provi­sions, the greatnesse of their workes and fortifications well answered. Now there being about and in Padoa two so great and populous Armies, one to assault it, another to de­fend it, and that this infinite number of Horse on both sides did never cease from boot-haling and forraging the Coun­try about, setting fire on all that they could not carry away, and that the Peasants had also conveyed away as much as they could into the Citie, and the adjoyning holds, yet did neither of these Armies ever want victuals during all that siege.

And yet as fruitfull as is Padoa, the Country of Crema is no whit behinde it for all things; for store and finenesse of flax beyond it. Of Polesine it shall only suffice to say, that it holdeth the like proportion with Padoa. The Country of Vicenza hath the Champian exceeding fat, and for that part thereof which is hilly, few Countries come neere it for pleasantnesse. It leaneth its shoulders upon the Alpes: it hath on the right hand the new River, on the left Bronta, in the middest of it runnes Bacchilion, Remon, &c. it is the Garden of Venice.

The Territory of Trevisa, as it cannot bee reckoned a­mongst the fertillest, ye [...] it is numbred amongst the plea­santest.

Now the Countries, where the industrie of the people is more than the goodnesse of the soile, are those of Verona, Bergamo, and Friuli. For in the Bergamash there is more than forty miles of mountaine: the Veronese hath many miles of champian, altogether barren and sandy. The like [Page 346] hath Friuli, whence it commeth that these parts are much subject to dearths, and scarcity of corne; but what they want in Bread, is re ompenced in Wine abun­dantly; so that as I understand, the Island alone of Scala, which is one great Village in the Veronesse, doth rent in this commodity to the number of five thousand crownes yearely. Nor are they destitute of very good Wooll, where­of they of Verona doe weave Cloths and Felts: The Bur­gamash an infinite quantity of Dornix, besides Broad-clothes and Kersies, which they vent partly into Lombar­die, and partly into Almaigne.

The fruitfulnesse of the soile, and industry of the peo­ple together, is notably discovered in the territory of Brescia; insomuch that I beleeve that no part of Italy in these two points can be compared thereto for opulencie and plenty, in those two parts which for goodnesse of soile wee count to be fertill. There is no private mans Garden for art and gracefulnesse of compartment or order, more ex­quisitely cast, or more diligently planted, or more neatly kept and dressed than this whole territory.

Now touching that part of the [...]rescian territory that is unfruitfull, impossible it were to declare the diligence and art that is there used, for ploughing of mountaines, and for planting of Vines throughout the said mountaines. But a sufficient testimonie thereof will bee, that the barrenest part of this territory is no lesse well inhabited than is the best. In the towne of Cordove alone it is knowne, that if need require, they are able in one day to make two hun­dred Harquibushes at all points out of the Masse, al­though there be no Harquebush that goeth through lesse than ten hands at the least. No Iron is brought in more than groweth in the Country, and yet little goeth out im­wrought: Some is sold made into barres, but most into wares. In the City of Brescia are accounted more than two hundred Smiths shops, of which fifty at least are Cutlers.

There are also some Iron Mines in V [...]l Co [...], which yeeld [Page 347] water for six furnaces, and six mills, in which they make plate for Armour. In the Citie of Cordove are made in great quantity, Swords, Daggers, Halberds, Knives, and other like weapons: In the Marquisate of Trevisae great quantity of excellent steele, and so in Alphaga Soldo, and in Cador; exceeding good Swords are wrought in Bel­luno, Felire, and Seravalle.

The dominion which the Venetian hath by Sea,Of the Conti­nent. is of two kinds, as hath formerly bin said; partly Continent, & partly Islands. The greatest territory of the Continent is Istria, and the best; unlesse it were for that the ayre thereof is na­turally unwholesome, or rather to speak freely, contagious and pestilent, especially about Nola. For which cause that it grow not to be disinhabited, the Seigniory alloweth to all men that will dwell there, a certaine quantity of land, with divers immunities and privileges besides. It yeeldeth great abundance of Oyle, Fish, and Salt.

Dalmatia, Sclavonia, and Albania afford excellent wines; and in these quarters, partly by the commodious­nesse of the Sea, and partly by reason of the entértainment and pay that runs there amongst the garrisons, with the carefull industry of the Inhabitants, the people live indiffe­rently well there.

The Islands belonging to this State,Of the Islands of the Gulfe. and lying within the Gulfe, are not many. The names of them are Veggia, Arbe, Brazza, Pago, Liesina, Curzola, Lissa, with the Islands of Zara and Sesa. They all yeeld in generall Wines of reasonable goodnesse. Cherso with some other doe exceed for plenty of Cattell, Milke, Meats and Wooll. Pago hath Salt-pits, and yeeldeth great profit. Veggia hath store of Pulse, light Wines, Wood, and Horse, though small. They are all beautified with Havens, excepting Arbe, which defect is there recompenced with the naturall pleasantnesse of the Country. They have very rich Fishings, especially Lesina, whose Sea yeeldeth Pilchers in great abundance. The greatest of these Islands is Lesina, containing in com­passe fifty miles. The best peopled is Curzola: The most [Page 348] delicious Arbe: and both, with the parts of the Continent over against them (whereof wee spake before) doe yeeld great number of serviceable men for the field and the Gallies.

It remaineth to speake of the Islands out of the Gulfe.Of the Islands out of the Gulfe. Of which the first inorder is Corfu, for commodiousnesse of situation of great account: For it lieth in a manner in the very centre of all the Sea-dominious belonging to this State, betweene the Adriatike and the Ionike Seas, equal­ly distant from Venice and Candie. In which respect it stan­deth fitly both to hinder an enemie that would assault the Islands and Continent within the Gulfe, and to releeve Candie, if it were distressed. It also [...]eth fitly to defend all the Westerne parts, and to molest the East. It standeth in so excellent a Seat for the defence of Italy, that it may pro­perly be termed the Bastion thereof. It standeth well also for the conquest of Greece, bordering upon it, as it were [...] strong mount or Cavallier. I: standeth opportunely for the receit, releeving and uniting of the Forces and Navies of Christendome against the Infidelt. And albeit the Island be not very plentifull in graine, yet thorow the vicinitie thereof to Puglia, and Epyre, and the facile transportation it hath to Venice and Sicill, it cannot want any necessaries. The experience whereof hath beene manifested both in the time of the Romans, and in our dayes also. The Roman fleet made head alwayes at Corsu. There also in the civill warres betwixt Caesar and Pompey, did ride M. Bibulu [...], Pompey's Generall. And in our memorie the forces of the league concluded by Paul the third, and Pius the fifth, did there assemble, and from thence set forward.

The Island was of so powerfull an estate, that it armed 6 [...] Vessels to Sea. It aboundeth with excellent Oyle, Wine, Wax, Hony, and fruits of all sorts. All which commodities it hath in that goodnesse & proportion, that better in the same kind, are not to be found through the whole earth. It hath in length 60 miles, 20 miles over, and in circuit an hundred and twenty. It hath three places of great importance; to wit, [Page 349] the old Citie neere the old Seat of Pagiopili; the new Fort, and thereto adjoyning the Castle Saint Angelo, besides sixty eight Townes.

Next in order is Cephalonia, containing in compasse an hundred threescore and six miles. It hath two hundred Townes, with Havens belonging unto them: Two where­of, Argostoli and Guiscardo are most famous; the third is Nallo. It yeeldeth store of Graine, Oyle, Sheepe, Cheese, Wooll, Honey, and Currans, and these in such plenty, that thereby it receiveth great and yearely Revenues. Candia is likewise one of the most renowned Islands of the Mediterranean. It containeth in length two hundred sixty miles, in breadth fifty, and in compasse, in regard of the many promontories, it maketh almost six hundred. It yeel­deth great plenty of Wine, with us called Malvesies, Cheese, and Honey. It is seated so conveniently, and with such advantage for marine occurrances, that Aristotle cen­sured it to be Lady of the Sea. His reason, because it lieth ve­ry neere the middle, betweene Europe & Asia, and betweene Greece & the Islands of the Archipelago, which in a manner Court her as their Mistresse and Soveraigne. It lieth from Constantinople three hundred and fifty miles, from Alexan­dria and Soria five hundred, from Caramania, Epire, and Cyprus, three hundred, from Afrike two hundred.

There remaine behinde two other Islands, Cerigo and Tine. Of which Cerigo containeth in compasse sixty miles. In situatian it is mountainous, having one good City seated on the top of a Hill. It hath two Havens, the one called Delphino, the other Tine: That looketh North, this South. It hath besides divers creeks, but narrow, and unsafe: with the ancients it was of good esteeme; for Leon of Sparta considering well the seat and quality of the place, wished that either it had never beene, or being it had beene drow­ned as soone as it had beene made. Which wish, as things afterwards fell out, wrought him a great opinion of wis­dome and foresight. For Romaratus, who banished from Sparta, and sojourned with Zerxes, counselled him to [Page 350] bring up all his Navie unto this Island, if hee meant to im­patronize himselfe of Greece; as hee might easily have done, if hee had followed that counsell, as in few yeares after did Nicius, Generall of the Athenians, in the warre of Peloponnesus. In our time it is called the Lanthorne of the Archipelago.

Tine is in the middest of Archipelago, six miles from De­los (round about which Delos lie the Cyclades, in number fifty three:) It hath in circuit forty miles, with one great and populous Citie; and by reason of the Site which is on a Hill very strong, very many Townes it hath besides. And herewith endeth the Sea-Dominion of the Venetian: In all which, there are little lesse than three hundred and fiftie thousand soules. Which number perhaps is greater, than a man at first would beleeve, especially if he consider withall, how some of these parts, as Sclavonia, are not very fruitfull, and many of the Islands are barren; besides the terrour of the Turkish incursions: Insomuch, that if their Countries were under any other Lord than the Venetian, they would surely be defarted. But the Seigniory, with entertaining peace with all their Neighbours, with building of Forts, maintaining of Garrisons in places of necessitie, and with ex­ceeding expence of money, keepe and maintaine their peo­ple in this sort, as at this day we see them inhabited.

Fame reporteth the Venetians to be exceeding rich:Riches. But besides opinion, there is great reason, why they should be so indeed. First, they are Lords of a large Territory, both by Land and Sea; but chiefly on Land: where they have Cities of the best ranke of Italy, with large and opulent Territories adjoyning unto them, and full of people, industrious and thriftie. They have also rich Bishoprickes, wealthy Ab­beyes, with the fattest and most commodious benefices of Italy: Families both for Nobilitie and Revenue worshipfull; and Buildings, for State and Magnificence singular: Besides which, they have also very wealthy commonalties. Amongst which, to omit many, Brescia alone hath eighteene thou­sand crownes of yearely Revenue: and Asola which is but a [Page 351] Towne, subject to Brescia, ten thousand.

Another reason, is the great advantage which the Veneti­an hath for Trafficke, both in drawing unto himselfe other mens commodities, and in venting his owne. I call his owne commodities whatsoever is growing, or made within the State: or whatsoever Trade besides he hath ingrossed; or by prescription of time appropriated to himselfe. This advan­tage is marvellous great throughout the whole State of Ve­nice, for that the firme Land on every side, is full of naviga­ble Rivers and Lakes. Besides, it is for the greater part a plaine Countrey, so that the conveyance of all sorts of Mer­chandize by Cart or by Horse, is very easie. They are also in possession of the Valleyes and passages of the Rhetian, Giulian, and Carmian Alpes, by which lieth all the Traffick betweene Italy and Germanie.

The State of the Sea is full of excellent,Of the Sea. large and safe Harbours, especially Dalmatia and Sclavonia. The Islands have the like, especially the greater ones, as Corsu and Can­dia. But the flower of gaine and emolument to this State, is the Trafficke of the great Sea of Soria and Aegypt, which the Venetian had altogether in his hand; especially so much of the ancient Trafficke for spice, which hath beene, and yet is of reasonable good consequence unto them. In summe, all the Overland trade of Cloves, Nutmegs, Ginger, Cina­mon, Pepper, Wax, Sugars, Tapestries, Cloths, Silkes, and Leather, with all the commodities of the East doe passe this way, and are uttered from hence into the greatest part of Ita­ly, and a good part of Germanie. The greatnesse of this Trade, may the better be perceived by the greatnesse and multitude of private shipping, belonging to Citizens and o­ther Strangers, Merchants of Venice, and other Haven Townes belonging to the State: As also by the multitude and wealth of the said Merchants, and of the great stirring and bartering, that is there every day. In which kinde the Merchants only of the Dutch Nation in Venice doe dispatch as much, as were thought sufficient to furnish a whole world. To which purpose I may not omit to note, that Cities of [Page 352] Trafficke have three degrees of difference; For either the Trade lieth by the Ware-house, that dispatcheth by grosse; or by open shops that doe retaile, or by both. Of this first sort, are Lisbon, Civil, Antwerpe, Amsterdam, Hamburgh, Danske, Noremberg; and in Italy, Naples, Florence, and Genoa. Of the second sort, are all the other Cities of France and Germanie. And amongst the Cities of Italy, Millan is herein the chiefest; where there are to be seene shops of all wares so rich, and well furnished, that they may well serve for Magazins to many Cities. In both sorts, Venice goeth beyond all the Cities of Italy: For there are open shops of infinite number, and the Ware-houses there doe farre passe all other in Italy. So that this Citie doth Trafficke by way of shop, as much as any other Citie, and by Ware­houses, more. And to conclude, putting both together, it is the Citie of greatest Trafficke in Europe, and perhaps of the World. And over this, whereas wealth doth arise to every Citie, by three wayes; first, by profits of Domi­nion; secondly, by recourse from places, to Iustice: and thirdly, by Merchandize; Venice is by all these wayes continually inriched. First, the Revenue of the whole is brought to Venice, both of the firme Land, and of the Sea: Secondly, all Appeales and suits of importance through the whole State doe come thither; and thirdly, Venice is as it were the center of the East and West, the Store-house of all that is produced by Sea or Land, and in summe, the receit of the whole wealth of Asia and Europe.

To set downe precisely the Revenue of the State is no ea­sie matter: but a man may be bold to say, that it is held to bee the greatest of any Prince Christian, except those of Spaine and France. But whatsoever it be, certaine it is, they doe lay up every yeare a great Masse, over and above their expences; notwithstanding their incredible charge they are at in the Arsenall, in the building of Gallies, in For­tifications, in Garrisons, and Stipends. To this, the Ve­netian hath beene for these many yeares in continuall peace [Page 353] with all Princes [...] during which intermission, they have set all their study to the augmenting of their Revenues, where­by it is now credible, that having some yeeres since dischar­ged their debts, and disburthened themselves of the inte­rests of the said monies, they have saved together great quantity of treasure. Besides which treasure in ready coine, they have another treasure of no small consideration, and that is the wealth of the City and the private substance of particulars, with the Revenues of the greater Schooles, or as they terme them, Halls; which the Common-wealth in her need may use as her owne. For that in occasions, some doe give voluntarily, others doe lend frankly, or upon light use: And in the warre of Cambray they gathered five hun­dred thousand Crownes, upon the sale onely of certaine of­fices amongst them.

Now the Venetian Territorie, for the extent of it,The strength of the State. hath in length somewhat above one thousand miles; and the breadth thereof answereth not to the length. But whenso­ever they are drawne unto service, they wage forren for­ces. And hereupon they have alwaies amongst them ten bands of Albanesses and Croatians: They keepe moreover in entertainment certaine Colonels of the Swisses and Gri­sons, with divers Captaines besides out of the State of the Church. In former times they have beene able to draw un­to their service such a Potentate as a Duke of Vrbine, unto whom they committed the Lieutenancie and leading of their Armies, making as secure an use of his forces as of their owne. But above all things, they have alwaies made right excellent use of their leagues and confederacies with other States. In the league which they made with Amadis de [...]a [...]nte, called commonly the Greene Count, and with Theobald Earle of Champaine, with Lewis Earle of Blois; Baldwine Earle of Flanders, and Boniface Marquesse of Montferrat, they first recovered Zara, and then entred upon the protection of Constantinople: wherein they got for themselves three eights of the whole Conquest; and in par­ticular, the Cities of Gallipoli, Modoni, Conone, and Du­razzo, [Page 354] with all the Ilands in those Seas, saving a few which lie before Morea. Amongst which Ilands, Candy and Cor [...] fell to their shares, the greatest part whereof they inseffed to their private Gentlemen. The Citie of Constantinople it selfe remained to the Emperour, but not without a propor­tionable consideration made to the Seigniorie.

In the league made with Azzo Visconti and the Floren­tines, against Martin Scala, they possessed themselves of Trevegi, Bassane, and Castilbaldo. Being confederated with Mathias Corvinus King of Hungary, and G. Scanderbeg Prince of Albania, they made head against the Ottoman po­wer. In another league contracted with the Florentines against the Visconti, they inlarged their Dominions within Lombardy. Lastly, in the confederation which they had with Francis the first, King of France, they re-entred upon Brescia and Verona.

With their Money they have also not a little advanced their affaires. Of Emanuel Paleologus they bought Le­panto, Napoli, and Malvalia. Of George Belsichius they had the Towne of Scùtary in pawne of money lent him.

Neither have they beene wanting to helpe themselves with honourable pretences. In the warres which Charles the eighth, King of France, made upon Italy, the Venetians undertooke to stand Head and Protectors of the com­mon liberty; and in that pretence made all Italy arme a­gainst him.

And because indeed this State may, and is rightly held for one maine Fort of Italy, and Christendome beside, a­gainst the Turkish invasions, therefore have they had also in their assistance from time to time the forces of the Church, and of the King of Spaine; of whom the danger hath al­waies beene accounted common, and as neere unto them­selves.

Now,Forces at land. on the firme land they have a continuall Ordi­nance of twenty and eight thousand Foot, with Captaines, Ensignes, and all other Officers inrolled and paid. They have besides to the number of foure thousand Musketeers, [Page 355] men well trained to that kind of Weapon. For which oc­casions they have also their times of Musters yeerely; part­ly to approve their experience, and partly to render such rewards as are due to the best deservers. Of this multitude and their valour, the battell fought at Lepanto, to the utter rowting of the Turkish Navie is a sufficient Testimony. Be­sides these, they maintaine six thousand men at Armes, well mannaged and appointed, the like whereof is not to be found in all Italy besides.

Touching their sea-forces, they have on the firme Land ten thousand men inrolled to serve at the Ore: And of these kind of Men, all Dalmatia and Sclavonia doth yeeld them what numbers they will besides; and that at a reasonable hand.

The City of Venice alone,At Sea. armeth upon occasion fifty Gallies, and Candy forty.

What their whole power and forces every way may a­mount unto, they shewed in the Warre of Ferrara: where­in they had on foot two severall Armies, one about Ferrara; the other on the Confines of Millan. They had at the same time besides two severall Navies; the one upon the Po, the other upon the sea, to observe the proceedings of Naples; and all this without associats. In the warre against Lewis the twelfth, King of France, their Armie was composed of two thousand men at armes, three thousand light-horse, and thirty thousand foot. In the yeare 1570. they armed forth one hundred and fiftie lesser Gallies, eleven great Gallies, one Gallion, and twenty five tall ships: al [...]eit, that num­ber by occasion of Pestilence happening in the Navie, was reduced to one hundred and twenty, and seven lesser Gal­lies, and fourteene ships, the other Vessels remaining un­toucht; like as had befalne them before in the yeere 36. when as they had the name onely to make one part of three: but indeed they made a full halfe of all the Christian forces besides.

But because there is nothing that can give more certaine conjecture of the power of any State, than to have sustained [Page 356] and gone through with great and perillous warres: it will not be unpleasant to set downe some of their most impor­tant actions, which in that kind they have supported.

Anciently they had warre with the Kings of France, and in that warre they discomfited Pepin sonne to Charlemagne. They warred afterward with the King of Hungarie, and tooke from them the Townes which they now hold in Dal­matia and Sclavonie. They fell at debate with the Empe­rours of Constantinople, and gat from them the Cities of Salonich and of Moria. One the most dangerous warre that they ever had, was that which they managed with the Genois: and yet at length, such was the issue thereof, that howsoever having lost to the Enemy Chiozza, and were neere driven to their utter desolation, yet was the Enemy so far off from gai­ning an intire victory upon them, that in the pursuit thereof, he most of all destroied himselfe: insomuch that having for maintenance of that warre engaged the Revenues of the State of Saint Georgo, so by little and little through feeble­nesse growing upon them, they were compelled to throw the City within the armes and protection sometimes of France, and sometimes of Millan; so that to this day they could never recover their pristinat fortunes.

Then had they to doe with the Visconti, Princes of Mil­lan, who were at that time dreadfull thorow Italie: yet by that warre the Venetian not only gained profit, but honour also.

They opposed themselves against all the Princes of Italie in the prosecution of Ferrara, and that with such successe, that in fine they annexed to their owne Dominion all the Polesine of Raviso. And after they had irritated the Princes of Italie, these letted not to draw upon themselves a warre, undertaken by all the Potentates of Christendome, combi­ned against them in the confederation concluded at Cam­bray: which warre, as it was the most haplesse and despaire­full that ever they managed, through the miscarriages of their Armies at Carravaggio, at Brescia, and at Vicenza; yet in the end they remained Lords still of their owne, and [Page 357] of being conquered, at last remained with Conquest.

They have for many ages together waged warre with the Turke, especially with Amurath the second; Mahomet the second; with Bajazeth; and with Selim the second. They maintained a sixteene yeares warres with Mahomet the se­cond, even him which had the fortune to have subdued two Empires, Constantinople and Trapisond; to have destroyed twelve Kingdomes, and to have sacked two hundred Cities: Which warre they finished, although not altogether to their profit.

They held warres for seven yeares (without intermission) with all the Princes of Christendome, and went away win­ners: neither in all these occasions were they destitute either of men or money.

In our memorie they warred with Selim the second, and in that warre they disbursed above twelve millions of mo­ney. The like excessive summes they spent in their warres with Michael, Emperour of Constantinople, in the enterprize of Ferrara, and in the warre undertaken of the confederacie at Cambray. All which so inestimable summes notwithstan­ding at this day, whether they were parcels of their owne treasure, or lones of money from others, they have re-im­bursed or extinguished.

The Princes that border and confine upon the Venetian are these, the Turke, the King of Spaine, the Pope, Of Neigh­bours. and the house of Austria.

As touching the Turke, whose State and power hath been so regarded in the worlds opinion,The Turke. hee seemeth at this time rather to be impaired than otherwise. Whereof one great signe is, his protraction of the warre in Hungarie these ma­ny yeeres, with Armies of much better qualitie than any his Predecessors were wont to lead or send thither. Where­upon it hath happened, that not onely his forces have of­tentimes beene broken and discomfited, but also the Prince himselfe hath hardly escaped from being taken or slaugh­tered; if on our parts there had beene either better Chiefes to temporize with him, or more agreement in those Heads [Page 358] to assaile him. Notwithstanding hee hath there lost the Townes of [...]il [...]ch, Lippa, Rab, and Strigonium, places of great consideration: He hath also the second time lost In­varine. These losses doe more than countervaile the win­ning of Agria from us, being a fortresse of many knowne imperfections for site and building; besides the withdraw­ing of [...]ran [...]lvania and Valachia from his subjection, with the alienation of many rich Provinces in Asia.

The State of these presents considered, the Venetian for that part of dominion that confineth upon the Turke, had never more cause to thinke himselfe better secured from violence, especially having all Maritime Townes both by Sea and Land gallantly fortified: which strength is also the greater, by the facility the Sea affordeth to succour his owne, and to distresse his enemie.

Touching the King of Spaine, The Spaniard. upon whom they doe bor­der as well in the Adriatique as in Lombardie, it is now more than threescore yeares that there hath beene any va­riance at all befallen them. Neither in truth can it turne the Venetian to any great gaine, to have warre with so power­full a King; nor the King of Spaine to make warre in Italy, where by putting things in uprore and tumult, hee might perhaps hazzard some part of his owne. For that Warre (as Emanuel Duke of Savoy was wont to say) hath some­thing of the nature of Dice, which no man knoweth how they will runne.

I may say as much of the house of Austria, The Emperor. Princes that doe exceedingly cherish and affect quietnesse, wherewith they are become great, and with the same meanes doe maintaine their greatnesse.

Of the Church it were alike superfluous to speake, for that neither Saint Peter can make any excuse to make warre upon Saint Marke, The Pope. nor will Saint Marke seeke to trouble Saint Peter unprovoked.

In summe, the Venetian hath two maine advantages a­bove all other Princes: The one is, that they have a coun­cell that is immortall, the other, that the heart of the State [Page 359] cannot be pierced unto by any enemie. And so conclude, that the Pope and the Venetian at this time are more potent, and of greater antiquity in Italy, than ever heretofore they have beene; not only for that the Pope hath a more ample Territory, and that but little incumbred with petty Lord­ships; and that the Venetian hath his Dominion better fortified, and his Coffers fuller than in times past: but also in regard that the States of Naples and Millan are in the hands of a Prince, absent and farre off, and therefore cir­cumspect to raise innovations.

Lombardie, anciently called Cisalpina, Lombardie. extendeth from Panaco, unto Sesia, lying betweene the Apeniae and the Alpes. Marca Trivigiana, sometime called Venetia, lieth betweene the Menzo and the Po. Most commonly both Provinces passe under the name of Lombardy, because there the Kings of the Longobards seated their dwellings, longer than in any other place of Italy. Besides, the soyle, the ayre, and the Inhabitants hold such correspondencie, that they ought not to be distinguished. This is the richest and civillest Province of Italy; For such another peece of ground, for beautifull Cities, goodly Rivers, Fields, and Pastures, for plenty of Fowle, Fish, Graine, Wine, and Fruits, is not to be found againe in all our Westerne world; arising partly by the ease of Navigable Rivers, as Tesino, Adda, Oglio, Menzo, Adige, and Po: partly by channe's cut out of those Rivers, and partly by the great Lakes of Verbano, Lario, and Benaco. No lesse commod [...]ty ariseth by the plaines passable for Carts, Mules, and other carriage.

The greatnesse likewise of the Lords of Lombardie hath bin a great furtherance thereto. For while the Visconti reig­ned, this State maintained wars of great importance against most puissant Princes. And for the Empirie hereof happened those notable wars of our daies, betweene the Emperor and the French King. And no marvell, that two such puissant Potentates contended with so great effusion of bloud for this Dukedome: for though to many it should not seeme great, yet in very truth, for the wealth of the Country, and the [Page 360] quantity, it hath been of as great reputation as some Realmes of Europe: some Dukes whereof have possessed greater Territories enjoyed wealthier Revenues, and have beene more puissant in Warres, and more honourable in Peace, than divers Princes, graced with Kingly titles.

Milan. Amongst the Cities of these Provinces (accounting Ve­nice amongst the Islands) Millan without controversie hol­deth the precedencie. It is able to reckon upon two hundred thousand persons, and hath a large and populous Territory. A Citie (saith Guicciardine) most populous and rich in Ci­tizens, plentifull in Merchants and Artificers, proud in pompes, and sumptuous in ornaments for men and women; naturally addicted to feastings and pleasure, and not only full of rejoycing and solace, but also most happy in all other nature of contentment for the life of man.

And however now the Spaniard one in the Citie, and another in the Castle, overlooketh both City and Country, yet is the bravery of the place very little abated: nor doth the Nobleman shrinke under the burthen, but carrieth his load lightly; however his inward grones are breathed, yet lifteth he up a face of chearefulnesse, as if he dranke wine, and fed on oyle, according to the properties of either: so good and bountifull is the Country.

The second Citie of Lombardie is Brescia, Brescia. not for com­passe or multitude of people, for it is not able to make fiftie thousand men, but by reason of the large jurisdiction thereof, comprehending therein many large Towns and po­pulous Champians, therefore censured to be able in all to le­vie Among the Townes subject thereto, Asalo and Salo have the preheminence: amongst the Vallies, Val­camonia, being fifty miles in length, and therewith popu­lous, and full of Iron Mines. Bologna (if it please you to ac­count it in Lombardie) and Verona are alike populous:Bologna. Ve­rona is larger and of more beautie: Bologna more rich and commodious: as well for that it hath a larger Territory, [...] also for that there is no City that doth more absolutely en­joy her owne commodities; and doth more freely partake [Page 361] of others, by the great resort of Courtiers, Clergie-men, and Officers dispersed through all the Ecclesiastike State. To which three things are much availeable: the Vniversi­tie, where all professions are practised; their wealth, which is equally divided; and lastly, their inclination and pati­ence to take paines, and doe service.

Betweene Verona and Padoa there is no great difference in respect of circuit,Verona. but Verona hath double the people. Whereof the Venetians to supply that defect, doe as much as they may grace their Vniversitie, and the Schollers. As in this Province the Cities are great and beautifull, so are the fortresses many and impregnable. And whereas other Provinces have their places of strength on their Frontiers, in this, the neerer you approach the centre, the stronger shall you see the Country planted and fortified.

The Dukedome of Vrbine.

THis State, touching the Apenine mountaines on the South, and the Adriatike Sea upon the North, is on the two other sides high hemb'd in with the dominions of the Pope, whose Liege-man, or Feudatary the Duke hereof is, for severall bounties received from the Church. This State is threescore miles long, and five and thirty broad, containing seven Cities, and two hundred Castles and Villages. The land very good. His Revenue comes in two wayes: First, from his subjects, which (he being a gracious Lord) is not above an hundred thousand ducats a yeare. But secondly, he much helps himselfe by the Sea, and especially by his customes upon Wine and Corne exported; of which last there is a great trade in his ports. Of this Revenue he is­sues but 2200. ducats a yeare by way of tribute or ac­knowledgement to the Pope and the great Duke of Tus­canie, which last, sometimes writes himselfe Duke of Vr­bine also. Both these gape for the Duchie, if the succession should faile: A pretty case lately hapned thereupon. It chanced that Guido Baldus Duke of Vrbine in his owne life [Page 362] time resigning his Estate to the sonne, and that sonne dying without issue before his father in the yeare 1624. that both these pretenders being ready to seaze upon it, and yet [...] afraid of another; the old Duke was re-estated with both their consents. The great Duke of Tuscanio hath as it seemes since released his claime to the Pope, who now solely after the death of this old man lookes for it: but many thinke his nose will be wiped of it, for that the Archduke Leopold (brother to this Emperour) hath in the yeare 1626. mar­ried the daughter and heire of this old Duke Guido: And this may happen to be the occasion of a breach betweene the Pope and the house of Austria; especially of the Duchie fals void in the life and height of this present Emperour, and that the Spaniard and he get the better of it in the wars of Mantua.

Modena is an hereditary Dukedome,Modena. full of riches and fashionable Gentry, after the best Italian manner, newly allied to Mantua, and reasonably well fortified against his dangerous neighbour in Millan, and inviteth you to the view of a very delicate Country.

The Duke dome of Mantua.

MAntua is a late Dukedome erected of an ancient Mar­quifate in the name of Gonzaga. Mantua. He liveth in better fashion of Courtship, than the other Princes, with a Guard of Switzers. The Citie is large, boasteth of Virgils birth, and the delicate streames of Po, over which for all the swift­nesse and largenesse, a gallerie-bridge transporteth both Coach, Cart, and Horse; under which are preserved many Courtly Barges, both for magnificent shewes and pleasure of the water in Summer time, as also for the necessities of the Inhabitants thorowout the yeare.

This State, abutting upon the East of Millane, hath the Marquifate of Moutferrat annexed unto it, and is now the field of warre in Italie. Rich men never want heires; weake titles, rather than no titles, are made use of. Thus comes [Page 363] the quarrell. The Towne of Mantua was (as the rest of Italy) sometimes belonging to the Empire: from which all going away, the famous Matilda laid hold on this, which with the rest of her estate she bequeathed to the Church of Rome. Under the Popes, the name of Poledroni bearing great sway, grew at last too strong, and usurped from their Lord about foure hundred yeares since; from whom Gon­zaga at last snatcht it, who so well inlarged both the terri­torie and honour, that it grew to be a Marquifate, and some hundred and five yeares since was it made a Dukedome by the Emperour Charles the fifth, about which time Duke Frederike obtained the Marquifate of Montferrat also, and that by mariage of Margarita. It so happened, that a youn­ger sonne of this Familie plants himselfe in France; whole descendant, upon the late death of his cousin Ferdinand Gonzaga, (who having beene first a Cardinall before hee came to be Duke of Mantua, was unmaried, and there­upon died without issue) now puts in for the Duchie as next of the bloud. So that the Cardinall-Duke being dead with­out issue, the Pope claimes his share, and hath it: The Em­perour puts in for his title, pretending the Estate escheated to him for want of issue. The heire in the meane time hastens out of France, gets possession of Mantua, and of the good will of the people also. The Emperour he cals in the King of Spaine to trie his title by the sword, and if not to hinder or regaine possession, yet to inforce him to demand investi­ture of the Emperour. The Duke craves aid of France: the King himselfe leads an Armie thither, which this present yeare having passed the Alps, by the Duke of Savoyes stop­ping up the passage against him, miscarries in Pledmont. The Savoyard is proved the Duke of Mantuaes enemie for the Marquifate of Montferrat, which he pretends a triple title unto; all which were adjudged weake and insufficient pleas by Charles the fifth, being made Vmpire by both parties. But what he could not obtaine by Law, he hopes in the weaknesse of the new Duke, to doe by power, striking in especially with the Spaniard, with whom he is now made [Page 364] friends upon it; the Spaniard restoring some Townes in Montferrat, which the Savoyard had seized upon in the last vacancie, An. 161 [...]. but had beene taken from him againe in the late warres with Spaine. So that the poore Dukedome of Mantua is like to be undone by foure Pretenders; The Heire, the Pope, the Emperour, and the Savoyard. The Spanish forces of Millane are too neere unto Mantua, and the Savoyards to Montferrat: These be his neighbours, and enemies.

The Dukedome of Mantua is indifferent rich, and able to live of its owne. Seven good Cities it hath, whereof Man­tua is one of the strongest in Italie, three sides being fortified with a wide River. Montferrat is larger than the Duchie of Mantua, containing about threescore good walled Townes, three of which be faire Cities. Both territories together containe as much land as the great Duke of Tuscanie is ma­ster of: yet his yearly Revenues come not to much above 500000 Ducats, for that he uses his subjects well, and wants the commoditie of the Seas. For his Forces, Italy hath not better Horsemen, nor any willinger to serve their Prince Divers strong Townes he hath, and all little enough at this time.

The State of the Duke of Savoy.

THe State of this Duke lyes in two Countries, in France where Savoy is seated, and in Italy, where he possesses part of Piedmont. But what Nature and the Alpes have dis­joyned, Marriage and Warres have united. His Dominions in France reach as farre as Geneva, the County of Burgunde, Bresse, Provence and Daulphine: on Germanie side they touch upon the Switzers: and in Italy are they bounded with Millane, Montferrat, and the State of Genoa. The length is three hundred miles; the breadth an hundred and threescore; the compasse nine hundred. To begin with Sa­voy from whence the Prince hath his Title: The fable (I see) passes currant, that these mountaine-passages being infested [Page 365] with theeves, the Countrey was thereupon named Malvoy, which disorders being reformed by a Nobleman, the Em­perour rewarded him with the title of Duke, and named the Countrey Saulvoy, that is, the Safe-way. But hee that shall remember that the Noticia of the Empire mentions the very name of Sabaudia, will know it to be ancienter than the mo­derne French tongue, from whence this fable derives it. Sa­voy containes the Earldome of Geneva, the Marquifate of Susa the County of Morienne: the Lordships of Tharen­taise, Brengeois Faucignie, Chablais, and Pays de Vaul; with three Bishoprickes, whereof the Duke hath the nomination It containes foure or five good Cities, whereof Chamberie is a Parliamentary Towne, and the Seat of the Duke on that side: Situate it is in a rich and delicate Valley, full of Gen­tlemens houses, and every way inclosed with high moun­taines. The Valleyes be fruitfull enough, but the Mountaines very inhospitable, which is the occasion that there be but five hundred thousand soules in all Savoy. Many and large Lakes it hath, and those very well fisht. Piedmont is much the pleasanter and the richer Country; though the common people be poore enough, as scorning to worke, and caring but to have from hand to mouth. The chiefe Honour or Title that the Duke here hath, is the Marquifate of Saluzzes. The other part of Piedmont is taken up with Montferrat; but that belongs to Mantua. Though in all Piedmont there be reckoned one Duchie (of Aosta,) Marquisates fifteene, Earldomes fifty, besides Baronies many: but these (alas) bee but petty ones; such as have but Fiefs, being but Gen­tlemen holding Fees or Mannors of the Dukes favour: of which one writes, that singly they are not very rich; though all together they make a great noise. Three Coun­ties are reckoned in it; and in them seven good Cities, be­sides an hundred and fifty walled Townes. Whereupon a Gentleman of that Nation boasted, that his Countrie was an intire Citie of three hundred miles compasse. Piedmont is said no nourish seven hundred thousand soules; whereof the lesser halfe may be reckoned within this Dukes Domini­ons: [Page 366] so that he may have some eight or nine hundred thou­sand subjects in the whole number. The Dukes chiefe Citie here is Turin, honoured now with an Vniversitie: A strong place, but made lesse than it was, when the French were Ma­sters of it, that it might be the more defensible. Saluzzes is a Bishops See also.

The first Founder of this Noble Family, was Beroaldus of Saxonie, brother to Otho the third, Emperour; who fly­ing hither for killing that brothers wife, taken in the act of Adultery, was first made Generall to the Duke of Burgun­die; for whom he conquered Maurienne on Italy side; which Lands the Duke giving to him, hee became Lord of Maurienne: His sonne was first made Count or Earle of Maurienne; who marryin