Contained in certaine Sermons, preached in S. Maries Church in Oxford.

By GEORGE ABBOT Professor of Diuinitie, and Maister of Vniuersitie Colledge.

IOHAN. 9.4.
The night cometh when no man can worke.

LONDON, Imprinted by Richard Field, and are to be sold by Richard Garbrand. 1600.

TO THE RIGHT HONORABLE MY VERY ESPE­ciall good Lord, Thomas Baron of Buckhurst, Lord high Treasurer of England, one of the LL. of her Maiesties most honorable Priuie Counsell, Knight of the honorable Order of the Garter, and Chauncellour of the Vniuersitie Of Oxford.

IT is now more then a whole yere, Right Honorable, since that ac­cording to the slendernesse of that abilitie, which God hath gi­uen vnto me, I brought to an end these few Lectures vppon the Prophet Ionas. In all which time being doubtful, whether I should publish this small Treatise to the view of the world, or no; & sometimes in mine owne mind resoluing for it, and sometimes against it, I haue at the last aduentured to let it see the Sunne, by an open imparting thereof vnto other. VVherein my assured hope and confi­dence is, that the same holy and gracious Spirite which first moued me to vndertake this worke, and by litle and litle hath enabled me to bring it to this passe, will also giue that blessing thereunto, that it shall not be vtterly vnprofitable to the Church, but that such as are indifferent Readers, [Page] may some in one kinde, and some in another, reape such frute, as that thereby they may be strengthened to continue on their iourney to euerlasting happinesse. For the better accomplishing whereof, according as the text hath yeelded me occasion, I haue laboured seuerally: sometimes to in­forme the ignorant, sometimes to comfort the weake, som­times to settle the doubtfull, some other times to encorage on to vertue, and oftentimes to beate downe vice and ini­quitie, which in this later age euery where aboundeth. To which purposes as God did diuerse wayes make me know in the first vttering thereof, that it returned not altogether frutelesse, so I trust that it wil please the same guide of hea­uen and earth farther to blesse it, that in this course now intended by me, it may yet also be a meanes, to multiply and increase the Lords seruice in some persons more plen­tifully.

But being now to commend it to the consideration and perusing of manie other, I do first present it to the good and fauourable acceptation of your Lordship, as hauing the principall and most speciall interest therein: for besides that it had his birth and growth in that Vniuersitie, vvhose sterne vnder our most gracious Soueraigne your Lordship doth with great wisedome rule, and therefore may cha­lenge it for the places sake, as belonging in a generall re­gard to your Lordships protection: The Authour thereof is in dutie so specially and particularly bounden to your Lord­ship, that in right he must acknowledge the continuance and progresse of his studies, for these manie yeares to haue rested and relyed solely on your Honourable fauour. In which respect he amongst manie others, hath great cause to giue praise and thankes to the Almightie for your Lord­ships high aduauncement in this State; in as much as he [Page] apparantly findeth, and by experience knoweth, that after a desire to do faithfull seruice to her sacred Maiestie, to administer iustice to the Subiect, and to be as a father in hearing the complaints of the poore, it is not the least care which your Lordship hath, to helpe and preferre in Church and Common-wealth, such as haue or do depend vpon your Honour. Amongst whom I should be verie forgetfull and vnthankfull, if I did not to my vttermost let all men vn­derstand, with how honourable regard your Lordship hath bene pleased now for diuerse yeares to looke vpon me, and of your Lordships owne disposition, at euery first occasion so to thinke on my preferment, as I had no reason in my con­ceit to looke for, or any way expect. But in this as in many other matters, your Lordship doth let the world see, that there is nothing more proper to personages truly honorable, then to do honorable deedes: and thereupon it is, that with this extraordinarie respect your Lordship hath both inten­ded and affected not a litle for my good. An example for the matter verie rare, in this barren age wherein we now liue: but to the maner of the happie accomplishing thereof both my selfe and diuerse other are so priuie, that we must confesse it to be a singular consideration of your Lord­ship, so to begin and consummate the same, that all men might see the thankes, only to belong to your Lordship, and that no second person hath had anie finger, in that which hitherto I haue receiued.

In gratefull representation of my remembrance herein, I bring this litle gift: and as thereby I conceale not from anie, how deepely vnder God and my Soueraigne I am obli­ged to your Honor, so otherwise I shall euer be readie with all my power to do your Lordship seruice, thinking my selfe happie, when I may perfourme anie thing, which may te­stifie [Page] my respectiue and dutifull affection.

God Almightie long preserue her most gracious Ma­iestie, the onely fountaine vpon earth of all our felicitie. God Almightie blesse your Lordship, that the Common-wealth for many yeares may enioy such a Counseller, and this Vniuersitie so Honorable a Patrone.

Your Lordships Chapleine in all dutie bounden, GEORGE ABBOT.

The chiefe points in the first Lecture.

2. Ionas was not the sonne of the widow of Sareptha, 5 Neither had a Prophet to his father. 6 The taking away of the word is a grieuous plague. 10 Gods word must be a direction to the Mini­ster: who is not to gad vp and downe. 11 Diuines of the Vniuersity may preach in parishes adioyning. 13. Niniue a great Citie. 17. Why crying is vsed in Scripture. 18 The Easterne curious artes likely to be in Niniue. 19 But certainly robberie and oppression.

IONAH 1.1.2.

The word of the Lord came also vnto Ionah the sonne of Amittai saying, Arise, and go to Niniueh that great Citie, and crie a­gainst it, for their wickednesse is come vp before me.

THat which Hierome said to Paulinus concerning the seuen Catholike or Generall Epistles (for so they are called) of Iames,Hieron. ad Paulinum. Breues pariter & longas: bre­ues in verbis, longas in sen­tentijs. and Peter, and Iohn and Iude, that they are long and they are short, short in words, long in substance; may I thinke be wel spo­ken of this Prophecy of Ionas, that it is long, & it is short: short if we respect the smalnesse of the volume, but long if we regard the copious varietie of excellent obseruations, which are therein to be found. As, the horriblenesse of sin, which was able within fortie dayes to plucke downe an vtter desolation, on so famous a citie as Niniue was. Gods loue in forewarning them who dwelt in that place, that they might be spared: the Prophets foule fall, and his strange punishment for it: his of-wardnesse from God, and Gods fauourable inclination euermore to him: the regard which the King of Niniue and his people did beare to Gods iudgements when they were denounced: the free par­don of the Lord, and his remitting of their sinne vpon their ear­nest repentance. The subordinate circūstances do yeeld as good doctrine as the maine storie it selfe, and from them both, this thing of note is collected, that our Sauiour Christ in two seueral [Page 2] matters, doth take occasion to draw his similitudes or compari­sons from this Prophecie; which is not obserued of farre greater bookes.Luk. 11.32. The one of them is in the 11. of Luke, The men of Ni­niuy shall rise in iudgement with this generation, & shall condemne it, for they repented at the preaching of Ionas, and behold a grea­ter then Ionas is here. The other is in the twelfth of Mathew, As Ionas was three dayes and three nights in the whales belly,Math. shall the sonne of man be three dayes and three nights in the heart of the earth. Here our Prophet was a figure of the Redeemer of the world, and in that did liuely expresse him. And some thinke that another thing in him, did as liuely paint out a second matter in our Sauiour Christ, that as Ionas preaching long to the people of Israel, and doing litle good there, by reason of the stubburn­nesse of that nation, was sent vnto Niniue a citie in Assyria, to men strangers from the couenant; so Christ by himselfe and by his Apostles, laying open to the Iewes the will of his father, and finding nothing but vnthankfulnesse to be the frute of his paines, should turne away his loue and affection from them, and bestow it on the Gentiles. Now as this may agree with the analogie of faith, & may be deduced not vnfitly out of the text, so to thinke that all the prophecie may allegorically be applied vnto Christ, (wherein some of the old fathers were too too much credulous) were to straine the storie too farre, and indeed it may not be, as Hierome hath well noted on the third verse of this Chapter.Hieron. in Ion. 1.3. Ionas propheta non absque pe­riculo interpre­tantis, totus re­ferri ad Domi­num poterit. And therefore in that proceeding which God shall send vnto me in the opening of this Prophecie, my purpose is to follow the let­ter of the text, and to lay downe the doctrine of it with conue­nient application, but without allegories Origenicall or wre­stings at all.

2 The time wherein our Prophet did liue, should seeme to be soone after the death of Elizeus, in as much as he did prophe­cie of Ieroboam the later, the sonne of Ioas, that he should re­store, or recouer againe the coasts of Israel which were lost. Ie­roboam restored the coast of Israel, 2. Reg. 14.25. from the entring of Hamath to the sea of the wildernesse, according to the word of the Lord God of Israel which he spake by his seruant Ionah the sonne of A­mittai, the Prophet which was of Gath Hepher. From which [Page 3] words, a foolish tradition that is among the Iewes, may wel be refuted: for the Rabbins of that people, who with their Talmu­dicall vanities, and Cabalisticall subtilties haue peruerted much of the Scriptures, do teach, and haue long so taught, that this Ionas was the sonne of the widow of Sareptha,1. Reg. 17.17. whom Elias did raise vp from death to life. Which opinion hath gone so currant, that among our Christians also, some of the new writers haue accepted it for a truth,Lyra in Ion. 1. Isidor. in 7. Etimolog. Epiphan. de vitis Prophe. Hieron. in Praefat. in lib. Ion. but among the old farre more, as Lyra vpon this place, and Isidore in the seuenth of his Etimologies. Nay those who were verie auncient, and verie learned withall, haue rehearsed it vncontrolled, as Epiphanius, and S. Hierome in his Preface to this Prophecie. Thus an opinion once begun, doth go from hand to hand, receiued without discussing, and from error in one man groweth error in another.

3 For if there were no more but that God himself hath cō ­cealed it, not naming any such matter in the Scripture, (where notwithstanding is oftentimes speech of Ionas) it were a proba­ble argument against that their assertion. For when the maister is silent, why should the seruant speake? When God saith no such matter, why should any man affirme it? especially since to vtter it, had bene for a solemne remembrance of Gods glorie, and it might haue procured to Ionas, farre greater obseruance among the people, to whom he was to preach, that he should be knowne to be sonne to that woman, who was picked out by the Lord himselfe, to be a nurce to that reuerend man Elias, in the time of bitter famine, and that this preacher should be the selfe same person, who was raised from death to life. But in my iudgement the point is fully answered, when he is said to be of Gath Hepher, and not of Sareptha. For Gath Hepher, or as it is in the Hebrew,In vulgata editione. Iosuah. 19.13. Gittah Hepher, which to S. Hierome are both one, was a citie in the land of Israel, in the tribe of Zabulon, as we may read in Iosuah. But Sareptha was not in Israel, as Christ himselfe verie euidently doth signifie in S. Luke,Luk. 4.25.27. Many widowes were in Israel in the dayes of Elias, but vnto none of them was E­lias sent, saue into Sareptha a citie of Sidon, vnto a certaine wi­dow. Also many leapers were in Israel in the time of Elizeus the Prophet, yet none of them was made cleane, sauing Naaman the [Page 4] Syrian. As if he should say, that in those places strangers were preferred before the children. Nay he addeth more, to Sarep­tha of Sidon, 1. Reg. 17 9. Ioseph. Anti. lib. 8.9. or a citie of Sidon. And Iosephus also telleth vs, in the 8. of his Antiquities, that Sareptha is a citie betweene Tyre and Sidon: where speaking of Elias, of the widow, and her son, he hath not a word of Ionas. And left it may be thought that Gath Hepher did stand neare to this city of Sareptha, and so that our Prophet for the nearenesse of the places, may be sayd to be of both, it was the tribe of Asser, and not the tribe of Zabulon which was nearest vnto Sidon.Iosua. 19 28. Then our Ionas being takē from the tribe of Zabulon, and therefore being an Israelite, he was fit to preach to the Israelites, as to his owne countrimen. Which course the Lord did take commonly in sending of his owne to those which were his owne, as Iewes to the tribe of Iuda, and Israelites to the other ten tribes; which he had not here obser­ued, if Ionas had bene sonne to the widow of Sareptha.

4 I haue opened this error, as principally occasioned by the person of our Prophet, with whom I am here to deale; so se­condly to shew the boldnesse of the Iewes, who dare on naked coniectures grounded on weake foundations, (as is this, that because his mother who was raised vp by Elias,1. Reg. 17.24. [...] Vide Hieron. in Proaemio commētarij in Ionam. vsed a word in Hebrew like to the name of Amittai, therefore Ionas the sonne of Amittai must of necessitie be her sonne) giue out assertions boldly; boldly I say, but falsly, and that in their owne Prophets, and that in their owne Scriptures. Verie endlesse is their follie which they vse in this behalf, & it is not to be wondred at by vs, who know their malice in denying of Christ Iesus to be the true Messias; in peruerting of such scriptures as in their owne bookes are written of him;Epiphanius Haeresi. 29. in cursing of the Christians daily in their as­semblies, vnder the name of Nazarites; in vilefying the new Te­stament, but in magnifying their Talmud that irreligious booke, with such celestiall praises,Lodou. Viues de Veritate fidei. lib. 3. that as Viues writeth of it, they hold this for an opinion, that God himselfe bestoweth the first foure houres of euery day, in reading of that booke, like a scholer at his task. Nay more, that when the Temple at Ierusalē was destroyed by Titus the Romane, that then the Lord did sit reading vpon that booke within three or foure cubits of the place; belike so busie at [Page 5] that, that he could not haue any leisure to thinke on the ouer­throw of the Temple, which you know was but a trifle. Let all men take heed of their errours; and let vs that be Preachers of the word, especially take heed, how we credulously reach any thing, that vnaduisedly commeth from them.

5 The widow of Sareptha was not Ionas his mother, but himselfe doth let vs know that Amittai was his father; where also another fable may iustly be reproued,Lyra in Ion. 1. which Lyra writing vpon this place, reporteth to be broched by the self same Iewes; to wit, that our Prophet was sonne vnto another Prophet, be­cause his fathers name is here mentioned, for so (say they) are all the Prophets, whose fathers are named in the Scripture. Marke their worthy reason for it.Amos. 7.14. Amos saith of himself, that he was no Prophet, nor the sonne of a Prophet, and if you will looke in his book, you shal see that his father is not mētioned. A reason most inconsequent, and not worthy to be refuted. Amos was not the son of a Prophet, & his father is not named, Ergò they whose fa­thers are named,Hosea. 1.1. Ioel. 1.1. had Prophets to their fathers. Hosea was the son of Beeri, and Ioel the son of Pethuel; but no signification is there in their writings, that their fathers were also Prophets. Ze­phaniah was the son of Chuzi, Zephan. 1.1. who was the son of Gedaliah, who was the son of Amariah, who was the son of Hizkiah. If this their reason were good, there should here thē be no lesse, thē a whole generation of Prophets. But I rather approue of the reasons of Arias Montanus,Arias Mont. in prolegom. in minores Prophetas. Luk. 2 36. who saith that they are named, either because their fathers were men famous, & wel knowne in their times; or else for distinctions sake, to make them differ frō some other of that name. The new Testament doth yeeld vs examples of both in other persons; as when aged Anna is sayd to be the daughter of Phanuel of the tribe of Aser, it may probably be imagined that Phanuel when he liued, was a man of reputation, well knowne to very many. But in the Epistle of Iude, the title which is there giuen vnto the Apostle, not from his father, but from his bro­ther, Iudas the seruant of Christ, Iud. 1. and brother of Iames, was to make him differ from Iudas Iscariot, who did betray Christ. And hauing thus touched the person of our Prophet, and the time wherein he liued, let vs come a litle neare vnto the words of the [Page 6] text. Not forgetting notwithstanding, that this whole booke by many is diuided many wayes, but I shall vse no curious par­tition of it, and therefore do only note, that the foure Chapters 1 herein do containe seuerall arguments. In the first is the fall of 2 Ionas, and his suffering for it. In the second, his repentance, 3 which is vttered in a prayer. In the third, the fruite of his prea­ching, 4 that is, the conuersion of the Niniuites. In the fourth, his anger against the Lords proceeding, and Gods answer there­unto. Now to the first in the first place.

The word of the Lord came also. Also.

6 Tremelius and Iunius do expound the Coniunctiue He­brew particle, [...] Quum fuisset verbū Iehouae. which is vsed in the beginning of this booke, by the time when. The Septuagint and all other whom hitherto I can find, both Translators and Expositors, do reade and or a­gaine or also, and therby do intend, that when Ionas before had preached in Israel, and done litle good there, the word of the Lord came a second time to him, to send him elsewhere, to the Citie of Niniue. Wherein Gods purpose was, to take away his word together with his Prophet, from those who long had it, & brought forth no fruites accordingly, and to giue it vnto other who were aliens from the couenant, and strangers from the pro­mise. And if that these Niniuites should haue that grace, as by hearing a message, to fructifie in great abundance, they might then exprobrate ingratitude and grieuous rebellion, to the peo­ple of Israel, because these being but once preached vnto, did apparantly repent, but the other hearing often, did still increase their sinne. This is a fearfull iudgement, when God remoueth his word or ministers from a nation, & giueth them to other. For where there is no vision, Pro. 29.18. 2. Chro. 15.3. where prophecy ceasseth, the people de­cay. Azariah the man of God could tell the people of Iuda, that for a long season they had bene without the true God, without priest to teach, and without the Law, as signifying that these cur­ses do iointly go together, that where is neither Priest nor Law, there also is not God. It is threatned as a plague to the people of Hierusalem,Ezech. 3.26. that the Lord would make the tong of the Prophet to cleane to the roofe of his mouth, that he should not exhort thē, that he should not reproue them.Apoc. 2.5. Except thou amend saith Christ [Page 7] the sonne of man to the Angell of Ephesus, I will remoue thy candlesticke out of his place, I will take away thy ministerie. It is a fearefull[?] sentence from the mouth of Christ him selfe, The kingdome of God shall be taken from you, Matth. 21.43. and shall be giuen to a nation which shall bring forth the fruites thereof.

7 The miseries which follow this, are vnspeakable discom­forts to such as are able aright to conceiue them. To be blind, and haue no guide, and yet to walke there, where treading a­wry is the tumbling into hell: to be hungry and to famish: to sucke, but on dry breasts: to be pined, & not perceiue it, which is an euill of all euils. For there is no truer miserie, then not to know a mans own want, or if he do know it, not to be of power to helpe it,Amos 8.12. but to wander from sea to sea, and from the North e­uen to the East, to run to and fro, and not be able to amend it. But when Ionas like a Doue (for so his name doth signifie) must flie or must go from Samaria to Niniue, when what the Iew must lose, that the Gentile must winne, when the elder is disin­herited and the yonger made the heire, no maruell then if griefe possesse the very soule.Gen. 27.34. What maruell if Esau a naturall man, did grudge and would not ceasse, did weepe and could not hold, when he saw that what he lost his brother Iacob should gaine; that the falling of the one was the rising of the other, the seruice of the elder was the raigning of the yonger? The children of A­braham did contemne the whole world, in respect of their pre­rogatiue in the sanctified seede: they could haue bene conten­ted, that the very crummes from the table, should not haue fal­len to the Gentiles. If the Prophet had bene sent from the ten tribes to the two, or contrariwise from the two vnto the ten, from Iuda to Israel, or from Israel to Iuda, the matter had bene lesse: but must Ionas go to Niniue? We can conceiue no other­wise,1. Sam. 18.29. but that it was a great griefe to Saul, that himselfe must lose the kingdome; but that Dauid must haue it, his subiect who liued vnder him, his seruant that attended him, was a mightie vexation, euen a griefe to the death. There Gods anger was the greater, who preferred the seruant before the maister: here his displeasure was the hoter, that the Prophet must leaue his coun­trey,1. Sam. 4.18. & go to callhome other strangers. When old Eli did heare [Page 8] that the Arke of the Lord, the presence of his grace, was first gone from the Israelites, and then taken by the Philistins, his whole strength was gone; his heart did faint and die.

8 The kingdomes & nations who haue tasted of the Go­spell, may bethinke themselues here. The benefit is inestimable which God hath affoorded them, in giuing them the bread of life, and his stewards to breake it, his ministers to teach it. Now if in recompence thereof,Isa. 5.2. in steed of grapes they should bring foorth wild grapes; if for figges they should yeeld thistles; if their iustice should be but gall, & their iudgement but worme­wood; if his word should be neglected, and his ministers be de­spised, let them feare least that befall them, which hath happe­ned vnto others.Rom. 11.24. Those which were but wilde branches and are now graffed into the Oliue, can they be dearer vnto God, then those branches which by nature appertained to that tree? If he spared not his own, which by a peculiar calling were appro­priated to him, for so the Iewes were in comparison, will he spare those which in a second place, and but onely for default of the former, were adopted by him? Saint Paule doth let vs know,21. that without doubt he will not. The light was great which Gods Churches once had in Asia the lesser, when Iohn the Euangelist, and Polycarpus and other scholers to the Apo­stles, did liue and die there. The same may be sayd of the Ci­ties of Graecia, which did heare Saint Paule preaching, did reade Saint Paule writing. For some hundreds of yeares after him, many excellent lampes did burne in those partes, which gaue light to their neighbours. But for the sinnes of the inha­bitants, is not their candlesticke since remoued into the West? are not their lampes extinguished? Yes, their Ionasses are dead, or sent to other nations. Their temples are now made a cage of vncleane birdes:Apoc. 18.2. filthie spirites do possesse them. The Turke with his Curaam, and Mahomet with his Alcoran are Lords of those places. The Citie Rome was once the eye of the West, the sanctuarie of religion, the anchor of true pietie. This con­tinued many yeares after that Paule had sayd in his time, that their faith vvas published throughout the vvhole vvorld. Rom. 1.8. But when Rome once proued Babylon, the holy City an harlot, [Page 9] when idolatry & securitie had once poisoned her heart, her light was remoued into the Northern parts, & among them vnto vs: where God graunt that it may continue, till his Sonne do come to iudgment,Exod. 10.21. that the horrible and palpable darknesse of Egypt, may neither come on vs, nor our seed, nor our seeds seed after vs. It were a fearfull curse, if Gods glorious Gospel should be taken from vs, & giuen to the Tartarians, a wild people in the North, or vnto the Moores, profane men in the South. Our fathers in their times had experience of the like; for after the free pas­sage of Gods word, in the dayes of king Edward of blessed me­mory (whose soule doth rest with the Lord) for the sins of our natiō, & the careles abusing of so gracious a benefit, there came such a time as that Ionas might not stay in Israelit he would: ei­ther Ionas must fly, or Ionas must dy. Then Geneua, or Basile, or Franckford, or some other parts of Germany, were thought fit­ter places to receiue the Lords Prophets, then our Englād was.

9 That short time of mercy which God had shewed before, had but a short time of chastisement succeeding it. Since those dayes God hath shewed longer loue, and powred it on vs more plentifully. If in steed of long lent graces, we will not pluck vpon vs long plagues, and grieuous punishments, let vs esteeme his word as a iewel of price; let vs esteeme his messengers, as the mi­nisters of God,Heb. 13.17. weake men, but in great trust, who do watch for their soules to whom they do preach, and would be glad to see men prease vnto Christ with chearfulnesse. It were a thing to be lamented bitterly, if by wanting we should know, what it were to want that,Plutarch. in Demosth. which by enioying we know not. Demosthenes perceiuing the true danger of that case, could remember the A­theniens, that if the dogs were gone, by a composition with the wolues, the sheep wold soone pay for it; the cruel wolues wold rage at pleasure. If the Orators were once yeelded, Athens wold soone to wrack.Zachar. 13.7. If the shepheard be once striken, ye know what followeth after, the sheepe will be soone scattered. If the Prea­chers be remoued, mens soules will run to ruine. The walles of Hiericho could not be ouerthrowne (as Origen saith writing on the booke of Iosua) but by the trumpets of the Priests.Origen in Ios. Homil. 7. So the fortresses of Satan, of iniquitie and sinne, cannot be layd along, [Page 10] but by the teaching of the Priest, the preaching of the Minister. Therefore make much of your Ionasses, whosoeuer you be, and keepe them while you haue them.

10 But in Israel at this time it might not be so. There cometh a message to the Prophet, a commanding iniunction, & giueth him other instructions. The word of the Lord came vnto Ionah. This is it whereupon the Prophets should euermore depend, for their sitting or for their rising, for their mouing or their re­sting. They are not to run vpon a fantacie or humour of their owne, and speake they know not what, neither care they to whom, but for their message which they vtter, they are rather to take it then to make it.Exod 3.11. Ier. 1.6.9. Moses wold not go to Pharao, till he had learned his lesson perfectly. Ieremy is but a child, and knoweth not how to speake, till God stretcheth forth his hand, & putteth his word in his mouth.Ezech. 3.17. The Lord doth tell Ezechiel, that he should heare the word at Gods mouth, and giue the people war­ning from him. Nay the true Prophets all in general remembred this well enough, when so often they end their sentences with these words, Thus saith the Lord. Saint Paule writing to the Corinthians doth take this course in the matter of the Sacramēt, I receiued of the Lord that which I also deliuered vnto you. 1. Cor. 11.23. O­therwise, as he is a traytour to his Prince, who taketh on him to coyne money out of base mettall, yea although in the stampe he for a shew doth put the image of the Prince; so he that shall broch any doctrine that commeth not from the Lord, whatsoe­uer he say for it, or what glosse soeuer he set vpon it he is a trai­tor vnto God, yea in truth a cursed traitor, although he were an Angell from heauen,Galat. 1.8. as Saint Paule telleth the Galathians. Earthly kings are offended, if their subiects shall do from them, or in their names, such messages as they send not; or if their Am­bassadours being limited by aduertisements what they shall do and what not, should entreate of contrarie causes. Then should the Minister be carefull in a verie high degree, that he speake not but according to his commission, least he offend a Lord of more dreadfull maiestie, who is more iealous of his glorie, and more able to punish. The visions are now ceassed; reuelations are all ended; such dreames are past and gone, as did informe [Page 11] in old time: Now it is Gods written word which must be to vs, as the threed of Ariadne, to leade vs through all laberinths. The Law of the Lord is perfect, Psal. 19.7. conuerting the soule, the testi­mony of the Lord is sure, and giueth wisedome to the simple, saith Dauid. Tertullian could say of the written word, I do adore the fulnesse of the Scripture. Tertul. cont. Hermogenē Adoro Scrip­turae plenitu­dinem. Vinc. Ly [...]in. contra hae­res. cap. 27. Depositum cu­stodi. Quod tibi cre­ditum est, non quod à te in­uentum, quod accepisti non quod excogita­sti, rem non ingenij sed do­ctrina. Ita doce, vt cū dicas nou è non dicas noua. This full Scripture, this perfect Law of God, is it which must be the guide, and as the loade-starre vnto vs. Vincentius Lyrinensis in his litle booke against heresies speaketh elegantly to this: O Timothy, do thou keepe fast thy charge. What is it that is thy charge? That which thou hast receiued, not that which thou hast deuised: that which is cō ­mitted to thee, not vvhat is inuented by thee: a matter not of thy wit, but rather of thy learning, wherein thou art no author, but onely a keeper, not a leader, but a follower. And a litle after, Do thou so teach, that vvhen thou speakest after a newe maner, yet thou do not speake new matter. Thy order may be new, thy method may be newe, but the substance of that which thou speakest must be old. This is an argument very copious to be handled: and thereunto may be ioyned the iust reprehension of some fantasticall Anabaptistes, who haue taken on them in our time, to crosse this written word, by illuminations and reuela­tions of their owne. But I leaue the one and the other, till God send further grace to wade more into this Prophecie. That which I rather gather here is this; that if Ionas would not go from one place to another, without the expresse commaunde­ment of God, who is Lord ouer heauen and earth, and ruleth all at his pleasure, and that also the other Prophets did euer­more obserue this rule, that then in the examples of Gods aun­cient seruants, there is no protection or warrant for such men, who sometimes in our Church, do flit from place to place, with­out staying in any. It is one thing to be sent, and for a man then to go; another thing to runne first, and not at all to be sent. Feede the flocke saith Peter,1. Pet. 5.2. but it followeth in the text, which doth depend vpon you, Hier. gregem qui in vobis est. [...]. or which is committed to you, for so the best translate it, although to the letter it be, the flocke which is among you. The Apostles indeede did go throughout all the world,Mat. 28.19. but they had their passe-port for it: Go ye and teach all [Page 12] nations. But besides that, the immediate presence of Gods Spi­rit did still attend them, and told them what they should do, and againe what they should not do; so that they were not at their owne libertie.Acts. 13.4. chap. 16.7. When they were let go by the Spirit, they came vn­to Seleucia. And, they would haue gone to Bithynia, but the Spi­rit would not suffer them. These men of whom I speake are not Apostles: that dispensation is ceassed, as all Gods Church doth know. It were rather to be wished, that they did not come much nearer to the name of Apostataes, for reuolting from the approued rule of the Christian faith, while they vse that pro­fession which is sacred in it selfe, but as pretenced pietie, to couer vnhappie shifting, yea sometimes an vngodly life. I do not speake of all: among bad may be some good: and circum­stances oftentimes do make whole causes differ. But for ma­ny of them, I could wish that experience had not taught vs, to the slaunder of the Gospell, that such fond admiration as they procure in the pulpit, among the ignorat multitude (who are easily deceiued) is quitted with some infamy, which from town to towne doth follow them, and from countrey vnto countrey, or with some actuall cosinage, or with lustfull carnalitie, or one bad tricke or other.

11 Their calling in the meane time is not warranted in the word, although Ionas went to Niniue. Ours is a stable profes­sion, it is no gadding ministerie. And yet I doubt not, but that we who are children of the Prophets, and haue a home in this place, and therefore are different from them, to exercise our selues against such time as God shall send vs charges, or especi­ally to win men to Christ, may sometimes in this towne, and sometimes in the villages which are here about adioyning, euen with a free-will offering bestow our litle talents.Scribendo di­sces scribere. By writing we learne to write: by singing men learne to sing: by skirmishing we shall learne to fight the Lords great battels. The people in the meane time are wonne to Iesus Christ: the faithfull are increased: ignorance is well expelled: idolatry is defaced; Sa­tan and sinne are conquered. The very crummes of our ta­bles, would keepe many soules from staruing: the lost houres of our idlenesse, would helpe many poore to heauen. God [Page 13] graunt that the burying of those talents in the ground, which he in his great loue hath giuen vnto vs, be not layd to our charge, in that dreadfull and terrible day. If ignorance, or idolatrie, or iniquitie did not rage, if the enemies of the Gospell to hold vp their Romish Antichrist were not busie to peruert, we might keepe our selues in our cloisters, but if all these do fret, and dayly consume like a canker, let vs sometimes looke about vs. Theodoret reporteth in his Ecclesiasticall storie,Theodoret. Hist. Eccles. lib. 4.24. that when Va­lens the Emperour with his Arrian opinions, had bee-postered much of the world, & by that meanes the flocke of Christ stood in great danger, Aphraates a Monke, a holy man of that time, contrary to his order and vsuall profession, came foorth out of his Monasterie, to helpe to keepe vp the truth. And being asked by the Emperour who was offended at him, what he did out of his cell? I would (saith he) haue kept it, and did keepe it so long as Christes sheepe were in quiet; but now that tempestes do come on, and stormes bring them in danger, euery stone is to be turned, euery means is to be sought, to free them from this pe­rill. He goeth on: If I were daughter to any man whatsoeuer, and according to my sexe as decency would require, were kept vp in a closet, or in some secret chamber, and inner part of the house, yet if my fathers dwelling were on fire, should I not be verie carelesse, if I wold not then come forth to helpe to quench the fire, or giue direction for it? So if now I should not helpe to teach true faith in Christ, by coming out of my Monastery, I should do much amisse. Let vs remember the like, in these most perillous times: so we shall discharge our consciences, we shall disburden our soules, and God himselfe will reward it, by one meanes or another, although men do not requite it: for do not looke for that: if you do, they will deceiue you. And thus ha­uing shewed the reason why Ionas went from Israel, I come to the second verse.


12 It should seeme that our Prophet hauing long preached to his country-men, and litle preuailed, had now discouraged himselfe, and euen set him downe, which case doth oft befall the Minister, through that weaknesse and frailtie which is in [Page 14] humane nature. For the preuenting whereof in his seruant E­zechiel, God himselfe doth foretell him, that he sendeth him to such as are a rebellious house, Ezech. 3.9. and will not heare his voyce. Not­withstanding the Prophet is enforced to do his dutie, and leaue the successe to God. That is it whereunto the Minister should looke, performe all which the Lord requireth, and leaue the euent to him. For we are not in Gods place, to alter & change, and mollifie mens hearts;1. Cor. 3 6. Paule planteth, and Apollos wate­reth, but God giueth the increase. In the meane time, the labour of the faithfull Minister, whether it speed or misse, is accepted of the Lord.August. con­tra Crescon. Grammati­cum, lib. 1. For as he (sayth Saint Austen) who perswadeth to euill, (as to heresie or treason) is punished accordingly, although he do not preuaile, yet because he intended it, be­cause he did labour it; so he that doth his best to winne men to heauen, although he effecteth not what he desired, findeth his reward with God. And he addeth in the same booke, that when Christ did lament ouer his owne Citie Hierusalem,Matth 23.37 and said that he would haue gathered the Iewes together, as the hen gathereth, or clucketh her yong ones vnder her wings, and they would not; that perhaps he did encourage vs by his own exam­ple, that if we should not obtaine when we haue spent our la­bour, yet we should not dismay our selues, because no more befalleth vs,Matth. 10.24 then did betide Christ. And the disciple as we know, is not greater then his maister. If such a drowsinesse or sleepi­nesse were now vpon Ionas, after his small successe in preaching to Israel, God biddeth it be shaken off, when he willeth him to Arise, that is, pluck vp his spirits, and rouze vp himself, and make speed in his message.

And go to Niniueh that great Citie.

13 Although God in ordinarie did tye himselfe to his people of Israel, yet at this time (for so was his good pleasure) he sheweth that himselfe is Lord ouer all the earth, and taketh care of all and punisheth all who do sinne against him; in as much as he did send his Prophet to Niniue, which was a Citie in Assyria, and the Metropolis of that countrey, and iustly in this place sayd to be a great Citie. By that which is written of it, it may be iudged, that Niniue was then the greatest Citie that was [Page 15] vpon the earth. When Moses doth mention it, he giueth that testimonie of it,Gen. 10.12. Ion. 3.3. This is that great Citie. In the third chapter of this present Prophesie it is sayd to be a great and excellent Citie of three dayes iourney. That in those dayes this was no strange thing, in the Easterne countreys, to haue som places verie huge, we may somewhat iudge by Babylon,Aristoteles politicorum. lib. [...]. which Aristotle setteth downe to haue bin so big, as that when some part of it had bene taken by the enemy, some other quarters of it, did not heare of any such newes, till within three dayes after. But for Niniue thus much more: In the last chapter of this Prophecie it is put for the conclusion of the booke,Ion. 4.11. that there were in it sixe score thousand persons that could not discerne betweene their right hand and their left hand: which importeth that they were chil­dren of small age and vnderstanding.

14 This City by profane writers is called Ninus,Herod. lib. 1. Strabo. lib. 16 Plin. lib. 6.13. Tacit. Annal. lib. 12. as by Hero­dotus in his Clio, by Strabo in the sixteenth of his Geography, by Plinie in the sixth of his Naturall historie, by Tacitus in the twelfth of his Annales. And by some of them it was supposed to be builded by Ninus the great Monarch of Assyria, and hus­bànd to Semiramis,Aug. de Ciu. Dei. lib. 16.3. which is also the opinion of Saint Austen, in his bookes De ciuitate Dei. Some argument why we should beleeue it to be so, may be gathered from the name, being ter­med of Ninus the king, Ninus, & Niniueh in the Scripture. But see whether that in this case,Augustinus Epist. 19. Gal. 2.13. a man may not say as Austen sayd to Hierome (about that great controuersie betweene Paule and Peter; whether Peter sinned or sinned not, and dissembled with the Iewes in deed, or but in shew) that although Hierome had more witnesses in nūber to proue his assertion, thē Austen could bring, yet that S. Paule who had Gods Spirit, and thereby did write, was in steed of all the rest, nay in truth aboue all: So al­though both Heathen and Christians, and among them S. Au­sten do say, that this Citie was built by Ninus, yet see whether Moses who had the immediate Spirit of God, be not in steed of all,Gen. 10.11. or rather beyond all. And he doth tell vs that this Citie was built by Assur. Neither doth the Hebrew name import ought to the contrary, if it be as some suppose, not Niniueh of Ninus, but Niniueh of Nauah the Hebrew word, [...] & so signifying beautiful [Page 16] or goodly, or faire, or fit to be inhabited. But this controuersie may be ended,Munsterus Cosmograp. lib 5. if that opinion be true which Munster doth de­liuer vnto vs, that some thinke that both Assur and Ninus are one man, called by diuerse names in diuerse languages. He doth not specifie in that place, who they be that so reconcile this doubt; neither yet haue I found any that be of that minde.

Diodorus Si­culus Antiq. lib. 3.1. Plin. Hist. na­tur. 6.3. Herod. lib. 1.15 But to let that go, this Citie is described by Diodo­rus Siculus (in the second of his Antiquities as Stephanus will haue it, as some other in the third) to stand vpon Euphra­tes, I thinke he meaneth Tigris, for so all consent hath it, and Babylon on Euphrates: to be built with foure sides, but not e­quall or square, for the two longer sides had each of them one hundred and fiftie furlongs, the two shorter sides had each of them ninetie, which arising in the whole number to foure hun­dred and foure score furlongs, the compasse of the Citie did a­mount to thirtie French leagues, or threescore Italian miles. The walles sayth Diodorus were in height an hundred foote, the bredth of the walles, that three cartes might go together: the towers which were about it, were one thousand and fiue hun­dred, the height of the towers was two hundred foote in each. This Citie being built, to shew the magnificence and royalty of the founder, was without doubt populous for the proportion; the country yeelding food to sustaine so great a multitude, and they hauing water at wil by the nearenesse of the riuer. The fer­tilitie of the soile was such in old time about this place, although not for other things in like measure, yet for corne, that Hero­dotus writing of it doth speake of his owne knowledge, that the ordinary fields did returne the seed sowne in them two hundred fold, the better places three hundred: three hundred bushels for one, or at least three hundred graines of one corne.

Seneca in consolatione ad Narciam. cap. 16. Tiberiū Grac­chū & Caium qui bonos viros negauerit, ma­gnos fatebitur.16 Our Ionas is to go by Gods commandement to this Ci­tie, which if any will denie to be good, yet he must confesse to be great, as once it was said of the Gracchi in Rome. He needed not to find fault that he had nothing to do, who had Niniue for his charge, and whose businesse was to preach to such an audi­torie where were so many and so mightie. If he stood vpon his credit, as it seemeth that he did too much, (which hereafter may [Page 17] be shewed) here was a place of reputation for him, if any were vpon earth. Tullie was no great warriour, for ought that I can reade,Tull [...] Epist. lib. 2. Ep. 10. ad Caelium. Vt mihi ad summam glo­riam nihil de [...]it nisi nomen op­pidi. and I thinke that himselfe thought so; yet in one of his E­pistles, he telleth that he did besiege a litle towne, Pindinessus he calleth it, with such egernesse, that there was nothing wanting to him of the top and height of glory, for his good seruice there, but the name of the towne. His towne did want a name. He meaneth that it was but base, and not knowne to men in Rome. Our Prophet in his preaching need find no such fault: his charge hath a name: it is Niniue that great Citie, which ruled ouer the earth, the seat of the Empire, the Ladie of the East, the Queene of nations, the riches of the world, where more people did inha­bit, then are now in some one kingdome.Sene. in Sua­soriar. 2. Ingenij confus [...] & turbulenti qui cupiebat grandia dicere. Credatis mihi velim non io­canti, eò per­uenit insania eius, vt calceos quoque maio­res sumerit, fi­cus nō esset nisi mariscas. Con­cubinā ingentis staturae habe­bat. I do reade in Seneca, that there was once a man of a turbulēt wit, called Senecio, who wold speake none but great words, wold haue none but great things. His seruants were all great, his siluer vessels & plate were great. Nay, beleeue me (saith Seneca) his folly grew so great, that his shoes were still too big for him, he would not eate figs, but Ma­riscas, a kind of grosse great figs. He had a concubine of a huge and mighty stature. He had all things so bigge, that the sirname, cognomen, or rather cognomentum as Messala did terme it, was set vpon him of Senecio Grandio. If this Grandio had bene sent on such a message as Ionas was, it may be supposed that he wold haue bene a proud man. But our Prophet was not so, as in the next verse hereafter we shall find.

17 Well, God goeth forward with him, Arise and cry a­gainst it. The Lord telleth him all the circumstances, which must be done in this message, least he should be to seeke, and so do somewhat amisse: and againe to make him more carefull in per­forming of that, wherin God himself was so desirous to informe him in particular. He must crie against Niniue, not whisper in the eare as if it were to one; not speake softly as to a few: but cry as vnto all: this is a general proclamation. This word Cry is vsed in Scripture when men are fast asleepe and lulled in their sinnes, and awake not with a litle, so that as Eliah sayd to the Baalites, that they were to cry alowd, 1. Reg. 18.22. because Baal might be sleeping, and must be awaked, so the Minister must crie aloud, that men may [Page 18] be raised from their drowsinesse in sinne. When the iniquities of Israel, & transgressions of Iacob began to grow great, the Pro­phet Esay is called vpon to crie alowd and not to spare, Isa. 58.1. yea to lift vp his voyce as if it were a trumpet. In like maner, when, as it should seeme men being drowned in securitie did forget their owne mortalitie,Chap. 40 6. A voyce sayd Cry: The Prophet asketh what shall I cry? All flesh is grasse, and the beauty thereof as the floure of the field. So the voyce of Iohn the Baptist who bad men re­pent, because the kingdome of heauen was neare, is called the voyce of a cryer. Matth. 3.3. Againe this word Cry is some other time vsed, when some thing else crieth first, and maketh such a noise in the eares of the Lord, that it calleth for vengeance of him; and in the eares of the committers, that they cannot heare any thing vnlesse it be lowd. In such cases men are not moued at all with low words, as the whistling of the winde is not perceiued at all, in the blowing of trumpets or the ringing of belles. Those things which are violent, must be driuen foorth with such other things as are violent. It is sayd of bloud that it cannot be satisfied but with bloud. It is knowne of loue, that it cannot be recompenced or requited but with loue. Euen so the crie of sinne cannot be stopped, but by crying out against sinne, and condemning it o­penly. But that sins do crie we reade oft in the Scripture. Abels bloud did crie,Gen. 4.10. Chap. 18.20. Deut. 24.15. Iac. 5.4. that is indeed, the murther of Cain did call to God for vengeance. The crie of Sodome and Gomorrha was great. The detaining of wages from the laborer & hired seruant, doth yeeld foorth a crie. And here in this place the wickednesse of Niniue cometh vp before God: & with what but with a cry? As if he shold say, that it was now grown so great, that the earth was no longer able to hold it, but both the aire and the heauen too, did ring of the same. Exceeding force of sin, which wil thus call for vengeance.Gen. 19.13. This was it which once plucked downe fire and brimstone from heauen vpon Sodome and Gomorrha. This was it which caused that vniuersall floud in the dayes of Noe.Chap. 6.12. Num. 16.1. This made Corah and his company to be swallowed vp by the earth & go down quick into the graue. This brought an incre­dible destruction vpon Ierusalē, which somtimes was Gods own Citie. Nay this very place Niniue, although now it were spared [Page 19] vpon their apparāt repentance, yet when afterward they retur­ned to their malice, as a dog to his vomit, it was destroyed, as Nahum the Prophet had foretold.Nahum. 3.1. Those other Monarchies of the old Babylonians, of the Medes & the Persians, of the Greeks and Romanes did speed after like sort. Their sinne ascending vp­ward, rebounded againe vpon them, with a fearefull desolation. But what now may we imagine that those sinnes were, which are sayd in this place to lye so grieuously vpon them.

18 It is likely that such generall sinnes were in Niniue, as are sayd by Ezechiel to haue bene in Sodome,Ezech. 16.49 that is, Pride and ful­nesse of bread, and abundance of idlenesse, & that she did not strēg­then the hand of the poore and needy; but I thinke that in particu­lar some falts may be picked out, which were great in that place. As first, witchcraft and inchantment, and sorcery & necroman­cie, and diuination by the starres, which were exercised beyond measure, in all the Easterne parts where Niniue stood. When the true wisdome of Salomō,1. Reg. 4.30. is in the scripture compared with mens counterfeit wisdome, it is said that his wisdome excelled all the wisdome of the children of the East, that is, their Philosphers and Diuiners,Matth. 2.1. [...]. and all of that sort. There came to adore Christ, wise men as they are called, Magi, Diuiners or Soothsayers, and it is sayd in the text, that they came out of the East. In the second of Daniel, what a rabble of such are reckened vp to be in Babylon, a citie not far from Niniue,Dan. 2.2. Inchanters, Astrologians, Chaldeans and Sorcerers? & how doth God himself deride, & scoffe at thē by his Prophet Esay,Isa. 47.9. for entertaining of such, & for retaining of so many? In one word, the censure that is set on the Chaldaeans, men not far frō Niniue,Tull. de Di­uinat. lib. 2. Tacitus Hist. lib. 1. Annaliū li. 6. Tiberius sciē ­tiâ Chaldaeorū artu. Herodot. li. 5. by Tully in the second of his Diuination, and by Cornelius Tacitus in the first of his History, (where that by his Mathematicians he meaneth Chaldaeans, or the scholers of them, may be wel gathered from that which elsewhere he hath of Tiberius, who as he saith was skilled in their Arts) together with the Narration of the Magi in Herodotus, who would haue had the kingdom after the death of Cābyses, do make this most plaine, that in the East country these Arts were vsed much, and therfore likely so in Niniue. But how odious these sins are in the sight of God, whosoeuer doth reade the Scriptures, can not be [Page 20] ignorant. In the tenth of Ieremy the least of these faults are called the way or customes of the heathen, Ierem. 10.2. Num. 23.23. and therefore are they vnfit for Gods people. Balaam could say, there is no sorcery in Iacob, nor soothsaying in Israel. God himselfe doth giue charge that a­mong his people should be none that vseth witchcraft or a re­garder of time, Deut. 18.10. or a marker of the flying of foules, or a sorcerer, or a charmer, or that counselleth with spirits, or a soothsayer, or that asketh counsell at the dead, and the reason is there assigned, because all that do such things are an abomination to the Lord. Nay, God doth so hate these, as that all such who seeke to them, are odious to him,1. Sam. 28.7. 2. Reg. 1.1. 1. Chro. 10.13 as by Saule and Ahaziah may most plainly appeare, who for seeking vnto such, lost their kingdomes and their liues. The audaciousnesse of men who are acquainted with these arts, may be seene by those enchanters of whom we reade in Exodus,Exod. 7.11. Plinius Hist. Nat. lib. 26.4. Regulus auspi­ciae curauit, & captus est. Mancinus re­ligionē tenuit, & sub iugum missus est. Pullos edaces habuit Paulus Cyprian de Idolorum vanitate. Zozom. Hist. Eccles. 2.22. Theod Hist. eccles. li 3.21 Mulierculam capillo suspen­sam, m [...]mbus exte [...]sis, cuius ventre dissecto. who at Pharaos intreatie, did dare not only to braue, but to resist God and his seruant Moses. Plinie himself although he were but a heathen man, doth laugh at and deride the vani­ties of such. S. Cyprian doth describe their vnfruitful superstitiō: Regulus saith he, obserued the flying of birds, and yet he was ta­ken by the Carthaginians. Mancinus kept their religion, yet was he sent vnder the gallowes, sub iugum, a token of disgrace to him selfe and his armie. Paulus had the birds eating lustily, which they held as a signe of good lucke, yet was he slaine at the bat­tell of Cannae. But the execrable custome of some who be of this kind may partly be learned by that, wherwith Athanasius some­times (although falsely) was charged, that he in his Magicke should vse the hand of a dead man, which by experience in our time hath bene declared to be a practise, of some who vse those trades. And partly by the example of Iulian the Apostata, who not long before his death, going to warre in Persia, did cause a woman to be hanged vp by the haire of the head, to haue her hands stretched abroad, her belly to be ripped open, that, as the author iesteth at it, her liuer perhaps being cut vp, he might thereby diuine what should be the end of that his voyage, and whether that he should safely returne againe. As it may seeme he him selfe was ashamed of that deede,Non obserari solum sedetiā obsignari. for he caused the church or chappell wherein this fact was done, not onely to bee [Page 21] locked, but to be sealed vp also, and watchmen continually toward there, that no man might come in. Yet afterward it was discouered, when report came of his death. No maruell if such sinnes did come vp vnto the Lord, or any other which draw in this line,Basil in Hex­ae mero. Ho­mil. 1. Astrologia in­diciaria nego­tiosissima va­nitas. if they were to be found in Niniue. Let Christians still take heed of these most filthy crimes, yea and of all curious arts, and among them of that too, which, whatsoeuer be sayd for it by many who are young, and delight in experiments, is truly sayd by Basil, to be nothing else but a busie tickle vanitie.

19 A second sin in Niniue was robbery and oppression. That in some sort may be gathered from their large and mightie go­uernement, which could not be maintained but by somewhat, & indeed was vp-held and born out, with the spoiles of other. But the Prophet Nahum doth put the case beyond question, when he calleth it a bloudy citie, Nahum. 3.1. full of lyes and robbery, from whence the pray departeth not. They had then conquered a great part of the inhabited world. The tributes and exactions which they had of them whom they conquered, could not chuse but be great. And for the beautifying of that their City, which for a thousand yeares and more, was mistresse of the world, and chiefe seate of the Empire, it may well be supposed, that they tooke the selfe same course, which afterward was taken vp by the Romanes, who to garnish and adorne Rome, did take away from all pla­ces, whither their authority and soueraignty did stretch, not onely gold and siluer, but images and pictures, and painted ta­bles, and hangings of tapistrie, and plate, and armour, yea what­soeuer else was precious in their eyes.Liuius lib. 25 So did that great Marcel­lus at the sacking of Syracusa, and other in other places; who feared not to spoile many townes, to make one trim & glorious. Now God who loueth iustice, and in iustice hateth oppression, and the robbing of other men, can not like of this. How sped Pharao with his people, for dealing hard with the Israelites? If he shall be cast into the fire saith Saint Austen,Augustin. de Sanctis, Ser­mone 38. Putas vbi mit­tendus est qui tulit ali [...]num? being moued as it seemeth by that place of the 25. of Matthew, who did not giue his bread to the hungry, where thinke you shall he be put, who hath taken away the bread of other men? If he shall be throwne into the fire who clothed not the naked, whither shall he be cast who [Page 22] hath vnclothed the clothed? If he be condemned with the Diuell who hath not affoorded his house to strangers, where do you think is he to be put, which taketh away that house which in right is an­other mans? All which things oppressors do. Here let those men take heed, who grind the face of the poore, of the fatherlesse, and the widow, if this sinne yeeld foorth a crie, not onely in this world but in another also.Theatre du monde. lib. 2. It was a spitefull tricke and in no sort to be commended, but much lesse to be imitated; and it was a saying much abused out of Athanasius his Creed: but yet the meaning was very shrewd, when the people of Sicilia did write vpon the tombe of a dead Viceroy of theirs, who was a great oppressor, and cruell ouer that countrey

Qui propter nos homines
Et nostram salutem
Descendit ad inferos.
Athanasius in Symbolo.
Who for vs men
And for our better safetie
Is gone downe into hell.

They meant that this polling and exacting gouernour was lod­ged in hell.

20 If all things which are written, be written for our lear­ning, then let the crie of Niniue be a warning vnto vs, and to all men in generall, that we flie from their crueltie. And remem­bring that of the Prophet,Habac. 2.11. The stone shall cry out of the wall, and the beame out of the timber shall aunswer it, Wo vnto him that buildeth a towne with bloud, and erecteth a City by iniquitie, let vs be warie in our Colledges, that it be not truly sayd of vs, that robbery and oppression, and bribery and extortion, go not out of their streets. The keeping backe of the poore, for the speeding of the rich to gaine friends to our selues, or to be enriched with money, cometh neare within this compasse. Friendship which is so gotten, is not friendship with the Lord, nor friendship for the Lord, but friendship against the Lord. Money which is so had, as it is cursedly gotten, so it is often spent leudly. It is put as the Prophet speaketh,Agg 1.6. into a broken bagge; the Lord doth blow vpon it; & yet we will not see so much. A reckening must be made, as how we spend our money, so much more how we [Page 23] get it. If such sinnes should be among vs, they may be accounted farre greater, then they could be in Niniue, because we haue had many Ionasses, who haue long cried out against them. That God who is slow to anger, will strike so much the heauier, when he is forced to strike. That wrath which is deferred will in the end proue most grieuous. Thus you see what Ionas was, and a­gaine what he was not, and who sent him from Israel, and who bid him go to Niniue, and that Niniue was a great Citie, but a Citie of great sinne. It followeth in the next place how he did discharge this dutie: but that must be deferred vnto some other time. In the meane while God send vs vnderstanding in all things. To this God be praise for euer.


The chiefe points. 1. The veritie of the Scripture appeareth in that the writers thereof doe declare many things against themselues. 6 Reasons which might moue Ionas to flie to Tarshish, and the insufficiencie of them. 12 Where Tarshish was. 13 The vocation of the Ministerie is not to be relinquished. 16 Men are more free to spend money about euill things then about good. 17 What it is to flie from Gods pre­sence. 19 Comfort and instruction to the Minister.

IONAH. 1.3.

But Ionah rose vp to fly into Tarshish from the presence of the Lord, and went downe to Iapho: and he found a ship going to Tarshish: so he payed the fare thereof and went downe into it: that he might go with them into Tarshish from the presence of the Lord.

IONAS hath receiued his charge to go to Niniue, with a message of much importance; which he might do the better, because he came with authoritie, and not as a common person, to chide and brawle about iniuries, or bad reckenings which fal out betweene man & man, [Page 24] but with a proclamation of weight from the eternall God. Here a naturall man would looke, that since Ionas is to write this sto­rie of himselfe, (for no man I thinke maketh doubt thereof) he should speake for his owne credit; with what diligence and au­dacitie he performed this message; how he spared not the king of Niniue, but told him his owne; or if he had failed to do that which was enioined to him, or for want of wit or wil, had missed in his designement, a worldling would iudge, that for his repu­tation, he should haue concealed it: let others if they wold haue spoken their pleasure of him, but not he of himself: or if needs he must haue spoken, he would haue told the better part, and left out the worst. But if Ionas would be naught, and erre as fowly in penning, as he did before in practise, he hath here met with his maister, who well can keepe him from it, euen the mightie Spirit of God, which dealeth with him in this place as it did with Dauid in his one and fiftieth Psalme, that is, maketh him to confesse that against God, Psal. 51.4. against him only he had sinned, & done euill in his sight, that the Lord might be iustified when he did speake, and pure when he did iudge, that God might haue his true honor, and man beare his deserued blame. This here maketh our Prophet say so much against himself, and lay open his owne infirmitie, yea his grieuous disobedience, that himselfe was a runagate,Ionah. 1.5. and fugitiue from his God, yea a very carelesse rebel: that he slept in the ship-bottome, when all other were praying, for feare lest they should be drowned:Chap. 4.5. that he crosseth the Lord alwayes, wishing vengeance vpon Niniue, when God would haue mercie;Chap. yea that as the testiest man who euer did liue, he did fret and scold with God, and for anger would be dead; and lastly that chiding hand-smooth with his maker, he did iustifie his wrath, that he did well to be angrie.

2 This course (not only here but through other scriptures also) of inculcating & redoubling their faults, whom the books do most concerne,Iob. 3.1. 2. Sam. 11.17 1. Reg. 11.3. Num. 11.11. Chap. 20.12. Ierem. 20.14. as the impatiency of Iob, the murther of Dauid, the idolatrie of Salomon, the discontentednesse of Mo­ses, by Moses himselfe, and Gods punishment on him for it, that he came not into Canaan; so by Ieremy himselfe, the fretting of Ieremy, because all things were not well, doth argue to the [Page 25] reader some thing very supernaturall that is in these bookes; since contrary to the course of humorous ambition, which de­lighteth in her owne glorie, and either openly or secretly, by some insinuation doth aime still at her owne praise, they which are the Spirits secretaries, should discouer themselues, & display their owne ouersights. Among other that follow in the processe of this Prophecy, this is an excellent argument, against those wicked ones of our age, who call the Scripture in question. If they, who in the way of carnalitie to magnifie themselues, and make their wordes seeme glorious, dare oppose their wits a­gainst heauen and earth, against Iewes and Gentiles, against God and men, could remember the endlesse wisedome of the word of life, they might plentifully admire their spirit, who to giue God the glory,2. Cor. 12.5. do reioyce in their infirmities, & proclaime their owne follies. And if they would compare the maner of these writers inspired with the holy Ghost, with the workes of other men of what sort soeuer, they must either shut their eyes or confesse a great difference.

3 For the writers of this world, howsoeuer against enemies they speake all and more then all, as Zozimus did against the Christians; or for their friendes and countrymen set all at the highest,Salust. in prae fatione Con­iurat. Catil. as Salust doth obserue that the Athenien and Greeke writers did long before his time; yea howsoeuer sometimes they speake truth where it cometh to their notice, or toucheth not themselues, or their partiall friends; yet in them we find few ex­amples of laying open the errors of themselues, or of their friēds, especially when in any sort it may be concealed. Let Tully be a witnesse, of whose faults we do not reade in any thing of his owne;Tull. Offic. 1. but that Rome was saued by him from the furie of Cati­line; that when he was Consul he did more then good seruice to the common-wealth, his tong and his pen haue neuer done. What learned man hath not heard of his

Cedant arma togae, concedat laurea linguae.

In the Commentaries of Caesar a booke worthily penned, may we find any thing which maketh against himselfe, yea in his ci­uill warres?Hirtius de bello Hispa. But in his friend Hirtius, what is there to be read that doth not make for him? The writings of Mahomet, I meane [Page 26] such as are written of him, do make him the onely Prophet in the last age of the world, the great seruant of the Highest, ha­uing messages from aboue, and oracles from heauen, yea & such a one as was able bodily to rise againe from the dead, but that must be after eight hundred yeares (he taketh a pretie time for the trying of that conclusion,Iohn 2.19. Lod. Viues de veritate fidei lib. 4. Ioh. 16.7. whereas Christ tooke but three dayes) yea as Viues obserueth, that he was the Cōforter whom Christ promised to send into the world after his ascension: and that it was written in the Gospell of Saint Iohn, I will send you a Comforter, and that shall be Mahomet, but that those last words concerning Mahomet, were razed out by the Christians.

4 By these we may iudge of the rest. But it is so farre off from men, who are but naturall men, to be detectors and dis­couerers of their owne falles to posterity, that they cannot with patience endure, that they should be opened by other. For that is a common fault and not proper to one, which Pliny reporteth of one in his time. And that was, that whereas according to the custome of that age, a certaine writer had read and rehearsed in the presence of diuerse a peece of a booke, which truly deciphe­red the faults of some men, and sayd that he would reserue the rest vntil the next day to be heard,Plin. Iunior Epist. lib. 9. ad paternū. Tantus a [...]diē ­di quae fecerūt pudor quibus nullus faciendi quae audire e­rubescunt. the friends of one party who was touched in that booke, and not without desert, came in the meane while to the Author, and most earnestly intreated him in their friends behalfe, that he would forbeare to reade of that matter any further. Which made Pliny to inferre this, in one of his Epistles, Such shame is there of hearing such things as are done, by them who shame not to do that which they blush to heare. What his friends could not endure, himselfe would much lesse, & what to heare had bene grieuous, to write had bene ashame. The Prophets and pen-men of the Spirit of God, by a peculiar prerogatiue are singular in this kind, to shew that their bookes are the bookes of their Maister: and so by that one meanes a­mong other,Aug. Epist. 7. Secūdas partes habeat mode­destiae qui pri­mas non potuit habere sapiētiae. to stop the mouths of blasphemers and miscreants, who measure God by themselues, and pietie by their profane­nesse. Ionas was better taught, not to giue the glory to himself, but to God, hauing learned that lesson which Saint Austen af­terward did mention, that he who hath failed in the first degree [Page 27] of wisedome, that is vertue and obedience, should betake him to the second, that is, modestie in confessing and acknowledging his fault. Heare now therefore what he did, and how he perfor­med his message.

He arose to flie into Tarshish.

5 Ionas thus farre was obedient, to arise when he was bid­den, but he might as well haue sate still, for anie good which he did. He rouzeth vp himselfe, as if he intended to fall hardly to his matters; but after the first step, he trode not one foot right. He should haue rose to crie, and he arose to flie: he should haue gone East to Niniue, and he went Westward to Iapho. But euen cleane contrary. A liuely example of the infirmitie of man, that without Gods grace we very soone plunge into all maner of sin, without measure or meane, when a Prophet so experienced in the mysteries of saluation, could play so foule a part. But there is no man that sinneth not, 1. Reg 8.46. as Salomon saith, And the iust man doth fall seuen times, Hieronym. Epist. 46. Si cadit quo­modo iustus, si iustus quo­modo cadit? Iacob. 3.2. whereof although Hierome aske, If he be iust how doth he fall, and if he fall how is he iust? yet he answe­reth himselfe, that he looseth not the name of a righteous man, who ariseth by repentance, and we may say further, he falleth by nature, and ariseth by grace, he falleth by sinne, and is righteous by faith. In many things we sinne all, saith S. Iames: not you only who be the people, but we also the Apostles. And if that there should haue come any other after the Apostles, that should not haue sinned, it is very likely that our Sauiour in the midst of his wisedome, wherewith he gouerneth his Church, would haue appointed for them some other prayer, then the ordinary Lords prayer:Matth. 6.12. they should not haue sayd, forgiue vs our trespasses, be­cause they had none. This is a cooler both to the Pharisees and Nouatians, who were wont to despise sinners. If Ionas fall, and Iob, and Noe, and Lot, and Dauid, whom the scripture calleth iust and righteous persons, and after Gods owne heart, let other men take heed of presumption, and trusting in themselues. Yet this is a comfort to sinners in the weakenesse of their soules. If God forgaue Ionas repenting and beleeuing, he will forgiue vs also, if we beleeue and repent. Therfore let not despaire deuour our wounded consciences. Yet let not this be an incouragement [Page 28] to offend in any wilfulnesse. Many will fall with Dauid, but they will not arise with Dauid. Our Prophet at the length amendeth, but his fall was great the while. Let vs first see the reasons that moued him to his flight, and then the maner of it.

6 We need not to doubt, but Satan who is euer at hand to promote bad causes, could yeeld reasons enough for the hinde­rance of this worke. He had cause to feare, that by the meanes of Ionas many soules in Niniue might escape his net. Perhaps 1 therefore he would suggest and put this in his mind, that he was but a strāger there, acquainted with no man, & so should be but ill welcome.1. Sam. 21.13 This was one part of Dauids feare, whē being with Achis he fayned himselfe mad, because among strangers out of his owne countrey, he had none on whom he might repose him selfe, as on his familiar and fast true friend. But a meaner man then a Prophet, might here haue answered Satan, that the whole earth is the Lordes, Psal. 24.1. Gen. 12.10. Ruth. 1.1. and all that therein is, the compasse of the world and they that dwell therein. He who kept Abraham in E­gypt, where he was but a meere stranger, and Naomi in Moab, could keepe Ionas here also. It may be that the tempter would 2 insinuate vnto him, that he was but one man. What? one man to a multitude? a single person to a whole kingdome? A ridiculous thing. Yea but Ionas might haue heard, that the day was, when those which were with Elizeus and his seruant,2. Reg. 6.16. were more in number then all the enemies which were against them. Where God is and his Angels, there man is not alone. He could not but know,2 Pet. 2.5. Exod. 3.10. Exod. 32.20. that a time had bene, when one Noe was to preach to all the world, one Moses to Pharao and all the land of Egypt. The same Moses had stood against all the tribes of Israel, when he came downe from the Mount, and found the people dauncing about the golden calfe.Num. 14.6. It was but one paire, when Iosua and Caleb resisted all the people, who murmured vpon the returne of the spies out of Canaan. Therefore as no reason should stop the mouth of the Minister, or detaine him from his charge, so this should least of all other. They who neuer knew God, haue gone as farre as this: as Phocion among the Atheniens, of whom it is written,Plut. in vita Phocionis. that when Apollo by his Oracle at Delphos, had giuen an answer, that one man did disagree, although all the rest [Page 29] of their Citie consented;Desinite sollici­tè inquirere quisnam is sit vir▪ ego sum de quo quaeritur: soli enim mihi nil eorum quae aguntur pro­batur. and they were much troubled to know who that one was, Phocion of his owne accord stepped foorth and sayd, giue ouer to wonder or enquire too carefully, who that man is: I am he of whom the question is, for indeed I like of no­thing that you go about. Ionas might haue bene as bold as euer Phocion was, for he had a farre better theame to speake vpon.

7 It might be that our Prophet might haue a conceit, that for bringing such a message as the destructiō of Niniue, he might be murthered, or at the least be much abused; and that therefore 3 it was better to keepe him away. Good sleeping in a whole skin. What wise man wold aduenture his life, among barbarous peo­ple, which knew neither God nor goodnesse? If among them who knew something,1. Reg. 19.1. Chap. 13.1. Elias could hardly escape the fingers of Iezabel, and another Prophet could scant get away from ido­latrous Ieroboam, what might not be well feared among Gen­tiles, and proud bloudie people? If it were but to be imprisoned, or rayled at, or spit on, who would euer come there, that might keepe himselfe thence? yet this was a carnall reason, if the Pro­phet so thought.Plutarch. de Exilio. Ridemus eum qui dixit me­liorem Athenis esse lunam quā Corinthi. It was noted for follie in him that could say, that there was a better Moone at Athens then any was at Co­rinth. It sauoured of infidelitie in him that should thinke, that God was not as strong at Niniue, as he had bene in Israel. But Ionas wouldst thou not aduenture an abusing, to win vnto the Lord so goodly a Citie as Niniue was? such a king, and such a people? enlarge heauen with so manie? A Philosopher after thee,Diogenes Laer [...]ius in vita Aristip­pi. Aristippus by name, in a desire that he had to gaine Dio­nysius but vnto morall vertue, could endure that the tyrant whose good he did seeke, should raile and spit on him. And he could say for himselfe, that if fisher-men for the getting of a litle fish, could be well contented to soile and fowle themselues in the mud and mire, why should he refuse to endure any disgrace, if he might catch such a great fish as Dionysius was. The king of Niniue and his people, had bene as the taking of a whale, in comparison of Dionysius, although a king in Sicilia. But if it had bene worse, Ionas, that thou must haue lost thy life, woldst thou haue stucke thereat? To bestow thy life on God, who bestowed it on thee? to yeeld it when he called for it, who might call for it [Page 30] when he would? Could not he haue restored it in this world, if it had pleased him? or could he not make recompence in the kingdome of heauen? Thou couldst not but know, Ionas, that his Sonne afterward, should for thy sake lose his life. Was the seruant aboue the maister? How many for their Princes? how many for their countreys haue willingly died? Shall men do that for men, which thou wilt not for thy God? It was many yeares after thee,Eccles. 1.10. (but the saying of Salomon in specie is true, that there is no new thing, and so the like might be before thee) that at the siege of Auaricum a city of France by Iulius Caesar,Caesar. Com­ment. lib. 7. one french­man being slaine, by the stroke of an engine in warre called a Scorpion, a second commeth in his place, and when he was slaine, a third, and when he was dead, a fourth, they so entring certaine death for the safegard of their countrey. Shall souldiers do more for the keeping of a Citie, then a Prophet will do for the kingdome of heauen? This yet therefore is no reason: let vs heare a litle further.

4 8 Perhaps he did remember, that he did no good by prea­ching in his owne countrey, to men of rebellious hearts: & what good then should he do in preaching to infidels? If they would not heare who had the Law and the couenāt,Rom. 3 2. & to whom were committed the oracles of God, and knew what belonged to all these, what should be expected of ignorant persons? of super­stitious idolaters? He who had lost one labour in so large a sort spent, would hardly endure to lose another. As good sit still at home, or do something else, as go so farre and do nothing. This obiection yet was worldly, for how could he tell what the Lord would do?Rom. 11.33. Matth. 3.9. Had he diued into those counsels which are so vn­searchable, and those wayes which are past finding out? God was able of stones to raise vp children to Abraham. He could make the rough wayes plaine, & set the crooked things straight. Who should be of power to soften and mollifie the heart, of flintie to make it fleshie, but he who made the heart? Howsoe­uer let the Minister do his dutie, & leaue the rest to him. Paule planteth, 1. Cor. 3.6. Apollos watereth, but God giueth the increase. But if God be not pleased to giue anie increase, yet let Paule plant, and let Apollos water. The resolution which Ioab sometimes [Page 31] did beare speaking to the Israelites, should be the resolution of the Minister,2. Sam 10.12. Be strong, and let vs be valiant for our people, and for the cities of our God, and then let the Lord do what seemeth good in his eyes. So should Ionas haue said. In an vnknowne countrey God might haue sent him fruite, who found none in his owne.Ioseph. Anti. lib. 16.6. It is noted of Herod the great, by Iosephus, that he who at home was a man most vnhappie in his wiues & his chil­dren, was abroad a man most happie, for his great friendes and acquaintance and much other prosperitie. So it might haue bene with the Prophet. Therefore this yet is no reason.

9 It may be that he stomaked it, that the Gentiles should 5 know God, which was a fault in his country-men, while they accounted all other men dogges, but themselues the holy seed. We haue Abraham to our father. Matth. 3.9. Ioh. 8.39. Act. 10.44. In respect whereof, when Pe­ter had preached to the Gentils, and the gifts of the holy Ghost had fallen on Cornelius, and those which were with him; they of the Circumcision did chalenge the Apostle,Act. 11.2. that he had gone in to mē vncircumcised. So the Prophet being sicke of his coun­try-mens disease, might murmure that the Niniuites should be preferred before the auncient people of God, his word being ta­ken from these, and giuen to the other, as if they had better de­serued it. This might in time bring in the refu [...]all of the Iewes, and the calling of the Gentiles so spoken of by Noe,Gen. 9.27. Chap. 49.10. Deut. 32 21. Psal. 68.31. so told of by Iacob, so fore-prophecied by Moses, so fore-written by Dauid, all which more then apparantly did aime at such a matter. But is it come to this passe that the axe shall leade the workeman? or shall man teach his God what people he shall chuse? Hiram although a Gentile,1. Reg. 5.8. yet had a finger in the Temple of Salomon; so Niniue of the Gentiles might be a part of Gods spirituall temple. If Israel were to be reiected, they might thanke none but themselues for that losse, who had the custodie of so pre­cious a treasure, as the Arke was and the Cherubins, which signified Gods presence, and lost all the fruit of them and many blessings besides. But by many wordes of the old Testament, that time could not yet be come, nor the generall calling of the Gentiles, till that Messias did appeare, who was farre inough from Ionas. Therefore as the rest, so this was no pretence for [Page 32] the Prophet, to flie away from his charge.

10 Thus haue I touched such causes, as sense and reason yeeld, and the expositions on this place. The text doth not con­trarie these, and it is not vnlikely, that all or diuerse of them, were tumbling at that time in the working head of Ionas. But 6 there is one which expresly is named in the bodie of the text, as appeareth in the fourth chapter.Ion. 4.2. Ionas stood on his reputation, that he was the Lords messenger, & therfore was to speake no­thing but truth. He imagined that it might be his grosse discre­dit, to be taken in a lye; and he thought it might be a meanes, that Gods name might be reproched, and the Lord be blasphe­med. For I know saith he, that thou art a gracious God and mer­cifull, slow to anger and of great kindnesse, and repentest thee of the euill. Thus the man is so straight laced, that rather then him selfe would lose a word, he careth not if a million of men do lose their liues; if that goodly glorious citie were ruinated to the ground; if the innocent sucking infants were deuoured vp by destruction. A preposterous zeale, and furious, and which wanteth no ignorance also. For he should ha [...] learned to di­stinguish betweene Gods absolute word, and his conditionall threatnings. Some things are without anie condition, [...]e will haue them to be so: some other things are with an If, as, if they do not repent. It was an absolute speech: The seed of the wo­man shall bruse the serpents head.Gen. 3.15. But it is a word with condi­tion, The Lord will not forsake his people, that is, if they do not first forsake him, which maner of intended, or included condi­tion if Ionas had remembred, when he was to vtter his speech, That Niniue should be destroyed, Verum est, if they repented not, and called for grace, God might haue done his pleasure, and his seruant haue said true also.

11 This reason of the Prophet wherfore he should fly from Gods seruice, is more grieuous then the rest. For would he shor­ten the Lord of his mercie? Would man that was a sinner, and must be saued by a pardon, enuie that other sinners should haue their pardō also?Matth. 20.15. Was Ionas his eye euil because Gods eye was good? Then wellfare Saint Paule writing to Titus, whom he would haue to remember his charge, and the people whom he [Page 33] taught,Tit. 3.2.3. to shew meekenesse to all men, and he layeth this downe as one cause, for that we our selues also were in times past vnwise and disobedient. Tullius pro M. Marcello. Tully was of better nature, who would haue Marcellus spared, because himselfe before had by Caesar bene spared. But he reprocheth it vnto Tubero, that he would offer to accuse Ligarius of that,Pro Q. Liga­rio. August. Ho­mil. 6. Tomo 10. Quia Deus ex­tendit pontem misericordiae suae vt tu trās­ire posses, hoc vis vt iam sub­ducat ne alius transeat? wherein himselfe and other had bene guiltie. S. Austē in the sixth of those, which are only called by the name of his Homelies, doth by a secret inclusion compare this mind of man, to one who is to passe ouer a ditch, or streame of water, (where if he passe not he dieth, and if he plunge in, he drowneth) and there doth find that fauour to haue a bridge or planke of timber layed crosse to helpe him ouer: but when other do come after, who are in that state as he was, he would haue it withdrawne from them. When God saith he hath stretched out his bridge of mercy that thou mayst go ouer, wilt thou that he shall withdraw it, least some other do come that way? This is a cruell position, and should not be in the child of God. Graue Seneca doth acount it a great fault in Lysimachus,Senec. de Ira. lib. 3. that whereas himselfe vpon Alexanders displeasure, was cast vnto a Lion to be deuoured, and happily escaped by killing that Lion, yet he caried so furious and cruell a heart toward another man, as to cut off the eares and nose from Telesphorus Rhodius, whom in former time he had entertained as his friend, but then afterward kept him being so mangled, in a cage, as if he had bene some strange beast. He should haue learned by his owne example to haue pitied another man. That verse of Dido is good,

Non ignara mali miseris succurrere disco.
Virgil. Ae­neid. 1.

I who haue tasted of sorow, haue learned thereby to pitie those whom I see to be in misery. That partie who hath found mercie, should not grudge mercie vnto other. Our Prophet hath for­got this. Nothing else but thunder and lightening, and fire from heauen would serue the turne, if he must go to Niniue. A humour verie ambitious, which to feed it selfe in his fancies, careth not if other perish. This is a grieuous fault wheresoeuer it be found. The magnifying of one man, and the loftinesse which he conceiueth, should not be the ruine of manie. What is the cause saith Saint Bernard of such fury many times? Nothing [Page 34] else saith he but this, Bernardus Epistol. 126. Luc. 2.14. Displicet mor­talibus Ange­lica illa parti­tio qua gloria D [...]o & pax ho­minibus nūcia­tur: & dum gloriam vsur­pant, turbant pacem. Augustin. de verbis Dom. Serm. 15. that the diuision of the Angels doth not please mortall men. For they say, Glorie to God on high, and peace to men: but vvhile men do seeke the glorie they do disturbe the peace. The Prophet in this place, is sicke of this disease. Let Niniue and ten Niniues sincke, burne, or do what it will: he had leifer haue his minde satisfied, then all the world be­sides. Whereof because he feareth that he shall faile, he will take such a course, as in the end proueth little to his owne ease. He ariseth as God bad him, and away he goeth with haste; but bet­ter that he had halted, so it had bene in the right way, then to run with speed in a wrong way. And thus now hauing heard the reasons which are by anie supposed to put him besides his dutie, let vs see the course which he taketh.

He went downe to Iapho, &c.

Septuagint. [...]. Hierony. in hunc locum.12 The Septuagint translate it, he went vp to Iapho; but Hierome doth dislike it, being moued thereto both by the He­brew word, and by his owne experience. For liuing long, as he did in the holy land as we commonly call it, he saw that Iapho did stand low, and therefore to be more fit for descending then ascending. It is a hauen towne in Palestina standing vpon the Mediterrane sea, and it is the same which is called Ioppa in the tenth of the Actes,Acts. 10.15. whither Cornelius sent for Peter. This is one of those townes, which the Christians sometimes in their voyage to the holy land,Roger. Ho­ueden in Ri­chardo pri­mo. Guliel. Neu­bringens. Hist. 4.27. Arias Mont. in hunc locū Hieron. in Ezec. 27.12. did recouer from Saladine the great king of Egypt: and it had afterward bene regained by him, but that Richard the first then king of this land, being returning on his iourney for England, did bring backe his armie, and succour it at need, as Neubringensis writeth. From this Iapho our Pro­phet would go vnto Tarshish, which some haue thought to be the old citie Carthage, and Hierome himselfe though not in this place yet in the seuen and twentieth of Ezechiel doth reade Carthaginiens, where as we reade, men of Tarshish. Yet because we are not sure, that Carthage was then built, (for this Prophecie is auncient, and Salomons time more auncient, when Tarshish was right famous, which I thinke Carthage was not) I therefore followe them who take it for Tarsus a towne of Cilicia in Asia the lesser,Gualther. in hunc locum. which was nearer to the Iewes, and [Page 35] well knowne among them, as may be gathered by Pauls speech, saying that he was borne there, and calling it a famous citie in Ci­licia. I am the more induced hereunto,Ioseph. Anti­quit. lib. 9.11. because Iosephus reci­ting this storie saith expresly, that Ionas meant to flie to Tarsus in Cilicia. And I suppose this to be the place, whither Salomon did send for things of pleasure, and of profit, when it is said that he sent vnto Tarshish for gold and siluer and iuorie and Apes and peacockes. 1. Reg. 10.22.

13 This Citie then being a place of great traffike, whither marchants did frequent, to buy and sell wares, doth yeeld pro­bable coniecture, although no necessarie inference, that Ionas not liking his message to Niniue, wold now for worldly respects, leaue his calling and become a marchant. It would wel haue be­commed him, to renounce his vocation, and fallen to merchan­dising. His sanctified gifts would haue well serued to that pur­pose. That calling in it self is certainly not vnlawfull, but yet not lawfull to euerie man. There are in it, as by men it is commonly vsed, great occasions of abuses, and those so great, that Syraci­des saith of it,Eccles. 26 30. Chap. 27.2. A marchant cannot lightly keepe him from vvrong. And, As a naile in the wall sticketh fast betweene the ioynts of the stones, Herodotus in Clio. Non extimui [...]nquam homi­nes illos, quibus locus est in me­dia vrbe va­cuus ad quem collecti mutuis ipsi s [...]bi iura­mentis impone­rent. so doth sinne sticke betweene the selling and buying. Cyrus the king of Persia did note great fraud and deceipt to be in the Greeks, when he could say of them, that he feared not such men, as had a place emptie in the midst of their citie, to the which they gathering euery day, beguiled one another with othes and swearing. These wordes saith Herodotus did Cyrus cast foorth against all the Greekes, because they had large market places wherin they vsed their traffiking, as among vs might be a Bource or Exchange. Let this rather be a fault of the persons then of the things, since God hath ordained that trade to his glorie, to the vse of nauigation, to the discouerie of countreys, to the commu­nicating of cōmodities in one nation to another, to the bringing in of such things as are comfortable to man; yea seruiceable in religion, as wine to vs Northerne people, to be vsed in the Sa­crament, as the best representation of the bloud of Christ Iesus. But howsoeuer for a Prophet, to leaue his preaching in the name of the Lord, and fall to marchandising (if we will take it so) [Page 36] was a fault in the highest degree, to run from God to men: from heauen vnto earth.

14 I find in the new Testament, that from towl-gatherers and fishers men came to be Apostles; and I know that after their sanctifying,Ioh. 21.3. Act. 18.3. for a need they did vse their occupations, as the A­postles went a fishing, and Saint Paule did make tents; but these things were but as hand-maidens to the studie of Diuinitie, and to the Mistresse the word; but that preaching was left for anie of these, I thinke a man may turne the whole Bible ouer, and ouer againe,2. Tim. 4 10. and find no such example. Onely this, it was small praise to Demas as here it is to Ionas, that he left S. Paule, and embraced this present world. In our time let mē take heed, whō God hath blessed with verie good gifts, that it be not layd vnto their charge, that they with Ionas haue chosen to do something else, as to be farmors, or graziers, or husbandmē in the country, rather then to preach the word, whereunto in former time they were in shew selected. I speake not in bitternesse, but rather do grieue at it. The Church hath had a wound by it. If when they did teach before, they preached and were not called, that were a grieuous fault, to run & not be sent. If they formerly were cal­led, then who hath now recalled thē? Those things about which they faint and fall, are not of that moment, as is the preaching of the word. I do not yet find any thing, either expresly or by con­sequent, directly to be drawne throughout the whole booke of God, for the leauing or refusing of this or of that garment, & so of other circumstances, which somtimes were in question, but I am sure that I find this plainely,1. Cor. 9.16. wo is vnto me if I preach not the Gospel. I do iudge no mans consciēce, but leaue that to the Lord. Yet to speake mine opinion, I do feare that it cā be but smal cō ­fort, to the heart of a true Christian, in so glorious a time of the Gospel, as we haue (and the Lord make vs thankful for it) to say that in England he is persecuted for preaching of the Gospell. Lesse comfort to be said truly, to be a cause to himselfe, of stop­ping his mouth from preaching of the Gospell. But least of all, with Ionas to go from Niniue to Tarsus, from being a Prophet, to be a marchant, or follow some other calling. Ionas by it sped but il, let thē looke to themselues. I desire that all should be wel.

[Page 37]
He found a ship going to Tarshish.

15 God doth manie times suffer those things to be ready, by the which we may fall, that we may learne that in our selues there is no measure of iniquitie, if God once do giue vs ouer, or leaue vs for a time. Whereupon we haue need to pray, not only as some pray,Matth. 6.13. [...]. that he wil not suffer vs to be led into temptation, but that he will not leade vs into temptation, by causing vs to see enticements, and if he do, that then he will deliuer vs from euill. That is, if he trie vs, that he will not suffer vs to fall: if he lay a burthen on vs, that he will giue vs grace to beare it. But that is another matter. He findeth a ship readie, and like a man that meant to trauell, hauing money in his purse (so the Prophet is not thread-bare, he hath money in his purse) he payeth the fare of her. He may be thought in this, to be a man of good con­science, that such as laboured for him, should haue the price of their paines. A lesson worth the learning, for those which haue to do with labourers, and poore workemen, that they do not de­taine their wages.Matth. 10.10. The labourer saith our Sauiour, is worthy of his hire. God hath diuerse sayings in his Law, that the wages of such persons as are hired,Leuit. 19.13. Deut. 24.14. should not be detained from them, least in anguish of their soule the men crie vnto the Lord, and he take it not well. The rich men that do this, are bidden by Saint Iames to weepe and howle for the miseries that shall come vpon them. Iac. 5.1.3. And it is added, Your gold and siluer is cankered, and the rust of them shall be a witnesse against you, and shall eate your flesh as it were fire. The Prophet howsoeuer in other things he deale carelesly, yet in this he will not offend. He will rather breake with God, then cracke his credit with men. If they worke they shall haue money.

16 But may we not rather collect something here, which maketh against the Prophet, that so firily he is set, and so hotely enflamed to run from his dutie, that rather then faile, his purse shall go for his passage? Here is earnestnesse with a witnesse; he careth not for his companie, be they Gentiles, or infidels, or ido­laters as they were, (for that will appeare by it which followeth) he careth not so that he may be gone. So that he may do amisse, he will not spare his money. See the corruptnesse of our nature. [Page 38] They who are otherwise straight-handed inough, in promoting that which is good, will spare no cost at all to further that which is euill. I do not finde that the Priests were verie liberall to the poore, especially out of the common treasurie: yet that Christ may be betrayed,Matth. 26.15. Chap. 27.57. Iudas shall haue for his part thirtie peeces of siluer. Let Ioseph of Arimathea bestow cost if he wil, on burying Christ crucified; the rulers will none: but so that it may be ru­moured, that his Disciples came by night and stole him away,Chap. 28.12. the souldiers shal haue large pay.Socrat. Hist. Eccles. 3.12. The Apostata Iulian was eger inough to get money from the Christians, by exactions and op­pressions, but when he bad the Iewes build the Temple at Ieru­salem, in spite of Iesus Christ,Chap. 17. Ammian. Marcel. li. 23. who had told before that it neuer should be reedified, it is certaine that his purse, as well as his tongue, did go in that bargaine. Our age hath too manie of such men as these be. Such as be of good place, if they be solicited by their honest neighbours, to helpe forward a Lecture, for the tea­ching of the people of God, their owne children and seruants, yea perhaps themselues too (who are most ignorant of all) or to maintaine an able Minister; they haue not a penie, their charge is so great, and so many wayes they are burthened: but to di­sturbe their Preacher, or call him in question, or make him stand in law for his tithes and due maintenaunce, they haue money inough. For the vsing of Gods gifts to the honour of his name, they haue other businesse: but to vse them against God or anie of his good children, they haue store and will inough.

17 He payeth that he may be gone, and he telleth the other circumstances, that he may confesse his sinne to be more grie­uous before God. But twise in this verse it is named that he would fly from the presence of the Lord. In the beginning & in the end. But might that be done Ionas? Can anie withdraw himself from the sight of the Lord? Is not he ruler as well of the sea, as of the land? Can a man see himselfe anie where, where God can not see him?Psal. 94.9. He who framed the eye shal not he see? or he who made the eare, shall he not heare? Surely Ionas could not be ignorant, that this was not the matter. We will not do such wrong to him, as to thinke that a Prophet had not read Dauids Psalmes. And if he had done that, then he well might remem­ber [Page 39] that excellent Psalme of Dauid;Psal. 139.3. Thou compassest my pathes and my lying downe, and art accustomed to all my wayes. There is not a word in my tongue, but lo thou knowest it wholly ô Lord. Whither shall I go from thy Spirit, or whither shall I fly from thy 7 presence? If I ascend into heauen thou art there: if I lye downe in hell, thou art there. Let me take the wings of the morning and dwell in the vttermost parts of the sea, yet thither shall thy hand leade me, and thy right hand shall hold me. Then the caues of the earth, the secretes of walles, the darkenesse of the night, the distance of the place either by land or sea, cannot detaine from Gods presence. Perhaps Adam and his wife, for want of expe­rience (for they had neuer fallen before) might thinke that by running among the trees of Paradise,Gen. 3.8. they might hide thēselues. But when God had once found them (which was not long to do) they might be out of that opinion. Their posteritie which came after them, & had read the Scriptures, might be resolued for that matter.Acts. 17.28. For in God we moue and liue and haue our be­ing. And therefore wheresoeuer we do moue, or wheresoeuer we do liue, or wheresoeuer we haue our being, there God is by his power, there God is by his presence. It shall be then but a bad shift for the miscreants of the earth, to crie in the day of ven­geance, to the mountaines and the rockes, Apoc. 6.15. fall on vs and hide vs from the presence of him that sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lambe. They cannot escape his sight, they cannot auoyd his iudgement.Diodor. Sic. Bibliothecae lib. 12. When Pericles once was sad, about yeel­ding an account of much money to the Atheniens, which he possibly could not discharge, his nephew Alcibiades did helpe him with this good counsel, that he should not beat his braines, how he might giue a reckening, but he rather should deuise how he might giue no reckening. He tooke this course indeed, and by plunging the Atheniens into a grieuous warre, he did auoyd the account. Before the Lord of heauen this will not serue the turne: he knoweth all things and seeth all things. Ionas could not be so grosse as to run so from his presence.

18 But if that thought were in him, or if any man wil so take it, he went the worst way to worke for himselfe, that euer man did. For he that would be so blockish, as to thinke he might flie [Page 40] from God, and would go to sea to do it, were worthie to be re­gistred, for a man most vnaduised. This is as much, as if to auoid some heate, that commeth by an ague, the patient should run into the fire, as it is said that Hercules did being troubled with a frenzie:Seneca in Herc. Octaeo. or if another to auoide a showre of raine, should leape into the riuer: for if Gods hand any where do euidently appeare, or if any where it be fearefull,Iuuenalis Satyra 12. Digitis à morte remotus qua. tuor aut septem si sit latissima taeda. it is in being at sea, where, as the Poet speaketh, a man is stil within foure or at most seuen inches of his death: where stormes that be impetuous do cause them to pray, who scant euer prayed before; where rockes, and sands, and gulfes are readie still to deuoure. The remembrance of this made Dauid speake so sufficiently, They that go dovvne to the sea in ships, Psal. 107.23. and occupy by the great vvaters, they see the vvorkes of the Lord and his vvonders in the deepe. Paule found this by experience,Acts. 27.18. when he endured such a storme and wrecke too, in the Mediterrane sea. He who would see more of this, let him reade in Virgil,Virgilius Ae­neid. 1. what a tempest is described to haue befallen Aeneas in the Sicilian sea. So then if God be present any where to punish or preserue, it is in the huge Ocean. That if a man would haue wished to be followed as with a furie, he should do as Ionas did.Plin-Iunior lib. 6. Episto­larum. Erant qui me­tu mortu mor­tē precarentur. When Plinie the elder was choked, in going to see Vesuuius a hill which burned in Campania (as Aetna oftentimes doth in Sicilia) the sight thereof was so terrible, that the behol­ders were all amazed at it. But there were saith the younger Plinie among them some, who were so afrayd of death, that they vvished themselues to be dead. They so feared that which they feared, that they wished for that which they feared. If our Pro­phet did desire to escape away from the Lord, he did iust as these other: for to flie away from Gods presence, he runneth into Gods presence.

19 Therefore we will not imagine that Ionas was so igno­rant, to thinke thus to get from the Lord: but his going from Gods presence, doth signifie in this place a departing from his dutie, and from the execution of his office. For they are said in the Scripture, to be in the Lords presence, or to stand before the Lord, who do execute their ministery or functiō as they should. So the Lord separated the tribe of Leui, Deut. 10.8. to beare the Arke of [Page 41] the couenant of the Lord, and to stand before the Lord, which is expounded there, to minister vnto him and to blesse in his name to this day. 1. Reg. 17.1. So as the Lord God of Israel liueth saith Elias before whom I do stand, that is, whom faithfully I do serue, there shall be neither deaw nor raine these yeares but according to my word. The verie selfe same phrase doth Elizeus vse, in another place to Naaman the Syrian.2. Reg. 5.16. The contrarie of which speech is vttered by that wicked Cain,Gen. 4.14.16 who did neuer serue God: From thy face I shall be hid. And afterward, Cain went out from the presence of the Lord. He was not in his grace: he would not be in his seruice. Such was our Prophets flight from the presence of the Lord. When he should haue performed his calling, & vpon occasions, continually haue taken direction from the voyce of God spea­king to him, he did forsake his charge, and could haue bene wel contented, if God would neuer more haue spoken to him. But his maister will not leaue him so. This is an excellent comfort to the Ministers of the Gospell, that as long as they do their duties they stand before the Lord, who doth protect and preserue them from the rage of bloudie tyrants, from the tempests of the world, from the mischiefe of cruell enemies. Neither can the rage of Sathan lay anie thing more vpon them, then God giueth them grace to beare. And againe in as much as in this life they are spectacles to men, in preaching and in liuing, they are specta­cles to Angels, they are spectacles to God, they are warned that they discharge their function with sinceritie, remembring this good lesson,2. Cor. 2.17. that they be not as many, who make marchandise of the word of God, but as of sinceritie, but as of God in the sight of God, speaking in Christ.

20 In these most perillous times, wherein Satan fretteth and rageth; wherein Papisme is litle weakned, but Atheisme waxeth strong, and the sinnes of men do crie; but on the other side pitie waxeth thin, and charitie groweth cold, This should be a liuely motion to stirre vp the Spirit of God in vs, that with alacritie we may go forward, to the building vp of Gods house, and not to be wearied in well doing, or withdraw our selues frō the work. In the fifteenth of the Actes,Acts. 15.38. although Barnabas were more mild, and did not take the matter so hainously, yet Paule did so [Page 42] dislike it in Iohn Marke at Pamphylia, that he would not go with them about the Lords seruice, that he refused his companie af­terward. Surely God looketh for much of them, whom he hath singled out to be the messengers of his glorie. If with Ionas we should leaue him, and turne away from his presence when he hath vse for vs in the field, let vs feare least a greater iudgement befall vs, then did vnto Ionas. Which what it was, in the next by Gods grace I shall shew. In the meane time Iesus send▪ vs due consideration of our calling, that not following wordly reasons which often draw men to Tharsus when they should go to Ni­niue, but attending Gods commaundement, we may with ioy run our course, and so possesse that inestimable crowne of iu­stice, which the righteous Lord hath layed vp for all those that loue his comming. To this God be praise for euer.


The chiefe points. 2. The punishment of the Prophet may well fright other from sinne. 4. All tempests depend of God. 6. Yet Satan and his instruments, by Gods permission haue sometimes a finger in them. 10. How the sinne of one bringeth punishment vpon manie. 13. Bad companie is to be auoided. 14. The description of the tempest. 16. Life is dearer then goods. 18. Affliction driueth to deuotion.

IONAH. 1.4.5

But the Lord sent out a great wind into the sea, and there vvas a mighty tempest in the sea, so that the ship was like to be broken. Then the mariners were afrayd and cried euery man vnto his God, and cast the wares that were in the ship into the sea, to lighten it of them.

OVr Prophet as a man who would verie gladly be rid of his maister, hath gotten him to the sea; the land cannot hold him: but his maister not so willing to part with his seruant, sendeth such a message after [Page 43] him, as will bring him back againe, or make him do farre worse. He would not haue his messenger run so to his owne ruine, and lie obdurate in his sinne; he wold not haue his purpose of prea­ching at Niniue, be vtterly relinquished; but rather because it hath so long bin deferred, he by whom the stay hath bin made, shall heare of it with a witnesse. Here followeth such a tempest, to bid him welcome to the sea, that if such should be common, it needed not be noted to be the speech of a wise man,Cato. that he wondred that anie one wold come twise at the sea: hauing seene the perill of it, wold come at it againe; for euerie wise man wold so say. The wind doth now so blow, the waues do so beate, the sea doth so worke, the ship is so endangered, the sea-men are so afraid, Ionas so by a lot is singled out to death, that drowning was the least that could befall vnto him. We neede make no doubt, but all this was done for Ionas his sake. For the question is here true,Habac 3 8. which a Prophet elsewhere asketh: Was the Lord angry against the riuers? or was thine anger against the flouds? or was thy vvrath against the sea? No, it was against the sinne of Ionas, that all this came as vengeance, and that God so sent his messengers of wrath and of displeasure.

2 He desireth that his Prophet should be warned, for all the dayes that he was to liue in the world, to play no more such parts: for what end should the next haue, if he sped so ill with this? And he would haue other men to take example by him, that they run not, no not with his owne seruants, to grosse no­torious crimes, least they smart for it with his seruants. For if the greene wood so burne,Luc. 23.31. what shall become of the drie? if a leader do such penance, what shall a common man? if a Prophet do so pay for it, how shall a meane bodie escape? By this example the presumptuous heart of such is broken, as when they haue sinned wilfully, in steed of asking pardon by confession and re­pentance, can sooth themselues in their follies, saying that the best men haue offended; and whie should it be strange for them to go astray, since Gods Saints haue done worse? Not onely Ionas here forsaketh his vocation,Gen. 9.21. Chap. 19.33. 2. Sam. 11 4. 1. Reg. 11.1. but Noe offendeth in drun­kennesse, and Lot in worse, euen in incest, and Dauid in adul­terie, and Salomon that wise king in marying manie infidels. [Page 44] The grosse falles of all which men, are not proposed vnto vs in the holy booke of God, to incourage vs to transgression: (for that were a Spiders propertie to sucke such poison from them) but rather,Augustin. de Doct. Christ. lib. 3. as S. Austen teacheth vs, to put vs in minde of that warning of the Apostle, that he who standeth should take heed least he fall: to humble vs to obedience, not to puffe vs vp to pride. But withall if they could remember, that although the Lord did couer the infirmities of his children, with the skirts of his Sonnes mercie, least they should finally perish; yet to shew how he hateth sinne, euen in the best of his people, he sendeth them in this world, whipping with temporall rods enough: they may verie well find, that there is small reason why they should be in loue with the bargaine.Gen. 9.25. For was there not a Cham to de­ride his father, & so farre to moue the patience of that righteous preacher Noe, as in bitternesse to curse him? Was there not an Absolon readie so with all kind of contumelie to scourge offen­ding Dauid,2. Sam. 16.22. as to abuse his fathers concubines, and to seeke his fathers life?1. Reg. Chap. 12.20. Here was a Hadad, and there a Rezon, and a Ieroboam in the third place, to vexe wife-doting Salomon, that he could not rest in his old age: and afterward his sonne Ro­boam did lose ten tribes of twelue.

3 And as for the Prophet here, he bestoweth on himselfe a whole Chapter, to shew the fruite of his fall, that other might forbeare to offend, by the example of that grieuous punishmēt which he sustained. If he had bene as nimble to haue excused his fault, as these be in our dayes, he might haue made some Apo­logie for himselfe, or at least haue concealed his penance which befel him▪ that when no man had bene frighted by his case, other might haue walked in his steps; and the commonnesse of the fault might haue excused the crime.Socrat. Hist. Eccles. l. 4.26. Caesar Baro­nius hoc fal­sò proditum à Socrate di­cit. Annal. Eccles. Tomo 4. Anno Do­mini 370. For when multitudes do as we do, we thinke that they do ease our burthen, as the Empe­rour Valentinian imagined, (if Socrates report truth of him) when hauing one wife of his owne called Seuera, whom he was vnwilling to leaue, he was in loue also with another virgin cal­led Iustina, and he maried her too. And least this fault should seeme most grosse, if he alone were noted for so scandalous be­hauiour, by a law of purpose made, he giueth leaue to all that [Page 45] would to marrie two wiues a peece: thinking that when manie transgressed he should be more free from blame. Our Ionas is so charitable as to take another course, not to induce men to the like by himselfe, but to terrifie them much rather, by recording how he sped. To fall, because the Patriarkes and Prophets haue oft fallen,Diogen. La­ertius. lib. 2. Plato in Phaedone. is as much as willingly to tast of poyson, because So­crates once drunke poyson, which were but a foolish triall. His poyson was his death: And so had sinne bene death, to the ho­liest, if God had not giuen repentaunce, to expell the force of iniquitie. But what man is he who can promise to himselfe re­pentaunce, or rising when he is fallen? Manie hope for it but few haue it;Augustin. in Psalm. 51. Non cadendi exemplum pro­positum est, sed si ceciderure­surgendi. At­tende ne cadas. manie speake of it, but few vse it, which maketh that worthie saying of S. Austen to be true, Manie will fall vvith Dauid, but they will not arise with Dauid. No example of fal­ling is in him proposed to thee, but of rising if thou haue fallen. Take heed thou go not downe. Let not the slip of the greater, be the delight of the lesser; but let the fall of the greater, be the trem­bling of the lesser. Thus that holie father speaketh. If the greatest fall thou mayest fall, therefore do not presume: but if the greatest be punished, then feare Gods righteous iudgement. You shall heare how Ionas sped.

The Lord sent out a vvind.

4 It is well said by Dauid,Psal. 11.6. that God rayneth on the wicked fire and brimstone and stormy tempest. But more fitlie to my pur­pose, that fire and haile, Psal. 148.8. and snow, and vapours, and stormie vvind do execute his word. For these and other meteors, are his creatures made by him: his subiects that liue vnder him: his mes­sengers sent from him to punish or to helpe, to execute his will. The voyce of the Lord is vpon the vvaters, Psal. 29.3. the God of glorie ma­keth it to thunder. If it do haile in Egypt, where it raineth ve­rie few times,Exod. 9.23. Deut. 11.10. Exod. 10.13.19. God sendeth that haile on Pharao. If an East wind bring in grashoppers, and a West wind driue them out, Moses telleth vs in Exodus, that both come from the Lord. The wind and the tempest depend not on chaunce, or anie blind fortune, but on the soueraigne power of the Almightie Creatour. If na­ture be here vsed, or the ordinarie course of Sunne, and Moone, and starres, to attract ought or beate it backe againe, these are [Page 46] but Gods hand-maidens,Flauius Vo­piscus in vita Cari. to worke his designements. If Carus the Emperor be blasted to death with lightening, it is the Lords doing. If Theodosius haue the skie to warre against his enemies, and the winds as his sworne seruants to helpe forward his vi­ctorie, some Claudian must sing,Claudian. de 3. consolatu Honorij. O nimium di­lecte Deo cui militat aether. Et cōiurati ve­munt ad clas­sica venti. Anno. 1588. that he or his sonne Honorius who was then present with him, is much beloued of God, O ni­nimium dilecte Deo. If our Spaniards when they are beyond Scotland, be brought backe againe by Ireland, and when men looke not after them, winds and waues do pursue them in mira­culous sort (in which I feare lest we offend, that we speake not of it oftener, & parents tell it not vnto their childrē) if we would do as we should do, we must sing with S. Ambrose, Te Deum laudamus. We praise thee ô God. Who so walketh by the land, or passeth by the sea, if winds promote his businesse, or hinder his purpose, and disquiet him in his enterprise, let him assigne it to his prouidence who ruleth all with power, who sent that tem­pest here to Ionas; for from him they do all come.

5 Those Ethnickes who knew little or nothing of true pie­tie, did yet ayme at this euen by the verie light of nature; when by the glimsing sight of reason, they layd it downe that a diuine substaunce did gouerne these creatures, (although they missed much of his maiestie) when Neptune for the sea was Lord of the waues, and Aeolus for the aire was maister of the winds. Peo­ple ruder then the Greekes and more barbarous then the Ro­manes, haue gessed at such a thing, and had such a like conceit; I meane the Westerne Indians,Petrus Mar­tyr Decade. 3.2. the dull people of America, who thought that thunder and lightning & tempest were sent by the Sunne, whom they reputed for a God as Peter Martyr letteth vs know. The more absurde the while, were the Thurij in my iudgement, a people of Italie where both learning and ciuilitie did grow.Aelian. Hist. lib. 12.61. For as Aelian writeth of them, when Dionysius the tyrant of Sicilia came vp against them with three hundreth sayle of ships, intending to destroy them, they being almost oppressed with his violēce, yet had this good hap befallen vnto them, that a great Northrē wind blew, & so wracked those ships, that they were spilled almost all. In remēbrance whereof, they by a cōmon consent made this North-wind a God, admitted him into their [Page 47] Citie, incorporated him among them, appointed him an house and goods of his owne, and euerie yeare besides did sacrifice vn­to him. These men looked too low: they were too too much base minded, when they made the wind a God, whom nature and reason had taught other Gentiles to be but a Gods seruant. The wind obeyeth, and ruleth not: it is not at pleasure to do what it would, if there were a will in it: it hath a maister; not Aeolus, but one that fitteth farre higher.

6 Yet the question is here offred,De hac quae­stione vide Nicolaú Re­migium Dae­monolatriae. lib. 1.25. whether that inferiour cre­atures do not sometimes stirre vp tempests, as wind, or rayne or thunder, for I put them in one degree, and consider them as be­ing of like nature, concerning this point. Whether Satan by him selfe, or the ministers of Satan, enchaunters or witches, or necro­mancers and coniurers, cannot stirre vp such things? and if they can, how they then are said to be wrought by Gods finger? That learned man Seneca did thinke it so plaine that nothing could be plainer,Sen [...]c. Nat. Quaest li. 4 7 Rudis adl [...]uc antiquitas credebat. Quorum nihil posse fieri tam palam est. Wierus de praestigi [...]s Daemonū, in Apologetico Cōc. Brētij. Impiorū est o­pinio, diabolū maleficas & lamias gran­dinemciere. Iustin, Mart. quaest. 31. ad orthodoxos incredibile dicit, posse imbres per incātamēta prouenire. that tēpests could not be raised by any inchauntments, when he speaketh on this sort, Antiquitie being yet rude, did be­leeue both that rayne could be brought and driuen away too by charmes; of vvhich things that neither can be done, it is so mani­fest, that for this matters sake no schoole of any Philosopher is e­uer to be entred. No doubt, there be many also of the Christians, and those very learned men who are altogether of that opinion. In that booke which Wierus hath written De Praestigijs Demo­num, is a sermon which Brentius made by occasion of a great hayle, that fell in some parts of Germanie and did much hurt to the corne and vineyards. And therein are these words, It is the opinion of vvicked men, that the diuell and vvitches and sorce­resses do stirre vp hayle, and therewith do hurt and destroy vvine and corne. To these may be added more. And yet on the other side, that such gracelesse people do chalenge to themselues a power in these cases; that they attempt to stirre vp thunders; that they trie to raise vp winds, to crosse things at sea, or to ef­fect things at land; and that they affirme that they can do thus, may be well knowne to anie, who either in experience shall conferre with such offenders, or else reade such matters as are written of them. To say nothing of the one, that is, what they [Page 48] assume; but to speake to the other, I am satisfied that in Poetrie that speech is too much,

Virgil. Eglo­ga 8.
Carmina de caelo possunt deducere Lunam.

Charmes and inchantments can fetch the verie Moone downe out of heauen, and other like in that place: for that is a thing im­possible, and onely deliuered from an old imagination or rather boasting of the Thessalian women, who were much addicted to that wickednesse. But the saying of Medea in one of the Tra­gedies of the younger Seneca hath some more reason to con­firme it.Seneca in Medea.

Et euocaui nubibus siccis aquas.

I haue forced rayne out of the cloudes vvhich before vvere drie. The soothsayers of Hetruria,Sozom. Eccl. Hist. lib. 9 6. as Sozomen doth write, would haue made men beleeue, that they could raise vp thunderbolts to driue away their enemies. The storie is notable which Dion hath of Sidius Geta a Romane leader.Dion Histor. lib. 60. This Captaine, saith he, pursuing the Moores in the hote countrie of Affrike, had both himselfe and his armie almost perished for want of water. One of the confederate Moores, commeth in this extremitie vnto Sidius, and wisheth him that by Art Magike he would procure down some raine, or at least suffer it so to be, professing that him selfe had oftentimes made triall thereof, and had neuer failed in his attempt. This was done, and immediatly such store of rayne did folow thereupon, as both releeued his men and frighted his enemies, as if heauen it selfe had now conspired against them. I might adde more examples of graue and learned writers, who thinke that such meteors come oftentimes by such meanes.

Iouianus Pōtanus lib. 5. Rerum suo tempore ge­starum.7 Iouianus Pontanus in the fifth booke of the Actes of his time, hath a Narration to this purpose, but a iudgement to the contrarie. In that mightie quarrell betweene the kings of Arra­gon, and the house of Aniou in Fraunce for the kingdome of Naples, Ferdinandus king of Arragon did besiege Mont-dra­gon a towne and castle in old Campania, where because the towne stood high on the top of a rocke, and the season was ex­ceeding dry, he hoped that ere lōg, for want of water he should winne it to his pleasure. Now the inhabitants thereof being al­most dead for thirst, being aduised therunto by certaine Priests, [Page 49] most wicked and vngodly persons, did trie this conclusion, then the which there haue bene few more irreligious or impious. Stealing downe in the darke of the night, through the watch which was set by the enemie, they crept along the rockes euen to the sea side, and all the way drew with them a Crucifixe (the resemblance of Christ crucified, and hanging on the crosse) which first they cursed and banned, with manie inchanted spee­ches, but afterward with most execrable wordes they threw it into the sea, vsing imprecations against the heauen, and earth, and water, so to wring from them a tempest. In the meane time the Priests being as wicked men as liued, to satisfie the souldiers who set them on worke, brought an Asse to the church doore, and sung a Dirge to him as to a man now dying; then they put into his mouth, their Sacrament of the Altar, & so with funerall hymnes, did burie the Asse aliue before the church doore. This vngodly solemnitie was scant ended, but the aire was full of clouds, the sea was stirred with the wind, the heauen did roare with thunder, the earth did flash with lightening, trees were plucked vp by the rootes, the stones did rent in peeces, & there fell such abundance of raine, that from the top of the rock whole streames did runne of water. So the king missed of his purpose. The Author which writeth this, confessing the whole matter, and describing it as I haue done, doth thinke that their Magicke did not cause the raine, but that it came naturally, so much wet falling after so long a drowth. His reason is, that for such villany and blasphemie as was then vsed toward himselfe, God would not send a benefite vnto men to helpe them at their need, but would rather suffer them to fall into destruction.

8 But that reason is not sufficient: for God oftentimes doth suffer the reprobate to haue worldly things at their pleasure, to harden them the more, and that the delusions of Satan, may be so much the stronger in them, to their finall confusion. It is therefore most probable, that their wickednesse did so extraor­dinarily stirre vp that raine. For when Satan hath libertie frō the Lord to do things, either to blind the reprobate, or to chastise the elect being fallen into sinne, or to trie the faith of the best, he imparteth his power with his ministers, speciall instruments of [Page 50] his glorie, these necromancers & coniurers, and other such like. The sorcerers who shewed such sights to Pharao in Egypt, do proue both these grounds to be true, first that Satan oftentimes yeeldeth his power vnto his seruaunts, and secondlie that God suffereth the wicked to haue their desire in many things, to their greater ouerthrow. To turne a rod into a serpent, and riuers in­to bloud,Exod 7. & cap. 8. cap. 7.22. and to make the fish to dye, (for that may be collected, because the text saith that the enchaunters did likewise) so, to bring vp frogs on the sodaine, were these in truth or in shew, do shew the great power of Satan, which he to delude the wicked, cōmunicateth with his folowers. He who had leaue for the one, may somtimes haue leaue for the other. In the 2. to the Ephesiās, Satan by the Apostle is called the prince that now ruleth in the ayre, Ephes. 2.2. which name although it may note to vs some other thing besides, yet it doth also intēd (as all that write of this argumēt do vse to expound that place) that in winds, & raine, and thunder he beareth sway in the aire, whē God will giue him licence. But for the point of the question, this is put out of controuersie, by that which we reade in Iob,Iob. 1.16.19. where it is set downe, that by the hand of Satan (whether by witch or no, I stand not to dispute, for the text doth not reueale it) Gods leaue going before, a fire fell out of the ayre, and burnt vp Iobs sheepe and seruaunts, and such a wind came from the wildernesse,Gregor. Mo­ral. Lib. 2.9. Satan à Do­mino semel ac­cepta potestate, ad vsum suae nequitiae etiā elemēta concu­tere praeualet. Gregor. Mo­ral. lib. 32.19. Greges abstu­lit, ignē de coelo deposuit, per­turbato aere ventos excita­uit, domū con­cutiēs s [...]bruit. as at one time striking all the corners of the house, destroyed Iobs sonnes and daughters. He hath not read the chapter, or litle hath considered it, who ma­keth doubt whether Satan there did such things or no. Grego­rie vpon that place positiuelie layeth it down, that the deuill ha­uing once receiued power of the Lord, that is, leaue being giuen him, to the bringing about of his naughtinesse is able to stirre the elements, by which word he meaneth the mouing of the fire, or disturbing of the ayre. And elsewhere interpreting that Behe­moth spokē of in Iob to be Satan, he hath these words, This Be­hemoth who is the beginning of the waies of God, whē he had leaue to tempt that holie man meaning Iob, stirred vp people against him, tooke away his heards of cattell, fetched downe fire from heauen, troubling the ayre stirred vp vvinds, shaking the house ouerthrew it. And that is the iudgemēt of Saint Austen writing [Page 51] on these wordes of the seuentie and eight Psalme,Psal. 78.49. August. in eū Psalm. Brentius in concione a­pud Wierū. Suprà dictum est, Deū gran­dinis authorē administrato­rémque esse, & vt grandinem euocet, diabolo propter peccata nostra permitti Petrus Mart. Decad. 1.4. Bēzo in no­ua noui or­bis historia. Lib. 1.10. He cast vpon them the fiercenesse of his anger, indignation, and vvrath, and ve­xation by the sending out of euill Angels. He there saith, that Sa­tan was he who sent downe the fire on Iobs cattell, and more generallie telleth vs, that both good and euill Angels, by the permission of God, may vse these visible elements to their pur­poses. Yea Brentius himselfe in the Sermon which I named be­fore, yeeldeth such things to be done by the Diuell, saying that God is the authour and gouernour of the haile, and yet that for our sins, it is permitted to the diuell that he may raise haile. What he did in former times, and especiallie to Iob, he can do now al­so if he haue commission for it.

9 When Columbus and the Christians with him, arriued first in the Westerne Indies, and began to plant themselues in Hispa­niola and the Ilands, (as the authours do agree, Peter Martyr, Benzo and other) there arose such mightie and incredible tem­pests, as that the like were neuer seene or heard of in that coun­trey. There may be some other reason hereof, (for such things are secret to all, but onely to God) yet it is no sin to suppose fitly to this present questiō (as some thē did cōceiue) that foule spirits stirred them vp, to shew their detestation to the name of Christ, grieuing that to those brutish creatures, who had long liued in ignorāce, he should in some sort be preached (although not yet so well as he ought) that the Gospell of the kingdome might be taught through all the world. Matth. 24 14 If it were thus, yet neither doth this exāple, nor that forenamed in Iob, impeach our first cōclu­ded doctrine, that God doth send the thunder, that he is Lord of the winds, that he sendeth down the haile and raine; for he doth these things of his absolute power; by the singlenesse of his own will; by the sufficiencie of his nature, without reference to any other: But Satan and his factours worke their exploits by limi­tation and by leaue, for they depend on the Lord, and as if they were tyed in a chaine, they cannot exceede one hairebredth of that which is graunted vnto them. And therefore we are not to thinke, that so oftentimes as men will report it, such tempests are caused by meanes of ill members in any common wealth, for then it should be verie often, (our common sort herein erre, [Page 52] and are verie credulous, or light of beleefe) but sometimes this is done by them, both at sea & at land, not vniuersally but in such special places, and causes too, as the Lord wil permit. And some learned men say,Vide Daemo­nologiā per I. R. Scoticè editam. lib. 2. cap. 5. that these stormes of their raising, may be easily distinguished from naturall tempests arising frō meteors, both because they begin most sodainly and violently, & because they endure but a verie litle time. Againe we are not to imagine that these things fall out so often, as the diuell and his agents do de­sire, for they are wondrous ful of mischief; but thē they are, whē it pleaseth God, in some measure to graunt the dispensation of them, either to crosse the godly, as to vexe them in their bodies, or disquiet them in their minds, or afflict them in their substance, but neuer to touch their soules, for that is not within their com­passe; or else to plague the reprobates, and the infidels in their bodies & their soules, to their euerlasting perditiō. He that wold see more exāples of the working of sorcerers in this kind,Olaus Mag­nus. lib. 1.1. & lib. 3.14. let him reade some places of Olaus Magnus. And so I leaue this questiō.

10 Not Satan in this place, but God sendeth the storme on Ionas; & the circumstances afterward, do make proofe to the ful, that it was a verie great one. It is termed a mighty tempest, the ship was almost broken: the mariners are afrayd: they cry euerie man to his God, they throw the wares into the sea, which I shall touch more largely anon. In the meane time the note here is, that Ionas is the sinner, but all the ship smarteth for it: the ma­riners & the maister, who were not at all accessarie to this foule deede of the Prophet, yet are pursued as well as he. What had these poore men sinned, who after the custome of their trade, did let him in for his money as a passenger, but medled not with his message: they vnderstood not of his prophecying; yea it may be that they had neuer so much as heard of Niniue. Shall many smart thus for one? the mariners for a straunger? Here is now another question. But learne here Gods hate to sin: learne 1 here his deepe and endlesse wisedome. His wisedome shineth in this, that oftentimes with one man he striketh a many, for rea­sons which in themselues are very different, being euermore wel knowne to his Maiestie, but secret vnto vs. The partie prin­cipall he doth punish; to the next he doth teach obedience; [Page 53] the patience of the third he will haue to be tried, and so forward in the rest: in all he seeketh his glorie; his honor in the wicked, his true feare in the good. If all these be whipped at once, he doth no wrong to anie. He that hath not sinned with Ionas, yet hath sinned in somewhat else. For what man is he that drinketh not in iniquitie as the water, and is not found so to do, if he be once brought to his triall before God? All the difference then is this, that their faults haue seuerall places, but their punishment shall haue one. Theeues are brought out of diuerse quarters, & at sundrie times they haue trespassed, and in causes ver [...]e con­trarie; yet they are imprisoned in one iayle, and punished in one day, and suffer all on one tree. I doubt not for these sea-men, but if all of them had bene drowned, they had sufficiently deserued it, although they had neuer heard of Ionas. God neede not be vniust in his punishments toward man: he need not seeke oc­casion, or picke a quarrell against him.

11 Piso one of the Romane Generals,Senec. de Ira lib. 1.16. (as Seneca De ira wri­teth) to shew the bloudie humour which was in him, comman­ded that a souldier should be put to death, for returning with­out his fellow, with whom he went from the campe, saying that he had killed him. The Captaine who had the charge to execute this poore souldier, when he saw his fellow coming, which had bene missed before, did spare the first mans life. Vpon this Piso found matter to take away the liues of all three. Heare his wor­thie reason for it. You are a man condemned saith he vnto the first, my sentence was passed on you, and therefore you shall die. Then turning him to the second, You were the cause quoth he, wherefore your fellow was condemned vnto death, & ther­fore you must die. And to the third, You Centurion, because you haue not learned to obey the voice of your Generall, for companie shall die also.Excogitauerat quemadmodū tria crimina faceret, quiae nullum inuene­rat. He deuised saith Seneca how he might make three faults, because he found not one. The iust iudge of the skie need not deale so with vs, neither needed he with these sea-men. No beating of his braines to inuent an accusation: our thoughts, and words, and deedes, do yeeld him cause enough. His wisedome it is to strike many for many ends. In one place, and with some one who is notorious for a crime, to punish those [Page 54] whose faults haue bin in diuerse places. His iustice goeth with his wisdome; for he neuer doth wrong to any, althogh our dul eyes do not see it. For the saying is verie true, that Gods iudgements, although many times they be secret, yet euermore they are iust.

2 12 And here appeareth his hatred vnto a grieuous sinne. Sometimes for one mans fault who is harboured by another, or carelesly entertained without iust inquisition, without due exa­mination, God calleth the sinnes of other to an apparant recke­ning, to a sensible remembrance, which before he seemed to for­get. Let Achan be the man who serueth here for an example. He alone was deprehended in the excommunicate thing:Iosua. 7.1.21. he alone did steale the gold: he alone had touched the siluer and Baby­lonish garment. Yet for the wicked fact of Achan, there were sixe and thirtie of the Israelites slaine by the men of Ai. These did perish in their owne sinne, although they perished with his fault. His crime stirred vp a vengeance, which they had deser­ued before, but receiued now in his companie. Afterward his sonnes and daughters, his oxen and his asses, were burnt or sto­ned to death. This is no example for the Magistrate to follow, to punish one for another: this was Gods owne immediate deed, who himself is perfect iustice, and therfore cannot erre. But ob­serue withall his hatred to iniquity, which is so farre off from spa­ring the man grosly offending, that he destroyeth all that are neare him, because they will keepe companie with so stained a person.Num. 16.26. Many of the Israelites had felt this another time, if they had not fled from the tents of Dathan and Abiron. The compa­nions of Ionas were sure that they tasted of it. And it seemeth that either by the light of nature, or by some sea-obseruation, they thought that they had one or other, whose roome might be far better then his cōpany was vnto them, when they fell to ca­sting lots,Ionah. 1.7. to see for whose sake it was, that all this came vpon thē. That such things are thought on at sea, and that by natural men, let Horace be my witnesse, who can say this for himselfe

Horat. carm. Lib. 3. Od. 2.
Vetabo qui Cereris sacrum
Vulgarit arcanae, sub [...]sdem
Sit trabibus, fragilémque mecum
Soluat Phaselum.

[Page 55] I will forbid that man vvho hath reuealed the mysteries of the Goddesse Ceres which heathen men thought to be a very hainous sinne, to come vnder the same beames, or saile in the same ship with me. The speech of Iuno in another Poet doth giue some light hereunto.

Pallásne exurere classem
Virgil. Ae­neid. 1.
Argirûm, atque ipsos potuit submergere ponto,
Vniu [...] ob noxam & furias Aiacis Oilei?

Could Pallas bur [...] a whole fleete of the Greekes, and drowne the men in the sea, and that for one mans fault, and the furie of Aiax Oileus? The infidels and Ethnickes haue thought these things at sea, either noting them by experience, or borowing them by tradition frō the Iewes, as they did many other matters, which hereafter I may obserue. He that would see more of this, let him reade what Tully hath written of that Atheist Diagoras.Tull. de Nat. Deorū. lib. 3.

13 This matter is true at land, as well as it is at sea. Our God is Lord of both. Thereupon it is a good warning to all, that they looke with whom they sort. For as the pestilent person doth send forth infected poison to such as do come neare him, to the killing of their bodies, so doth a grieuous sinner bring wrath on his companions, to the ruine of their soules. A good lesson for yong gentlemen, that they flie a blasphemous swearer. A good lesson for all Christians, that they auoyd an infamous hereticke. When Cerinthus came into the bath, Iohn the Euangelist got him out,Euseb. Hist. Eccles. 4.13. and called to his fellowes, that they should come away with hast, frō the company of the heretick, left the house should fall vpon them. He thought that house might be guiltie, which receiued a man that was guiltie: and that the place was in dan­ger, which receiued a man in perill. Here let them looke a­bout them, who not onely without all care, do sort them selues with all comers, not fearing the faults of others, but when they do know their wickednesse, they are glad that they haue such companions,Psal. 50.18. and do assent to their euils, if they see a thiefe, they run vvith him, and are partakers with the adulterers. If anie man teach a tricke of fraud, they will learne that of him: if a­nie vse vncleane speech, that filthinesse is for them. If to be with the naught bee naught, what is it then to bee naught? [Page 56] If companie do bring daunger, as you see it did by Ionas, how fearefull is consent? It is better to feare too much, then to pre­sume but a litle. Our God is of fearefull maiestie. You shall dis­couer that by the tempest, which he sendeth vpon the Prophet, and those which be in the ship.

There was a mightie tempest.

Vide Caesaris reditum in I­taliam. Lucan. lib. 5.14 To such as vse nauigation it is a veritie vndoubted, that there be at sea many tokens and prognosticates of great tēpests, gathered from the Sunne and Moone, and waues and windes and clouds, and other things, the vse whereof our Sauiour Christ himselfe disliketh not, so that men go not too farre, or be not too peremptorie in them.Matth. 16.2. When it is euening, you say, faire weather: for the skie is red. And in the morning you say, To day shall be a tempest, for the skie is red and lowring. Such tokens of the wea­ther are not hastily bred, neither do they breake in a moment. The cloud which appeared to Elias his seruant,1. Reg. 18.44. was first but as a mans hand, yet afterward there followed much raine. My text telleth of no token, that appeared here to the mariners: it com­meth vpon the sodaine, and therfore this storme is supernaturall; besides it commeth with such violence, that it seemeth, that they had seene few like it. The Prophet spareth no words, to describe the rod which now did beate him. The Lord sent foorth a wind, not a litle one,Virgil. Ae­neid. 1. but a great one. Vnà Eurúsque Notúsque ruunt. The East and South wind blow together, as it is in the Poet. A tempest followeth after, which he calleth a mightie tempest. As men that liue in the middle of a great continent, scant know whether there be anie Ocean, as learned men do obserue, so we that liue still at land, scant conceiue their stormes at sea. They mount vp to the heauen and descend to the deepe, Psal. 107.26. so that their soule melteth for trouble. They are tossed to and fro, and stagger like a drunken man, and all their cunning is gone. The ship was almost broken. The keele be it neuer so strong, the ribs be they neuer so stiffe, the cleets and clamps of iron, be they neuer so fast set on, are like to flie in peeces. If a ioint cracke, all is hazarded: if a planke shoot vp, all is gone. This maketh the mariners quake, who are not moued with a litle: now they stand for their liues; now they are readie for that choise, either to sinke or swimme. [Page 57] But alas, what swinning was there in such a storme? The ship shaketh at euerie blast, as if it would into shiuers; euerie waue doth so affright them, as if still they were dying. It maketh them fall to praying, who in likelihood prayed not often. It maketh them thinke of their Gods, for there was no helpe now frō men: helpe heauen, for sea and winds, and waues, are all against vs. Yea more, because their hands should go as fast as their tongues, they will not lye still and crie, but the cariage of the ship shall out into the water; the wares are cast into the sea, to lighten the ship withall. Her burthen might make her sinke, and therefore ease her of it. In what a case were these poore men for harbouring such a guest? As the host who hath lodged a traitor, and because he seemed a man of faire conditions, hath vsed him very kindly, doth not know what he hath done, til the Sheriffe come & seaze his guest, and himselfe to the Princes mercie, so was it here with these mariners. These men had money of Ionas, to let him come into their vessel,Ionah. 1.3. but by this time I think they could haue wished, that they had giuen him money to keepe him farther of. Ionas, thou mightest haue gone to thy Niniue, and saued them from this paine, and thy selfe too from this hazard.

15 You see the words are not manie; three or foure lines at the most: but what more can be said of a tempest, then is here said in the text? The sea-men are afraid, a stiffer kind of men then other people are, and who do not regard a small thing: they had borne many brunts before, and of likelihood escaped many dan­gers: they were acquainted with the working of the sea, and the egernesse of the wind: An hote storme and away: after a tem­pest cometh a calme. A man who were new come thither, and perhaps at first were sea-sicke, might be agast at a litle, his heart might be in his mouth, to feele but a litle rocking. But that this trembling feare should take these old beaten souldiers, it doth import a vehement daunger. The passengers must needs quake, when the mariners did so dread. If Ouid had bene there, he wold once againe haue said that his Elege quite to the end,Ouid. Trist. lib. 1.2. Dijmaris & coeli, quid enim nisi vota supersunt? Surely effeminate Ouid would haue betaken him to his deuotions, when these forgetfull mariners, who thinke not oft of their maker, did fall so fast to [Page 58] their prayers. It were to be wished that our Christians in all their nauigations, would more remember true godlinesse, pray of­tener, & play lesse, vse better rule at their going out, and fewer sinnes at their landing. Doubtlesse, they which feare God are carefull; but an ill name goeth of manie of them.

16 I should here touch that circumstaunce, that these idola­trous persons cried euerie man on his God, but in the next verse folowing the text yeeldeth that againe, and I do deferre it thi­ther. I will ad the other argument of the greatnesse of the tem­pest, that is, the throwing out of the wares. This is neuer attēp­ted, but when there is daunger indeed. As it seemed vnto mans reason, there was no way but one, whē the mariners amōg whō Paule was,Act. 27 18.19 did first throw out their cariage, then the tackling of the ship. For how farre are men driuen, when with their owne hands, they must robbe themselues of their helpes, of their com­fort, & of their wealth? Many had as willingly dye, as be put frō that which they haue. As good to lose life as liuing. A speech which is often vsed, but verie few times performed. A man will giue much for his life, which Satan knew well inough, when he could say in Iobs case,Iob. 2.4. Skin for skin, and all that euer a man hath wil he giue for his life. For money may be recouered, by industry or Gods blessing, or by some other meanes, but so can life be ne­uer: for now we looke not for miracles. This maketh so manie ransomes, to redeeme frō death with money, yea to giue incre­dible sūmes, to the impouerishing of the parties, & of their frēds, nay sometimes of a whole State,Gul. Neu­bringēs. 4 35. Memoires du Bellay. lib. 3. Guicciardin. Hist. lib. 16. Q. Curtius. lib. 4. as Richard the first of England once knew wel, in his returne frō the holy land, & so did Frāces the Great that king of Frāce, whē after his captiuitie, he was rā ­somed frō Charles the 5. then Emperor. Here the felowes of Io­nas being put to very hard shifts, do chuse the lesse of two euils; their liues rather without wares, thē to lose both wares & liues. Whē Alexāders soldiers were to passe the swift riuer Tigris, by the violence of the streame many of thē lost their packes; & stri­uing there for their fardels, to take them vp again, they were al­most drowned in the water. The king who saw their follie, bid thē looke to their liues, to hold their armor fast, & let the rest go, he himself wold make thē recōpence. The wise captaine thought [Page 59] it far better, to lose the Accidēt then the substance. That which nature teacheth all men, these mariners did here practise.

17 But that the text doth giue a reason, that it was to lighten the ship, it might be thought, that their casting of the wares 1 into the sea, was in this desperate moode to make some kind of satisfaction, for that which they had gotten by fraude, or piracie, or deceit in bargaining, as being now most vnwilling in this extremitie, to haue in their possession such things, as were by ill meanes obtained. For oftentimes when death doth draw nigh, the conscience of men is pricked, to go from that which before hath both vniustly bene obtained, and most stoutly maintained. As Lewes the eleuenth,Nebrissens. Decad. 2. lib. 3.1. king of France, did in his death-bed re­store two Counties to the heires of Iohn the king of Arragon, to the which in all his life time before, he would neuer conde­scend. Yet thē his consciēce so wrought with him. Or else it may 2 be supposed, that it might haue bin for some vow, whereof sea­men are not sparing,Erasmus in Colloquijs. when they do feare a wrack, as Erasmus in his Naufragium doth wittily let vs know. They vow much and pay nothing; but these idolaters here throw out much and vow nothing, vnlesse it be afterward, as it is in the end of the chapter. Or else it might be imagined, that they threw in their most pre­cious 3 substance, as a raunsome for their liues to their idolatrous Gods; as men in our time vse to throw in rings, or iewels, or chains, or other things of price, to buy their liues with their sub­stance, that they may seeme to God to be willing to part with somwhat, & that of moment also. So that life may be saued, not to go away but with losse. Now although the expositours do mētiō these things, & it is not amisse to obserue thē, yet the spirit of God doth say, that necessitie made them drown their wares; euen that hard dart of necessitie,Ingens telum necessitas. which will plucke frō men any thing that doth not immediatly cōcerne their being, rather then all shal run to ruine.Plutarch. in Dione. Idem in Pō ­peio. 1. Cor. 11.14. Caesar de bel­lo. ciuili. li. 3. Apparell, & wealth, & brauerie, & house, & land, & bewty shall away if need require. Dionysius leaueth his kingdome. Pōpey forsaketh his coūtry, being vrged both by ne­cessitie. Although nature do teach the cōtrary, as Paule writeth to the Corinthiās: yet rather thē the citisens of Salonae will yeeld to Octauius, the haire of their womens heads shall be cut of, to [Page 60] helpe make engins for them,Iosephi vita per ipsum conscripta. and deuises in the warres. Iosephus telleth of one Clitus an eminent malefactor, that being in feare lest he should be put to death, or at least lose both his hands, did at the first word willingly cut off his owne left hand, that he might preserue the other. Iudge now at length for this tempest, whether it were not a sound one, when it put such men as these, vnto such shiftes as these: men that aduentured their liues for money, to part from wares which would yeeld them mony: men bold, to be stricken with such feare: men carelesse, to be driuen to such deuotion, and praying vnto their Gods. Ionas thou canst not say, but thou art followed for thy sinne, not as with a furie from hell, but with iustice from aboue. But of that may be more hereafter.

18 But here I may not forget this, in these idolatrous per­sons (because it doth yeeld vnto vs, the best of all these instru­ctions) that these Ethnicks who here are actors, did neuer fall to their calling vpon their heathenish Gods, till that daunger did grow vpon them. Their mind did run at randon, till affliction as a spurre did quicken their strong obliuion. Sea-daungers haue that force aboue all other daungers, to make men crie with ear­nestnesse, when nothing is to be seene, but heauen aboue and water below,Virgil Ae­neid. 3. Psal. 107.28. Coelum vndique & vndique pontus. Dauid did wel note this, when after the description of a storme, he addeth this for a conclusion, Then they cry vnto the Lord in their trouble, and he bringeth them out of their distresse. There is trouble, and distresse, and crying to the Lord. Violent motions of the aire generally cause a feare.Psal. 29.8. In them the voice of the Lord maketh the wildernesse to tremble: the renting of the clouds, the cracking of the aire,Philo Iudaeus de legatione ad Caium. Suetonius in Calig. cap. 51 Senec. de ita. lib. 1.16. do much affright the wicked. Caligula the Romane Emperour, would needs be reputed for a God, and there was no measure of follie with him; yet if he had but heard a clap of thunder, he wold winke or hide his head, or run perhaps vnder a bed. Now feare in all men who haue sence, doth enforce vnto religion, or at least to superstition. As long as Gods hand is ouer vs, we feare, and so by a consequent are carefull. If we were as dull as that Asse,Num. 22.22. whereon Balaam vsed to ride, yet if an Angell hold out a sword, it will make vs stagger at it. But as soone as [Page 61] the sword is sheathed, so soone we will forget it. It is the crosse of Christ, which maketh a man a true Christian, it keepeth vs in o­bedience, & howsoeuer the flesh repineth, the spirit is bettered by it. Sicknesse, or plague, or famine, or war, or any great iudge­ment, maketh more prayers in a day, more seeking to God, and that feelingly & hartily, then otherwise are ordinary in a weeke.

19 I do find in Agathias,Agathias Hist. lib. 5. that when on a time, the Citie of Constantinople was shaken with a verie terrible earthquake, many houses were ouerthrowne, and with the fall thereof great store of people perished. Herewith the whole Citie was so frigh­ted, and euerie man so remembred to thinke on God, that so­lemne supplicatiōs and publike prayers were had, the Churches euerie day were full, and all men for a while were much amen­ded. The poore folkes were releeued: iustice was well admini­stred: there was no fraude thē in bargaining: yea it was become a verie holie place. But whē God once held his hād, they also held their prayers; when his rod ceased, then ceased their pietie too. That which he did obserue concerning Constantinople, may be noted of other places. Yea Historians do obserue it. In the first late ciuill warre in Fraunce, which arose now more then thirtie yeares agone,Edictum Ia­nuarij. Anno 1561. after the putting foorth of that Edict, which is commonly called the Edict of Ianuarie; and in like sort in the se­cond & third of those warres, such as were of the Religion, then groning vnder the crosse of pouertie,Cōmentarij Reli. & Reip. in Gal. lib. 10. Tanta erat Re­ligiosorum tae­diosa curiosita [...] & tam t [...]pidus zelus, vt vix ordinariae do­ctrinae sermonē quasi minùs eloquētem, nec satis aulicum plurimi Reli­giosi iā minimè tolerarent. Anno. 1572. of oppression and warre, were verie deuout toward God, verie carefull toward to the world, glad to heare any preach the word, glad to receiue the Sa­cramēt: but whē the third peace was concluded, which seemed a verie sound peace, and the rod was now thought to be remo­ued farre of, such carelesnesse and securitie did ouergrow the harts of all, and in the Protestants there was so cold a zeale, nay rather such a tedious curiositie (as a French man termeth it) and that within lesse thē two yeres space, that a Sermō soūdly made, with good groūds of diuinitie, was not thought to be worth the hearing, vnlesse it were spiced with eloquēce, or flourished with daintie phrases, such as were fit for the Court. But immediatly afterward, this contempt of theirs was pursued with that great massacre, that bloudie and horrible massacre, like to which the [Page 62] Sunne scant euer did see any thing; and then the mariners in the ship with Ionas, did not cry more hotely on their Gods, then the Frēch men our neighbors, did cry vnto the true Lord of heauen.

20 Might it please our God, that we by their example could learne to be thankfull in prosperitie, as well as to be crying when miserie hangeth on vs. In Queenes Mariesdayes, when the fire deuoured the flesh of Gods saints, what prayers were then made, for the faithfull congregation, by many within the land and without? Coldnesse hath since benummed some hote ones of that time. The Spaniard threatned warre not manie yeares agone;Anno. 1588. the pietie of our land exceeded for that time, yoūg and old then came together into the courts of the Lord: the Sabaothes were then sanctified: the weeke dayes were well spent: we had prayers extraordinarie, & lectures twise a weeke, as this place doth well know. But with the cold of the winter our holinesse waxed cold, and manie monethes had not passed, but as in few things we were better, so in some things we were worse. Good God, that thy great mercie, should make thee to be loued the lesse. One yeare is not passed ouer, since (besides manie other quarters) the chiefe Citie of our kingdome,Anno. 1593. being visited by Gods messenger the pestilence, which destroyeth as well by night as by day,Psal. 91.6. did hang downe her head for sorrow. I haue heard that since that time, it is verie much forgotten in buying and in selling, in bargaining and deceiuing. God sent vs here a warning,Pestis in vna aut altera do­mo, in ipso Oxonij vmbili­ [...]. Anno. 1593. and then another warning in the verie hart of our Citie. I thinke that we, and other, did in that time more thinke of deuotion toward the Lord, of purging of our soules, of true mortification, of preparing our soules to Christ, then we haue done manie times since. It is not well, if it be so. It is a reproch to some, no penie, no Pater noster; It is a reproch to vs, no plague, no Pater noster, no punishment, and no prayers. Let it not be noted of vs that we are like to those Gentiles, who on­ly when the tempest raged, did cry vnto their Gods. Let vs feare the Lord for his loue, and loue him for his mercie: let vs not pro­uoke him to strike vs, because otherwise he cannot awake vs: but let vs watch to him, that his anger may sleepe to vs.

21 If our Ionas haue offended by wilfull disobedience, let [Page 63] vs dread to do the like: if he were punished for that, then let not vs presume to sinne by his example: if God sent a tempest a­gainst him, he can vse his rods against vs: if Satan be sometimes the instrument of Gods iustice, let vs feare to come in his fin­gers: if the Lord so hateth iniquitie, that the companions of the wicked are oft punished for their sakes, let vs hate sinne as a ser­pent, and flie from the profane: if heathen men preferre their liues before their wares, let not vs aduenture our soules, to get temporall trash on earth: if idolaters serue their Gods once, when they be in daunger, let vs serue our God euer, to keepe vs free from daunger: if they pray when they haue neede, let vs pray euerie day, because euerie day we neede. Lord guide vs still with thy grace, and bring vs vnto thy kingdome. To thy name be prayse for euer.


The chiefe points. 1. The drowsinesse of Ionas in his daunger. 2 Sinne breedeth sinne. 4 Satan is desirous to make vs secure. 6 A superuising diligence should be in all that haue charge. 10 The ship-maister teacheth the Prophet. 11 Idolaters had many Gods, and their vsage toward them. 14 One man is more acceptable to God thē another. 15 Danger of praying to many Gods. 16 Heathē men know there is a God. 17 In crosses it is good to suspect that there is some sin. 18 The vse of lots, and diuerse circumstances in them. 23 Sinne will be discouered.


But Ionah was gone down into the sides of the ship, & he lay down and was fast a sleepe. So the ship-maister came vnto him, and said vnto him, what meanest thou ô sleeper? Arise, call vpon thy God, if so be that God vvill thinke vpon vs, that vve perish not. And they said euery man to his felow, Come & let vs cast lots, that we may know for whose cause this euill is vpon vs. So they cast lots, and the lot fell vpon Ionah.

WHen Alexander the Great,Seneca de Beneficijs. Lib. 7.3. with his happy temeritie as a Philosopher doth call it, but by the prouidence of [Page 64] God,F [...]ix tem [...]ri­tas. Daniel. 8 5. Q Curtius. lib 4. Plutarch in Alexandro, & Arrianus. lib 6. appel­lant Gauga­mela. as Daniel doth describe it, had proceeded so farre, as that after one great ouerthrow giuen to Darius in person, in the straights of Cilicia, he was now a second time in the fields neare Arbela (or as the best writers haue, in the fields neare Gauga­mela) to ioyne battell against him: whereas many things should haue inforced him to looke about him, as the smalnesse of his armie, the strength of his aduersarie, the widenesse of the field, where he had none aduauntage, his distaunce from his owne home, and no place to flie vnto: yet when it was farre day, that verie morning when the battell was to be tried, and by that time his armie should haue bene ordered and raunged into aray, the enemie comming forward, the Generall Alexander who o­therwise did stirre with the formost was fast asleepe in his tent. Parmenio and his Nobles, who for no cause of their owne, but for his sake and his honour, there aduentured their liues, were troubled aboue measure; they were in a sea of cares, and scant knew which way to turne them: onely he whom all concer­ned, and whose making or marring, depended on that dayes triall, and for whom and whose sole sake they endured all things which they were then to sustaine, as a man that knew not of it, or one that tooke no care which end went forward, lay in his bed soundly sleeping. The Prophet in this place, shall be no whit behind him, but rather much beyond him. He hath listes to enter with the verie wrath of God: his life doth lye vpon it, and his soule too, if his God should not deale kindly with him: the ayre is now disturbed, and yeeldeth a mightie tempest; the waues they froath and roare; the windes they beate and blow; the sea is moued exceedingly; the ship is almost broken; the sea­men are afrayde; happie man that can pray fastest: the burthen of the ship, be it costly or be it necessarie, it must out into the water, and all for Ionahs sake; his cake it is that is baking; the euent concerneth him onely: and he alone as the man who of all other did know least, and was a straunger to the action, doth seeke a secret corner, the inner sides of the ship, where he may lye & rest. Oh Ionas, thou who shouldst be a mā beyond a ma­ny, euen the Prophet of the highest, thou art now short of a mā, thou art now below thy selfe, sleeping & snorting then, when all [Page 65] the powers of thy spirits, were too few to looke about thee.

2 If the man had not liked of Niniue,Suprā in ver­su 3. for reasons which once I named, but yet wold still haue kept his calling, and wold haue held on his preaching, his sin had weighed the lighter: he might haue bestowed his talent at Tarshish when he came there, and done some good on the marchants; & by the way going thither, he might haue giuen exhortatiō to his fellow trauellers, to serue the true God of Israel. If he had not had so many auditours as were in Niniue,Act. 2.41. or so many as S. Peter had, when at one sermon he won three thousand soules to Christ, yet he should haue had some hearers: if it had bene but one Plato to haue attended So­crates,Iacob. 5.20. he had not vtterly lost his labour: he who hath conuerted one sinner from going astray out of his way, shall saue a soule from death, and shall hide a multitude of sinnes, which either the con­uerted, or conuerter hath committed. But it is not for this cause that our Ionas goeth to the sea: his preaching is turned to slee­ping. Let the world go how it wil: he is got away from his mai­ster, & will thinke no more of the matter. See what the best man on earth is, if God withdraw his Spirit, & eclipse his grace but a moment. We are desperate to all wickednesse, but beetles and blocks to goodnesse. Here is an obdurate sinner: a hard brawne is ouer his heart; a thicke skin and insensible: let the sea roare, and the mariners crie, and tumble out their packs; our Ionas ta­keth a nap in verie supine securitie, and maketh no more of it. Oh the stubburnnesse of iniquitie, and mans auersenesse from his maker. But when we haue once passed the lines of duty & obe­dience, and grosse sinnes haue taken hold vpon vs; then we must iustifie our actions: we will run we care not whither: from the shoes vp to the shoulders, yea sometimes ouer head and eares.

3 Sin stealeth on vs by degrees, but cōmonly the last step is the deepest.2. Sam. 11.2. Dauid being idle had spied out Bethsabe: there, idle­nesse was the beginning: then did his eye as the window of his mind, let in concupiscence into his hart. Of idlenesse cometh cō ­cupiscence. Therof foloweth adultery. Marke how these sins do multiply, and one ingendreth another. Murther maketh vp the measure. And when all this put together wold haue troubled the strongest hart in the world, yet without remorse of conscience, [Page 66] without iote of cōpunction, Dauid swaloweth it and deuoureth it, and for the better part of a yeare, neuer considereth of it. How farre is the conscience of the reprobate and malignant seared, if Gods children do thus fal? No maruel if a Pharao adde drunkē ­nesse vnto thirst,Matt. 2.3.16. that is, heape sin on sin; or Herod do ioyne to his ambitiō, a cruel massacring mind; or Nero aboūd in wicked­nes, & linke villany vnto mischiefe. When the bowels of Gods elect shalbe so filled and possessed with carelesnes, what shal re­fraine the wicked, frō prouing to be some Iudas or some Iulian? Afflictions, threatnings, counsels, & the holiest exhortations, (as S. Austen in another case doth make comparison) are but as a blast of winde,Augustin. E­pist. 22.5. which in a vehement fire doth keepe downe the flame for a puffe, but it riseth againe so much the stronger. Or as a draught of cold water, to a mā in a burning feuer, which easeth him for an instāt, but he is the worse for it afterward. There is no measure with the wicked, when the best sin in so great measure.

4 It is old Satans pollicie, so farre as lyeth in him, to bewitch the hearts of Gods children, that when they are filled with ini­quity, they may be drowned in security, euen as a man who hath fed in gluttonie, is ouertaken by some drowsie sleepe. And then it fareth with the sinner, as it doth with the Crocodile, when his belly is stuffed with some pray.Plinius Hist. nat. lib. 8.25. For then as Plinie writeth, doth he yeeld himselfe ouer to sleepe, and leaueth his mouth open, of purpose that a litle bird called Trochylus, may picke his teeth and make them cleane. But thereupon doth the Ichneumon a kinde of serpent take occasion, to creepe into the belly of the Crocodile, and being once in, he neuer ceasseth there to gnaw, till he hath eaten through his panch. Thus doth Satan deale with vs; for amidst our idlenesse, and forgetfulnesse of that horror of euill which hangeth vpon vs, he taketh possession of our soules, and if a stronger then himselfe do not driue him from the same, he will eate them out to damnation. As therfore by the counsell of the Wise man,Syrac. 25.27. we should giue the water no passage, no not a litle, so we should giue as smal entrance vnto Satan, as possibly we may. But let vs not so prostitute vnto him, the whole sense of our soule, that like to a frentike person, when we be at worst, we imagine our selues to be in a most happie estate. He who wil [Page 67] not start in daunger, is in case to suffer any thing; but he that will sleepe in daunger, when easily he may be awaked, forgetteth himselfe beyond measure. When our Sauiour Christ was now ready to be taken, and Iudas was at hand, so that the shepheard was to be stricken, and the sheepe thereupon to be scattered, Pe­ter and Iames and Iohn, were iustly reproued for their sleeping, What? Matth. 26.40, 45. could ye not vvatch vvith me one houre? And afterward, sleepe henceforth and take your rest, meaning that it would not belong, but they should throughly be awaked.

5 They slept when the perill was to their maister, and them selues had lesse cause to feare; but our Prophet doth take his rest, when he alone was to smart, and the ruing of other men was on­ly for his sake.Tullius Phi­lippica. 13. O miser cum re tum hoc ipso quòd non sentis quàm miser sis. O wretced man saith Tullie against Anthonie, as in deed, so in this also, that thou doest not vnderstand how wretched a man thou art. Here is one far exceeding Anthonie. Gods im­mediate wrath doth follow him, & he doth not conceiue it: he is in the midst of euill, & doth not vnderstand it. Here is euidently seene the great heauinesse of our nature, who neglect those maynest matters,Lod. Viues de tradendis disciplinis. lib. 4. which nearest of all do presse vs. Viues that worthy learned man, doth wonder at some Phisitians, that they could possibly be couetous & greedy vpō the world, in as much as both in their speculatiue study, and their practise, they behold euerie day how tickle a thing life is; how soone the breath is gone; how the strōgest dye in a moment, & the yongest fall on the sodaine, and by a consequent that the vse of riches is so vn­certaine, so transitorie & so short. I would to God that our Phi­sitians of the soule, were not sick of this disease. We who know that flesh is grasse,Isay. 40.6. and the grace of it but a flowre, that our breath is but a vapour,Iacob. 4.14. and our life but as a bubble, who speake much of mortality, and preach other mens funerall Sermons, yet in the midst of our studies of contemning the world, we are in loue with the world, and too much embrace this Mammon. Thus we are like to the fishes of the sea, who liuing in salt wa­ter, yet are most fresh. And as Ionas in the midst of daunger, we sleepe in it & passe by it; we say it, and do not see it. The stormes by right should haue stirred vp Ionas, and his conscience should haue quickened him: so our knowledge should rowze vs vp, [Page 68] and the fraude of the world should awake vs. Thus far you haue heard of a most carelesse man; now harkē to another person of a cleane contrarie disposition, who looketh well to his charge, & for his part amendeth that fault which is found in the former.

So the ship-maister came to him.

6 As by occasion of the tēpest, it lay vpon the gouernour of the ship to bestir him, so it well seemeth that he was not idle. He is somtimes aboue the boord, & somtimes vnderneath, he cometh down vnder the hatches.Caesar de bello ciuili. Lib. 2. & 3. Cesar did neuer more lay about him, in his great fights against Pompey, where somtimes he playeth the captaine, & other sometimes the souldier, here he speaketh, there he striketh, & goeth from one ranke to another; then the maister doth in this place. He looketh whether any planke were rift or splint in two. And perhaps with his vigilancie and care, doing his best, & seeing all to be but in vaine, he is glad to speake with any other, to see if there might be helpe in him, or any good word of comfort.Hieron. in Ionae. 1. Naturale est vnumquenque in suo periculo de alio plus sperare. For as Hierome noteth on this place, it is naturall vnto euery man, in extremitie of danger, to hope better of another, thē he doth hope of himself, & therfore in such cases men do meete, and as the brutish cattell, runne together. This maister knew his fellowes to be as bad as himselfe, yea perhaps a great deale worse, and therefore he goeth to this straunger. Saint Hierome doth intimate this to be the reason; but indeede because he so rebuketh Ionas, and ratleth him for his drowsinesse, I rather impute his going to the corners of the ship (for the Prophet lay in one of those places) to his diligence & carefulnesse, to see the charge which was committed to him, that like a circumspect gouernour, his eyes might see those things, his eyes might see those persons, which were now vnder him.

7 This heathen man giueth instruction better then Ionas did, to those which are housholders, (for a ship is like to a house, ma­ny cricks and corners in it) to tutors ouer scholers, to gouernors ouer Colledges, to Magistrates ouer others, that they looke to those which are vnder thē, & trust not the eys of other: the blind swalloweth many a flie: he that knoweth his charge but only by relatiō, doth swallow many a gogeon. Sons dare to do what they should not; & she who lyeth in the bosom, is incroching & [Page 69] vsurping on the authoritie of her husband: watching is when there should be sleeping: taking where should be none: open doores when they ought to be shut; ill deeds when it should be otherwise. A iust and watchfull guide, though he cannot hinder all, yet he crusheth many a sinne. But where is a wilful winking in many things that are grosse, as it is but too too oft, that can not excuse it selfe, that beareth a heauie burthen with it. For when we will not see faults, it is all one, as if we did see & suffer them.Tullius pro S. Roscio A­merino. Tully could say in excuse of Silla, that it was a thing im­possible, but that he who had a great familie, should haue some bad seruants in it. He who had so much businesse on him, as that he could scant breath freely, should haue some retaining to him, who would so watch their time, that if their maister looked but aside, they would dare to misuse one or other. Who knoweth not this to be true? But if Silla should vnderstand, that his seruant Chrysogonus did deale in filthie actions, and wold not take no­tice of it, but passe by it, as if there were no such matter, then Silla must beare the burthen. Or if Silla will not remit some of his ambitious humor, to looke down vnder hatches, or to see to that which cōcerneth him, he shal beare the maine fault of Chry­sogonus; God and men will lay it on him. Here that hath place which Dion once said of the Emperour Galba, whose atten­dants did vse many verie badly, but the blame was layd on him: Although it be enough for a priuate man,Dion lib 64. Principē pro­uidere oportet ne caeteri fa­ciant. Nihil interest eorum qui in­iuriam patiun­tur à quo [...]am acceperint. that he do no wrong to any, yet a Prince ought to take order, that other men do no in­iury. For those who fuffer the wrong do not stand much on that, from whom they do receiue it. If from anie, it is too much, but they looke who it is that should hinder it.

8 Then as it is the eye of the maister, which feedeth the horse, so it is that also which keepeth good order. The like may be said of the magistrate. If Miphiboseth cannot stirre, because he is lame in his feete, and Dauid haue other businesse, then to examine things to the full,2. Sam. 16.1. Ziba will play his part, he will abuse his Prince; he will defraud his maister. It is a remembrance to noble men, and magistrates in great places, that they looke on such as attend them, and suffer not their approches to be ill spo­ken of, for the behauiour of other men. This ship-maister wold [Page 70] see euery one who was in the ship about him. Dauid knew his houshold people,Psal. 101.4.5. whē he said that none but the righteous shold be with him as his seruāt; that no deceiptful person should dwel with him in his familie. This is a good lesson for all Princes, who sit as at the sterne of kingdomes & common-wealths, that they do as Dauid did; that they do as our Maister here, that as their hands be long, so their eyes be quicke of sight, to looke on that which concerneth them. By occasion that Augustus a man se­uere enough, did not know the exceeding wantonnesse of Iulia his own daughter, & her open audacious boldnesse, it is noted in the storie of his life,Dion. lib. 55. Principes om­nia faciliùs qaom sua cog­noscunt, neque clam suos qui [...] ­quam agunt. that Princes for the most part do best know those things which are farthest from them, and not that which nearest belongeth to them: that they do nothing but their family vnderstandeth it well enough; but the deeds of their own hous­hold are concealed from them. It is a blessed case for Church and commonwealth, where these things are not so. Lōg may she liue and raigne happily, vnto our farther comfort, who in this excee­deth her selfe, and goeth beyond her sexe, which loueth to haue a hand in matters of importāce; haue an eye who be her Bishops, haue a care who be her Iudges: remember them of their duties before they go to their countries, prouide euermore for peace, yet thinke somtimes of warre, regard the ends of her kingdome, yea take a personall notice of such things as be fit.

Plutarch. An seni sit gerē ­da Resp.9 Plutarch writeth of one Attalus, who was a king in Asia the lesse, that his studie was onely to be idle, & to intend to no­thing that appertained to his gouernment. In the meane time, Philopaemen one of his pretended friends, did fat & cram him vp, to make him dul & heauy, that himself might rule the rost. Some of the Romanes who perceiued it,Réxne apud Philopaemenem aliquid posset? tooke it vp as a iest, to aske of such as came out of Asia, whether the king were in any grace with Philopaemen or no? whether he could obtaine any thing of him? The Lord be praised for it, our neighbors iest not so at vs; but another maner of care is had, God make vs thankfull for it. Then by the example of our betters, or of this Ethnicke here, let euery man looke about him, and see ouer whom he hath charge, that he take not good for euill, and euill sometimes for good, & a slander for a truth, and a flatterer for a friend, and a person which [Page 71] is pernicious, to be a right sound member: that he may praise as it deserueth, and rebuke where needeth rebuke, as this ship-go­uernor doth here. As followeth now in the next circumstance.

What meanest thou ô sleeper? Arise call vpon thy God.

10 If the man had bene full of choler (as daunger soone stir­reth vp choler) here had bin a good occasion, to warme himself ouer with chiding. To see a man lye so carelesly, whē such fright was among them, & neither with the cries of one, nor the tum­bling of packs by another, to raise himselfe from his rest. If Ionas himself who fretted so testily & so egerly, when God destroyed his gourd,Ionah. 4.9. had bin in place of this mariner, I think he wold haue come ouer him, with many an angry word. But it being before intended by his prouident circūspection, that the man was wise in his kind,Eccles. 2.14. (& as Salomon doth tel vs, it is the part of a wise man to haue his eyes in his head, to see what is conuenient to be spokē, and what is not fit to be vttered) he rouzeth him with no more, then O sleeper what doest thou meane? thou sleepie drowsie fel­low, what doest thou thinke vpon? what, doest thou not regard that thy self & we all do perish? He doth very iustly cal him slee­per, for it seemeth that he slept with a witnesse: and if his eyes were open, yet it seemeth that he stil slept, like the drunken man mentioned in the writings of a certaine Orator (but S. Hierome doth not name him) who could not sleepe because he was stirred, Hieron. in 5. ad Galatas. Pulchrè quidā non ignobilis Orator, cum e­briū de somno describeret ex­citatum, ait Nec dormire excitatus, nec vigilare ebrius poterat. and could not awake because he was drunken. I meane his soule did sleepe, so that when his eyes were open, he stared, he did not awake. For what else doth this declare, when he must be put in mind by a simple infidel, who knew not the God of Israell, that he must fal to his prayers, Arise call vpō thy God. Here the world is turned vpside downe. Ionas should teach them their dutie, & they must teach him his: the Prophet is now an auditor, and the ship-maister is the Prophet. Here the sheepe leadeth the sheep­heard, the patient cureth the Phisitiō, the scholer doth teach the master. Al maketh against thee Ionas, that this heathē man shold be more deuout in his superstition, then thou in thy true religiō; that thou shouldst forget that which an Ethnick could remēber. I pray God the old Gentils, Aristides, Plato, Socrates condemne not vs in that great & terrible day, because they thought of many [Page 72] things whereof we make no reckening. Despise the wordes of none, although thou be a Prophet, since a mariner may teach a Preacher. If thou be not come so far as to be a Prophet, then do thou lesse refuse the words of any, for the prouerbe is most true,

Saepe etiam est olitor verba opportuna locutus.

The gardiner or herbe-seller oftentimes hath spoken a vvord in due season.

11 This man doth giue good counsel, although as one in the darke, he seeth not what he doth, Call vpon thy God, if so be that God will thinke vpon vs, Ionah. 1.5. that we perish not. The Gentiles and ido­laters did dreame of more Gods then one, as these did in the fifth verse. Many Gods for many matters; Minerua she was for learning, and Venus she was for loue, and Aeolus for the wind, and Bacchus for the wine, either diuels reputed Gods by men, or men esteemed as Gods, for some benefits done to mankind. And as these were Gods at large, so many seueral countries had Protectors for themselues. The fire was the God of the Persiās, whom the Sunne did represent; so Hercules was for the Ty­rians, and Dagon for the Philistines,1. Reg. 11.5. and Astaroth for the Sido­nians, & Milcom for the Ammonites, & Chemosh for the Moa­bites. Yea they had Gods for their cities,Semidei. Penates. Tutelaria numina. Augustin de Ciuitate Dei lib. 4.8. & demi-gods for them selues, houshold Saints and tutelar powers, to whom they cried in distresses. Yea superstitiō was so endles, as Austen doth obserue, that they had a God for euery thing, yea many oftentimes for one thing. As, for their corne Segetius, and Proserpina, & Volu­tina, and Tutelina and other; one for it vnder the ground, ano­ther when it was sprong vp: this when it was in the blade, that when it was in the eare, another for the barne. The place in Saint Austen is worth the reading. The Iewes folowed this prety wel, when they offered their incense vnder euery greene tree;Ierem. 11.13. when the number of their Gods was to the number of their cities; whē there was in euerie streete, an altar to sacrifice to their idols. The Church of Rome thinketh scorne,Vide Zacha­riā Lippeloo de rebus ge­stis martyrū. for idolatrie to come short of either of them, when for euerie day in the yeare, they haue an he Saint or a she Saint, as appeareth in the common Kalen­der, for their swine a Saint, and another for their horses, for Spaine a Saint as Saint Iames, for vs a Saint as Saint George; [Page 73] yea speciall men,Campian. in quadā Epist. speciall Patrones; manie women Iohn the E­uangelist, M. Campian Iohn the Baptist.

12 So wretchedlie do men run without the word of God: such amased blindnesse is in the eyes of idolaters, yea such tickle vncertaine giddinesse, is in the life of their vnderstanding. The vi­lest of Gods creatures, shall be to them for Gods. The Aegyp­tians as Origene writeth,Orig. contra Celsum. lib. 3. did adore their dogs, & goates, & apes, and Crocodiles. No doubt S. Paule did allude to them, when speaking of the vnbeleeuers,Roman. 1.23. he said that they turned the glorie of the vncorruptible God to the similitude of the image of a cor­ruptible man, and of birds and foure footed beasts, and of creeping things. Diodor. Si­culus. lib. 2.4. Yea they made such account of cats, as I find in Diodo­rus Siculus, that when once a Romane had killed one of them against his will, the people could not be stayed, either with the feare of the Romane souldiers, or with reuerence to their king, from running on him to kill him. This is the lesse to be wondred at in them, when we shal compare it with the testimony, which Olaus Magnus giueth,Olaus Mag­nus. lib. 3.2. of some Northren people at this day. Those are the Barbarians in Lapland and Scricfinnia, and the parts adioyning, whose maners he might the better know, for that he was a neighbour, not verie farre distant from them. But of these he reporteth,Pro numine fi­deliter adora­re. that it is their custome to vvorship faith­fullie for a God, vntill the euening of the same day, vvhatsoeuer liuing-thing, in the ayre or earth or water doth in the breaking of each day appeare vnto them, be it bird or beast, or fish, yea verie serpents and vvormes. Nay besides those base but yet liuing things, what should I say, that among idolaters the quicke do bend vnto the dead, and do adore the workes of their owne hands, as the Israelites once did, saying to the golden calfe, These are thy Gods ô Israell, Exod 32.8. which haue brought thee out of the land of Egypt? What, that they make of their Gods, some hel­pers and some hurters,Gel. Noct. Attic. lib. 5. 12. Arnob. lib. 5. cōtra Gent. Plutarch. in Numa. Laeua Numina, hurting powers, as Gel­lius noteth out of Virgil? What, that some of their holyest and most religious men, did deride their greatest God? For as Ar­nobius writeth, and Plutarch hath the verie same, Numa the first authour of the Romane deuotions, asking of Iupiter, by what meanes some places might be purged, which were blasted [Page 74] not long before with lightning,Respondit Iu­piter capite [...] tū Numa caepitio. Ru [...]sus Iupi­ter, humano [...] respondit rex, sed capillo. [...]mo Deus contra, animâ: subie­cit Pompilius, piscu. receiued this answer, that it must be with a head, meaning the head of a mā; but Numa giueth him the head of an onion. That which I would haue saith Iupiter must belong vnto a mā. Yea saith Numa, but it shall then be the haire; nay quoth Iupiter I do require a life; the other answered, then it must be of a fish. Thus durst he whom they accounted for the founder of all their ceremonies, deride their high God Iupiter. But to leaue these things thus in generall.

13 Our mariners in this place with a cōceipt fit for idolaters, thought one God to be stronger, or better thē another, or more willing, or more at leysure, and now they would trie the best. Crie thou man to thy God, & I will crie to mine, & he shall crie to his: among many, one may regard vs. If none should harken to these suppliants, then it might fall out that he who made him, may marre him too for his Godhead. Perhaps grow to cursing of him for his neglect,Surius in commentar. Anno. 1535. as if Surius do say true, Barbarossa did, a Generall of the Turkes being ouercome in battell by Charles the fifth in Africke, where he often reuiled his Mahomet, and in ex­ceeding bitternesse did curse him. Perhaps shuffle out that God, and chuse some other in for him,Euseb. de vi­ta Constant. lib. 2.15. Plutarch. in Silla. as Licinius did in his battels, when he was ouercome by Constantine. When his old Gods in whom he put his trust had deceiued him, he sought out new ones to worship. At least take it vnkindlie, as Silla did at the hands of his Apollo. For whereas his custome was, as often as he went into anie battell, euermore to beare in his bosome, a little image of gold representing that God, being on a time in daunger of an ouerthrow, he drew it out and kissed it, and vsed these wordes vnto it, How now Apollo Pythius, wilt thou who hast prospered and aduaunced that happie man Cornelius Silla, in so manie foughten battels, now destroy him and his fellow citisens, euē at the gates of Rome? Thus when men make Gods to themselues, or do single out each man one, they are the bolder with them. An action of vnkindnesse may be easilie entred against them; perhaps there shall be a reuiling of them, it may be, a plaine renouncing.

14 The companie of our Prophet is not yet come so far. As you see they will fall to their prayers. Who knoweth whether [Page 75] this mans God be a greater God then ours is? whether that this sleepy felow, be more accepted of him? for it was an opiniō en­tertained euē by heathē mē, that one person was more loued by their Gods thē another was: that the prayers of some were bet­ter accepted, as of their Priests, or their Prophets, a Helenus or a Calchas; and these knew not, whether Ionas might in such sort be more gracious with his God, or no. The truth is, that he might haue beene, if he were not, if he had but kept his owne. For we finde in true diuinitie, that the prayers of a few holie and sancti­fied mē, are at al times more acceptable to the euerlasting Lord, then the requests of ten thousand sinners. In so much that he bestoweth vpon such, their owne liues, and the liues of others. It seemeth that God in former time did vse to heare Ieremie,Ierem. 11.14. whē once so precisely he forbad him, to intreat for the people. There were giuen vnto Lot,Genes. 19, 12. his wife and his daughters: and his sonnes in law, if they would, might haue had their portion in that fa­uour. How much did the Lord loue and tender Abraham,Chap. 18.32. when hee yeelded to his prayer, that for ten iust mens sakes, hee would spare the Citie Sodome? But vnto my purpose this is most agreeable, that when there was great daunger of a wreck, that time that S. Paule was sayling toward Rome,Act. 23.23.24. the Angell of God did stand by the Apostle in a vision, and told him that the Lord had bestowed vpon him, all that were in the ship (who were to the number of two hundred and [...]euentie and fiue) that not one of all these should perish, for Paules sake his good ser­uaunt. But alas the case is otherwise in this ship, then it was in the other where the Apostle sayled, for here he that should haue helped all, hurted all: the Prophet now is become a runa­gate, not a preacher but a sleeper: he alone is pursued with ven­geance, and the other poore folkes are free.

15 Yet call vpon thy God, if so be that God will thinke vpon vs, that we perish not. Looke what ignorance on the one side, and necessitie on the other, could enforce them to do. It might haue bin a harme vnto them, to pray to so many Gods. For whē such a number should be sought to, and yet some other should be left out (as it was impossible for them to thinke on all) some one maister God who was of the better sort might be angrie, [Page 76] and drowne them all, in despite that he should be omitted, and not be had in account. I should thinke that our simple Roma­nists, the simpler sort I say, who haue little in their owne know­ledge, should stumble much at this stoue; least while they are creeping and crooching to some one Saint, some other should take it in dudgeō, that any should be preferred, or sought to be­fore themselues. But I thinke that to amend the matter, their Church hath taken the paines,Festum omniū ▪ sanctorum. Festum omniū Animarum. to put All the Saints in one day together, to keepe them quiet, and All the soules in another, least the first should not be sufficient. Gods grace is more vpon vs, since he hath let vs know, that one Lord, and onely he is to be worshipped; that Christ is our mediatour, and diligent inter­cessour, and not any other creature; that prayer is a sacrifice pe­culiar vnto him, and that the Saints in heauen are to be imitated of vs, for their faith and good example, and not to be called vp­on. And yet God hath dealt better with those Romanists, and better with these sea-men, then with some lewd ones in our time, who being in all their actions and conuersation most pro­fane, are so farre from praying with the heathen to many Gods, that they rather say there is none. These idolaters vnder errour of religion or deuotion, know that something is to be adored; the light of nature hath taught them that; but these deuils come not so far. I giue that name vnto them, because in this although not in all things,Iacob. 2.19. they are worse then deuils, for the deuils be­leeue that there is a God, albeit they quake and tremble at it. What other name should I giue them? fooles? nay these exceede the foole,Psal. 53.1. for the foole hath said in his hart, there is no God, as we may reade in Dauid. But these go one degree beyond Da­uids foole, for they say it too with their mouthes.

Aug. Tract. 2. in Iohan. Sic est quasi videat quis­quā de longin­qu [...] patriā, & mare interia­ceat: videat quò eat sed non videat quà eat16 These poore soules neuer cōming where pietie or good­nesse grew, conceiue by a generall apprehension, that there was a power, or powers who ruled all things, though they knew not what it was. They were as men in darknesse, like those of whom S. Austen speaketh, who know that they haue a coun­trey, but the sea doth lye betweene: they willingly would go to it, but they do not know the meanes; whither they would go they gesse, but which way they cannot tell. They know that [Page 77] there is something, but they know not how to conceiue what it should be; they cannot tell how to yeeld it his right reuerēce; or whether it be one or manie. But all coasts and all countreys accord, that there is somewhat. The West Indians had certaine spirits, whom they named their Zemes, & accounted them their Gods, euermore in extremities crying and calling to them. But what should I name any particulars,Tullius de legibus. lib. 1. when Tullie can say for all, that there is no nation so barbarous, no people so rude, but knoweth that there is a God; although they cānot tell who. Tul­lie, it shall be easier for thee in the day of iudgement, and for thee Plato, & for thee Seneca, then for many who liue not in Ethni­cisme or Barbarisme, but in a ciuill nation, in the cleare light of the Gospell, in a countrey of good learning, & yet do make dis­pute of the being of their Creator. But I leaue these wicked A­theists, and returne to our idolaters, who did not stay at these prayers, but went yet one step farther. They fall to casting lots.

And they said euery man to his fellow, come & let vs cast lots.

17 They see that there was some thing in it, beyond the cō ­mon course of nature. The sodainnesse of the tempest, and the violence of the storme, shewed some God to be angrie. It may be that other ships which were at sea, did go quietly, or the wind did beate and strike most of all vpon this ship. But with­out doubt they saw it to be extraordinarie, and thereupon their hearts by and by did giue them, that in all likelyhood it was for sin, they knew not what nor in whom, but for sinne they were well assured. Which may be a memoriall to vs Christians, that if anie crosse do come straungely, or if anie noted thing do be­fall vs (whereof our owne hearts may best of all be iudges) that straightway with feare and trembling we examine our selues, & enter into our consciences, and sift them in sinceritie, as in the sight of God, whether sinne do not plucke that on vs. It trou­bled the Israelites much,Iudic. 20.26. when going in a good cause, to take vengeaunce vpon the Beniamites, for the abuse of the Leuites concubine, there perished of them in two dayes no lesse then fortie thousand. They went and wept before the Lord, and fa­sted till the euening, to know what the cause was. But whē they who came before presuming vpon their multitude, had learned [Page 78] to humble themselues, they obtained that which they desired. If any thing should happen straungely, as while we be in this mortalitie, we may verie well expect, we can take no better course, then with these ship-men presently to feare, least iniqui­tie be the authour of it. But we must not alwayes follow their meanes; for they fell to casting lots.

18 The vse of lots is anciēt, wherin the custome was in causes of great importāce, to take stickes, or stones, or shels, or to write names in a paper, or to draw strawes or cuts, so to determine that, which otherwise without strife could not be accorded, or to put that vnto God which mē could not decide.Augustin. in Psalm. 30. So S. Austen doth describe it, A lot is such a thing as in the doubts of men doth shew the will of God. So whē men knew not who it was, that had taken the excommunicate thing,Iosuah. 7.18. the lot shewed it to be Achan: for so the most do expound it. So when no man could tell Saule, that Ionathas was the man,1. Sam. 14.42 who so contrarie to the rash oath of Saule, had tasted of the honie, it was found by lot who it was. Least strife should arise,Act. 1.26. and parts be taken, about Ioseph and Mathias, which of them should be admitted into the roome of Iudas,Homer. Iliad. 7. the Apostles made the triall by a lot. So Homer doth re­port that Nestor gaue the counsell, that it should be determi­ned by a lot, which of the nine worthiest of the Greekes, should fight in combat with Hector. Each man marked his lot, and put it into the helmet of Agamemnon. The first turne fell to Aiax. But whereas according to the rules of diuinitie, these lots should be vsed but in speciall causes, and that with great iudgement and meditation, (because it is a trying of God in a kinde of sen­tence, and we are not to tempt him rashly) in some men su­perstition, in some other a hope of gaine, and a sort of deceiuing fraude, haue wrought great abuses in them. Proude Haman in the booke of Hester,Ester. 3.7. made lots to be drawne before him, from the first moneth to the twefth, to see what moneth or day should be fortunate, to attempt the mouing of his great matter, the murther of all the Iewes. O Haman, in that thy lot, thou wast blind as well as bloudie.Caesar. Com­ [...]ient. lib. 1. Caesar telleth in his Commenta­ries, that the women among the Germanes, did vse to diuine by lots, what dayes were good to fight on, or to begin a battell. [Page 79] This is heathenish superstition. Some casting lots to get money, haue made a profession of it, as the counterfeit Aegyptians in telling of fortunes. The lawes contra sortilegos were made by worthie Princes, against such kinde of men, and other of much like qualitie. God sometimes doth suffer these in verie truth to hit, that themselues and such as follow them, attending to strong delusion, may make vp their owne dānation. These abuses haue made some to thinke all lots vnlawfull, and not to be vsed at all.Hieron. in Ion. 1. Nec statim debemus sub hoc exēplo sor­tibus credere. Priuilegia sin­gulo [...]ū nō pos­sunt legēface­re communem. Prou. 16.33. Cap. 18.18. Augustin. in Psalm. 30. De Genesi ad literam. lib. 10. Epistol. 180. Yea Hierome speaketh somewhat doubtfully of them, who vpon this place saith, that this deede of the mariners should not be drawne to an example, of attributing any thing to lots, nei­ther should any in holy Scriptures, because they were speciall motions and euents, giuen by God to speciall men, and not by other to be attempted or put in practise.

19 But the Scripture is not so straight; the lot is cast into the lap, but the whole dispositiō therof is of the Lord. And elsewhere it is commended. The lot causeth contentions to cease, and ma­keth a partion among the mightie. So S. Austen doth teach, that there is no euill in the lot. And in another place, Those things vvhich are giuen by lot, are giuen vnto vs by God. And in his hundreth and eightith Epistle, disputing that question of the flying of a Minister in the time of persecution, and supposing that there be diuerse pastours in one congregation, whereof some are to depart for a time, and some to stay; if it cannot be agreed, saith he, who shall do the one, and who shall do the other,Epistol. 119. let it be decided by a lot. Indeede he doth not like that lots should be made of euerie thing, as of the leaues of the Gospell, (which it seemed that some in his time vsed to do) be­cause he thought it not to be fit, that diuine matters should by a superstitious custome, be applied to profane vses. There the abuse is in the manner of doing, not in the thing. But the que­stion which ariseth from this difference of iudgement, may easily be resolued, by considering the seuerall sortes of lots, which are found to be three. For there are either lots appoin­ted to diuide, Sortes diuisio­nis, consultatio­nis, diuinatio­nis. or intended to consult, or vsed of purpose to diuine. The first of these three is, lawfull; that is, to diuide lands or goods, or any like thing, when otherwise contention [Page 80] would arise,Prou. 18.18. Iosuah. 16.1. as Salomon doth import in the place which I na­med before. In this kind did Iosuah part out the land of Canaan by lot, to the people of Israell. The second is not vnlawfull, that is, to consult what shalbe done, when matters stand in an equa­litie of reason: so that there be no offending in the circūstances: And of this may be vnderstood that other place of Salomon.Prou. 16.33. By this, choise may be made of persons to be sent, or of things to be accomplished, where otherwise by diuersitie of opinions there would be no agreement. But to diuine is vtterly vnlawfull, as if a man should take a white lot, and a blacke lot, and if I draw the white lot, then I may well go this day, if the blacke, I will not go: I shall haue an vnhappie iourney. That of Haman be­fore spoken of, doth come within this compasse. We hold this for a great abuse.

20 Here the lot is consultatorie. They tooke it a thing gran­ted, that one or other amōg them had committed some wicked offence, and because they could not tell, who it was that had done the deede, they will put it to their Gods. This sheweth the mightie feare which did possesse their soules. Men can hard­ly like it in other of their acquaintaunce, that they should be culled out to be murthered; but that any should consent to throw the dice on himselfe, to endaunger his owne life by it, is a matter which is not common. This is like one of those cases a­mong the Romanes, which would make the hearts of all the be­holders to quake; That was, when after some cowardly feare­fulnesse, or mutinous sedition, or stubburne rebellion in the ar­mie, the Generall for punishment thereof, would tith his soul­diers, euerie tenth man to the blocke,Liuius. lib. 2. as Appius dealt with his legiōs. Or as if in some grieuous famine, cuts should be drawne, who among a company should be slaine to releeue his fellowes. In what a state was Iosephus,Ioseph. de bello Iudai­co. lib. 3.14. when his fellowes in a desperate moode, enforced him to yeeld to the throwing of lots, so to know which of them should be first killed, and which of them last? but all of them must be slaine. Necessitie hath no law; it must be done in this place. The onely comfort is, that euerie mā hath this hope, that it wilt rather fall to another then happen to himselfe. We can sooth our selues of our selues, either in foo­lish [Page 81] presumption that we are not the worst of all, some are more bad then we be; or in a weening fancie that we may escape in a multitude; we are but one of a manie: but so betweene both, we wil hope the best for our owne parts,Corn. Tacit. in vita Iulij Agricolae. Imquissima haec bellorum conditio est: prospera omnes sibi vendicant: aduersa vni imputantur. & let the lots go on other. As Tacitus saith of warre, This is the miserie of it: if any thing fall out well, euery one chalengeth that to himselfe: but if it fall out ill, euery one slippeth his necke out of the collar, the blame shall be layd vpō one, so in such cases as these, happie man he that is farthest off; but if the lot be to be drawne for any good thing, the better legge shall be set before. Why should not we hope to speed, as well as the best amongst vs?

21 But the lot here is to take one, who must die for all his fellowes. Why one for all, ye mariners? what man is there a­mong you, that had not deserued to die? This is a branch of that roote of hypocrisie, which possesseth the hearts of all the sonnes of Adam.Gen. 3.12. 1. Sam. 15.21. It was not Adam but the woman, who had touched the forbidden fruite. When the best of the cattell of the Amale­kites was saued, it was the people, saith Saule, which spared thē. So here I warrant you, the most part of those which were in the ship, were so cleane from any such grosse crime as now was in question, that there could be but one sinner. Dauid was in ano­ther mind,Psal. 130.3. If thou ô Lord straightly markest iniquities, ô Lord who shall stand? All these had deserued death, and merited to be serued as Ionas was: but the Lord indeed vpon a present occa­sion, had singled one out to this strange punishment; because as in part he would teach his companions, by his example, so espe­cially he meant to make that one man know, how highly he had offended. God expected much more of him, then he did of ordi­narie persons. To whom the most is committed, of him most is required. Ionas had bene inspired with a Propheticall spirit: he had visions and reuelations from his God: he should haue bene a light to other. But the simple sea-faring men, neuer came to any such height of knowledge. He was singular in comparison of them: he was as a white garment; and therefore a litle spot in him, would cause a great deformitie. But when he did take this precious vesture, and with lying downe in it, did soile it euerie whit, God in his iustice cannot endure that in him.

[Page 82]22 The lots therefore are cast, and the daunger falleth vpon Ionas. That Lord who ruleth ouer all his creatures, great and small, so disposed it, that the sinner should be deprehended, and the more innocent should go free.Iosuah. 7.18. His state was like to Achan: he cannot escape the iudgement, which is coming toward him. The lot fell surely on him. It is not vnlikely, but that they threw it diuerse times, and still it proued that he was the man. For they who were so carefull not to drowne him, after that they had discouered him,Iona. 1.13.14. would not hastily be induced, to single out a straunger, who neuer immediatly had offended them, to make him die for all. Being drawne then once or often, it fell vndoub­tedly vpon Ionas. It was not possible for him to escape, where such a one had the handling of it, as is Lord both of heauen and earth.Tullius lib. 2. in Verrem. Tully doth tell of Verres, sometimes deputie for the Ro­manes in Sicilia, that as otherwise he was excellent to bring a­bout to his purpose, all things which might yeeld credit or com­moditie, so verie earnestly desiring, to haue his friend Theomna­stus, to be chosen Iupiters priest, an office of some moment in that countrey, he wrought a pretie feate for him. For whereas by the order of the election, three men should be named to the place, and three seuerall lots be appointed, with the names of the three competitors, written vpon the lots, and he whose lot should be first drawne, should haue the priesthood: Verres to make sure worke, made three lots indeed to be appointed, but he wrote vpon euerie one of them, the name of his friend Theo­mnastus, and so being sure to hit, he sped his man of the priest­hood; for it could not be otherwise. This was a tricke of fraud, and fit for such a deceiuer, as Verres shewed himselfe in Sicilia. He that would haue Ionas taken, needeth not to vse anie such leger-demaine: his creatures be at commandement: they do as himselfe inioyneth. So Ionas did finde it here: so the wicked shall find it euer.

23 An instruction hence may be gathered for all persons, that they looke vnto their wayes, and plunge not into vngodli­nesse, vnder hope not to be disclosed. For nothing is so secret but it shall be opened.Eccles [...] 10.20 He that curseth the king, although it be in his most priuate chamber, shall be discouered by the fowles [Page 83] of heauen, and one dead thing or other shall declare it. Some letter perhaps or writing. The adulterer who doth thinke him­selfe safely concealed, in the darke, or by the close and hidden walles, yet cannot escape his sight, whose eyes are said to be ten thousand times brighter then the Sunne. He that wisheth ill to his brother, is well knowne to that maiestie, which trieth the hearts and reines. In one word what can escape him, who hath such prerogatiue of power,Apoc. 20.11. as to sit so vpon a throne, that hea­uen and earth flie before him, the graues giue vp their dead, and the sea doth yeeld vp hers; that the bookes shall be layed open, and mens consciences be detected, and the mountaines cannot couer them, nor the rockes cannot keepe them from him. It is a good meditation,Heb. 10.31. to feare his angrie iudgement. It is a feare­full thing to fall into the hands of the liuing God. If we serue him he will loue vs, if we fall from him, he will find vs. Lord direct vs so with thy Spirit, that if we should fall with Ionas, we sleepe not in sinne with Ionas, but as the carefull ship-maister, looking in all sinceritie through the corners of our hearts, we may raise vp our selues, and call to thee the true God, to helpe vs in all ex­tremities, to stand by vs in all temptations, that the lot fall not on vs, to be cast away from thy fauour: but that we may raigne with thee, in thy most blessed kingdome, to the which bring vs ô good father, for thine owne sonne Christ his sake, to whom with thee and thy Spirit, be glo­rie for euermore.


The chiefe points. 2 Many questions import egernesse to know. 4.6. In doing iu­stice due examination should go before. 5 Mens hard hearts to strangers. 7 Some trades vsed are odious to God. 8 As vsurie. 10 It is not fit to come in all places. 11 Some people are not ac­ceptable to God. 12 Confession of a fault. 14 What is meant by fearing. 15 Two sorts of feare. 16 The horror of sin. 17.22. The power and being of God shewed against the Atheist. 19 Authori­ties of heathen men, and reasons prouing the creation. 23 Foure questions to the Atheist.

IONAH. 1.8.9.

Then sayd they vnto him: Tell vs for whose cause this euill is v­pon vs? what is thine occupation? and whence comest thou? which is thy countrey? and of what people art thou? And he answered them, I am an Hebrew, and I feare the Lord God of heauen, which hath made the sea and the dry land.

BEcause our Ionas hath a great deale more minde, to go to Tarshish by sea, then to Ni­niue by land, rather about his owne pleasure, then the businesse of his maister, he is so well preferred, as of a Prophet to become a priso­ner, first arrested by a tempest, then discouered by a lot, to be a malefactour; in what place or cause, it doth not yet appeare, but allow time onely, and that shall be reuealed. In this my text he is brought to his examination, not in a court of magistrates: but a companie of mariners, must be his Inqui­sitours. Being arraigned he is conuicted, and by his owne mouth condemned, but by them afterward he is brought to 1 execution. I am here to looke into the manner of inquirie which is made vpon him; and that is layed downe vnto vs in 2 the former verse; and in the next place to handle his personall [Page 85] answer, which is in the latter verse; both of them yeelding to vs verie good instruction, if I be not deceiued, as may appeare in order.

2 Saint Hierome doth obserue the maner of the words,Hieron. in Ion. 1.8. Notanda bre­uitas quā ad­mirari in Vir­gilio solebamus that there should be within so small a compasse, so many questions, and those so significant and effectuall. And as he was a miracle of the world for learning, and that for humanitie, as well as Di­uinitie, so it putteth him to remember, the excellent concise­nesse of the Poet Virgil, who in a maner right compendious, is accustomed to inclose many questions in verie fewe words. He citeth that one place,

—Iuuenes quae causa subegit
Virgilius Ae­neid. 8.
Ignot as tentare vias? quo tendit is inquit?
Qui genus? vnde domo? pacémne huc fertis an arma?

Young men, what cause hath brought you into these vnknowne wayes? whither go you? of what kindred are you? vvhere do you dvvell? bring you hither vvarre or peace? But the matter of the wordes, is rather the ground whereon we are to stand, euerie question including some thing of importance, to this present purpose. These mariners being followed with so strange a tem­pest, as made them quake for daunger of their liues, and crie with importunitie to their heathen Gods, and disburden their ship of such wares as were in it, and cast lots for their liues, who should die for all his fellowes; may iustly be supposed to be in such a fright, that if anie thing extraordinarie should appeare vnto them, what might be the reason of their daunger, or how they were to be eased, and put away from their [...]eare, he by whom or in whom it might be coniectured to be, should be plucked, and tugged, and haled, by one and by another, as a Beare that were to be bayted, to know what was the reason of this terrible daunger, or what secret he could open. What art thou? whither wilt thou? whence comest thou? what doest thou? how cometh all this about?

3 For men in such extremities can not satisfie them selues, but either in strange newes, or any mightie perill, will so runne question vpon question, that it is scant in mans wit to make a readie answer. When the Romanes had sustained that deadly [Page 86] ouerthrow at Cannae,Liuius lib. 22. Quae fortuna cōsulum atque exercituum sit, siquid Dij im­mortales, mise­ri imperij reli­quum Romano nomini fece­rint, vbicae copiae sint: quò se Hannibal post praelium contu­lerit, quid pa­ret, quid agat, acturúsque sit. Luc. 16.27. by Hannibal the Carthaginian, and their Citie was growne into that perplexitie, as it neuer was in al­most before, that wise Fabius Maximus, causeth scoutes to be sent foorth, with demaunds vpon demaunds, to such as they should meete; in what case the armies were; in what estate were the Consuls? what the Gods had left remaining to the Romanes? where the remnant of their armie did abide? whither Hanniball was now gone? what he intended? what he did? what he purpo­sed to attempt? Thus daunger affrighteth the wisest, and maketh the simpler sort oftentimes, to runne toung before the wit. In the sixteenth of Luke, the rich mā is brought in, making request to Abraham, that he would send Lazarus to his fathers house, to giue warning to his fiue brethrē, that they by the wickednesse & retchlesnesse of their liues, came not into those torments, which he then with much paine endured. If that should haue bene in deede, which is there but in a parable described, and he who had come from the dead, should haue had but some few houres allotted him to stay, imagine you (for this is but a supposall) a­mong a multitude, what preassing there would haue bene about him; what plucking by one elbow, and holding by another, what doubled interrogations: how doth such a one, or such a one? my father or my friend? is he in heauen or hell? in lesser or greater ioy? in more or milder torment? Ionas comming from vnder the hatches, (where he slept but a little before) like Laza­rus from his graue, is beset among these mariners, with a multi­tude of such questions. What is the cause that this storme is in this sort vpon vs? felow, whence doest thou come? what coun­treyman art thou sirra? what is thine occupation?

4 Thus the place must be vnderstood, if we respect the e­gernesse of men in such perplexitie, or the hast which daunger breedeth, or the manners of common mariners. But in verie deede I see more in it. Here may be noted to vs a proceeding much more sober, and iudgement with discretion. That which goeth before will well beare it, that which foloweth, will more enforce it. The fearefulnesse whereunto they were growne, by hazard of a shipwracke, was of force to allay their heate: it made them amated with it: their deuotion to their Gods, did put them [Page 87] from their choler: the maister is supposed to be a man wise and careful, as not long since you haue heard: the casting of their lots doth intend a slaking stay: their milde intreating of Ionas, when the crime appeared to them: their referring of all to him: the de­sire which they had to saue him: the griefe which they had to drowne him, are presumptiōs of much sobrietie. These circūstan­ces import a iust kind of inquirie, which was vsed vpon the Pro­phet, so to wring out by cōiectures, or by plaine declaratiō, what was this grieuous crime, which plucked such a tempest downe from heauen, how Gods wrath was to be satisfied, what punish­ment should be taken, if punishment must be taken. It were much to be suspected, that if this case which is here among these Gentiles, should come to triall among many Christians, the man should find hard iustice. For now vpon how light occasions, are many inflamed to wrath? what bitternesse? what reuiling? what blasphemie euen to God, with swearing and with tearing, if for anothers sake mens liues should be indaungered? if they should be inforced, as these were here, to throw their wealth and sub­staunce, with their owne hands into the sea? Call to minde, that if any negligence haue raised a fire in a towne, and harme be done to their building, how little it is remembed, that it is a crosse from God, sent on them for their sinnes, or to teach them patience, or to make trial of their faith; but the next imme­diate cause, that presently is looked too, seethe villanie of this boy, see the cursednesse of this wenche; see the diuellishnesse of this felow, that should haue taken care of this fire, if he had his desert, how oft should he dye for it?

5 But if it were a straunger, an outlandish man as Ionas was, who brought this scathe vpon them, how many Crucifiges should he haue tumbling on him? A French man as I take it, (al­though some other men be of another opinion) euen greeuing in his soule at the vnkindnesse of our nation, I meane in the cōmon sort,Anno. 1572. Euseb. Phila­delphus Dia­logo 2. hath by occasion of the hādling of their last great Massacre, noted it to posteritie, that by a most inhospitall kinde of phrase, our Englishmen vse to terme them, no better then French dogs, that fled hither for Religion, and their conscience sake. Vnto this ioyne the many conspiracies, which by some of the meaner [Page 88] people, in one Citie of our land, haue bene oftentimes intended against outlandish folkes: & the disposition of men in this point, will well appeare. Those which are wise and godly, make vse of those aliaunts as of brethren, considering their distresses, with a liuely felow-feeling, holding it an vnspeakable blessednesse, that this little Iland of ours should not onely be a tēple, to serue God in for our selues, but an harbour for the weather-beaten, a san­ctuarie to the straunger, wherein he may honour the true Lord: remembring the precise charge which God gaue to the Israe­lites, to deale well with all straungers,Leuit. 19.33. because the time once was, when themselues were straungers in that cruell land of E­gypt: not forgetting that other nations to their immortall praise, were a refuge to the English, in their last bloudie persecution in Queene Maries dayes: and in briefe recounting, that by a mu­tuall vicissitude of Gods chastisements, their case may be our case: which day the Lord long keepe from vs. These mariners with that humanitie which beseemeth all men of reason, re­proch it not to the Prophet, that he an outlandish aliaunt, should bring such trouble on them, should put them to such losse, or thrust them into such daunger, but in verie good course of iu­stice, they desire to be informed, and take notice of his cause. The presentnesse of the perill, or the hast which they had to be satisfied, could not stay them from doing iustice: they will at­tend his aunswere.

6 Such persons as through whose hands the liues of o­thers passe, be they Iudges or be they iusticers, yea be they but common Iurours, may hearken to these heathen, and the ma­ner of their proceeding, and learne so much; as that they shall not dare, rashly to destroy, or take away the life of their Chri­stian brother. Life is a most precious thing: it cannot be made by men, but it may be marred in a moment. And if it be once marred, there is no benefite on earth, whereby it may be re­quited; as Alexander once told his owne mother Olympias,Ammi. Mar­cellin. lib. 14. when she desired him to execute an innocent harmelesse man; and that she might the more preuaile with him, remembred him that her selfe for the space of nine monethes, had caried him in her wombe, and for that reason he must not say her nay. Aske [Page 89] saith he my good mother, Aliam paren [...] optima posce mercedē ▪ homi­nis enim salus nulio beneficio pensatur. some other gift of me, for the life of a man can be recompenced, by no good turne that can be done. Be­fore that death be inflicted, let truth appeare if it may be. Stay the asking of many questions, and the scanning out of all doubts, ere the last sentence come. Certainely God knew the wickednesse of Sodome and Gomorrha, as he sat aboue in heauen;Gene. 18.21. yet meaning to destroy them, he saith, I vvill go downe now, and see vvhether they haue done altogether accor­ding to that crie, vvhich is come vnto me, and if not, that I may knovv: thereby teaching all gouernours, that they passe not otherwise to the death of any, but with verie mature aduise­ment. It is a wise law in the meane time,Mūster Cos­mograph. lib. 4. which Munster repor­teth to be put in practise, in a towne called Clagea belonging to Carinthia; where if any be taken suspicious of theft, he is by and by hanged vp, and some two or three dayes afterward, enquirie is made vpon him, wherein if he be found giltie, he is let to hang till he rot away peece-meale, but if he be found innocent, then he is taken downe, and buried with some so­lemnitie. This is contrarie to the common rules of humanitie, but much more repugnant to diuinitie. In cases of lesse impor­taunce then life and death, all Magistrats ought to affoord that measure to their people, which these mariners did to Ionas, that is, to sift out the whole truth by demaunds, before that they giue any iudgement. Moses could say of himselfe to the Israe­lites, I charged your Iudges the same time saying, Deut. 1.16. Heare be­tweene your brethren, and iudge righteously betweene euerie man and his brother, and the straunger that is with him. First heare and then iudge.Iob. 29.16. Iob professeth thus of himselfe, I vvas a father vnto the poore, and vvhen I knew not the cause, I sought it out diligently. The speech of Nicodemus to the Pharisies was good, Doth our law iudge a man before it heare him, Iohn. 7.51. and know what he hath done? Act. 24 23. So Felix could tell Saint Paule, that he would not iudge his cause,Ammi. Mar­cell. lib. 18. Ecquis innocēs esse poterit, si accusasse suffi­ciet? before that he had heard it perfectly. Other­wise, the accused person should haue a hard bargaine by it: for as Iulian the Apostata once aunswered verie wittily, If it be sufficient to accuse, shall any man be an innocent? The Poet there­fore said well, [Page 90]

Seneca in Medea.
Qui statuit aliquid parte inaudita altera,
Aequum licet statuerit, hand aquus fuit.

He who determineth any thing not hauing heard both the par­ties speake, although he haue decreed the right, yet himselfe hath not bene iust, that is, he hath done it wrongfully, because he should heare both. And this is the generall doctrine, which may be deriued here, from the examination of these mari­ners ouer Ionas. Let vs gather a little nearer to the particular wordes.

Tell vs for whose cause this euill is vpon vs? what is thine occupation? whence commest thou?

Vers. 7.7 I haue in part before touched, that these men imagined, that some sinne plucked this wrath vpon them. But when the lot fell vpon Ionas, they gessed him to be the sinner. Now to know the particulars, they asked him of his trade, for, good men, they little dreamed of a Prophet: they demaunde of him for his countrey, and the place from whence he came. For both Rhetorike and experience,Natio, educa­tio, fortuna, studia, in perso­nis sunt quae­renda. Omphalius in Nomologia. and diuinitie most of all, do shew that good coniectures, and presumptions for any thing in question, may be drawne from the life which in former time hath bene led, from the companie and familiaritie which hath bene entertained, from the countrey and habitation where any hath abode. Then what is thine occupation? and the course of life which thou vsest? wherein doest thou spend thy time? If thou be a robber or a rouer, no maruell if some straunge pu­nishment do pursue thee at the heeles. If a sorcerer or a ne­cromancer, the same may be thy doome.Horat. Epist. 1.15. Scurra vagus non qui certum praesepe teneret. Impransus non qui ciuem dig­nosceret hoste. Quaelibet in quemuis oppro­bria fingere sae­ [...]us. If a stewes-maister or a broaker for vncleannesse of the bodie, it is verie likely that wrath may follow thee. If a flattering hungrie iester, who waytest vpon a trencher, and makest no kinde of con­science, to taunte any man that displeaseth thee, vengeance may droppe vpon thee. So these simple men did perceiue, that there was some kinde of life vnlawfull and vngodly, which because it was contrarie and aduerse, either vnto pietie, or hu­mane charitie, it might well offende that power which ruleth all mortall creatures.

8 I maruell what the vsurer could haue aunswered in this [Page 91] case, who liueth on the sweat of others, and maketh a gayne of their losses.Gen. 47.3. It was no shame for Iacobs sonnes, to tell the king of Egypt, that their father and his children were shepheardes. Nei­ther was it any disgrace to Amos,Amos. 7.14. to say that he was a heardman, and a gatherer of wild figges: but to say I am an vsurer, one who liue vpon my money; is but a blushing speech. Dauid as­keth a question and aunswereth himselfe,Psal. 15.1.5. Lord vvho shall dwell in thy Tabernacle? who shall rest in thy holie mountaine? He that giueth not his money vnto vsurie. Ye in some places of this land, (for I must not imagine, that any interest is to be found in Oxford: we haue scant money for our necessities) such as haue their hands polluted, with extortion in this kinde, will come into the tabernacle, and sit them downe in the Temple, be at Church as soone as any, and be as intent and earnest vpon the preacher, as if there were no such matter. If speech be of the inheritaunce which is on Gods holie hill, they will vrge as farre as the farthest. How can this hang together? the brea­king of Gods commaundements in a wilfull professed sort, and the true feare of the Lord? But this were a greater wo, if it should be found in the Leuites, and the Priests, euen such as serue in the Tabernacle.Rom. 2.21. Thou that preachest a man should not steale, doest thou steale? saith Saint Paule, doest thou spoyle? It was the speech of Apollonius in Eusebius, against the Montanist Prophets,Euseb. Eccl. Histor. lib. 5▪ 17. doth a Prophet colour his haire? or an­noynt his eyes vvith stibium? doth a Prophet put money to vsurie? If it be thy portion which was giuen thee by thy father, or some money which thou hast gotten, or a stocke left in thy trust, for the widow or for the fatherlesse, which thou art loth should be idle, this or that, or whatsoeuer, doubtlesse it is not well, since no carnall pretence [...]an serue to violate the euerlasting law of God, and men should haue tender consciences, fea­ring to exercise that, which by so many places of Scripture, the iudgement of all the auncient fathers, the Canon and ciuill lawes, the constitutions of most good common-wealthes, the reasons of heathen Philosophers, the consent of the schoole­men, and opinion of the greatest part of our late Diuines, is con­demned as an vncharitable, and most vnchristian practise. [Page 92] All those things which may be obiected, that thy case is not common; that there be many sortes of interest, a biting and not biting vsurie: that learned men of great fame in some causes do permit it: that the lawes of our land winke at it: that now it is much frequented, and many good men do vse it, great gentle­men in the countrey, as well as Citizens and marchants: that thou mayst do good to another, and he shall gaine by it as much as thou: nay a thousand excuses more, cannot aunswere that one place,Deut. 23.19. Thou shall not giue to vsurie to thy brother, as vsurie of money, vsury of meate, vsury of any thing that is put to vsurie. And whereas thou wouldst shrowd thy factes, vnder the skirts of some few reuerend mens writings, if thou loue them, and the Religion which they professed, then couer that their ouersight, proceeding from humane infirmity,Gen. 9.22. & do not as wicked Cham, discouer the nakednesse of those, who were fathers in the faith, to many in this last age. Do not wrastle against thy conscience. With Mathew leaue to be a Publican;Matth. 9.9. Luc. 19.2. with Zacheus to gather tribute: it is not for a Christian to be of this occupation: relin­quish it to the Iewes.

9 If I be not deceiued, this question for the trade of life, insinuating that some artes are not pleasing to the Lord, should stumble a great many men. If in the lawfulnesse of a calling, Gods immediate glorie, and the benefite of his Church, or at least the good & seruice of the cōmon wealth, in humane socie­tie, be euermore to be respected, what comfort can such per­sons, who indeede are but a burthen to a land, or the Citie where they dwell, take to go on forward to their graues in in that, which to speake of it most moderately, is but doubtfull? I can hardly be perswaded, that the consciences of such men, do alwayes contēt and satisfie themselu [...]. I am sure, that according to the proportion of their calling with his, they are not able to say as the Apostle Paule sayd a little before his death,2. Tim. 4.7. [...]. Certamen illud praeclarum cer­tani. Beza. I haue fought a good fight, or as Beza readeth it, I haue fought that ex­cellent fight, I haue finished my course, and so take ioy in their calling. Such men who make a life of playing vpon a stage, may bethinke themselues in this reckening. If you will, put vn­to these our common dauncing-maisters, and others of like sort. [Page 93] Mistake me not in these wordes, as if I did condemne all honest recreation. I dare not to do so. I know the priuilege and prero­gatiue is great, which men aboue all the creatures of God haue, if we do not abuse our libertie; but it is one thing for one man, after his honest labour in that trade wherein the Lord hath pla­ced him, to vse fit and moderate recreation; and other thing for another, to haue no other kinde of life, but to make of such ex­ercises an occupation. Many kindes of businesse, are warranted both by the lawes of God and men apparantly, but these at least may come vnder question.

10 The next demaunde here made to our Prophet, is from what place he did come? presuming that a mā may draw frō some places such a staine, as cānot be washed off but with vēgeance. He that toucheth pitch, Syrac. 13.1. Genes. 42.15 shall be defiled vvith it. Holy Ioseph be­ing among the Aegyptians, had learned new deuised oathes: he could sweare by the life of Pharao.Cap. 19.26. Lots wife did so well like the companie which she had in Sodome, that she longed to be there againe, although for her labour, it cost her the turning in­to a pillar of salt.Apoc. 18 4. Some places are hatefull to God: his people must out of Babylon. The companions of the wicked, are sup­posed to be wicked. It may well be feared, that the young man was a sinner,Prou. 7.6.9. of whom Salomon telleth, that he went to the house of the harlot, entring in thither at the twilight, and com­ming out perhaps at the midnight.Surius in commentar. Anno. 1566. Meretricis coactae sūt dis­cedere: interim tamē nonnullae in vicis ignobi­libus ob peiora vitanda reli­ctae sunt. Meretricibus quas in vnum vrbis angulum reiecit seueri­ter praecepit ne per vrbem va­gentur. It could be no great credit for Demosthenes, to be seene to come from the house of Lais. It is a case well knowne, that there be at Rome whole streetes of Curtisans. Onely Surius to extenuate the filthinesse of the mat­ter, saith they be but the baser streets, and lanes of lesse account, where these honest folkes do inhabite. And he holdeth it for a great praise to Pope Pius the fifth, that hee brought it to that passe. This multitude must haue money, to maintaine thē in their abuses, whereby it may be collected, that many and that fre­quently resort vnto them. Now if Christ should aske of those who returne from those places, whence come you? where haue you beene? they might right well quake with Ionas & feare his heauie iudgemēt. But if it be but his holinesse, the Vicar or vice­gerent of Christ vpon earth, the successour of Saint Peter, as he [Page 94] merily termeth himselfe,Si meretrices ab vrbe exclu­derentur, mag­num id Reip. annui quaestus dispendium al­laturum. Apoc. 17.1. Henric. Ste­phanus, in Apologia pro Herodo­to, Gallicè edita. cap. 12. there needeth no great dread for the matter. From a knowne place of your Citie: from that which yeeldeth you money: which you permit for tribute. Rome, how rightly wast thou termed by the name of the vvhore of Baby­lon, which sufferest such abuses in open professed sort, and ther­by giuest incouragement to some, to embrace that sinne? For whereas in the dayes of our old forefathers, the ignorant did ac­count it a crime to keepe a concubine, now when they see that euen at Rome, in the verie eye of his holinesse, in the chiefe Ci­tie of residence for Christes Vicar, such matters be maintained, they may thinke that now to keepe two or three, is a worke me­ritorious, & the more, the more meritorious. But to leaue them to their filthinesse, if it do so much touch our Prophet, to be as­ked from whence he came, those of the yonger sort, who come to this place for learning, for vertue and good instruction, may reuolue this ouer and ouer. If any day in the euening, when they should be at home in their beddes, or else quiet in their studies, or if vpon the Sabaoth in seruice time, or while other are at the sermon, a tauerne should be their rest, (which doth not well a­gree with a long gowne) how farre should they be forgetfull, or blush to heare that question, whence come you? where haue you bin?Genes. 3 9. or as God spake to our forefather in the bushes, where art thou Adam? If there should be any such (as God be prai­sed, that custome is well left) how will they hereafter lament, that those good houres, which should and might by the Lordes good blessing, be well imployed, are ill and fruitlesse­ly spent? that idlenesse and vnthriftinesse, yea peraduenture drunkennesse also, should be that whereunto they bend their studie, when in the meane while, knowledge and precious lear­ning might adorne them? Time foolishly wasted can neuer be recalled: and it is hard to call backe our selues, when we are once growne to a custome of any euill.

11 The ship-maister and his fellowes, yet haue not inough of Ionas: some more questions for their money. They aske him of his countrey, and from what people he did come. God some­times is angry with a whole lād, for the wickednesse of the inha­bitants. The goodly fields of Sodome do find that vnto this day. [Page 95] This also is witnessed vnto vs by the barrennesse of Palestina, which was sometimes the holie land, somtimes the happie land flowing with milke and hony, which now answereth in no mea­sure, to the fertilitie of auncient time. When sinne hath ouer­grown a countrey, each inhabitant feeleth a wo; euen the good in temporall punishments do smart as well as the wicked. For the iniquitie of their nation,Dan. 1.3. both Daniel and the three children, together with the rest of their countrimen, were led into capti­uitie. Some kind of people, euen almost in generall, are displea­sing to the Lord.Deut. 23.3. Exod. 17.14. The Ammonites and the Moabites, were litle accepted of him. But Amelechs name was so cursed, that the Lord would haue the remembrance of them to be rooted out from vnder the heauen.Matth. 27.25. Aboue all the people who liue vpon the earth, the Iewes do demonstrate this doctrine to vs, whose children and childrens children, haue for many ages bene blin­ded, with the grosse and grieuous sinne of their fathers, who put Christ cruelly to death. Other nations had their faults, and so might be hatefull to men who bordered neare vpon them, and they might also prouoke wrath from God. S. Paule did obserue out of the Poet Epimenides,Tit. 1.12. [...]. that the Cretians were great lyers. Now least some such generall sinne, of parentage or countrey, should hang vpon the Prophet, his company asketh him, from what nation he did come? of what people he was borne? By these & the like interrogatories, they desired to know the truth, that the fault might lye on him who had deserued it, and that they might be freed from the daunger of suffering shipwracke. And thus haue you the first verse, the demaunds which were made to Ionas. Now let vs come to his answer.

And he answered them, I am an Hebrew, and I feare
Iehouah the God of heauen.

12 When the whip of God, and the rod of his iustice, had 2 ouertaken Ionas so, that now he seeth heauen and earth to be a­gainst him, down cometh his proud hart: the sleeper now awa­keth; the run-away crieth peccaui; contrition & confession come now tumbling vpon him, yea to make vp his full penance, there shalbe satisfaction,Psal. 32.6. if his life can make amends. Now with Da­uid he will confesse his sinnes against him selfe, in ingenuous [Page 96] manner no concealing, no excusing, no pleading for himselfe. It is I, who by my follie, haue wrought you all this danger. Wreake your anger vpon me.

Virgil. Ae­neid. 9.
Me, me, adsum qui feci, in me conuertite ferrum
O Rutuli, mea fraus omnis.

It is I, it is I, here I am vvho did it, turne your swordes against me: all the fault is mine, as Nisus saith in Virgil, to saue his friend Eurialus. To display my transgression, and condemne my self the more, I will tell you the whole matter. I should be a man of some skill in Gods seruice, I should be able to know good frō euill, and practise it accordingly, for I am an Hebrew, (he spea­keth that with an Emphasis) no idolater, no infidell, no ignorant person, but an Hebrew, trained vp in vnderstanding and pie­tie: therefore my fall is most filthie; I am ashamed of my selfe. The name Hebrew was giuen to the people of God,Genes. 11.14 (which thē was the onely sanctified seede) of Heber who descended from Sem the sonne of Noe, from whom by succession those came, who were at that time the sole sonnes of adoption, called He­brewes of Heber, as the Iewes afterward tooke their name of Iudah,Genes. 32.28. one of the twelue Patriarkes, and the Israelites of Iacob, whom the Angell after his wrestling called Israell. This I thinke to be the true deriuation of that name.

13 These Hebrewes instructed their children in the seruice of the highest, euen as Moses & Dauid commanded vnto them, that they should teach their sonnes Gods miracles,Deut. 6.20. Psal. 78.4. Deut. 11.10. & their chil­dren his preceptes. The wals of their houses, and the postes of their doores, could remember them of his statutes. The most vnlearned persons among them, euen their children, could as well rehearse the lawes giuen downe by Moses, as they could recite their owne names.Ioseph. cōtra Apionē. lib. 2 For Iosephus against Apion, doth giue that testimonie of them: wherein I suppose that he meaneth the ten commaundements, and not the whole law. Then for a man & a Prophet,Nostrorū quē ­libet si quis le­ges interroget, faciliùs quàm nomen suū re­citat. to forget that which a child or any vnlearned one, could not chuse but thinke of, to wit, his precise duetie, doth ar­gue a great fault, and he who acknowledgeth this, doth not spare himselfe at all. He addeth this more, in his wordes to them, that he feareth the Lord Iehouah, the God of heauen: he belongeth [Page 97] to his seruice, and therefore should be expert in each thing that is good. Iehouah, is that name, wherein the Lord appeared on­ly to the Israelites; and not to all them neither, not to Abraham, nor to Isaac,Exod. 6.3. nor to Iacob, and the old Patriarkes, but first of all to Moses. This was that name, which the Iewes reputed to be his dreadfull name, the ineffable name of God, the vnspeakeable name of the Lord, which they dared not so much as to vtter: that appellation, by which he was distinguished from all other hea­then Idols,Psal. 82.1. [...] from Princes and from Magistrates, to whom the name of God in some sence is permitted. But Ionas to make him knowne,Iohn. 10.34. doth giue him another title; Iehouah the Lord of heauen, who alone doth rule the skie, who alone possesseth the firmament: not many as you do suppose (but he alone ruleth the heauen. No doubt but this God had some one time or other, bene specified to these mariners;Ionah. 1.3. they vsed to go to Iapho a ha­uen towne neare Palestina: and verie likely it is, that there about they had heard of the miracles, which this God had done before in Egypt, what worke he made in Canaan. His name was a name of fame, ouer all the world. And perhaps the word Ieho­uah was not wholy vnknowne to them. [...]he Romanes which were also heathen men, and liued much farther of, as I thinke did take some notice of that word, when they called their great God Iupiter, in some cases, Iouis, & Iouem, which might roaue at the name Iehouah. But this is but a coniecture, and it was some yeares afterward.

14 But to let this go, he feareth the Lord God of heauen, that is, either he dreadeth his iudgement, for the grieuousnesse of his sinne, or else, he belongeth vnto him as a seruaunt, he reue­renceth him,Psal. 111.10. Prou. 1.7. and oweth duetie to him. For oftentimes in the Scripture, the feare of the Lord importeth his honour or his ser­uice, and so Saint Hierome doth expound it, writing vpon this place.August. de Ciuitate Dei lib. 1.19. Si adultera Lucretia, cur laudata, si pu­dita cur occisa? But as Saint Austen saith of Lucretia, if she were an adul­teresse, why is she commended by those that write the storie of her, and by common report, if chast, why was she slayne, why did she kill her selfe? So might not I say to Ionas, if thou serue the Lord Iehouah, why then doest thou flie from him? or if thou runne from him, how doest thou serue him? Ionas thou shouldst haue [Page 98] serued him, but thou didst not, and that was thy heauy fault. In­deed it was his fault, as you haue heard oft before, and himselfe doth now confesse it. For he who giueth true honour to him that is his maker, should be obsequious to his will, and obser­uant of his word, in all things great and small, much more in things important, as Niniue was to the Prophet. He that should withdraw from thee,Ioseph. de bello Iud. lib. 7.4. that daily foode which thou put­test into thy belly, should be reputed of thee for an enemy: and can the Lord, thinkest thou, take it well, that thou shouldst withdraw from him, that obedience which thou owest vnto him?Cyprian. contra De­metrianum. Homo hominē obedire tibi & parere compel­lis: & cum sit nobis eadem. sors nascendi conditio vna moriendi, cor­porum materia consimilis. That speech which Saint Cyprian hath, is very excel­lent to this purpose: Thou requirest a duty of thy seruant, and whereas thou art but a man, thou forcest another man to be obe­dient to thee. Yea whereas there is betweene thee and him but one sort of being borne, one condition and quality of dying, one sub­stance of your bodies, yet thou beatest him with the vvhip, thou correctest him with the rod. And when thou wilt thus exercise dominion ouer another, vvilt thou not acknowledge one, to be a Lord ouer thee, and do thy best seruice to him? God doth ex­pect this at thy hands: for saith he, if I be a father, vvhere is mine honour? if I be a maister where is my feare? If Ionas were now his seruant, it was but in name onely: he did in truth litle re­gard his maister. At this time then, he hath much more occasion, to stand in awe of his punishment, and in that sence he might well say,Ionah. 2.4. that he feared the God of heauen. He who looketh on the next Chapter, shall see this to be most likely.

15 The horrour of sinne is such, euen in the hearts of the best of Gods children, that if faith do sleepe but a little, and the resolued assurance of mercy in the Sauiour, be eclipsed but for a moment, it maketh their soules to tremble in such sort, as if diffidence and despaire should swallow them vp by and by. How was Dauid dismaied,Psal. 51.11. when he cried out, Cast me not away from thy presence, and take not thine holy Spirit from me? What did Iob imagine of his owne desert,Iob. 42.6. when he thus professed, I abhorre my selfe, and repent in dust and ashes? In what an horrible an­guish was Peter,Matth. 26.75. when he went out and wept bitterly? But our Prophet of all other, fearing the dreadfull burthen of sinne vpon [Page 99] his shoulders, and gessing at the strange punishment, which should follow him immediatly, with some measure of seruile feare doth tremble at his Lord. His feare should haue bene be­fore that he had not runne wilfully into sinne, for as it is noted in one of those Epistles,Ambros. lib. 10. Epistolar. Ep. 84. Aliud est ti­mere quia pec­caueris, aliud timere ne pec­ces. Timor filialis & seruilis. August. in Psal. 119 & Epistol. 120. Illa dicet Ti­meo virum ne veniet. Ista Timeo virum ne discedet. Illa, timeo virum ne damnet. Ista timeo virum, ne deserat. Pone haec in a­nimo, & inue­nies timorem, quem foras mittit chari­tas, & alium timorem ca­stum perma­nentem in se­cula seculi. which are in the workes of Ambrose, although not thought to be his: It is one thing to feare, because thou hast offended; another thing to feare least that thou shouldest offend. In the one is a dread of punishment, in the other is a careful­nesse that thou mayst obtaine the reward. Saint Austen doth de­scribe this slauish quaking feare in one, and childes feare in ano­ther (as the schoolemen do call it) by a comparison drawne from a good wife, and a harlot. The adulterous wife, and the chast wife, sayth he, do both feare, if the husband be away. The one feareth and the other, but aske the reason of both, and you shall see an apparant difference. The bad vvife standeth in feare of her husband, least he should come to her, The good vvife is in feare, least her husband should go from her. This feareth least he should condemne her, because she hath deserued it, That feareth least he should forsake her, because she loueth him dearely. Remember these things, sayth Austen, and so thou shalt find a bad feare, whom charity driueth foorth, and another chast feare, vvhich abideth for euer and euer.

16 Ionas who was accustomed, in his cogitations of God, to ioyne a loue with his reuerence, as toward a father, now thinketh on him no otherwise, then as of a Lord, ready to take strong vengeance, vpon him as on a prisoner deputed to death. This is the best fruite of vngratefulnesse, and of negligence in our duties; to come as vnto a iudge, astonished and amased, and trembling to see his face, or almost to remember his name; whereas we might come as to a father, or as to a brother; with confidence and boldnesse, as to the throne of grace. Fye fil­thy sinne, that for thy sake we should thus disable our selues, we should so disgrace our soules, that when we might liue, euen in this world, with a dayly deaw of sweete influence, distilling vpon our hearts, from the holy Spirit of God, to reuiue vs and refresh vs; and whereas Paradise could not yeeld greater comfort to our eye, then the presence of the [Page 100] Trinitie,Apoc. 3.20. dwelling & supping with vs would do vnto our minds; and wheras we might dye in rest, as hauing that ioy of consciēce, that perfect peace of God, which passeth all vnderstanding, resi­gning vp with gladnesse, our spirites vnto our maker; yea that whereas either liuing or dying, we may rest our selues on that rocke, that euermore we are the Lordes, belonging to his ele­ction, and sealed vp with his adoption; to that end, that we may enioy sinne for a season, and the wantonnesse of this flesh, the vanities of this earth, and the foolerie of this world, which are scant worth the naming, to a man that hath heard of wisedome; which leaue vs and liue not with vs, we should plunge our selues into that horrour, which wayteth vpon the reprobates, and be perplexed in our thoughtes, in our vnderstanding dazeled, dis­couraged in our life, discomforted in our end, thinking of hell and iudgement, and wrath and fearefull vengeance, which ma­keth men liue in miserie, with sobs and many a sigh, and dye without hope of mercie. Let vs raise vp our selues at length, and with sober meditation contemplate vpon this matter. Let our soule be dearer to vs, euen that soule, which Christ hath bought with his bloud, with his precious heart bloud, then sinne with his tayle of a scorpion, who departeth not without stin­ging. Better to loue God as Ionas should, then to quake at God as Ionas did.

The God of heauen who made the sea and the drie land.

17 But here I must not forget the last wordes of my text, because they yeeld a speciall doctrine, most fit for these present times. In this speech, Ionas doth entitle his maister to all the world: he is first the God of the heauen; and then he did create the sea, and the drie land. Heauen oftentimes by a generall name, containeth all things aboue vs, be they elements, or be they other bodies: so then God did make this whole frame. The heauen is as his seate: the earth he made from which, the sea he made to which the Prophet did here flie. Be it wet, or be it dry, be it passable, be it nauigable, be it aboue or below, this maker did create it.Nehem. 9.6. So Nehemiah witnesseth: Thou art Lord alone: thou hast made heauē and the heauen of all heauens with all their host, the earth and all things that are therein, the seas and all that [Page 101] are in them, and thou preseruest them all, and the host of the hea­uen vvorshippeth thee. Iob. 26.7. Psal. 33.6. In symbolo Apostolorū. So Iob speaketh, so Dauid testifieth. So the Articles of our faith do teach vs to beleeue on the maker of heauen and earth. Whereby it is plaine, that he doth renounce the groundes of Christianitie, who doth deny this doctrine. Yet the world hath hatched such monsters, euen of the seed of Chri­stiās, as who make no bones therof. But young ones abash not at it, nor abash not at it old ones, for it is no more thē we looke for. S. Peter long ago foretold it,2. Pet. 3.1. that in the last dayes there should come such deriders, as should laugh at the speech of Christes co­ming, and at the day of iudgement, maintaining that there shall be an eternall continuance, of all things in such sort, as now they are. Where is the promise of his coming? for since the fathers dyed, all things continue alike from the beginning of the creation. These will not beleeue, that euer the heauen & earth were not, but they receiue it, that they haue stood from all eternitie, and shall so continue. They see no reason for the contrarie, and they will not beleeue the Scripture.

18 Lodouicus Viues hath well obserued,Viues de ve­ritate fidei. lib. 1. Ne attingatis vitrū, tenuissi­mum, falsum, inane, leuissi­mo contacti [...] statim friatur. Nostra religio intus est quam extra formosi­or, solidior, fir­mior. Gen. 1.1. that Iudaisme and Mahometisme [...], and all other whatsoeuer superstitions or deuotions, are, but like to the glasse; but on the other side the Christian faith, by vs may be compared to the gold. The glasse is bright, but brittle: it cannot endure the hammer. The gold is another kinde of mettall; do you melt it, or do you rubbe it, or do you beate it, and it shineth still the more orient. So it is with our faith: so it is with this doctrine, of the creation of the world. It doth not feare the touchstone. We are taught in the ve­ry first words of Genesis, that in the beginning God made the hea­uen & the earth, that all before was as nothing, vnfigured & vn­formed. This is affirmed by Moses, & it may be a Machiauel doth deny this. Now whether of these two shall we beleeue? Either Machiauel an Italian, and therefore by the abundance of his wit, most fit for euill, if God do withdraw his grace; a Secretary to the state of Florence, a professed politician, whose preceptes closely couched, haue filled the world with the deuill; who made no kinde of conscience of any thing which he taught, who liued in this present age, within one hundred yeares: or [Page 102] Moses, who is of the standing of three thousand, and in all that time hath bene famous, among both Iewes and Gentiles: of whom Iustine giueth testimony,Iustin Hist. lib. 36. Iuuenalis Saryr. 14. although it be obscured with some heathen minglings, and Iuuenal the Poet when he sayth of the Iewes,

Romanas autem soliti contemnere leges,
Iudaicum ediscunt [...]c seruant ac metuunt ius,
Tradidit arcano quodcunque volumine Moses.

They being accustomed to neglect the Romane lawes, do learne and keepe the Iewish, and stand in feare of that law which Moses hath deliuered downe in his secret bookes. Iustin. Mar­tyr. in co­ho [...]atione ad Graecos. And Iustinus Martyr nameth many Ethnicke mens workes, which being extant in his time, did mention both that Moses, and the bringing of the children of Israel out of Egypt by him, as was to be seene in the writings of Polemon, and of Apion the sonne of Possidonius, of Ptolomoeus Mendesius, of Hellanicus and Philochorus, who wrote the Athenien story, as also of Castor and Thallus, and A­lexander Polyhistor,Ioseph. An­tiquit. lib. 12.2. besides the two renoumed Iewes, Iosephus and Philo. This Moses was he, whose bookes were so accomp­ted of by Ptolomee, the great king of Egypt, a man of so much antiquity, a man of such loue to learning, who to his mighty charges, did cause those volumes to be translated, by seauenty and two of the Israelites, into the Greeke, and layd vp in his fa­mous library. This was he whose sacrifices to the true Lord, were the sole and onely [...], [...] exemplar ex quo simili fa­cimus. that is, first patterne to all the seruices of the heathen, toward their idoll Gods, whose books haue bene preserued, through so many generatiōs; whose writings are brought to vs, not by our friends, but by our enemies, the Iewes who do detest vs. To compare these two together, this Moses and that Machiauel, will seeme to men that be indifferent,Hominibus contra Deum credunt, qui contra [...]omi­nes Deo non credunt. Cypr. serm. de Lapsis. a very vnequall match. But what equality or equity should we looke for, of such men as these be, who are so farre from all reason, that as Cyprian writeth of the like, they vvill beleeue men against God, vvho vvill not beleeue God a­gainst men, so they would haue vs to beleeue them speaking a­gainst the Lord, but we must not beleeue the Lord, though with such power and euidence of the spirit, he demonstrate against [Page 103] them. But let vs come to the issue.

19 Set aside the Hebrew stories, and the writers of holie Scripture, and what reason can they assigne (for these men do all by reason) sauing that euermore,2. Esd. 4.35. the truth shall, and must, and will preuaile, that such as knew not God, were haters of the Iewes, and neuer heard of the Christians, yet by an vniforme consent, and by a good conspiracie, should acknowledge the creation of the world?Hesiodus in Theogonia. Ouid. Meta­morph. 1. How is it that Hesiodus, so ancient a Poet doth lay it so plainly downe? Looke on the beginning of Ouids Metamorphosis where he hath the very wordes, Primá­que ab origine mundi, from the first beginning of the vvorld, and see whether that his chaos, (which I thinke he boroweth from Hesiode) be not like to that in Genesis: his forging vnto Gods framing. They do agree in substance. Yet remember that those are Poets, and that the drift of their booke, is but a friuolous fa­ble. Plato was a Philosopher, and therefore of more iudge­ment: and he in a tale describeth the making of mankind. Lu­cretius is accounted both a Philosopher and a Poet, yet a Philo­sopher of the Epicures, and therefore so much the worse, and yet he impugneth the perpetuity of the world, giuing this rea­son of his opinion,

Praetereá si nulla fuit generalis origo
Plato in Protagora. Lucretius lib 5.
Terrarum & caeli, sempérque aeterna fuere,
Cur supra bellum Thebanum & funera Troia
Non alias alij quo queres cecinere Poetae?

If there were no generall beginning of the earth and heauen, but that they haue bene from euerlasting, why then haue not the Poets mentioned any thing more ancient, then the warre of Thebes, and the sacking of Troye? The world did begin in time, because no­thing is recorded in the writings of any authors, but for a litle time.Macrob. in Somn. Scip. lib. 2.10. Quis non hinc existimet mū ­dum quando­que caepisse, nec longam retrò eius aetatem. The same argument is vsed by Macrobius, a graue heathen man, who speaketh in this sort, who may not hereupon thinke, that the world once did begin, & that the antiquity of it is not very great, since there is no story in the Greeke, of the admirable memory of things beyond two thousand yeares. For beyond Ninus, of whō some thinke that Semiramis vvas borne, there is no exellent thing set downe in writing. And as these haue aimed at the beginning [Page 104] of the world, so there haue bene other, who haue spoken of the end. One of the Sibyls (for I take the words to be hers) doth foretell the dissolution of all things, and that they shall perish with the fire; both heauen and earth and all; which while Ouide in the middle of his ignorance, did not truly vnderstand, he ap­plieth it to the fire of Phaeton.Ouid. Meta­morph. 1.

Esse quoque in fat is reminiscitur affore tempus,
Quo mare, quo tellus, conuexáque regia caeli
Ardeat, & mundi moles operosa laboret.

He remembreth that by destiny it is appointed, that there shall come a time, wherein both sea and earth and heauen shall burne, and the whole frame of the vvorld shall be indangered. The Poet Lucane did more then gesse at this,Lucanus lib. 7. when speaking of those, whom Caesar left vnburied, at the battell of Pharsalia, he brin­geth in this,

—Placido Natura receptat
Cuncta sinu, finémque sui sibi corpora debent.
Hos Caesar populos si nunc non vsserit ignis,
Vret cum terris, vret cum gurgite ponti.
Communis mundo superest rogus, ossibus astra

Nature receiueth all things into her owne lap, and bodies do owe to themselues the end of themselues. O Caesar, if fire do not novv consume these slaine men, yet it shall hereafter burne them vp, to­gether with the earth and the sea. For there remaineth to come, one bone-fire which shall be common to all the vvorld, and shall mingle the starres in heauen, with their bones on earth. Ouer and aboue these men of learning, Peru the South part of America, doth yeeld to vs an ignorant people,Surius in commentar. Anno. 1558. who by the light of nature, and by a generall apprehension (for God knoweth they had nothing else) do beleeue that the world shall end, and that there shall be then a reward, for the good and for the euill, according to their desert. An end doth suppose a beginning, as the learned do well know. A marring intendeth a making. He who drow­ned the earth by water, can dissolue the heauen by fire. But the deluge of Deucaliō,Ouid. Meta­morphos. 1. so much song of by the Poets, doth witnesse that there was such a floud, in the dayes of Noe, and that all [Page 105] things were spilled by the water; which could not haue bene, but by him who made both the earth and the water. Thus the Poets do roaue at that, in their fables, which Moses teacheth vs, in our most sacred Bible.

20 Adde some reasons to authority. If the world were not created, & man had not once a beginning, how cōmeth it about that all things, which make vs liue like men, appeare to haue their originall, in time and place, we know where an when, and that but as yesterday to eternity?Genes. 4.20. I must not here speake of Moses, which telleth vs who first made tents, who made the Harpe and the Organ, who first did worke in brasse; because he is now in question.Polydor. Virgil. de In­uentoribus rerum. But I bid you rather looke on Polidore Virgil, who hath written a large tract, of purpose to shew by whom, the most matters which be of excellencie were inuented. There is no greater grace to a man, then knowledge and the artes of lear­ning. But Mercurie as some say,August. de Doctr. chri­stiana. lib. 2. Vide Polyd. Virgil. de In­uentor. lib. 1.6. Euseb. de Praepar. E­uangelica. 2.1. as some other, the Phaenicians are reported by the Gentiles to haue inuented the first letters, and others are sayd afterward to haue added to them. But we know that the Hebrew letters were before their time, euen in the dayes of Moses, who as Eusebius saith, in that admirable worke of his, De praeparatione Euāgelica, was more ancient thē the Gods of the Greekes, for that they began but after the daies of Cadmus, who came much short of Moses. Notwithstanding allow it to the Gentiles, that there men were the authors of let­ters: it must follow thereupon, that before the birth of those per­sons, there was no kind of Grammer.Pol. Virg. lib. 1.16. How are we beholding to Zeno, and Socrates and Aristotle for the vse of Logicke? We know well when these liued. Aristotle was schoolemaister to A­lexander, and Plato vnto Aristotle, and Socrates vnto Plato, some 400 yeares before Christ. Zeno was litle beyond thē. For Philoso­phy, Phythagoras is thought to be one of the most ancient. Yet he came into Italy,Liuius lib. 1. Lib. 44. after that Rome was built. Astronomy should be supposed to be as old as any. Yet how lately were the Eclipses of the Moone, which are things so well knowne in nature, most feareful to the armies of the Graecians, and the Romanes, as in the war against Perseus? Was not the yeare brought to the orderly course of the Sun,Plutarch. in vita Caesaris▪ by Iulius Caesar? How long haue kings bene on [Page 106] earth,Gen. 10.8. when Nimrod as Moses calleth him, or Ninus as other terme him (for these two are thought to be one) was one of the first among all nations? What lawes were among the Greekes, before the dayes of Lycurgus?Ioseph. cōtra Apionē. lib. 2 Iosephus against Apion writeth, that in the time of Homere, the name of law was not so much as knowne, and that in all the workes of Homere, there is not, the word [...], but that they were thē ruled, by the speech & com­maundement of Princes. Nay what do I speake of these things, when the very foode of men, in any ciuill sort, had his beginning but of late? for among the Ethnicks is not Bacchus sayd, first to haue found out the vine,Gen. 9 20. (we know that Noe was the man) & of the vine cometh the wine. How cometh it about, that Ceres is canonized among them for a Goddesse, but for shewing their forefathers the first vse of corne? All these and a thousand more imply, that as things with vs are in good perfection, so not long since they were rude, and not long before that they were no­thing, because all things were nothing. For the world had his be­ginning: and these in the world their beginning.

21 My text speaketh of the sea. I would know of this proud disputes, what reason he can assigne, that the sea in di­uerse places, should be higher then the land, and yet not ouer­flow the bankes?Basil. in He­xaemero. Ho­mil. 4. Saint Sasile in his Hexaemeron, doth excel­lently shew it, and confirmeth it to be so. This may be founde to be thus, by instruments Geometricall, or otherwise by the eye,Leuius in na­uigatione in Bresiliā. ca. 2. as Leuius hath obserued, and that of his owne knowledge, sensibly discerning it in the Atlantike sea, neare the coast of Mauritania. Nature can yeelde no reason for this: their best is but a cauill. But diuinitie endeth this doubt. God hath tyed it within his limites, as a Lyon fastened in a chayne. Thou saith Dauid speaking of the waters in the sea,Psal. [...]04.9. hast set them a bound which they shall not passe: they shall not returne to couer the earth. So God saith to Iob:Iob. 38.8. Who hath shut vp the sea with dores, whē it issued and came forth as out of the wombe, when I made the clouds as a couering thereof, and darknesse in the swadling bandes there­of. When I stablished my commaundement vpon it, and set barres and dores, and said hitherto shalt thou come, and no farther, and here shall it stay thy proude waues. My text speaketh of the land, [Page 107] and that hath so great alterations, as in time will bring a ruine. Heare the iudgement of a Gentile vpon this.Aelian. Hist. lib. 8.11. Aetnam aiūt ij qui mare na­uigant, multó minori parte videri, quā an­tea conspici so­lita sit. Idē etiā in Parnasso & Olympo accide­re. Itēque qui se totius vni­uersi naturā te­nere profitētur, aiunt mundum etiā ipsum pe­riturum. Aelian in the eighth booke of his historie telleth vs, that not onely the moun­taine in Sicilia Aetna, (for thereof may be giuen some reason, because of the wasting and consuming of it by fire) but Parnas­sus and Olympus, did appeare to be lesse and lesse, to such as say­led at sea, the height thereof sinking as it seemed. Whereu­pon he doth giue that note, that men most skilfull in the secrets of nature did say, that the world it selfe should perish, and haue an end. I know to whom I do speake, that is, to men of great vnderstanding: As therefore I name but a few things, so you see, I dwell not on them.

22 To that position of those who oppugne this doctrine, of the creating and continuing of all by God, by saying that it is Nature, who produceth euery thing, I might answere that there is no such matter as Nature, taking it in that sense which they foolishly do imagine: but onely it is a course, proportioned out by the will of God, to runne and hold on, in the creatures. And so much can a naturall man informe vnto them,Seneca de beneficijs. l. 4 Natura inquis haec mihi prae­stat. Non in­telligis te cum haec dicis, mis­tare nomen Deo? quid enim aliud est natu­ra quàm Deus & diuina ra­tio toti mundo & partibus e­ius inserta? Iohn. 4.24. I meane Se­neca, who with a better spirite speaketh on this manner. Thou sayest, Nature doth yeeld these things vnto me. Vnderstandest thou not, that when thou speakest this, thou doest but chaunge the name of God? for what other thing is Nature then God, and an order from his Godhead, inserted into the vvorld, and all the parts of the same? Now that there is such a Godhead, although they do not see it, I may answere them in this manner. His sub­stance is inuisible; his nature is insensible, because he is a spirite. And yet we see him and feele him, & know him by his effects. If we looke on the heauen aboue vs, or behold the earth below vs, the standing fast of the one, the running round of the other, the concord of things in discord, their orderly interruption, & inter­rupted order, euery creature doth cry & proclaime that there is a God.Athanas. ora­tione contra idola. That worthy mā Athanasius doth very well vrge this ar­gumēt: As if thou shouldst see a citie consisting of many & seuerall men, great & small, & rich & poore, & old & young, & male and female, to be gouerned with good order & straight discipline, and those who liue there, although they be differēt amōg theselues, yet [Page 108] to agree in minde, so that neither the richer do bend against the poore, nor the great against the small: nor the yong against the old, but all of them do maintaine peace with an equality of right: If we should see these things it cannot be but we must imagine that by the presence of the Prince there, this concord is cherished, although he do not come abroad to be seene, because disorderlinesse is a signe that the common vvealth is vvithout an head, but order on the other side doth shew the care and gouernement of the Prince. And as vvhen vve see in the bodie an agreement of the members among themselues, and that the eyes do not vvrangle vvith the eares, nor the handes make a mutinie against the feete, but eue­rie one doth his owne businesse vvithout brawling, vve do im­mediatly thereupon conceiue, that there is a soule in that bodie, vvhich doth so direct and dispose all things, although that soule be not visible to the eye. So in this order and harmonie of the vvhole vvorld, it must needes be that vve consider that there is a God, vvho is the Prince and gouernour of all, and that but one God and no more. Now if thou be such a one, as that this do not suffice thee, by reason of the stubburnesse of thy heart, but thou must be like Saint Thomas,Iohn. 20.25. August. in Psal. 73. Animam tuam quis videt? cum ergo corpus tuū solum videae­tur, quare non sepeliris? that is, see or else thou wilt not beleeue, then let me aske of thee as Austē doth of one. Hast thou a soule or no? and by a consequent art thou aliue? Canst thou see thy soule, or feele it? If not, thē by thine own reason thou hast no soule, & therefore thou art dead; & I pray thee why art thou not buried? If because thou wouldst not be buried, thou wilt say, that by signes & tokens thou conceiuest, that there is a soule in thee, because thou seest & speakest, and mouest vp & downe, which a dead corps cannot do; then hast thou answered for me: for so it is with thy Creator:Psal. 19.1. the heauens declare his glorie, the firmament sheweth his worke: thou seest him in his creatures. Many argu­ments might be drawne, from the bowels of very reasō, to shew this point in question: as that euery thing which moueth must haue something to moue it, which is verus primus motor, but the heauen is euer in motion: as that lesser things haue a gouer­nour, the bees and heards of cattaile, and fishes in the sea, there­fore there must much more be a gouernour, to this mighty frame of the world. But who so doubteth of these things, or of any [Page 109] such matter now in question, let him either reade Saint Austen De ciuitate Dei,D. Georgius Morus, in Demonstra­tione Dei ex operibus e­ius. R. Per­sonius in 2. editione Re­solutionis. or Lodouicus Viues de veritate fidei, or Phi­lip Mornay that noble Frenchman discussing those points large­ly. And vnto those may be added, the workes of some of our owne countreymen, who also are not to be defrauded of their due commendation.

23 If I should farther say any thing, it should be in this briefe manner. If now any do rule all things, it intendeth that he is Almightie: if Almightie then a Creator. But many things are so done, as whereof no reason can be giuen, saue onely the pro­uidence of a God, Almightie, and our maker. For first I would 1 demaund, what reason can be assigned, that vpon so weake a foundation, as it seemeth to flesh and bloud, Christianitie is so growne, that all the coastes of the earth, haue heard the fame of that doctrine? If honour or wealth or pleasure, had by the Sa­uiour bene promised, to those which should be his followers, it might haue allured men after him, yea if he had bene but a de­ceiuer, although perhaps this would haue held but for a while. But the lesson that he teacheth is,Matth. 16.24. 2. Tim. 3.12. If any man will folow me, let him forsake himselfe, and take vp his crosse, and folow me. And, all that will liue godly in Christ Iesus, shall suffer persecution. In this case what reason can be giuen, why men of great vnderstan­ding, not blockes and fooles,Viues de ve­ritate fidei. lib. 1. like the Saracens and Turkes, who haue no learning, and may not so much as dispute of any point of their Religion, and so do beleeue on their Mahomet, most grossely and stupidiously, but Philosophers and rare scholers, men completed with all good knowledge, should put their trust in one who was crucified, yea should dye for him, who was be­fore dead, and put into a graue? Secondly what reason is there,2 that Luther no great man, helped onely with the bare counte­nance of the Saxon, should in the time of deepe ignoraunce, be able by preaching alone and writing, to reuiue againe the Gos­pell, in despite of Priestes and Princes, and so to set it on foote, as that all Christendome now ringeth of it. Thirdly I would 3 demaunde, what naturall reason there is, that our most graci­ous Queene, whom God euermore preserue, a woman, in a small countrey, at her first comming to the crowne, should dare [Page 110] to reforme Religion, and professe so farre for the truth, things being as they then were, when she came first to her scepter: ve­rie little sound at home: verie much amisse abroad; in the knowne hate of the Pope, in the secret hate of the Spaniard: in the neutralitie of the French, to speake most mildly of it: in the ticklenesse of the Scot, in the [...]icklenesse of the Irish. Yet that still she should go forward, and maintaine her Church and estate, in great pompe and high maiestie, verie louely to her friends, verie dreadfull to her foes. I might vrge her perpetuall happinesse, and those many daungers, which by Gods blessing she hath es­caped. 4 Fourthly what may be the reason, that whereas within the yeare,Anno. 1593. each seuennight cut off a thousand, yea sometimes a great many more,Anno. 1594. in one Citie of our land, by the infection of the plague; since that time the note hath returned not one, or so few that it is as if it were nothing? Remember that the spring was ve­rie vnkinde, by meanes of the abundance of rayne which fell: our Iulie hath bene like to a Februarie, our Iune euen as an A­prill, so that the ayre must needes be corrupted: God amend it in his mercie, and stay this plague of waters. But yet the pesti­lence is now ceased. I hold it a thing impossible, out of the groundes of Machiauell, to aunswere to these questions in sim­plicitie and synceritie, as beseemeth reasonable men, and not with cauilling and quarrelling, which is for boyes and brabblers. But out of the groundes of true diuinitie, these and a thousand more are aunswered in one word,Psal. 118.23. This was the Lordes doing, and it is maruellous in our eyes. He who (as Ionas saith) is God of heauen aboue, and made the sea and the dry land, he decreeth it, he continueth it. Then let vs carie this minde toward him, what we know in him, to loue: what we know not, to admire, as men amased with his Maiestie: rather to thinke our selues most weake and bas [...] in vnderstanding, then once to suspect his power in creating, or his prouidence in gouer­ning. To him be praise and honour, and maiestie now and euer.


The chiefe points. 3. Confession of a fact satisfieth men that are doubtfull. 4. Ido­laters scoffe at their Idols. 5. We should informe, and reforme our selues by the suffering of others. 9 Sinne is most greeuous in them who haue had most teaching. 10. Blind guides displayed. 11. It is a shame to be iustly reproued by a multitude of inferiours. 13. The ma­riners are vnwilling to shead bloud. 15. Malefactours are to yeeld themselues to death with patience. 16. Good men would not haue other punished with them. 17. The question is handled whether any man may lawfully kill himselfe.


Then were the men exceedingly afrayd, and sayd vnto him, vvhy hast thou done this? (for the men knew that he fled from the presence of the Lord, because he had told them.) Then said they vnto him, vvhat shall vve do vnto thee, that the sea may be calme vnto vs? (for the sea wrought and was troublous.) And he sayd vnto them, Take me and cast me into the sea: so shall the sea-be calme vnto you: for I know that for my sake this great tempest is vpon you.

THe aunswere of the Prophet to those manifold questions, which were proposed by the mari­ners, doth include a confession of errour, and wilfull disobedience in himselfe, whereof if there should be made a doubt by any man, it is put out of controuersie, by that which now follow­eth, that the men knew he fled from the presence of the Lord, be­cause himselfe had told them. This telling was confessing: this af­firming to them, was informing against himselfe. These wordes although they be not so placed, yet by order of the narration, are the first wordes of my text, that being set before by an Hy­steron Proteron, which should follow after, and that comming [Page 112] after,Vers. 9. which should be before. He said that he was an Hebrew, and feared the God of heauen, as it is in the ninth verse, but yet 10 notwithstanding that he was fled from his presence, as it is in this tenth verse, which when the men had knowne, because himselfe told them, they were exceedingly afrayd, and asked him, why didst thou so? And this I propose, as the order of connexion in these wordes. To shew that he did confesse, were now a needlesse labour. The violence of the tempest, the discouerie by a lot, the examination of the mariners, did wring it out from the Pro­phet. I haue opened that already. And to tell what he did con­fesse, may in as few wordes be ended, that he fled away from Gods presence, that is, did neglect his seruice, of going to preach at Niniue. I haue also handled that, in the third verse of this chap­ter. The mariners they giue credit, to the tale which they had heard, and accordingly do proceed. And so also must I.

2 Some things, are verie slightly attended by men: some things hardly beleeued:Esay. 28.10. therefore precept vpon precept, and line after line, here a little and there a little, must be doubled and ingeminated, to an obstinate people, that as drop after drop doth pierce the hardest stone, so teaching after teaching may sound the hardest heart, euen of the most flintie nature. To some men saith Seneca remedies are onely to be shewed, Seneca Epi­stol. 27. Quibusdam re­media mon­stranda, qui­busdam incul­canda sunt. it is inough to point them out, to some other they are to be inculcated, and ma­ny times repeated. The ignorant do yeeld apparant proofe of this, when they can verie hardly, be reclaimed from their cu­stomes: no perswasions can remoue them. So, although not euer, yet oftentimes the children of such who liue in Popish darkenesse do confirme this doctrine to vs, who heare and will not heare, who giue no kinde of credit, to oft repeated truthes, out of the booke of God. Besides, a supine carelesnesse is gene­rall in all men, so that many things wisely vttered, do breed but small effect▪ because they are little regarded. But here is such a seale set, vpon the companie of Ionas, as which taketh such im­pression, that it needeth not to be oft doubled. The wind which blew aboue, the sea which wrought below, did put them past peraduenture, that some thing was amisse: that some great sinne waamsong them. The lot shewed Ionas to be the man, whom [Page 113] iudgement did pursue, and vengeance did so follow. It needed not to be told them oft, that this party had offended.

3 But when the words of the Prophet, had passed against himselfe, and aboue all other signes which might affoord conie­cture, his confession was come foorth, to accuse and condemne himselfe, then his hearers had great reason, to know what the matter was. For in such cases as are doubtfull, if any one do speake for himselfe, and vrge his owne condemnation; wise­dome and sound aduise, biddeth the auditour make a pause, be­fore that lightly he do beleeue it. For who is he, whom nature hath not taught that lesson, to say the best for himselfe? Againe, in cases of complaint, if another man should accuse, iustice and Christian charity biddeth the hearer make a stay, and not giue credit hastily. For if euery thing should be true, which euery one reporteth, what man should not be a diuell? shall not Christ himselfe be a Beelzebub?Matth. 10.25. But when presumptions great and many shall go before, and withall, the offending person shall o­pen himselfe, then sence and reason do teach, that of likely­hood he is guilty.Iudic. 17.1. When Micah brought the siluer, which was stolen away from his mother, and sayd plainly that he had taken it, his mother had great reason to thinke that he was the man. When Rechab and Baanah,2. Sam. 4.8. brought the head of Isboseth the sonne of Saule to Dauid, and professed that they two had slaine him, he tooke it for a truth, and rewarded them thereafter; that is, he destroyed them with the sword. The idle and carelesse seruant,Luc. 19.22. of whom we reade in the Gospell, that he folded vp his talent in a napkin; and hid it in the ground, had this doome for his labour,Luc. 22.71. afterward that he had confessed it, Of thine owne mouth I will iudge thee, ô euill seruant. The Iewes did roau [...] at this, although they failed in their ground (for Christ did not speake blasphemy) when they could reply vpon him, vvhat need we any farther vvitnesse? for we our selues haue heard it of his owne mouth. The commonnesse of which argument, doth so enter the heart of all, that these mariners enquired no farther, when Ionas had once made his declaration against him­selfe. Vpon a firme perswasion of the truth of all his tale, they fall into great feare, they grow to farther counsell. So that [Page 114] this beleeuing of the Prophet, is the foundation of all that fol­loweth after, which may it please you for order sake, to reduce 1 to these two heads. First, the behauiour of the mariners, and 2 secondly the aunswere of the Prophet. In the former are three 1 circumstances: the great feare wherein they were: their rebuke 2.3. which they vsed toward him; and their question proposed to him: all which by the Lords permission, I do purpose to touch in order.

Then were the men exceedingly afrayd.

4 These idolatrous heathen, are here taught one lesson more, then they euer learned before, and that is, that there was a God, who in fearefull maner could take vengeance on offenders, and did vse to follow after them as well by sea as by land, in a won­derfull sort: and therefore if their heart did now ake, if all their ioynts did quiuer, if their limmes did shake for feare, and their knees beate together, it was not to be maruelled at, since at this time, they were in triall of wrath aboue them, and wrath vnder them, and wrath euery way about them. Before, they had bene vsed to vaine and idoll Gods, whose threates did little mooue them. The knowledge was so light, and the certainty so vncer­taine, which the heathen generally had of their Gods, either for their power, or for their bounty, that they feared not to be­stow iestes vpon them, as vpon their fellowes. Timaeus as Tul­ly sayth,Tullius de Natura Deo­rum. lib. 2. Adiunxit, mi nimè id esse mirandum, quod Diana cum in parta Olympiadis adesse volu­isset, abfuisset domo. is to be commended for his wit, that whereas he had sayd in his history, that the selfe same night wherein Alexander was borne, the Temple of Diana at Ephesus was on fire, he ad­ded withall, that it was no maruell, for the mistresse thereof was a great way from home, in Macedonia with Olympias, as a mid-wife attending her, who then was in trauell: for that was sayd to be the charge of Diana. The adulteries which we reade in the bookes of Homer, and Ouid, that Iupiter and his fel­lowes, are sayd to haue committed, do shew the high conceipt, and the goodly reuerence, which the Gentiles in old time, did beare to their Painim Gods. They did not onely, saith Saint Au­sten,Augustin. Epistol. 5. write such matters in their fables, but represented them in their threaters, and played them on their stages, vvhere many times vvere to be seene, plura crimina quam numina, more great [Page 115] faults then good Gods. Yet bewitching superstition had so possessed their soules, that they would after a sort adore some­what, although they adored it but at their pleasure: no true feare, no due reuerence.

5 The case is altered here: they see that the God of Israel doth cary another sway: no iesting with his Maiesty, no playing with his power: if his seruant do run from him, he can fetch him backe again: if he sleep soundly, he can waken him: if he will not returne in time, he can send such a tempest after him, as will make his bones to shake, and his very marrow to tremble. The light­ning and the thunder, the wind and haile and storme, are all at his commandement. Then it is a fearefull matter to fall into his hands, to vndergo his wrath. How then must the conscience of these poore sinners needs worke? If a Prophet were so punished, how should a priuate man be lashed?Luc. 23.31. If it were thus in the greene wood, how should it be in the dry? If one who had that place of honor with his God, as to be employed frō him as a messenger, to so worthy a place as Niniue, yet should for one sin, be endan­gered with so great a waight of displeasure, what should become of them, who in all likelyhood were polluted with many enor­mous crimes? If God should meate to them such measure, as he did to Ionas, how doleful & lamentable wold their state be? This is a true effect of the iust consideration of Gods punishments v­pon others. First to know them to be terrible, & with a kind of a­masednesse to take full notice of them. Behold saith the Lord to Samuel,2. Sam. 3.11. I will do a thing in Israel, whereof whosoeuer shall heare, his two eares shall tingle. Next to apply it to our selues, & make a benefit of it, by descending into our soules, & sifting of our harts, acknowledging that if God shold deale with vs in iudgemēt, ve­rily t [...]t should be our reward,Hieron. in Psal. 93. Solent aliqui dicere, ille qui occisus est, non occideretur ni­si fornicator esset, aut ali­quod pecca [...]ū habuisset. which is now befallē vnto others.

6 It is a perpetual fault, euermore annexed vnto flesh & bloud, that if any punishment in strange sort, do be fall to our brother, or neighbor, by and by with a precipitate headlong iudgement, we condēne him, as a sinner, if not notorious, yet in some secret ma­ner more grieuous then other mē. Hierome obserueth this (if that worke be S. Hieromes) on the 93. Psalme. Some vse to say, he who is killed had not bene slaine, vnlesse he had bene a fornicatour, or [Page 116] stayned with some grosse sin. He had not bene quelled with the ruine or falling downe of a house, vnlesse he had bene wicked: he had not suffered ship-wracke, vnlesse he had bene profane or a mighty male­factor. But what sayth the Scripture? Psal. 94.21. They shall condemne inno­cent bloud. The innocent they shall suffer such deaths as well as o­ther. The Sauior of the world doth reprooue this rash conceipt, when he biddeth,Luc. 13.1. that men should not thinke, that those Galile­ans whose bloud Pilate had mingled with their owne sacrifices, were greater sinners then all other Galileans, or those eigh­teene, on whom the Tower in Siloam fell, and slue them, were sinners aboue all men that were in Hierusalem: but sayth he vn­to them, I tell you, except ye amend your liues ye shall all likewise perish. Whereas they and we are ready to exorbitate, by loo­king on other men, he sendeth vs backe to our selues, that by scanning of our owne wayes, and viewing our owne pathes, we may see that vnto vs belongeth shame and confusion. The hand of God vpon other, should be a glasse to vs, to see our owne deformity.2. Sam. 24.17. When the Angell destroyed so many of the Israelites with the pestilence, Dauid cryed out, Behold I haue sinned, yea I haue done wickedly: but these sheepe what haue they done? let thine hand I pray thee be against me, and against my fa­thers house. Dauid tooke all to himselfe, because all the fault was his. We are not free from all, and therefore if we suffer any thing, let vs beare it with patience. If nothing, let vs acknow­ledge that it is the mercy of God, and not the merite of man, that we all are not consumed.

7 And by the smart of other, let vs feare to offend the Lord. Euery action which was in Christ, should be to vs an in­struction: euery passion which is in other, should bring to vs information. The Iewes once were the spouse and belo [...]ed of the Lord, the people whom he embraced, the nation whom he singled out from all the men on earth. Sion was his delight, and Hierusalem was vnto him, as the apple of his eye. When they began to be wanton, and as the vntamed heyfer, to refuse the yoake of all piety and seruice toward God, his loue was turned to hatred, and as before he had magnified them beyond all other nations, so afterward he made them vile, and abiect [Page 117] below all other. Their Temple was ruinated, and not one stone left vpon another; their City was ransacked, their old men died with famine, their young were slaine with the sword, the rem­nant as accursed, do wander on all the face of the earth, without a king,Roman. 11.17. without Priest, without Prophet. Thus the naturall Oliue branches were broken and cropped off, and we wild ones were graffed in. When we reade this, and feele the sweetnesse of it, are we to presume, and puffe vp our selues by and by? Saint Paule hath taught vs otherwise, Be not high minded, 20 but feare. And in another place,1. Cor. 10.12. Let him that thinketh he standeth, take heede least he fall. As these mariners were fearefull, at our Ionas his example, so ought we in these Iewes to be a­fraide, and dread Gods iustice.Apoc. 2.1. & 3.1. Those seauen Churches to which Iohn wrote his Epistles, mentioned in the beginning of the Reuelation, and those Cities to which Paule preached, being sometimes great lights and lampes of the East, are now the residence of the Turke, and a sincke of filthy Mau­metry. Let vs stand in awe, least our sinnes plucke on vs such a iudgement.

8 We aske of newes in France, and enquire of the altera­tions, which the Low countreyes yeeld. Curiosity for the most part is the cause why we demand such questions. Perhaps we thinke vpon them, and their troubles sometimes, with a little pity. But there is a farther vse, if our dimme and darke eyes could see it.Ab anno. 1562. When for two and thirty yeares, Fraunce hath bene the very cock-pit, for all Christendome to fight in: when with so many ciuill furies, the inhabitants sheath their swordes one in the bowels of another:Anno. 1573. when for twenty yeares since and more (for so long it is since the States, and the Prince of Orenge with them, did put foorth their supplication, vnto the king of Spaine Philip the second, which is a declaration to o­ther Christian Princes, of the reasons wherefore they tooke vp armes) an army hath bene continued by the Spaniard, a­gainst those Prouinces which now tearme themselues Vnited, so that there is little safety, but what standeth in the sword, or in their walled townes: we might remember our selues, and that with much feare and trembling, that our sinnes haue [Page 118] cried for vengeance, as loud as theirs did euer; that our fields are fit for the sickle, not so white vnto the haruest, as ready dry to the fire, Bernard. de considerat. ad Eugeni­um. lib. 2. Vide regiones si non sint ma­gis siccae ad ig­nem, quàm al­bae ad messem. as Bernard speaketh to Eugenius: that it is but a little labor, for God to reach his hand ouer our narrow seas, and to giue vs a tast of that here in this small Iland, which the Continent hath long felt, and sowerly hath smarted for it. And if he haue held his hand, it is his exceeding mercy, whereof we are able to make no recompence: onely our thankfulnesse from the bottome of our hearts, is the best. Such a sober meditation vpon the afflictions of our neighbours, or those with whom we liue, would put vs from that iolity, wherein we too much take delight, from the flaunting of this world, and our vnbridled appetites. The los­ses of others should be our terrour: what is theirs may be ours; if other smart let vs quake: when Ionas is to be punished, the ship-men are afraid.

And they sayd vnto him, wherefore hast thou done this?

2 9 This is the second circumstance, to be thought vpon here, in the fellow-trauellers of our Prophet, which (as some do vn­derstand it) sheweth a kind of wondring, that a man who was an Hebrew, & brought vp in Gods seruice, so familiar with the my­steries, & secrets of such a maister, put in trust with such a charge, as to go and preach at Niniue, should transgresse in so high a de­gree. If the fault had bene of ignorance,Luc. 12.48. it had bene so much the lighter, and he deserued fewer stripes. But to whom much is cō ­mitted, of him much is required: he might the more be wondred at.1. Sam. 2.27. God reprocheth it to Eli, that whereas himselfe had appeared vnto his fathers house, and chose both them and him, to stand be­fore his Altar, & offer vp incense vnto him, he had kicked against his sacrifice, and honoured his children, more then he did that God who made him. If any men, then the Ministers & Prophets of the Lord,Matth. 5.14. shold respect their solemne dutie. A City set on an hil, is in the sight of al. The Priest is the eye of the body, to guide the steps of other. If darknesse be on the hill, what darknesse is in the vale? if dimnesse be in the eye, how darke is all the body? In the Minister, each knowne fault is reputed for a crime, because he is so conspicuous, and visible to all; euen as a small wound in the face is eminent, and therefore noted. In the countenance of a [Page 119] men,Si vnum ra­datur superci­lium quā pro­pemodum nihil corpori, & quam multum detrabitur pulchritudini? Aug. de Ciu. Dei. li. 11.22. if one eyebrow should be shauen, how little is taken away from the body, but how much from the beauty? They are the words of Saint Austen. Then we should be very carefull, to passe the dayes of our pilgrimage in sincerity and integrity, that we may not be wondered at, by mariners and meane men, why we should do this or that, when we do grossely offend.

10 Among the vnlearned Pastors, & blind guides of the Pa­pacy, transgressiō or iniquity needeth no such wōdring at. Their ignorance answereth for them: for how shold they do any thing but ill,Auēt. de reb. Turcicis, parte. 3. Si praelati isti plebeij essent homines, nem [...] facile ipsis ha­ram committe­ret: in isto ve­rò statu, & arae & animae hominum ipso­rum fidei cre­duntur. Buch. Hist. Scotic. lib. 15. Nouitatis no­minae offensi cō ­tenderunt no­uū Testamen­tum nuper à Martino Lu­thero fuisse scrip [...]ū ac ve­tus Testamētū reposcerent. Ioh. Foxus in Histor. Sco­tic. inter an­nos. 1540. & 1543. Robert. Step. resp. ad cen­sur. Theolog. Paris. in Prae fat. who neuer learned to do otherwise? If they decline from their duty, and be scandalous vnto other, and any man should come vpon thē, as these his companions did vpon Ionas, Wher­fore haue you done this? Can you, whose life is spent in reading of the Scriptures, in expounding them to other, in informing the peoples consciences, forget your selues in such manner, as to be notorious sinners? They may put this wondring frō thē, and an­swer it in a word: you mistake your selfe in vs: we are not men so expert; the law & the testimony is vnto vs as a sealed booke. You should rather maruell at vs, if we should do any thing otherwise then ill. I shold iudge that this answer, wold well fit those Priests & Prelates, of whom Iohannes Auentinus speaketh, that they are so base and rude, that if they had bene lay men, they should scant haue bene counted fit to keepe swine, which notwithstanding in his time, both throughout Germany and all Christendome, had Churches and soules of men committed to their charge and custody. I am sure it had very well agreed to those Scottish Priests, who as Buchanan their owne countrey man reporteth of them, in the late reformation of religion in that kingdome, were so blockish & so blind, that the very name of the New Testament was much offensiue to them: they thought it to be new deuised, and inuented by Martin Luther, and asked for the old againe. Which is the more likely in their ordinary Curates, when we reade of a Bi­shop of theirs, called the Bishop of Dunkelden, who replied on a Minister, which sayd that he had read the Old and New Testa­ment, I thanke God I neuer knew what the Old and the New Te­stament was. The very selfe same doth Bobert Stephanus auouch of the Sorbonistes in Paris, who take vpon them to be men [Page 120] of more admirable learning, and to be Diuines of the deepest. He aduoucheth, that when himselfe had many conflicts and dis­putations with them, they would tell him that they knew not, what the new Testament was. It is no sin to imagine, that the life of such was like their learning. And if in their often ouersights, it should haue bene asked of them, And why do you this, being teachers & disputers, or at least Pastors ouer others, & therefore men of knowledge? of likelyhood these good creatures, would haue shaped some worthy answer. I hope that we haue none in England, so buried in filthy ignorance: yet my heart oft times doth ake, and my very soule doth tremble, to thinke what guides be ouer soules yet in many places; I say ouer the soules of men, which are the most precious substances, that God hath made vn­der the heauen, & for the ransoming of which, Christ Iesus came downe from his glory. Sinne hath not yet worne out that vnkind brood, which the Papacy did hatch vp to our nation, and since those dayes Ieroboams Priests,1. Reg. 13.33. the basest of the people (so con­trary to our good lawes) haue filled not their heads with know­ledge, but their hāds with mony, & so haue crept into Gods tēple.

11 But I will not pursue this argument. These words here of the sea-men, which to some do seeme a maruell, how a Pro­phet could fall so fowlly, seeme to other to be an increpation or rebuke vnto our Ionas. Wherefore hast thou done this? an Hebrew, and a Prophet, and flye away from thy maister? what maruell if vengeance follow thee? what wonder if wrath pursue thee? If it were no more but so, this were a gawling speech to an ingenuous mind, that men of so base behauiour, should come ouer him in this manner, with a true and iust re­buke.Genes. 20.16. It was a shame to Sara (the text sayth that she was re­prooued) and no great praise to Abraham, when Abimelech king of Gerar, a man that knew not the Lord, did iustly blame the cō ­cealing of Sara to be his wife, by which meanes he had like igno­rantly to haue fallen into adultery. But when sin apparantly is committed, how impudent is that person, which blusheth not to be reproched for it by a multitude? Those in whom the loue of vertue, and the sound feare of the Lord is, will neuer cease to pray, that God will so guide, and direct their steppes per­petually, [Page 121] that they may not giue a iust occasion, to the enemies of the Gospell, or to the haters of their persons, to insultouer their falles: for the malice of spitefull hearts, would be glad to see the slippes of them, whome God doth blesse. Therefore the faithfull do pray so much the more against it, as Dauid doth many times. But the carelesse and disobedient, because they litle feare it, do suddenly fall into it, and so by open wickednesse, draw vpon themselues open shame: not onely to haue as Ionas had, his companions to checke him, but passengers to deride them, and children to nodde their heades at them; yea some­times taunting Rimes, and broken Ballads on them, perad­uenture the executioner, the vilest among ten thousands, with his Rhetoricke for to scorne them.

12 God appoynteth this, as a iudgment for such as are o­uer-growne, with a hard skinne ouer their hearts, so that they feare not the pricke of sinne. Yea sometimes he suffereth this rod to fall on his owne children, to whippe them here with shame, so to saue their soules by the bargaine. Perhaps the Iudge, hee shaketh them, and ratleth them vp in austeritie: it may be that penaunce is done, and the wicked triumph vpon them. At least they with whome they liue, (or else they are exceeding happie men) will haue this one cast at them, which these ship-men had at Ionas, Why haue you done such a deede? what carelesnesse or forgetfulnesse, or vnthankefulnesse brought you to it? But a greater wo then this, doth oftentimes fall on the wilfull sort of sinners, which indeede feare not the Lord, as vpon great perse­cutours, or rebellious bloudy traytours. Their fame is turned into infamie, and they are registred to posterity, as a by-word of the people. The iudgement which doth follow them, euen after they be in graue is, that songs of defa [...]ation be as Epitaphes on their deathes. Let Bonner and Story and Parrhy, be witnesses in this cause. A good conscience which doth walke with since­ritie, in that calling wherein the Lord hath placed him, doth litle feare these matters.Hieron. in Marc. 14. Ignis sine ma­teria deficit. And if slaunders should arise, yet to him this is the comfort of it, that as fire without wood doth dye, so doth ill speech without iust matter. I note this from the reproofe vsed by these mariners.

[Page 122]
What shall we do vnto thee that the sea may be calme?

13 The third thing which now followeth, is the question which they put to him, or the counsell which they aske of him. The raging of the sea, is not slaked all this time: while the Pro­phet both slept and waked, while the lot was throwne vpon him, while that he was examined▪ and made all his confession, the sea wrought and was troublous. The sea wrought and was troublous. Those words because they be againe in the thirteenth verse, I do deferre them thither. But these persons which were in danger, and had their mind on the poynt, that is, to saue their liues, would willingly know the way, how to escape the perill. What shall we do vnto thee? Hieron. in hunc locum. Interficiemus te? sed culto­r [...]m Domini. Seruabimus? sed Deum fu­gis. Exposuisti causam morbi, indica sanita­tis. This is the doubt saith Hierome. Shall we kill thee? but thou art the seruaunt of the Lord. Shall we saue thee? but thou art a runne-away from thy maister. Thou hast shewed vs thy disease, shew the remedie how to cure it. A lit­tle before he hath this also, That great was he who fled: but greater was he that followed. They dare not deliuer him, they know not how to conceale him. So there is as it seemeth a great wrastling in the minds of these poore men, what they should do, or should not do. They now know that he was a Prophet; a man reuerend in his calling, and therefore they were loath to lay any violent hands vpon him. They would rather suppose, that he who was so contrite, and had made such an acknow­ledgement of the fault which he committed, would proceede to let them know the meanes, to escape from drowning.

14 Many gracelesse ones in our dayes, would haue taken another course. A runne-away so pursued: a fugitiue so made after: we will soone ease our selues of the feare; we will quicke­ly free our shippe from the daunger: what should so vile a per­son be roosting in our vessell? Perhaps without many wordes, he might haue gone ouer boord; he might haue diued vnder water: they would neuer haue stood to aske, what they should do vnto him. So much doth the inciuilitie, and barbarous be­hauiour of our age, passe the manners of rude men in old time. But they had a good remembrancer, to keepe them in mode­ration, euen their reuerence vnto God, whose hand they did find vpon them, as knocking at the doore. On the one side [Page 123] how could they tell, least by sufferance and impunitie toward Ionas, they should incurre the displeasure of the Almightie? And on the other side, how could they tell, least in punishing and ta­king away his life, the reward which belonged to murtherers, might be layd vpon them? Ionas for his refusing to go to preach at Niniue, was chased with wrath from heauen. Then what ven­geance might befall them, in a greater fault, as in crueltie, and in shedding of his bloud, who neuer had offended them? Thus they feare to spill his life, although they see shew of very fit oc­casion. They aske aduise of him. The maine note from this place, is the care which men should haue, to destroy the life of none, that they should be auerse from bloud, which because it is the full subiect of those verses,Vers. 13. & 14 which follow next after my text, I do deferre it thither. And so I come to the aunswere of Ionas, which is my second part.

And he sayd vnto them, Take me and cast me into the sea, &c.

15 It seemeth that the Prophet, is now as farre in his pe­naunce,2 as possibly he can go. He knew that he had sinned, and Gods wrath must be satisfied with some temporall punish­ment, and therefore he yeeldeth himselfe with patience, to the very death. Better drowne then dye eternally, better loose his life here, then loose his life elsewhere. He is therefore con­tent, to sustaine the vttermost extremitie. He knew that God was glorifyed, in the execution of iustice, as well as in mercie. A lesson which Iosuah did once teach Achan,Iosuah. 7.19. when he willed him to confesse, and giue God the glorie: and by a consequent, endure his death with patience. An instruction which we can neuer too much teach to prisoners, and such as are to suffer, by iugdement of law, that they should beare with mildnesse, and quietnesse of behauiour, that which they wilfully haue deser­ued. The conscience of their sinne, the astonishment at their iudgement, the feare of violent death, the shame of such a suffering, is inough to amaze their thoughtes, and ouerwhelme resolution. Whereas on the other side, the putting of them in remembrance, that at one time or another, they must be con­tent to dy, and the vrging that God doth lay such temporall pu­nishments vpon malefactors, for the sauing of their soules, & the [Page 124] recounting of that benefite, which ariseth from Christs passion, to wit, a pleading before his father, to get pardon for all that be repentaunt, doth settle the disquieted and affrighted mind right well. I would to God that our English were as backeward to transgresse, as in this case they are forward, to satisfie euen with their liues, the extremitie of the lawe, and that in a peaceable & resolued sort. I impute it to nothing, but to the ordinarie passage of the word of God among vs, which is euerie way able to qui­et and settle the penitent sinners heart. Other nations do ad­mire it in our men, as the Italians most of all, and the French, as we may see it obserued,Hēricus Ste­phan. in A­pologia pro Herodoto Gallicè edita Luc. 23.43. in the defence of Henry Stephanus for Herodotus. It sheweth a right firme constancie, and sure hope in Christ Iesus. And as those two brought the theefe, which dy­ed with Christ into Paradise, so no doubt but that many with vs, go by execution into heauen, who if they were not recalled by violence and by lawe, would prooue firebrands of hell.

16 I remember the patience of our countrey-men, by the quietnesse of Ionas here, who alone desireth to dye, because he alone had offended in the sinne which now is in question. He would not that other innocent men, should perish by his means. This is the course of Gods children, to haue remorse vpon o­ther, and not to intangle them in their plagues. It is I saith Da­uid,2. Sam. 24.17 that haue offended, not these sheepe, alas what haue they done? But contrariwise the reprobate, if destruction must befall them, would haue all other to take part in that their iudgement, that themselues might not be singular. They would haue company to hell. If they needes must from hence, they care not if all the world come to ruine, together with their fall. They earnestly desire, that other men should be partakers of their smart. The name of Herode the great, is very odious in this respect, who layd a plot,Ioseph Anti­quit. 17.8. that when he dyed, many other might dye with him. And gaue expresse commaundement, that one of euery noble family in his kingdome, should be slaine, that by that meanes, his death might of necessitie be lamented, if not for loue of him, which the tyrant had no reason to expect, yet for the losse of others. Such are the vnnaturall passions, of cruell and bloudie miscreants. But the blessed sons of God, be of another spirit: [Page 125] they would rather purchase peace to others, by their losses, then hurt others by their errours. Ionas would dye alone, be­cause he alone had offended.

17 Here now is it worth the discoursing, why the Prophet in this manner should vrge, and hasten himselfe to death. Was it, as Arias Montanus thinketh,Arias Mon­tanus com­mentar. in hunc locum. because yet he is so obstinate, that in no case he will to Niniue, but rather dye in a frowardnesse, then teach them, who afterward should worke harme to his people? No: his confession before handled, doth keepe me from that o­pinion. I hold him now very carefull to commit no farther sinne. He feeleth the weight of the former, inough & too much on him. Is it then for a fretting indignation, which he beareth vnto him­self, or for hatred of his life, because his consciēce did now pricke him, as the conscience of the wicked vseth to do, when some vil­lanie is cōmitted, as Iudas was pricked in his heart, after his trea­son practised on our Sauiour, whē he went out male-cōtented, and hanged himselfe in despaire? No: I hold the reason of it to be another matter, as anon I shall shew vnto you. This had bene a sinne, more fearefull then any that went before. For murthering of himselfe, whereof he had bene guiltie (if for that intent he had spoken it) though other mens hands had done it, is a sin so grie­uous, that scāt any is more hainous vnto the Lord. This sheweth a graund & solemne possession, which Satan hath in a man, a di­strust of all Gods loue, when a man groweth to the summitie of such malice against himselfe, as that naturall affection, and the ac­count to be giuē, of all our deedes vpon the earth, is quite exiled out of memory. A doctrine which I take to be nothing besides the purpose, if largely it be discoursed of, in the iniquitie of these times, wherin wretchednesse hath so fearefully preuailed in some persons, and almost daily doth preuaile, that they dare to plunge themselues, into this pit of terrible destruction.

18 Our God in his ten commandements, hath set this down for one,Exod. 20.13. Genes. 9.5.6. thou shalt commit no murther. He is so precise vpon bloud, that he not onely hath sayd, at the hand of a man, euen at the hand of a mans brother, will I require the life of man. And who so sheddeth mans bloud, Numer. 35.31. by man shall his bloud be shed. And, yee shall take no recompence for the life of the murtherer, [Page 126] which is worthy to dye, but he shall be put to death: But the verie Oxe,Exod. 21.28. that goreth a man or woman that he dye, this oxe shall be stoned to death, and his flesh shall not be eaten. He that slue a man vnwillingly at the wood,Deut. 19.5. with an axe flying out of his hand, should loose his life for his labour, if the pursuer did so follow him, as that he ouertooke him, before he came to the city of re­fuge. This was to make men the more vigilant, that they did no such mischaunces, as we commonly do terme them. But if it were wilfull murther, the offender was to be taken, from the very hornes of the altar,1. Reg. 2.29 and slaine, as Ioab was serued, a man of so noble birth, a man of such seruice before. These are the lawes which were made, concerning the murthering of other men. And doth not the law of God, and the explication of it by Iesus Christ his sonne, originally require of vs, that all fit things which we owe to other men, should be done by our selues to our selues?Mat. 22.39. Thou oughtest to loue thy neighbour, but as thou lo­uest thy selfe. The example of thy charitie, is drawne from thy selfe at home. Thy soule, thy preseruation, the good wished to thy selfe, should be the true direction of thy deedes vnto thy neighbour. But thou must not lay any bloudy and murthering hands vpon another, therefore much lesse on thy selfe.

19 God hath placed thee in this world, as in a watch or a standing, from whence thou must not stirre thy foote, till he bid thee to remooue. He hath imprinted a most passionate loue, be­tweene thy soule and thy body, that they grieue to leaue one another. The mind will haue many inuentions, the body will beare many stripes, before that either from other of them, do willingly depart and be dissolued. Wise men haue no greater reason of perswasion to induce, that the parting with any friend, or the loosing of the nearest and dearest, must be borne with pa­tience, then that a dearer couple, the nearest that this world hath, that is our soules and our bodies, must depart and flye a sunder. The affection is so entire, the coniunction is so inward, which the one of these hath to the other. God would haue our natiuitie to be bitter to our mothers,Erasmus in funere in Colloquijs. that they might loue vs the dearer, but he would haue our death to be soure vnto our selues, that we might the more feare to hasten it. And therfore although [Page 127] the spirite may be willing in any man, yet surely the flesh is weake, in the laying downe of the life, for a good conscience, and the Gospell. What one is he, whome Gods spirite hath not in great measure mortified, that feeleth not in himselfe often­times, an horrour and a quaking, to thinke of this dissolution, that he who in some sort may yet be called the image of God, should become dust and clay; that the goodliest of those crea­tures, whome the Almightie hath framed vnder the heauen, should prooue a rotten carcasse: that he who hath seene the starres, and beheld the heauen in his beauty, yea hath meditated on the highest, and contemplated on the Trinitie, should be put into a graue, and tumbled into the earth, to be amongst worms and vermin, in darkenesse and corruption: all which a naturall man doth loath, he could wish that it might not be. Now, when our owne hand shall hasten that, which nature doth so far hate, which our heart doth so dislike, which God doth so detest, how wicked is our wickednesse?

20 Egesippus in his third booke of the destruction of Hie­rusalem,Egesippus de excidio Hierosol. lib. 3. rehearseth a worthy Oration (although in some other words, then I find it in Iosephus himselfe) which Iosephus that great and learned Iewe, made to his souldiers in a caue, where they lay hid, after the losse of the citie Iotapata, which Vespasi­an the Romane Generall tooke. There his owne men would take no naye, but that they must murther downe one another, whereupon he vseth a speech,Ioseph. de bello Iudai­co. lib. 3. Thesaurum nobis optimum dedit, atque inclusum in hoc vase fictili, & consignatum commisit nobis custodiendum. Quis nos ad­mittet ad illa sanctarum a­nimarum con­sortia? which in my iudgement is most patheticall. The Almighty God hath giuen vnto vs our life as a most precious treasure: he hath shut it and sealed it vp, in this earthen vessell, and giuen it vs to be kept, till that himself do aske for it againe. And were it not a fault now, as on the one side to deny it when he shall require it againe: so on the other side to spill and cast this treasure forth, which was thus committed to vs, be­fore he do demaund it? And after a few other words he goeth thus forward: If we should kill our selues, who is he that should admit vs into the company of good soules? Shall it not be sayd to vs, as once it was sayd to Adam, Where art thou? so where are yee, who contrary to my precept are come where you should not be, because I haue not yet loosed you from the bonds of your bodies. [Page 128] This is a Christian speech out of the mouth of a Iewe, which caryeth such matter with it, as is worthy to be reuolued. It was not well with Adam, when he who should haue bene in the plaine, was crept into the bushes: his misery then began. And without Gods exceeding mercie, whereof no man can presume, nay great and mightie preiudice is to the contrary, it wil be most ill with them, who do aduenture vpon such deedes: they do rush themselues into torments.

21 Let heathen men be famous for such factes if they will. Let Calanus and his wise Indians, hate to dye a naturall death, but end their dayes by burning themselues in the fire.Curt. lib. 10. Let the scholers of that Philosopher Egesias Cyrenaicus,Tul. Tusc. quaest. lib. 1. so far beleeue their maister, disputing of the immortality of the soule, that to the end that they might be depriued of life, and enioy that spo­ken of immortality,Tit. Liuius lib. 26. they go home and kill themselues. Let Vi­bius Virius in Capua, professe that he hath poyson for himselfe, and all his friends, which is able to free thē from the Romanes, from punishment and from shame: and let him drinke and dye. Yea let the younger Cato a man held to be admirably wise,Plutarch. in Catone mi­nore. Cornel. Tac. Annal. l. 15. Senec. epist. 24. & 71. & 82. be a butcher to himselfe, rather then endure to see Caesar, who was then become a Conquerer. Yea let Seneca himselfe, try the ma­ner of Cato his death, although in another sort; after that himself, a Philosopher, a mirrour of heathen wisedome, had so often and so highly commended that deed of Cato, that it was not bloud, but honour which gushed out of his side. Yea let ten thousand more,Virgil. Aenei. 4. Liu. lib. 1. with Dido and Lucretia, be recorded in Gentile stories: yet all these are no warrāts for Christians: we haue a better mai­ster, who hath taught vs a better lesson. That aduersity and bitter afflictiō, must be born with patience: that we must expect Gods end, in misery & calamity, and not hasten the issue in our selues; that true fortitude is in bearing the sorrowes, which are assigned & allotted out for our portion, & that to fly from thē fearefully, is cowardise. Where is valure, but in sustaining the greatest cros­ses with constancie? and where is timiditie, but in this, to kill thy selfe, that thou mayest be freed from that which doth not like thee?Augustin. de ciuitate Dei. 19.4. What daunting force, saith S. Austen, had those euils which cōstrained Cato, a wise man as they accounted of him, to take that [Page 129] away from himselfe, Sibimet aufer­re quod hom [...] est. Ita sibi esse a­micus, vt esse se animal, & in hac coniun­ctione corporis & animae vi­uere velis. Cyprian de duplici mar­tyrio. Aut infirmi­tas erat morte quaerens dolo­rum finem, aut ambitio aut dementia. that he was a man, whereas men say, & that truly, that it is after a sort, the first and greatest speech of nature, that a man should be reconciled to himselfe, and therefore natu­rally flye death: so be a friend to himselfe, as that earnestly he should desire to be a liuing creature, and to continue in this con­iunction of the body and soule. He did not resist, and stand strong against his euils, but indeede fainted as a coward: he sunke vn­der his burthen. I may conclude of him, and of all that do treade his steps, with that learned man, who wrote the treatise De du­plici Martyrio, which is commōly called Cyprians. If we reade that any haue killed themselues valiantly, it was either weaknesse which by death did seeke an end of sorrowes, or ambition or mad­nesse. So farre, in truth, are they off from any iust commenda­tion in Christianitie and Diuinitie.

22 Nay, what if it were held a thing vnlawfull among the very Gentiles? See the Poet Virgils iudgement of it. When Ae­neas came downe to hell, as the Poet there doth deuise, he seeth in a seuerall and disiunct place, such as had made away them­selues. He maketh their estate to bee so wofull, as that gladly they would do any thing, to be aliue againe.Virgil. Ae­neid. 6.

—quàm vellent aethere in alto
Nunc & pauperiem, & duros perferre labores?

How gladly now would they be content to endure pouertie, and take hard paines in the world? Tullius in Somnio Sci­pionis. See the iudgement of Tully con­cerning this, in his Somnium Scipionis. When Scipio vpon the tale of his father, being growne into admiration, of the glorie of men which are dead, asked, What do I then vpon earth, why hasten I not to dye? his father maketh him answere, with a ve­ry diuine speech,Nisi enim cùm Deus is, cuius est templum hoc omne quod conspicis, istis te corporis cu­stodys libera­uerit, huc tibi aditus pater [...] non potest. although he were but a heathen man: No son, thou mayest not haue any passage hither, but when that God whose temple all that thou seest, is, shall free thee out of this body. For men are borne to that purpose, and haue soules giuen them to that end, (to rest themselues on this earth) which soules they must keepe safely within the ward of their bodies. And they are not to flit from this life without his commaundement, least they should seeme to flye that dutye of a man, which is assigned them by God. I might adde to these, the iudgement of Aristotle in [Page 130] his Ethicks,Aristotel. E­thic. lib. 3.7. where he saith, that to kill a mans selfe for the auoy­ding of infamie or pouertie, is not the part of a valiant man, but of a coward. But I leue these forraine testimonies.

Hieron▪ in hunc locum.23 Some among the Christians, haue thought that maydens, for sauing and preseruing their virginitie inuiolate, might kill themselues. An opinion voyde of any shadow of warrant, out of Gods word.Rom. 3.8. Vide infra in Ionae▪ 4.3. For ought we to do euill, that good may come ther­by? Shall we aduenture the greater sinne, for the auoyding of a lesse euill? Nay is it a fault in a virgin at all, that she is defloured by force?2. Sam. 13.1. August de ciuitate Dei. lib. 1.19. Tarquinius & Lucretia duo fuerunt & a­dulteriū vnus admisit. August. lib. 3. contra Cres­coniū Grā ­maticum. Theodorer. in compēdio haereticarum fabularum. Was Tamar to be condemned, because Amnon did defile her? It is consent that maketh iniquitie. Tarquinius and Lucretia were two bodies, saith Saint Austen, but there vvas but one adulterer. I adde no more of that matter. The Donatistes and furious Circumcellions in old time, because they were re­strained by the ciuill sword of the Magistrate, from the exercise of their heresies, and keeping of their Conuenticles, would cast themselues from the rockes, and breake their neckes, by the fall, they would drowne and kill themselues. Thereupon Theodoret hath a very pretie narration, concerning them. Many of them on a time, met a young man on the way, and giuing him a sword, commaunded him to wound them, and threatned him that if he would not, they would kill him for refusing. The young man being put vnto his shifts, told them that he durst not do it, be­cause he had iust cause to feare, that whē some of thē should see their fellowes slaine, the rest would turne on him for doing it, and murther him. But if they would first suffer him, to bind thē all fast and sure, he would tell thē another tale. They liked well of this motion, & in their sencelesse stupiditie, yeelding to be bound, the yong man got good store of rods, & shrewdly swinged them all, & so went his wayes and left them. They imagined, that God did well accept of their murtherings, in this or the like kind, & caried an opinion, that now they were become martyrs of Iesus Christ. Gaudentius their Bishop, writeth in defence of the deedes of these Donatistes,2. Mach. 14.41 & in behalf therof, vrgeth the exāple of Razias in the Machabees, who when he should be slaine, in mainte­nance of the religiō of the Iewes, to saue himself frō the infidels, first ran vpō his sword. And whē that would not serue the turne, [Page 131] he threw himselfe from a wall, and when all this could not kill him, he ranne to the top of a rocke, and there plucked out his bowels, and threw them among the people. That holy man Saint Austen,August. con­tra secūdam Gaudētij E­pistol. Cyprian. de duplici Mar­tyrio. Non suppliciū sed causa facit Martyrem. the most iudicious of all the fathers comming to answer these things, first disclaimeth them from being Martyrs, They who liue not the liues of Christians, cannot dye the death of Martyrs. And he also vseth that maxime of Cyprian, Not the punishment, but the cause doth make the Martyr. Secondly he sheweth out of the Scripture, that a man in no case should kill himselfe. Thirdly he doth so handle the example of this Razias, that he maketh it to be no warrant, to attempt any such like deede. Heare his reasons.

24 First the Iewes do giue no credit vnto the bookes of the 1 Machabees: they expugne them out of their Canon. Thus Au­sten himselfe can say, who for want of the Hebrew toung, is sometimes more then an ordinarie friend to the Apocriphall Scripture. Secondly the authour there giueth such testimonie 2 to that deede, as is not sufficient to allow it for currant. He vvas a louer of the Citie, and a man of good report, and therefore was commonly called a father of the Ievves. But heathen men, saith Saint Austen, haue gone as farre as this. He offered to spend his bodie for the Religion of the Ievves. So vvould other, saith Saint Austen,Rom. 10.1. who had a zeale as Saint Paule speaketh, but not according to knowledge. Such men as vvere earnest holders of the traditions of the Ievves, but did not accept the Messias. He desired that his bovvels might be restored in the resurrecti­on. But that shall be common to the vvicked as vvell as to the iust. He dyed noblie, saith the authour, but better, saith Saint Au­sten, if it had bene reported that he dyed humblie. He dyed man­fully sayth the authour, and I do not say, quoth Saint Austen, that he did dye vvomanly. Thus he scanneth all the wordes of that narration. Thirdly he addeth, If he had done vvell,3 he should haue done like the seuen brethren, 2. Mach. 7.1. of vvhom vve reade in that booke. He should not haue thrust himselfe vpon death, but whatsoeuer had bene imposed by the persecuting tyrant, he should haue endured that vvith patience and humilitie. Where­fore since he could not suffer his humbling amongst his enemies, [Page 132] he shewed himselfe an example, not of wisedome but of folly, not to be imitated of Christs martyrs, but of Donatist circumcellions. This is the round and apparant christian iudgement, of that most learned Father.Iudic. 16.30. He doth aunswere the place of Samson, as anon I shall shew vnto you. For he also killed himselfe. In the meane time, I may with him lay downe this generall doctrine, that none should spill the bloud, or destroy the life of himselfe, for any cause whatsoeuer, because that is a deed most vnchristian, most damnable, and most wicked.

25 I cannot deny, but Gods mercie wherein he is ex­ceedingly rich, doth sometimes shew it selfe, in the very pangs of death.Inter pontē & fontem. That betweene the bridge and the water, betweene the knife and the dying, betweene the rocke and the ground, repentaunce may be suggested to the heart, in a moment or twinckling of an eye, but especially where poyson being taken, doth not kill vpon the sudden, or where death doth not follow presently, there may be some remembrance. Notwithstanding, who is he that dareth to presume vpon such mercy? God is lo­uing, but he is iust: he is kind, but he is dreadfull: he liketh not to be tempted. It were folly to breake thy necke, to trie the skill of a bone-setter, to trie the wil of a surgeon. It is monstrous in Diuinity, to preasse vpon such iniquitie, with hope of that, wherein thou hast such threatnings to the contrary. God would haue vs to lay downe our liues, if need be for his sake, if a tyrant will take them frō vs; but we must not leape out of thē, for any thing of our owne. Nay we should be so carefull, that we shold not rashly hazard them, or bring them into perill. In forbidding sinne, God vseth to forbid all the inducements, which leade vn­to that sinne. I would that such could remember this, who think that they are not men, vnlesse they make a braule, or enter into a combat,Bernard. ad milites tem­pli. Si in voluntate alterum occi­dendi te potius occidi contige­rit, moreris ho­micida. for euery fond word or speech. By that meanes they prouoke the Lord, and if they happen to be slaine, they are ac­cessaries to their owne deaths. That which S. Bernard speaketh of iniust warre, is not vnfit to be rehearsed in this place, If in thy fighting, thou haue a mind to kill another man, and then art slayne thy selfe, thou dyest a murtherer: if thou preuaile and kill the o­ther, then thou liuest a murtherer. But whether thou liue or dye, [Page 133] be a conquerour or conquered, it is not good to be a murtherer. Theodoret doth commend the good minde of Honorius,Theodor Hi­stor. Eccl. lib. 5.26. some­times Emperour of Rome, because he tooke quite away out of that Citie, the fightes of the Gladiatores, or sword-players in Rome, wherein to shew sport to other men, and make triall of their manhood, oftentimes they killed one another. I pursue this matter no further, but onely adde this, that howsoeuer an opi­nion hath preuailed to the cōtrarie, true manhood is not in quar­relling, and brabling for priuate iniuries, but in maintenance of Gods honor, in preseruing thy alleageance to thy Prince, in safe­garding of thy countrey, in defending thy selfe from theeues, and such other iust occasions.

26 I forget not my Ionas here, from whom as the originall, this question of doing violence to our selues did arise. Neither do I forget Samson, whome I reserued to this place, because there is some similitude betweene him and our Prophet. In that place which I named before,August. con­tra secūdam Gaudentij Epistolam. Saint Austen briefly, but yet notably doth determine this deede of Samson. When he plucked downe the house on himselfe, he slue himselfe and his enemies. But the reason of it was, that since he could not escape, because they meant to slay him, he would destroy them also with him, euen the Princes of the Philistines. Neither did he this of himselfe, marke the words of the learned father, but by direction of Gods spirite, vvhich vsed him to do that which otherwise without the strength of that spirit, he could neuer haue bene able to do, that was plucke downe the house. The commaundement of that spirite, made this deede to be lawfull, Gen 22.1. as the offering vp of Isaac, was a lawfull deede in Abra­ham. That vvhich had bene nothing else but madnesse, if God had not commaunded it, when God did bid it, was obedience. So he hol­deth this a particular deede, precisely cōmaunded to him, which we may imitate by no meanes, because we haue no such war­rant.Hieron. in E­zech 46. But Hierome in his Cōmentarie, on the sixe and fortieth of Ezechiel, doth go a little farther, saying that Samson in that deede,Iudic. 16.30. was a figure of Iesus Christ. As Samson slue more at his death, then he did in all his life time, so Christ although while he liued, he gaue many a wound to Satan, by his miracles and his doctrine, yet it was his death and his suffering, that broke [Page 134] the backe of hell, and the verie heart of Satan. These matters may in good sort be applyed to our Prophet. He was assured by that knowledge which he yet retained, notwithstanding his fall, that this punishment was assigned to him by the Lord. This must be the satisfaction, for his great disobedience. Now againe his faith reuiueth, by which he had some foresight, of all Gods purpose ouer him. This was peculiar to our Ionas, by his Propheticall knowledge, and may not be followed by vs. It is not any protection for vs, to bid any other throw our selues into the sea.

27 Besides this, I do not doubt, but as Samson was a fi­gure of the Sauiour of the world, so Ionas also was, although not in euerie matter, (as once before I haue noted) yet in this his drowning here.Super. Ion. 1.1. Matth. 12.40. Christ himselfe did expound the lying of the Prophet for three dayes in the whales bellye, to be a signe of his owne buriall, and lying in the earth. The death of the Saui­our, was to him a meanes of his buriall: so here the casting out of Ionas, into the sea by the mariners, was the meanes where­by he lay three dayes and three nightes, in the bellye of the whale.Iohn. 19.30. Ionas is willingly drowned here: Christ also there dyeth willingly: he yeelded vp his Ghost; no man could take it from him. Ionas alone must suffer, to saue the rest of the ship: Christ alone did treade the wine-presse, and Christ doth dye alone, to stay his fathers wrath; to saue all his elect. You see that he is an excellent type of Iesus Christ the righteous. But as it is impossi­ble, that comparisons should hold in all things, and there is none who in euery matter may be likened vnto Christ, because he had no fellowes; he cannot be tryed by his peeres; so there is this one difference, that Ionas when he suffered, was alone in all the fault, and Iesus in his suffering, was onely without all fault, because he was that immaculate lambe,1. Pet. 2.22. in whose mouth was found no guile. When I first looked into this text, which I haue now opened vnto you, I did thinke to haue said something farther, in or concerning the person of Christ, whom our Pro­phet doth represent, I meant to haue mentioned his readinesse to dye, that he might redeeme vs sinners, and so briefly out of the new Testament, to haue giuen some comfort amidst all [Page 135] these threates of Ionas. But in handling this last question, mat­ter hath growne vpon me, and I loue not to be tedious. I will therefore deferre that, till I come to the fifteenth verse, where the like occasion is againe fitly offered vnto me. In the meane time, let vs meditate on the excellent loue of Christ, who would dye so willingly for vs, the iust for the vniust, to bring vs vnto his kingdome. To the attaining whereof he alwayes further vs, to whom in the perfection of the Trinitie, be glorie and prayse for euermore.


The chiefe points. 1 The vnwillingnesse of the mariners to put Ionas to death. 4 Great slownesse should be vsed in taking away life. 6. Against killing of men to offer to Idols, 7. and other cruell massacrings: 9. As that of the Anabaptistes. 14. The force of the sea. 16. It is some sinne that maketh many not to prosper. 20. God reuengeth innocent bloud. 22. Enforcement doth not excuse euill. 23. We must yeeld to Gods will.

Ionah. 1.13.14.

Neuerthelesse the mē rowed to bring it to the land, but they could not, for the sea wrought and was troublous against thē. Where­fore they cried vnto the Lord, & said, We beseech thee, ô Lord, vve beseech thee, let vs not perish for this mans life, and lay not vpon vs innocent bloud, for thou ô Lord hast done as it plea­sed thee.

IOnas being of a Prophet become a sinner, of a sinner a prisoner, as oft times you haue heard, is examined by his companie, but condēned by himselfe, as a grie­uous malefactour, worthy to be drowned in the sea. So much did his sinne crie for vengeance; so vehemently did his [Page 136] God make after him. But the miserie of his miserie is, that since he must needes suffer, for otherwise the fault which his owne mouth hath acknowledged, cannot be satisfied for, he wanteth some man that may do the deed. The place is ready, and the per­son, who thinketh euerie thought of time to be verie long, be­fore the matter be dispatched: but there wanteth an executioner. He might not do as Saule did,1 Sam. 31.4. fall on his owne sword point him­selfe, when his harnesse-bearer would not depriue him of his life. This had argued too great dispaire. But he might wish with Ne­ro, that in the course of iustice,Aurelius Vi­ctor in Ne­rone. he might haue some friend or ene­mie, to helpe him vnto his end. But among these blustering ma­riners, he could not finde that fauour. Although himselfe accuse himselfe, and lay his fault plaine before them; although windes and waues did confirme it, although the lot throwne did assure it, although in wordes he did desire to be cast into the water, yet those who should haue done it, do so ill like of the matter, that if sayles or oares can serue, they will backe againe to the land, rather leaue their intended iourney, then vse any violence toward him.

They rowed to bring the ship backe vnto the land.

[...]2 The word which is vsed here, comming of Chathar in the Hebrew, doth signifie they did digge, either because men do thrust into the water with oares, as in digging they do, with o­ther instruments on the land,Seneca in A­gamemn▪ Suicata vibrāt aequora & lacera incropant. Virgil. Ae­neid. 3. Nullum maris aequor arandū. like as in Latin Poetry the bottome of the ship is sayd to plow the water, sulcare, to make things like furrows in it: or because as men in digging, do turn this way, and that way, & stir & moue the ground, so they stirred vp their wits, & did beate their brayns and thoughts, to free him from the dan­ger. For his sake, they vsed all such helpes as they had at sea. We know that they be not many: either sayling by the wind, or row­ing by the oare: tall ships do know the one, the galleys goe with the other. But as it may be iudged out of the monuments of an­tiquitie, and partly may be seene in some at this day, euerie ship in old time, had both the one & the other. When the wind wan­ted for their sayling, their armes did vse to fall a rowing. In this place I doubt not, but that the storme had so ouerlayd them, that their tackling in generall did serue them to little purpose. The [Page 137] shift which then remained, was to see if by cleane strength, a­gainst both wind and water, they might winne the land, by their rowing backward. Forward they could not get, & therfore they wil retire, rather then drown the Prophet. Their businesse is for­gotten: their hast shall stay a while, rather then destroy his life.

3 When aduisedly I consider, how many things here should vrge those mariners, to hasten him vnto death, their di­sturbance in their iourney, the casting foorth of their wares, which goeth against the soule of a wordly minded creature, the indangering of their liues, the discouery by a lot, the confession of himself, & his willingnes to dy, besides such stubburne qua­lities, as of likelyhood were fast rooted in mariners and idolaters, and yet how by no meanes they would take his life away from him, I cannot but obserue their maruellous of-wardnesse, and vnwillingnesse in very high sort, to the shedding of bloud, which affection of theirs is amplifyed in all my text. Because he should not dy, they wold go back to land: and when they see that there must be no nay, but God would haue them to throw him into the sea, they cry forth with great vehemency, that in as much as it was the Lords owne doing, and not any desire of theirs, (they were but as his instruments, & ministers of his iustice) the bloud of this dying passenger, might not be imputed to thē. Although I be not before Iudges and lurours, who haue to do with mens deaths, nor before any Martiall warriours, whose speare some­times eateth flesh, and whose sword oftentimes drinketh bloud: yet because I speake to men, whome this cannot but concerne, (for life belongeth vnto all) & because my text doth inforce it, giue me leaue, men & brethren, to discourse this argument vnto you in the first place, that afterward I may go forward to some other doctrine.

4 Then I feare not to say, that the lawes of God and men, of nature and of nations, of Gentiles and of Iewes, of ciuill men and Barbarians, haue commaunded that a great regard should be borne to the life of a man, the most excellent of all Gods creatures that go vpon the ground, the beauty of the world, the glory of the workman, the cōfluence of all honor which morta­lity can afford, the resemblāce of the Sauiour, while he liued vpō [Page 138] the earth, the image of God himselfe, vntill that time that Adam lost it: to whose absolute frame nothing wanteth, but onely a consideration, that God hath so graced him, as that nothing is wanting to him. I neede not speake to all these, but vrge that which is the greatest. The Lord hath said, I wil require your bloud wherein your liues are, Genes. 9.5.6. at the hand of euery beast will I require it, and at the hand of man, euen at the hand of a mans brother, will I require the life of man. Who so sheadeth mans bloud, by man shall his bloud be shed: for in the image of God hath he made man. The often ingemination of requiring and requiring, doth inforce the greater charge.Exod. 21.12. Genes. 4.10. 2. Sam. 12.9. Habac. 2.17. He that smiteth a mā & he dye, shal dye the death. Doth not the bloud of Abell cry for vengeance vnto the Lord? How doth God take the shedding of Vriah his bloud at Dauids hand? How doth he threaten a punishment, and that in bitter sort vnto the men of Babylon, for their murthering of many per­sons? The killing of a mā, the murthering of thy neighbor, is such a matter, as for the which can be made no satisfaction. A king­dome can make no ransome for it, the whole world cannot make a recompence, if we will take things aright. It is in one to marre it, but it is not in all Gods creatures, to make the life of a man. The Creatour himselfe doth giue it; he willeth vs to pre­serue it, that none should dare to destroy it, either in our selues or other.

5 How doth he seeme to tender it, when he expressely com­mandeth the Israelies,Deuter. 22.8. to set battelmēts vpon the roofes of their houses (whereupon they vsed oftentimes to walke, because they were flat) least if any should fall downe from thence,2 Sam. 11.1. bloud should lye vpon the house? In like sort, when he giueth charge else-where,Exod. 21.32. that the beast which killeth any, should be stoned to death with stones? How doth he detest bloud-spilling in wilfull sort,Iohan. 8.44. when Christ giueth to the diuell, the title of a murtherer, as being most fit for him? So that they who are killers and man­quellers, do seeme to fight vnder the diuels banner; to haue put off humane nature, which should excell for mildnesse, and to be turned into beasts, nay to grow into the quality of foule and loathsome spirites. The impression of this thought, both that it is vnseemely among men, and odious before God, as it hath [Page 139] possessed the heart of Scythians, and Barbarians, of Egyptians, Greekes and Romanes, so these ship-men doubt not of it, but with all their power they do flye from it, as frō the gates of hell. They row, they cry, they pray: rather any thing then be guilty of the sheading of Ionas his bloud. Nay the more they see him yeeld, the more their heart doth melt, their affection giueth v­pon him. They know it to be naturall, to spare the life of a sup­pliant, to saue the life of a man. No custome against that ground: no prescription against that principle. Life should be deare if any thing: It neuer can be recouered.

6 They then are monsters in nature, and not only irreligious, and impious toward God, but verily inhumane, who do cut off the life of other, either in superstition, or in any bloud-thirsty hu­mour. Be they the Carthaginians, who did vse to offer men in sacrifice to their Gods.Oros. Histor. lib. 4.6. 2 Reg. 3.27. Annotatio Geneuensis in cum Io­cum in Bib­lijs Anglicae. Tremelius habet de fi­lio regis E­dom. Or be it the king of Moab, who being di­stressed in battell, did take his eldest son, who should haue raig­ned in his stead, and made a burnt offering of him, vpon the top of the wal, before the face of the Israelites, by that meanes thin­king to appease the wrath of his idols. For thus some vnderstand it, although there be that take it, of the son of the king of Edom: which is also bad inough. Or be they among other, or aboue o­ther if you will, the people of God himselfe, who as Dauid doth say of them, if that be Dauids Psalme, were so besotted on their follies,Psal. 106.36. and so doated on their idolatry, that they offered vp their sonnes and daughters vnto diuels. This was it, which the Scrip­ture calleth the making of their children to go through the f [...]re,2. Reg. 16.3. as did Ahaz the king of Israel. Vnto this the story of Iosias al­ludeth,Cap. 23.10. where he speaketh of the valley of Hinnom, in which their little ones were enforced, as the Hebrewes themselues do write, to walke betweene great fires, vntil that they sunke down dead with the heate: their parents, or the consecrators looking on, but not hearing the pitifull skreeches, and squealings of their children, by reason of the great noyse of tabrets, and other instru­ments of musicke, which did dull their eares, that they might not heare the sound. Blind men, who supposed that they had done great seruice to the Lord, when in truth they did that, which was execrable and abhominable in his eyes. So farre off they were, [Page 140] from the rules of religion, that they also slipped from the very grounds of common reason.

7 The like may be said of such, who not for any superstitious deuotion, or idolatrous opinion, but in a wooluish rauennous­nesse, would see the bloud of many shed. Be it Haman, who to ease his stomacke vpon Mardocheus,Est. 3.8. did cast plots and deuises how to haue the whole people of the Iewes murthered vpon one day.Dion. lib. 59. Or be it Caligula that foule and foolish tyrant, who wished that all the people of Rome had but one necke, that whensoeuer it should stand with his good liking, he might cut it off at one blow. A man worthy to be branded, with a perpe­tuall note of infamie, and to be registred for such a villaine, as scant euer had any fellowe. His heart was soaked thorough: his bowels were steeped in bloud, when he caryed so vile a mind to his owne citizens and subiects. Good God, how far is sence, and all humanitie extinguished in men, when thou withdrawest thy grace? How doth beast-like rage preuaile? This maketh me to remember, the cruell and bloudie speech of her, who being resolued vpon that fearefull slaughter, which Fraunce saw and felt at Bartlemewtide,Anno. 1572. Comment. Religi. & Reip. in Gal­lia. lib. 10. in the yeare seuentie and two, did vse to say of the Protestants, and Papists in that land, that there was no way, but one of the sides must dye for it, else the other could not stand safe. The thousands which were on either side, the young innocents and the children, who by her accompt must dye, did not moue her flintie heart. She had her will afterward, and now although she be in her graue, yet the obloquie and cō ­tumelious reproch of that action, remayneth for euer on her.

8 Shall not those auncient Romanes, who appointed by speciall lawes, rewards of honour and glorie, to such as did res­cue the liues, of any of their citizens, stand vp in the day of iudge­ment, and condemne such bloudie Christians? Shall not these si­ly mariners here conuince them in that day, who wrought as many meanes to saue the life of one, and of that one a stranger, and of that one an offender, as the other did to destroy the liues of many thousands, and those of their owne countreymen, and many of them questionlesse innocents▪ poore harmelesse hurt­lesse soules. Eternized be the infamy of Sathans and Antichrists [Page 141] practise in it, that bloudie harlot of Babylon; for it sauoured not of Christ the Sauiour. It is for cruell wolues, and not for tender and simple lambes, to haue their teeth in that manner defiled. No priuiledge or dispensation from any Pope, no warrant from the Councell of Constance, that faith giuen or promise made to heretikes, may be broken at pleasure, can excuse that horrible act. All humanity hath disclaimed it: Diuinity doth condemne it. We giue the like sentence also, although somewhat in a mil­der sort, against the murthering hand of them, who for their re­baptizing were iustly called Anabaptists.

9 A little more then seuenty yeares agone,Anno. 1522. these did arise in Germany, professing that by the Spirite, they had such illu­minations, and reuelations from aboue, that they freely might performe whatsoeuer came in their minds, as a matter suggested from heauen. Their opinions did quickely multiply, and so did their followers also: for it was a very pleasing doctrine, to a li­centious Libertine-like mind, vntill it grew too farre. Besides that all things were in common among them, and their wiues were not very priuate, when some of them had three or foure, besides also their rebaptizing of such, as had receiued the Sacra­ment of Baptisme before, besides their plucking downe of ma­gistrates, and many other things which I ouerpasse, they had the gift of killing as many as they would.Sleidan. cō ­mentar. lib. 10. lib. 6. Surius in commentar. Anno 1527. Iohn of Leyden their vsurping king at Munster, did fetch off the heads of diuerse, with a very great facility. At Sangallum a towne in Switzerland, one of this gentle crew, did cut off the head of his owne naturall bro­ther, the father to them both standing by, and the mother loo­king on. And the reason which he had for the doing of it, was because it was so commaunded to him from God aboue. This sect could say that it was the spirite, which moued them to such deedes, and they were aduertised from him by secret inspirati­on; but indeede it was the Spirite which vrged them, some in­fernall vgly fiend. For the holy Ghost, that sacred, immaculate and vndefiled being, doth not stir men against the law of God, or to breake the bonds of nature, so, as to defile mens selues with such crimes,Sleidan. lib. 10. as were odious to the very heathen. Luther liuing at that time, did set pen to paper, to discouer & discoun­tenance [Page 142] too, those proceedings. He imputed all that stirre to Sa­than, and the immediate worke of the diuell. And as he was a man, euery way of most inuincible courage in Gods businesse, so he feared not to say,Est haec rudis etiamnum ca­codaemonis techna. Inuenustus Gemus. that it was but a blockish spirit, a grosse diuell and a rude, who did broach such vntoward heresies, as the Anabaptistes held. Yet in the Popish spirit, was more close and fine conueyance.

10 The condemning of such deedes, by the sentence of God and man, and the generall doctrine which hath bene taught, concerning sauing of life in all, by the example of these sea­men, may be a good remembrance to Magistrates and Iudges, that they proceed to punishment of offenders, as men with lea­den or woolly, that is slow feete, not reioycing in that sentence, which themselues giue, of purpose to send other men to death: not as persons without remorse, but in heart heauy to see, that reasonable men should be so retchlesse, as to bring themselues to their end. Although iustice must be done, and clemency to some few may be cruelty vnto many, yet it is but an inhumane part, to delight in spilling bloud. Volesus who vnder the Empe­rour Augustus,Seneca de Ira. 2.5. was one Proconsul of Asia, is recorded for a fa­mous tyrant, in that when he had beheaded three hundred in one day, with a proud and lofty countenance he walked a­mongst the dead carcasses, as if he had done some deed worthy the looking on:O rem regiam. and then at last out he cried, Oh an act fit for a king. Another might well haue answered him: No, this doth not beseeme a king, who being the head of his people, shoud greeue that any of them should grow to that extremity, euen as the head in the naturall body should be sory, that the least ioynt of the hand, or foote should so rot, that it must needs be cut off. And as in such a case, the surgeon is neuer admitted but with ad­uise, so should hasty iudgement neuer depriue men of their breath. The fault of Theodosius, otherwise a good Christian Emperour,Theodoret. Eccles. Hi­stor. lib. 5.17. was the more grieuous the while, when so rashly he gaue leaue to a garrison of his souldiers, to ouer-runne the City of Thessalonica, where old and young were slaine, to the num­ber of seauen thousands; and all this done, to take vengeance on that people, for abusing some of his officers: as Ambrose very [Page 143] plainly did tell him, when he stepped betweene the Emperour and the Church, being most vnwilling that he should come in that sacred place, till he had made some satisfaction: A Christian Prince should neuer haue spoken such a bloudy word, to giue so cruell and hard a sentence, against so many thousands of his owne subiects, as well innocent as nocent. He afterward grieued for it vnfainedly, and in earnest, but his griefe should haue bene before. Yet better late then neuer: but the best sorrow which men can haue, is that they grieue to do euill.

11 There should be a fellow-feeling, and sympathy in mens minds, a compassion in a ruler, wishing that there were no cause of punishment to be suffered. And this not for a fashion, and because they are words of course, but in sincerity and sim­plicity; not with the tea [...]es of a Crocodile, or with the sighs of an hypocrite,Iohan. 18.38. but truly and in heart. Else it is but a Pontius Pilates tricke; who pronounced that Christ was innocent, and that he was loath to giue sentence, but yet he did condemne him. Al­though the Iewes were not Iudges,28. yet they had learned that lesson, when they would not come into the iudgement hall, least they should be defiled with bloud: and yet they neuer ceased to cry out, that Christ might be crucified. The Euan­gelistes do all declare, that Annas and Cayphas who were the Priestes, had a finger also in that worke. As it seemeth they left a patterne, for Popish Bishops their successours, to follow when they were dead. For they are not behind their old maisters, in hypocriticall carying of things, as they do most liuely shew in their Degradations of heretikes, as they call them. For when the Ordinary or Deputy of the Bishop,Sleidan. cō ­mentar. lib. 4. doth take off such attire, as Priestes or Bishops or men of degree in schooles were clothed with, in their formality, and committeth them to the secular power as they tearme it, they seeme to make an earnest request, that no violence may be offered to their bodies or liues, when their full purpose and intent is no otherwise, but that they shold be burnt at a stake. This is filthy dissimulation, and not vnfit for them, who being wolues and foxes, yet will shrowd themselues in sheepes cloathing. Bloud thirstinesse would gladly couer it selfe with mildnesse: but it is but a rotten cloake.

[Page 144]If I should adde any thing farther, by occasion of this de­sire to saue Ionahs life, it might be to warriours, who should not be preassing into the field for euery light cause. The old Hea­then men had that care, that their warres should be iust, as the lawes and orders of the Feciales,Liuius. lib. 1. those Romane Heralds shew. Christians should be more carefull that they offer not to draw the sword in battell, vnlesse it be for God, or for religion, or in their owne defence, or for some important reason. And when the Lord shall send a victory in the iustest cause, mercy besee­meth a man, and the sparing of all that may be spared. It carieth some meaning with it, that God would not giue Dauid leaue, to build a Temple vnto him,1 Chr. 28.3. although he fought not but the Lords battels, and earnestly did desire to accomplish that worke himselfe. The reason thereof is assigned to be, because he was a warriour, and consequently had shed much bloud. Which con­ceipt, or the like as it should seeme, was in the mind of Constan­tine that blessed Emperour, who being enforced to fight against infidels,Euseb. de vi­ta Constan­tini. lib. 2.13. August. de ciuitate Dei 5.21. Ieseph. de bello Iudaic. lib. 6.14. and idolaters, the enemies of his God, yet gaue charge, that as few as might be should be slaine in the warres; nay did propose rewards to those that tooke men aliue. His predecessor Titus the Romane Emperour, was so gentle of disposition, that Saint Austen thinketh it not vnfit, to call him a most sweete Prince, and Iosephus doth acknowledge, that he sorowed most bitterly, when he saw the great store of dead carcasses which pe­rished at Hierusalem. It is therefore likely, that he would haue caried a milder hand vpon the Iewes his prisoners, after the sac­king of that City,Lib. 7.20. then to cast so many thousands of them to the Lions,2500. in die natali Domi­tiani. and other beasts to be deuoured, as he did on the birth­day of his brother Domitian, and some other times besides: but that the heauy curse of God, which boyled against the nation, did vrge his gentle and calme nature, to bring them to destru­ction. But this is no example for other men: they haue no such commission. It is not in our time▪ as it was in the dayes of Iere­my,Ierem. 48.10. Vt iugulent homines sur­gunt de nocte latrones. that Cursed is he that keepeth backe his sword from bloud, but blessed is he that spareth, and blessed is he that saueth.

13 If the curse now light on any, it is on the murthering hand, which I would that they in our dayes, would remember [Page 145] out of warre, who either as wicked robbers destroy life for a pray, or else as brauing minds (for so they esteeme themselues) do make no kind of conscience, to destroy the liues of others, vnder pretence of reuengement of indignities, & disgraces offe­red to them. Is hell prepared for murtherers, and is it sayd that such shall be without, Apoc. 22.15. that is, secluded from heauen, and from the new Hierusalem, and wilt thou for shewing of thy man­hood, thrust thy selfe into this hell? The reuenge which is taken, is more vpon thy soule, then on the body of thine enemy. Let not piety be so dead, nor nature so extinguished, nor thy conscience be so seared, and burnt euery whit away, as to kill any wilfully. Rather learne of these mariners, to beare losse, and suffer danger, to spare where might be spilling, then to spill where should be sparing. Ionas had done them wrong, by comming into their ship, & putting them to that trouble, and a verdict was gone out frō God against him, that he must be drowned; & yet notwith­stāding, if it were in their power to do it, they wold returne him good for euill: they euen quake and tremble at it, that they were wished to drowne him. And thus haue you their auersenesse, and vnwillingnesse to shed bloud. Now let vs go a little farther.

They rowed to bring it to the land, but they could not.

14 Since they may not be at sea, they striue and they labor, to returne to the land: but this may not be neither. Here is more against them, then if all the world were for them. Man will, but God will not: man roweth and God bloweth, the armes go for the one, but the winds go for the other. Whether of these is like to speed? God would not haue the Prophet escape away so with the shot. Since his fault is so great, it shall not be vnpunished, least the creature should learne to insult ouer the Creator, and flesh and bloud should counterpoise his will against the Al­mighty. Therefore to teach obedience, and that nothing on earth, must be ballanced with his ordinance, for the execution of iustice, he stirreth vp the sea, to resist the rowing of these silly men. The sea vvrought and vvas troublous. How much is here against how little? The Ocean with his fury, against one woodden vessell. Great waues against small strokes. This is it, whereof Dauid can say, that they who make triall of it, [Page 146] do see the workes of the Lord, Psal. 107.24. and his wonders in the deepe. This is it which if it were not restrained, would returne to couer the face of the earth,Psal. 104.9. whose waues do roare lowder then all the Lions of the forrest, whose gulfes do sup vp some, whose sandes do sinke downe other, whose rockes haue splitted in pee­ces the hugest mightiest Carickes, that euer came on the water. Here is Scylla and Charybdis, and those Symplegades which are so much feared. This is it, in which one short tempest, hath dashed whole fleetes and nauies, the one ship against the other: which sometimes by inundation hath ouer-runne whole coun­treyes, as might be shewed at large. This is one of those two vnbridled elements, with whom there is no mercy: for so we say of fire and water.

15 This worketh against our Prophet, and what helpe can there be against the fury of it? If the multitudes of mankind were assembled vpon the land, if the whole world were put together, yet these are not able to abate this violence. If Pha­rao and all the horsemen which belong vnto him, although he be the great king of Egypt,Exod. 14.28. come but into a corner of it (for so the red sea may well be named) they are licked vp, as if they had beene no better then the grashoppers, and throwne dead on the shore. Xerxes the king of Persia, was a man of passing wit in the meane while,Herodot. in Polymnia. lib. 7. who, as Herodotus writeth of him, vnderstanding that the bridge which he had made o­uer the Hellespont, was broken by the great violence of the waues and water, caused three hundred stripes to be giuen to the Ocean sea, in reuengement of the wrong done vnto him, and to teach it a better lesson, against another time. There is no wrastling for sober men, with the sea, and for drun­ken men much lesse. If he with all his army, had bene close at hand to helpe the poore Prophet, now in this storme, he must haue bene contented, to haue left him in that case as he found him. Gods charge was vpon the waues, not to giue o­uer from pursuing, vntill they had drowned him. And he who could plague all Egypt, with flies and frogges and lice, the ba­sest kinde of vermine,Exod. could easily giue ability, to the sea to drench on Ionas.

[Page 147]16 Then it is no maruell, if they could not bring him backe vnto the land, since they had both windes and waues and God himselfe against them. And against them he will be, so long as that party, who is the offending sinner, shall rest with them. In mine opinion, a most excellent point of doctrine is here af­foorded. Men oftentimes do striue and vehemently labour, with oares and sailes and euery thing, euen with all the powers of their mind, and with all the strength of their bodie, to attaine to their desire, of riches and contentednesse, and the more they do beate their braines, the farther they are still from it. Early rising, faring hard, much deuising and contriuing, counsell and helpe from others: and yet it will not be. Some other with halfe the labour, do attaine to greater happinesse. But as these mariners striue, and cannot come at the land, they can neither get forward nor backward, so it is with the desires of the other.Agg. 1.6. O [...]nus tor­quet. God bloweth vpon their money, it is put into a broken bagge, or as the Prouerbe is, Ocnus he wreatheth a rope, and an asse standeth by and croppeth it off. Their best meanes come to nothing: the good intent of their friends pro­ueth, as if there were no such matter. Now what shall be sayd in this case? Surely we must not rashly censure this state of other men. For God many times doth crosse the actions of such as be deere vnto him, either to trye their patience, or to confirme their faith, or to teach them obedience, or to make them loath the world, or for some other reason best knowne vnto himselfe. So that we may not proudly or peremptorily iudge. Then the conscience of each man, who will not be wilfully blinded, is the best triall in this behalfe. Descend thou then into thy soule, and sift thy selfe throughly, what may be the reason of it.

17 If thou be not as other men, and very little do prosper with thee, yea although diligence be not wanting, see whether that some Ionas be not within thy house, some leud or vngodly man, some drunkard or some Atheist, that draweth a curse vpon thee. See whether that some Ionas be not within thy heart, who lyeth heauy vpon thee as the lead, that thou canst not arise. The Ionas of disobedience, the Ionas of discontentednesse, the [Page 148] Ionas of want of faith, or perhaps some more noted sinne. As long as he hath his abode with thee, do thou rowe and thy ma­riners, do thou striue and thy friends, but thou shalt not come to the land. But cast once this Ionas out, the Ionas of adultery, the Ionas of fornication, vpon whom beggery waiteth many a time, the sinne of a wanton mind, the fault of a railing tongue, against God and his Ministers, the sinne of an enuious eye, a­gainst those whom the Lord blesseth, the roo [...]e of cruell bitter­nesse in inuenting lies and slaunders. Let the Ionas of these faults, be once throwne ouer ship-boord, and thy ship shall go like other: the Lord will blesse thy studies, he will prosper thy endeuors, and it shall appeare vnto thee, how much he doth re­spect thee. Otherwise the sea shall be troublesome, and saile thou till thy heart do ake, thou shalt not come to the shore. Aulus Gellius in the third booke of his Noctes Atticae, doth tell of a goodly horse,Gellius. lib. 3.9. which belonged to one Seius, and thereof had his name to be called Equus Seianus. This horse was neuer posses­sed by any one, but both himselfe and his family did come to vtter ruine. So Seius his first maister did speede, and then Dola­bella who bought the horse for much money, dranke of the selfe same cup. Then Cassius was his owner, and after that Antonius, and the end of both these was destruction. Vnderstand that sin and wickednesse, oftentimes doth carry this fortune with it, that it fretteth the goods of the owner, and maketh little or nothing to prooue. Therfore if it be as pleasant to the flesh, and to thy fan­cy, as the horse of Seius was comely to the eye, better it is to leaue it, then to haue it: he is best that is farthest from it. And so now I come to the second verse.

Wherefore they cried vnto the Lord and sayd.

18 When these men see by al meanes, that the Prophet must go out, & that there was no striuing against so strong a streame, although it went against the haire, nay although heart, soule and all, did go against the deede, yet they resolue to do it: but it is with feare and trembling. It cannot be auoided: necessity hath no law: they must do it or do worse. Then since God ruled the rost, and all was at his pleasure, they runne poore soules to him. It is sayd they cried vnto him, which noteth their [Page 149] earnest vehemency in vttering of their prayers. They whisper not, but so loud as their best breath can reach, they cry vnto the Lord. They had seene the immediate power of the Israelites God vpon them: that maketh them pray vnto him, and that with doubled cries, We beseech thee, we beseech thee. So impor­tant is affliction, and sight of present danger, to stirre vp euen idolaters,Exod. 10.17. and wicked ones to deuotion. If Pharao once feele the smart of the rod vpon him, he can be well content, if not himselfe, yet that Moses should pray vnto his God, to free him from the plague.1. Reg. 21.27. If Ahab by the speech of Elias, do heare of de­solation about to fall vpon himselfe and his family, he will humble himselfe in sackcloth. This is an argument worth the handling, as be many other things in this verse: but because I haue still desired, to go forward without confusion, and if I be not deceiued, it is the distinctest teaching, to put euery thing in his proper place, giue me leaue to touch that here, which is not handled else-where, and which hath most affinity with that, which already I haue sayd: and to referre other matters vnto their peculiar places.Suprà ver­su 2. Then what crying is, I handled, when I opened the second verse. And for that matter, that here they make choise of Iehoua, the true God of the world, as also to dispute, whether they were conuerted vnto the truth or no, iust occasion shall be offered, when I come to the sixteenth verse,Infrà ver. 16. where it is sayd that the men frared the Lord exceedingly, and offered a sacrifice vnto the Lord and made vowes. Moreouer what force affliction hath, to bring men vn­to piety and deuotion, I declared in the fifth verse, where these mariners by the violence of the tempest,Suprà vers. 5. were vrged vnto their praiers. And againe, I shall haue reason to touch it far­ther, if God do send me ability to come to the second Chap­ter, where the Prophet lying in the belly of the whale, maketh his praier to the Lord.

19 Then the matter which now remaineth for me, is the substance of their prayer: the scope at which they do aime: which is, that sith a necessity of drowning him lieth vpon them, which they held as well to be vnnaturall, as inhumane and impious, they would gladly be excused for it, that his death [Page 150] and bloud which was innocent vnto them, might not be layd vpon them. They do professe themselues, to be but in­struments of Gods good will, they had no quarrell to him. And they in plaine termes say, that his was innocent bloud, howsoe­uer otherwise, whereunto they were not priuy, yet in respect of them. In their company he had not any way deserued to dye: his bloud therefore to them was innocent, and not gulity. See the abundant store of wisedome, which is in the word of God: 1 how many notes do hence arise. First that the Lord doth take vengeance, on innocent bloud which is shed, for this is that which they feared; and this may rightly be ioyned with that which goeth before, that is mans fearefulnesse in the one place, 2 and Gods iudgemēts in the other. Secondly, although they were inforced, yet they hold not that sufficient, to do a thing vnlawful, 3 without Gods will expressely. Thirdly that Gods direction was their ful resolution. The multitude of these things shal not make me forget my selfe. I will touch them all very briefly.

1 20 It is very likely, that these men were afraid, that they might iustly perish, for spilling innocent bloud, for God hath threatned vengeance to that sinne, in some places that he will detect it and disclose it, and in some other, that he will seuerely recompence it.Esay. 26.21. By the Prophet Esay: Lo the Lord commeth out of his place, to visite the iniquity of the inhabitants of the earth vpon them: and the earth shall disclose her bloud, and shall no more hide her slaine. Numer. 35.33. By Moses: Bloud defileth the land, and the land cannot be cleansed, of the bloud that is shed therein, but by the bloud of him that shed it. The sentence which fell vpon Ioab was,1. Reg 2.5. that his head should not go downe into his graue in peace, because he had spilled the bloud of two iust men, of two innocents. It is a great comfort to all men, that their liues are so farre within the Lords protection, that if any shall offer to take them away, God will require them of him. But there is a woe to the murtherer. All the righteous bloud which was shed vpon the earth, from the bloud of righteous Abel,Math 23.35. to the bloud of Zacharias, the sonne of Barachias, who was slaine betweene the Temple and the Altar, shall come vpon the Iewes, who were killers of the Prophets. And if any [Page 151] one thing, it was bloud that brought them to destructiō. For as when bloud touched bloud, the whole land was polluted, so if we will beleeue Iosephus, who liued in that time, the temple was razed downe, for the murthers which were committed in it. The strangling of young infants, begotten by fornication in our Abbeyes and Nunries, which since that time their bones haue discouered, in more places then one, may be very well sup­posed, among many other sinnes, to haue ouerturned those great buildings. Let the houses of piuate men take heede by their example.

21 The descryings of this fault, which are both by fame, and by bookes remembred to vs, may be a good token, that in this behalfe vengeance doth not sleepe. As that the very birds of the ayre, and the very beastes of the field, haue helped to lay that o­pen.Vide Andre­am Libauiū. De cruenta­tione cada­uerum. But among Gods secret workes, shewed for the repressing of that sinne, there is none more straunge, then the bleeding of the person slaine at the presence of the murtherer. Which al­though it be not Scripture, yet that many times it falleth out, I feare not to beleeue, by reason of a good consent of nations, some later some more auncient, whom experience as it seemeth did teach that lesson. For besides a generall opinion in our own land, long deriued by descent from hand to hand, the low-countreymen do so hold it, as by Leuinus Lemnius in the se­cond of his Naturall secrets,Leuinus Lē ­nius de oc­cultis natu­rae miraculis 2.7. is made plaine, and that by a colle­ction from the tryall of their magistrates: where accepting the thing, as vndoubtedly true, and without all kind of controuersie, he inquireth the reason of it. So doth Andreas Libauius another learned man, who hath also made a treatise vpon that argumēt. In Buchanans Scottish storie,Buchanan. Hist. Scot. lib. 6. we find an example of this. When by the procurement of one Donaldus, king Duffus had bene slaine, the worker of the mischiefe, caused those who had done it, in no case to come in sight, least the doers should be disclosed by the bloud of the corse. That is a testification also, that this is an ancient conceit among the Scottish people. Howsoeuer that be, much experience hath taught, that this cruelty is very strangely detected, & many times reuenged too, by courses ex­traordinary. Sometimes where man forbeareth, there God doth [Page 152] shew his hand in a more immediate sort, as Procopius sayth that he did on Theodoricke king of the Gothes, who slue Boē ­tius and Symmachus,Procopius de bello Go­thico. 1. two both noble and innocent persons. But afterward, the guilt of that sinne sticking fast in his consci­ence, he grew to an imagination, that the head of a certaine fish that was set vpon his table, was the head of Symmachus, which gaped & yawned vpon him. Vpon which conceit he trembling and quaking, fell into a sharpe sicknesse, and quickly thereof dyed. Some other times it is deferred, but yet the punishment neuer resting, commeth tumbling on at last, as Euagrius in the fifth of his Ecclesiasticall storie,Euagrius Hist. Eccl. lib. 5.3. doth tell of one Addaeus, which in his time was reputed one of the speciall friends of the Empe­rour Iustinian. This man when he had escaped the law for one murther, yet was afterward put to death, for a fact wherewith he was charged, but in truth had neuer done it. So the Lord did change the matter, and the Lord did change the time, but the punishment was not changed. He escaped for that which he did, and dyed for that which he did not. Sometime God doth punish the fathers sinne vpon the children, as he did Dauids murther v­pon Vriah, on his owne sonnes Absolon and Ammon. These mariners might heare of such examples among the Gentiles. For Gods finger is euery where: he is Lord ouer all the earth; and therefore they might well feare, least that themselues should pe­rish, for the bloud of this dying Prophet.

22 The second thing which I note is, that although they were enforced against their will to destroy him, yet because the deed it self was in his own quality vnlawful, they cannot satisfie themselues, but still make scruple of it. Althogh there were a kind of commandement from God, that it should be done (for they had signes to that purpose) yet they doubt at it, & grieue to do it. Oh how far doth the cōscience of these weake ones, exceed the mindes of many now, who thinke that they may do vnlawfull things, if they be enforced to it, by any temporall reason, not ha­uing for their warrant a notice from God, as these men here had, but all piety cleane against them. Such are they, who wil not re­fuse to go to the seruice of an idoll, if their Prince shold cōmand them. This was the great perswasiō, which was vsed by Magnus [Page 153] a noble man, toward diuerse Christiās;Theodoret. Hist. Eccl. 4.20. that they shold embrace the faith, & opinions of the Arrians, because Valens the Empe­rour, had made lawes to that purpose. Suppose saith he to them, that your religion be very good, yet if you be enforced to turne vnto another your God will forgiue it to you. And much more of that matter. Such are they, who being vrged by nothing, but the concupiscence of their own affections, will do things most vngodly. Steale to maintaine their brauerie: they cannot else liue like men. Ly, for to match their enemie, they may reach him so in pollicie. In like sort, wrastle against their cōscience, in oppugning of the righteous, in slaundering of the innocent, because he is not for thē, he standeth somtimes in their light, although they know that they do amisse, & that they shall answer for it. This is a small necessity, my idlenesse or my wantonnesse, my engrocing of fil­thie gaine, to make me do that, which mine owne hart knoweth, that Gods booke daily forbiddeth to me. Although they were deepely persuaded, that it was the Lords determinatiō ▪ yet what doubting is in these seamen, to do a thing vnlawfull? for so it is in it self, but Gods wil doth make it lawful. To this wil they thē yeld

23 And this is the third point, which I obserued in them, thou hast done as it pleaseth thee. They do not accuse God here, and lay the fault on him, as men commonly vse to do. We all haue learned that of Adā, The woman which thou gauest me, she gaue me of the tree, and I did eat. Genes. 3.12. August. de Genesi con­tra Mani­cheos. lib. 2. Not the womā simply saith S. Austē, but the woman which thou didst giue me. For nothing is so famili­ar as for sinners to lay vpon God, that whereof they be accused. These do not so in this place, but assume that to be righteous, which God will haue to be done, & because they see him will it, & that he will take no nay, therfore they know it is iust, & accor­dingly yeeld vnto it. This is a sound direction, for man to submit his will, to the will of his maker, that as we are taught to pray, O Lord thy vvill be done, Matth. 6.10. cap. 26.39. so we yeeld vnto it in mildnesse. He is wiser then wee be, and therefore let him leade. Not my vvill in my manhoode, but thy vvill in thy Godheade, be done saith Christ our Sauiour.1. Sam. 3.18. Let the Lord saith old Eli, doe as seemeth good in his owne eyes. Although therfore any thing be vnlaw­full, & seem vnto vs to be vnnaturall, yet if God do cōmand it, we [Page 154] ought not to resist. It was vnlawfull for Abraham to kill, but more vnnaturall to kill his onely sonne, and that with his owne hands, yet when the Lord commanded, he was ready to do thē both. Let other learne this lesson thence, that if their friends or children, be as deare to them, as Isaac was vnto his father Abra­ham, yet if God take them hence, they say in all obedience, the will of the Lord be done, or with these shipmen here, thou hast done as it pleaseth thee. The like we shold say of sicknesse, banish­ment, losse of goods, or whatsoeuer else in this world. Although it go as much against vs, as it did against these men, to drown the Prophet Ionas, yet if God do require it, let vs do as it pleaseth him. And so let vs pray vnto him, first that he will keepe vs al­waies from bloud-guiltinesse, and from murther; and then that he will giue vs grace, to make conscience of such deedes, as are against his word; but that euermore we may learne, to submit our selues to his pleasure, that walking here as deare children, we may be brought along to the inheritance of his glorie. Vnto the which ô Father bring vs, for thine owne sonne Christ his sake, to whome with thee and the holy Spirite, be laud and praise for euer.


The chiefe poynts. 2. Reuerence to the Prophet euen in his death. 4. Such reuerēce is not borne to our Preachers. 8. Gods creatures are all at his becke. 9. The magistrate punishing sinne turneth away Gods plagues. 10. Christs death appeaseth the Fathers wrath. 11. Cō ­fort to vs by Christs death 13. The punishment of others should make vs tremble 16. The vowes of seamen. 17. The tempo­rary faith of the mariners. 19. Hypocrites can make shew of reli­gion. 20. We must perseuere in good things.

Ionah. 1.15.16.

So they tooke vp Ionah, and cast him into the sea, and the sea ceas­sed from her raging. Then the men feared the Lord exceeding­ly, and offered a sacrifice to the Lord, and made vowes.

YOu haue oftentimes heard of our Prophet on the sea, now his turne is to be in the sea. Ionas flying is past, and now commeth Ionas dying, for in his drowning he could expect nothing else but death. He who would needes to the water, shall haue inough of the water, if he know what is inough. His disobedient negligence may not be slipped ouer, but God who was fled from, will find him: God offended will strike him: he must be made an example to all that come after him, to performe with faithfulnesse, what so euer the Lord shall commaund them. The poore mariners his ship-fellowes, will they, nill they, are the men that must do ex­ecution. Their humanity must yeeld to the purpose of the Dei­ty, their good nature to necessitie, Eleazar an old Iewe, who li­ued about the time of our Sauiour Christ, doth say that these mariners, to shew their aduisednesse in proceeding to his death, before they drowned him, diued the Prophet vp to the chinne oftentimes in the water, and still the sea was quiet: but when [Page 156] they lifted him vp againe to take him out, it fell to his raging a­gaine, so that being euery way assured, that he must suffer, they resolue for his drowning. Howsoeuer this be true, or not, for I cannot aduouch it, it is a case vndoubted, that they had maine presumptions, & inducements inough, to throw him ouer ship­boarde, and yet they most vnwillingly layd violent hands vpon him. Besides all that which is gone before, the first words of my text including the manner of their deed, will make that plaine vnto vs. They tooke vp Ionas.

Hieronim. in Ion. 1. Non dixit ar­ripuérunt non ait inuaserunt, sed tulorunt quasi cum ob­sequio & ho­nore portan­tes.2 It is Hieromes obseruation in his Commentary on this text, that they did take vp Ionas, not hastily did snatch him, not rudely fal vpon him, not offer outrage violētly vnto him, but they lifted him vp with honor, which the word Nasa will well beare, being both to lift and to honour. They lifted him with an honor, they vsed reuerence to his person in the midst of that extremity, which was to befall him. Such was the strong impression of his calling in their minds, as if they had read that verse of the Psal­mist, Touch not mine annointed, and do my Prophets no harme. Which opinion in all ages hath obtained that force, [...] Psal. 105.15. I say not with the Iewes onely, nor I say not with the Christians, of whom a Leuite and a Priest haue bene accounted fathers; but with in­fidels and idolaters, as not only Church-men haue bene preser­ued from ill vsage, but haue also bene entertained in an honou­rable maner. Iezabel was an idolater, and a woman of much euil, yet she so plentifully extended her bounty to those,1. Reg. 18.19. whom she reputed as Prophets to her God, although it were but that blocke Baal, that foure hundred of them were maintained at her owne table.Numer. 22.5. Balaam had but a name to belong to the Lord, and how honorable an Embassage did king Balac send vnto him? Our mariners in this lesson are not at all to seeke. How wold they haue esteemed Ionas leading an innocent life, who so highly did respect him, when he was ready for his sinne to endure a death? They touch him with a loue, they handle him with a reuerence▪ they lift him vs with an honor, and all these things in earnest.

3 Caligula that infamous Emperour of Rome, as Philo Iudaeus writeth of him,Philo Iudae­us de legatio­ne ad Ca [...]ū. had a nephew of Tiberius his prode­cessour, appointed by the same Tiberius, to raigne ioyntly with [Page 157] him. The incompatible nature of Caligula, could endure no such companion. Therefore as tyrants vse to do, this young Prince must needes dye. But marke the manner of it, how cleanly it was caried. He must do the murther vpon himselfe, with his owne hands. Although there were diuerse Nobles, and great Captaines, which stood by and looked on, yet they might not helpe to rid the poore creature out of his paine, because that was a most vnlawfull deed: yea a thing wicked and vnseemely, that the posterity of great Emperours, should dye by the hands of other.Nolebat iuris videri oblitus, in patranda summa iniu­ria & sancti­tatis in scelere meminerat. Whereupon Philo concludeth of him, that in commit­ting a high iniury, he would seeme to remember an equity, and to professe a sanctity and solemnity in his villany. Such vnto­ward hypocrisie is not in these men here, but in truth and iust dealing, they would not spill his bloud: and since that he must by their hands receiue a doome, they performe what they are enforced with honour vnto him, but with honour in them­selues.Solinus cap. 66. They rather may be compared to the men of Taprobana, of whom Solinus telleth, that they did vse to choose their kings by election, and not to deriue them downe by an hereditary line, from the father to the sonne. When they had made choise of their king, they honoured and obeyed him in all good sort, while he remained iust and carefull ouer them. But if once he grew in­tollerable in his regiment by iniustice and tyrannie, they tooke a­way from him, both his kingdome and his life. Herein (as I must confesse) they tooke no pleasure, but cleane contrariwise, they did it with a reuerence, and regard to his person. Not any one layd hands vpon his sacred body, but by a common consent, the vse of all necessary things, was interdicted to him, yea verie speech with his nearest friends, and in that sort he died. So the verie heathens did beare respect to some sorts of men, for the dignity of their calling; but to none more then to their Priests, to none more then to their Prophets.

4 They had euermore an opinion, that the persons of such men, were acceptable to God, that they were such as were sin­gled out, from the common condition of other: that they were richly adorned with good gifts frō aboue, & those to whom the supreme power was accustomed to impart his will, by inspira­tion [Page 158] or secret reuelation. And in briefe they thought these the Oracles of his voyce, and remembrancers to other, of such things as were to be done or auoided. Then in tumults and seditions, al­though otherwise tempestuous furie did rage, yet the lewdest sort of tumultuous people did hold their hands from these, as may be shewed in Antiquitie, no lesse quaking to touch them, then did Iether the sonne of Gedeon, in the eight of the booke of Iudges,Iudic. 8.20. to slay Zeba and Zalmana, a boy two mightie warri­ours. Of this our Ionas had good experience euen to the full, who did find that speciall fauour, among men inhumane and barbarous in comparison, that although the sea did descry him, and the wind made strongly after him; although the lo [...]cast had discouered him, nay his owne mouth had condemned him; al­though his desire was to dye, so to appease the fury conceiued by the Lord, yet notwithstanding they refuse to destroy him, and when they cannot auoid it, with no despite to his person, but with reuerence [...] th [...]y performe it.

5 When I looke into the world, and this age wherein wee liue, and compare with these heathen men, the vsage of our Christians, toward those who in their places, do beare the [...] of Ionas, nay in very deede do bring a message, farre bet­ter and farre sweeter then euer Ionas did, because his word was wrath, but theirs is reconcilement in the bloud of Christ our Sa­uiour, I find a very great difference. I speake it with some grief, euen for the Gospels sake, which by this meanes is reproched, I find a very great difference. For in the countries abroad, it is a matter not straunge, that painefull and carefull pastours, who labour in the word and doctrine, and therefore by the testimony of Saint Paule,1. Tim. 5.17. are worthy of double honour: who studie to frame themselues to the rule of the Apostle, to shew themselues examples of patience,Cap 6.11. Tit. 2.7. of long suffering, of mildnesse, of sound doctrine, of industrie in Gods businesse are vilefied and contein­ned, are sl [...]ndered and reproched▪ being made as the filth of the world,1 Cor 4.13. the of scouring of all things. Whereof there needeth no farther witnesse, then the libellings which in some places haue bene made against the Preachers, for rebuking of sinne, the rimes and meeters which elsewhere haue bene song and resoun­ded [Page 159] out: the manifold cauillations, and false exceptions taken to that which they teach, yea sometimes reports most constant­ly auouched, of this or that point of doctrine deliuered openly, which is both absurd and monstrous. These things partly arise by ignorance, & want of iudgement in discerning causes aright: but the truest and most ordinary cause, is the lacke of zeale to God, and of charity toward man, and of dutifull regard to those who should not be wilfully grieued, but esteemed as such who waite for mens soules,Heb. 13.17. and must giue an account, which they would be glad to do with ioy. Hereunto may be ioyned, the pulling and renting away of the maintenance of the minister: that whereas Ethnicke people, yea and our forefathers too in the dayes of superstition, did thinke that they could neuer be too prodigall, in heaping much of their substance, on those who were no better then blind guides, now cleane contrarie he is held the most wise and prudent man, who either by cunning de­uise, can steale something secretly from the portion of the Le­uite, or with strong hand will maintaine, his open and grosse oppression.

6 And if the iniuried person taking knowledge of the wrong, which is smartingly done vnto him, seeme but to thinke how he may procure due satisfaction, although it be by intreaty, his a­ctions are straight pryed into, his fame is called in question, he is generally reproched for a hard man, and a couetous, for a peace-breaker and contentious. Now see whether this be the regard­full cariage, which should for his maisters sake be borne to him, who standeth betweene God and the people, whose handes do reach foorth that sacrament, which is the representation, not on­ly of the Communion of the Saints each with other, but of the vnion also of them with Christ their head. For the office which he beareth, for the message which he bringeth, let him haue that immunity, that if thou wilt not honour him, and regard him as thou oughtest, yet do no ill vnto him, nay say to him nothing euill.Cyprian. E­pist. lib. 3.9. When Saint Cyprian once was enformed, that a Deacon had giuen ill and railing speeches, against Rogatianus who was of eminent place in the Church, his spirite could not endure it, but he writeth back againe, that the Deacon should be enforced [Page 160] to do some penance for that his foule abuse. And yet this man was by vocation a kind of spirituall person, who therefore had some more prerogatiue then a common body, to rebuke sharp­ly if he saw any thing amisse. But in these daies men go farther, then to vse vnseemely speeches, when they are ready in bitter­nesse of heart, not to stay till occasion be offered, but to waite opportunity, and spie, nay seeke meanes true or false, of turning the Prophets of the Lord out of their liuings and houses. As Io­nas might not rest and be harboured in the ship, so they shall be remoued: as he was throwne into the sea, where in the reason of man nothing was to be expected, but that he should drowne & perish, so these shall be cast out into the wide world, as men without a place, wherein to rest their heade, so that for ought which their aduersaries intend, they may famish for want of foode. But whereas all was done to Ionas vnwillingly and for­ced, and at the last cast, they honoured him; men of our age do take their victories ouer their Pastours, as things to be trium­phed on: they hold those acts as their crowne, their glorie and commendation much to be boasted of. When in truth there is no one thing, more infamous in the eyes of all good men, or more to be shamed at, then for sheepe to arise against the care­full shepheard, the children and congregation, against their spi­rituall Father.

1. Sam. 22.177 We do find in the booke of God, that an euerlasting blot is layd on wicked Doeg, for one part which he played, although he were an Edomite and no Israelite, and therefore the more likely to commit any such outrage. When Saul in his malicious humour, picked a quarrell against Ahimelech and the Priestes, for giuing foode to Dauid in his necessitie, and commaunded such as attended vpon him, to run on them and slay them, not one man of all the Israelites, dared to lay hands vpon them, but Doeg the Edomite was he, who spilt their innocent bloud. This as an euerlasting spot, is registred of him to all posterities. It is for infidels and Edomites to do such deedes as these. But Chri­stian men should submit them selues, with patience and mild­nesse, to the moderate reproofs of their wise & carefull Pastors, and not to be offended with them, who labor to do them good, [Page 161] by the word and by their prayers. It is a good memorandum, which Saint Cyprian hath in this case:Cyprian. Serm. de Lapsis. Irasceris ei qui abs te auertera iram Dei niti­tur, ei minaris qui pro te Dei misericordiam deprecatur. Thou art angry with that man who laboureth to turne away the wrath of God from thee, he speaketh of the Minister, thou threatnest him who desireth the mercie of God vpon thee: who feeleth that wound of thine which thou thy selfe doest not feele, who sheddeth those teares for thee, which thou thy selfe doest not shed. And God knoweth that the good Pastor doth most diligently perfourme these duties, that is, grieue to see ought amisse, and pray that all may be well, & take pleasure in the true and spirituall welfare of his charge, as well as in his owne▪ Let him therefore be esteemed as a friend, and reuerenced as a father: I will presse this note no farther.

They cast him into the sea, and the sea ceassed from her raging.

8 Saint Chrysostome in that one Homily,Chrysost. Homil. in Ionam. which he hath v­pon this Prophet, doth note that by the curtesie which these mariners shewed to Ionas, and their very great vnwillingnesse, that he should come to destruction, God would teach the Pro­phet to haue mercie vpō the Niniuites, as these men had on him: that he should by his preaching, reclaime them from their sins, & so saue them frō ruine: which because God more at large laieth downe in the fourth chapter,Ionah. 4.6. in the parable of the gourd, I do deferre it thither. But the mercie of these men here, is enforced to turne to iustice. They are compelled to leaue him whome they willingly would keepe. Ionas goeth ouer shipboord, where behold appeareth a miracle, the sea ceasseth from her furie. That which roared so before, & was so disquieted with winds, which wrought and was so troublous, which so becalmed them with a storm, that forward they might not get, & backward they could not go, that ceasseth vpon the sudden. The disturbance was not naturall, nor the quieting is not naturall, because it commeth in a moment. It was not by degrees, not one step after another, as in tempests which are ordinarie, but in that very instant when he was throwne into the water. So miraculous is Gods power, to haue the mightiest creatures, to mooue and rest at his becke. If he commaund the world to be drowned with water,Genes 7.11. the Ocean shall breake foorth, the fresh springs shall gush out, the very floud-gates of heauen, shall be opened with a word, [Page 162] and so all the earth shall perish. If he bid his seruant Moses but stretchfoorth his hand,Exod. 14.16. the red sea shall part in two, and stand vp as a wall on the right side, and as a wall on the left. This is a great comfort to the faithfull, that they serue such a maister, who so commaundeth all the frame of heauenly and earthly bodies, that he turneth them and windeth them, as with a hooke in their nostrels, and leadeth them so vp and downe, that nothing shall assault them without Gods speciall pleasure. It is he that made the sea here to cease from her raging, and boyling with such violence.

9 But the reason why it then stayed, was because it had ef­fected the thing which it desired. The fugitiue being taken, the pursuer is now quiet. It is punishment inflicted on the sinner, which in temporall causes allayeth the Lords anger. When Achan had his hire,Iosua. 7.25. & 8.1. 2. Sam. 21.14 the Israelites did proceede in their conquest as before. Saules crueltie to the Gibeonites, did pro­cure three yeares of dearth, to be sent vpon the land, in the time of Dauid: but when once the posteritie of the offending sinner, was hanged vp by the wronged parties, Gods indignation to­ward the land was appeased. Princes and Iudges haue here a pathway laid out readie to them, wherein they ought to walke. If God do awaken a land, with a rod of his displeasure, be it fa­mine, or be it pestilence, or be it the sword of the enemie, after a view taken of the actions, and ouersights of their people, let thē purge their land from iniquitie, by cutting off malefactors, and breaking the backe of sinne, and wilfull transgression. There is no sacrifice more pleasing in the eyes of the Lord of hostes, then that those who dishonour him, should be suppressed by iustice.1593 He did whippe vs not long since with a rod of pesti­lent sickenesse: this yeare he threateneth otherwise, with some feare of a pinching famine.1594 Very likely it is, that if grosse faultes were remooued from amongst our nation, his wrath would cease with the cleansing, as the sea did with re­ceiuing our Ionas. If the vserie of the citie, the oppression of the Landlord, the symonie of the Cleargie, the extortion of the Patrone, the idlenesse in the Minister, the want of loue in the Communaltie, and securitie in all sortes, did but so much de­cay, [Page 163] or so fast diminish, as it hath increased lately, Gods wrath would turne to fauour, and we shold more feele his bles­sings.

10 But here in the ceassing of the tempest, by the drow­ning of the Prophet, we are notably put in mind of him, of whome our Ionas is a figure in this case. It hath bene mentioned before,Matth. 12.40 out of the twelfth of Mathew, that his lying in the whales belly, was a signe of the death of Christ, by the wit­nesse of Christ himselfe; as his casting vp againe, was a signe of his resurrection. The dying of Ionas alone for all, doth signifie the same thing, as was taught out of the twelfth verse, of this present chapter which I now handle.Ionah. 1.12. But nothing in plainer sorte doth expresse vnto vs, the force of the suffe­ring of our Sauiour, then rhe ceassing of the storme, at the drowning of the Prophet: euen as Gods wrath was appeased, by the death of the vnspotted lambe. By the fall of our first parents, wee all were fallen from grace. Wee had chaunged not a Niniue for a Tharsus, but a Paradise for a torment, and a heauen for a hell. The coldnesse of our disobedience, was followed with heate of iustice; not windes and waues did make after vs, to take vengeance on our bodies, but a waight of an­gry furie, of purpose to destroy our soules. Not one shippe but a world was endaungered in this hazard. The Gentile and the Iewe, the ciuill man and Barbarian, were euerie moment readie to be drowned in desperation. In this state of extremitie, God pitieth forlorne man, and sendeth a better ghest then Ionas was, among those who are passengers thorough this vale of miserie. And although this ghest was clothed with humanity, like an ordinarie passenger, yet in this he differed from Ionas, that our Prophet alone had sinned, when all his fellowes were free, but Christ alone was innocent, when all his fellowes plea­ded guiltie.

11 We can neuer sufficiently admire the effectuall force of him,Iohan. 11.50 who quieted this great rage. Iustice called for a death, take my death quoth the Sauiour: let one dye for the peop [...]e, the head for all his members.Iust. lib. 2. An Oracle had once answered, that either the king of the Atheniens, or else their army must [Page 164] perish. Codrus who was then king, neuer stoode or staggered at it, but gaue his life for his citizens, to saue them from destru­ction. The king of men and Angels, had this choise put vnto him, that either himselfe or his, the mysticall head or bodie, should vndergo a death. He tooke the turne on himselfe, & so wrought a reconcilement, from his Father toward his Church. So, by his stripes we are healed. Isa. 53.5. The chastisement of our peace was vpon him. So he being the Lambe of God, hath taken away the sinnes of the world. Iohan. 1.29. He hath freed vs and deliuered vs from the wrath to come. His bloud speaketh better things, then that crying bloud of Abell, that cryed vengeance from the earth: this from the crosse cryeth redemption, reconcilement and atonement. So he hath by his bloud bought a spouse vnto himselfe, whome else he had not had. By the dying of Christ, the Church is made, as Eue was made by Adams sleeping,August. in Ioh. Tract. 9. Dormit Adam vt fiat Eua: moritur Chri­siu [...] vt fiat Ec­clsia. Leuit. 16.8. which is Saint Austens com­parison. The Adamant is so hard a stone, that it can be softened with nothing, but the bloud of a goate. Mans heart was grown so hard, mans case was growne so hard, that it could be lenified by nothing, but by the bloud of him, whome the skape-goate in Leuiticus, so liuely did represent.

12 But to procure our peace, he plucked warres on him­selfe; and what we should haue borne, his humanity did sustain with a louely chaunge of our parts. For the vnrighteous sin­neth, and the righteous man is punished:Augustin. in Meditatio­nibus. Pe [...]cat iniquus & punitur iu­stus: d [...]linquit reus, & vapu­lat innocens. the guiltie man did of­fend, and the innocent one is beaten, the vngodly had transgressed, and the godly was condemned: what the wicked man had deserued, that did the good one suffer, what the seruant had endomaged, that did the maister pay: and what man had committed, that he a God tooke vpon him. This bringeth a way to the wandring, this bringeth life to the dying, and safetie to the perishing. For his losse was our gaine,Ambros. in Psalm. 36. Christi mo [...]s vita est: ipsius vulnus vita est ipsius sanguis vita est: ipsius sepultura vita est. his impouerishing our enriching. The worst which was on Christ, was the best helpe vnto vs: for his death was our life, his wounding was our life, his bleeding was our life, his burying was our life, his rising againe our life, as Saint Ambrose truely noteth. This is the assured comfort, which the wounded conscience hath: although he be fallen in Adam, yet he is risen in Christ: although the [Page 165] lawe do condemne him, yet the Gospell doth acquite him: al­though generation doth kill him, yet regeneration saueth him: although the tempest of Gods wrath be ready to swallow him, yet notwithstanding the casting in of this Ionas, procureth a calme vnto him. And so hauing Satan maistered, and hell gates shut against him, he dareth to present himselfe before the throne of grace, with chearefulnesse and boldnesse, in the confidence of his passion, who hath entred into the heauen, and made way to his father. This is it which holdeth vs when we are liuing: this is it which helpeth vs, when we are dying. A God become a man: the celestiall made terrestriall: our iudge become our Iesus, to cease the rage of the sea, to stoppe the wrath of the Father. We find this accomplished in our Iesus: but we may learne it in Ionas, whose mariners found their best ease, by putting him to paine. For the casting foorth of him, did put them from their perill: when the sea once had him for whome it looked, that immediatly was quiet. And now let vs see what effects all this wrought in the beholders.

Then the men feared the Lord exceedingly, &c.

13 No maruell if this miracle did make them quake: for what flesh can choose but tremble, to see and feele his hand, who shaketh the mightie ceders?Psal. 29.5. It is written of the Israelites, that when they saw Gods power, which he shewed in drow­ning the Egyptians,Exod. 14.31. and their king Pharao, in the midst of the sea, they began to feare the Lord, & beleeue his seruant Moses. They saw that God could serue them, as he had serued their pursuers, that all power is his owne, that vengeance and prote­ction, are in euery place at his pleasure. So these mariners had ex­perience, how grieuous in Gods sight iniquity was, euen in thē who did peculiarly belong vnto him: how he could follow one to the sea: deprehend him with a tempest: discouer him with a lot: and would not rest, till his life had made amends for his fol­ly. How must their heart needes quake? how must their con­science tremble, to think on their own transgressions? their com­missions and omissions, the number whereof was great, the hugenesse whereof was horrible?Luc 23.31. If it were thus with the greene wood, how should it be with the drie? If an Israelite had such [Page 166] measure measured vnto him, how should a Gentile escape? If a Prophet were so punished, how should such a profane man as all they were, beare that burthen? Signes and wonders and straunge punishments, are of force and power, to make men looke backward into their own soules, and make application to their owne consciences.

14 In which respect, the dulnesse of our age is much to be deplored. We behold as in a glasse, the almightie power of Gods iustice. We reade it, and heare it read out of the booke of the Lord, which to those who are faithfull, is as present, as if their very eyes did behold it. For where faith maketh a doubt, there the sence is neuer satisfied; and those will not beleeue, no not if one should come from the dead,Luk. 16.31. who haue Moyses & the Prophets, and giue no credit to them. The case was tryed in the Iewes of Chorazin and Bethsaida,Matth. 11.21 who saw many of Christs mi­racles, and yet remained vnbeleeuers. Out of the holy Scriptures we haue heard of straunge examples, of Gods punishment to­ward sin,Genes. 7.21. Cap. 19.24. Numer. 21.6 Leuit. 10.2. 2. Sam. 6.7. a whole world drowned for security: cities more then one, for their lusts sake, consumed with fire and brimstone from heauen: the Israelites stung with serpents, for their murmuring in the wildernesse. Nadab and Abihu blasted to death, for offe­ring with strange fire. Vzzah stricken that he dyed, for touching of the Arke,Ionah. 1.15. which did not belong vnto him. Ionas drowned for refusing, to go and denounce Gods iudgements: a whole land cursed in the prophecie of Malachi,Malach. 3.8.9. for sacriledge, and de­taining the portion of the Leuite. These things are written for our example: for vs I say, on whome the ends of the world are come.

15 These and the like things, are often sounded into our eares: but do we learne thereby to feare the Lord exceedingly? do we apply this plaister, by remembrance of our owne waies, that in such or such a deede, I and I haue sinned more then these; I transgressed in wilfulnesse, with such a prouocation, and with such a one in infirmitie. I were best to withdrawe my foote, from doubling of such leud crimes. I may preasse vpon God too farre, and ouerlay his patience, with mine incro­ching boldnesse. Who is he that maketh such vse, of the feare­full [Page 167] and terrible workes of God? Who taketh these things to heart? The deede declareth the mind, as the fruite maketh the tree knowne. Doth the wanton leaue his wantonnesse, and the adulterer hate his lust? Doth the swearer of our age, re­member that his blasphemies are written vp in a booke, and sealed vntill the day of vengeance? Doth Ionas go to Niniue, and rebuke the great and small, with that spirite wherewith he should? No: but either we will say nothing, like men who cannot speake; and so leauing it to younger persons, wee our selues growe to a desuetude, which afterward we peraduen­ture would be willing to leaue and cannot: or if we speake at all, it is but a bare and cold narration, neither ayming to teach for faith, nor to infourme for manners. Wee doe not cut at the roote of sinne: we seeke not to warme the consci­ence. Where is our feare of the Lord? our reuerence to his sanctitie? our submission to his maiestie? Yet well fare these silly mariners: one example could worke with them, to mooue them exceedingly for the time, and to cause them to sacrifice to the Lord.

16 In opening of which words, and by a consequent of this whole verse, I must professe vnto you, that here I find among the interpreters, more difference in opinions, then in any thing yet in this Prophecie of Ionas. The text saith, that they offered sacrifice,Gualther. in hunc locum. but what or where, it speaketh not. Some thinke not at Hierusalem, the place then onely appointed for sacrifice to the true God: but wheresoeuer they first landed. Arias Montanus thinketh that they offered it at Hierusalem,Ar. Monta­nus in hunc locum. Act. 8.27. which thing was sometimes done by the Gentiles, as by the Chamberlaine to Candace the Queene of Aethiopia. The Chal­dee Paraphrase hath, that they said they would offer sacrifice. Hierome thinketh that what they did,Hieron in hunc locum. was at sea and not at land. They made such spirituall sacrifice, as the inner man could affoord: thankes giuing, and supplication, and repentance and such like.Osee. 14.3. Psal. 51.17. The Prophet Osee doth call these the calues of our lippes. And Dauid he speaketh of them saying, the sacri­fice of God is a troubled spirite. Howsoeuer it is not much to the historie, whether it were the one or the other. The holy [Page 168] Ghost doth let vs know, that the motiue which they saw in this action, was so mightie, that it wrong from them a remorse, and so possessed them for the time, that compunction and deuotion was within them, and without them, & as men throughly mor­tified, they refused to do nothing, which was any way religious. They either fell to their praiers, which is a spirituall sacrifice, or offered something else, when they came to the land, or at least they professed that they would do it. But it is a case without controuersie, that they made vowes to the Lord. A thing com­mon among mariners, and passengers at the sea, when they feare any shipwracke. If they can ouer-stand that iourney, and escape well from that daunger, they will fast, or giue almes, or dedicate some great thing to the Lord. They spare not to speake in the fit, although they neuer meane it. Yea and it may be, that in the extremitie they resolue to perfourme their vow, but the daunger being once past and gone, if they should be vrged to accomplish it, they would thinke themselues as il vsed, as those two were by Caligula;Dion. Hist. lib. 59. of whome Dion reporteth, that when the said Caligula was sicke, they thinking to get much mony, as a reward for their great loue to the Emperour, vow­ed that on condition he might liue, they themselues would dye to excuse him. When indeede he was recouered afterward, he tooke them at their word, and put them to death, least they should breake their vowe, and prooue periured persons. Of likelyhood, these thought themselues to be vsed but vnkindly, and so would these vowing shipmen, if they should be for­ced to performance. But he that will see more of this, let him reade Erasmus his Dialogue, which he calleth by the title of Naufragium. Erasmus in Colloquio. What the Scripture thinketh of vowes, and what our Church maintaineth, which is a better argu­ment, to be handled against our Popish Votaries, I may touch hereafter, when I come to the ninth verse of the second Chapter. For at this time my meaning is to discourse another matter.

17 It is a great controuersie, whether this exceeding feare, do intend a true conuersion from Gentilisme to the Lord, from idolatrie to true pietie; and in this also, the best Exposi­tors [Page 169] do very much dissent. Some thinke them to be become ear­nest Proselites,Ar. Montan. and men turned to the Iewish faith: that their feare was sincere from the heart, and perseuerant in them vnto the end, and that their sacrifices were accepted, and all this so much the rather, because the text doth say, that they feared the Lord Iehouah:Caluinus. not an idole, but the true God. Some other put a condition, that if the heart were iustified with a purifying faith, then their vowes and sacrifices, were acceptable and plea­sing to the Lord. If otherwise, then it was but a vizard, put on for a little time,Danaeus. and so throwne off afterward. A third sort are of o­pinion, that their repentance was onely temporary, like the seed which is mentioned in the parable of Christ,Matth. 13.5. to be sowen on the stony ground, which tooke roote for a little time, and afterward did wither away. I do approue this last sentence, thinking that al­though they feared, and tooke vpon them some religion, yet this was not sufficient to apprehend true grace: for they had not heard by the Prophet, of the Messias Christ, in whom is all re­mission and washing away of sinne.Act. 4.12. Onely the wrath of God in punishing, is made knowne vnto them, which is inough to put the vnbeleeuer, into a trembling feare, as we know that Felix did quake,Cap. 24.26. to heare Saint Paule speake of righteousnesse, of tem­perance, and of the iudgement to come: and yet Felix was an hypocrite. Neither is this opinion crossed by that, where it is said that they feared Iehouah, for the reprobates do quake at the true God, with a kind of seruility, as the diuels of hell do like­wise. The awe wherein Pharao stood,Iacob. 2.19. 1. Reg. 21.27. when he let the people go, was to the God of Moses. Ahab hearing the threatning of Elias, did humble himselfe to the Lord, but it was not with due continuance.Dan. 3.32. The feare of the God of Sidrach, of Misach and Abednego, was fallen on Nabuchodonosor, when beholding the deliuerance of those three children, out of the fiery fornace, he gaue forth a proclamation for the seruice of their Lord. And yet it is not to be doubted, but these men were reprobates.

18 These sea-people in like sort, might well thinke of the Lord, and yet not leaue their idolatry. The people placed in Samaria,2. Reg. 17.3 [...]. were by the Lions which destroied them, enforced to serue the Lord: yea the text doth say that they did feare him: [Page 170] but they worshipped their idols also, and so it had bene as good not at all,Tertullian. in Apologet. as to be neuer the neerer to him. The Romanes would haue had Christ, to be in the number of their Gods, placed in their Pantheon: but they cannot away to leaue their old Gods, whom they had before. Such halfe-seruice could not profit these mariners in this place. This was an insufficient comprehension of the Lord, without sound application in particular, by a true faith, which teacheth, that God alone is to be adored by his creatures, and that with a single heart, and an vnderstanding knowledge, and perseuerance vnto the ende. Which because the wicked do want, howsoeuer vpon occasions of afflictions, and strange wonders, they seeme humbled for the time, yet af­terward with the dogge they returne to their vomit,2. Pet. 2.22. and with the sow which was washed, to their wallowing in the mire. And this recidiuation is more dangerous then the sicknesse: this re­lapse then the first fall. For those to whom this happeneth, are they whom Iude calleth trees twise dead and rotten,Iud. 12. and good for nothing else, but to be plucked vp by the rootes. The know­ledge which such men haue, doth make against themselues: their thoughts against themselues: the motions of their owne mind, when they haue thought vpon goodnesse, shall witnesse hard­ly against them.

1 19 We do here-out learne two lessons. First that hypo­crites and dissemblers (besides their internall motions, which they haue oft times to goodnesse) in outward and externall points of religion, can go as farre as the faithfull, or the best child of God: as these here can offer sacrifice, and make vowes to the Lord.Act. 8.13. Matth. 26.25. Cap. 22.15. Luc. 18.12. So Simon Magus will be baptised, and Iudas come to the supper, and heretikes can preach Christ, and Herodians heare his word, and Pharisees pay their tith, and Iesuites fast and pray, so that ceremonies and the shew which is outward, do not euer import verity of religion.2. Cor. 11 14. Matth. Sathan transformeth himselfe into an Angell of light. Wolues come forth in sheepes clothing: There be that cry Lord, Lord, and yet Christ doth not know them. Whereupon that speech is true, that we may more easily know who is an vngodly man, then who is truly godly. For hypocrisie may with a shadow, make a dis­guised [Page 171] shew of the one, but foule and wicked deeds will neces­sarily discouer the other. Where an irreligious life is lead, and grosse sinnes are committed, it is an euident proofe, that the true feare of God, is not yet resident in that person. Therefore it con­cerneth vs to be wary, that we leane not on any one, but as he leaneth on Christ: for as we must take heed, that we iudge not other men, in particular without charity, so we must hold this in generall, that all is not gold that glistereth.

20 A second lesson is, that we all looke to our selues, that 2 we satisfie not our soules, with any externall action, neither that we apprehend grace, by fits or feags, as we are vrged by any present thing, that hangeth on vs: but that we labour euermore, to retaine the good which is offered to vs; that we quench not the Spirite of God, but stirre it vp in our selues. It is a thing violent to our nature, to haue a minde vnto holi­nesse, we saile as if it were against the streame. As then in a violent water, if the boate-men slacke a few strokes, in a moment he is caried more downeward, then in a good time before he hath gained by his labour; so we must know, that in loosing the hold which we haue of Gods Spirite, we may loose more in one yeare, nay perhaps more in one houre, then we haue gained in many. It is not inough to weepe, when we feele the rod vpon vs, to pray when we are in sicknesse: to cry when we are in danger: but in wel-fare and prosperity, God must be thought vpon,Bernard. de 2. discipulis euntibus ad Emaus. Cuius oculi sunt sicut pis­cinae Hesbon prae multitudi­ne lachrymarū. Hora compun­ctionis tran­sacta ita su­perbus est sicut ante. as well as in aduersity. We must not hold our duty to be then discharged to the full, when in a moment of some great matter, we feare the Lord exceedingly, and sa­crifice and vowe, and do all that we can deuise, and straight way prooue like a feuer, haue a cold bowte for a heate and so fall away from grace, but we must follow that veine, and pursue it to the end.

21 Saint Bernard in his time, found men rebukeable for this errour. For writing of the two Disciples, which went vnto Emaus, he speaketh fitly to this purpose: You shall sometimes see a man verie deuout in his prayers, vvhose eyes vvill seeme to stand like the pooles of Hesbon, for the multitude of his teares, [Page 172] and yet this man refuseth to beare the yoake of obedience. He be­waileth his pride, while he is at his prayers, but the houre of com­punction being once past and gone, he is as proud as before. I would that ourage were free from this vnstayed repentance. But I feare that it is otherwise. When we sit and heare a Sermon, a word or two well set on, doth bruise vs much for a momēt. Vpō solemne dayes, as at our anniuersary thanksgiuing, for the loue of God, so farre extended to vs, in the enioying of her Maiesty, or vpon other the like occasions, our hearts and eyes and all, shall testifie our great feeling. So when we come to the Sacrament, we are very repentant persons; but is it not true of vs, that like vnto the bul rush we hang downe our heads for a day: that drinking with the serpent,Isay. 58.5. we resume againe our poyson of malice and peruersenesse. When we are in the Church, we intend to leaue our bribe-taking: but with the Church we forget it: when our night-thoughts haue well troubled vs, we vow to leaue our vn­charitablenesse, and to plucke vp the roote of bitternesse; but ri­sing we returne vnto our ancient euill. In the fields we can pro­test, against our owne oppression, our slandering and reuiling, but when we come home, we yeeld our selues vnto the temp­ting Angell. This is to dally with God, and to heape wrath on our selues. The most wicked men and idolaters, as Ionas his fel­lowes here, can thinke on goodnesse for a little, and feare the Lord exceedingly, and yet not be the better for it. Sincerity and simplicity, and perseuerance and performance, beseeme the child of God. I haue troubled you ouer long. Lord enrich vs so with thy spirit, that as we haue begun, so we may end in thee, that thy true feare still possessing vs, we may be brought to thy kingdome, there to raigne by the merite of thy Sonne, to whom with thee and thy Spirite be laud and praise for euer.


The chiefe poynts. 1. All creatures are at Gods becke: 3. either to punish the wic­ked, 4. or to preserue the good. 6. Of the greatnesse of fishes. 8. That Ionas might liue in the belly of the whale. 12. How the three dayes and three nights are to be taken in the lying of Christ in the graue. 13. Christ rose againe. 14. And so shall all other men. 16. Some deny the Resurrection. 17. Reasons and examples proouing it. 21. That we should prepare our selues against the time of Resurrection.

Ionah. 1.17.

Now the Lord had prepared a great fish to swallow vp Ionah: and Ionah was in the belly of the fish three dayes and three nights.

BY this time you may see a very great difference of the seuerall estates,This Ser­mon was preached at Easter. wherein our Prophet hath bene: for first he was at land, and there he could not keep him: afterward he was on ship­boord, and there he might not keepe him: but now he is in the sea, in the belly of a fish, and there he shall not chuse but keepe him, vntill that himselfe be most weary of it. God hath a certaine fish in a readinesse for to receiue him, which for the space of one three dayes must lodge him. In discoursing whereof, I thinke it not necessary to dispute that question,Ribera in hunc locum. which hath bene mooued in this argument by ve­ry learned men, that is, whether that the preparing of this fish for the Prophet, were the new creating of that which was not be­fore; which must intend, that at the same instant of time, a crea­ture of purpose should be made, to swallow him and deuoure him. There needed no such matter: for there were in the sea fishes inough to serue the turne, and the Lord had one of those at hand, to fulfill his designement. Much rather the power of the [Page 174] Creator is here to be noted, whose authority ouer his creatures is such and so absolute, that in a moment of time he hath them very readily attending, wheresoeuer he pleaseth. It is he who a­lone may say,Iob. 41.2. Psal. 115.3. as he doth speake in Iob, All vnder heauen is mine. The people say of him truly, Our God is in heauen: he doth what­soeuer he will. There is not any creature in the heauen, or earth, or sea, be it body, or be it spirit, which is not at his deuotion and waiteth not at his becke. The greatest do him homage, the smallest do him seruice. For he is greater then the mightiest, by whole millions of degrees: and his ouer-seeing prouidence ta­keth knowledge of the meanest.Matth. 10.29. Not a sparow which lighteth on the ground; not an haire which falleth from the head, but he is interested in it.

2 What is greater then the heauen? yet if Iosuah pray vn­to him,Iosuah. 10.12. for one whole day this euer-wheeling body shal cease his swift diurnall motion. The Sunne shall stand still in Gibeon, and the Moone in the vale of Aialon. That which commeth forth as a Giant,Psal. 19.5. and reioyceth to runne his course, yet to satisfie Eze­chias, and to confirme his faith, shall flye backe as a coward for ten degrees at once,2. Reg. 20.11. as then it appeared by the diall of Ahaz. What is ruder, or more vnfit to be dealt with, then the earth? Yet at his pleasure he shaketh both earth and sea.Agg. 2.7. What is more ex­cellent, or of a more pure and single nature then the Angels? Yet he hath bound vp foure of them in the riuer Euphrates:Apoc. 9 14. and al­though they be prepared at an houre, and at a day, and at a mo­neth, & at a yere, to slay the third part of men, yet these Angels cannot stirre, vntill that they be loosed by his precise comman­dement. And such is his soueraigne power, that when he findeth occasion, they are freed all in a moment. In like sort, to effect his purposes he needeth not the posts of Persia,Ester. 3.15. whō Haman some­times vsed, nor the dromedaries of Egypt, nor the swift runners of other nations, to go from place to place, and giue notice of his will: but in the very instant, he either doth touch the mind of him who is to be the doer, or he raiseth vp some thing else which shall declare his meaning. God sendeth forth his commandement: and his word runneth very swiftly. Psal 147.15. The day is his and the night, the open place and the secret: fish and birdes, and beastes and [Page 175] all: the very wings of the wind to cary his precept on them. Vnconceiuable is his Maiesty, vnestimable is his power: the highest things and the lowest, the greatest and the weakest, are euer at his commandement:Apoc. 1.18. he hath the keyes of heauen; nay of hell and of death. This his power so vncontrollable, most emi­nently appeareth in punishing the wicked, and preseruing his owne children.

3 Ammianus Marcellinus reporteth,Ammianus Marcellinus lib. 18. that in Mesopotamia among the reedes and bushes growing neare to the riuer Eu­phrates, are euermore great store of Lions, which vse to remaine there, being much delighted with the great calmenes [...]e and plea­sure of that climate. The danger arising from these, both vnto men and beasts, would be perpetuall, but that God hath proui­ded a remedy to slacke the fury of them; and that is in admirable maner. There are alwayes in that coast infinite swarmes of gnats, which gather much about those Lions, and to nothing in them so desirously as to their eyes, whom we know to be bright and shining members. But sitting fast on the eye-lids, they do so pricke and sting them, that the raging Lions are forced to scratch with their nailes, as if they would remooue the gnats; but indeede they claw out their owne eyes, so that many of them by this meanes growing blind, do drowne themselues in the great riuers, or otherwise become lesse terrible. This is an argu­ment of Gods wisedome, who delighteth in such variety of these inferiour bodies. And yet withall, it is an argument of his puis­sance, who by so weake a matter can ouerthrow such a great one: a Lion by a gnat: and hath those little ones so attendant, as that euery man may see that they are prepared by their maker, to ouer-rule the other; to chase them and pursue them, and vexe them vnto destruction. The tyrants of the earth are [...]earefull vnto the poore, as the Lion is to the lambe. Their might giueth them abilitie, and their minde doth yeeld them will to treade downe their inferiours. Now for the punishment of these bitter ones, God hath prepared as small things as the gnats, to maister them in their fury. Let Pharao be one man, and Herod be another who shall demonstrate this. The violence of the for­mer and his cruell oppression toward the sonnes of God, was [Page 176] insolent and outragious. But how doth the graund ruler of the heauen trample vpon him, and make him cry peccaui, with the basest of those bodies which mankind euer seeth?Exod. 8.6. The hand of his seruant Aaron was but stretched out on the waters, and frogs came in such store, as made him loath himselfe, and euery thing about him.24. So the swarmes of flies did force him to be humbled for a time.Exod. 10.13. What hostes were there of grashoppers, and of deuouring caterpillers, which came forth at one call, as if they had bene reserued before by the Lord, to shew his mighty hand, and his power which is not limited? Nay to testifie Gods owne finger,Cap. 8.17. there was an army of lice, then whom nothing is more vile; yet prepared they were at an instant, to plague where the Lord commanded.Act. 12.23. The other, that proud Herod who vpon a glosing flattering speech of the people, assumed to himselfe that glory, which of right appertained to his maker, was stricken with Gods Angell, and so died consumed with wormes. In such manner hath the Almighty euery creature for his messenger, and executing seruant, close standing at his elbow, to vexe and plague, and torture the enemies of his Maiesty, or the oppug­ners of his glory.

4 And is he strong to hurt, and is he not so to helpe? To de­fend and to offend, are they not alike vnto him? protection and correction? His sweete mercy triumpheth ouer his bitter iustice: and his power attendeth his mercy, and the world attendeth his power, and so doth euery thing which is in it. In the twelfth of the Reuelation this is well shadowed to vs.Apoc. 12 13. The woman which is the Church here militant vpon earth, is followed hard by the Dragon: there are found two Egles wings, by the which she doth escape. Behold, there is one deliuerance, and one not loo­ked for remedy. The Dragon yet doth not leaue her, but since he cannot come, he thinketh to send home after her: he casteth out of his mouth a water like to a riuer, thinking thereby to drowne her. See another helpe in a moment. The earth openeth herselfe, and swalloweth vp that water which the Dragon had cast forth. To the same effect with this parable or vision, were the Israelites reskued by the red sea,Exod. 14.22. the waters flying a sunder, and yeelding them dry footing, as if it had bene on the land, [Page 177] when they were so pursued and made after, by the chariots and horsemen of the Egyptians. How fitly vnto my purpose, was the daughter of king Pharao brought forth,Exod. 2.5. and put in mind to pity poore drowning Moses? How was the iaw-bone of the asse made ready,Iudic. 15.15.19. to be as a sword for Samson, wherewith he slue so many Philistines? and how was one of the teeth there­of prepared, to yeeld him drinke when he fainted? So admi­rable is the Lord, in the assistance of his Saints, that one thing or another, shall be borne to do them good in their bitter extremitie, as if it were made onely for that purpose. There be few, which haue liued many yeares, and in Christian me­ditation contemplated in themselues on the kindnesse of their God, who know not this ouer and ouer. Such comforts and such stayes arising by such meanes, as themselues could not conceiue of, vntill they see things done. Oh the loue of God inestimable, oh his straunge wayes for our good. The wicked on the one side may feare his hand, who can raise such meanes to perplexe them: and the faithfull on the other side may em­brace his mercy, who hath such helpes at need: and both of them may stand amased, and wonder at his power, who hath his in­struments euermore so ready.

5 I know not whether in our Prophet, is more to be re­spected, Gods punishment or his protection. If we thinke vpon his drowning, he doth fauour him, since he had at hand a great fish to receiue him, so that he did not perish. If we thinke of the time and place, where he lay, and how long, that is, in the dungeon of that fishes belly, for three dayes and three nights, it doth double and often multiply Gods angry wrath vpon him. The euent doth giue this testimony, that since Ionas (how­soeuer at the first he fell) was appointed, and predestinated to good and not to euill, his deliuerance was as readie, as his chastisement was for him: one hand to cast him downe, ano­ther to helpe him vp: when the ship might not any longer containe him, the fishes bellie was in steede of a sea-ves­sell, to bring him on toward Niniue. But in the meane while his lying was such, in so many dreades and horrours, and anguishes for his life, nay for doubte of the life eternall, [Page 178] (because wrath was vpon him, which endangered his best part, euen his inward man and his soule) that many deaths had bene easier then a languishing in that prison, where now he had his best repose. So sowre a thing is sinne, and disobedience to the Lord. It may be sweete in the mouth, but it is bitter in the belly, like a cup of deadly poyson. Certainely it is a daughter of those Locustes,Apoc. 9.7.10. which haue faces faire as men, but killing stings in their tailes. It is pleasure with too much paine: sweete meate with too sharpe sauce. And therefore it may well be likened to that herbe Sardonia in Sardinia,Solinus cap. 10. of the which Soli­nus writeth, that it maketh the eaters thereof, to looke as if they laughed, but in their laughing they dye. Thus Ionas is preserued; but to testifie Gods displeasure, in the meanes of his preseruation he endureth full many sorowes. Let vs now see if you please, what that was, whereby God so wrought for him.

The Lord prepared a great fish to swallow

[...]6 In the Hebrew it is a great fish, but it is not added of what kinde, or species this fish was. Our Sauiour Christ doth briefly touch this storie,Matth 12.40. and there the Euangelist in the Greeke, doth vse the word Ketos, [...]. which although sometimes (like to the Latine Cete) it be applied to diuerse sorts of great fishes, yet properly it noteth that one, who is the king of fishes, and ruler of the sea, Balaena the great whale: and it is euer­more so Englished in that text. A fish which in diuerse seas, is of seuerall shapes and fashions, as in the Indian Oceane, in the red sea neare Arabia, in the Northren waters toward Island, and in our English Oceane: but euery where verie huge, and euery where very mighty. And so this had neede to be, who had so wide a mouth, as to receiue the Prophet: who had so large a throate, as to swallow him and not hurt him: who had so vaste a paunch, as to lodge him there and not stifle him. A matter to some men incredible, that among all li­uing creatures should be any so capacious; but so vndoubted­ly a knowne truth, to men that liue neare the sea, or that haue trauelled much by ship; and a verity so confirmed, so consen­ted vpon by all, who haue read the writers either olde or new [Page 179] vpon that argument, that he were a man much absurde, who would make question of it. They all agree that at sea there are fishes, farre exceeding the greatest beast on land. And thereof particularly Olaus Magnus doth assigne these reasons,Olaus Mag­nus. lib. 21.8. the abundance of the moysture which is fit to dilate and increase any liuing creature, and the very great depth, vvhere is both store of foode, and safe meanes to escape such other fishes, as are ready to hurt them. They farther adde, that the Elephant is but little, when he is compared with these water-monsters. That the bellies and mouthes, and throtes of some fishes are so spacious, that a man may well be receiued in by them. Guli­elmus Rondeletius who hath taken great paines, in displaying the proportions and qualities of fishes, as appeareth in that excellent worke of Gesner De Aquatilibus (for those two are oft ioyned together) reporteth of a little small fish (in comparison of a whale) which he calleth by the name of La­mia,Gesnerus lib. 4. de A­quatilibus. that in the Mediterrane sea, some of those haue oftentimes bene found, hauing a whole man swallowed into each of their bellies. Yea he telleth that neare vnto Marseilles, an auncient ci­ty o [...] Fraunce, there haue bene found of them, which haue had within them virum loricatum, a man in some kind of armour. So huge-bellied is this fish, which commeth not neare to the great ones.

7 But for the whale it selfe, if any list to reade of the big­nesse of it,Plinius. lib 9.3. Natural. Histor. lib. 32.1. and should esteeme that too much, Pliny speaketh positiuely, that in the Indian seas there are some of two hundred cubites in length: and the same Pliny out of the bookes of Iuba, that in the seas neare Arabia, haue bene seene some of foure hundred cubites (for so much is sixe hundred feete) which also Munster deliuereth to vs,Munster. Cosmograp. lib. 5. Dion. lib. 54. in the fifth of his Cosmography; then let him heare what Dion a good Hi­storien, doth lay downe of certainty in his fifty and fourth booke, and that is, that in the dayes of Augustus sometimes Emperour of Rome, a whale leaped to the land, out of the Germane Ocean, full twenty foote in breadth, and threescore foote in length. This was so bigge a body, as might well re­ceiue the Prophet.Gesner. lib. 4. But adde to this what I find in Gesner, taken [Page 180] out of an Epistle, which was written to Polydore Virgil, and is auouched there as most true, that in the yeare of our Lord 1532, in the Northren coastes of our owne land, not farre from Tinmouth hauen, was a mighty whale cast on land, who was ninety foote in length, which ariseth to thirty English yeards. The very breadth of his mouth, was sixe yeards and a halfe, and the belly so vaste in compasse, that one standing on the fish, of purpose to cut a ribbe off from him, and slipping into his bellie, was very likely there to be drowned, with the moy­sture then remaining. The hollownesse of this paunch, might containe much more then Ionas; such a mouth might well receiue him, and such a throte might well swallow him. The stories and the Chronicles of our owne land let vs know, that quantities like to these, among fishes are not to be held for miracles. This question concerning our Prophet lying in the belly of the whale,Augustin E­pistola. 49. was once proposed to Saint Austen. In aunswer whereunto, he maketh no doubt, but that a whale is great inough, to receiue a farre bigger matter into his belly. He appealeth vnto certaine ribbes, which at Carthage were hanged vp, for euery man to behold: and from the compasse of their hugenesse, which were taken from a whale, he bid­deth them imagine, how mighty that mouth was, which was but as a dore or gate, to that caue or vile dungeon, intending the fishes belly. But he concludeth it to be neither impossible, nor yet vnlikely, that a whale might swallow Ionas. If any should be desirous, to heare or see more concerning this matter, let him reade in Iob,Iob. 40. &. 41. Gods owne testimony of Leuiathan, which intendeth the great whale.

8 But there is another and that a greater difficulty, in that place proposed to Austen, by the meanes of a pagane person: how the Prophet could be able, for the space of three dayes and three nights, to endure the concocting vapor, & strong heate of that belly, which digesteth and resolueth some substances of strong quality. The infidels of that time, did hold this to be ve­ry ridiculous, and as fabulous a thing as might be: and he that wrote to Saint Austen, seemeth to make doubt of this matter, [Page 181] although otherwise he were a Christian.Epistol. 49. The learned father making aunswere, doth not labour to satisfie the scoffes and scornes of any Paganes, because they do contemne the Scrip­tures, and all grounds of Christianity, and do call into question not onely this, but many other matters. Yet he sayth, that they would haue beleeued this, which they iudge so straunge in our Prophet Ionas,Vide Apu­leium de Asi­no aureo. Et Philo­strat. de vita Apollon. if it had bene reported by their owne fond A­puleius, or Apollonius Tyaneus, two notable Magicians. But he speaketh home, vnto those who professe the name of Christ Ie­sus. Why should they, who do beleeue other miracles of Gods booke, make scruple of this matter? It is not so that one part of the Scripture is true, and another otherwise; but all is of vn­doubted verity. Could the belly of the whale be hoter to the Prophet, then the fiery fornace was to the three children in Daniel?Daniel. 3.25. God saued them in the one, and he saued him in the o­ther. Is it more to bring a liuing man, after three daies from a fish, then it was to raise a dead man, after foure dayes from his graue? Yet we beleeue that this was done to Lazarus.Iohan. 11.44. In like sort Christ Iesus being dead for so long time, as Ionas lay in this fish, did come aliue from his sepulcher, which miracle sayth Saint Au­sten, vve should not beleeue, if the faith of the Christians, did feare the scornes and taunts of the Paganes. For we know that they do deride that. Thus Saint Austen doth resolue it, ac­knowledging it to be a miracle, wrought by the hand of the Almightie. Saint Hierome in his Commentary, which he wrote on the Prophet Ionas,Hieronym. in Ionae. 1. doth iumpe in the selfe same iudgement. Those who make question here, sayth he, are ei­ther faithfull, or infidels, Christians or vnbeleeuers. If Christi­ans, then the truth of that word which is inspired by God, must preuaile here, as well as elsewhere, and this by faith must be embraced, as much as other things which are written. If infi­dels, then no maruell, for they deny both the Old and New Te­stament. Yet they would beleeue any fable in Ouids Meta­morphosis,Ouid Meta­morphos. lib. 1. as that Daphne was turned into a bay-tree, or some other thing of that forging. So he resteth himselfe, on the po­wer of God all-disposing.

9 These answers may suffice, for all those who feare God [Page 182] in our time; that he who out of nothing, did make the heauen and the earth, and the armies of them both, and spread the one in circumference,Genes. 1.1. and layd fast the other as the center, which hangeth vpon nothing:Cap. 7.17. Daniel. 6.22. 2. Reg. 13.21. who drowned the whole world with water: who in the midst of the Lions, preserued his seruant Daniel: who by the bones of Elizaeus, restored a dead man to life:Act. 5.15. who graunted to the Apostles, that their shadowes healed many,Cap. 19.12. and so did clothes brought from their bodies; could as easily, and with as ready a facility, maintaine one longer, or lesse while, within a fishes belly. For graunt him to be Almigh­ty; lay that once downe for a ground, and euery thing will follow, which he shall be pleased to will. This is the faith of the Christians: this belongeth to all Gods children. But the Atheists of our age, who are risen out of the ashes of Libanius the great Sophister, or of that scorning Porphiry, or of that de­rider Lucian, or of Iulian the Apostata, do insult ouer this po­sition, of the omnipotency of God, with impiety more then monstrous. They iest at the name of faith, as a toye made to delude men: and Reason onely must cary it. This may liuely be notified, by that one of their Axiomes, which I once did find written, in the beginning of a new Testament, Ratio suadet, O vox impia. fides fallit: Credere quàm fidere prudens mallet. ‘Al­mightinesse they approoue not, and miracles they allow not, and holy writte they regard not. But bring reason or expe­rience, from the bowels of very nature, and then we go with you while you will. And who is he that by these shall be euer able to iustifie, first that a fish could liue for three dayes and three nights, with such a one in his bellye, with his clothes and apparell on (for that must be imagined) and this fish should neither be choaked with his cariage, nor killed with the moo­uing, and tumbling of him within; and secondly that for so long a time, a man liuing and not hurt, should be lodged in such a prison. For how could he endure the vapour of a sto­make so hote-boyling? Where should he haue breath to feede him, and aire to liue vpon?’ Thus with an audacious fore-head, they call him to a reason, who doth things beyond reason, and will not tye himselfe to that sifting and that scanning, which the [Page 171] thinnesse, and the basenesse of mans wit can affoord him. He sheweth this very plainly,Isay. 7.14. when he will haue a virgin to become a mother, a sonne without mans seede, mortall and yet immor­tall, a creator and yet a creature, most infinite and yet finite, euer liuing and yet once dying.

10 Notwithstanding euen for this purpose, in his wise­dome he doth not leaue himselfe without a witnesse: for as im­possible things as these, are done euery day amongst vs. This perhaps may seeme a paradoxe, and not to be beleeued: but I say it againe, as impossible things as this is, are done euery day amongst vs: but that our custome is to contemne, and passe by the strangest matter, if it once grow common among vs; yea when it is so straunge, that our vnderstanding is able to yeeld no reason of it. Such actions do mooue vs most, which are most rare, and fewest times do fall out. It is no maruell to see the Sunne, and the starres in their daily order, because day­ly we may do it, but to see a new starre appearing, as not long since there was one in the signe Cassiopaea,Anno. 1572. is a matter to mooue amazednesse: whereas any other starre might raise as much ad­miration, if we would but call to mind, that it had bene new in the creation, although in these dayes it be old. Heare Seneca speaking to this:Seneca Na­turalium quaestion. lib. 7.1. Sol spectato­rem nisi cum deficit non ha­bet. Nemo obser­uat Lunam ni­sil aborantem. Adeò naturale est magis no­ua quam mag­na mirari. Athen. Dip­nosophist. lib. 8.7. The vvhole company of those starres vvhere­vvith the beauty of the huge heauen is distinguished, neuer cal­leth people together to gaze vpon them. But vvhen any thing is chaunged from ordinary, then euery mans eyes be on heauen. The Sunne hath not any to looke at him, vnlesse he be in the E­clipse. No man marketh the Moone, but vvhen she hath lost her light. He concludeth: So naturall it is to vs rather to won­der at nevv things, then at great things. To speake then to these disputers: I will not say of them, as I find in Athenaeus, that Stratonicus a mad fellow sayd of Satyrus a bad Sophister, that he reputed it for a miracle, how his mother should euer be able to beare him in her wombe, for ten whole monethes together, whom no Citie could beare, that is, endure but ten whole dayes together: so bad was he and vntoward. I will take that pro concesso, that they were borne of their mothers, yea perhaps of vertuous mothers; who loue God with their [Page 184] soule, and tremble at his iudgements; and withall, do much grieue to see their children to degenerate, in such sort from their mothers, or rather from their maker. Yet this I may adde concerning them, that so farre they are like that Sophi­ster, that if they had their demerites, no reformed place, or Citie, no Christian common-wealth, should beare them and re­taine them, who are monsters and not men, being of impudent hearts and faces.

11 Let that then be agreed betweene vs (because it can­not be denied) that they were borne of their mothers, and after the course of common children. Then they cannot vtterly be ig­norant what belongeth to a little infant. It abideth for some whole moneths together, in the wombe of the mother, vnfor­med and vnperfect,Luc. 1.41. but yet a liuing creature. When Mary came to Elizabeth, that child which was afterward Iohn the Baptist, is sayd to spring in her wombe. This example and common ex­perience which cannot be denied, doth argue life to be in the little ones. Now then tell me thou wicked Atheist, how can this be maintained? If there be no breath, how a life? If breath, whence doth he draw it? Thou art taken in thine owne net: the scruples of this question, cannot be resolued by thee. Thou art proud in thine owne conceipt, and presumest much of thy wit; but yet in the knowledge of naturall effects, thou art much infe­rior vnto Dauid, as thou must needs confesse, if thou wilt reade his Psalmes aduisedly. But he can say for himselfe, in discoursing of his owne generation,Psal. 139.14. that fearefully and vvonderfully he was created by God, and that there were miracles in his making. Nay hauing before protested,5.6. that Gods knowledge was too won­derfull, and excellent for him, and that he could not attaine vnto it, 13. he exemplifieth that skill of the Lord, in the curious frame of himselfe in his mothers wombe. Pardon me thou proud dis­puter, if I thinke that thy wit doth come much short of the Prophet. If then thou wilt not be wilfull, thou must aunswer for the infant, that it is done which hath bene spoken off, but the manner how thou knowest not. Confesse Gods finger there, and confesse Gods finger here; who can do that to a man, which he doth so oft to children, who can do that by sea, which [Page 185] he doth so oft at land; who can do that in a fish, which he doth in euery mother; who can do that in one age, which he doth e­uery day. This is his power but for once onely, the other is his power alwaies. Then reason no farther reasons, but set open the doore of faith giue assent to the word of life, and striue not a­gainst thy maker.Act. 9.5. Thou doest kicke against the pricke: thou im­pugnest him, against whome thou neuer shalt preuaile. Not the least iot of Gods booke, can euer be tainted by thee: the Au­thor is vnstainable, vntouchable, vncontrollable. That is indeed peculiar vnto him, and proper to his word, which one falsely fathereth vpon Virgil,Macrob. Sa­turnal. 124. Haec est Maro­nis gloria, vt nullius laudi­bus crescat, nullius vitupe­ratione minu­atur. that the praise of no man doth adde vnto him; nor the dispraise of any man doth take from him. Since then we haue the warrant of this writer, let vs rest our selues on this, that our Prophet was three daies and three nights aliue, shut vp in a fishes belly.

12 The precise accompt of which time, (being nothing else but a figure, of the lying of Christ Iesus, in the bowels of the earth, and being appointed for that cause, (as Gods owne Son doth witnesse) doth mooue me to suppose, that those daies & nights, wherein our Prophet was shut vp in the whale, were not entirely completed thrise foure and twentie houres.Matth. 12.40 For if it were otherwise in Christ who was the bodie, then very likely that it was otherwise in him who was but the shadow: that the signe and the thing signified, the figure and the truth, might haue a due proportion. But the lying of Christ in the graue, con­cerning the circumstance of three daies, was in some measure Tropicall, and not to be taken literally: for by the figure Synec­doche, part of the day is reckened for the whole: and because the light and the darknesse, for foure and twentie houres, make but one naturall day, part of the day shall enclose the night which was gone before, so that a peece of the artificiall day, shall be accounted for a day naturall. To make this the more euident: the Iewes did account their day to begin at the Sunne setting, which is to be vnderstood, of one of their naturall dayes; but their day artificiall, was commonly reputed to beginne at sixe of the clocke in the morning, especially about the time of the Aequinoctium, when it is apparant that our Sauiour did suffer. [Page 186] Christ then dyed at the ninth houre,Matth. 27.46. that is at three of the clock after noone, on a friday as we call it; and before that the eue­ning was in, on the day of the Preparation, which was that selfe same Friday his body was layd in graue. That little time before euening,Synecdoches vna species est, cum pars pro toto capitur. is by the figure Synecdoche, (which taketh a part for the whole) reputed for a whole day and a night, that is, the day and night before going. The night then which did follow the setting of the Sunne, and the day which was their Easter, (but by vs is called Saterday) is reckened for the second. And indeed this was complete, both for the day and the night. Then follow­eth the next night,Matth. 28.1. Marc. 16.1. wherein Iesus arose very earely in the mor­ning, at or before the dawning of the day, and the opening of the light, and this is to be numbred for the third both day and night, the part taken for the whole by the figure as before. This kind of computation, as with ease it may be gathered from the narration of the Euangelistes,Augustin. E­pist. 49. Beza in Ioh. 18. so Saint Austen doth approoue it, and the late Diuines so accept it. And it should not seeme strange, since in other things we do vse it. The Phisitians call that feauer, a Tertian or third Ague, which skippeth but one day onely. The Termes of our Vniuersitie are reckened in that man­ner. The last day of a Terme is reputed for a Terme, and the first day of another is taken for another Terme; so that according to our vse in some cases, one Terme and two daies are taken for three Termes. Thus was Christ in his graue, by the space of three daies and three nights, either in part or in whole; like to which it is very probable, that the staying of the Prophet in the whale, was abridged and abbreuiated, for some part of the time, that there might be a full resemblance betweene the one and the o­ther, the seruant and the maister. But herein I will not be con­tentious.

Concerning the Resurrection.

13 But to say no more thereof, the maine note from this place requireth full vnderstanding, because there is hence dedu­ced a mysterie of our faith, I meane the Resurrection, which Christ Iesus himselfe expoundeth, to be here very liuely signi­fied.Matth. 12.40 Ionas was in the fishes belly, for three daies & there nights: so shall the Sonne of man be for that time in the graue. It must [Page 187] follow thereupon by a necessarie consequent: But as Ionas was then deliuered, so shall the Sonne of man then come forth, with a sensible resurrection. Christ foretold that he would do this, Do you destroy this temple, Ioh. 2.19. intending thereby his body, and in three daies I will raise it, and set it vp againe. This was also fore­told by Dauid,Psal. 16.11. Act. 2.31. although in the person of our Sauiour: Thou wilt not leaue my soule in hell, nor suffer thy holy one to see corruption, which text Saint Peter citeth, to aduouch Christs resurrection. That he did rise againe, the Euangelists all do cry: the Apostles all do confirme it. How plentifull is Saint Paule in discoursing this argument,1. Cor. 15.5. that he did appeare oftentimes, one while but to a few, another while to the Twelue, but afterward to more then fiue hundred brethen at once? By the vertue of his Godhead, Christ had a soueraigne power to loose himselfe from death: it was a thing vnpossible that he should be holden of it.Act. 2.24. If his life had bene taken from him vnwillingly, and by violence, then ve­ry likely it is, that the selfe same violence might haue still detai­ned him prisoner.Ioh. 19.30. But his dying was voluntarie: he yeelded vp the Ghost, and being contented to put himselfe amidst those an­guishes and horrours, he abode there at his pleasure, on the crosse and in the graue; and from death he returned with the selfe same pleasure, as hauing conquered all, and triumphing in great glorie. And then he who came from heauen, to disquiet himselfe on earth, so to purchase mans redemption, left death and graue and earth,Ephes. 4.8. and with captiuitie captiue, ascended a­gaine to heauen, where he [...]ate him downe in his maiestie on the right hand of his Father.

14 And by his resurrection our hope is to be saued: herein doth rest the anchor of our happinesse and true blessednesse. For in vaine had bene his debasing, and in vaine his incarnation, if he had not liued amongst vs. And in vaine had bene his life, and in vaine had bene his preaching, if his death had not followed af­ter. For his life was giuen for our raunsome: his bloud it was which did wash vs: his death it was which did quicken vs. But in vaine had bene his death also, if he had not shaken off morta­litie from him, and borne vp his graue before him, and thereby winning his prizes, had not maistered all which resisted. So that [Page 188] we apprehend his resurrection, as the stay and substance of our saluation; as the vp-shot of our blessednesse; from the which if we should fall, we do plunge into vtter ruine. Therefore in the Articles of our faith,In Symbolo Apostolorū. this is put for one, that dying, he rose againe the third day from the dead. Not that onely he died, for the Iewes beleeue so much, and the Gentiles beleeue so farre; but that he was quickened againe.Augustin. contra Fau­stum Mani­chaeum. l. 16. For, as Saint Austen hath obserued, the Paganes do admit this for a truth, that Christ did dye: but that he rose againe, is the proper faith of the Chri­stians, and imparted to no other. Now we hold Christ for the head, and our selues to be the members: what he hath done before, we trust that we shall do afterward. So that by his ri­sing againe, is inferred the resurrection of other, and that of all, as well the iust as the vniust, and the vniust as the iust: the one sort to raigne with their Sauiour, on whome they haue belee­ued, the other to suffer torments, because they haue contem­ned.2. Cor. 5.10. So that both great and small, shall stand vpon their feete, in the generall day of iudgement; and appearing before the throne, shall then receiue their last doome of miserie or of mer­cie. And if we did not expect this, the followers of Christ Ie­sus were most wretched men of all other,1. Cor. 15.19 who for this hope sealed vnto them, do endure such strong vexations, such grie­uances and perplexities. All the Martyrs were most foolish, who loose their liues in this world, for the maintenance of Christs glorie,Chrysost. in Matth. Ho­mil. 5. which were absurd stupiditie (as Chrysostome hath well noted) if they held not themselues assured, that he were come from the dead: neuer dye for him who liueth not: and againe if they beleeued not, that in recompence of their sufferings they should see a better life, and receiue a firme inhe­ritance in the day of last proceeding.

15 Their warrant is sealed vnto them, by him who cannot lye, both that their holy seruice shall be rewarded by him, who shall pronounce that comfort, Come you blessed of my Father, inherite eternall life;Matth. 25.34 and that there shall be a day, wherein they shall heare that sentence, and that is in the resurrection. There were in former times many figures of that matter, euen before the light of the Gospell, as when Enoch and [Page 189] Elias were assumed vp into heauen,Genes. 5.24. 2. Reg. 2.11. and translated to immorta­litie, to shew that other after them, should haue the same vn­corruptnesse, although by another change: and to make proofe of a life,Ezech. 37.1.5 which is elsewhere for our bodies, but shall not be re­uealed, vntill that generall rising. In like sort, when there were shewed vnto the Prophet Ezechiel great heapes of scattered bones: which the Lord yet put together, and laid sinewes v­pon them, and made flesh grow thereon, and then couered both with skinne, and afterward breathed life into them. In Iob is an euident testimonie,Iob. 19.25. I am sure that my Redeemer liueth, and he shall stand the last on the earth. And although after my skinne the wormes destroy this bodie, yet shall I see God in my flesh. So in the end of Daniel,Dan. 12.2. Many of them that sleepe in the dust of the earth shall avvake, some to euerlasting life, and some to shame and perpetuall contempt. Matth. 25 31 But how euident is this in the new Testament? When the Sonne of man commeth in his glorie, and all the holy Angels with him, then shall he sit vpon the throne of his glorie. And before him shall be gathered all nations, and he shall separate them one from another, as a shepheard se­parateth the sheepe from the goates. And in the second to the Corinthians, that vve must all appeare before the iudgement seate of Christ, that euerie man may receiue the things done in his bodie according as he hath done, vvhether it be good or e­uill. But most manifest of all other is that of Iohn in his Reuelation:Apoc. 20.11. I saw a great white throne, and one that sate on it, from whose face fled away both the earth and heauen, and their place vvas no more found. And I saw the dead both great and small stand before God, and the bookes vvere ope­ned. Then foorthwith, And the sea gaue vp her dead which vvere in her, and death and hell deliuered vp the dead which vvere in them. So oftentimes and so plainely, doth God fore­tell vnto vs this generall resurrection. In so much that it is as cer­taine, as that the Lord sitteth in heauen, that this shall one day bee.

16 As there is in all the faithful an assenting to this doctrine, & the like might be in very Ethnicks, sauing that their eies are clo­sed, & therfore they cānot see, as a sound to a deaf eare is nothing, [Page 190] which yet is discerned by another man, so the miscreants of all a­ges, belly-gods, and beast-like men can in no sort endure it. In­deede they haue little reason, for that the portion is very small, which shall then be allowed vnto them. Such were those swinish Epicures, falsely termed Philosophers, who luxuriating in vo­luptuousnesse, and thinking that to be felicitie, to bath them­selues in delight, did enioy the present with the Asse, but vtterly denied the immortalitie of the soule, and by a consequent, that the bodie shall euer be repaired. Like to them was Sardanapa­lus, who had this Epitaph on his graue,Athenaeus Dipnosoph. lib. 8.4. Bibe, lude, mor­talis est vita. Drinke and play, our life is mortall, and our time is short vpon earth, but our death is euerlasting if a man once be come to it. Pliny the elder was a man most worthy praise, for his labours which were inestimable: yet that speech of his was impious, and vnbeseeming those good partes which were otherwise in Plinie.Plin. Natu. Hist. l. 7.55. Omnibus à s [...] ­prema die ea­dem quae ante primam: nec magis à morte sensus vllus aut corpori aut animae quàm ante natalem. Matth 22.23 1. Cor. 15.32 To all men from their last day, is the same state as was before their first day, neither is there after death any more feeling in the bodie or the soule, then was before the birthday. Certainely the Saduces were in this be­leefe, of whom the Euangelist witnesseth, that they denied the resurrection. And you may put them in this number, who in Saint Paules time did vse this by-word, Let vs eate and drinke, for to morrow we shall dye, as intending that in death should be a finall end, and we should be no more heard of. The persecu­ting Gentiles were plainely of this opinion, of some of whom in Fraunce Eusebius witnesseth, that they in scorne of the resurre­ction, which the Christians do beleeue, did burne many of the Martyrs, and afterward threw their ashes into the riuer Rhoda­nus, with this foolish exprobration, Let vs see now if their God be able to reuiue them. In a word, most of the Pagans in all ages of the world, and all Atheists among Christians, (a thing in our time too well knowne) do oppugne this truth beyond mea­sure. At whose liues I do not maruell, if they be like their pro­fession, that is, such (some few ciuill respects excepted) as are fit for those men, who feare neither God nor Diuell. I could wish, that since it must needes be, that Gods wrath is oftentimes by these plucked downe vpon our land, the sword of the ciuill ma­gistrate, would with seueritie prouide some remedie for them, [Page 191] that there might not be in Israel a man, who should once dare to blaspheme the name of the Lord. I remember it is recorded of the Atheniens, that in the respect which they caried to their false and fained Gods,Diodor. Sic. Bibl. lib. 13. they so detested Diagoras, for talking a­gainst their heathenish religion, that he standing in feare of his life, was glad to flye the countrie. But herewith the other not contented, did put foorth a proclamation, that whosoeuer it were that would kill that Diagoras, should haue an honourable reward, that was, a talent of siluer for his labour.

17 But to leaue these lawes vnto the Christian magistrate, and to proceed as a Minister, the arguments of all these, and a thousand more of that sute, are but vanitie of all vanities, when they come once to be weighed in the ballāce of the Sanctuary, and are counterpoised onely with the high Gods omnipoten­cie. For why should we tye his power vnto our foolish wit? Sup­pose that there be dying vpon dying, and deuouring vpon de­uouring; that a man be slaine, and his members consumed, some by birdes, some by beastes, some by fishes; and imagine that those creatures be taken, and eaten againe by men, and those men be then burnt, and their ashes throwne into the water, and if we can go farther, let there be as many mutations more, what is all this to plunge his abilitie, who can do euerie thing, what­soeuer himselfe shall please? He can do euery thing, and there­fore raise this man. If nature cannot conceiue it, learne to looke a little higher, to grace and faith beyond nature. Plato an hea­then man did much reprooue Anaxagoras,Plutarch. de defectu ora­culorum. because tying him­selfe too farre, to naturall causes and reasons, he omitted to thinke on the efficient cause of all things, which is surely God the first moouer. This is a monstrous errour of vs also. But will we allow that to God, the like wherof we do allow vnto men? If an image should be made of lead,Lombard. Sentent. lib. 4. Dist. 44. to the proportion of a man, and the workman which did make it remaining still aliue, should retaine the mould, or remember the fashion of it with his best obseruation; although this image were now broken into peeces, and some of the lead thereof did perchance in a wall, ioyne some stones vnto other, or iron to stones in windows, or if some were framed into bullets, or put to other vses, be they neuer so [Page 192] different, yet afterward the artificer hauing these fragments brought together, can refound them, and renew the image in that resemblance, wherein they were before. That which man can do in his trade, can mans maker do much more, in new fra­ming man himselfe.

18 I haue borowed this reason from the maister of the Sen­tences: whereunto if anie reply, that the comparison is much dif­ferent, because here the substance remaineth, in the selfe same nature as before, whereas it is oftentimes altered in the corru­ption of the flesh and bones in man, I might answere, that it is recompenced by the greatnesse and the power, and the skilful­nesse of this framer, which so farre doth exceede the abilitie of all workers.Tertullian. in Apolog. cap. 45. Recogita quid fueris antequā esse [...] ▪ vtique nihil. meminis­ses enim si quid fuisses. Gregor. Mo­ral. lib 6.7. Cum proculdu­bio omnibus cō ­stet, quià plus sit creari quod non erat, quàm reparari quod erat. But I rather will strengthen it, with that argumēt of Tertullian who speaketh to this purpose. We were alreadie once made of nothing, when our matter went not before: and is it not as easie, that we should be againe made, when we haue bene before? If after our corruption our substance should be lit­tle, yea very nothing at all, yet can we thinke it lesse, then it was before our breeding? The authour of the first, can as well do the latter. This reason seemed strong vnto Gregory the great, where he speaketh in this sort, If a man who hath bene dead shold be raised vp, all men breake foorth into admiration, and yet daily is man borne who neuer was before, and no man wondreth at that: whereas without doubt it may appeare vnto all men, that it is a greater worke when that is made which neuer was, then when that shall be but repaired and new made which was before. To follow this a little farther, which of vs doth remember what we were, before that we were borne: where was our forme or our matter? Yet we are growne to this quantitie, and come vp to this fashion. If we will speake as Philosophers, the sonne is said to be in potentia of the father: so of the grandfather and great grandfather, although much more remooued. If we will speake as the Spirite of God doth speake,Hebr. 7.20. Leui the sonne of Ia­cob, who was the sonne of Isaac, who was the heire of Abra­ham, is said to be in the loines of Abraham his great grandfather. The line by this proportiō, may be reached a great deale higher. Now how many alterations, corruptions, dissolutions, in nu­triment [Page 193] and in food, within men and without, of necessitie must there be, within ten generations, before that he be produced who is the tenth successor? Where shall we say was the seed, or what shall we thinke was the matter, from whence he was deri­ued? Yet God hath so disposed, that by order of propagation, it should be so and no otherwise: and a thousand alterations can­not hinder the course thereof; and a million of corruptions shall not crosse his purpose afterward, but that from earth and sea, and stones, and rockes, and ashes, chaunged ouer and ouer a­gaine, he can rowze vs and reuiue vs. The perpetuated order of his actions here among vs, doth shew that he can doe things, which are as farre vnlikely. To adde somewhat more of man, of how small a thing doth he make him,Iustin. Mar­tyr. Apol. 2. euen that which hath no proportion? how doth he bring out the limmes, and mem­bers of the infant? where were his bones and his sinewes, his arteryes and his veynes? where was his head and his feete, his countenance and his visage? how were these things distin­guished in his first generation?August. E­pistola. 49. We may haue the same consi­deration, of the kernell of any fruite, which being small in quan­titie, and in resemblance very different, from that whereunto it spreadeth, is put into the ground. From this there groweth a roote with many things sprowting from it;Gregor. Mo­ralium. 6.8. from thence a stemme ariseth; a barke percase without, a pith perhaps within, here a branch and there a bough, here a blossome and there a fruit.August. de Consolat. mortuorū 2. 1. Cor. 15.36 A graine of wheat is put by the husbandman into the ground; and then it is but a small thing, and in respect as no­thing. Yet from thence commeth roote, and blade, and stalke, and eare, and corne, yea when the originall of all was dead and euen dissolued. From these things God each day doth raise such sensible matters, and maketh the earth and raine, whereof much commeth from the sea, to depart with their owne nature, and to be turned into them. Why then should it be impos­sible, or why should it be straunge, that he should bring this to passe in man, the best of his creatures, that is, to fetch him out of the dust, or from the middest of the water? Why not one daye that in generall, when this in speciall euery daye? [Page 194] why not all, which to each? Reuolue these things aduisedly, and ioyne faith with thy sence, and thy externall feeling, and we shall haue a resurrection.

Gregor. Mo­ral. li. 14 28.19 Remember how that euerie winter, the glorie of the trees, and all woods is decayed: their leaues lye in the dust, their cheerefull greene is but blacknesse: the sap and life is hid in the roote within the ground: all the tree doth seeme as dead. But when the Sunne commeth forward, with his warming aspect, they resume their former beautie. So it is with the medowes, so it is with the floures, and most delightfull gardens. Their win­ter is as our death, their spring like our resurrection. The putting of our clothes off,Lodo▪ Viues in Geneth­liaco Iesu Christi. should remember vs of mortalitie, that we must put our flesh off, and yeeld it to corruption. When we put them on in the morning, and go forth as before, we represent to our selues, the receiuing of our flesh againe in the day of iudge­ment. What is our bed but a graue?Epiphanius Haeresi. 64. Athenago­ras de resur­rectione mortuorum. what is our sleepe but a death, wherein we are to our selues as if we had neuer bene, without sence and in darknesse? what is our hastie awaking, at the sound of bell or other noise, but as our starting vp, at the sound of the last trumpet, to appeare before Christs throne? Herein indeed is the difference, that the graue doth hold vs lon­ger, the bed a lesser while. Thus hath the Lord euery way, put re­membrancers in our actions, & daily obseruations, that certainly we shall dy, & certainly rise againe, & certainly be then iudged. The veritie of which matter, euen by the light of nature hath ap­peared vnto some, who neuer did know the Lord. The heathen man Zoroastres did fore-prophecie of a time wherein there should be a rising of all that euer had liued.Aeneas Ga­zaeus in The­ophrasto. They were not farre from this, who beleeued an immortalitie of our souls after death. So did Plato aboue all other of the auncient Philosophers, who both saith that the soule liueth separated from the bodie,Plato Epist. 7 Idem de Le­gibus 12. and that it commeth to an account, and if it haue so deserued, suffe­reth punishment and great torment: yea he mentioneth such a iudgement,Dialog. 10. de republ. as wherein the good are set on the right hand, and the euill on the left, as if he had perused the bookes of the sacred Bible. The French Prophets those Druides, as Pomponius Me­la noteth,Pomponius. Mela lib. 3. did both beleeue, and teach the immortalitie of the [Page 195] soule, which was a good inducement to inferre the resurrection. For when they held this vndoubtedly, that the better part doth not die, and by a consequent, that the soules of them which had done well, for their good life in this place, should come vnto fe­licitie, they might haue easily bene perswaded, that by a good congruitie, the instrument and copartner and sister of the soule, I meane this flesh of ours, being ioyned in all actions, should in vprightnesse of iustice, be ioyned in the reward, whether it be good or euill.

20 How much to blame are the Atheists and Epicures of our time, who come not so farre as this; but as they depriue our bodies of all future reuiuing, so they teach that our soules, in no­thing are different from the beasts: but that in the dissolution, the spirit shall be dissolued, as well as the exteriour man: in which thoughts they shew thēselues, to be worse then many Ethnicks. They little conceiue the dignity, and simplicity of that spirit, the single in compoundnesse of that self-moouing soule, for so I may well call it,Chrysost. in Matth. Ho­mil. 35. in comparison of the flesh. For as Chrysostome ma­keth his argument, If the soule can giue such life and beautie vnto the bodie, with what a life and fairenesse doth it liue in it selfe? And if it can hold together the bodie, which is so stinking and so deformed a carcasse, as appeareth euidently after death, how much more shall it conserue, and preserue it selfe in his owne being? So pregnant is this reason, that an infidell may conceiue it, and very well apprehend it: but we which are Christian men may remember a farther lesson. That our Sa­uiour hath dyed for vs, and payed a price very great, his owne most precious bloud. For whom or what was this? for our body which liueth and dieth, and rotteth and neuer returneth againe? for our soule which is here this day, and too morrow spilt and corrupted? How vnworthy were this of him, to endure so much for so little? Shall we thinke him so vnwise, or repute him so vn­aduised? No, he knew that this soule of ours must stand before his throne; and this rottennesse must come foorth, by a feare­full resurrection. And if this should not be so, if there should be no accompt, no recompence for ill deedes, no retribution for the good, to what end should men serue the Lord, or what [Page 196] difference should there be betweene the iust and the vniust, the holy and the profane? nay betweene man the best creature that mooueth vpon the ground, and the basest and vilest beast, which hath little sence and no reason? Because it were impiety to think this of our iust Lord, that so slenderly he disposeth things, let vs with an assured faith, conceiue our immortality, and the hope of a resurrection.

21 As this hath bene deduced from the example of our Pro­phet, by this or the like sort, Ionas was in the fishes belly, so was Christ in the graue: Ionas came forth from thence, so did Christ rise againe, his rising doth bring our rising, his resurrection, ours, because he was the first fruits of all those that do sleep.1. Cor. 15.20 So to cō ­clude this doctrine, by making vse of it very briefly: if this be de­termined ouer vs, & the houre shal one day come, that all that is in the graue, shall arise & heare Gods voice, & neither the moun­tains nor the rocks,Apoc. 6.16. can couer vs frō the presence of the Lambe, what ones then & how perfect shold we study to be? how shold we prepare our selues against that day of reckning, that our iudg may acknowledge vs to be his friends & his brethren vnspotted & vndefiled, that so we might not trēble to see him, & heare his iudgement? But alas how far are we from it, & indeed frō thin­king of it? For as Chrysostome speaketh, some do say that they be­leeue, Chrysost. in Genes. Ho­mil. 22. that there shal be a resurrectiō, & a recōpēce to come. But I listen not to thy words, but rather to that which is done euery day. For if thou expect the resurrectiō, & a recōpence, why art thou so giuē to the glory of this present life? why doest thou daily vexe thy self, gathering more mony then the sand? I may go a little farther applying it to our time: why do we bath our selues in folly as in the water? why do we drinke in iniquitie, & bitternesse in such measure? why hunt we after gifts, and thirst after rewards? why seeke we more to please men, then labour to please the Lord? Briefly, why doth security in inward sort so possesse vs, as if with Hyminaeus & Philetus,2. Tim. 2.17. Bernard. de interiori do­mo. we did think the resurrection past? Why do we as that man, of whome Saint Bernard speaketh, that is, eate and drinke and sleepe carelesse, as if we had now escaped the day of death and iudgement, and the very torments of hell. So play and laugh and delight, as if we had passed the pikes and vvere [Page 197] now in Gods kingdome? Who seeth not this to be so, although he could wish it to be farre otherwise?

22 The remembrance of this accompt, should be as a snaffle to vs, or as a bridle to keepe vs backward from profanenesse & enormitie. And in these euils let them take their portiō, who are incredulous and vnbeleeuers, of whome it is no maruell, that they do hotely embrace them, and egerly follow after them. For take away an opinion of rising vnto iudgement, and all obser­uance of pietie falleth presently to the ground, and men will striue to be filthie,Hebr. 9.27. in impietie and in sinne. But because we pro­fesse Christ Iesus, and the hope of immortalitie, let vs liue as men that expect it.Genes. 27.2. And since that it is appointed, that all men shall die once, and after it commeth the iudgement; and since the day of death is as vncertaine to vs,Matth. 25.1. as it euer was to Isaac, let vs fur­nish our selues before hand, that with the oyle of faith, and of good life, in our lampes, we may go to meete the bridegroome. If Christ as our head be risen from the dead, let vs arise from the vanities and follies of this earth, which are not worth the com­paring with eternitie in the heauens. If he as the chiefe of his Church, be ascended and gone before, let vs who wish to be members, wrestle to follow after him. Let it be enough, that hi­therto with Ionas we haue fled from our dutie, which we owe to our maker, and that we haue lyen not dayes but yeares, oft three times and three ouer, not in the fishes belly, but in the bel­ly of sin. And let vs beseech the Lord, that since Sathan is more desirous to swallow vs into hell, then the whale was to deuour the Prophet, that he will free vs from that enemie, and bring vs into his kingdome, there to raigne with his owne Sonne, to both whome and the holy Spirite, be laud and praise immortall. Amen


The chiefe poynts. 2. The anguish of Ionas in the whale. 3. The vse and force of prayer. 6. Our negligence herein. 8. Inuocation is to be vsed to God onely. 10. Some things in the Fathers fauouring inuoca­tion of Saints. 11. Those places discussed. 14. Some of the an­cient are against praying to Saints. 15. Afflictiō stirreth vs vp to pie­ty. 19. The great miserie of the Prophet. 21. We are to repute God the authour of our afflictions. 22. God heareth our prayers. 23. There are circumstances to be obserued in prayer.


Then Ionah prayed vnto the Lord his God out of the fishes belly, And said, I cried in my affliction to the Lord, and he heard me: out of the belly of hell cried I, and thou heardest my voice. For thou hadst cast me into the bottome, in the midst of the sea, and the flouds compassed me about: all thy surges, and all thy waues passed ouer me.

WHen Ionas was in the sea, being cast out by the mariners, and was now of all likelyhood ready to be drowned, God had a fish prepared, (as be­fore you haue heard) to swallow vp the Pro­phet. And in the belly thereof, he lay three daies and three nights, after such a manner, as was neuer heard of be­fore, but no doubt much tormented between hope and distrust; almost quite in dispaire, yet by faith againe comforted. This faith of his, when at length it had preuailed, he breaketh forth (euen there in prison) into good meditations, and after his deliuerie, when he wrote this prophecie, he digested them into a prayer, which is here set downe in a kind of Hebrew verse, not much vnlike to the Lyrikes of the Greek or Latin Poets. Those words [Page 199] which I haue read vnto you, are some part of this prayer, and that which followeth after, is another part, in both which if something sound, as from him being in danger, and some thing againe as from him being escaped, impute the one vnto the time wherein he did write it, and the other to those conflicts which he sustained while he lay in the belly of the whale, where his bitter meditations, and troubled thoughts, did answere vnto that which is here proposed vnto vs.

2 For the space of those three dayes, he did not lye asleepe, as a man in a traunce, or one vnsensible amated, (for right hap­pie he had bene, if that might haue be fallen him) but boiling in the extremitie of anguish, and great sorrow, as he that had on him a burthen so vnsupportable by his shoulders, that he knew not how to turne him, or to manage himselfe. He felt the wrath of God, perpetuated on him without intermission, which wrath was not contented to haue him ouer ship-boord, and so once to drowne him, but dying he must liue, and liuing he must dy in a torturous execution, so terribly and vncomfortably, that the like had bene neuer heard of. The horror of death still present, & yet prolōged stil, in the middle of the sea, in the belly of a whale, a prison and monstrous dungeon did vrge him oft to tremble: but the feeling of Gods displeasure vpon his soule for sinne, and the very great expectatiō of eternall pains in hell, what thoughts did these now raise in him? Now the soure of his disobedience is fully tasted by him: he may tumble it and reuolue it, and chew it againe & againe. Now if Niniue had bene distant, as farre as the Easterne Indies, or the South part of Aethiopia, & there he had bene sure to be murthered and massacred, by the tyrannie of the gouernour, or ruler of that countrie, he could haue bene wel cō ­tented, to haue gone thither euen bare-footed, & thanked God on his knees, who had brought him to such a bargaine. For it is better to trace ouer all the world, then once to go to hell: better to suffer many sorrowes in body, then in soule to die eternally. With which thoughts being so perplexed, as neuer was man before him, & not knowing what else to do, with a faith tried in & out, & ouer & ouer again, he falleth at length to prayer, the ef­fect wherof is in this second chapter, by it selfe laid downe vnto [Page 200] vs. But because this prayer is so lōg, as that at many seueral times it must be handled, for distinction and orders sake, I thinke good first to deuide it into a Preface and a Prayer. The Preface is in the first verse; the Prayer in that which followeth. And there, what subdiuisions are afterward to be made, it shall in his place appeare. The Preface noteth these two things, what he did, that is, pray, and to whome, vnto the Lord his God.

Then Ionah prayed.

3 Many are the temptations and spirituall inuasions, which in this life do befall vs, while the enemie of mankind doth often assaile vs; by himselfe and by the world, and by our owne flesh, that domesticall foe: and many are the afflictions, which the great God in his wisedome,Reasons why God sendeth affliction to his seruants. and our good Father in his loue, doth lay sharply vpon vs, to punish vs for our sinnes, to make triall of our patience, to strengthen vs in the faith, to make vs loath the world, to teach vs true humilitie, to inure vs to a suffe­ring of greater things for his sake, (for so many are the ends, wherfore he sendeth his crosse, to those whom he best fauoreth.) In respect whereof,Iob. 7.1. our life is by Iob well called a warfare, wher­in we are to fight, & wrastle against great matters: to the which Saint Paule alluding,2. Tim. 4.7. Ephes. 6.12. saith that he had fought a good fight, being exercised all his time, against powers and principalities, against anguishes and great grieuances, much within & more without. The onely stay of all which perplexities, in the very best of Gods children, is earnest and heartie prayer, to him who sitteth aboue, who plucketh downe and setteth vp, who ouerturneth and rai­seth, who striketh and then maketh whole,Dan. 2.21. who correcteth and then comforteth, who bringeth to the pit of euill, and then doth not cast in, who tempteth not aboue our strength, but in the midst of temptation, doth giue an issue, that we may be able to beare it. The sacrificing of our souls vnto this blessed Father, the bēding of our knees▪ the bedeawing of our cheeks, the lifting vp of our hands, the beating of our brest, but withall and aboue all, the compunction of our hearts, and the earnestnesse of our spirites, are the altar that we must flye to, are the anchor that wee must trust to. This is that chaine, whereof one end is tyed to the eare of God, and the other end to our toung: if [Page 201] we plucke he will listen: if we call he will hearken.

4 Then it is for our good, that so often in the booke of God, prayer is both commended, and commanded to vs, and not any way for his profit, who is to be sought too, but for ours who are to cry.Matth. 7.7. Cap. 26.41. Colos 4.2. Iacob. 5.16. Aske and it shall be giuen you, knocke and it shall be ope­ned to you. Watch and pray saith our Sauiour Christ. Continue sayth Paule in prayer. Is any of you afflicted? let him pray, sayth Saint Iames, for the prayer of a righteous man preuaileth much, if it be feruent. The faithfull euermore haue had recourse to this in their necessity,Genes. 32.9. as when Iacob feared Esau, he called on the name of the Lord, that he would send him safety. When the Israelites were driuen to that extremity, that nothing in mans reason, but present death did remaine for them, behind them being Pharao and their enemies to slay them, before them the red sea,Exod. 14.15. a fit place to drowne them; then Moses being trou­bled in his spirit, although he sayd neuer a word, hauing his heart as bleeding within him,Exod. 17.11. cried vnto the Lord. When it went hard with that people fighting against the Amalekites, what did Mo­ses but pray for them, when he held vp his hands; from which when by wearinesse he did cease, they sped ill, but while he continued it, they did conquer? What are the Psalmes of Dauid, but recourses in his passions, vnto the highest God? Did not Ieremy in the pit and bottome of the dungeon,Lament. 3.55 fall to calling vpon the Lord? And our Prophet in worse case then euer was any of these, had nothing else to comfort him, but to addresse himselfe to his prayers. When all other helpes do faile, yet this is neare at hand: we neede not runne farre to seeke it. And blessed is the reward which oftentimes doth follow these requests, either the hauing of that which we desire, or a conten­tentednesse to leaue it.

5 The Church of God and the faithfull, haue euermore re­tained the vse hereof:Euseb. Eccle. Histor. 5.5. & somtimes men which haue bene infidels, haue bene glad to seeke to them for it. When the Emperor Mar­cus Aurelius, had almost lost his army in Germany, for want of water, a legion of the Christians which were then in his seruice, had recourse vnto this remedy, and by vehement inuocation did begge raine at Gods hands, which he sent them in great [Page 202] abundance, to the amazing of the Emperour, but the safety of all his army.De vita con­stantini 2.4. That noble and mighty Constantine, knowing that one in heauen is the true Lord of hostes, and all victory commeth of him; that the ioyning of a battell, is the loosing of a kingdome, vnlesse he do assist, would neuer enter fight, but that first himselfe and his forces, with knees bended vpon the ground, would desire the Lord to blesse them. When his ene­mies on the other side,Ibidem. and Licinius aboue other, would begin with incantation and seeking to the Diuell. But the good Em­perour, hauing many things of great waight still vpon him, which he knew not how to weild without the helpe of the Highest (and that was to be had for asking) did so delight in prayer,Luc. 18.11. that in memory thereof, not as the dissembling Pharisee, but in true feare to his God, and the better to instruct his peo­ple in it, by his owne example, he ordained that his image (which we know that Princes do vse to coine vpon their money) should be stamped,Euseb de vi­ta Constant. 4.15. Socrat. 5.24. Theodor. 5.24. Sozom. 7.24. with the resemblance of him praying. The example of Theodosius, is in this case not vnfit. Being in a battell which was hardly fought on both parts, but at length his men being put to the worse, and now apparantly ready to flye, he throweth himselfe on the ground, and with all the powers of his soule, he desireth the Lord to pity him, and to prosper him in that daunger. God heard the voice of his seruant, and in mi­raculous manner did graunt to him the victory. To this com­fort he found that of Origene to be true,Origen. in Numer. Ho­mil. 25. One holy man preuaileth more in praying, then innumerable sinners do with their fighting. For the prayer of a holy man doth pierce vp to the heauen. I need not vrge other examples of other in latter ages, who haue e­uermore made this their refuge, in daungers and extremities, to flye with speede vnto the Lord. For Diuinity buildeth vpon it: Christianity doth enforce it: no faithfull man maketh doubt of it: very Ethnickes in their seruices to their Gods, continually did frequent it, and openly did practise it.

6 In the meane while, the supine security of our age, shall I say,Gentillettus in examine Concil. Tri­dentini▪ lib. 5. cannot be inough rebuked, nay cannot be inough lamen­ted, of which it may be sayd as one speaketh of the Monkes, that their fasts are very fat, but their prayers exceeding leane; [Page 203] for if we will compare matters that be in secret, with such things as are open, and iudge the one by the other, how cold are all our prayers? If we looke into our Churches, we shall find many of our Pastours, to go through their common prayers, with very small deuotion, little mooued and little moouing. The people, that is not onely young ones, who are of-ward inough from God, and whose feeling is not so passionate, as the Lord in time may make it; but the elder sort very slowly do repaire vnto the tabernacle: euery light occasion doth keepe them a­way: halfe-seruice doth serue the turne: and for that which is, it were as good to be neuer a whit, as not to be the better: they sit there as in a giddinesse, neither minding God nor the Mini­ster, but rather obseruing any thing, then that for which they come thither. If it be thus in publicke, what may be thought of those prayers, which in secret are powred forth, betweene God and our selues, in our closets or our studies, when we rise vp or lye downe? It is to be feared that they are few, and those which be, are very sleepy, rather perfunctory and customary, then war­med with zeale of affection. And how shall God know what we say, when we our selues do not know? how shall he heare that prayer, which we our selues do not heare? Let vs, brethren, stirre vp our selues, and be feruent in this, if in any thing, and the tutour for his scholers, the parents for his children, the maister for his family, the Magistrate for his people, the Minister for his flocke, pray euery day that the Lord will blesse them, in their in­ward man and their outward, in their businesses and their stu­dies, in their piety and their safety.Iob. 1.5. Remember how holy Iob did sacrifice for his children, least in vanity of their youth, they should forget the Lord.

7 And let euery man for himselfe giue no rest to his God, but begge of him oftentimes, to double and multiply his gra­cious spirite on him. For how dangerous are these wayes, wherein we here do walke? What perils and great hazards are euery day about vs? What drawings on are there to sinne? what entisements to iniquity? How is the Diuell more ready, to swallow vs into hell, then the fish was to swallow Ionas? What Atheisme doth increase? what worldly lusts & affections? [Page 104] Yea we may see many more things, to pricke vs on to sollicite the Lord of all importunely.Anno. 1595. The dearth which doth now raigne in many parts of this land, which doth little good to the rich, but maketh the poore to pinch for hunger, and the children to cry in the streetes, not knowing where to haue bread. And if the Lord do not stay his hand, the dearth may be yet much more. In like sort, the safety of Gods Church, which in England and in Ireland, yea in many parts else of Christendome, as Scot­land, Fraunce, and Flaunders, much dependeth vnder God, on the good estate of her Maiesty, the hand maide of Christ Iesus: whose life we see to be aimed at, by the cursed brood of Sathan, vnnaturall home-bred English. And were it not that his eye who doth neuer slumber nor sleep,Psal. 121.4. did watch ouer her for our good, it had oft bin beyond mans reason, that their plots shold haue bene preuented. The spoiles of the Turke in Hungary, and his threats to the rest of Christendome, should wring from vs this conside­ration, that he is to be called on, who can put a hooke in his no­strels,2. Reg. 19.28. and turne him another way, as he once did by Sennache­rib. There should be in vs a sympathy, and fellow-feeling with our brethren. These things in generall to all, and in particular to each, should remember vs to breake forthinto inuocation with the Prophet. It is that which God loueth in vs: it is that which Christ with his precept and example, hath taught vnto vs. He prayed oft to his father,Cyprian. de Oratione Dominica. and continued whole nights in praier, and as Saint Cyprian doth well gather, if he did so who sinned not, what should we do who sinne so deepely?

He prayed to the Lord his God.

8 The next circumstance in this preface is, to whom the Prophet prayed. He prayed to the Lord his God, where this note may specially be giuen, that this offending soule doth yet dare by his faith, to make so neare application, as that the Lord is his God. Which point because it is plainer in the sixth verse of this Chapter,Ionah. 2.6. where he saith ô Lord my God, I will deferre it thither. My generall obseruation here is that he prayed to the Lord. And as his case required this, because none else could helpe him; and he was to be sought vnto by submission and humility, who be­fore was by sinne offended: so doth the Lord appropriate this [Page 205] honor to himselfe, and will not haue any other to be serued with this sacrifice.Exod. 20.5. He is a ielous God, and will not impart his honor to any of his creatures. But he accounteth that the greatest argu­ment of duty which is in man, to be sought to, and solicited by the sighes of the heart, and by the grones of the mind. Call on me in the day of trouble, Psal. 50.15. saith himself by Dauid, and I wil heare thee, and thou shalt praise me. And Christ citeth this, as a matter ap­pertaining vnto all.Matth 4.10. Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him onely shalt thou serue. But in this inuocation, is the Maiesty of his seruice. And if we did want other, to be called on or prayed to, it should argue that our God either could not, or would not heare vs. The one denieth his Omnipotency, the other doth clip his mercy.Psal. 145.18. But we acknowledge both. The Lord is neare vnto all that call vpon him: yea all such as call on him in truth. Then we neede no intercessours, but him who is the mediator of the New Testament, Iesus Christ. We embrace the faith of the martyrs: we loue the loue of the Apostles: so farre foorth as we may, we imitate the obedience of the good Angels in heauen: and we thanke God for proposing such holy examples to vs: but we dare not call on these, least we should be accounted guilty of rob­bery to their maister. Whose meaning if it had bene, to bestow any of his honour, or a portion of his glory on any of his crea­tures, he surely would haue let vs knowne it. But through all the Old and New Testament, is no commandement, no example, no reason why we should do it.

9 Nay we haue much to the contrary. As first that it may be sayd, that God alone is there called on, which in the whole Bible is sounded out vnto vs. And secōdly we may know, that howsoe­uer in general, the Saints which raigne triūphing in heauē, do pray for the cōsūmatiō of Gods grace on their brethrē, who are mili­tant vpon earth, which may not amisse be gathered, frō the soules vnder the altar,Apoc. 6.10. Cap. 8.3.4. & from the 8. of the Reuelation, & the reformed Churches in no sort do deny this: yet we are not to beleeue, that in particular maner they know the deeds of one man, or heare the vowes of another, but specially vnderstand the secret thoughts of the hart, which in praiers do most preuaile. We find otherwise in Iob,Iob. 14.21. that a dead man doth not know if his sons shall be honorable, [Page 206] neither doth he vnderstand concerning them, vvhether they shall be of low degree. The speech is of all dead generally. He know­eth not of his owne children, much lesse of other men: whether that they be in honour, which is an outward occurrent, and sen­sible to the eye, much lesse what they thinke in heart, which is proper to the Almighty.1. Reg. 8 39. Th. Aquin. p. 1. q. 89. a. 8. That place in Iob, made Aquinas to acknowledge, that the soules of those which are departed hence, do ex se, of themselues, know nothing done vpon earth, but sayth he, those which are in blessednesse, do take knowledge of our deedes, by reuelation from God. But neither he nor any of the Papists, do prooue out of the Scripture, that God reuealeth such things, to the blessed which are in heauen. That remaineth to be confirmed. We may ioyne to that of Iob, the confession of the people,Isay. 63.16. Doubtlesse thou art our father: though Abraham be ignorant of vs, and Israel know vs not, yet thou ô Lord art our father, and our redeemer: and thy name is for euer. Then the Patriarkes did not know, and wherefore should they now? For that then they were in Limbus, is an vntrue faithlesse fable, with­out any ground of Gods word. Yet it is maruell to see, how stif­ly the Church of Rome, doth maintaine in Saints, and the Virgin Mary, the hearing of those which pray, and their intercession for vs.Breuiarium Romanum in Suffagijs communi­bus in initio. In Orat in die S. An­dreae Sab­bato ad ves­peras. Ad comple­torium. In Antipho­na à Domi­nica prima. Aduentus ad plurifica­tionem Mariae. He that shall looke into their reformed Breuiary (for in the old many things were worse) shall see that they are much called on, nay that God himselfe is requested, that by the merits of them, and by their mediation, we may attaine saluation. There the Virgin Mary is called porta coeli peruia, the gate to passe through to heauen: and she is prayed vnto, that she herselfe will take pity vpon offending men. And as they say, if these things be not in the Scripture, yet our duty, and the comple­ments which we owe vnto Christ himselfe, do require it at our hands, and all Antiquity doth make for it.

10 I will not sist this Non sequitu [...] of decency and congrui­ty, that because Mary was Christs mother, and the Saints were his faithfull seruants, therefore in deuotion to him who was son to the one, and maister vnto both, we should vse very high du­ty to them: for God himselfe best knoweth what fitteth, and he hath layed all that downe, and no word of this inuocation. But [Page 207] briefly for Antiquity, I confesse that in the writings of some of the auncient fathers, they may find something, which serueth for this purpose.Augustin. confess. 9 3. De vera Re­ligione cap. 55. Epistol. 120. As that Saint Austen in his Confessions doth sup­pose, that his friend Nebridius doth thinke on him in heauen. Elsewhere he seemeth to say as much, as that the Angels do heare our prayers, and he prooueth it out of the booke of To­bias. So, in his Epistle ad Honoratum, he mentioneth, that the Angels do tell vnto vs, Gods benefites sent vnto vs, and deliuer backe againe our prayers vnto him. In his treatises vpon Iohn, We do not pray for the martyrs, Tract. 84. in Ioh [...]nnem. Sed magis vt orent ipsi pronobis. In Medita­tionibus To­mo 9. De Sanctis Serm 19. Hyeron. E­postola. 25. Chrys. in Psalm. 118. Sozomen. Eccles. Hist. 7.24. but we rather pray to them that they may pray for vs, that vve may vvalke in their steps. But in that which some do thinke to be his Meditations, the Author doth pray to Saints, and in his Sermons De sanctis, vnto the Virgin Mary. So Saint Herome in his first Tome, and fiue and twentith Epistle, sayth that Blesilla the dead daughter, did pray for her mother Paula. So Chrysostome on the Psalmes, doth mention the intercession of Mary the mother of God, and of the other Saints. To these may be ioyned, the testimonie of Sozomen in his seuenth booke, where Sathan is reported to haue railed on Iohn the Baptist, as if by his meditation his pur­pose were sometimes hindered. I know that much more of this nature may be brought to vphold this doctrine, and yet God knoweth, how sandie is all this weake foundation? how rotten are these supporters, which bend vnder such a burthen? I be­seech you to iudge indifferently, when you heare what shall be aunswered.

11 To speake first to that in Sozomen, which is drawne from Satans testimony, suppose the storie true, which is there but a bare report, And is not this a proofe right substantiall, Sa­tan railed on Iohn the Baptist, because that by his intercession, his purpose sometimes was crossed, Ergo Saints are our media­tours? What if the Diuell there forged?Iohan. 8 44. Is he not the author of lies? What if this were his pollicie, to make men turne their ser­uice, from God vnto his creatures? I doubt not but so it was. He saw that the auncient Oracles were fallen downe long be­fore (as it appeareth by Plutarkes testimony,Plutarch. de defectu Ora­culorum. who wrote a tract to that purpose) with the which in former times, he had posses­sed [Page 208] mens soules, for a great space together. He saw that Christs faith did spread, and that by the force of no tyrant it could possibly be extinguished: he saw that the ten persecutions were ceassed, by the raigning of Christian Emperours, and there was now no good to do that way: therefore now he will turne o­uer a new leafe, and will take another course, to breede flawes in the faith, and by opinion of religion, to supplant Gods true re­ligion, by superstition to ouerturne good deuotion. Then begin­neth he for to broach some of Antichrists mingled wine (for the Apostle sayd,1. Iohan. 2.18 that in his time Antichrist had set in footing) and nothing fell out more fitly to his humour, then to spoile God of his honour, by turning to Saints in prayer. Thus is the roaring Lion now become a subtle foxe, and seeketh by errour in the shew of truth, to vndermine holy piety. Such another deuise was that, when Satan being asked in the time of Iulian the Apo­stata,Theodoret. Hist. Eccles. 3.9. why the Oracle which was sometimes in Daphne, neare to Antioche, had ceased, and gaue no aunswer, he signified that he might not appeare any more in that Chappell, because the Reliques, and the body of the holy martyr Babylas, were entred in that place. Wherein his meaning was, by a secret insinuation, to inueigle men to the honouring of the reliques and the bones of martyrs and holy men, to the which indeede they afterward fell, with doting superstition. So crafty is this Serpent, to destroy mens soules by fraud. And that example of Iohn the Baptist, I hold to be of this nature.

12 Concerning the authority of the fathers, which are ci­ted to prooue this doctrine, I say first, that many bookes are foisted into their workes, which sauour not of their spirit. The censures that be vpon them, by Papists as well as other, to­gether with the difference of the style, and many other circum­stances, do make that plaine inough. In the most of them this hath bene brought about, either by the ignorance of such as did transcribe, and copy them out, before that printing was inuen­ted; or else by the falshood of base authors, who would assume noble names,Passio Cypri. per Pontium diaconum ejus. to things which were most vnworthy. In Cyprian there is nothing, which maketh mention of Charles the Em­perour, which if we will interprete, of the first Charles called [Page 209] the Great, yet there is so great a difference, of the times wherein these liued, that the one was after the other more then fiue hun­dred yeares. Yet that is sayd to be written, by Pontius who was deacon to Cyprian himselfe. I ascribe this to the grosse ig­norance of the writer, or counterfeit authour. In Austens workes there are many things, which are fathered on his name, and that by wilfull falshood. I will name to you one for all, and that shall be his Sermons,Augustin. ad fratres in e­remo. as they are intituled, Ad fratres in ere­mo. There in the name of Saint Austen, one maketh the whole tract, willing to do great credit, to the order of Austen Friers, as if the great Saint Austen had bene the founder of thē. But as the eares of the asse did shew what beast he was, although he had gotten on him the skin of a noble Lion, so albeit that honest man do vse words for his purpose, I Augustin Bishop of Hippon did this, and this, and many things, yet the Barbarismes and the Sole­cismes which are in that worke, do make it plaine, that some worthy wight did hatch that Treatise vp to the world. In his fiue & twentieth Sermon,Serm. 25. he doth let vs know the reason, why some holy-daies haue no fasting dayes, as Philip and Iacobs day, and Saint Bartholomew and Saint Thomas. A fit argument for Saint Austen, especially as he handleth it. But because he will passe himselfe, and shew of what house he commeth, in his thirtie and seuenth Sermon,Serm. 37. he sayth that himselfe did go into the South part of Afrike, as farre as Aethiopia to preach the Gospell of Christ, and that he saw there men and women without heads, hauing their eyes standing in their breasts. This tale had had little credit,Act. 8.27. but that himselfe did see it. The Chamberlaine of Canda­ces, who was met with by Philip, did come out of this Aethio­pia, & shall we be so wise as to thinke that his shape was of such a strange kind of making? Yet we must go a litle farther: he doth adde that in that countrey, he saw men which had but one eye, & that in the middest of their fore-heads.Herodot. li 4. Plinius Hist. Natural. 5.8. [...]. The foole had heard or read in Herodotus, or in Pliny, or some one of the auncient, that some such things were talked of, Acephali men without heads, Cynocephali, men with heads like to dogs, Arimaspi, men with one eye in the middle of their fore-head, and other of monstrous shape, all which were imagined to be in the hoate countries, [Page 210] within the Zona Torrida, or in the cold coasts of Scythia, whi­ther very few in old time did offer at all to trauell, either by land or sea, for the great heate of the Southerne parts, and the great cold of the Northerne.Ouid. Meta­morphos. lib. 1. Quarum quae media est non est habitabilis aestu. Yea many in ancient time, did thinke those quarters of the earth, to be vtterly inhabitable, by men of com­mon proportion; neither in the most ciuill countries, of Asia and of Europe, where learning and knowledge abounded, was the contrary receiued, vntill that the late discoueries of the Portin­gales & the Spaniards toward the hoter climates, & of the Eng­lish toward the colder by sea, and some other few by land, haue let men know the contrary. And indeed vntill very late times, the opinion so preuailed, of people of such strange figures, that Au­thors of good reckening,Munster. cosmogra. 5. receiued it for a truth, and left it so in their writings. For that conceit was continued frō hand to hand, which at the first did arise from this imagination, that in coun­tries so strange from the ordinary temperature must be people as farre differing from ordinary men; which ground being once layd downe, it was no hard thing for fancy, to frame very many shapes; which beleeued once by the simple, and being sometimes talked of,Hedodot. lib. 3. non cre­dit esse Ari­maspos. De Acepha­lis & Cyno­cephalis vt de bestijs lo­quitur. lib. 4. for the commonnesse of the fame were reported by some learned, which were in ancient times (yet doubtfully and o­therwise then their successours entertained them) but such as did come after them, tooke them vp for a truth well ratified, & so did set thē downe. Now this honest man, who gladly wold shrowd so vaine a tale vnder Saint Austens name, in kindnesse & good na­ture to the Friers in his Couent, very soberly & aduisedly profes­seth, that he had seene thē. And you know that one eye-witnesse, is better then ten other, who speake only by report. Very many such bastard broods,Viues de cau­sis corrupta­rum artium. Aug. de spi­ritu & anima. Meditat. T. 9. Sermones de Sanctis. T. 10 are fastned vpō the Fathers, besides here & there whole pages, & sentences shuffled in, & notes that were in the margēt, put afterward in the text, by this Frier & that Mōke, when their Nouices were appointed to transcribe their ancient copies. He that would see more of this, let him looke Lodouicus Viues, in his bookes De causis corruptarum Artium. Now in these forged writings, are many of those plaine places for prayers to any creature, and especially in Saint Austen, as in the booke De spiritu & anima; in his Meditations, and in his Sermons De [Page 211] sanctis, Vide Censu­ras Erasmi in hos libros. al which are expunged by the learned, and shut out from his true workes, as may be seene in the censures on them.

13 Yea but in their vndoubted works, there are many things to that purpose. Indeed I do not deny this: but yet take this with­all, that if we looke through their writings,Homil 3. in Cantica. a­pud Hyeron. T. 8. Omnes sancti qui de hac vi­ta decesserunt, si dicantur curam gerere salutis eorum, & juuare eos precibus suis atque inter­uentu apud Deum, non erit inconueniens. Gregor. Na­zianz. Orat. 29. & 31. Orat. 30. Iliic (que) vt opi­nor sacrificia pro nibis offert. Orat. 25. Quòd si quid nostros etiam honores curas, at (que) hoc prae­mij sanctis a­nimabus à Deo confertur vt ista persen­tiscant. Aug. de cura pro mortuis ge­renda ca. 13. Vt volet acci­piat quisque quod dicam. we shall find that they set it downe, so waueringly and doubtfully, that a sober man would be fearefull, to build his faith vpon it. In the eight Tome of Saint Hierome, are foure Homilies on the Canticles, supposed to be Origens, and translated by Saint Hierome. In the third of them I find this, All the Saints which are departed out of this life, hauing yet a loue toward those which are in this vvorld: if they should be sayd to take care of their safety or saluation, and to helpe them with their prayers and intercession to God, it shall not be in­conuenient. How cold a speech is this, It shall not be inconuenient. That great clerke Gregory Nazianzene, doth make a kind of prayer, both to the Virgin Mary, and vnto Athanasius: yet see whether in some other places, it be not as a scruple vnsatisfied in his mind, whether that the Saints did know, and take care of the affaires of their friends remaining on earth: when speaking of Basile lately dead, he vseth these words, But novv is Basile in heauen, & there as I do thinke offreth sacrifices for vs, & powreth prayers out for the people. He did not know it, but thought it. But speaking of Gorgonia, his owne sister departed, he expres­seth his doubt more plainly. And if thou do take care of the ho­nouring of vs, and if this reward be giuen by God vnto holy soules, that they shall perceiue these things, then receiue my prayer. If besides other mens opinions, he had bene resolued in it, what needed this If, and this doubting? But Saint Austen whom I honour aboue all the old, for his iudgement, when he canuas­seth this question, disputing it of purpose, and not slightly, or by the way, whether the soules departed hence, do know what is done here, how vncertaine is he in it, and rather propendeth to the Negatiue? Let euery man, saith he, take as himselfe will, that which I shall say, so seeming to crosse the streame, of that which was thē receiued. Then he inferreth three reasons; The first was, that if the dead did know our deedes, he certainely was per­swaded, that his mother Monica, who loued him so well while [Page 212] she liued, would sometimes haue appeared to him, and taught him something for his good. For God forbid, saith he, that she being now in a life of more felicity, should be growne cruell to­ward me▪ But he found that neither by dreame, nor vision, nor any apparition, she had euer bene present with him, and therfore 2 he much suspected, that she had no knowledge of him. Second­ly he citeth the place out of the Prophet Esay,Isay. 63.16. that Abraham is ignorant of vs, and Israel doth not know vs. And therefore not o­ther men.2. Reg. 22.20. Thirdly, that Iosias was taken away, that he might not 3 see the euill, which was to come vpon the lād, which if afterward he did see in soule in the heauens, his remoouing had bene in vaine.De cura pro mortuis ge­renda. cap. 15 Thus doth he dispute against it, and doth not answer his owne reasons otherwise, then that it may be said, that the depar­ted may be enformed, what is done here on earth by men, by the soules of other, which dye from hence, or by the Angels. So far off is this holie father, when he thinketh of the thing aduisedly, from pronouncing of any certaintie, which vnfallibly and vn­doubtedly will maintaine this suspected doctrine.

14 Next, to suppose that many of the Auncient, directly and conclusiuely did iumpe in the consent hereof (which cannot be found, as I haue shewed) yet were this a sure rule of truth? What, when the word of God doth giue no warrant for it? nay doth teach vs the contrarie, as before hath bene mentioned? Haue we not learned that lesson, to distinguish men from God? the inspired workes of the one, from the doubtfull words of the other? We hold nothing for Canonicall but the writ of the ho­ly Bible.Tit. 1.2. Rom. 3.4. August. con­tra Cresco­nium Gram. lib. 2. It is God which cannot lye: but euery man is a lier. Heare Saint Austen himselfe here: I hold not the Epistles of Cyprian for Canonicall, but I try them and examine them from the Canonicall Scripture. So to Fortunatianus, We are not to esteeme the disputings of any, yea although Catholike & cōmēdable men, Epistola. 111. Ad fortunat. Talis ego sum in scriptis alio­ru [...], tales vo­lo esse intelle­ctores meor [...]m. to be as the Canonicall Scriptures, so that, sauing the honour which is due to those men, we may not dislike and reiect any thing in their writings, if we find that they haue thought otherwise then the truth hath, as it shall by Gods helpe be vnderstood, either by other or our selues. Thus do I in the writings of others, and such vnderstanders of mine would I haue other men to be. Whatsoeuer [Page 213] then they shall teach, which hath not his foundation vpon the rocke of Gods truth, we leaue it and passe by it, and among other things, inuocation of Saints, or of any other creature. But yet this may be sayd farther, that from diuerse of the writings of the Auncient, it may be shewed, that this was by some of them held vnlawfull. Among the workes of Saint Ambrose, is found a cer­taine Commentary on Paules Epistle to the Romanes,Ambros. in Epist. ad Ro­manos. 1. and ther­in there is setdowne for an obiection, the reason of the Romish Church, that none dare to approch the persō of an earthly Prince for any sute, but by the intercession of some courtier, or other a­bout him: therfore it should be so of our part toward God, vnto whose mighty Maiesty, we must vse the mediatiō, of some which are in his fauor. The absurdnesse of this comparison, is answered there in a word,Quia homo v­tíque est Rex & nescit qui­bus debet Rēp. credere. that the reason is most vnlike, because Princes are men, & know not of themselues, to whom to commit the com­mon-wealth. He meaneth that they haue their power, and pre­sence, and vnderstanding limited, & they must be helped by the information of such as are knowne vnto them: but to God no­thing is secret; himselfe doth take notice of it. His conclusion at the last is,Ad Deum pro­merendum suf­fragatore non opus est, sed mente deuota. Orig. contra Celium lib. 1. & lib. 5. Omnia vota, omnes inter­pellationes, de­precationes & gratiarum actiones desti­nandae sunt ad Deum rerum omnium Do­minum. Hoc ipsum co­hibebit nequis audeat preces offerre nisi soli Domino Deo. that to win God vnto vs (from whom nothing lieth hid, but he knoweth the deserts of all men) we need not any to speake for vs, or to helpe vs in our prayer, but only a deuout mind. Ioyne hereto the witnesse of Origene. When Celsus had obiected, that first the Iewes and then the Christians, did worship and pray to Angels, Origene in his first booke against him doth disclaime it, but much more in the fifth booke, telling plainely, that God a­lone was to be prayed to, and not Angels. We are not bid to adore the Angels, or worship them with diuine honour, although they bring the gifts of God vnto vs. For all vowes, all requests, prayers, and thankesgiuings, are to be directed to God, who is the Lord of all things, by the chiefe Priest vvho is greater then all Angels, that is the liuing vvord and God. And hauing adioy­ned something of the vnknowne nature of the Angels, that we cannot comprehend it, he addeth, that this should restraine vs, that none should dare to offer prayers, but only vnto the Lord God, who alone is abundantly sufficient for all, through our Sauior the Son of God. He that listeth to read the place, shall find yet farther [Page 214] matter,Lactant. Di­uin. Instit. 2.17. Nullum sibi honorem tri­bui volunt, quorum honor in Deo est. Aug. de vera Religione cap. 55. Nec eis tem­pla construi­mus. Idem de ci­uitate Dei. lib. 8.27. 1. Cor. 6.19. Chrysost. de poenitentia. Homilia 5. In Deo nihil est tale. Sine mediatore exo­rabilis est, sine pecunia, sine impensa preci­bus annuit. making for my present purpose. Lactantius sayth that those Angels whose honour is in God, will haue no honour giuen to them. Yea Austen himselfe denieth that to Angels, to Martyrs and to Saints, which might as well be done, as to seeke to them in prayer. We build no Churches to Angels. And elsewhere sayth he, Who euer heard the Priest to say at the altar, I offer to thee a sacrifice, Peter or Paule or Cyprian? And is it more to build a materiall Church to them, then to offer to their seruice our bodies, which are the spirituall temple of the holy Ghost? Or to offer corporall sacrifice, then to offer spirituall sacrifice of prayer and inuocation? I wil end this whole matter with a saying of Chrysostome. Let vs still flye vnto God, who is both willing and able to ease our miseries. If we were to intreate men, we must first meete with the doore keepers, and perswade parasites and players, and oftentimes go a great way. But in God there is no such thing. Without a mediator he is to be intreated: without mony, without cost he yeeldeth to our prayers. Since then that men are so doubt­ful, but God himselfe is so peremptory, that nothing but the Tri­nity, is to be sought vnto by sacred inuocation, let the Church of Rome in this be distinguished from the Church of God, and let vs learne here of Ionas, when misery ouerwhelmeth vs, to pray only vnto the Lord. And thus farre of the Preface.

Affliction maketh men godly.

15 The prayer it selfe is long, and offereth much doctrine to vs, but in these two former verses three things may be obser­ued. 1 First that affliction is the meanes, to beate men vnto piety, I 2 cried in mine affliction. Secondly, that the misery of the Prophet was very great, from the belly of hell I cried, and all thy waues did 3 go ouer me. And thirdly that when he cried, the Lord did heare his voice, Thou heardest my voice. To touch them briefly as they lye. He that was contented before, quite to renounce his mai­ster: he that was so farre forgetfull, as that when he should haue gone, for his Lord to preach at Niniue, would take a course vnto Tarshus, about businesse of his owne: he that before was so har­dened, that he could sleepe most soundly, when he had more neede to awake: he that could giue leaue to the mariners, to pray to a God whom they knew not, but he himselfe was not so holy; [Page 215] being now in the fishes belly, so lashed & whipped with iustice, thinketh it not inough to pray, but he crieth out with great vehe­mency: in earnest & harty maner, not coldly or at all aduentures, as the hypocrites, who somtimes do slubber vp a few praiers; but with the soule and the mind, and with all the powers of his spirit. Oh the true force of the crosse, of calamity, and of misery, which maketh vs remember that, whereof else we should neuer thinke. God saith by his prophet Osee,Ose. 5 15. Isay. 17.7. that his people in their affliction would seeke him diligently. So when by his seruant Esay, he had threatned the crosse before, At that day sayth he, shall a man looke to his maker, and his eyes shall looke to the holy one of Is­rael. So in the time of the Iudges:Iudic. 6.6. Thus was Israel exceedingly impouerished by the Madianites, therefore the children of Israel cry vnto the Lord. The Scripture is very copious in examples of this kind, but yet hath none fitter then this of our Prophet. For he whō fauour could not mooue, to stand when he was vpright, the rod did force him to labour, to get vp againe when he was fallen. The prison could make him humble, whom liberty had en­raged. The darknesse in the whales belly, doth more bring him vnto light, euen the true and heauenly light, then the sight of Sunne or firmament. Thus restaint doth make him holy, to the great benefit of his soule, cleane contrary to that Prouerbe, Non vsquam belli carceres, Prisons are good in no place.

16 That, aduersity and the crosse, should be a dore to deuo­tion, is without question a Paradoxe to repining flesh & bloud, which doth euer loue to be in iolity; but yet vnto a Christian mā, it is a principle of a sound truth. For when we do luxuriate, and grow riotous in the gallantnesse of this world, and haue all things at our pleasure, we forget that God who made vs, who doth cause his Sun to shine on vs, and with the vntamed heyfer which is full fed, & growne perfectly wanton, we kicke against the sole author of our happinesse & beatitude; with the Magnificoes of the world, and great-mouthed Gloriosoes we do both cōtemne our brethren, and speake against the Highest. But affliction doth humble vs,2. Chron. 33.12. & make vs know our selues, as it did Manasses the king of Iuda, who being in chaines, did thriue more for his soule, then he did in his royall pallaces. It maketh to vs say with Dauid, [Page 116] O Lord, it is good for vs, that we haue bene in trouble. And with Ieremy lamenting,Psal. 119.71. Lament. 3.27. It is good for a man that he beare the yoke in his youth. When the soueraigne dispenser of all things, by his wisdom doth consider, that this is our case, by his sober and sage prouidence he somtimes sendeth prosperity, lest we should be discouraged, & broken by calamity, but he often sendeth aduer­sity to exercise vs here, lest we should be puffed vp by the abun­dance of his mercy. And while his hand is vpon vs, we which else are stiffe and stubburne,Liuius lib. 1. will in pliable maner bend. When Numa had broched in Rome, a set order of seruice vnto their heathen Gods, and had possessed the people with it, his successor Tullus Hostilius not only did neglect it, but contemned it, as accoun­ting that no one thing did lesse beseeme a king, then to yeeld himselfe to ceremonies, and sacrifices of religion. But when he dad proceeded long, and gone forward in this veine, a great pe­stilence grew in Rome, and himselfe lay afterward long langui­shing of a sicknesse. This did so abate the spirits, & plucke downe the hart of the king, that he who before despised al, did now yeeld himselfe, to all both great and small superstitions, and filled the peoples heads with a multitude of religions. Looke what effect these things had with him in his heathenish errours, the same in Christian obedience, doth tribulation bring to many of Gods e­lect; this only thing excepted, that these flye superstition. Those who in their yonger dayes, and in the strength of their time, haue scorned the word and the ministery, and haue made no kind of conscience of theft or fornication, but haue sucked them in as water, being afterward pinched with pouerty, or banishment, or imprisonment, or especially with sicknesse (which giueth a man right good leysure, if it be long and sharpe on him, to bethinke himselfe of his follies) with contrition of the hart, and compun­ction in great measure do flye vnto the Lord, and with many teares wash away the blacknesse of their iniquity.

17 Then they desire to be with God, and to leaue this vale of misery, which lately they embraced as their greatest treasure, and preferred it before their owne saluation; and the delight whereof they would yet haue followed after, but that misery and calamity did enforce them otherwise. Wherein we may well [Page 217] obserue, that nothing so much as affliction doth make vs loue our end, by loathing the bitter potions which we daily do tast of. When Elias was chased by Iezabel, and was comfortlesse in the wildernesse,1. Reg. 19.4. he crieth: Now it is enough, Lord take away my soule, for I am no better then my fathers. But if this gall and wormewood were turned into sugred hony, we should not ha­sten from this place; but yet we be not readie; stay a little, and a little.Plutarch. in Pelopida. Plutarke in his Pelopidas, telleth that Antigonus had a souldier, who being vexed with an ill disease, and so loathing to liue, was alwaies formost in his seruices, were it skirmish or o­ther fight, and was so resolute, as no man in the army. The Ge­nerall much liking this, cast such an affection to the valure of the man, that to his great expence, he caused him to be cured, who held himselfe lately incurable. But then looking that his souldier should be forward as before, he found him to do far otherwise, and now neuer offer to come in daunger. Asking the reason of this, his souldier maketh him answere, that now he had some­what to loose, that was a healthfull and sound bodie, with which he should grieue to part; but before when he was in miserie, he had thought his case should haue bene very happie, if he might haue bene dead and buried. The wisedome of the Almightie did foresee that in vs, which Antigonus found but afterward, that we who in anguish and persecution, do desire the company of the elect,Philip. 1.23. who are triumphant in heauen, and with Saint Paule do long to be dissolued, would lye groueling in prosperitie, as tyed and glued to the ground; and therefore in his loue he doth whip vs oftentimes, that we may seeke vnto him, that we may sue to be with him.

18 This is one great occasion, wherfore the Lord doth send his chastisemēt vpon vs; & yet in the meane while also he doth aime at this, that we tasting of that bitternesse, which other things yeeld vnto vs, may euermore fly to him by prayer & meditatiō; may be reposed on him, when other things do annoy vs, when o­ther things do affright vs.Chlrysost in Psa. 114. It is a good comparison, which Chry­sost. hath in this case, that mothers do vse with vizards & bug­beares, to fright their vnruly children, to make thē fly to their lap, not willing to hurt the infants, but to make them sit close by them. [Page 218] So God desiring to ioyne vs fast to himself, being a true louer of vs, doth permit that oftentimes we are brought to such necessitie, that perpetually we may intend to prayer and calling vpon him, and lea­uing all other things, be onely carefull of him. Such an attractiue violence, and violent attraction is in the crosse, to draw vs as wel as Ionas vnto the Lord. Happy men if we could see it, and make that benefite of it, which if we will not learne at first, he will come againe vnto vs, and double his rods vpon vs, if we belong to his election. In the meane time we must learne, with patience to suffer whatsoeuer commeth from the Lord: since besides all other vses, it bringeth that good vnto vs, as to driue vs to our duties, and obedience to our God. Our land hath long felt the sweetnesse of the Lords distilling grace, prosperitie, peace, and plentie, which maketh men forget the authour of their felicitie. They with the Oxe, haue tasted the fodder that lieth before thē, but they haue not thought of the giuer. Oh the blockishnesse of our nature, who returne to God little loue, for his great loue vn­to vs. Our neighbours of Fraunce and Flaunders, haue drunke of another cuppe, and haue taken another course. Some yeares now past, religion and true faith hath bene oppugned in France. Edicts haue bene made, that the Protestants or Huguenots, as they call them, should get them out of that countrie, within such a time or such a space, vnder perill of their liues. Thousands of them haue fled, and left their natiue countrie, but not the care of their countrie; for although they were elsewhere, wishing still good to Sion, they haue harkened after the aduentures of that Church and commonwealth, and haue found both to be in hazard. Many inuasions and great slaughters, and ciuill warres in that land, wherein those that haue bene the pillars of religion in that countrey, haue bene oftentimes shrewdly shaken. This hath caused them, as London doth well know, to assemble thē ­selues together in their Churches, with solemne fasts and pray­ers, which of likelyhood they had not done, but that they saw themselues to be fallen into most perillous times. These assem­blies and these fasts, being many more then we haue had, did argue that more affliction was on them then on vs, which made them so to cry. I would that we might learne by their example [Page 219] to be wise, before that we be stricken. But if peace do lull vs asleepe, the rod it is which can awake vs. That we find by our Prophets case, in whome the next thing which I obserued is the greatnesse of his calamitie.

The greatnesse of his misery.

19 In the last place I haue noted, that misery mindeth God vnto vs. Then the greater our miserie is, the more is our mind on our maker. If this be true, our Ionas might well cry to the Lord, for great and exceeding troubles were at this time shew­ed vnto him. He saith that he was in hell, yea in the belly and midst of hell, and in the third verse plainer, that he was throwne into the bottome, [...] in the very heart of the sea, for so it is in the He­brew, that all the flouds had passed ouer him, all the surges and all the waues. What can be expressed more horrible, then this was vnto Ionas? [...] The word which is vsed here is Sheol, which sometimes doth note the graue vnto vs, and other some times hell, and that double signification, together with the like in some few other words, doth cause that question so oft handled, of the manner of Christs descending into hell. But partly because I loue not to extrauagate from my text, (although occasion be here well offered by the nature of the word bearing so plaine a difference) but especially in a desire of vnitie in our Church, least some by contradiction should gainesay, whatsoeuer is vt­tered in this argument, (so apt are we to be iarring, which I wish were otherwise) I passe ouer that point in silence; onely obseruing vnto the weake, that we all do hold the Article of Christs descense into hell, but the disagreement is in the manner of his descending, and how that should be expounded. The Pro­phets words here import, that he was in the fishes belly, as a mā might be in his graue, without light, without sight, in darknesse and discomfort, neuer hoping more to liue, then a man who was dead and buried. Or else that he felt in himselfe such anguish of his conscience, because Gods wrath did follow him, and because he knew that himselfe had deserued euerlasting torment, that now he was so tortured, (with an Hyperbole speaking of it) as if he had bin in hell. The Chaldee Paraphrase here hath a word, signifying a bottomelesse pit, which intendeth to vs, that the sea [Page 220] was very deepe, wherein he was, as if he had bene drowned. And this may be an argument, that the sea was very deep there, that the whale which deuoured him was there, whose greatnesse was such and so huge, that it would require much water. The whale swimmeth not in the shallowes, neither can remaine in the foords.

20 The greatnesse of this danger, so amplified by the Pro­phet in many parts of his song, first could not chuse but much dismay him, and fright him home for the present; for what could he thinke of himselfe? that drowned he was, and not drowned; eaten vp and not deuoured; and yet for euery moment, in case to come to his end, besides the pangs of his soulefearing eternall death. Secondly, when afterward he had by the mercie of God escaped from destruction, it might be a great remembrance and testimonie to him, of the fauour of the Lord. For the greater was his daunger, the greater was his deliuerance. Neither doth that man euer know, what it is to be freed from miserie, who was neuer like to feele it. To be brought to the pits brinke, and then and there to be stayed; nay to be in the midst of death, and there to be kept from dying, must needes vrge in the patient, a medi­tation of thankfulnesse. That consideration of Ammianus Mar­cellinus in his storie,Ammianus Marcellinus lib. 15. Illa qualitas vitae non tan­tum habet sen­sum. is very good, that although it be a matter exceedingly to be wished for, that fortune would continue in flou­rishing state vnto vs, yet that quality of life hath not that feeling with it, as whē frō a desperate & very hard estate, we are recalled to a better fortune. We better know what health is, when sick­nesse hath much broken vs. We know what it is, to haue store of clothing and competent foode, if hunger and thirst and na­kednesse, do for a time assaile vs. It is a prety reason (although the practise thereof were bad) which Herodotus saith,Herodotus lib. 3. that the Samian tyrant Polycrates did vse to make. He very much exer­cised piracie and robberie, as well by land as sea, and his cu­stome was to spoile his friends as much as his enemies; whereof he assigned that cause, that when he shold vnderstand afterward, that his friend was robbed of any thing, he might gratifie that friend more, in restoring what he had lost, then if he had taken nothing from him. I do not commend his thieuing; but his rea­son [Page 221] had wit & meaning. God knoweth that whē himselfe taketh from vs such things as are not ours, (we are but his disposers, or as tenants at will vnto him) he maketh vs so much the more em­brace his mercie, who hath sent grace in wretchednesse, and pre­sent comfort in extremitie. Our Prophet in his suffering, had good experience of these things, which maketh him the rather breake forth into a song of thankesgiuing.

21 Thou hadst cast me into the bottome, in the very midst of the sea, as if he should haue said, now it is otherwise, and the more am I beholding to thee. Where also obserue his speech, that he referreth all his punishment to the hand of the Lord. He speaketh not of the mariners, by whose meanes it was done, much lesse doth he reuile them, as in our time wicked offending persons oft do to the magistrates, or Iudges, or other officers, who do but see that to be done, which iust law layeth vpon thē, and they wilfully haue deserued. But Ionas passing by the instru­ment and meanes whereby God wrought, seeketh vnto the fountaine and originall of the deede. He acknowledgeth that his maker was he who was offended; that his hand had corrected him; that his wrath must be satisfied; but by all other he passeth. That euill Ioram did not so,2. Reg. 6.31. when his citie of Samaria was op­pressed with a famine so grieuous, that the mother did eate her owne child, which extremity it is likely, that the Prophet Elizae­us did foretell should fall vpon them, for the greatnesse of their sin. But then he, in stead of looking vpward to God, whom he should haue sought vnto by fasting and by prayer, turneth his anger on the Prophet, the minister of the Almightie, and vow­eth himselfe to much euill, if innocent Elizaeus were not put to death that day. Blind man who could not looke higher, and see whose messenger the Prophet was. How much better was Iobs behauiour? for when newes was brought vnto him, that the Sa­bees and Chaldeans, by violence and strong hand, had taken a­way his Oxen, and robbed him of his Camels, he did not straight way curse those sinners, and wish much euill on them, but not so much as naming them, did fasten his thoughts on God, and imputed all vnto him,Iob. 1.21. saying most patiently, The Lord hath gi­uen, and the Lord hath taken it; blessed be the name of the Lord. [Page 222] I would that men in our time, could carry his resolution. When ought amisse doth befall them, to haue recourse to the Highest, and to suppose that either he doth trie them, or doth punish thē for their sinnes, or hath some other good purpose. But we ra­ther run to any thing, then that which most doth vrge vs; oft surmising that which is not, and suspecting those that be inno­cents. And if we can find the meanes, whereby all is brought a­bout, we double our force on that; this witch hath killed my beasts; this wicked man hath vndone me; this mightie man hath crossed me: I would he were in his graue, or some mischiefe else were on him. Indeed I do not deny, but that the euill are of­tentimes the rods of God, to chasten good men withall, but yet thinke thou euermore, that his hand is it which effecteth all, & that his stroke is in the action, Fasten thy eyes on him, and with sighing and true repentance, seeke to appease his wrath; and thē the meanes shall not touch thee, no wicked thing shall haue po­wer ouer thee. But let this be thy song, to vtter foorth with the Prophet, thou hadst cast me into the water, thou hast layed this crosse vpon me.

3 22 The third circumstance now remaining, is that God did heare his prayer. I cryed in mine affliction, and thou heardest me, and againe, O Lord thou heardst my voice. You see that his woe was exceeding, and after the common course of sorrow it droue him vnto his maker; it enforced him to pray. Where behold, the comfort is, that he did not loose his labour: the Lord did heare his voice. This euermore is his propertie, to attend to those who sollicite him: to respect those who call on him. I called on the Lord in trouble, Psalm. 118.5. saith Dauid, and the Lord heard me at large. So by Ieremie his seruant, God promiseth to the Iewes, and in them to all his Saints, you shall cry to me, and shall go and pray to me, Ier. 29.12.13 and I will heare you. And you shall seeke and find me. So res­pectiue is the Lord to those who fly to him, which sheweth his great prerogatiue aboue all heathen idols, who may be derided with Baal,1. Reg. 18.27 that either they are busie in following of their enemies, or asleepe and must be awaked, but surely they cannot heare. But e­specially to vs it is comfort in extremity, that if sicknesse, or pin­ching pouertie, or malice of any man, nay if pangs of death do [Page 223] hurt vs, or if in the soule which is our better part, temptation o­uercharge vs, and Satans darts hardly driue at vs, if we call vn­to that Lord,Apoc. 1.18. who can bind and loose, and hath the keyes of hell and of death, he can rid vs and deliuer vs. Yea he so yeeldeth to our prayers,Cyprian. de caena Dom. Quoties te in conspectu Do­mini video sus­pirantem, Spi­ritum sanctū non dubito as­pirantem. August. de tempore. Sermon. 226. Oratio iusti clauis est coeli. Ascendit pre­catio & des­cendit Dei mi­seratio. Cum sensibus loquitur si si [...] solus noster gemitus. that they shall not returne in vaine, but comfort at the least, and patience in our miseries, shall be bestowed vpon vs. It is a good speech in Cyprian, if that tract be his De caena Domini. In the presence of Christ, our teares which are neuer su­perfluous, do beg a pardon for vs: neither euer doth the sacrifice of a contrite heart take repulse. As often as in Gods sight I see thee to be sighing, I doubt not but the holy Ghost doth breath vpō thee; when I see thee weeping, then I perceiue him pardoning. This should be a great instigation, that when any thing doth oppresse vs, be it inward or be it outward, we should runne vnto the Lord. So may also be that of Austen: The prayer of the righte­ous is the key of heauen. Prayer ascendeth vp, and Gods mercie descendeth down. Although the earth be low, and the heauen high, the Lord doth heare the tong of man, if he haue a cleane consci­ence. It speaketh with feeling, if it be but onely our sigh. A showre of the eyes is sufficient for his eares: he doth sooner here our wee­ping then our speaking.

23 I doubt not but all the faithfull do find this easily in thē ­selues, that when they do lay open their soules before the Lord, as Ezechias did the letters of Sennacherib,2. Reg. 19.14 & when they do ear­nestly pray, a deaw of consolation, of most blessed consolation, is distilled downe vpon them, whereby they are assured, that they haue to deale with a father, who seeth their fraile infirmities, and hath compassion on them.Psal. 103.13. Yea as a father doth pitie his children, so hath the Lord compassion on all that do feare him, for he know­eth wherof we be made, he remembreth that we are but dust. He knoweth vs to be most ignorant, & most foolish, and vnfit for all goodnesse, very impotent and vnable, to keepe off wrong from our selues. He knoweth this & considereth it, & as euermore he supporteth vs, & keepeth vs to himself as the apple of his eye, gi­uing when we demand not, & more then we thinke on; so if we lift vp our voyces, & powre out our complaints before him, he will neuer faile vs seeking him. Onely this he claimeth of vs, [Page 224] that we aske that which is fit,Iacob. 4.3. not vanities or impieties, or to bestow vpon our lustes; for he denyeth these things to vs, and 2 our faith hath no warrant, to aske such requests of the Lord. And againe, that in those things which are lawfull, we appoint no time vnto him,Chrysost. in Psalm. 129. but in humility waite his leysure. For as Chry­sostome doth teach vs, If to giue be in Gods power, it is also in his power to giue when he thinketh good, and the time he best knoweth himselfe. If we do well keepe these things, and earnest­ly and vncessantly do make our complaints before him, he will deale with vs as he did with Ionas, he will certainely heare our voice. Lord send vs a mind to serue thee, that by wilfull dis­obedience, we plucke not thy punishments on vs: and if we do turne from thee, draw vs backe to thy selfe, rather by thy temporall roddes, being laid on vs in great measure, then by heaping earthly pleasures, thou shouldst suffer vs so to be cho­ked with them, that we should fall from thee vtterly. Do thou chastise vs and correct vs in iugdement, not in furie, and there graunt vs a mind to see, who it is that doth strike vs, that so we may pray to thee, to be eased in our affliction. And of thy mer­cie adde this, euermore to heare our prayer, that so passing this troublesome life, with fast hold layed on thy promises, we may come at length to thy kingdome, to the which ô Father bring vs, for thine owne Sonne Christ his sake, to whom with thee, and thy Spirite, be glorie and praise for euer.

To the Reader.

GOOD Reader, the words of the text in the former Le­cture, ministred me occasion to shew, who it is to whom our prayers are to be directed, that is God alone; and consequently, that we should not vse any inuocation of Saints. But in the han­dling of that question so largely, out of the Fathers of the primi­tiue Church, my purpose was not onely to settle the ignorant for their beliefe concerning that point, but withall by example there­of to let the simpler sort see, what is to be conceiued in other que­stions disputed betweene vs and the Church of Rome. For the same may be said concerning the Primacie of Peter, the merite of [Page 225] works, free will, prayer for the dead, Purgatorie, & the most part of those controuersies which now a daies are handled. They take on them to maintaine many of their positions if not directly out of the Scriptures, yet from probable shewes out of some of the old Fa­thers, who were great lights after the time of the Apostles. But first, many bookes pretended to belong to that reuerend age, are 1 counterfeits, and start vp since the liues of those graue and godly writers; and from these are many of the allegations taken. Second­ly 2 the very auncient Fathers receiued some things as true with­out discussing, whereinto when themselues vpon speciall occasions did iudiciously looke, they were either of a contrarie opinion to their former, or spake faintly and doubtfully. Thirdly, that 3 which some of them taught was contradicted by other, and so one part must needs erre. Fourthly, they were not so led by the imme­diate 4 Spirit of God, as those Secretaries of the holy Ghost, who deliuered the canonicall Scriptures to the world: & therfore they are no farther to be allowed, then where they consent with the most sacred written word; and that is their owne iudgement of them­selues. Lastly, there are many places cited by Bellarmine, Staple­ton,5 and other the aduersaries of the Gospell, which when they are diligently looked into, and weighed by all circumstances, do not purport that for the which they are produced. Of all which ob­seruations it is easie to giue diuerse examples. This I thought good to note, lest weake brethren or credulous preiudicate persons shold be too much abused, with the misapplied name of the old and most renoumed Church.

And whereas I haue shewed my opinion concerning the suppo­sed strange shapes of men in many quarters of the world, if anie should vrge any authour of former or later age against that my assertion, in one word I account them all in that point to be fabu­lous, and onely to haue receiued such rumours and vniustifiable traditions from hand to hand: although some of them, thinking thereby to procure to themselues the fame of men farre tra­uelled, do aduouch that they haue seene such. In our dayes God hath giuen light, & therfore let vs not still delight to be in blind­nesse. Onely this one scruple is to be remooued away, that whereas cōstant report hath auerred this to be so, in some one part of Peru, [Page 226] is the South portion of the West and lately found Indies; & some men of good iudgement, whose aduentures for nauigation that way, haue nobilitated the discoueries performed or attempted by our English nation, haue with firme credence entertained that for a very truth; yet as I esteeme, they may easily satisfie them­selues in that behalfe, by the full and sufficient report of Pedro de Cieca in his first part of the Chronicles of Peru, chapter 26. who being a Spaniard borne, and now more then fiftie yeares agone hauing spent seuenteene yeares in his personall peregrination ouer that countrey, sheweth that not farre from the Line, yea in more places of Peru then one, there are people who being borne in na­turall shape as other men, yet do take their infants when they are but a few dayes old, and by certaine deuises which they haue, as with frames of wood and binding or swathing do make the head of such fashion as they would, as some to be very long, and some to be so crushed together that they haue no neckes, but their heads seeme to be immediate parts of the trunke of their bodies. And this contenteth me for the veritie of that matter, and I doubt not but so it will to all other, who desire in their minds to be per­swaded of things as indeed they be, and not as sometimes they seeme.


The chiefe poynts. 1. Comfort here offered to the languishing soule. 3. What it is to be cast from Gods sight. 4. The feare of Ionas. 5. The elect cannot perish. 7. How Ionas is recouered by faith 8. and re­pentance. 9. His desire to see the Temple. 11. How the Church should be frequented. 12. Against those that abstaine from it. 13. The conflict in the Prophets conscience. 14. Grieuous tem­ptation is common to the godly. 16. Why temptation is necessary. 17. God doth protect vs in it. 18. The benefite which redoun­deth to vs by it. 19. Helps against temptation.

Ionah. 2.4.

Then I said, I am cast avvay out of thy sight: yet I will looke a­gaine toward thy holy Temple.

MAny are the instructions which this Prophecie hath yeelded in the hearing of most of you: aduer­tisements and warnings against sinne; disputati­ons against Atheisme; obseruations against Pa­pisme; in the person of the mariners, comparisons of Gentiles with vs that be Christians; and doctrines of diuerse sorts, as Gods spirit from time to time hath assisted me. But for informing of the conscience of a languishing sinner, who gro­neth vnder the burthen of heauinesse and casting downe; and is almost swallowed vp in the gulfe of desperation, by reason of the feare of Gods displeasure for sin that hangeth vpon him, (which things oftentimes befall some of the little ones of Christ Iesus) no one matter in this Prophecie is more apparantly fruitfull, or more worthie consideration, then that which I haue now read. For what can be more wholesome then Phisicke to the sicke, or remedie to him that is readie to perish? And who is more like [Page 228] to perish, then he who feeleth no rest either inwardly or out­wardly, in bodie or in mind, but as it were gasping for breath, doth daily long for comfort in the middest of great distresses; his case being this, that sinne egerly insulteth, Satan fiercely impug­neth, and his conscience beareth witnesse against his owne soule, that in right iustice should destroy it. To the reliefe of which tender ones, as I could wish that our speech were oftner directed, (for it is a needfull argument to be handled, and bles­sed is that speech which bindeth vp the broken, and giueth life to the dying) so the example of my Ionas doth fitly remember me to speake to this purpose, because he is as a glasse for all such to looke in, and thereby to see themselues, and in his case to helpe themselues, with the good assistance of that Spirit who herein is all in all.

2 For in this man may be seene, a most vehement and for­cible conflict betweene faith and feare; betweene hope and des­paire, betweene sinne and grace: on this hand the flesh sinking with distrustfulnesse into the bottome of hell, being like to ac­knowledge it selfe a forlorne creature, a cast-away from God, a reprobate from the promises,Genes. 4.13. Matth. 27.4. as if it were some Cain or some Iudas: but on the other hand, the spirit foorthwith mounting into the bosome of the Sauiour, and there apprehending mercie by remission of all iniquities, and forgiuenesse of all transgressi­ons. In the meane while, amidst the one raising vp, and the other hanging downe, is a combat of such bitternesse, as maketh the endurer of it, in the heate of the fishes stomacke oft times to quake for cold, and in the cold of the sea, oft times to sweate for heate. Manie feuers and agues cannot shake him, as his owne heart doth now shake him: his boiling is like the fire: his torture is like the hell. How many crownes and kingdomes? what thou­sands of gold and siluer? what heapes of precious stones? how many lands and seas, and whole worlds would he giue, if they were now in his power, to be freed from such a torment, as forced him with extremitie to say as here he said, I am cast away from thy sight, I am but a damned reprobate. A very fearefull thought, & yet recouered again by confidence in Gods mercie, which faileth not his at need; so that thereby he is encou­raged, [Page 229] to hope that he shall see Hierusalem, the sanctuarie of the Lord, and his temple once againe. Which recouerie of his shold make vs much admire Gods mercie; and yet withal teach vs, to worke out our saluation in great feare and great trem­bling. But because this text doth note vnto vs some doctrine besides this, and the illustration of that doth make a way for my purpose, I will first touch the other, obseruing in the generall words, these three things to be handled. First the deiection of 1 our Prophet, I am cast out of thine eyes. Secondly his arising vp 2 from that motion, and new assurednesse of Gods fauour. Yet I will looke againe toward thy holy temple. And thirdly by a com­paring 3 of the one of these with the other, the great conflict in his conscience.

I am cast away out of thy sight.

3 The Antithesis put betweene the casting away from the 1 sight of his God, and the beholding of his temple, is not to be taken coldly, as if it intended barely, that now he did not see the temple indeede, but he should see it againe: that now he had lost his countrey, but after his deliuerance the time should come, that he should returne thither, as if he had made this accompt and no more, that for a while he was depriued of some temporall fauours, or terrestriall benedictions, but should be restored: for this had bene little, and in comparison as no­thing. But it signifieth a suspition, and mistrust of the losse of all Gods loue, a putting out of his protection, a reiecting or ca­sting off to wrath and eternall damnation. For the eyes of God, being taken in good part in the Scripture, do still import his fauour, and in his fauour is life, and happinesse, and felicitie spi­rituall and celestiall.Deut. 11.10.12. Moses saith of the land of Canaan, that it was not as the land of Egypt from vvhence they came, that is a place hatefull to him, inhabited with idolaters, but the eyes of the Lord God are alwaies vpon this, that is to say, his gracious loue, from the beginning of the yeare, euen vnto the end of the yeare. 1. Reg. 9.3. So God promiseth to Salomon, in behalfe of the Tem­ple at Ierusalē, I haue hallowed this house (which thou hast built) to put my name there for euer, and mine eyes and my hart shal be there perpetually, that is my most kind blessing, & the presence of [Page 230] my grace.Psal. 31.22. So Dauid, I said in my hast I am cast out of thy sight, that is, I am depriued of thy sweete assistance. And in another place,Psal. 34.15. The eyes of the Lord are vpon the righteous. As much as he doth tender them, and cherish them with his prouidence. It is the feare of our Prophet, lest the kindnesse of his maker, wherewith he had embraced him, should be vtterly taken from him, and now nothing but hell fire and brimstone should re­maine for him, to plague him in another world.

4 The heauinesse of the hand of God, which had followed after him with that rigour: the multiplicitie of his punishment, by a tempest while he was in the ship, by drowning in the sea, and by imprisonment in the whale, the horrour of his transgres­sion, and disobedience toward his God, the remembraunce of that grace before, from which he was now fallen, of a Prophet to become a runnagate, do so amate his heart, that when he thin­keth of himselfe, he resolueth as a despairing abiect, that he hath no fellowship in the inheritance of Gods Saints, but that as an outlaw, he was quite to be secluded from the coue­nant. So that now either he supposeth, that he belongeth not to Gods election, and that he had neuer bene booked, in the re­gister of those Saints, which were appointed vnto life, or that the Lord as a man doth varie and repent, and had altered his purpose concerning him. The first was against himselfe, to thinke himselfe to be a reprobate, appointed and predestina­ted before hand vnto euill. And how wofull a thought was that, to perswade his soule, that nothing belonged vnto him but damnation? The second was against the Highest, that his counsels should depend vpon our mutabilitie, as if his eternall purpose and decree, which is from euerlasting, were tyed to our well doing, and did not much rather dispose vs, and inable vs to do well, Whomsoeuer he ordaineth to the kingdome, he doth teach the way to that kingdome. Christ Iesus who is the life,Ioh. 14.6. is also the way: he that giueth the one, graunteth the other. Where he intendeth to bestow the end, there he doth first bestow the meanes,Ephes. 1.4. which shall leade to that end. We are chosen not being holy, but that we should be holy. God then contemplating in himselfe, his counsell which is immutable, [Page 231] retaineth still his secret purpose, and whom he hath once cho­ [...]en, that man he chooseth euer.Iohan. 13.1. Whome he loueth, he loueth to the end, neither doth he for euermore cast one of his little ones out of his sight.

5 Then it is a wrong opinion, either of the Papist teaching, or the Prophet here mistrusting, that any of Gods faithfull ones,1. Sam. 19.24 can be finally cast away. Saule may haue a spirite of Pro­phecie, and Iudas another spirit of doing miracles, and both of these may come to naught: but where the spirite of adoption, that spirite of sanctification, hath once made his residence, it doth euer inhabite there. The child of God shall be brought to repentance, and acknowledgement of his fault, to confession and contrition, and faith and hope and glorie, through many seas of temptation, and downefals of despaire, through Vrias his death with Dauid,2. Sam. 11.17 Matth. 26.70 through denying of Christ with Peter. Either youth or age, life or death, in him that is elected, shall apprehend the promises.Mat. 20.5.6. Be it the ninth houre, or the eleuenth houre, yet there shall be a time. The Eternals beneplacitum, shall haue his effect vndoubtedly. And although that holy man Moses,Exod. 32 32. Rom. 9.3. can desire to be razed out of Gods booke, rather then his people should perish, and Saint Paule wisheth that he might be accursed, to saue those which were his countreymen in the flesh: yet this shall but shew their great zeale, and loue vnto their brethren, as also their earnestnesse for Gods glorie, which they thought might more appeare by sauing of a mul­titude, then by their priuate safetie: but this tainteth not Gods decree, who will certainely make vp his worke, where­soeuer he beginneth it. And if the Spirit of the Almightie, doe in some places of the Scripture,Psal. 69.28. speake of blotting out of that booke, which is the booke of life, this is not by and by to be ta­ken literally, but that God therein doth frame himselfe to our capacitie, as sometimes in like sort he attributeth a foote or hand, or eare or eye, to his owne diuine Maiestie. In all which, & other places of the same qualitie,Origen. con­tra Celsum. lib. 7. the speech of Origene is most true, that as the most ciuill man if he were to goe among Barbarians, (as suppose the Moores or Tartarians) had neede to learne the language of that people, if he meane to speake [Page 232] vnto them, or do any good among them, so when the Lord would teach vs in the Scriptures, he contempereth his phrases to our capacitie, and speaketh to vs in our owne toung. And this he doth in the case in question, resoluing by the speech of wiping out of Gods booke, an assurednesse that they shall neuer haue anie portion in the fellowship of eternitie. But if it seemed vnto anie, that they were likely to be of the number of the elect, yet that seeming should be frustrate. Notwith­standing, the purpose of his good pleasure, in truth is neuer varied.

6 Then whosoeuer is once growne vnto that measure of faith, that vpon a setled knowledge, he can meditate in him­selfe of Gods true loue toward him, and can satisfie his owne soule, not with a foolish lightening, or hastie fond perswasion, (which may befall an hypocrite, or temporarie beleeuer) but with a resolued confidence, that his God is his father also, and dareth to cry Abba,Rom. 8.15. father; that he is sealed vp by his maker, against the day of redemption; that he is one of that num­ber, whome Christ hath bought with his bloud; that whe­ther he liue or dye, yet euermore he is the Lords; that neither death nor life, 38 nor Angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor things present, nor things to come, no that neither hell nor diuell shall be able to separate him, from the loue of God, which is in Christ Iesus our Lord, this man neede not stand in feare of casting out of Gods sight, or perishing from his fauour. And if that his sinne, or Satan sometimes suggest the contrarie, or his owne heart do discourage him, this is but a temptation, which notwithstanding must be strong­ly resisted, with heartie and earnest prayer. For the infallible word of God hath taught vs to say with Saint Paule, if God be on our side, 31 what matter vvho be against vs? And God iustifieth: 33 vvho shall condemne? And with Saint Iohn in his first Epistle:1. Ioh. 5.13. [...]5.19. Heb. 6.11. [...]. I vvrite those things that ye may knovv that ye haue eternall life, And vve know that he heareth vs, And vve know that vve are of God. We doe not rest vpon our selues this full certaine perswasion, this assurednesse of hope, for that were to build on the sand, that were [Page 233] to leane on a reede, which breaketh and the splints thereof do run into the hand: but we stay it vpon the power of God, and on the loue of our Christ, from the hands of whom, none are able to plucke that away, which they haue chosen. In confi­dence of this, a man may be bold to say, although I be sicke yet God is mighty: although I be weake yet Christ is strong: looke what is too light in my flesh, that his Spirit doth make vp. His grace is sufficient for me.2. Cor. 12.9. Bernard. de 7. misericor­dijs. Serm. 3. Charitatem adoptionis, ve­ritatem pro­missionis, po­testatem red­ditionis. I dare to say with Saint Ber­nard (and it is an excellent saying,) Three things I consider vvherein my hope doth consist, the loue of his adoption, the truth of his promise, the power of his performance. Novv let my foo­lish cogitation murmure as long as it vvill, saying, Who art thou, or knowest thou hovv great that glorie is, or by vvhat merites thou hopest to obtaine it? And I vvill aunswer bold­ly, I knovv vvhom I haue trusted, and I am assured that in ve­ry great loue he adopted me, and that he is true in his promises and able in his performance: for he can do vvhat he vvill. This is that strong foundation whereon we may build safely: this is the stay of a Christian, vnto the measure whereof, if any shall find that yet he hath not attained, let him pray to God to enlarge his knowledge and vnderstanding. But let vs most firmely hold this, that whom he hath once chosen, to a true fee­ling of his grace, he doth neuer vtterly cast them away, from his sight and good fauour. This then was the fault of our Ionas, and argued in him great infirmity, when he broke foorth into this passion which sauoured so of desperation. And so much of this matter.

Yet vvill I looke againe toward thy holy Temple.

7 You haue now seene him at the worst: for worse he 2 could not well be; a prisoner in a straunge dungeon, without light, without company, without comfort in a whales belly, so disquieted in his anguish, that he accounteth himselfe a reprobate, and inheritour of hell fire. He had bene a wofull man if he had stayed here, disgraced and left by his Sauiour: but as his soule was departing, he fetcheth it backe againe with a sigh and gaspe of faith. He plucketh in the reine of his owne heart; he giueth the checke to himselfe; he recouereth in [Page 234] the instant, when he was in the pits mouth, ready to sinke eter­nally. This sheweth that in former time he had bene vsed to temptation: being practised in Gods seruice, he knew well what belonged to faith, when he did so soone apprehend it. He was not ignorant that he had offended, and offended a fearefull God; yet such a one as would haue compassion vpon a repenting sin­ner. This griefe of his, was sustained by a trust in Gods free pro­mises, who hath sayd, that if the wicked will returne from all his sinnes that he hath committed, Ezech. 18.21.22. and keepe all his statutes, and do that which is lawfull and right, he shall surely liue, and shall not dye. All his transgressions that he hath committed, shall not be mentioned vnto him. The two wings of faith and repentance, do mount him vp into heauen, euen from the gates of hell. His faith kept him from blasphemy, that in the heate of his extremi­ty, he had still a mind to God: which maketh him speake vnto him, not as the despairing miscreant, whose maner is to speake of God in the third person, not to God; he hateth me, he plagueth me, he detesteth me, he doth not loue me, which words argue no hope remaining; but in his bitternesse he turneth his speech vnto the Lord, I am cast away from thy sight, I will looke againe to thy Temple, so in want of hope shewing a hope, a con­fidence in a diffidence. This is the fruite of beleeuing the sweete mercy of our Sauiour, that in the day of sorest triall, it is able to keepe vs vpright, who else should fall downe groueling. As a ship without his ballace, is tilted & tossed at sea, and cannot en­dure the waue, so is that soule right vnstable, and euery houre apt to perish, which hath not faith in temptation. It is written of the Cranes, that when they do intend in stormy and troublesome times,Solinus cap. 15. to flye ouer the seas, fearing lest by the blasts of the wind, their bodies which be but light, should be beaten into the sea, or kept from the place whither they be desirous to go, they swal­low some sand, and little stones into their bellies, whereby they are so moderately peized, that they are able to resist the wind. While we do crosse this troublesome world of sinne and great temptation, it is faith which must be our ballace, it is faith which must preserue vs equably vpright, or recouer vs when we are going. Now it stood the Prophet in steede, in the bottome and [Page 235] depth of misery; to haue feeling what belonged to beleeuing vpon the Lord.

8 This beleefe inferred repentance, which is acceptable in great measure to our most gracious father. As he scorneth not the weake man falling, so he embraceth him that riseth; which point Nouatus and his fellowes, with their hard harts did deny. If the prodigall sonne can say,Luc. 15.21. good father I haue sinned against heauen and before thee, and am no more worthy to be called thy sonne, he runneth to him, and falleth on him, and kisseth him as his beloued. He liketh in vs a sorrow for that wherein we haue faulted.Hieronimus Epistol. 65. Secunda post naufragium tabula est cul­pam simplici­ter confiteri. It was a good speech of Saint Hierome, to call repen­tance after sinne, by the name of a second boord, or planke after a shipwracke. In a wracke at sea, a boord oftentimes doth saue a man from drowning, by his lying fast thereupon. But if he be beaten by the violence of the waue, from this first planke, and be now floating in the water; if a second by some accident be affoorded him, and he can keepe him fast thereto, it setteth him free from all daunger. It is more then apparant that we haue suffered a wracke, and are diuing in the sea of sinne and despe­ration, euen ready still to be drenched. The first table which re­leeueth vs, is the Sacrament of Baptisme, which by the bloud of Christ washing vs, and for the couenants sake, doth acquite vs from the guilt of originall sinne: from the which if we be beate off, by the force of actuall crimes, the second planke is re­pentance to be caught at, which if we hold fast and do not leaue, it will bring vs into the hauen of blessed and quiet rest. Then let vs euermore call vpon God, to bestow vpon vs this compun­ction of hart, that since euery day we fall, we may dayly rise a­gaine, and not sinke vnder our burthen.

9 The weake Prophet now leaning on these two such as­sured staues, first sorowing, then beleeuing, doth raise himselfe vp with a correction: that although he had sayd before, that he was cast away from Gods sight, yet he will not leaue it so: he will not giue ouer there, but once againe he will looke vnto Gods holy Temple.Hieron. in Ionae. 2. Once againe I will see Hierusalem, and the place of thy true worship. Which words as Hierome noteth, do either import a confidence, and hope that it should be so, or a [Page 236] wish that so it might be. And in the Hebrew the future tense which is vsed in this place, is very frequent for wishing. Both shew a will to the Temple: by which some vnderstand the whole seruice of God, circumcision, and the sacrifices, and the expounding of the Law, or whatsoeuer else was of speciality, in the tabernacle of the Lord; so taking one for the other, the place for the duties in it, making that which was so eminent, as the matter, and the obiect of his confidence and faith. He cer­tainely had a mind, not to dye there where he was, as vnprofi­table, and in a place so obscure, but openly to honour God whom he had so dishonoured before: and therefore now he was desirous, in conspicuous manner to draw other to his obe­dience. But of all places, he chooseth the Temple to do the deed, because that was the house where God had put his name, who although he be euery where,Enter praesen­ter, Deus hic & vbique po­ [...]enter. by his being and presence and po­wer, yet he was more apparantly conuersant there, by his spe­ciall grace. This did make that house and city, to be counted an holy mansion, the very ioy of the earth, the beauty of the world, the glory of all nations, the pallace of the great king, the delight and paradise, and garden of the Highest. There was the Arke of the Couenant, the Tables of the Testimony, the Cherubins and the Mercy-seate, all being straunge things of much excellency: but the summity of all happinesse, was the residence of Gods fauour there.

10 All which how much the faithfull esteemed and ac­compted of, Dauids example may teach vs, who when there was but a Tabernacle, whose beauty was much inferiour to the magnificent Temple of Salomon, so grieued that himselfe in his flights and persecutions, was hindered from assembling within those courts of the Lord, that he witnesseth for his owne part, that neuer heart did so bray, Psal. 42.1. to find the brooke of water, as his hart and conscience did thirst for that place; yea his teares did trickle downe, to thinke that he might not come there. And else­where he complaineth,Psal. 84.3. that the sparrow and the swallow were happy, being compared to him, for they might come to the Al­tar, to make their nest neare about it; but leaue to do that was denied vnto him. But afterward, when Salomon had erected his [Page 237] famous house to the Lord; that had many extraordinarie bles­sings granted to it, at the time of the dedication: when God wit­nessed by his presence, that he heard the requests of Salomon, a­mong which these were some,1. Reg. 8 37. that if famine, or plague, or any other affliction, did vexe the hearts of the Israelites, and they thē came into that Temple, and there prayed to be deliuered from that crosse,44.46. the Lord would remooue it from them. Yea if they were out of their owne land, either going against their enemies, or captiues in other countries, if they turning their faces about to the coastward of this house, should either pray for victorie, or for release from their captiuitie, their God would graunt it vnto them. The Iewes afterward obserued this, euermore in the earnestnesse of their prayer in what land soeuer they were, turning them toward the Temple: not tying superstitiously the power of God to that place, but knowing that the same house was not erected in vaine. And witnessing withall, their obedi­ence vnto the Lord, and to men the constancie of their professi­on, who held that place as the seale of the Lords assured prote­ction ouer them.Dan. 6.10. So when Daniel in Chaldaea would pray, he set his windowes open toward Hierusalem, to the hazard of his life. And truely the maiestie, and great fame of the place was such,Agg. 2.4. that when the second Temple, which was a farre meaner matter, was raised vp, the Princes of the earth which were of the very Gentiles, did repute it and esteeme it a thing most ho­ly. The regard which was borne to that sanctuarie,Ioseph. An­tiquit. 11.8. & 12.2. & 14.8. by Alexan­der the great, sometimes king of the Macedonians, by Ptolo­meus Philadelphus, by Pompey the great Romane, some wher­of did there offer sacrifice, as it is testified by Iosephus, and the coming vp of the Eunuch of Candace the Queene of Aethiopia,Act. 8.27. who resorted thither of purpose for to worship, do make this very plaine vnto vs. Then our man (who sometimes had bene a Prophet, and of likely hood had gone vp to Hierusalem to do his deuotions,1. Reg. 12.27 contrarie to the custome of the Israelites in his time) had great reason to bethinke himselfe of this place.

11 The doctrine to be deriued vnto vs from hence, is this, that since in substance we are inheritours of that faith, which the Israelites and Iewes did holde, and in steade of [Page 238] their Temple, haue the Churches of the Christans, which are places seuered to Gods seruice, & for the assembly of his Saints, and the gathering together of his people, that we therefore should beare the like affection to these, as they did to that house, and this so much the rather, because the substance is here, when there was but the shadow; there the figure, but here the truth, there sacrifices made of beasts, here the true Lambe Iesus Christ. We should therfore resort to these Sanctuaries with greedinesse, euen as to the type of heauen: we should ioy to be there, and see all other there whom we loue: and a Christian man loueth eue­ry man.Ioh. 2.14. Matth. 21.13. Luc. 2.36. Act. 3.1. Christ did frequent the Temple: he called it an house of praier: Anna that widow so much cōmended, liued in the Tēple: the Apostles came to this: and after that Christ was ascended, the holy men who were in the time of the Primitiue Church, did re­ioyce to see the Oratories, and places of deuotion, which were built in honour of Christ. They knew that if the priuate prayers, or lifting vp of the hands of one man, were acceptable to the Lord, thē the voyce of a multitude, making their requests ioy [...]t­ly together, would more sound in the eares of God. If the Sauior hath made a promise to be in the middle of them,Matth. 18.20. where two or three are gathered together, with what an eye of cōpassion, is he present to looke vpon hundreds, or thousands of his, assembled in­to one place? Then let vs account it our happinesse, that we may ioyne our prayers vnto a great congregation, which God denieth to his best children, in the time of persecution, and of banishment, & great sicknesse: and let vs presse to this place, as to that where bread is broken, which is the very food of life. For herein God giueth a most approoued argument of his loue, that we are not forced to runne from this sea to another,Amos. 8.12. from this land vnto that, so to enioy this blessing: but we need no more but euen step out of doores, it is so brought home vnto vs. And let vs each man exhort that brother of his, who yet wanteth vnderstanding, to hasten vnto this banket: for it is a good token of more grace which is afterward to follow, when men come to this place, al­though it be for other purposes. God catcheth them vpon the sudden;August. Cō ­fess. 5.13.14. the hooke is fastened in them, before themselues be a­ware. Austen came with another mind to heare Saint Ambrose [Page 239] preach; it was to obserue his words, and his eloquence, and the manner of his gracious deliuery (for Ambrose was an eloquent and sweete man) but at length the matter of his Sermons tooke him, and made him a good Christian. So mighty Gods word is; and hearing is the meanes to bring men vnto faith,Rom. 10.17. Chrys. in Io­han. Homi­lia. 52. by which faith, they are saued; and this is the place of hearing. If any man, sayth Chrysostome vpon Iohn, do sit neare to a perfumer, or a perfumers shop, euen against his will he shall receiue some sauour from it: much more shall he who frequenteth the Church, receiue some goodnesse from it.

12 Then they are much to be blamed, who do willingly and of purpose, absent themselues from this place, be they either the stiffe and stubburne recusants, whose fancy and refractary will, is called by the name of conscience: who being inuited to the Supper of the Lambe, yet keepe themselues away, and there­fore according to Christs parable,Luc. 14.23. are well compelled by the Magistrate to come in. It is a most blessed compulsion, for a man to be driuen to truth, for a woman to be forced to heauen. Or be it the idle person, who preferreth his rest and sleepe, before his owne soules saluation.Isay. 29.13. Ambros. in Psal. 219. Serm. 19. In which case he is worse then the Iew, of whom (as Ambrose well obserueth) the Prophet sayth, that he honoureth God with his lips, although his heart be farre from him. The Iew did yeeld his speech, and the Iew did yeeld his presence, & seemed to giue some countenance to the word, but this slouthfull man commeth not so farre. Or be it the anci­ent Donatist, or Rogatian, in times past so peeuishly bent, who abstained from the assemblies of all other men whatsoeuer, which were not of his opinion, and tied to a small corner in Afri­ca, that Catholike Church, which is so farre diffused ouer all the face of the earth. Vincentius one of their company, is iustly re­prooued by Saint Austen,Psal. 72.19. because when the Lord had sayd that all the earth should be filled with his maiesty, Amen, Amen, so be it, so be it, August. Epist. 48. for so it is in the Psalme, he would sit at Cartenae, some meane place belike in Africa, and with ten perhaps of his Ro­gatians, which yet remained with him, would say Non fiat, non fiat, that it should not be so. Or be they our new Barrhoists, sprong from the seede of the Donatists, who because they con­ceiue, [Page 240] that some spots & spotted men, do yet remaine within the Church of England, they single themselues from vs, by a schis­maticall rent.Cantic. 1.4. They forget that the spouse is blacke, while she remaineth on earth, that in the field where the best seede is said by Christ to be sowne,Matth. 13.24. tares spring vp as well as wheate; and both must grow together vntill the day of haruest. That in the wombe of Rebecca, which was a good figure of the Church, is Esau as well as Iacob,Genes. 25.23. which cannot be discerned, vntill the time of their birth. And this birth is the iudgement. What a holy and wise saying is that, which Austen hath in this behalfe, We suffer many in the Church, August. E­pist. 48. In Ecclesia nonnullos tole­ramus quos corrigere vel punire non possumus. whom we can neither correct nor pu­nish. But yet for the chaffes sake, we do not forsake the threshing floore of the Lord; nor for the bad fishes sake, do we breake the nets of the Lord, nor for the goates which are to be seuered in the end, do vve leaue the flocke of the Lord, nor for the vessels made to dishonour, do vve flit out of the house of the Lord. Let the spirite of singularitie, carie these mē in our time, headlong while it will, but let vs loue the publike meetings of the faithfull, the sacra­ments duly administred, the word sincerely taught, the deuo­tions vttered here. Let vs hold it our ioy and crowne, that we may so come together; that we may not onely with our Pro­phet here, looke toward the temple, but that if we will, our feet may stand in the gates of Ierusalem.Psal. 122.2. We do sinne against our soules, when by a fancie we debarre our selues, from the fellow­ship of the faithfull, and communion of Gods Saints. And so now leauing this, let vs come vnto the third thing, which was at the first proposed by me, and that is the grieuous conflict which Ionas here sustained.

The combat of the Prophet.

3 13 And what can be straunger to a man at first sight, then that he, who late before was the Prophet of the Highest, and therefore much in his grace, acquainted with his counsels, and purpose concerning Israel, where he had long preached, one neere about his God, should now with such a horrour, as a des­pairing person, be vp, and then downe; be at the first so distrust­full, although afterward resolued. But the remembrance of that fauour which he before enioyed, doth deiect him the more; that [Page 241] after so large measure of Gods bountifulnesse toward him, he shold be vnthankfull. For now his conscience cryeth out against him, that he was most vnworthie to haue any part in the Redee­mer, who had turned from him so wilfully. Now he breatheth out displeasure and indignation against himselfe. So fearefull a thing is sinne: it doth so wound the soule. Hence great fights do oftentimes arise vnto the faithfull, where the flesh armed with desperation, layeth on loade euen to destruction; but faith hol­deth out a buckler, wherewith she wardeth the blowes. Not­withstanding betweene the one and the other, there is a combat hardly fought out, much ebbing and much flowing, much ri­sing and much falling, that the waues are not so various, as the thoughts of this sufferer are; disputing pro and con, acquiting and condemning. Whereunto at the last a victorie commeth, but it is with great difficultie in the meane while, the inward man and the outward, the spirit and the flesh most vehemently wrastling. Now as Saint Iames hath told vs:Iacob 1.12. Blessed is the man that endureth temptation: he that striueth, and standeth, and in the end cōquereth, shall not loose his reward. But in the meane time it maketh the weake one, the tender and sickly conscience to droope and be discouraged, so that being heated violently, he thirsteth after comfort. In which case, since God himselfe is so farre from despising the broken and contrite heart,Psal. 51.17 that in very truth, he doth loue it; and Christ for his part came for that pur­pose, not to breake the brused reed,Matth. 12.20 nor to quench the smo­king flaxe, we are in exāple of thē both (the father & the word) to bind vp the broken, & to seeke out that which is perishing.

14 Then to speake to this argument, whosoeuer thou art, that gronest vnder this heauie burthen, strengthen thy feeble knees, & resume thy decaying spirits. If the motions of thy mind be fearefull beyond measure, yea vnfit to be spoken, and vtte­red by thee, so that thou art ashamed euen to name them, as, that Gods being is not certaine; that the Scriptures may be doubted of, that Christ was not the Messias & Sauiour of the world that thy sins shal not be forgiuē thee; that thou belōgest not to Gods electiō; that the promises of his mercie appertain to other mē, but are not true in thee; that thy best way were to dispatch thy selfe [Page 242] of thy life, by some fall, or a knife, or by drowning, or otherwise, since thou art but a forlorne person, and a castaway in Gods sight, (which is a most fearefull and vncomfortable thought,) yet vnderstand that these suggestions and a thousand more of that kind, are but attempts of thine enemie, who would willing­ly rush vpon thee: but know that thou herein art not alone, such co [...]flicts are very common. The Prophets and the Apostles, the best Saints of God haue endured them.Iob. 3.1. How great was Iobs ex­tremitie, when he cursed the day of his birth, and being vnpati­ent and vnruly, he satisfieth not himselfe againe and againe to curse it? In what a case was Dauid, when he seemed to feare vtter perdition?Psal. 51.11. Cast me not away from thy presence, and take not thy holy Spirit from me. He speaketh as if he doubted of his election. It was not well with him, when he distrusted God in his promises, daring to say vnaduisedly in the midst of his di­stresses, that all men were lyers, that was, euery one of them who did tell him,Psal. 116.10. and that from the mouth of Samuel, the true Pro­phet of the Lord, that he should be the king ouer Israel. How was Ieremie on his knees,Ierem. 20.14 when he cursed and fretted bitterly, and wished that he had neuer bene, or would that he had bene slaine at his first entring into the world? How was Elias trou­bled, when he cryed,1. Reg. 19.4. It is enough, Lord take away my soule? How did Peter striue in himselfe,Mat. 26.75. whether he shold deny Christ or no? and imagine what he thought of it when he had done it, and wept bitterly. What disquietnesse did the pricke in the flesh bring to Saint Paule,2. Cor. 12.7.8 when it made him pray thrise, that is, very many times, that he might be deliuered from it? But how hote is his conflict betweene the flesh and the spirit,Rom. 7.24. when he termeth himselfe a wretched man, and knoweth not how to be freed from the bondage of sinne, that bodie of death. Yet at the last, to his inward consolation he remembreth himselfe, that it should be done by Christ Iesus. Now, who were dearer to God then these, who higher in his fauour, then Iob a mirrour of pati­ence, and Dauid a man after his owne heart, and Ieremie who specially was preserued in the desolation of Ierusalem, and Elias who was taken vp into heauen with a whirle-wind, and Peter a great Apostle, & Paule the Doctor of the Gentiles? Ioyne Ionas [Page 243] here to the number of these, a Prophet once, and appointed to euerlasting life,Ionah. 4.8. yet in one place he would needes be dead, and in this place he thinketh that he should be damned. And as it was with these, so it is in our dayes. The Ministers of the Gos­pell who are employed in their calling, and know any thing in the world, haue manifold experience of such cases of conscience, although they speake it not to euery man.

15 Some for one thing, and some for another are troubled euery day: for fancies and temptations do arise a thousand waies: especially in those who are weake in mind or body, by reading or by hearing, by being too much alone, by children and by friends, by prosperitie or aduersitie, by a word spoken at aduen­ture, by any thing which the mind of the troubled partie doth apprehend. Where faith is not extinguished, or plucked vp by the root, but weakned for a time, as the Sunne vnder a cloud, is shadowed for a moment, or as fire vnder the ashes, is raked vp and not seene. And when it hath bene amated and discouraged for a time, then it breaketh foorth againe, and peraduenture it is then a second while dismayed,Psal. 107.26. as the ship vpon the sea, some­times is caried vp to the heauen, and then downe againe to the deepe: or as the winter water which freezeth in the night, and melteth in the day, and hath his intermissions, and therein many alterations. In this appeareth Gods prouidence, and his endlesse loue in protecting, that he so ballanceth discomfort, with an e­quall weight of comfort, that euill and distrust doth not pre­uaile, but if the scale do tippe downe, it raiseth vp againe vpon the sudden. If the challenger be on the left hand readie to defie vs, the defendant is on the right hand as readie to maintaine vs. If the inuader be behind vs, the protectour is before vs: yea if a strong armed man haue set-footing in our house,Luc. 11.21. a stronger then himselfe commeth, and driueth him from the possession. But he will keepe vs thus exercised; and he doth it in great wisedome.

16 If we had not this to quicken vs, we should yeeld our selues to securitie, & be ouergrowne with the weedes, & mosse of carelesse negligence. For as flesh saith Origen if it be not sprin­kled with salt, Origen. Ho­mil. 27. in Numeros. doth putrifie & corrupt, although there be great store of it, and that of the best, so the soule will presently grow [Page 244] loose and licentious, if it be not as it were salted with continuall temptations. The best would grow to be high minded, & proud in his own conceit: but by this we are much humbled. So we are made the fitter to receiue the crowne in heauen, which is for the lowly minded, & is neuer giuen to any, but to those who do get a victorie. And how can there be a conquest, vnlesse there be a fight? how a fight without an enemie? Then this life is our stri­uing; the other is the reward which we receiue for our striuing. Here we wrastle saith Saint Ambrose, but we are crowned else­where: here is the striuing, Ambros. in exhortat. ad virgines. Hic quidem luctamur, sed alibi corona­mur. there the reward, here the warfare, there the wages. Therfore while I am in this world, I do yet wra­stle, I do yet striue, I am yet driuen at that I may fall. But the cō ­fort is that which followeth, which Ambrose addeth in that place. But the Lord is mightie, who supporteth me when I am thrust at, who setteth me vp when I am slipping, who raiseth me tilting aside. This is phisike for thy sicknesse, & remedie for thy euill, whosoeuer thou art that gronest in thy soule: thou hast much readie to hurt thee, but thou hast more to helpe thee: thou hast a strong one against thee, but thou hast a stronger for thee, one who loueth thee & respecteth thee, & pitieth thee at thy need.Rom. 8.31. And if he do stand for thee, what matter who is against thee? He bringeth thee vnto this battell, & his hand is vpon thine enemie, to limit how far he shall vrge thee, & farther he cannot go:1. Cor. 10.13. no tempting aboue thy strength. He looketh on thee, & re­lieueth thee, & doth as much saith S. Austen, as cry to thee out of heauen, August. in Psal. 39. Specto vos lu­ctamini, adiu­uabo. I looke vpon you: do you wrastle, I will helpe you: do you conquer, I will crowne you. Nay, he maketh vs conquer; he brea­theth into vs a strength, which shall neuer be ouerborne. Well thou maiest haue blowes, and bruses, and shrewd brushes in the heat of thy fight, but the victorie shall be thine: floating thou shalt not sinke, encountring thou shalt not perish.

17 If he were ignorant of that case wherin thou art, then thou mightest iustly feare, and suspect his ignorance: but he concei­ueth of thy infirmitie, & therefore as a father he taketh cōpassion on thee. He knoweth wherof thou art made, he remēbreth that thou art but dust. Psal. 103.14. Yea to the end that he might the better vn­derstand, what thy miseries be, amidst such strong throbbes of [Page 245] temptation, he let his owne sonne take flesh vpon him, who be­came a man clothed with mortalitie, that therein by humane practise, and not onely by diuine contemplation, he might be tempted and feele assaults, and so, as the authour of the Epistle to the Hebrewes speaketh,Heb. 2.18. he might the better be able to suc­cour those that are tempted. Now what needest thou at all to shake or quiuer, when his shield and his safegard do perpetually attend thee? The experience of things past, should encourage thee for hereafter. Remember how he hath kept thee, and che­rished thee in his bosome in former times, when thou wast in daunger. That did abode good vnto thee. He who loued thee then,1. Sam. 17 34 will loue thee still. When Dauid had to do against Goliah, no impression wrought so forcibly with him, as recounting what he had done before. When I was a boy and kept my fathers sheepe, a Beare came and tooke a sheepe out of my flocke, and I killed that Beare: then a Lyon came and did as much, and I killed that Lyon also. Surely that Lord, which saued his seruant from the paw of the Lyon, and of the Beare, will deliuer me al­so from this Philistine. Bethinke thy selfe in the like. Thy God hath euer fauoured thee euen from thy mothers wombe: when thou wast not, then he made thee, when thou wast lost he re­deemed thee, when thou wentest astray, he reclaimed thee: whē thou wast naked, he clothed thee, when thou wast hungrie he fed thee: he hath nourished thee and maintained thee: whē thou wast ignorant he did teach thee, and hath giuen thee some good measure of knowledge, and will to serue him: he hath admitted thee by baptisme, into the fellowship of his Saints, he hath sea­led his affection toward thee, by the Sacrament of his bo­dy and his bloud; in great griefes he hath stood by thee; in an­guishes he hath blessed thee; the pit hath bene open for thee, but yet thou neuer didst fall in; Satan hath gaped and roared, but yet his fangs haue not touched thee; in conflicts thou hast bene safe, thou hast bene preserued in combats. How fully should these sound experiments confirme thee in thy faith? how should this liuely feeling, for the delightfulnes of the ioy cōceiued ther­by, as it were melt thee in kindnes toward thy God? Why shol­dest thou not say with Dauid,Psal. 116.12. Psal 18.1. what shall I render vnto the Lord, [Page 246] for all his benefits toward me? Or I will loue thee dearely ô Lord my strength. I will honour thee, I will embrace thee, (I want words to expresse it) I will ioy in thee, I will deuote my selfe wholly vnto thy seruice. With thy fauour and louing counte­nance with thy hand and thy hart, thou hast helped me, kept me, saued me; thou hast strengthened me, raised me, blessed me, and I know that thou wilt neuer leaue me. For thou art the same God for euer, and continuest thy goodnesse daily ouer me.

18 He who hath learned these lessons, maketh true vse of the battels betweene hope and despaire, betweene the flesh and the spirit: and the farther he goeth forward, the more alwaies he doth conquer. He recounteth thus with his owne heart: God might haue suffered me to haue frozen in my dregs, to runne on to all filthines & vncleannesse with the worldlings, to haue died before that I had vnderstood what belonged vnto his seruice, and so to haue dropped downe to hell, before that I knew what I did; but he hath dealt better by me, he hath afforded me more grace. Now he bringeth this fire of temptation, to warme me, and resolue me, but it is to good, and not to euill. I doubt not but I am his, I shall not perish finally. He slubbereth me to scoure me, he rubbeth me to make me brighter; he whetteth me to make me sharper. If I were not pressed and vrged, I should not know what he doth for me: but to releeue me when I neede, to helpe me when I am readie to drowne, to saue me when I am sinking, to quicken me when I am at deaths doore, is an argu­ment of such fauour as he can better giue, then I can well con­ceiue. And since I haue these testimonies of his assured fauour, let the world allure and slily entice, let the flesh insult while it will, let Satan tempt and not spare, let doubts and thoughts & distrusts, be eger and eger againe; in life and death, either day or night; I know who it is that bought me, and payed for me with his bloud, and I know that he will not leaue me. As Saint Au­sten saith,August. in 17. Sermon. 8. Tom. 10. A mightie man will not lose that which he hath bought for his monie, and will Christ loose that which he hath bought vvith his bloud? I doubt not but my Ionas in his troubled me­ditations, did grow to these resolutions, and by thinking there­on, did shake off that his heauie passion, that he should be cast [Page 247] away from Gods sight. It was a liuely feeling of former mercies which made him to breake forth into so religious an insinuatiō, as if he did bleed with tendernesse and softnesse,Ionah. 2.6. calling vpon God, ô Lord my God. Wherin he shewed so sound an hope, that although he should kill him (as Iob saith of himselfe) yet he would not leaue him,Iob. 13.15. but wold euermore trust in him: although his sin did more then abound,Rom. 5.20. yet Gods grace did superabound.

19 These words well vnderstood, and applied vnto the cō ­science, may serue for euery soule which languisheth with griefe taken for euill motions. But because euery tender spirit, is not growne so farre in Gods schoole, and where so hard a siege is laid by Satan, there cannot be too many helpes, therefore some other remedies may be added vnto this before named: for the describing whereof, I could wish more leisure to meditate vpon them, and more time to vtter them, but it shall now suffice to poynt at them. Then first, when any Christian shall feele him­selfe 1 hardly laid at, let him haue recourse to Gods word, and the comfortable writings of other wise and learned men. There is better balme in the Scriptures, then euer was in Gilead; there is a refreshing riuer; the very well of life, which will giue strength to the fainting. And therein no booke more profitable then be the Psalmes of Dauid. Secondly, let him resort vnto the 2 temple, where the word of God is taught. Ionas did thinke of this, before all other matters. Here, that is, in the house of God, Dauid did find wholesome instruction,Psal. 73.1.17 when he was so affretted with the prosperitie of the wicked, that he had almost renounced the seruice of the Lord. How was he troubled with that conceit and could not be resolued, vntill he went into the Sanctuarie? God directeth the mouth of the preacher, that when himselfe scant thinketh of that particular fruite, he speaketh to the heart of some one man in this point, of some other in another. Third­ly, let him pray to God, both in publike and in priuate. The 3 Lord loueth to be sought to by vs, and it pleaseth him to be cal­led vpon: and in the midst of our prayer, if it be with vehement intention of our spirits, he will distill downe a deaw, of the sweet influence of his grace, that we shall arise vp more setled. Hear­tie and earnest prayer, what cloudes doth it not pierce, what [Page 248] heauens doth it not enter? Fourthly let him not feare, to impart his griefe to his friend, but especially to the minister, who is lear­ned and feareth God. They are made for such purposes, and such things are not straunge vnto them. Man is ordained for man, to helpe him and to comfort him, and more eyes do see better thē fewer, and what a ioy to the mind, is a word spoken in season? But the faithfull minister, of all other things doth hold this for his charge, to hearken to such complaining, to raise vp such mē lamenting.Iacob. 5.20. He that conuerteth a sinner, doth saue a soule from death, and couereth a multitude of sinnes. If that precept of Iude do belong vnto any man,Iud. 22.23. it is vnto him, haue compassion of some in putting difference, and other saue with feare pulling them out of the fire. Matth. 12.20 This is to imitate Christ, who will not breake a brused reede, nor quench the smoking flaxe. This is to seeke out the lost, and to bind vp that which is broken. Vnto these this may be ad­ded, that it shall not a little helpe to haue conference with such, who in former times haue bene exercised with the like tempta­tions, that out of their experience being plentifully powred out; the distressed mind may be relieued. None can speake more suf­ficiently, and vnto better purpose, then he that hath felt the same fire, wherein this grieued soule is now burned. And they who are in this cafe, are not a little reuiued, to know that any other hath bene troubled like themselues, which they will hardly beleeue, thinking that none did euer beare such a bur­then, 6 as is vpon their shoulders. Lastly, as they ought rather to remember their former deliuerances, then the griefe which pre­sently is vpon them: so they are rather to beleeue the speeches of other men, I meane Gods children, who come to yeeld com­fort to thē, then their own troubled thoughts, which being per­plexed and disquieted with frightfull imaginations, can giue no setled iudgement. This matter were worthie a longer speech, but I am forced here to end. Lord comfort those which are comfortlesse, and strengthen thy weake children, that they may not be so cast downe, and plunged into perdition, but that in their greatest temptation, they may retaine thee still for their Sauiour, that liuing in thy feare, and dying in thy faith, they may come to eternall glorie. To the which ô Father bring vs, for thine [Page 249] owne sonne Christ his sake, to whom with thee and thy holy Spirit be glorie for euermore.


The chiefe poynts. 2 The circumstances aggrauating his daunger, 6. which do the more shew Gods mercie toward him, and other sinners. 8. Why God suffereth his to be in miserie. 9. Particular consideration doth most stirre vp our affection. 14. By fearing small crossings in do­ing our duties, we incurre other very great daungers. 16. All helpe is to be ascribed to God. 17. How a godly man may desire that his life may be prolonged. 20. The faithfull ought particularly to ap­ply Gods loue to themselues, 22. which the Church of Rome doth not.

Ionah. 2.5.6.

The waters compassed me about vnto the soule, the depth closed me round about, and the weedes were wrapped about mine head. I went downe to the bottome of the mountaines, the earth with her barres was about me for euer, yet hast thou brought vp my life from the pit, ô Lord my God.

THe fearefull conflict which the Prophet sustai­ned, in the verse next before going hath bene made plaine vnto you. A passion of little lesse then distrustfull despaire, did vexe him and dis­quiet him for the time. From the terrour and danger wherof, being recouered by the effectu­all apprehension of grace, by a liuely faith, he returneth to con­template the perill of his body; which as it was great, in the mid­dle of the sea, in the belly of the whale, which was irrecouerable in mans iudgement, so he seeketh to expresse it by multitude of words, repeating it, and reuoluing it with varietie of phrase, but all tending to one end; yet with such copiousnesse, especially being in so short a prayer, that a man would wonder at first, [Page 250] how the Spirit of God which vseth to speake pressely and brief­ly, so that no one word may fitly be spared, should so runne v­pon one thing, with difference of speech, but in substance all a­greeing. Yet the vse of it is such, as of words fully replenished with sanctitie and holinesse, as shall appeare in his due place. In the meane time that which he saith is this.

1 2 First, the waters did compasse me about vnto the soule; to the death, saith the Chaldee Paraphrase, as intending that he was now likely to be drowned, his life to depart from him, his soule to be seuered from her carnall habitation. Dauid also doth vse such vehemencie of words, Saue me ô God, for the waters are entred euen to my soule. Psal. 69.1. Neither is there any speech which more liuely discouereth the earnestnesse of that which is pre­sently in hand, be it prayer or perill, or desire or detestation, then the name of soule doth. As the Hart brayeth for the riuers of water, so panteth my soule after thee ô God. My soule thir­steth for God. Psal. 42.1. This noteth an entire affection, and earnest de­sire, wherewith Dauid was mooued. As the Lord liueth, and as thy soule liueth, I will not leaue thee, saith Elizaeus to Elias. A very passionate affirmation.2. Reg. 2.2. Iacob in Genesis giueth this cen­sure of Simeon and Leui. The instruments of crueltie are in their habitations. Gen 49.5.6. Into their secret let not my soule come. This argueth a perfect detestation. So the depth of danger is purported here, when he speaketh thus, the waters compassed me vnto the soule; the enemie of my life, the water which hath no mercie, was a­boue me and below me and round about me, without me and within me, that my being was death, my hope was but destru­ction, nothing possible vnto me but drowning, as farre as mans 2 wit might imagine. Secondly, the depth did close me round about. I was not in the shallow as a man in a lake, who lying downe may be stifled, but standing may be safe; but I was in the maine Ocean, which is called for the hugenesse of it, the gathering of waters, and elsewhere Tehom, a gulfe or bottomelesse pit, I was in that vastnesse,Genes. 1.10. Iob. 41.22. [...] which sometimes cannot be sounded by very long lines; I was in waters by multitudes, and there not diuing or floating vp and downe, but as closed and shut vp, as included in a sepulcher, or made fast in a prison: this deepe pit, this darke [Page 251] pit, this vncōfortable dungeon, had closed her mouth vpon me.

3 Thirdly, the weedes were wrapped about mine head. The sea doth beare weedes, as well as shallow water; yea somewhere very straungely, strangely I say, that in such places as where the depth seemeth to be of incredible greatnesse, weedes should be seene in abundance, in the vpper superficies, the very toppe of the water, and that so plentifully, that in nauigation the course of ships is stayed sometimes by them. Experience hath confir­med this in the huge Atlantike sea,Leuius in nauigat. ad Bresiliam. cap. 21. as men saile to America, whereout doth grow a very strange Dilemma or Diuision, be­cause either they be there without any rootes at all, and that is very maruellous, or because the rootes do go downe exceeding deepe in the water, which is not otherwise affoorded by nature in thinne spindie bodies. But that weedes do grow in the sea, & those of some price,Solin. cap. 8. Solinus letteth vs know, saying that shrubs and weedes in the Ligustike sea, are those from whence our Corall commeth. Such then being in the bottome, are about the head of our Prophet:Tremel. in Ionae 2. he is wreathed and tangled in them▪ or as some do suppose, he was so fast in the water, as if he had beene tyed there; with as little hope of rising or comming vp a­gaine. But the words here being positiue, that his head was wrapped in them, I imagine that when he sunke, & went down to the bottome, he there strugled for life, as men do that are dy­ing, and by that meanes he was entangled in the weedes, as if some net had bespread him. And in my iudgement this cleareth that doubt, which ariseth vnto some, in the third verse of this chapter,Ribera in Ionae. 1. where because it is reported, that he was in the very bottome in the midst of the sea, and all the waues and surges did go ouer and ouer him, they suppose the meaning of it to be, that as soone as he was cast foorth ouer shipboord by the mariners, the whale forthwith deuoured him, on which because the waues passed, and he was in the whale, he saith they went ouer him: and because the fish went downe to the bottome of the sea, the Prophet in the fish is said to do the like. Whereas this place doth rather enforce, that betweene the time of his casting foorth, and the swallowing of the whale, there was some prety little space, which in this text is insinuated.

[Page 252] 4 4 Fourthly he dilateth his sorrow, by adding that he went downe, to the bottome of the mountaines. It is very likely that it was some Cape or Promontorie, which did shoote foorth from the continent or firme-land, whereof there are very many in all the sea shore neare to Iapho; both Syria and Iudea being descri­bed, to be hemmed in with mountaines. And this argueth all to be done, not very farre from the shore, because a tempest de­prehended the mariners at the first, soone after that they put frō land. Or else he may meane the rockes, which being in the midst of the water, haue the hugenesse of prety mountaines; and this desolate man is now fallen into the clifts, or concauities, of one or other of these. He is then euery way a prisoner, fast fettered in the sedge, and closed vp in the hollownesse of the mountaine which was ouer him. Thus water, and weedes, and earth, haue all conspired to drowne him. If otherwise he might haue risen, yet now the hill is vpon him,Virgil. Aenei. 3. not fainedly as Aetna was said to be on Enceladus, but verily and indeed, not to crush him with the weight, but onely to keepe him there, and detaine him till he were drowned.

5 5 And this he maketh more plaine vnto vs, in the fifth cir­cumstance, when he saith the earth with her barres was about him, and that for euer. Barres are to make things strong, as in dores or otherwise. Then the strength of the earth had him within her keeping; euen that which Dauid doth call the pillars of the earth, I will establish the pillars of it. He was now as in a pit,Psal 75.3. fast bolted and surely kept, and as it seemed vnto him, for e­uer and for euer, neuer hoping to escape, and to be freed from that daunger. He held that the doome of fearefull death, was pronounced ouer him, the sentence of dissolution and destructi­on, & now he is in the midst of his dolorous execution. Thus he doth paint out vnto vs, the abundance of his miserie, propo­sing himself as a wretched spectacle for the time, enuironed with such woes, as he knoweth not how to describe them. The wa­ter, that did compasse him, euen to the very soule; the depth did round beset him; the sedge was about his head; he was at the rootes of the mountaines; the great barres of the earth were clo­sed, and made fast vpon him. What more could a carnall man [Page 253] wish vpon his enemie, if he would wish to be neuer afterward troubled with him on earth? This is the full recounting in parti­cular, of those feares which were vpon this sinner. Now let vs see the vse of these words.

6 If I should be asked here, why I haue vsed this Paraphra­sticall exposition, so much speech in a case so euident and ap­parant, whereas doctrine and store of matter, is more fit and ac­ceptable to this auditorie, I must foorthwith shrowd my selfe vnder the Prophets shield. He thought good to write it, and I thinke not amisse to touch it: if any man shall say, vnfruitfully; he doth wrong to Gods Spirit, who throughout all the whole booke of the Scripture, hath put no one thing in vaine, although the dimme eyes of our weaknesse cannot hastily comprehend the mysterie of his meaning. The speaker then and the reader, are in this case to pray God, that he will descend and come downe vnto them, that he will touch the heart of the one with the key of knowledge, and that he will seare the lippes of the other,Isay. 6.7. with the coale of the Seraphim. And then this shall be gathered out of it. The vehement inculcation of so many de­grees of miserie, doth the more magnifie Gods great mercie vnto our Ionas. The harder his necessitie was, the more wel­come was Gods ayde. The more grieuous that his wound was, the greater was the cure. The more daungerous the sicknesse was, the more gracious was the healing. Beyond hope to saue, beyond thought to preserue, in a deplored state, and at a despe­rate pinch to succour, is an eminent grace and fauour, neuer e­nough recorded, neuer enough reported. My daunger was vn­speakeable, my perill was vndescribable: all hope was past and exiled; yet now in this wretched tenure, ô Lord my blessed God and euerlasting Father, thou hast brought vp my life from the pit. Now his obstinate hard affection beginneth to yeeld: this doth euen melt the heart of the Prophet in kindnesse, to see that from the bottome of millions of extremities, he was deli­uered by the free grace of his maker.

7 The remembrance of this benefit, doth so stir vp his mind, in his holyest meditations, and giueth such life to his motions, that he doth not satisfie himselfe, but the more expresse his [Page 254] miserie, the more to extoll Gods mercie. He thinketh himselfe the more deepely deuoted to such a Sauiour. The lower he was deiected, the greater was his deliuerance; and the more sound his deliuerance, the more sufficient should his thankfulnesse be to the Lord. Now he seeth his God to be a God of power and maiestie, able to free from any thing. Where his creatures do de­presse, there he alone can lift vp. Although the wind rage, and the sea roare, and all the earth be disquieted, yet he doth beare sway ouer them. Then we neede not despaire in the waues of wo and extremitie: if our faith be not extinguished. It is Gods greatest glorie to rid from greatest euils. Where all mans helpe is wanting, there his finger is most conspicuous. It was a good speech of Philo the Iew,Philo Iudae­us de lega­tione ad Caium. which he vttered on this occasion: whē that beast Caligula could be perswaded by no reason, nor by any mans intercession, but that his image must be set vp at Hie­rusalem, which would quickly haue inferred the adoration of it, and he was so earnest on it, that there was no way, but do it or dy, Philo turned him vnto his fellowes, and bad them not be discouraged, for where mans helpe doth cease, there Gods helpe doth begin. Then it prooued so with them; and so it doth with other oftentimes: but nothing could be more euident then this, to him who wrote my text. He ioyeth that in such a downefall, he did tast of Gods kindnesse: but the particular contemplation of his heauinesse, by recounting speciall circumstances, doth wring from him more gratefulnesse, more thanks giuing.

Luc. 7.36.8 When Christ being inuited came to the Pharisees house, he had some entertainment of him, but no way to be compared with that of the woman reputed the great sinner. Shee washed his feete with her teares, and wiped them with her haire, and afterward kissed them, and annointed them with ointment. She could not content herselfe with many demonstrations of her af­fection toward him. The Sauiour Christ, who knew all things, did yeeld the reason of it, and that was shee loued much because much was forgiuen her. Then where much is receiued, there should be much returned. That man is very blessed, whose eyes are opened so, as to see and iudiciously behold, what it is that is done for him. The Lord oft times doth leaue vs very farre to [Page 255] our selues, that we may take knowledge of our infirmitie, and then giue him entire and complete praise, as vnto him belongeth. Adam was quickly fallen,Genes. 36.15. but he was not so hastily raised vp a­gaine, by the actuall and present performance of the promised seede. Man might wrastle and struggle to get vp againe, and cast his deuises, and beate his braines long, but all would not serue.Lodouic. Vi­ues de veri­tate fidei. l 2. God suffered him to languish almost foure thousand yeares, and the longer he did lye, the deeper still he did sinke. This time of long staying, was first to make man without all ex­cuse, who if he had bene restored immediatly, peraduenture would haue boasted in the pride of his heart, that it had bene a needlesse labour, for God to repaire him; for as in time he had fallen, so in time he would haue risen, without helpe of any. Now God tooke away this exception. Secondly it was to re­member man of his lamentable state, who had lyen vndeliuered so many yeares and ages, and thousands of times, and now at a desperate pinch, was set on foote againe by the free fauour of God. The opinion of which mysterie shall take deeper roote in vs, if therein we vse our selues as Ionas did here, that is, specially recount the euill then sustained, and seuerally remember the good things now receiued. If we will say as Zacharie the father of Iohn Baptist said,Luc. 1.79. that when we sate in darknesse and in the sha­dow of death, a light was giuen vnto vs; and adde withall, that Adam had condemned vs, and Eue had vndone vs: our hands were polluted, our hearts were defiled, our deedes were depra­ued, our toungs were profaned, our thoughts were corrupted, our knowledge was decayed, our vnderstanding darkened, all the powers of our mind euen to the death were wounded: the world triumphing without, the flesh insulting within, and Sa­tan gaping for vs, as for a pray surely accompted of, yea hell & damnation being in vs and on vs: yet the riches of the mercie of him, who redeemed vs by his owne precious bloud, did frustrate our enemies, did supply all our infirmities, did amend our de­fects, and set vs at libertie, that nothing should be layed to the charge of vs.

9 This sweet recapitulation, mooueth a tender conceipt in soule, & is pleasing vnto God, who delighteth in that cōscience, [Page 256] which is brused with such often and ingeminated motions. It ar­gueth a liuely feeling, & true touch in that, which is for the pre­sent thought vpon. How doth the spouse of Christ in the Canti­cles, fetch backward and forward the description of her loue? how particularly doth she speake? It is not enough to say that her welbeloued is white and ruddy, Cantic. 5.10 the chiefest of ten thousand, but, his head is as fine gold, his lockes curled and blacke as a ra­uen: his eyes are like doues vpon the riuers of waters, which are washed vvith milke, and remaine by the full vessels, his cheekes are as a bed of spices, and as svveet flovvers, and his lips like lil­lies dropping dovvne pure myrrhe. Yea she goeth forward to his hands and legs and mouth. When Ieremie in the heate of his La­mentations, was desirous to mooue commiseration at Gods hands, if it might be, he holdeth it not sufficient to say, the citie is solitarie vvhich vvas lately full of people, Lament 1.1. she is novv as a vvi­dovv, but in speciall he doth amplifie the desolatiō of it. The fire had destroied her buildings, the sword had slaine her mightie ones, the famine had pinched her tender ones, the wals & streets and temple were ruinated and defaced; the Princes and the peo­ple, the Elders and Priests and Nazarites had lost their ancient glorie. What should I say of Dauid, when once he doth com­plaine then euery thing is too little, and where he doth giue thanks there nothing is too much. In the two and twentieth Psalme:Psal. 22.14. I am like vvater povvred out, and all my bones are out of ioynt: mine heart is like vvaxe, it is molten in the middest of my bovvels, my strength is dried vp like a potsheard, and my toung cleaueth to my iavves, and thou hast brought me out into the dust of death. There he speaketh of buls & oxen, & Lyons, and dogs, and Vnicornes, for by such names he calleth his enemies that oppressed him. So when he cometh in another moode to giue thanks, he feareth not to speake: in the abundance of his grate­fulnesse he spareth no cost to vtter it. I will name one place for all:Psal. 18.1. I vvill loue thee dearely ô Lord my strength. The Lord is my rocke and my fortresse, and he that deliuereth me, my God and my strength, in him vvill I trust, my shield, the horne also of my salua­tion and my refuge. What words almost could he deuise, which he hath not here put in?

[Page 257]10 I would that this age of ours, which is so apt to learne all euill, could learne this one good lesson, either of Ionas here, or of the other parties whom I haue named, to lay vnto the heart such things as do befall vs, or the workes of God which we see; and then to abide and dwell vpon them, not slightly but in se­rious contemplation, betweene God and our soules. But the truth is, it is farre otherwise. We are aliue and quicke in Gods businesse onely, while the sharpe spurre doth pricke vs. It is the rod which doth quicken vs, but not so much as it should. Com­monly and for the greatest part, let there come vpon vs weale or woe, good or euill, great blessing or small blessing, we are dull and insensible. We obserue not as we should, by amplified circumstances, what it is that is vpon vs. We feele the rod, but it is as men sleeping, or in a traunce: we see Gods goodnesse ouer vs, but it is like men standing a farre off: great things do seeme but smal things to vs. When we come to giue thankes, we put all in one grosse summe, and if we begin to pray, we huddle our needs together. In a word, our best laying open of our hearts before the Lord, which should be with an exquisite­nesse and curiousnesse if it might be, not of words so much and of forme, but of matter and sighes and grones, and com­punction and contrition, is but shuffled and scambled o­uer. Lord lay not this idlenesse, and great negligence to our charge. If we come to a Phisitian, we lay open our griefe by parts; this ach is in the head, this distemperature in the sto­macke, this griping is at the heart. In our marchandise or busi­nesse committed to our seruants, we examine all from point to point. Let vs do so in Gods benefits: it shall procure in vs a more ingenuous acknowledgement, then we euer did imagine. One example or two to teach this.

11 This present day doth remember vs of the birth of her,This was preached on the seuenth of Septem­ber, the birth day of our Queene Elizabeth. by whom vnder God we do receiue a multitude of great bles­sings, as the free course of the Gospell, an admirable peace, pros­perity and abundance. He is litle lesse then a brutish creature, or at least he is a very ill minded subiect, who hauing age and ex­perience, doth not giue the Lord thankes for her. Yet in this so apparant a chaine of Gods benefits, let vs examine it from [Page 258] linke to linke, and it shall wring out better motions, from him who is best minded. That the euerlasting Father should bring her to the crowne and scepter of this kingdome, through so many difficulties.Ioh. Foxus in vita Cran­meri Edit. 4. Her brother (as he supposed to preuent a greater mischiefe) denying her that prerogatiue: her sister com­ming betweene: and matching with that Prince, who was then held the chiefe flower of Christendome; a certaine expectation of issue being betweene them; the Spaniards thereat ioyous, as hoping thereupon to tyrannize and dominere at their pleasure. Nay yet much more then this. The Clergie giuing counsell to take away her life:Idem de pe­riculis D. Elisabethae. Gardiner thirsting for her bloud, as a wea­ried man would long for water: Storie daring to say, when some each day were burnt in question of religion, that these were but the braunches, they should strike at the roote: a sus­picion of strong treason against her sister, being sought to be fastened on her: imprisonment of her being procured in rigorous and hard manner: yea the very sentence of death as it is thought once being gone out against her. Yet that the Lord should deliuer her from all this, and aduaunce her to the guiding of this land and people: That he should so preserue her being a woman (and therefore by nature weake, and exceeding fearefull) in so many plots layed against her: Pope Pius with his Anathema deposing her from the Crowne,Pius 5. in Bulla sua 1569. Gregor. 13. and absoluing (if he could get vs to beleeue him) her sub­iects from their obedience: Pope Gregory by the setting vp of his Seminaries, inueigling some of her owne to play some trecherous part against her; in oft-intended inuasions; in a rebellion once plainely attempted; in conspiracies of sonnes of Belial more then twenty; To bring her yet not­withstanding, to such an age of her life, to such a yeare of her raigne; and if this be too little, if we will serue God and honour him, to giue vs hope that more shall be added vnto her dayes, and by a consequent to our happinesse: To car­ry her who in her selfe is a mortall dying creature, apt to be broken like a glasse, yet as if she had bene borne in the bo­some or hand of Angels, so that nothing hath annoyed her. This particular Analyzing or scanning of the graces of God [Page 259] vpon her, will wrest from vs a true ioy, with feeling and vnderstanding. And what wee do in her, wee may all do in our selues.

12 Let vs runne from step to step, through Gods fa­uours shewed vnto vs.Bernard. de diligendo Deo. Tantillos & tales. Either as Barnard doth, God deser­ueth to be loued by vs, because he loued vs first, that is some­thing; so great a God as he is, that is more; so feruently as he doth, that is yet more; and freely, vvhereas vve vvere such little ones, vvhen as vve vvere such bad ones. Or other­wise if you please. To create vs when we were not; to make vs men, not beasts; to redeeme vs when we were lost, and that with so inestimable a price: among men to graunt vs to be Christians, and not infidels, Turkes or Iewes, who are bitter enemies to his sonne: to giue vs so long a life, as that we may comprehend what pertaineth vnto his seruice: to bring vs in place, where we may see his Sacraments to be administred, and heare his word taught: to touch our hearts with faith, and an earnest desire of perseuerance, to fill our consciences with spirituall ioy, and comfort in his promises; in sickenesse to stand by vs; in aduersitie to vphold vs; in temptation to strengthen vs. All this should make our hearts pant,Psal. 116.12. Genes. 32.10. and say with Dauid, What shall I render to the Lord for all his benefites toward me? or with the Patriarke Iacob, I am not vvorthie of the least of all thy mercies, and all the truth, vvhich thou hast shewed vnto thy seruant. So to thinke, when other begge, that we might begge likewise: when we see other depriued of their sences or common vnder­standing, to remember that the same might bee our por­tion; or banishment, or imprisonment, or bondage and captiuitie. But there is a Lord in heauen, who hath dealt o­therwise with vs, and giuen vnto vs a maintenance from our cradle, clothing vnto our backe, and bread vnto our belly, yea peraduenture to come from state of necessity, to such a condition, as rather to be able to giue, then to take, to helpe, then to be helped. We may go on in these meditations. When euill hath beene conspired, when mischiefe hath bene contriued, then he hath affoorded vs that fauour, as to [Page 260] go on the thornes vnpricked, to walke in the fire vnburnt. When slaunders and defamations haue bene deuised, and such complaints made and suggested against vs, yet all hath vani­shed as the smoke, and in the vprightnesse of a good conscience, we haue gone quite vntouched, as if no such thing had be­fallen vs. What sweete thoughts should this worke? what pas­sions of admiration? what embracings of Gods mercies? He who knoweth this and performeth it, doth make true vse of that which befalleth him, in crossing ouer the troublesome sea of this world, and in passing through this wretched vale of misery.

13 I beate this point the more, as partly to demonstrate that these words of my text, which seeme to vs so barren, are not altogether without their fruite; yea if nothing else should be gathered from them, but that which I haue already taught (al­though I doubt not, but another man might find some other doctrine in them, as God doth giue diuerse conceipts to di­uerse of his seruants.) So againe to draw each of vs to a speciall consideration, of that good or that euill, which hath or doth fall vpon vs. It is a very dull age, euen the dotage and last time of the world, wherein we do now liue: our memory is decayed, by reason of the heauinesse of our spirits, and the earthinesse of that corruptible carcasse, which hangeth so fast vpon vs. Then we had neede be wakened with often and loud remembran­ces, that as drop after drop doth pierce the hardest stone, so thought after thought may make our dead heart to be plyable. This is the course of our Prophet, by manifold repetitions of the dangers wherein he was, to acknowledge the Lords ayde, to be so much the more ouer him; and himselfe the more behol­ding, the more bound and deuoted to such full mercies on him. Great loue requireth a great measure of returning retribu­tion, if that possibly may be; if not that, yet of consideration, and earnest contemplation, and acknowledgement to the vt­termost. Take Ionas here for an example of behauiour in like daunger. This was my case, this my state, this my forlorne hope of rising, yet thou hast brought my life from the pit, ô Lord my God. This word yet commeth with an Emphasis, [Page 261] which confesseth that his helpe came more welcome. But be­fore that I speake of his restoring, one little note more from hence.

14 The daunger whereinto Ionas was fallen, being thus expressed by himselfe, and that with so sensible a feeling, might recall into his mind, the vanitie and folly of his former feare, which was, that when by the Lord he was appoynted to go to Niniueh,Ion. 1.3. he would needes vnto Tarshish. I shewed in the third verse of the first chapter, that among some other reasons, the feare of daunger might make him change his course. It might haue bene, that in Niniue he should haue bene much disgraced, it might haue bene quite despised, perhaps by the king impriso­ned, peraduenture put to death.Terentius. Ego in portu nauigo. It was best for him to escape all this; good sailing in the hauen; good sleeping in a whole skinne. The safest way were to make sure work, and not to come there at all. But what a chaunge did he make? He feared a little hurt, and now he hath a great deale. He suspected, that onely one thing might annoy him, and now he hath found another. Nay in truth for euery ten, he doth receiue a thousand. Before, he did distrust that his body might haue smarted; now body and soule pay for it. Before he might haue had some man perhaps his ene­mie, but God his friend assured: now not so much as any man is his friend, and God like to a furious enemie doth chase him, and make after him. In this sort, such who in the Lords causes will not depend vpon him, but in their imagination cast great perils to themselues, thinking to auoid those by declining from their dutie, in that their turning away, do plunge themselues into greater daungers. They thinke that they flye from a dogge, and they turne them vpon a cockatrice. They hope to escape a blow, and receiue a deadly wound. They imagine to saue a fin­ger, and are pierced to the heart.1. Sam. 15.9. Saule would not displease the people, by killing the king of Amelek, but he displeased the Lord, which was a higher matter. He was vnwilling to loose so much cattell,Ioh. 19.12.13 but he lost his crowne and his life. Pilate would not offend the Emperour: what? spare him who was said to be the king of the Iewes? but he plucked on himselfe the anger of the great king, and Emperour of the heauens. This is a fault too [Page 262] common among the sonnes of men, to dread that which is litle, and to passe by that which is more;Matth. 23.24 to make a strayning at a gnat, and to swallow vp a whole Camel. It is an excellent say­ing, which Chrysostome hath to this purpose:Chrysost. in Psal. 48. Personas ti­ment hominés­que saccis in­dutos. It is a point of ex­treme madnesse, to stand in feare of those things which are not to be feared, but to laugh at such matters as in truth are dreadfull. In this saith he, men do differ from children, that these (as not hauing their vnderstanding perfect) do feare vizards, and men clothed with sackes, but thinke that it is nothing to reuile their father or their mother, and they leape into the fire or touch can­dles which are burning, but they quake at some noyses which are not to be feared. But men do care for none of all these things. If we looke vpon our selues, and sift our hearts as we ought, we shall find our selues in the number of these babies and silly in­fants, when we make much scruple of some trifles, but respect not an higher dutie, and so to escape the raine, we runne our selues into the riuer.

15 What is more common amongst vs, then when we are in hope of preferment, to feare this or that crosse? the anger of this mightie man, or of that noble woman? If their names be but vsed, or their letters be procured, although vpon wrong in­formation, yet if they be induced to mooue something incon­uenient, or scandalous, or amisse, (be it neuer so much against the will of the writer, for that he wanteth true notice) do we not more feare to faile their vniustly extorted motion, then wee dread the Lords displeasure, or the great account which one day we must yeeld for our selues, when no Prince of the earth shall be able to protect vs? Thus for mens sakes we leaue God, (for so it may be termed, when we decline from iustice, and that which should be done) and when we thinke that we haue dealt most subtilly and most wisely, Gods finger is vp against vs, and ouerturneth all our pollicies. Yea peraduenture he whom we haue serued, or she whom we haue feared, by the motion of the Spirit of the Lord, is made a rodde to whip vs, conside­ring that we haue dishonoured them, in making them the au­thors of vnfit actions; or else that person for some worldy res­pect, [Page 263] is drawne away from our purpose, and so the hope of our labour is frustrated and made nothing. And then this wound remaineth vpon our conscience, that we haue done this and this, which our heart did tell vs was vntoward and in­direct, or at the least to be doubted. And what a griefe is it to vs, to haue such a worme within vs, fretting and gnawing on vs? The way to preuent all this, is euermore to looke on Gods feare, and his precise commandement, and not to swarue from that, and then he whome we sincerely serue, will either send vs the fruite of our desires, or patience in the contrarie. The kings heart is in the hand of the Lord, Prou. 21.1. as the riuers of waters: he turneth it vvhither so euer it pleaseth him: Then how much more the hearts of other inferiour persons? If he thinke that it be fit for vs, where-about we go, he will send it vs; but when he pleaseth: if not, his will be done. Onely this is our comfort, whether that come or not, the bird is safe in the bosome: sorrow shall not vpbraide vs, that wee haue feared men more then the eternall God: that we haue for the pleasure of any, made shippe-wracke of a good con­science, or very farre aduentured toward it. Take heede then by the Prophet, that in seeking to flye such harme as is but imaginarie, or little in comparison, we do not runne our selues by offending of the Lord, into daunger which is ineuitable. Now goe we a little forward.

Yet thou hast brought my life from the pit.

16 The common translation hath in the future tense,Vulg. edit. Subleuabis de corruptione vitam meam. Tremelius & Anglica editio Gene­uensis. Act. 17.28. Psal. 40.1. thou wilt lift vp my life. The Septuagint, let my life ascend from cor­ruption. The Chaldee Paraphrase, it is readie, or but a small thing vnto thee, to bring me from corruption. The best do tran­slate it by the time that is past, thou hast brought my life from the pit, or corruption. He ascribeth all to God as moouing in him, and liuing in him, and in him hauing his being. So the faithfull do euermore. I wayted saith Dauid patiently for the Lord, and he enclined vnto me and heard my crye. He brought me also out of the horrible pitte, out of the [Page 264] mire and clay, and set my feete vpon the rocke, and ordered my go­ings. A gracious God, who can strike vs and can heale vs; can foile vs & can raise vs. He whippeth vs by number, & scourgeth vs by measure, and when we turne vnto him, he will quicken vs and reuiue vs, from death and the gates of hell. Ionas sinning is punished: Ionas crying is helped. While stubburnnesse is on him, downe must his proud heart: but when feare and faith pos­sesse him, he is hoyssed vp againe. Let vs then chaunge our heart, and God will change his hand, in the middest of his roughnesse toward vs.Augustinus in 8. questio­nib. Dulcitij. Mutauit vo­cabulum quià mutatum vi­dit affectum. Saint Austen in those eight questions which were proposed to him by Dulcitius, speaketh fitly to this matter. When the woman came to Christ from Syro Phaenicia, he said vnto her, the childrens bread is not to be throwne to dogges: but afterward, not O dogge great is thy faith, but O woman great is thy faith. He chaungeth his word because he saw her affection chaunged, and he vnderstood that the same reproofe of his was growne vp to good fruite. So it is with this patient: when his faith once breaketh foorth, he shall come from corruption.

17 But what may be the matter, that he so much reioy­ceth, that he should liue againe. The words which go before from the beginning of the chapter, do shew a fast hold to be layed on Gods fauour by faith, (howsoeuer for some little time it was dismayed) a remission of sinnes, and a hope of life eternal, although he had very much transgressed. Then since his life was sealed vp against another world, why should he desire to be here againe? Why should he so reioyce that he should be deli­uered? Very shame might haue enforced him to hate the light. The report of the mariners, who would freely speake whereso­euer they came, might spread the name of him, as of a most infamous person. He might be poynted at with the finger, by children and vile folkes, as he went in the streete. Howsoeuer, Gods children should thirst to be aboue, should long to be dis­solued, and be at home with their father. So did Saint Paule in the new Testament,Philip. 1.23. 1. Reg. 19.4. when he desired to be loosed: so did Elias in the old when he cryed, It is now enough, ô Lord take my soule, for I am no better then my fathers. And who would be in his pilgrimage, when he might be in his countrey? who [Page 265] would be in the sea, when he might be in the hauen? who would be warring, when a crowne might then be giuen him for his victorie? who would be in the way, when he might be at home in rest? It seemeth then at the first sight, that the Prophet doth take ioy in his losse, and desireth that for a benefite, which was a harme vnto him. But when all these things are scanned as they should bee, it will appeare farre other­wise.

18 Now it was no time to feare the shame of the world: he was rather to seeke to please one, and that was his old mai­ster; yea if he displeased all other by it. It was a good resoluti­on of him, who did write the eigth of those Epistles, which be in the end of Saint Hieromes workes:Hieron. Epi­stola 8. in fi­ne operum. Let euerie one say what himselfe will. In the meane time according to my small vnderstan­ding, I haue iudged it better for my selfe to blush before sinners vpon earth, then before the holy Angels in heauen, or wheresoe­uer the Lord will shew his iudgement. And to wish as Elias wished, were but to be impatient; wherein Ionas is not behind, as appeareth in the fourth chapter.Ion. 4.3. And his case was not like Saint Paules, who might yeeld vp his soule in quietnesse of con­science, as hauing in his heart a testimonie of the Lords good accepatnce of his labours in this world. Now he who is setled in such an opinion, neede not feare to depart from this transi­torie habitation: nay he may well long to dye. But with Ionas it is otherwise: he standeth yet in a mammering, and knoweth not which way to turne him. Yet he is not quite exempted from that conflict of his, betweene hope and despaire: yet, (al­though his faith be not extinguished) he is not assured, how the Lord will take his sinne at his hands. This maketh him wish for more time to testifie his obedience; to make a recom­pence if it might be, for his sinfull rebellion; or at the least to wash away his iniquitie with many teares. And hauing this pur­pose in him, to aske pardon with sighes and sobbes, he ioyeth with all his heart, that time is permitted him, to performe the vowes of his soule, and to remooue away from the Church of God, that scandale which he had offered.

19 Moreouer if he had dyed in the sea, and the belly of the [Page 266] fish, his departure had bene violent, and layed vpon him for his sinne, as a grieuous punishment for vngodlinesse: and such a kind of death, the faithfull seruants of the Lord haue no desire to dye. It may well be gathered out of the thirtieth Psalme, that the sicknesse of Dauid there insinuated (for that Psalme may best be vnderstoode of sickenesse) was layed vpon him for one fault or other:Psal. 30.6. perhaps for presum­ption, he thought that he was too strong. But when for that cause, he felt the hand of the Lord sharpely chastising him; he beggeth that he might not in such a sort go downe to the graue. What profite is there in my bloud vvhen I goe downe to the pit? shall the dust giue thankes vnto thee? or shall it de­clare thy truth? For some one reason or other, which the Spirit of God hath concealed,2 Reg. 20.3. Hezechias was not readie, when the Prophet Esay came vnto him, and told him that he must dye. This did make him turne himselfe to the wall, and weepe, and pray to the Lord, that if it might stand with his good pleasure, that sentence might be reuersed. Then it is not our best safetie, at euery time, and in euerie case, to be remooued hence, but vpon some occasion we may ioye with Ionas, that longer time is affoorded vs to bethinke our selues. This is his exceeding comfort, that though the pangs of death were vpon him, yet that God once againe brought his life from corruption.

O Lord my God.

20 The onely thing now remaining, is the confident ap­pellation, which he vseth to the Lord, Iehouah ô my God. This sheweth a faith beyond faith, and a hope beyond hope: when he knew that the Lord was angrie, and extremely wrathfull at him, yet to cling in so to his mercie, as to appropriate to himselfe a portion in his maker. For what greater insinuation of confidence can there be, then by particular application to apprehend Gods mercie: to lay hold vpon him as on a father; and that not as we say, with a reference to the Communion of Saints,Matth. 6.9. Our father vvhich art in heauen, but my father and my God. This hath bene the perfect trust of the faithfull in all ages, which hath encouraged them to approch with bold­nesse, [Page 267] vnto the throne of grace.Psal. Iob. 19.25. Luc. 1.47. Ioh. 20.28. Galat. 2.20. My God, my God saith Da­uid. And, thou that art the God of my saluation. And Iob, I am sure that my Redeemer liueth. My spirit saith the Virgin Ma­rie, doth reioyce in God my Sauiour. My Lord and my God, saith Thomas. Paule saith of himselfe, I liue by faith in the Sonne of God, who hath loued me and giuen himselfe for me. This true faith doth close with God, and incorporateth it selfe into the bodie of the Redeemer.

21 And this is it, which bringeth comfort vnto the woun­ded soule, and afflicted conscience, not that Christ is a Sauiour, for what am I the better for that? but a Sauiour vnto me. That I am one of the adoption, reconciled and brought into fauour, sealed vp against that day, when the quicke and dead shall be iudged: my portion is with the Highest, mine inheritance with the Saints. How could flesh and bloud euer beare the heate of strong temptation, without this firme perswasion? What is it to my belly, that bread is prepared for other, vnlesse I be assured that my part is therein? What is it to my soule, that Christ hath dyed for other, vnlesse I know that my sins are washed away in his bloud? It may be good for Moses, it may be good for Paule, or Peter, or Iames, or Stephen, but what is it vnto me? It is Meus then and Tuus, as Luther did well teach, it is my God and thy Sauiour which doth satisfie thirstie consciences.Luther. in Epist. ad Ga­latas. There is the ioy of the Spirit, when men come to that measure. Then it is a blessed doctrine which instilleth that faith into vs; and in that if in any thing, doth appeare the fruit of the Gospell, which is preached in our dayes, that people sicke and dying, being taught before in their health, can giue most diuine words, and right admirable speeches, in this behalfe whereof I speake, sayings full of holy trust and assurance; which as it is a thing most comfortable to themselues, beyond all gold and trea­sure, which are but as dung and drosse, to a man yeelding vp the ghost, so it bringeth good meditations vnto the standers by, in causing them to acknowledge very euident an plaine argu­ments of election in the other, whom they see to be so posses­sed with ioy in the holy Ghost, and so rapt vp, as if they had al­readie one foote within the heauen.

[Page 268]22 But it is otherwise with the ignorant; they lye groue­ling vpon the ground, and cannot mount vp with the Eagle. So is it in that doctrine which the Church of Rome doth maintaine, when their people are taught, that they must beleeue in gene­rall, that some shall go to heauen, that some belong to God: but to say or thinke, that themselues shall be certainely of that num­ber, or constantly to hope it, that is boldnesse ouermuch, that is ouer-weening presumption. They are to wish and pray, that it may be so with them, but yet it appertaineth to thē euermore to doubt because they know not the worthinesse of their merits: a most vncomfortable opinion, which cannot chuse but distract the heart of a dying man, that he must not dare to beleeue with confidence, that he shall go to God: that Iesus is his Sauiour, & the pardoner of his faults. No maruell if the life and death of such who hearken vnto them, be full of sighs and sobs, & grones, and feares, and doubts, since quietnesse and setled rest cannot be in their hearts. They haue a way to walke, but what is the end they know not. They are sure of their departure, but whither they cannot tell. A lamentable taking, and wherein of necessitie must be small ioy. How contrarie hereunto doth Saint Paule speak,Roman. 5.1. being iustified by faith we haue peace toward God, through our Lord Iesus Christ. How contrarie to this doth Saint Iohn speake in the name of the faithfull,1. Ioh. 5.19. we know that we are of God. How doth deiected Ionas yet keepe him fast to this tackling, when he crieth ô Lord my God?

23 And this is the surest anker, whereunto a Christian man may possibly know how to trust. This is it which in the blastes of aduersity, will keepe him fast at the roote; which in the waues of temptation, will hold him fast by the chinne, which in the greatest discomforts, and very pangs of death, will bring him to life againe: To ground himselfe vpon this, as on a rocke assured, that his God is his father, that Iesus is his redeemer, that the holy Ghost doth sanctifie him, that although he sinne oft-times, yet euermore he is forgiuen; and albeit he do transgresse dayly, yet it is still forgotten; that whether he liue or dye, yet euer he is the Lords. Good father leade vs so by thy most blessed Spirite, that we neuer do fall from this. [Page 269] But although sinne hange vpon vs, as it did vpon the Pro­phet, yet raise vs so by thy loue, that laying hold on thy pro­mises, and the sweetenesse of thy fauour, we may reape e­ternall life, to the which ô blessed Lord bring vs for thine owne Sonne Christ his sake, to whom with thee and thy Spirit, be laude for euermore.


The chiefe poynts. 3. Gods election is sure. 4. One argument thereof is to remem­ber the Lord after affliction. 6. That cogitation is very comfor­table. 7. The good and bad do differently remember God. 8. The wicked do it with a murmuring. 10. Especially in death, God is to be thought on. 11. Therefore it is good to thinke on him in health. 12. Else we shall not be willing to dye. 14. Churches are to be vsed reuerently. 15. God heareth the prayers of his seruants. 17. By vanity is signified euill. 19 as Adams fall may therein be comprehended, 20. or idolatry, 21. or curious crafts and studies, 22. or adultery and carnall sinne, 23. and ill gotten goods, 24. and ambition.

Ionah. 2.7.8.

When my soule fainted within me, I remembred the Lord: and my prayer came vnto thee in thy holy Temple. They that waite vpon lying vanity, forsake their owne mercy.

IT is euident vnto vs, by the whole processe of the Chapter before going, that the transgres­sion of Ionas, did seeme vnto the Lord a grie­uous transgression: And his fall may seeme to vs, a very strange fault, that a Prophet ex­ercised before in Gods seruice, among the Is­raelites, acquainted with secrets and reuelations from aboue, should so vary from the tenure of piety and obedience. But great sinnes require great punishments, straunge faults require [Page 270] straunge chastisements. Our Ionas as I thinke, may make his profession, that it hath bene so with him. A tempest did follow him, which would not giue him ouer: a lot did discouer him to be a malefactor: and when he could aunswer to the euidence, no one word but guilty, which imported his confession, the ma­riners will they, nill they, must cast him ouer ship-boord: where after sinking downe to the bottome of the water, after wrapping and intangling of his head within the weedes, he is caught vp by a fish, in whose belly he is lodged, for three dayes and three nights. Here how perplexed his state was, who cannot imagine? Without foode, without light, with­out company and comfort: a man drowned, and not drowned; deuoured but not digested, aliue but yet as dead, in perpetuall expectation of the fearefull dissolution, of his soule from his bo­dy. Nay the torment was greater, which he sustained in his heart, that horrour in his conscience, that conflict in his soule, as if God had forsaken him, and giuen sentence vpon him, as on a reprobate cast-away, a firebrand of hell, an inheritor of damna­tion. Woful sinner, who for his fancies sake, and vpon the sugge­stion of flesh and bloud, would draw such a iudgement to him­selfe, as which a man well aduised would not haue sustained, but the space of one day, for any treasure on earth. For it is a feare­full thing, to grapple with the Highest, or to wrastle with our maker.

2 As this anguish hath bene largely before touched, so to make it vp complete, he addeth as the conclusion of his misery, although not of his prayer, that his soule fainted in him, it dou­bled it selfe together (as some men do translate it) as the knees of a man dying do double; it was as ouerwhelmed, fainting as in a swound, his life was at last cast, euen ready now to go out, as a consumed lampe: the gaspes and grones and pangs, of very death were vpon him. Yea throbs of desperation did oppugne him with such violence, that the hope of eternall life seemed for some moments, to be exiled from him; his forlorne soule was sinking in diffidence and distrust. So the best are deiected when God doth eclypse his presence and comfortable aspect. But that absence and forbearing, maketh a more tender feeling of [Page 271] succour when it returneth, a more aboundant thankfulnesse: for it deserueth gratefulnesse in great measure, to be brought from the depth of sorrow, to the height of ioy; to be saued from extremity. Ionas yet striketh this string, amplifying Gods mer­cy ouer him, from the circumstance of the time: when my ghost was giuing vp, when all hope was past and gone. Which argument because I fully handled in my last Lecture, I would now leaue it, and teach some other doctrine. These two verses note two persons; the former of them the Prophet, the latter some other men, who waite on lying vanities. The actions of the one of them, and the other, are here specified, and the fruite which both of them do reape. Then these two persons yeeld two parts, to be handled by Gods assistance. In the former which concerneth the Prophet, these circumstances are: what he did, and how he sped: what he did, in that he saith he remembred the Lord, how he sped, in that he addeth, that his prayer came vnto God in his holy Temple.

I remembred the Lord,

3 The purpose of Gods election, in fore-appointing some vn­to 1 life eternall, is a matter so immutable, and vnchangeable in it selfe, that nothing can impeach it. The flesh with her frailty, the world with his suttlety, the multitudes and millions of infernall spirits, cannot alter that decree. There may be some shadowes, and seemings to the contrary, but the substance is kept inuio­lable. The very gates of hell,Matth. 16.18. preuaile not against him whose the determination is; neither preuaile they against his. No creature can crosse the intent of the Creator. He can bring vs, he can force vs, from sin, vnto sorrow and heauinesse for sinne, from fil­thinesse vnto innocency, from transgression to repentance, from forsaking of goodnesse to embracing of grace. He it is who can regenerate vs, renew vs, and reforme vs, remould vs, and reframe vs, that naturall corruptions, and actuall deprauations, euen ido­latry with Naaman,2. Reg. 5.1. Luc. 19.2. Act. 9.1. Matth. 26.70. Luc. 8.2. or extortion with Zacheus, or persecution with Paule, or denying Christ with Peter, or entertaining of seuen diuels with sinfull Mary Magdalene, shall be to vs no pre­iudice, no detayning of his fauour. Where he appointeth salua­tion, there euery thing in his time shall worke vnto saluation; but [Page 272] it must be in his time. He draweth the vnwilling to him, the bro­ken he bindeth vp, the lost he seeketh out, he toucheth that with remorse, which was before as the Adamāt, the hardest hart he doth mollifie. He that ordaineth glory to any, will giue him grace to attaine it. He who is the life is the way leading to that life:Ioh. 14.6. he who giueth the one, graunteth the other. Where he de­termineth the end, there also he offereth the meanes to appre­hend that end. As before more at large.

4 But there is no meane more direct, to bring any to God, then to teach him to know God, who neuer knew him before: and such a man as did know him, and now is as if he were fallen away, to bring him to remember him; that he may once againe assume that confidence, and resolution to himselfe, that he who loued him before, will returne his affection toward his soule, if it do seeke vnto him. Which fauour, looke to whom God in his mercy graunteth, it is an assured argument that he is not such a lost child, as who finally shall perish. For with his sweete re­membrance (for so I may well terme it, when it commeth after bitter temptation, and a grieuous fall) doth go a faith of that na­ture, that if it be once admitted to presence, it will neuer out a­gaine; no iustice can dismay it, no iudgement can affright it; but although it creepe on his knees, it will to the mercy seate; from which albeit rigour should offer to repell it & remooue it, yet it clingeth & clutcheth so fast, that it will not out any more. Then, the best men who haue fallē by the infirmity of their flesh, thinke their case very happy, if that may be graunted to them, to haue God in their mind, and to haue recourse to him: and they make much of that motion, retaining it and pursuing it, as the best way to their blessednesse: they account this in grea­test difficulties, as the first step to a conquest, as the first linke of a chaine, which being plucked will bring on much more with it.

Psal. 42.6.5 In the two and fortieth Psalme Dauid complaineth thus: My God, my soule is vexed within me, but yet he addeth for his comfort,Psal. 77.2.1. therefore I will remember thee. In the seuentie and se­uenth Psalme, In the day of my trouble I sought the Lord, my sore ranne and ceased not in the night: my soule refused comfort, [Page 273] But I did thinke vpon God. What a ioy was it to Iob, when after losse of all, after his biles and botches, and scraping them with a pot-sheard, after his wiues temptation, after his friends repro­ching him that he was a sinfull hypocrite (else God would not haue so plagued him) he found that grace with his maker, as to grow to this resolution to say,Iob. 13.15. Lo, though he slay me, yet will I trust in him. For it is the only rocke of contentment, the best and sole assurance, which languishing soules can haue, to runne vnto the Lord, all-sufficient for his power, and mercifull in his loue. Ionas was past the pikes, and now entring vpon a victory, when after his deiection, and discouragement in his suffering, he beginneth to remember God, whose amiable countenance he had seene so oft before, and whose fauour he had enioyed. And that is a great matter, vnto a wounded soule (whereby he may close againe with the Highest, and gather in with the Iudge) to haue had former experience of his loue, as of a father. This experience bringeth hope, and hope will neuer cease to begge,Psal. 74.12. and vrge for a pardon. God is my king of old, saith the Church of God in affliction, & it resteth it selfe on that. When Habacuc had complained of those, who in his time did grieuously persecute the faithfull, his refuge is, the remembrance of the Lords foregoing fauour, which euermore had sustained him.Habac. 1.12. Art not thou of old sayth he my Lord my God, my holy one? Therefore we shall not dye.

6 The siliest soule among vs, may hence deriue some com­fort to himselfe: that is, when any fearefull waues of tempta­tion do grow on vs to drowne vs, then to thinke on the mighty Iehoua who alone can rid vs out. If [...] can speake against vs, what matter is it if God be for vs? If our sinnes within vs be great, yet is the Lords mercy greater. What blacknesse can be so filthy, as that Christs bloud cannot wash it? I cannot owe so much, but my God can forgiue it. I cannot want so much, but my Sauiour can supply it. If I looke vpon my selfe, behold wo and damnation; but if I looke vp to heauen, there I haue a strong redeemer. Now as for earthly matters, and these corruptible trifles, with which we haue to do, they are to the regenerate man, farre lighter then the other. If penury or pouerty come, [Page 274] God hath inough for all, he can releeue in abundance. If sor­row oppresse the mind,Psal. 30.5. it may endure for a night, but ioy com­meth in the morning. If sicknesse do vexe the body, what Phi­sition is like to the Lord?2. Sam. 15.31. 1. Sam. 21.7. If Achitophel should take counsell, God can turne it into foolishnesse; if Doeg should lay snares he can destroy and breake them. And all this may be soundly warranted to me, by those former experiments which I haue had. I haue liued so many yeares, and haue euer bene preserued: I haue slipped oft but neuer fallen; or fallen but risen againe. I haue bene much bruised, but neuer broken: in aduersity he hath helped me, in temptation he hath succoured me: he is the same God euer, most gracious and most kind; him will I serue in weale, him will I seeke too in wo.

7 Well fare this good remembrance, and flying to the Lord; vnto whō, the holy men of all ages haue had recourse, the Patri­arks & the Prophets, & euery grieued soule. And whither could they better go, then to the spring of grace, then to the well of power? No fishing vnto the sea: no seruice to a king: where most is, most may be gotten. No seeking like to that which is to the king of kings, who is more then a sea of bounty. But in remēbring him, remember this withall, that it be with a liuely faith, with a confident apprehension of the sweetnesse of his loue. For in this, the elect do differ from the wicked: both of them are in distresse, and both remēber God: but the one of them with a hope, the o­ther with a horror: the elect firmely beleeuing, that his God doth thinke vpon him: that although the beames of his countenance, for a time be shadowed from him, yet they will breake forth a­gaine: that he smiteth but not to death, he striketh, but not to kill. Whereas on the other side, the vnbeleeuing sinner, be he hy­pocrite or idolater, doth thinke that his God or Gods, haue vt­terly forgotten him; or if they do remember him, it is but for to plague him, to vexe him or torment him: by which meditatiō, he breaketh into wrath & most impatiēt fury, somtimes raging with heat, somtimes despairing for feare, euermore quaking with hor­ror. So the one of these liueth, & recouereth, & daily approcheth more neare to the Lord; the other sinketh & fainteth, as the mel­ting yce doth in the sun-shine; or else fretting he blasphemeth, not [Page 275] vnlike to a stroke of thunder, which ratleth and maketh a great noise, but presently dissolueth, and goeth away vnto nothing.

8 We find such in the Scripture. In the eighth Chapter of the Prophecie of Esay,Isay. 8.21. God threatneth thus vnto Iuda, then he that is afflicted and famished, shall go too and fro in it, and vvhen he shall be hungry he shall euen fret himselfe, and curse his King and his Gods, and shall looke vpward. Here is a thinking vpon those, which were but supposed Gods, but it is with in­dignation. When Samaria was besieged,2. Reg. 6.33. and famine did shrewdly pinch it, Ioram that wicked king thereof, had God in his memory, but to murmure and fret at him. His message vnto the Prophet shewed that, when he durst to say, Behold this euill commeth of the Lord: shall I attend on him any longer? As if he should say, that he would no longer waite the Lords pleasure. His words before shew as much,31. when in steed of making his prayer to the Almighty God, he doth curse and ban himselfe, if he did not that very day, take off the head of Elizeus the Pro­phet of the Lord.Apoc. 16.21. In the sixteenth of the Reuelation of Saint Iohn, is is reported that a great haile did fall, euery stone as bigge as a talent; but it is added withall, that men blasphemed God, because of the plague of the haile: for the plague there­of vvas exceeding great. Among heathen men, the wisest haue herein fowly fallen, being deiected to desperation, vpon euery great occurrent.Tul. lib. 1. E­pistol. ad Quint. Fra­trem. I would pray to the Gods for these things, sayth Tully, ad Quintum Fratrem, but that the Gods haue gi­uen ouer to heare any thing of my prayers. Among the old Romane historians which haue written, who was wiser then Cornelius Tacitus? men do now study him for policy. Yet in the first of his history,Tacitus Hi­stor. lib. 1. recounting those great grieuances, which befell Rome by the ciuill warres, vnder Galba and Vitellius, he vseth this desperate speech: Neuer by greater slaughters on the Romane people, or by more iust iudgements vvas it approoued vnto vs, that the Gods do not at all respect our safety and secu­rity, but to take vengeance on vs they are ready inough. Here policy hath forgotten the very first grounds of piety, which are patience and humility. Liuie a graue writer although other­wise superstitious inough, as appeareth by his Prodigia, and [Page 276] yearely monsters, yet tasteth of these dregs, when in his fourth booke he writeth thus:Liuius lib. 4. Vixope Deo­rum omnium res sisti potu­isset. Here followeth a yeare, which for slaugh­ters and ciuill vprores, and famine was very famous. Onely for­reine warre was vvanting, wherewithall if our state had bene la­ded, things could hardly haue bene stayed by the helpe of all the Gods, but that they had run to ruine.

9. Thus the wisedome of this world, is nothing else but foo­lishnesse, nothing but doting folly, when it commeth indeed to the crosse, or to the fiery triall. The knowledge of God is wan­ting, or at least the laying hold aright by faith is wanting. And where faith is not to be found, there is neither hope nor pati­ence, which are two infallible notes of a iust and Christian man. There is nothing sayth Saint Cyprian,Cyprian. Serm. de bo­no patien­tiae. which putteth more diffe­rence betweene the iust and the vniust, then this, that the euill man in his aduersity, doth complaine and impatiently blaspheme, but the good doth suffer quietly. The iust hath trust in his Sauior, but the other hath no part in him. What maruell then is it, if the wicked do fret and rage without comfort, since he hath no share in him, who is the God of comfort? What maruell is it, if he perish? Plutarch telleth that this is the quality of Tigres,Plutarch. de supersti­tione. that if drums or tabours sound about them, they will grow madde, and then they teare their owne flesh, and rent themselues in peeces. If the vnbeleeuing reprobate do heare the noyse of affliction, he is ready to rent himselfe: but by cursing and by swearing, he will teare the body of Christ from top to toe in peeces. As Ionas did remember God; so the reprobate will not forget him; but it is not to pray vnto him; not to beleeue vpon him, for he harh not so much grace, but to ban him and blaspheme him I could wish that such prophanenesse as this, might neuer be heard off, in ear­nest or in play, in the life or death of any man. We should thinke of him with a reuerence, we should mind him with a feare; in prosperity with a trembling, in aduersity with a hope. There should be no fretting against his prouidence, no grudging a­gainst his punishment. When my soule did faint within me, I remembred the Lord sayth Ionas, I remembred him to beseech him, I remembred him to intreate him, I remembred him to embrace him, to trust in him as a deliuerer, to beleeue in him as [Page 277] a father. I called to him and doubted not: and he afterward heard my voyce.

10 Saint Hierome doth giue this note vpon this place,Hieron. in Ion. 2. taking it out of the Septuagint. That because he thought vpon the Lord, when his soule did faint, and he was ready to dye, we by his example, should aboue all things mind our maker, when we are in the fits and pangs of death. A very needefull doctrine, if any thing may be needefull; that when we must dis­lodge, and be remooued hence, when our glasse is so farre runne, that immediatly a change must follow, and that not to a trifle, or toye, which is to bee contemned, but either to heauen or hell, either to perpetuall ioy, or to euerlasting torment; we haue him in our meditations, who is to see our iudge, who is to scanne our actions, and to peruse our conscience, and giue the last sentence on vs: that then with our best remembrance we thinke vpon his mercy, and contemplate on his great loue, in the redemption of his sonne, and desire him for his blouds sake, to take vs into his fauour. That this lesson might the bet­ter be taught vnto vs, Iesus the sonne of God, and fore-run­ner of our faith, when he was ready to yeeld vp his spirit, did commend his vnspotted soule,Luc. 23.46, to his most righteous father. Fa­ther into thy hands I commend my spirit. Good Steuen the eldest martyr, did tread these steps right after him, when at the time of his death he cried,Act. 7.59. Lord Iesus receiue my spirit. And euery Christian man should struggle and striue to do so; to shake off as much as may be, the heauinesse of his sicknesse, and as ha­uing that one prize, that last great prize to play, should stirre vp his spirit in him, and should then pray to God to com­fort him, to conduct him vnto heauen, to leade him along to glorie. It is a good thing to liue well; but because death is the vp-shot, which maketh or marreth the rest, it is the best thing to dye well. He who hath begun aright, hath halfe that whereat he aimeth; but to begin is our hurt (it shall bee a witnesse against our conscience) vnlesse we do per­seuere. The man who shall bee blessed,Matth. 24 13. must continue to the ende.

11 Then may the dangerous state of such, be iustly de­plored, [Page 278] who in their life time haue so fondly doated vpon the world, that when death which is Gods baylife, doth summon them to appeare before the iudgement seate, they do least of all other things know, wherewith he should be furnished, who commeth there: but as before in the time of their health, so in their despaired sicknesse, do thinke only vpon their Mammon, admiring it and embracing it, and kissing it in their thought, as if they were wedded to it. But neither of themselues, nor by the instigation of the Minister (who is a remembrancer for the Lord) can they be any way vrged, to speake of celestiall things, to call on God for mercy, or to professe their faith, and confidence in their Sauiour. And this wordly imagination, first ministreth hope of life, they not dreaming that death will take them, till on the sudden both body and soule, do eternally dye together. Next if they do conceiue, that it must be so, and there is no way with them but the graue, then is their heart oppressed with sor­row, and a huge waight of griefe, that there must be a separa­tion, from their beloued treasure. And lastly if their memory do serue, there must be an vnsetled and vnresolued disposing, with disquietnesse and much vexing, of that which hath bene ill got­ten, to this child or to that friend, and much stirre there must be about the pompe of a funerall: by which meanes all good motions are so stifled and choaked, that there is scant one word of him, who made all and must iudge all. See what it is, in our life time to thirst after this trash, to repose our full contentment and blessednesse in this drosse. When the heart should be lifted vp to celestiall contemplation, this hangeth so about it, that it cannot but lye groueling, vpon the the rotten ground.

12 Vaine glory, or any sinister passion which doth possesse the mind, hath the same effect; and so hath ignorance of the true God; which ignorance and vaine glory, as I suppose were the reasons,Sueton. in Tito. cap. 10. wherfore Titus the Romaine Emperor (who was amōg the heathen a mirrour of men) was so loath to depart from this earth; when knowing that he must dye, being caried as he was in his horse-litter, he looketh vp toward heauen, & most bitter­ly maketh complaint, that his life should so be taken away, from him, not deseruing so ill. How vaine are all the shewes of ver­tue, [Page 279] without the knowledge of Christ Iesus? Yet the end of Saint Ambrose,In vita Am­brosij. Non inter vos vixi vt vixisse me pudeat. was in a more holy maner, when he being spoke vnto by his friends, to pray that yet he might not dye, made his answer as he lay, at the very dore of death, I haue not liued so ill among you, that I am ashamed to liue any longer: neither am I afraid to dye because we haue a good Lord, vpon whom he then did trust. There can be no better meditation, to any man at that time of departure, then to thinke on that good Lord. It causeth a willing and safe leauing of this world; a perfecting and com­pleting of all, that hath bene here begun; which is more to be desired, then all the land or treasure, which euer the Sunne did see. When the time of receiuing the reward commeth, it is good to be ready. It is best to be aduised of our standing, but most of all of our falling. He that for a long time runneth nim­bly, but stumbleth immediatly before the marke, hath lost his former labour, and is depriued of the price. If at any time, then at that time, when our soule doth faint within vs, and is leauing her habitation, together with our Prophet, let vs thinke vpon our God. Now let vs come to the next circumstance, and that is how he did speed.

And my prayer came vnto thee into thy holy Temple.

13 Ionas in great misery, and expectation of his end, hath his mind vpon his maister, & with faith he remembred him, and he remembred him to pray to him. Now his prayer was not vn­fruitfull, as that which is made to idols, or vnto hard hearted men, but by the fauour of the Iudge, it hath audience to the full. It came to God in his Temple, which is not to be intended, as taken of the heauen, the chiefe seate of his maiesty, and resi­dence of his power (although in generall all the prayers of his e­lect and chosen, do ascend and go vp thither) but in more spe­ciall manner it is meant of the Temple, which Salomon did e­rect: where together with the Arke of the couenant, and the Cherubims and the mercy-seate, the presence of Gods grace was in most peculiar sort. And this house was to the Iewes, a vi­sible signe and Sacrament thereof,1. Reg. 8.31.33. Isay. 37.14. so that according to the re­quest which Salomon made to God, they repaired thither when any thing did oppresse them, as appeareth by Hezechias, [Page 280] who layd open the letter of Senacherib, in the Temple before the Lord. Yea when soeuer the Israelites were in a strange land, in bondage or captiuity, and called vpon the Lord earnestly, they did turne themselues to that coast, which way this house did stand,Daniel. 6.10. as I then made plaine vnto you by the example of Da­niel, when I handled the fourth verse of this present Chapter. Then to say no more of that point, his prayer was directed to him who sate in this Temple.

14 But obserue withall, with what reuerence he speaketh here of Gods house, the Temple of thy holinesse, for so it is in the Hebrew, [...] or into thy holy Temple, as we commonly do translate it. If we referre the appellation of holinesse to the Lord, who is so holy as he, whose sacred goodnesse and sanctitie, doth exceede the thought of all creatures? In Leuiticus he speaketh thus,Leuit. 19.2. be you holy, for I the Lord your God am holy. So in Exodus it was written in that plate, which was in Aarons forehead,Exod. 28.36. Holinesse to the Lord. If we take it of the Temple, this also was a holy place, consecrated vnto piety, and dedicated to religion; whose inner part by an excellencie, was called Sanctum Sanctorum, the holy of holies, as implying that the rest was also of good qualitie. From hence all pro­faned persons and polluted things, were precisely bid to be kept.Ioseph Anti­quit. lib. 20.6. The violating of this house did much offend the Lord, as may be seene many times in the Prophets; and Iosephus is of opinion, that nothing sooner brought destruction to Ieru­salem, then the execrable deedes committed in the Temple. The place was made for all kind of goodnesse, and deuotion to the Lord; but it was so farre abused, as any thing which is most filthie. These are warnings to vs, that since in our age Chur­ches are as much to the Christians, as that Temple was to the Israelites, or at least they are sequestred houses, to serue God truely in, that we vse them with all reuerence, for his sake to whom they belong: that as we repute them, to be consecrated matters, so in truth we do vse them, as Gods most holie Temple. Which whether men do or no, let the chop­ping and the changing in symoniacall sort, the buying and the selling of these Churches as of most profane things, witnesse [Page 281] vnto the world. If we should be silent, yet let the preassing in of the vilest,1. Reg. 12.31 right Ieroboams Priests, proclaime the truth herein. Let the carelesnesse of those Pastours, whom God hath blessed with skill, make open declaration, who do mind that field or barne, whence corne or wooll commeth to them, oftener in one moneth, then the pulpit in a yeare. They can enquire for a Cu­rate, where one may be had best cheape, (not respecting whe­ther he be able to teach,) or what payments be to the Prince, or impositions to the state, but how the people shall be instructed, they do not regard at all. And on the other side, let the generall behauiour of men throughout the land▪ speake whether those that be of the congregation, do vse these houses as sanctified things or no. Looke into their cold coming on the weeke daies, in such places where Lectures are continued, their talking and gazing about, when their soule should be instructed; their re­uoluing of their worldly businesse; their obseruing rather of e­loquence in the minister or preacher, or in some, what may be carped at, then how their owne life may be bettered, or their conscience informed; their perfunctorie praying, and formall inuocation of him who requireth the heart. These matters shew that it is made vnholy by vs, which in it selfe is ordained to be holy. Of likelyhood the temple at Hierusalem was vsed in ano­ther sort, when the Prophet here called it holy: otherwise he might iustly haue feared, that God had not bene there to haue heard him, when he cried out of the fishes belly.

15 But hitherto the Temple was not relinquished by him, as the later house was afterward, when a voyce was heard in the night saying,Ioseph. de bello Iudai­co. lib. 7.12. Migremus hinc, let vs be gone from this place; and therefore the Prophets prayer which was directed hither, found the successe which it wished. It came thither to the Lord. The di­stance of the place, the great depth of the water, the shutting vp in the whale, yea the odiousnesse of his sinne, could not de­taine his crying, and seeking to the Lord. He who in the four­teenth of Exodus,Exod. 14.15. 1. Sam. 1.11. did heare the crye of Moses, although ne­uer a word were vttered, and he who heard Hannas prayer, when her lippes onely did mooue, and no word was spoken out, did attend Ionas when hee besought him with faith, [Page 282] and implored his gracious goodnesse ouer him. He hath bid vs call vpon him in the day,Psal. 50.25. that is, in euery day of trouble, and he hath said that he will heare. It is he who neuer failed any of those who seeke to him. As in all other matters, so in this he hath a prerogatiue aboue all other: he can heare, and he will heare. Heathenish Gods are but delusions, and imaginarie toyes; he who prayeth to them prayeth to nothing.1. Reg. 18.27 Baal may be iested at, as sleeping or being busie. Idols are but dead stockes; they can­not mooue themselues, and therefore not helpe themselues, much lesse those that pray to them. Yet a man exceedeth all these, if they were in number ten thousand: although oftentimes he debaseth himselfe, as a seruant vnto these. But how short of God doth this man come? This will not if he could: another could if he would: a third both could and would, but is absent, and therefore ignorant what it is that is begged of him. The power of all is so limited, that the greatest cannot graunt the tenth thing which is asked, and either themselues do confesse this, or vse base shifts to couer it. And how hardly do men part with that which is in their power?Seneca de Beneficijs. lib. 2.17. As Seneca writeth, on a time a Cynike Philosopher asked a talent of Antigonus, who would gladly haue bene reputed a bountifull Prince. His answer was, that a talent was too much for a Cynike to receiue. Then the other asked him a peny. That saith he is too little for a king as I am to giue. How oft soeuer such answers be giuen from men, they do neuer come from God. He giueth without reproching; he heareth without delaying. But we must aske that which is lawfull, and we must aske in faith, and we shall not haue a denyall.

16 It pleaseth him to yeeld so much vnto our prayer, ap­pointing that as the instrument whereby we do approch him. And indeed it is a good meanes to come into his presence. For prayer is so piercing, that it will get to the seat of God, through the very heauens and cloudes. It is winged and ascendeth vp­ward, being made light by the heat of fierie pure deuotion. The wind is not so quicke: the lightning is not so nimble, which go­eth from East to West, as this is in his passage. In a moment it ascendeth from our tongs to Gods eares. His eyes see our eyes [Page 283] weeping: he well conceiueth our grones; he well vnderstan­deth our sighs. If heauinesse do oppresse vs, and sorrow weigh vs downe, yet if our knees be bent vnto him, or our hands held vp on high, or our breasts be beaten before him, or our cheeks bedewed with teares, we shall be eased from all. Then this is the onely remedie, in agonies and in anguishes, for the afflicted soule to seeke to. It hasteneth to and fro, and neuer returneth emptie. Our sinning and suffering Prophet, this drowning and dying Ionas, did crye f [...]om the middle of the whale, from the bottome of the sea, from the very belly of hell, and as he said before, so here againe he professeth it, the Lord did heare his voyce: his prayer came to Gods temple. Now you haue heard what he did, and how likewise he sped. Let vs here come to the second part, which noteth some other persons, whose words and deedes are otherwise.

They that wayt vpon lying vanities, forsake their owne mercie.

17 These words do imply a kind of Antithesis, or contra­rie 2 successe, betweene him before mentioned, and those who do now follow: as if he should say, I scant looked for mercie, and yet I did find it; I prayed and was heard: but these might receiue mercie, and themselues do forsake it. These are such which obserue, or keepe, or wayte vpon lying vanitie in stead of truth, not ignorantly falling into it, but wilfully pursuing it. Such as set their whole labour on that which is but errour, and make a studie of it. Now those who with such egernesse do follow wrong paths, the farther they go on, the more they go astray. They bend indeede all their diligence to somewhat, but it is to lying vanitie: vnder which name, the Scripture doth compre­hend all things, which are besides pietie, and the true seruice of God.Psal. 31.6. Psal. 62.10. I haue hated them saith Dauid, who giue themselues to deceitfull vanities. And in another place: Trust not in oppression and robberie, be not vaine. Gods Spirit doth account euery thing to be but vaine, and lying, and deceitfull, which cannot endure the tryall, which faileth vs and falleth from vs, and when we most trust to it, is least able to do vs good. Such are all earthly things, without the grace of God being ioyned to them; as ri­ches which are so much desired, and honour which is so hotely [Page 284] sought, or beautie, or strength, or friends, which helpe not in that day, when iudgement or vengeance commeth.

18 Such are all the inuentions, and deuised figments of men, superstitions and false religions, Pharisaicall obseruations, papi­sticall dreames and fancies, for whose sake, whosoeuer will leaue the true prescript of Gods word, he may be said to forsake the fountaine of liuing water,Ier. 2.13. and digge vnto himselfe broken pits. He may be said to haue turned from the Lord who is only truth, and to haue embraced falshood; to haue refused grace, and for­saken his owne mercie. For where as God hath promised to be mercifull to all such, who serue him as he hath taught, by their neglecting of true deuotion, they also neglect that mercie, which was offered to them before. So they make themselues vnwor­thie of remission and pardoning of their sinnes. And in this case, the end doth prooue heauie, like to that rule of Aristotle, where he saith that it must needes be in progresse of time, Aristotel. Politic. l. 4.12 that of counter­feited good things, should grow that which is truly euill. That wherein Zedechias trusted was but a lying vanitie, and had a dolefull issue,Ioseph. Anti­quit. lib. 10 4 when (as Iosephus did well gather) he thought that the two Prophets Ezechiel and Ieremie, had spoken con­trarie things, & therefore that the Lord had not at all sent them. The reason was, for that the one foretold that he should be led to Babylon, and the other had foresaid, that he neuer should see Babylon.2. Reg. 25.7. Ier. 52.11. Whereas both these things were true; for his eyes were first put out, and then he was caried prisoner thither. The hereticall vnderstanding of Scripture is of this kind, being no­thing else but a lying vanitie: and so is the faining of that to be Scripture, which is not written by Gods Spirit, and the groun­ding thereupon of such positions, as touch pietie and saluation. But because the consideration of this doctrine is very ample, and good fruit is herein to be found, let vs see some few exam­ples of such, as haue or do so fall away from their mercie.

19 First our old parents in Paradise, did obserue lying vani­ty. God had expresly forbidden vnto them, the touching of the tree of good and euill. All other but none of that. Satan com­meth with his temptation, and suggesteth another matter, and that was this, as Chrysostome writeth vpon Genesis: What [Page 285] profit is it to be in Paradise, Chrysost. in Genes. Ho­mil. 16. Sp [...]tare vobis licet, frui non licet. and not to enioy such things as are in it? Nay therefore your griefe is the greater, that see these things you may, but vse them you may not. Or as Austen turning it another way, supposeth thus. God saith, do not touch it: what? This tree. And what I pray you is this tree? if it be good, why may not I touch it? if it be bad what doth it in Paradise? There is no hurt in the tree; but God in his spitefull moode, is loath that you should be graced so far foorth as himselfe. You shall be Gods if you do it, and able to discerne good and euill. Thus was a lye inculcated in stead of a simple truth, and Adam was induced to hearken to the vanitie of the deceiuing serpent, whereby he lost that mercie, which the Lord had appointed ouer him, and pluc­ked on himselfe and his posteritie after him, that miserie, that body and soule for euer had ioyntly perished by it, if our Saui­our in compassion had not made restitution. Other by his exam­ple may take heed and warning also, what that thing shall be, whereunto they presume to trust.

20 Secondly, idolatrous persons do come within this cō ­passe,2 who declining once from him, who is the onely Lord, do multiply to themselues filthie abominations, and therein are so obsequious, and scrupulous euery way, that true pietie doth not come neare them,Num. 23.1.14 in accomplishing that dutie which appertai­neth to it. When Balaam would curse the Israelites, he goeth from place to place, imagining as dicers do, that one standing roome was more fortunate for his purpose, or luckie then ano­ther. But in euery place he must haue seuen altars to be erected, and seuen bullocks, and seuen rammes to be offered on them. He held this number of seuen to besome holy number, & ther­fore would not breake it. How did they tye themselues to ido­latrous obseruations,Isay. 57.5. August. de ciuitat. Dei. 4.8. who had their idols standing vnder euery greene tree? Or those of whom Saint Austen speaketh, who had for euery thing a peculiar God or Goddesse. When the corne was in the barne, they had a Goddesse for that, and when it was in the earth, they had another for that, & when it began to blade, and when it began to eare, Tutelina, and Segetia, and Patuli­na, and Volutina, and how many I cannot tell. How carefull think you were they, to watch when the times did come, to offer [Page 286] sacrifice vnto euery one of them in his kind? How laborious is their folly who liue in Scandinauia, in Biarmia or Scricfinnia, which are Northren parts of Europe beyond Sweden,Olaus Mag­nus. lib. 3.2. who as Olaus Magnus reporteth, do marke euery morning what liuing thing they do first see, in the aire or earth or water, and all that day vntill the euening, they adore that creature for a God, be it bird or beast or fish,2. Chron. 36.8. yea or creeping thing, as a worme. Ie­hoiakim who is mentioned in the booke of the Chronicles, did much dote on his idols, when he had found on him being dead, marks and prints in his flesh, which were made for their sakes, (for so the storie is expounded.Euseb. de vi­ta Constant. 2.5.15.) So Licinius was fond vpon his Gods, whom he did serue many waies; yea and vpon occasi­ons vsed to change them also, as he did when he fought against blessed Constantine.Theodoret. Hist. Eccl. 3.21.22. But no man more then Iulian, who did ho­nour vnto his Idols, with such and so many sacrifices, as were against humane nature, and decorum in a man, as we find in the Ecclesiasticall stories. Now see what can be more vaine, then stocks and stones, & imaginarie supposed powers as these were: what could be more lying, and more fraudulent, then such fond Gods as these? And they who wholly intend such toyes, haue renounced the true seruice of the Lord, who is iealous of his ho­nour, and will not haue any creature robbe him of his glorie; but such vain toyes least of all. From this text, they may feare iudge­ment, who waite on he Saints and she Saints, and serue God and the Virgin Marie, with so many Pater Nosters, and so ma­ny Aue Marias, and Credoes, vpon their beades. All these are without the warrant of Gods booke, and therefore lying vani­ties: yet how carefull are superstitious persons to number them, and accompt them, and keepe true reckening of them, as if therein lay all the vertue.

3 21 Thirdly they are noted here, who make an occupation of trying tricks and conclusions, some wanton and some worse. I speake not against good learning, nor any honest experiment in it, but rather against such lies as Albertus and Bartholomaeus Anglicus De proprietatibus rerum, and other of that stampe, do suggest to idle heads, and young men which are too credu­lous. Take the liuer or some other part of this bird or that beast, [Page 287] such a stone, or such an herbe, at such a time of the Moone, and you shall do this or that; imagine, go inuisibly, or vnderstand birds languages, or obtaine some euill purpose. If any thing be a vanitie, this is a lying vanitie, and a mis-spending of that time, which God hath giuen vnto vs, not to abuse, but to serue him; and he will require a reckening of it at our hands, when we do least thinke vpon it. There fall within this number, the auncient Aruspicia and Auguria of the Romanes, that is, the marking of the flights of birds, or of the entrails of beastes, or other things of that qualitie, all which are foolish vanitie; and yet much time was spent in them, and some made profession to be very skilfull about them. The wisest among the heathens, although they did not know God, yet held these things for cousinage. It is a re­nowmed speech which is fathered vpon Cato,Cicero de Diuinat. l. 2. that he would say, that he wondred very much, how one of their Aruspices could forbeare to laugh, when he met with any of his fellowes, to see how they deceiued men, and made a great number of sim­ple ones in the citie. Saint Austen thought another matter, fit to be recorded of that Cato,August. de doctrina Christ. 2.21. and that was this, that when one asked counsell of him in sober earnest, what harme he supposed was aboded him, because rats had eate his hose; he aunswered that partie with a iest, that it was no very straunge thing to see that, but it had bene much more maruellous, if his hose had eat vp the rats.Tul. lib. 2. Diuinat. In Tullies disputation concerning such arguments, when one to enforce the veritie of Diuination, had said that a victorie which fell to the Thebanes, was foreshewed by some extraordinarie crowing of Cockes, Tully could aunswere that with a smooth flowte, but very significant, that it was no mira­cle that Cockes should crow, but if fishes had done it, that had bene straunge indeed. Those Ethniks could see that these things were falshood, and exceeding lying vanities, worthy to be but laughed at; yet how did some of their greatest men attend and wait vpon them?Act. 19.19. I may call these foolish Arts, for I thinke that they come not so farre, as curious crafts extend, which are na­med in the Acts of the Apostles. But to speake mine opinion, I imagine that figure-casting for such things as are lost, or to iudge of Natiuities, is fully within that kind, and is a lying vanity, [Page 288] as that which is most lying. Yet although by the Prophets it be sharpely rebuked,Isay. 47.13. Ierem. 10.2. although condemned by Philosophers, al­though ill spoken of by Historians, although by good lawes for­bidden, in well gouerned common wealths, although no Prin­ciple therein haue approoued veritie, neither may there be any good argument or conclusion made for it, yet how do some waite vpon it, and in no sort will go from it? Of whom I may also say, as Cato said of the Aruspices, that I maruell when they meete one another, how they can forbeare to laugh to see how they get monie. From the number of these, I may not seclude superstitious obseruations of ominous or vnfortunate things, vpon which some men do so dote, that they beleeue such va­nities, as a man should beleeue the Gospell. All fearefull iudge­ments sent from God, are to be regarded by vs, but friuolous su­perstitions, and traditions from old tales, are rather to be con­temned. He that obserueth the wind shall not sow, Eccl. 11.4. and he that regardeth the clouds shall not reape. Take heed of such lying va­nities.

22 Fourthly, ordinarie transgressions may very well be taxed hence, and adulterie among other: wherein although Sa­tan the more to inflame it, do buzze a tale into want on flesh, that great men haue sinned so; that God will not call such natu­ral faults as those be to reckening; that there is time inough to re­pent in old age; and it is best in the meane while to satisfie con­cupiscence: yet when these things come to be weighed in the ballance of Gods iustice, they prooue both light and lying. For the wrath of the Lord is oftentimes kindled against such wilfull crimes; and he hath threatned, that whore mongers shall be shut out from the new Hierusalem.Apoc. 22.15 They then do forsake their owne mercie, who pollute themselues in such sort, and withall are a cause for other to be filthie. Yet how some wait vpon this, it is lamentable to thinke, seeking to hurt themselues by euery kind of wantonnesse. Good Iob in his confession, held this for a grosse sinne,Iob 31.9. and disclaimed it from himselfe, If my heart haue bene deceiued saith he by a woman, or if I haue layed waite at the dore of my neighbour, obserue that adulterers do wayt vpō their sinne, let my wife grind vnto another man, and let other men bow [Page 289] downe vpon her, that is, let my wife also be false to me: for this is a wickednesse and iniquitie to be condemned. But many do not feare this, and so plucke Gods iudgement on them.

23 Fiftly, they who in desire to enrich themselues or theirs,5 do set their heart vpon mony, and care not how they gaine it, by robberie or oppression by briberie or extortion, so that it come in vnto them, do wayt vpon lying vanitie. Which may easily be gathered from the very words of Dauid,Psal. 62.10. whom I cited before, trust not in oppression nor in robberie: be not vaine, or giue not your selues vnto vanitie, if riches encrease, set not your heart vpon them. If any, then this is a vaine conceit to thinke that a mans purse is the best friend which he hath, that riches can pre­serue in the day of greatest trouble, that God accepteth mony, that ill gotten goods can long prosper. Oftentimes mony is kept to the hurt and death of the owner: and children are so farre off from being blessed with goods which are ill gotten, that fretting and consuming, and a curse is ioyned with them. Then what folly is it to force and straine our consciences, and so to aduen­ture on Gods displeasure, and the losse of his best mercie, for the gaining of that which is but a fugitiue seruant, and cannot helpe at neede? And yet it is straunge to see, how the world lyeth open to vnlawfull and filthie gaine, what wringing there is from all sortes, what griping of the poore, what thirsting after gifts and hunting after rewards. Are there not which wayt vpon this, and make a studie of it, as a man would studie heauen, deuising and contriuing by what fine sleight and skill, this mo­ney may be soked out, and this cheate may be gotten, and that gift may be had? and then like to the hypocrite, whereof Za­charie speaketh in his time,Zach. 11.5. they can crye blessed be God for I am rich and liue well, seeming to giue the Lord thankes for that, which they haue spoyled, and robbed from their brethren, whom as there the Prophet speaketh, they slay and sell for mo­ney. It is great thankes which we returne to God, for the wit and reason which he hath bestowed vpon vs, to employ it in that sort; as to offend his diuine Maiestie, to abuse those with whom we liue, to helpe our selues, (so farrefoorth as is in our owne power) to infamie in this life, with all such as be [Page 290] vertuous, & to destruction in another. Better it is to haue cleane hands here with a little, then much profite by false vanitie.

24 The same application may be made, concerning ambi­tion and other sinnes, in all which we may take this for a war­ning; that our sight is so dimme, and our vnderstanding so darke, and such are the false shewes of many things in this life, that we may quickly pursue a lye, in steede of truth, and va­nitie for sound veritie, and so purchase Gods wrath, vnlesse with a single eye we looke on things aright, and euer take the iudge­ment of Scripture for our triall; and withall pray that our heart and intellectuall powers, may be lightned in that behalfe, that so hauing will and strength, by the mercie of the Lord, we may walke as we ought, and as it beseemeth our calling. And here I end. Holy Father we beseech thee to direct our steps in thy paths, that renouncing all lying vanities, we may acknowledge thee in our life time, to be the onely Lord; and when our soule fainteth within vs, and is departing hence, we may onely thinke on thee, that both our present prayers, and spirits afterward may ascend into thy celestiall temple, where thou raignest with thy most blessed Sonne, to whom with thee and thy holy Spirit be laud and praise for euer.


The chiefe poynts. 1. Ionas prooueth thankfull for Gods mercie. 3. The reason and order of sacrifices. 5. They should be spiritually meant. 7. How we should do in Gods seruice. 8. Gods praise is publikely to be sounded out. 9. Thankfulnesse is a sacrifice to be offered of all. 11. We are forgetfull in it. 12. The manner of vowes. 14. What rules are to be obserued in them. 17. Popish vowes examined. 19. All helpe commeth from God.

Ionah. 2.9.

But I will sacrifice vnto thee with the voyce of thankesgiuing, and will pay that that I haue vowed: Saluation is of the Lord.

IN the words before going, the Prophet doth comfort himselfe exceedingly, that he serueth such a maister, as is best able to helpe him whē he most needeth, and in his Temple attended to his heartie prayer, when as his soule fainted within him; whereas all other things, be they idols or heathen Gods, or any deuised refuges, be nothing but lying vanitie, and therefore those who wait and depend vpon them, do forsake their owne mercie. Where, when he had found God so eminent, and incomparably great, in comparing him with those weake ones, he esteemeth it a speciall point of dutie, to yeeld to one so excellent, a high measure of praise; and most deserued thankes to him, who in extremitie had so raised him from the pit. And this is the drift of this present verse, to ac­knowledge himselfe so bound and deuoted to God, that all the powers of his mind, and faculties of his soule, should be em­ployed in his seruice. A conclusion well beseeming him who had receiued such fauour, that he would not as beastes, or as vn­thankefull persons do, onely take that which doth come, and make no more adoo; but with a respect vnto the giuer, who [Page 292] beyond all expectation had raised him and relieued him, would record it, and repeate it, and in his best meditation, againe and againe reuolue it, as not knowing how to returne enough, for Gods great mercie.

2 But in the meane while, the words which he vseth are various and significant. He doth mention thankesgiuing, which declareth his gratefull mind: and the better to expresse it, he na­meth the voyce of thankesgiuing, as intending, that he would aduaunce the honour of him who saued him, not in secret onely, but with manifest declaration to others: and to both these he doth ad the act of offering sacrifice, applying that to his thankes, which was the most solemne seruice, vsed in old time to God. Neither doth he make his stand heere, but whereas he had vow­ed some things vnto the Lord, which he promised to performe, if euer he did escape, he saith he vvill pay those vowes: and at the last for a conclusion, he shutteth vp all with these words, saluation is of the Lord. Where because (as you see) the cir­cumstances in the text are manifold, and all of them haue their vse, for better order of instruction, I thinke good to obserue two things. First the dutie returned by Ionas, and that consi­sted in a double deede, one, the sacrifice of thankesgiuing, and the other, the paying of his vowes. Secondly, that good which commeth from God, not onely to the Prophet, but to all those who do serue him. Saluation is of the Lord. Among all which the word of sacrificing is first proposed vnto vs.

I will sacrifice vnto thee.

1 3 The only thing which God doth looke for at mans hands for creating him in so goodly a shape, for enriching him with gifts, so glorious in shew, so gracious in deed, for preseruing him and protecting him in such infinite varietie of dangerous occur­rents, for heaping daily vpon him such multiplied benefites, is to be serued and feared by him.Matth. 4.10. Thou shalt vvorship the Lord thy God, and him onely shalt thou serue. In this, because he hath made all, he doth require all, our selues and all ours, the bodie and the soule, the inward and the outward, the sensible and inuisible; although especially the heart and immateriall soule, yet ioyntly the hand, and action from without, yea and the [Page 293] wealth also, that euery part may recommend a dutie to the au­thour. And for these externall matters, he hath giuen vnto man not onely members, as in prayer his hands to be lifted vp, his breast to be beaten on, his knees to be bowed, his eyes to be be­dewed, that so compunction in the mind may the more be stir­red vp; but also his other creatures, either dum or dead things, the fruites of the earth, the birds of the aire, the beasts of the field, the mettals of the ground, to be vsed to his glorie. And this in old time was done, in nothing more then in sacrifices, which was in some to consecrate and dedicate them vnto him, in some other to offer them in whole or in part consumed with fire, to testifie their obedience and seeking vnto him. Which manner of sacrificing was knowne vnto men from the first time of nature;Genes. 4.3. as good Abel and bad Cain, the first heires of the world, presented an oblation of such things as they had, to him who had sent them.Cap. 8.21. Noe after the floud offered a sweet smelling sauour, and Abraham by commaundement, intended to sacri­fice his onely sonne Isaac.Cap. 22.1. By all which it is euident, that sa­crificing was common, before that any order for Gods seruice was settled.

4 But when the people once were returned out of Egypt, and God by the hand of Moses had ordained a ciuill pollicie, for the gouernment of the laitie, and a Hierarchie Ecclesiasticall (for so I may well call it) for guiding of his Clergie, to the end that euery thing afterward might be practised with conformity, he appointed first for the Tabernacle, and after that for the Temple, a tribe of Priests & Leuites, whose office was to attend to the offerings of the people. And himselfe did name the mat­ter and manner of euery sacrifice, what bird, or beast, daily, or on other occasion should be offered, as the whole body of the Le­uiticall law doth make knowne to vs. Thence grew the daily sacrifice, which neuer was omitted; the sinne-offerings, and free-will-offerings, and many sorts besides: and when extra-ordinarie cause was giuen, great store of beastes were slaine; as when Salomon to consecrate the Temple at Hierusa­lem, did offer in his magnificence, two and twentie thou­sand Oxen,1. Reg. 8.63. and one hundred and twentie thousand [Page 294] sheepe, such a sacrifice as I thinke the like was neuer seene. And that time onely excepted, when the Iewes were captiues in Ba­bylon, or when Antiochus did tyrannize at his pleasure, the al­tars were still going, till the very time of Christ, and diuerse yeares afterward, vntill that the citie and the Temple were brought to desolation by the Romanes vnder Titus: the Priests and people so precisely obseruing that, (when other sinnes, and dishonours to God did abound) that in the time of warre and close siege,Ioseph. Anti­quit. 143. & 8. when they might not issue foorth to haue cattell for their offerings, they would bargaine with the enemies, at high price and great rates, to serue the turne for their mony, as we may reade in Iosephus. In such manner was the succession of sa­crificing, for so many yeares together; God both approouing it and commaunding it.

5 Now these externall sacrifices, as when they were rightly brought with true faith and obedience, and vnderstanding knowledge, they had their vse very good, as to thanke God for his blessings, to acknowledge that all benefits were deriued frō his goodnesse, to testifie their obedience in perfourming his commaundements; but aboue all to figure Iesus Christ, the true Lambe, who was one day to be offered on the altar of the crosse to redeeme the sinnes of the faithfull, whereof in the meane time, their offerings were a signe and seale vnto them; so if they were brought by any, as perfunctorie things, formally and for a fashion, as hypocrites and worldlings did come with them, the Lord was so farre off from accepting them as his seruice, that he hated them and detested them. In the first chapter of Esay, God speaketh to them by his Prophet:Isay. 1.11. What haue I to do with the multitude of your sacrifices, sayth the Lord? I am full of the burnt offerings of Rammes, and of the fat of fed beastes, and I desire not the bloud of bullockes, 13 nor of lambes nor of goates. Bring no more oblations in vain, incense is an abominatiō vnto me, I cannot suffer your new moones. Which agreed with that of Sa­lomon: The sacrifice of the vvicked, Prou 15.8. is abomination to the Lord. God then required in them, that besides the materiall gift, there should be a true mind to serue him; humilitie and liuely faith, which should expresse and shew it selfe, with charitie [Page 295] and good life; and a killing of the euill affections which were in them.Micah. 6.6 To which purpose the Prophet Micah most excel­lently doth speake, Wherewithall should I come before the Lord, or bow my selfe before the high God? shall I come before him with burnt-offerings, and vvith calues of a yeare old? Will the Lord be pleased vvith thousands of Rammes, 7 or vvith ten thousand riuers of oyle? Shall I giue my first borne for my transgression, euen the fruite of my bodie for the sinne of my soule?8 No: hee hath shevved thee ô man vvhat is good, and vvhat the Lord requireth of thee; surely to doe iustly and to loue mercie, and to humble thy selfe to vvalke with thy God.

6 Then it was the spirituall sacrifice, at which God chief­ly did aime; the laying downe of their soules on the altar of his will, the killing of euill thoughts, the mortifying of the mem­bers, the consecrating of themselues wholly vnto his honour; which doctrine Paule vnto the Romanes doth plainely teach, where he beseecheth them by the mercies of God, Rom. 12.1. to offer vp their bodies a liuing sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God, that is their reasonable seruice of God. And this not onely vnder the Gospell, was seene by the faithfull, but was foreseene al­so vnder the Law. Dauid can say in his fourth Psalme, Offer the sacrifices of righteousnesse:Psal. 4.5. Psal. 51.17. Ose. 6.6. and in the one and fiftieth Psalme, The sacrifice of God is a troubled spirit. So Osee in his sixt Chapter, I desired mercie and not sacrifice, and the knovvledge of God rather then any burnt-offerings. It seemeth also by my text, that our Prophet vnderstood this, when he promiseth to sacrifice, but with the voyce of thankesgiuing, as knowing that to be it, which God indeed preferred before all things. And reason might well teach him, that it was that which the Lord meant, by the externall signe; for what de­light could he take in the bloud of brutish creatures, a spirit in their bodies, the impassible in such sauours as did arise from their altars? What neede had he of an Oxe, or ten Rammes of a man, who is the owner and chiefe Lord of all the beastes of the field, of all the birdes of the ayre? If hee but speake, they be, if he but call, they come: he made them, and he [Page 296] knoweth them, and hath no want at all of them. Then he res­pecteth the mind, and the life, and not the offering. The veritie of which doctrine, is of so assured a truth, that Gentiles by the light of nature, beleeued it and acknowledged it, as aboue o­ther, Menander the Poet in one of his Comedies, as Clemens Alexandrinus noteth in the fifth of his Stromata,Clemens A­lexandrinus, Stromat. l. 5. where he ci­teth his wordes to this purpose: If any man offering sacrifice, a multitude of goates or bulles, or any thing wrought by art, al­though of yuorie, gold, or pearle, do thinke that God vvill ther­fore be mercifull vnto him, he is deceiued exceedingly: for the man vvhom God regardeth, must be good and honest, no de­flowrer of vvomen, no adulterer, thiefe, or murtherer. And afrerward againe: The iust man doth euery day offer sacrifice to his God, but it is not with cleane clothes, but vvith a shi­ning heart.

7 These are good lessons for vs, who professe a seruice to 1 the highest God, that first we make no spare of externall things, to honour the Lord withall, when cause shall be offered. Our cattell and our clothes, our houses and our money, yea our best and dearest friends, should be employed in good seruices, to the countenancing of the Minister, to the spredding of the Gospell, to the establishing of religion, to the succouring of the innocent, to the releeuing of the poore. These things should be to vs, as their substance was to the Iewes, to bring it in sa­crifice to the Highest, but especially we should consecrate our bodies to his name, our feete to approch his Courts, our eares to heare his word, our toung to sound out his praises, our hands to fight his battels, if Antichrist should oppugne. And 2 secondly together with our bodies, and those things which we haue, our spirit within should ioyne, a true and entire affection, a sound and grounded loue to him who is most louely, the hus­band of our soules; that hypocrisie and fayned dissimulation be not in vs, but truth, although in much infirmitie and weaknesse of the flesh. And when our soule shall be deuoted to him in that sort, he receiueth it, & embraceth it most kindly as his own, more respecting the mind,Mark. 12.41. then any apparant thing. The two mites of the poore widow, came welcom into Gods treasurie, because [Page 297] her heart was rich, though her purse were very empty. It is re­corded of Aeschines, that when he saw his fellow scholers, giue great gifts to his maister Socrates,Se nec de Beneficijs. lib. 1. he being poore, and hauing nothing else to bestow, did giue himselfe to Socrates, as profes­sing to be his in heart and good will, and wholly at his deuo­tion. And the Philosopher tooke this most kindly, esteeming it aboue all other presents, and returned him loue accordingly. The gracious disposition of our eternall father, taketh in farre better part, then any man can take it, the laying downe of our soules, and prostrating of our selues to the fulfilling of his will. He accounteth that the best sacrifice, because it is spirituall. Externall things do well, but inward gifts do better. I haue no­ted this vnto you, from out of the word of sacrificing, where the Prophet doth not stay, but particularizeth specially, what it is that he will offer.

I will sacrifice vnto thee with the voyce of thankesgiuing.

8 This voyce doth imply an open and manifest declara­tion of the mercies of the Lord, that he meant not to conceale his wilfull disobedience, nor his punishment for the same, but euery man should know, how he had bene in the sea, fast clo­sed vp in the whale, in pangs of death and extremity, and yet the Lord had brought his soule out of the pit. He thought it not inough to ruminate in his owne mind, and chew vpon this mercy, but others shall be aduertised of it, that so by his exam­ple, they may learne to know their Creator, they may learne to dread their maker. This was a custome of Dauid, who vp­pon great things obtained, doth vse to make solemne professiō, that he will praise his God in the great congregation.Psal. 26.12. It is but a small thing to thinke it, but he will speake of Gods glory. And thus euery one should do, yeelding vnto the world a testimony of his faith, and honour vnto him, whom he chiefly doth honor, that such as yet are not called, by that meanes may be prouo­ked, to harken to true religion, pricked forward by that comfort, which they see in Gods children.Plutarch. in Themisto­cle. Sueton. in Iulio. 7. The speech of Miltiades which was in the mouth of euery man, and his victorious acts, set Themistocles on fire to attempt to do the like. The fame that was of Alexander, gaue heart to Iulius Caesar, to become [Page 298] the more noble warriour. And shall not our speaking of God, & the reporting of his acts, his iustice in correcting, his mercy in defending, his prouidence in disposing, his willingnesse in redee­ming, his readinesse in forgiuing, vttered by Christian mē, incite others to be Christiās? God did know that, to be a great meanes of bringing mē vnto him, whē he gaue charge, that the Israelites should recount vnto their children,Psal. 78.4. his glorious facts, and the workes which he had shewed in Egypt. It is a fault in our dayes, that parents are not carefull to instill into their children, the remembrance of such things as they haue read, or knowne to come obseruably from the Almighty. It is a fault in others, that if they come in place where religion is not respected, as a­mong Papists or Atheists, they thinke best to conceale the pro­fession of true piety, lest they should be scorned, or derided, or pointed at with the finger: and so by a pollicy stopping the course of their zeale, in time they quench their zeale, and make themselues as key-cold as those with whom they do liue. They should discharge a good conscience, by acknowledging of their hope, & peraduenture they might by the blessing of the Lord, draw on other which were backward before: for the hart of him who heareth, is not in the power of himselfe, but God doth rule & guide it, & the meanes whereby he worketh is the hearing of good things. Let the voyce then go to serue the Lord, and let him blesse and prosper it, as seemeth good to himselfe. But thou hast discharged thy duty: he hath giuen thee a tongue to praise him, and with it thou doest honour him.

9 The voyce of Ionas goeth, and it is in giuing thankes, vnto which the name of sacrifice is oft giuen in the Psalmes, as namely in the fiftieth,Psal. 50.14. Offer to God praise or thankesgiuing; where the word offer, doth plainly import a sacrifice. And in the hundred and seuenth Psalme,Psal. 107.22. Let them offer sacrifices of praise, and declare his workes with reioycing. This gratefulnesse is maruellously acceptable to the Lord, when he bestoweth not his benefits as vpon the oxe or asse, who haue them and forget them, but on those, which are mindfull who is the authour of them. And that is the sole reward, and onely retribution which we can render to him, and if he haue not that, then he reapeth [Page 299] nothing for all his blessings: but if he may haue that, many good things of necessity will be ioyned therewithall. Therefore he straightly requireth it, of all that belong vnto him. In the eighth Chapter of Deuteronomy, he speaketh thus to the Israelites, When being come into the land of Canaan,Deut. 8.10. thou hast eaten and filled thy selfe, thou shalt blesse the Lord thy God, for the good land which he hath giuen vnto thee. In the thirtieth of Ieremy, he sayth in this manner,Ierem. 30.18. Thus sayth the Lord, Behold I vvill bring againe the captiuity of Iacobs tents, and haue compassion on his dwelling places, and the city shall be builded vpon her owne heape, and the pallace shall remaine after the maner thereof. But imme­diatly he addeth:19. And out of them shall proceede thankesgiuing, and the voyce of them that are ioyous. The precepts are diuerse, which be in the New Testament to this purpose. Let there be in you no filthinesse, Ephes. 5.4. Colos. 3.17. neither foolish talking, nor iesting, but ra­ther giuing of thankes, And againe, What soeuer you shall do in vvord or deed, do all in the name of the Lord Iesus, giuing thanks to God euen the father by him. The Patriarkes and the Prophets, and the faithfull of all times, had euer this in their memory. How did Moses and the people,Exod 15.1.20. with timbrels and with daunces, sing and reioyce to God, when Pharao and his chariots were drow­ned in the red sea?Iudic. 5.1. How did Barack and Deborah sing, vpon the fall of Sisara? There is no end of examples, what hath bene done in this case: but the rule may generally be giuen, so many as haue bene faithfull, so many haue bene thankfull.

10 It causeth a continuance of the loue of God vnto men, and an adding of further graces, when he seeth them to be mindfull of that which is bestowed. But on the other side, vn­thankfulnesse is the meane to stay his hand from bounty: for as Bernard hath well obserued,Bernard. Serm. 4. in Psal. 90. Accipiendis indignus est qui fuerit de acceptis in­gratus. he is vnworthy of things to be re­ceiued, vvho shall be vnthankefull for such as he hath receiued. Here euery one of vs may examine his owne heart, whether he do rightly discharge his duty. We do all long for perpetuating and augmenting the fauours of God vpon vs, but see whether we requite those, which are already come vnto vs. As Ionas was in daunger to be drowned by the sea, and deuoured quite by the whale, so was mankind in generall (by reason of Adams [Page 300] transgression) euen as in the pit of hell, and very iawes of Sa­tan, apparant heires of damnation, fewell for eternall fire, for­lorne men and past hope. Yet by the death of our Sauiour, we were set free from all, redeemed by his body, and ransomed by his bloud, admitted into the couenant, and incorporated into himselfe, so that now we are made free denizons of the city which is aboue. What can be a greater blessing? When igno­rance and barbarisme were growne ouer the world, and the darknesse of superstition, as thicke as that of Egypt, had possessed the shew of all Christendome, that maine Antichrist do­minering and triumphing at his pleasure, so that few were to be found, without the marke of the beast, God did dispell that darknesse, by sending vs light from heauen; and causing the Sunne of righteousnesse to shine out by his word, he cleered that filthy mist, that the nations of the earth, may now fully be­hold the purity of the Gospell. That which was denied to great ones,Exod, 20.21. hath bene reuealed to vs. As Moses had more liberty to see the Lord, then the people had, so we see more then our an­cestours. But what thankes do we yeeld for that celestiall com­fort? Do we magnifie his mighty name, and sing and speake out the honour of him, who hath done such things for men? Where is that Glory to God on high, [...]uc. 2.14. and blessed be our strong Redeemer?

11 We who liue in this land, haue sate as at the well head, for many yeares together. We haue had a most gracious Prin­cesse, a mother to our countrey, and a nource vnto Gods Church; vnder the shadow of whose wings, next after the eter­nall Lord, we haue enioyed much peace, prosperity and abun­dance. Our neighbours who grone vnder the burthen of hea­uinesse and oppression, of persecution and ciuill warres, do very much admire it. Learning hath flourished with vs, and manuall artes encreased; nauigation hath bene aduanced, and trafficke entred with many, to the enriching of our people, and the ho­nour of our nation. I doubt that we are not so thankfull, as all this hath deserued. Yea it hath come so fast on vs, and conti­nued without interruption, that our hearts are fatted with it, and we as full and glutted haue fallen a sleepe in security, so that we [Page 301] vnderstand not the sweete things which are on vs; much lesse do we with heart and soule, and all the powers which are in vs, extoll the author, who hath done such things for vs. Conspi­racies haue bene made, to depriue our land of her gouernesse, and to bring it into the thraldom of a proud and bloudy nation; yet by the Lords strong prouidence, they all haue bene preuen­ted. The great fleete which meant to haue made such hauocke,1588. hath bene confounded: when men did not much to helpe vs, the winds and waues did fight for vs.Liuius lib. 30. Truth it is, that as the Romanes did giue thankes to their Gods, when Hannibal was remooued, who had oppressed and troubled Italy, for sixteene yeares together, so by the highest authority, in the most famous place of our land, and by the noblest persons, and in most so­lemne manner, Gods prayse was sounded foorth, which was a most holy action, and worthy of a Christan kingdome: but see whether since that time, the common sort of men do study to remember it. Our thoughts within are so curious, and our eares without are so itching, that we loath to heare the Preacher to name this in the pulpit: we imagine that this neuer commeth, but for want of other matter, being a crambe, oftentimes sodde. It seemeth that we are litle mooued, whē we thinke so lightly of that, which to the naturall inhabitants of this land, was so great a deliuerance as our eyes neuer saw.Albertus Cardinalis Austriacus Caletum capiens. Anno. 1596. Deut. 6.7.22. We haue reason to feare, that God lately hath brought the same enemy so neare our land, to quicken vs and to stirre vs, to a remembrance of the former mercy, by shaking his rod ouer the sea vnto vs. The acts which God did in Egypt (of the which I spake before) and his victo­ries by the conduct of Iosuah, were commaunded to be pro­claimed to all succeeding ages, and were bidden to be spoken off. I do maruell why no man in that time obiected; What shall we neuer haue done of hearing these old matters? No, their thankfull mind did vse it otherwise, and recorded that matter, and recounted it as the fairest floure in their garland, and their honour with all the earth. We should make such reckening of all Gods mercies towards vs, but most of all of the greatest. The enioying of apparant good things, or the escaping of feare­full and dreadfull euils, doth deserue thanksgiuing with vs. [Page 302] Ionas had felt the bitternesse, being in hazard of destruction of body and soule together: but by compassion of his maister, he is like to passe through this daunger; and therefore he maketh a promise, that he will sacrifice to the Highest in spirituall man­ner, by giuing him praise and glory. And thus you haue the first point of that which he vndertooke: now let vs come to the second.

I vvill pay that which I haue vowed.

12 The making of vowes, was a solemne custome among the children of Israel, that when any good thing was graunted vnto them, but especially if they earnestly desired to haue any thing, they would bind themselues by promise, or peraduen­ture by an oath to be kept without violating, that this they would performe, or that they would abstaine from, as it might be,Num. 6.2. drinke no wine, or not cut their haire, as the vse of the Na­zarites was, or dedicate their children to an attendance in Gods tabernacle, or offer such and such offerings. Wherein the care of those who were faithfull, was first that they vowed nothing but that which was lawfull, and secondly that they performed the thing which they vowed.Numer. 21.2. So the Israelites did vow, that if the Lord would giue them victory, they would raze downe and destroy the cities of Canaan. A matter which was lawfull, nay which God required of them.1. Sam. 1.11. Barren Hanna did vow, that if the Lord would so respect her, as to send her a sonne, she would giue him to God all the dayes of his life. She spake it, and she performed it in Samuel her child.Iob. 22.27. Psal. 22.25. Thou shalt render thy vowes, saith Eliphaz to Iob. My vowes will I performe be­fore all that do feare him, saith Dauid of himselfe. They knew that God did expect it, & precisely had enioyned it by a speciall law. It is a peremptory place, in the three and twentieth of Deuteronomy,Deuter. 23.21 When thou shalt vow a vow vnto the Lord thy God, thou shalt not be slacke to pay it; for the Lord thy God vvill surely require it of thee, and it should be sinne vnto thee, he mea­neth if thou performe it not, but when thou abstainest from vow­ing, it shall be no sinne vnto thee. He would not haue men beare themselues so carelesly toward him, as foolishly to promise, and falsely to breake promise.

[Page 303]13 This made men vnder the law, to be very well aduised, what it was whereunto they tied themselues by vow, that what they vndertooke should still be to Gods glory: and withall their promise was for such things, as should be in their power to per­forme, if the Lord did continue his ordinary blessings ouer them: And these were rather praises & thanksgiuings to the Almighty, (indeed perhaps in the open Temple, or great publike congre­gation) then any materiall gifts, although those also were not wanting.Psal. 56.12. & 57.7.8. Dauids Psalmes do make that plaine; for wheresoe­uer he speaketh of vowes, there commonly he ioyneth praises to them: and in my text, thanksgiuing and vowes, are coupled together by Ionas, as noting that the one hath a reference to the other. And I doubt not but we may make such vowes in sobriety, in knowledge and in faith, to bind our selues to God, and seale it as with a couenant, that we will serue his Maiesty, while we liue here in this world; that we will giue among pro­fane persons, a good testification of his honour; that we will sing Psalmes vnto him; that we will teach our children religion and true faith: yea further in particular, that if God would giue vs leaue, we which be of the ministery, will looke carefully to our charge, and will be diligent in the word: if the Lord send no great let, will preach at least euery Sabaoth; or if we haue not that strength, once or twise in a moneth: which taske if we do inioyne our selues, and vse the ordinary meanes of reading and of study, and pray to God to assist vs, his Spirit will ayde vs more, then we euer did imagine. Then we do not vtterly deny vowes; but we willingly allow whatsoeuer is iustifiable by the prescript of the Law and the Gospell. But because many kinds of men make question in this matter, the Papists for their vota­ries, other men for other causes, I thinke it not amisse to limit this whole doctrine, by some Aphorismes or Positions, which shall cleere the whole controuersie.

14 Then the first rule maybe this: We in no case may vow euill things, that is, such as are contrary to piety toward God, or charity toward men. For these are sinfull vowes, and ought not to be made; in as much as it beseemeth vs not, to bind two sinnes together: but an euill deed is the one, and swearing [Page 304] to performe it,Act. 23.12. is no lesse then another. Hence we condemne the act of them, who being angry with Paule, did bind them­selues with an oath, that they would neither eate nor drinke, till they had murthered Paule. A most malicious, and vngodly, and vncharitable promise: and yet there were more then forty of them, who had combined themselues together in that wic­kednesse. And as it is a sinne to make entrance into such an action, by speaking it or swearing it, so it is a greater sinne to performe it being sworne. Saint Bernard hath a good saying to this purpose:Bernard. E­pistol. 219. Quamuis ne­mo sapiēs du­bitet illicita iu­ramenta non esse tenenda. Matth. 14.7. Among the French men it is accompted a reproch to breake an oath, although it be sworne euidently amisse: al­though no wise mā doth doubt that vnlawfull oathes are not to be kept. Within this compasse such rash vowes do come, which in­ferre some euident euill, although when they were made, no such thing was intended. Of which nature that oath was, which He­rode did take, when being delighted with the dauncing of the daughter of Herodias, he swore that he would giue her whatso­euer she should aske, to the one halfe of his kingdom. A hastie & fond promise, as appeared by the demaund made thereupon, for the head of Iohn the Baptist; which he would neuer haue graunted, if he had not purposed to go on in his iniquitie and tye two faults together. For as Origene saith disputing vpon that deede,Origen. in Matth. 14. Quod peieran­dum erat po­tiùs quam ser­uandum. Iudic. 11.30. The head of Iohn the Baptist vvas cut off for an oathes sake, vvhich vvas rather to be broken by forswearing then to be kept. For it vvas not so great a fault to haue made an oath hastily, as it vvas for a hastie oath to be the death of a Prophet. The vow which Iephthe made, to sacrifice whatsoeuer liuing thing he first met, at his returne from his victorie, is by this po­sition found to be made without iudgement: but his fault was the more grieuous, that he obserued it so precisely, as to destroy his daughter. Take heede of vowing euill things directly or by a consequent.

15 The second rule is this: that there be many good things, which all of vs ought to vow, and earnestly keepe, because they touch the glorie of God immediatly, by a duetie vnauoydable; as that we will serue him truly, and euermore accompt him that mightie one which is to be honoured. Such [Page 305] was that vow of Iacob,Gens. 28.20. of which Moses reporteth thus: Then Iacob vowed a vovv saying, If God vvill be vvith me, and vvill keepe me in this iourney vvhich I go, and vvill giue me bread to eate, and clothes to put on: so that I come againe vnto my fathers house in safety, then shall the Lord be my God. The couenant of the Israelites is also of this kind,Iosuah. 24.25. where by the mo­tion of good Iosuah, they do promise solemnely to put away their idols, and to serue the true God onely. So is that pro­mise also,2. Chron. 15.14. of the people of Iuda vnder king Asa, where both great and small, do enter an oath to serue Iehouah alone, the true God of all the world. Among vs who are Christians, the celebration of Baptisme doth include as much in it selfe, to which whosoeuer commeth (as all of vs should come) doth bind himselfe by a vow, to renounce the pompes and vanities of this spotted filthy world, and manfully to fight against the flesh and the diuell. How much do they forget this, whose whole delight is vanitie, and idlenesse, and security, aiming at nothing more, then at voluptuous pleasure? Now when a­ny goeth about to breake such a vow as this, he maketh a se­paration betweene God and his soule, and as farre as is in him, doth diuorce himselfe from the spouse and husband of all the faithfull. Do thou make these vowes aduisedly, and pray earnestly to God, that being made thou mayest keepe them.

16 The third rule may be this: some things there be in­different, neither in themselues good nor euill, which if a man do vse, they make him not the better, and if he do refuse them, yet is he not the worse. If occasion should be offered, in deuo­tion toward God, or in charity towards men, to promise to do such, or to abstaine from the custome of them, I doubt not but we may vow. But in these we must put some limiting cir­cumstances, as first that it be apparantly for good and not for euill: Secondly that we vndertake that action with great iudge­ment, not rashly nor vnaduisedly, but vpon iust occasion: Thirdly that we put no kind of superstition therein, as ima­gining that our deede should bee meritorious with God: Fourthly that we be assured that it is in our power to do it: in [Page 306] which respect that condition is also to be put, if God will, or if the Lord do not hinder vs. Within this kind I find the v­sage of the Rechabites,Ierem. 35.6. who were bound by their fathers charge (and as it seemeth they assented thereunto) that they would neither drinke wine, nor sowe seede, nor plant vine­yeard, nor dwell in any house, but onely remaine in tents; that so they might the better remember themselues to be strangers in the land where they inhabited; and of likelihood moreouer, that they were but pilgrimes vpon the earth. And he who ma­keth such vowes, vnder these fore-named conditions, is now bound to obserue them, For although at the first, and in them­selues they were things indifferent, yet now they are become otherwise, because an oath is passed vpon them. He who was free is made bound by a voluntary offering, and therefore hath lost his liberty. Then these three positions may be gathe­red 1 thus in briefe. Euill things ought not to vowed at all: and 2 if they be rashly spoken, yet they should not be kept. Some good things we must vow, as especially those in Baptisme, and when 3 we haue vowed, we must performe them. Other matters which are indifferent, may be vowed or not be vowed, as I haue she­wed aboue by circumstances, but being once vndertaken, they are not to be broken.

17 Here the pretences of Popish votaries, may be in a word examined. Their common vowes are of such things, as be not absolutely euill; neither are they of such matters as being simply good, do lye vpon vs by a duty of necessity, but they may much rather be accounted indifferent, although by their vsage of them they make them to be otherwise; they make them to be wicked. A great part of their vowes, is the going to places farre distant, in pilgrimage as they call it, to Rome, or to Hierusalem, or Saint Iames of Compostella, or to the three kings of Coleyn: their keeping of the great Iubilees; their ab­staining from all flesh, and feeding rather on fish, as their Carthusian Monkes do: their wearing of a haire-cloth or sack-cloth next their bodie, and other things of like stampe. All which as they do vse them, may well be accounted in the number of those wil-worships,Colos. 2.23. that [...], against [Page 307] which Saint Paule doth inueigh, and concerning which the Lord may aske,Isay. 1.12. vvho required this at your hands? They do faile in diuerse circumstances, which should make their vowes to be lawfull, as first they cannot be warranted to them as as­suredly holy, by faith which is grounded vpon the word of God. Secondly they put a great deale of superstition in them, while they account them meritorious. Thirdly they tye them­selues rather to the externall thing, then to a sound reforma­tion and bettering of the minde. It were better therefore, that such vowes were omitted then made by them. Their vow of wilfull pouertie, is a thing of their owne deuising. Rich Abraham, and king[?] Dauid, and Iob with his multitude of cat­tell, knew how [...]o serue the Lord in the abundance of their ri­ches, and did not thinke, that religion onelie was in them who begged. And although our Sauiour Christ and other of his Apostles, had little of their owne, yet they left vs no such pre­cept, nay they rather did teach the contrary, saying that it is more blessed to giue then to receiue. Act. 20.35. And it is sayd that a Bishop (of whom it is presumed that he should be a man of religion) should be hospitall,Tit. 1.8. that is an entertainer of strangers, which im­plyeth a set kind of maintenance. When the Gospell was first preached, miraculous meanes were vsed to bring men to the faith; and this was one, that God could mightily prouide for those, who were the messengers of his will, and releeue them from day to day, although they had nothing of their owne. His purpose also was to shew his power, that by meanes most contemptible in the eye of the world, he could settle his kingdome: and withall he would leaue their wants as an example, to encourage his children in succeeding ages, that they should not be dismayed, if sometimes they were dri­uen to penurie and necessitie, since his deare seruants and his sonne were in that case before them. But these times now are past, and miracles are ceased, and such extraordinary feeding as the Apostles had, is not wilfully to be sought, lest we tempt God, and liue without a lawfull calling. The Church now hath an established gouernement, and therein the Ministers which are needefull, are to be prouided for. And the word [Page 308] hath inioyned this,1. Cor. 9.11. that where spirituall things are sowed, there temporall should be reaped: as knowing that in the end of the world mens charity would waxe cold, and they who liued of almes, oftentimes should haue hungrie bellies. The liuing then of their Friers in a voluntary beggery, is a worship of their owne, and he who voweth therunto, doth vow to that, where­in his conscience can neuer haue good warrant.

18 They stand as much vpon chastity, that their religions men should vow a single life; wherein although I might shew by good proofe from the Scripture, and from the auncient Church, that Bishops and Priests did marry, yet omitting that, I will rather speake of the qualitie of their vow. Virginity with­out controuersie is an excellent gift, in him to whom the Lord doth giue it. Christ himselfe was borne of a virgin, and did leade a virgins life,Matth. 19.12. 1. Cor. 7.32. and both he and Saint Paule, haue com­mended it vnto vs, that we ought to striue for it. But who is he that so farre hath power of his owne flesh, as that before hand he can sweare, to quench the lust of concupiscence, so that it shall not burne? I suppose that no man on earth, who is in his strong age, and in good health of his body can promise that to himselfe: then how much lesse their young ones, their Nouices or Nunnes of lesser age, who before the time that themselues come to experience, are put into the monasta­ries, by their parents or their friends, or are inueigled by others to take their rules vpon them: which hath bene a great occa­sion of much vile fornication, and the killing of many infants, besides the enduring of such vntamed affections, as haue boy­led in their bodies. It is a good lesson of Salomon, that we should not suffer our mouth to make our flesh to sinne, Eccles. 55.3. he meaneth in vowing that which is not in our power. He had commaun­ded before, that we should pay our vowes, intending it in those things which we haue promised to the Lord: but lest thereby we should take occasion, to promise any thing whatsoeuer, he giueth a restraint downe with it, that we should be aduised, that we vow not that, which our flesh afterward cannot make good. For want of this wholesome caueat, they were put to much extremitie, who were votaries first in monasteries, but after­ward [Page 309] by the true light of the Gospell, did shake off the hea­uie yoke of Antichrist, and became great setters out of Gods truth in this last age. They had entred a rash vow, in their minoritie and young yeares, which afterward they found themselues not able to performe, and therefore they did marry.Campian. in Ratione. 3.2. Against which although our Campian and his fellowes, do with open mouth most bitterly inueigh, yet they neuer can be able by sound truth to condemne them. Their choyse was hard, that either their vow must be bro­ken by them, or else they must beare about a dayly sinne in their bodies. They aduentured on the lesser fault, I doubt not but asking pardon, for the rash and vnaduised oath which they had taken. And God doth forgiue vs such things, when we call to him by repentance, as may very well be gathered from the fifth Chapter of Leuiticus,Leuit. 5.4.6. where was appointed an offering, as a kind of satisfaction, for him who had vowed a­ny thing, which he afterward doth find out not to be in his po­wor to accomplish. Charitie doth bid me thinke, that those fathers in the Gospell, and excellent men in the faith, did enter into wedlocke, with all labour to satisfie a good conscience towards God. And therein their owne hearts, might be the best witnesse and direction to themselues. Yet the person who hath so vowed, and in so doing hath not done well, let him feare to breake that vow causelesse, by a licen­tious libertie: and if God do giue the gift of chastitie, let him liue in continency if he can, as otherwise for the honour giuen to virginitie in the Scripture, so for his vowes sake also. And so much I thought good to teach concerning vowes, by occasion of the words of the Prophet Ionas; wherein if I haue bene ouer-long, let this excuse the matter, that this doctrine is few times handled, and now the text did minister opportu­nitie. That second part which now followeth, I will ouer­runne most briefly.

Saluation is of the Lord.

19 Many of the old interpreters, and Hierome among 2 other, not obseruing such a distinction, or point which ought to be in the sentence, haue ioyned these words with the former, [Page 310] and so caused the sence of all to be troubled. The Hebrew hath it thus: [...] Saluation is to the Lord, which the most carefull expositours do plainely expresse, by Saluation is from the Lord. Tremelius doth interprete it, All manner of saluation or saue­tie is to Iehouah. So that here the Prophet gathering by a con­stant faith, that after his great feares in the sea, and in the whale, he should be freed from all perill, and enioy his life once againe, ascribeth all to God, and with this Epiphonema maketh con­clusion of his prayer, acknowledging that whatsoeuer came vnto him well, was from the Almightie. For to whom should he impute it, but onely vnto him, whose inconceiuable pow­er he had felt before, to the full: who to punish and chastise him, had the ayre and water at his commaundement, and had for three dayes kept him aliue in the fishes bellie? Now if he should bring him to libertie, out of bondage and desolation, and should pardon his sinne and transgression, he had great reason to magnifie his mercie and goodnesse ouer him. Mine ayde commeth not from me: I cannot helpe my selfe: it cometh not from fortune or blind chaunce; there is no such thing in nature; not from any lying vanitie of idoll or heathen God, but from the all-sufficient Lord, who can helpe when he pleaseth, and raise vp when he lifteth: he putteth downe and setteth vp, he doth what himselfe will. If I haue hope of any thing, it is deri­ued from him.

20 Yea vnder this generall speech, he remembreth vn­to all, that euery of their escapes from daunger, are onely from the Lord.Exod. 12.37. 1. Sam. 23.28. 1. Reg. 19.3. If the Israelites be deliuered from the bondage of the Egyptians, if Dauid get from Saul, if Elias be freed from Iezabel, this good doth come from that father, who sitteth aboue in heauen. Or if any one of vs, being layd for by the malice of cruell and wicked men, be not made a pray to their power, or deceiuing pollicy, it is not of our wit, neither is any flesh our arme, but this safety is of the Lord. And if we will looke higher, the deliuery of our soules from the chaynes and bands of Satan, the sauing of vs from the violence of all our ghostlie enemies, the redeeming of vs from sinne, the incorporating of vs into his owne Sonnes body, the brin­ging [Page 311] of vs to that glorious liberty of the sonnes of God, is the worke of the Almighty.Psal 115.1. Not vnto vs ô Lord, not vnto vs, but vnto thy name giue the glorie. We may say as the Elders say, in the Reuelation of Iohn,Apoc. 5.9. to Christ the Lambe of God: Thou art vvorthy to take the booke, and to open the seales thereof, because thou vvast killed and hast redeemed vs to God by thy bloud, out of euery kinred and tongue and poeple and na­tion: and hast made vs vnto our God kings and priests, and vve shall raigne on the earth, nay we shall raigne in the heauen. But the whole worke of our ransome, onely belon­geth to the Trinitie. As Ionas concludeth that prayer of his, which hath bene so full of passion, so do I end at this time, saluation is to the Lord. Let vs pray to him to blesse vs still, that by grace giuen vnto vs, we may be sonnes of adoption, and at last be brought to saluation, which himselfe graunt vnto vs for his blessed Christs sake, to both whom, with the holy Spirite, be maiesty power and glo­ry, both now and euer­more. Amen.


The chiefe poynts. 1. Gods fatherly affection toward sinners. 4. He commandeth his creatures at his pleasure. 6. Ionas is cast on land. 7. A fi­gure of Christs resurrection. 9. We also shall rise againe. 10. Comfort to the heauy heart. 11. A comparison betweene Ionas and Arion. 13. The whole narration of Arion is a fable. 15. Some wonders are wrought by the Diuell, 16. who doth much imitate God, 17. and seeketh to discredit Gods word by his fables. 19. How the Scriptures might be obscurely knowne, by the old Poets and Philosophers. 20. But they corrupt the diuine stories. 21. Humane learning is fit for a Minister.

Ionah. 2.10.

And the Lord spake vnto the fish, and it cast vp Ionas vnto the drye land.

IT is not without cause, that so oftentimes in the Scriptures, God is compared to a father, and called by that name, as Our father vvhich art in heauen;Matth. 6.9. Cap. 5.48. and, Ye shall therefore be perfect as your father vvhich is in heauen, is perfect: And,Psal. 103.13. as a father hath compassion on his children, so hath the Lord compassion on them that feare him: for he bea­reth a verie father-like and naturall affection, to all those who are chosen to be his. If they be led by weakenesse into di­uerse temptations, or by infirmity of their flesh be stained with great transgressions, he looketh angrily for a time, and with a terrible countenance seuerely frowneth on them; but yet in the middle of his iustice, he remembreth mercy, and doth not vtterly reiect them, nor cast them away. It may be that he doth chastise them, with parent-like correction, according to the [Page 313] measure and qualitie of their crime; yea he layeth smart blowes on them, not sparing to strike them, till he hath brought them, and depressed them to the pit of death, and entrance of the graue; but there he maketh a stay, in his kindnesse being satisfi­ed with iudgement,Ierem. 10.24. not with furie, rather topping them and shredding them with some short aduersitie, then plucking them vp by the root. And that is the maner of seuere, but yet naturall parents, in restraining their children from grosse & foule enormi­ties, to bend thē not to breake them: to seeme more angry then indeed they be: or if they iustly be displeased, to be so but for a time, giuing pardon to such faults as be past, and expecting with much patience, that it may at length be better.

2 The righteous Lord of all, doth so looke here vpon our Prophet with a fauourable eye. He had deprehended him long since, as a runne-agate from his charge: he made his owne mouth giue sentence, that he had deserued to be drowned: he had throwne him into the water, where as if it had bene, with a death vpon a death, he had made a fish to deuoure him, and for three dayes space to keepe him close prisoner in his belly, in all the anguish and torment that his heart could imagine. He was as though he liued not, and yet he could not dye; ha­uing time enough to meditate in what miserie he was, but not knowing with all the wit which was in his vnderstanding, how to ridde himselfe from that sorrow. But at the last, lifting vp his thoughts to his Almightie maker, he flyeth by faith and repentance, to the throne of grace, desiring God to pitie him, and shew compassion on him, that once more returning to land, he might by open obedience, make some little recompence for his former fault. And the Lord graciously respecting his ear­nest and heartie prayer, doth content himselfe with the punish­ment past, and with a most free fauour restoreth him to liber­tie. As a dead man from the graue, as one buried from the se­pulcher, so is this man brought foorth: his prison-doores shall be opened: his fetters shall be shaken off; he shall be ridde from the whale, and set on foote on the land: yea as he was a messenger before, so hee shall be a messenger still, a Prophet for the Highest, to goe and preach at Niniue. [Page 314] My charge at this time is, to shew the meanes of his deliuerance, which is set downe so briefly, and plainely in my text, that the words do neither need diuision, nor much interpretation, but that which shall be conuenient to be touched, you shall heare of in the doctrine.

Thē the Lord spake to the fish, & it cast vp Ionas to the dry land.

3 If otherwise we did doubt, what power and authoritie God hath ouer his creatures, yet it is assured to vs in the end of the first chapter,Ionah. 1.17. as in that place I gathered: when the Lord had a whale as at a becke for his purpose prepared, and in a rea­dinesse to swallow vp the Prophet, being throwne into the sea. And as he there vsed that fish for his instrument, so he might haue had obsequious to him any other thing in heauen, or in the earth, or in the sea: and as he might at that time, so might he at all times. That vnrestrained prerogatiue in God, is once more expressed to vs in the selfe same fish, whom after that he had caused to keepe his burthen in him, for so many dayes & houres and moments of time, as himselfe had appointed, now he will haue him in a trice disburden his belly, and be eased of his cari­age. But note with what facilitie he fulfilleth his designement, The Lord spake to the fish. Not the struggling of Ionas, nor his pricking of the fish within; no other receipt which should vrge him to disgorge, and cast vp his stomacke; no violence which was offered from man or fish, or ship, or any other thing with­out him, did extort or force him out of his belly: but one word spoken frō God, or lesse then that if it might be, did bring about that which was done. Which is not to be taken after the vnder­standing of the grosse Anthropomorphites, called otherwise Audaeani,Theodoret. Hist. Eccles. 4.9. (who did attribute to God the members and bodie of a man) as if the Lord had vsed some language, or talked to the fish, as men commonly do talke each to other, for that a­greeth not with his spirituall nature, his impassible and pure and diuine being.Ioh. 4.24. God is a Spirit saith our Sauiour Christ. And al­though he assumed a voyce vnto him, when he was pleased to proclaime the law of the ten Commaundements before the Is­raelites;Exod. 20.1. and may do the like againe when it seemeth good to himselfe,Ioh. 12.28. as when he was disposed with words vttered from [Page 315] heauen, to glorifie his Sonne Christ, yet that was not of his na­ture, but an action of his will, wherein extraordinarily he did take to himselfe some meanes, which are besides his essence, and which are not frequent with him. But here the word of speaking, is vsed to notifie vnto vs, who are of dull capacitie, and loue our owne phrases best, that he signified and gaue inkling, in some sort or other (which was easie for him to do, but not for vs to conceiue) to the whale, that it must performe that seruice. And that the Lord in such manner doth frame himselfe in the Scrip­ture, vnto our vnderstanding, as a rude one to the rude, as bar­barous to Barbarians, as men to little infants do stammer and talke like children, is a veritie so apparant and so common an obseruation to those who reade the Bible, that it were but lost time to handle it:Lect. 11. and once before I haue said somewhat of that matter.

4 It is a thing more worth the knowing of vs, to obserue his forcible power, that his saying is a doing, and his speech a com­maunding. In the very beginning of Genesis,Genes. 1.3. God said, let there be light, that is, he did command it. The words of the tempter vnto Christ were,Matth. 4.3. [...]. Do thou say, or do thou speake, that these stones should be made bread, that is, as it is commonly translated do thou commaund. The Lord said to the fish, he layed his cō ­maundement on him; and who or what is that which can resist his will? If he bid come, all commeth: if he bid go, all goeth: the greatest is within his compasse, the least is not exempted. If he will plague the Egyptians,Exod Cap. 16.14. armies of frogges, and flyes, and swarmes of lice shall attend him: and if on the other side he do but put vp his finger, they shall all away in a moment. If he will feede the Israelites,& 17.6. Ios. 10.12. 2. Re. 20.11. Ios. 3.16. 2. Reg. 2.8. 1. Reg. 17 6. Daniel. 6.22.24. the heauen shall giue them bread, and the rocke shall bring them water. For Iosuah, the Sunne shall stand still, and it shall fly backe for Ezechiahs sake. For the passage of the children of Israel, Iordan shall part in two: and so it shall do for Eliah. And for the same Prophet, the rauens shall bring food in the morning and euening. The lyons mouthes shall be musled, when Daniel is among them, but they shall deuoure most greedily, when the wicked accusers are cast in vnto them. He who hath the key of heauen, and hell, and death, to open [Page 316] when he pleaseth, and shut when he listeth, can so order his seruants and ministers which are vnder him, that sometimes they shall take, and sometimes they shall loose, here punish and there saue, this day sound out his iustice, and the next day teach his mercie.

5 Neither was it onely in the time of the Prophets and A­postles, that God had all his creatures, miraculously if need be to execute his appointment; but also since their time they giue the selfe same assistance, although miracles be not common, as they were in former ages.Tertullian. Apolog. ca. 5 Euseb. Hist. Eccles. 5.5. Tertullian in his Apollogie, and Eu­sebius do witnesse that at the prayer of a legion of the Christi­ans, the Emperour Marcus Aurelius, in his warres against the Germanes, had his armie relieued with raine, which was before in daunger to perish for want of water: and they adde, that at that time, certaine thunderbolts did strike and beate downe the enemie.In fine Apo­logiarum. In some Editions of the workes of Iustine Martyr, may be seene the copie of the Epistle of the Emperour himselfe who giueth witnesse thereunto.Chrysost. in Matth. Ho­mil. 4. Socrat. Hist. Eccles. 3.17. Vide Grego. Nazianz. Orat. 48. When Iulian the Apostata, vpon an intendment to crosse the faith of Iesus Christ, had set the Iewes on worke, to build againe the Temple at Hierusalem, as both Saint Chrysostome and Socrates write, at first an earth-quake marred their worke, and afterward fire from heauen did burne and spoile their instrumēts and tooles wherwith they wrought, so that they could not proceede. Yea something more then this is to be found in the storie, of the signe of the crosse appearing vpon their garments.Ammianus Marcellinus. lib. 23. Ammianus Marcellinus who was no friend to the Christians, yet giueth testimony to some part thereof, sa­uing that he rather supposeth that the fire issued out of the earth; which commeth all to one end. When the barbarous Northren nations did breake into the bounds of the Romane Empire, in the dayes of Basile the Great,Basil. in Psal. 18. who liued in the time of Valens the Emperour, as Basile himselfe writeth, God destroyed them with fire and haile without the hand of man. And as we reade in the same place of that Father, the Lord did so by the Persians attempting to do the like. But in my iudgement there is no ex­ample more memorable or true, then that which fell out in our owne time, after that great Massacre in Fraunce, but especially [Page 317] at Paris,Anno. 1572. Comment. Relig. & Re­ip. in Gallia lib. 11. in the yeare seuenty and two. For at that time the whole power almost of that kingdome, being gathered toge­ther against the citie Rochel, and besieging them with extremi­tie who defended the towne, God in the time of famine and want of bread, did for some whole moneths together, daily cast vp a kind of fish vnto them, out of the sea, wherewith so many hundreds were relieued, without any labour of their owne, e­uen as the Israelites were fed with Manna, euery morning while they were in the wildernesse. And as all the while that the enemie was before them, this endured to their maruellous com­fort, so to proclaime to the world Gods prouidence the more, when the enemies tents were once remooued, and the citie was open againe, this prouision immediatly did cease. It was a good testification, that the Lord of hostes would leaue a remnant, euen a seed of his faithfull in that land: and although he had sea­led his truth, with the bloud of his other seruants, yet he would not deale so with them. To the end that all might not sinke in despaire, he ordained that when men failed, yet the sea should be a maintainer to them.

6 There God to shew his power, did fill a many with fish, and here to shew his power, he did emptie a fish of one, both declaring his loue and greatnesse; which he purposing to com­plete, & make perfect in our Prophet, to whom I now returne, not only causeth the fish to free him from his stomake, and that not in the middest of the Ocean sea, that there once againe he might be shifting for his life, that is, if he could not swim, sinke, and drowne: but he so directeth this carier, as that he came to the shore. Of all liklyhood this was a chosen shore, where the water was so deepe, as that it could beare the whale, who swim­meth not in the shallow; and yet the banke withall so low, as that with putting vp his head, he might cast the prisoner to the land. When the Lord doth decree the substance of a matter, the circumstance shall not be wanting. He who made all the rest, will find a place for accomplishing of the deede. It is not much materiall, where or in what coast of the world the Prophet was cast on land,Ioseph. An­tiquit. l. 9.11. but Iosephus saith that the report was, that this happened in Pontus Euxinus, as it is commonly called, and that [Page 318] it was that part of the Ocean, where he was put to shore. If it were so, then the whale did carie him a great way, from the sea towards Cilicia on the south side of Natolia, or Asia the lesser, through the Hellespont, and Propontis, & all the straights neare to Thrasia, and so into that Pontus Euxinus, which was a long space of way, in so short a time to be passed. But if this were so done, then the fish was as a shippe, as the fleetest and swiftest shippe, to conuey him forward on the way; that whereas to­ward Niniue the place whither he should go, the coast was East, he was brought backe againe to the East, on the North­side of Natolia, so much being recouered by the fish, as he was caried by the ship before toward the West. But this is onely coniecturall, and therefore I do not follow it.

7 Thus farre the Spirit of God hath plainly said, that Ionas is gotten to the land: he is freed from the terrour and imprison­ment of the whale, and now he is so set at libertie, as if there had neuer bene any such matter. Which whether we will in the fi­gure apply to Christ, or by example to our selues, it is worthie consideration. Our Sauiour who is the best interpreter, and ex­positor of the Prophets, in the twelfth of Saint Mathew, doth compare this lying of Ionas for three dayes in the whale,Math. 12.40 to the burying of himselfe for three dayes in the graue. Then by the same Analogie or proportion, the restoring of Ionas from the belly of the fish, must represent Christs resurrection. As this sinner was designed, not for euer but for a time, to be kept with­in that ward, and when his houre was expired, his keeper might not hold him; so our Sauiour was shut vp in the tombe, not for euer, nor vntill the day of iudgement, but a set space was ap­pointed, wherein he was to rest, and when that was consum­mated, the graue could no longer hold him. It had receiued a burthen, which it had no power to beare. It detained him for a little while, because it was his good pleasure, to be so detained there; but when he began to stirre, it felt it selfe ouercharged, and could last out no longer. And in my iudgement, the Meta­phore which is vsed here in the type, [...] Vomere. [...] doth expresse this in Christ Iesus, for the Originall hath it Vajake eth-Ionah, which Vajake comming of Ko with Aleph in the end, signifying Vomere, is as [Page 319] much as if it were said, the fish did vomite vp Ionas: the qualitie of which word Vomite, doth imply that which I haue spoken. For when the stomake of any liuing thing, hath receiued that, which either for the weaknesse of it selfe, or by reason of the strength of the meat, it hath no power to digest, it doth cast it vp and vomite. The hardnesse for digestion, of that which is the ingredient, or the weaknesse of the part, receiuing more then it ought, doth cause that euacuation. The case was so with death and the graue, when they receiued Christ.

8 It was no common meat which it had taken into it, but that which it was impossible should be concocted by it: not an ordinarie man,Ruffinus de Symbolo A. postolorum. but one who had no fellowes. His body was but a bait, to entise the graue to swallow him, but vnderneath was the hooke of eternitie, and that Godhead which caught both graue and death, and made them glad to put vp such a one out of their bowels. Faine they were to be rid of him, because he did ouerbeare them:Act. 2.24. The Godhead raised him vp, & loosed the sor­rowes of death, because it was impossible that he should be holden by them. Iudic. 16.9. When Samson was disposed, he brake the cordes and ropes wherewith he was tyed: they fittered and dissolued, euen as the flaxe which is burnt with the fire:3. he rent off the gates of Azzah, and postes and barres and all; and putting them on his shoulders, he caried them whither he pleased. So when Christ was disposed, be shooke off the graue-clothes from him, and bore vp all before him, the rocke which was about him, and the stone which was vpon him, resigned their strength vn­to him, and he commeth foorth victorious, as a Champion who had slept, or a Giaunt refreshed with wine. As a tamed Lyon, he had suffered death, and Satan, and the infernall spi­rits, for a time to play with him, and disgrace him, and haue some hand vpon him: but when it seemed good vnto him, he rowzed vp his bodie, and roaring in his might, this he renteth and that he teareth, he knappeth their chaines in sunder, and maketh them glad to fly; happie he who could get farthest. The whale was not so glad to part here with our Ionas, as the earth was with our Iesus. Here the drowned man is restored; there the dead man is reuiued, being the first fruite of the resurrection.

[Page 320]9 As he dyed so we shall dy: and as he rose againe, so we also need not doubt but we shall rise againe. Onely he did it by his owne power, but we not by our owne force, but by the po­wer of him. The head is gone before: the members shall fol­low after.Daniel. 12.2. Many of them that sleepe in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to euerlasting life, and some to shame and perpetu­all contempt. Gods children shall be translated into a better state, recouering the same puritie, which was giuen to Adam in Paradise, where he was after the image of God, in innocen­cie and integritie. But first by death they must be beate in sun­der, and knocked in peeces, that so they may be remoulded, and new cast by the workeman, not onely to their old figure, but to a better forme in the day of the resurrection. But as their captaine was, so must they first by death be dissolued and se­parated, that their bodies may be refined, and made a great deale better.Chrysost. in 2. ad Cor. Homil. 1. When we plucke downe a house (this is Saint Chrysostomes comparison) meaning to build it new, or repaire the ruines of it, we withdraw such from the house, as inhabited it before, lest they should be soyled with the dust, or offended with the noise, and bid them for a time to rest in some other place: but when we haue new trimmed and dressed it, wee bring them backe againe to a better habitation. So God when he ouer-turneth the rotten roome of our flesh, cal­leth out the soule for a little, and lodgeth it with himselfe, in some corner of his kingdome, but repaireth the brackes of our bodie, against the resurrection: and then hauing made it decent, yea glorions and incorruptible, hee doth put the soule backe againe, into her acquainted mansion. He hath determined this concerning vs; that dust shall recouer breath, and rottennesse shall haue life: against all Atheists and Epi­cures, there shall be a resurrection. But I pursue this no far­ther, because in the end of the first Chapter,Ionah. 1.17. I handled it at large.

10 If in another sence we will turne the present exam­ple, to the benefite of our selues, this giueth great consola­tion to the deiected conscience, which groneth vnder the waight of her sinnes. Such things as are written, are written for [Page 321] our learning. This wretched suffering man had displeased the Lord most grieuously. For the haynousnesse of his fault, wrath was gone out against him. The Lord would not be satisfied, but with drowning and deuouring, in the belly of such a mon­ster, where the feare of death, and almost the paines of hell were vpon him. The passions of his heart had bene desperate and distrustfull, if faith had not come to the rescue. Yet we see that he did not perish, but when his woe was passed ouer him, he came to good againe. God did but giue signifi­cation, as small a thing as might be, as if a man should nodde, or winke vpon another, and his sorrowes are shaked off from him: he is set aliue on the land. If griefe do assault our minds, that we thinke our hearts will breake, if tempta­tion haue so rent vs, that we suppose wee are all to shi­uers; if pangs of desperation, with remembraunce of sinnes past, haue beate faith so out of countenance, that wee see no way, but our soules must be a pray to Sathan, yet there is hope with God, and mercie with the Highest. He bringeth men to the doore of death, but he doth not turne them in. Or he putteth them into the pit, that they are halfe way downe to the bottome; but his hand goeth along with them, and suddenly in a trice he draweth them backe againe. If we be within the iawes of Sathan, he putteth a gagge in his mouth, that it shall not close vpon vs. It is neuer too late for him to helpe, while life and soule hang together. He who bid the dust become Adam,Genes. 2.7. Iohan. 11.43. and Adam was made of dust: he who spake to the graue, and bad Lazarus come foorth from it, and Lazarus came out of the graue: he who commaunded the fish to loose Ionas, and Ionas was loosed in a moment. This Lord, if he speake to hell or diuell, or all the feends of darknesse, they shall not dare once to touch thee, but thou shalt escape from their clutches, as a bird from the snare. How much lesse shall mortall man oppresse thee, or triumph ouer thee, if it be he that doth vexe thee? God doth but cast an eye vpon thee, and the mist before the Sunne, can not be dispersed so suddenly, as thy sorrow and heauinesse. In steed of sadnesse, ioy and mirth shall compasse thee & embrace thee. [Page 322] If once his refreshing spirit cast but an aspect vpon thee, thou art as safe, as thy selfe wouldest euer desire to be. Onely to win God hereunto, be thou sorie for thy transgression, and grieue at thine owne iniquitie. If thou haue fallen with Dauid, spare not to sing with Dauid a Psalme of Miserere:Psal. 51.1. if thou haue of­fended with Peter,Math 26.75 with Peter go thou foorth, and cease not to weepe bitterly. With Ionas pray and call, and thou shalt be deliuered.

A comparison betweene the Prophet and Arion.

11 Looke what hath bene spoken hitherto, may manifest­ly be gathered by the plaine words of my text, and therefore as you haue seene, I haue passed it very briefly. But pondering farther on this Scripture, and looking nearer into it, yea withall, comparing it with some things of the Gentiles, it seemeth vnto me to offer a farther doctrine. For thinking with my selfe, how strangely those mariners, who in the Chapter before threw him into the sea, and made account they had drowned him, would looke vpon him, if they met him any where after­ward, (as that was no impossible matter) maruelling how he should liue whom they left in the sea, and how he should be at land whom they cast into the water, and there relinquished him remedilesse and past hope; I called to mind the narration of Arion in Herodotus,Herodot. l. 1. who being said to be throwne into the O­cean by mariners, and supposed by them to be drowned, was afterward seene at Corinth, in the court of Periander, to the great amazement of them, who before had consented to his death. And I thought of this the rather, because Saint Austen in his first booke,August. de ciuit. Dei. lib. 1.14. De ciuitate Dei, doth compare this storie of Ionas, vnto that of Arion, reproching the Gentiles, that whereas they would not beleeue this, which was written of our Prophet, yet they would giue credite to that, which their Poets and other writers reported of Arion. Whereupon conferring yet farther the likenesse of these two matters, al­though not in euery circumstance, yet in the mainest points, I could not but suspect, that the Greeke tale of the one, meant the Hebrew truth of the other. And therein I imagined, that the Musitian of the Gentiles, was the Israelite mentioned [Page 323] here, although the storie were peeced vp with another narrati­on, after the custome of the Heathens, in dealing with the Scri­ptures. And moreouer,Danaeus in Ionam. the note of a learned interpreter wri­ting vpon this place, did further this opinion, who nameth our Ionas here Arion Christianus, the Arion of the Christians. I find also, that this report is very auncient among the Greekes, and therefore might well sort with the antiquitie of the Pro­phet. Now, as if we will allow this to be true, it doth yeeld vs fruitfull doctrine, fit to be handled in this place, before so lear­ned and iudicious an auditorie; so being otherwise, that is, vn­true and false, it is also worthie of our consideration: and there­fore giue me leaue to speake a little vnto it. You shall see anon to what end.

12 Herodotus in his Clio,Herodot. li. [...] hath a narration to this purpose: that Arion a skilfull harper, going from Greece his owne coun­trey into Italy, there and in Sicilia, by the excellencie of his mu­sicke, had gained a great deale of money. Being now desirous with his wealth to returne againe to Corinth, to his old Prince Periander, he found a vessell at Tarentum, which belonged to certaine ship-men of Corinth, who were returning home: and with them he agreeth for his fare. When they had him at sea, being men of ill conditions, and desirous of his money, they intended to drowne him. He now in this perill, maketh request for his life: but when nothing would serue those hard-hearted persons, but that such must be his doome, he begged this fauour of them, that yet before he died, he might cloth himselfe with his best clothes: which being done, he taketh his harpe, and singing and playing to it a most melodious song, then threw himselfe into the sea. There a Dolphin a kind of fish, delighted as it seemeth with the musicke, doth vnder­take him, and ceassed not to beare him on her backe, till it lan­ded him safe at Taenarus; whence he going to Periander the tyrant, then raigning at Corinth, so apparelled as he was when he came out of the water, informeth him of all the matter, who beleeued it not, till at length sending for the selfe same ma­riners, who were arriued in his countrey, and shewing them Arion (who vpon the sight of him were exceedingly amazed, [Page 324] as indeed they had great cause) he learned that all was so. This▪ saith Herodotus is reported at Lesbos, and at Corinth; and at Taenarus there is a very great image made of brasse, which is a man sitting on a Dolphin: and that image was set vp there by Arion.Plin. Histor. Natur. 9.8. Plut. in con­uiuio 7. sap. Ouid. fast. 2. Gell. 16.19. This tale with all his circumstaunces, is so common among the auncient, that Plinie, and Plutarke and Ouid, and Gellius both do report it at large, and Pli­nie giueth other examples, that Dolphines couching downe their pinnas, their sinnes, which as he seemeth to say go all along their backes, haue caried diuerse other ouer the water, and so saued them.

13 If I shall giue my iudgement concerning this, I do not at all doubt, but that it is a fable. The diuersitie of the report which is among the auncient, doth argue the vncertaintie. For although the most record it to be one Dol­phines doing,Plutarch. v­bi suprà. one that caried him all the while, yet Plutarke hath it otherwise, that they were diuerse Dolphines which caried him in the sea, meaning belike by turnes, or many at once supporting him. So they agree not in the manner. But whether it were one or many, why did not the mariners see it, that it was so straunge a thing vnto them, when they met him on the land? If he went aboue the water, they of likelyhood might haue spied him, and so made some shift to vnhorse him: if it were vnder the water, how came it about that he was not drowned in all that time? The auncient full well saw, that this was but a fained thing. That made Suidas in Arion,Suidas in A­rione. to say nothing of the fish, nor his escape from drowning: although he haue other things of him. Stra­bo in his thirteenth booke, saith plainely it is a fable. The late writers thinke no otherwise,Strabo Geo­graph. 13. Natal. Com. Mytholog. lib. 8.14. and hold these tales of Plinie to be but fained matters: and they giue this reason for it, be­cause the nature of Dolphines, and of all other fishes, as also of all other creatures, is the same in our dayes, which it was in ages long agone: but since those auncient times, we heare not of any Dolphine, which delighted in Musicke, or saued any man in the sea, or caried any ouer the water. Besides that, Rondeletius whose worke is many times ioyned with Gesners, [Page 325] denieth that a Dolphine hath any such sinnes,Rondelet. in Gesner. de Aquatil. cap. de Delphino Plin. 9.8. as they in old time did describe him to haue, for that, saith he, there is onely one in his backe, and it is not all along him, which may be thought vnfit to beare a man. But imagine that it were true which Pli­nie hath concerning them, yet his speech is, that they were brought to that custome by much practise, and feeding them with bread,Petr. Mart. Decad. 3. lib. 8. which agreeth with the qualities of that straunge fish Matum, which the Historian Peter Martyr reporteth to haue bene in the West Indies. But how could this acquain­tance with men, and feeding by hand, happen to this fish of Arion, who was found at al-aduenture, in the midst of the Me­diterrane sea?

14 Neither doth the report at Lesbos any whit confirme this tale. For who knoweth not that euery countrie, hath straunge reports of it selfe, which by the common sort are repu­ted for great truths? If we looke on our owne land, how many things haue bene said of King Arthure, and of the Prophet Mer­lin, who although they may haue in them some ground of truth (which I will not stand to dispute) yet questionlesse much va­nitie is mixed there withall. We need no better example, then the selfe same Herodotus, who although in his positiue decla­rations, he be held a good Historian,Tull. de Le­gib. lib. 1. and therefore is named by Tully Historiae pater, the father of storie, yet in his by-digressi­ons by heare-saies and reports, he hath so many vntruths, that by other men he is termed with a censure too too gauling, men­daciorum pater, the father of lyes. That such fames haue gone for currant euen among Christians,1. Tim. 1.4. Cap. 4.7. Tit. 1.14. the words of Paule to Timo­thie, and Titus may shew, where he speaketh of fables and Iewish fables, and of old wiues fables also. Now for the pi­cture or image of the Dolphin, and the man sitting vpon it, that doth make a great deale lesse: for inuentions and wrong deuises, are wrought as well as truthes, by painters and image-makers. Saint Austen telleth how the Gentiles reported,August. de consensu E­uangelistarū lib. 1.10. that Christ was a sorcerer, and that he did his workes by Magicke; and because they had seene Iesus in windowes, painted with Peter and Paule standing by him, they gaue out that hee wrote vnto them, some things concerning Magicke, [Page 326] not knowing saith Saint Austen,Sic omninò er­rare merue­runt. Non in san­ctis codicibus sed in pictis parietibus. that Paule was conuerted to the faith, somewhat after Christs death. But he maketh this con­clusion vpon them: Thus haue they deserued to erre, who haue sought Christ and his Apostles, not in holy bookes but in painted wals, and windowes. That which he iudged in a matter of farre greater importance, that I may say of this. A picture or image is not an argument of an approoued truth, although Maister Campian do call such in church windowes,Campian Ration. 10. Testes fenestrae Rondeletius in Delphino for witnesses of the veritie of his cause. So the song which is now extant, and said to be Arions, is as weake a proofe as any; for why might not another man, beleeuing the tale to be true, put it out in his name? Yea peraduenture if hee did not beleeue it, as in Poets we haue many speeches fayned on other mens persons. Then we may gather, that either the nar­ration is altogether fabulous, or if he were so throwne by any into the water, that another shippe intercepted him, the badge whereof was a Dolphin (as in the Actes of the Apostles,Act. 28.11. the badge of that shippe wherein Paule sayled, was Castor and Pollux.Natal. Com. Mytholog. 8.14.) And thereupon together with the inuention of Antiquitie, grew the fable, as some other haue imagined.

15 To apply this somewhat nearer to my bresent purpose, and to a true vse in Diuinitie, if there were any such matter of the Dolphin and Arion, (as I in no sort do beleeue it) we must hold it for a miracle wrought by the Diuell, who by the Lords permission hath false wonders of his, as God hath true of his. Christ saith that false Christes, and false Prophets, shall shew great signes and wonders, Matth. 24.24 so that if it were possible, they should deceiue the very elect. Apoc. 13.13 Exod. 7.11. The beast in the Reuelation, doth bring fire downe from heauen. When Moses was in E­gypt, the sorcerers had their sleights, wrought by the finger of Sathan.Euseb. Hist. Eccles. 9.2. August. de ciuit. Dei. 10.16. Eusebius speaketh of straunge deedes, done by the Diuell and by Magicke. Saint Austen in his tenth booke De ciuitate Dei, doth attribute such credite to the stories of the Romanes, that he thinketh that the Troiane Penates (which were a kind of images) did go from place to place: and that Tarquine with a razor,Liuius. lib. 1. (Liuie saith it was Actius Nauius) [Page 327] did cut a whetstone in peeces, and other such like things named there,August. de vnitate Ec­cles. Tom. 7. Figmenta mē ­dacium homi­num, vel por­tenta fallaci­um spirituum. but he addeth that these were done, by the power of in­fernall spirits. So in his booke De Vnitate Ecclesiae, speaking of miraculous matters, he maketh this diuision of them: Let these things be set aside, being either fained inuentions of lying men, or monstrous actes of cousining spirits, supposing that some strange reports, were fained and inuented by men, and some other things were indeed brought about and effected by the Diuell. If we would hold this, of the Musitian in Herodotus for a truth, then it teacheth vs this doctrine, that as an Ape is the imi­tatour of man, in his acts and gestures, so is Sathan the Ape of God, to follow him in his powerfull workes. But how farre doth he come short of the originall which he looketh at? He followeth him indeed,Virgil. Aenci. 2. but it is non passibus aequis, with very vn­equall steppes. He seeth that God is mightily glorified, in doing such straunge and rare deedes, as he pleaseth; and he will study to do the like, that himselfe also may be glorified among the sonnes of darkenesse. As the Lord shall haue his Ionas to be spo­ken of euery where, so he will haue his Arion, both of them throwne downe into the sea, and both saued by a fish.

16 Hence it is, that we haue so many arguments of his sut­tle imitation. God hath appeared like an Angell: and Satan transformeth himselfe into an Angell of light.Iudic. 6.11. 2. Cor. 11.14 Io [...]uah. 10.11 Liuius. lib. 25. & 30. God rayned stones on the enemies of Iosuah, when they fled before him from the battell; and Liuie writeth of credit, that in the time of the Ro­mane wars with Hannibal, it rained stones for two dayes toge­ther on the hill called Mons Albanus. Hirtius de bello Africo. So Hirtius that great wel­willer of Iulius Caesar, doth write that when Caesar was perso­nally present in his wars in Africa, very stones fell on the armie, as it vseth to haile.Exod. 16.14. Genes. 19.24 Liuius. lib. 40. & lib. 3. Orosius. 7.32 Liu. lib. 27. Bozius lib. 2. contra Ma­chiauellum. God rayned Manna from heauen, and fire and brimstone vpon Sodome, the one to helpe, the other to hurt. So the stories of the Romanes do mention, that it rayned bloud, and rayned flesh, and wooll too saith Orosius, in the dayes of the Emperour Valentinian, and milke & other such stuffe: which (as the learned do gather) were of purpose caused by Sathan, that supplications might be made, and sacrifices to him, as the heathen people did commonly vse, in such fearefull & frightfull [Page 328] times, thinking that they had performed some deuotion to some Gods, when all was to the Diuell. Abraham was commaunded to sacrifice his sonne to please the Lord;Genes. 22.1. Ouid. Meta­morph. 12. Iudic. 11.39. Agamemnon was bid to sacrifice his daughter, to please the prince of darknesse. A ram was slaine for Isaac: for Iphigenia an hind. As Iephthe offered vp his daughter, which was supposed by some to be a point of reli­gion, so the Carthaginians and many other Gentiles,Plutarch. de Superstitio­ne. did offer men to their idols, vpon their altars. There came from God an­swers, in obscure and darke causes:1. Sam. 28.6. the Oracles of the heathen, as at Delphos and elsewhere did resemble that, when foule spirits did there giue answere. The true Temple at Hierusalem, had in imitation of it,Act. 19.27. a false temple at Ephesus to Diana, and in diuerse other places the like to other, as the Capitoll at Rome. Aulus Gellius in reckening vp the apparell, and ceremonies of the Ro­mane Flamen Dialis, Gel. l. 10.15. hath many things meerely taken from the high Priest of the Iewes, as he may see who compareth them. Ambrose in his Commentarie on the eighth Chapter to the Ro­manes,Ambros. in Roman. 8. sheweth that as Christ was taken vp to his Father in a cloud, so Simon Magus also to procure himselfe credit, did flye aboue in the ayre, which no doubt was done by the speciall meanes of the Prince of the ayre,Ephes. 2.2. who aduaunced such a busi­nesse. This is the fraude of him, who is the fountaine and wel­spring, and chiefe Lord of all deceipt. And as on the one side, by his vndertaking of such actions, or semblances rather, his great vaine-glorie doth appeare, and that the meanes whereby he seeketh it, is the imitation of God: so, on the other side, it is a great argument for the truth, against all Epicures, and A­theists, conuincing that in the bookes of the Bible, there is a di­uine and most vndoubted veritie. For as counterfeits do euer­more presuppose, that there be some such indeed, as whom they take on them to resemble, (as he who made shew to be the sonne of Herod the Great,Ioseph. Anti­quit. 17.14. did argue that there had bene such a one, who was in truth called Alexander: and in England in the dayes of King Henry the seuenth, Perkin Warbecke, who pretended to be the Prince Edward the fifth,Holinshed in Henrico sep­timo. did manifestly de­clare that there had bene one of that name.) And as the coyners of false money, do imply by their attempt, that some of that [Page 329] stampe, is good and currant in one place or other. And as Alchi­mistes who do labour to make gold by proiection, do intend that there is naturall gold. Yea as painters howsoeuer they may somtimes make pictures of fained deuises, yet account their art to be a resemblance of that, which verily is, or hath bene: So the manifold and laborious affected imitation, of the sacred stories, and such things as were done in them, doth giue the wise and ho­ly soule fully to vnderstand, that the patterne which is so follo­wed, and curiously shadowed by so many inuentions, is a matter of truth, of iustifiable verity, and absolutely without exception. But I vrge not this any farther.

17 In the second place, if we will take the whole tale of Arion for an vntruth, which it much rather doth deserue, it doth remember vs of as fruitfull instruction another way. And that is the wonderfull suttlety of Satan, to discredit the writings of the Scriptures, as farre as lyeth in him. For when it should be spo­ken ouer any part of the world, that such or such a thing was done, which was true in our Prophet, if he might be able to bring another matter, like to it in resemblance, which yet in truth should be but fabulous, the first might be disgraced with the common sort of men,Quintil. O­rat. Instit. lib. 4.6. in comparing it with the second. Quinti­lian in his sixth booke of the Principles of Rhetoricke, going a­bout to teach how one false thing, may be displaied and discoue­red with another, bringeth this for an example: When one Vi­ctoriatus had sayd, that in Sicily he had bought a Lamprey, which was fiue foote long, another called Galba did make him answer, that it was no maruell, for in that countrey saith he, the breed of them is commonly so large, that fishermen do vse them for the lines of their angles. Here if any man had inferred, that the latter tale was certainly a lye, Galba by and by would haue replied, so also is the other. The old and crafty serpent, saw this to be a good way, to bring the Scripture in doubt, by fables like to the Scripture. And this doth Iustinus Martyr assigne to be the reason, why so many things in the old tales, are like to the truths of the word of God. He principally insisteth in the person of Christ Iesus himselfe.Iustin. Mar. Apolog. 2. The diuels sayth he being taught by the Oracles of the Prophets, many things concerning Christ vvho [Page 330] was to come, caused like things to be spread touching diuerse sonnes of Iupiter, hoping that those who heard those monstrous trifles, would beleeue no more of Christ, then they did of the other. For an example he citeth that of Aesculapius, who by the Heathen was reported, to be able to cure any defect, and was held to be the sonne of God: which was drawne from hence, because it was fore-prophecied of Iesus,Isay. 42.7. that his power should be such, as to giue sight to the blind, to restore limmes to the lame, to raise vp those which were dead. He reputeth this to be the worke of Satan, that men might no more beleeue the true reports of our Sauiour, then the fained things of the other.

18 If we will looke on their old Poets, as well Latine as Greekes, we shall see how this purpose was pursued, in very ma­ny matters.Genes. 1.1. The confusion of all things which was before the world was made, and the manner of the creation, is shadowed and pointed at,Hesiod. in Theogonia. Ouid. Meta­morph. 1. Genes. 3.22. Homer. Odis. E. Genes. 7.11. Ouid. Meta­morphos. 1. Munster. lib. 5. Cosmogr. cap. de Babil. Genes. 11.3. Ouid. Meta­morph. 1. Iust. Martyr. in cohorta­tione ad Graecos. Genes. 19.26. Ouid. Meta­morph. 6. Iudic. 13.24. Diodor. Sic. lib 4.2. Virgil. 6. Aeneid. by the Chaos of Hesiodus, but most elegantly by Ouid, in the beginning of his Metamorphosis. If God haue a tree of life in Paradise, whereof who so euer eateth shall not dye, but by the restauratiue force thereof, shall be kept and euermore maintained in cheerefulnesse and fresh youth, the Poets will haue Nectar and Ambrosia, which shall worke with their Gods the like effect. The deluge in Noahs time, is quitted among the Greekes with the deluge of Deucalion. If Noah did see things before and after the floud, they will haue Ianus for him, who shall be double-faced, and looke forward and backward, for the learned do suppose that Noah was meant by their Ianus. If the people do go about, to build the tower of Babel vp to the heauē, so to get themselues a name, the Giants shall be sayd to lay Pe­lion vpon Ossa, and Olympus on the top of both, so to plucke Iupiter out of heauen. Iustine Martyr who is auncient, sayth ex­presly that all the tale of the Giants piling vp those hils, was in imitation of the story of the tower of Babel. If Lots wife for her fault be turned into a salt-stone, their Niobe for her fault, shall be turned to a stone likewise. If there be a Sampson of the Israelites exceeding for his strength, there is a Hercules among the Gentiles, who shall do as much as he. If there be hell for the damned, and heauen for those that be blessed, Virgil will haue [Page 331] his Paradise, those Elysian fields, and tortures also for wicked ones, among the ghosts below. But if all of them should be ser­ued, as Virgil was for his labour, they would gaine little by the bargaine; for as he had hell from vs, so the Papists to be quit with him, haue Purgatory from him. And if in our Prophet here, there be any thing worth the looking on, both Satan and his Poets will not be behind hand with him. If he be in the whale for three dayes and three nights,Natales Co­mes Mytho­logiae. 8.3. their Hercules shall be also for three dayes in a whale. And if one will not serue thē turne, they will make it vp in two. If Ionas drenched in one place, be seene aliue in another, Arion cast into the sea, shall appeare againe at Corinth.

19 This is the deadly fraud of the enemy of our soule,Tertul. in Apolog. 22. who in suggesting lyes for truth, by himselfe and his instruments, would defame the word of God. For he himselfe being a suttle spirit, and euery where at hand, knew the Scriptures well inough: where they lay he did reade them: where they were read, he could heare them: he knew them well inough, when he cited the text to Christ:Matth. 4.6. and he brought many of his agents and ministers in place, where they might heare what the Iewes receiued,Exod. 1.1. for the grounds of their religion. The Israelites were once in bondage vnder Pharao in Egypt, and afterward they li­ued not farre from that countrey, Palestina being a neare bor­derer, so that the Egyptians by a neighbourly conuersation with them, did well know the manners of the Israelites: and af­terward by the intercession of king Ptolomee,Ioseph. An­tiquit. 1.1. the bookes of their lawes, were by the Septuagint translated into Greeke, and by that meanes were well knowne in Egypt. And whi­ther but into Egypt, did the great scholers of old time, trauell to increase their learning?Diodor. Sic. Antiquit. 1. I find in Diodorus Siculus, that the priests of the Egyptians had it in record, that Orpheus and Mu­saeus, and Homer, and Lycurgus, and Plato, and Democritus were there,Augustin. de doctr. Christ. lib. 2.28. to increase their knowledge. Saint Austen citeth it out of Ambrose, that Plato being in Egypt met with Ieremy the Prophet, and learned many things of him, concerning the faith of the Israelites;De ciuit. Dei lib. 8.11. but afterward that learned father, better loo­king into the Chronology or computation of yeares, reformeth [Page 132] that opinion. For indeede Plato was after Ieremy. As it was with the Egyptians,Ierem. 52.7. so it was with the Chaldeans. The Iewes in their Babylonish captiuity were in Chaldea, whereby they also of that nation, did heare of much in the Scripture. But the Chaldees as men studious of learning, did trauell often into o­ther countries,Tullius de Diuinat. lib. 2. yea it seemeth as farre as Rome, by Tullies second booke de Diuinatione, where he nameth their figure-casters, by no name so much as Chaldees. Thus diuerse wayes, an igno­rant kind of knowledge was spread among the Gentiles, which in their study of Poetry and Philosophy, gaue them occasion of many things for their bookes.Clemens Alexandr. Stromat. 5. Iust. Mar. Apolog. 2. Clemens Alexandrinus maketh it euident, that the old Philosophers did take all their diuiner matters, from the bookes and reports of Moses. Iustinus Martyr whom so oft before I haue named, sayth that whatsoeuer their Poets, and Philosophers did record, of the immortality of the soule, of the paines of hell, of things in heauen or any other matter of that kind, they tooke occasion from the Israelitish Prophets, both to thinke them and to speake them. By which it is plaine, that those old Ethnickes did heare some sound of the Scriptures, and whatsoeuer truth is in their bookes, they deri­ued it from this fountaine.

20 But when it was once come into the hands of heathen and polluted men, it must needes tast somewhat of their hand­ling: some drosse must be mixed with the gold; some water pow­red 1 in with the wine: it must tast of the caske. Sometimes the tale shall be told otherwise,Herodot. lib. 2. Isay 37.36. as that of Sennacherib is, in the second booke of Herodotus, whose losse of so many men, by the Ange [...]l of God striking them, at his siege against Hierusalem, is sayd to be in Egypt, and that by an army of mice, who did no other harme but this: in the night time they did eate vp the leathers of their armours, and targets, and horse-bridles, and thereupon he was glad to flye away, with great losse of his souldiers. Some­times 2 that shall be reported, to be deriued from the Gentilels to the Iewes, which cleane cōtrariwise came from the Iewes to the Gentiles.Plutarch. Symposiac. lib. 4. So Plutarke writeth, that some of the principall feasts amōg the Iewes, yea their very Sabaoth day, & the word Sabbos as he calleth it, were deriued from the feasts of Bacchus; whereas [Page 333] in truth the solemnities of Bacchus rather came from the other, being is no comparison so auncient, as those which were vnder Moses. Some other times, like must go for like; but a lye for a 3 true story, shall be broched to the world, as this which I haue handled, Arion for our Ionas. Sathan thought that the story re­ported of him, was a very great miracle, and wrought the Lord much honour, and therefore he enuied it. And besides that, it had a reference to Christ who was afterward to come, and was to giue him a crush, and therefore he thought it a point which was very well worth his labour, to disgrace it if he could. If there had bene any foregoing prophecy of this matter, we should haue had a tricke before hand for our Ionas, as he made Iupiter ma­ny sonnes and daughters too for failing,Isay. 9.6. vpon the words of Esay, that the Lord would send a child who should be the mighty God. But it was not spoke of before, vntill the deed were done; therefore he thought not of it; and therefore it must come after. And in the dayes of the Prophet, while himselfe liued, it had bene too grosse to speake it, therefore he will stay one age, or two ages at the most, before that he publish his fable. For Io­nas liued a good time before the captiuity of Babylon, either in, or sooner then the dayes of the latter Ieroboam:2. Reg. 14.25. and Arion as it seemeth, liued in the time of the captiuity: for as we reade in Herodotus,Herodot. lib. 1. he liued with Periander, who liued with Halyattes, who was father vnto Craesus, who was conquered by Cyrus, who gaue out the first proclamation,Ezra. 1.1. for restoring the Iewes from Babylon.

21 Thus not a misse as I suppose (especially in an audi­tory of such learning and iudgement as this is) by comparing our Prophet here, with that fable of the Gentiles, I haue shewed the apish quality of Satan, in his imitation of the mightiest workes of God, and his craftinesse otherwise, in seeking by his tales, and inuented reports, to withdraw credit from the Scrip­tures. Whereunto I might first adde, that since we haue to do with an enemy of that quality, we had neede be very circumspect in regard of our selues, that we yeeld not assent, to any of the leud motions of himselfe, or other his Atheisti­call agents, in going about to extenuate the credit of the [Page 334] word, but pray to God still to guide vs in his vndoubted truth, both that we may beleeue, and practise that which he hath taught vs. Secondly I might shew the conueniency, or rather the necessity, that a Minister who should expound the Scriptures, should be furnished with liberall Arts and sciences, with histories and other humane learning, that when occasion directly serueth, such knots as this is, may be opened to the ho­nour of the true God. In which respect, I do professe my iudge­ment to be cleane contrary to the opinions of such men, who thinke that the vnderstanding and vse of these matters is friuo­lous, and vaine for a Minister, and only for ostentation; and that it skilled not if there were no Vniuersities, or schooles where these things are studied. I repute them the great blessings of the Lord of heauen, affoorded to vs, for the apparant furtherance of his ministery, and the profession of Diuinity. How can the Re­uelation and the prophecy of Daniel be vnderstood without these? The like may be sayd of some other parts of Scripture. When with so many helpes of history, from the Greeke and from the Latine, the best and most laborious wits, cannot at­taine to the depth of many matters in them, how vnperfect and vncertaine, nay how amazed plainely should he be, that would looke into them, & knoweth nothing of antiquitie? The positiō is most true, that arte and knowledge hath none so great an ene­my, as that person which is ignorant. Take away these, and bring in barbarisme. But I haue no time to handle this, and therefore I do leaue it, desiring God to perpetuate these arts & skils among vs; that the meanes of our studies here, in this vngodly age be not taken away from vs, for our abusing of them; but that they may continue as handmaides to Diuinity, and seruants vnto the Scriptures, till Christ Iesus come to iudgement. To him with his blessed father and his most holy Spirit be praise for euermore.


The chiefe poynts. 3. God in sending twise sheweth his loue to be the greater: 4. which is hindered by no crosse from man. 6. As appeareth in England. 7. God imployeth Ionas after his former fall. 8. The cruell doctrine of the Nouatians. 10. The word is the great instrument whereby God calleth. 11. To the old Prophets the word of God came. 12. But preachers now must go to it. 13. Ionas is not forward to his second message. 14. God pur­posely sendeth variety of businesse to vs, and why. 15. The finger of the Lord appeareth, in that one teacheth a multitude. 16. But especially the word is forcible. 17. Knowing of daunger before­hand maketh the Minister more resolute. 18. Prophets must preach that onely which God commandeth. 19. Which the Papists do not.

Ionah. 3: 1.2.

And the word of the Lord came vnto Ionah the second time say­ing, Arise, go vnto Niniueh that great city, and preach vnto it the preaching vvhich I bid thee.

AS it pleased God,The Lecture on Thursday discōtinued. that vpon the first reuiuing of this weekely exercise of preaching among vs (I meane in these late yeres, after some discon­tinuance of these holy labours) he put in my mouth the first charge layd on Ionas to go to Niniue, the euent whereof from time to time I haue discoursed vnto you, as the Lord hath enabled me: So it falleth out fitly, by the prouidence of the selfe same God, that vpon the second reuiuing of the selfe same exercise, the se­cond sending of the selfe same Prophet, vnto the same city, should be offered to your hearing.Anno. 1596. Wherein as the mercy of the Almighty was manifested to Niniue, when after the first stay & hinderance of that, which was intended toward it, he did not giue ouer, but redoubled his message by sending againe. So it is [Page 336] an argument of Gods kindnesse to vs, that he suffereth not the practise of his seruants in holy things, to cease; but although vpon occasion it hath bene interrupted, yet to breake foorth a­gaine. A copious blessing, when God plentifully sendeth the foode of our soules, and that not onely by imposed sacrifices, but by free-will offerings also; so remoouing farre from vs the famine of the word,Amos. 8.11. which is the greatest famine, and against which we are to pray more earnestly, then against all hunger of the body. It were to be wished, that this may be continued with an euerlasting performance, that so the building of this house like that of Salomons Temple,1. Reg. 6.37.38. might not cease, till all were ended by Christs comming to iudgement; or if like the second Tem­ple it must be at a stay,Ezra. 4.21. yet that it might neuer quite stand, lest the memory should be razed out, that there was any such buil­ding. Although some space be betweene,Cap. 6.1. yet let the dayes of Darius adde to the daies of Cyrus; & the Lord stirre vp the spi­rit as of Zerubbabel before,14. so of Zachariah afterward, to second and forward and incourage the worke.

2 Now there is proposed to me a larger field to walke in, then hitherto hath bene: for the sinne of one man alone, was offered before vnto me to be discoursed of, but now the sinne of a multitude. So heretofore I had occasion, to looke into the priuate repentance of one offending person, but now into the publike penance of a whole transgressing city; and that of the city Niniue the greatest in the East, which by her enormity, did minister God great matter of vengeance and wrath, but by her deploration and sorrow for iniquity, did mooue him vnto mercy.Ionah. 1.2. Genes. 18.20. Before, the cry of their ioyned transgressions did ascend into the eares of the Lord, as the cry of Sodome did; but now in a like manner, the out-cry of their ioyned praiers, of their fa­sting and contrition doth pierce through the very cloudes, and commeth before Gods seate, and obtaineth forgiuenesse of him. Which as it is afterward illustrated in this present Chapter, and therefore in his fit place will yeeld most fruitfull doctrine, so be­cause the meanes also of moouing them to repentance, are here opened vnto vs, that is to say by the word of God, deliuered vn­to thē by the preaching of the Prophet, my purpose is to pursue [Page 337] it, with that naturall order which the text prescribeth vnto me, beginning with the Lords sending, and so proceeding to the Prophets going, and afterward to his preaching, and then to their demeanour in hearing and receiuing, and so forward to the rest. But this day in these two verses, especially I shall touch these two things: The imployment of Ionas againe, which the first verse yeeldeth in generall, And the vvord of the Lord came vnto Ionah the second time saying: Then se­condly in what speciall words, this charge was deliuered vn­to him, Arise and go to Niniue. Such sub-diuided notes as do arise out of these, shall be touched in their order.

And the vvord of the Lord the second time, came vnto Ionah saying:

3 The manner of men is, that if they intend any thing of the greatest importance, they are at first earnest and peremp­torie for it, but afterward, time perhaps doth slaken their heate, and coole their resolution. But if there come an hin­derance or stop in the way, they sinke vnder their burthen, and desist from their enterprise, attempting little farther. Hence, common obseruation hath taken that vp for a speech, that in fights the first conflict is euer most daungerous, and if that be resisted, the rest will be but easie. Hence, such as by their guiltinesse haue prouoked the wrath of him,Primi con­gressus sunt acorrimi. who is like to deale with them in seuerity, do take what course they can to prolong, and put off their conuenting and arraignement, both conceiuing that the Iudge being asswaged with time, will abate of his rigour, and the pursuer sleeping on it, will re­mit of his furie. Great warres and great iourneyes, receiuing great crosses in the entrance vnto them, end before that they begin, and so the greatest preparations, oftentimes turne vn­to nothing. Neither euer was there purpose hauing maine impediment, which was seconded by any and followed a­fresh, but by him whose hate was strong, or his loue excee­ding great to that which he did aime at,Rom. 1.10. which would not be rebuked or choked with a little.Cap. 15.22.32. Of this kind was Paules loue, as he specifieth of himselfe, who intending many times [Page 338] to visite the Saints at Rome, and being often stayed by vn­auoydable occasions, yet still burneth in desire of the personall seeing of them, and holdeth not himselfe satisfied, till it were done indeed. He speaketh of it, and he writeth of it, and he wisheth it and prayeth for it; he is so setled in it.

4 The greater was the loue of the maker of mankind, to this retchlesse city Niniue; to the which, meaning to send a message full of threatnings (but such a one as should in the end bring peace and quietnesse to them) although he were stayed for a while, and as a man may say put from his first ground to worke on, his seruant running from him, and causing him to follow him, and chastise him, when in the meane while much good might haue bene done, by preaching to that people: yet he is not quite stopped with it, or put from his first mea­ning, but secondly he will send, that they may haue some warning, to flye the rod hanging ouer them. If he had not in­tended their good and safety, with a purpose which he meant should not be controlled, he might right well haue suffered that doome to fall on them, which he threatneth by the Pro­phet Ezechiel,Ezech. 3.17.18. both to the Iewes and to him, that if he being set for a watchman, would not tell them of such plagues, as were to come vpon them, they should dye in their sinnes, but their bloud would he require at the hands of Ezechiel. So the Niniuites being not acquainted with that vengeance which was neare them, might haue perished in their igno­rance, and bene damned for their iniquitie, but their bloud might haue bene required at the hands of our poore Ionas. But to make it manifest, that his purpose was inuariable in it selfe, and full of good to them, he doth but deferre his sending: some few dayes may be slipped, but it assuredly commeth at last. His intendments depend not on the ability, or want of any of his creatures: the stubburnenesse of the reprobate, or falling away of him who seemeth to be somewhat, or the apostasie of a great one, or the depraued errour of any of his owne seruants, do not hinder his designement. If this man will not serue, then there shall come another: or if yesterday will not do, yet it shall be too morrow. The Philistines shall [Page 339] be conquered:1. Sam. 18.27. 1. Chron. 22.8. if Saules sinnes will not suffer that he shall haue a victory, Dauid shall be the man. The Temple must be erected: if the father may not do it, because he hath shed much bloud, the sonne Salomon shall be peaceable, and he shall begin and ende it.

5 But when he hath once purposed good vpon a nation, that it shall be called home, and rectified in his wayes, be there neuer so manie difficulties, as they seeme in mans iudge­ment, he cleereth them euery one. For to God nothing is difficult, but himselfe hath a finger in that which seemeth to hinder, as diuines commonly do shew in determining that question, that God is not the authour of sinne, and yet doth vvorke in all things. He resolued to make the Gentiles like the Iewes, to call those for a people who were no people before. There was in the time of Christ, a decree and barre against it,Matth. 10.5.6. Act. 10.15.34. Go not into the vvay of the Gentiles, and into the cities of the Samaritanes enter yee not. But go rather to the lost sheepe of the house of Israel. Yet afterward Peter shall see the vncleane made cleane, and God will be no longer a respecter of any persons. He by his Apostle hath foretold, that the Iewes shall againe be called home to the adoption,Roman. 11.26. before the day of iudgement. Then Gods election being ouer them, and his words being truth and veritie, they shall come to the sheepefold, that all Israel may be saued: Al­though the bloud of Christ be on their heads,Matth. 27.25. and on the heads of their children, although they yet to this day hate, and re­uile the Sauiour of the world,Hieron. in Isay. 5. and vnder the name of Na­zarites, do curse vs in their Synagogues. In this last age of the world, when the fulnesse of time was come, that by the breath of his mouth (the preaching of the Gospell) God would weaken and consume that wicked one,2. Thes. 23.4.8. that aduersary, the very sonne of perdition, and the light of the word should clearely shine againe, in a great part of the world; not all the cloudes of ignorance; nor the thicke mistes of darke­nesse, could stay from vs his decreed mercie. When the Pa­stours had conspired, either not to preach at all to their char­ges (as Ionas would not at Niniue) or if they did bring any [Page 340] thing, it was poyson for meate, and venime in steed of wa­ter: when Antichrist with his pompe, and his followers with the brightnesse of earthly and carnall glorie, had dazeled the peoples eyes, that they could not see truth from errour: when the knowledge of the tongues, and almost all other li­terature, was raked vp vnder the ashes: when the decrees of Popes, and the Canons of Councels, and customes and traditions, were in place of the written word: when the schoolemen had conspurcated and abused true Diuinitie with their filthinesse: when a liuely faith and vnderstanding knowledge were not heard of: God did a second time send his seruants, to bring light to the world, and furnishing one with this talent, and another with that good thing, he brought life againe to the dead, and sun-shine in the middest of dark­nesse. A great token of his gracious and bountifull inclination, to the age wherein we liue. It must be imputed to his loue: it must be ascribed to his mercy.

6 So must that, which we enioy so abundantly at this time. God hath sent twise to our nation, in a speciall man­ner, as he did to Niniue. In the time of good King Edward, and in the dayes of our Queene. The difference is in this, that those which were sent to vs, did come indeede, and did not like Ionas: and besides it was not one, but many seruants of the Lord which shewed themselues. But herein is the likenesse, that as when the first serued not, he sent the next time to Niniue, so hauing here appointed, that so many should be sealed and marked in the forehead, as belonged to his election, so many thousands or millions, which num­ber in those sixe yeares of king Edward was in no sort com­pleted (and God forbid, for our sake and our posterity, that it should haue bene) he stayed not at that stop, which was made in Queene Maries dayes, but went on with his pur­pose. The conspiring against the Gospell, the striking of the sheapheards, the burning of the professours, the yeelding of all to the Pope, the confederacie with the Spaniard, which were things of farre greater moment, then the turning backe of one Prophet, did not so restraine his affection, but [Page 341] that a second time we should heare from him more at large, to the building vp of his Church, and dilating of his king­dome, but to the eternall blessednesse of vs both in soule and bodie. If any thing may deserue it, this deserueth at our hands a thankefulnesse, and gratefull consideration. I would that our liues, and our contempt of the world, could testifie, that so we do thinke of it. But we must im­pute this to his loue, as also the other, that he would send a­gaine to Niuiue.

7 Which Citie as I do now leaue, so I may not leaue that argument, of the kindnesse of the Lord; for the mes­senger yet giueth farther occasion, to magnifie that. For he who had but lately runne away from his maister, and cast his word behind him; he who for some carnall reason, had despised his commaundement; he who had so transgres­sed, that a punishment neuer heard off before, was infli­cted for his labour, is once againe put in trust, as the Pro­phet of the Highest, to go to a King, and a Citie, with threates which are so terrible. Why would not he who is Lord of all things, rather make choyse of some other, to bee vsed in this seruice, who was vntainted and vntouched, vnstayned and vnreprouable? This may seeme at the first blush, to bee more for the senders honour: and againe, hee that should bee sent, might reprooue the sinnes of other, with a freer conscience, when he knew himselfe to bee in­nocent. The Lawyers would haue sayd,Sexto De­cretalium. lib 5. Tit. 12. De Regulis iutis regul. 8. Bonifac. 8. Semel malus, sem­per malus: Once euill, and euer euill, he may not bee ad­mitted. Perhaps the Elders of the Church, or the grauer sort of men, might haue receiued him againe into the con­gregation, vpon his testification of sorrow for his fault; but to honour him as a Prophet, or to esteeme him as in former time, that doth not stand with discipline, that were no safe ex­ample. The Gibeonites were suffered by Iosuah,Iosuah. 9.21. to come into the Tabernacle: but they came without preferment; nay it was with great disgrace; they serued but for wood-cutters, and drawers of water. Such as in the Primitiue Church, being Clergy men before, had notoriously fallen, were permitted [Page 342] vpon repentance to come to the Eucharist, but it was to the lay­mens Communion, not as Bishops or Priests, who might con­secrate and minister to other, but as men of the congregation, who were to receiue at the hand of another. And thus Cor­nelius Bishop of Rome,Euseb. Hist. Eccles. 6.35. Gellius. lib. 10.3. serued a Prelate, who layd hands foo­lishly vpon Nouatus, at his consecration. The Brutij were the first of all Italy, who reuolted from the Romanes to Han­nibal. But for that tricke, the Romanes would neuer trust them afterward, although vpon their humble submission, they tooke them into their protection: yet they reckened them not as fellowes, neither mustered they any souldiers out of their coun­trey, but appointed them to attend on such Deputies and Lieutenants, as they sent into their Prouinces. Thus would worldly and carnall wisedome haue dealt with this man: he may be held for an Israelite, but in no sort for a Prophet: no gracing, no aduancing, no honouring yet a while. Let him bite vpon the bridle, that knowing how he hath fallen, he may be wiser afterward. But the Lord who knew his heart, and saw it now quite broken, waiteth not for more experience, or for yeares of probation, but as fully satisfied with his sor­row, and putting the greatnesse of his errour out of memory, he setteth him once againe in his old place, and old honour, without disgrace, or diminution. He doth not so much as vp­brayd, or cast him in the teeth, as an vngracious seruant, that thus or thus he had serued him, but shutting vp all together, he employeth him as before. This is a lesson to the Ministers and pastours of the flocke, that by Gods owne example, they should not be too rigorous vpon such as haue gone astray, euen in the greatest crimes: but when conspicuous tokens of repen­tance shall be giuen, to open the lap and bosome of the Church to receiue them. Not euery slight acknowledgement, but yet pregnant signes may be taken; and better it is that he be an hy­pocrite, then thou an hard hearted father.Ezech. 33.11. Luc. 15.10. Luc. 15.20. God will not the death of sinners, but that they should turne and liue. The very Angels reioyce for one repenting sinner. When the prodigall child came toward, his father did runne and meete him, and kis­sed him and embraced him. Let not the seruant be hard vnto [Page 343] his fellow seruant, when the maister is so easie.

8 The more cruell in the meane while,Euseb. Hist. Eccles. 6.35. was the doctrine of Nouatus: who barred not for a time, but for euer from the Communion, and accesse into the Church, such as in the blou­dy persecution of Decius the Emperour, had by infirmitie of­fered vnto idols; teaching that God if he would, might take them to mercy, but man might not deale with it, no not al­though they did implore it with sobbes and continued teares. He had forgotten that Peter denying Christ three times, yet continued an Apostle,Matth. 26.69. and was afterward martyred for Christ. That the spirit may be willing,41. and yet the flesh may be weake. That to endure the fierie triall, is onely the gift of God, who graunteth it when he listeth, and giueth it where he pleaseth. That he that standeth,1. Cor. 10.12. or at the left thinketh that he standeth, may take heede left he fall. That the souldier who now [...]lieth, may afterward fight againe, as Demosthenes once could say. And as Eusebius sheweth,Euseb. Hist. Eccles. 5.1. many Christians which renounced Christ, for the feare of cruell torment, returned to him a­gaine, and made a good confession.Cypr. de sin­gularitate clericorum. Oftentimes saith Cy­p [...]ian, both adulterers, and murtherers, and drunkards, and those vvho are guiltie of all vvickednesse, finding occasion of a fight, and being conuerted, haue deserued to come to a palme of martyrdome. How much more then may a weake bro­ther? The example of Bishop Cranmer is very well knowne vnto vs,Iohan. Foxus in vita Cran­meri. who was a great pillar of Gods Church, a great light of the Gospell, but yet first denied, but afterward repented, and purged it with teares. But as the scholers, do oftentimes say more then their maisters, so the Cathari, and Nouatians who were the Disciples of Nouatus,Socrat Hist. Eccles. 7.25. did giue a more bloudy sentence, then euer their teacher did. For they held, that not onely to deny Christ, was so haynous, but whosoeuer after Baptisme had done any mortall sinne (such as we find in the Scripture, that death is threatned to) was cut off from the Church, and hee might haue no portion in the Eucharist or Communion, howsoeuer afterward he did behaue himselfe. He must stand a man sequestred, and excommunicate to the death.

[Page 344]9 A hard saying to all men; for who is he that sinneth not in that sort, since euerie [...]nne is deadly, vnlesse the Lord do pardon it? Circumcision was to the Israelites, as Baptisme is to the Christians, an admission into the flocke, and a testifica­tion to the conscience of euery beleeuer, that he was in Gods fauour:2. Sam. 11.4.17. Psal 51.1. Prou. 24.16. Hier. Epist. 46. Si cadit quo modo iustus, si iustus quo modo cadit? Socrat. His. Eccles. 1.7. but Dauid circumcised, was an adulterer and a mur­therer; yet vpon his true repentance, both the Lord and the congregation, receiued him to mercy. The righteous man sayth Saloman falleth seuen times, and riseth againe; Where­of although Hierome doth aske, if he be iust, then hovv fal­leth he, if he fall, hovv is he righteous? yet he aunswereth himselfe, that he looseth not the name of a righteous man, be­cause he riseth by repentance. And this is the hope of the best; for who otherwise should not perish? When Acesius a Bishop of the Nouatians, at the Nicene Councell, did shew Constantine that holy and blessed Emperour, the strictnesse of their opinions, and how precisely a man must liue with­out sinne after Baptisme, if he would attaine saluation, the Emperour maketh him aunswer,Erigito tibi scalam, & ad caelum solus ascendito. If this be so Acesius, then get thy selfe a ladder, and clime alone into heauen, giuing his censure of it so, that scant any man should be saued, if that ground were maintained. No maruell if for the comfort of wounded consciences, at the first Saint Cyprian, and Cor­nelius Bishop of Rome, and Dionysius of Alexandria, so hote­ly did impugne this heresie: and after them Chrysostome, who so farre did dislike this hard lacing of Nouatus, that he spake thus against it,Socrat 6.19. Si millies lap­sus paeniten­tiamegeris i [...]ecelesiam ingredere. Psal. 19.13. If thou haue fallen a thousand times, and dost repent thee of it, enter into the Church, that is, if thy re­pentance bee true, I will not seclude thee from the fellow­ship of Gods children. We do teach the selfe same doctrine, not to stirre men vp to sinne (for that were to fall of pre­sumption, vnto which many times God denieth the benefite of repentance) but that we may seeke out that which is lost, and bind vp that which is broken, and raise vp that which is fallen,Iud. 23. and saue some out of the fire. Gods Church is made of sinners. Christ Iesus did dye for sinners. Our verie Creede doth teach vs,Symbolum Apostolorū. that the Communion of Saints, and [Page 345] the forgiuenesse of sinnes, must be ioyned and go together. He who will haue part in the one, must haue his fellowship in the other. He cannot come to the first, but he must tast of the lat­ter. We cry to the man lamenting his iniquities,Ambros in Lucam. lib. 2. cap. 2. as Ambrose writing vpon Luke, crieth: Let no man distrust, let no man be­ing priuie to his old faults, despaire of a reward from God. God knoweth how to chaunge his sentence, if thou know how to change thy fault. Bernard. de interiori do­mo cap. 37. Tardius vide­tur Deo venta p [...]ccateri de­disse quàm illi acce [...]isse. Absque dubio & absque mo­ra. We testifie with Saint Bernard, It seemeth vnto God, that he doth more slowly giue pardon to the sinner, then it doth vn­to the other that he doth receiue it. For the mercifull God doth so hasten to acquite the guiltie man, from the torment of his consci­ence, as if the suffering of the wretch, did more grieue the pitifull God, then his owne suffering did the man which is in miserie. For he who truly repenteth and earnestly sorroweth, without doubt & without delay shall receiue a pardon. Let the weake then raise vp his heart, and strengthen his feeble knees. Sinners which call for grace,Genes. 9.21. cap. 19.32. 2. Petr. 2.8. Matth. 26.70 do belong to the adoption. Noe swarued, and yet he was a Patriarke, Lot fell, yet he is said by Saint Peter, to haue had a righteous soule. Peter himselfe had a guiltie conscience, and yet was a great Apostle. Ionas became a mightie trespasser, and yet still remained the Lords Prophet. It was Gods gracious boun­tie, whose fauour originally euer commeth for nothing, but be­ing once setled, it is not lost for a little. And thus haue you his loue both to Niniue, and to Ionas.

10 There is yet another matter, which in this former verse is worthie of consideration, that the word of the Lord is said here to come to Ionas. The Creatour of all things, might haue vsed many other wayes, to reclaime that offending citie. In old time he did call and warne men, by visions and by dreames, as it is in Iob:Iob. 33 15. or his benefits might haue allured; or if those had but choked, and pampered them vp with fatnesse, his rods might haue beat them to it; famine might breede remorse, or the sword of the enemie, or some deuouring pestilence. Or if he would saue all their liues, such iudgements might haue frighted them, as were shewed at Hierusalem,Ioseph. de bello Iudai­co. 7.12. at the last destruction of it. For as we find in Iosephus, a Comete like to a sword did long hang [Page 346] ouer the citie, and troupes of armed men, were seene to fight in the aire. What terrour would this haue wrought? what heart would not this haue rented, and driuen it into mourning, and calling to God for pardon? But the great Lord who in his wise­dome hath ordained another way, as the ordinarie course to winne men to himselfe, that is, by his most precious word, and his ministerie, doth here commend this his ordinance, for the instrument of their good. He hath made this word more sharpe, then is any two edged sword.Hebr. 4.12. This is it which doth pierce the marrow, and breake the bones in sunder, which entreth into the diuision of the soule and of the spirit, of the heart and of the reines, which wresteth sighs from the mind, and wringeth teares from the eyes, and maketh a whole man, as it were to melt, and dissolue into water. This is it, to which especially he hath pro­mised to giue a blessing,Isay. 55.10. that it shall not returne in vaine, but as the rayne commeth downe, and the snow from heauen, and retur­neth not thither, but watereth the earth, and maketh it to bring foorth and bud, that it may giue seede to the sower, and bread to him that eateth, so shall the word be that goeth out of Gods mouth, it shall not returne voyd, but accomplish that which God will, and it shall prosper in the thing whereunto he sendeth it. It is the very power of saluation to all those that do beleeue, a lan­thorne to our feete,Psal. 119.105 and a light vnto our pathes; and therefore as at other times he vseth this to saue men, so he doth in this place, teaching the Niniuites by that word, which commeth from the mouth of the Prophets, by his preaching and crying; and to that purpose also sending his word to Ionas, as a warrant in what sort he should crie. The word must be the meanes, and he the man that must bring it.

11 This is a sure seale vnto him, of his calling and vocati­on. The mind of God in particular concerning this or that, is reuealed and made knowne to him; not after a common maner, as euery one in the Scripture is informed of his dutie, and what the Lords will is, but in a speciall sort, as to one singled out, as the Prophets were to choyse places. And to signifie that no man can of himselfe be a Prophet, but by Gods disposing of him vnto it, the word of the Lord commeth to him, he doth not go vnto [Page 347] it, but it is imposed on him. So that he who would be a Pro­phet, or a foreteller, as all those holy ones were, who were cal­led by that name, before the comming of Christ, must peculiar­ly be raised vp by his God vnto that office, and haue diuine and supernaturall reuelations from him.Amos 7.14. I was saith Amos no Pro­phet, neither was I a Prophets sonne, but I was a heardman, and a gatherer of wild figs, and the Lord tooke me as I followed the flocke, and the Lord sayd vnto me, go prophecie vnto my people Is­rael. Now he who lacketh this commission, is a lyer and decei­uer. Such a one was that filthie Mahomet,Petrus Mes­sias in Hera­clio. Cael. August. Curio Sarac. Hist. lib. 1. the authour of the Alcoran, and of the Turkish religion, who would needes be a Prophet, but had no word for the same. Yet to blind the eyes of the people, (as our Christians do write of him) when the fal­ling sicknesse came on him, wherewith he was much troubled, he would say when he came againe to himselfe, that he was rapt into some reuelation, and in his soule had some conference with the Almightie maker. Let such false Prophets as these be, perish with that in the Reuelation,Apoc. 19.20. for whom as well as for the beast, that fire and brimstone is prepared, which is the second death.

12 The true foretelling Prophets are ceassed now long a­gone. The Prophets of the new Testament,1. Cor. 14.5. are the Preachers and expounders of the word vnto the people, as Saint Paule to the Corinthians, doth take Prophets for Preachers. But although a motion euen from the Spirit of God, and an inward calling be needfull for vs, whereby we may be assured, that we are seque­stred out, and ordained vnto this vocation, yet the word of God may not properly be said to come to vs, but it is rather our part to go to the word of God, and to haue recourse to the Scripture, and therein to see what the Lord doth teach vnto vs. And when we are furnished,Matth. 13.52 and well stored with things both old and new, we ought as the good Scribe to bring them out of our treasurie. Which if all those did respect, who do enter into this function, we should not haue such base ones stand before the altar. If we had not men so good, as those holy inspired ones were, yet we should not haue them so bad, as euery where abound; men who neuer imagined, what an inward calling meaneth; they know not of any such matter; such as neither the word commeth to [Page 348] them, nor they come to the word; the meanest of the flocke, yet be guides to the flocke, neither learned, nor apt to learne, the refuse of the people; a dishonour vnto God, and a great disgrace to our Church after so long a peace. It were the lesse, if they on­ly made themselues to be guiltie, but they slay the souls of other. Their case is vnnaturall; against the rules of nature, that any should be teachers who neuer learned, or preachers who can­not speake, or men to diuide the word, who know not how to diuide it. But I leaue them and this verse, and come to my se­cond part.

Arise and go to Niniue that great citie.

13 As hitherto you haue heard in a kind of generalitie, that 2 the Prophet once againe, by Gods word so directing him, was to go and preach at Niniue, so now the charge which the Lord gaue vnto him,Ion. 1.2. is in precise termes plainly set downe vnto vs. Arise. In the beginning of this Prophecie, the very same word is vsed, and in both places intendeth, that Ionas was not readie, but as it were sitting or lying downe; so that he did need a spurre to quicken him, and reuiue him. In the second of Ezechiel, God speaketh thus vnto his seruant, Sonne of man stand vp vpon thy feete, Ezech. 2.1. and I will speake vnto thee. It sheweth that he was not rea­die, and therefore he biddeth him stand vp. Our man when preaching at first to the people of Israel, he thought that he had done no good, but vtterly lost his labour; of likelyhood being discontented, did set him downe and vexe. Then did the Lord put life into him, and bid him arise and be stirring, he would send him elsewhere. But now it is rather to be supposed, that be­ing deiected in his spirit, for his greeuous disobedience, and troubled in his soule for his so great offence, he sate musing and pondering, as not hauing yet digested the sorrow, through which he did runne. And to say the truth, he had bene insensi­ble, and without all kind of feeling, if he had so soone shaken off the remembrance of his sinne, and his punishment for the same. He that hath sustained bitternesse, and felt it to the full, shall af­ter his deliuerance, in a melancholike pang, starkle and be af­frighted, as if he were yet troubled, yea be perplexed in his dreames; as if there were yet a continuance of misery vpon him. [Page 349] How much more might Ionas be yet quiuering and trembling, whose body was in the mouth, yea the belly of the graue, and whose soule did feele that anguish, which the feare of Gods dis­pleasure, and his casting away from his presence, could possibly lay vpon him? Now to the end that he might not wast himselfe with sorrowing beyond measure, and so be swallowed vp with griefe, he is rowzed out of his passions, and busied otherwise yet more to his owne hearts ease, and his maisters better seruice.

14 It is a thing worthie obseruance, in very many men, al­though in some more, in some lesse, that in the greatest pensiue­nesse of mind which befalleth them, God by some new occasion doth set them vp and reuiue them. The Pastour hath his vexa­tions, and grieuances at his heart. The vntowardnesse of his people doth make him fret like Moses:Num. 11▪ 11. so the wilinesse of the serpent, in deuising new kinds of euill, or the stubburnnesse of Recusants, or the circumuentings of heretickes, or the deriding of enemies, may disquiet him and afflict him. The father and the housholder, may be grieued and disturbed, by the vnrulinesse of his children, and the infamie which is vpon them, as was v­pon the sonnes of Eli or Samuel;1. Sam. 2.22. Cap. 8.3. or by the falsenesse of his ser­uants, and treacherie of his people, by whom he sustaineth harmes or losses, or by malicious neighbours. The faithfull man who is in any vocation,2. Sam. 16.1. Exod. 1.10. Genes. 21.9. Ester. 3.6. 2. Sam. 16.5. 1. Sam. 22.9. may be tormented in his spirit, by an vndermining Ziba, or by an oppressing Pharao, or by a deriding Ismael, or by a contemning Haman, or by a reuiling Shimei, or by a slaundering Doeg. The tender and troubled conscience may be frighted and molested, by recounting his iniquities a­gainst so high a maiestie, and so seuere a iustice. There is no one of these, but being followed & pursued as with waue after waue, must needes sinke & grow faint, vnlesse there be some remedie. He that should onely feed vpon this in his thought, and as one who made much of the humour, should increase it and main­taine it, might fret himselfe to peeces; and if his bones were iron, or if his sides were brasse, might consume them and dissolue thē. Therefore our respectiue father, knowing wherof we are made, remembring that we are but dust,Psal 103.14. doth take this order for vs, that as sometimes he intermingleth ioy with sorrow, like the [Page 350] night with the day, and faire weather with cloudie, and peace with warre, health with sicknesse; so otherwise in our troubles, he sendeth such varietie, and vicissitude of disturbances, that this businesse is driuen away and remooued with that, as a nayle is forced with a nayle,Clauum clauo pellere. or one woodden pin with another, that the mind may not haue time to g [...]aw, or leisure to wast it selfe with sorrow. This dutie or that necessitie, or the comming in of a friend, or feare of euill to come, or hope and expectation, or watchfulnesse to preuent, or labouring to escape, or one thing or another, is set by God as a stay, that we shall not with Iob onely sit downe and mourne,Iob. 2.8. Lament. 1.1. or with Ieremie yeeld our selues wholly to lamentation. We shall haue some thing or o­ther say to vs as to Ionas, arise. I am assuredly perswaded, that this was the estate of Saint Paule aboue all other men,2. Cor. 6.4. who ranne through so many difficulties in watching and in fasting, in imprisonment and in beating, in preaching and in writing, in comforting the weake, in combating with the enemie, in taking care of all Churches. God did not affoord him time to greeue at his perplexities, but choked one with another, and gaue him grace for all. Euerie man may apply this to himselfe as he plea­seth. But to the end that our Prophet might not be steeped and quite dissolued with sorrow, the word of the Lord commeth to him, No more (Ionas) of this heauinesse, Arise and go to Nini­ue that great citie.

15 No maruell if this did awake him, to send him in such an errand. Now he is not to go, as vpon any priuate businesse, from one man to another, but he must go from God, and he must go to a citie, and that as I thinke the greatest which then was on the earth, which might very well vrge him to looke about him, with all his wit and vnderstanding. I shall haue more occasion in the third verse, to speake of the hugenesse of this place, be­cause there it is said, that Niniue was a great and excellent ci­tie, of no lesse then three dayes iourney.Ion. 3.3. It shall suffice for that purpose which I now intend to follow, out of these words of my text, that Niniue was a great citie, to contemplate with reue­rend admiration, the sound force and effectuall operation of the word of God and the ministerie: that one man and a stran­ger, [Page 351] without pompe, without traine, without any one to grace him, should be sent to such a multitude, and being sent should preuaile. See whether some secret vertue, & power which can­not be expressed, be not in this liuely word, when it is taught. See whether the mightie finger of the Lord himselfe be not with it, that he should depute one mouth, to speake vnto a million, and to mooue them and perswade them, and sometimes to erect them, and sometimes to depresse them, with promises and with threatnings: to make so many hearts as would not feare an ar­mie of the old Greekes or Aegyptians, to quake, and with a quauering to tremble in all the bones. That he should appoint one Moses,Exod. 12.37 to aduise and giue precepts, to sixe hundred thou­sand men, which were able to fight in battell, besides women and children.Act. 2.41. That Peter at one Sermon, shold not only speake to so many, but should winne three thousand soules. That in a great congregation, where hundreds or thousands be, a man of the selfe same qualitie, as those to whom he doth preach, clo­thed with many weaknesses, and bringing this most precious treasure but in an earthen vessell, should stand betweene the Lord and the consciences of the people, and with memorie & cōstancie, shold speak boldly to the best, and rebuke them & re­prooue them, and thunder out Gods iudgements. And that the toung of this man, a little peece of flesh, and nothing in compa­rison, should talke of God and Angels, of the mysteries of the Trinitie, of the benefits of the Redeemer, of the power of the holy Ghost, of euerlasting ioy, and of the paines of hell, of sal­uation and damnation; and with this speech so vttered, should conquer & preuaile, & incite men vnto fasting & weeping & la­menting, yea to suffering of affliction, yea to martyrdome it selfe.

16 It sheweth that this word,Mat. 13.31. is truely likened to the mu­stard seed, which being small in the sowing, groweth to great branches afterward.33. And to leauen, which being put in meale farre greater then it selfe, yet doth season and sauour it all. So it is fitly compared vnto a little sparke, or coale of fire, which ligh­ting vpon apt matter, prooueth soone a burning flame, and hath in it such power, as that cities or forrests, or whole realmes may be wasted with it. This word hath endlesse encrease, when God [Page 352] giueth a blessing to it. By how few in respect of a multitude, was the Gospell propagated in all the coasts of the earth? Their sound went out into all lands.Psal 19.4. They were but a few Apostles, and a small number of their scholers, neither rich, nor learned, nor eloquent, yet India and Armenia, and Greece, and Rome, and Spaine, were filled with their deuotions: the base were heard by the noble, and fishermen and their followers, catched Caesars and mightie Emperours.Act. 8.26. The E [...]nuch of Candaces had but a little parley with Philip the Euangelist, yet he so plan­ted Christs doctrine in the countrey of Ethiopia, that it re­maineth to this present age, in the whole kingdome of the Abyssines,Euseb. Hist. Eccl. 2.1. although with some noted blemishes. For Euse­bius doth acknowledge, that he was the first who wanne them to be Christians; besides the likelyhood of the matter, in the Actes of the Apostles, that when he came home he would not be silent,Damian. a Goes de Ae­thiopū mo­ribus. and the testification of late writers in that behalfe. These be demonstratiue proofes, that there is more in this word, then mans wit can imagine, that not by sword or com­pulsion, but onely by speaking and hearing, perhaps this day it creepeth, to morrow it flyeth aloft, and sheweth his head with the mightiest. That the Sunne in the heauen, cannot do more with the creatures, then this with the receiuers. For as the Sunne being one, doth giue light to many, and doth har­den the claye, and yet soften the waxe, and maketh the flowers to smell better, and dead carions to sauour worse, and cheareth the springing plants, and cherisheth other grow­ing things, with an influence which cannot be described; so the word of God vttered by one man, doth serue multitudes and great numbers, and fitteth euery one according to his need, as to beat downe him that is proud, and raise vp him that is humble, to threaten where threates are needfull, and to com­fort where comfort is expedient, and with a force which can­not be expressed, to frame euery one to that, whereunto he is ordained, the elect to his saluation, the reprobate to dam­nation.

17 Then it was no ouersight, but amply to Gods glorie, that the Lord did send onely one man, to a citie of that [Page 353] quantitie. He had armed him before, and metalled him for the nonce. He came with matter in his mouth, to satisfie all the sort. He who sent him was that Lord, who made all, and could breake the hearts of all; then what is it to be respected how many they were? By calling he is a Prophet, and there­fore neede not feare a world full of gaine-sayers.Ierem. 1.18. He is as a wall of brasse, and a bulwarke of iron, against all the troupes of them. It is Gods word which he bringeth, which is opera­tiue and quicke, and very apt for diffusion, and spreading a­broad. As the voyce in the ayre, so this in the hearts of men doth quickly extend it selfe. He hath a sound commission from him, who will beare him out, to go to Niniue that great citie. I send thee not to a hand-full, but to a spacious charge, and I do furnish thee for them all. I tell thee that they are many, expect and recken of it, but thou shalt do well with them. And this was a happie helpe, that he was told be­fore hand, that the citie was so great, that he might foresee the difficultie, and so be amazed the lesse. For if suddenly with­out former meditation, he had bene pushed among so huge and vast a multitude, he might right well haue trembled at it, as a few souldiours would, when they expecting no such matter, nor thinke of their enemies, were fallen into an ambush, or gotten into the midst of an armie. Such daungers as come vnlooked for, do not onely bereaue men of counsell, and of sound vnderstanding, but of sence too many times. To preuent which, our Prophet is aduertised before-hand, that the monster of the multitude, that beast with many heades, is to be dealt with by him: I could wish that such of my brethren, as liue here in this Seminarie and store-house of the ministerie, would before the time that the Lord imposed any charge elsewhere vpon them, consider and ponder deepely, what a difficult part of seruice they are to be vsed in: and that there is no kinde of conflict, wherein they may not be exercised. This is the very same counsell, which Christ giueth to his disciples,Luc. 14.28. Which of you minding to build a towre sitteth not downe before [Page 354] and counteth the cost, vvhether he haue sufficient to performe it, 31. Or vvhat king going to make vvarre against another king, sitteth not downe first and taketh counsaile, vvhether he be able vvith ten thousand to meete him that cometh against him vvith twentie thousand? There is lesse oddes by much, betweene twentie and ten, then betweene the flocke and the Pastour. They are manie vnto one; the varietie and diuersitie of wits and dispositions, requireth a carefull minde, and also a man resol­ued. Peruersenesse and ouerthrwartnesse, must be looked for before hand. Whereupon if with foresight men did meditate and contemplate, we should not here such com­plaints, as are rise in the countrey. Oh what a blessed life do you leade in the Vniuersitie? we liue here as in a hell: such crossing and such vexations we tast, as you do neuer dreame of. And these seeming to many of them, to be no lesse then insuperable, cause them to sinke, and faint in their hearts, and to be as dead and discouraged, in going through with their calling. They should haue imagined before, that for their strength and abilitie, euerie place might be to them, as Niniue was to Ionas, a huge and mightie charge: that the contumelie of Atheistes, and bitter hatrest of Papistes, the inuasions of vp­start heretickes, the wranglings of new-found schismatikes, should exercise their patience. That the ciuill sort with their nicenesse, and ouermuch curiositie, the ignorant with their rudenesse and indisciplinable barbarisme, the old with their superstitions, the young with their sports and follies, would minister matter to them. That some with troubled spirites, would seeke to them for comfort, whom they cannot chuse but pitie: that others of troublesome natures, would draw them into quarrels, and partaking of factions, so that all their wits and knowledge, should scant keepe them from brawles. That the greater their talent is, the more shall be their bur­then; the greater their graces be, the greater shall be their crosses. In which matters and many other, the worst being cast before-hand, noting shall come straunge vnto them, no not if the heauen should fall on them,Horat. lib. 3. Carmin. ode. 3. as the Poet Horace spea­keth. I do not recite these troubles, to fright men from accep­ting [Page 355] of any pastorall charge,Matth. 9.38. (I do rather make my prayer to the Lord of the haruest, to thrust out labourers into his har­uest) but to remember my selfe, and others, to prepare them selues by precedent speculation, to burthens of this waight, and to call to God to enrich them, with graces fit for this calling. But ceasing in this matter, I come to the last note which my text doth offer to me.

Preach thou that preaching which I commaund thee.

18 Or do thou proclaime against it, that proclamation which I speake vnto thee. He is sent as an Ambassadour; but such are his aduertisements, and instructions from his Lord, that he may not varie from them. His commission is not gene­rall, to take counsaile è re nata, or [...]rbitrarily, as when the Romane Consuls had power without limitation,Tullius pro Milone. vt videant ne Respublica quid detrimenti capiat. He must be but as a cha­nell, or conduit pipe, to conuey that along to Niniue, which he receiued from his maister. All the Prophets were so tyed, this onely commeth from them, Thus or thus saith the Lord. Yea Balaam that false Prophet,Num. 22.1 [...]. had catched this by the end, If Balac vvould giue me his house full of siluer and gold, I cannot go beyond the vvord of the Lord my God, to do lesse or more. Saint Paule had learned this lesson, as the first in all his booke. He sheweth it in nothing more plainly, then in the case of the Sacrament.1. Cor. 11.23 I receiued from the Lord, that vvhich I also haue deliuered vnto you. Gal. 1.8. So in the first to the Galathians, If an An­gell from heauen preach vnto you otherwise, then that vvhich vve haue preached vnto you (he had called himselfe before an Apostle from Iesus Christ) let him be accursed. 1. It is a rule inua­riable, that in cases of saluation, we looke to God the ora­cle of wisedome and truth; not to our owne inuentions, or to confirme our doctrine, from this or that of our owne brayne: but if we haue our warrant from the old or the new Testament,Orig lib. 3. in Epistol. ad Roman. then we may safely speake it. Origene proposeth Saint Paule for an example in this case. Paule (saith he) as his custome is, vvill affirme that vvhich he teacheth, out of the ho­lie Scriptures, and he doth giue an example to the Doctours of the Church, that they should produce those things vvhich they [Page 356] speake to the people, Non proprijs praesumpta sen­tentijs sed diui­nis munita te­stimonijs. not grounded vpon their owne opinions, but strengthened with the testimonies of God. For if he so great and such an Apostle, did not thinke that the authoritie of his words might suffice, vnlesse he did know that those things were written in the law and the Prophets which he said, how much more should we little ones obserue this, that when we teach, we vtter not our owne but the meanings of the holy Ghost?

19 If the teachers and preachers of the Antichristian faith, had kept this for a lawe, there had neuer so absurd and filthie points of doctrine bene taught to their people, visions, and re­uelations, and messages from the dead, dreames, customes, and such follies as are besides the word, Purgatorie, and limbus Pa­trum, pilgrimages vnto Reliques, and Transubstantiation of the bread into Christs bodie, being contrarie to the Scriptures, and many other things of this qualitie, the later euer adding to the inuention of the former, such a Canon or such a ceremonie. These men are bold, beyond the authoritie which was commit­ted to them, for theirs was but as this of Ionas, thou must preach to them that preaching which I shall shew vnto thee. Their charge was but as Timothies was, and Paules words to Timothie were, O Timothie keepe thy charge. 1. Tim. 6.20. Keepe and hold fast that, which by the Scriptures is committed to thee from the Lord, and from me by his direction. And there is not the greatest Minister, not the most learned or acute, but must obserue this rule. Not Iames, not Iohn, not Peter, not all the troupe of the Apostles, may once varie from this. He who shall bring other doctrine, let him be accursed by vs. He who speaketh of himselfe, let him be refused by vs. Howsoeuer godly or holy he do pretend himselfe, yet if he decline that word which should be his direction, let him be declined by vs. Whosoeuer shall say otherwise then that which is appointed, Ignat. Epist. 10. ad Hero­nem. saith Ignatius, (he meaneth otherwise then God hath appointed) although he be a man of credit, although he fast and keepe virginitie, although he do miracles, although he pro­phecie, let him be thought by thee to be a wolfe, who vnder a sheepes skinne, doth intend the marring of the sheepe. Thus shold the hearers be carefull, that they receiue no doctrine, but that which is approoued, and the Preachers be aduised, that they