The booke of hauking …

The booke of hauking huntyng and fysshyng, with all the properties and medecynes that are necessary to be kept.

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The true fourme of kepyng of haukes as hath ben vsed in tymes past. And fyrst to speake of haukes from an egge tyll they bene able to be taken.

FOr to speake of haukes. First thei ben egges. And after they bene disclosed haukes & comonly goshaukes ben disclosed as soone as ye choughes, in som place more timely after the coūtrey is of here & timely breedyng. And we shal say yt haukes doon eyere & not breed in the woddes. And we shall say that haukes doone drawe when they bere tymbryng to theyr nestes, and not they builde, ne make their nestes. And in the time of their loue they call, and not cauke. And we shall saye yt thei tred [...] And when they ben vnclosed and begyn for to fether any thing of length: anon by kynde they wil drawe somwhat out of the nest, and drawe to bowes & com again to their nest. And then they ben called bowesses. And after saint Margarettes day thei flee frō tree to tree. And then they ben called braūchers. And then it is time for to take thē. And seuen nyghtes before saynt Margaretes daye and seuen nightes after is the best taking of spatehaukes.

¶How ye shal demeane you in takyng of haukes & with what instrumentes, & how you shall call them.

WHo wyl take haukes: he must haue nettes which bene called vrynes, & those must be made of good smal threde, and it had nede be dyed eyther grene or blewe for espyeng of the hauke. And he must take wyth hym ne­dle and threde to ensyle the hawkes that bene taken. And in this maner they must be ensiled. Take the nedle and threde: and put it through the ouer eye lyd and so [Page] of that other, & make them fast vnder the becke that she see not. Then she is ensyled as she ought to be. Som vse to ensyle them with the nether eye [...]yd aboue the becke on the head almoste, but that is ye worst way. For of [...]ea­son the ouerlyd closeth more iustlye then the neyther, bycause of the largenesse, when she is ensyled: beare her home on thy fyst and cast her on a perche, & let her stande there a nyght and a daye. And on that other day towarde nyght take and cutte easely the thredes and take them a­waye softely for breakyng of the eye lyddes. Then lofte and fayre begyn to fede her, & deale easely with her ti [...] she wyll syt vpon thy fyst. For it is dred for hurtyng of her winges. And then the same night after the feding: wa [...] her all nyght, and on the morow all day, then she wyll b [...] preuy ynough to bee reclaimed. And the fyrst meate tha [...] she shall eate: let it be hote, and geue her ynough therof.

¶How your hauke maye be drawen to reclaime and the maner of her dyet.

ANd if your hauke be harde penned, she may be dra­wen to be reclaimed. For all the while that she is tendre penned: she is not able to be reclaymed. And yf she be a goshauke or tercell yt shall be reclaimed: euer feed her with washt meate at the drawyng, and at the re­claiming. But looke it be hote, and in this maner washe it. Take ye meate & go to the water, & strike it vp & down in the water, & wryng the water out, & fede her therwyth and she be a braūcher. And if it be an eyes: ye must wash the meat cleaner then ye doo to a braūcher, & with a lyn­nen clothe wype it and feed her. And euer more the thyrd daye geue her casting when she is fleeing, if she be a gos­hauke or tercel in this maner. Take new blanket clothe and cut fyue pellettes therof an ynche longe, and take [Page] fleshe and cut fyue morcelles. And with a knyues point make an hole in euerye morcell, and put therin the pel­lettes of clothe. And take a fayre dyshe with water & put them therin. Then take the hauke and geue her a morsel of hote meat the quantitie of half her supper. Then take that that lyeth in the water and feed her for all night.

¶How you shall feed your hauke and know her infirmy­ [...]ies and there be many diuerse of them.

IF your hauke be a sparehauke, euer feed her with vn­washed meate, & looke that her castyng be plumage. Then looke it be clene vnder the perche. And on the next day ye shal finde the casting vnder the perche, and therby ye shall know whether ye hauke be clene or not. For som pece wyl be yelow, & some greene, & some glaymous, and som clere, & if it be yelow: she engēdreth the froūce, which is an euill that wil ryse in the mouth or in the cheke, & yf it be greene: she engendreth the rye, the condicion of this euil is this. It wil arise in ye head & make ye head to swel & in the eyen glemous & darke, & but it haue helpe it wyl downe into the legges & make the legges to rancle, & yf it goe fro the legges into ye head again: thy hauke is but lost, & if it be glaimous & roping: she engendreth an euyll called the cray, that is when an hauke may not muteise.

¶Marke well your medicines heare folowyng.

¶A medecine for the frounce in the mouthe.

Take a syluer spoone & put the smal ende in the fyre tyl it be hote. Thē let holde the hauke, & open her beake & bren the sore, & anoynt it with ye mary of a goose yt hath laine longe, & she shalbe whole. And if ye frounce be wexed as greate as a nutte: then is therin a grubbe, which ye shal cut wyth a raser in this maner. Let holde the hauke and slyt the place where the sore is, & ye shall fynde therin as [Page] it were the mawe of a pygeon, take it out al whole, & take a payre of sheres & nit the hole of the sore and make it as fayre as ye may with a linnen clothe, and wype clene the bloud awaye, & anoynt the sore with bawme foure dayes suyngly, and afterward with pampilion tyl it be whole.

❧How the frounce commeth.

❧The frounce commeth when a man fedeth his hauke with porke or cattes fleshe foure dayes together.

❧How the rye commeth.

❧For defaut of hote meat this sicknes the rye cometh.

❧How the cray cometh.

❧The cray cōmeth of wasshed meat whiche is washed with hote water in the defaute of hote meat. Also it com­meth of thredes which ben in the fleshe that the hauke is fed with. For though ye picke the flesh neuer so clene yet ye shall fynde thredes therin.

❧When your hauke shall bathe her.

☞And euermore eche third daye let your hauke bathe her duryng the sommer, if it be fayre wether. And once in a weke in wynter yf it be fayre wether & not els. And whē ye bathe your hauke: euer geue her a morsell of hote meat vnwashed, though she be a goshauke.

❧How ye may cause your hauke to flee with a cou­rage in the mornyng.

❧If ye wil yt your hauke flee in ye morning tide: feed her the night before wt hote meat, & washe the same meat in vryne, & wryng out ye water clene, & that shal make her to haue lust & courage to flee in ye morning in ye best maner.

❧How you shall guyde you yf youre hauke be full gorged and ye wolde soone haue a flyght.

❧If your hauke be full gorged and that ye wolde soone vpon haue a flight: take foure cornes of whete and put [Page] them in a morcell of fleshe, & geue the same morcelles to the hauke, and she wyl cast anon all that she hathe wyth in her. And anon after that she hathe cast: looke that ye haue a morcell of hote meat to geue her. And yf youre hauke be ouergorged: geue her the same medicine.

❧A medicine for the rye

❧Take dasye leues and stampe them in a morter and wryng out the iuyce, and with a pen put it in the haukes nates once or twise whē the hauke is small gorged. And anon after let her tyre, and she shalbe whole as a fyshe. Or els take percelye rootes and serue her with them in the same maner, and when she tyreth: holde rewe in your hande with the tyryng, and that shall make her voyde. But it is peryllous to vse it often that the iuyce fall ne spryng in to her eyen.

❧Also and you geue youre hauke freshe butter or mary of hogges that is in the bone of the but of porke, it shall make her to cast water well at the nares, & it wil keep the nares open. But it wyl make her hawtaine and proude.

❧A medecine for the cray, and more f [...]lowe.

❧Take & chaufe with your handes the foundament of your hauke with warme water a longe tyme. And after that take the poudre of saxyfrage, or elles the poudre of rewe, and a quantitie of maye butter, and tempre it well together tyl they ben euen medled. Then put it in a lytle boxe and stoppe it fast. And as oft as ye feed your hauke an whole mele: annoynt her meat a lytle therwith, and that shall make her to loue meat the better for loue of the oyntment. And it shall saue her from the cray and from many other sickenesses that gendre oft in a hauke.

❧Also take the hote harte of an hogge or a pygge & feed her two dayes therwith, and she shalbe whole.

[Page] ❧Also take porke & we [...]e it in hote mylke of a cowe, & feed the hauke therwith, & that shall make her muteyse at the best wyse. And porke with the mary of the bone of the butte of porke shall make her muteyse, & feed her wyth bothe togyther. Also vse her to freshe butter, and it wyll doo the same. Also one mele or two at the moste of the hote lyuer of a pygge shal make her muteyse wel. Be­ware geue her not to great a gorge therof, for it is a pe­ryllous meate. Also take the white of an egge, & labour the same in a sponge as well as ye wolde make glayre for red ynke tyll it be like water. Put the same in a vessel and let the meate that shalbe for her supper lye and stepe therin all the daye before, and that nyght feed her ther­with. And that whiche shall be for her dyner in the mor­nyng let it lye all the nyght, but in any wyse looke that ye haue alwaye freshe glayre, and yf her fedyng be porke it is the better, that is proued▪

¶The kyndely termes that belonge to haukes.

IN the begynnyng of kyndlye speche of the termes that belong vnto haukes: heere mai ye finde them, ❧The fyrst is holde fast at all tymes, & specially when she bateth. It is called batyng for she bateth wt her selfe moste often causelesse. The second is rebate your hauke to your fyst, and that is whē your hauke bateth, the least meuing yt ye can make wt your fyst she wil rebate againe on your fyst. The thyrd is, feed your hauke, and not geue her meate. The .iiii. an hauke suyteth or sueth hrr beake and not wypeth her becke. The .v. your hauke souketh and not slepeth. The .vi. your hauke proyneth, & not pyc­keth, & she proineth not but whē she beginneth at her leg­ges, & fetcheth moysture lyke oyle at her tayle, and baw­meth [Page] her feete, and shaketh the fethers of her wynges through her beake. And it is called the note, when that she fetcheth suche oyle. And ye shal know that an hauke wolde not be let of her proyning. For at suche time as she proyneth: she is lykyng and lusty, & when she hath doon: she will rouse her mightely. And sometyme youre hauke countenaunceth as she pycketh her, and yet she proyneth not. And than ye must saye, she refourmeth her fethers, and not pycketh her fethers. The .vii. youre hauke coly­eth, and not becketh. The .viii. she rouseth, and not sha­keth herselfe. The .ix. she streyneth, and not claweth ne scratcheth. The .x. she mātelleth, and not stretcheth whē she putteth her legges from her one after an other, & her wynges folowe her legges, than she dothe mantell her. And whan she hath manteled her and bryngeth both her wynges together ouer her back, you shal say your hauke warbelleth her wynges. And that is one terme due ther­fore. The .xi. ye shal sai your hauke mutesseth or muteth, & not shyteth. The .xii. ye shall say cast your hauke vpon the perche, and not set vp youre hauke vpon the perche.

☞Heere ye shall vnderstande furthermore other ma­ner of termes that belonge vnto haukes for to com­mende them for dyuerse of their properties.

FYrst ye shall saye, this is a fayre hauke, an huge hauke, a longe hauke, a short chicke hauke, and saye not this is a greate hauke. Also ye shall saye, this hauke hath a large beake or a short beake, & not cal it bil. An huge head, or a small head fayre seasoned, ye shall say your hauke is full gorged, and not cropped, & your hauke putteth ouer and endueth, and yet she doth both diuersly.

❧How your hauke putteth ouer.

An hauke putteth ouer when she remoueth the meat from her gorge into her bowels, and thus ye shal know it when she putteth ouer: she trauerseth with her bodye, & specially wt her necke as a craue doth or an other byrde.

❧When ye shall say endueth and enbowelled.

An hauke endueth neuer as longe as her bowels ben full at her fedyng. But as soone as she is fed and resteth she endueth lytle and lytle, and yf her gorge be wyde and the bowell in any thyng styffeth, ye shall saye she is em­bowelled, and haue not fully endued, and as longe as ye may fynde any thing in her bowels: it is ryght peryl­lous to geue her any meat.

❧Marke well these termes folowyng.

Say an hauke hath a longe wyng, a fayre longe taile with .vi. barres out, and standeth vpon the seuenth. This hauke is enter [...]enned, that is to saye when the fe­thers of the winges ben betwene the body & the thighes This hauke hathe an huge legge, or a flatte legge, or a rounde legge, or a fayre e [...]seted legge.

¶To knowe the mayle of an hauke.

Haukes haue white maile, cāuasmaile, or red mayle▪ And some call redde mayle yren mayle, whyte mayle is soone knowen. Cāuasmaile is betwene white maile and yren mayle, and yren mayle is very red.

❧Plumage and cast your hauke.

A Goshauke nor Tercell in theyr sore age haue not their mailes named, but is called their plumage, & after the cote: it is called their maile, and if your hauke reward to any foule by countenaūce for to flee therto: ye shal say cast your hauke therto, and not flee therto.

❧Nomme or seased.

And yf your hauke nomme a foule, & the foule breake awaye fro her, she hathe disconfyte manye fethers of the [Page] foule & is broken away, for in kyndely speche ye shal say your hauke hath nōmed or seased a foule, & not taken it.

❧Wherfore an hauke is called a ryfeler.

And oftentymes it happeth manye a hauke for egre­nesse when she should nomme a foule he seaseth but the fethers. And as oft as he doth so he rifleth, therfore such haukes ben called ryfelers, yf they doo oft so.

❧How ye shall name the membres of your haukes in conuenable termes.

NOowe ye shall vnderstande the names of the mem­bres of haukes, to begyn at theyr feete, and goe vp­warde, as knyghtes ben harneysed and a [...]med so we shall enaime her.

❧Talons.

Fyrst the great cleis behynde that stryneth the backe of the hande, ye shall call them talons.

¶Pounces.

The cleis wtin the fote ye shal cal a right her poūces.

¶Longe sengles.

But cectainly the cleis that are vpon the midle stret­chers ye shall call the long sengles.

❧Petye sengles.

And the vttermoste cleis ye shal call [...]he pety sengles.

❧The key or closer.

Understande ye also yt the long sengles ben called the key of the foote, or the closer. For what thing soeuer it be that your hauke streineth: is vpon ye sengle, & al ye foote is therupon, for ye strength therof fortifyeth all the foote.

❧Setes of watry or waxy colour.

Also vnderstande ye that the skyn about your haukes legges & her feet is called ye setes of her legges & her feet whether they ben watry hewed or waxy colour yelowe.

❧The beme fethers, ful sūmed, full fermed and re­claymed.

AN hauke hath twelue fethers vpon her tayle, and one pryncypall fether of the same in the myddes, & in maner all the other are couered vnder the same fether, and that is called the beme fether of the taile. And there goeth black barres ouerwhart the tayle. And those same barres shall tell you when she is full summed or full fermed. For when she is full barred: she standeth vp­on seuen and then she is perfyte redy to be reclaymed.

❧Ye shall vnderstande that as longe as an hauke stan­deth vnder the nūbre of seuen barres, & she be in her sore age: it must be said that she is not full sūmed. For so long she is but tendre pēned, whether she be braūcher or eyes. And yf she be a mewed hauke & stande within seuen bar­res: ye shall say she is not ful fermed. For she is not able to be reclaymed bycause she is drawen to soone out of the mewe for she is hard penned no more then a sor [...] hauke.

¶Brayles or braylfethers degouted.

¶To know furthermore of haukes. An hauke hath lōg smale whyte fethers hangyng vnder the tayle from her bowell downwarde. And the same fethers ye shal cal the brayles, or the brailfethers. And comūly euery goshauke and euery tercelles brayles ben disprenged wyth blacke speckes lyke armyns. And for al that they ben accounted neuer the better. But and a sparehauke be so armyned vpon the brayles, or musket: ye shall say, she is degouted to the vttermost brayle, & muche it betokeneth hardynes.

¶Brest fethers, plumage, barbe fethers, pendaunt fethers.

❧The fethers aboutt the former parties of an hauke ben called brest fethers, & the fethers vnder the wynges [Page] are plumage. The fethers vnder the beake ben called the barbe fethers. And the fethers that ben at the ioynte at the haukes knee: they stande hangyng and sharpe at the endes, those ben called the pendaunt fethers.

¶Flagge or flagges fethers.

¶The fethers at the wynges next to the bodye be called the flagge or flagges fethers.

❧Beme fethers of the wyng sercell.

❧And the long fethers of the wynges of an hauke ben called beme fether of ye wyng. And the fethers that some call the pynion fether of an other foule: of an hauke it is called the sercell. And ye shall vnderstande yf an hauke be in mew, the same sercell shalbe the last fether that she wyl cast, & tyl that be cast: she is neuer mewed, yet it hath ben seen yt haukes haue cast ye same fyrst as I haue heard say, but the other rule is generall. And whē she hath cast her sercelles in mewe: then and no sooner it is time for to feed her with washt meat, & to begyn to ensayme her.

❧Ensayme.

❧Ensayme of an hauke is the grece. And but yf that be take awaye wyth feding of washt meat and otherwise: as it shalbe declared heerafter, she wyll gendre a panell which may be her vttermoste confusion, and she fl [...]e ther­with and take bloud and colde therupon.

¶Couertes or couert fethers.

❧There ben also fethers that close vpon the sercelles, and those same ben called the couertes or ye couert fethers and so all the fethers ben called that ben nexte ouer the long beme fethers are the sagge fethers vpō ye wynges.

❧Backe fethers.

❧The fethers vpon the back halfe ben called the backe fethers.

❧Beake, Clap, Nares, Sete.

❧The beake of ye hauke is the vpper parte yt is croked.

[Page] ❧The nether parte of the beake is called the clap of the hauke.

¶The holes in the haukes beake ben called the Nares.

¶The yelowe betwene the beake and the eyen is called the sere.

❧Crynettes.

¶There ben on an hauke long small black fethers like heres about the sere, and those same be called crynettes of the hauke.

❧Sore age.

Ye shall vnderstande that the fyrst yere of an hauke, whether she be a brauncher or eyesse, that fyrst is called her sore age. And all that yere she is called a sore hauke, for and she escape that ye [...]e with good fedyng she is like­lye to endure longe.

❧To reclayme an hauke.

IF ye wyl reclaime your hauke, ye must departe one mele into three meles vnto the tyme that she wyll come to reclayme. And whan she will come to rec [...]aime, encrease her meles euery daye better and better. And or she come to the reclayme, make her that she sore not, for though she be wel reclaimed it may hap that she wil sore so high into the ayre that ye shal neither see nor finde her And yf your hauke shall flee to the partryche, looke that ye ensayme her or she flee, whether she be braūcher or ey­esse or mewed hauke.

☞When an hauke is called an eyesse.

An hauke is called an eyesse fro her eyē. For an hauke that is brought vp vnder a bussarde or pu [...]tock as many ben haue watry eyen. For whan they ben dysclosed and kept in ferme till they be full summed: ye shall knowe that by theyr wratry eyen. And also her looke wil not be so quycke as a braunchers is. And so bycause the best [Page] knowledge is by the eye, they be called eyesses. Ye maye also knowe an eyesse by the palenesse of the seres of her legges or the sere ouer the beake, and also by the taintes that ben vpon her tayle ond her winges, whiche tayntes come for lacke of fedyng whan they ben eyesses.

¶What a taint is.

A taint is a thing that goeth ouerthwart the fethers of the winges and of the tayle like as it were eaten with wormes. And it begynneth fyrst to breed at the bodye in the penne. And that same penne shall frete a sondre and fal away through the same taynt, and than is the hauke disparaged for all that yere.

❧Medecines to ensayme your hauke.

Take the roote of ras [...]e and put it in clene water and lay your flesh therin to tempre a great whyle, and geue it to youre hauke to eat, and yf she eat therof: dred not but it shall abate her grece. But within three dayes she shal not greatly abate.

Also take Pulyall and garlyke and stampe it wel to­gether, and wryng out the iuyce in a dysshe, and than wet the fleshe therin, and feed your hauke therwith and but it tempre your hauke, that is to saye, ensayme youre hauke within foure dayes: I meruaile. But looke euerye daye that ye make newe iuyce, and whan ye feed her wet youre meat therin. Also take iuyce of Mercely mores, o­therwyse called percely rootes, and the same of Ysope, and wasshe youre fleshe therin, and your hauke shall be ensaymed kyndly, and no great abate to the hauke.

Some vse to lay theyr fleshe in water almoste a daye and geue the same to the hauke at supper. And that lyeth all nyght to geue to her in the morning, and thus to feed them in mewe or they ben drawen about a moneth or .vi wekes, and to ensayme them or they come on fyst, & as [Page] soone as they cast theyr sercell: then is the tyme to fee [...] them so.

❧How your hauke ensaymeth.

❧Understande ye for cer [...]ayne that as longe as youre haukes feete ben blackyshe and rough: she is ful of grece and euer as she ensaymeth, her feete wyll waxe yelowe and smothe.

❧How you shall gyde you when your hauke is re­dye to flee, and ye shal say put vp the partryche.

WHen ye haue ensaymed your hauke and reclaymed her, and that she is redy to flee to the partryche: ye must take a partryche in your bagge & goe into the feeld, and let your spanyelles fynde a couy of partryches. And when they ben vp & begyn to scatter: ye must haue mar­kers to some of them and then couple vp your spaniels, for when ye haue so doone: let some felowe of yours pry­uely, take the partryche out of your bagge, and tye it by the legge wyth a cryaunce, and cast it vp as high as ye can. And as soone as the hauke seeth her: she wyll flee therto, and if your hauke sease the partryche aboue, geue her a rewarde therupon, & goe after that by l [...]yser to the partryche that ben marked, and doo as I shall tell you heere folowyng. If ye haue a chastysed spanyell that wyl be rebuked & is a retryuer: vncouple him & no mo of your spaniels, & go to a single partryche of ye couy so sparcled, and be as nigh as ye can to the rysing therof, & yf youre hauke desyre: cast her to, & if she take it thē is your hauke made for that yere, & of the same partriche that she sleyth thus ye must rewarde her as it sheweth heere folowyng.

❧How ye shall rewarde your hauke.

¶Take a knife and cut the head & the neck frō the body of the partryche, and stryppe the skynne awaye from the necke, & geue the same to the hauke, and couer the bodye [Page] of the foule with a bonet or wt an harte, and lay the sayd head & the necke therupon, [...] yf she wyll forsake the foule that she plumeth on & come to the reward: than pryuelye take away the partryche, & rewarde your hauke with the brayne & the necke. Beware that she eat no bones, for that is euill to endewe, and it wyll make her vnlusty for to flee, & thus must ye serue her of as many as she sleyth, but let her rewarde be the lesse, for elles she may be soone ful gorged, and then she maye flee no more a great while.

❧How your hauke shall reioyce.

☞And whan your hauke hath slaine a foule, & is rewar­ded as I haue sayd: let her flee in no wise tyll she hath re­ioyced her, that is to say, till she hath sewed or suyted her becke, or els row [...] her. And whan she hath doon any of these, or all: goe & retryue more, & she wil nomme plenty.

❧Whan your hauke hath nomme a foule, howe ye shall [...]oo that ye rebuke not the hauke.

Lerne wel one thyng, and beware therof, whan youre hauke hath nomme a partryche, stande a good waye of, & come not to nygh her, and dryue a waye your spaniels for rebuking of her. For many haukes loue no spaniels, and also manye spaniels will [...]enym them theyr game from theyr fote, & that is right perillo [...]. And while your hauke plumeth: come softely towarde her alwaye nere and nere. And yf she leue pluming and looke vpon you: stande styl and cherke her, and whystell her vntil she plume againe▪ And thus serue her tyll ye be ryght nigh her. Than softe and leyserly fall vpon your knees, and pryuely while she plumeth: set your hande and be sure of the gesse, and than ye maye gyde all thinges as ye wil. And if ye doo the cō ­trary: she wyl for feare cary her game, or let it goe quicke and that is but losse to you and to your hauke also.

❧A medecine to make an hauke to cast that is ac­combred with castyng within her body.

❧Take the iuyce of Salendine, and wet a morcell of fleshe therin to the quantitie of a nutte. And geue that morcell to the hauke, and that shall make her for to cast her olde castyng, and the hauke shalbe safe.

❧A medecine for an hauke that wil sore.

☞Washe the fleshe that your hauke shall be fed with, in iuyce of fenell, & that shal take awaye the pryde fro her, & make her leue her soring whether she be lene or fat, and many times an hauke wil sore whē she lacketh bathing.

❧A medecine for an hauke that is lousye.

❧Take quicke syluer and put it in a basen of brasse, & put therto salendyne, & ashes, and medle it well together tyll the quicke syluer be dead. And medle therto farte of bones, and anoynt the hauke therewyth. And hange it about her necke tyll it fall away, and it shal slee the lyce. Also poudre of orpement, blowen vpon an hauke wyth a penne, wyl slee the lyce.

❧Also take a dagon or a pece of rugh blāket vnshore & holde it to the fyre vnto the time it be throughout warme, and wrappe the hauke therin. And then holde her softely and stylly for hurtyng of youre handes▪ and the vermyn wyll crepe into the clothe. Also holde her in the sonne on a fayre daye and ye shall see the vermyn crepe out vpon the fethers. Then take a knyfe and wet the one syde of ye blade therof with your mouth. And alway as they ap­peare lay the wet syde of the knyfe to them, and they wil cleaue therto▪ and then ye may slee them.

❧The opynion of Ostregyeres.

After the opinion of many ostregyers▪ & ye feed youre hauke continually wt porke, wt iayes, wt pyes, or in espe­cially beare her muche in rayny wether, she shalbe lousy.

❧Ostregers, Speruiteres, Faukeners.

Now bicause I speake of ostregiers, ye shal vnderstād yt thei ben called ostregiers yt keep goshaukes or tercels & those yt keep sparehaukes & muskettes, ben called sper­uiters, & kepers of al other haukes are called faukeners

❧The length of the gesse, sewes, tyrettes, and how they be fastened, and bewettes.

❧Haukes haue about theyr legges gesses made of le­ther moste comōly, some of silke which should no lenger but that the knottes of them should appere in ye myddes of the left hande betwene the longe fynger and the leche fynger bicause the lewnes should be fastened to thē with a payre of tyrettes, whiche tyrettes should rest vpon the lewnes and not vpon gesses, for hangyng and fastyng vpon trees when she fleyth, & those same lewnes ye shal fasten them vpon your lytle fynger slacklye, in compas­syng the same in foure or fyue folde as a bow stryng vn­occupyed. And the tyrettes serue to keep her from wyn­dyng when she bateth. Also the same lethers that ben put in her belles to be fastened about her legges, ye shall call bewettes.

❧Creaunce.

☞Also ye shall call the longe lyne, that ye doo call your hauke to reclaime with, your creaunce, whatsoeuer it be.

❧A medecine for an hauke that wyll cast fleshe.

Put the fleshe that your hauke shall eat in fayre wa­ter, and feed her therwith three dayes, and she shal holde her fleshe in the best wyse.

❧A medecine for an hauke yt hath lost her courage.

❧An hauke yt hath lost her courage a man may knowe yf he wyll take good heed. For such is her maner, when she is cast to a foule she fleyth awayward as though she [Page] knew not the foule. Or els she wil flee a lytle way after and anon she geueth it vp, & for suche an hauke this is a good medecine. Take oyle of spaine and tempre it wyth clere wine and with the yolke of an egge, and put therin beefe, and therof geue to your hauke fyue morcelles, and then sette her in the sonne, and at euen feed her wyth an olde hote cuiuer, and if ye feed her thus three times: that hauke was neuer so lusty nor so iolye before as she wyll be after, and come to her owne courage. Other make poudre of melees that stinke, and put the poudre on the fleshe of a Pecocke, and meddle the bloud of a Pecocke a­mong the poudre, and make her to eat the fleshe.

❧A medecine that an hauke shall not lye in mew for vnlustynesse.

Take ferne rootes that groweth in an oke and oke apples, and make iuice of them and wet her fleshe therein and feed the hauke three tymes or foure, and that shall make her to leue that.

❧A medecine for an hauke that hath the tayne.

An hauke that hath the tayne a man may soone knowe yf he take heed, for thys is her maner, she wyl pant more for one batynge then other for foure, and yf she shoulde flee a litle while: she should almoste lese her brethe, whe­ther she be fatte or leane, & alway she maketh heuy che [...]e and for that, this is the medecine. Take a quantytye of the rednes of hasyll, wyth the poudre of rasene of peper and somwhat of gynger, and make therof in fresh grece three pellettes and holde the hauke to the fyre, and when she feleth the heate: make her swalow the three pellettes by strength, and knyt fast her beake that she cast it not out, and doo so thryes, and she shalbe safe.

Also take rasne and rubarbe and grinde it to gither & [Page] make iuyce therof, and wet the fleshe therein, and geue it her to eat and she shalbe whole.

Also take Alisander and the roote of prymeroses, and the roote of grognauiles, and sethe them all in butter of a cowe, and geue her three morcelles euery day vnto the tyme that she be whole, & looke that she be voyde when ye geue her the medecine.

❧How a man shall take a hauke from the ayre.

WHo so taketh an hauke frō the eyrer, him be­houeth for to do wisely, in bringing him ease­lye & to keep him wel from colde, & from hur­ting of his bones, for they ben ful tendre and they must haue great rest. And they maye not haue styn­king & fylthy ayre, but as clene as can & may be thought and euermore geue him cleane meat and hote, and a ly­tle and often and chaunge often theyr meat, but looke it be whole, and cut her meat in to smale morcels, for they should not tyre on bones tyll they might flee, then after when she begynneth to pen and plumeth & palketh and pycketh her selfe, put her in to a close warme place that no fulmers nor fecheus nor other vermyn come not in to her, and let the place be sure for wynde and rayne. and then she wyl preue her selfe, and euer more geue her good hote meates. For it is better to a man to feed hys hauke while she is tendre with meat to make her good wyth some cost: then to feed her with euyll meates to make her vnthryfty with litle cost. And looke when she beginneth to ferme, then geue her bayting.

❧A medecine for wormes in an hauke, which sick­nesse is called the fylaunders.

Marke wel this sickenes, and beware therof. This is the medecyne therfore. Ye shall take an herbe that is [Page] called neppe, and put in a small gutte of a capon or of an henne, and knytte it with a threde, and let her receyue it whole, and she shalbe whole & safe. Thus ye shall know when your hauke hath wormes in her bely. Looke whē she hath castyng, then ye shall fynde one or two about her castyng place, yf she hath ben with any.

¶A medecyne for an hauke yt casteth wormes at the foundament and what wormes that they be.

❧Take the lymayl of yren & medle it wt flesh of porke & geue it two dayes to the hauke to eat, & she shalbe whole.

❧A medecine for an hauke that hathe a sycknesse whiche is called the aggresteyne.

When ye see your hauke hurt her feete with her beake and pulleth her tayle, then she hath the aggrestyne. For this sicknes, take the donge of a doue and of a sheepe, and of an alowe, and stronge vynegre and doo al softely in a basyn of brasse, & medle them well together to serue three dayes after and geue her fleshe of a culuer with ho­ny, and with poudre of peper, & set her in a darke place & so do nine dayes. And whē ye see new fethers in the taile washe her with verose, and she shalbe whole and safe.

❧A medecyne for an hauke that hath the crampe in her wynges, and how it cometh.

❧For this crampe take a white lofe of bread somwhat colder then it commeth out of the ouen, and let holde the hauke softely for hurtyng, & cut the lofe almoste through out, and duplay the wynge easely and holde it betwene the two partes of the lofe and let it beholde so the space of halfe a quarter of an houre, and she shalbe whole.

❧The crampe commeth to an hauke by takyng colde in her youthe. Therfore it is good for an hauke to keep her warme yonge and olde, and this medecine is good at all tymes for her, whether she be yonge or olde.

❧Let not an hauke be put in mewe to late, but in this maner as foloweth if ye loue your hauke.

If ye loue well your hauke kepe her well, and put her not late in mewe, for who so for couetousnes of fleing le­seth the tyme of his haukes mewing, & withholdeth her to longe therfro, he may after put her to mewe at auen­ture, for than a parte of her mewyng time is past.

❧Who so putteth his hauke in mewe in the beginning of Lente, yf she be kepte as she ought to bee, she shall be mewed in the begynning of August.

❧How ye shall dispose & ordeyne your mewe.

¶Set and dispose your mewe in this maner, so that no wesel nor polcat nor non other vermyn entre therto, nor no wynde nor great colde, nor that it be ouerhote. Lette that one parte of the mewe be turned towarde the sonne so that in the most part of the day the sonne may com in.

❧Also ye must see yt she be not auexed nor greued with muche noise nor with song of men, & that no maner fol­kes come to her, but only he that fedeth her. It behoueth that your hauke haue a feding stocke in her mewe, and a longe strynge tyed therto to fasten her meat with. For els she wyl cary it about the house and soyle it wyth dust and peraduenture she wyl hyde it tyll it stynke, and than feed vpon it, and that might be her death. And therfore whan it is bounde to the sayd fedyng stocke, she wyl nei­ther at fedyng nor at the tyring, ne at the lyghtyng, ne a [...] the rysyng hurt her selfe, and whan she hath fed take a­way the remnaunte if any leue, and in any wyse that she haue clene meat, & at euery meale fresh. For of stale mea­tes & euil meates she shall engendre many sycknesses, & loke ye go neuer to your mew but whā ye shal geue your hauke meat, or elles to bryng water to bathe her. And [Page] suffre no rayne to wete her at any time if ye may, and as for her bathing that shall nothing hyndre her mewyng.

❧The maner howe a man shall put an hauke into mewe and that is well noted.

Of one thing ye must beware wel if she haue any sick­nes that ye make her whole or ye put her in mewe, for as I vnderstande a sycke hauke shall neuer mewe wel. For though she mewe she shall not endure but whyle she is great and fatte, for at the abatyng of her estate she maye no lenger endure. Somtyme without any medecine ma­nye men deuise how they myght mewe theyr haukes, for some put haukes in mewe at high estate, and some when they ben right lowe, and some when they ben ful, & some when they ben empty and leane, and some when they ben miserable lene, but therof is no force if she be hole, neuer­thelesse I shall say mine aduyse as I haue seen & lerned.

Whoso putteth a goshauke or a tercel or a sparehauke into mewe so high that she maye be no higher: she wyll holde her longe in that poynt or that she lese or lent any fethers, & who so putteth her in mewe leane it wil be long or she remount, and who so putteth her in mewe to hun­gry and to leane, yf she haue meate at her wyl: she wil eat to muche, bycause of hungre, and peraduenture she maye be dead therby, as oft hathe ben seen. But who so wyl that an hauke endure and mewe kyndely, my counsell is that she be not high neyther to lowe, neyther in greate dystresse of hungre but lyke as she should flee best, then take heed the fyrst daye of to muche eatyng, vnto the time that she be stanched. And after that: a man may take her suche meate as I shall tell you more playnly heereafter.

❧In what maner and howe a man shall feed his hauke in mewe.

Looke with what meat she hath ben moste vsed to be fed: and feed her therwith eyght dayes contynually, and those eyght dayes geue her byrdes ynough both morowe and euen, and let her plume vpon them wel, and take ca­styng of the plumage, and that shall talaunte her well, and cause her to haue good appetyte, and it shall clense well her bowels, and when she is well clensed: ye may geue her what meat that ye wil, so it be clene and freshe.

But the best meat to make an hauke to mewe moste soonest without any medecyne: is the fleshe of a kyd or of a yonge swan, and of a cheken, and speciallye ratons fleshe. So they ben not assaute, none lyke to it: and of a yonge goose. For suche meat is hote of it self.

¶And take peces of great freshe eles, and specyally the colpen next the nauell and wet it in hote bloud of muttō it is good to make her to mew, but specially it shal make her wight after the sore age. These sayde flesshes been good to mewe an hauke, & to keep her in state, but looke she haue good plentye euery daye, so that she rather leue parte than lacke any. And euery thyrd daye let her bathe yf she lyst. And when she is wexed nigh ferme: geue her hennes & fatte porke, and of an hounde is passing good.

❧An hauke is neuer ful fermed nor redy to drawe out of mewes to the time her sercel be fully growen yet haue I seene some folkes take them out of mew when the ser­cell were but halfe sprong, & that is peryllous, for they are not then hard penned. Some folkes vse when an hauke hath cast her sercell: to begyn and washe her meat and feed her in mewe wyth washt meat a moneth or .vi. wekes or euer they drawe them. But of all fleshe after she is mewed: a reasonable gorge of a hote hare is best, [Page] and also of a crow hote. But it must be washed in water and then it is the better. For that wyll not benym them hastely theyr grece, nor put them in a great feblenes. For it dureth somwhat with her.

❧ To make an hauke to mewe tymely, without any hurtyng of her.

Now I shall tell you very true medecines for to mew an hauke hastely that ye shal beleue for truth and ye wyll assay them. There ben in woodes or in hedges wormes cal [...]ed adders yt ben red of nature, and he is called viper [...] And also there be snakes of ye same kinde, & thei ben very bytter. Take two or thre of them & smite of their heades & thendes of their tailes, thē take a newe erthen pot that was neuer vsed, & cut them into small peces & put those same therin & let thē seche strōgly a grea [...]e while at good leyser, & let the pot be couered yt no eyre com out of it nor no brethe, & let it sethe so long that ye same peces sethe to grece. Then cast it out & doo away the bone & gather the grece, & put it in a clene vessel, and as oft as ye feed your hauke anointe her meat therwith, & let her eat asmuche as she wil, & that meat shall mew her at your owne will.

❧An other medecine.

Take wheate and put it in the brothe that the adders were soden in, and when ye see ye wheate begyn to cleue, take it out and feed hennes and chekyns therwith, and feed your hauke with the same polaine.

❧Who so wyl that an hauke mew not nor fal none of her fethers: therfore heere is a med [...]cine

Take poudre of canel & the iuice of franke costes and the iuyce of paraine, and take morcelles of fleshe three or four yf ye lyst and wet them therin, and make the hauke to swalowe them, and serue her so many tymes.

Also take the skyn of a snake and of an adder & cut it [Page] into smal peces, & tēpre it with hote bloud, & cause youre hauke oftentymes to feed therof, and she shall not mew.

☞For the goute in the throte.

❧when ye see your hauke blowe oftentymes, & that it commeth of no bating, ye may be sure she hath the goute in her throte & for that take the bloud of a pecock and en­cense myrabolana and clowes of gelofte and canell and gynger, & take of all these euenly & medle them wyth pe­cockes bloud, & sethe it til it be thick, & therof make mor­cels, & geue the hauke euery day at midmorne & at none.

¶For the gout in the head and in the reynes.

When ye see your hauke may not ende wher meat nor remount her estate, she hathe the gout in the head and in the reynes, take momiā otherwise called momin▪ among polyca [...]ies ye may haue it, and the skyn of an hare, and geue it to your hauke to eat .ix. tymes wyth the fleshe of a catte, and yf she may holde the meat she shalbe safe.

❧A medecine for sicknes called the fallera.

❧When ye see youre haukes cleis waxe white then she hath the fallera. For this sicknes take a black snake cut away the head and the tayle and take the myddle and try it in an erthen pot, & take the grece and saue it, anoynte the fleshe of a pecocke therwith and geue it to the hauke for to eat .viii. dayes, and yf ye haue no pecocke geue her fleshe of a doue, and after the eyght dayes geue her a che­kyn and washe it a lytle, and geue it her to eat and take the tendrest of the brest with the frosshel bone and let her eat it, and yf she amend any thing she shalbe whole.

❧A medecine for the crampe in the thigh, in the leg, and in the foote of an hauke.

When ye see youre hauke lay one foote vpon an other foote, she is taken with the crampe. Thē draw her bloud [Page] vpon the foote yt lyeth vpon that other foote, & vpon the legge also, and he shalbe whole.

¶For the cough or the pose.

Take poudre of bayes and put it vpon the fleshe of a doue and geue it oft to your hauke, and without doubte she shalbe whole.

❧A medecine for the podagre.

When your haukes feete ben swollen: she hath the po­dagre, then take fresshe may butter, and as much of oyle oliue, and of alum, and chaufe it wel to gether at ye fyre & make therof an oyntment & anoynt the fe [...]te foure daies and set her in the sonne and geue her fleshe of a catte, and yf that auayle not: seethe the knyttyng of a vyne & wrap it about the swellyng and let her syt vpon a colde stone & anoint her wt butter or fresh grece, & she shall be whole.

☞A medecine for sicknes wtin the body of an hauke & if it shewe not outward how she shalbe holpen and in what maner.

A man may know by the cheere and vngladnes of an hauke this infirmitie. But yet it is straūge to know thī ­ges yt a man may not see in his sicknes and what maner they ben greued, & specially when a mā woteth not wher­of it commeth. Feed your hauke wel vpon an henne and then make her to fast two dayes after to auoyde wel her bowels. The thyrd daye take hony soden & fyll her bodye ful, & binde her beake that she cast it not out of her bodye & then set her out of the sonne, & when it draweth to the night: feed her wt a hote foule, for as I heard my maister say & she be not whole wt that: loke neuer other medecin.

❧For the passion that goshaukes haue fastyng.

Take the roote of small [...]usshes & make iuyce of them and wet your fleshe therin, and make her eat it.

❧For haukes that be wounded.

❧ Take away the fethers about the wound, & take the [Page] whyte of an egge and oyle of olyue, and medle it together and anoynt the wounde & keep it with white wine vnto the tyme ye see dead fleshe, and then put in the wound es­compe vnto the tyme the dead fleshe be wasted. After take ensence & cleue asmuche of the one as of the other, and medle it together, and when ye wyll anoynt the sore: hete your oyntment, & anoynt it wyth a pen tyl the tyme the skynne growe agayne, and yf see dead fleshe theron and wolde haue it away: take vinegre and then anoynte it with this oyntment afore sayd, and she shalbe whole.

❧A medecine for an hauke that hath the artetyke.

Whan ye see youre hauke fatte about the herte: trust it for truthe she hath the artetyke. Therfore let her bloud in the oryginall vaine, and after that geue her a frogge for to eat, and she shalbe whole.

❧A medecine for an hauke combred in the bowels.

Whē your hauke is encombred in the bowels: ye shal knowe it by her eyen, for her eyen wilbe darke & she wil looke vngladly, and her mutysing will defoile her foun­dement. Then take the haukes meat, & anoynt it wyth ye poudre of canel & geue it her to eat, & she shalbe whole.

❧A medecine for an hauke that hath the goute.

Feed your hauke with an Irchin once or twise and it shall helpe her.

❧A medecine for an hauke that hath mytes.

Take the iuyce of wormewood & put it there as they ben, and they shall dye.

❧That an hauke vse her craft al ye seasō to slea or leue

Whē ye goe to the feeld in the lateer ende of hauking and desyre that your hauke shall vse her craft to doo her in this maner. Let her slea a foule & let her plume vpon it asmuch as she wyl, & when she hath plumed ynough: goe to her softely for fraying, and rewarde her on the foule [Page] and after that ye may cast her on a perche, and aswel she may vse her craft so as that she slewe all the yere.

❧A medecyne for an hauke that hath the stone.

Annoynt her foundament with oyle, & put ye poudre of alum with a holowe strawe. Also take an herbe called Christes ladder, & anoynt her mouth within, & she shalbe whole. Also take smal flābe rootes & polipodye & the cor­nes of spurge and grynde it wel, and sethe it in butter, & drawe it through a clothe, & make therof thre pellets of the greatnes of a nut, & put it in his mouth in the morow tyde, and looke that he be voyde, and then let him fast tyl euensonge, and feed him lytle & lytle, & he shalbe whole.

❧A medecine for vermyn.

Take the iuyce of the roote of fenell, and doo it where the vermyn be and they shall dye.

❧A medecyne for the rewme that haukes haue.

When ye see your hauke close her eyen and shaketh her head, then hath she the rewme in her head. Therfore geue her larde of a gote the fyrst day, and the seconde geue her epatike with the flesh of a chekyn, and she shalbe whole.

❧A medecine for haukes that ben dry, and desyre to drynke to keep them moyst in kynde.

❧Take the iuyce of horehound and wete thyne haukes mete therin, and feed her therwyth once or twyse, and she shalbe whole.

¶For sickenesse that haukes haue in their entrayles

AN hauke that is sicke within the entrailes, is of an other aray thē in other sicknes, for if she hold not her meat, but cast it: that is a token of the foule glet for surfet of fethers that ben gyuen to haukes in theyr youth. And afterward when they come vnto trauayle & ben auoyded of the riuer then they wexe slow to flee and desyre for to reste. And when the hauke is vpon her perche, then she wyll slepe for to put ouer at the entryng. [Page] And yf she holde fleshe any while in her gorge: it wyll loke as it were soddē, & when she is waking she assaieth to put ouer at the entryng, and it is aglu [...]ted and keled with the glette that she hath engendred and if she should escape she must put ouer, or els she must die, or cast it. And she cast it: she may be holpe with the medecyne.

❧A medecyne for the entrayles.

Take yolkes of egges [...]awe, when thei ben wel beten together, put therto spanishe salt & asmuche hony therto, and wet therin thy fleshe and feed thy hauke three dayes therwith. And if she make daunger to eat it: let holde thy hauke and make her to swalow thre or foure morcels in a day, and sikerly she shalbe whole, yet I shall tel you an other thing. Take hony at the chaunging of the moone and a sharpe nettel, and therof make small poudre, and when it is well ground: take the brest bone of an hen and an other of a culuer & hacke it smal with a knyfe & doo a­way the skyn & doo theron the poudre, and all hote wyth the poudre feed her, & so doo thryse and she shalbe whole.

☞For syckenes of swellyng.

If a wycked felon be swollen in suche maner yt a man may hele it yt the hauke shal not die, thus a mā may help her strongly and length her life but the hauke wilbe very egre & greuous of the sicknes, & therfore ye must take the roote of comfort and sugre lyke muche, & sethe it in fresh grece with the thyrd part of honye, & thē draw it through a fayre clothe, & oft geue it to ye hauke, & she shalbe whole

❧A medecine for blaynes in haukes mouthes cal­led frounces.

On the froūce it is drede for haukes, for it is a noyous sicknes & draweth her to deth, & withholdeth her strēgth. For mē say that it cometh of colde, for colde doth haukes muche harme, & maketh fleme fal out of the brayne, & the eyen wi [...] swell & empayre in her head, & but she haue hast­ly [Page] helpe, yt wyl stop her nose thrylles, & therfore take fe­nell, maryal & serses, a like much, & seeth theym & drawe them through a cloth & otherwhile washe her hed therwt and put some in ye rofe of her mouth, & she shalbe safe.

A medicine for an hauke that casteth her fleshe.

❧ Wete her fleshe in a satsyol, or els seeth rasine in wa­ter and put her fleshe therin when it boyleth.

❧A medicine for the rume called agrum.

❧When thou seest thy hauke vpon her mouth, and her chekes blobbed, then she hath this sickenesse called agrū Therfore take a nedle of syluer & hete it in the fire & bren the narelles throughout, then anoint it with oile oliue.

A medicine for an hauke great and fat.

❧Take a quātitie of porke & hony & butter a like much & purged greace, and doo awai the skin, & seth them togi­ther, & anoynt the fleshe therin, & feed your hauke ther wt and she shal encrease mightely. Els take the winges of an Eued, and feed her, & keep her from trauayle, and doo so oft though ye eued be neuer so fat, and yf your hauke be not passyng fat within .xiiii. dayes wondre I thinke.

☞For botches that growe in an haukes Iawe.

¶Cut these botches with a knyfe & let out the matter of them and after clense them cleane with a syluer spoōe or els fyl the hole wt a pouder of arnemelyt brent & vpō the pouder doo a litle larde that is reside, & so it wil awai

❧Here is a good medicine for an hauke that wyll not come to reclayme.

Take fresh butter & put therto sugre & put it in a cleane cloth & reclaime her to ye & keep it in a boxe in your bagge

❧A medicine for haukes that ben refrayned

❧When ye se your hauke nesyng. and castyng water through her nosethrylles on her nares: thē doutlesse she is refrayned. For yt sickenes take the greynes of chafe­legre and of peper, and grynde it wel, and tempre it with [Page] strong vynegre, and put it in her nares & in the rofe of her mouth, and geue her fleshe to eat, & she shall be safe.

¶A medecine for haukes yt haue paine in their crops.

Ye shall take fayre Morfum and poudre of gylouer & medle it together and geue it to youre hauke to eat, & yf she holde it past the seconde day after, she shalbe whole·

❧A medecine for the stone in the foundament.

❧When youre hauke maye not muteyse, then she hath that syckenes, called the stone. And for this sicknes ye shall take the hert of a swyne and the grece of a swyne, and cut it with the fleshe of the hert, & she shalbe whole.

¶A medecine for the dry frounce.

For this sicknes take ye roote of polipody yt groweth vpon okes & seeth it a greate while, thē take it from the fyre & let it stand & wexe lewe warme, then washe your flesh therin feed your hauke thre times & she shalbe hole

❧A medecine for wormes called anguelles.

Take pressure made of a lambe that was ened in vn­time & make therof three morcelles and put in a gut of a culuer & feed her therwith, & looke the hauke be voyde when ye geue her the medecyne. Also take iuyce of dra­gons and put full the gutte of a pygeon, and then cut it and depart it as ye hauke may ouer swolow it & put it in his body, and knit hys beake for castyng. Also geue her the ballockes of a bucke as hote as they be kut out, and make poudre of the pyntell and cast vpon the fleshe of a Cat, and feed her therwith, and she shalbe whole.

¶Poroper termes vsed in kepyng of haukes.

An hauke tyreth, Fedeth, Gorgeth, Beketh, Rouseth Endueth, Muteth, Percheth, Iouketh, Putteth ouer, Proineth, Plummeth, She warbulleth, and mātelleth, She tyreth vpon tumpes, she fedeth on al maner of flesh she gorgeth when she fylleth her gorge full of meat, she [Page] beaketh when she sueth, that is to saye, when she wy­peth her beake. She rouseth whē she shaketh her fethers and her bodye together. She endueth when her meat▪ in her bowels fal to digestion. S [...]e muteth when she auoy­deth her ordure. She perche [...]h whē she stādeth on any maner bowe or perche. She iouketh when she slepeth. She putteth ouer whē she auoydeth her meat out of her gorge into her bowels. She proyneth, when she fetcheth oyle with her beake ouer the taile and anointeth her feet & her fethers she plumeth whē she pulleth fethers of ani foule or of any thyng and casteth thē fro her. She warbelleth when she draweth her wynges ouer the myddes of her backe & there they mete both, & softely shaketh thē & let them fal again. And mantelleth when she stretcheth her one wing alone after her leg, & afterward the other wing and moste comonly she doth yt before she warbelleth her.

¶The hames of sparehaukes as Ostregyers and speruiters haue determyned.

THere is a question asked whether a man shal cal a spere, or a sparehauke, or an aspere▪ hauke. And o­strygers, & also speruiters say she may be called all three names, for these reasons she may be called a sparehauke for of all haukes that there be she is moste spere, yt is to saye moste tendre to keep. For the least mysdieting and misētēding slea [...]th her. And she may be called an aspere hauke of sharpnes of her courage & of her loking quick­ly & also of her flying, for she is moste asper and sharp­in all thing that belonge vnto her of any other haukes. She mai also be called a sparehauke for two resons. one is, she spareth goshaukes & tercels both suche as ben in their sore age vnto ye time thei may be reclaimed & made redy to flee. As goshaukes and tercels that be not fullye mewed vnto the time they may be clene ensaymed & redy [Page] to flee. For al the while they ben vnable, the sparehauke occupieth the seasō & sleith portryche wel, that is to say, from saint margaretes day vnto it be lāmas & so forthe in the yere, and she wyl slea wel yonge fesandes, yonge heth cockes in the beginning of the yere, & after Michel­mas whē partryches passe their daūger▪ I haue seen thē made som to slea the pye, som to slea the te [...]e vpon the ryuer at the Iutte, som to slea the woodcocke, & som for the black byrde and the thrush. The woodcock is cumbrous to slea but yf there be craft, therfore when ye come into a wood or querke of bushes, cast youre sparehauke into a tree and bete the bushes, then & yf any woodcocke aryse she wyl be sure therof, ye must fyrst make her to a foule cast vp out of the bushes & your hauke must sit on loft as ye make her to a partrich. Also as I sayd ye may call her a sparehauke for an other cause, for and there wer a shyp fraught full of haukes and nothyng els, and there were a sparehauke amonge them, there should no custome be payed bycause of her. And so for the moste comon name they ben called sparehaukes for the reason afore sayd.

❧An hauke fleeith to the vewe, to the beck or to the Tol, Nota, Crene, Querre, Fer, Iutty.

AN hauke fleeith to the ryuer dyuerse wayes, & slea­ith ye foule diuersly, that is to say, she fleeith to the vewe, or to the becke, or the toll, & all is but one as ye shall knowe heerafter. She fleeith also to the querre, to the Creep, and no more wayes but those thre. And she nymmeth the foule at the fer Iutty, or at the Iutty ferre.

❧Now shall ye know what these termes betoken and more folowyng. As huff, Iutty, Ferry, mounte Raundon, Creep, Emewed.

A Goshauke or a tercel that shall flee to the vewe to the Toll, or to the Becke, in thys maner she is [Page] caught Ye must fynde a foule in the ryuer or in a pyt pry­uely & then set your hauke a great space vpon a mol hill or on th [...] grounde and creep softly towarde the foule frō your hauke streyght way, and when ye come almost there as the foule lyeth: loke back ward towarde the hauke and with your hand or with your tabur stick beek your hauke to come to you, and when she is on wyng & cometh lowe by the grounde & is almost at you: then smyte your tabre & cry, huff, huff, huff, & make y foule spring, & with the noyse the foule wyll ryse, and the hauke wyll nymme it.

And now take heed if your hauke nymme the foule at the ferre syde of the ryuer or at the pyt from you, that she sleith the foule at the ferre Iutty. And yf she slea it vpon the syde that ye be on, as it may hap dyuerse tymes, then ye shall saye she hath slaine the foule at the Iutty ferrye.

If youre hauke nymme the foule a loft [...] ye wyll saye she tooke it at the mount or at the souce. And yf the foule spryng not but flee a longe after the ryuer and the hauke nymme it: then ye shall say she slewe it at the raundon.

❧Creep.

And your hauke fleyth at or to the creep whē ye haue your hauke on your fyst and creep softely to the ryuer or to the pyt and stealeth softly to the brinke therof, & then crye, huff, and by that meane nymme a foule, then it is slayne at the creep eyther at the ferre Iutty, or at the Iut­ye ferry, as is afore sayde. And yf it happe as it doth of­tentymes the foule for feare of your hauke wyll spryng and fall againe into the ryuer or the hauke seeth her, and so lye styl and dare not aryse: ye shal say then your hauke hath annewed the foule into the riuer. And so ye shal say and there ben more foules in the ryuer than youre hauke nymmeth yf they dare not aryse, for feare of your hauke.

¶A theef.

[Page]Understande ye that a goshauke should not flee to a­ny foule of the ryuer with belles in no wise, and therfore a goshauke is called a theef.

☞Querre.

And your hauke fleyth to the querre, when there ben in a stubyll tyme Sordes of malardes in the feeld. And when she espyeth them and commeth couert her self and flee pryuely vnder hedges or lowe by the ground & nym one of them or they ryse, then shall ye saye that the fowle was slaine at the querre.

❧Marke this terme drawe.

Some folke mysuse this terme draw, and say yt their hauke will drawe to the ryuer, and that terme drawe, is properly assigned to that hauke that wil slea a rooke, or a crow, or a rauen vpon a lande sytting, and then it must be sayde that suche an hauke wyl drawe wel to a rooke.

Nowe ye shall vnderstande yf a man wyll make an hauke to the querre in this maner he must doo.

Take a tame mallarde and set him in a fayre playne and let hym goe where he wyll. Then take your hauke vpon youre fyst & goe to that playne, and holde vp your hande a prety way of from the malarde, and looke yf the hauke can espy it by her owne courage, and yf she haue founde the foule and desyre to flee therto: let her slea it, and plumme wel vpon her and serue her so two or three tymes: and then she is made to the querre.

I haue knowen gētlemen yt when so euer, and where euer thei see any tame duckes, & if their haukes wold de­syre to them, thē thei wolde let flee to them incouraging their haukes to well fleing vnto ye querre an other time.

¶A prety craft to take an hauke yt is broken out of mew & al maner of foules yt syt in trees if a mā wil.

❧Looke where an hauke perchethe for a nyght in any [Page] maner place, & soft & leyserly clym to her with a skonce or a lanterne that hath but one lyght in your hande, and let the lyght be toward the hauke, so that she see not your face, & ye may take her by the legges or otherwise as ye lyst, and in lykewise all other maner of foules.

❧Of haukes belles.

THe belles that your hauke shall were looke in any wyse that they bee not to heuye, ouer her power to were. Also that none be heuyer then an other but lyke of weight. Looke also that they be sonowre and well soun­ding and shil, and not both of one sound, but that one be a semytune vnder an other, & that they be whole and not broken, and specially in the soundyng place. For & they be broken, they wyl sounde fully.

¶Of sparehaukes belles there is great choyce and lytle charge of them, for there ben plentye, but for goshaukes sometyme belles of Melayne were called the best and thei ben ful good, for they commonly are soundē with syluer & solde therafter. But there ben now vsed of duche lande belles of a towne called Dordreght, and they be passyng good belles. For they ben well sorted, well sounded, so­nour of ryngyng in shylnes and passyng wel lasting.

❧Here endeth the processe of hauking, and now fo­loweth the names of all maner of haukes and to whom they belong.

☞These haukes belong to an Emperour,

THese ben the names of all maner of haukes: Fyrst an egle, a bautere, a meloun, ye simplest of those thre will slea an hynde, a Calfe, a Faune, a Roe, a Kyd an Elke, a crane, a bustarde, a storke, a swanne, a foxe, on the plaine grounde, and these be not in [...]ured ne reclaimed bycause that they ben so ponderous to the perche porta­tife. And these thre by their nature belōg to an Emperour

❧These haukes belong vnto a kyng.

A ger faucō, a tercel of a gerfaucō are due vnto a king

☞For a Prynce.

There is a faucon gentle, and a tercell gentell, and these ben for a prynce.

¶For a Duke.

There is a faucon of the rock, and that is for a duke.

❧For an Erle.

There is a faucō peregrine, and that is for an Erle.

❧For a Baron.

There is a bastarde. and that hauke is for a Baron.

❧Haukes for a knight.

There is a sacre, and a sacret, & those befor a knyght.

❧Haukes for a squyer.

There is a lanere and laneret and these belonge vnto a squyer.

❧For a ladye.

There is a marlyon, and that hauke is for a lady.

❧An hauke for a yonge man.

There is a Hobbye, & that hauke is for a yonge man

And th [...]se ben haukes of the towre and ben bothe illu­red to be called and reclaymed.

❧And yet there be mo kindes of haukes.

¶There is a goshauke, and that hauke is for a yoman.

❧There is a [...]ercell, and that is for a poore man.

❧There is a sparehauke, and she is for a preest.

¶Ther is a musket, and she is for an holy water clerck.

❧And these ben of an other maner of kynde. For they flee to querre and to ferre, Iutty and to Iutty ferry.

❧Thus endeth the booke of haukyng.

❧Imprynted at London in Paules churche yerde by Robert Toye.

❧Here begynneth the booke of Hunting where vnto is added the mea­sures of blowyng.

[figure]

LYkewyse as in the booke of Haukynge a foresayde are written and noted the termes of pleasure belongyng to gentilmē, hauing a delyght therin. In the same maner this booke folowyng sheweth to suche gentyll persons the maner of Huntyng for all maner of beastes whether they be beastes of Uenery or chase of rascall, & also it sheweth al termes conuenyent, aswel of the hoū ­des as of ye beastes aforesayd, and there be many dyuers of them, as is declared in the booke folowyng.

❧Beastes of Uenery are .iii. kindes.

WHere so euer ye fare by frith or by fell
Mi dere childe take hede how Tristā doth you tel
How many maner beastes of Ueneri there were
Lysten to your dame, and she shall you lere
Foure maner of beastes, of Uenery there are
The fyrst of them is the hart, the seconde is the Hare
The Bore is of one of tho, the wolfe and not one moe.

❧Beastes of the chase are .v. Kindes

ANd where ye come in playne or place
I shall you tell which ben beastes of enchase
One of them is the Bucke, an other is the doe
The Fox and the Martyron, and the wilde Roe
And ye shall my dere childe other beastes all
Where so ye them fynde, rascall ye shall them call
In fryth or in fell, or in the forest I you tell.

❧Note heere the age of an Hart.

ANd for to speake of the Hart, if ye will it lere
Ye shal him a calfe call at the fyrst yere
The seconde yere a broket so shall ye hym call
The thirde yere a spayd lerned thus all
The fourth yere a stagge call to him by any way
The fyft yere a great stagge your dame byd you say,
[Page]The syxt yere cal him an Hart
Doo so my childe while ye be in quarte

✚ To know the head of a Hart and that is diuers

ANd of the horne that he then beareth about
The first head shalbe iudged without
Therin finden we suche diuersitie
Neuerthelesse the sixte yere euermore at the least
Thou shalt wel iudge the perse of the same beast
When he hath auntlere without any let
Ryall and suryall also there I set
And that in the toppe so when we may them ken
Then ye shall cal him forceth an hart of ten
And when he hath in the toppe three of the selue
Than ye shal call him troched an hart of twelue
And afterward in the toppe therof when there four bene
Than shall ye call him summed an hart of syxtene
And from foure forwarde, what so befall
Be he neuer of so many ye shal him summed call
Ryght of the nombre, euen that he is
Calleth him from foure summed ywys
Also haue ye sele, and hart heded wele.

☞An Herde, a Beuy a Sounder, a route

MY childe calleth herdes of Hart and of Hynde
And of Bucke, and of Doe, where ye them finde
And a beuy of Roes what place they ben
And a soundre ye shall of the wylde swine
And a route of wolues where they passe in
So shall ye them call, as many as they ben.

❧A litle herde, a midle herde, a great herde.

TWenty is a lytle herde, though it be of hyndes
And three score is a midle herde to cal them by kīdes
And foure score is a great herde, call ye them so
Be it hart, be it hinde, bucke, or els doe.

❧How ye shal say a great hart▪ & not a fayre, & other.

A Great hart when ye him see, so shall ye him cal
But neuer a fayre hart, for nothyng yt may befal
A great hinde, a great bucke, and a great doe
My sonnes where ye walke, call ye them so
So ye should name such dere, and doo as I you lere.

❧What is a beuy of Roes great or small.

ANd sixe is a beuy of Roes in a rowe
And ten is a midle beuy so wel I it know
A great beuy is twelue, when they together bee
And so call them sonnes, where that ye them see
The more nombre then ywys, the greater the beuy is.

✚What is a soundre of swyne great or small.

TWelue make a soundre of the wylde swyne
Fyftene a midle soundre, what place they be in
A great soundre of swyne, twenty ye shall call
Forget not this lesson, for nothyng that may befall
Thinke what I say my sonne, nyght and day.

☞Of the Roo huntyng, brekyng, and dressyng.

WHen ye hunte at the Roo, then ye shall say thore
He crosseth and trasoneth your houndes before
A great Roe bucke, ye cal him not so
But a fayre roe bucke, and a fayre doe
With the bowelles and with the bloud
Rewarde ye your houndes, my sonne so good.
¶And eche foote ye shall cut in foure I you ken
Take the bowelles and the bloud, & doo al together thē
Gyue it then to your houndes so
And must the gladder then they wyll go
That to your houndes no rewarde is named
For it is eaten on the grounde and on the skyn dealed
The Roe shalbe herdeled, by very I wene
The two forther legges the head layde betwene
[Page]And take the one hyndre legge vp I you pray
And that other farther leg right as I you saye
Upon that other ferther leg, bothe ye them pyt
And with that other ferther legge vp ye them knit
On this maner thus when ye haue wrought
All whole into the kechyn it shalbe brought
Saue that your houndes eate the bowels and the feet.

❧Now of the age and vndoing of the Bore.

NOw to speake of the Bore the first yere he is
A pygge of the sounder called as I haue blys
The seconde yere a hog, and so shal he bee
And an hog stere when he is of yeres three
And when he is of foure yeres abore shal he be
From the sounder of the swyne then departeth he
A synguler is he so for alone he wyl go
When ye haue slayne the Bore and wil doo him ryght
Ye shall vndoo him vnflayne, when he shall be dight
Thyrty bredes and two of him ye shall make
By the law of Uenery, I dare vndertake
Through your houndes by strength yf he be dead
They shall haue the bowels boyled with bread
Cast vpon the ground where the Bore was slayne
And that is called a rewarde so hunters it sayne
Upon the earth so haue I blysse, for that so eaten is.

❧Now of the Hare.

NOw to speake of the Hare my sonnes sykerly
That beast king shalbe called of all Uenery
For all the fayre speakyng and blowing that thare
Commeth of seching and finding of the Hare
For my louyng children I take it on hand
He is the meruaylous beast that is in any lande
For he femayeth croketh and roungeth euermore
And heareth talow and grece, & aboue teeth hath before
[Page]And other whyle he is male, and so ye shall hym fynde
And other whyle female, and kyndely by kynde
And whan he is female and kyndleth hym within
In thre degrees he them bereth or he with them twyn
Two rough and two smoth who wyll them see
And two knottes also that kyndeles wyl bee
When he is female so tell I my tale.

❧The rewardes for houndes.

WHē your hoūdes by strēgth haue don her to dead
The hunter shall rewarde them with the head
With the shoulders & the sides and with the bowels all
And al thinge within the wombe saue only the gall
The paunch also, giue them none of tho
Which rewarde when on the erth it is dealed
With al good hunters the halow it is named
Then the loynes of the Hare looke ye not forget
But bring them to the Kitchin, for thy lordes meat
And of this beast to [...]rete, here shal it be let.

❧Which beastes shalbe slayne, & whiche stripte.

NOw to speake of beastes, when they ben slayne
How many bē stript, and how many ben slayne
All that Beare skyn and talow, and roung leaue mee
Shal be slayne saue the Hare, for he shal strypt bee
And all that bereth grece and piles thervpon
Euer shalbe stript, when they ben vndoon
On this maner play, thus ye shall saye.

❧Which beastes shalbe rered with the limere.

MY deare sonnes echone now will I you lere
How many maner of beastes as with the limere
Shalbe vp rered in fryth or in feelde
Bothe the hart and the Bucke, and the Bore so wylde
And all other beastes that hunted shalbe
Shal be sought and founde with ratches so free
[Page]Say thus I you tolde, my children soo bolde.

❧The discryuyng of a bucke.

ANd ye speake of a Bucke the first yere he is
A faune souking on his dam, say as I you wys
The seconde yere a pryket, the thirde yere a sorell
A soar at the fourth yere the trueth I you tell
The fift yere call him a Bucke of the first hede
The sixt yere call him a bucke and doo as I you rede.

❧Of the hornes of a Bucke.

THe hornes of a great Bucke or he so bee
Must be sommoned as I say, harkeneth to mee
Two braunces first pawmed he must haue
And foure auauncers the sothe yf ye wyl saue
And .xiiii. espelers and then ye may hym call
Where so he be a great bucke I tell you all

¶Of the Roe Bucke.

ANd if ye of the Roe bucke will know the same
The first yere he is a kyd souking on his dame
The seconde yere he is a gyrle, and ben suche all
The thirde yere an hemuse looke ye hym call
Roe Bucke of the first head he is at the fourth yere
The fyft yere a Roe bucke hym call I you lere
At saynt andrewes day, his hornes he wyll cast
In more or in mosse he hideth them fast
So that no man may them soone fynde
Eles in certayne he dothe not his kynde
At Saynt Iames day, where so he goe
Then shal the Roe bucke gendre with the Roe
And so boldly there as ye soiourne
Then he is called a Roe bucke goynge in his tourne
And yf ye may a Roebucke slea withouten any fayle
And ye finde the beuy grece, at his tayle
As some Roe buckes haue, when ye it fynde
[Page]Than shall ye rere it as ye doo of Hart and of Hynde
Also the Robucke, as it is well his kynde
At holy rood day he goth to ryde
And vseth the byt, when he may get it.

✚Now of the Hart and the Hynde.

SOnnes of the Hart and the hinde learne yet ye may
There they drawe to the herde, at holy Rood day
To the stepe then they gone, eche hote day at none
Which stepe they vse my children I you say
Tyll it be midsomer at the least way
The cause of the stepe is to keep them fro the flye
Who so cometh to that place may it well spye
An other thinge vse they my childe also
The same season of the yere to soyle to go.

❧Of the crienge of these beastes.

AN Hart beloweth, and a Bucke groyneth I finde
And eche Ro Bucke, certaynly belleth by kynde
The noyse of the beastes thus ye shal call
For pryde of theyr make they vse it all
Say childe where ye goe, your dame tought you so.

☞Marke well these season folowyng.

TYme of grece beginneth at mydsommer day
And tyll holy Roode day, lasteth as I you say
❧The season of the Foxe, fro Natiuitie
Tyll the Annunciation of our Lady free.
❧Season of the Ro bucke at Easter shal begyn
And tyll Michelmas lasteth nye or she blyn.
✚The season of the Ro beginneth at Michelmas
And it shall endure till it be Candelmas.
❧At Michelmas beginneth the hunting of the Hare
And lasteth till midsomer there wil no man it spare.
☞The season of the wolfe, is made in eche countrie
At the season of the Foxe, and euermore shalbe.
[Page] ❧The season of the bore is from the natiuitie
Tyll the puryfycacion of our Lady so free
For at the Natiuitie of our Lady sweet
He may finde where he goth vnder his feet
Bothe in woodes and feeldes, corne and other frute
When he after foode maketh any sute
Crabbes and oke cornes and nuttes, there they grow
Hawes, and hepes and other thinges mow
That tyll the purificacion lasteth as ye may see
And maketh the bore in season to bee
For while that frute may last, his time is neuer past.
NOw to speake of ye Hare, how al shalbe wrought
When she shall with houndes be foūden & sought
The fyrst worde to the hoūdes yt the hunter shal out pit
Is at the kenel doore, when he openeth it
That all may him here he shall say (arere)
For his houndes wyll come to hastely
This is the fyrst worde my sonne of Uenery
And when he hath coupled his houndes echone
And is forth with them to feelde gone
And when he hath of [...]ast his couples at wyll
Then shall he speake and say his houndes tyll
¶Hors de couple auaunt se auaunt (twyse fo)
And then (so ho so ho) thryse and no mo
And then say, sacy auaunt so ho, I the pray
And yf ye see your houndes haue good wyl to ren
And draw awaywarde fro you, say as I you ken.
¶Here how a my, agayne them call so
Then, swef mon amy swef, to make them soft tho
And yf any finde of the hare there hath go
And he hyght Rychard or Bemound to him cry so
❧Oyes a Bemounde le vyllant, and I shall you auow
Que quida, troula [...]owarde oula court cowe,
[Page]That Bel [...]ounde the worthy without ony fayle
That weneth to finde the towarde with the short tayle
☞And yf ye see where the hare at pasture hath been
If it be in the tyme of the corne green
And yf your houndes chase well at your wyll
Then three notes ye shall blowe bothe loude and shyll
There one and there another there he pastured hath
Then say (Illoquens) in the same path
So say to them in kinde, vnto tyme ye her fynde
✚ And then cast a sygne all the feeld aboute
To see her pasture where she hath be in or out
Other at her fourme for gladly to be she is not lefe▪
There she hath pastured in tyme of relefe
And any hounde finde or musyng of her mace
There as she hath ben and is gon out of that place
¶Ha cy touz cy est yll, so shall ye say
Uenz arere so how sa, as loude as ye may
Sa cy ad est so how, after that
❧Sa sa cy auaunt, and therof be not lat
And when ye see vnto the playne her at the last
In feelde or in arable land or in the wood past
And your hounde wyll finde of her there then
Say la douce amy last est a, and doo as I you ken
That is to say, swete freend there is he come low
For to drye here, and therwith ye shal say, so how
Iloquens ey douce ey vaylaunt so how so how, thē twise
Thus may ye now dere sonnes lerne of veneryce
And when ye come there as ye trow he wyll dwell
Aad so semeth to you well then say as I you tell
✚ La douce la est a venuz, for to dwell thor [...]
And therwith thryes, so how, say ye no more
And if it semeth well you to fynde all in feare
And wene so to doo then say, douce how here how here
[Page] ❧How here douce, how here, how here he sytteth
So shall ye say my children and for nothyng letteth
All maner of beastes that euer chased bee
Haue one maner of worde, so how, I tell thee
To fulfyl or vnfyll al maner of chase
The hunter euermore in his mouth that worde he hase
And yf your houndes at a chase renne there ye hunt
And the beastes begyn to renne, as hartes ben wunt
Or for to hanylon as dothe the foxe with his gyle
Or for to crosse as the doe otherwhyle
Eyther to dwel so that your houndes cannot out go
Then shall ye say (ho sa amy sa sa)
✚A couples faarere, so how, suche is the play
And so how is as much as sa how to say
[...]But for so how it is short in speache whē it is brought
[...]herfore say we so how, but sa how say we nought
[...]nd yf your houndes chase at hart or at hare
[...]nd they renne at defaute thus ye shal there fare
I ❧Ico so how assayne assayne stou ho ho
F ❧Sa assayne arere so how, these wordes and no mo
[...]nd yf your houndes renne well at the foxe or at ye doe
[...] so fayle at defaute say thus ferther or ye goe
✚ Ho ho or swefe aluy douce aluy, that they here
❧ Ho hoy assayne astayne sa arere
✚So how so how venes a coupler, and doo as I ken
The more worshyp may ye haue among all men
Your craftes let not be hid, and doo as I you byd
Al my sonnes in same, and thus may ye know of game

❧The boste yt the mayster hunters maketh to his man, now heere folowyng ye may heare

THe mayster to the man maketh his boste
That he knoweth bykinde what the hart coste
At huntyng euermore when he gothe
[Page]Quod the man to his mayster that were good lore
For to know what he dothe the houndes before
What doth he quod the mayster to the man?
He doth quod he euen as thou mayste see
Breke and so dothe no beast but hee
When breke [...]h he qoud the man, what is that to say?
With his fete he openeth the earth there he goth away
What is the cause quod the man, mayster I thee pray
That the hart afore the houndes when they him hūt ay?
That then to the riuer he wylleth for to go?
Quod the master to the man there are causes two
For two causes the hart desireth to ye riuer, & note
wel these termes folowing. Dis [...]ēde & other.
✚One cause for the riuer descende he is aye
And so he is to the water when he taketh the way
Why callest thou him descende mayster I the pray?
For he payeth of his might the sooth for to say
An other is to the water why he goth otherwhyle
The houndes that him suen to purpose to begile
✚Yet of this hart quod his man mayster I will ken
Into the water when he lepeth what he maketh then?
He profereth quod the mayster and so ye shal say
For he wote not him self yet how he wyll away
Whether ouer the water he will forth passe
Or turne agayne the same way there he first was
Therfore it is profer as these hunters sayne
And reprofer yf the same way he turne agayne
At the other syde of the water yf he vpstarte
Then shall ye call it the soyle of the harte
And that is for the water of his legges weet
Downe into the steppes there fallen of his feet
Agayne the water his way euen yf he hent
Than breketh he water therto take you tent
[Page]And if with thee go algate you it shal
Defoulant the water and harte so him call
☞Now of the numbles marke wel the termes
✚The man to his mayster speaketh blythe
Of the numbles of the hart that he wolde them kythe
How many endes there shalbe them within?
Quod the master but one, thicke nor thynne
And that is but the gargylyon to speke of al by deene
And al these other crookes and roundelles beene.

¶The auauncers, the forcers

¶Yet wolde I wyt and thou woldest me le [...]e
The crookes and the roūdels of the numbl [...]s of the dere
One crooke of the numbles lyeth euer more
Under the throte [...]oll of the beast before
That called is (auauncers) who so can them ken
And the [...] part of the numbles then
That i [...] to [...] [...]the [...]) that lyen euen betwene
The two thighes of the beast that other crookes euen
In [...] midret that called is the roundell also
For [...]he sides rounde abou [...] [...] it is fro
[...] sonnes bolde say of [...] thus I you tolde
❧Yet wolde I wyt mayster why these houndes all
Bayen and cryen when they him sethe shall?
For they shoulde haue helpe that is their skyll
For to slea the beast that they renne tyll
☞ Tell me mayster quod the man what is the skyll
Why the Hare wolde so [...]ayne renne agaynst the hill▪
Quod the mayster for her legges be shorter before
Then behinde that is the skyll thore.
What is the cause quod the man yt men say of the beast
That the Hare sytteth aye when she taketh her reste
And other beastes lye as comonly men sayne
For two causes quod the mayster I tell the playne
[Page]One is for the hurcles vpon the houghes aye
And all other beastes can the syde to the ground say
An other cause there is and that is no lesse
For she beareth bothe sewet and pure grece.
¶Yet wolde I mayster quod the man fayne wit more
Where lieth the sewet of the hare behinde or before?
Ouer the loyne quod the master of eche hare thou take
Betwene the tayle and the chine euen on the backe
☞Yet wolde I master quod the man these at the lere
Whan thou walkest in the feeld with thy lymere
Thereas an hare pastured hath or thou hym see
To know fat or lene whether he bee?
I can quod the mayster well tell the thys case
Wayte well where he lay, and where he fum [...]d has
Yelow and englamed yf that it bee
Then he is fat I tell thee learne this of [...]
And if it he bothe blacke and harde and clene
Then he is megre larbre and lene
And of this same thing yf thou leue not mee
Take hede in the wynter and th [...] thou may it see
✚yet mays [...] of the har [...] fay [...] wolde I wyt more
What he doth when he goth the houndes before?
He sorth and resorth there he goth away
Prycketh and repriketh the soth for to say
But what is that quod the man when they so doone?
That shal I quod the master tell the ful soone
In the feeldes where he goeth no wayes ben
There he sorth when he steppeth and it may not be seen
And after when he doubleth and turneth not agayne
Then he resorteth as good hunters sayne
And when he renneth in the way dry or weete
Then may finde foostalx of clees or of feete
Then pricketh the Hare aye when he dothe so
[Page]And repricketh than he agayne goe.

A vauntelay, alay, and relay.

MAyster yet quod the man, what is that to say?
That shall I tell thee quod he, for a lytle bysethe
Whan the houndes are set an hart for to mete
And other him chasen and folowen to take
Than all the relays, thou vpon them make
Euen at his comyng yf thou let thy houndes go
Whyle the other that be behynde ferre are hym fro
That is, auauntelay, and so thou shalt it call
For they are than ferre before those other houndes all
And an hyndring great all other vntyll
For they may not that day no more sew at wyll
And holde thy houndes styll yf that thou so doo
Tyll all the houndes that be behinde become therto
Than let thy houndes altogyther goe
That called is an, alay, and looke thou say so
And that hyndryng is yet to them that ben behynde
For the rested will euer ouer goe the wery by kynde
A relay is after whan the houndes are past
Ferre before with the harte that hyeth them fast
To let thy houndes ferre after them gone
And that is than a fortheryng to them echone
For and thy houndes haue ouertake these other bi distrꝭ
Than shall they all folow hym of one swyftenes.

What is a forloyne.

MAyster yet wolde I fayne this at you lere
What is a forloyne for that is good to here?
That shall I say thee quod he the sooth at the least
Whan thy houndes in the wood seche ony beast
And the beast is stole away out of the fryth
Or the houndes that thou hast meten therwith
And any other houndes before than may with thē mete
[Page]These other houndes are then forloyned I thee [...]ete
For the beast and the houndes are so ferre before
And the houndes behinde ben wery and sore
So that they may not at the beast come at theyr wyll
The houndes before forloyne them and that is the skyl
They ben ay so ferre before to me yf thou wilt trust
And this is the forloyne lere it yf thou lust.

❧Whiche three thinges causeth ye houndes to endure

✚ Yet wolde I wyt mayster yf it were thy wyll
When thy houndes renne an hart vntyll
And aye the ferther that they goe the gladder they ben?
For thre causes quod he as oftentymes is seen
One is when the hart renneth fast on a res [...]
He sweteth that it renneth do [...] throughout his cle [...]
The houndes when they finde of that his swete
Then they are leue [...] to renne and l [...]ther to lete
An other cause when the hart nye no more may
Then wyll he whyte f [...]oth cast there he goeth away
When the houndes fynde of that than are they glad
In hope they shall hym haue and renne so rad
The thirde cause is of the hart when he is nighe dead
Then he casteth out of his mouth froth and bloud red
The houndes know that he shalbe taken soone then
And euer the ferther they go the glader they renne
These are the causes three, that causeth them glad to be

Which beast a slowe hound taketh as sone as a swift

❧What beast yet maystre I aske it for none yll
That moste who [...]e al houndes renne vntyl
And also soone the slowest shall him ouertake
As the swyftest shall doo what way so euer he take
That beast a Bauson hyght, a brocke or a gray
These three names he hath the sothe for to say
And this is cause therof, for he wyll by kynde
[Page]Go through thornes alway the thickest he may fynde
There as the swyft hounde may no ferther go
Then the slowest of foote be he neuer so thro.

❧Why the hare fumayse and croteyes.

YEt mayster wolde I wit why that men sayne
That the hare fumayse and croteyse bothe playne
And al other maner of beastes that hunted bee
Femyon̄ or fenon̄ as we wel it see?
That shal I wel tell that quod the mayster then
For why that he fumayes and croteyse well I ken
He fumayth for he beareth talow that is no lece
And he croteys men sayne for he beareth no grece
And soukes on his hoghes when he letteth it go
And beastes of suche kinde fynde we no mo
❧How many beastes femaē master fayne wolde I lere
And how many fenon̄ that were good to here?
All this to tell quod the mayster I holde it but lyght
All beastes that beare talow and stande vpryght
Femayen when they doo say as I thee ken
And al other fenon̄ that rouken downe then
❧How many maner of beastes of Uenery releue
❧ How many maner of beastes mayster me tell
Of venery releuen by frith or by fell?
To this quod the mayster I shall the aunswere
Of all beastes but two the hart and the hare
From the annunciacion of our lady
The hart then releueth the sothe for to say
Tyl saynt Peters day and poule and the hare ryght
From the purification of our lady bryght
Tyl translacyon releueth leue ye me
Of saynt Benet the .xi. of Iuly.

☞To vndoo the wylde bore.

❧Yet my childe of the wylde bore to speake more
[Page]When he shalbe vndoone I tel you before
Two and [...]hyrty bredes ye shall of him make
Now wyl ye wyt my sonnes where ye shall them take
The first of them is the head what euer befall
Another is the coller, and so ye shall it call
The sheeldes on the shoulders therof shal two bee
Then euery side of the swyne departe in three
The pestels and the gamons departe them in two
And two fille [...]tes he hath forget not tho
Then take the legges and his feete & shew your sleyght
For they shall of his bredes be counted for eyght
Depart the chine in foure peces and no mo
And take there your bredes thirty and two
And fayre put the gre [...]e when it is take away
In the bladder of the bore my childe I you pray
For it is medicine, for many maner pyne.

❧How ye shall breke an hart

ANd for to speake of the hart whyle we thinke on
My childe first ye shal him serue whē he shalbe vndon
And yt is for to say or euer ye him dyght
Within his hornes to lay hym vpryght
At the assay kitte him that lordes may see
Anon fat or lene whether that he bee
Then cut of the coddes the belly euen fro
Or ye begin him to fley, and then shall ye go
At the chaules to begyn as soone as ye may
And slit him downe to thassay
And fro thassay euen downe to the bely shal ye slyt
To the pyssill there the codde was away kit
Then slit the left legges euen first before
And then the lift legges behynde or ye doo more
And these other legges vpon the [...]ight syde
Upon the same maner slyt ye that tide
[Page]To go to the chekes looke that ye be prest
And so flay him downe euen to the brest
And so flay him forth ryght vnto thassay
Euen to the place where the codde was cut away
Then flaye the same wyse al that other syde
But let the tayle of the beast styll theron a byde
Then shall ye him vndoo my childe I you rede
Ryght vpon his owne skynne and lay it on brede
Take hede of the cutting of the same dere
And begin first to make the erbere
Then take out the shoulders and slitteth anon
The bely to the side from the corbyn bone
That is corbins fee, at the death he will be
Then take out the sewet, that it be not lafte
For that my childe is good for leche crafte
Then put thyne hand softely vnder the brestbone
And there shal ye take out the exber anon
Then put out the paunche & from the paunche thase
Away lyghtly the rate suche as he hase
Holde it with a finger doo as I you ken
And with the bloud and the grece fill it then
Looke threde that ye haue and nedle therto
For to sewe it withall or ye more doo
The small guttes then ye shall out pyt
From them take the mawe, forget not it
Then take out the liuer and lay it on the skynne
And after that the bladder without more dyn
Then dresse the numbles first that ye recke
Downe the auauncers, kerue that cleueth to the necke
And downe with the bolthrote put them anon
And ke [...]ue vp the flesh there vp to the backe bone
And so foorthe to the fillettes that ye vp arere
That falleth to the numbles, and shalbe there
[Page]With the neres also and sewet that there is
Euen to the midryfe than vpon hym is
Than take downe the midryfe from the sides hote
And heaue vp the numbles whole by the boll throte
In thyne hand than them holde, and looke and see
That all that longeth them to, togither that it bee
Than take them to thy brother, to holde for try [...]t
Whiles that thou them doublest and dresse at thee lyst
Than away the lyghtes and on the skinne them lay
To abyde the querre my chylde I you pray
Than shall ye slyt the slough there as the hart lyeth
And take a way the heares from it and flyeth
For suche heares hath his hert aye it vpon
As men see in the beast whan he is vndoon
And the middes of the hart a bone shal ye fynde
Looke ye gyue it to a lorde, and childe be kynde
For it is kynde for many maladyes
And in the middes of the hert euermore it lyes
Than shal ye cut the shyrtes the teeth euen fro
And after the rydge bone kytteth euen also
The forches and the sydes euen betwene
And looke that your kniues aye whetted bene
Than turne vp the forthes and frote them with bloud
For to saue grece, so doo men of good
Than shall ye cut the necke the sydes euen fro
And the head from the necke cutteth also
The tounge the brayne, the paunche, and the necke
Whan they wasshed ben wel with the water of the beck
The small guttes to the lyghtes in the deres
Aboue the hert of the beast, whan thou them reres
With all the bloud that ye may get and wynne
Al together shalbe take and layde on the skynne
To gyue your houndes, that called is ywys
[Page]The querre, aboue the skynne for it eaten is
And who dresseth so by my counsayle
Shall haue the left shoulder for his trauayle
And the ryght shoulder where so euer he bee
Gyue it to the Foster for that is his fee
And the lyuer also of the same beast
To the fosters knaue gyue it at the least
The numbles trusse in the skynne, and hardell thē fast
The sydes and the forchesse togither that they last
With the hindre legges, be doone so it shall
Then bringe it home and the skyn withall
The numbles and the hornes at the lordes gate
Then boldly blow the pryce therat
Your play for to nymme, or that ye come in.
✚Explicit dame Iulyan Bernes doctrine in her booke of huntyng.

❧Beastes of the chase of the sweet fewte and stynkyng.

THere ben beastes of the chase the sweet fewte And tho ben the bucke, the doe, the bere, the raynder, the elke, the spickarde, the ottre, and the martron

❧There ben beastes of the chase of the stynkyng fewte And they ben the roe bucke and the roe, the fulmard, the [...]yches, the baude, the gray, the foxe, the squyrel, ye whyte rat, the sotte, and the polcat.

❧The names of dyuers maner of houndes

THese ben the names of hoūdes. Fyrste there is a grehoūd, a bastard, a mōgrel, a mastif, a lemor, a spaniel raches kenets, terrours, bouchers hoūds dūghil dogges, trindel tailes and pryckeered curres and smal ladi popies that bere awai the fleas and diuers smal fautes

¶The properties of a good grehounde.

A grehoūd shuld be hedded like a snake, & necked like a drake, foted like a catte, tailed lyke a ratte, syded [Page] lyke a breme, & chi [...]ed like a beme. The first yere he must lerne to feed, ye second yere to feeld him lede, the thirde he is felow lyke, the .iiii. yere he is none lyke, ye .v. yere he is good inough, the .vi, yere he shall holde the plough, ye vii. yere he wyll auayle great bytches for to assayle, the viii. yere lyckladell, the .ix. yere cartsadel, and whē he is comen to that yere, haue hym to the tannere. For ye beste hounde that euer bytche had, at the .ix. yere he is ful bad.

❧The properties of a good horse.

A Good horse should haue .xv. properties and cōdicions. That is to wete, three of a man, three of a woman three of a fox, three of an hare, & .iii. of ā asse.

¶Of a man bolde, proude, & hardy. Of a woman fayre brested fayre of heare, and easy to lepe vpon. Of a fox, a fayre tayle, short eares, with a good trot, Of an hare, a great eye, a drye head, and well rennyng. Of an asse, a bygge chyn, a flat legge, and a good hoofe. Wel trauay­led women nor wel trauayled horse were neuer good. Aryse erly▪ serue god deuoutly, and the worlde beselye, doo thy worke wysely, giue thine almes secretly; goe by the way sadly, answere the people demurely, go to thy meat appetytely syt therat discretly, of thy tonge be not to lyberall, aryse therfro temperatly, go to thy supper soberly, & to thy bed merely, be in thyne inne iocundlye, please thy loue duly, and slepe surely

❧Marke well these foure thynges.

THere ben foure principal thinges prīcipalli to be dred of euery wise man. The firste is the curse of our heuenly father god. The seconde is the indigna­ciō of a price (quia indignacio Regis vel Pricipis mors est The thirde is the fauour or wil of a iudge. The fourth is sclaunder, and the mutacion of a cominaltie.

❧Who that maketh in Christmas a dog to his larder. [Page] And in Marche a sowe to his gardyner, And in May a foole of a wyse mans counsell, he shal neuer haue good larder, fayre gardyne, nor yet well kept counsel.

❧Ferre from thy kynsmen [...]ast thee, wrath not thy nei­ghbours next thee. In a good corne countrie threste the and sit downe Robyn and rest thee.

☞Who that buyldeth his house all of salowes
And pricketh a blynde horse ouer the falowes
And suffereth his wife to seke many halowes
God sende him the blesse of euerlastyng galowes

❧If these be not directed, then go they at aduēture

❧There ben foure thinges full harde to know which way that they will drawe. The fyrst is the wayes of a young man. The seconde is the course of a vessell in the sea. The third of an adder or of a serpent sprente. The fourth of a foule sittyng on any thyng.

✚Two wiues in one house. two rattes and one mouse

¶Two dogges and one bone, shal neuer accorde in one

☞ Who that m [...]nneth him with his kyn
And closeth his crofte with chery trees
Shall haue many hedges broken
And also lytle good seruyce.

¶The Companyes of beastes and foules.

  • AN herde of hartes
  • an herde of al ma­ner dere
  • an herde of swans
  • an herde of cra [...]es
  • an herde of curlewes
  • an herde of wrennes
  • an herde of harlottes
  • a nye of fesauntes
  • a beuy of Ladyes
  • a cite o [...] grayes
  • a [...]ery of [...]o [...]yes
  • a rychesse of martrons
  • a besynes of fe [...]ettes
  • a brace of gr [...]houndes [...]r .ii.
  • a les [...] of [...]rehoundes or .iii.
  • a couple of spanyels
  • a couple of rēning houndes▪
  • a lytter of wolpes
  • a kyndell of younge cattes
  • [Page]a beuy of r [...]s
  • a beuy of quayles
  • a sege of Herons
  • a sege of byttoures
  • a sord or a sute of mallards
  • a mustre of pecockes
  • a walke of suites
  • a congregacion of people
  • an exaltyng of larkes
  • a watch of nyghtyngales
  • an hoste of men
  • a feloshyppyng of yemen
  • a cherme of goldfinches
  • a caste of bread
  • a couple or a payre of botels
  • a flyght of doues
  • an vnkyndnes of rauens
  • a clateryng of choughes
  • a dissimulacion of byrdes
  • a route of knightes
  • a pryde of lyons
  • a sleuthe of beares
  • a draught of butler [...]
  • a prou [...]e shewīg o [...] taylers
  • a temperaunce of [...]o [...]kes
  • a stalke of fosters
  • a boste of souldyours
  • a laughter of ostlers
  • a glosyng of tauerners
  • a malepe [...]es of pedl [...]rs
  • a thraue of thresshers
  • a squat of daubers
  • a fyghtyng of beggers
  • a synguler of bores
  • a dryft of tame swyne
  • an harrasse of hors
  • a ragge of coltes or a rake
  • a baren of mules
  • a tryppe of gotes
  • a tryppe of hares
  • a gaggyll of geese
  • a broode of hennes
  • a badelynge of duckes
  • a nonpaciens of wyues
  • a state of prynces
  • a though of barons
  • a prudence of vycaryes
  • a superfluitie of nunnes
  • a scoole of clerkes
  • a doctrine of doctours
  • a conuertyng of prechours
  • a sentence of Iudges
  • a dampnyng of Iuryours
  • an obeisaunce of seruaūtes
  • a sete of vsshers
  • a tygendes of pyes
  • an hoste of sparowes
  • a swarme of bees
  • a caste of Haukes of the toure, two
  • a lese of ye same haukes .iii.
  • a flyght of goskaukes
  • a flyght of swalowes
  • a byldynge of rookes
  • a murmuracyon of stares
  • a route of wulues
  • [Page]an vntrouth of sompners
  • a melody of harpers
  • a pouerty of pypers
  • a subtiltie of sergeauntes
  • a tabernacle of bakers
  • a dryft of fysshers
  • a dysgysynge of [...]aylers
  • a bleche of souters
  • a smere of coryours
  • a cluster of grapes
  • a cluster of churles
  • a rag of maydens
  • a rafull of knaues
  • a blusshe of boyes
  • an vncredibilite of kocoldes
  • a couy of pat ryches
  • a spryng of teles
  • a dessarte of lapwynges
  • a fall of wodcockes
  • a congregacion of plouers
  • a couerte of cootes
  • a dule of tur [...]ylles
  • a scull of freres
  • a bominable sight of monks
  • a sclul of fyshe
  • an example of masters
  • an obseruaunce of heremites
  • an eloquence of lawers
  • an execucyon of officers
  • a fayth of marchauntes
  • a ꝓuisiō of steward of hous
  • a ker [...]e of panters
  • a credence of fewers
  • a lepe of [...]ydarde [...]
  • a shrewednes of [...]
  • a sculke of theues
  • a sculke of foxes
  • a nest of rabbettes
  • a labour of moles
  • a mu [...]e of houndes
  • a kenell of caches
  • a sute of a lyam
  • a cowardnes of curres
  • a sourde of wylde swyne
  • a stod of mares
  • a pace of asses
  • a droue of nete
  • a flocke of sheep
  • a gagle of women
  • a pepe of chekyns
  • a multeplyeng of husbādes
  • a po [...]y fycalytye of prelates
  • a dygnytye of chanons
  • a charge of curates
  • a discrecion of preestes
  • a disworship of scortes
Explicit.

❧Here folow ye dewtermes to speake of brekyng or dres­syng of diuers beastes & fou­les. &c. And the same is she­wed of certayne fysshes.

  • A Dere broken
  • A goose rered
  • [Page]an embr [...]w [...]ng of [...]a [...]uers
  • a [...] do s [...]porters
  • a blast of hunters▪
  • a thretenyng of courtyers
  • a promyse o [...] [...]sters
  • a lyeng of pardo [...]ers
  • a mysbeleue of paynters
  • a lasshe of carters
  • a skolding of kewsters
  • a wondering of tynkers
  • a wa [...]wa [...]d [...]es of ha [...]wards
  • a worshyp of wryters
  • a neuerchryuyng of iuglers
  • a fraunche of myllers
  • a feast of bruers
  • a goryng of buchers
  • a trynket of coruysers
  • a plucke of shooturners
  • a dronkenshyp of coblers
  • a cluster of nuttes
  • a rage of the teeth
  • a rascall of boyes
  • an egge tyred
  • a fyre tymbred▪
☞Nowe of the fyshes.
  • A salmon chyned
  • a pyke spla [...]ed
  • a haddocke syded
  • a cheuyn fynned
  • a sole [...]oyned
  • a gutnarde chyned
  • a tenche sauced
  • an ele tro [...]choned
  • a breme splayed
  • a barbel [...]us [...]ed
  • a trout gobe [...]ted
  • a pygge headed and syded
  • a capon sawced
  • a chekyn frusshed
  • a cony vnlaced
  • a cra [...]e dy [...]playde
  • a curlewe vnioynted
  • a fefant alet
  • a quayle wynged
  • a plouer wynced
  • a pygeon thyghed
  • a brawne leched
  • a swan lyft
  • a lambe shouldred
  • a kyd shouldred
  • an hen spoyled
  • a malarde vnbraced
  • an heron dismembred
  • a pecocke disfygured
  • a bytter vntached
  • a partryche ale [...]
  • a rayle brested
  • a woodcocke thyghed.
☞ Ye shall saye thus.
  • An hart harboureth
  • a bucke lodgeth
  • a squyre lodgeth
  • a roe beddeth
  • a ty [...]man beddeth
  • an hare in his fourme
  • shoulderyng or lenyng
  • a cony syttyng
  • a woodcocke breakyng

❧Heere now folowying shall be shewed all shyre [...] and the byshopryches of the realme of Englande / and ye shal vnderstand that the shyres ben wrytten before / and the byshopriches of the same are wrytten folowyng nere after / and than afterward are shewed the prouynces of this land [...].

KEnt, Canterbury, Rochester, Sussex, Chichester, Hamshyre, Suxrey, Winchester, Wyltshyre, Bark­shyre, Salisbury, Somersetshyre, Dorse [...]shyre, Bathe, Deuenshyre, Cornewayle, Excester, Essex, Myd­dlesex, London, Northfolke, Suffolke, Norwiche, Cā ­brydgeshyre, Ely.

❧Leyceter, Worceter, Wigorne, Hertforthshire, Her­forde, Chesshyre, Shropshyre parte of Lancasshyre, Chester, Yorkeshyre, Staffordshyre, Darbyshyre, No­tyngamshyre, & other as parte of Lancastershyre, Yorke,

❧Prouynces of Englande.

☞Canterbury, Yorke, Stafford, Derby, Notingham, Northūberlād, Durhā, Westmerlād, Tyndale. [...]a [...]lile.

¶ To haue a faythfull freend.

A Faythfull freend wolde I fayne fynde
To fynde hym there he myght be founde
But now is the worlde wext so vnkynde
That frendshyp is fall to the grounde
Now a freend haue I founde
That I wyll neyther ban ne curse
But of all freendes in feeld or towne
Euer gramercy myne owne purse.
❧My purse it is my preuy wyfe
This songe I dare both syng and say
It parteth men of muche stryfe
Whan euery man for hymselfe shall pay
As I ryde in ryche aray
[Page]For golde and syluer men wyll me floryshe
By this matter I dare well saye
Euer gramercy myne owne purse
As I ryd with golde s [...]red
And haue to doo with landes lawe
Men for my money wil make me spede
And for my goodes they will me knowe
More and lesse to me wyl drawe
Bothe the better and the worse
By this matter I saye in sawe
Euer gramercy myne owne purse.
❧It befell me vpon a tyme
As it hath doone by many a one mo
My horse, my nete, my sheep, my swyne,
And all my goodes were gone me fro
I went to my freendes and tolde them so
And home againe they bad me trusse
I sayd agayne whan I was woe
Euer gramercy myne owne purse.
☞Therfore I rede you syrs all
To assay your [...]eendes or ye haue need
For and ye come downe and haue a fall
Full fewe of them for you wyl grede
Therfore assay them euery [...]hone
Both the better and the worse
Our lorde that shope both sonne and moone
Sende vs spendyng in our purse. Amen.
❧Thus endeth the booke of huntyn [...].

❧The measures of blowyng of a horne. Fyrst to geue knowledge to goe to the feeld.

BLowe wyth one wynde, one short one longe and a longer.

2 ☞To blowe to the couplyng of the houndes at the kepell doore.

¶Blowe with one wynde, one longe and .iii. short.

The second winde one long, one short and a shorter.

3 ☞To blowe to the feeld.

❧Blowe with two wyndes, with the fyrst one short, one longe, and two short.

With the second winde one short, one longe, and a longer.

4 ☞To blowe in the feeld▪

❧With two wyndes, the fyrst two short one longe and two short.

The second, one short, one long and a longer.

5 ☞To vncouple thy houndes in the feeld▪

❧Thre longe notes, one with thre wyndes.

6 ☞To blowe to s [...]ke.

❧To wyndes, the fyrst a longe and a short. the second a longe.

7 ☞When the houndes a game vnknowen hunteth then the hunt bloweth this.

❧Blowe the velyne, one longe, and .vi. short.

8 ☞If it be the same ye hunt for [...]

❧Blowe the whole rechate with thre wyndes, the fyrst wynde one longe and .vi. short.

The second wynde two short and one longe.

The thyrd wynde one longe and .vi. short.

9 ☞Strake to drawe from couert to couert.

Thre wyndes .ii. short, one longe and .ii. short

The second one longe and a shorte.

The thyrd one longe.

10 ☞ To blowe the earthyng of the foxe when he is couerable.

❧Foure notes with foure wyndes.

The relyefe one longe .vi. short.

11 ☞To blowe yf the foxe be not couerable.

❧ Two wyndes, one longe, and thre short

The second wynde longe.

12 To blowe the death of the foxe in the feeld or couert.

¶Thre notes with thre wyndes.

The rechate vpon the same with thre wyndes

❧The fyrst wynde, one longe, and .vi. short

The second one short and one longe.

The thyrd one longe and .v. short.

13 The death of the foxe at the lordes gate.

❧ Tho notes. And then the relyefe thre tymes.

14 The death of the bucke▪ eyther with bowe / houndes, or greyhoundes.

❧One longe note.

15 ☞The knowledge vpon the same.

❧Two short, and one longe.

16 The death of the bucke with houndes.

¶Two longe notes, and the rechate.

17 ☞the pryce of an hartryall.

❧Nine notes with thre testes.

18 The rechate with thre wyndes.

¶The fyrst one longe, and .vi. short

The second one short, and one longe.

The thyrd one longe, and .vi. short.

19 ☞To blowe the call of the keepers of any parke or forest.

❧One short, one long▪ and one longer.

20 ☞If the keeper answere you [...] blow.

¶Two short with one wynde, and drawe toward hynt, and after that blowe one short.

21 ☞When the game breaketh couerd.

❧Foure with thre windes, & the rechate vpon the same

[...] ☞The stent when the houndes can hunt no further.

❧Thre wyndes, the fyrst one longe and .vi. short.

The second, one longe, and one short

The thyrd, one longe.

23 ☞Where the foxe is [...]rthed blowe after this maner for the taryers.

¶One longe, two short.

The second winde, one short, and one longe.

❧Note this is the chefest and principallest poynt to be learned.

❧Euery longe conteyneth in blowyng .vii. quauers, one mynyme, and one quauer.

☞One mynyme conteyneth foure quauers.

❧One short conteyneth thre quauers.

❧The ende of the whole measures of blowyng.

❧Imprynted at London in Fletestrete at the signe of of the Rose Garland by Wyllyam Copland for Robert Toye.

❧Here beginneth a tretyse of Fysshynge wyth an Angle.

[figure]

SAlomon in hys parables sayth that a good spy­rite maketh a flouring age, that is a fayre age & a longe. And sith it is so I aske this question, which be ye meanes & the causes that enduce a man into a mery spirite? Truely to my best discrecion it semeth good disportes & honest games in whom a mā ioyeth wtout any re­pentance after. Then foloweth it that good dysportes and honest games: because of mans fayre age and longe lyfe. And therfore now wil I choose of foure good dys­portes and honest games, that is to wete of Haukyng, Huntyng, & fysshyng, & for Fouling. The best to my dis­crecion which is fysshing called anglyng with a rod, and a lyne, and an hooke, and therof to treat as my symple wit may suffyse, both for the sayd reason of Salamon & also for the reason that reason make [...]h in this wyse.

Si tibi deficiant medici, medici tibi fiant. Hec tria, mens leta, labor, et moderata dicta.

¶Ye shall vnderstand yt this is for to say, yf a mālacke leche or medicine, he shall make three thinges his medi­cine & he shal neuer need mo [...]. The first of them is a mery thought. The seconde is a labour not outragious. The third is diet mesurable. The first if a mā will euer more be in mery thought & haue a glad spirite, he muste eschew al contrarious compani and al places of debate where he might haue any occasions of melācoly, & yf he wil haue a labour not outragioꝰ: he muste thē ordeyne him to his hartes ease, and pleasance without study, pē sifnes of trauayle, a mery occupaciō which may reioyce his hert, and in which his spirites may haue a mery de­lite. And yf he wyll be dieted measurably he must eschew all places of ryot, which is cause of surfet and of sycke­nesse, and he must draw him to places of sweet ayre and hungry, and eat nourishable meates and diffiable also.

[Page]AS [...]owe than wyll I descryue the sayde dyspor­tes and games to fynde the best of them as vere­ly as I can, all be it that the ryght noble and ful worthy prince Duke of yorke late called master of ye game, hath discriued the myrthes of hunting like as I thinke to discryue of it & of all other. For huntyng as to myne intēt is to laborous. For the hunter muste alway run and folow his houndes traueling and swetyng full sore. He bloweth tyll his lyppes biyster. And whan he weneth it be a Hare: ful oft it is an hedgehog. Thus he chaseth and woteth not what. He cometh home at euen rayne beten, picked, & his clothes torne, weteshod and al myrie Some houndes lost, some furbate. Such greues & ma­ny other happeth vnto the hunter, which for displesaūce of thē that loue it, I dare not reporte, Thus truly me semeth that this is not the best disport & game of ye said foure. The disport & game of Hauking is laborous and noyus also (as me semeth. For as oftē the faukener le­seth his haukes as the hunter his houndes, than is hys game & disporte gone, ful often crieth & whisteleth tyl he be ryght euil a thrust. His hauke taketh abow & lyst not ones on him to regarde. Whā he wolde haue her to flee: thā will she bath. With misfeding she shal haue ye froūce ye rie, the cray, & many other sicknesses yt bringeth them to souse. Thus by profe this is not the best disport and game of the sayd foure. The disporte and game of fou­lyng me semeth moste simplest. For in the winter sea­son the fouler spedeth not but in the hardest and coldest wether which is greuoꝰ▪ for whā he wolde go to his gin­nes he may not for cold, Mani a gin & many a snare he maketh yet sorili doth he fare. at morne tide in ye dew he is wete shod vnto his taile. Many other such I could tel: but dred of maugee maketh me to leue. Thꝰ me semeth [Page] that hunting, and hauking, and also fouling bē so labo­rous & greuous, that none of thē may perfourme nor be very meane to enduce a man to a mery spirite whiche is cause of this longe life according vnto the sayd para­ble of Salomon. Doubtles then foloweth it yt it muste nedes be ye disport of fishīg with an angle. For all other maner of fisshyng is also labourous & greuous, often making of folkes full wete and colde, which many ty­mes hath be seen cause of great infirmities, but ye ang­ler may haue no colde nor no disease nor angre, but if he be causer him self, for he may not lese at the moste but a line or an hooke: of which he may haue store plentie of his owne makyng, as this symple treatyse shall teache him. So then his losse is not greuous, & other grefes may he not haue sauynge but yf any fishe breke a waye after yt he is taken on the hooke, or els yt he catch nought which is not greuous, for if he fayle of one he may not fayle of an other, if he doth as this treatyse teacheth, but if there be nought in the water, & yet at the least he hath his holsome walke and mery at his ease, sweet ayre of ye sweete sauour of the medow floures that maketh hym hungry. He heareth ye melodious armony of foules. He seeth the yōge swās, herōs, duckes, cootes, & mani other foules with their broodes, which me semeth better thē all the noyse of houndes, ye blastes of hornes, & the scry of foules, yt hūters, faukeners, & foulers cā make. And if ye angler take fyshe: surely then is there no mā merier thē he is in his spirite. And who so wyl vse this game of angling: he muste ryse erly, which is profitable to man in this wise. That is to wete, moste to the health of his soule. For it shal cause him to be holy, & to ye helth of his bodi, for it shal cause him to be whole. Also to ye encrease of his goodes, for it shall make him riche, as the olde [Page] English prouerbe sayth in this wyse. Whoso wyll ryse erly, shalbe holy, helthy, & happy. Thus haue I proued in myne entent that the disport and game of angling: is the very mene and cause that enduceth a man into a mery spirite, which after the sayd parable of Salomon & the sayd doctryne and the Phisike maketh a flourynge age & a longe, and therfore to all you that ben vertuous, gentyl, & free borne, I write & make this simple treatise folowyng, by ye which ye may haue the full craft of angling to disporte you at your lust, to thentent yt your age may the more floure, and the more lenger endure.

IF ye wyl be crafty in angling, ye must fyrst learne to make your harneys, that is to wete your rod, your li­nes of diuers coloures, after that ye must know how ye shall angle, in what place of the water, how deep and what tyme of the day, for what maner fyshe, in what wether, how many impedimentes ther [...] ben of fyshing that is called angling, and in specially with what bay­tes to euery diuers fysshe, in euerye moneth of the yere. How ye shal make your baytes breed, where ye shal fīde thē, and how ye shall finde them, and how ye shall kepe them and for the moste crafty thing, how you shal make your hookes of steele and of osmonde. Some for ye dub and some for the flote and the grounde.

¶And how you shall make your rod craftely, heere I shall teache you, ye shal cut betwene Michelmas & Cā ­dellmas a fayre staffe of a fadome and a halfe longe & arme great of hasyll, willow, or [...]spe, and breth him in a hote ouen, and set him euen. Then let him coole and drye a moneth▪ take then and frete him fast with a cok­shote corde, and binde it to a fourme of an euen square great tree. Then take a plūmer wyre that is euen and [Page] strayght, and sharpe at the one ende, and heate the sharp ende in a charcole fire till it be hote, and bren the staffe therwith through, euer streyght in the pith at bothe en­des tyll they meet, and after that bren him in the nether ende with a birde broche, and with other broches eche greater then other, and euer the greatest the last, so that ye make your hole aye tapre wyse. Then let him ly still and kele two dayes, vnfrete him then and let him drye in a house roofe, in the smoke tyll he be through dry in ye same seasō take a fayre yerde of greene hasel, and bethe it euen and strayght and let it drye wyth the staffe and when they ben dry make the yerde meet vnto the hole in the staffe vnto halfe the length of the staffe, and to perfourme ye other half of ye crop, take a fayre shote of blacke thorne, crab tree, medler or els of Ienepre cut in the same season, & well bethed, and streyght, & set theym together fetely, so that the crop may iustlye entre all in­to the sayd hole. Then shaue your staffe and make hym tapre waye, then vyrell the staffe at bothe endes wyth longe hoopes of yron, or laton in ye clennest wise, a pike in ye nether ende fastened wt a renning vice, to take in & out your crop. Than set your crop an handfull within the ouer ende of your staffe, in such wise, yt it be as bygge there, as in any other place aboue, then arme your crop at ye ouer ende downe to the fret wt a line of syx heares, & double the line & frete it fast in the toppe with a bowe to fasten on your line. And thus shal ye make you a rod so pryuy that ye may walke therewith, and there wyll neuer any man wete what thyng ye go about. It wyll be very lyght & nymble to fishe with at your pleasure, & for the more redines, lo here a figure therof in example.

[figure]

[Page]AFter ye haue thus made your rod: ye muste lerne for to colour your lines of heare in this wise. first ye must take of a whyte horse tayle ye lōgest heare & fayrest yt ye can fynde, & euer the rounder that it be: the better it is. Departe it in syxe partes, and euery part ye shall coloure by him self in diuerse coloures, as yelowe, greene, browne, tawny, russet, & duske colour. And for to make good greene coloures on youre heare, ye shall doo take smale ale a quarte, and put it into a lytle pan, and put therto halfe a pound of Alum, and put therto your heare & let it boyle softlye halfe an houre. Than take out your heare and let it dry, than take a pottel of faire water and put it in a pan and put therin two han­des full of Wyxene, and presse it with a tyle stone, and let it boyle softly ye space of an houre. And whan it is yelowe on the scumme: put therin your heare, wyth halfe a pound of coperose beaten in pouder, and let it boyle halfe a myle waye. And than set it downe and let it kele fyue or sixe houres. Than take out the heare and drye it, and it is than the finest greene that is possible to be hadde for the water. And euer the more that ye put thereto of coperose the better it wyll be, or elles in the stede of it vertgrese.

✚And another way may ye make a brighter greene, as thus. Lette wod your heare in a woden fat of lyght plunket coloure, and than set him in olde or wyxen like as I haue shewed you before, sauing ye shall not putte therin neither coperose or vertgrees.

❧For to make your heare seme yelow, dight it with A­lum as I haue sayd before, and after that with oldes or wixen, without coperose or vertgrece.

✚An other yelowe ye shal make thus, Take smale ale a pottell, and stampe thre handful of walnut leues & put [Page] it togither, and put in your heare till that it be as deep as ye wyll haue it.

¶For to make russet heare.

❧Take a pynte of strong lye & a half pounde of soote, and a litle iuce of walnut leues and a quart of Alum, & put them all together in a pan, and boile them wel, and whan it is colde: put in your heare till it be as darke as ye wyll haue it.

¶For to make a browne coloure,

❧Take a pounde of soote & a quarte of ale, and seeth with as many walnut leues as ye may, and whan thei be blacke set it from the fyre, and put their in heare & let it lye styll til it be as browne as ye wyll haue it.

¶For to make an other browne.

¶Take stronge ale, and soote and tempre thē together and put there to your heare two dayes and two nigh­tes, and it shalbe a right good coloure▪

¶For to make a tawny coloure.

❧Take lyme and water & put them together, and also put your heare therin foure or fiue houres. Thā take it out, and put it into a tanners ose one day, and it shalbe as fine a tawny colour as any nedeth to our purpose.

❧The syxte parte of your heare, ye shal kepe styl white for lynes, for the double hooke to fisshe for the troute & grasynge, and for small lynes for to lye for the roche & the Dase.

WHan your heare is thus coloured: ye must know for whiche waters, and for whiche seasons they shal serue. The greene colour in all cleere waters from Aprill vnto Septēbre. The yelow colour in euery clere water, from Septembre to Nouembre, for it is lyke to the wedes and other maner of grasse whiche groweth in the waters and ryuers whan they be broken.

[Page] ❧The russet colour serueth al the winter vnto the ende of Apryll, as well in riuets as in pooles, or lakes.

The browne colour, serueth for that water yt is black dedish in riuers or other waters. The tawni colour, for these waters that ben hethy or morysh.

NOw must ye make your lynes in this wise. First looke ye haue an instrument like vnto this figure portrayed folowing. Than take your heare and cut of the ende an handfull large or more. For it is neyther stronge nor sure. Than turne the top to the tayle, euery one lyke muche, and departe it into three partes. Than knyt euerye parte at one ende by him selfe, and at the other ende knit all three together. And than put the same ende in that o­ther ende of your instrument that hath but one clifte. And than set that other ende fast with the wedge foure fyngers in all shorter than your heare. Thā twyne eue­ry warpe one way, and lyke muche, and fasten them in three cleftes alyke streyght. Take that out at that other ende, & than twine it that way that it wil desyre ynough Than strayne it a lytle and knyt it for vndoyng, & that is good. And for to know how to make your instrumēt: lo here is a fygure. And it shalbe made of tree, sauynge the bolte vnderneth, whiche shalbe of yron.

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[Page]SO whan ye haue as many of [...] [...]y [...]es as ye suppose wyll suffyse for ye length of a line: than must ye knyt them together with a water knot, or els a duchꝭ knot, and whan your knot is knit: cut of ye voyde short endes a straw bred fro the knot. Thus shal your lyues be fayre and fyne, and also ryght sure for any maner of fysshe.

YE shall vnderstand, that the moste subtyl and har­dest craft in making your harneis, is for to make your hookes. For whose makyng ye must haue fete to­les thyn and sharpe and smal beaten, a semy clam of I­ron, a bender, a payre of longe and smal tonges, and an harde knyfe somedele thycke and an anuy [...]de, and a ly­tle hammer.

❧And for smal fysshe, ye shal make your hookes of the smallest quarell ned [...]les that ye can fynde of steele, & in this wyse ye shall put the quarel in a red charcole fyre, tyll it be of the same colour that the fyre is. Than take him out and let him kele, and ye shall finde him wel a­layed for to fyl [...]. Than rayse the berde wyth your knyfe & make ye poynt sharpe. Than alaye him agayne or els he wil breake in the bendyng. Than bende hym like to [...] bende accordinge to the purpose. And greater hoo­kes ye shal make in ye same wise of great nedles, as bro­derers nedelles, or tailers, or shoomakers nedles, spere poyntes of shomakers nalles ī especial ye best for great fishe, and looke yt they bēd at the poynt whā they ben as­saied, for els they be not good. Whan the hooke is bēded, bete the hinder ende abrode, & fyle it smothe for fretting of ye lyne. Than put it into the fyre againe, & geue it an easy red here. Than sodenly quenche it in water, and it wyl be harde and strong. And for to haue knowledge in your instrumentes: [...]oe they be here in figure portrayed.

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¶Hāmer, Knife / Pinsons, Clame / Wedge / File, [...] / [...] [...]nnelde.

WHē ye haue made your hookes: thē must ye set them on your lynes according in greatnes & strength in thys wyse, ye shal take small red sylke, and if it be for a great hooke thē double it not twined. And els for smal hookes let it be single, and there­with frete thicke the line there as the one ende of youre hooke shal syt a straw brede. Then set there your hooke and frete him with the same threde the two partes of ye lengthe that shalbe fret in all. And when ye come to the thirde part: thē turne the ende of your lyne agayne vp­pon the frete double, and frete it so double at the other thirde parte, then put your threde in at the hole twies or thryse, and let it goe eche tyme round aboute the yerde of your hooke, then wete the hole and drawe it tyll it be faste, and looke that your line lie euermore within your hookes, and not without, then cut of the lynes ende and the threde as nigh as ye may sauyng the frete.

❧So ye know wyth how great hookes ye shall angle to euery fishe, now I wyll tel you with how many hea­res ye shall Angle to euery fishe. Fyrst for the Menow with a line of one heare. For the waryng roche, ye bleke, the Gogyn & the Ruf with a line of two heares, for the Darse and the great roche with a line of thre heares, For the Perch with Flounder and bremet with foure heares For the Cheuyn chubbe, the Breme. the Tēche, and the [Page] Eele with six heares. For the troute, graysyng barbyl, & the great cheuyn: with nyne heares. For the great wyth twelue heares. For the Samon with .xv. heares, and for the pike with a chalke lyne made browne with your browne colour aforesayd armed with a line as ye shall heare hereafter whan I speake of the pyke. [...]our ly­nes must be plummed with lead. And ye shal wete that the next plumbe to the hooke, shalbe therfro a large fote & more, and euery plūbe a quantitie vnto the greatnes of the lyne. There be thre maner of plūbes for a ground lyne rennyng. And for the flote set vpon the groūd line lyeng .x. plūbes ioynyng al together on the ground line renning nyne or ten smal. The flote plūbe shalbe heuy yt the first plucke of any fysshe may pul it downe into ye water, and make your plumbes round and smothe, yt they sticke not on stones or on weedes, and for the more vnderstandyng, lo they be here in fygures.

❧The ground lyne, renning and lieng.
☞The Flote lyne, and the lyne for Perche or Tench
❧The lyne for a pyke, plūbe, corke and armed wt wire

THen shall ye make your flotes in this wyse. Take a fayre corke that is clene wtout any holes and bore it throughe with a small hote yron, and put therin a pen iuste and streyght, euer more note the grea­ter [Page] pen, and the greater hole. Than shape it greate in the middes, and small at bothe endes, & specially sharp in the nether ende, and lyke vnto the figures folowyng and make theym smothe on a grindinge stone or on a tyle stone, and looke that flote for one heare be no more thē a pese, for two hearꝭ as a beane, for .xii. heares as a walnut, & so eueri line must haue according to his porcion. ¶Al maner lines that be not for the ground: must haue flotes, and the renninge ground line muste haue a flote, the lieng ground lyne must haue a flote.

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NOw I haue lerned you to make al your har [...]eys Here I wyl tell you how ye shall angle.

❧Ye shal vnderstand that there is syxe maner of ang­lyng. That one is at ye ground for the troute and other fisshe. An other is at the ground at an arche or a stange, where it ebbeth and floweth: for bl [...]ke, roche, and Darse. ye thirde is with a flote for al maner of fysshe. The four­the with a menow for the Troute, without plumbe or flote. The fifth is renning in the same for the Roche & darse, with one or two heares and a flye. The sixt is a dubbed hooke, for the Troute or graylyng. And for the first and principal poynt in angling: kepe the euer from the water for the syght of the fisshe, eyther ferre vpon ye lande, or els behinde a bushe that the fishe se you not. For yf they doo: they will not bite. And looke that ye shadow not the water as muche as ye may. For it is that thing that wyl soone fraye the fishe. And if a fyshe be a frayde: he wil [...] not byte longe after. For all maner of [Page] fyshe that feed by the grounde ye shall angle for them to the botome, so that your hooke shal renne, or lye on the grounde. And for all other fyshe y fedeth aboue: ye shall angle for them in the middes of the water, or sōdele beneth, or somdele aboue, for euer the greater fisshe: the nerer he lyeth to the botome of ye water. And euer the smaler fyshe the more he swimmeth aboue, The third good poynte is whan the fishe biteth that ye be not to hasty to smyte, nor to late.

For ye must abyde tyll ye suppose that the bayte be fer in the mouth of the fishe, & then abyde no lenger, & this is for the ground. And for the flote, when ye se it pulled softly vnder the water, or els caryed softly vpon ye wa­ter, then smyte. And looke that ye neuer ouersmite the strenght of your lyne for breking. And yf it fortune you to smite a great fyshe with a smal harneis, then ye must lede him in ye water, & labour him there tyl he be drow­ned & ouercome▪ Then take him as wel as ye cā or may and euer beware that ye holde not ouer the strengthe of your lyne. And as much as ye may let him not com out of your lines ende streyght from you, but kepe him euer vnder the rod, & euermore holde him streyght so yt youre line may susteyne, and beare his leapes, and his plūges with the helpe of your croppe and of your hande.

HEere I wil declare vnto you, in what place of the water ye shall angle, ye shall angle in a poole or in a standing water in euery place where it is any thing deep.

☞There is no great choyse of any place where it is a­ny thyng deep in a poole. For it is but a pryson vnto all fyshes & therfore it is the lesse maystry to take thē. But in a riuer, ye shall angle in euery place where it is depe [Page] and clere by the groūd, as grauell or clay without mud or wedes, and in especiall if that there be a maner whyr­ling of water or a couert. As an holowe banke or great rootes of trees, or lōg weedes fletyng aboue the waters where as the fysshe maye couer and hyde them selfe at certayne tymes whan they lyst. Also it is good for to angle in deep styffe streames, and also in valles of wa­ter and weares, & in flode gates or myll pyttes.

And at the banke, and where the streme renneth nighe therby, and is depe and clere by the grounde and in any other places wher ye may se any fysshe haue any fedīg.

AS now shal ye wyt, what tyme of the day ye shall angle. From the beginnynge of Maye vntyl it be September: the byting time is erlye in the [...]or [...]we from four of the clocke vnto eyght of the clocke, at after none from foure to eyght also, but not to good [...] the mornyng, and if it be a colde wynde and a lowryng day, it is muche better than a clere daye. Also manye po [...]e fysshes wyl byte best in the morne tyde.

❧And yf ye se in any time of the day the Troute or gralyng lepe, angle to him with a dub according to the same moneth. And where the water ebbeth and floweth: the fis­she wyl byte in some place at the ebbe, and in some place at the floud after they haue restyng behinde stanges, & arches of brydges, and other suche maner places.

HEere shal ye wit in what maner of wether ye shal angle in, as I sayd before in a darke lo [...]ryng day whan the winde bloweth softly. And in sommer season whan it is brenning hote, than it is naught. From Septembre vnto Apryll in a fayre sunny daye it is ryght good to Angle: and yf the winde [...] haue a­nye parte of the Dryer [...] wa [...]he [...]: [...] it is naught, & whan it is great wynde & whan it showeth, raynech, or [Page] hayleth, or is a great tempest, as thunder or lyghtninge or a swoly hote wether: than it is nought for to angle.

YE shall now wit that there be twelue maner of impedimentes whiche cause a man to take no fysshe, wythout other comin that may casually hap. The first is yf your harneys be not mete, nor fetely made. The second is, if your baytes be not good nor fyne. The thirde is yf that ye angle not in bytyng tyme. The .iiii. is yf the fisshe be frayde with the syght of a man. The .v. yf that the water be very thicke, whyte or red of anye floud late falen. The .vi. yf the fisshe stere not for colde. The .vii. yf that the wether be hote. The .viii. yf it rayne. The .ix yf it hayle or snow. The .x. yf it be tempest. The xi. yf it be great wynde. The .xii. yf the winde be in ye east and that is worste. For commonly neyther wynter nor somer the fysshe wyll not byte than. The west and the north winde ben good, but the southe is best.

ANd now I haue tolde you howe to make your harneys, and how ye shall fysshe therewith in al poyntes: reason wyl that ye know with what baytes ye shall angle to euery maner of fysshe in euery moneth of the yere, which is al the effect of the craft. And wythout which [...]aytes: knowe well by you, all your other crafte here to borne au [...]ileth you not to purpose. For ye cannot bryng a hooke into a fysshe mouth without a bayte, whi­che baytes for euery maner of fysshe, and for euery mo­neth here foloweth in this wyse.

AS now bycause that the Samon is moste state­lye fysshe that any man may angle to in fresshe water: Therfore I purpose to begin at hym.

[Page] ✚The Samon is a gentyll fisshe, but he is comberous for to take. For cōmēly he is but in deep places of great ryuers, and for the moste parte beholdeth him in ye middes of it, that a man may not come at him. And he is in season frō Marche vnto michelmas. In whych season ye shal angle to him with these baites whan ye may get them. First with a red worme in the beginninge & en­ding of the season, and also with a grub that breedeth in a dūghill, and especially with a souerayne bayte that bredeth in a water docke. And he bideth not at ye groūd but at the flote, also ye may take him, but it is seldome seene with a grub at suche tymes as whan he lepeth, in lyke forme and maner as ye doo take a troute or a gra­lyng, and these ben well proued baytes for the Samon.

THe Troute for bicause he is a right deynteous fish and also feruent biter, we shall speake next of him. He is in season fro Marche vnto Myhelmas. He is on cleane grauell grounde, and in a streme, ye maye angle to hym at all tymes with a ground lyne, lieng or renning, sauyng only in leaping tyme, and than with a dubbe. And erly with a renning ground line, and forth on the day with a flote lyne.

❧Ye shal angle to him in Marche with a menow han­ged on your hooke by the nethernes wtout flote or plūbe drawing vp and downe in the streme till ye feele hī fast

❧In the same tyme angle to hym with groūd lynes, & with a red worme for ye most sure. In Aprill take ye same baytes, and also Iuneba. otherwyse named .vii. eyes. & also the cāker yt breedeth in a great tree & the red snayle.

❧In may take the stone flye, & the [...]obbe vnder the cow tord & the sylk worm & the baite yt bredeth on a ferne lefe

✚In Iune take a red worm & nip of the hed and a cod­worme [Page] before vpon the hooke. In Iuly take ye great red worme & the codworme together. In august take a flesh flye, and the great red worme, and the fat of the bakon, and bynde them together aboute the hooke. In Septembre take the red worme and ye menow, In October take the same, for they ben special for the troute at al tymes of the yere. From Apryll tyll September the troute le­peth, than angle to hym wt a dubbed hooke accordynge to the moneth which dubbed hookes ye shall finde at ye ende of this treatyse, and the monethes wyth them.

THe Grayling by an other name called Umbre is a ryght delycyous fishe to mannes mouthe, and ye may take hym lyke as ye doo the Troute, and these ben his baytes, In Marche and in Aprill the red worme In May the greene worme, a lytle braysed worme, the docke Canker and the hawthorne worme. In Iune the bayte that breedeth betwene the tree and the barke of an Oke. In Iuill a bayte that breedeth on a ferne lefe and the great red worme, and nyp of the head and put it on your hooke and a Codworme before in August the red worme and a Docke worme, and all the yere after a red worme.

THe Barbell is a sweet fish but it is aquaysy meat and perylous for a mans body. For commonly he giueth an introduccion to the febres. And yf that he be eaten raw, he may because of mannes death, why­che hath often tymes ben seene. These be his baytes. In Marche and in Apryll take a fayre fresshe cheese, & laye it on a borde, and cut it in small square peces of the len­gth of your hooke. Than take a candel and brenne it at the ende at the poynt of the hooke vnto the tyme that it be yelow, & than bynde it on your hooke wyth fletchers [Page] silke, and make it rough like a welbede, this bayte is good all the sommer season. In May & Iune take ye hauthorne worme, & the great red worme, & nip of the head and put vpon your hooke a codworme before, and that is a good bayte. In Iuly take the red worme for cheef, & the hauthorne together, also the water docke lefe worme together in august, and for al the yere, take the talaw of a shepe. & soft cheese of eche lyke muche, & a litel honye, & grind or stāpe thē together long & tēper it till it be tough and put therto a lytle floure, & make it in small pelletes & that is a good baite to angle wt at ye ground, & looke yt it sinke in ye water, or els it is not good to this purpose.

THe Carpe is a deynteous fishe, but there be but few in England, and therfore I write least of hī he is an euyl fishe to take. For he his so strong en armed in the mouth that there may no weke harneyes holde hī And as touching his baytes I haue but litle knowledg of it, and I were lothe to write more then I know, and [...]aue proued. But well I know that the red worme and the menow ben good baytes for him, at all tymes, as I haue heard saye of persons credible, and also found wri­ten in bookes of credence.

THe cheuin is a stately fishe, & his head is a deynti morsel. There is no fish so strongly enarmed wt scales on the body, and because he is a stronge biter: he hath the more baytes which ben these. In Marche the red worme at the groūd, for commonly then he wil bite there at all tyme of the yere, yf he be any thyng hungry. In Aprill the diche Canker that breedeth in the tree, a worme that breedeth betwene the rynde and the tree of an oke. The red worme, and the yong frosh is when the feete be cut of. Also the stoneslie, the bob vnder the cowe­torde, the red snayle, In Maye, the bayte that breedeth [Page] in the osy [...]r lefe, & the docke canker together vpon your hooke, and a bayte that breedeth on a ferne lefe, the red worme, and a bayte that breedeth on a hauthorne, and a bayte that breedeth on an oken lefe, and a silke worme, and a codworme together. In Iune take the creker and the dorre, and also a red worme, the head cutte of and a codworme before, and put them on the hooke. Also a bayte in the osyer lefe, yonge frosshes, the three fete cut of by the body, and the fourth by the knee. The bayte on the hauthorne, and ye codworme together & also a grub that breedeth on a dungehil, a great greshop and ye humble bee in the medow. Also yonge bees, and yong hornettes, also a great brēdeth fly that breedeth in pathes me­dowes, and the flye that is amonge pismer hilles. In August take worte wormes, and magottes to Mychel­mas, In September the red worme, and also take the baytes when ye may get them, that is to wyte, cheries, and yonge myce, not hered, and the house combe.

THe Breme is a noble fyshe, and a deynteous, & ye shal angle for him from Marche vnto august with a red worme, and then with a butter flye. & a gree­ne flye, & with a bayte that breedeth amonge green reed and a baite that breedeth in the barke of a dead tree, and for bremettes take magottes. And from that time forth al the yere after take the red worme, & in the ryuer browne brede. More baytes there be, not easy, and therefore I let them pass [...].

THe Tenche is a good fishe, and healeth al maner of other fishe ye ben hurt if they mai come to him He is moste parte of the yere in the mud, & styreth moste in Iune and Iuly, and in other season but lytle. He is an euyll byter, and hys baytes ben these for all the yere, browne bread tosted with hony in lykenes of a but [Page] tred lofe, & the great redde worme. And take the blacke bloude in the heart of a sheep, & floure & hony, & tempre them altogether, somedele softer then past, & anoynt the red worme therwith, bothe for hys fisshe and for other. And they wyl byte muche the better therat, at al times.

❧The perche is a deynteous fyshe, & passing holsom, and after bytyng. These ben hys baytes. In marche the redde worme. In Apryll the bobbe vnder the cowetord. In may ye slothorne worme, & the codworme. In Iune ye baite that breedeth in an olde fallē oke, & the great cāker In Iuly the baite ye breedeth on the oyser lefe, & the bob that bredeth on a dunghil, & the hathorne worme & the codworme. In August the red worme and magottes, and al the yere after take the red worme for the best.

✚The roche is an easy fysshe to take, & if he be fat & pē ned thē is he good meat, & these bē his baytes. In marche the red worme. In Apryl the bobbe vnder the cow­tord. In Maye the bayte that breedeth on the oken lefe, & the bob on the dunghyl. In Iune the bayte that breedeth on osyer, & the codworm. In Iuly house spies & the baite that breedeth on an oke, & the nutworme, & mathewes, & maggots vnto michelmas, & thē after yt the fat of bakō.

¶The Dace is a gentyl fishe to take & if it be wel refert thē it is good meat. In March his bayt is a red worm. And in April the bob vnder the cowtorde. In Maye the docke canker, & the bayte on the flothorne, & on the oken lefe. In Iune the codworme & the bayt on the osyer, and the white grub in the dunghil. In Iuly take house spies & flies ye breede in pismer hilles, ye codworme & magots vnto michelmas, & if ye water be clere, ye shal take fishe whē other take none, & frō ye time forth do as ye do for ye roche, for cōmōly it is seen yt their bitīg & baytes be like

The bleke is but a feble fishe, yet he is holsō, his baitꝭ [Page] frō march to Mighelmas be the same yt I haue write before for ye roche & the darse, sauyng al ye somer season yt ye may angle for him with a house flie, & in winter seasō wt bakō & other baite made as ye hereafter may know.

✚The Ruf is right and holsome fisshe, & ye shall angle to him wyth the same baites in all seasons of the yere & in the same wise as I haue tolde you of the perche, for they be like in fyshe and feedyng, sauyng the ruf is lesse and therfore ye must haue the smaller bayte.

❧The Flounder is a holsome fysshe & a fre, & a subtyl byter in his maner. For commonly whā he souketh his meat he fedeth at the groūd, & therfore ye must angle to him with a ground line lieng, & he hath but one maner of bayte, & that is a red worme, & that is most chefe for all maner of fysshe. ¶The Gogyn is a good fysshe of the mochenes, & he biteth wel at the ground, & his bay­tes for al the yere ben these, the red worme, codworme & magottes & ye must angle to him wt a flote, and let your bayte be nere the botome, or els vpon the ground.

❧The menow whē he shineth in ye water, thē he is bitter, and though is body be but litle yet he is a rauenous byter, & egre, and ye shall angle for him with the same baytes yt ye doo for ye gogin sauing they must be small.

¶The Eele is a quaysi fish, a rauenour & deuourer of the broode of fish, & the pyke also is a deuourer of fish. I put thē bothe behinde al other for to āgle, for this eele ye shal fīd an whole in ye groūd of water, & it is blew & blackish, there put in your hooke til yt it be a foote wtin ye hole & your baite shalbe a great āgle [...]wich or a menow. The pike is a good fish but for he deuoureth so manye as wel of his owne kinde as of other, I loue him ye lesse & for to take him ye shal doo thꝰ. Take a roche or a fresh hering, & a wyre with a hooke in ye ende & put it in at ye [Page] mouth, & out at ye taile down by ye ridge of the fresh h [...]ring & thā put the lyne of your hooke in after, and dra [...] the hooke into ye cheke of the freshe hering, thā put a [...] be of lead vpon your lyne a yerde longe from your [...], & a flote in midway betwene, & cast it in a pyt wher [...] the pikes vse, & this is the best and moste surest craft t [...] take the pike. And three maner of taking him there is take a frosshe & put it on your hooke at ye neck betwen [...] skin & ye body, on ye back half, & put on a flote a yerd the to, & cast it where the pike haunteth & ye shal haue hym

✚An other maner, take the same bait & put it in assafe [...]ida, & cast it into the water wt a corde and a corke an [...] ye shall not fayle of him. And if ye list to haue a good sporte, thā tie the corde to a goose foote, & ye shal se good haling whether the gose or the pike shal haue the better

NOw ye wote with what baytes and how ye shal angle vnto euery maner of fyshe, Now I wyll tel [...] you how ye shall keep and feede your quicke baytes, y [...] shall feede and keep them all in generall, but euery ma [...]ner by him selfe with suche thinges in and on whych [...] they breede. And as longe as they be quicke & new they be fyne. But whan they be in a sl [...]ugh or els dead tha [...] ben they nought. Out of these ben excepted three broo [...]des, that is to wyte of hornetes, humblebees, and was [...]pes, whome ye shal bake in breade, and after dyp thei [...] heades in bloud and let them drye. Also except mago [...]tes, whiche whan they be bred great with their natura [...] feedyng, ye shal feed thē forthermore with sheeps talow And take good hede yt in going about your disportes y [...] open no mās gates but yt ye shit thē agayn. Also ye shal [...] not vse this forsayd crafti disport for no couetousnꝭ, t [...] the encreasing & sparing of your money only, but princ [...]pally for your solace, & to cause the helth of your body, [...] [Page] specyallly of your soule. For whan ye purpose to go on your disportes in fisshynge, ye will not desyre greatlye many persons with you whiche might let you of your game. And than ye may serue god deuoutly in sayinge effectually your customable prayers. And thus doyng: ye shal eschew and also auoyde many vices, as ydelnes whiche is principall cause to enduce man to many other vices as it is right wel knowē, Also ye shal not be to rauenous in taking of your said game, as to much at one time whych ye may lightly doo yf ye doo in euery poynt as this presēt treatyse sheweth you, which should lightly be the occasion to destroy your owne disportes and other mens also. And whan ye haue a sufficient messe ye should coueyte no more at that time. Also ye shall besye your selfe to nourish the game in al that ye may and also to distroy all suche thynges as bene deuourers of it.

Finis. ¶And all those that dooth after this rule shal haue the blessyng of God and saynt Peter, which he them graūt that with his precious bloud vs bought. Amen.
¶Heere endeth the booke of Haukyng, Hunting, and Fysshing, with other diuers matters.

❧Imprinted at London in Fletestrete at the sygne of the Rose Garland by Wyllyam Copland.

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