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¶This present boke shewyth the manere of hawkynge & hun­tynge: and also of diuysynge of Cote armours / It shewyth also a good matere belongynge to horses: wyth other cōmendable treatyses. And ferdermore of the blasynge of armys: as here after it maye appere.

IN so moche that gentylmen and honeste persones haue grete delyte in hawkynge / and delyre to haue the manere to take hawkys: and also how and in what wyse they sholde guide them ordynatly / and to knowe the gentyll termes in comynynge of theyr hawkys / and to vnderstonde theyr syknesses & infirmytees / and also to knowe medycynes for theym accordynge: and many notable termys that ben vsyd in haw­kynge / bothe of theyr hawkes & of the foules that theyr haw­kes shall slee. ¶Therfore this boke folowynge in a dewe four me shewyth very knowlege of suche plesure to gentylmen and persones dysposyd to se it.

¶This is the manere to begyn̄ to kepe hawkes / but not all manere hawkes: but on̄ly goshawkes & tercellis of goshawkys and spare hawkes / and in what manere they shall be take.

¶The manere to speke of hawkes fro an egge tyll they ben able to be taken.

FOR to speke of Hawkes / Fyrste they ben egges And afterwarde they ben dysclosed hawkys. And comynly goshawkis ben disclosyd assoone as the choughꝭ and in some place more tymely after the countree is of hete & tymely bredynge. ¶And we shall saye that hawkis done: eyer: and not brede in the woodes. ¶And we shall saye that hawkis done: drawe: whan they beere tymberyng to theyr nestis / and not they: buylde: ne make their nestis: ¶And in the tyme of their loue they: calle: and not: cau­ke: ¶And we shall saye that they: treede:. ¶And whan they ben vnclosyd and begyn̄ to feder ony thynge of lengthe: anone by kynde they woll drawe somwhat oute of the neste: & drawe to bowes and come ayen to theyr neste. And thenne they ben cal­lyd: bowesses:. ¶And after saynt Margarytes daye they wyll fle fro tree to tree. And then̄e they ben callyd: braunchers:. And thenne it is tyme for to take theym. ¶And .vij. nyghtes before saynt Margarites daye and .vij. nyghtes after: is beste takyng of spare hawkis.

¶How ye shal demeane you in takynge of hawkis & wyth [Page] what Instrumentis: and how ye shall call theym.

WHo so woll take hawkes he must haue nettes whiche ben callyd Vrynes / And those must be made of good smalle threde. And it had nede to be dyed other grene or blewe / for espyenge of the hawke. And he must take wyth hym nedyll & threde to ensile the hawkes that ben taken. And in this manere thei must be ensiled. ¶Take the nedyll & threde & put it thorough the ouer eye lydde / & so of that other. and make them fast vnd (er) the becke that she se not / & then̄ she is ensiled as she oughte to be. ¶Some vse to ensyle theym wyth the nether eye lydde aboue the becke on the heed almost / but yt is the worste way. For of reason the ouer eye lidde closeth more iustly than the nether by cause of the largenesse. ¶whan she is ensiled beere her home on thy fyste & caste her on a perche: and lete her stonde there a nyght & a daye. And on ye other daye towarde nyght: then̄ take & kytte easely the thredes & take them away softly for breking of the eye lyddis. Then̄ softe & fayr begin̄ to fede her: and deale easely wyth her tyll she woll sytte well vpon the fyste. For it is drede for hurtyng of her wynges. And then̄ the same nyght after the fedinge wake her all nyght & the morough all day. then̄ she woll be preuy ynough to be reclamyd. And the fyrst mete yt she shall ete lete it be hore. and yeue her ynough therof.

¶whan your hawke maye be drawe to reclayme: and the ma­nere of her dyete.

ANd yf your hawke be harde pennyd: she maye be draw­en to be reclaymyd. For all the whyle that she is tendre pennyd she is not able to be reclaymyd. ¶And yf she be a goshauke or tercell yt shalbe reclamed: euer fede her wt wasshe meete at the drawynge: & at the reclaymynge / But loke that it be hote. And in this manere wasshe it ¶Take the meete & goo to the water & stryke it vp & downe in the water: and wrynge the water out / and fede her therwith & she be a brauncher. And yf it be an eyesse ye must wasshe the meete clener than ye do to the brauncher / And wyth a lynnen clothe wype it and fede her. ¶And euer more the thyrde daye gyue her castynge whan she [Page] is fleenge yf she be a goshawke or tercell in this manere. ¶Take new blanket clothe and kytte .v. pellettes therof of an ynche longs: and take the flesshe and kytte .v. morcelles / And wyth a kniues poynt make an hole in eueri morcell: and put therin the pellettys of clothe / And take a fayr dysshe wyth water and put theym therin. Thenne take the hawke & yeue her a morcell of hote meete the quantyte of halfe her supper. Thenne take that yt lyeth in the water and fede her for all nyghte.

¶How ye shall fede your hawke and to knowe her Infyrmy­tees: and there ben many dyuers of theym.

YF your hawke be a spare hawke: euer fede her wyth vn­wasshe meete / And loke that her castynge be plumage. Thenne loke that it be clene vnder the perche. And on ye nexte day ye shall fynde the castynge vnder the perche. And there ye shall knowe whether the hawke be clene or noo. For some pece wyll be yelowe: & some grene: and some glaymous: & some clere. And yf it be yelowe: she engendryth the Frounce / whyche is an euyll yt woll ryse in the mouth or in the cheke. And yf it be grene: she engendryth the Rye. The condycyon of this euyll is this: It woll aryse in the heed & make the heed to swell / & in the eyen all glaymous & derke. And but it haue helpe it woll dow­ne in to the legges & make the legges to rancle. And if it go fro the legges in to the heed ayen thy hawke is but loste. And yf it be glaymous and ropynge: she engendryth an euyll callyd the Cray / that is whan an hawke maye not muteyse.

¶Marke well your medycynes here folowynge

¶A medycyne for the Frounce in the mouthe: Take a syluer spone and put the smalle ende in the fyre tyll it be hote. Then̄e lete holde the hawke: and open̄ her beke and bren̄e the sore / and anoynt it wyth the mery of a gose that hath lyen longe: and she shall be hole. And yf the Frounce be wexid as grete as a notte Thenne there is a grubbe therin. whyche ye shall kytte wyth a rasure in this manere. Lete holde the hawke and slytte ye ola­ce where the sore is / and ye shall fynde there in as it were th [...] mawe of a pegeon. Take it oute all hoole / and take a payre o [...] [Page] sheerys and kytte the hole of the sore: and make it as fayr as ye maye wyth a lynnen clothe. And whype clene the blood awaye And enoynte the sore wyth bame foure dayes suyngly: and af­terwarde wyth Papylyon tyll it be hole.

¶How the Frounce comyth
¶The Frounce comyth whan a man fedyth hys hawke wyth porke or cattys flesshe four dayes togyder.
¶How the Rye comyth
¶For defawte of hote meete this syknesse the Rye comyth.
¶How the Craye comyth
¶The Craye comyth of wasshe meete whyche is wasshe wyth hote water in the defawte of hote meete. Also it comyth of thredes whyche ben in the flesshe that the hawke is fedde with. For though ye pyke the flesshe neuer soo clene: yet ye shall fynde thredes therin.

¶Whan your hawke shall bathe hym

¶And euer more eche thyrde daye lete your hawke bathe hym durynge the Somer yf it be fayre weder. And onys in a weke in Wynter yf it be fayre weeder and not ellys. And whanne ye bathe youre hawke: euer geue her a morcell of hote meete vn­wasshe though she be a goshawke.

¶How ye maye cause your hawke to fle wyth a courage in the mornynge.

¶Yf ye woll that your hawke fle in the morough tyde: fede her the nyght before wyth hote meete. And wasshe the same meete in vryne: and wrynge oute the water clene. And that shall ma­ke her to haue luste and courage to fle in the mornynge in the beste manere.

¶How ye shall guyde you yf your hawke be full goorgyd and ye wolde soone haue a flyghte.

¶Yf your hawke be full goorgyd: and that ye wolde soone vp­pon haue a flyghte / Take four cornes of whete and put theym in a morcell of flesshe: and yeue the same morcellys to the haw­ke: and she wyll caste anone all that she hath wythin her. And a none after that she hath cast: loke ye haue a morcell of hote mete to yeue her. And yf your hawke be ouergorgyd: yeue her the same medycyne.

A medycyne for the Rye

[Page]¶Take daysees leuys: and stampe theym in a morter / & wrynge out the Iuse: and wyth a penne putt it in the hawkys nares ones or twies whan the hawke is smalle gorgyd. And anone after lete her tyre: & she shall be hole as a fysshe / ¶Or ellys take percely rotes & serue her wyth theym in the same manere / . And whan she tyryth: holde Rewe in your honde wyth the tyrynge: and that shall make her voyde / But it is peryllous te vse it ofte that the Iuys falle ne sprynge in to her eyen.

¶Also & ye yeue your hawke fresshe butter or the mery of hoggys that is in the bone of the butte of porke: it shal make her to caste water well at the nares / And it wyll kepe the nares open / But it woll make her hawteyne & proude.

¶A medycyne for the Craye: and moo folowe

¶Take and chauf wyth your hondys the fundement of youre hawke wyth warme water a longe tyme. And after that take ye powdre of Saxifrage: or ellys the powdre of rewe: & a quantyte of May butter / and tempre it well togider tyll they ben euyn medled / Thenne put it in a lytyll boxe & stoppe it faste. And as ofte as ye fede your hawke an hoole meele: anoynt her meete a lytyll therwyth / & that shall make her to loue meete the better: for loue of the oynement. And it shall saue her fro the Craye & from many other syknesses yt gendre ofte in an hawke.

¶Also take the hote herte of an hogge or of a pygge: and fede her two dayes therwyth: and she shall be hole.

¶Also take porke and weete it in hote mylke of [...] cowe and fe­de the hawke therwyth / and that shall make her muteyse at the beste wyse.

¶Also porke wyth the mery of the boon of the butte of porke shall make her muteyse / and fede her wyth bothe togyder.

¶Also vse her to fresshe butter and it woll doo the same.

¶Also one meele or two at ye moost of the hote liuer of a pigge shall make her to muteyse well. Bewaar ye yeue her not to grete a gorge therof: for it is a peryllous meete.

¶Also take the white of an egge: & labour the same in a spoūge as well as ye wolde make glayre for redde ynke tyll it be lyke water. Put ye same in a vessell: & lete the mete yt shalbe for her soper lye a stepe therin al the day before / & at nyghte fede her ther wyth. And yt whiche shalbe for her dyner in the mornyng lete it [Page] lye all the nyghte. but in ony wyse that ye haue alwaye fresshe gleyre. And of her fedynge be porke it is the better. ¶That is prouyd.

¶The kyndly termys that belonge to hawkys.

IN the begynnynge of kyndly [...]peche of the termys that belonge to hawkys here ye maye fynde theym. The fyrste is Holde faste at all tymes / and specyally whan she batyth. It is callyd batynge: for she batyth wyth herself moost often causeles. ¶The seconde is Rebate your hawke to your fyste. and that is whan your hawke batith: the leest meuynge that ye can make wyth your fyste: she wyll rebate ayen vpon youre fyste. ¶The thirde is Fede your hawke / and not gyue her meete. ¶The fourth is An hawke snytyth: or sueth her becke. and not wipyth her beke. ¶The fyfth Your hawke Ioukyth / & not slepyth. ¶The syxte Youre hawke proynyth / and not pyckyth. And she proynyth not but whan she begynnyth at her leggys: and fetchith moysture lyke oyle at her tayll: and bamyth her fete / and striketh the feders of her wynges thrugh her becke. And it is callyd the Note: whan she fetchith suche oyle. And ye shal vnderstonde that an hawke wolde not be lette of her proynyng For atte suche tyme as she proynyth she is lykynge and lusty. And whan she hath doon she woll rowse her myghtly. ¶A [...] [...]ome tyme youre hawke countenauncyth as she pyckyd her / and yet she proynyth not. And thenne ye muste saye She refour­myth her feders / and not pyckyth her feders. ¶The seuenth Your hawke colyeth / and not beckyth. ¶The eyghte She rowsith / and not shaketh herself. ¶The nynthe She streynyth / and not claweth ne cratchyth. ¶The tenthe She mantellyth: and not stretchyth whan she puttyth her legges from her: one after a nother: and her wynges folowe her legges. Thenne she doth mantyll her. And whan she hath mantyllyd her and bryngyth bothe her wynges togyder ouer her backe: Ye shall saye youre hawke warbellyth her wynges. And yt is one terme dewe ther­fore. ¶The enleuenth ye shall saye Your hawke mutessyth or mutyth / and not shiteth. ¶The twelfyth ye shall saye Caste your hawke to the perche / and not sette youre hawke vppon the perche.

¶Here ye shall vnd (er)stonde ferdermore other manere of termes yt belonge vnto hawkis for to cōmende them for dyuers of theyr proprytees

FYrste ye shall saye This is a fayr hawke And huge hawke A longe hawke A shorte thycke hawke. And saye not This is a grete hawke. Also ye shall saye This hawke hath a large becke or a shorte becke / And calle it not byll. An huge heed or a smalle heed fayr seesenyd. Ye shall saye: your hawke is full goorgyd: and not croppyd. And your hawke puttyth ouer and endueth. and yet she dooth both dyuersly.

¶How your hawke puttyth ouer

¶An hawke puttyth ouer whan she remeuyth the meete from her goorge in to her bowellys. And thꝰ ye shall knowe it: whan she puttythouer she trauersyth wyth her body / and specyally wyth the necke as a crane dooth or a nother byrde.

¶whan ye shall saye Enduth and Embowellyd

¶An hawke Enduth neuer as longe as her bowelles ben full at her fedynge / But as soone as she is fedde: and restyth / she enduth lytyll and lytyll. And yf her goorge be wyde and the bowell ony thynge stiffyd: ye shall saye she is Embowellyd and haue not fully Endewed. ¶And as longe as ye maye fynde ony thynge in her bowelles it is ryghte peryllous to gyue her ony meete.

¶Marke well thyse termys folowynge

¶Saye an hawke hath a longe wynge: A fayr longe taylle wyth .vi. barrys out: and stondyth vpon the seuenth. This hawke is enterpennyd: That is to saye / whan the feders of the wynges ben betwene the body and the thyghes. This hawke hath an huge legge or a flatte legge / or a rounde legge / or a fayr en­seryd legge.

¶To knowe the mayll of an hawke

¶Hawkes haue whyte mayll: Canuasmayll or redde mayll. And some calle redde mayll Yren mayll: whyte mayll is soone knowen. Canuasmayll is betwene white mayll and yren mayll And yren mayll is very redde.

¶Plumage. and: caste: your hawke.

¶A goshawke nor a tercell in theyr soore aege haue not theyr mayles namyd / But it is callyd theyr plumage. and after the cote: it is callyd theyr: mayle. ¶And yf your hawke rewarde to ony foule by countenaunce for to fle therto / Ye shall saye: caste: the hawke therto. and not lete: fle: therto.

¶Nomme or seesyd.

¶And yf your hawke: nomme: a foule / and ye foule breke awaye fro her: She hath: dyscomfit: many feders of the foule / and is broken awaye. For in kyndly speche ye shall saye youre hawke hath: nōmyd: or seesid a foule / and not: take: it.

¶wherfore an hawke is callyd a: ryfelere:

¶And oft tymes it happith many an hawke for egrenesse whā he sholde nomme a foule he seesith but the feders. And as ofte as he doth so he ryflyth. Therfore suche hawkes ben callyd: ryfeleres: yf they doo ofte so.

¶How ye shall name the membres of your haw­kes in couenable termes.

NOw ye shal vnderstonde the names of the membres of hawkes: to begynne at theyr fete and goo vpwarde / as knyghtes ben harnessyd & armyd. And so we shall enarme her.

¶Talons
¶Fyrste the grete clees behynde / that strenyth the backe of the honde: ye shall calle theym: talons:
¶Pounces
¶The clees wythin the fote ye shall call of right her: pounces:
¶Longe: sengles:
¶But certenly the: clees: that are vpon the myddill stretchers ye shall call the: longe sengles:
¶Pety sengles
¶And the vttermest clees ye shall call the: pety sengles:
The keye or closer
¶Vnderstonde ye also that the: longe senclees: ben callyd the keye of the fote: or the closer. For what thynge soeuer it be that your hawke streynyth is vpon ye sengle. & all the fote is therupon. For the strength therof fortifyeth al the fote.
¶Seris of watery or waxy colour
¶Knowe ye that the skynne abowte your hawkys leggis and her fete is callyd the Serys of her leggis and her fete / whether they ben watery hewed or of waxy colour yolowe.
¶The Beme feder: full Summyd: full Fermyd and reclaymyd.
AN hawke hath .xij. feders vpon his tayll. And one pryn­cypall feder of the same is in the myddys. And in mane­re all the other ben coueryd vnder the same feder. And yt is callyd the Beme feder of the tayll. And there gooth blacke barrys ouerwhart the tayll. And those same barrys shall telle you whan she is full summyd or ful fermyd. For whan she is ful barryd she stondyth vpon .vij. and thenne she is perfyt redy to be reclaymyd. ¶Ye shall vnderstonde that aslonge as an hawke stondyth vnder ye nombre of .vij. barrys: and she be in her soore aege / it must be sayd That she is not ful summyd. For so longe she is but tendre pennyd whether she be brauncher or eyes. ¶And yf she be a mewyd hawke & stonde wythin .vij. barrys: ye shall saye She is not full fermyd. For she is not able to be reclaymyd: by cause she is drawe to soone out of the mewe: for she is not harde pen­nyd noo more than a soore hawke.
¶Braylles or Braylfeders Degowtyd
¶To knowe ferthermore of hawkys. An hawke hath longe smalle whyte fethers hangynge vnder the tayll from her bow­ell dounwarde. And the same feders ye shall call the Brayllys: or the Braylfeders. And comynly euery goshawke & euery tercelles braylis ben bisprengyd with blacke speckes lyke armyns And for all that they ben accountyd neuer the better / But and a spare hawke be so ermyned vpon the brayles / or a Musket. ye shall saye She is degowtyd to the vttermost brayle. And moche it betokenyth hardnesse.
¶Breste feders: Plumage / Barbe feders: Pendaunt feders.
¶The feders abowte the formore partyes of an hawke ben callyd the Brest fed (er)s. & the feders vnd (er) the wynges are Plumage [Page] The feders vnder the becke ben callyd the Barbe feders. And the feders that ben at the Ioynt at the hawkes knee they ston­de hangynge & sharpe at the endes. Those ben callyd the Pendaunt feders.
¶Flagge or flaggis feders.
¶The feders at the wynges next the body be callyd ye Flagge or the Flaggis feders.
¶Beme feders of the wynge Sercell.
¶And the longe feders of the wyngys of an hawke ben callyd the Beme feders of the wynge. And the feders that some calle the pynyon feder of a nother foule: of an hawke it is callyd the Sercell. ¶And ye shall vnderstonde yf an hawke be in mewe ye same sercell feder shall be the laste feder that she wyll caste. And tyll that be caste: she is neuer mewed / Yet it hath be seen yt hawkes haue caste that same fyrste as I haue herde saye. But that other rule is generall. And whan she hath caste her Sercellys in mewe. thenne and no soouer it is tyme for to fede her wyth wasshe meete and to begynne to ensayme her
¶Ensamye
¶Ensayme of an hawke is the greeys. And but yf that be take awaye wyth fedynge of wasshe meete & otherwyse: as it shalbe declaryd here after: she wyll gendre a panell / whyche maye be her vttermost confusyon: and she fle therwyth and take bloode and colde therupon.
¶Couertis or Couert feders
¶There ben also feders that close vpon the sarcellis. And those same ben callyd the Couertis or the Couert feders. And soo all the feders ben called that ben nexte ouer the longe beme feders and the fagge feders vpon the wynges.
¶Backe feders
¶The feders vpon the backe halfe ben called the Backe feders
¶Beke: Clape: Nares: Sere
¶The Beke of the hawke is the vpper parte that is crokyd. ¶The nether part of her beke is callyd is ye Clape of ye hawke ¶The holes in the hawkis beke ben callyd the Nares. ¶The yelowe betwene the beke & the eyen is callyd the Sere
¶Crynettis
¶There be on an hawke longe smale blacke feders like heeres [Page] abowte the sere. And those same ben callyd Crinettꝭ of ye hawke
¶Soore aege
¶Ye shall vnderstonde that the fyrste yere of an hawke: whe­ther she be callyd Brauncher or Eyesse / that fyrste yere is cal­lyd her Soore aege. And all ye yere she is callyd a Soore haw­ke. For and she eschape that yere: wyth good fedynge she is lykly to endure longe.

¶To reclayme an hawke.

YF ye wyll reclayme your hawke ye must depart one meele in thre meeles vnto the tyme that she woll come to reclayme. And whan she woll com̄ to reclayme: encreece her meeles euery daye better & better. And or she come to the reclame make her that she soore not. For though she be wel reclamed it maye happe that she woll soore soo hyghe in to the ayre that ye shall neyther se nor fynde her.

¶And yf your hawke shall fle to the pertryche: loke that ye ensayme her or she fle. whether she be braūcher or eyesse or mew­yd hawke.

¶Why an hawke is callyd an Eyesse

¶An hake is callyd an Eyesse of her eyen. For an hawke that is brought vp vnder a bustarde or a putrocke: as many ben haue watry eyen. For whan they ben dysclosed and kepte in ferme tyll they ben full sommyd: ye shall knowe theym by theyr watery eyes / And also her loke woll not be soo quycke as a Braun­chers is. And so by cause the beste knowlege is by the eye: they ben callyd Eyesses.

¶Ye maye also knowe an Eyesse by the palenesse of the seres of her legges of the sere ouer the beke: and also by the tayntys that ben vpon her tayll and her wynges / whyche tayntes corde for lacke of fedynge whan they ben eyesse.

¶what a Taynt is

¶A taynt is a thynge that gooth ouerwharke the feders of the wynges & of the tayll lyke as it were eren wyth wormys. And it begynnyth fyrste to brede at the body in the penne. And that same penne shall frete asondre and fall awaye thrugh the same taynt / And thenne is the hawke dysparagyd for all that yere.

¶Medycynes to ensayne your hawke

¶Take the rote of Rasue & put it in clene water: and laye your flesshe therin to tempre a grete whyle. & yeue it to your hawke to ete. And yf she ete therof: drede not but it shall abate her gre­ce. But wythin .iij. dayes she shall not gretly abate.

¶Also take pulyall & garlyk & stampe it well togyder / & wrynge out the Iuce in a dysshe. And thenne wete the flesshe therin. fede your hawke therwyth. And but it tempre your hawke: that is to say Ensayme your hawke wythin foure dayes I merueyll But loke euery daye that ye make newe Iuce. And whan ye fede her wete your mete therin.

¶Also take the Iuce of percelly morys: other wyse callyd per­celly rotys: and those same of Ysoppe. And wasshe your flesshe therin̄ / and your hawke shall be ensaymyd kyndly: and noo grete abate to the hawke.

¶Some vse to laye theyr flesshe in water almoost a daye: & yeue the same to the hawke att supper. And that yt lyeth all nyght to gyue to her in the mornyng. And thus to fede them in mewe or they ben drawen abowte a month or .vi. wekes / & to ensayme theym or they come on fyste. And assone as they caste theyr cercell: thenne is the tyme to begyn̄ to fede theym so.

¶How your hawke ensaymyth

¶Vnderstonde ye for certen: that aslonge as your hawkys fe­te ben blackysth & rough: she is full of grece. And euer as she ensaymyth: her fete woll waxe yelowe and smothe.

¶How ye shall guyde you whan your hawke is redy to fle. Also ye shall saye Put vp a pertryche.

WHan ye haue ensaymyd your hawke and reclaymyd her and that she is redy to fle to the pertryche / Ye must take a pertryke in youre bagge & goo in to the felde: and lete your spanyels fynde a Couy of pertryches. And whan they ben vp and begyn̄ to scatre: ye must haue markers to marke some of theym. And thenne cowple vp your houndes. whan ye haue so doon lete some felow of yours preuely take the pertryche oute of your bagge: and teye it by the legge wyth a creaunce / and caste it vp as hyghe as he can̄. And as soone as the hawke seeth [Page] her she woll fle therto. And yf your hawke seesyth the pertryche aboue: yeue her a rewarde therupon. And goo after that by laysur to the pertryche that ben markyd and doo as I shal tell you here folowynge. ¶Yf ye haue a chastysyd hounde that woll be rebuked: and is a retryuer. Vncouple him and noo moo of your houndys: and go to a syngler pertryche of the couy so sparclyd. And be as nyghe as ye can to the rysinge therof. And yf your hawke desyre: caste her to. And yf she take it: then̄e is your hawke made for that yere. And of the same pertriche that she sleeth: thus ye must rewarde her as it shewyth here nexte folowynge.

¶How ye shall rewarde your hawke.

¶Take a knyfe & kytte the heed and the necke from the body of the pertryche. And strype the skynne away from the necke. & gyue ye same to the hawke. And couere the body of the foule wt a bonet or an harte: and laye the sayd heed & the necke therup­on. And yf she woll forsake the foule that she plumyth on & co­me to the rewarde: Thenne preuely take away the pertryche & rewarde your hawke with the brayne & the necke. Beware that she ete noo bonys: for that is euyll to endewe. And it woll ma­ke her vnlusty for to fle. And thus ye must serue her of as ma­ny as she sleeth. But lete her rewarde be the lesse: For elles she maye be soone full goorgyd. And thenne she maye fle no more a grete whyle.

¶How your hawke shall reioyce

¶And whan your hawke hath slayne a foule: and is rewardyd as I haue sayd / Lete her fle in noo wyse tyll she hath reioycyd her: that is to saye Tyll she hath sewyd or snytyd her beke. or elles rowsyd her. And whan she hath doon ony of thise: or all. Go & retryue moo and she woll nymme plente.

¶Whan your hawke hath nomme a foule how ye shall do that ye rebuke not the hawke. ¶Lerne well do thynge: and beware therof. whan your hawke hath nomme a pertryche / stonde a good waye of: and come not to nyghe her / And dryue awaye your houndes for rebukynge of her. For many hawkys loue noo houndys. And also many houndes woll benymme theym their game from their fote. and that is peryllous. And whyle your hawke plumyth: come softly [Page] towarde her alwaye nere and nere. And yf she leue plumynge and loke vpon you: stonde styll & cherke her: and whystyll her. tyll she plume ayen. And thus serue her tyll ye be ryght nyghe her. Thenne softe and layserly falle vpon your knees. And preuely whyle she plumyth: sette your honde & be sure of the gesse And thenne ye may guyde all thyng as ye wyll. And yf ye doo ye contrary she woll for fere cary her game: or lete it goo quycke And that is but losse to you and your hawke also.

¶A medicyne for to make an hawke to caste that is acombryd wyth castynge wythin her body. ¶Take the Iuys of Salandyne: and wete a morcell of flesshe therin / to the quantyte of a notte. And gyue that morcell to the hawke. And that shall make her for to caste her olde castynge. and the hawke shall be sauf.

¶A medycyne for an hawke that woll soore

¶Wasshe the flesshe that your hawke shal be fedde wyth in the Iuce of Fenell. And that shall take awaye that pryde from her: and make her to leue her soorynge whether she be lene or fatte ¶And many tymes an hawke woll soore whanne she lackyth bathynge.

¶A medycyne for an hawke that is lowse.

¶Take quycke syluer & put it in a bassen of brasse: and put there to Saladyne & asshes: and medle it well togyder tyll all the quycke syluer be deed. And medle therto fatte of bonys: and a­noynt the hawke therwyth. And hange it abowte her necke tyll it fall awaye / and that shall slee the lyes.

¶Also powdre of Orpement blowen vpon an hawke with a penne shall slee the lyes.

¶Also take a dagon or pece of rough blanket vnshore: and holde it to the fyre vnto tyme it be thrugh out warme: and wrappe the hawke therin. And thenne holde her softely and stylly for hurtynge in your hondys. and the wermyn̄ woll crepe in to the clothe.

¶Also holde her in the sonne on a fayr daye / and ye shall se the vermyn̄ crepe oute vpon her feders. Thenne take a knyfe & wete thone syde of the blade therof wyth your mouth. And alway as they appere laye the wete syde of the knyfe to theym: & they woll cleue therto. And thenne ye maye slee theym.

¶The opynyon of Ostregiers

¶After the opynyon of many Ostregiers / and ye fede your hawke contynuelly wyth Porke: wyth Iayes: wyth Pyes / Or in especyall beere her moche in reyny weder / she shall be lowse.

¶Ostregeres: Speruyteres: Fawkeners.

¶Now by cause I speke of Ostregeres / Ye shall vnderstonde that they ben callyd Ostregeres that kepe goshawkes or tercelles. And those that kepe spare hawkys and muskettys: ben cal­lyd Speruyteres. And kepers of all other hawkys aren callyd Fawkeners.

¶The lengthe of the Gesse: Lewnes: Tyrettys. And how they ben fastnyd: And Bewettys.

¶Hawkys haue abowte theyr leggys Gesses made of ledder moost comynly / some of sylke. whyche sholde be noo lenger but that the knottys of theym sholde appere in myddys of the lefte honde bytwene the longe fyngre and the leche fyngre / by cause the Lewnes sholde be fastenyd to theym wyth a payre of Ty­rettys. whyche Tyrettys sholde rest vpon the Lewnes and not vpon the Gesses: for hangynge and fastynge vpon trees whan she fleeth. And those same Lewnes ye shall fasten theym abow­te your lytyll fyngre slackly: in compassynge the same in foure or fyue folde as a bowe strynge vnoccupied. And the Tyrettes serue to kepe her from wyndinge whan she bathyth.

¶Also the same lethers that ben put in her belles to be fastnyd abowte her legges: ye shall call Bewettys.

¶Creaunce.

¶Also ye shall calle the longe lyne that ye doo call your haw­ke to reclayme wyth: your Creaunce: what so euer it be.

¶A medycyne for an hawke that woll caste flesshe.

¶Put the flesshe that your hawke shall ete in fayre water. And fede her therwyth thre dayes. And she shall holde her flesshe in the beste wyse.

A medycyne for an hawke that hath loste her courage.

An hawke that hath loste her courage a man maye knowe yf he woll take good hede. For suche is hir manere: Whan she is caste to a foule: she fleeth awaywarde as though she knewe not the fowle. Or ellys she woll fle a lytyll waye after: and anone he yeuyth it vp. & for suche an hawke this is a good medicyne.

Take oyle of Spayne and tempre it with clere wyne & with the yolke of an egge: and put therin beyf. And therof yeue to your hawke fyue morcelles. And thenne sette her in the son̄e / And at euen fede her with an olde hote coluer. And if ye fede her thꝰ thre tymes: that hawke was neuer soo lusty nor so Ioyly byfore as she woll be after: & come to her owne courage.

¶Other make poudre of Mecles that stynke: and put the poudre on the flesshe of a pecok: and medle the blood of the pecok amonge the powdre / and make her to ete the flesshe.

¶A medycyn yt an hawke shall not lye in mewe for vnlustynes

¶Take ferne rotes that growith on an oke & oke apples & make Iuce of theym: and wete her flesshe therin / & fede the hawke thre tymes or foure: & that shall make her to leue that.

¶A medycyne for an hawke that hath the Teyne.

¶An hawke that hath the teyne a man may soone knowe if he take hede: for this is her manere. She woll pante more for one batynge than a nother for foure. & yf she sholde fle a lytyll whyle: she sholde almost lese her brethe / whether she be fatte or lene & alway she makith heuy chere. And for yt this is the medicyne

¶Take a quantyte of the rednesse of Hasyll wyth the powdre of Rasne & peper: and somwhat of gynger / And make therof in fresshe grece thre pellettꝭ and holde the hawke to the fyre. And whan she felyth the hete: make her to swalowe the thre pellettꝭ by strengthe. And knytte faste her beke that she caste it not out And doo soo thryes: and she shall be sauf.

¶Also take Rasne and Rubarbe and grynde it togyd (er): and ma­ke Iuce therof / and wete the flesshe therin: and giue it her to ete And she shall be hole.

¶Also take Alisaundre & the rote of Pryme roses & the rote of Grognauteles: and seeth all in the butter of a kowe. And gyue her thre morcellꝭ euery day vnto the tyme that she be hole. And loke that she be voyde whan ye gyue her the medycyne.

¶How a man shall take an hawke fro the Eyrer

WHo so takyth an hawke from the eyrer: him byhouyth to do wysely: in bryngynge hym easely / & to kepe hym well from colde: and from hurtynge of his bonys. For they [Page] ben full tendre: and they must haue grete reste. And they maye not haue stynkyng & fylthy ayre: but as clene as can & may be thought. And euer more gyue hym clene meete & hote / and a lytyll & often. And chaunge often theyr meete: but loke it be hote And kytte her meete in to smalle morcellys: for they sholde not tyre on bonys tyll they myghte fle. Thenne after whan she begynnyth to penne: and plumyth & spalchyth and pykyth herselfe. Put her in a close warm̄ place that no fulmertys nor fecheus nor other vermyn come not in to her. And lete the place be sure from wynde & reyne: and thenne she woll preue herself. And e­uer more gyue her good hote meetys. For it is better to a man to fede his hawke while she is tendre wyth hote meetys: to make her good wyth some cost: than to fede her with euyll meetys to make her vnthryfty wyth lytyll coste. And loke whan she begyn̄yth to ferme: then̄e gyue her bathynge.

¶A medycyne for wormys in an hawke. whyche syknesse is callyd the Fylaundres.

¶Marke well this siknesse: and bewaar therof. This is the medycyne therfore. ¶Ye shall take an herbe that is callyd Neppe and put it in a smalle gutte of a capon or of an hen̄e. And knytte it wyth a threde: and lete her receyue it hole. And she shal be hole and sauf. Thus ye shall knowe whan your hawke hath wor­mys in her bowke. ¶Loke whan she hath castynge: and ye shall fynde one or two obowte her castynge place yf she hath ony

¶A medicyne for an hawke that castyth wormys at the foundment: what wormys that they ben.

¶Take the Lymayll of pren and medle it wyth flesshe of por­ke. And gyue it two dayes to the hawke for to ete. And she shal be hole.

¶A medycyne for an hawke that hath a syknesse the whyche is callyd the Aggresteyne.

¶Whan ye se your hawke hurte hir fete wyth hir beke: and pullyth her taylle: thenne she hath the aggresteyne. ¶For this syknesse take the dounge of a douue & of a shepe / and of an alowe & stronge vyneygre / and do al softly in a basyn of brasse. And medle theym well togyder to serue thre dayes after. And gyue her flesshe of a coluer wyth hony and wyth powder of peper. And sette her in a derke place: and soo doo .ix. dayes. And whan ye se [Page] newe feders in the tayll: wasshe her wyth Eucrose: and she shal be hole and sauf.

¶A medycyne for an hawke that hath the Crampe in her wynges: and how it comyth.

¶For this Crampe take a whyte loof of breed somwhat colder than it comyth out of the oouen: and lete holde the hawke soft­ly for hurtynge. And kytte the loof almost thrugh out: and dys­playe the wynge easely. and holde it betwene the two partes of the loof. and lete it be holde so the space of halfe a quarter of an houre / and she shall be hole.

¶The Crampe comyth to an hawke with talkynge of colde in her youthe. Therfore it is gode for a hawke to kepe her warme yonge & olde. And this medycyne is good at all tymes for her whether she be yonge or olde.

¶Lete not an hawke be put in mewe to late: but in thys manere as folowyth yf ye loue your hawke.

¶Yf ye loue well your hawke: kepe her well. and put her not late in mewe. For who so for couetysenesse of fleenge lesyth the tyme of his hawkes mewyng and wythholdyth her tolonge ther fro: he maye after put her in mewe at auenture / For then̄e a parte of her mewynge tyme is paste. ¶who so puttyth his hawke in mewe in the begynnynge of Lente: yf she be kepte as she ow­yth to be: she shall be mewyd in the begynnynge of Auguste.

¶How ye shall dyspose & ordeyne pour mewe

¶Sette & dyspose your mewe in this manere: so that no wesel nor polcatte nor none other vermyn entre therto / nor noo wynde / nor noo grete colde / nor that it be ouer hote.

¶Lete that one parte of the mewe be tornyd towarde the sonne: soo that in the moost parte of the daye the sonne maye come in.

¶Also ye must se that she be not auexyd nor greuyd wyth mo­che noyse nor wyth songe of men. And that noo manere folkys come to her but oonly he that fedeth her.

¶It behouyth that your hawke haue a fedynge stocke in her mewe / and a longe strynge teyed therto to fasten her meete wt. For elles she woll cary it abowte the hous & soylle it wyth dust And perauenture she woll hide it tyll it stynke: and thenne fede vpon it. and that myght be her deth. And therfore whan it is bo unden to the sayd fedynge stocke: she shall nether atte fedynge [Page] nor at the tyrynge ne at the lyghtynge ne at the rysynge hur­te herself. And whan she hath fedde take awaye the remenaunt yf ony leeue. And in ony wyse that she haue clene meete. And at euery meele fressh. For of stale meettis & euyll meetys she shal engendre many siknesses. And loke ye go neuer to your mew but whan ye shall gyue your hawke meete: Or elles to brynge water to bathe her. And suffre noo reyne to wete her at noo ty­me and ye maye. And as for her bathyng: that shall noo thinge hynder her mewynge.

¶The manere how a man shall put an hawke in to mewe And that is to be well notyd.

¶Of one thynge ye must beware wel yf she haue ony syknesse that ye make her hoole or ye put her in mewe. For as I vnder­stonde: a syke hawke shal neuer mewe wel. For though she mewe she shall not endure but whyle she is grete and fatte. For at the abatynge of her astate she maye noo longer endure.

¶Somtyme wythout ony medycyne many men deuysen how they myght mewe their hawkis: for some put hawkys in mew at highe astate / & some whan they ben ryght lowe / & som̄ whan they ben full / & some whan they ben empty & lene / & some whan they ben myserable lene: but therof is no force yf she be hole. Ne theles I shall saye myn aduyce as I haue seen & lernyd.

¶Who soo puttyth a goshawke or a tercell or a spare hawke in to mewe so hyghe yt she maye be noo higher: she woll holde her longe in the poynt or that she lese or lente ony feders. And who so puttyth her in mewe lene: it woll be longe or she be remoun­tyd. And who so putteth her in mewe to hungry & to lene: yf she haue mete at her wyll: she woll ete tomoche by cause of hungre And perauenture she may be deed therby: as hath ofte ben seen.

¶But who so woll that an hawke endure & mewe kyndly: My counseyll is that she be not to hyghe nother to lowe / nother in grete dystresse of hungre: but lyke as she sholde fle beste. Then̄ take hede the fyrste day of tomoche etynge / vnto tyme yt she be staunchyd. And after that a man maye take her suche meete as I shall tell more playnly here after.

¶In what manere & how a man shall fede his hawke in mewe.

¶Loke wyth what meetꝭ she hath be moost vsyd to be fedde & fede her therwith .viij. dayes contynuelly. & tho .viij. dayes yeue [Page] her birdes ynough: both morowe and euyn. And lete her plume vpon theym wel. And take castynge of the plumage. & that shal talaunt her well / & cause her to haue good appetyte. And it shal clense well her bowellys. And whan she is well clensyd: ye may gyue her what meete that ye woll: so it be clene & fresshe.

¶But the beste meete to make an hawke to mewe moost soone wythout ony medycyne: is the flesshe of a kydde or of a yonge swanne & of a chekyn. And specyally ratons flesshe: Soo they ben not assawte / none lyke to it / And of a yonge gose. For suche meete is hote of itself.

¶And take pecys of grete fresshe elys: and specially the colpen nexte the nauell. and wete it in hote blood of moton: It is good to make her to mewe: But specyally it shall make her wyght after her soore aege.

¶Thyse sayd flesshes ben good to mewe an hawke and to ke­pe her in state. but loke she haue gode plente euery daye: so that she rather leue parte than lacke ony. And euery thyrde daye le­te her bathe yf she lyste.

¶And whan she wexyth nyghe ferme: yeue her hennys & fatte porke: and of an hounde is passynge good.

¶An hawke is neuer full ferme nor redy to drawe out of mewe vnto tyme her sercell be full growen. Yet haue I seen some fol­kes take them out of mewe whan the sarcell were but half spronge: & that is peryllous. for they are not thenne harde penned.

¶Some folkys vse whan an hawke hath caste her sercell to be begyn̄ and wasshe her meete: and fede her so in mewe wt wasshe meete a month or .vi. wekys or euer they drawe theym.

¶But of all flesshes after she is mewyd / a resonable george of an hote hare is beste / and also of a crowe hote / But it muste be wasshe in water / and thenne it is the better. For that woll not be nymme theym hastely theyr grece: nor put theym in noo grete feblynesse. For it duryth somwhat wyth her.

¶To make anhawke to mewe tymely without ony hurting of her.

¶Now I shall tell you very true medycynes to mewe an haw­ke hastely that ye shall byleue for trouth & ye woll asaye them.

¶There ben in wodys or in heggꝭ wormys callyd adders yt be redde of nature: & he is called (Vepera) And also there be snakes [Page] of the samekynde: & they ben very bytter. Take two or thre of ye ym and smyte of theyr heedes & the endes of theyr tayles: then̄ take a newe erthe potte that was neuer vsyd: and kytte theym in to smalle pecys: and put those same therin / & lete theym sethe strongly a grete whyle at good layser. And lete the pot be coue rid that noo ayre come out of it nor noo brethe. and lete it sethe so longe that the same peces seethe to grece. Thenne caste it oute and do awaye the bones & gadre the grece / and put it in a clene vessell. And as ofte as ye fede your hawke: anoynte her meete therin / and lete her ete as moche as she woll. And that meete shall mewe her at your owne wyll.

¶A nother medycyne.

¶Take whete and put it in the broth that the adders were sodden in. And whan ye se the whete begyn̄ to cleue: take it out and fede hennys or chekyns therwyth. And fede your hawke wyth the same polayn.

¶who soo woll that an hawke mewe not nor fall none of her feders: therfore here is a medycyne.

¶Take powder of Canell and the Iuce of Frank costꝭ and the Iuce of Paranye. And take morcelles of flesshe thre or foure yf ye lyst and wete theym therin. And make the hawke to swalow theim and serue her soo many tymes. Also take the skyn̄e of a snake or of an adder & kyt it in to smale pecys: and tempre it wyth hote blood. and cause your hawke ofte tyme to fede therof & she shall not mewe.

¶For the Gowte in the throte

¶whan ye se your hawke blowe often tymes. & that it comyth of no batynge: ye maye be sure she hath the gowte in the throte & for yt. Take the blood of a pecok & encense mirabolana & clo­wys of gelofre & canel and gynger. And take of all thyse euen­ly and medle them with pecoks blood: & seeth it tyll it be thicke And therof make morcelles: & yeue the hawke therof euery day at mydmorn̄ and at none.

¶For the gowte in the heed and in the reynes.

¶whan ye se your hauke may not ende wher meete nor remoū te her astate: she hath the gowte in the heed & in the reynes.

¶Take Momyan otherwyse callyd Momyn: amonge Poticaryes ye maye haue it: and the skynne of an haare and yeue it to [Page] youre hawke to ete .ix. tymes wyth the flesshe of a catte. And yf she maye holde that meete she shall be sauf.

¶A medycyne for a syknesse callyd the Fallera.

¶Whan ye se that your hawkys clees wexe whyte: thenne she hath the Fallera. For this siknes: take a blacke snake and kitte awaye the heed & the tayll / and take the myddyll & frye it in an erthen potte. And take the grees & saue it: and anoynt the flessh of a pecok therwith / and yeue it to the hawke for to ete .viij. dayes. And ye haue noo pecok yeue her flesshe of a douue. And af­ter the .viij. dayes yeue her a chekyn / and wasshe it a lytyll: & yeue it her to ete. And take the tendrest of the breste wyth the fros shell boon & lete her ete it. And yf she amende ony thynge she shall be hole.

¶A medycyne for the Crampe in the thygh in the legge and in the fote of an hawke.

¶Whan ye se your hawke laye her one fote vpon her other fo­te: she is take with the Crampe. Thenne drawe her blood vpon the fote that lyeth vpon that other fote: and vpon the legge al­so / and she shall be hole.

¶For the Cough or the Poose

¶Take powder of bayes and put it vpon the flessh of a douue & yeue it ofte to your hawke. & wythout doubte she shalbe hole.

¶A medycyne for the Podagre

¶whan your hawkys fete ben swollen she hathe the podagre. Thenne take fresshe May butter & as moche ef oyle olyue and of alyn: & chauf it well togyder att the fyre and make therof an oynement: and anoynte the fete foure dayes. And sette her in ye sonne: & yeue her flesshe of a catte. And yf that auayle not: seeth the kyttynge of a vyne: & wrappe it abowte the swellynge: and lete her sytte vppon a colde stone: And anoynt her wyth butter or fresshe grece. And she shall be hole.

¶A medycyne for a syknesse wythin the body of an hawke and it shewyth not outwarde how she shall be holpen. and in what manere.

¶A man maye knowe by the chere & vngladnesse of an hawke this infyrmytee. But yet it is straunge to knowe thynges that a man maye not se in what syknesse and what manere they ben greuyd / and specyally whan a man wote not wherof it comyth.

[Page]¶Fede your hawke well vpon an henne and thenne make her to faste two dayes after: to auoyde well her bowellys. The thirde daye: take hony sodden and fyll her body ful. And bynde her beke that she cast it not out of her body: and thenne sette her oute in the sonne. And whan it drawyth towarde nyghte fede her with an hote foule. For as I herde my mayster saye: and she be not hole herof: loke neuer other medycyne.

¶For the passyon that goshawkys haue fastynge.

¶Take the rote of smalle Russhys and make Iuce of theym: and wete your flesshe therin / and make her to ete it.

¶For hawkys that ben woundyd.

¶Take away the feders abowte the wounde: and take the white of an egge & oylle of Olyue and medle it togyder: and ano­ynt the wounde / and kepe it wyth whyte wyne vnto tyme ye se deed flessh. And then̄ put in the woūde Escompe sall vnto tyme the deed flesshe be wastyd. After take encence: & cleue asmoche of ye one as of that other: & medle it togyd (er). & whan ye woll anoynt the sore: hete your oynement: & anoynt it wyth a penne tyl the tyme the skynne growe ayen. And yf ye se deed flesshe ther­on and wolde haue it away / Take Venecreke & thenne anoynt it wyth this oynement aforsayd and she shall be hole.

¶A medycyne for an hawke yt hath the Artetyk.

¶Whan ye se your hawke fatte aboute the herte: trust it for truthe she hath the Artetyk. Therfore lete her blood in the orygy­nall veyne: and after that gyue her a Frogge for to ete. and she shall be hole.

¶A medycyne for an hawke combryd in the bowellys.

¶whan your hawke is encombrid in ye bowellis ye shal knowe it by her eyen. For hir eyen woll be derke: and she woll loke vn­gladly. And hir mutessing woll defoyle her foundement. Then̄ take the hawkys mete and anoynt it wyth the powdre of canel And gyue it her to ete: and she shall be hole.

¶A medycyne for an hawke that hath the Gowte

¶Fede your hawke wyth an Irchyn ones or twyes. and it shal helpe her.

¶A medycyne for an hawke that hath Mytes.

¶Take the Iuce of wormewode and putte it there as they ben and they shall deye.

¶That an hawke vse hyr crafte all the season to fle or leue. ¶whan ye goo to the felde in the latter ende of hawkynge and desyre that your hawke shall vse her crafre: do to her in this manere. Lete her slee a foule and lete her plume vppon it asmoche as she woll. And whan she hath plumyd ynough: go to her softly for frayenge: and rewarde her on the foule. And after that ye maye caste her on a perche. And aswell she maye vse her crafte: so as that she slewe all the yere.

¶A medycyne for an hawke that hath the stoon.

¶Anoynt her foundement wyth oylle: and put the powdre of Alym wyth an holow strawe.

¶Also take an herbe callyd Crystis ladder: and anoynt her mouth wythin and she shall be hole.

¶Also take smalle Flambe rotys and Polypody & the cornes of Spourge & grynde it well: and sethe it in butter. And drawe it thrugh a clothe: and make therof thre pellettis of the gretnes of a notte. And put it in his mouth in the morowe tide: and loke that he be voyde / and thenne lete hym faste tyll euensonge. and fede hym lytyll & lytyll / and he shall be hole.

¶A medycyne for Vermyn̄.

¶Take the Iuce of the rote of Fenell and doo it where the vermyn̄ be: and they shall deye.

¶A medycyne for the Rewme that hawkes haue.

¶whan ye se your hawke close her eyen and shakyth her heed: then̄e hath she the rewme in the heed. Therfore gyue her larde of a gote the fyrste daye. And the seconde gyue her Epatyk wt the flesshe a chekyn: and she shall be hole.

¶A medycyne for hawkys that ben drye & de­syre to drynke to kepe theym moyst in kynde

¶Take the Iuce of Haarhounde & wete thyn hawkys meete therin. And fede her therwyth onys or twyes. & she shalbe hole.

¶For syknesses that hawkys haue in theyr entreyllys.

AN hawke that is seke wythin thentraylles: is of a nother aray than in other siknesses. For yf she holde not her mete but caste it: that is token of the fowle glet: for surfet of feders yt ben gyuen to hawkys in theyr youth. And afterwarde [Page] whan they came vnto traueyle: & ben anoyed of the ryuer / then̄ they wexe slowe to fle & desyre for to reste. And whan thauke is vpon her perche: then̄ she woll slepe for to put ouer: and the en­trynge. And yf she holde flesshe ony whyle in her gorge: it woll loke as it were sodden. And whan she is waking she assayeth to put ouer at thentryng. & it is agluttyd & kelyd wyth the glette yt she hath engendred. & yf she shold escape she must put ouer or elles she must dey: or cast it. And yf she caste it she may be holpe wyth the medycyne.

¶A medycyne for the Entreylles.

¶Take yolkes of hegges rawe: & whan they ben well beten togyd (er): put therto spanyssh salte & asmoche hony therto. And wete therin thi flesshe: & fede thy hawke thre dayes therwith. And yf she make daunger to ete it. lete holde thy hawke: & make her to swolowe thre or foure morcelles in a daye: & sykerly she shall be hole: Yet I shall to you a nother thynge: Take hony at ye chaungynge of the mone & a sharpe nettyll: & therof make smalle poudre. And whan it is wel grounde: take the breste boon of an henne & a nother of a coluer: & hacke it smalle with a knife. And do away the skynne: & do theron the pouder. And all hote with the poudre fede her / & so do thryes & she shall be hole.

¶For syknesse of swellynge

¶Yf a wyckyd felon be swollen in suche a manere yt a man may heele it yt the hawke shall not deye: thus a man maye helpe her strongly & lengthe her life. But the hawke woll be very egre & greuous of the siknes. And therfore ye must take the rote of Cō fore & sugre ylyke moche: and sethe it in fresshe grece wyth the thyrde parte of hony: & thenne drawe it thrugh a fayr clothe. & ofte gyue it to the hawke: and she shall amende.

¶For blaynes in hawkes mouthes callyd Frounches

¶Of the Frounches it is drede for hawkes: for it is a noyous siknes & drawyth her to deth: and wtholdyth her strength. For men say yt it comyth of colde: for colde doth hawkes moche harme: and makyth flewme falle out of the brayen: & the eyen woll swelle & empeyre in her heed. And but she haue hastely helpe it well stoppe her nosethrilles. And therfore take Fenell Mary all & Rerses ylike moche: and sethe them & drawe theim thrugh a clothe. And other whyle wasshe her hede therwyth: and put some [Page] in the roof of her mouthe and she shall be sauf.

¶A medycyne for an hawke that castyth her flesshe.

¶Wete her flesshe in Sarsoyll / or elles seeth Rasne in water & put her flesshe therin whan it boyllyth.

¶A medycyne for the rewme callyd Agrum.

¶Whan thou seest thy hawke vpon her mouth and her chekes blobbed: thenne she hath this sycknes callyd Agrum. Therfore take a nedyll of syluer & heete it in the fyre: and brenne the Narelles thrugh out: Thenne anoynt it wyth oyle of Olyue.

¶For to make an hawke grete & fatte.

¶Take a quantyte of porke & hony and butter ylyke moche & purgyd grece: and do awaye the skynne / And sethe theym togyder. & anoynt the flesshe therin: and fede your hawke therwyth / and she shall encreace myghtly. ¶Elles take the wynges of an Eued: & fede her & kepe her fro traueylle. And do so oft though the Eued be neuer so fatte. And yf your hawke be not passynge fatte wythin .xiiij. dayes wonder I thynke.

¶For botches that growe in an hawkys Iowe

¶Kytte thyse botches wyth a knyfe & lete oute the matere of theym. And after clense them clene wyth a syluer spone: or elles fylle the hole wyth a powdre of Arnemelit brente. & vpon that poudre do a lytyll larde that is resside: & so it woll awaye.

¶Here is a good medycyne for an hawke that woll not come to reclayme.

¶Take fresshe butter & put therto sugre & put it in a clene clo­the & reclayme her to that & kepe it in a boxe in your bagge.

¶A medycyne for hawkes that ben refreynyd.

¶Whan ye se your hawke nesynge & castynge water thorugh her nosethrelles on her nares: then̄ dowteles she is refreynyd.

¶For that syknes take the greynes of Chaffelegre and of pe­per and grynde it well / And tempre it wyth stronge vyneygre and put in her nares & in the roof of her mouthe / and gyue her flesshe to ete: and she shall be sauff.

¶A medycyne for hawkes yt haue payne in theyr croupes.

¶Ye shall take fayr Morsum & poudre of gelefre / and medle it togyder: and gyue it to your hawke to ete. And yf she holde it paste the seconde daye after: she shall be hole.

¶A medycyne for the stone in the fundement

[Page]¶Whan your hawke maye not muteyse: thenne she hath that lyknesse callyd the Stoon. And for this syknesse: ye shall take ye herte of a swyne and the grece of a swyne: and kytte it wyth the flesshe of the herte: and she shall be holpe.

¶A medycyne for the drye Frounce

¶For this syknes: take the rote of Pillypody that growyth vpon okes & sethe it a grete whyle. Thenne take it fro the fyre & lete it stonde & wexe lewe warme / Thenne wasshe your flesshe therin: & fede your hawke thre tymes / and she shall be hole.

¶A medycyne for wormes callyd Anguelles

¶Take pressure made of a lābe yt was endyd in vntyme: & make therof .iij. morcelles. & put it in a gutte of a coluer & fede her therwt. & loke thawke be voyde whan ye yeue her this medicyn̄

¶Also take Iuce of dragons & put full the gutte of a pegeon. & thenne kytte it & departe it as the hawke may ouerslowe it. and put it in his body: & knytte his beke for castynge.

¶Also yeue her the balockes of a bucke as hote as they be kyt out: and make powdre of the pyntyll & caste it vpon the flesshe of a catte: and fede her therwyth & she shall be hole.

¶An hawke Tyryth: Fedyth: Goorgyth: Bekyth: Rousith: Enduyth: Mutith: Perchyth: Ioykyth: Puttithouer: Proynyth Plumyth: she warbullyth and Mantellyth.

¶She Tyryth vpon rumpes. she Fedyth on all manere of flesshe. She Gorgith whan she fyllyth her gorge with meete. She Bekyth whan she sewyth: that is to saye: whan she wypyth her beke. She Rousyth whan she shakyth all her feders & her body togyder. she Enduyth whan her meete in her bowelles falle to dygestyon. She Mutyth whan she auoydyth her ordour. She Perchith whan she stondyth on ony manere bowe or perche. she Ioykyth whan she slepith. she puttythouer whan she auoydeth her meete out of her gorge in to her bowelles. She Proynyth whan she fetchyth oyle wt her beke ouer her taylle: & anoytyth her fete & her feders. She Plumyth whan she pulleth feders of ony foule or of ony thynge & castyth theym from her. She war belyth whan she drawyth bothe her wynges ouer the myddys of her backe: & there they mete bothe & softly shakyth them & lete theym fall ayen. And she Mantellyth whan she stretchith her one wynge a longe after her legge. and afterwarde that other [Page] wynge. And moost comynly she dooth that afore or she War­belyth her.

¶The names of a Spare hawke as Ostregers and Sparuyters haue determynyd.

THere is a questyon axed whether a man shall call a Spare hawke or a Spere hawke: or an Aspere hawke.

¶And Ostrigers & also Sparuiters saye she maye be callyd al thre namys / for thise reasons? she maye be callyd a Spare hawke / for of all the hawkys that there be she is moost spere: that is to saye moost tendre to kepe. For the leest mysdyetynge & mys entendynge sleeth her.

¶Also she maye be callyd a Spare hawke of sharpnesse of her courage: and of her lokyng quyckly / and also of her fleenge. For she is moost asper and sharpe in alle thynge that belonge vnto her of ony other hawkes.

¶She may also be callyd a Spare hawke for two reasons. one is she spareth goshawkes & tercelles bothe: suche as ben in their soore aege vnto tyme they maye be reclaymyd and made redy to fle. As goshawkes & tercelles that ben not fully mewed: vnto tyme they may be clene ensayned & redy to fle. For all the whyle they ben vnable: the spare hawke ocupyeth the season / and sleeth pertriche well. that is to saye from saynt Margarytes daye vnto it be Lammas. and soo forth in the yere.

¶And she woll sle well yonge fesauntes: yonge heth cockes in the begynnynge of the yere. And after Myghelmas whan per­triche passe theyr danger: I haue seen theym made some to slee the pye: some to slee the teele vpon the ryuer at the Iutty: some to slee the wodcocke: and some for ye blacke byrde & the thrusshe

¶The wodcocke is combrous to slee but yf there be craft. The refore whan ye come to a wood or a queche of busshes: caste your spare hawke in to a tree & bete the busshes then̄e. and yf ony woodcok aryse she woll be sure therof. Ye must fyrste make her to a fowle caste vp out of the busshes / & your hawke must sytte on lofte as ye make her to a pertriche.

¶Also as I sayd ye may calle her a Spare hawke for a nother cause / For & there were a shippe fraught full of hawkes & no thynge elles: & there were a spare hawke amonge theim: there sholde noo custume be payed [Page] by cause of her. And so for the moost comyn name they ben callyd Spare hawkes for the resons aforsayd.

¶An hawke fleeth to the Vewe: to the Beke: or to the Toll (Nota (¶Crepe: Querre Fer Iutty. &c.

AN hawke fleeth to the ryuer dyuers wayes / and sleeth ye foule dyuersly. That is to say: she fleeth to ye Vewe or to the Beke: or to the Toll. And alle is but one: as ye shall knowe here after. She fleeth also to the Quarre: to the Crepe / and noo moo wayes but those thre. And she nymmeth the foule at the fer Iutty or at the Iutty ferre.

¶Now shall ye knowe what thyse termes betoken and moo folowynge. As Huff: Iutty ferry Mounte: Raundon: Crepe: ennewed.

A Goshawke or a tercell that shall fle to the Vewe: to the Toll: or to the Beke in this manere she is taughte.

¶Ye must fynde a foule in the ryuer or in a pitte preuely. and thenne sette your hawke a grete space of vpon a moll hyll or on the grounde / and crepe softly towarde the foule from your hawke streyghte waye. And whan ye come almost there as the foule lyeth: loke backewarde towarde the hawke. And wyth youre honde or wyth your tabur stycke becke your hawke to come to you. And whan she is on wynge and comyth lowe bi the grounde and is almost atte you. Thenne smyte your tabre and crye (Huff: Huff: Huff) and make the foule to sprynge. And with that noyse the foule woll ryse: and the hawke woll nymme it.

¶And now take hede / Yf your hawke nymme the foule att the ferre syde of the ryuer or of the pytte from you / thenne she sle­eth the foule at the fer Iutty. And yf she sle it vpon that syde yt ye be on: as it maye happe dyuerse tymes: thenne ye shall saye she hath slayen the foule at the Iutty ferry.

¶Yf your hawke nymme the foule alofte: ye shall saye she toke it at the Mount or at the Souce.

¶And yf the foule sprynge not but flee a longe after the ryuer [Page] & thawke nym̄ it: then̄ ye shall saye she slewe it at the Raund on

¶Crepe

¶And your hawke fleeth at or to the Crepe whan yé haue youre hawke on your fyste & crepe sofly to the ryuer or to the pytt and stelyth softly to the brynke therof: & then̄e crye (Huff) & by that meane nym̄e a foule: Then̄ it is slayne at the Crepe other at the ferre Iutty: or at the Iutty ferry: as aboue is sayd.

¶And yf it happe as it dooth ofte tymes the foule for feere of your hawke woll sprynge and fall agayn in to the ryuer: or the hawke seeth her / and soo lye styll and dare not aryse: Ye shall saye thenne Your hawke hath ennewed the foule in to the ry­uer. And soo ye shal saye and there ben moo foules in the ryuer thenne that your hawke nymmyth yf they dare not aryse for fere of your hawke.

¶A theyf

¶Vnderstonde ye that a goshawke sholde not fle to any fowle of the ryuer wyth belles in noo wyse. And therfore a goshawke is callyd a theyf.

¶Querre

¶And your hawke fleeth to the querre: whan there ben in a stobyll tyme Sordes of mallardes in the felde. And whan she espieth theym and comyth couerte herself: & fle preuely vnder heg­ges or lowe by the grounde: & nymme one of theym or they ryse: thenne ye shall saye yt the foule was slayne at the querre.

¶Marke this terme Drawe

¶Some folke mysuse this terme Drawe: and saye that theyr hawke woll drawe to the ryuer. And that terme Drawe is pro­perly assignyd to that hawke that woll sle a roke: or a crowe: or a rauyn vpon a londe littynge. And thenne it must be sayd that suche an hawke woll Drawe well to a roke.

¶Now ye shall vnderstonde yf a man woll make an hawke to the querre: in this manere he must doo.

¶Take a tame malarde and sette hym in a fayr playne: and lete hym goo where he woll. Thenne take your hawke vpon youre fiste and goo to that playne: and holde vp your honde a praty waye of from the malarde. And loke yf the hawke can̄ espyrit by her owne courage. And yf she haue founde the foule & de­syre to fle therto: lete her sle it / and plymme well vppon her [Page] and serue her soo two or thre tymes. And thenne she is made to the Quarre. ¶I haue knowen gentylmen that whan someuer & whersoeuer they se ony tame duckes. And yf theyr hawkes wolde desyre to theym. thenne they wolde lete fle to theym in couragyng theyr hawkes to be well fleenge to the quarre a nother tyme

¶A praty crafte to take an hawke that is broken out of mewe / and all manere of foules that sytte in trees yf a man woll.

¶Loke where an hawke perchyth for a nyghte in ooy manere place / and softe & leyserly clyme to her with a sconce or a lanterne that hath but one lyght in your honde / and lete the lyght be towarde the hawke so that she se not your face and ye maye take her by the legges or other wise as ye lyste. And in lyke wyse all other manere foules.

¶Of hawkys belles

THe bellys that youre hawke shall were loke in ony wyse that they be not to heuy ouer her power to were. Also yt none be heuyer than a nother but lyke of weyghte. ¶Loke also that they ben sonowre and well soundynge & shyll: and not bothe of one sowne / but that one be a semytoyn vnder a nother. and that they be hole and not broken / and specyally in the soundynge place. For and they be broken they woll sowne full dully.

¶Of spare hawkes bellys there is choce and lityll of charge of theym: for there ben plente. ¶But for goshawkes somtyme bellys of Melayne were callyd the beste. And they ben full good. for they comynly are sounden wyth syluer: and solde therafter. But there ben now vsyd of Duche londe bellys: of a towne callyd Durdryght / and they ben passynge gode: For they ben well sortyd: well soundyd: sonowre of ryngynge in shylnes. and pas­synge well lastynge.

¶Here endeth the processe of hawkyng: & now folowith the names of all manere hawkys / and to whom they belonge.
¶Thyse hawkes belonge to an Emperour.
THise ben ye names of all manere of hawkes / First an Egle. a Bawtere. a Melowne. ye symplest of thise thre woll slee an hynde calfe: a Fawne a Roo: a Kidde: an Elke: a Crane: a Bustarde: a Storke: a Swan̄: a foxe in the playn̄ grounde. And thyse be not enlured ne reclaymyd: by cause yt they ben so ponderous to the perche portatyf. And thyse thre by theyr na­ture belonge vnto an Emperour.
¶Thyse haukes belonge vnto a kynge.
¶A Gerfawkon: a Tercell of a Gerfawkon are dewe to a kyng
¶For a prynce
¶There is a Fawkon gentyll: and a Tercell gentyll. And thy­se be for a prynce.
¶For a duke
¶There is a Fawken of the rocke: and that is for a duke.
¶For an erle
¶There is a Fawken peregryne: and that is for an erle.
¶For a baron
¶Also there is a Bastarde: and that hawke is for a baron.
¶Hawkes for a knyghte
¶There is a Sacre & a Sacret: and thyse ben for a knyghte.
¶Hawkes for a Squyer
¶There is a Ianare & a Lanrell: and thyse belonge to a squyre
¶For a lady
¶There is a Merlyon: and that hawke is for a lady.
¶An hawke for a yonge man
¶There is an Hoby: and that hawke is for a yonge man. ¶And thyse ben hawkes of the toure / and ben bothe illuryd to be callyd and reclaymyd.

¶And yet there ben mo kyndes of hawkes. ¶There is a Goshawke / & that hawke is for a yoman. ¶The­re is a Tercell: & that is for a poore man. ¶There is a Spare hawke: & she is an hawke for a preest. ¶There is a Muskyte: & he is for an holy water clerke. And thyse ben of a nother manere kynde. For they fle to Ouerre & to Ferre Iutty & to Iutty Ferry.

¶Explicit.

[Page] LYke wyse as in the boke of hawkynge aforsayde are wryten and noted the termys of playsure be longynge to gentylmen: hauynge delyte therin. In the same manere this boke folowynge shew­yth: to suche gentyll persones the manere of huntynge for all manere of bestys / whether they ben bestys or Venery or or Chace or Rascall. And also it shewith altermys conuenyent aswell to the houndes as to the beestys a­forsayd. And in certen there ben many dyuers of theym: as is declaryd in the boke folowynge.

¶Bestys of Venery.

WHere so euer ye fare by fryth or by fell:
My dere chylde take hede how Trystam doo you tell.
How many manere bestys of venery there were:
Lysten to your dame and she shall you lere.
Foure manere bestis of venere there are:
The fyrste of theym is the harte: the seconde is the hare.
The boore is one of tho: the wulfe and not one mo.

¶Bestys of the Chace

¶And where that ye come in playne or in place:
I shall you tell whyche ben bestys of enchace:
One of theym is the bucke: a nother is the doo:
The foxe and the marteron: and the wylde roo.
And ye shall my dere chylde other bestys all:
Where so ye theym fynde Rascall ye shall them call.
In fryth or in fell: or in the forest I you tell.

¶Note here the aege of an harte

¶And for to speke of the harte yf ye woll it lere:
Ye shall hym a Calfe call at the fyrste yere.
The seconde yere a Broket so shall ye hym call:
The thyrde yere a Spayad lernyth thus all.
The fourth yere a Stagge call hym by ony waye:
The fyfth yere a grete Stagge your dame bydde you saye.
¶The syxte yere call hym an harte.
Dooth soo my chylde whyles ye ben in quarte.

[Page]¶To knowe the heed of an Harte: and that is dyuers.

¶And of the horny that he thenne beryth abowte.
The fyrste heed shall be Iugyd wythout.
Therin fynden we suche dyuersyte.
Netheles the syxt yere euermore at the leest.
Thou shalt well Iuge the perche of the same beest.
whan he hath auntelere wythout ony lette:
Ryall and suryall also there I sette.
And that in the toppe so whan ye maye hym ken:
Thenne ye shall calle hym forchyd an harte of ten.
And whan he hath in the toppe thre of the selue:
Thenne ye shall calle hym trochyd an harte of twelue.
And afterwarde in the toppe whan there foure bene:
Thenne shall ye call hym sommyd an harte of syxtene.
And from foure forwarde what so befall:
Be he neuer of so many ye shall hym sommyd call.
Ryght of the nombre euyn that he is:
Callyth hym from foure sommyd Iwys.
Also haue ye seele: an harte heeded weele /

¶An Herde. a Beue. a Sounder: a Rowte

¶My chylde callyth herdys of harte and of hynde:
And of bucke and of doo where ye theym fynde.
And a beue of rooes what place they ben.
And a sounder ye shall of the wylde swyne:
And a rowte of wulues where they passe in /
So shall ye them call as many as they ben.

¶A Lytyll herde. a Myddyll herde. a Grete herde.

¶Twenty is a lytyll herde though it be of hyndys:
And thre score is a myddyll herde to call hem by kyndis.
And foure score is a grete herde call ye them soo:
Be it harte be it hynde bucke or elles doo.

¶How ye shall saye a Grete harte: & not a Fayr and other

¶A grete harte whan ye hym se so shall ye hym call:
But neuer a fayre harte for noo thynge that maye be fall.
A grete hynde a grete bucke and a fayr doo:
My sones where ye walke call ye theym soo.
So ye sholde name suche dere: and doo as I you lere /

¶What is a Beuy of rooes grete or smalle.

[Page]¶And syxe is a beuy of rooes on a rowe:
And ten is a myddyll beuy full well I it knowe.
A grete beuy is twelue whan they togyder be:
And so call them sones where that ye them se.
The more nombre than ywys: the gretter the beuy is.

¶What is a Sounder of swyne grete or smalle

¶Twelue make a sounder of the wylde swyne:
[...]vi. a medyll sounder what place they ben in.
A grete sourde of swyne .xx. ye shall call.
Forgete not this lesson for no thynge that maye befall.
Thynke what I saye: my sone nyght and daye.

¶Of the Roo huntynge: brekynge and dressynge.

¶Whan ye hunte at the roo then̄ ye shall saye thore:
He crossyeth & tresonyth your hondes byfore:
A grete roo bucke ye call hym not soo:
But a fayr roo bucke and a fayr doo.
Wyth the bowellys and wyth the blood:
Rewarde ye your houndes my sones soo good.
¶And eche fote ye shall kytte in foure I you kenne:
Take the bowelles & the blood and do all togyder thenne.
Yeuyth it thenne to your houndes soo:
And moche the gladder thenne they woll goo.
That to your houndes a rewarde is namyd:
For it is eten on the grounde & on the skynne dealyd.
¶The roo shall be herdelyd by venery I wene.
The two forther legges the heed layed bytwene.
And take one hynder legge vp I you praye:
And that other forder legge ryght as I you saye:
Vpon that other forder legge both ye theym pytte:
And wyth that other forther legge vp ye theym knytte.
On this manere thus whan ye haue wrought:
All hole to the kechyn then̄ it shall be brought.
Saue that your houndes ete: the bowelles & the fete.

¶Now of the aege & vndaynge of the boore

¶Now to speke of the boore the fyrste yere he is:
A pygge of the sounder callyd as haue I blys.
The seconde yere an hogge and soo shall he be:
And an hoggestere whan he is of yeres thre.
[Page]And whan he is of foure yere a boore shall he be:
From the sounder of the swyne thenne departyth he.
A synguler is he soo▪ for alone he woll goo.
¶whan ye haue slayne the boore and woll doo hym ryght:
Ye shall vndo hym vnflayne whan he shall be dyght.
Thyrty bredys & two of hym ye shall make:
By the lawe of venery I dare vndertake.
Thrugh your houndys by strengthe yf that he be dede:
They shall haue the bowelles boyllyd wyth the brede.
Caste vpon the grounde there the boore was slayne:
And that is callyd a rewarde soo hunters it sayne.
Vpon the erthe soo haue I blys: for that soo eten is.

¶Now of the haare

¶Now for to speke or the haare my sones sykerly:
That beest kynge shall be callyd of all venery.
For all the fayr spekynge & blowynge that is thare:
Comyth of sechynge and fyndynge of the hare.
For my leyf chyldern I take it on honde:
He is the merueyllou [...]t beest that is in ony londe.
For he fymayeth and crotyth and roungeth euer more:
And beeryth talowe and grees: and aboue teeth hath be fore
And other whyle he is male: and soo ye shall hym fynde:
And other whyle female and kyndlyth by kynde.
¶And whan he is female and kyndlyth hym wythin:
In thre degrees he theym beryth or he wyth theym twyn̄.
Two rough and two smothe who woll theym se:
And two knottys also that kyndelys wyll be.
whan he is female: soo tell I my tale.

¶The rewarde for houndes

¶whan your houndes by strengthe haue doon her to deed:
The hunter shall rewarde theim wyth the heed.
wyth the sholders & the sydes and wyth the bowelles all:
And all thynge wythin the wombe saue oonly the gall.
The paunche also: yeue theym none of tho.
whyche rewarde whan on the erthe it is dealyd:
wyth all good hunters the (Halow) it is namyd.
Thenne the loynes of the haare loke ye not forgete:
But brynge theym to the kechyn for the lordes mete.
[Page]And of this sayd beest to trete: here it shall be lete.

¶whyche beestes shall be flayne and whyche strypte.

¶Now to speke of the beestes whan they ben slayne:
How many be strypte and how many be flayne.
All that beere skynne and talowe & rounge leue me:
Shall be flayne sauf the hare for he shall strypte be.
And all that beryth grees: and pyles therupon:
Euer shall be strypte whan they ben vndon.
On this manere playe▪ thus ye shall saye.

¶whyche bestys shall be reryd wyth the Lymer.

¶My dere sones echoon now woll I you lere:
How many manere beestys as wyth the lymere.
Shall be vpreryd in fryth or in felde:
Both the harte and the bucke and the boore so wylde.
And all other bestes that huntyd shall be:
Shall be sought and founde wyth Ratches so fre.
Saye thus I you tolde: my chyldern so bolde.

¶The dyseryuynge of a bucke

¶And ye speke of ye bucke the fyrste yere he is:
A fawne soukynge on his dame say as I you wys:
The seconde yere a Prycket the thyrde yere a Sowrell:
A Soure at the fourth yere the trouth I you tell.
The fyfth yere calle hym a Bucke of the fyrste hede.
The syxte yere calle hym a Bucke and doo as I you rede.

¶Of the hornys of a bucke

¶The hornes of a grete bucke or he soo be:
Must be sūmonyd as I saye herkenyth to me.
Two braunches fyrste pawmyd he must haue:
And foure auauncers the soth yf ye woll saue.
And .xxiiij. espelers and thenne ye maye hym call:
where so ye be a grete bucke I tell you all.

Of the Roobucke

¶And yf ye of the roobucke woll knowe the same:
The fyrste yere he is a kydde soukynge on his dame.
The seconde yere he is a gerle: and so ben suche all:
The thyrde yere an hemule loke ye hym call.
Roobucke of the fyrste heed he is at the fourth yere:
The fyfth yere a Roobucke hym call I you lere.
[Page]At saynt Andrewes daye his hornes he woll caste:
In moore or in moste he hydyth theym faste.
Soo that noo man maye theym soone fynde:
Elles in certayn he dooth not his kynde.
¶At saynt Iamys daye where soo he goo:
Thenne shall the roobucke gendre wyth the roo.
And soo boldly there as ye soionrne:
Then̄ he is callyd a roobucke gooynge in his tourne.
And yf ye maye a roobucke slee wythout ony fayle:
And ye fynde that heuy grece at his tayle.
As some roobuckes haue whan ye it fynde:
Then̄ shall ye rere it as ye doo of harte and of hynde.
Also the roobucke as it is well kyde:
At holy Roode daye he gooth to ryde.
And vsyth the byt: whan he maye gete it.

¶Now of the harte & of the hynde

¶Sones of the harte and the hynde lerne yet ye maye:
There they drawe to the herde at holy Rode daye.
To the stepe then̄ they goon: eche hote daye at noon̄.
whyche stepe they vse my chyldern I you saye:
Tyll it be Mydsomer at the leste waye.
The cause of the stepe is to kepe hym fro the flye:
who so comyth to that place maye it well spye.
A nother thynge they vse my chylde also:
The same season of the yere to soyle to go.

¶Of the cryenge of thyse bestys

¶An harte belowyth and a bucke groynyth I fynde:
And eche roobucke certayn bellyth by kynde.
The noyse of thyse bestys thus ye shall call:
For pryde of theyr make they vse it all.
Saye chylde where ye goo: your dame taught you so.

¶Merke well thyse seasons folowynge.

¶Tyme of grece begynnyth at Mydsomer daye:
And tyll holy Rode daye lastyth as I you saye.
¶The season of the foxe fro the Natyuyte:
Tyll the Annuncyacōn of our lady free.
¶Season of the roobucke at Ester shall begynne:
And tyll Myghelmas lastyth night or she blynne.
[Page]¶The season of the roo begynnyth at Myghelmas:
And it shall endure and laste vntyll Candylmas.
¶At Myghelmas begynnyth huntynge of the haare:
And lastyth tyll Mydsomer there wyll no man it spare.
¶The season of the wulfe is in eche countre:
At the season of the foxe and euer more shall be.
¶The season of the boore is from the Natyuyte:
Tyll the puryficacōn of our lady soo fre.
For at the Natyuyte of our lady swete:
He maye fynde where he gooth vnder his fete.
Bothe in wodes and feldes corne and other frute:
whan he after foode makyth ony sute.
Crabbes and oke cornes & nottes there they grow:
Hawys and hepes and other thynges ynow.
That tyll the Puryfycacōn lastyth as ye se:
And makyth the boore in season to be.
For whyle that fruyte maye laste: his tyme is neuer paste.

¶Of the huntynge of the haare

NOw to speke of the haare how all shall be wrought:
whan she shall wyth houndes be founden and sought.
The fyrst worde to the hoūdes yt the hunte shall out pit
Is at the kenell doore whan he openyth it.
That all maye hym here: he shall saye (Arere)
For his woundes wolde come to hastely:
That is the fyrste worde my sone of venery.
And whan he hath couplyd his houndes echoon:
And is forth wyth theym to the felde goon.
And whan he hath of caste his couples at wyll:
Thenne shall he speke and saye his houndes tyll.
(Hors de couple auaunt se auaunt) twyse soo:
And thenne (So ho so ho) thryes and no moo.
And then̄ saye (Sa cy auaunt So ho) I thou praye.
And yf ye se your houndes haue good wyll to renne:
And drawe awaywarde fro you saye as I you kenne.
(H [...]rt how amy) agayn theym call soo:
[Page]Then̄ Sweff mon amy sweft) to make theym softe thoo.
And yf ony fynde of the haare there he hath goo:
And he hyght Rycharde or Bemounde to hym crye soo.
Dyes a Bemounde le vaillant and I shall you auowe:
Que quida troū la cowarde on la court cowe.
That Bemounde the worthy wythout ony fayle:
That wenyth to fynde the cowarde wyth the shorte tayle.
¶And yf ye se where the haare at pasture hath bene:
Yf it be in the tyme of the corne grene.
And yf your houndes chace well at your wyll:
Then̄ thre motes shall ye blowe bothe lowde & shyll.
There one and there a nother there he pasturyd hath:
Then̄ saye (Illoques illoques) in the same path.
So saye to theym in kynde: vnto tyme that ye her fynde.
¶And then̄ caste a sygne all the felde abowte:
To se at her pasture where she hath be in or owte.
Other at her fourme for gladly to be she is not not lefe:
There she hath pasturyd in tyme of relefe.
And ony hounde fynde or musynge of her mace:
There as she hath be and is goon out of that place.
(Ha cy touz cy est yll) soo shall ye saye:
(Venez arer so how sa (also lowde as ye maye.
(Sa cy ad est so how) after that:
(Sa sa cy auaunt and therof be not lat.
And whan ye se vnto the playne her at the laste:
In felde or in erable londe or in to the wood paste.
And your hounde woll fynde of her there then̄:
Say (La douce amy la est a) and do as I you ken̄.
That is to saye: swete frende there is he come low:
For to dry here. and therwyth ye shall saye (So how).
(Illoques ey douce ey vayllaunt so how so how then̄ twyse
Thus maye ye now dere sones lerne of veneryce.
And whan ye come there as ye trowe he woll dwell:
And so semyth to you well: then̄ saye as I you tell.
(La douce la est a venuz) for to dwell thore:
And therwyth thryes (So how (saye ye no more.
And yf it semyth well you to fynde all in fere:
And wene so to doo then̄ saye Douce how here how here)
[Page](How here douce how here how here) he syttyth:
So shall ye saye my chyldren and for noo chynge lettyth.
All manere beestes that euer chacyd be:
Haue one manere of worde (So how) I tell the.
To fulfyll or vnfyll eche manere of chaas:
The hunte euer more in his mouth that worde he haas.
And yf your houndes at a chace renne there ye hunte:
And the beest begyn̄ to renne as hartes ben wonte.
Or for to hanylon as dooth the foxe wyth his gyle:
Or for to crosse as the roo dooth otherwhyle.
Other dwell so: that your houndes can not out goo
Then̄ shall ye saye (Hoo sa amy sa la)
(A couples la arere so how) suche is the playe:
And (So how) as moche is as (Sa how) to saye.
But for (So how) is shorte in speche whan it is brought:
Therfore saye we (So how (but Sa how)) [...]aye we nought.
And yf your houndes chace at harte or at the hare:
And they renne at defawte thus ye shall there tare.
(I cy so how assayne assayne stou hoho)
(Sa assayne arere so how) thyse wordes and noo moo.
And yf your houndes renne well at foxe or at doo:
And soo faylle at defawte saye thus ferder or ye goo.
(Ho ho ore swef aluy douce a luy) that they here:
(Ho hoy assayne assayne sa arere)
So how so how venez a coupler / and doo as I you ken̄:
The more worshyp maye ye haue amonge all men.
Your craftes lete not be hydde: and doo as I you bydde.
All my sones in same: and thus maye ye knowe of game:

¶The boste that the mayster hunter makyth to his man now here folowynge ye maye here.

THe mayster to the man makyth his boste:
That he knowyth by kynde what the harte coste.
At huntynge euermore whan he gooth.
Quod the man to his mayster that were good lore:
For to knowe what he dooth the houndes before.
what dooth he quod the mayster to the man.
[Page]He dooth quod he euyn as thou mayst se:
( [...]) and soo dooth noo beest but he.
whan brekyth he quod the man what is that to saye:
wyth his fete he openeth the erthe there he gooth awaye.
what is the cause quod the man mayster I the praye:
That the harte before the houndes whan they hym hunte aye,
That thenne to the ryuer he wyllyth for to goo:
Quod the mayster to the man there are causes two.

¶For two [...] the harte desyreth to the ryuer. And [...]o [...]e w [...] [...]y [...]e termes folowynge Descende & other.

¶Oone cause for the ryuer Descende he is ay:
And soo he is to the water whan he takyth the way.
why callyst thou hym (Descende) mayster I the praye:
For he peyryth of his myght the sothe I the saye.
A nother is to the water why he gooth other whyle:
The houndes that hym sewen to purpose to begyle.
¶Yet of this harte quod his man mayster I wolde ken̄:
In to the water whan he lepyth what he makyth then̄.
He proferyth quod the mayster and so ye shall saye:
For he wote not hymself yet how he woll awaye.
whether ouer the water he woll forpas.
Or torne ayen the same waye there he fyrste was.
Therfore it is (Profce) as thyse hunters sayne.
And (Reprofce) yf the same waye he torne agayne.
At that other syde of the water yf he vp sterte:
Then̄ shall ye call it the (Soule) of the harte.
And that is for the water of his legges wete:
Downe in to the steppes there fallen of his fete.
Ayen the water his waye euen yf he hent:
Then̄ brekyth he water therto take you tent.
And yf wyth the water goo algate you it shall:
(Defoulaunt) the water an herte soo hym call.

¶Now of the Nomblys merke well the termes.

¶The man to his mayster spekyth full blyth:
Of the nombles of the harte that he wolde hym hyth.
How many endes there shall be theym wythinne:
Quod the mayster but one thycke nor thynne.
And that is but the (Gargylyon) to speke of all by dene:
[Page]And all thise other (Crokes) & (Roundelles) bene.

¶The Auauncers. the Forchers.

¶Yet wolde I wyte and thou woldest me lere
The crokes & the roundelles of the nombles of the dere.
One croke of the nombles lyeth euermore:
Vnder the throte bolle of the beest before.
That callyd is (Auauncers) who so can theym ken̄:
And the hyndermest parte of the nombles then̄.
That is to saye the (Forchers) that lyen euen betwene:
The two thyes of the beste that other crokys euene.
In the mydref that callyd is the roundell also:
For the sydes rounde abowte coruen it is fro.
My dere sones bolde: saye of game I thus you tolde.
¶Yet wolde I wyte mayster why thyse houndes all:
Bayen & cryen whan they hym seche shall.
For they wolde haue helpe that is theyr skyll:
For to slee the beest that they renne tyll.
¶Tell me mayster quod the man what is the skyll:
why the haare wolde so fayne renne ayenst the hyll.
Quod the mayster for her legges be shorter before:
Than behynde that is the skyll thore.
¶what is the cause quod the man that men̄ saye of that beste:
That the haare syttyth ay whan she takyth her reste.
And other bestes lye as comynly men sayne:
For two causes quod the mayster I tell the playne.
One is for she hurclys vpon her houghes ay:
And all other bestes can the syde to the groude lay.
A nother cause there is and that is noo lees:
For she beeryth bothe sewet and pure grees.
¶Yet wolde I mayster quod the man fayne wyte more:
where lyeth the suet of the hare behynde or before.
Ouer the loyne quod the mayster of eche hare thou take:
Bytwyxe the tayle & the chynne euen on the backe.
¶Yet wolde I mayster quod the man thyse at the lere:
whan thou walkest in the felde wyth thy lymere.
There as an harte pasturyd hath or that thou hym se:
To knowe fatte or lene whether that he be.
I can quod the mayster well tell the this caas:
[Page]wayte well where he laye: & where he fumeyed haas.
Yolowe and englaymyd yf that it be:
Then̄ he is fatte I the tell lerne thyse of me.
And yf it be bothe blacke & harde and clene:
Then̄ he is meegre larbre and lene.
And of this same thynge yf thou leue not me:
Take hede in the wynter and thenne thou maye it se.
¶Yet mayster of the hare fayne wolde I wyte more:
what he doth whan he gooth the houndes before.
He Sorth & Resorth there he gooth awaye:
Pryckyth & Repryckyth the soth for to saye.
But what is that quod the man whan they so done:
That shall I quod the mayster tell the full soone.
In the feldes where he gooth noo wayes ben:
There he sorth whan he steppyth and it maye not be seen.
And after whan he dowblyth and tornyth agayne:
Then̄ he resorth as good hunters sayne.
And whan he rennyth in the waye drye or wete:
Thenne men maye fynde Fostalx of clees or of fete.
That Pryckyth the hare ay whan he doth soo:
And Repryckyth thenne yf he agayne goo.

¶A Vauntelay. a Laye. and a Relaye.

¶Mayster yet quod the man what is this to saye
That shall I tell the quod he: for a lytyll byzete:
whan the houndes are sette an harte for to mete.
And other hym chasen and folowen to take:
Then̄ all the (Relays) thou maye vpon them make.
Euen at his comynge yf thou lete thy houndes go:
whyle the other that be behynde ferre arn̄ hym fro.
That is (Auauntelay) and so thou shalt it call:
For they are then̄ ferre before those other houndes all.
And an hyndrynge grete all other vntyll:
For they maye not that daye no more sewe at wyll.
And holde thy houndes styll yf that thou so do:
Tyll all the houndes that be behynde be come therunto.
Then̄ lete thy houndes al togyder goo:
That callyd is an (Allay) and loke thou saye soo.
And that hyndrynge is yet to theym that ben behynde:
For the restyd woll ouergoo the wery by kynde.
[Page]A Relay is after whan the houndes are poste:
Ferre before wyth the harte that hyeth them faste.
To lete thy houndes ferre after theym goon:
And that is thenne a fortherynge to theym echoon.
For and thyn houndes haue ouertake thyse other by dystres:
Then̄ shall they all folowe hym of one swyfnes.

¶what is a forloynge.

¶Yet mayster wolde I fayne thus at you lere:
what is a forloynge for that is good to here.
That shall I say the quod he the soth at leest:
whan thy houndes in the wood seche ony beest.
And the beest is stoll awaye out of the fryth:
Or the houndes yt thou haste meten therwyth.
And ony other houndes before: than maye wyth theym mete:
Thyse other houndes are then̄ forloynyd I the hete.
For the beest and the houndes are soo ferre before:
And the houndes behynde ben wery and sore.
So that they maye not at the beest come at theyr wyll
The houndes before forloyne theym and that is the skyll.
They ben ay soo ferre before to me yf thou wylt trust:
And this is the forloyne lere it yf thou lust.

¶whyche thre thynges causyth the houndes to endure.

¶Yet wolde I wyte mayster yf it were thy wyll:
whan thy houndes renne an harte vntyll.
And ay the ferder they goo the gladder they ben:
For thre causes quod he ofte tymes is sen̄.
One is whan the harte rennyth faste on a rees:
He swetyth that it renneth downe thrugh out his clees.
The houndes whan they fynde of that it is swete:
Thenne are they leuer to renne and lother to lete.
A nother cause whan the harte nye nomore maye:
Then̄ woll he whyte froth caste there he gooth awaye.
whan thy houndes fynde of that then̄ are they gladde:
In hope they shall him haue and renne so radde.
The thyrde cause is of the harte whan he is nyghe dede:
Then̄ he castyth out of his mouth froth and blood rede.
The houndes knowe that he shall be take soone thenne:
And euer the ferder they goo the gladder they renne.
[Page]Thyse are the causes thre: that causyth theym gladde to be:

¶whyche beest a slowe hounde takyth as soone as a swyft

¶what beest yet mayster I axe it for none yll:
That moost hoole all houndes renne vntyll.
And also soone the slowest shall hym ouer take.
As the swyftyst shall doo what waye so euer he take.
That beest a bausyn hyght: a brok or a graye:
Thyse thre names he hath the soth for to saye.
And this is cause therof: for he woll by kynde:
Go thrugh thornes awaye the thyckest he maye fynde.
There as the swyftest houndes maye noo ferder go:
Then̄ the slowest of fote be he neuer so thro.

¶why the haare Fumays & Croteys

¶Yet mayster wolde I wyte why that men sayn:
That the haare fumays and croteys bothe playn.
And all other manere bestes that huntyd be:
Femyon̄ or Fenon̄ as we well it se.
That shall I well tell the quod the mayster thenne:
For why that he fumays and croteys well I kenne.
He femayth for he beryth talowe this is noo lees:
And he croteys men sayen for he beryth noo grees.
And roukys on his houghes whan he lettyth it goo:
And bestes of suche kynde fynde we no moo.
¶How many bestes Femayen̄ mayster fayne I wolde lere:
And how many Fenon̄ that were good to here.
All this to tell quod the mayster I holde it but lyght:
All bestes that beere talowe and stonde vpryght.
Femayen̄ whan they do say as I the kenne:
And all other Fenon̄ that rowken downe thenne.

¶How many manere bestys of Venery releue

¶How many manere beestys yet mayster me tell
Of venery releuen by fryth or by fell.
To this quod the mayster I shall the answare:
Of all bestys but two the harte and the hare.
From the Annunciacōn of our lady daye:
The harte then̄ releuyth the sothe for to saye.
Tyll saynt Peters daye & Poul and the hare right:
From the Puryfycacōn of our lady bryght.
[Page]Tyll the Translacōn releuyth leue ye me:
Of saynt Thomas tyde of Caunterbure.

¶To vndo the wylde boore.

¶Yet my chylde of the boore for to speke more:
whan he shall be vndoon I tell you before.
Two & thyrty bredes ye shall of hym make:
Now wyll you my sones wyte where ye shall theym take.
The fyrste of theym is the heed what euer befall:
A nother is the colere and soo ye shall it call.
The sheldes on the sholders therof shall two be:
Thenne eyther syde of the swyne departed in thre.
The pestelles & the gambons departe theym two:
And two felettes he hath forgete not tho.
Thenne take his legges & his fete & shewe your sleyght:
For they shall of his bredes be countyd for eyght.
Departe the chyne in foure peces and noo mo:
And take there your bredes thyrty and two.
And fayr put the grece whan it is take awaye:
In the bledder of the boore my chylde I you praye.
For it is a medycyne: for many manere pyne.

¶How ye shall breke an harte

¶And for to speke of the harte whyle we thynke on:
My chylde fyrste ye shall hym serue whan he shall be vndon̄:
And that is for to saye or euer ye hym dyght:
wythin his hornes to laye hym vpryght.
At thessay kytte hym that lordes maye se:
Anone fatte or lene whether that he be.
Then̄ kytte of the coddes the bely euen fro:
Or ye begyn̄ hym to flee: and thenne shall ye go.
At chaulys to begyn assone as ye maye:
And slytte hym downe euyn to thassaye.
And fro the assaye euyn downe to the bele shall ye slytte:
To the pyssyll there the codde was awaye kytte.
Then̄ slytte the lyfte legge euen fyrst before:
And then̄ the lyfte legge behynde or ye do more.
And thyse other legges vpon the ryght syde:
Vpon the same manere slytte ye that tyde.
To goo to the chekes loke that ye be prest:
[Page]And soo flee hym downe euyn to the breste.
And soo flee hym forth ryght vnto thessay:
Euen to the place where the codde was kytte away.
Thenne flee the same wyse all that other syde:
But lete the taylle of the beest styll theron byde.
Then̄ shall ye hym vndo my chylde I you rede:
Ryght vpon his owne skynne & laye it on brede.
Take hede of the kyttynge of the same dere:
And begyn̄ fyrste to make the Erbere.
Then̄ take out the sholders: and slyttyth anone:
The bely to the syde from the corbyn bone.
That is corbyns fee: at the deth he woll be:
Then̄ take out the sewett that it be not lafte:
For that my chylde is good for leche crafte.
Then̄ put thyn honde loftly vnder the breste bone:
And there shall ye take out therber anone.
Then̄ put out the paunche / and from the paunche taas:
Awaye lyghtly the Rate suche as he haas.
Hoole it wyth a fyngre. doo as I you ken̄:
And wyth the blood and the grece fyll it then̄.
Loke threde that ye haue and nedyll therto:
For to sewe it wyth all or ye more do.
The smalle guttes then̄ ye shall out pyt:
From theim take the mawe: for yete not it.
Then̄ take out the lyuer and laye it on the skynne:
And after that the bledder wythout more dynne.
Then̄ dresse the nombles: fyrst that ye recke:
Downe the anauncers kerue that cleuyth to the necke.
And downe wyth the bolthrote put theym anone:
And kerue vp the flesshe there vp to the hach bone.
And soo forth the fyllittes that ye vp arere:
That fallyth to the nombles: and shall be there.
wyth the nerys also and sewit that there is:
Euen to the mydryf that vpon hym is.
Then̄ take downe the mydryf from the sydes hote:
And haue vp the nombles hole by the bolle throte.
In thyn honde thenne theym holde. and loke and se:
That all that longyth theym to: togyder that they be.
[Page]Then̄ take theym to thy broder to holde for tryst:
whyles thou theym dowblest & dresse as the lyste.
Then̄ awaye the lyghtis / and on the skynne theym laye:
To abyde the querre my chylde I you praye.
Then̄ shall ye slytte the slough there as the herte lyeth:
And take awaye the heres from it and by slyeth.
For suche heeres hath his herte: ay it vpon:
As men maye se in the beest whan he is vndon.
And in the myddes of the herte a bone shall ye fynde:
Loke ye yeue it to a lorde. and chylde be kynde.
For it is kynde for many maladies:
And in the myddes of the herte euer more it lyes.
Then̄ shall ye kytte the skyrtes the teeth euyn fro:
And after the ragge boon kyttyth euyn also.
The forchis: and the sydes euyn bytwene:
And loke that your knyues ay whettyd bene:
Then̄ turne vp the forchis. and frote theym wyth blood:
For to saue the grece. so doo men of good.
Then̄ shall ye kytte the necke the sydes euyn fro:
And the heed fro the necke kyttyth also.
The tonge the brayne the paunche and the necke:
whan they wasshe ben well wyth water of the becke.
The smalle guttes to the lyghtis in the derys:
Aboue the herte of the beest whan thou theym rerys.
wyth all the blood that ye maye gete and wynne:
All togyder shall be take. and layed on the skynne.
To gyue your houndes. that callyd is ywys:
The quyrre. aboue the skynne for it eten is.
And who dressyth hym so by my counsayle:
Shall haue the lefte sholder for his trauayle.
And the ryght sholder where so euer he bee.
Yeuyth to the foster for that is his fee.
And the lyuer also of the same beest:
To the fosters knaue yeuyth at the leest.
The nombles truste in the skynne. & hardyll theym faste:
The sydes & the forches togyder that they laste.
wyth the hynder legges. be doon so it shall:
Then̄ brynge it home. and the skynne wyth all.
[Page]The nombles. & the hornes. at the lordis yate:
Then̄ boldly blowe the pryce. ther ate.
Your playe for to mynne: or that ye come inne.
¶Explicit dame Iulyans Bernes doc­tryne in her boke of huntynge.

¶Bestys of the chace of the swete fewte & stynkynge

THere ben beestis of the chace: of the swete fewte. And tho ben the Bucke: the Doo: the Beere: the Reynder: the Elke: the Spyccarde: the Orre: & the Martron. ¶There ben bestys of the chace of the stynkynge fewte / And they ben the Roobucke: and the Roo: the Fulmarde: the Fyches the Bawde. the Graye: the Foxe the Squyrell: the whytrat: the Sot: and the Pulcatte.

¶The names of dyuers manere houndes

Thyse ben the names of houndes. Fyrste there is a Grehoun­a Bastard: a Mengrell: a Mastif: a Lemor: a Spanyel: Raches Kenettys: Teroures: Butchers houndes: Dunghyll dogges: Tryndeltaylles: and Pryckeryd currys: and smalle ladyes popees that bere awaye the flees & dyuers smale fawtes.

¶The propritees of a good Grehounde.

¶A grehounde sholde be heeded lyke a snake: and neckyd lyke a drake: fotyd lyke a catte / tayllyd lyke a ratte: syded lyke a te­me: and chynyd lyke a beme. ¶The fyrste yere he must lerne to fede. The seconde yere to felde hym lede. The thyrde yere he is felowe lyke. The fourth yere there is none syke. The fyfth yere he is good ynough. The syxte yere he shall holde the plough. The seuenth yere he woll auaylle: grete bytches for to assaylle. The eyghte yere lyckeladyll. The nynthe yere cartsadyll. ¶And whan he is comyn to that yere: haue hym to the Tannere. For the beste hounde that euer bytche had: at nynthe yere he is full badde.

¶The proprytees of a good horse.

[Page]A Good horse sholde haue .xv. proprytees and condycōns. That is to wyte. thre of a man. thre of a woman. thre of a foxe. thre of an hare: and thre of an asse.

  • ¶Of a man: bolde: prowde: and hardy.
  • ¶Of a woman: fayr brested: fayr of heere: & easy to lippe vpon
  • ¶Of a foxe: a fayr taylle: shorte eeres wyth a good trotte.
  • ¶Of an haare: a grete eye: a drye heed: & well rennynge.
  • ¶Of an asse: a bygge chyn̄: a flatte legge: & a good houe.

¶Well trauelyd wym̄en nor well trauelid horse were neuer gode

¶Aryse erly / serue god deuowtly: and the worlde besily. Do thi werke wysely / yeue thyn̄ almesse secretly: goo by the waye sad­ly. Ansuere the people demurely / goo to thy meete appetydely. Sytte therat dyscretly / of thy tonge be not to lyberally: aryse therfrom temperatly. Goo to thy souper sobrely / and to thy bed merely: be in thyne Inne Iocundly. Please thy lone duely / and slepe surely.

¶Merke well thyse foure thynges

¶There ben foure thynges pryncypally to be dradde of euery wyse man. The fyrste is the curse of our holy fader the pope. The seconde is thyndignacōn of a prynce (Quia indignacō regis vell principis mors est) The thyrde is the fauour or the wyll of a Iuge. The fourth is sclaunder & the mutacōn of a comynalte.

¶Who that makyth in Crystmas a dogge [...]o his larder:
And in Marche a sowe to his gardyner.
And in May a fole of a wyse mannys counsell:
He shall neuer haue good larder. fayre gardyne / nor well kepte counsell.
¶Ferre from thy kynnesmen caste the:
wrath not thy neyghbours next ¶In a good corn̄ coūtree threste the
And sytte downe Robyn and reste the.
¶who that buyldeth his house all of salowes:
And pryckyth a blynde horse ouer the falowes.
And suffryth his wyfe to seke many halowes.
God sende hym the blysse of euerlastynge galowes.
¶Yf thyse be not dyrectyd thenne goo they at auenture.
[Page]¶There ben foure thynges full harde for to knawe:
whyche waye that they woll drawe.
The fyrste is the wayes of a yonge man:
The seconde the course of a vessell in the see.
The thyrde of an adder or of a serpent sprent.
The fourth of a foule syttynge on ony thynge.
¶Two wyues in one hous, two cattys and one mons:
Two dogges & one bone / thyse shall neuer acorde in one.
¶who that mannyth hym wyth his kynne:
And closyth his crofte wyth cherytrees:
Shall haue many hegges brokynne.
And also full lytyll good seruyes.

¶The companyes of bestys & foules

  • AN Herde of hartys
  • an Herde of all manere dere
  • an Herde of swannnys
  • an Herde of cranys
  • an Herde of corlewys
  • an Herde of wrennys
  • an Herde of harlottys.
  • a Nye of fesauntys
  • a Beuy of ladyes
  • a Beuy of roes
  • a Beuy of quayles
  • a Sege of herons
  • a Sege of bytourys
  • a Sorde or a sute of malardis
  • a Mustre of pecockys
  • a walke of snytes
  • a Congregacōn of people
  • an Exaltynge of larkys
  • a watche of nyghtyngalys
  • an hoost of men
  • a Felyshyppynge of yomen
  • a Cherme of goldfynches
  • a Caste of breed
  • a Couple or a payr of botellis
  • a Flyghte of douues
  • an Vnkyndnes of rauens
  • a Claterynge of choughes
  • a Dyssymulacōn of byrdes
  • a Rowte of knyghtes
  • a Pryde of Lyons
  • a Slewthe of beerys
  • a Cete of grayes
  • a Bery of conyes
  • a Ryches of martrones
  • a Besynesse of ferettes
  • a Brace of grehoundes of two
  • a Lece of grehoundes of thre
  • a Cowple of spanellys
  • a Couple of rennynge houndꝭ
  • a Lytter of whelpys
  • a Kyndyll of yonge cattys
  • a Synguler of boores
  • a Dryfte of tame swyne
  • an Harrasse of horse.
  • [Page]a Ragge of coltys or a Rake
  • a Baren of malys
  • a Tryppe of gete
  • a Tryppe of haarys
  • a Gagle of geys
  • a Brode of hennys
  • a Badelynge of dokys
  • a Noonpacyens of wyues
  • a Scate of prynces
  • a Thongh of barons
  • a Prudence of vycaryes
  • a Superfluyte of nonnys
  • a Scole of clerkes
  • a Doctryne of doctours
  • a Conuertynge of prechers
  • a Sentence of Iuges
  • a Dampnynge of Iuryours
  • a Dylygence of messengers
  • an Obeyssaunce of seruauntis
  • a Cete of vssherys
  • a Draught of Buttelers
  • a Proude shewynge of taylers
  • a Temperaunce of cokys
  • a Stalke of fosters
  • a Boste of sadyours
  • a Laughtre of ostelers
  • a Glosynge of tauerners
  • a Malepertnesse of pedlers
  • a Thraue of throsshers
  • a Squatte of dawbers
  • a Fyghtynge of beggers
  • an Vntrouth of sompners
  • a Melody of harpers
  • a Pouuerty of pypers
  • a Subtyltee of sergauntes
  • a Tabernacle of bakers
  • a Dryfte of fysshers
  • a Disgysynge of tayllours
  • a Bleche of sowters
  • a Smere of coryours
  • a Clustre of grapys
  • a Clustre of chorlys
  • a Rage of maydens
  • a Rafull of knaues
  • a Blusshe of boyes
  • an Vncredybylyte of cocoldes
  • a Couy of pertryches
  • a Sprynge of telys
  • a Desserte of lapwynges
  • a Falle of wodcockes
  • a Congregacōn of plouers
  • a Couerte of cootes
  • a Duell of turtylles
  • a Tygendis of pyes
  • an Oost of sparowes
  • a Swarme of bees
  • a Cast of hawkis of ye toure .ij.
  • a Lece of the same hawkys .iij.
  • a Flyght of goshawkys
  • a Flyght of swalowes
  • a buyldynge of rokys
  • a Murmuracōn of stares
  • a Rowte of wulues
  • a Lepe of leberdes
  • a Shrewdenes of apys
  • a Skulke of theuys
  • a Skulke of foxes
  • a Nest of rabettys
  • a Labor of mollys
  • a Mute of houndys
  • a Kenell of rachys
  • a Sute of a lyam
  • a Cowardnes of currys
  • a Sourde of wylde swyne
  • a Stode of maarys
  • a Pase of asses
  • [Page]a Droue of nete
  • a Flocke of shepe
  • a Gagle of wymen
  • a Pepe of chekyns
  • a Multyplyeng of husbondes
  • a Pontifycalyre of prelates
  • a Dygnyte of chanons
  • a Charge of curates
  • a Dyscrecōn of prestys
  • a Sculle of frerys
  • a bomynable syght of monkꝭ
  • a Scoll of fysshe
  • an Example of maysters
  • an Obseruans of heremytes
  • an Eloquens of laweyers
  • an Execucōn of offycers
  • a Fayth of marchauntis
  • a prouysion of steward of hous
  • a Kerff of panteres
  • a Credens of seweris
  • an Vnbrewynge of keruers
  • a Saufgarde of porters
  • a Blaste of hunters
  • a Thretenynge of courteyers
  • a Promyse of tapsters
  • a Lyenge of pardoners
  • a Mysbyleue of paynters
  • a Lasshe of carters
  • a Scoldynge of kempters
  • a wondrynge of Tynkers
  • a waywardnes of haywardes
  • a worshyp of wryters
  • a Neuerthrīuyng of Iogolers
  • a Fraunch of myllers
  • a Feest of bruers
  • a Gorynge of bouchers
  • a Trynket of coruesers
  • a Plocke of shoturners
  • a Dronkenshyp of Coblers
  • a Sculke of foxes
  • a Clustre of nottes
  • A rage of the teeth
  • a Rascall of boyes
  • a Dysworshyp of scottes
¶Explicit

¶Here folowe the dewe ter­mys to speke of brekynge or dressynge of dyuers beestys & foules. &c. And the same is shewed of certen fysshes

  • A Dere broken
  • a Gose reryd
  • a Pygge hedyd & sided
  • a Capon sawsyd
  • a Chekyn frusshyd
  • a Cony vnlacyd
  • a Crane dysplayed
  • a Curlewe vnioyntyd
  • a Fesaunt alet
  • a Quayle wynggyd
  • a Plouer mynsyd
  • a Pegeon thyghed
  • Brawne leechyd
  • a Swanne lyfte
  • a Lambe sholderyd
  • a Kydde sholderyd
  • an henne spoyllyd
  • a Malarde vnbracyd
  • an Heron dysmembryd
  • a Pecock dysfygured
  • a Byttoure vntachyd
  • [Page]a Partryche alet
  • a Raale brestyd
  • a wodcocke thyghed
  • an Egge tyryd
  • a Fyre tymberyd
  • ¶Now of fysshes
  • A Samon chynyd
  • a Pyke splattyd
  • an Hadoke sydyd
  • a Cheuen fynnyd
  • a Sole loynyd
  • a Gurnarde chynyd
  • a Tenche sawcyd
  • an Ele trousonyd
  • a Breme splayed
  • a Barbyll tuskyd
  • a Trought gobettyd
  • ¶Ye shall saye thus
  • An Harte herbouryth
  • a Bucke lodgyth
  • an Esquyre lodgyth
  • a Roo beddyth
  • a Yoman beddyth
  • an haare in her fourme sholde
  • rynge or lenynge
  • a Cony syttynge
  • a wodcocke brekynge

HEre now folowynge shall be shewed all the shyres & the bysshopryches of the realme of Englonde. And ye shall vnd (er)stonde yt the shyres ben wryten before / & the bisshop ryches of the same are writen folowynge next after. and thenne afterwarde are shewed the prouynces of this londe.

¶Kent) Caūterbury) Rochestre ¶Southsex) Chychestre ¶Haampshyre) Surrey) wynchestre. ¶Wylteshyre) Barkeshyre) Salisbury. ¶Somersete shyre) Dorset shyre) Bathe. ¶Deuen shyre) Cornewayle) Exastur. ¶Essex) Myddylsex) London. ¶Northfolke) Southfolke) Norwyche. ¶Cambrydgeshyre) Ely. ¶Laycetre) Huntyngdon) Northampton) Hertforde) Bedford Bokyngham) Oxenforde) Lyncoln̄) Lyncoln̄.

¶Gloucetre) worcetre) wygorn̄. ¶Herfordshyre) Herdforde. ¶Chesshyre) Shropshyre) parte of Lancasshyre) Chestre. ¶Yorkeshyre) Stafforde shyre) Darbyshyre) Notynghamshyre. and other as parte of) Lancastreshyre) Yorke.

¶Prouynces of Englonde.

¶Caunterbury: Yorke: Stafforde: Derby: Notyngham: Northumbrelonde: Durham: westmerlonde: Tyndale: Karlyle.

A Faythfull frende wolde I fayne fynde
To fynde hym there. he myghte be founde
But now is the worlde. wext soo vnkynde
y frenship is fall. to the groūde (Now a frende I haue foūde
That I woll nother. banne ne curse
But of all frendes. in felde or towne
Euer gramercy. myn owne purse
My purse it is. my preuy wyf
This songe I dare. bothe synge and saye
It partyth men. of moche stryfe
when euery man. for hīself shall pay (As I ryde in riche aray
For golde & syluer. men woll me flouryssh
By this matere. I dare well say
Euer gramercy. myn owne purse
As I ryde wyth golde so rede
And haue to doo. wyth londys lawe
Men for my money. woll make me spede
And for my goodes. they woll me knawe
More and lesse. to me woll drawe
Bothe the better. and the wurse
By this matere. I saye in sawe
Euer gramercy. myn owne purse
It fell by me. vpon a tyme. ¶As it hath doo by many one mo
My horse my nete. my shepe my swyne
And all my goodes. they fell me fro
I went to my frendes and tolde theym so
And home agayne. they badde me trusse
I sayd agayne. whan I was wo
Euer gramercy. myn owne pursse
Therfore I rede you. syres all
To assaye your frendes. or ye haue nede
For and ye come downe and haue a fall
Full fewe of theym. for you woll grede
Therfore. assaye theym euerychane
¶Bothe the better and the wurse
Our lorde that shope. bothe sonne and mone
Sende vs spendynge. in our purse

AMEN

HEre in this boke folowynge is determyned the lygnage of Cote armures: and how gentylmen shall be knowen from vngentylmen. And how bondage began fyrst in angell and after succeded in mankynde. as it is shewed in processe bothe in the chyldren of Adam and also of Noe. And how Noe dyuyded the worlde in thre partyes to his thre sones. Also the­re ben shewed the .ix. colours in armes figuryd by the .ix. orders of angels. And it is shewed by the forsayde colours whyche ben worthy and whyche ben ryall, And of rigalytees whyche be noble and whyche ben excellent. Also ben shewed here the vertues of chyualry and many other notable and famous thynges to ye playsure of noble persones shall be shewed as the werkes folo­wynge wytnessen who some euer lyketh to se theym and re­de theym: whyche were to longe now to reherce. And after thy­se notable thynges aforsayd foloweth the blasynge of all manere armys in latyn: frensshe: and englysshe.

¶Incipit liber armorum.

BEynge in worthynesse armes for to beere by the ryall blood in ordynaunce all noble & gentylmen from the hyghest degree to the lowest in this bo­ke shall be shewed / & to deseuere gentylnesse from vngentylnesse / In soo moche that all gentylnesse comyth of god of heuen. At heuen I woll begyn̄e where were .x. orders of angelles: and now stonde but .ix. in cote armures of knowlege encrowned full hye wyth precyous sto­nes: where Lucyfer wyth myllyons of angels out of heuen fell vnto hell & other places / & ben holde there in bondage. And all were creatyd in heuen of gentill nature. A bonde man or a churle woll saye all we ben comen of Adam / Soo Lucyfer wyth his company maye saye all we ben comen of heuen. ¶Adam the begynnynge of mankynde was as a stocke vnsprayed & vnflorisshyd. & in the braunches is knowlege whiche is totyn & whiche is grene.

¶How gentylmen shall be knowen from churles: & how they fyrste began. And how Noe dyuyded the worde in thre partyes to his thre sones.

[Page]¶Now for to dyuyde gentylmen fro churles in haste it shall be preuyd. ¶There was neuer gentylman nor churle ordenyd bikinde but he had fader & moder. Adam & Eue had nother fader nor moder. And in the sones of Adam & Eue were founde both gentylman and churle. By the sones of Adam and Eue: Seth Abell and Cayn dyuyded was the ryall blode fro the vngentyl A brother to slee his brother contrari to the lawe: where myghte be more vngentylnesse. By that dyde Cayn̄ become a chur­le and alle his ofsprynge after hym by the cursynge of god and his owne fader Adam. And Seth was made a gentylman tho­rugh his fader and moders blessynge. And of the ofsprynge of Seth Noe came a gentylman by kynde.

¶Noe had thre sones begoten by kynde. Bi the moder tweyne were namyd Cham and Sem. And by the fader the thirde was namyd Iafeth. Yet in thyse thre sones gentylnesse & vngentylnesse was founde. ¶In Cham vngentylnesse was founde to his owne fader doon̄ to dyscouer his preuytees and laughyng his fader to scorne. ¶Iafeth was the yongest and repreuid his broder. Thenne lyke a gentylman take mynde of Cham: For his vngentylnes he was become a churle: and had the cursyng of god and his fader Noe. And whan Noe awoke he sayde to Cham his sone: Knowest not yu how it became of Cayn Adams sone: and of his churlysshe blood. All the worlde is drowned sa­ue we eyghte / And now of the to begyn vngentylnesse & a cau­se to dystroye vs all: vpon the it shall be. and so I praye to god that it shall falle / Now to the I geue my curse wyckyd caytyf for euer. & I gyue to the ye Northe parte of the worlde to draw thyn Inhabytacōn / For there shall it be: where sorowe and care colde & myscheyf as a churle thou shalt haue in the thyrde parte of the worlde: Vhiche shall be callyd Europa. That is to say the countree of churles.

¶Iafeth come hyther my sone thou shalt haue my blessynge dere in stede of Seth Adams sone I make the a gentylman. to the weste parte of the worlde: and to the Occydent ende where as welthe & grace shall be: there thyn habitacōn shall be: to take that other thyrde parte of the worlde whiche shalbe callyd Alia That is to saye: the countree of gentylmen.

¶And Sem my sone also a gentylman I ye make to multyplye [Page] Abellys blood that so wickydly was slayn. Thorient thou shalt take that other thyrde parte of the worlde: whyche shall be cal­lyd Affrica: That is to saye the countree of temperaunce.

¶Of the ofspringe of the gentyll Iafeth came Abraham: Moyses: Aaron: & the prophetes. and also the kynge of the ryght ly­ne of Mary / of whom that gentyll Ihesus was born̄ very god & man after his manhede kynge of the londe of Iude & of Iewes gentylman by his moder Mary prynce of Cote armure.

¶How longe cote armures were begonne afore the Incarnacōn of our lorde Ihesu Cryste.

¶Iafeth made firste Barget / & therin he made a balle in token of all the worlde. And after two thousande yere & eyghtene be­fore the Incarnacōn of Cryste / cote armures was made & fygu­ryd at the syege of Troye: where in gestys troianorū it tellyth. Yt the fyrste begynnynge of the lawe of armys was. the whiche was effygured & begon̄ byfore ony lawe of the worlde: but the lawe of nature. and before the .x. cōmaundementis of god.

¶And this lawe of armys was groundyd vppon the .ix. orders of angellys in heuen encrownyd wyth .ix. dyuerse precyous stonys of colours and of vertues dyuers. Also of theym are fygu­ryd the .ix. colours in armys. as in nombre to begyn̄ the fyrste stone is callyd Topasion.

Primus lapis ¶The fyrst stone is callyd Topasion sygnyfyenge golde in armys.

¶This stone Topasion is a semy stone: and golde it is callyd in armys. The vertue therof is: that the gentylman the whiche this stone in his cote armure beryth a sure messager in his kyngis batayll shal be. The whyche stone is reserued in the angels crowne that was a true messager & a sure in his kyngis batayll of heuen whan they faughte wyth Lucyfer.

Secundus lapis ¶The seconde stone is called Smaragdus a grauely stone: sygnyfyenge vert in armys

¶The seconde stone is callyd Smaragdus: a grauely stone. & vert it is callyd in armys. The vertue therof is: that the gentyl man the whyche in his cote armure it beeryth: kene & hardy in his kyngys batayll shalbe. The whiche stone is reseruyd in the [Page] archangelles crowne that was kene and hardy in his kyngys bacayse of heuen whan they fought wyth lucyfer.

Tercius lapis ¶And this stone is calde bruske colore in armys

¶The thirde stone is calde an Ametisce a dusketly stone brusk i [...] is calde in armys The vertu therof is: that he the whyche be rich in his Cotearmur that stone. fortunable of wictory in hys kynges batayll shall be. whiche stone is reserued to the virtu­tis crowne that was fortunable and victorious in his kyngys batayll or heuen whan they foughte wyth lucyfer:

¶Quartus lapis ¶And this stone is calde plumbi colour in armis:

¶The .iiii. stone is calde a Margarete a clowdy stone Plum­by it is calde in armys. The vertue therof is what gentylman that in his cotearmure that stone beryth grete gouernaunce of chiualrie in his kyngis batayll he shal haue. the whiche stone is reserued in ye potestatis crowne yt was cheualrous of gouernaūce in his kyngys batayll of heuen whan they fought wyth lucyfer

¶Quintus lapis ¶A loys is calde synamer or sanguein in armis.

¶The :v. stone is calde a Loys. a sanguein stone or synamer it is calde in armes. The vertue therof is. the gentymen that in his cote arrmure this stone beryth myghtyfull of power in his kyngis batayll shall be. the whyche stone was reserued in dominacionis crowne that was mightiful of powere in his kyngis batayll of heuen whan they faught wyth Lucyfer

¶Sextus lapis ¶And thys stone is calde gowlys in armys

¶The .vi. stone is called a Ruby a redly stone. gowlysit is callyd in armis. The vertue therof is. the gentylman that in his Cote armure that stone beryth hote and full of courage in his kyngis batayll shall be. the whiche stone is reserued in the princypatis crowne that was hote brennynge as fyre in hys kyn­gys batayle of heuen whan they faught wyth Lucyfer.

¶Septimus lapis ¶A blewe stone it is & it is callyd asure in armys

¶The .vii. stone is called a Saphyre a blewe stone Asure it is callyd in armys. The vertue therof is the gentilmen that in [Page] theyr cote armure beere yt stone wyse & vertuous in theyr wer­kyng in theyr kyngys bataylle shall be. the whyche is reserued to Tronus crowne that was wyse & vertuoꝰ in his kyngys bataylle of heuen whan they faught wyth Lucifer.

¶Octauus lapis ¶This stone is blacke and it is callyd Sabyll.

¶The eyghte stone is a Dyamond: a blacke stone / Sable it is callyd in armys. The vertue therof is: what gentylman that in his cote armure that stone beeryth: durable and vnfaynt in his kyngys bataylle shall be. The whyche stone was reseruyd in ye Cherubyns crowne yt was durable & vnfaynt in his kynges bataylle of heuen: whan they faughte wyth Lucifer.

¶Nonus lapis ¶A shynynge stone and is callyd syluer in armys

¶The nynthe stone is callyd Carbuncle a shynynge stone. syluer it is callyd in armys. The vertue therof is: what gentylmā yt in his cote armure this stone beeryth: full doughty gloryous & shynynge in his kyngys bataylle he shall be. The whyche stone was reseruyd in ye Seraphyns crowne: yt was full doughty gloryous & shynynge in his kynges bataylle of heuen whanne they foughte wyth Lucifer.

¶Of the dyuers colours for the felde of cotearmurys fyue ben worthy and foure ben ryall.

THere ben .ix. dyuers colours for ye felde of cote armures v. worthy & .iiij. ryall. The .v. worthy ben thyse: Golde Verte Brusk Plumby & Syname. And the foure ryall ben thyse: Gowlys Asure Sable & Syluer. But now after blasours of armys there ben but .vi. colours of ye whyche .ij. ben metall & .iiij. colours. Golde & syluer for metall. Verte: gowles: asure & sable for colours. And thyse ben vsyd & no moo.

¶Of .ix. precyous stones .v. ben noble & .iiij. of dygnyte

¶There ben .ix. precyous stones .v. noble & .iiij. of dignyte. The v. noble stones be thise Topasion Smaragmat Amatisce Margaret & Aloys. The foure of dignyte ben thyse: Ruby Saphy­re Dyamond and Carbuncle.

¶Of thorders of angels .v. ben Ierarchy & .iiij. Tronly

¶There ben .ix. orders of angels .v. Ierarchye and .iiij. Tronly [Page] ¶The fyue Ierarchyes ben thyse: Angels Archangels Virtu­tes Potestates & Dominacōes. The foure Tronly ben thyse: Principatus Trony Cherubyn & Seraphyn.

¶Fyue of the dygnytees of regalyte ben noble & foure &c.

¶There ben .ix. dygnytees of regalyte; fyue noble & foure ex­cellent. The fyue noble ben thise: Gentylman Squyre knyght Baron & Lord. And foure excellent ben thise: Erle Marke Du­ke and Prynce.

¶Nyne vertues of precyous stones

¶Nyne vertues of precyous stones ben there: fyue generall & foure specyall. The fyue generall ben thyse. A sure messager kene & hardy: fortunate of vyctory: cheualrous of gouernaunce & myghtfull of power. The foure specyall ben thyse: hote of corage: wyse & redy: & vertuous in werkinge: durable & vnfaynt: ful doughty and gloryous shynynge.

¶The foure vertues of chyualrye.

¶Foure vertues of chyualry ben there. The fyrste is Iuste in his byhestes: clennesse of his persone: pety to haue of the poore to be gracyous to his prysoner: to be reuerent & faythful to his god. The seconde is yt he be wyse in his batayle: prudent in his fyghtynge: knowynge & hauynge mynde in his wyttes. The thyrde is yt he be not slowe in his werres: loke before yt his quarell be true: thanke god euer of his vyctory: & for to haue mesure in his sustynaunce. The fourth is to be stronge & stedfast in his gouernaunce: to hope to haue the vyctory: & voyde not fro the felde: & not to shame his cotearmure. Also yt he be not to bostefull of his manhode. Loke yt he be curteys lowly & gentyll & wythout rybawdry in his langage.

¶Here shall be shewed the .ix. artycles of gentylnesse fyue of theym are amorous and foure souerayne.

¶There ben .ix. artycles of gentylnesse: and of theym .v. ben a­morous and foure souerayne. The fyue amorous gentylnesse ben thyse. Lordly of countenaunce Tretable in langage Wyse in his answere Perfyghte in gouernaunce: And cherefull to fa­ythfulnesse. The foure souerayne gentylnesse ben thise: Fewe othes in swerynge Boxom to goddys byddynge Knowynge his owne byrth in beeryng. and to drede his souerayne to fende

¶There ben .ix. vyces contrary to gentylmen.

[Page]¶There ben .ix. vyces contrary to gentylmen of the whyche .v. ben indetermynable & four determynable. The fyue indeterminable ben thyse: one to be full of slouthe in his werres: a nother to be full of boste in his manhede: the thyrde to be full of cow­ardenes to his enmye: the fourth to be full of lechery in his body. and the fyfth to be full of drynkynge & dronkelewe. There ben foure determynable: one is to reuoke his owne chalenge: a nother to slee his prysoner wyth his owne hondys: the thyrde to voyde from his soueraynes baner in the felde: and the fyfthe to telle his souerayne fals tales.

¶There ben .ix. inestymable reioyenges in armys.

¶The .ix inestymable reioyenges of armys ben thyse ¶Fyrst is a gentylman to be made a knighte in the felde at batayll: The seconde is lyuelode of hym to receyue after manho­de: The thyrde is chyualry to do byfore his souerayne: The fourth is ambassate to be put in his honde for wisdom: The fyfth is proues of knyghthode done before alyens in honoure of re­nowne. Thise ben callyd in armes the .v. antentyke: now folowyth the foure endynge stremytallis personall: The fyrste is a poore knyght to be maryed to the blood ryall: The seconde is to haue thanke of his sonerayne perpetuall: The thyrde is to kepe his cotearmure vnshamed in tryall: And ye fourth is to kepe al poyntꝭ of his knyghthode as (gestis troianorū) declaryth.

¶Knowe ye that thyse two orders were. fyrste wedlok & thenne knyghthode: and knyghthode was made before cotearmure was ordeynyd

¶There was none other ordre but two: wedlock first & knyghthode after. A knyght was made before ony cotearmure. & Olybyon was the fyrste knyght that euer was: Asteryall his fader came by the right lyne of that gentylman Iafeth & sawe the peple multiplye & had no gouernourꝭ & the cursyd peple of Sem werryd ayenst theym: Olybyon was the strengest & the man­lyest man in his tyme. And the people cryed on Olybyon to be theyr mayster & theyr gouernour. A thousande men were then̄ multiplyed of Iaphethis lyne. Asteriall made to his sone a garland aboute his heed of .ix dyuers precious stonys in tokening of chyualry to be a gouernour of .M. men / & to this day ye kynges haue his name in latyn: that is to saye: ye gouernour of .M. [Page] Olybion knelyd to Asteryall his fader and askyd his blessyng Asteryall toke Olybyons swerde that was Iaphethes fawcon that Tuball made before the flood: and smote flatlynge .ix ty­mes vppon the ryght sholder of Olybyon in tokenynge of the .ix. vertues of the forsayd precyous stones: and gaue hym hys blessynge wyth a charge to kepe the nyne vertues of charytee now folowynge as ye shall here /

¶Thyse ben the charges or artycles that euery kny­ghte sholde obserue and kepe by the dignyte of his ordre / & they ben nyne: fyue temporall & foure ghostly /

¶There be fyue temporall vertues & four ghostly vertues of charyte / ye fyue temporall vertues ben thyse / He shall not torne his backe to his enmye for to flee / The seconde is yt he shall truly holde his promyse to his frende & also to his foo. The thirde is he shall be free of meete and drynke to all his meyne aboute him / The fourth is he shall vpholde maydens ryght. The fifth is that he shall holde vp wydowes ryght / Thyse ben the foure vertues of charyte ghostly / The fyrst is he shall honour his fader and his moder / The seconde is he shall doo none harme to the poore / The thyrde is he shalbe mercyfull / The fourth is he shall holde wyth the sacrefyce of ye grete god of heuen. And then̄ Asteryall dyde make to Olybyon a targette of olyue tree with thre corners: two aboue his face and one downe to the grounde warde / in tokenynge that this Olybion was the cheyf of all the blood of the thre sones of Noe / By the olyue tree he vndersto­de vyctory for to wyn̄ / By the poynt of his targette to the grounde the cursyd brother Cham / Bi the corner of his target aboue fertherest that other brother Sem / That other corner nexte to hymself betokenyth that gentylman Iapheth the blessid brother of whom god & man came by ryght lyne /

¶The manere of knyghthodes ben two: one wyth ye Swerde a nother wyth the Bath /

¶There ben two manere of knyghthodes one with the swerde & a nother wyth the bath / The bath is the worthyest by cause of four ryaltees. One is whan an vnagyd prynce is made knyghte or be crownyd kynge / The seconde is whan a kinge or an Emperoure is crownyd / The thyrde is whan a Quene or an [Page] Emperese is crowned. The iiii. is whan a Kyng or an Emperoure comyth to speke wyth an other of dyuers londes /

¶Nyne maner of gentylmen there ben.

  • ¶Ther is a Gentylman of Auncetre and of blood
  • ¶And there is a Gentylman of blood
  • ¶There is a Gentylman of Cootearmure: and thoos de .iii. Oon of the Kyngys bage. An other of lordshyp. And the thyrde is of the kyllynge of a Saryson
  • ¶And there is a gentylman vntryall
  • ¶And there is a gentylman Ypocrafet
  • ¶And ther is a gentylman Spyrytuall
  • ¶There is also a gentylman sperytuall and temporall and all theys ben more playnly declared in thys booke:
  • ¶Gentylmen be calde .iiii. maner of wyse one of awncetrees and .iii. of Cotearmure.
  • ¶There be .iiii. dyuerse manere of gentylmen Oon his agen­tylman of awncetrees. which muste nedis be a gentilman of blode. Ther be .iii. gentylmen of Cotearmure and not of blood one is a gentylman of Cotearmure of the kynges bagge that is to saye his aduyse by an herawd I gouen. An other gyntylman of Cotearmure is and not of blood a kyng geuyng a lordshipp to a yong man vnder his seall of patent to hym and to his heyes for euermore he may were a Cotarmure of the same lordshipp: The thyrde his a yoman cristenyd yf he kyll a gentylman sar­syn he may were the sarsinys Cotarmure and noo sarsyn a sar­synis cotarmure neyther crystennys cotarmure by fyghtynge in no wyse Yet som men say that a crysten man ouercomynge a crysten man fyghtynge in the lyst shalle bere the cotarmure of hym that is ouercomyn. Or yf a souereyne kynge make of a yoman a knyght the same knyght is a gentylman of blood by the royalte of the kynge and of knyghthood.

¶A gentylman spyrytuall.

¶Ther is a gentylman a churle sone a preste to be made and that is a spirituall gentylman to god and not of bloode / But yf a gentylmannys sone be made preeste he is a gentilman bothe spiritual & temporal. Criste was a gentylman of hys moder be halue and bare cotarmure of aūseturys. The .iiii. Euangelistes beryth wytnesse of Cristis warkys in the cospell with all thappostilles. They were Iewys & of gentylmen come bi the ryght [Page] lyne of that worthy conquerour Iudas Machabeus. But after by successyon of tyme the kynted fell to pouertee after the dys­truccōn of Iudas Machabeus. And then̄ they fell to labours: & were callyd no gentylmen. And the foure doctours of holy chirche. saynt Ierom: Ambrose: Augustyn: and Gregory were gen­tylmen of blood and of cote armurys.

¶Also the dyuysyons of cote armures ben .ix. / That is to wyte. fyue perfyte: and foure vnperfyte

THere ben .ix. dyuysyons of cote armures. fyue perfyte. & foure vnperfyte. The fyue perfyte ben thise. Termynall Collaterall: Abstrakte: Fyxall: & Bastarde.

¶Dyfference Enbordynge.

¶Termynall is callyd in armys all the brethern of ryght lyne hether by fader or by moder maye beere the ryght heyres cote armure wyth a dyfference callyd Enbordynge

¶Dyfference Iewmews

¶Collaterall is callyd in armys the sones of the brethern of ye ryght heyre berynge the cote armurys of theyr faders wyth a dyfference Iemews.

¶Dyfference molet

¶Fyxall in armys is callyd the thyrde degree by the ryght ly­ne fro the ryght heyre by lyne male. They maye beere theyr faders cote armure wyth a dyfference molet.

¶Dyfference Countertreuys

¶The bastarde of fixall shall beere his faders Cote armure to untertreuys. That is to say what so euer he beryth in his felde he shall bere in the colours dyuers and no more.

¶How there ben foure cote armurys inperfyte and ben born̄ wythout dyfference.

¶There ben foure cote armures vnperfyte. and ben born̄with oute dyfference. The fyrste cote armure is yf a lordshyp aforsayd be gyuen vnder patent by the kynge. and yf he deye withoute heyre his cote armure is done.

¶The seconde is the cote armure of the kyngis yefte yf he dey wythout heyre his cote armure is done. And yf thise .ij. cote ar­mures haue yssewe forth. the fyfth degree of them beryng lyne [Page] by male ben gentylmen of blood by lawe of armys.

¶The thyrde cotearmure of ye sarrasyn yf the crysten man dey wythout yssewe his cotearmure is doon. And yf he had yssewe forth vnto the fyfthe degree from hym by ryght lyne of yssewe male he is a gentylman of blood.

¶The fourth coteamure of the cheif blood yf he deye without ony yssue the hole cotearmure is loste / thenne it fallyth to be a cotearmure of thymperfyte berynge wyth a dyffrerence.

¶All the bastardys of all cotearmures shall bere a fesse / Som̄ calle it a baston̄ of one of the foure dygnytees of colours. excepte the bastarde of the fyxiales & the bastarde of the brethern of the cheyf blood where therytaunce is departed to eueryche brother ylyke moche: thyse bastardes shall adde more bagy to the­yr armys or take awaye a bagy of armys.

¶Note here well who shall gyue cotearmures

¶There shall none of the .ix. orders of regalyte but al on̄ly the souereyne kynge gyue cotearmure. For that is to hym impro­pryd bi law of armys. And yet the kyng shall not make a kny­ghte wythout a cotearmure before.

¶Euery knyght cheyfteyn in the felde maye make a cotearmure knyghte.

¶In how many places a knyghte maye be made. ¶A knyghte is made in fyue dyuers places. In musturyng in londe of werres. In semblynge vnder baners. In lystys of the bathe. And at the sepulcre.

¶A lassyd cotearmure is on the moders parte

¶A lassyd cotearmure is callyd the cote of a gentylwoman hauynge lyuelode weddyd to a man hauynge no cotearmure. her sone maye were her cotearmure with a dyfference of armys durynge his lyfe by the curteysy of the lawe of armys. And his sone shall none bere but so be that the gentylwoman be heyre or next of blood to ye cotearmure. Or elles beynge her byrthe of ye blood ryall: & then̄ shall her heyre bere her cotearmure.

¶How gentylmen ben made of gromys that be not cotear­mure neyther blood: and they be callyd vntryall and apocryfate as it shewyth folowynge.

¶There ben two dyuers gentylmen made of gromes: that ben not gentilmen of cotearmure nother of blood. One is callid in [Page] armys a gentylmen vntryall: that is to saye made vp amonge relygious men: as pryours abottꝭ or bisshops. That other is callyd in armys a gentylman Apocryfate: yt is to saye made vp & gyuen to hym the name & the lyuerey of a gentylman.

¶In armys ben .vi. dyfferences: that is to saye two for excellent and foure for noblesse.

¶There ben .vi. differences in armys: two for thexcellent & foure for the nobles. Labell & Enborduryng for lordes. Iemwes. Molett / Flourdeluce & Quyntfoyles for the nobles.

¶In blasynge of armys ben .ix. quadrattys: that is to saye .v. quadrate fynyall and .iiij. ryall.

IN blasynge of armys there ben .ix. quadrattꝭ for to consydre .v. quadrat finiall & .iiij. ryall. V. quadrate finiall ben thyse: Gereri: Gerundi: Fretly: Geratly: & Endently. ¶Gereri is callid in armys whan cotrarmures are .ix. quarters dyuers colours. ¶Gerundi is callyd in armys whan the cote armure is of .ix. dyuers colours: & a fusitarget wythin the cote­armure of what colour that it be of. ¶Fretly is callid in armys whan the cotearmure is countersesyd. ¶Geratly is callyd in armys whan ye cotearmure is powdryd. But a blasour shal not saye he beryth ermen: syluer powdryd wyth ermen / But he shal saye he beryth ermen: or elles in some armys he must saye de­my ermen: whyche is to saye whytly ermen. ¶In somoche that in the fyfth quadrat finiall it is determyned of the tokens of armes: or I procede to it is shewed what manere of token a gentylman maye were. ¶A gentylman may not were tokens of armys but of steynynge colour: that is to saye his cotearmure ynyat or elles I gerat wyth precyous stonys. ¶Gerattyng haue .ix. bagges of cotearmures. Fyrst wyth croslettys. And of theym there ben foure dyuers. and those ben thyse.

  • ¶Cros fyxyly. Cros paty: Cros croslettys: & Cros flory
  • ¶The seconde bage is flourdelyce.
  • ¶The thyrde bage is roslettys.
  • ¶The fourth bage is prymarose.
  • ¶The fyth bage is quynfolys. [Page]
  • ¶The syxte bage is diaclys.
  • ¶The seuenth bage is chappelettys.
  • ¶The eyghte bage is molettys.
  • ¶And the nynthe bage is cressauntys / that is to saye halfe the mone. Thyse ben powderegys of cotearmurys.
  • ¶The fyfth quadrate is callyd Endently of thre dyuers wayes / that is to saye Bebally Lentally & Fyesly.
  • ¶Bebally is called in armes whan a cotearmure is called Endentyd of two dyuers colours in the length of the cotearmure
  • ¶Lentally is callyd in armes whan the cotarmure is endentid wyth two dyuers colours in the berde of the cotarmure.
  • ¶Fyesly is callyd in armys thre manere wayes: Fesy bagy: Fesy target: and Fesy generall.
  • ¶Fesy bagy is whan tokens of armys be disceueryd from the cheyf of the cotarmure to ryght spleyer in the felde.
  • ¶Fesy target is whan a scogion or an engislet is made in ye mydyll of the cotarmure.
  • ¶Fesy generall is callyd in armys whan the cotarmure is en­dentyd wyth two dyuers colours from the laste poynt of the cotarmure to the spleyer.
  • ¶The cheyf is callyd in armys the myddes of the cotarmure of the ryght syde.
  • Q [...]uadrat is callyd in armes whan the felde is set wyth so­me token of armys.
  • ¶A quadrant fynyall is callyd in armys whan the felde is dyscoloryd wyth tokens of armys hauynge noo beest in the felde.
  • ¶A quadrant ryall is callyd whan the felde occupyeth the to­ken of a beest or ony other token set wythin the cotarmure to the nombre of .v.
  • ¶The fyrste quadrant is one token of armys allonly set and what after his byrth he beeryth.
  • ¶The seconde quadrant ryall is beryng in his cotarmur thre thynges callyd the tokens of armys / that is to saye thre floure delyce: thre phylcyals: thre roses: thre chapplettes: thre lebardꝭ thre lyons. And soo the fourth quadrat ryall is to beere a beest raunpande: bebally: letally: and fessely.

¶Here shall be shewed what cotarmures Restriall ben / & whe­re [Page] the blaser shall begynne to blase.

THre cotarmures ben there callyd restryall in armys. One is whan̄e a cotarmure is barry of dyuers colours to the poynt. and what colour the poynt be of the poynt is the felde. There the blaser shall begynne. ¶The seconde cotarmure restryall is callyd in armys whan a cotarmure is paly of dyuers coloures to the poynt. And what pale medle in the poynt: that colour is ye felde. The blaser shall blase from that colour to the nexte colour pals. ¶The thyrde cotarmure restryall is callyd in armys whan̄e a cotarmure is sentry of dyuers colours to the poynt. And what sentry mydyll in the poynt that coloure is the felde. The blaser shall blase from that colour to the nexte colour of the lefte syde of the cotarmure and blase the colour sentry.

¶Merke what sentre: fixall: mangis: gorgys and other dyuers here now folowynge ben callyd in armys.

  • ¶A sentre in armys is callyd staker of tentys.
  • ¶Fyxiall in armys ben callyd myllars pykes.
  • ¶Mangys ben callyd in armys a sleue.
  • ¶Gorgys ben callyd in armys water bowgys.
  • ¶Elynellis ben callyd in armys foure quadrantis tr [...]ch [...]ll [...].
  • ¶Ogys ben callyd in armys gonstonys.
  • ¶Tortlettis ben callyd in armys wastell.
  • ¶Dyaclis ben callyd in armys scopprellys.
  • ¶Myrris ben callyd in armys myrrours or glasses.
  • ¶Feons ben callyd in armys brode arow heedys.
  • ¶Tronkes ben callyd in armys ony beestys heedes or nec [...]es kytte chaungykly asondre.
  • ¶Demy is callyd in armys halfe a beest in the felde.
  • ¶Countretreuys is callyd in armys whan halfe the beest is of one colour and that other halfe of an other colour.
  • ¶Ony cotarmure that beeryth a crosse to the poynt: the po­ynt is the felde. As saynt George beeryth gollis foure anglettꝭ of syluer. But ayenst this rule som̄ blasers of armys repungne as it is shewyd in the boke of blasynge of armys.
  • ¶Thyse thre termes Of &. wyth. shall not be tehercyd in armꝭ but onys ony of theym.

¶There ben thre dyuers beerynges of feldys.

¶Dyuers beerynges of feldys there ben. One is beerynge h [...] le felde. It is callyd in armys Claury.

¶The seconde is beerynge two feldys. It is callyd in armys Counterly.

¶The thyrde is beerynge two feldes in foure quarters. It is callyd in armys Quarterly.

¶There ben thre cotarmures grytty

¶Thre cotarmures grytty there ben in armys. One is callyd Checky / that is whan the felde is chekyrde wt dyuers colours.

¶The seconde is callyd Wyndy / that is to saye: whan the felde is made lyke wawes of one colour: or of dyuers colours.

¶The thirde is callyd Werry: whan the felde is made lyke go bolettys of dyuers colours.

¶In armys ben two pynyons. Also it shewyth sawtry: clawry: counterly. & quarterly ben wyth other.

¶There ben in armys callyd two pynyons. One is whan the felde is a sawtry Saynt Andrewes crosse maye be clawri: counterly: quarterly. ¶Clawry is callyd playne of one colour. ¶Counterly is whan colours quarterly ben two colours sett in two quarteris.

¶The seconde pynyon is callyd Cheffrounce: that is a couple of sparys. And that maye be: clawry: counterly: quarterly: gere­ry. and byally.

¶Gereri is whan thre cheffrounce ben togyder or moo.

¶Byall is callyd whan a barre is betwene two cheffrounce.

¶Here we shall make an ende of the moost specyall thynges of the boke of the lygnage of cote armurys: and how gentylmen shall be knowen from vngentylmen. And consequently shall folowe a compendyous treatyse of fysshynge wyth an angle / whiche is right necessary to be had in this present volume: by cause it shewyth afore the manere of hawkynge & huntynge wyth o­ther dyuers maters right necessary to be knowen of noble men and also for it is one of the dysportes that gentylmen vse. And also it is not soo labororyous ne soo dishonest to fysshe in this wyse as it is wt nettes & other engynes whyche crafty men done vse for theyr dayly encrease of goodes.

¶Here begynnyth the treatyse of fysshynge wyth an Angle.

[depiction of angling]

SAlamon in his parablys sayth that a good spyryte makyth a flourynge aege / that is a fayre aege & a longe. And syth it is soo: I aske this questyon / . whiche ben the meanes & the causes that enduce a man in to a mery spyryte: Truly to my beste dyscrecōn it semeth good dysportes & honest gamys in whom a man Ioyeth wythout ony repentaunce after. Thenne folowyth it yt go­de dysportes & honest games ben cause of mannys fayr aege & longe life. And therfore now woll I chose of foure good disportes & honeste gamys / that is to wyte: of huntynge: hawkynge: fysshynge: & foulynge. The beste to my symple dyscrecōn whyche is fysshynge: callyd Anglynge wyth a rodde: and a lyne [Page] and an hoke / And therof to treate as my symple wytte may suffyce: both for the sayd reason of Salamon and also for the rea­son that phisyk makyth in this wyse (¶Si tibi deficiant medici medici tibi fiant: Hec tria mens leta labor & moderata dieta.

¶Ye shall vnderstonde that this is for to saye / Yf a man lacke leche or medicyne he shall make thre thynges his leche & medycyne: and he shall nede neuer no moo. The fyrste of theym is a mery thought. The seconde is labour not outrageoꝰ. The thyrde is dyete mesurable. Fyrste that yf a man wyll euer more be in mery thoughtes and haue a gladde spyryte: he must eschewe all contraryous company & all places of debate where he my­ghte haue ony occasyons of malencoly. And yf he woll haue a labour not outrageous he must thenne ordeyne him to his her tys ease and pleasaunce wythout studye pensyfnesse or traueyle a mery occupacyon whyche maye reioyce his herte: & in whyche his spyrytes may haue a mery delyte. And yf he woll be dyetyd mesurably he must eschewe all places of ryotte whyche is cause of surfette and of syknesse / And he must drawe him to places of swete ayre and hungry: And ete nourishable meetes and dyffyable also.

NOw thenne woll I dyscryue the sayd dysportes and gamys to fynde the beste of theym as veryly as I can̄ / alle be it that the ryght noble and full worthy prynce the duke of Yorke late callid mayster of game hath discryued the myrthes of huntynge lyke as I thynke to dyscryue of it and of alle the other. For huntynge as to mynentent is to laboryous / For the hunter must alwaye renne & folowe his houndes: traueyl­lynge & swetynge full sore. He blowyth tyll his lyppes blyster And whan he wenyth it be an hare full oft it is an hegge hogge Thus he chasyth and wote not what. He comyth home at euyn rayn beten pryckyd: and his clothes torne wete shode all myry Some hounde loste: some surbat. Suche greues & many other hapyth vnto the hunter / whyche for dyspleysaunce of theym yt loue it I dare not reporte. Thus truly me semyth that this is not the beste dysporte and game of the sayd foure. The dysporte and game of hawkynge is laboryous & noyouse also as me semyth. For often the fawkener leseth his hawkes as the hun­ter [Page] his hoūdes. Thenne is his game & his dysporte goon. Full often cryeth he & whystelyth tyll that he be ryght euyll a thurste. His hawke taketh a bowe and lyste not ones on hym rewarde. whan he wolde haue her for to flee: thenne woll she bathe. with mys fedynge she shall haue the Fronse: the Rye: the Cray and many other syknesses that brynge theym to the Sowse. Thus by prouff this is not the beste dysporte & game of the sayd foure. The dysporte & game of fowlynge me semyth moost symple For in the wynter season the fowler spedyth not but in the moost hardest and coldest weder: whyche is greuous. For whan he wolde goo to his gynnes he maye not for colde. Ma­ny a gynne & many a snare he makyth. Yet soryly dooth he fa­re. At morn tyde in the dewe he is weete shode vnto his taylle. Many other suche I cowde tell: but drede of magre makith me for to leue. Thus me semyth that huntynge & hawkynge & al­so fowlynge ben so laborous and greuous that none of theym maye perfourme nor bi very meane that enduce a man to a mery sp [...]te: whyche is cause of his longe lyfe acordynge vnto ye sayd pr [...]be of Salamon. ¶Dowteles then̄e folowyth it that it must nedes be the dysporte of fysshynge wyth an angle. For all other manere of fysshyng is also laborous & greuous: often makynge folkes ful wete & colde / whyche many tymes hath be seen cause of grece Infirmytees. But the angler maye haue no colde nor no dysease nor angre / but yf he be causer hymself. For he maye not lese at the moost but a lyne or an hoke: of whyche he maye haue store plentee of his owne makynge / as this symple treatyse shall teche hym. Soo thenne his losse is not greuous. and other greyffes maye he not haue / sauynge but yf ony fisshe breke away after that he is take on the hoke / or elles that he catche nought: whyche ben not greuous. For yf he faylle of one he maye not faylle of a nother / yf he dooth as this treaty­se techyth: but yf there be nought in the water. And yet atte the leest he hath his holsom walke and mery at his ease. a swete ayre of the swete sauoure of the meede floures: that makyth hym hungry. He hereth the melodyous armony of fowles. He seeth the yonge swannes: heerons: duckes: cotes and many other foules wyth theyr brodes. / whyche me semyth better than alle the [Page] noyse of houndys: the blastes of hornys and the scrye of foulis that hunters: fawkeners & foulers can make. And yf the angler take fysshe: surely thenne is there noo man merier than he is in his spyryte. ¶Also who soo woll vse the game of anglynge: he must ryse erly. whiche thyng is prouffytable to man in this wyte / That is to wyte: moost to the heele of his soule. For it shall cause hym to be holy. and to the heele of his body / For it shall cause hym to be hole. Also to the encrease of his goodys. For it shall make hym ryche. As the olde englysshe prouerbe sayth in this wyse. ¶who soo woll ryse erly shall be holy helthy & zely.

¶Thus haue I prouyd in myn entent that the dysporte & ga­me of anglynge is the very meane & cause that enducith a man in to a mery spyryte: Whyche after the sayde parable of Salo­mon & the sayd doctryne of phisyk makyth a flourynge aege & a longe. And therfore to al you that ben vertuous: gentyll: and free borne I wryte & make this symple treatyse folowynge: by whyche ye may haue the full crafte of anglynge to dysport you at your luste: to the entent that your aege maye the more floure and the more lenger to endure.

YF ye woll be crafty in anglynge: ye must fyrste lerne to make your harnays / That is to wyte your rodde: your lynes of dyuers colours. After that ye must know how ye shall angle in what place of the water: how depe: and what time of day. For what manere of fysshe: in what wedyr How many impedymentes there ben in fysshynge yt is callyd anglynge And in specyall wyth what baytys to euery dyuers fysshe in e­che moneth of the yere. How ye shall make your baytes brede where ye shall fynde theym: and how ye shall kepe theym. And for the moost crafty thynge how ye shall make youre hokes of stele & of osmonde / Some for the dubbe: and some for the flote: & the grounde. as ye shall here after al thyse fynde expressed o­penly vnto your knowlege.

¶And how ye shall make your rodde craftly here I shall teche you. Ye shall kytte betwene Myghelmas & Candylmas a fayr staffe of a fadom and an halfe longe: & arme grete of hasyll: wylowe: or aspe. And bethe hym in an hote ouyn: & sette hym euyn Thenne lete hym cole & drye a moneth. Take thenne & frette [Page] hym faste wyth a cockeshotecorde: and bynde hym to a fourme or an euyn square grete tree. Take thenne a plūmers wire that is euyn and streyte & sharpe at the one ende. And hete the sharpe ende in a charcole fyre tyll it be whyte: and brenne the staffe therwyth thorugh: euer streyte in the pythe at bothe endes tyll they mete. And after that brenne hym in the nether ende wyth a byrde broche / & wyth other broches eche gretter than other. & euer the grettest the laste: so that ye make your hole aye tapre wexe. Thenne lete hym lye styll and kele two dayes. Vnfrette hym then̄e and lete hym drye in an hous roof in the smoke tyll he be thrugh drye ¶In the same season take a fayr yerde of grene hasyll & beth hym euyn & streyghte. and lete it drye with the staffe. And whan they ben drye make the yerde mete vnto the hole in the staffe: vnto halfe the length of the staffe. And to perfourme that other halfe of the croppe. Take a fayr shote of blacke thorn̄: crabbe tree: medeler. or of Ienypre kytte in the same season: and well bethyd & streyghte. And frette theym togyder fetely: soo that the croppe maye iustly entre all in to the sayd ho­le. Thenne shaue your staffe & make hym tapre wexe. Thenne vyrell the staffe at bothe endes wyth longe hopis of yren or laton in the clennest wise wyth a pyke in the nether ende fastnyd wyth a rennynge vyce: to take in & oute youre croppe. Thenne set your croppe an handfull within the ouer ende of your staffe in suche wise that it be as bigge there as in ony other place aboue. Then̄e arme your croppe at thouer ende downe to ye frette wyth a lyne of .vj. heeres. And dubbe the lyne and frette it fast in ye toppe wyth a bowe to fasten on your lyne. And thus shall ye make you a rodde soo preuy that ye maye walke therwyth: and there shall noo man wyte where abowte ye goo. It woll be lyghte & full nymbyll to fysshe wyth at your luste. And for the more redynesse loo here a fygure therof in example.:

[depiction of fishing rod]

AFter that ye haue made thus your rodde: ye must lerne to coloure your lynes of here in this wyse. ¶Fyrste ye must take of a whyte horse taylle the lengest heere and [Page] fayrest that ye can fynde. And euer the rounder it be the better it is. Departe it in to .vj. partes: and euery parte ye shal colour by hymselfe in dyuers colours. As yelowe: grene: browne: taw­ney: russet. and duske colours. And for to make a good grene colour on your heer ye shall doo thus. ¶Take smalle ale a quarte and put it in a lytyll panne: and put therto halfe a pounde of alym. And put therto your heer: and lete it boylle softly half an houre. Thenne take out your heer and lete it drye. Thenne take a potell of water and put it in a panne. And put therin two handfull of ooldys or of wyxen. And presse it wyth a tyle sto­ne: and lete it boylle softly half an houre. And whan it is yelow on the scume put therin your heer wyth halfe a pounde of coporose betyn in powdre and lete it boylle halfe a myle waye: and thenne sette it downe: and lete it kele fyue or syxe houres. Then̄ take out the heer and drye it. And it is thenne the fynest grene that is for the water. And euer the more ye put therto of coporose the better it is. or elles in stede of it vertgrees. ¶A nother wyse ye maye make more bryghter grene / as thus Lete woode your heer in an woodefatte a lyght plunket colour And thenne sethe hym in olde or wyxin lyke as I haue sayd: sa­uynge ye shall not put therto neyther coporose ue vertgrees. ¶For to make your heer yelow dyght it wyth alym as I haue sayd before. And after that wyth oldys or wyxin wythout coporose or vertgrees.

¶A nother yelow ye shal make thns. Take smalle ale a potell: and stampe thre handful of walnot leues and put togider: And put in your heer tyll that it be as depe as ye woll haue it.

¶For to make russet heer. Take stronge lye a pynt and halfe a pounde of sote and a lytyll iuce of walnot leuys & a quarte of alym: and put theym alle togyder in a panne and boylle theym well. And whan it is colde put in youre heer tyll it be as derke as ye woll haue it. ¶For to make a browne colour. Take a pounde of sote and a quarte of ale: and seth it wyth as many walnot leuys as ye maye. And whan they wexe blacke sette it from the fire. And put therin your heer and lete it lye styll tyll it be as browne as ye woll haue it.

¶For to make a nother browne. Take strong ale and sote and tempre them togyder. and put therin your heer two dayes and two nyghtes and it shall be ryght a good colour. [Page] ¶For to make a tawney coloure. Take lyme and water & put theym togyder: and also put your heer therin foure or fyue houres. Thenne take it out and put it in a Tanners ose a day: and it shall be also fyne a tawney colour as nedyth to our purpoos ¶The syxte parte of your heer ye shall kepe styll whyte for lynes for the dubbyd hoke to fysshe for the trought and graylynge: and for smalle lynes for to rye for the roche and the darse.

WHan your heer is thus colourid: ye must knowe for whiche waters and for whyche seasons they shall serue. ¶The grene colour in all clere water from Apryll tyll Septembre. ¶The yelowe coloure in euery clere water from Septembre tyll Nouembre: For is is lyke ye wedys and other manere grasse whiche growyth in the waters and ryuers whan they ben broken. ¶The russet colour seruyth all the wynter vnto the ende of Apryll as well in ryuers as in poles or lakys ¶The browne colour seruyth for that water that is blacke dedisshe in ryuers or in other waters. ¶The tawney colour for those waters that ben hethy or morysshe.

NOw must ye make youre lynes in this wyse. Fyrste lo­ke that ye haue an Instrument lyke vnto this fygure portrayed folowynge. Thenne take your heer & kytte of the smalle ende an ho [...]ull large or more / For it is neyther stronge nor yet sure. Thenne torne the toppe to the taylle eueryche ylyke moche. And departe it in to thre partyes. Thenne knytte euery part at the one ende by hymself. And at the other ende knytte all thre togyder: and put ye same ende in that other ende of your Instrument that hath but one clyft. And sett that other ende faste wyth the wegge foure fyngers in alle shorter than your heer. Thenne twyne euery warpe one waye & ylyke moche: and fasten theym in thre clystes ylyke streyghte. Take thenne out that other ende and twyne it that waye that it woll desyre ynough. Thenne streyne it a lytyll: and knytte it for vndoynge: and that is good. And for to knowe to make your In­strument: loo here it is in fygure. And it shall be made of tree sauynge the bolte vnderneth: whiche shall be of yren.

[figure]

WHan ye haue as many of the lynkys as ye suppose wol suffyse for the length of a lyne: thenne must ye knytte theym togyder wyth a water knotte or elles a duchys knotte. And whan your knotte is knytte: kytte of ye voyde shorte endes a strawe brede for the knotte. Thus shal ye make youre lynes fayr & fyne: and also ryght sure for ony manere fysshe. ¶And by cause that ye sholde knowe bothe the water knotte & also the duchys knotte: loo theym here in fygure caste vnto the lyknesse of the draughte.

YE shall vnderstonde that the moost subtyll & hardyste crafte in makynge of your harnays is for to make your hokis. For whoos makyng ye must haue fete fyles. thyn̄ and sharpe & smalle beten: A semy clam̄ of pren: a bender: a pa­yr of longe & smalle tongys: an harde knyfe somdeale thycke: an anuelde: & a lytyll hamour. ¶And for smalle fysshe ye shall make your hokes of the smalest quarell nedlys that ye can fynde of stele / & in this wyse. ¶Ye shall put the quarell in a redde charkcole fyre tyll that it be of the same colour that the fyre is. Thenne take hym out and lete hym kele: and ye shal fynde him well alayd for to fyle. Thenne reyse the berde wyth your kny­fe / and make the poynt sharpe. Thenne alaye hym agayn: for elles he woll breke in the bendyng. Thenne bende hym lyke to the bende fyguryd herafter in example. And greeter hokes ye shall mabe in the same wyse of gretter nedles: as broderers ne­dlis: or taylers: or shomakers nedlis spere poyntes / & [Page] of shomakers nalles in especyall the beste for grete fysshe. and that they bende atte the poynt whan they ben assayed / for elles they ben not good ¶Whan the hoke is bendyd bete the hynder ende abrode: & fyle it smothe for fretynge of thy lyne. Thenne put it in the fyre agayn: and yeue it an easy redde hete. Thenne sodaynly quenche it in water: and it woll be harde & stronge. And for to haue knowlege of your Instrumentes: lo theym he­re in fygure portrayd.

¶Hamour.
Knyfe.
Pynsons.
Clam̄
Wegge.
Fyle.
Wreste.
& Anuelde.

WHan ye haue made thus your hokis: thenne must ye set theym on your lynes acordynge in gretnesse & strength in this wyse. ¶Ye shall take smalle redde silke. & yf it be for a grete hoke then̄e double it: not twynyd. And elles for smale hokys lete it be syngle: & therwyth frette thycke the lyne there as the one ende of your hoke shal sytte a strawe brede. Then̄ sette there your hoke: & frette hym wyth the same threde ye two partes of the lengthe that shall be frette in all. And whan ye come to the thyrde parte thenne torne the ende of your lyne agayn vpon the frette dowble. & frette it so dowble that other thyrde parte. Thenne put your threde in at the hose twys or thries & lete it goo at eche tyme rounde abowte the yerde of your ho­ke. Thenne wete the hose & drawe it tyll that it be faste. And loke that your lyne lye euermore wythin your hokys: & not without. Thenne kytte of the lynys ende & the threde as nyghe as ye maye: sauynge the frette.

NOw ye knowe wyth how grete hokys ye shall angle to euery fysshe: now I woll tell you wyth how many hee­res ye shall to euery manere of fisshe. ¶For the menow wyth a lyne of one heere. For the waxyng roche: the bleke & the [Page] gogyh & the ruffe wyt a lyne of two heeris. For the darse & the grete roche wyth a lyne of thre heeres. For the perche: the floū der & bremet with foure heeres. For the cheuen chubbe: the breme: the tenche & the ele wyth .vj. heeres. For the troughte: gray lynge: barbyll & the grete cheuyn wyth .ix. heeres. For the grete troughte wyth .xij. heeres: For the samon wyth .xv. heeres. And for the pyke wyth a chalke lyne made browne with your browne colour aforsayd: armyd with a wyre▪ as ye shal here herafter whan I speke of the pyke.

¶Your lynes must be plumbid wyth lede. And ye shall wyte yt the nexte pūbe vnto the hoke shall be therfro a large fote & more / And euery plumbe of a quantyte to the gretnes of the lyne. There be thre manere of plūbis for a grounde lyne rennynge. And for the flote set vpon the grounde lyne lyenge .x. plumbes Ioynynge all togider. On the grounde lyne rennynge .ix. or .x. smalle. The flote plūbe shall be so heuy yt the leest plucke of o­ny fysshe maye pull it downe in to ye water. And make your plū bis rounde & smothe yt they stycke not on stonys or on wedys. And for the more vnderstondynge lo theym here in fygure.

The grounde lyne rennynge
The grounde lyne lyenge.
The flote lyne
The lyne for perche or tenche.
The lyne for a pyke: ¶Plūbe: Corke armyd wyth wyre

THenne shall ye make your flotys in this wyse. Take a fayr corke that is clene without many holes▪ and bore it [Page] thrugh wyth a smalle hote yren: And putt therin a penne iuste and streyghte. Euer the more flote the gretter penne & the greter hole. Thenne shape it grete in the myddis and smalle at bothe endys. and specyally sharpe in the nether ende / and lyke vnto the fygures folowynge. And make theym smothe on a gryndyng stone: or on a tyle stone. ¶And loke that the flote for one heer be nomore than a pese. For two heeres: as a beene. for twelue heeres: as a walnot. And soo euery lyne after the proporcōn.

¶All manere lynes that ben not for the groūde must haue flotes. And the rennynge grounde lyne must haue a flote. The lyenge grounde lyne wythout flote.

[depiction of fishing floats]

NOw I haue lernyd you to make all your harnays. He­re I woll tell you how ye shall angle. ¶Ye shall angle: vnderstonde that there is .vj. manere of anglyng. That one is at the grounde for the troughte and other fisshe. A no­ther is at ye grounde at an arche / or at a stange where it ebbyth and flowyth: for bleke: roche. and darse. The thyrde is wyth a flote for all manere of fysshe. The fourth wyth a menow for ye troughte wythout plumbe or flote. The fyfth is rennynge in ye same wyse for roche and darse wyth one or two heeres & a flye. The syxte is wyth a dubbyd hoke for the troughte & graylyng ¶And for the fyrste and pryncypall poynt in anglynge: kepe ye euer fro the water fro the sighte of the fysshe: other ferre on the londe: or ellys behynde a busshe that the fysshe se you not. For yf they doo they wol not byte. ¶Also loke that ye shadow not the water as moche as ye may. For it is that thynge that woll soone fraye the fysshe. And yf a fysshe be afrayed he woll not bite longe after. For alle manere fysshe that fede by the grounde ye shall angle for theim to the botom. soo that your hokys shall renne or lye on the grounde. And for alle other fysshe that fede [Page] aboue ye shall angle to theym in the myddes of the water or somdeale byneth or somdeale aboue. For euer the gretter fisshe the nerer he lyeth the botom of the water. And euer the smaller fysshe the more he smymmyth aboue. ¶The thyrde good po­ynt is whan the fysshe bytyth that ye be not to hasty to smyte nor to late / For ye must abide tyll ye suppose that the bayte be ferre in the mouth of the fysshe / and thenne abyde noo longer. And this is for the groūde. ¶And for the flote whan ye se it pullyd softly vnder the water: or elles caryed vpon the water soft­ly: thenne smyte. And loke that ye neuer ouersmyte the streng­the of your lyne for brekynge. ¶And yf it fortune you to smy­te a grete fysshe wyth a smalle harnays: thenne ye must lede hym in the water and labour him there tyll he be drownyd and ouercome. Thenne take hym as well as ye can or maye. and e­uer bewaar that ye holde not ouer the strengthe of your lyne. And as moche as ye may lete hym not come out of your lynes ende streyghte from you: But kepe hym euer vnder the rodde / and euermore holde hym streyghte: soo that your lyne may susteyne and beere his lepys and his plungys wyth the helpe of your croppe & of your honde.

HEre I woll declare vnto you in what place of the water ye shall angle. Ye shall angle in a pole or in a stondinge water in euery place where it is ony thynge depe. There is not grete choyse of ony places where it is ony thynge depe in a pole. For it is but a pryson to fysshe. and they lyue for ye more parte in hungre lyke prisoners: and therfore it is the lesse maystry to take theym. But in a ryuer ye shall angle in euery place where it is depe and clere by the grounde: as grauell or claye wythout mudde or wedys. And in especyall yf that there be a manere whyrlynge of water or a couert. As an holow banke: or grete rotys of trees: or longe wedes fletyng aboue in the water where the fysshe maye couere and hyde theymself at cer­tayn tymes whan they lyste Also it is good for to angle in de­pe styffe stremys and also in fallys of waters and weares: and in floode gatys and mylle pyttes. And it is good for to angle where as the water restyth by the banke: and where the streme rennyth nyghe there by: and is depe and clere by the grounde [Page] and inony other placys where ye may se ony fyssh houe or haue ony fedynge.

NOw ye shall wyte what tyme of the daye ye shall angle ¶From the begynnynge of May vntyll it be Septembre the bytynge tyme is erly by the morowe from fou­re of ye clocke vnto eyghte of the clocke. And at after none from foure of the clocke vnto eyghte of the clocke: but not soo good as is in the mornynge. And yf it be a colde whystelyng wynde and a derke lowrynge daye. For a derke daye is moche better to angle in than a clere daye. ¶From the begynnynge of Septembre vnto the ende of Apryll spare noo tyme of the daye: ¶Also many pole fysshes woll byte beste in the none tyde.

¶And yf ye se ony tyme of the daye the trought or graylynge lepe: angle to hym wyth a dubbe acordynge to the same month And where the water ebbyth and flowyth the fysshe woll byte in some place at the ebbe: and in some place at the flood. After yt they haue restynge behynde stangnys and archys of brydgys and other suche manere places.

HEre ye shall wyte in what weder ye shall angle. as I sayd before in a derke lowrynge daye whanne the wynde blowyth softly. And in somer season whan it is brennynge hote thenne it is nought. ¶From Septembre vnto Apryll in a fayr sonny daye is ryght good to angle. And yf the wynde in that season haue ony parte of the Oryent: the wedyr thenne is nought. And whan it is a grete wynde. And whan it snowith reynyth or hayllyth. or is a grete tempeste / as thondyr or lightenynge: or a swoly hote weder: thenne it is noughte for to an­gle.

NOw shall ye wyte that there ben twelue manere of ym­pedymentes whyche cause a man to take noo fysshe. wt out other comyn that maye casuelly happe. ¶The fyrst is yf your harnays be not mete nor fetly made. The seconde is yf your bayees be not good nor fyne. The thyrde is yf that ye angle not in bytynge tyme. The fourth is yf that the fysshe be frayed wt the syghte of a man. The fyfth yf the water be very thycke: whyte or redde of ony floode late fallen. The syxte yf the fysshe styre not for colde. The seuenth yf that the wedyr [Page] be hote. The eyght yf it rayne. The nynthe yf it hayll or snow falle. The tenth is yf it be a tempeste. The enleuenth is yf it be a grete wynde. The twelfyfth yf the wynde be in the Eest / and that is worste For comynly neyther wynter nor somer ye fysshe woll not byte thenne. The weste and northe wyndes ben good but the south is beste.

ANd now I haue tolde you how to make your harnays: and how ye shall fysshe therwyth in al poyntes. Reason woll that ye knowe wyth what baytes ye shall angle to euery manere of fysshe in euery moneth of the yere / whyche is all the effecte of the crafte. And wythout whyche baytes knowen well by you all your other crafte here toforn auayllyth you not to purpose. For ye can not brynge an hoke in to a fyssh mouth wythout a bayte. Whiche baytes for euery manere of fyssh and for euery moneth here folowyth in this wyse.

FOr by cause that the Samon is the moost stately fyssh that ony man maye angle to in fresshe water. Therfore I purpose to begyn̄ at hym. ¶The samon is a gentyll fysshe: but he is comborous for to take. For comynly he is but in depe places of grete ryuers. And for the more parte he hol­dyth the myddys of it: that a man maye not come at hym. And he is in season from Marche vnto Myghelmas. ¶In whyche season ye shall angle to hym wyth thyse baytes whan ye maye gete theym. Fyrste wyth a redde worme in the begynnynge & endynge of the season. And also wyth a bobbe that bredyth in a dunghyll. And specyally wyth a souerayn bayte that bredyth on a water docke. ¶And he bytith not at the grounde: but at ye flote. Also ye may take hym: but it is seldom seen with a dubbe at suche tyme as whan he lepith in lyke fourme & manere as ye doo take a troughte or a gryalynge. And thyse baytes ben well prouyd baytes for the samon.

THe Troughte for by cause he is a right deyntous fyssh and also a ryght feruente-byter we shall speke nexte of hym. He is in season fro Marche vnto Myghelmas. He is on clene grauely groūde & in a streme. Ye may angle to hym [Page] all tymes wyth a grounde lyne lyenge or rennynge: sauyng in lepynge tyme. and thenne wyth a dubbe. And erly wyth a ren­nynge grounde lyne. and forth in the daye wyth a flote lyne. ¶Ye shall angle to hym in Marche wyth a menew hangyd on your hoke by the nether nesse wythout flote or plumbe: draw­ynge vp & downe in the streme tyll ye fele hym faste. ¶In the same tyme angle to hym wyth a groūde lyne with a redde worme for the moost sure. ¶In Aprill take the same baytes: & also Inneba other wyse namyd .vij. eyes. Also the canker that bre­dyth in a grete tree and the redde snayll. ¶In May take ye stone flye and the bobbe vnder the cowe torde and the sylke wor­me: and the bayte that bredyth on a fern̄ leyf. ¶In Iuyn take a redde worme & nyppe of the heed: and put on thyn hoke a cod­worme byforn. ¶In Iuyll take the grete redde worme and the codworme togyder. ¶In August take a flesshe flye & the grete redde worme and the fatte of the bakon: and bynde abowte thy hoke. ¶In Septembre take the redde worme and the menew. ¶In Octobre take the same: for they ben specyall for the tro­ught all tymes of the yere. From Aprill tyll Septembre ye tro­ugh lepyth. thenne angle to hym wyth a dubbyd hoke acordynge to the monethꝭ whyche dubbyd hokys ye shall fynde in thende of this treatyse: and the monethys wyth theym.:

THe grayllynge by a nother name callyd vmbre ia a de­lycyous fysshe to mannys mouthe. And ye maye take hym lyke as ye doo the trought. And thyse ben his baytes. ¶In Marche & in Apryll the redde worme. ¶In May the grene worme: a lytyll breyled worme: the docke canker. and the hawthorn worme. ¶In Iune the bayte that bredyth betwene the tree & the barke of an oke. ¶In Iuyll a bayte that bredyth on a fern̄ leyf: and the grete redde worme. And nyppe of the hede: and put on your hoke a codworme before. ¶In August the redde worme: and a docke worme. And al the yere after a redde worme.

THe barbyll is a swete fysshe / but it is a quasy meete & a peryllous for mannys body. For comynly he yeuyth an introduxion to ye Febres. And yf he be eten rawe: he maye be cause of mannys dethe: whyche hath oft be seen. Thy­se [Page] be his baytes. ¶In Marche & in Apryll take fayr fresshe chese: and laye it on a borde & kytte it in small square pecys of the lengthe of your hoke. Take thenne a candyl & brenne it on the ende at the poynt of your hoke tyll it be yelow. And then̄e bynde it on your hoke with fletchers sylke: and make it rough lyke a welbede. This bayte is good all the somer season. ¶In May & Iune take ye hawthorn̄ worme & the grete redde worme. and nyppe of the heed. And put on your hoke a codworme before. & that is a good bayte. In Iuyll take the redde worme for che­yf & the hawthorn̄ worme togyd (er). Also the water docke leyf worme & the hornet worme togyder. ¶In August & for all the ye­re take the talowe of a shepe & softe chese: of eche ylyke moche: and a lytyll hony & grynde or stampe theym togyd (er) longe. and tempre it tyll it be tough. And put therto floure a lytyll & ma­ke it on smalle pellettys. And yt is a good bayte to angle wyth at the grounde And loke that it synke in the water. or ellys it is not good to this purpoos.

THe carpe is a deyntous fysshe: but there ben but fewe in Englonde. And therfore I wryte the lasse of hym. He is an euyll fysshe to take. For he is soo stronge enarmyd in the mouthe that there maye noo weke harnaysholde hym. And as touchynge his baytes I haue but lytyll knowlege of it And me were loth to wryte more than I knowe & haue prouyd But well I wote that the redde worme & the menow ben good baytys for hym at all tymes as I haue herde saye of persones credyble & also founde wryten in bokes of credence.

THe cheuyn is a stately fysshe: & his heed is a deyty mor­sell. There is noo fysshe soo strongly enarmyd wyth scalys on the body. And bi cause he is a stronge byter he hathe the more baytes / whiche ben thyse. ¶In Marche the redde worme at the grounde: For comynly thenne he woll byte there at all tymes of ye yere yf he be ony thinge hungry. ¶In Apryll the dyche canker that bredith in the tree. A worme that bredith betwene the rynde & the tree of an oke The redde worme: and the yonge frosshys whan the fete ben kyt of. Also the stone flye the bobbe vnder the cowe torde: the redde snaylle. ¶In May ye [Page] bayte that bredyth on the osyer leyf & the docke canker togyd (er) vpon your hoke. Also a bayte that bredyth on a fern̄ leyf: ye codworme. and a bayte that bredyth on an hawthorn̄. And a bayte that bredyth on an oke leyf & a sylke worme & a codworme to­gyder. ¶In̄ Iune take the creket & the dorre & also a red wor­me: the heed kytte of & a codworme before: and put theym on ye hoke. Also a bayte in the osyer leyf: yonge frosshys the thre fete kitte of by the body: & the fourth by the knee. The bayte on the hawthorn̄ & the codworme togyder & a grubbe that bredyth in a dunghyll: and a grete greshop. ¶In Iuyll the greshop & the humbylbee in the medow. Also yonge bees & yonge hornettes. Also a grete brended flye that bredith in pathes of medowes & the flye that is amonge pysmeers hyllys. ¶In August take wortwormes & magotes vnto Myghelmas. ¶In Septembre the redde worme: & also take the baytes whan ye may gete theym: that is to wyte / Cheryes: yonge myce not heeryd: & the house combe.

THe breeme is a noble fysshe & a deyntous. And ye shall angle for hym from Marche vnto August wyth a redde worme: & then̄e wyth a butter flye & a grene flye. & with a bayte that bredyth amonge grene rede: and a bayte that bredyth in the barke of a deed tree. ¶And for bremettis: take maggotes. ¶And fro that tyme forth all the yere after take the red worme: and in the ryuer browne breede. Moo baytes there ben but they ben not easy & therfore I lete theym passe ouer.

A Tenche is a good fyssh: and heelith all manere of other fysshe that ben hurte yf they maye come to hym. He is the most parte of the yere in the mudde. And he styryth moost in Iune & Iuly: and in other seasons but lytyll. He is an euyll byter. his baytes ben thyse. For all the yere browne breede tostyd wyth hony in lyknesse of a butteryd loof: and the grete redde worme. And as for cheyf take the blacke blood in ye herte of a shepe & floure and hony. And tempre theym all togyder somdeale softer than paast: & anoynt therwyth the redde wor­me: bothe for this fysshe & for other. And they woll byte moche the better therat at all tymes.

¶The perche is a daynteuous fysshe & passynge holsom and [Page] a free bytyng. Thise ben his baytes. In Marche the redde worme. In Aprill the bobbe vnder the cowe torde. In May the slothorn̄ worme & the codworme. In Iune the bayte that bredith in an olde fallen oke & the grete canker. In Iuyll the bayte that bredyth on the osyer leyf & the bobbe that bredeth on the dunghyll: and the hawthorn̄ worme & the codworme. In August the redde worme & maggotes. All the yere after the red worme as for the beste.

¶The roche is an easy fysshe to take: And yf he be fatte & pennyd thenne is he good meete. & thyse ben his baytes. In Mar­che the most redy bayte is the red worme. In Apryll the bobbe vnder the cowe torde. In May the bayte yt bredyth on the oke leyf & the bobbe in the dunghyll. In Iune the bayte that bre­dith on the osyer & the codworme. In Iuyll hous flyes. & the bayte that bredith on an oke. and the notworme & mathewes & maggotes tyll Myghelmas. And after yt the fatte of bakon.

¶The dace is a gentyll fysshe to take. & yf it be well refet then̄ is it good meete. In Marche his bayte is a redde worme. In Apryll the bobbe vnder the cowe torde. In May the docke canker & the bayte on ye slothorn̄ and on the oken leyf. In Iune the codworme & the bayte on the osyer and the whyte grubbe in ye dunghyll. In Iuyll take hous flyes & flyes that brede in pys­mer hylles: the codworme & maggotes vnto Mighelmas. And yf the water be clere ye shall take fysshe whan other take none And fro that tyme forth doo as ye do for the roche. For comynly theyr bytynge & theyr baytes ben lyke.

¶The bleke is but a feble fysshe. yet he is holsom His baytes from Marche to Myghelmas be the same that I haue wryten before. For the roche & darse sauynge all the somer season asmoche as ye maye angle for hym wyth an house flye: & in wynter season wt bakon & other bayte made as ye herafter may know.

¶The ruf is ryght an holsom fysshe: And ye shall angle to him wyth the same baytes in al seasons of the yere & in the same wise as I haue tolde you of the perche: for they ben lyke in fysshe & fedinge / sauynge the ruf is lesse. And therfore he must haue ye smaller bayte.

¶The flounder is an holsom fisshe & a free. and a subtyll byter in his manere: For comynly whan he soukyth his meete he fe­dyth [Page] at grounde. & therfore ye must angle to hym wyth a grounde lyne lyenge. And he hath but one manere of bayte. & that is a red worme. whiche is moost cheyf for all manere of fysshe.

¶The gogen is a good fisshe of the mochenes: & he byteth wel at the grounde. And his baytes for all the yere ben thyse. ye red worme: codworme: & maggotes. And ye must angle to him wt a flote. & lete your bayte be nere ye botom or ellis on ye gron̄de.

¶The menow whan he shynith in the water then̄ is he byttyr And though his body be lytyll yet he is a rauenous biter & an egre. And ye shall angle to hym wyth the same baytes that ye doo for the gogyn: sauynge they must be smalle.

¶The ele is a quasy fysshe a rauenour & a deuourer of the brode of fysshe. And for the pyke also is a deuourer of fysshe I put them bothe behynde all other to angle. For this ele ye shall fynde an hole in the grounde of the water. & it is blewe blackysshe there put in your hoke tyll that it be a fote wythin ye hole. and your bayte shall be a grete angyll twytch or a menow.

¶The pyke is a good fysshe: but for he deuouryth so many as well of his owne kynde as of other: I loue hym the lesse. & for to take hym ye shall doo thus. Take a codlynge hoke: & take a roche or a fresshe heering & a wyre wyth an hole in the ende: & put it in at the mouth & out at the taylle downe by the ridge of the fresshe heeryng. And thenne put the lyne of your hoke in after. & drawe the hoke in to the cheke of ye fresshe heeryng. Then̄ put a plumbe of lede vpon your lyne a yerde longe from youre hoke & a flote in mydwaye betwene: & caste it in a pytte where the pyke vsyth. And this is the beste & moost surest crafte of takynge the pyke. ¶A nother manere takynge of hym there is. Take a frosshe & put it on your hoke at the necke bytwene the skynne & the body on ye backe half: & put on a flote a yerde ther fro: & caste it where the pyke hauntyth and ye shall haue hym. ¶A nother manere. Take the same bayte & put it in Asa fetida & cast it in the water wyth [...]corde & a corke: & ye shal not fayll of hym. And yf ye lyft to haue a good sporte: thenne tye the corde to a gose fote: & ye shall se god halynge whether the gose or the pyke shall haue the better.

NOw ye wote with what baytes & how ye shall angle to euery manere fysshe. Now I woll tell you how ye shall [Page] kepe and fede your quycke baytes. Ye shall fede and kepe them all in generall: but euery manere by hymself wyth suche thyngꝭ in and on whiche they brede. And as longe as they ben quycke & newe they ben fyne. But whan they benlin a slough or elles deed thenne ben they nought. Oute of thyse ben excepted thre brodes: That is to wyre of hornettys: humbylbees. & waspys. whom ye shall bake in breede & after dyppe theyr heedes in blode & lete them drye. Also excepte maggotes: whyche whan thei ben bredde grete wyth theyr naturell fedynge: ye shall fede theym ferthermore wyth shepes talow & wyth a cake made of floure & hony. thenne woll they be more grete. And whan ye haue clensyd theym wyth sonde in a bagge of blanket kepte hote vnder your gowne or other warm̄ thyng two houres or thre. then̄ ben they beste & redy to angle wyth. And of the frosshe kytte ye legge by the knee. of the grasshop the leggys & wynges by the body.

¶Thyse ben baytes made to laste all the yere. Fyrste been floure & lene flesshe of the hepis of a cony or of a catte: virgyn wexe & shepys talowe: and braye theym in a morter: And thenne tempre it at the fyre wyth a lytyll puryfyed hony: & soo make it vp in lytyll ballys & bayte therwyth your hokys after theyr quantyte. & this is a good bayte for all manere fresshe fysshe.

¶A nother take the sewer of a shepe & chese in lyke quantyte: & braye theim togider longe in a mortere: And take thenne floure & tempre it therwyth. and after that alaye it wyth hony & ma­ke ballys therof. and that is for the barbyll in especyall. ¶A nother for darse. & roche & bleke. take whete & sethe it well & thenne put it in blood all a daye & a nyghte. and it is a good bayte.

¶For baytes for grete fyssh kepe specyally this rule. Whan ye haue take a grete fysshe: vndo the mawe. & what ye fynde ther­in make that your bayte: for it is beste.

¶Thyse hen the .xij. flyes wyth whyche ye shall angle to ye trought & grayllying / and dubbe lyke as ye shall now here me tell.

¶Marche.

[Page]THe donne flye the body of the donne woll & the wyngis of the pertryche. A nother doone flye. the body of blacke woll: the wynges of the blackyst drake: and the Iay vnd (er) the wynge & vnder the tayle.

¶Apryll.

¶The stone flye. the body of blacke wull: & yelowe vnder the wynge. and vnder the tayle & the wynges of the drake. In the begynnynge of May a good flye. the body of roddyd wull and lappid abowte wyth blacke sylke: the wynges of the drake & of the redde capons hakyll.

¶May.

¶The yelow flye. the body of yelow wull: the wynges of the redde cocke hakyll & of the drake lyttyd yelow. The blacke louper. the body of blacke wull & lappyd abowte wyth the herle of ye pecok tayle: & the wynges of ye redde capon wt a blewe heed.

¶Iune.

¶The donne cutte: the body of blacke wull & a ye­low lyste after eyther syde: the wynges of the bosarde bounde on with barkyd hempe. The maure flye. the body of doske wull the wynges of the blackest mayle of the wylde drake. The tandy flye at saynt Wyllyams daye. the body of candy wull & the wynges contrary eyther ayenst other of the whitest mayle of ye wylde drake.

¶Iuyll.

¶The waspe flye. the body of blacke wull & lappid abowte wt yelow threde: the winges of the bosarde. The shell flye at saynt Thomas daye. the body of grene wull & lappyd abowte wyth the herle of the pecoks tayle: wynges of the bosarde.

¶August.

¶The drake flye. the body of blacke wull & lap­pyd abowte wyth blacke sylke: wynges of the mayle of the blacke drake wyth a blacke heed.

¶Thyse fygures are put here in ensample of your hokes.

[depiction of fishing hooks]

¶Here folowyth the order made to all those whiche shall haue the vnderstondynge of this forsayde treatyse & vse it for theyr pleasures.

YE that can angle & take fysshe to your plesures as this forsayd treatyse techyth & shewyth you: I charge & re­quyre you in the name of alle noble men that ye fysshe not in noo poore mannes seuerall water: as his ponde: stewe: or other necessary thynges to kepe fysshe in wythout his lycence & good wyll. ¶Nor that ye vse not to breke noo mannys gyn­nys lyenge in theyr weares & in other places due vnto theym. Ne to take the fysshe awaye that is taken in theym. For after a fysshe is taken in a mannys gynne yf the gynne be layed in the comyn waters: or elles in suche waters as he hireth / it is his owne propre goodes. And yf ye take it awaye ye robbe hym: why­che is a ryght shamfull dede to ony noble man to do yt that theuys & brybours done: whyche are punysshed for theyr euyll dedes by the necke & otherwyse whan they maye be aspyed & ta­ken. And also yf ye doo in lyke manere as this treatise shewyth you: ye shal haue no nede to take of other men̄ys: whiles ye shal haue ynough of your owne takyng yf ye lyste to labour therfore. whyche shall be to you a very pleasure to se the fayr bryght shynynge scalyd fysshes dysceyued by your crafty meanes and drawen vpon londe. ¶Also that ye breke noo mannys heggys in goynge abowte your dysportes: ne opyn noo mannes gates but that ye shytte theym agayn. ¶Also ye shall not vse this for sayd crafty dysporte for no couetysenes to thencreasynge & sparynge of your money oonly / but pryncypally for your solace & to cause the helthe of your body. and specyally of your soule. For whanne ye purpoos to goo on your disportes in fysshyng ye woll not desyre gretly many persones wyth you. whiche myghte lette you of your game. And thenne ye maye serue god deuowtly in sayenge affectuously youre custumable prayer. And thus doynge ye shall eschewe & voyde many vices as ydylnes whyche is pryncypall cause to enduce man to many other vy­ces. as it is ryght well knowen. ¶Also ye shall not be to rauenous in takyng of your sayd game as to moche at one tyme: whiche ye maye lyghtly doo yf ye doo in euery poynt as this pre­sent treatyse shewyth you in euery poynt. whyche sholde lyghtly [Page] be occasyon to dystroye your owne dysportes & other men­nys also. As when ye haue a suffycyent mese ye sholde coueyte nomore as at that tyme. ¶Also ye shall besye yourselfe to nou­ryssh the game in all that ye maye: & to dystroye all suche thynges as ben deuourers of it. ¶And all those that done after this rule shall haue the blessynge of god & saynt Petyr / whyche he theym graunte that wyth his precyous blood vs boughte.

¶And for by cause that this present treatyse sholde not come to the hondys of eche ydle persone whyche wolde desire it yf it were enpryntyd allone by itself & put in a lytyll plaunflet therfore I haue compylyd it in a greter volume of dyuerse bokys concernynge to gentyll & noble men. to the entent that the for sayd ydle persones whyche sholde haue but lytyll mesure in the sayd dysporte of fysshyng sholde not by this meane vtterly dystroye it.

¶Here begynnyth the blasynge of armes

I Haue shewed to you in this booke afore how gen­tylmen began. & how the lawe of armes was fyrst ordeyned. and how many colours there ben in cote armours. & the dyfference of cotamours wyth many other thynges that here nede not to be reher­cyd. Now I entende to procede of sygnes in armes & of the blasyng of armes.

But for to reherce all the sygnes that ben borne in armes: as Pecok Pye Backe Dragon Lyon & Dolfin / & floures & leeues it were to longe a taryenge: ner I can not do it: there ben so many. But here shall shortly be shewed to blase all ar­mes yf ye entende dylygently to your rules. And by cause the crosse is moost worthy sygne amonge all sygnes in armes / at ye crosse I woll begyn. in whyche the noble & myghty prynce kynge Arthur had grete truste / soo that he lefte his armes that he bare of .iij. dragons. & ouer that a nother shelde of thre crownes & toke to hys armes a crosse of syluer in a felde of verte / and on ye ryght syde an ymage of our blessed lady wyth her sone in her arme. & wyth that sygne of the crosse he dyde many merueyles after. as it is wreten in the bokes of cronycles of his ded ys Al­so I haue redde this sygne of ye crosse to be sende from god to ye blessyd man Marcuri / as Vincencius sayth (in spcl̄o historiali) of ye merueylous dethe of Iulian thappostita emperour .lio.xvo. he sayth: thangel brought vnto the forsayd Mar­cury all armour necessary wt a shelde of asure & a crosse flury with .iiij. roses of golde. as here in this shelde.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And I fonde neuer yt euer ony armes were sende from heuen: but in theym was the sygne of ye crosse. ¶Eexcept in tharmes of the kynge of Fra­unce / the whyche armes certaynly were sent by an angell from heuen / that is to saye: thre floures in manere of swerdes in a felde of asure. as it shewyth here.

[blazon or coat of arms]

ye whyche certen armes were geuen to the forsayd kyng of Fraunce in sygne of euerlastynge trow­ble and yt he & his successours alway wt batayle & swerdes sholde be punysshyd /

¶I aske here mo questyons of the crossys sygne

NOW I torne agayn to the sygne of the crosse and aske a questyon: how many crosses ben borne in armes. to the whyche question vnder a certen nombre I dare not an­were. for crosses innumerable are borne now dayly. but decen­dynge to euery crosse ye whiche afore tyme I haue seen as ferre as I can I entende to discryue. amonge whom fyrst the playne crosse shalbe discryued / of the whiche crosse mo dowtes ben ma­de than of many other crosses. for asmoche as wyse men in bla­syng of armes holde for a very rule: yt ye must begyn to blase at the lowest poynt of the shelde. yf the poynt be of one colour & soo ye colour yt is in the poynt of the shelde is the felde of the armes. ¶But in that rule to remeue awaye all doubtes. ye must marke dylygently: that. ye rule is true wyth a lytyll addycōn. yt is to wyte that in armes to be blasyd it is alwaye to begyn at ye point of the shelde: yf the poynt be of one colour / that is true: yf the colour of the poynt be more copious or gretter in those ar­mes. & thenne wythout doute ye shall begyn there. or elles not. And where the coloures be equall parted other one lengthe or ouer whart then̄ euermore ye shal begin to blase those armes in ye ryght syde. & in yt case ye shall haue no respecte to ye poynt ¶And yf it be asked how beereth saynt George. it is to be kno­wen that ye must say (Latine) ¶Portat vnū scutūde argento cū quadaz cruce plana de rubio (Galli­ce (¶Il port dargent vne croys playn de geulles (Anglice (¶He bereth a felde of syluer wyth a playne crosse of gowles. as here it it apperyth in thise armes

[blazon or coat of arms]

¶And the same manere of wyse are all crosses hauynge a playne crosse to be blased Therfore they erre yt saye saynt George beerith the felde of gowles with iiij. quarteres of siluer of whom ye reeson I lowe not. for bi thos reesons a playne crosse sholde neuer be founde in in armes ner welny no difference in armes /

¶Of a crosse of an equall lengthe on euery parte.

A Playn crosse is founde in armes dyfferyng from ye fyrst crosse. and it is of an equall lengthe on euery parte / as it [Page] apperyth here.

[blazon or coat of arms]

& thise armes ben harder than theother to blase as it is open. For thendes of thys crosse to wchyth not the hēmys or the vtter parte of the shelde in no parte: in the whiche ye shal say yt he yt beeryth thise armes (Latine in) ¶Ille portat de asuro cū vna cruce plana aurea equal̄ lon­gitudīs ex om̄i ꝑte (Gallice (¶Il porte dassur v­ne croys playne dung longeur ꝑ tout (Anglice) ¶He beryth a­sure wyth a playn golden crosse of equall length on euery part. & this is the dyfference in blasynge. yt all thendes of this crosse are of equall length / ye whiche may not be in the plain crosse afore. for the fote is the lengest parte & it be well made. And this difference shal apere better in a cotarmour than it doth in a shelde. And so there is an euident difference betwyx the two crosses aforsayd /

¶Of a playne crosse streyte

THere is a nother crosse equall streyter in ye middes than in thendes wyth open corners as here:

[blazon or coat of arms]

not towchyng ye vtterest part of ye shelde in ony parte therof. & it is called a crosse patent. And ye shall say yt he yt beryth this crosse beryth in this manere (Latine sic (¶Ille portat vnā crucē argentatā patē te in cāpo nigro (Gallice (¶Il port de sable vne croys patee dargent (Angelice sic) ¶He beryth sable a crosse paty of syluer /

¶Of a crosse patent fixibyll.

THis crosse patent is made dyuers in the fote of the same as it aperyth here.

[blazon or coat of arms]

& then̄e it is called a crosse patent fyxible. for in thende suche a crosse maye be pitched in ye whiche crosse thre of ye hyer partes are open in the corners & broder than in the myddes. and his fote is dysposed to pytche in therth (Latine (¶Ille portat de rubio cū vna cruce figitiuade albo (Gallice (¶Il porte de geulles vne croys patee fichee dargent (Anglice) ¶He bereth geulles [Page] and a crosse paty fixible of syluer. And knowe ye yt there be ma­ny crosses the whiche may be made fyxible as it shall be shewed here folowynge in dyuersly /

¶Of a playne crosse corded.

EMong other crosses is one founde the whyche is callyd a corded crosse / as here it is shewed in this crosse the whiche is called a corded crosse:

[blazon or coat of arms]

for it is madeof cordes. whyche certen crosse I sawe but late in tharmes of a noble man: the whiche in very dede was somtyme a crafty man a roper as he himselfe sayd. And ye shall say of him yt beeryth thise armes: Latine: ¶Ille portat gowlles cū vna cruce plana cordata de argento: Galice sic: ¶Il porte de geulles & v­ne croys playne cordee dargent: Anglice sic: ¶He beeryth geulles and a crosse playne corded of syluer.

¶Of a crosse playne perforated

THere is a nother crosse playne whiche merueylouly fro the playne crosse of saynt George dyfferyth as here apryth.

[blazon or coat of arms]

& here it is to be merkyd: ye thoppy­nyon of some mennes sayeng is. yt thise armes be checkred armes. And this opynyon is vtterly to be repreuyd / for armes maye not be checkred but at ye leest in the nōbre of .iiij. & in a gretter nōbre they may wel be made. as afterwarde shalbe she­wed. Therfore it is to be sayd: Latine sic. ¶Ille portat vnā crucez argenteā perforatā in campo nigro: Gallice sic: Il porte desable vne croys dargent partiee: Anglice: ¶He beeryth sable and acrosse perforatyd of syluer.

¶Of a besantyd crosse.

OVer thyse crosses we haue a nother crosse whiche I sawe late in tharmes of a certen Ianuens: as here it shewyth

[blazon or coat of arms]

And this is callyd a besant crosse / for it is made all of besantes. And suche a crosse maye be made assoone wyth lytyll cakes as wyth besantes. For besantes and lytyll cakes dyffere not but in colour. For besantes ben euer of golden colour. ne the colour [Page] of the besant shall be expressed in blasynge of ar­mes.for it nedyth not to saye: a besant of golde. for there ben no besantes but of golde Therfore it is to be sayd: Latine sic: ¶Ille portat vnā crucem talentatā in campo rubio: Gallice sic: ¶Il port de geulles vne croys besauntee: Anglice sic: ¶He beeryth gowles & a crosse besanted.

¶Of a crosse flurry

NOw folowyth a nother crosse flurry. whiche is so callyd as it aperyth here.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And therfore it is called a florysshing crosse. for it hath floures in euery ende vpwarde / that is to saye saue the foote. This crosse flurry somtyme is borne in armes fyxabyll. And thende is called in armes a crosse flurry fyxabyll For in thre of his endes he is florysshyng & in ye fote pitchablyl or fyxabyll. Therfore it is to be sayd of hym that beeryth it: Latine: ¶Portat vnā crucem auream floridā in campo asored: Gallice: ¶Il porte de asur vne croys flouretee dor: Anglice: ¶He bereth asure and a crosse flurry of golde.

¶Now here shall be shewed of a crosse flurry patent in armes.

NOw folowyth a nother crosse whyche is callyd a crosse flurry patent. as here it apperith /

[blazon or coat of arms]

And it is called a crosse flurry patent / for he hath his endes openand in the myddes of euery ende apperyth a no­ther thyrde in ye manere of a floure as it is open­ly shewed in this crosse. Therfore it shall be sayd that the berer of thyse armes: beryth in this wyse as folowyth: Latine: ¶Portat vnā crucem floridam patentem de auro in campo asureo: Galli­ce sic: Il port de asur vne croys flouretee dor: Anglice: ¶He beeryth asure wyth a crosse patent flurry of golde.

¶Ye shall vnderstonde here of a playne watery crosse.

[Page]MOrouer ye shall vnderstonde that there is a nother playn crosse: whiche certenly is callyd a watry crosse. & it is called a watry crosse / for it is made by the manere of water troubled wyth wynde. as here it shalbe shewed in thyse armes.

[blazon or coat of arms]

Therfore he that beeryth thyse armes bereth in this wyse as it shall be shewed: Latine: ¶Portat vnā crucem planā vndosam de argento in cāpo rubio: Gallice sic: ¶Il porte de geulles vne crois playne vndee dargent: Anglice sic ¶He beeryth gowles & a playne watry crosse of syluer.

¶Also there is a crosse that is callyd inueckyd

IN armes also are founde mo crosses whiche are made of colours inueckyd or indentyd as here in this crosse apperyth.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And it is callyd a crosse inueckyd forcause that it hath two colours / one put in to a no­ther. And of hym that beeryth thise armes ye shal saye thus: Latine: ¶Portat vnā crucem planam inuertam de coloribus albis & nigris in campo rubeo: Gallice sic: ¶Il porte de geulles vne croys playne verre dargent & sable: Anglice: ¶He bee­reth gowles & a crosse of syluer and sabled inueckyd.

¶Of a nother manere crosse yt is callyd a crosse croslet.

YEt foloweth a nother crosse whiche is called a crosse crossit or croslet. and it is callyd cross it for in euery ende it is crossid as here apperyth.

[blazon or coat of arms]

But this crosse is not soofte born in armes by himself as other crosses / neuertheles many tymes it is born in dyminutiues that is to saye in lytyll crosses crossyd / And then̄ tharmes are powdryd wyth lytyll crosses crucyatyd. And ye shall saye thus of hym that beeryth thyse armes: Latine: ¶Ille portat vnam crucem cruciatam de argento in campo afored: Gallice sic: ¶Il porte de asur vne croys dargent: Anglice sic: ¶He beeryth asure & a crosse crosset of syluer. ¶And whan suche crosses are born and [Page] put in armes as I sayd afore in dimynutyues & wythoute ony certen nombre / thenne they are callyd in frensshe crossettes

¶Morouer there is a crosse masculatyd as here folowyth.

WYte ye wel yet that there is a nother crosse whiche is called a crosse masculatyd as here it apperyth.

[blazon or coat of arms]

& this crosse is callyd a crosse masculatyd / for he is made of mascules of whiche certen mascules ye shall se afterwardein the chapytre of fusyllys masculyd & losynges: where this matere shall be more playnly treated. And he yt beeryth thise armes beerith as it is she­wed here after: Latine sic: ¶Portat vnā crucem masculataz de argento in campo asereo: Gallice: ¶Il port dasur vne croys masculee dargent: Anglice: ¶He beeryth asure & a crosse masculatyd of syluer.

¶Also there is a crosse masculatyd and perfo­ratyd as here.

BE it knowe: yt this crosse masculatyd somtyme is perforatyd in the masculys / as it is open in the persynge here folowynge.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And thus ye must blase hym.Latine sic: ¶Ille portat vnam crucē masculataz perforatam de rubio in scuto argented: Galice sic ¶Il porte dargent vne croys de geulles mascu­lee persee: Anglice sic: ¶He beeryth syluer wyth a crosse of gowles masculatyd persyd.

¶There is a myllars crosse as here it shall be shewed

HEre folowith a nother crosse whiche is callyd the crosse of a myller /

[blazon or coat of arms]

for it is made to the symylitudeof a certen instrument of yren in mylles whiche beryth the mylstoon / by the whiche instrument ye stone in his course is born equally yt he declyne not ouer moche on ye ryght part ne on ye left parte: but mynystrynge to euery parte that yt is his equally & wythout frawde. & this is geuen to [Page] Iuges to bere in theyr armes: and to those that haue Iurisdic­cōn vnder theim / That is to saye: as the forsayd Instrument is dyrecte to the mylle stone equally & wyth one gyle / Soo those Iuges are bounde to yeue equally to euery man his right. And it is to be sayd that the possessour of thise armes beereth in this wyse: Latine: ¶Portat vnam crucem molendinarem argente­am in campo rubeo: Gallice: ¶Il porte vne croys moleyne de argent: Anglice: ¶He beeryth gowles and a myllars crosse of syluer.

¶Now it shall be shewed of a crosse yt is tornyd agayn.

CErten we haue a crosse whyche is callyd a crosse tornyd agayn. and this crosse is callyd retornyd: for the cause yt thendes of this crosse on euery syde are retorned agayn by the manere of a rāmys horne.

[blazon or coat of arms]

& he yt beryth thyse armes beryth in this wyse fyrst Latine: ¶Portat vnam crucem aureā inuersam in scuto alured: Gallice sic: ¶Il porte de asur vne croys reuersee dor: Anglice: ¶He beeryth asure wyth a crosse reuersyd of golde.

¶Of a crosse forkyd

VNderstonde ye that there ben other men whyche bere in theyr armes a certayn forkyd crosse as this is.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And it is called forkyd: for asmoche as that all thendes of it are clouen and forkyd. Therfore it shall be sayd of those men that beeryth thyse armes in this wyse: Latine: ¶Portat vnā crucem furcataz de auro in campo alereo: Gallice: ¶El porte de asur vne croys dor: Anglice: ¶He beeryth asure wyth a crosse forkyd of golde.

¶Of a crosse engraylled or engradyd

ALso there ben certen noble men whyche beere a crosse engradid or engraylid. as it apperyth here folowyng.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And [Page] it is callyd a crosse engraylyd: for it is not playnin ony part of hym but engraylyd also well ouer his lengthe as ouer his brede. Neuertheles this engraylyng is no propre langage after the sight of this crosse: but rather an endentynge as tru­the is But it is the comyn manere of spekyng in thyse armes. Therfore ye must saye as I sayd afore / & ye shall saye of hym yt beeryth thyse armes in this wyse: Latine: ¶Por­tat vnā crucem ingradatam de albo in cāpo rubio: Gallice: ¶Il porte de geulles vne croys ingradee dargent: Anglice: ¶He beryth gowles and a crosse ingralyled of syluer.

¶Of a crosse cutoff.

I Fynde yet a nother crosse whyche is born many tymes in tharmes of noble men. the whiche is called a crosse trū catyd. & it is called trūcatyd for it is madeof .ij. trees the bowes cut away: as here.

[blazon or coat of arms]

Therfore it is to be sayd yt the possessor of thise armes bee­ryth: Latyne: ¶Portat vnā crucem truncatā de argento in campo rubio: Gallice: ¶Il porte de geulles vne croys recopee dargent: Anglice ¶He beeryth gowles wyth a crosse truncated of syluer.

¶Of a knotty crosse.

KNowe ye yet after thyse crosses there is a nother crosse whyche is called a knotty crosse: the whyche in certen is callyd so for it hath in euery ende certen knottes as here.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And it is to be sayd of hym yt beeryth thise armes: Latine: ¶Portat vnā crucem aureā no dulatā in scuto asoreo: Gallice: ¶Il porte dasur vne croys boutōnee dor: Anglice: ¶He beeryth asure wyth a crosse knotty of golde. ¶And this crosse is founde otherwhile pytche or figitiue in armes / and thenne his fote is figitiue as I sayd afo­re.

¶Of a crosse flurry knottyd.

[Page]OVer thise crosses we haue a certen crosse flurry of the whiche it is spoken afore. the whyche crosse flurry is founde knotty as here.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And that is as I sayd aforewhan knottes are founde in thendes & thangles of ye sayd crosse. & the berer of the sayd armes (Latine) ¶Portat vnā crucē nodulatā floridā aureā in cāpo de asuro (Gallice sic) ¶Il porte dasur v­ne croys flouretee boutōne dor) Anglice) ¶He beeryth asure & a crosse flurry knotty of golde.

¶Of a crosse dowble pertited /

A Crosse double is founde in in tharmes of diuers noble men? ye whyche certen crosse is called a dowble pertited crosse. For yf it be diuyded or parted after ye long way or the brode way: yet there abideth one double crosse / as we may se here.

[blazon or coat of arms]

Yet I haue seen many noble men dowtyng of this crosse more than of ony crosse aforsayd: the whiche neuertheles after long disputacōns in thoppinyon aforsayd rested & concluded. Therfore he yt beerith thyse armes (Latine sic) ¶Portat vnā crucē duplicatā argenteā in cāpo nigro (Gallice sic) ¶Il port sable vne croys double partie dargent (Anglice sic ¶He beeryth sable & a crosse dowble partited of syluer.

¶Of a crosse dowble partited florysshed

THis crosse double partited is varyed somtyme: & thenne it is called a crosse double partited florysshed as here.

[blazon or coat of arms]

netheles it is called a crosse flurry inproperly as somemen saye: for it faylyth the myddes of ye floure as anone it shall folowe in the nexte armes. ye whiche certen myddes by no manere of wise in ye crosse double partited may be. as anone it shal be shewed. But he that beereth thyse armes (Latine ¶Portat vnā crucem duplam pertitā auream in campo rubio / Gallice / ¶Il port de geulles vne croys double partiee floretee dor. Anglice. ¶He beeryth gowles & a crosse dowble partyted flurry of golde /

¶Of a crosse tripartited florisshyd.

BVt as is shewed afore this crosse is called a crosse double partited florisshed for there fayleth ye myddes of ye crosse by the whyche the crosse florysshed is made perfyt. as here it is open.

[blazon or coat of arms]

ye whyche certen myddes put therto: it shall not be cailed a crosse dowble pertited florisshed: But rather it shalbe called a crosse thre folde pertited flurry. & then̄e it is well blased. for & it be diuyded after ye longnes or after ye bro­denes. alway one part shall abyde tripertited in ye myddes of the crosse: as it is open in tharmes afore wreten. And therfore he yt beeryth thyse armes (Latine) ¶Portat vnā crucez triꝑtito de argento in cāpo de asuro (Gallice) ¶Il porte daseur vne croys troyffoys ꝑtiee flouretee dargent (Anglice sic) ¶He beeryth of asure wt a crosse tripertited floree of syluer /

¶Of a Myllars crosse shadowed or vmbrated.

A Doubte there is yet of a certen shadowe of a Myllars crosse as it shewyth here folowynge.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And knowe ye yt it is callid a shadow of a crosse / for euermore this shadowis made of blacke colour. of what someuer colour the felde be of. the shadow is made of blacke. & the body of the same shadow is of the same colour wyth the felde. And he yt beeryth thise armes (Latine (¶Portat vnā crucem vmbratā in cāpo aureo) Gallice) ¶p Il ort dor vne croys mōnyer vmbre (Anglice) ¶He beeryth of golde wyth a Myllars crosse vmbra­tyd or shadowed.

¶Of a crosse floree patent vmbratyd /

A nother sample is seen of thūbracōn of a certen crosse, & this crosse is called a crosse floree vmbrated: as apereth here.

[blazon or coat of arms]

but truly speking & ꝓperly it is no crosse: but a shadow of suche a crosse & the reason is. for ye body of the sayd shadow is of the same colour wyth the felde. And so the colour [Page] that is in the felde shewyth by all the body of the sayd shadowe ¶And those that beere thyse armes (Latine (Portant vnaz crucem floridam patentem vmbratam in campo rubeo (Galice sic) ¶Il porte de geules vne croys patee floretee vmbree (Anglice sic) ¶He beeryth of gowles & a crosse patent flore vmbratyd /

¶Of a crosse flory patent vmbratyd & perforatyd /

NEuertheles after some men this shadowed crosse other­whyle is percyd merueyllously as it folowyth here:

[blazon or coat of arms]

and thenne it is called a crosse flory patent vmbratyd & per­forated: for it accordeth wyth the crosse precedyng except the percynge in the myddes of the sayd shadowe. ¶And thenne it shall be sayde that he the whyche beeryth this crosse (Latine) Portat vnam crucem floridam patentem vmbratam perforataz cum rubio in campo aureo (Et gallice sic) ¶Il porte dor vne croys patee floretee vmbree & parte de geules (Anglice) ¶He beeryth of golde a crosse patent flurry shadowed & percyd wyth gowles.

BLasours must beware of thyse armes vmbratyd / of the whyche many rules ben shewed afore. But for the bla­syng of thyse certen armes some ygnoraunt men of this crafte take the rule goynge afore: that it to wyte of the colours transmuted as ye sawe afore. But there ben certain nobles and gentylmen in Englonde the whyche beere shadowes dyuers in theyr armes: as Lyon Antlop & other. and they that beere thyse armes / and it be a lyon: ye shall saye in latyn (Portat vnum leonem vmbratum in campo aureo) Gallice ¶Il porte dor et vnglyon vmbree (Anglice) ¶He beeryth of golde & a lyon vmbra­tyd. ¶And men saye that suche persones as bere thyse vmbra­tyd armes had theyr progenytours beerynge the same not vmbratyd but hole But the possessyons & the patrymonyes des­cended to other men. thenne the neuewes or kynnesmen liuyng in good hope & trustynge to haue the possessions of theyr pro­genytours: bere theyr armes vmbratyd. alle other dyfference aforsayd leuynge. for whan they haue that patrimony: yt they [Page] they trustyd on. soone they maye beere that lyon or other beest of the same colour the whyche theyr progenytours bare. and it is better to beere those armes vmbraryd: than holy to leue the­yr progenytours armes.

¶Yet here folowyth a nother crosse hēmyd or borderyd as ap­peryth

A Grete doubte yet remayneth ayenst blasours of armes in difference betwyx this crosse fimbratid or bordryd. as here now aperyth

[blazon or coat of arms]

& the forsayd crosse vmbratyd.in somoche that they are moche lyke. and it apperyth in the fyrst syghte yt they ben but one but & a man beholde well there is a grete dyfferē ce. for the bordre of this crosse is varied aswel fro the colour of the crosse as fro the colour of the felde. & elles there is no doubte. Therfore it shall be sayd of hym that beeryth thyse armes in this wyse: Latine sic: ¶Portat vnā crucem nigraz perforatam floridā patentem fim briatam siue borduratā cū argento in campo rubio: Gallice sic ¶Il port de gulles vne croys flouretee patee periee de sabull bourde dargent: Anglice sic: ¶He bereth gowles wyth a crosse flurry patent persyd of sable borderyd wyth syleuer.

¶Now folowyth an ermyn crosse as it shall be shewed.

FOr certen there is an ermyn crosse. and it is a merueyllus crosse / of the whyche there was a dysputacōn at Lon­don by a certen Heroude of Brytayne. And it was determyd that thyse armes may be in none other colour but as here it apperyth.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And this crosse is cal­lyd an ermyn crosse. And it shall be sayd of hym yt beryth thise armys in this wise as it shall folowe: Latine: ¶Portat vnā crucem ereminalem: Gal­lice sic: ¶Il port vne croys arminee: Anglice sic ¶He beeryth a crosse ermyn. And here ye must note yt the colour in thyse armes shall not be expressyd / for thys crosse neyther thyse armes maye not be made but of thyse colours. that is to saye allone of blacke and whyte the whyche are [Page] the propre colours of thyse armes.

¶Suffycyently is spoken of Crosses afore. now folowyth an other treatise of dyuers armes quartryd as here shalbe shewed

OF armys quarteryd some armes quarteryd playne So­me quarteryd engradyd. Some quarteryd irrasid. Som̄ quarteryd inueckyd. Some quarteryd indentyd of ye whiche it shall be spoken eueryche one after other. and fyrste of the armes playne.

¶It shall be shewed fyrste of armes quarteryd playne.

THre manere of wise armes maye be quarteryd. The fyrst maner is open: whan two dyuers armes are borne quarterly / as it is open & playne in the armes of the kynge of Fraunce & of Englonde.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And ye shall saye of hym that beeryth thyse armes thus as folowyth: Latine: ¶Ille portat arma regis francie et anglie quarteriata: Et gallice sic: ¶Il porte lez armes de Frannce et de Angleterre quarteles: Anglice sic ¶He beereth the armes of Fraunce and Englonde quarterly. ¶And it shall not be tedious to no man that Fraunce is put before Englonde in blasynge / but ye cause is this: for the armes of Fraunce in armes ben put afore. And we haue a generall rule / that whan someuer in armes be two coloures or moo in the poynt of the shelde thenne ye shall not begyn at the poynt to blase: but in the ryght parte or syde of those ar­mes. that same colour there founde in ye ryght syde of the shelde is not the felde of the armes / for it may fortune it is not the gretest colour in tharmys aforsayde: but lesse or wyth other equall And nethelesse ye shall begynne toblase there.

¶Of armys quarterly borne now it shall be shewed

[blazon or coat of arms]

THe seconde manere of wyse of berynge quarteryd armys is whan four dyuers armes quarterly be born̄ / as here is shewed. And he yt beryth thyse armes bereth foure dyuers armys quarterly: Latine sic: ¶Ille port at qua­tuor arma diusa quarteriata: Gallice sic: ¶Il porte quatre armes dyuerse quar­telees: Anglice: He beereth foure armes dyuers quarterly. And thenne yf it be as­ked how thyse armys sholde be blasyd.

The blaser must begyn̄ in the hyest corner ouer the ryght syde procedyng to euery armes. tharmes in the right syde blasyd: ye must goo to the other syde: & thenne to the thyrde syde / & after to the laste. And ye must knowe that thyse armys rehercyd afore ben playne armes quarteryd.

[blazon or coat of arms]

THere is a nother manere of bee­ryngof armys quarteryd / whan ij. armes quarterid ben born̄ quarterly. & it is borne moost in tharmys of quenes / And so bare that noble quene of Englonde: quene Anna wyfe to ye ryall prynce kyng Rycharde the seconde / whiche bare tharmes of Englond & of Fraunce & of themperour of Almayne quarterly: & in .xvi. partes / yt is to saye in the ryghte syde of the shelde in the fyrste quarter she bare tharmys of Fraunce / thre flourdeluces of gol­de in a felde of asure. And in the seconde quarter thre lyberdys of golde in a felde of gowles. And in the thyrde quarter an egle wyth two neckes. And in the fourth a lyon rampynge in a felde of gowles. And so changeably she bare thise armys in .xvi. quarteres whyche selden is seen in ony armys.

¶Of armys quartryd & engraylyd now it shall be shewed.

NOw I shewe you that some tyme we haue armys quarteryd & engraylyd. that is to wyte whan euery armys in his quarter is engrayllyd: as here apperyth.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And it shall he sayd of hym yt beryth thyse armys thus: Lati­ne:¶Ille portat de auro et rubio arma quarteri ata & nigra data: Et gallice sic: ¶Il porte dor et geulles quarterlee engraylee: Anglice sic: He bee rith of golde & gowles quarterly engraylyd. And they are called armys engradyd for they are made of two colours: the whyche gradydly are bro­ughte togyder one colour in to a nother colour.

¶Of armys quarteryd and irrasyd now I woll speke.

CErten armys there ben quartryd & irra­syd: as apperyth.

[blazon or coat of arms]

the whiche certen armes are dealed quarteryd armes irrasyd. For the colours ben rasid out as one colour in rasyng were take away from a nother. And it shal besayd of hym ye bereth thise armes: Latine sic: ¶Portat arma quarteriata irrasa de albo et nigro: Gallice ¶Il porte dargent et sable quartlee irrase: Anglice sic: ¶He beryth syluer and sable quaterly irrasyd.

¶Of armes quarteryd inueckyd now here it shall be shewed.

THere ben yet foūde armes quarterly inueckyd: or as some saye they ben army quarteryd of colours inueckyd: as here aperyth /

[blazon or coat of arms]

whyche forsoth are callyd armes quarteryd inueckid or of colours inueckid. For in the­ym are two colours quarterly put: the one in to ye other. And so one colour is inueckid into a nother Therfore it is sayd of hym that beryth thyse ar­mys in this wyse: Latine: ¶Ille portat quateriatim de asurio et auro inuectꝭ: Gallice: ¶Il porte quarterlee verre dasur et dor: Anglice: ¶He be­ryth quarterly inueckyd of asure & golde.

¶Now of armys quarterid indentyd it shall here be shewed

[Page]QVarteryd armes be founde dyuers whyche are callyd indentyd: as here apperyth /

[blazon or coat of arms]

and they are callyd indentyd for two colours one in to a nother by ye mane of teeeth are indentyd: as it is open in the shelde. And thus ye shall blase theym: Latine: ¶Portat arma quarteriata indentata de rubio et auro: Gallice: ¶Il porte quartelee endentlee de geul­les et dor: Anglice: ¶He beryth quarterly endentyd of gowles & golde

¶Of armys partyd after the longe waye here [...]

I intende now to determyn of armys partyd after the longe waye: whyche certen partyng after the longe way or on lengthe is made many manere of wise. The fyrst pertycōn forsoth is of two colours in armys after the longe waye in ye playne manere. ¶There is also a partynge of armys of two colours ingradyd. ¶And also there is a partynge of two colours irrasyd. ¶And also forsoth there is a partynge of two colours inueckyd. ¶And there is a nother partynge of two colours indentyd. ¶There is also a partynge of two colours clowdyd or nebulatyd. ¶And more ouer there is a partyng of two colours watery.

FYrste I shewed to you that there ben certen armys par­tyd after ye longe waye of two colours in ye playne waye as here apperyth in thise armes.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And they are callyd partyd armys (punctel) for they ben made of .ij. colours equally partyd. And he yt beryth thyse armes bereth thus: Latine: ¶Ille portat arma pertita plana scdm longū de asorio et albo: Gallice: ¶Il port dasur et dargent playne partiee: Anglice sic: ¶He beryth asure & syluer playne partyd.

¶Of armys partyd the longe waye ingraylyd I wyll shewe here.

ALso there is a pertycyon of armys engraylyd the longe waye as is sayd afore by engraylyng of two colours togyder / as here apperith.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And thyse armys are callyd ar­mys [Page] engraylyd partid after the longe waye of siluer& sable. And it shall be sayde of hym yt beeryth thise armys: Latine sic: ¶Portat arma pertita secundū longū ingradata de argento et nigro / Gallice sic: ¶Il port dargent ingraylee et sablee partice du long: Anglice sic: ¶He beerith syluer & sable ingraylyd parted after the longe waye.

¶Here now it shall be shewed of armys partyd & irrasyd.

THe thyrde manere of wyse are founde armys partyd of two colours & irrasyd: as here.

[blazon or coat of arms]

of the whycheit is to be sayd as afore of quarterid armys irrasyd. & he yt beryth thise armys: beryth in this wise as foloweth: Latine sic: ¶Portat arma ꝑtita scdm longū irrasa de argento et rubio: Gallice sic: ¶Il porte partiee du long dargent et de geulles ralee: Anglice sic: ¶He bereth armes partyd on lengthe of syluer & gowles irrasyd.

¶Of armes partyd ye longe way & inueckid now I woll speke

THe fourth manere armys partyd are born after ye long waye of two colours inueckyd: as here apperyth.

[blazon or coat of arms]

& thise armes ben called inueckid / for ye colours be put one in to a nother rounde wyse. And thyse armys dyffere moche fro tharmys nexte beynge afore irrasyd. wherfore it shal be sayd of hym whiche bereth thyse armys thus as it shall folowe: Latine: ¶Ipse portat arma ꝑtita scdm longuz de coloribus albo et rubio inuectis: Gallice sic: ¶Il porte ꝑtiee verree du long dargent et de geulles: Anglice: ¶He beryth partyd inueckyd on lengthe of syluer & gowles.

¶Of armys partyd on ye longe way & indentyd here shewyth.

CErtenly a nother manere of partyd armes there is whiche is callyd the fyfth manere partyd after ye longe way of two colours. & thyse armys are callyd partyd inden­tyd: for this cause / ye two dyuers colours are put togyd (er): that is [Page] to saye: whyte and blacke put togyder after the manere of mennys teeth / as it is sayde afore in ye quarteryd armys indentyd.

[blazon or coat of arms]

& therfor ye shall say of hym whyche beeryth thyse armys in this wy­se: Latine: ¶Portat arma pertita scdm longū de argento et nigro indentata: Gallice sic: ¶Il port pertiee endentiee du long dargent et sable: Anglice: ¶He beryth armys partyd indentyd on length of syluer & sable.

¶Of armys partid after the longe waye clowdy or nebulatyd

IN the syxt manere of wyse there ben armys born partid after ye longe waye nebulatyd / as here it shall be shewed in this scochon.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And thyse armys ben cal­lyd innebulatid: for two colours are put togyd (er) bi the manere of clowdes. Therfore the possessor of thyse armys beeryth in this wyse as it shall be sayd: Latine: ¶Portat arma ꝑtita scdm longū de argento et asorio innebulara: Et gallice sic: ¶Il port pertiee du long dargent et dasur innuee: Anglice sic: ¶He beeryth armys partyd on lengthe of syluer and asure innebulatyd.

¶Of armys partyd watery of syluer & gowles this scochon is

MOre ouer after thyse armys aforsayd yet there ben born armys partid after the longe waye. & they ben watry as here in this scochon it aperyth.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And thyse armys are callyd watry / for two colours are incaryed one in toa nother by the manere of water trowblyd wyth wynde. And ye shall saye of hym yt beeryth thyse armys in thys wyse as folowyth: Latine: ¶Portat arma ꝑtita vndosa scdm longū de argento et rubio: Gallice sic: ¶Il porte partie du long dargent de de geulles vndee: Anglice sic: ¶He bee­ryth armys partyd the longe waye of syluer and gowles wa­tery.

¶Now here I begynne to speke of armys partyd ouerwhart

[Page]HEre now foloweth to se of armes partyd ouerwhart. ye whyche certen pertycōn ouerwharte is made as many wyse as is the pertycōn on lengthe. yt is to saye on ye playn way ouerwhart. ingraylid irrasid. inueckid. indentyd. innebulatid. & watery (punctel) wherfore of thyse certain shall beshewed by sygnes. And fyrste I begyn at playne armys ouerwhart: as here it shall be shewed.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And it shall be sayd of hym that beeryth thyse armys in this wise: Latine sic: ¶Portat arma partita extransuerso plana de auro et asorio: Et gallice sic: ¶Il port partie transuersie dor et dasur: Anglice ¶He beeryth golde & asure partyd ouerwhart. ¶Knowe ye that here is no doubte of that fyrste rule: that is to saye / that a man shall begyn at the poynt of the shelde to blase. for here is as moche colour of golde as of asure.

¶Of armes irrasid ouerwhart now here it shall be shewed.

NOw of a nother maner of particōn of colours in armes ouerwhart I wyll speke. & it is callyd irrasyd: as here it shall appere in this scochyon.

[blazon or coat of arms]

of whiche it is to be sayd yt the gentylman whyche beeryth thise armys bee­rythin this manere as folowyth: Latine: ¶Portat arma partita extransuerso irraso de auro et rubio: Gallice sic: ¶Il porte partiee transuersee irrasee dor et de geulles: Anglice: ¶He beryth armes partid ouerwhart irrasid of golde & gowles

¶Now of armys partyd ouerwhat ye shal haue ensample.

ARmys there be also endentyd ouerwhart & partyd. And they ben called indentid for their colours as is sayd afore are put one in to a nother bi the manere of mennys teeth.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And it shall be sayd of hm yt berth thyise armys in this wyse: Latine: ¶Portat arma ꝑtita extransuerso indentata de auro et asorio / as afore is rehercyd: Gallice sic ¶Il port ꝑtiee de trauers dor et dasur endentee: [Page] Anglice sic: ¶He beeryth armes partyd ouerwhart indentyd of golde and asure. ¶And to reherce more of partyd armys ouerwharte it nedyth not / for it is rehercyd suffycyently in the rules nexte afore in armes partyd on lengthe. Therfore it shall not be rehercyd here ayen ( (qr)quia inutil' est repeticō vniꝰ ad eiusdē) And yt is to say / It is an vnprouffytable rehercynge of one thynge to reherce ye same ayen in ye nexte sentence / Therfore to speke more of armys partyd & fygure theym: other of ingraylyd or irrasyd: inueckyd indentyd nebulatyd and vndatyd: it nedyth not / for they ben ta­ughte suffycyently in the longe waye. And I byleue it shall be harde to fynde many moo armys partyd after the longe waye or ouerwhart than are rehercyd afore / Neuertheles yf ony be founde or seen: in theim that same rules shal be obseruyd as is rehercyd afore. And is ynough for al armes on that manere to be blasyd that ony gentylman beeryth partyd.

¶Of armys whyche are callyd Cheyf or an heed I woll shewe

Sothly certen men wolde that thyse armes after rehercyd shold be callid armys partyd. whyche certenly for yt that there is no very pertycōn of the colours or ony lyknes of diuysion of colours. Certenly in armes partydit is requyred alwaye that the partes of the colo­urs be equall. and that is not true in this fygure / for the more parte by moche is syluer.

[blazon or coat of arms]

Therfore ye shall saye of hym that beryth thise armes thus Latine: ¶Portat de argento et capud scuti de asoreo cum duabus maculis perforatis de auro: Gallice sic: ¶Ill porte dargent vne cheyffe dasur et deux molettes partyes dor: Anglice sic: ¶He beeryth syluer a cheyff or a che­frayne of asure & two molettes perforatyd of golde. ¶And ye shall knowe that in thise armes the rule afore wreten must be consydred / that is to saye: that at the Coon it is to be­gyn to blase yf that colour of the Coon be gretter or more copyous coloure in armys as it is sayd afore. And more ouer it is to be markyd yt noo armes owe to be callyd partyd armys but yf they be made of two colours one partyd & no more. for armys [Page] pal [...]d are not callyd: nor owe not to be callyd partyd armys although they ben made of two colours. for those colours not all only ones but dyuers tymes are partyd: as here apperyth.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And thyse armys ben callyd partyd armys / for they ben made by the manere of palys. And it shall be sayd of hym that beeryth thyse armes: Latine sic: ¶Portat arma palara de auro et asoreo: Gallice sic: ¶Il porte pale dor et dasur: Anglice sic: ¶He beeryth pale of golde & asure.

¶Of armys palyd vndatyd now here it shall be shewed.

PAlyd armys oftyme are founde vndatyd / that is to saye watry: as here apperyth.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And thyse ben callyd palyd ar­mys vndatyd to the dyfference of barrydarmes vndatyd. the whyche armes barryd maye also be vndated as here after shal be shewed. And it shalbe sayd of hym yt beeryth thise armes thus Latine. ¶Portat arma palata vndata vl vndosa de rubio et argento: Gallice: ¶Il port palee vndee de geulles et dargent: Anglice: ¶He beryth paly vndatyd of gowles & syluer.

¶Of armys palyd crokyd & sharpe now I woll speke.

LOke & beholde how many manere of wyse thyse palyd armes ben borne dyuersly / as it is shewed in this boke.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And thise armes now shewed here ben callyd palyd crokyd and sharpe. For in thyse armys two colours paly are put togyder one in to a nother crokyd & sharpe. Therfore it shall be sayd of hym ye whyche beeryth thyse armes in this wyse: Latine: ¶Portat arma palata tortuosa acuta de nigro et argento: Gallice sic: ¶Ill port pale dansete de sable et dargent: Anglice sic: ¶He beryth pale crokyd & sharpe of sable & syluer.

¶Of armys barryd playne now here it shall be shewed

HEre in this chapitre afore is determined of palid armes & in this chapitre now folowynge it shalbe determynyd of barryd armes. for ye whyche it shalbe knowe yt armes maye be many manere of wyse barryd. And the fyrste manere of wyse is playne barryd. as here appereth.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And ye shall knowe yt there ben certen armes barryd playne. & then̄ ye shall not ne­de to saye in the blasynge of thyse armes: he bee­rythplayne armes barryd. But in al other disperyng armes barryd: ye must nedys declare ye blasynge of theym how those barryd armes dyffere fro playne. For some ben barryd wyth a lyon raū pyng or a greehounde or other beestes / And som̄ ben barryd & some powdryd wyth crosse croslettꝭ molettꝭ scresentes smale byrdes or other dyfference / But as for thise playne armes afore ye shall saye: Latine: ¶Portat arma barrata de argento & nigro: Gallice sic: ¶Il porte barre de argent et sable: Anglice sic: ¶He beeryth barry of syluer & sable.

¶Of barryd armys vndatyd now I wyll shewe as apperyth.

KNowe ye for certen yt armes barryd otherwhyle be barryd & vndatyd: yt is to saye watry / as here it apperyth.

[blazon or coat of arms]

& they ben callyd barryd vndatyd: for theyben made of two colours metynge togyd (er) in ma­nere of a flowinge water as it is open afore. And ye shall saye of hym yt beereth thise armes in this wyse: Latine: ¶Portat arma barrata vndata de nigro et albo: Gallice sic: ¶Il porte barre vndee de sable et dargent: Anglice sic: ¶He beeryth barry vndatyd of sable & syluer.

¶Of armes barryd & inueckyd ye shall haue example

BArrid armes inueckid are born of dyuers gentyll men as here is shewed.

[blazon or coat of arms]

& they are callyd inueckid: for in euery barre .ij. coloures are put inueckid in manere of a roūde way as is sayd afore. And he that bereth thyse armes berech in this wyse: Latine sic: ¶Portat arma barrata de coloribus rubeo et inuectis: Gallice sic: [Page] ¶Il porte barree verree de geulles et de argent: Anglice sic: ¶He beerith barry inueckyd of gowles & syluer. And I begyn wyth gowles / for ye colour is the fyrste in the ryght corner.

¶Of armes barryd crokyd & sharpe as here after is shewed.

GEntyll men there ben certenly whyche beere armes bar­ryd crokyd & sharpe as here it apperyth in thyse armys.

[blazon or coat of arms]

and they ben called armes barryd for dyf­ferenceof armes the same manere of wyse pasyd and they ben callyd crokyd & sharpe. for as it is sayd afore two colours are put togyd (er) crokidly & sharp̄. Therfore it shal be sayd that the lorde yt beryth thyse armes beryth in this wyse: Latine: ¶Ille portat arma barata tortuosa et acuta de nigro et auro: Gallice sic: ¶Il porte baree dantelee acute de sable et dor: Anglice sic: ¶He beeryth barryd crokyd & sharpe of sable and golde.

¶Now it shall be shewed of armes that are bendly barryd.

THere ben forsoth certen armes bendly barrid. & they ben callyd bendly barryd. and for this cause they ben callyd bendly barryd. for two colours are togyd (er) in euery barre bendly as it is open here in thise armes.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And therforeit shall be sayd of hym that beereth thyse ar­mes in this wyse as folowyth: Latine sic: ¶Ipse portat arma bendaria de rubio et auro: Gallice: ¶Il porte barre bende de geulles et dor: Anglice sic: ¶He beereth barry bendy of gowles and golde. ¶But neuertheles ye must dylygently attende in the blasyng of suche armes: as palyd barryd & bendyd. for & they ben not subtylly conceyued a man sodenly answeyrnge may lyghtly in those armes be dysceyued. For certenly those armes ben callyd palyd armes in the whyche are founde soo many palys of one colour as are of a nother. And yf the palys of bothe the coloures ben not equall those armes ben not palyd.

¶In dyuers armys of gentylmen ben founde two palys of o­ne colour & thre of a nother / as here in thyse armys folowynge it shall be shewed.

[blazon or coat of arms]

That is to saye: there ben threpales of gowles & two of golde / for of the colour of redde appereth thre partes in the shelde / & but two allone of the coloure of golde. Therfore the gentylman that beeryth thyse armys beeryth in this wyse. And thus ye shall saye of hym: Latine: ¶Portat duos palos aureos in campo rubeo: Gallice sic: ¶Il porte de geulles et deux palles dor: Anglice sic: He beeryth gowles & two pales of golde.

¶Here ye shall dilygently marke armys barryd & lees barryd

YE must also dilygently attende to the nombre of bothe two colours in armys palyd barryd or lees barryd: of ye whyche barrys ye must beware whan they be founde in armys: as here it is shewed in thyse armys /

[blazon or coat of arms]

Forsuche lynes ben callyd lytyll barrys to the dyfference of lytyll barrys. And it shall be sayd that ye gentylman whyche beryth thyse armys: beeryth in this wyse: Latine: ¶Portat vnā barram et du as barulas de albo in cāpo rubio: Gallice: ¶Il porte de geulles vne barre et deux barrelettes de argent: Anglice sic: ¶He beereth gowles one barre and two lytyll barres of syluer.

¶Now I wyll speke of armys barryd & lytyll barres florys­shyd

BEholde how the forsayd lytyll barres areother whyle made florisshingly: and then̄ they ben callyd florysshid / as here in thys scochon.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And they ben callid flourisshyd / for they be in manere of a flourdeluce. And ye shall say of hym that is possessor of thyse armys in this wyse as folowyth: Latine sic: ¶Portat vnam barrā et duas barulas floridas albas in scuto siue campo blodio: Galli­ce sic: ¶Il porte dasur vne barriee et deux barrelettes florit de [Page] argent: Anglice sic: ¶He beeryth asure one barre and two ly­tyll barrys florysshyd of syluer.

¶Now I entende to speke of bendys in armys: as here.

OTherwhyle there is born̄ in armys a bende as is founde [...]n dyuers armes of certen noble gentylmen: as here now it shall be shewed.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And ye must knowe that it is callyd a bende the whiche begynnyth at the ryght corner or the horne of the shelde: and de­cendith to the lefte syde of the same shelde / to the dyfference of fyssures or of lytyll stauys / of the whyche it shall be spoken after. And of hym that beeryth thyse armys ye shall saye thus as folowyth: Latine sic: ¶Portat vnam bendam de rubio in campo aureo: Gallice sic: ¶Il porte dor vne bende de geulles: Anglice: ¶He beryth golde & a bende of gowles.

¶Of lytyll bendys in armes now here is an ensample.

KNowe ye how afore it is sayd that certen lytyll barrys are borne in armys many tymes. On the same manere of wyse are born̄ lytyll bendes: as here it shall be shew­ed.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And they be callyd bendyllys to the dyfference of grete bendys: as it is open. And of hym that beryth thysethus it shall be sayd fyrste as here folowyth: La­tine: ¶Portat vnam bendam et duas bendulas de auro in campo blodeo: Gallice sic: ¶Il porte de asur vne bande et deux bandelettes dor: An­glice sic: ¶He beryth asure a bende and two bendyls of golde. ¶And thyse bendyls are otherwhile florysshyd: as is shewyd in the fygure afore in barrys. ¶And in dyuers armys thei ben founde that they ben chenyd. And some ben powderyd wyth molettys. and some wyth other dyffe­rence the whyche nedeth not to be fyguryd here.

¶Of armys palyd and bendyd now here it shall be shewed.

[Page]THe beste manere of wise certainly of berynge of dyuers armys in one shelde is in thise bendis beryng / for a man that hath a patrymony lefte by his fader: & other certen londes by his moder comynge to him / to the whiche londes of his moders are apropred armys of olde tyme. For it maye happe that thyse armys came to her by the waye & discent of her progenitours. Thenne may the heyre & he lyste bere the hole armys of his fader in the hole shelde. And in suche a bende he may bere his moders armys: as here in ye scochon afore aperyth.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And it shall be sayd of hym yt beryth thyse armys: Latine sic: ¶Portat arma palata de argen­to et rubio cum vna benda de nigro: Gallice sic: ¶Il porte palee dargent et de geulles et vne bende de sable: ¶He beerith palee of syluer & gowles wyth a bende of sable. ¶And other whyle in suche a bende there is founde thre molettes or macules of golde.

¶Of armys bende fusyllyd here now I wyll exemple.

MOreouer there ben founde in armes other certen bendis to some man straunge from thyse. And here I wyll shew to you a bende the whyche is callyd a bende fusyllyd: as here apperyth in this scochon.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And it is callyd fusyllydfor it is made all of fusyllis / of the whyche certen fusylles more shall be spoken afterwarde. But he the whyche hath thise armys bereth: Latine sic: ¶Portat vnam bendam fusillatam de auro in campo asorio: Gallice sic: ¶Il porte dasur vne bandee fusillee dor: Anglice sic: ¶He berith asure a bende fusyllyd of golde. ¶And this bende many tymes is borne wyth straungers: and specyally in Burgoyne.

¶Here now it shall be spoken of dyuers bordurys in armys.

BOrdures many and dyuers are founde in armys / and are borne of many noble men. Of the whyche some ben [Page] playne some ingrayllyd: some talentyd: some playne pouderyd some checkeryd: some gobonettyd: some inueckyd of the whiche it shall be spoken eueriche one after other. And fyrste of playne bordurys I wyll speke as it aperith.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And the bordureis callyd playne: whan it is made playne of one colour allone / as here in this scochon. And it shall be sayd of hym that is possessor of thyse ar­mys: Latine sic: ¶Portat tres rosas rubias in campo argenteo cum vna bordura de rubio: Et gallice sic: ¶Il porte dargent trois roses de ge­ulles et vne bordure de geulles: Anglice sic: ¶He beereth syl­uer thre roses of gowles and a bordure of gowles.

¶Of armys borduryd & ingrayllyd now here folowyth example.

ARmys wyth a bordure ingralyd other whyle are borne of certayne noble men: as now here is shewid in this scochon.

[blazon or coat of arms]

and suche a bordure is callyd a bordure engraylid for the colour of hym is putt gree by gree to thefelde of tharmys: as it is open here. And the pos­sessor of thise armys beryth thus as foloweth: Latine: ¶Portat arma de auro fymbriata siue bordurata de nigro ingradata cum tribus macu­lis perforatis de nigro: Gallice sic: ¶Il porte dor trois mullettes fortee de sable vne bordure ingrayle de sable: Anglice sic: ¶He beryth golde thre molettis perforatyd of sable and a bordure ingraylyd of sable.

¶Now of armys borderyd & talentyd I wyll shewe example.

THere is borne in armys a certayne bordure talentid: as here /

[blazon or coat of arms]

And it is not necessa­ry here to expresse the colour of the talen­tis or besantis: for they ben euer of golde. And it shall be sayde of hym that beryth thyse armys in this wyse: Latine: ¶Portat vnum signum capitale de rubio in campo albo borduratum cum rubio talentatim: Gallice sic: ¶Il porte dargent vne cheueron [Page] de geulles borduree de geulles talantee: Et anglice sic: ¶He beeryth syluer a Cheueron of gowles borduryd wyth gowles talentyd.

¶Of [...]m [...] borduryd hauynge [...] cheuerons of syluer. &c̄.

VNderstonde ye that certayne tymes a bordure is borne in armys powdrid dyuers wayes: other while wyth molettis: wyth rosis or wyth lytyll crossis: or with besantis or other wise. And it is callyd a bordure powdrid whan ony thynge is in that bordure: of whatsom euer sygne it be / as it is sayd afore. And thyse sygnes as roses molettis and other are not countyd for certayn nombre / For the nombre of that powdrynge excedyth the nombre of .ix. And thenne that bordure is callyd powdryd: as here.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And ye shall saye that the possessor of thyse armys beryth in this wyse as folowyth: Latine: ¶Portat vnum scutum de rubio cum duobus signis capitalibus de albo et vna bordura puluerisata cum talentis: Et gallice sic: ¶Il porte de geulles deux cheuerons dargent et vne bordure de geulles pouldree talentee: Anglice sic: ¶He beeryth gowles two cheuerons of syluer and a bordure powdryd wyth besantys.

¶Yet there is a nother manere bordure that is callyd chekryd.

WE haue yet a nother bordure in armys whyche is cal­lyd a bordure checkerid. And it is callyd a checkerid bordure: for it is made of two coloures by the manere of a checker as here it apperyth.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And it shal be sayd ofhym the whyche beryth thise armys in this wyse as folowyth: Latine sic: ¶Portat vnā crucem rubiam planam in campo argenteo cum vna bordura scaccata de nigro et argento: Et gallice sic: ¶Il porte dargent vne crois playne de geulles bordure checke de sable et de argent: Anglice sic: ¶He bereth syluer one croys playne of gowles a bordure checkeryd wyth sable and syluer.

¶Of bordurys gobonatyd now here is an example.

[Page]KNowe ye more ouer that yet besyde thyse armys ye whiche I haue spoke afore with bordurys: there is a nother bordure that is callyd a bordure gobonatyd: as here it shall be shewyd in this scochon nexte folowynge.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And it is cal­lyd gobonatid for it is made of two colours quadratly Ioynid That is to saye / of blacke and white. And of hymthat beryth thyse armys ye shall saye as folow­yth: Latine sic: ¶Portat de argento et duas bendas de nigro cum vna bordura de nigro et albo gobonata: Et gallice sic: ¶Il port dor deux bande et vne bordure de sable et dargent: Anglice sic ¶He beryth syluer two bendys of sable wyth a bordure gobonatyd of sable and syluer.

¶And this same bordure bare that noble prynce: the duke of Gloucetre brother to that noble werryour and puissauunt kynge / kynge Henry the fyfthe. The whyche ryall duke bare in his armys: the hoole armys of Fraunce and of Englonde quarterly wyth a bordure gobonatyd of syluer and sable: as it shewyth in dyuers places. ¶And to blace thyse armys it nedyth not to be rehercyd / for it is suffycyently taughte afore in dyuers pla­ces.

¶Item of bordurys had in armys of colourys inueckyd

THere ben yet bordurys in armys of two colours inuec­kyd / as here in this fygure apperyth.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And it is callyd a bordure inueckyd for it is made of two colours togider inueckyd. And ye shal saye of hym the whyche beriththyse armes: Latine sic: ¶Portat arma quarteriata de rubio at auro cum vna bordura de ar­gento et nigro simul inuectis: Et gallice sic: ¶Il porte quarterlee de geulles et dor aues (que) vne bordure verre dargent et de sable: Anglice sic: ¶He beryth quarterly gowles and golde wyth a bor­dure inueckyd of syluer and sable.

[Page]BVt in thyse bordurys there is a grete dyfference amon­ge men: pretendynge theym experte and wyse in this scyence / as specially it is open in the armys in olde tyme of the erle of Marche: whether they sholde be callyd bordures or not / as here in this fygure.

[blazon or coat of arms]

¶And certayne men saye that men not puttynge a merueyllous dyf­ference of blasynge saye / that the forsayde erle of Marche: the whyche was callyd Roger Morte­mer whanne he liuyd bare armys in this wyse to saye: Latine: ¶Portauit arma palata barrata et contraconata de asorio et auro cum vno simplici scuto de argento: Gallice sic: ¶Il port pale barre gironnee de asur et dor et vne escu simple dargent: Anglice sic: ¶He beryth paly barry contrary coonyd of asure and golde wyth a symple shelde of syluer.

¶And this opynyon afore rehercyd in the blasynge pleysyd many a man: the whyche in no manere of wise may be true. For yf thyse armys as it is sayd afore were contrary conyd: thenne the lowest corner of the coone of the armis That is to saye the lowyst poynt of the shelde maye neuer be of one colour: as cer­tenly it is of asure.

OVer thyse thynges afore rehercyd in thyse armys it is certayne that in alle armys contrary conyd all the coo­nys of what someuer coloure the armys ben made they mete togyder coonally in the myddys of the shelde / As in the nexte fygure of the shelde openly it shall be shewyd. ¶wherfore as it apperyth to my reason: trulyer they shall be blasyd on this wyse Excepte the gretter auctoryte / that the forsayd Erle of Narche beryth thus: Latine: ¶Portauit arma barrata et capud scuti palatum et angularum de asorio et auro cum quo­dam scuto simplici de argento: Et gallice sic: ¶Il porte barree et vne chief palee cunnecte dasur et dor & vne escu simple dar­gent: Et gallice sic: ¶He beeryth barry and a cheyff pale an­gulatyd of asure and golde wyth a symple shelde ofe syluer.

¶Of armys contrary coonyd here I woll enfourme you.

[Page]THere ben yet forsoth dyuers noble men the whyche be­te armis contrary conyd: as here in this scochon aperith

[blazon or coat of arms]

& thise armys be callid contrary conyd for this cause / for all ye colours of thyse armes mete togyd (er) at one cone.that is to saye at the myddyst poynt of ye shelde oonly. For euery body tryangulyd is more of lengthe than of brede / and namely conyd (vt pꝪ) Therfore thoppynyon of those men the whyche sayd that tharmys afore rehercid / that is to wyte of therlys armys of Marche were palyd barryd and contrary conyd: is to be reprouyd. For soo moche that the conys of the forsayd armys acorde not: the whiche of necessyte shold acorde yf the forsayd opinyon were true. And of him that beryth thyse armys ye shall say: Latine sic: ¶Portat arma contraconata de blodio et albo: Gallice sic: ¶Il port girone dasur et dargent: Anglice sic: ¶He beryth contrary conyd of asure & syluer.

¶Of pilyd armys now here it shall be shewyd.

FOr asmoche as it is spoken afore of armes: in the why­che the colours mete togyder in the myddist poynt on̄ ­ly Now folowyth of certen armys in whyche thre piles mete togyd in one cone / as here in this fygure.

[blazon or coat of arms]

&it shalbe sayd of hym whyche berith thyse armys Latine sic: ¶Portat tres pilas nigras in campo aureo: Gallice: ¶Il port dor tres pilliers de sable Anglice: ¶He beryth golde thre pilys of sable.

Of ballys in armys here now it shall be shewyd.

NEuertheles ye must consydre a dyfferencein thyse blasynges of thyse armys afo­re: and thyse that come after whanne ye blase theym in latyn tonge. For other whyle this terme (pila) in latin is take for to be a pece of tymbre to be putte vnder the pylar of a brydge or to suche a lyke werke as in thexample afore.

[blazon or coat of arms]

& other whyle this terme (pila) is take for a certen rounde instrument to play with. whiche instrument seruith otherwhile to the honde [Page] and thenne it is callyd in latyn (Pila manualis) as here. And other whyle it is an Instrument for the fote / and thenne it is callyd in latyn (pila pedalis) a fote balle. Therfore it shal be sayd of hym that beeryth thyse armys: Latine sic: ¶Portat tres pilas argenteas in campo rubio: Et gallice sic: ¶Il porte geulles trois pellettes dargent: Et anglice sic: ¶He bereth gowles thre balles of syluer. ¶Certenly ye must marke that in this figure of ballys a man maye soone erre. Wherfore shortly it is to be knowen that su­che ballys may haue all colours but the colour of golde. For & they ben of golden colours: they sholde be callyd talentis or besantis the whyche ben euer of golden colour.

¶Of tortellis or lytyll cakys.

THere ben also tortellis that ben lytyll cakysthe whyche ben gretter than ballys & the armys be truly made: as here it is open.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And he yt beryth thise armes beryth in this wyse: Latine: ¶Portat tres tortellas rubeas in campo aureo: Gallice sic: ¶Il porte dor et trois torteaulx de geulles: Anglice sic: ¶He beryth golde & thre cakes of gowles.

¶More ouer marke / that as well ballys in armys as cakys & besantis alway are hole rounde fygurys and not perforatyd.

¶Of fontayns or welles here I wyll speke.

NEuerthes there ben certen noble men whiche bere suche rounde fygurys / the whyche fygurys are callyd fontaynes or wellys: as here apperyth.

[blazon or coat of arms]

The whichefontaynes euermore ben of whyte colour for the thynge the whyche they represent. For they represent euermore the coloure of the water of a well the whyche is whyte. And of hym that be­ryth thise armys ye must saye: Latine sic: ¶Portat tres fontes in campo aureo: Gallice sic: ¶Il porte dor et trois fonteynnes: Anglice sic: ¶He beryth of gol­de and thre welles.

¶Of tynges whiche be other rounde instrument / I wyll speke

[Page]AFter thyse rounde fygures afore rehercedthere ben certain fygures the whyche ben perforatyd: as be rynges / as here appe­ryth.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And it shall be sayd of hym that beryth thyse armes: Latine sic: ¶Portat tres anulos au­reos in campo nigro: Gallice sic: ¶Il porte de sable et trois annelettes dor: Anglice sic: ¶He beryth sable and thre rynges of golde.

¶Of Tractys in armys /

AFore it is sayd of bordures in armys. now folowyth to se of tractys or linys / and fyrste of a symple tracte. and they ben callyd tractis for asmoche as the felde remaynynge of the armys as well wythin as wythoutand a nother lyne is drawen of a nother coloure as here to the manere of a shelde.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And it it shal be sayd of hym that beryth thyse armys: Latine sic: ¶Portat vnum tractum simplicem planum au­reum in campo asorio: Gallice sic ¶Il porte da­sur vne trace playne dor: Anglice sic: ¶He bee­ryth asure a playne tracte of golde..

¶Of a [...]ylyd on both the [...]yd [...] here is an ensample

A Tracte or a lyne other whyle is ingray­lydon bothe the partyes: as here in this fygure apperyth.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And thenne it shall be sayd of hym that beeryth thyse armes in this wyse: Latine sic: ¶Portat vnum tractum ex vtra­que parte ingradatum de auro in campo rubio: Gallice sic: ¶Il porte de geulles vne trasse in­graillee de chacun coste dor: Anglice sic: He beryth gowles wyth a tracte engrayllyd on both the sydes of golde.

¶Or a tracte dowblyd & florysshyd it shall be shewed.

THis tracte is other while doublyd: as in tharmys of the kinge of Scotlonde / as here in this scochon apperyth. & [Page] the forsayd kynge of Scotlonde beeryth in this wise fyrste thus: Latine: ¶Portat duplicem tractatum cum floribus gladioli contrapositis et vno leone rapacide rubeo in campo aureo: Et gallice sic: ¶Il porte dor vne double transse floretee contraree et vne lyon ramppant de geulles: Anglice sic: ¶He beryth golde a dowble trace florysshyd contrary and a lyon rampinge of gowles.

¶Of tractys triplatyd and quatriplatyd otherwhyle.

ALso of thyse armys afore rehercyd I fynde more dyuersyte / for there ben certayn noble men whyche bere thyse tractys triplatyd: as here in this fygure.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And some bere it quatriplatyd: as is foūde in dyuers armys. And ye shall saye of him that beryth thyse armes triplatyd thꝰ: Latine: ¶Portat tractum triplicatū de albo in cāpo aureo: Gallice sic: ¶Il port dor vne trasse triplee dargent: Anglice ¶He bereth golde a trace triplatyd of syluer.

¶O a tracte symple of two colours & inueckyd an ensample.

THere ben other noble men whyche bere a symple tracte of .ij. colours inueckyd: as here it shalbeshewed in this scochon. & the possessor of thyse armes beryth in this wyse as folowyth: Latine: ¶Portat vnū tractū simplicē de coloribꝰ asorio argenteo inuectis in scuto aureo: Gallice sic: ¶Il porte dor vne crasse simple varree dasur et dargent: Anglice sic: ¶He beryth golde & a tracte symple inueckyd of asure and syluer.

¶After tractys now it shall be spoken of fyssures or stauys

AFore thyse fyssures it is spoken of bendis and theyr dyfference. Now it shall be spoken of fyssurys. the whyche certen fyssurys or stauys begyn in the lefte horne of the [Page] shelde: and are drawe to the ryght parte of the shelde beneth to the dyfference of bendes the whiche begyn in the ryght horn̄ of the shelde and are drawe to the lefte syde of the shelde beneth. And this waye must the fyssure be drawe. as here apperith in this fygure.

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¶And ye shall vnderstonde that thyse fissures dyffere asmany wayes as the forsayd bendes dyffere / But it nedyth not to be rehercyd: for it is playne shewed afore. ¶There be fyssurys or stauys playne ingradid inueckyd & fusyllatyd: as I sayd afore in the place of bendys / And thyse staues bastardes are wont to beere: or namely they sholde beere theym. And thenne this fyssure is callyd a staffe / and in frensshe it is callyd a baston / But comynly it is callyd a fyssure for asmoche as he cleuyth his fad (er)s armes in two partes / for that bastarde, is clouen & dyuyded from the patrimony of his fader. And suche a bastarde is forboden to bere the hole armis of his fader for the reuerence of his blode. but his faders armys he maye beere wyth suche a staffe as is sayd afore: in sygne & fynall declaracōn of his bastardy and to ye dyfference of propre & naturall heyre of his fader. ¶And whan ye haue ony suche a playne fyssure or a staffe in armys or ingraylyd inueckyd or fusyllatyd: of that same staffe ye shall saye as afore is rehercyd in the chapitre of bendys more playnly. And ye bastarde whyche beeryth thyse armys possessyth on this manere as now here folowith: Latine: ¶Portat vnam fissuram siue baculum aureum in campo asoreo: Gallice sic: Il port dasur et vne fees dor: Anglice sic: ¶He beeryth asure and a fissure or a staffe of golde.

¶Now here I begyn to speke of armys heeded as it aperyth.

THere ben certen noble men whyche beere armys heeded as here it apereth.

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And ye must knowe that thise armys ben called heeded: whan the hyer parte of the shelde / that is to saye the heed is made of one colour or of moo than one. & that parte extendyth not to the myddes of the shelde: as aboue it shewyth by the shelde. ¶And know ye that in the heedyd ar­mys is a good manere of beeryng of dyuers armys: as by for­tune [Page] some noble man hath many londis and gretelordshyp̄s by his moder: for the whiche londis he intendyth to beere tharmys of his moder. and so he may do / for it is ryghtwys. But he that dyscendyth of a noble fader / or of a gentylman. by ye whyche he had ony symple patrymony / Thenne suche a noble man and he wyll: may beere the ho­le armys of his moder in the lower parte of his shelde / and in suche an heed as I sayd afore he maye and he wyll beere ye hole armys of his fader. And it shall be sayd of hym that beryth thyse armys in this wyse: Latine sic: ¶Portat vnum signum capi­tale de nigro in cāpo aureo cū vno capite rubio et tribꝰ talentis in eodē: Gallice: ¶Il port dor vne cheueron de sable et vne cheyffe de geulles et trois besantꝭ en la mesmes: Anglice: ¶He beryth golde a cheueron of sable wyth a cheyf of gowles and thre besantys therin.

¶And there ben certayne noble persones the whyche bere in the shelde afore rehercyd of golde as is sayde afore a cheueron of sable or of some other coloure and thre redde rosys or whyte or some other sygnys: as crossis: cressantis: byrdys: or flourys / and a cheyff. some of sable / some of other colour wyth the sygne of molettys or other tokenynge: the whyche nedyth not to be rehercyd. ¶And thenne shall euery one of theym be blasyd in his nombre lyke as the felde and the sygnes requyre: as by fortune some men bere thus to saye. ¶He beeryth sable a cheue­ron of golde thre redde rosys of gowles a cheyff of asure wyth thre molettys perforatyd of vert. And thus of all other dyffe­rences.

¶Of Armys palyd wyth one quarter of a nother colour.

CErtaynly there ben some noble men thewhyche bere in theyr armes one quarter of a nother colour differyng from the colour or the colours of the shelde: as here.

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In the whyche armes it is to be sayd that the noble man the whyche beryth theym: beeryth in this wyse: Latine: ¶Portat arma palata de asorso et auro cū vna quarteria eremetica: Gallice: ¶Il port pale dasur & dor [Page] vne quarter dermynne: Anglice: ¶He berith paly asur & golde wyth one quarter of ermyn̄. ¶And it is to be notyd that ye must haue a respecte to ye colo­ur of the pale whiche shold ascende to the right horne of ye shelde yf ye quarter̄ were not there. And in ye colour ye must euermore begyn̄ to blase those armys lyke as the quarter were not there: as afore is rehercyd.

¶Now o [...] armys checkeryd here ye shall haue an example.

MOre ouer other whyle we se armys checkeryd: as here now it aperyth in this fygure folowinge.

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And they ben callyd armys checkeryd whan they are made of two colours to the manere of a checker. & thyse armysreceyue many dyfferences: as in heedis or quarters in barrys & bendis: and other whyle in cheuerons / of whom it shall be spoken anone folowyng. And of hym whiche possessyth thyse armys ye shal saye: Latine sic: ¶Portat arma scakkata de asorio et auro: Gallice: ¶Il porte etches da­sur et dor: Anglice: ¶He beryth checker of asure and golde.

¶Of cheuerons the whiche in englysshe are callyd couples of sparrys.

WE haue sothly in armys certen sygnys whyche are callyd cheuerons in frensshe. And they ben callyd in latin (signa capitalia: vl̄ tigna) & in englysshe a couple of sparrys / as here is shewyd in thyse signes: whyche signesby lyknesse fyrste were born̄ of Carpentari­es & makers of houses.

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For an hous is neuer made perfyt tyll those sparrys ben put vpon it: by ye manere of an heed. & two suche sparres or cheue­rons Ioynyd togyd (er) make a capytall sygne / yt is to saye: a couple of sparrys. And other while two suche ben born̄ in armys. & other whyle thre: other whyle foure as it is knowen. And of hym yt beryth thise armys afore: ye shal saye thus as folowyth: Latine: ¶Portat de rubio et duo signa capitalia de auro cuz tribꝰ talentis: Gallice: ¶Il port de geul­les et deux cheueryons dor et trois talentꝭ: Anglice: ¶He be­ryth gowles & two cheuerons of golde wyth thre besantys.

Of a cheueron or a sygne capytall engraylyd here is shewyd.

ALso a cheueron is other while engraylyd as here /

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And then̄e it is to be sayd of him whyche beryth thyse armys: Latine sic: ¶Portat vnum signū capitale ingradatū de al­bo in campo asoreo: Et gallice sic: ¶Il port de asur vne cheueron dargent ingraylee: Anglice: ¶He berith asur & a cheueron of syluer engraylyd.

¶Of dyuers & meruelous cheuerons yet I wyll speke.

More ouer yet in thise signys of cheuerons other whyle is founde a dowte in the blasyng of theim / whan they ben made of dyuers colours transmutid: as here in this scochon apperyth.

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And of hym whyche beryth thyse ar­mys ye shal say: Latine sic: ¶Portat arma quarteriata de nigro et argento cu vno signo capitali de dictis coloribus transmutatis: Gallice sic: Il port quarterle de fable et dargent et vne cheueron chaungee lung de lautre: Anglice sic: ¶He beeryth quarterly sable & syluer wyth a che­ueron of the sayd colours transmutyd.

¶Of cheuerons dyfferynge on the longe waye.

ALso thyse sygnys or cheuerons be dyfferryd after the longe waye in armys: as here in this fygure apperith.

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And thenne of hym whyche beryth thyse armys ye shall saye: Latine: ¶Portat arma ꝑtita scdm longū de coloribus aureo et rubeo cū vno signo capitali de dictis coloribꝰ transmutatꝭ: Gallice sic: ¶Il porte partie du longe dor et geulles vne cheueron chaungee lung de laultre: Anglice: ¶He beryth party after the longe waye of .ij. colours golde and gowles wyth a cheueron of the sayd colours transmutyd.

¶Of dowtis among Herroddis in blasing thise armys suenge

ENonge other doubtes: aboute the blasynge of tharmys here folowynge now nexte I haue herde Herrodys pretendyng themself very cunnynge in blasynge of armys merueyllously to dreme in the blasynge of thyse sayde armys. and some holde one opynyon and some a nother.

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Neuertheles it is noo grete nede to doubte in the blasynge oftheym as to cunnynge men. Therfore of hym yt beryth thyse armys ye shall saye: Latine: ¶Portat duas ꝑtes capitis scuti de rubio et terciā par­te de albo ad modū signi capital et tres rosas de colori (bus) transmutatis: Gallice: Il porte lez deux ꝑties du cheif de geulles et le troiseme de argent ꝑtiez en manere dun cheueron et troys roses lung de latre: An­glice: ¶He beeryth two partes of the heed of the shelde goules & the thyrde parte syluer by the manere of a cheueron and thre rosys or the same colours transmutyd.

¶Of armys tu [...]yllyd: in englysshe / spyndyls now I woll speke

CErten gentylmen there ben & nobles whiche bere in theyr armys fusellys / Of the nombre of whom the duke of Gloucetre that noble prynce vncle to kyng Henry the syxte was. For he had in his armys thre fusyllys of gowles by ye manere of a barre in a felde of syluer. The whyche certen armys this noble duke bare by the reason of certen londis belongyng to the mount.

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But ye shall saye of hym yt beryth thise armys in this scochon: Latine sic: ¶Portat de rubio et tres fusules de argento: Gallice sic: ¶Il port de geulles et trois fusules dargent: Anglice: ¶He beryth gowles & thre fusules of syluer. And otherwhyle thyse thre fu­sules or foure ben born̄ by the manere of a pale. ¶It is to be notyd that whan thre fusules or foure are born̄ or mo to the nombre of .ix. whiche nombre yf they excede: say euer more yt those armys ben poudryd with fusules or other thyngꝭ & none otherwyse. And so generally ye must knowe yt yf ony thing be born̄ in armes ouer the nombre of .ix. then̄ those armis what someuer they ben they are powdryd.

Of one fusyll born̄ in armes here I wyll exemple.

[Page]OTher whyle one fusyll is born̄ all one inarmys: as here in this fygure it aperyth /

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in whiche matere I haue herd certen Herrodys doubte in their opynyons. Neuertheles it is certen yt ye shall say of hym the whiche beryth thyse armys wythout doubte: Latine sic: ¶Portat de rubio cū vno fusulo de auro: Gallice: ¶Il porte de geulles vne fusill dor: Anglice: ¶He bereth gowles & a fusyll of golde.

¶Of a fusyll of dyuers colours now here I wyll speke.

ALso thise fusyllis somtyme are born̄ of dyuers colours: as here in this fygure it is shewed.

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But it is a more dowte how thi­se armys sholde be blasyd than the armys afore. But ye shall saye of hym whyche berech thyse armys: Latine sic: ¶Portat arma ꝑtita extransuer so de albo et nigro cū vno fusulo ex eisdem coloribus transmutatis: Gallice sic: ¶Il porte partie de trauers dargent & sable et vne fusyll de mesmes colours lung de latre: Anglice sic: ¶He beryth armys partyd ouerwhart of syluer & sa­ble wyth a fusyll of the same colours transmutyd.

¶Of fusyllis by the manere of a bende here I woll somwhat saye

More ouer suche fusyllis are born̄ in armes by ye manere of a bende: as here now aperyth.

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And then̄e ye shall saye of him whiche possessyth thyse armys: Latine sic: ¶Portat vnam bendam fusillatam de auro in campo ru­bio: Gallice sic: ¶Il port de geulles vne bende fusill dor: Anglice sic: ¶He beeryth gowles & a bende fusyllyd of golde.

¶Of a barre fusyllyd in armys here is an example.

ALso there ben borne in armys thyse fusyllys in a barre fusyllyd: as here it aperyth.

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And then̄ it is to be sayd of hym whyche hath thise armys: Latine sic: Portat ar [Page] de rubio en̄ vna barra fusillata de argēto: Gallice sic: ¶Il porte de geulles vne barre fusulee dargent: Et anglice sic: ¶He beeryth gowles and a barre fusyllyd of syluer. And som̄ men say that the forsayde armys beganne of Vueuers: for as moche as Vueuers vsen suche fusyllys made of sponnen wulle.

¶Knowe ye the difference betwyx fusyllis: masculis: & losyngꝭ

NOw here ye shall knowe the dyfference betwyx fusyllis masculys & losyngis. Vuherfore it is to be knowen that fusyllis are euer more longe. Also fusyllis are streytter ouerwharte in the bely than are masculys. And masculys are larger ouerwhart in the bely: and shorter in length than ben fusyllis: as here in this scochon it apperyth.

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And it shall be sayd of hym that possesseth thyse armes in this wyse: Latine: ¶Portat de rubio et sex masculas de auro: Et gallice sic: ¶Il porte de geulles et .vj. mascules dor: Et anglice sic: ¶He beryth gowles & .vj. masculys of golde. ¶And thyse masculys other whyle are perforatyd as I sayd afore in the chapytre of the crosse masculatyd.

¶Of a nother manere of masculys yet here I wyll speke.

ALso other whyle are borne armys masculatyd: as here in this fygure folowynge is shewed.

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And ye shall vnderstonde that those armys be callyd masculatid in whiche the forsayd mascules begyn̄ moost plenteuouslyin the ryght angle of the shelde / and are endid towarde the lefte parte. whyche certen armys in very dede are palyd / & are diuyded in to thre pales yf they ben subtylly conceyued. And of hym yt berith thise armys it shalbe sayd: Latine sic: ¶Portat arma masculata de argento et asorio: Gallice sic: ¶Il porte dargent et dasur masculee: Anglice sic: ¶He beryth of syluer and asure masculatyd.

¶Of losynges how & what manere of wyse they ben made.

ALso losyngꝭ no manere of wyse ben made but in armys bendyd. Nor they may not be made by themself. & they ben made alway as thyse ben made bendid. And ye shal haue the mood very dyfference betwyx the forsayd maculatyd armys & bended in the pictures of the forsayd armys. And ye must take this for a generall enformacōn & instruccōn: that certenly lo­syngꝭ euermore stonde vpright: yt is to saye / yt the highest poynt or the heyght euer ascendeth to heuen or to a mannys heed. so ye the hyghest poynt extendyth vtterly to the heed of the shelde. & of the ouerwharte corners one extendyth vtterly to the right syde. and ye other corner extendyth to the lefte syde of the shelde. And ye lowest parte extendyth to ye lowest parte of the shelde dyametraliter: as it is open in ye shelde nexte afore.

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And so without dowte we haue the dyfference of the forsayd signys: yt is to wyte / of masculys & lo­syngis. Nota ¶Also the forsayd fusyllis neuer ben foūde per­foratyd nor losynges aforsayd ben neuer perforatyd.

¶Now of a sight in armes yt is callyd a Saltori: a manere of a crosse

THere is a nother manere of sygne in armys by dyuerse noble men borne: whyche is callyd a Saltori. And it is made by the manere of a crosse of saynt Andrew: as he­re now it apperyth.

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And this crosse is lyknyd after certen men to an instrument made in dyuers parkes: whyche is of a grete magnitude or largnes to the comparyson of this sygne. And it is well knowe of noble gentylmen & hunters: yt suche saltatoryes are ordenyd in many parkys & places to take wilde bestꝭ: whiche onys there entrynge: by ye instrument maye neuer goo agayn. wherfore in olde tyme thyse signys were geue to ryche men / & other wyse callyd (Auari) nygon̄s or kepers. whyche suffre not theyr tresours in what manere of wyse they ben gote to passe fro theym. And of hym whyche possessyth thyse armys ye shall saye: Latine sic [Page] ¶Portat de asorio et vnū saltatoriū de auro: Gallice: ¶Il porte dasur vng saultiere dor: Et anglice sic: ¶He bereth asure & a saltory or a sawtry of golde.

¶Of armys sawtrie engradyd here I woll exemple.

HOw here ye must knowe that thise armes sawtre ben other while engradyd: as here in this fygure now apperyth.

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And thenne they ben callyd sawtre engradid: as it is sayd afore in many places. As of the crosse engradyd of barrys and bendis. And of hym that beryth thy­se armys ye shall saye: Latine: ¶Portat vnū saltatorium ingradatum de auro in campo asorio: Et gallice sic: ¶Il porte de asure vne saultier dor engraylee: Et anglice sic: ¶He beryth asure and a crosse sawtre of golde engradyd.

¶Of many crosses sawtre born̄ in armys engradyd an exam­ple

OTherwhyle there ben borne many crossys sawtre in ar­mys engradyd in one shelde / other while two: other whi­le thre: as here.

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And of hym that beryth thyse ar­mysthus it shall be sayd: Latine: ¶Portat vnā barram planam & tria saltatoria ingradata de auro in campo rubeo: Et gallice sic: Il porte de ge­ulles vne barre playne et trois saultiers engrei­les dor: Et anglice sic: ¶He beryth gowles one barre playne and thre sawtre crossys engradyd of golde.

¶Of crownys in armys born̄ by the manere of a pale.

IT is dylygently to be marked: that whan we saye suche a lorde berith thre suche signys / How thise thre sygnes are born̄ in armys we saye not alwaye. For other whyle thyse iij. sygnes are put in a shelde in manere of a pale / & then̄ they ben callyd sygnes palyd: as here in this fygure it apperyth.

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And of hym that hath thyse armes ye shall saye: Latine: ¶Portat tres coronas de anro [Page] palatas in campo asorio: Et gallice sic: ¶Il porte dasur et troys corones dor palees: Anglice sic: ¶He beryth asure and thre crownys of golde palyd.

¶Of crownys in armys born̄ barrid here I wyll enforme you

HOw thyse thre sygnes other whyle ben borne barryd here now apperyth in this fygure.

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And then̄ of hym that bereth thyse armys ye shall saye: Latine: ¶Portat tres coronas aureas in campo asorio: Gallice sic: ¶Il porte dasur et trois corones barrez dor: Anglice: ¶He beryth asure & thre crownes of golde.

¶Of thre crownes born̄ in the corners of the shelde.

CErtenly thyse thre crownys ben born̄ in the moost co­myn waye in the corners of the shelde: as here in thys scochon it aperyth.

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And thenne ye must thus saye: that thyse thre sygnes ben borne in the corners of theshelde. For that is the moost comyn & the moost famoust manere of berynge of thyse thre sygnes or ony manere sygnes. Therfore ye shal say that suche a lorde beryth this wyse as here folowyth: Latine: ¶Portat de asoreo et tres coronas aure as. non expremendo loca: Et gallice sic: ¶Il porte dasur et troys corones dor: Et anglice sic: ¶He beereth asure and thre crownes of golde.

¶Of fysshes born̄ in armys in dyuers wyse here is a doctryne

A Newe doubte yet is founde in armes / foras moche as there was a certen man that hyght (Petrus de rupibus) in tyme pas­syd: the bysshop of wynchestre: whyche bare in his armys thre roches after his owne name. In whiche armys it is doubted: whether it is ynouh to say in ye blasyng of theym / yt he bare .iij. fysshes alone: as here in this scochon.

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& certenly I thinke nay / for ye ru­le gooyng [Page] afore. But it is thus to be sayd of ye sayd Petre: Latine ¶Portauit tres huiusmodi pisces argēteos natantes in campo nigro Gallice sic ¶Il porte de sable et trois roches noyant dargent. Anglice sic. ¶He beryth sable & thre roches swymmynge of syluer.

¶And thenne to the armys of Galfride Lucy: as here now it apperyth in this fygure.

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And ye must saye that he bare thus: Latine ¶Portauit tres lucios aureos in campo rubeo: Et gallice sic: ¶Il port de geulles et trois lucez dor: Anglice sic: ¶He bee­ryth gowles & thre luces of golde. The whyche certen blasyng wtout declaracōn here is ynough For ye forsayd fysshes are in theyr propre places as I sayd in the rule afore.

¶But what shall be sayd of this man then̄: the whiche beryth two barbellis tornyng thier backꝭ to gyder: as here apperyth.

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Ye must saye Latine sic ▪ ¶Portat duos barbillos aureos adinuicem terga vertentes in scuto asoreo puluerisato cū crucibus cruciatis figitiuis de auro: Et gallice sic ¶Il porte dasur poudre dez croys crocelez fichez et duex barbeaulx dos an dos dor: Et anglice sic ¶He beryth asure powdryd wyth crosses croslettis pytche and two barbel­les of golde backe to backe.

¶Of armys the whyche are called frectis here now I woll speke

A Certen noble baron: that is to saye / the lorde Awdeleye of the realme of Englonde bare in his armys a Frecte / whiche certen frecte in many armes of dyuers gentylmen is founde other whyle redde o­ther whyle golde / and other whyle blacke other whyle symple & other whyle dowble other whyle tryple. & other whyle it is multiplyed ouer all the shelde: as here it appereth.

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And ye muste vn­d (er)stonde one grete dyfference betwyx armys bendyd and thyse armys whyche ben made wyth the forsayd frec­tys. wherfore it is to be markyd: that in the bendyd armys the coloures beynge conteynyd equally are dyuydyd. But in [Page] thise frectes the felde alway abideth hole: as here. & this forsayd lorde Andeley beryth: Latine sic: ¶Portat arma frectata de auro in cāpo rubeo: Gallice: ¶Il port de geulles vne frecte dor: Anglice ¶He beryth gowles & a frecte of golde.

¶Of armes hauynge beestis salientynge or tampynge.

BEstys in armys of dyuers nobles are born̄ rampynge: as here in this fygure folowynge appereth /

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of whiche in the boke afore I haue noo mencion. And of him yt is possessor of thyse armys ye shall saye: Latine sic:Portat de rubio et vnū leonū de argento: Gallice: ¶Il port de geulles vngleon saliantz de ar­gent: Anglice: ¶He berith goules & a lyon rampyng of syluer. And he is callyd a lion rampyng for this cause / for asmoche as the ryght fote ascē dith to the ryght horne of the shelde / and the lef­te fote descendyth in to the fote of the shelde as apperyth in the fygure. And this same manere is obseruyd in all bestis hauyng foure fete / that is to saye: in lyons: leoperdys beers: doggys wt other lyke to theym.

¶Of armys barryd & of labellys born̄ in armys.

FYrste note well tharmes of the fad (er) as here /

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& thenne the dyfferences as it shall be shewyd. For certen there ben dyuers no­ble men whiche bere labellys in theyr armys as it shall be shewyd in fygure after. For whyche it is to be knowe yt suche labellis are not properly called signes in armes but differences of signes: that whan it is so yt ony noble man hath many leyffull getyn sones / then̄ the fyrste sone whyche is his fad (er)s hey­re: shall bere the hole armys of his fad (er) wyth som̄ lytyl dyfference: as here / to whom specyally is ye uen a mone encreasynge. For ye fyrste sone is in hope of augmentacōn & encreasynge of his pa­trymony. And this dyfference maye be some ly­tyll molet or a crosse croslet or suche a lyke dyfference. [Page] ¶The seconde brod (er) shall bere the hole armes of his fader wyth .iij. labellis to the dyfference & in to the sygne yt he is the thyrde yt bereth those armis.

[blazon or coat of arms]

¶Also the thirde brod (er) yf there be ony shal bere .iiij. labellys in token yt he is the fourth that beryth those armis of whom the fader is the firste. the heyre is the seconde. & the seconde brod (er) is the thyrde yt berith those armes. And so folowith yt the thyrde brod (er) shall bere foure labellis: as it aperyth in this fygure /

[blazon or coat of arms]

And so forth yf there ben mo bredern ye shall encreace your labellys after the fourme afore rehercyd. ¶And the sones of those same bred (er)n shal bere the same labellis. And in case that the seconde brod (er) whyche beryth thre labellys haue two sonys / certenly the elder soneof those two whiche is heyre to his fader shall bere the hole armys of his fader: with also many labellys as his fad (er) dyde / wyth a lytyll dyfference: as here it apperith in this scochon.

[blazon or coat of arms]

And his seconde brod (er) shall bere the hole armys of his fad (er) with the same labellis as his fader bare & no mo with a bordure: as here in this fygure nexte folowingit shall be shewed /

[blazon or coat of arms]

and as it is reherced in the chapytre of bordurys.

¶And yf there be the thirde broder then̄ he shal bere his fad (er)s armys wyth the same labellys & a bordure of a nother colour to ye difference of his broder: as it shall be shewyd in this scochon next ensewynge.

[blazon or coat of arms]

¶And the thyrde chyldren of those men shall bere their dyfference not in their faders armes / but in bordurys and dyuysyons dyuerse.

¶And lyke as the chyldren of the seconde brod (er) berynge thre labellys are diuydyd & dyfferyd bi their signes & bordur / So ye child (er)n of ye thirde broder berynge foure labellis: bere ye same armys yt theyr fad (er) dyde & also many labellis. And they are differid bi their signes & bordures: as afore is rehercid & dyuers other / As other whyle a lyon rampyng one parte redde a nother blacke.

[Page]NOw certaynly of all the sygnys whyche are founden in armys: as of flourys leeuys and other merueylous to­kens / I can not declare here there ben so many. But ye shal knowe generally that for al tharmys whyche lyghtly ony man hath seen in his dayes: ye haue rules suffycyent as I byleue to discerne & blase ony of theym / and it be so that ye be not in youre mynde to hasty or to swyfte in the dyscernynge Nor ye maye not ouerrenne swyftly the forsayd rules / but dylygently haue them in your mynde. and be not to full of conceytes. For he yt woll hunte .ij. harys in one hour: or one whyle one / a nother whyle a nother Lyghtly he lesyth bothe. Therfore take hede to the rules. yf so be that thei ben not a generall doctrine: yet shall they prouffyte for this scyence gretly.

¶Marke ye well thyse questyons here now folowynge.

BVt now is a questyon I wyll procede / and that is thys. whether the armys of the grauntynge of a prynce or of other lordys are better or of suche dygnytee: as armys of a mannys propre auctoryte taken. whan that it is leyffull to euery noble man to take to hym armes at his pleysure: For the whyche question it is to be knowen that foure manere wyse we haue armys.

¶The fyrst maner̄ of wyse we haue our owne armys whyche we bere of our fader or of our mod (er) or of our predecessours. the whyche manere of berynge is comyn and famous in whyche I wyll not stonde longe. for that manere is beste prouyd.

¶The seconde manere we haue armys by our merytis as ve­ry playnly it apperyth by thaddycōn of the armys of Fraunce to tharmys of Englonde getin by that moost noble man: prynce Edwarde the fyrste goten sone of kynge Edwarde the thyr­de that tyme kynge of Englonde after the takynge of kynge Iohn̄ of Fraunce in the batayll of Peyters. The whiche certen addycyon was leyffull and ryghtwysly done. And on the same manere of wyse myght a poore Archer haue taken a prynce or some noble lorde. and soo the armys of that prysoner by hym­self so take ryghtwysly he maye put to hym & to his heyres.

¶On the thyrde manere of wyse we haue armys whyche we [Page] beere by the grauntynge of a prynce or of some other lordys

¶And ye must knowe that those armys whyche we haue of ye grauntynge of a prynce or of a lorde receyue no questyon why that he beeryth those same. For why the prynce wyll not that suche a questyon be asked: why he gaue to ony man suche an armes / as it is playne in the lawe of nature & Ciuile. For that sa­me that plesyth theyr prynce hath the strengthe of lawe: but yf ony man bare those armys afore. For that thynge whyche is myn wyth a ryghtwys tytle wythout deseruynge maye not be take fro me / nor the prynce maye not do it ryghtwysly.

¶The fourth manere wyse we haue those armys the whyche we take on our one propre auctoryte: as in thyse dayes openly we se / how many poore men by their grace fauour labour or deseruynge are made nobles Some by theyr prudence: some by their manhede: some by theyr strength: some by their cunnyng some by other vertues. And of thyse men many by theyr owne auctoryte haue take armys to be borne to theim & to theyr heyres / of whom it nedyth not here to reherce the namys. Neuer­theles armys that ben so taken they maye leyffully and freely beere But yet they ben not of so grete dygnyte & auctoryte as those armys the whyche are grauntyd daye by daye by the auctorite of a prynce or of a lorde. Yet armys by a mannes propre auctoryte take: yf a nother man haue not borne theym afore: be of strength ynough

¶And it is thopinyon of many men that an Herrode of armys maye gyue armys: But I saye yf ony suche armys be borne by ony Herrode geuen / that those armes ben of no more auctorite than those armys whyche ben take by a mannys owne aucto­ryte.

¶Here in this boke afore ben shewed the treatyses pertey­nynge to hawkynge & huntynge with other dyuers playsaunt materes belongynge vnto noblesse: and also a ryght noble treatise of Cotarmours / as in this present boke it may appere. And here we ende this laste treatyse whyche specyfyeth of blasynge of armys Enprynted at westmestre by wynkyn the worde the yere of thyncarnacōn of our lorde. M.CCCC.lxxxxvi.

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Dieu et mon droit

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[printer's device of Wynkyn de Worde]

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