¶ A profitable and necessarye doc­trine, with certayne home­lyes adioyned thervnto set forth by the reuerend father in God, Edmunde Byshop of London, for the instruc­tion and enformation of the people being within his di­ocesse of London, & of hys cure and charge.

Declina a malo, & fac bonum. Presis, vt profis.

The Preface of the Bishop of London to the reader.

WHere as in the time of the late outragi­ous and pestiferous [...], being here in thys Churche, and realme of England al godlines, & good nes, was dispised, & in maner banished, and the catholyque trade, & doctrine of the church (wyth a newe enuyouse and odyous terme) called, & named papystry, like also as deuout religion, and honest be hauiour of men, was accounted and taken for super stition, and hipocrisye. And therevpon (by sundrye wayes and wiles pernicious, and euyll doctryne, was sowen, planted and set forth, sometimes by the procedyng preachers sermons, sometymes by theyr prynted treatyse, sugred all ouer with lose lybertye, a thing in dede most delectable and pleasaunt vnto the fleshe and vnto al vnruly persones, somtimes by readyng playing, singynge, and other lyke meanes and new deuises, by reason wherof, great insolency disordre, contention, and much inconuenience daily more and more: did ensue to the greate dyshonor of God, the lamentable hurte, and destructyon, of the [Page] subiectes, and the notable reproch, rebuke, and slaunder of the hole realme. The people wherof, by sondri wycked persones, were borne in hand that they had gotten God by the fote, and that they were brought out of tirāny darckenes, and ignoraunce into liberti lyght, and perfytte knowledge, where in very dede, they were broughte from the good to the bad. And frō goddes blessyng (as ye prouerbe is) in to a warme sonne: infected with all errour, & noughtynes, drou­ned in sensualytie and malyce, and armed wyth vn­shamfast boldnes, presumption, and arrogantye, ta­kyng vpon them to be guydes, instructours, and tea chers of other, where they themselues were in very dede vtterly blind, ignoraunt, & void of knowledge, only bent to destroye al good rule, and order. I haue for these causes, and other honeste consyderatyons, thought (consyderyng the cure and charge I ha [...]e of all suche as are of my Dyocesse of London) it to be mete, conuenyent, and necessary for my part, earnestly to trauayle and laboure, wyth my chapleines and frendes, bothe that errours, heresyes, and noughtye opinions may cleane be weeded, pourged, and expelled out of my dyocese (a greate helpe whervnto is geuen by dyuerse prouysions made by the Kynges and Queenes mooste excellence Maiestyes, and especy­allye by that godlye proclamatyon, whyche of late was sente forthe by theyr graces, concernynge the bryngynge in of certayne heretycall and noughtye bokes) and also that a verye pure syncere, and true doctryne of the fayth, and relygion of Chryst, in al necessarye poyntes of the same, faythfullye, playnelye, [Page] and profytable, be set furth wythin my sayd dyocesse, to the good erudition, and instructyon of all the peo­ple wythin the same. And therefore haue at thys pre­sent, for mine owne diocesse, caused this present boke with homelies there vnto adioyned, to be set furthe: that the sayde people (accordyng to the wyl and commaundement of the great king and prophet Dauid) may declyne from euyl, and do that thyng whych is good. And the order of thys booke is thys. Fyrste be­cause wythoute fayth it is impossyble to please God, there shalbe, in the begynning, some thyng spoken of fayth, to knowe what it is, and how it is to be taken here in thys boke. Secondly because the somme and pithe of our chrysten fayth is brefely collected, and cō prysed in effect, in our commen Crede, therefore the sayde Crede, to teach vs what, and howe to beleue, shalbe playnely and truly set forth, and also declared. Thyrdely, because there are. vii. Sacramentes of Chrystes catholyque churche, wherein God doeth ordynarily worke and participate vnto vs hys speciall gyftes, and graces, here in thys lyfe, therefore in the thyrde place, the sayd. vii. Sacramentes shalbe set forthe, and expounded. Fourthlye, because the. x. commaundementes are the hygh way, ordeyned by God, in whyche euery one in this life must walke, yf he wyll come vnto the blysse of heauen: therfore the sayd .x. commaundementes, shal orderly be set furth, and haue also their declaratyon. Fyftely, because we ourselues, as of our selues are vnhable to doo good, and therefore nede alwayes the assistance, grace, aid and helpe of almyghty God, without whych we ne [Page] [...] can continue in this life, nether yet do any thing acceptable in the syght of God, whereby to attayne the lyfe to come: therefore in the [...] place ther is a rowine for prayer, as wherby to obtayne grace and helpe at Gods handes. And that prayer is there set forth, whiche Chryste hym selfe, beynge here in this worlde, did make and geue to his disciples, that is to saye: the Pater noster, whiche conteyneth in it al thinges necessary for a christen man here in this life: and thys Pater noster hath also his exposition.

Sixtelye, because the Aue Maria is a prayer taken out of Scripture, and conteineth in it a blessed mat ter, and a ioyfull rehersall and magnifienge of God, in the worke of Christes incarnation, wroughte in the wombe of the blessed virgin Mary, and she ther­by worthelye to be honoured and worshipped, ther­fore the sayd Aue Maria, with the declaration ther of, is in ordre folowyng the sayd Pater noster.

Seuenthly, because personnes, vicars, and curates, are commaunded by the lawe, to reade and declare vnto theyr paryshyoners the. vij. deadely synnes, the viij. beatytudes, and certayne other thinges, there­fore in the. vij. and, viij. places, there are set forth at length the sayd thynges, with exposition and decla­ration of the same. And albeit these thynges so sette forth, beyng red and declared [...] the people, dely­berately, and playnely, may seme sufficient, and the people thereby bound of reason, to be content there­withall, as hauing all those thynges, whych in [...] wise are requisite and necessary for theyr soule helth. yet to thintent they shall haue no cause to murmure [Page] or grudge, for lacke of certayne bokes in the englishe tongue for theyr instruction, or yet for lacke of prea­chynge vnto them, they shall in the. ix. place of thys boke, thoughe they cannot rede, haue certayne ho­melyes, to be on the Sondayes aud holye dayes, by theyr personnes, vicars, or curates, redde vnto them in the Englyshe [...], trustynge that the people thus ordered and taught, wyll take thys my doyng in good parte, and studye as well to profyt them sel­ues therby, as I and my chapleynes haue ben studi­ous and carefull herein to doo them good. And the Kyng of Kynges, and Lord of Lordes, geue vs also plentyfully of his grace, that euerye one of vs, in all partes, maye do oure dueties, and that we all maye lyue in rest and quietnes, and specially in the vnytye of Christes catholique churche, and his religion, lo­uynge and seruyng God, with all our harte in holy­nes and ryghteousnes, all the dayes of this our lyfe, so yt finally we may attayn to the life that neuer shal fayle, but continue for euer, which graunt vnto vs the father, the sonne, and the holye gooste, preseruing our good kyng and queene in all ioye and felicitie, longe to continue, to theyr glory and oure comfortes.


¶ Concernynge fayth, what it is, and howe it is to be considered, and taken, here in this boke.

ACCOMPLISHINGE the promys made in my preface, for as much as fayth is the fundation & ground of all oure Christian religion. I shal now intreate, and speake thereof. And knowe you, that althoughe this worde fayth, be diuersly taken, both in prophane Aucthors, and also in Scrypture, some­tymes signifying trust, sometymes truth, sometimes conscience sometymes [...], sometimes credu­litie, sometymes credence, sometimes promys, some­tymes profe, sometymes helpe, sometymes the gyfte or grace of God, and such lyke: yet here in this boke or processe, there shall not be cheifely and principallye intreated, or spoken of euery kynd of fayth, as in eue ry way it maye be considered: but onely of two kyn­des or acceptions thereof.

And Fyrst do you vnderstand, that fayth maye be considered by it selfe, as it is a seuerall gift of god, separate, and distincte from hope, and charitie, and beinge so considered, and taken, it signifieth and im­porteth a perswasion, and beleif, wrought by god in mans harte, whereby man assenteth, graunteth, and taketh for true, not onely that God is (which know­ledge [Page] is taughte, and declared, by the maruaylous worke of the creation of the world, as S. Paul saith in his epystle to the Romaynes) but also that all the wordes and sayinges of God (whych be releued and opened in the scrypture) are of most certayne trueth, and infallible veritie. And not that these thyngs one ly are to be credyted and assented vnto, but also that all thynges els (which were taught by the Apostles, and whych haue bene by a whole vnyuersall consent of the Churche of Chryste, euer sythe that tyme con­tynually taught, and taken alwayes for true) ought to be receaued, accepted, taken and kepte, as a true and perfecte doctryne apostolique.

This then is the fyrst acception of fayth, whyche man hath of God, and wherein man doth not leaue to hys owne naturall knowledge (whych is by rea­son) but he leauethe to the knowledge attayned by fayth: wythout whych faith, man is ignoraunte and blynde, and cannot vnderstande, accordynge as the prophete Esay affirmeth in hys. vii. Chapiter, saying: Nisi credideritis, non intelligetis. That is to saye: onlesse ye be­leue, ye shal not vnderstand. This faith is the begin­nyng, the entry, and the introduction vnto all Chri­stian relygion, & Godlynes: For as S. Paule sayeth in his. xi. Chapiter of his Epystle to the [...]. He that cometh to God must beleue that he is, and that he is a rewarde vnto them whyche do seke to please hym.

And thys fayth, although it be such a begynnynge such an entrye, and such an introduction, verye ne­cessarye for the begynnyng of all ryghtousnes, yet yf [Page] it do procede no farther, adioynyng with it, hope and charitie, it is called in Scrypture, a deade faythe, be cause it is voyde and destitute of lyfe, aud wantethe the helpe, and efficacie of charitie. And this much for fayth as it is considered in the fyrst acception.

Faythe as it is considered in the seconde accep­tion, maye not be alone, but muste nedes haue hope, and charitie, annexed and ioyned vnto it. And faythe so taken, doth signify not onely the beleif and perswa sion whych was before mencioned in the fyrst accep­tion, and taking of fayth: but also it signifyeth a sure confydence, and hope, to attayne all whatsoeuer god hath promised for Christes sake, and it signifieth, and comprehendeth also, a hartye loue to GOD, and an obedience to his commaundementes.

And faythe thus considered, is a lyuely faythe, and worketh in man a ready submission of hys wyll to Goddes wyll. And this is the effectual fayth whi­che worketh by charitie, and whyche (as S. Paule testifiet), vnto the Galathians) is of value & strēgthe in Chryst Iesu.

By this fayth, Abraham, not knowyng whyther he shoulde go, went out of his countrye, and dwelte in the lande of beheste, or promyse, as in a straunge lande, lokyng, and trustyng for a cytye, founded, and buylded by almyghty God.

By this fayth also, Abraham, when he was temp­ted, was ready to offer vp his onelye begotten sonne [...], in whome he loked for the promyse, nothynge doubting, but that God who made the promise, was able to rayse hym vp agayne from deathe.

[Page]And in thys sorte and wyse, faythe is taken, in the moost parte of the examples, which be recyted of S Paule, in the. xi, chap of hys Epistle to the Hebrwes

And thys faythe so consydered and taken, euerye Chrysten man doth promyse, professe, and couenaunt to kepe, when he dothe receaue the Sacramente of Baptysme.

And here is to be noted and considered, that all the promyses of god, made at any tyme to man, after the fall of Adam, for Christes sake, are not absolutely and puerly made, but vnder thys condytyon, that is to saye: that man should beleue in God, and with the grace of God geuen for Chryste, endeuer hym selfe to accomplyshe, and kepe the commaundementes of God: so that yf man do beleue in God, and wythe the sayde grace, do endeuer hym selfe to the best of his po wer, to kepe and accomplyshe the sayd commaunde­mentes, man maye iustlie then chalenge the sayd pro mises, so graciously made vnto hym on goddes part: and if on the other side a man wil not beleue in God, and with the sayde grace endeuer hym self to the best of his power, to kepe and accomplysh the sayde com­maundementes, then man can not iustly chalenge in any wyse the sayde promyses, or the benefyte thereof, in asmuche as he hath not fulfylled and kepte on hys parte the sayde commaundementes, whyche were parte of the promyse and conuenante, made no other wyse by God vnto man, but vnder condytion, as the Prophete Dauyd playnely declareth, in the. lxxx. and lxxxviii. Psalmes, aud Chryst in the. xix. of Mathe w. [...], [...] mandata. That is to saye: [...] thou [Page] wylt enter into lyfe, kepe the commaundementes. The Churche the refore, according vnto the same, in­tendynge that manne shoulde alwayes haue thys in good mynde, that is to saye: that the promises of god to man, be made but vpon condycion, and that with out kepyng of the condytyon, no man is partaker of Goddes promyses, hath taughte, and ordeyned, that men before they do receaue baptysme, shall promyse and conuenaunt, to fulfyll the sayd condytion, and to forsake the Deuyll, and the worlde, and to serue only GOD. Of which promyse and specyall conuenaunte, whereby man thus byndeth himselfe to God, man is called in Latyn, infidelis, that is to saye: Faythful: And on the other syde, yf he neuer made the promise or con uenaunt, or after yt he hath made it, he doth renoūce and refuse it, then that man in that case is amonges the Chrysten people, called in Latyn, Infidelis, That is to saye: Unfaythfull, or Heathen. And because God (as before is declared) hath made promyse and con­uenaunt wyth man, and is euer in hys wordes & pro myses moost true, moost iust, moost constante, and wyll (as we must moost assuredly beleue and thynke) performe and accomplyshe the same, soo farre forthe as he hath promysed in any wise, therefore God is cal led (as he is in very dede) Fidelis et verax, that is to say: Faythful and true, obseruyng and kepyng his fayth, that is to saye: hys promyse to man: requyryng that man shoulde lyke wyse kepe hys faythe and promyse towardes hym.

Nowe of these thynges that are before spoken, it is manyfest that fayth as it is taken in the seconde accep [Page] is the perfecte faythe of a true chrystian man conteynynge the obedience to the hole doctryne, and religion of Chryste. And after thys sorte is faythe ta­ken of S. Paule in his epystle to the Romaynes, and in other places of Scrypture, where it is sayde that we be iustifyed by fayth. In whych places man may not thinke that we be iustifyed by fayth, (as fayth is a seuerall vertue, seperated from hope, and charytie, from feare of God & from repentaunce) but by fayth there is ment not the late inuented and deuised faith that is to say, onely faythe, or fayth alone, but faythe with the foresayde vertues, coupled, and ioyned to gether, conteinyng as is aforesaide the obedience to the hole doctryne and religion of Chryst.

And here by the way is to be noted, that euerye man that doth offend God, doth not vtterlye lose his fayth therby, for both they that do synne by frailtie & soden motions (from which euen the iust men ar not holly free, and be taught therefore of Chryste to saye with other. Forgyue vs our trespaces &c) And the o­ther also whych aduysedly fall into deadely synne (as they that do committe murder, adulterye, and other abhominations, albeit they be fallen from the liuelye and perfecte fayth, for that they are disobediente to ye doctrine and religion of Chryste whyche they dyd knowe, yet there doth remayne in them so offēdyng, the certeine and assured knowledge of God, and his doctrine, whiche is the faythe, after the fyrste sorte and acception of fayth.

And that these. ii. thynges (it is to wytte, knowlege and obedience) are sometime seperated and a [...] [Page] Chryste in the. xii. chapiter of Saint Lukes Gospell, doth playnely declare it, speakyng of a seruaunt that knoweth the wyl of his maister and doth it not. And lykewyse S. James in his epystle sayeth, that fayth may remayne wythout charitie.

Wherefore the truth being thus, a transgressoure of the lawe of Almyghty God, after baptysme, dothe kepe a remorse of conscience & the light of knowledg by fayth, whereby he seeth the remedyes, howe to at tayne the remyssion of synne, and by a speciall gyfte of further grace, is moued to vse the same remedyes, and soo by faythe walketh the wayes ordeyned to at tayne remyssion of synne, as in the Sacramēte of pe naunce shalbe more perfytlye hereafter declared.

Thus haue you harde the. ii, acceptions or ta­kynges of fayth, & that the fayth of knowledge, may remayne in hym that hath fallen frō the perfect faith of a Chrystian man. But whether there be any specy­all, particuler knowledge, whych man by fayth hath certaynely of hymselfe, whereby he maye testyfye to hymselfe that he is of the predestynates, whiche shall perseuer to the ende in their callyng, there is not spo­ken as yet of, nor [...] can by the Scryptures, or Dec­toures, be proued that any such fayth can or ought to be preached, [...] taught.

Truthe it is, that in the Sacramentes [...] by Chryste, and vsed in his Catholique Chur­che, here in earth, we may constantly and assuredlye beleue the workes of god in them, and the applycati­on of his grace and fauour therein (to oure presente comforte) with assuraunce also, that he wyll not faile [Page] vs yf we fall not from hym: And therfore we so con­tynewyng in the state of grace wyth hym, haue war­rante and may beleue vndoutedly that we shalbe sa­ued.

BVT FORASMVCH as our frayltye, & noughtines, ought euer to be feared in vs, it is therfore expedient for vs, to lyue in contyuuall watche, and in contynu­all fight with our enemyes, the deuyll, the fleshe, and the worlde, and not to [...] to muche of our per­seueraunce and contynuaunce in the state of grace (whych on our behalfe, is vncertayne & vnstable) but dilygently and ofte to remembre the godly and wyse lesson of S. Paule in the. x. chapiter of his first epistle to the Corinthyans, where he sayeth. Qui se existimat [...], Videat ne [...], that is to saye: he that thynketh or iud­geth him selfe to stande, let him take hede that he fall not. For all thoughe GODDES promysses made in CHRIST be immutable, yet (as it hath bene sayde a­fore) he doth not make them to vs, but with conditiō So that hys promyse standyng we maye yet fayle of the effect of the promyse, hicause we kepe not our pro­mis. And therfore yf we assuredly do recken vpō the state of our [...] (as grounded vpon Goddes pro­misses) and do not remember therwyth that no man shalbe [...], onlesse he lawfully fighte, we shal tri umphe before the victori, and so loke in vaine for that whych is not other wyse promysed, but vnder a [...], and after this sorte euery chrysten man muste and ought assuredly beleue.

¶Here foloweth the crede, or the. xii. Articles of the Christian fayth.

  • i. I beleue in God, the father Almyghty, maker of heauen and earth.
  • ii. And in [...] Christ his onely sonne oure Lorde.
  • iii. Which was conceyued by the holy gost borne of the [...] Mary.
  • iiii. Suffred vnder Ponce Pilate, was cru­cifted, dead, and buryed, & descended into hel.
  • v. And the third day he rose agayne from death.
  • vi. He ascended into heauen, and sitteth on the right hande of God, the father almighty.
  • vii. From thence he shall come to iudge the quicke and the deade.
  • viii. I beleue in the holy Ghost.
  • ix. The holy Catholike churche.
  • x. The [...] of saintes. The for­giuenes of sinnes.
  • xi The resurrection of the body.
  • xii. And the life euerlastinge.


Here foloweth thexposition, and declaratiō of this crede.

[Page]AS concernyng this crede, there are. v. points generally to be marked and obserued, first that al chrysten people ought and must constantly beleue mayntayne and defende al those thinges to be true, whych be comprehended in this crede, & in the other two credes, whereo [...] the one is vsed to be sayde at Masse, beyng approued and establyshed by auncient generall counsayles, and the other was made by the greate clerke & holy man Athanasius. And likewise we must also constantly beleue, mainteyne, and de­fende, al other thynges whych are comprehended in the whole body, and canon of the Byble.

Secondely, that all thinges conteyned in thys crede, or in any of the other. ii. credes, or in the whole body and canon of the sayde bible, are so necessary to be beleued for mans saluation, that whosoeuer wyll not constantlye beleue those thynges, or wyll obsty­nately beleue the contrarye of them, cannot (in that state remaynyng) be the true and verye members of Chryste, and his espouse the Churche, but eyther are very infideles, or heretikes, and members of the De­uyll, with whome yf they repent not, they shalbe per petually dampned.

Thyrdely, that al Christen people ought, & must not onely beleue, mayntayne, and defende, al ye sayde thynges as moste certayne and infallible truthes of Gods worde, neuer by any contrary opinion, or auc­thoritie, to be altred, or conuelled, but also must take and interprete, all the same thynges, accordyng to ye same sence, vnderstandyng and meaning, which the Holy ghost hath geuen thereto, and whyche also the [Page] approued Doctours of the Catholike Churche, haue receaued and agreably defended.

Fourthlye, that all true Chrysten people, muste vtterlye refuse, and condempne all those opynyons whych were of long tyme past condempned in ye iiii, holye Counsayles. That is to saye: in the Counsell of Nyce. Constā ­tynople, Ephese, and Calcedonense.

Fyftly and fynallye. That althoughe all thynges as they are nowe pertyculerlye vsed in ye catholyque Churche here in Earth, are not so distinctly, particu­lerly, and expreslye in all wordes, fashions, cyrcum­staunces, and poyntes, set forth, taught and expressed in Scrypture, yet the pithe, the substaunce, ye matter, the foundation & grounde, with the effecte thereof in general wordes are not onely comprehended and conteyned in Scrypture, but also by expresse wor­des confyrmed by other sufficient aucthoritie. And seynge the Catholyke Churche hath soo receyued, bele­ued, allowed, and approued, the sayde thynges, time out of mynde, therfore it shalbe a very great presumption and an vncomely parte, anye man to controll or contempne any such thinges so receyued, beleued, al­lowed and approued by the sayd catholique church, and in so doyng the same is in dede not worthy to be taken or reputed for a faythfull membre or obediente chyld of the sayd Church, but for an arrogant, noughty, and very wycked person.

¶ Here foloweth the exposition or declarati­on of the fyrst article of the Crede, which is.

‘I beleue in God the Father almightye, maker of heauen and earth.’

FOr the better, and more playne vnderstandyng of this article, ye muste knowe, that this worde (Beleue) taken by it selfe, generallye, and symplye spoken, is to haue fayth, after the fyrste acception, or takyng of fayth, as it hath bene before already decla red, and shewed vnto you, but these wordes (I be­leue in) haue a farther, and more particuler vnder­standyng, it is to wyt, to haue fayth, after the second acception, maner, or takyng of fayth. And therefore when we are cōmaunded to beleue in God, we must not onely assent, graunte, and take for true, thys one thynge, that God is (which in dede the very deuiles them selues do acknowledge and confesse) or this se­cond, that all the wordes and sayinges of God reue­led in Scrypture, are of moste certayne trouthe, and vnfallible veritie, or this third, that al thinges why­che were taught by the Apostles, and whyche haue bene by a whole vniuersall consent of the Catholyke Churche, [...] taught, and taken alwayes for true, ought to be receaued, and kept, as a perfect do­ctrine Apostolyke. But also we must haue a sure con­fidence and hope, to attayne whatsoeuer God hath promysed for Christes sake, and we muste also haue an hartye loue to God, with obedyence to hys com­maundementes, [Page] & then we do not onely [...] God but also we do beleue in God. This manner of [...] that is to saye: I beleue in, we ought to haue on [...] in God, and not in any other creature of God els, be it neuerso excellent. And therfore in this crede, ye said maner of speakyng I beleue in is vsed only in ye. iii. articles which concerne the thre persons in trinitie, that is: the Father, the Sonne, and the holy ghoste, for we do, and ought to say: I beleue in God the Father: I beleue in God the Sonne: and I beleue in God the holi gost: & we do not so saye in any thyng els, as more at large shalbe said, whan it shalbe spoken of the Catholyke Churche.

We muste further note, that as by thys artycle we are bounden to beleue stedfastlye that both God is, and that he is true in al his wordes and promises and as we are bounden to beleue lyke wise that god is omnypotent, and creator of heuen and earth, and that we must with this our beleif, loue god, & cleaue onely to hym with al our harte and power, continu­ynge, and dwellyng styl with him in loue, and obey inge vnto hys will, aswell in al our inward though­tes and affectiōs, as also in our outward actes and dedes, so must we abhorre, and forsake all vice and noughtynes. and not wysshe or desyre of God, anye euyll or vngodly thyng. And ouer this, we must con stantly betake, and commit our selues, and all ours wholy vnto God, and fixe all oure hole hope, truste, and confidence in God, and we must quiet oure sel­ues in him: beleuyng perfitly, and assuredly, that he [Page] [...] in [...] shew no lesse goodnes, loue, mercy, grace and fauoure vnto vs, then he promysed by hys word to do wyth vs, vsynge oure selues, as afore is sayde.

[...] we muste note, touchynge thys article, that God is a spirytuall, and an inuisible substaunce or nature, of infinite power, & eternall, withoute be­gynnyng or endyng, and of incomprehensible know­ledge, wysedome, goodnes, iustice, and mercye. We must also note for farther declaraiton of thys article, that albeit ther be but one very true God, beside, or without whiche there is no other God, yet there are in the Godhede three distincte persones, the Father, the Sonne, and the Holy gooste: and thoughe they are thre persons, yet they ar not thre goddes, but all oue God, one nature, one substaunce, all one euerla­stynge essence or beynge, and all lyke and equall in might, power wysedom, knowledge, ryghtuousnes, and in al other thynges els, belonginge to the deitie. And moreouer we must knowe & beleue, that God the Father is the fyrst person in thys Trynitie & god­headde, yea, and the Father of hys onelye begotten Sonne, whych is the second person in Trinytie, and that he the sayd Father dyd beget of hys owne sub­staunce the sayde seconde person, by eternall genera­tion, that is to saye: by generation that neuer had be gynnynge.

And where this article conteyneth farther, that God ye father is (almyghty) it is to be noted that thys worde almyghtye, is as much to saye as that God the fathere maye do all thynges that he wyll, in heauen, and in earth, and that nothyng to him is im­possible, [Page] and that his godly power and myght, doth, excell infinitelye, and incomparablye, all powers, in Heauen, earth, and hell: Soo that all other powers whyche be in Heauen, earthe; or hell, be nothynge as of them selues, but haue all theyr myghte, force, and strength of hym, and be all subiecte vnto hys power, and cannot resyste, or let the same.

And here with farther is to be learned, that al­thoughe God be omnipotent, and of infinyte power, yet he is not the aucthor, or worker of any synne, for whensoeuer any synne is done by anye creature, the same is wrought by the malyce of the deuil, or fre wil of man, or by both, God onelye sufferyng and permyt­tynge the same to be done, and not by his power and worke, styrryng vp, fertheryng, or assystyng, the ma­lyce, or the euyll thought or dede in that behalfe.

Fynallye, concernynge those laste wordes of thys Artycle, it is to wytte. Maker of heauen, and earth. we are taughte and instructed thereby to be leue that God the father Almyghtye dyd at the be­gynnyng create, fourme, and make of noughte, Hea­uen, and Earth, and al thynges visible, and inuisible and that he dyd gyue vnto them al theyr power, and myght, and that he so, from time to tyme, continually doth preserue, gouerne, susteine, and maynetaine, the whole worlde, and all the creatures therein, by hys onely goodnes, and hyghe prouydence, that without his continuall workyng, nothyng is or can be able in any wyse to endure.

¶ The exposition or declaration cōcerninge the seconde Article of the Crede, whyche is.

‘And in Iesu Christ, his onelye sonne oure Lorde.’

IN this article. iiii. thinges ar specially to be noted Fyrst that the second person in Trinitie, is verye Iesus, the second, that he is Christ. The third, that he is an onely Sonne, and ye fourth, that he is our lord For the better vnderstandyng of which foure poyn­tes ye shall know that Iesus is asmuche to saye, as a (Sauiour) S. Mathewe bearynge witnes there­vnto in the fyrste Chapiter of his Gospell, where the Aungell of God appearynge to Ioseph in a vision or dreame, and speakyng to him of the blessed [...] Marye, and of the notable byrthe that she shoulde be beutified withal, doth saye: Pariet autem filium & uocabis nor­men eius [...], ipse enim saluum faciet populum suum a [...] corun. That is to saye: She shall bringe forth a sonne and thou shalt call the name of hym Iesus, for he shall, make his people safe, from theyr synnes. Accordyng wherevnto S. Luke in the first chapiter of his Gospel sayeth, that the Aungel of god [...] vnto the sayd Uyrgin these wordes. Ne time as Maria, [...] enim gratiam apud deum, ecce [...] in utero et paries [...] et uocabis [...] That is to say. Feare thou not Mary, for thou hast founde grace before God. Lo: or beholde, thou shalte conceaue [Page] in thy wombe, and bryng forth a sonne, and thou shalt cal the name of him Iesus. And a­greable herevnto S. Luke in the second chap. of hys sayd Gospel sayeth. [...] postquā [...] dies octo ut circū ­cideret [...], puer, uocatum est nomen cius Iesus, quod [...] est ab angelo priusquam in utero conciperetur. That is to saye: And after that eyght dayes were perfited or ended, that the chylde should be circumcised, the name of hym was called Iesus, which was called or named of the Aungell before that he the saide child was conceiued in his mothers wombe.

Nowe forasmuche as the second person in Trinite was eternally preordeyned, and appoynted, by ye de­cre of the whole Trinitie to be our redemer, and Sa uiour, therefore in this seconde Article here, he is cal­led Iesus, And as concernynge this other name Chryst, (wherewith also the sayde seconde person in Trynyte is called and named) ye shall know that Chryst is asmuche to saye as annoynted, And by cause that God hath annoynted Chryst (as the great Prophete Dauyd in his. xliiii. Psalme, doth testyfye) with the oyle of gladnes aboue his partakers or fe­lowes, and hath both anoynted him kinge and preist therefore the sayd second person in Trinytye, is and ought to be called Christe. And where the sayde se­cond person is called also here in thys article, an one ly sonne, ye shall for the better vnderstandyng here of know, that although almyghty God the father, be [Page] the father of al people, by creation, and general grace yea and the father of all christen people by creation, adoption and also speciall grace, yet concernyng the godhed of our Sauiour Christe, and the eternall ge­neration of him (wherof mention is made amonges other places. Psalme. 2. Psalme. Cvi. and Ioh. i) god the father, in that respecte is the father of Chryst, on­ly by dyuyne nature, begettynge hym of his godly na ture, and substaunce, eternally, Chryst beyng therein very God, and of the same substaunce with God the father, and with God the holy ghoste, vnto whome he is equall in all thinges of ye Godhed. Where as cō ­cernyng the humanitie of Chryste, God the father is greater then Chryste, accordyng to chrystes owne sai yng, testified in the. xiiii. Chapiter of S. Johns gos­pell, Patermaior me est. That is to saye: The father is greater then I. meaning his own humanite. And in this respecte, God ye father, is the father of Chryste by creation also adoption, and grace.

And where moreouer the sayd seconde person is called here in this Article (Our Lorde) as in dede he is, ye shall nothing there at maruayle at al, conside ryng that by the sayd decree of the whole Trynytye, it was also eternally preordeyned, and appoynted, that the sayd seconde person, shoulde be oure Lorde, redemynge and bryngynge vs frome the thraldome of the Deuyll, and synne, vnto his kyngdome, Lord­shype, and gouernaunce worthely therefore to be cal­led a kyng, a pryest, and a Lorde, as hauynge done, and fulfylled, for all mankynde, the verye offyce of a [Page] preist, of a kynge and of a Lorde.

Of a preiste for that he offered vnto Almyghtye God, a sacrifice, euen hys verye bodye and Bloude, which he beyng a preist after the ordre of Melchise­dech, dyd at hys maundye (which was the nyght be­fore he suffred death) offer, vnder the visible fourmes of breade and wyne, institutynge there, the Sacra­ment of his Body and Bloud (commonly called the Sacramente of the Aultare) and commaundynge his bodye and bloude, in the sayde Sacramente, to be offered vnto the worldes ende, fulfyllyng thereby the sayinge of God the father, spoken to Chryste the sonne. Tues Sacerdos in et ernum secundum ordinem Melchisedech. psal 106. That is to saye: Thou art a preist for euer af ter the order of Melchisedech. And Chryste dyd also fulfyll the offyce of a preist, in that he vpon good Fryday (which was the day next folowing) did offer the same Bodye and bloude vpon the Crosse, in the visible fourmes of fleshe and Bloude, sufferynge hys naturall body there to be slayne, and his bloude [...] visibly to be shed, for the remission of sin, nodifference at all being in the substance of the thynges so diuerse ly offered, at the maundy, and vpon the Crosse, but ye difference standynge in the maner, forme, and oute­warde doyng therof. And as for the offyce of a kynge and Lord, that he dyd fulfyll, & accomplyshe, in that he most myghtely conquered, ouercame, and vtterly oppressed his enemyes, & hath spoyled them of the [...] session of mankyud which they wan before by fraud, deceyt, lying and blasphemyng. And he hath brought [Page] vs now into his possession and dominatiō, to reigne ouer vs in mercy, like a most louyng [...], and go­uernour, and therefore in this Article, we call hym also: (Our Lorde.)

Fynallye there is to be considered in this mat­ter, that althoughe this worde DOMINVS, dyuerse tymes is translated into oure Englyshe Tounge, (The Lorde) (which the place and circumstaūce of Scripture manye tymes so requyreth, and maye well beare) yet amongest vs Christen men, in our cō men speach, when we speake of Chryste, and do call hym Lorde, it is mooste mete, and conueniente, that we call hym: (Our Lorde) to [...], and admo­nyshe vs that we be his peculier people, redemed by hym, and delyuered from the dominion, and the cap­tiuitie of the deuyll, and be made his owne proper, & obedient seruauntes. After whiche forte the Heithen people (because of their infidelytie) be nether his ser­nauntes, nor partakers of his benefites, and there­fore cannot saye and call him (as Chrysten men doe) (Our Lorde) And (the thing thus being, & so great pythe, effecte and comforte, consystynge in this word (Our) what an iniury do these newe fangled wyt­tes, who for a singularitie, or for a glorious badge of a protestaunt, do in all their talke (speaking of Christ our Lorde) vse this peculier fashion of speakyng, the Lorde, the Lorde, the Lorde?

¶ The exposition, or declaration of the third Artycle of the Crede, whych is.

‘Which was conceaued by the holy Ghost borne of the Uyrgyn Marye.’

IN this article two thynges are specially to be cōsi­dered, the first is, that Chryste was conceaued by the holye Ghoste. And the seconde is: that Chryste was borne of the Uyrgyn Marye. And concernyng the fyrste, ye shal learne that when we say, that christ was conceyued by the holy Ghost, we geue not ther in suche grosse and [...] vnreuerente vnderstan­dyng as though the holy Ghoste dyd therein worke as man do the with woman in carnall generatyon, (which God forbyd we shoulde conceyue or thynke) for his holye worke of the incarnation of Chryste, was not wroughte by the sede of man, but by the ver tue and power of the holye goste, in the sayde mooste blessed virgyn, without any motion of any concupis­cence, or spot of synne, and was accomplyshed wyth oute any violation, or detriment, of the virginitye of that blessed vyrgyn S Marye, who both in the con­ception, and also in the byrth & natiuitie of her chyld our sauiour Iesus Chryste: yea and euer after, dyd retayne styll her pure and immaculate virginitie, as clere, and without blotte, as she was at the tyme yt she was fyrst borne. But when we do say that chryst was conceaued by the holy Ghost, we doo consyder therin as Scripture doth. That Mense sexto meaning of that sixt moneth that S. Elizabeth, S. Ihon Baptistes [Page] mother, had gone with chyld with S. Iohn) missus est Angelus Gabriel a deo in ciuitatem Galilee, cui nomē Nazareth ad uirginem desponsatam uiro, cui nomen erat Ioseph, de domo Dauid, & nomen uirginis Maria, et ingressus Angelus, ad eam dixit. Aue gratia plena dominus tecum, Benedicta tu in mulieribus. Que cum audisset turbata est in sermone eius: et cogitabat qualis esset ista salutatio, et ait Angelus ei, Ne timeas Maria: inuenisti enim gratiam apud deum, ecce concipies in utero, et paries filium, & uocabis nomen eius IESVM, hic erit magnus, & filius altissimi uocabitur, & dabit illi dominus deus sedē Dauid patrisleius, et regnabit in domo Iacob ineternū, & regni eius non erit finis. Dixit autē maria ad angelum, Quomodo fiet istud: quoniam uirum non cognosco? & respon­dens Angelus dixit ei, Spiritus sanctus superueniet in te, & uirtus altissimi obumbrabit tibi: Ideo (que) & quod nascetur ex te sanctum, uocabitur filius dei Lucae primo That is to saye: In the syxt moneth the Aungell Gabriell is sent from God, into the citie of Galilee to whom the name was Na­zareth, to a Uyrgin despoused vnto a man, whose name was Ioseph, of the house of Dauid, and the name of the virgin was Marye, and the Aungell entringe in sayd to her: All hayle, full of grace, the Lorde is with thee, blessed art thou among women. Which wor des when she had harde, she was troubled in his sayinge, and thoughte what maner sa­lutation thys was. And the Aungell said vn­to her. Feare not Mary, for thou hast founde grace with God: Beholde, thou shalte con­ceaue in thy Wombe, and thou shalte brynge forth a Sonne, and thou shalte call the name [Page] of him Iesus, he shalbe greate, and shalbe cal­led the Sonne of the hyghest, and the Lorde God shall geue to him the seate of Dauid his Father, and he shall reigne in the house of Iacob for euer, and no ende shalbe of his Kyng­dome. And Marye sayde vnto the Aungell, Howe shall this be, for I knowe not a man? And the aungell aunswerynge, sayde to her The holye Ghost shall come from aboue in­to the, and the power of the most hyghe shall ouershadowe the, and therefore, euen that holy one which shal be borne of the, shalbe called the Sonne of God. Luke the fyrst. Accordyng whervnto, the Aungel of our Lord (as S. Mathew testyfyeth in hys Gospell. Math, 1) saith: Cum esset despō sata mater IESV Maria Ioseph, ante quam conuenirent, inuenta est in utero habens de spiritu sancto. That is to say. When Marye the mother of Iesus was despoused to Io­seph, and before they came to dwell together, she was founde hauyng in her wombe of the holy Goost. And immediatelye it foloweth in the same place. Ioseph autem uir eius cum esset iustus & nollet eam traducere, uoluit occulte dimittere eam. Haec autem eo cogitante: Ecce Angelus Domini apparuit in somnes Ioseph, dicens: Ioseph fili Dauid, noli timere ac­cipere Mariam coniugem tuam, quod enim in ea natum est, de spiritu sancto est. That is to saye: And Ioseph the husbande of her, when he was a iust man, and would not [Page] sclaunder her, he purposed secretlye to leaue her. And he thus thinking: Beholde the aungell of the Lorde appeared to Joseph in a vi­sion or dreame, saying, O Joseph the Sonne of Dauid, feare thou not to take Marye thy wyfe, for that which is borne in her, is of the holy Goost. So that the second person in Trinitie whych is the Sonne of God, by eternall generatiō, dyd, in the wombe of the blessed vyrgyn Mary, by ye vertue and workyng of the holy Ghoost, take vpon hym, of her verye fleshe, the nature and substaunce of man, and beyng conceyued by the holy Ghoste, was borne of her body, and dyd vnite, and conioyne toge­ther the same nature of man (so taking of ye substaūce of the sayd most blessed virgin) with hys Godheade in one person, with suche an indissoluble and insepe­rable knotte, and bonde, that he (beynge one person Jesus Chryste) was, is, and euer shalbe, in the same person, very perfecte God, and very perfect man.

Nowe concernynge the seconde thynge, whyche is consydered in this Article, that is to saye: that Christ was borne of the virgin Mary. Albeit in a great parte, it is proued already by such thynges as before haue ben rehearsed, yet for the more full de­claration and exposition thereof, hauynge spoken of Christes cōception by the holy gost, ye shal now here how he was borne of the virgin Marye. For know­ledge whereof ye shall vnderstande, that when the tyme was come, in the whiche it was before ordey­ned, [Page] and appoynted, by the decree of the whole Try­nitie, that mankynde shoulde be redemed, and saued, then the Sonne of God, the seconde person in tryny­tie, beynge verye God, did discende from Heauen, into this worlde, to take vpon hym the verye nature, habite, and fourme of man, whiche he dyd of the verye fleshe and substaunce, of the blessed Uyrgyn Marye, and in the same nature dyd also suffer hys gloryous passion, for the redemption, & saluation of mankynd. For after the fall of Adam, and before the commynge of Chryste, (man beynge soo blynded, and drowned in sinne, that the true knowledge of God, was euerywhere in the world forgotten, and his lawes broken, not onelye by the Gentyles in all other natyons, but also by the Jewes, the chosen people of God to whō God by hys seruaunt Moyses, had geuen hys lawes, whereby they myght knowe howe to auoyde synne, and howe to please hym) almyghtye God hauynge from tyme to tyme, sente vnto his people hys aduer­tisementes, and admonitions by his prophetes, inspyred with his holy spyryte, both to admonyshe men of theyr sinnes, and also to teach them how they should truely vnderstande, and obserue the sayd lawes, ge­uen by hys seruaunt Moyses, dyd fynally after those lawes, aduertysementes, and admonitions, lytle re­garded of the sayde people, send, of his infynyte goodnes, and inestimable mercy and loue, borne to man­kynde, his onely begotten Sonne into thys worlde, (by whome in the beginning he had created ye world and all creatures in it) to take vpon hym mans na­ture, and to redeme man, who by disobedience, had [Page] cast hym selfe into perdition. And for testimony here of, there are amonge other prophecies in Scripture expressed, the prophecy of [...] the. vii. And the pro­phecye of Ezechtel, the. xliiij. Chapyter. And ther are the testimonies of the Gospell (amongeste other) Math. i. and. ii. and Luk. i. and. ii: and so forth, by the whych appeareth clearely, that this thirde article of the crede is fully true, and approued by Scrypture.

And yf any man here for curiositie wold demaūd why Chryste entendynge to be borne of a Uyrgyn, woulde haue her yet despoused, and betrouthed he maye herein satisfye hym selfe, readyng the commen taryes of S. Hierome, vpon the fyrst chapter of S. Mathew, wher he sayth thus. Quare non de simplici uirgine sed de desponsata concipitur. Primum ut per generationem oseph, origo Marie monstraretur. Secundo ne lapidaretur a Iudeis, ut adultera. Tertio ut in Aegiptum fugiens haberet solatium. Martir Ignatius, etlam quartam addidit causam cur a desponsata cōceptus sit. Vt partus (inquiens) eius ce laretur Diabola, dum eum put at non de uirgine, sed de uxore generatum. That is to saye: Wherefore is he (meaning Christ) conceaued of a vyrgyn betrouthed or despou sed, and not of a virgyn vnbetrouthed? The fyrst reason is, that by the generatiō or gene­alogi of Joseph, the original of Mary might be shewed. Secondly that she shoulde not be stoned by the Jewes as an aduouterous per­son. Thyrdely, that fleinge into Egypte, she myght haue helpe or comforte. And the mar tir Ignatius hath added also a fourth cause, [Page] why Chryst was conceyued of a person des­poused, to thintente (saieth he) that Christes byrth myght be hyd from the deuyll, whiles he thinketh Chryst to be gotten not of a v yr gyn, but of a maryed wyfe. Thus sayth Saynt Jerome, in the place before rehearsed. And S. Augu styne very handsomely and in fewe wordes, in a cer tayne sermon made vpon Wytsonday, concernynge the expositiō of the Crede, saieth as foloweth. Natus est ex uirgine, ut nos nasceremur execclesiae uirginis utero, That is to saye. Chryste is borne of a Uyrgin, that we myght be borne of the wombe of the church beyng a vyrgyn.

¶ The exposition or declaration of the forthe article of the Crede which is.

‘Suffered vnder Ponce Pilate, was crucy­fied deade, buried, and descended into hell.’

IN this forth article. vi. thynges are to be consyde­red. Fyrst, that Chryst our Sauioure Suffred. Second that he Suffred vnder Ponce Pilace Thyrd, that he Was crucifyed. Fourthe, that he Dyed Fyfte that he was Buryed. Syxte, that he Descended into hell. Concernynge the fyrste, we must vnderstand that Chryst very God, and ve­ry man, after he was cōceyued, and borne of his bles [Page] sed Mother, dydde contynue heare in this world vn­tyl he came vnto the, xxxiii, yeare of his age, and that in all this tyme of hys lyfe, he suffered and endured for our sakes & our welth, and also for our examples, much bodely affliction, much labour, much trauayle, much hunger, thrist, and pouertie, much iniurye, and ignominie, and many such other miseries, and infyr­mities, as all mortall men are subiecte vnto (synne & ignoraunce onely excepted) and so passed ouer all the whole course of his lyfe, euen from his natiuitie, vntil hys death, in such perfecte obedience vnto the lawes of god and man, accordyng to the wyll of hys father, and in such perfecte innocency of liuing, that no fault offence, or transgression, coulde iustly and truly be lai ed agaynst hym. And yet the blynde, ignoraunte, and obstynate Jewes, full of enuye, and malyce (as the verye members of the Deuyll, by whome they were prouoked and induced therevnto) laboured continu­allye, by al meane and crafte they coulde, to destroye hym, and at length, conspyrynge together, they toke hym, serchynge and procuryng false witnes to accuse hym and after they had bette hym, and spytte in hys face, and vsed all the vylanye they could agaynst him they bounde hym and brought hym to iudgement, of all whych thynges ye shall fynde testymony in scryp­ture, redyng S. Mathew S. Marke, S, Luke, S. Jhon, in thys behalfe, And thus muche for the fyrste poynte.

For the seconde poynte ye shall vnderstande, that our Sauyour Chryst hauyng suffered dyuerse waies as before is declared, yet, concernynge that notable & [Page] speciall sufferyng (vnderstand and [...] here in this article, which was his passion) he suffred that vnder one Pylate, whose surname was Pontius, and at yt tyme, was chefe iudge in Jherusalem and presydent or gouernoure of Jurye, vnder Tiberyus Thempe­roure and gaue iudgemente vpon Chryste, beynge moost falselye accused, as a subuerter of the lawes of god, and as a person that seduced ye people, and that moued sedition amongest them, aud as a traytoure agaynst Themperour of Rome, vpō whych accusaci ons, our sayd Sauyour and redemer Jesus Chryst, was greuously scourged, by the commaundement of the sayde Pylate, and hadde a crowne of thorne put vpon his head, by the souldyours of the garyson, and was by them not onely moost spitefully mocked and scorned, but also moost cruelly tormented, and afflic­ted, and after thys he was at the last, in publike and open iudgement, by sentence of the sayd Pylate, con dempned to die, as the. iiij. Enangelistes wholy, and S. Luke partely in the actes, do playnely testify and declare. ¶ And as concernynge the. iij. poynt in thys article (whych is of the crucifieng of Chryst, a thyng which was pronounced in the condempnaty on and iudgement of Pylate) you shal vnderstand that this kynd of death, was euer amongest the Jewes, most abhorred and detested, as accompted and taken for the most cursed and shamefull of other. And (the con demnation & iudgement thus geuen & past) the soul­diers of the garyson dyd take Chryst, and dyd nayle hym throughe the handes and fete vnto the Crosse: And also dyd hange with hym vpon. ij. other crosses, [Page] two theues, on a certayne hyll called Caluerye, and this to be true is testified by the sayd Euangelystes. And that Chryst dyd dye (which is the. iiii. point in thys article) it is euident also by the sayde Euange­list, for S Mathew in the. xxvii of his Gospell, spea­king of this matter sayth. Iesus autem iterum clamans uoce [...] emisit spiritum. That is to say: Jesus cryenge a­gayne with a greate voyce dyd geue vp the Ghost. The lyke doth S. Marke in the, xvi, chapy­ter of his gospell, and S, Luke in the. xxiii. and S. Jhon in the. xix.

Moreouer concerning the burieng of our blessed Sauiour Christ, (whych is the fyfte poynte in thys article) ye shall know that the Euangeliste S. Ma­thewe in the xxvii. of his gospell. S. Marke in the xv. chapyter, S. Luke in the xxiii, and S. Jhon in the, xix. do tell this storye in effecte after this maner: it is to wytte, that after Chryst was thus deade, one Joseph of Aramathia, beyng oue of Christes dyscy­ples, [...] lycence of Pylate to take downe the blessed Body of our Sauiour Jesu Chryst from the Crosse, and that done, he and an other of Chrystes Dysciples called Nichodemus, wrapped and folded the same body in a cleane syndon, or fine linnin cloth and so layed and buryed it in a newe graue, or Se­pulchre, which the sayde Joseph hade made of stone, and wherein there was neuer anye buryed before, & by this is proued this article to be true.

And fynally concernynge the discense or goynge downe of Chryst into hell (whiche is the last poynte of this article) ye shall knowe that thoughe to some [Page] men vpon some theyr vayne and folyshe groundes, ymaginations and deuyses, it maye seme an absurdi tie, and a thyng vnsemely, that Christ, being vertue it selfe, and of all perfection and power, shoulde des­cende into hell, which is a place of wycked persons, and of punishmente for them, and a place finally, frō whence there is no regresse, nor yet redemptyon in, as who sayth, yf Chryst descended into hell, he shulde both there suffer punyshment, and also not retourne from thence, nor redeme there, yet if these men wold consyder, how diuersely in scripture hel is taken, and withall woulde consyder the wyl and omnipotency of Chryst, who is God and man, and who can do all thynges, in heauen, earth, and hel, that pleaseth him to doo (nothynge to hym beynge impossible) and fy­nallye woulde consyder withall, what the catholike Churche euer from the begynnyng, hath in thys be­halfe beleued and taughte, takynge her beleyfe, of Chryst, and his doctryne, generally, and specially set forth in scrypture, this thing shoulde not appeare to them so straunge, or so incredible, as percase it doth. And therefore let vs with the scrypture, and the Ca­tholique Churche, firmely, and stedfastly beleue [...] our sauiour Chryst, after that he was crucifyed, and deade vpon the crosse, dyd descende in soule, knytte with the deitie, into hell, (his bodye remainyng, and lyeng iy the graue) and dyd lose the paynes or soro­wes thereof, in whyche it was not possyble that he should be holden, ne yet to se corruption at al: and he dyd also [...] and oppresse, both the Deuell, and hell, and also Death it selfe, where vnto all mankind [Page] was condempned, by the fal of oure forefather Adam into synne. A profe whereof is taken out of Zachary the. ix. Oze the. xiii. Luke the. i. Math. the. xii. Luke. in the Actes, the. ii. Of Paule to the Ephesians the iiii. and in other diuerse places of scrypture.

Nowe the processe of the lyfe of our blessed sauy­oure Iesu Chryste, thus declared, with his passyon, death, buriall, and descence to hell, it is specially to be noted, and to be beleued for a certaine truth, that our sauiour, in all the tyme of his moost bytter, and gre­uous passion, and in sufferyng his most payneful and cruell death, not onely dyd, most pacyently without resistence, and lyke an innocent lambe, endure and su stayne for oure redemption, all the paynes, and iniu­ries, and all the opprobries and ignominies, whych were done to hym: but also that he dyd wyllynglye [...] gladely suffer thys crosse, and thys kynde of death for our example, that we shoulde folowe the steppes of hym in pacyence and humilitie and that we shoulde beare our owne crosse, as he dyd beare hys, and that we shoulde also hate and abhorre all synne, knowing for suerty, that whosoeuer doth not in his harte, hate and abhorre sinne, but rather accompteth the breach and violation of goddes commaundemente, but as a lyght matter, and of small weight, and impartaunce, he estemethe not the pryce. and value of the passyon and death of Chryste, accordynge to the dignitie and worthynes thereof.

¶ The exposition or declaration of the fyfte article of the Crede whych is.

‘And the thirde daye, he rose agayne from death.’

IN thys article two thynges are specially to be cō sidered, the fyrste, is touchynge the tyme, in why­che oure Sauioure Chryste, dyd ryse, that is, the thyrd daye. The seconde, is touchynge the rysynge of Chryste, with declaration, that that rysynge was from death.

Concernyng the fyrste, S. Mathew, in the. xii chapiter of his Gospell (comparyng the beyng, or ly­yng of Ionas in the whales belly Ionas. ii. with the being, or lyinge of Chryste in his sepulchre, or graue, sayth thus. Sicut enim fuit Ionas in [...] ceti tribus [...], et tris bus noctibus, sic erit filius hominis in corde terre, tribus diebus & tribus [...] That is to say: As Ionas was in the belly os the whale, three dayes and three nyghtes, so shall the sonne of man be in the harte of the grounde, three dayes, and three nyghtes. Accordyng wherevnto Saynt Paule in his oration made to the prynces & Israelities, of the Sinagoge being at Antiochia Pisidie, and amongest other thin ges speakyng of the inhabitauntes of Ierusalem, & the prynces thereof, who put Chryst to death, and of Chryste hymselfe, sayethe (as S. Luke in the. xiii. of the Actes doth testify) thus: Cun (que) consummassent omnia, que [Page] [...], deponentes cum de ligno, posuerunt cum in [...] deus autem sustitauit cū a mortuis [...] die, qui uisus est per dies multos his qui simulascenderant cum co, de Galileo in Iherusalem qui usque nune sunt testes eius ad plebam, That is to say. And when they hadde fulfylled or perfected all thinges that were wrytten of hym, they takynge hym doune from the tree, did put him in a Sepul chre, and God dyd rayse hym vp agayne the thyrde daye from the deade and he was sene many dayes to them which came vppetoge ther with hym from Galilee to Ierusalem, who euen tyll nowe be wytnesses of him, to the people. Lyke wyse the sayde S. Paule writing to the Corinthians, and earnestly mindyng to proue the resurrection of the deade, doth in his first epistle written vnto them, and in the xv, Chapyter therof, say as foloweth. Tradidi enim Vobis in primis quod et accepi, quo­niam Christus mortuus est propeccatis nostris, secundum Scripturas & quia sepultus est: et quia resurrexit tertia die [...] Scripturas. &c That is to say: I haue delyuered vnto you spe­ciallye that whiche I receaued, howe that Chryst died for our synnes, according to scrip tures, and that he was buryed, & that he rose agayne the thyrde daye, accordynge to the Scripturs. &c. And s. Augustine, concerning this matter, hath in hys, cxxiij. sermon, thys confortable sayinge. Site [...] luano [...] sepultura conturbet, gloriosa resurrectio confirmet, quicquid enim infirmitatis audis in Christo nostrae [...] necessit [...] tis, nostre redemptionis est causa quicquid gloric cius est proprie potesta [Page] [...] quiid co mortuus est, ut uos [...], [...] resurrexit. ut uos ad [...] resuscitaret eternam. That is to say. Of the three dayes buryall, or lyinge in graue of our Lord, doo trouble the, let his gloriouse resurreccion con fyrme the. In dede whatsoeuer weakenes or infirmitie thou doest heare in Chryst, that is for cause of our necessitie, ye is for cause of oure redemption: whatsoeuer glory thou hearest of him, that is of his proper or owne power: who therfore was deade that he myghte re­uyue vs, and therefore dyd ryse agayne, that he might resuscitate vs vnto life euerlasting.

Lykewyse S. Augustyne agayne in his. cxxxi. sermon speakyng o. this matter, sayth, after this ma ner. Triduane sepulture mora, euidēter ostēdit quod dūcorpus isepulchro iacuit, anima illa de infernis triūphauit. That is to saye: The ta rying or abydynge of the three dayes in the graue, doth euydently declare or shew, that ye whyle that the Body (of Chryst) dyd lye in the sepulcher or graue, that soule of hys dyd Tryumphe ouer the Helles. And that Chryste dyd ryse agayne from deathe (whiche is the seconde parte of this Article) is most manyfest, aswel by such testimonyes as are all ready here in the former part of this article alleged, as also by these speciall testy­monyes folowinge. Fyrste, Actuum. ii. S. Peter (as S. Luke there testifieth) Doth say as foloweth. Hunc Iesum resuscitauit deus, cuius nos omnes testes sumus. That is to sai [Page] This Jesus hath God raysed vppe agayne wherof we all are wytnesses. Secondlye, ac­tuum. iii. S. Peter there hath these wordes. Quem deus [...] a mortuis cuius nos testes sumus. That is to say, Chryst whome God hathe raysed from the deade of the whych we be wytnesses.

Thyrdely actuum. iiii. S. Peter there hath bothe these wordes, Quem deus suscitauit a mortuis (beynge Eng­lyshed as before) as also these wordes. Et Virtute magna reddebant Apostoli testimoniū resurrectionis [...] Christo domini nostri. That is to saye, The Apostles with great pow­er dyd gyue wytnes of the resurrection, of Jesu Chryst our Lorde.

Fourthly, actuum. v. S, Peter and the Apost­les haue these wordes: Deus patrum nostrorum suscitauit Iesum [...] uos interemistis, suspendentis in ligno. That is to say, The God of our fathers hath raysed vppe Je sus, whome ye (the Jewes) dyd kyll, hang­yng him vpon the tree.

Fyftelye Actuum. xvii. S Paule preachynge in the Synagoge of the Jewes at Tessalonyca, hathe these wordes. Quia oportuit Christum pati, et resurgere a mortuis. That is to say: That Chryst muste nedes haue dyed, and to ryse agayne from the deade.

Syxtely S. Paule in vys fyrst Epystle to the [...] rinthyans, & in the. xv. Chapter therof hath amōgest other these wordes. Si Autem Christus non resurrexit, inanis est predicatio nostra, inanis est & [...] vestra. &c. That is to saye: If Chryst hath not rysen agayne, then is our [Page] preachyng vayne, and youre faythe is also in vayne. &c. And hereof also he speakethe, Ad Romanos. fourthe, et. ii. ad Timotheum. ii. and in manye other places. But what nede is it to heape any mo testimo nyes hereof, seyng all the Euangelistes doo clerelye testifye the matter, Mathewe the. xxviii. Marke the xvi. Luke the. xxiiii. and Jhon the. xx. By thys then it appeareth howe that our Sauyour Jesus Chryst after he had conquered and spoyled the Deuyll and hell, he retourned agayne from thense, lyke a mooste myghty Kynge and Conqueroure, in tryumphe and glorye and so reassumed and toke agayne hys blessed naturall Body, the third day after hys sayd deathe. And so doyng rose out of the Sepulture in his natu rall and parfect manhode. That is to say in his soule and in the selfe same body, whych was borne of the Uyrgyn Mary, and dyd hange vpon the Crosse. Af­ter whyche resurrection he was conuersaunte in the worlde, by the space of forty dayes, and dyd eate and drynke with hys Apostles, and his disciples and prea ched vnto them, and aucthorised them to goo fourthe into the worlde, to manifest and declare, that he was the very Chryst the very Messias, and the very God and man, whych was promised in scrypture to come to saue and to redeme al those, that beleuing in hym, ordered themselues in obeying and folowynge hys preceptes and commaundementes accordyngly. In thys artycle of Resurrectiō, it is to be noted, that there is nothyng that can in all aduersirye & trouble be more ioyefull and comfortable vnto vs, than the [...] of this artycle. That Chryste rose agayne from [Page] corporall death to lyfe, and that we shall also do the same. The fayth and belefe of this (if we continue in lyuinge well) is our vyctorye and tryumph ouer the Deuyll, hell and death, and a specyall remedy, to put away the horroure and feare of them. Forasmuch as hereby we be assured that as death coulde not holde Chryste, euen so it cannot holde vs, whiche are by a chrysten fayth, the very members & body of Chryst, but that we shall ryse from deathe, and lyue agayne in glorye with hym euerlastynglye, yf we order and conforme our wyll in thys worlde to hys preceptes. And the onely hope here of, shoulde make vs not to feare the aduersities in this world, bicause we ( [...] as afore) be assured to haue a better and more glory­ouse lyfe after this, as S. Paule writeth to the Co­rynthyans the. xv. sayenge: If we chrysten men had no hope of other lyfe, than thys that is present, than were we the most miserable, of all men. But nowe Chryste is rysen agayne from deathe. Whereby is declared that there is a lyfe after thys lyfe which all Chrysten men hope to come vnto. Accordyng where unto saynt Augustyne sayth. All the hope of our fayth stādeth in thys poynt that we shall ryse agayne. This made the faythfull and good men (of whome S. Paule the. xi. to the He brues speaketh) to refuse to be preserued from bodyly deathe, bycause they looked assuredly for a better re­surrection. Whych Resurrectyon as it was by many and sondrye apparytions, and other infallyble argu­mentes declared and prouede vnto the Appostles, so [Page] they being besydes other names perteynyng to their offyce specially called the witnesses of Christes resur rection, dyd in all places, and at all tymes, open and inculcate the same as a special, and a cheife artycle of Chrystes doctryne, wherin shoulde depend, and rest the greate comfort and solace of all trewe and fayth full beleuers in Chryste.

Fynallye, by this article is not onely confirmed vnto vs howe the naturall bodye of man, shall after the corporall death and departyng [...] of thys presente lyfe rise againe, as is before expressed, but also by this resurrectiō of our sauyoure [...], we be admony­shed, that as Christ after his death, rose againe so we dyeng from synne, should ryse [...], and walke in a newe lyfe of spyryt and grace.

¶ Thexposition or declaration concernynge the syxt article of the Crede, whych is.

‘He ascended into heauen, and sitteth on the ryght hand of God the father almighty.’

IN thys. vi, article, ii thinges are to be considered ye fyrst is that Christ ascended into heauen, the second that he sitteth on the right hand of god the father almighty. Concernyng the fyrst ye shal note, that as we by dayly experience do see, when an embassadoure is sente from some greate prynce, to ac cheue any greate affayre or busynes, as for example, to conclude and make a peace, or any other such lyke [Page] thing thys embassadoure hauyng fynyshed hys busy­nes, according to his commission, comenli with glad nes, and ioye do the returne agayne vnto hym from whome he was sent, lyke wyse passyngers by water, or by land, yea and souldiers to, being sent fourthe in warrefare, so sone as there busynes is spedde, they do returne commonly into there countrye, or vnto those that dyd send them fourth. Soo lykewyse oure bles­sed Sauyour Iesus Chryste, beynge sente ambassa­doure from God his father, into thys world, vpon an hygh aud notable worthy message, that is to saye: to take fleshe of the glory ouse vyrgyn S. Marye, and by hys passion and death, to ouercome the Prynce of thys world, and Hell, and to remoue and take away all other impedymentes, and lettes, and fynally to re deme also mankynde, who by disobedience and sinne had lost the ioyous possession of Paradyse, dyd dyly­gently and faythfullye trauayle, to accomplyshe hys embassade and message, and when he had done it, he with great tryumphe and ioye dydde ascend [...] re­tourne agayne to God hys father, hauyng ouercome the olde enemy, by humilitie, pacience, and obedience Of whom, and hys sayd embassade, the greate kyng and Prophet Dauyd in hys. xviii. Psalme thus doth saye: Exultauit ad Gigas, ad currendam viam That is to saye: He (meanyng Chryst) hath reioysed or benne glade as a gyaunt to runne his course, or way. And immediately in the same Psalme the sayd Pro­phet doth farther saye: A summo coeloegressio cius & occursus cius, us (que) ad sum mum cius. That is to saye: The goynge [Page] furth of hym is from the hyghest heauen, and the recourse of hym is to the hyghest of it. Ac­cordyng wherevnto, verye laudably and iustlye it is vttered in the diuine seruice of the Churche. Egressus [...] a patre, regressus [...] adi patrem, [...] us (que) ad inferos, recure susad sedem Dei. That is to saye. The goynge furthe of him is from the father, the retourne of him is to the father, the excourse of hym is euen to the helles, and the recourse of him is vnto the seate of God.

Beyng then conuenient (as is aforesayd) that Chryst should ascend into heauen (as also by this ar­tycle it appeareth he did) wel it shalbe to declare how and in what forte that ascension was. For knowlege whereof you shal vnderstand, that our sauiour christ, after his resurrection and before he dyd ascende into heauen, dyd eate with his Disciples, aswell to shewe therein a very sygne and token of harty loue (whiche frendes departyng from frendes, are accustomed to do) as also for to declare vnto them, the veritie of hys fleshe after his resurrection (which was a thing then very necessarye to be done, aswell for that he woulde not afterwarde gyue vnto them any further sygne or token of his resurrection, as also for that some of the Disciples, not withstandyng that they had sene and felte hym, woulde not yet beleue that he was so rysen And therefore. s. Gregory in an Homelye made here­vpon sayth: Christus comedit & ascendit, ut per effectum commestio [...] carnis That is to say. Chryste dydde [Page] eate and ascende, that by the effecte of eating, the veritie of his fleshe myght be manyfested. And moreouer after the sayde resurrectiō, and before thys sayd ascension, our sauiour Chryste dyd rebuke and blame his disciples of theyr incredulitie, and [...] nes, or hardenes of beleuyng the sayde resurrectyon, whiche thinge he dydde, as [...] Gregorye sayeth: Vt [...] que recidens diceret, in corde audientium arctius impressa rema­nerent. That is to saye: To thintent that the wor des which he departinge would say, myghte remayne in the hart of ye hearers more depely imprynted. Besides this our sauiour Christ hauing opened theyr wytte or sense to vnderstand the scryp­tures, and hauinge inioyned vnto them the offyce of preachynge the Gospell throughoute the hole worlde to all creatures, he went fourth wyth them into Be­thany vnto mount Olyuete, and lyfting vp his han­des he dyd blesse them (whiche blessing was well fy­gured by the Patriarche Iacob, who when he shold dye, and leaue this worlde, did blesse hys chyldre, as appeareth Genelis. xlix. And likewise was it fygured by Moyses who before his death dyd blesse the chyl­dren of Israell, as appeareth. Deute. xxxiii) And thys beynge dooue, Chryste in the [...] syghte was lyfted vp and (a cloude takyng or receyuing him from their eyes) he was caried vp into heauen: ascendynge as the Psalmist in his. lxvii, Psalm, doth saye. Super [...] ad orientem. That is to say: Aboue heauens, vnto the Easte. And the sayd Difciples adorynge [Page] hym, dyd retourne vnto Ierusalem. These thynges beforesaid are speciallye testified by S. Marke in the xvi. Chapyter. Luke in the. xxiiii. Iohn in the. xx. & by S. Luke also in the fyrst Chapyter of the Actes, and by sondry other partes of the scrypture.

By the way it may be noted that this eleuation of Chryste into Heauen dyd muche differ from hys ele­uatyon vnto the Crosse, for there (as Esay in the. lxiii. Chapyter doth saye) Chryst alone dyd treade the Presse where here (as Dauyd in his. lxvii. Psalme and S. Paule in the. iiii. Chapiter to the Ephesians, doth saye) Christe ascending into Heauen, dyd leade captiuitie captiue with him, and gaue gyftes to men. Furthermore the eleuation vpon ye Crosse was with mooste bytter sorowe, and payne, where the ascension into heauen was wyth most vn­speakeable ioye and wonderfull gladnes. And it is not to be forgotten here, that amongest other causes why Chryst would no lenger tarye here vpon earthe, but ascende into Heauen, there are fiue speciallye no­ted. The fyrst, that Chrystes body beynge gloryfyed, Heauen and not the Earth, was a place conuenyent & mete for it to be cōuersaunt in. The [...] that by the sayde ascension he myght glorifye the humaine na ture whyche before that tyme was neuer admytted vnto heauen. The thyrde that ascendyng into Heuen he myght be an aduocate and an intercessoure conty­nuallye for vs. Hebre. ix. i. Iohannis. ii. The fourthe that so ascendyng he myghte shewe vs the waye and prepare vs a place. Michee. ii. & [...]. iiii. The [Page] fyste and last that he myght sende the Holy Ghost vn to vs, which he sayd he woulde not excepte he depar­ted. Ioannis. 19. And thus much for the fyrste part of thys Article.

For the second parte of this article which is that Chryst Sitteth on the right hande of God the father Almyghtye, ye shall vnderstand, that to sit on the ryghte hande of God the father, is not after a carnall and worldely fashion to be vnderstanded, as who saith, that God the father, had (like men) a right hand, and a lefte hand, but by the sitting of Christ, on the ryght hand of God the father, is vnderstand and ment, that Chryste hath, and euer shal haue, commu­nicated vnto hym, of God the father, glory, honoure, power, felicitie, and euerlastynge monarchye, gouer­naunce, rule, and dominion, ouer all pryncypates, po­testates, powers, dominions, and ouer all creatures that can be named, eyther in thys worlde, or in the worlde to come, ordeyned to be kynge of all kynges, and Lorde of all Lordes, and all thynges both in hea uen, and also in Earth to ve cast vnder his fete, and made subiecte to hym, and he appoynted to be the cheife and principall heade of the vniuersall and hole Catholyke Churche, which is his misticall Body, ha­uyng vnder hym in his Churche here in Earth suche ministers, and after such order and fashion, as lyked him to appoynt and ordayne in the same. And albeit that Chryste is ascended into Heauen, and syttethe on the ryght hande of God the father almyghtye, yet we maye not (as the [...] doo) gether [...] vpō contrarye to the [...], that the [...] of [Page] Chryst, in substaunce is not reallye and truelye in the Sacrament of the Aultare, but contrary [...], [...] Chryst is bothe God and man, and soo [...], or almyghty, and hath by his godhed [...] vnto his manhode, taken vp his Body and his [...] nitie into heauen (which to do is aboue the [...] and reach of onely nature, to accomplyshe and bryng to passe) we ought with the catholyke Churche, firme lye, and stedfastlye beleue, that, [...] as oure Sauiour Chryste bothe promysed to giue his bodye in a Sacrament, and also (perfourming his promise) did it soo in dede, as the [...] and S. Paule also dothe testifye, and declare: the bodye therefore of Chryst doth both sit on the ryght hand of God the fa­ther almyghtye in heauen in the visible forme of a man, accordyng to this article, and is also verely, real ly, and truely in substannce in the Sacramente of the Aultare, vnder the formes of breade and wyne. And where in the. vii. chapyter of the actes it is wrytten of S. Stephan that he dyd see, Iesum stantem a dexteris virtu tis [...]. That is to say: Iesu standing on the ryght hand of the power or vertue of God. Whereby some haue gathered a contrarye: ie in Scripture, [...] shall vnderstande that these wordes Christ to sytte or Christ to stand at the ryghte hande of God the father, are not to be vnderstanded, after the carnal and worldly maner and gesture of man, but spiritu­ally, to signifye hys equalitie wyth God the father & the partycipatyng of all glory with the same, [...] equalytie and partycipatyon in [...] and the ca­tholyke doctours, is as well vnderstande by [...], [Page] as by standyng. Thus haue you hard the hole exposi tion of this. vi. Article, conteynynge in effecte, howe our Sauiour Iesus Chryst, after that he hadde per­fectely accomplished and performed the hole mistery of the redemptyon of mankynde, by hys incarnation his byrth, his passyon his death, his buriall, his discē ­dyng into Hell, and rysyng agayne from death to life and after he hadde bene here in Earth conuersaunte with his Apostles, and Disciples, by ye space of fortye dayes after his resurrection, beyng amongest his A­postles, and he in theyr sight, assended into heauen in the verye fame his naturall bodye, (whyche was borne of the blessed vyrgyn hys mother, and was cru cified vpon the crosse) and so dydde wythdrawe hys accustomed visible conuersation, from the presence of his Apostles, and from the bodely sight of al other creatures. By remembraunce whereof, bothe they & we should here in earth eleuate and lyfte vp our hole hartes, myndes, desyres, & all affections, from earth­ly thynges, and from all carnall and worldlye cares, towardes heauene, and heauenlye thynges, and soo shoulde by hys grace prepare our hartes, and make oure selues [...] and apte to receaue hys spyrytuall gyftes, which he sendeth into the worlde. Wherfore the thing thus beinge, let vs in dede lifte vppe oure hartes and myndes vnto Chryst thus syttynge at ye right hand of God the father, and there praying cō ­tynually for vs. And let vs soo in mynde nowe from henceforth dwel in contemplatiō of heuenly things (during al the space of this mortal life) that we may hereafter for euer dwell with the holy trinitie in glo­ry [Page] euerlastyng Amen.

¶ Thexposition or declaration of the. vii. ar­ticle of the crede, whych is.

‘From thence he shall come to 'iudge the quicke and the deade.’

IN this Article two thynges specyally maye be con sidered, the fyrst is that Chryste beinge ascended in­to Heauen. Shall come from thense. And these­cond is that commyng from thense. He shall iudge both the Quycke and the Deade. For the profe of whych fyrst parte, we haue besides other testymo­nies of Scrypture, the speciall testimonye of Saynt Luke, in the fyrst chapyter of the Actes, wher he (spea king of the Disciples who dyd beholde our Sauiour Chryst when he dyd ascend) saieth thus. Cunque iutue­rentur in coelum euntem illum, ecce duo uiri astiterunt iuxta illos, in uesti­bus albis, qui et dixerunt, uiri Galilei, quid statis aspicientes in celum? Hic­IESVS quia assumptus est a uobis in celum sic ueniet quē admodū uidistis eumeuntem in celum. That is to say: Whenthey dyd be­holde, or loke vpon hym, departing or going into Heauen, Lo two men dyd stande by thē in whyte garmentes who also dyd say, [...] men of Galile, what do you stande lokynge vp into Heauen. This Iesus who is assump­ted or taken vp from you into Heauen, shall [Page] so come as ye haue sene him goyng or depar­ting into heauen.

And so ye see, that into Heauen he is ascended, and from heauen he shall descende, or come. And here shall ye learne that there are two speciall commings of Chryste into the worlde, mentioned and spoken of in scripture, and they be very diuers in them selues the fyrst commynge of Chryste into this worlde, was to be borne of the virgyn Mary, and by his deathe & passion to redeme the worlde, of which is spoken ful­ly and largely, in the exposition, or declaration of the thyrde Article of this Crede. The second commynge of Chryste into this worlde, shalbe to iudge, bothe the quicke and the deade, as is conteyned in this. vii. article. And concernyng the second parte whyche is his comminge to iudge the quicke and the deade, ye shall vnderstand that our sauioure and redemer Je­sus Chryst, beyng ascended (as is declared afore) into heauen, shal come from thence, that is to saye: from heauen into this worlde, and he shall come in his glo­rye and maiestie, and shall then, in the verye visyble fourme of his naturall body, appeare vnto the bode­ly eyes of all the people of the worlde, in his perfecte manhode, and in the selfe same bodye, wherein he as­cended, to the inestimable comforte and reioyse of the good, and the extreme terroure, and confusion of the wycked. Where being accompanied with hys holye Angells his ministers, waytynge vpon hym, he shall sit openly in the cloudes of the ayre, and shal iudge al, quicke and deade, accordinge to truthe and iustyce & accordyng to his holye worde expressed in scrypture, [Page] that is to saye: accordyng to euery mans owne wor­kes and dedes, done by him in hys lyfe tyme, whyche workes and dedes shalbe then examined dyseussed, & tryed, not after menes owne fantasye and inuention, wythout aucthoritie and grounde of Scryptur: but accordyng to the commaundement of God, and the teachyng of Chryste, and his Apostles: For at that day of iudgement, all the people of the worlde, quicke and deade, that is to say, aswell all those whiche shall be founde on lyue in the worlde at that daye, as also all those, which euer syth the creation of Adam, lyued here in thys worlde, and dyed before that daye shall come and appeare afore the presence of Christ, in their very bodyes and soules.

And when they shall be so gathered and assem­bled together, oure sauyoure IESVSCHRIST, shall pronounce the finall sentence and iudgement of euer­lastyng saluation vpon all those persons, whyche in theyr lyfe tyme obeyed and confyrmed them selues vn to the wyll of God, and excused the workes of righte beleife and charitie, and so perseueryng in well doing sought in theyr hartes and dedes, honoure, glory, and lyfe immortall. And contrarywyse, vpon all those, which in theyr lyfe tyme were coutentions, and dyd [...] agaynst the wyl of God, and folowed in iu­stice, and iniquitie, rather than truth and vertue, our sauiour Chryst shal than and there pronounce the sen tence of euerlastynge punyshment and dampnation. In whyche sentence there shalbe made a perfect sepa ration or diuision, betwene these two sorts of people that is to saye: betwene the shepe and the goates, the [Page] come and the chaffe, the good and the badde, the bles­sed and the cursed, the members of his bodye, and the members of the deuyll, and so the good and the bles­sed, being vpon his ryght hande he shall clearely, and perfectly delyuer them for euer, from the power & ma lyce of the wycked, and from all paynes and euyll: and so take them all vp with him into heauen, there to be crowned and rewarded in bodye, and soule, with honoure, and glorye, and euerlastyng ioye, and peace, which was prepared for them from the begin­nynge of the worlde. And all the other whych shalbe iudged to euerlastyng payne, and death (beyng vpon hys lefte hande) he shall send them downe into Hell, there to be punyshed in bodye and soule eternallye, with fyér that neuer shall haue ende, whych was pre pared from the begynnynge of the worlde, vnto the Deuyll and his Angels.

And here it is speciallye to be remembred howe thys article was for great considerations added im­mediatelye, and conioyned vnto the former articles, and chiefly, to the intent that no man shuld in his life tyme, [...] vpon the sayde benefites of Chryste, or take occasion of carnal liberty or securitie, and so liue without feare to transgresse, or withoute regarde to obserue the commaundementes of God: but rather that euery good christen man, shoulde in euerye parte of his lyfe, haue a continuall remembraunce, and re­specte, vnto the laste daye of iudgemente, and so be in continuall feare to commytte any thyng contrary to the wyll of God, for the whiche he myghte deserue to haue the sentence of euerlastynge dampnation pro­nounced [Page] vpon hym. For thys is certaynely true, that at that daye, euery man shalbe called to an accompte of his lyfe, and shal be than fynally iudged, according to his workes, good or badde, done in hys lyfe tyme, that is (as S Paule sayeth, to them that perseuer in well doing, and laboure to attayne glorye, honoure, and immortalitie, shal be gyuen lyfe euerlastyng: and to them that be contentious, and obey not the truthe but folowe and do iniustice, shall come indignation, ire, afflyctyon, trouble, and paynes, euerlastynge.

In this article it is further to be noted, that like as there is nothynge more certayne vnto vs, than that we be all mortall, and shall once dye, and yet no man [...] knoweth the tyme whan he shall dye: euen so there is nothyng more certayne, than that thys daye of iudgement shal once come, and yet the houre, and tyme whan it shalbe, is hydden, and kept secret from the knowledge of all men and angels, and is reser­ued to the knowledge of God onely, whyche thynge precedeth onely of hys goodnes towardes vs, and is done, to the intente we should alwayes here in oure lyfe tyme, flee from sinne, and imploye all our hole stu dy and indeuour to walke in the wayes of God, that is to saye, in such fayth hope, and charitie, as God re­quireth of vs, and so prepare our selues, and order our [...] towardes God, that we may be in a readines at all tymes, whansoeuer it shall [...] God to call & sommon vs to appeare before hym in the sayde gene­rall iudgement, there by his mercye and goodnes, to receaue the crowne which he promysed vnto all men that [...], and loue hym and walke in hys [Page] wayes, This article & ye declaration thereofhath ma­ny and most manifest testimonyes bothe in the olde Testament, and in the newe, of whych amonge ma­ny other, these places folowing may for thys presente suffyce, Psal 92. Eccle. 11. Esa. 13. 51. Zach 14. Mala. 4. Soph. 1. Iohel. 3. Math. 13 16. 24. 25. Mar. 9. 13. Luc. 9. 17. 21. Act. 1. 1. Corrinth. 1. 2. Corin [...] 2. Tessa. 1. &. 2. 1. Thesi. 4. Phil 4. 2. Pet 3. Heb. 10. Apo. 3. &. 22.

¶ Thexposition or declaration of the eyghte article of the crede, which is.

‘I beleue in the holy ghost.’

FOr the better vnderstandynge of thys article, ye shal note that as there is in the Trynitie, one [...] son, which is, and so also called, God the father, and as the same Trynytye, there is an other personne, whyche is and so also called God the sonne: soo in the same Trinitie, there is a thyrd person, whyche is and so also called, God the holye Ghoste. And knowe you also that it is not inoughe to beleue onely that there is an holy Ghost: but we must also beleue in him like­wyse as we do concernyng God the father, and God the sonne, for it is not ynough for vs onely to beleue, yt there is a God the father, and that ther is a God the sonne. But we must beleue in them al, as is more spe­cially and largelye declared before in thexposytyon of the first Article. And this holye Ghost beyng the thirde personne in Trinitie, is in dede, very God and Lorde, author, and former of al thynges created, and dothe procede bothe from God the father, and from [Page] God the son, of one with thē in nature and substaūce and of ye same euerlastyng essence or being which the father and the sonne be of, and is equall also vnto thē both in almyghtynes of power, and in the worke of creation, and in all other thynges pertaynynge vnto the deytie or Godhed, wherefore he is also to be hono­red and glorified equally wyth them both.

This holy Ghost, which is the spyryte of God, is of his nature all holye, yea holynes it selfe, That is to say, he is the onely Ghost or spyryte, whych with the father and the sonne, is, was, and euer shalbe the author, causer, and worker, of all holynesse, purytye, and sanctimonye, and of all the grace, comforte, and spirituall lyfe, whych is wrought, and commethe into the harte of any man, in so muche that no man canne thinke well, or do any thinge that good is, but by the motion, ayde, and assistence of this holye spirite, ney­there is it possible, that the Deuyll, or anye of those euel spyrites, which do possesse and reigne in suche per sons as be subiecte vnto [...], can be expelled or put out of them, but by the power of thys holye spyryte, neyther is it possyble that the harte of anye manne beinge once corrupted & made as prophane by synne can be purged, purified, sanctified, or iustified, wyth­out the worke and operation of thys holye spyryte, neyther is it possible for any man to be reconciled vn to the fauoure of God, or to be made and adopted in to the number of his chyldren, or to obtayne that in comparable treasure, whyche oure sauioure Iesus Chryste [...] purchased and layd vppe for mankynd, oneles this holy spyryte shall first illumyne and lygh­ten [Page] his harte, with the ryght knowledge and faythe of Chryst and stirre him by grace, to haue dewe [...], & penaunce for his synnes, & shall also instruct hym, gouerne hym, aide hym dyrecte hym, and indue him, wyth such spiritual gyftes and graces, as shalbe requisite and necessary to that ende and purpose.

Moreouer thys holy spirite of God, is of hys owne nature full of all goodnes and benignitie: [...] good­nesse it selfe, from whome procedeth all and singuler graces & gyftes of feare, wysedome vnderstandyng, counsell, strength, faythe, charitie, hope and all other whych be geuen, conferred, and distributed, vnto vs mortall men here in the Earth, at his owne wyll and dispensation, and that no man canne purchase or ob­teyne, ne yet receaue, retayne, or vse anye of them, wythoute the operatyon of thys holy Spyryte, whych gyftes neuerthelesse he geueth not, nor dispen seth the same equally and to euery man a lyke, but he deuideth them particularly and speciallye to euerye member of the Churche, as is most necessarye for the hole body, and in suche plentye and measure, as vnto his Godly will and knowledge is thought to be most beneficiall and expediente for the same, All whyche thynges he doth of his mere mercy and goodnes fre­ly and aboue our deseruyng.

Furthermore this holy spirit is of his owne nature ful of charitie & holy loue, yea charitie it self, frō whōe procedeth al charitye, & so by his godly operatiō is the bond & knot, wherewith our Sauioure Iesus Christ and his most dere espouse the Church (whiche is also hys misticall body) be vnyted, knytte and conioyned [Page] together, in such perfect & euerlastinge loue and cha­ritie that the same cannot be dyssolued or separated: And ouer this, is also the very bond and knot, where by all and euerye one of the verye members of Chrystes Churche and Bodye, be vnited, coupled, & conioyned, the one of them with the other in mutuall loue and charitie.

Also thys holye spyryte of God is the spyrite of truthe, and the aucthour of all holye scripture, contei­ned in the hole canon of the byble, and dyd not onely inspyre, and instruct all the holy patriarches and pro­phetes, with all the other members of the Catholike Churche, that euer were from the begynnyng of the worlde, in all the Godlye truthes and verytyes, that euer they dyd knowe, speake, or wrytte, but also des­cended and appeared in the similitude and lykenesse of fyrye tonges, and dyd lyghte vpon the Apostles & Dyscyples of Chryste, and inspyred them wyth the knowledge of all truth, and replenyshed them wyth heauenly gyftes and graces: and shalbe contynually present in the Catholyke Church, and shal teach and reuele vnto the same Church, the secretes and myste­ryes of all truth, whych are necessarye to be knowen, and shall also continuallye from tyme to tyme, rule, dyrecte, gouerne, and sauctyfye the same Churche, & gyue remyssion of synnes, and all spirituall comforte aswell inwardelye by secret operations, as also out­wardelye by the open mynystratyon and effycacye of the worde of God, and of the holy Sacramentes, in the sayd Churche: and shall endue it wyth all such spyrytual graces and gyftes, as shalbe necessarye for [Page] the same.

[...] shall also note, that albeit holy Scrypture dothe worthely attribute, vnto the holy Ghost, our sanctifi­cation, our iustification and al other benefites which Chryst by hys passion hath meryted and deserued for vs, yet neuerthelesse the same be also the workes of the hole Trynitie, and be not to be seperated in any wyse, although Scripture commonly doth attribute them vnto the holy Ghost: For in lyke [...] dothe Scrypture artribute power vnto the father, and wysdome vnto the sonne, whyche neuerthelesse be common vnto all three.

FINALLY ye shall note the maner of the speache here in thys article, where it is not sayde. I beleue ye Ghost or spirite, but it is sayd, I beleue in ye holy Ghost, and so holy is adioined vnto ye Gost, whiche is done not onely to declare that here is not mente of euery thynge that is or maye be called a spyryte or a Ghost, but here is onely ment of that spyryte, whyche by excellencye, and by peculyer name in Scrypture bothe is and so also called, the holy spyryte or Ghoste which is the thyrd person in Trynytie, and therefore thoughe manye tymes in Scrypture, an incorporall thing is called a spyryte, and also both Angels and ye myndes of men dyuerse tymes haue that appellation or name, yet here aswell for the sayde peculier name, as by a certen excellency, the sayd thyrd person in tri­nytie, is called the holy spyryte, or holy Ghost, for he it is that doth make holye or sanctifye all creatures, that are called holye.

¶ Thexposition or declaration of the ninthe Article of the Crede, which is.

‘The holy Catholyke Church?.’

IN these fewe wordes, of this nynthe Article foure thynges are to be considered, fyrste what heare is ment by thys worde, Churche. Secondely whye or for what cause the same Churche is called Holye. Thirdely why it is called, Catholyke. And forthely what it is To beleue the holi Catholike Chur­che Concernyng the fyrste ye must vnderstande that thoughe in oure Englyshe tonge we by thys worde Churche, sometymes do meane the place wherein the word of GOD is commonlye preached and the sa­cramentes mynistred, and vsed, yet in this present ar­ticle it dothe sygnyfye the hole multitude of people, which being called of GOD do come, to one fayth, one doctryne, the selfe same Sacramentes accordyng to the Apostolyke, and catholyke tradition, in an indiui sible bonde or knotte of concorde, and vnytie, whe­ther the sayde multytude be of the cleargye, or of the laytie. Concernyng the seconde ye shall consyder that albeit in the sayd church or multitude of people, there be many euyll men, many synners, many that tourne by true penaunce to grace, and sometymes yet do fall agayne: some after theyr tourne by true penaunce, styll perseuer and contynue in goodnes, manye also that fall and neuer ryse agayne, so that spottes, blots, [Page] and imperfections, doo appeare [...] in thys Churche, and manye tymes in the more parte thereof yet neuerthelesse because the callyng is of it selfe holy the caller also most holy, and the ende of callynge, ho­lynes it selfe, with this [...] that the people soo called do prosesse holynes, aud make a bodye, where of the cheife headde our Sauiour Chryste is mooste holye or rather holynes it selfe, by the merytes of whose [...] the sayde people are releued, and nouryshed with the seuen holy sacramentes, and be in theyr cal­lyng endued with moste speciall holy gyftes, and gra ces of almyghtye God, beynge authoure thereof, and fynally by hys holy spyryte are directed, and gouer­ned in the saine, so longe as they (by folowyng theyr concupyscence, the Deuyll, or the worlde) do not fall from that state. For these causes, I say, the Church is called Holye, takyng this name Holye, of that, that Chryste the highe headde thereof is Holye, God the caller, Holye, The profession and callynge, Holye, & the ende Holynes. whych of very dewty, ought to be in all them that be called, and is in dede', in suche members as doo continue and perseuer in that holye callyng. Touchynge the thyrde ye must vnderstande that thys worde. Catholyke, being orygynally ta­ken out of the Greke toungue, and nowe vsed in oure Englyshe tongue, is asmuche to saye as vnyuersall or whole. And forasmuch as God of hys goodnes dothe call al people (as is afore) withoute all acceptyon of [...], or acception of Countrye, therefore thys Churche is called, Catholyke, in asmuch as all people [Page] of all maner of estates, of all places and countryes throughout the hole worlde, may (professyng the fore­sayd one fayth, one doctrine, and the selfe same sacra­mentes, accordyng to the sayd Apostolique and catho lyke tradition) be of thys Catholyke churche, and cō ­tynue in the same, excepte they wyllyngly, by heresy & scysme, do goo out of it, or for other theyr offences be cut of and cast oute thereof. And here by the waye is to be noted, that althoughe in the worlde ther be ma­nye particuler Churches, and seuerall multytudes of people, hauing the sayd fayth, the sayd doctryne, and the selfe same Sacramentes accordynge to the sayde tradition, and therefore are commonlye called euerye one of them, catholyke, yet they all together make but one catholyke vniuersall Churche, of whyche one catholyke vniuersall Churche, al the rest be called ca­tholyke, as beynge partakers and members, of the sayd one catholyke vniuersall Church, and fully agre­ing in al necessary poyntes with the same. And nowe as concernyng the fourth whyche is, What it is. To beleue the Catholyke Churche. Ye shal vnderstand that to beleue the Catholyke Churche, is not onelye to beleue that here in earthe is and shalbe continually to thend of the worlde, such a holy catho­lyke Churche (as before is declared commonly called the Church Mylytante) but also to gyue credyte and beleife vnto the whole Doctryne, fayth, and religyon of the sayd Church.

And for the farther vnderstanding of thys whole article, here maye moost frutefully and verye well to the purpose, be brought in one most notable place of [Page] S Augustyne, wryten vpon this same article of the Crede, in his, clxxxi sermon de tempore, where he sayeth in thys maner. Sciendum est, quod Ecclcsiam credere, non tamen in Ecclesiam credere, debemus, qui Ecclesia non Deus, sed domus dei est. Ca­tholicam dicit toto orbe diffusam quia diuer sorūhaereticorum ecclesic idio catholicae non dicuntur, quio per loca at (que) per suas quas (que) prouincias canti­nentur. Haec uero a solis ortu us (que) adoccasum unius fidei splendore diffūdi­tur. Nullasunt maiores diuitiae, nulli the sauri, nulli honores, nullae huius mundi maior substantia quam est cacholicafides, quae peccatores homines saluat saecos illuminat, infirmos curat, Cate chuminos baptizat fideles iusti­ficat, poenitentis reparat, iustos augmentat martyris coronat, clericos ordi­nat, sacerdotes consecrat, regnis celestibus preparat, & in aeterna haeredi­tate cum Angelis sanctis communicat. Quisquis ille est, & [...]: ille est Cristianus nonest, qui in Christi Ecclesia non est. Solaquippe est per­quam sacrificium dominus libentur accipiat sola quae pro errantibus fiducia liter intercedat. Vnde etiam de agni hostia dominus praecepit dicens. [...] Domo commeditls, necefferetis de carnibus eius [...], In unanā (que) domo ag­nus come ditur, quia in una Catholica ecclesia uera hostia redēptoris immo latur. De cuius carnibus diuinaiussio efferriforas prehibet, quia dari sanctū canibus uetat. Sola est in qua opus bonum fructuose peragitur, unde merre dē de narū non nisi qui intra uine ā laborauerūt acceperūt. Sola est quae in ra se positos uaelid a charitatis cōpage custodit. unde & aqua diluuii arcā quidē ad sublimiora sustulie omnes autem quos extro arcam inuenit extinxit. Sola est in qua mysteria superna ueraciter contemplemur. Vnde ad Moyses Dominus dicit, Estlocus apud me, & stabis suprapetram, [...] Paulo post tol lammanum mean & uidebit posteriora mea Quia enim cx sola catholica Ecclesia ucritas conspicitur apud se esse locum Dominus perbibet de quo ui [...] in petra Moyses ponitur ut Deispeciē contempletur, quia nisi quii fidei soliditatem tenuerit, [...] presentam non agnoscit, Auelle, inquit, radium solis a corpore, diuisionem lucis unitas non capit. Frange [...] ab arbore, fractus germinare non poterit. A fonte praecide riuum praecisus as rescit, In his Cipriani uerbis intelligimus lucem non capere diuisionem nisi in sanctis regno Dei praedestinatis qui diuidi ab Ecclesia nullo modo possunt [...] non germinare ramum sructum salutis [...] germine accipimus, Aridi­tatem uero riui a fonte praecisi, in co quod spiritu sancto [...] qui [...] [Page] unitate seperantur [...]. That is to say: We ought to beleue the churche, and not in the churche: for the churche is not God, but the house of god. Thys churche he calleth catholyke, that is to saye, spredde thoroughout the whole worlde, because the churches of sundrye heretikes, be ynge but in perticuler places and prouinces, can in no wyse be called catholyke. But thys church from the East to the West, glyttereth and [...] with the brightnes of one fayth. No greater ryches no greater treasures, no higher honours, no greater substance, can be in thys worlde, that is the catholyke faythe, which saueth synners, gyueth syghte to the blynd, doth heal the sycke, maketh yonglin­ges to be baptised, iustifyeth the faythfull, re­storeth penitent synners, encreseth righteous men, crowneth martyres, doeth admitte cler­kes to orders, doth consecrat preistes, maketh preparation to the kyngdome of heauen, and makethe men partakers of the euerlastynge enheritaunce with the holye Angels. Who so euer he be, and of what qualitie or condytion soeuer he be, he that is not in thys churche of Christ, is no Chrysten man: for this church is [Page] she onely by whome our Lorde willingly re­ceyueth sacrifice, she onely it is whyche maye confidently make intercession for suche as do erre. Wherefore oure Lorde speakynge of the sacrifyce of the lambe: did commaund [...] In one house shall ye eate, and of the fleshe thereof ye shall cary nothyng out of the dores forsoth in one house is this lambe eaten, for as­muche as in one catholyke churche, the true sacrifice of oure redemer is offered. Of whose fleshe the commoundemēt of God forbiddeth any thing to be caried oute, for that he forbid deth that whych is holye, to be [...] dogges, She onelye it is in whome a good worke is done frutefullye, for whiche cause onely, they that laboured wythin the vyne yarde hadde the rewarde of the pennye. She only, it is that al such as ar once placed in her doth kepe together with a stronge ioynte, or knotte of charitie, Wherefore the water of the floude, bare vppe the arke to the [...], but all suche as were founde withoute the same arcke, it drowned, She onely it is in whome we do beholde truely the heauenly misteries, Wherefore oure Lorde sayeth vnto Moyses [Page] Exod .xxxiii. There is a place with or byme, and thou shalt stand vpon the rocke. &c. and by and by af­ter he saieth. I will take awaye my hande, and thou shalt se my backe part. And because in dede out of this catholyke church alone, the truth is sene our Lorde sayeth, a place to be wyth him frō whych he may be sene, Moyses is sette vpon the rocke, that he maye beholde the forme of God, for onles a man haue and hold the stedy substanciales of faith, he knoweth not ye dy­uine presence, Take away sayth he (meanyng S. Cyprian) the beame of the sonne from the body of the sonne, the vnitie of the lyght, can not suffer no diuision: breake a boughe from the tree, the bough so broken, can florishe and budde no more, cut of the riuer frō the spring, the ryuer so cut of, dryeth vp. In these wordes of Cypryan we perceyue that lyght doth not admytte any diuision in the sayntes predesti­nate to the Kyngedome of God, which can by no meanes be deuided frome the Churche, and that the bough broken of, can not budde with a budde of euerlastyng saluation. And fynally we knowe the drying vp of the riuer beinge cutte of from the sprynge or heade, in [Page] that they are made voyde of the holye ghoste whych are seperate frō the vnitie. Thus muche sayeth S. Augustyne, wherby it appeareth yt though we muste beleue in God the father, in God the sonne, and in God the holy Ghost (as was declared here a­fore vnto you in the expositiō of the first artycle of this crede) yet concernynge the Catholique Churche, we must beleue it. That is to saye: geue credite to it, but not to beleue in it: for to beleue in it, were to make it God, as more at large shalbe declared in some Home­lies, hereafter specially to be made thervpon, & also by what sygnes & tokens the true Catholyke churche is continually knowen.

And forasmuch as this catholyke militant church of which this article entreateth, hath for the preseruation of the vnitie thereof, by the ordinaunce, and ap­poyntment of our sauiour Chryst, one principall head or cheife gouernour, here vpon earth, whiche beynge the chief vycar, and substitute of Chryst, in hys sayde church, doth, and ought, with other ministers vnder him attende, and geue heade, to the good order, and rule of the said militant churche (S. Peter the Apo­stle being the firste generall vycar aud gouernoure, therein, and hauing to hym, and to all his lawful suc­cessours iu the Apostolique see, the gouernaunce, rule and charge thereof, cheifelye committed and geuen, whych in very dede, both he and they, by the continu­all helpe, and assistaunce of the holye spyryte of God, from tyme to tyme in theyr succession, alwaies hither to haue done, and thereby haue preserued, and kepte the vnitie of the sayde churche) therefore all they whi­che haue, or do refuse to acknowledge the said gouer­noure, [Page] gouernement, and aucthoritie, can not in anye wyse be accompted or taken for catholyke persones, but for suche as in dede are disobedient, seditious scis­matike, and verye wicked people, as more at large shalbe declared in some homelies to be specially made therevpon.

¶ Thexposition or declaration of the tenthe article of the Crede whiche is.

‘The communion of saynctes, The forge­uenes of synnes.’

IN this article be taughte two speciall fruites and benefites, whiche all men called of God, and obey­inge to the same, callinge in their wyll and workes, doe obtayne by Goddes grace, in the sayd Catholyke churche, that is to say. The communion of saintes and forgyuenes of synnes. And here is to be noted, that although this worde, Sainctes, in oure Eng­lyshe toungue signifieth properly them that be depar­ted this life, and be established with glorye in Chryst. [...] the same worde Sainctes, (whereby in thys article we expresse the Latyn word, Sanctorum,) is here extended to signifye not onely those that be so depar­ted this life and established, but also such as beyng in lyfe here in earth, be called into this holy assēble and Churche, and be sanctyfyed in oure Sauyoure Iesu Chryste. Accordyuge wherevnto S. Paule in son­dry [Page] hys epystles, to the Roma. 12. to the Epher. to the Philip. 4 to the Colos. 1. and to the [...]. 14. vseth the sayd worde, Sayntes, and so doth he in dynerse other places els.

And as touchyng the fyrst of the sayd. ii. frutes or benefites, whiche is. The cōmunion of saintes. That is to saye the mutual participation of saynctes, ye shall vnderstande that lyke as al the [...] parts and members of the naturall body of man, do natu­rally communicate and be participante of one spirit or soule which gouerne the sayde bodye, and euerye lyuelye parte thereof, euen so doe all good Chrysten men, participate of one holy ghost, whyche alwayes gouerneth the catholyke churche, and allyuely mem bres of the same, and doth geue to sondrye members, sondry spirituall giftes, to the intent the whole body should therby be edified, accordyng to the sayinge of S. Paule in the, xii. Chapter of his fyrste Epystle to the Corynthians, where he sayeth in thys maner.

Vnicuique autem datur manifestatio spiritus ad utilitatem. Alis quidem per spiritum datur sermo [...], alijautem sermo [...] secundū eun dem spiritum. Alteri fides in [...], alij gratia sanit at um in eodem spiritu, aly operatio uirtutum, alii prophetia alii discreto spiritum, alii generalinguarum alii interpretatio sermonum. Hec autem omniaoperas tur unus a que idem spiritus, diui dens singulis prout uult. That is. The gyftes of the holye ghoste are geuen to euery man, to profyte other wythall, to one is geuen throughe [...] spirite the vtteraunce of wisedome. To another is geuen the vtte­taunce of [...] by the same spyryte to [Page] another, fayth by the same spirite, to another the gifte of healinge by the same spyryte, to another power to doe miracles: to another prophecye, to another iudgement to discerne spirites, to another dyuerse tongues, to an­other interpretation of sayinges. And al these thinges worketh the selfe same spirite, deuy­dinge to euerye man as he wyll. By which place of Saynt Paule, it is euident that al the lyue­lye members of the Churche doe communycate and participate of one common spiryte.

And this participation beinge one of the hyghe­este benefites, that men receaue in the Catholyke Churche, is comprehended in this article of the com­munion of Saynctes. Of whyche communyon the Prophet Dauid in his. cxviii. psalmedoth also speake sayinge. Particeps ego sum omnium timentium te, et [...] man data tua That is to say. I am partaker wyth all suche as feare the, and kepe thy [...]. But besides this foresayd participation or communion of the holy ghost, beyng commune to all the liuelye members of the Churche, there is also an other communion comprehended lykewyse in thys article, whiche is the [...] or vnion that all good christen men haue with Chryste, who is the heade of the churche and who hath for his mystycall bodye the whole churche. And of this kynde of com­munion of Saynctes, S. Paule lykewyse speaketh, [Page] in the foresayd twelth chapiter of hys fyrst epystle to the Corynthyans, saying. In uno spiritu omnes nos in [...] pus baptizati sumus, siue dei, siue gentiles, siue serui, siue liberi & omnes in uno spiritu potati sumus. That is to saye: In one spyrite are we all baptyzed to make one bodie, whe­ther we be Iewes or Gentils, free or bonde, and haue all dronke of one spyryte. And lyke­wise doth he in the fifte to the Ephesians where spea kyng of the same he sayeth. [...] sumus corporis eius, de car ne cius, et de ossibus cius. That is to saye: We are mem­bres of his bodye (meanyng of the body of Christ) and of his fleshe and of his bones.

And forasmuch as the moste blessed sacrament of the aulter (wherein by the myghtye operatyon of God­des worde, is really present in the fourmes of breade and wyne the naturall lyuynge bodye and bloude of oure sauyoure and redemer Iesu Chryste) doeth in­crease and worke in all them that worthelye doe re­ceaue it, the communion and coniunction in bodye & soule of them to Chryste, and of Chryst to them, with a mutuall coniunctyon also in loue and charytye, of eche good man in Christ to other. Therefore the sayd Sacrament may also worthely be called the commu nion of Sayntes. And so hathe the fyrst parte of this article been by good deuoute and learned menne ex­pounded longe ago.

Nowe touchy nge the seconde fruite or benefite in thys article whyche is the remission of synnes, you shall vnderstand, that onely in the catholyke church, [Page] and no where els the remissiō of synnes is to be had. And there vndoubtedlye it is to be had: and that by two meanes, that is to wytte by baptisme, and after baptisme by due penaunce and [...] of the keyes, geuen vnto the churche. And as for baptisme it washeth cleane awaye al the former synnes as well actuall as originall: so that they shall neuer after that be imputed vnto vs. But in case after baptisme we fall into synne then the remedy must be by the whol­some sacramente of Penaunce, whiche sacrament is of so greate forse and vertue, that howe heynous so euer oure synnes and offenses be, yet by the meane of the same, the sayde synnes maye be and are released & forgeuen vnto vs. And for to take away all doutyng on our behalfe herein, and that no man shoulde nede to dispayre, oure Sauioure Chryste openlye and by expresse wordes, in the twentye of Sayncte Iohn af ter he had breathed vpon hys Disciples, sayde vnto them, and generallye to theyre Successours. [...] the holy ghost, whose synnes ye release or for­geue they are forgeuen or released vnto them and whose ye withholde or reteyne, they are withholden or reteyned. And also with a special [...] assygned vnto Saynct Peter, gaue vn­to hym and hys lawfull successours, the full [...] of releasyng and withholdyng of synnes, saiyng vnto hym (as it is written in the. xvi. of Mathewe. Tibi dabo claues regni celorum: quodcunque ligaueris super terram crit ligatum et in celis: et quodcumque solueris super terram erit solutum et in celis. That is to saye: Unto thee will I geue the [Page] Keyes of the kyngdome of heauen, whatso­euer thou doest bynde vpon earth, shall also be bounde in heauen, and whatsoeuer thou loosest vpon earth, shall also be loosed in hea­uen. Which [...] all Chrysten men shoulde to theyr great comforte moste gladly imbrace, and by al meanes be most carefull and wary (to the vttermost of theyr power) to kepe them selues in such state that they may styll enioye the fruit of this soo comforta­ble a priueledge. Wherefore good people (accordyng to the exhortation of the Prophete Ezechiell, in the eyghtenth chapter) Tourne and doe penaunce for all youre iniquities, and youre iniquitye shall not be your destruction. But youe shall vndoutedly (accordyng to thys article) be vnburde­ned of your synnes, and made partakers of the com­munion of saynctes bothe in thys worlde and in the worlde to come.


¶ Thexposition or declaration of the eleuēth artycle of the Crede whiche is.

‘The resurrection of the Bodye.’

Coucernynge thys eleuenth article, for asmuche as it may seme itraunge to some men why: thys word Body, is here placed in the Englishe, seyng the Latin is. Carnis resurrcctionem, That is to sai. The resur rection of the fleshe. [...] shal knowe that in [...] [Page] ture many tymes thys worde (fleshe) doeth signyfye the hole man, as for example, where it is wrytten in the fyrst of S. Jhon. Verbum caro factum est. that is to saye The worde was made fleshe. the meanynge is that the sonne of god toke vpon hym the hole nature of man. Agayne, [...] the fyrste chapiter of saynt Paules fyrste epystle to the Corynthians, it is wryt­ten in thys maner. Vt non glorietur omnis caro, that is to say That no fleshe should glorye, the meanynge is that no man should glorye. Lykewyse, where in the thyrde of S. Luke it is wrytten. Videbit omnis caro salutare dei. That is. All fleshe shall se the sauiour sent of God, The meanynge is, that al men shall see the sa­uiour sent of god. And manye tymes also thys sayde worde (Fleshe) doeth in scrypture, signifye onely the bodye of man without any respect of the soule there­of, as in the fyrst Chapyter of Genesis, where Adam speakyng of hys wyfe Eue, sayth in this maner. Caro de carne [...]. that is. Fleshe of my fleshe. meanynge that her body was made of hys bodye. Lykewyse in the. xxi, of Job, where Job sayeth. Concutit carnem [...] tremor. That is, Tremblyng dothe shake my fleshe. meanyng there by hys fleshe hys bodye. And accordynge to thys seconde acception, thys Latyne worde. Carnis, Which is to saye: Of the fleshe, is ta­ken here in thys article of the Latyn Crede, and by cause the body, and the fleshe, here in this article, doe signifye and meane one thing, we maye both say the resurrection of the body, and also the resurrection of [Page] the fleshe.

And therby we doe vnderstand that at the day of the generall dome or Judgemente, when Chryste shall come (as in the. vii. article of thys Crede is con­tayned) and sitte to iudge the quicke and the deade: almighty God shall styrre and rayse vppe againe the very fleshe and bodies of all men, women, and Chyl­drē, both good and bad, christened and heathen, that euer lyued here in this world, from the begynnynge of the same, and died before that day. And althoughe the sayde fleshe and bodyes were deade and buryed, yea, and consumed, or by anye meanes destroyed, yet God shall of his infinite power make them all at that day, wholl and perfecte agayne. And soo euerye man generally shall resume and take agayne, the very selfe same bodie and flesh in substaūce, which he had whi les he liued here on earth, and so shall rise from death and liue agayne in the very selfe same bodie and soule which he had before.

[...] whych tyme, man thus beyng made perfect in coniunction of body and soule, shall at that daye, ap­peare before the hygh iudge our sauiour Jesu Chryst and there shall make an accompte of his workes, and hys dedes such as he did (good or euil) while he liued here in thys worlde. And for profe that the contentes of this article are true, these authorities and testimo­nies both of the olde and the newe testamente, shalbe sufficient for this presente, that is to witte, the. xix. of Job. Esay. xxvi. Ezechi. xxxvii. Daniel. xii. Mathew. xxii. John. v. Rom, xiiii. i. Cor. xv, ii. Cor. v, i, Thes, iii. and. iiii. Philip. iii. and the, ii, to Timoth. ii.

¶ The exposition or declaration of the twelft Article of the Crede, whiche is.

‘And the lyfe euerlastynge. Amen.’

In these fewe wordes is the moost comfortable and ioyous knyttynge vppe of this Crede that maye be. For two excellent thinges are here sette fourth to be beleued, the fyrst is Lyfe, whiche all thynges do de­syre: the second, is the Eternitie, and continuall lastyng of it. which is a thyng that maketh it most pleasaunte, and most swete and most profitable. And when I do saye that ther is a lyfe, and also an euer­lastyng lyfe, I doo meane both concernyng the body and also concernynge the soule, for vnto them bothe this euerlastyng lyfe shal without any endynge con­tynue and abyde.

B V T H E R E muste ye marke, that lyke as the good shall enioye for euer, thys mooste [...] estate of euerlastyng lyfe to theyr vnspeakeable com­forte and gladnes, so also the noughtye and wycked shall bothe in bodye, and also in soule receaue for euer punyshmente and tormente incessantly, accordynge whervnto our Sauiour Chryst in the. xxv. of saynte Mathewe sayeth. Et ibunt hi in supplicium [...] em in uitam eternam. That is to saye. And they (meanynge the noughtye and wycked) shall goe into euer­lastinge punyshment, but the iuste shall goo [Page] into lyfe euerlasting. And herevpon maye be [...], that though the noughtye, and wycked shall continue for euer, and haue immortalitie, yet foras­much they so contynuing shall neuer haue ioye but e­uerlastyng torment of body and soule, without hope of forgyuenes, and wythoute anye ende: Therefore theyr contynuaunce and immortalitie is rather to be called euerlastynge deathe, then euerlastynge lyfe, or lyfe at all, accordynge whervnto S. Paule in the. vi chapiter of his epystle to the Romaynes, doth saye. Stipendia enim peccatimors, gratia autem dei uita [...], in CHRISTO IESV domino nostro. That is to saye: The rewarde in dede of synne is death, but eternall lyfe is the gyfte of God through Jesu Chryst our lorde. So that such as haue led theyr lyues, in obedience & obseruation of Goddes commaundementes. and die in true fayth and charitie, shall then be perfectly [...] tified. puryfyed, and delyuered frome all contagion of synne, and from all corruptible and mortalitie of ye [...], and shalbe perpetuallye glorified, and receaue both in bodye and soule together, euerlastynge lyfe, which lyfe euerlastyng, though it passeth all mennes wittes, to expresse howe pleasaunt and ioyefull it is, and that mannes capacitie, can not compryse and vn derstande the same (as S. Paule witnesseth in hys [...] epistle to the Corinthians the. ii. chapter saying: That whiche the eye hath not sene, nor the eare hath not herde, nor hath not entred into mans harte, GOD hath ordeyned for them [Page] that loue hym, [...] holye scrypture speaketh of it, after our capacitie, and intelligence, but farre vnder the worthynes & excellency thereof. For the prophete Esay sayeth, in the. xxxv. chapiter. Euerlastynge gladnes shalbe ouer their heades, they shall haue ioye and gladnes, sorowe and wayling shall forsake them. And [...] Jhon in the seuenth chapyter of hys [...] sayeth, God that syt­teth on his throne shal dwell ouer them They shall not hunger or thyrste anye more, neyther sonne nor heate shall hurte them, for the lambe that is in the myddes of the throne, shal fede them, and bryng them to the fountaynes of the water of lyfe: and God shall wype awaye all weapyng & teares from theyr eyes, death shall endure no longer. There shalbe no way­lyng, nor crying, nor sorowe anye more, [...] there is no ioye or comforte, that can be wysshed for, but it is there moost plentyfully. There is true glorye, where prayse shalbe without errour or flattery. There is tru honour which shalbe geuen to none, onles he be wor­thye, there is true peace, where no man shalbe mo­lested or greued, neyther by hymselfe, nor by others. There is true and pleasaunte felowshype, where is the company of blessed angels, and the elect and cho­sen [...] of God. There is true and perfecte loue, that neuer shall fayle. For all the heauenly companye is linked and fastened together, by the bonde of per­fecte charitie, whereby also they be vnited and knitte to almyghty God euerlastynglye.

[Page]Fynallye there is the true rewarde of all Godly­nes, God hym selfe, the sight and fruition of whome, is the ende and rewarde of al oure beleife, and of all oure good workes, and of all those thynges whyche were purchased for vs by Chryst, He shalbe oure sa­cietie, or fulnesse, and desyre, he shalbe oure lyfe, oure helth our glorye, our honour, oure peace, oure euerla­styng reste and ioye, he is the ende of all our desyres, whome we shall se continually, whom we shall loue most feruently, whom we shall prayse and magnifye incessantly, and world without ende.

And forasmuch as most firmely and wythout all doute we beleue al the foresayd articles of this crede and euery thing concerninge the same, and in them comprehended to be moste true: And moreouer for yt we lykewyse beleue al thynges whiche concerne ey­ther oure creation, redemption, or sanctification, of the heuenly father, by hys sonne, and with the holye ghoste, to be fully wrought, and that they shall moste certenlye through the mercye of God, come vnto vs. Therefore in the ende of this crede we saye. Amen. Whiche is a worde confirmyng a sayinge, and a pray inge that it maye soo be allowed and establys­shed, the verye signification of whyche worde beyng, be it so, moost certaynelye.

Of the seuen Sacramentes.

FOrasmuche as there are nowe two parts performed of the pro­myse made vnto you in the preface of thys worke, it is to wytte, of the acception or ta kynge of this worde Fayth, and also of the articles ofye [...] with expositiō, or de­claratiō of the same. The nexte matter to be set forth and declared, is the treatyse of the. vii. Sacramentes, with theyr exposi­tions. And forasmuche as it is expediente before the speciall intreatye therof, to speake somewhat, aswell of the signification of this word Sacrament being taken in his generaltie, as also to defyne in specialtie howe this word Sacrament, shalbe taken and vn­derstanded here in this treatyse, therefore here in the begynning, these two thynges shalbe set fourth and opened vnto you.

And as concernyng the fyrste, ye shall vnderstand that this worde Sacrament, is diuersely takē, for amongest them that haue a respecte to the proprietie of the Latin tounge, & do seke the significatiō thereof in prophane writers. A sacramente amonge other [...], is pryncipally called an obligation or [Page] promyse made and confyrmed by an othe, of whyche thinge S. Augustine in his. clxxxi. Sermon maketh mention. And amonges them that haue a respect vn to scrypture, and the wryters thereof, a Sacrament doth signify a mistery, that is to saye, a secret or hyd­den thynge apperteynyng to the religion: and so be­yng consydered, it is sometymes taken in a more lar­ger signifycation, and sometymes in a more strayter: and beynge taken in the larger signification it doth signifye euerye secrete mysterye appertaynynge to religion, and euerye holy thynge hydden, thoughe it be not a sygne or token of another thyng, as whē we vse to name and say, the sacrament of the godheade, meanynge thereby the very godhead it selfe, whythe is a hyd and secrete thynge, and yet not a sygne or token of any other thynge. And in this signification also S. Paule doth vse it in the fyrste Chapter of hys epystle to the Ephesians, where he sayeth that God hath reueyled or opened vnto vs the Sacrament of his wyll, meanynge there (by the Sacramente of hys wyll) the secrete eternal wyl of God, whereby he appoynted from the begynnynge, that the Gentyles shoulde be incorporated, and made partakers of hys promyse in Iesu Chryste, in whome we al haue trust, and in truste, haue an accesse by fayth vnto him. And lykewise he doth in the thyrd chapter of his fyrst epystle to Tymothe, where be writeth [...] this maner. Et manifeste [...] est pictatis Sacramentum, quod mainfestatum est [...]. &c. That is to saye: And vndoubtedly, great is the Sacrament of godlynes, whiche is she wed in the flesh. &c. Meanyng therby, that Chryst [Page] hym selfe is a great Sacrament of godlines, for that he beyng the inuisible sonne of God, is manifested or opened in the fleshe.

And this worde sacramente, beynge taken after the strayter maner or acception, (in which moost cō ­monlye it is) it signifieth the sygne of a holye thynge, which beareth the similitude or likenes of the thyng, whose signe it is. After which sort the sygnes and fy­gures of the olde testamente are called sacramentes, & so the auncient fathers, speakynge of the sygnes of the olde testament, do vse commonly and frequently to name them. According whereunto S. Augustine in the. xiii. Chapiter of his. xix. boke agaynst Faustus doth saye. Prima Sacramenta gue obseruabantur & celebrabantur ex lege [...] erant Christi uenturi. That is to saye: The fyrste Sacramentes whyche were obserued and celebrated by the lawe, were prenuncia­tyue of Christe to come. Nowe to consider the si­gnification of this worde sacrament, as it shalbe con sidered and vsed in this treatyse, (which is the moost straytest signification of al other) ye shall note, that it being so takē, is defined after this sort. That is to say Asacrament is a visible signe of an inuisible grace of God, whiche grace, God effectually and certenly, doth worke in it, so that the same be duelye handled, and not vnworthelye receaued. Accordyng to which diffinition, and the worde sacrament being so taken, there are. vij. sacramentes of the churche and no mo, it is to wytte, Baptysine, Confyrmation, Penaunce, Eucharistie (or the sacrament of the aultare) Order, [Page] Matrimonye, and extreme vnction. And these seuen to be suche sacramentes, and mysteryes, and so truly and properly to be accepted and taken, the olde aun­cient fathers of the catholyke church, haue prudently and godly obserued, & noted especiallye, for that they so be sensible signes of the inuisible grace of God, that they both beare the ymage, or similitude, and be also the cause of the inuisible grace of God that is geuen, Which to make more playne and manyfest vnto you let vs for declaration hereof, consider external thyn­ges. [...] know that externall thinges may sometims be considered as done for them owne selues, and the same external thinges may also be considered as dōe for other thynges, to be signified and noted by them in that respect in whiche they are in dede, and be cal­led signes or tokens. As for example, a rynge is some­tyme geuen not as a signe or token of an other thing but onely for it owne self, & sometymes it is geuē as a conuenient and fytte sygne or token of fydelitie, as whan the Lorde doth geue [...] his vassail a rynge, for a token of the inuestiture of possession or liuerye of his fee or gyfte, which rynge beynge so geuen and receaued, the vassall not onelye is asserteyned of the beneuolence or benefit receaued of his Lord, but also there is contracted and made thereby, betwene the sayd vassall, and his sayde Lorde, a certayne coue­naunte and bargayne, so that the sayd vassal, hauing receaued the same rynge, maye saye, I haue nowe a tytle of inheritaunce, and not a rynge onelye. After the same maner must you thinke and beleue (whyche is the chefe poynte in this matter) that our lorde Ie­sus [Page] Christe, did chose and ordeyne signes, by whiche God in the vertue of hys worde, myght cure or heale our synnes, and (as it were) inueste vs of hys grace, and bynde vs vnto hym by a spiritual bonde or coue­naunte. For so commonlye it semed good to God al­myghtye, by sensyble thynges, and signes to lead and traine vs to inuisible and spiritual thinges. And such also is the dulnes of our vnderstandynge (beynge de­riued vnto vs from oure fyrste parentes Adam and Eue, throughe theyr transgression) that of our selues we are not able to ryse vp, or clymbe to the knowe­ledge of God, or by the forse of oure reason, to attayne to the knowledge of gods wyll, in releasynge or for­geuynge synnes.

Wherefore God alwayes bothe by wordes and also by outwarde or external signes, hath dealt with vs, whereby he myghte open or [...] hym selfe vnto vs, and also declare hys wyl by the same. In so much that where as in olde tyme God by many meanes & by sondry wayes did speake in his prophetes, & gaue counsayle as by worde, by the lawe, by sygnes aud wonders, he hath nowe last of all spoken in or by his onely sonne our lorde, whome hys wyll was to take our fleshe on him and be crucified for vs, that we ca­styng our eyes and consyderations vpon hym, beyng made lyke vnto vs visible, palpable, and as a mooste myghtye sygne, sent and geuen of god, and hearynge hym speake, myght begyn in hym to knowe god, be­leue and put our whole confidence in god, & finallye to loue god aboue all thynges elles. For in hym the power, wysedome, and goodnes of God, doe shyne [Page] most perfectly and clearely, in whome the fulnesse of the diuinitie doeth dwell corporallye. And by what signe els coulde God more myghtylye or effectuallye haue declared that he had a speciall care for vs, thē to send his son & declare that whosoeuer beleueth i him perysheth not, but hath eueriastinge life. And for that al the vertue & effect of the passiō of our sauiour Iesus Chryst (as muche as concerneth vs) doth consiste in the application thereof (that is to wytte, that we may be made partakers of that grace, which Chryst on the Aultare of the Crosse, deserued or meryted vnto vs by his death,) for thys sayde entente and ende, Christe hym selfe hath vouchesaued to leaue [...] hym certayne Sacramentes, whyche he hathe confyrmed and establyshed vnto vs by hys worde and promyse: that by the dewe and lawefull vse of them, we myghte knowe, and bee assured, the fruite of his passion effectualiye and moste certenlye to be imparted and communicated vnto vs. True it is that without any maner of visible forme he coulde indewe vs with his grace, but because we are car­nal and very dull to comprehende spirituall thinges, and the force of oure soule beynge weakened and cō ­bred with the clogge and busye workynge of our cor­rupte body, we often tymes fal from faith, hope, and charitie: Therefore the fraylcnes of our fleshe muste vnder a visible forme be repayred, styrred vp, enstruc ted, nourished and comforted. And leaste anye man shoulde doubte of the vertue and efficacye of the visi­ble Sacramentes, God hath added to the visible [Page] [...], his worde of promysse: and moreouer at the begynnynge when Sacramentes were fyrste mini­stred, he adioyned manifest visions and miracles, to the intent that such thinges as we once see done, we should with an earnest fayth beleue, by the same sprit of Christ. dayly to be done in the same Sacramentes As to induce the with most constant fayth to beleue, that when thou art baptized, the holye Ghost doeth come vpon the, the holy Ghost dyd therefore appeare vpon Chryste, in the fourme of a Doue when he was Baptised. And that thou shouldest lykewyse beleue, that when thou arte confyrmed, the holye Ghoste is geuen the for thy strength and force. Therefore vpon the Whytsondaye amonge the Apostels, there was made a greate sounde, and there did appeare clouen tounges as fyre, syttyng vpon the apostles. As lyke­wyse also (Actes the. ix.) by the imposition of Paules handes vpon such as were before that time baptized the holye ghoste came vpon them, yea, and they pro­phesyed. And so lykewyse concernyng the other Sa­cramentes: whiche euident tokens and sygnes day­lye nowe to be repeted is not neede, for that a good and stronge faythe must here serue, whyche vtterlye woulde decaye and vanysh awaye, if that we would not beleue the force and vertue of the Sacramente, hauynge Chrystes wordes adioyned vnto it, vnlesse euer a manyfest myracle muste thereat be wroughte vnto vs.

The Sacramentes therefore of the newe testa­ment, are especyallye for this intente instituted, that [Page] they myghte be certayne and effectuall signes to oure outwarde sence, of the wyl and grace of god: (admo­nyshyng and instructinge vs, most firmelye to beleue that, that thing which we see out wardlye done by a visible signe, is effectually wrought inwardly by the vertue of God,) And they are also most readye reme­dies agaynst synne, and do farre passe those of the old law. For they were the shadowes of thinges to come and as sygnes and fygures were abolyshed, (Chryst after his comming hauinge fulfylled them) and they were therefore abolyshed, because they were fulfylled But these of the new testament were instituted, both as greater in vertue, better in profyt, easier in myny­stration, and fewer in number (as beynge but seuen) and that they shoulde not onelye signifye, but purge and sanctifye also. In euerye of whiche seuen sa­cramentes, the minister or dispenser of the same, doth not execute in his owne be­halfe or name, but doth represent the person of our sauiour Iesu Christ, to whome be honoure and glorye. Amen.

¶ Of the Sacrament of Baptysme, and the exposition or declaration thereof.

BEcause the Sacrament of Baptisme, is in order the fyrst of al Sacramentes, and the gate or en­trye, by whiche we must and doe entre into the chur­che and vnto the other Sacramentes thereof, to ob­teyne remission of oure synnes, and is a thynge so ne­cessarye, that withoute it no man can enter into the kyngedome of God, as Christe in the thyrde chapiter of S. Johns gospell doeth playnlye testifie, sayinge: Nisi quis renatus [...] ex aqua [...] spiritu sancto, non potest [...] in'reg [...] dei. That is to saye. Excepte one be borne a­gayne of water and the holye ghoste, he can not entre into the kyngdome of God There­fore in this noumbre of vii. Sacramentes, the Sa­crament of Baptysme for these respectes shal occupie the fyrste place.

For the better vnderstandynge whereof, ye shall emongeste other thynges consyder, and note foure poyntes.

Fyrste ye shall note that in the Sacrament of Bap tysine there are certayne formall wordes necessarye and requysyte to be vsed in the ministration thereof. Seconde that in the sayd Sacrament of Baptisme besydes the sayde formal wordes there is requyred al so an outwarde visible thing or element to be concur runt therewith. Thyrde is to be considered, the ver­tue, force, and effecte of the sayde Sacrament. And iiii. is to be declared, what rites solempnities, or cere­monies, [Page] are required for the dewe administration of the sayde Sacramente. Nowe concernynge the fyrst of these foure thynges to be noted in Baptysme, ye shall knowe that oure sauyoure Chryste, when he dyd sende hys apostles to preach throughout the hole worlde, he dyd saye vnto them, as is testyfyed in the xxviii. Chapiter of Sayncte Mathewes Gospell. Data est mihi omnis potestas in coelo & in terra, euntes ergo docete omnes [...] baptizantes cos in nominc patris, & filij, ci spiritus sancti. That is to saye, All power is geuen vnto me in hea­uen and in earth, go you therfore and do you teache all nations baptizinge them in the name of the father of the sonne, and of the ho ly Ghost. By whyche playnly appeareth, that oure [...] Chryste, in hys commyssyon geuen vnto hys apostles, dyd prescrybe certayne formall wordes vnto them, whiche they in administration of Bap­tysine shoulde vse, accordyng whervnto the minister of the Churche being therein the successoure of the a­postles, doeth and must vse in the administration of the Sacramente of Baptisme, these formall wordes, I doe Baptise thee in the name of the father, of the sonne, and of the holye Ghost, and thys muche for the fyrste poynte. For the seconde poynte consydered in Baptysme, ye shall note the specyall wordes of our sa uyour Christ in the foresayde, iii. Chapiter of Sainct Iohns Gospell, where speakynge of regeneration or Baptisme, he vseth these wordes. Aqua et spiritu sancto, say ing. Nisi quis renatus fucrit ex aqud & spiritu sancto non potest [...] regnum dei. Wherby it is euident that water, which is [Page] a visible element, and an open thyng, is a substancial part of baptisme, & must nedes be concurrēt with ye formall wordes vsed in the administration of Bap­tisme. Accordyng wherevnto we [...] reade in the. viii chapter of the actes, that when Philip, which was one of the seuē deacons (actes: vi) had conuerted vn­to the fayth of CHRIST a certayne noble man being in greate aucthoritie and offyce wyth Candate the Queene of Ethiope, he dyd baptyse the sayde noble man wyth water, so that water is required in Bap tisme. The lyke wherof appeareth the, x. Chapiter of the actes, where it is euidente that Saynte Peter, the apostle, baptysed in water one Cornelms a Cen­turyon and others with hym.

Touchynge the thyrd thynge to be considered in Baptysme whych is the vertue, force, and effect ther of, ye shall knowe, that the forgeuenes or remyssyon of synnes, and the grace of the holye ghost, is the ver­tue force, and effecte of baptysme, as is manyfeste in the seconde chapiter of the actes, where the blessed apostle S. Peter sayeth thus. Penitentiam agite. & baptizes tur unusquisque uestrum in nomine IESV CHRISTI, in remissionem peccatorum uestrorum, et accipietis donum spiritus sancti. That is to saye. Do you penaunce, & let euerye one of you be Baptised in the name of Iesu Christe in remission of youre synnes, and ye shall re­ccaue the gyfte of the Holye Ghoste. Thys effecte and grace hath thys Sacrament of baptisme by the vertue and workyng of almyghty God, there in by his minister, accordynge to his owne promyse [Page] annexed & adioyned to this Sacrament, as playnly appeareth in the. xvi. chapter of S. Marke, where Christe geuinge commission to his Apostles to goe in the whole world to preache the gospell, sayth these wordes. Qui credideret & baptisatus fuerit saluus erit. that is to say. Who shall beleue and be baptysed, shalbe saued. And as concernynge the. iiii. thyng to be con­sidered in baptysme, ye shall note that albeit of late, some haue vntruely preached, and reported that the maner of baptysinge or christening, nowe vsed in the Church, is not the same whiche was vsed in the pry­matyue Churche, but hath ben of late yeares inuen­ted and deuised, yet the auncient fathers bothe of the Greke & of the Latyn Churche, haue in theyr workes declared the contrarye, for profe whereof amonges many other, ye shal reade Denyce the Areopagyte in his boke De ecclesiastica hierarchia, in the tytle, De perficiendis in baptismate, of whose aucthoritie none nedeth to doubte, seyng that S. Luke in the. xvii. of the actes, maketh mention of him: ye may reade also S. Cyprian in his fyrst boke and. xii. Epistle where he sayth thus. [...] uero mūdari & sanctificari aquā prius a sacerdote ut possit baptismo suo, peccat a hominis qui baptisatur abluere. that is to say. The wa: ter must fyrste be made cleane & sanctified of the priest that it may clense the synnes of him that is baptysed. Reade also S. Ambrose in hys treatise, De ijs qui initiantur misteriis, and in his fyrste boke al so De sacramentis. And if you list rede Chrisostome in hys Homely entituled of Adam & Eue, where amongeste diuerse other his notable sayinges ye shal fynde these [Page] wordes folowinge. Illud etiam quod circa baptizandos in unluerso mundo sancta ecclesia, siue sunt paruulisiue iuuenes uniformiter agit, non ocioso contemplemur intuitu, quod cū ad regenerationis ueniunt sacramē ­ium non prius fontem uite ingrediuntur quā exorcismis et exufflacionibus clericorum, spiritus ab eis immundus abigatur. That is to saye: This thyng also whiche the holye Churche through the hole worlde uniformelye dothe practyse in persones that are to be baptyled, whether they be litle children, or yong folke, let vs, not with idell consideration beholde, howe that when they do come to the Sacra ment of regeneration or baptisme, they doo not enter into the funt of lyfe before that the unclene spirite be dryuen awaye by the exor­cisines, and exsufflations of the clerkes or mi nisters. Agreable wherevnto S. Austyne in his se­cond boke. De gratia Christi. And in hys. xl. chapiter doth say thus. Ipsa sancte ecclesie sacramenta que tam prisce traditionis authoritate, concelebrat, satis indicant paruulos a partu etiam recētistimos per gratiam CHRISTI, de diaboliseruitio liberari, excepto enim quod in peccatorum remissionem, non fallaci sed fidcli misterio baptizantur, etiā prius exorcizatur in eis et exufflatur potestas contraria, cui, etiam uerbis eorum a quibus portantur, se se renunciare respondent. that is to say. The very Sacramentes of the holy Church which she by so olde or auncient tradition, to gether with other doth celebrate, sufficiently do declare. yonge chyldren, euen most newly or freshely cummen from byrthe, to be by the [Page] grace of Chryst, deliuered from the seruyce of the deuyll. For besides that they be baptised, not with the deceatefull, but with the true misterye, there is also fyrst in them exercised, and exufflate the contrary power (meanynge there by the Deuyll) which contrary power, the childre (by the wordes of them yt did bere thē) make aunswere that they do renounce it. The same S. Augustine also in the. iiii. boke, & xxiiii Chapyter of his worke intituled, De baptismo contra Dona tistas, wryteth in this maner. Et sicut in illo latrone, quod exbap tismi sacramento defuerat compleuit omnipotentis benignitas, quia non [...] perbia uel contemptu sed necessitate defuerat. Sic in infantibusqui baptiza timoriuntur, eadem gratia omnipotētis implere credenda est, quod nō exa impiauoluntale, sed ex etatis indigentia, nec corde credere ad institiā pos­sunt, nec ore confiteri adsalutem, ideo aliipro eisrespondent, ut impleatur erga eos celebratio sacramenti, ualet uti (que) ad eorum consecrationem, quid ipse respondere non possunt. That is to saye. And as the be nignitie of the almyghtye dyd fulfyll in the these (specyally mentioned in the, xxiii. of S, Luke) that thyng which wanted, as touchyng the sacramente of Baptisine, because it wanted not of pryde, nor of contempte, but of necessi­tie. So the same grace of the almighty, must be beleued to fulfyll that thyng in infantes, who do dye beyng baptised, which they not of wycked or noughtye wyll, but of lacke of age, neyther with hert were able to beleue to [Page] iustice, nor with mouth confesse to saluation, by reason wherof other do aunswer for them that the celebration of ye sacrament (meaninge Baptysme) maye be fulfylled towardes them, whiche in dede is auaylable to theyr sanctifi­cation, because they cannot aunswere.

Nowe thys sacrament of Baptisme being institu­ted and ordeyned by oure Sauiour CHRISTE, in the newe testament: and the effecte and vertue of ye same being the forgeuenes of synnes: and it hauinge with it the grace of the holy ghoste: and fynally it not one­ly apparteynyng to all such as haue the vse of reason, who thereby haue all kynde of synnes, both originall and actuall, committed and done before theyre bap­tysine, clearelye taken awaye from them: but also ap pertaynynge and beinge offered vnto infantes, who being borne in originall synne, haue nede to be chry­stened, and beinge offered in ye faythe of the churche, do both receue the forgeuenes of theyr synne, and al­so such grace of the holy ghost, that yf they dye in the state of theyr infancy, they shall by the sayd baptisme be vndoutedlie saued. Ye shall note (touchynge thys oryginall synne in infantes) that as the said infantes do take of theyr parentes theyr original and natural qualities, euen so they receyue from them, oryginall synne, by whyche they are made the chyldren of the yre of God, and by the same haue a natural inclinati on to synne, by lustes and desyres, whyche in fnrther age and tyme, sensibly doo moue and styrre them to wyckednes. For althoughe the parentes be neuer so [Page] clene purged, and pardoned of theyr oryginall synne by baptisme, and grace geuen in the same, yet neuer­thelesse the chyldren of them begotten, be conceyued and borne in original synne. Example we maye take of corne, whiche thoughe it be neuer so cleane wyno­wed and purged from the chaffe, yet if it be caste into the grounde and sowen, the newe whiche spryngeth of it, is ful of chaffe againe, vntyl it be also winowed and cleansed: So likewise the children of christen mē be ful of the chaffe and corruptyon of originall synne, vntyll that by baptysme, they be washed, clensed, and purged from the same as their parentes were.

AND althoughe certayne heresies haue rysen vp and spronge in our dayes, agaynst the Chrystenynge of infantes, yet as the auncient fathers, and holy [...], of the church do testify, the vniuersal consent of the churches in all places, and of all tymes vsynge, and frequentynge the Chrystenynge of infantes, is a sufficient witnesse and profe, that thys custome of the Churche in baptyzing of infantes, was vsed by Chry­stes Apostles them selues, and by them geuen vnto the churche, and in the same hath been alwayes con­tinued euen vnto these daies. And this custome and perpetual vsage of the churche euen from the begyn­ning is agreable with the saying of S. Paule. Ephe v. Chryst loued his Churche, and hath geuen hym selfe to the deathe for his Churches sake to sanctifye her and make her holye, in clean­synge her by the fountayne of water in hys [Page] worde. &c. So that no man is nor canne be of thys Churche, but he whych is clensed by the Sacrament of Baptysme: Lyke as the texte before alledged, sheweth, where Chryste sayethe: Whosoeuer is not borne againe of water and the holy Gost shall not enter into the Kyngedome of Hea­uen. Wherefore seing that out of the churche, nether infantes, nor no man els cā be saued, they must nedes be christened and clensed by baptysme, and soo incor­porated into the Churche. And as the infancy of the chyldren of the Hebrues, in the olde testamente, dyd not let, but that they were made participant of the grace and benefytte geuen in Circumcision.

Euen so in the newe Testament, the infancye, of Chyldren doth not let, but that they maye and ought to be baptised and so receyue the graces and vertues of the same.

AND albeit baptysme be of this great efficacye, yet ye shall vnderstande, that there remaineth in vs that be baptyzed, a certayne infirmitie, or inclination, to synne, called concupiscence whiche by lustes, and de­syres, doth moue vs many times to synnes, and wic­kednes, neuerthelesse, almyghtye God of hys greate merci and goodnes, hath [...] vs such grace in this his holye Sacrament of baptysne, that suche carnall and fleshely lustes and desyres, shal not, ne can in any wyse hurte vs excepte we do fyrst consent vnto them By whiche grace also we be made more stronge, and able to resist, and withstand the sayd concupyscences [Page] and carnall desyres, than another man is that neuer was christened.

BVT this shall you note by the way, that chyldren, or men beyng once duley baptized, ought not in any wyse (as the Anabaptistes haue taught) to be bapti­zed agayne, for Saynct Paule in the sixt chapter of hys Epistle to the Hebrewes sayth thus. Impossibile enim [...] qui semel sunt illuminati, gustauerūt etiā donū celeste, et participes factisunt spiritus sancti, gustauerunt nichilominus bonum dei uerbum, uir tutes que seculi uenturi, et [...] sunt: rursus renouari [...] penitentiam. That is to saye: Impossible in dede it is, those who once be illuminate, and also haue tasted the heauenlye gyftes, and haue bene parta­kers of the holye Ghoste, and haue tasted be­sides the good word of God, & the vertues or power of the world to come, and be fallen: to be renewed agayne vnto penaunce. Where, (by suche renewynge) Saynt Paule vnderstandeth baptisme.

AND because aswell this sacrament of baptysme, as all other sacramentes instituted by Chryste, haue all theyr vertue, efficacye and strength by the worde of God, whyche by his holye spirite, worketh all the graces and vertues, whiche bee geuen by the sacra­mentes, to all those that worthelye receyue the same: Therefore we muste vnderstande and knowe, that althoughe he whiche doeth minyster the sacrament, be of a synnefull and euyll conuersatyon, yet the ver­tue and effect of the sacramente, is thereby nothynge dimynished or hurted, neyther in infantes, nor yet in [Page] them whyche beinge endued wyth the vse of reason, come there vnto truly contryte, and penytente of all theyr synnes done before, beleuynge and confessinge al the articles of the Crede, and hauyng a sure faithe and truste in the promysses of GOD of remyssyon of theyr synnes, and purposynge euer after to lyue a chrysten lyfe.

FINALLY ye shall note concernyng thys Sacra ment of Baptisme, that it maye well be called, a coue naunte betwene GOD and vs, whereby GOD testify­eth, that he for hys sonne Chrystes sake, iustifyeth vs, that is to say: forgyueth vs our synnes, and indueth vs with his holy spiryte, and gyueth vs suche graces that there by, we be made able to walke in the wor­kes of Justice, ordeyned by God to be exorcised of vs in thys presente lyfe, to the glorye and prayse of GOD And so perseuerynge, to inioye the fruite of the lyfe e­uerlastyng. And we agayne vpon our parte, oughte most diligently to remember and kepe the promysse, that we in baptysme haue made to almyghtye God, that is, to beleue onely in him, onely to serue him and obeye him, to forsake al [...], and the workes of Sa tan, to mortify our affections of the fleshe, and to liue after the spirite in a newe life. Of which promise and conuenaūt by vs made to GOD S. Paule putteth vs in remembraunce, saying. Rom. vi. Knowe ye not that all we, whiche are baptyzed in Iesus Chryst, are baptysed to dye wyth hym? for we be buryed with him, by baptysme to dye, that likewyse as Chryste was raysed vp frō [Page] death by the glorye of his father, euen soo we shoulde walke in a newe lyfe. By the whyche wordes. S. Paule gyueth vs to vnderstande that al we whyche be baptized in Chryste, That is to saye whyche are incorporated into the misticall bodye of Chryst haue professed and [...]; our selfe in Bap­tysme, to dye from synne, and vtterlye to abstayne from the corruption of our olde synnefull lyfe, and to walke and procede in a newe lyfe of grace, and the spirite, into the whych we are called by the word of God, and by fayth, and due receauynge of thys holy Sacrament, are brought and set into the same.

¶Of the Sacrament of Confyrmation and thexposition or declaration thereof.

HAVINGE last entreated of the Sacra mente of Baptysme, by the which al maner of synne, aswell original as ac tuall, is remitted, and the holy ghost therein geuen, whiche doth regene­rate vs into a newe creature, & doth thereby so weakē & attenuate ye fome, or rage of cōcu piscēce in vs, yea & so help ye weakenes of our corrupt nature, that the sayd fome of concupiscence can in no wyse hurt vs excepte we wyll againe consente vnto synne, mete and conuenient it shalbe to intreat of cō ­firmation, whych is the seconde Sacrament aboue touched and rehearsed. For albeit that the Sacra­ment of Baptysme alone, to al such as haue receaued [Page] the same, and bene therby regenerated by water and the holy ghost, is sufficient to saluation and to brynge them to heauen, if in that state of innocencye recoue­red and gotten by [...], they shoulde by and by depart thys world. Yet yf they hauing passed the red sea shoulde entre into the greate wildernesse, and de­serte of thys large and miserable worlde, in asmuche as they should encountre, & haue much to doo, wyth theyr outwarde and inwarde enemyes, aswell the fleshe, the deuyll, and the worlde, before they shoulde come to the land of promyse, requisite and expediente it, were for them to be armed at all pointes and made apte vnto the battayll, and to abyde all assaultes that theyr enemyes woulde goo aboute to make agaynste them.

In consyderatyon whereof, lykewyse as in the olde testament, almyghtye God, was benefyciall and good to the chyldren of Israell, whom he caused safelye to passe the red sea, drowning theyr enemyes, and confortyng the sayde Israelites manye wayes, aswell in spreadyng abroade ouer them the cloude in the daye, for theyr protection, as geuynge them fyre, to lyght them in the nyght, ouer and besydes the fea­dyng of them with celestiall fode, and refreshynge of them with water that yssued oute of the harde rocke. So oure blessed Sauyour Iesus Chryste, hauynge fulfylled the fygures and shadowes of the olde lawe, doth after baptysme, geue vnto his Isralites, the chri­sten people, dyuers gyftes of the holy Ghost, and ma­nyfoide graces, whereby he doth hold vppe, and con­fyrme, or make stronge his sayd people, that they are [Page] able, to abyde & to ouercome all the assaultes of theyr [...] and amongest other he geueth vnto them hys holy Sacramentes, of the whych confyrmatyon is one succedyng in order after Baptisme.

[...] thys Sacramente of Confyrma­tion (albeit the heretyckes in our tyme haue folyshlye, busely, and maliciously gone aboute to deface it, scant [...] takynge, or allowynge it for a rite or ceremonye, and vtterly denying it to be a Sacramente) yet euer in the catholyke Churche and [...] the faitheful Chrysten people it hath bene (as in dede it oughte) ta­ken, accepted, vsed, and allowed for a Sacramente, yea and for one of the seuen Sacramentes to. For the [...] whereof, besides the testimonies of the said faith of the catholyke Churche, and of the moste holye; and most auncient fathers thereof, we haue diuerse moste playne and euident open places of Scripture, by con­tinuall vsage, acceptyon, and interpretatyon, so allo­wed, ratified, and approued. And fyrste ye shall for profe thereof haue the testimonye of S, Luke, in the viii, chapter of the actes, where he sayeth thus.

Cum autem [...] Apostoli qui erant in Hierosolimis quod recepisset [...] maria uerbum DEI, miserunt ad eos, Petrum et [...]: Qui cum uenis­sent [...] pro ipsis ut acceperent spiritum [...] (non dum enim in quemquam illorum uenerat, sed baptizati tantum erant in nomine Domini [...]) tunc imponebant manus super illos; et [...] spiritum sanctum. That is to say. And when the Apostles whych were at Jerusalem, had heard that Samaria had [...] the worde of God, they did send vnto them Peter and Jhon: Who when they were commen dyd praye for them that they [Page] myght receaue the holy ghoste (for as yet the holy ghost was not comen into any of them, but onelye they were baptysed in the name of our Lorde Jesus) then they dyd put, or laye theyr handes vpon them, and they dydde [...] the holy ghoste.

Accordyng where vnto S. [...] in the. xix. chap­ter of the Actes, sayeth thus. Factum est autem cum [...] set [...] ut Paulus (peragratis superioribus patribus) [...] et Ephesum et inuenire quosdam discipulos, dixit (que) ad eos, Si spiritus [...] credentis? At illi dixerunt ad eum. Sed ne (que) sispiritus sanctus ost audi­uimus. ille uero [...] in quo ergo baptisati estis? qui dixerunt in Ioannis bap­tismate. Dixit autem Paulus. Ioannes baptiz auit baptismo [...], dicens, in [...] qui uenturus [...] post ipsum ut [...] est in Ie­sum hijs auditis baptisati sunt in nomine [...], et cu [...] illis manus Paulus, uenit spiritus sanctus super coset [...] et [...]. That is to say. And it came so to passe when Apollo was at Corynth, that Paule (hauynge trauayled throughe or passed the ouer partes of the countreye) dyd come to E­phesus, and dyd finde there certayne disciples and he demaundinge sayde, vnto them. Haue you synce you beleued receiued the holy gost? And they aunswering saide no: nor yet haue heard whether there be any holy ghost at al. Then Paule saide: In whome then are ye baptised? and they saide in the baptysme of [...]. Then Paule sayde. Jhon dyd [...] [Page] the people with the baptisme of Penaunce, tellyng them, that they should beleue in hym that should [...] after hym. That is to saye: in Iesus, these thynges beynge hearde they were baptised in the name of our Lord Iesus And when Paule had layde his handes vp­on them, the holye Ghoste came vpon them, and they dyd speake with tounges and dyd prophecye.

By whych aucthorities, beyng of all catholyke wry­ters vnifourmely euer taken and vnderstand of thys sacrament of Confyrmation, it appeareth moste ma­nifestiye that by the outward visible signe of imposy­tion or layinge on of the handes after baptysme, not onelye grace is geuen and conferred, but also the spi­rite of grace it selfe, accordyng wherevnto we reade in the. xx. chapter of Saint Ihons ghospell, that oure Sauiour Chryst, albeit after hys resurrection he dyd breath vpon his apostles sayinge, take you the holye Ghoste (whiche yet neuerthelesse in some degre they had receyued before in baptysme) yet for all that oure sayd sauiour being ready to ascend into heauen: dyd promyse to his Apostles and by them to all that by baptysme shoulde be regenerate, an other gyfte say­inge. Luce. 24. Ego [...] promissum patris mei in uos, uos autem sedete in ciuitate quoadusque induamini uirtute ex alto. That is to saye: I wyll sende into you the promyse of my father, doo you sytte or tarye in the Citye vn­tyll [Page] ye be indued with vertue from aboue. Lykewyse (as is testified Actorum. 1.) Our Sauiour (hauyng eaten with his apostles and hauing bidden them to tary at Iherusalem, and not to departe from thence, but looke for the promyse of God the father) sayeth: Accipictis uirtutem [...] spiritus sancti in uos, &c. That is to saye. [...] shall receaue the vertue of the holy ghost commyng vpon you.

And this gyft so promysed, was perfourmed most eui dently vpon Whytsondaye, by visible sygnes and to­kens feetlye resemblynge, and lyuelye answerynge, to thys sacrament: wherein ye may consider that as in baptisme the holye ghost came downe in the fourme of a Doue, declaryng thereby that as the Doue is of all other, simple and innocent, soo by Baptysme inno­cency is purchased and obtayned: So firy tonges be yng sent downe vpon the Apostles on Whitsondaye, dyd signifye the ardente zeale, and greate boldenesse that the apostles and christen people shoulde haue to expresse and declare theyr profession and fayth. Ther­fore, as in baptysme we are regenerate to lyfe, soo by confirmation succedynge baptysme, we are armed & strēgthened to fyght and battayle. In baptysme sinne is forgeuen and grace is geuen, in confirmation the grace geuē, is [...]. In baptisme we do professe the faythe and religion of Chryste. In confirmatyon we haue grace and [...] boldelye to mayntayne and to sticke to the same, so that he which is baptysed and confirmed hath more aboundaunt grace and glorye then he which is baptised onely. Example hereof we haue in the apostles. For Peter the heade of the apo­stles [Page] although he hadde sene Chryste, tasted also of his glorye in the mounte, had harde the voyce of hys heauenly father, had sene with his eyes ye wonderfull workes that Chryst had wrought, and had hym selfe done myracles, walked vpon the water, and bene ve­rye familier wyth Chryste. [...] and after that he was washed and pronounced also to be pure & clene, and finallye after he had made a bragge that he wold with Chryst go into prison and suffer death, yet after all these thynges the sayd Peter was afrayde at the voyce of a wenche, and did by and by denye Chryste, and the lyke also he dydde at the voyce of an other wenche: yea and moreouer after Chrystes resurrec­tion, when he hadde sene Christe and receyued greate comforte at Chrystes handes, he dyd with the other Apostles for feare of the Iewes hyde hym selfe, and also when the sayde Peter with other the Apostles had sene Christ gloriouslye ascendynge, and had bene by the syghte of the aungeles greatlye comforted, yet he durst not shewe hys face abroade, but taryed and loked for the commynge of the holye Ghost, to make hym stronge and bolde. At whose commynge bothe he and the rest of the apostles were so confyrmed and boldned that they shranke not before all the Iewes, and all creatures vnder the skye, ye before the kynges & prynces, to preache the name of Iesus. And profes­syng theyr chrysten fayth, wyth all boldnes and con­stancye, did reioyce to suffer displeasures and rebukes inflicted and done vnto them therefore. And because we here doo speake of confirmation, some peraduen­ture do loke that we should geue some diffynytyon of [Page] confirmatyon; wherin to satisfie theyr appetites, thys may be sayde. That Confirmation is a certayne, consignation or markyng, made with chrisme, in the foreheade of the persone that is baptyzed, wyth a cer­tayne forme of wordes, to the intente that the person confyrmed, shoulde boldely geue the name of Christe: or els thus maye be sayde to them.

CONFIRMATION, is an enoyntynge in the fore­heade of the partye that is baptysed, made in the fy­gure or forme of the crosse by a Byshoppe, with holye chrysme for the strengthe, or encrease of the faythe, to be boldelye by the sayde partye confessed. And thys chrysme is made of oyle and balme. The sayde oyle (whyche is a cleare or cleane thynge of it selfe) to be­token, the clearenes or cleannes of the hearte, or con­science in oure selfe. The balme (whiche is a thynge verye fragraunt, and of a swete smellyng) to signifie ye swete and good sauoure, of good name and fame, to­wardes oure neyghbour, and the sayd oyle and balme beynge mingeled together to signifye, that the partye confirmed should haue truely in hym selfe, both clere­nes of conscience and also wyth hys good workes to haue a good name, and to styrre there by hys neygh­bours to the lyke.

And we ought not to thynke that thys enoyntinge is a new inuention, in asmuche as Dionyse and Cle­ment, beynge in the apostles tyme, and besydes them, Fabian, and [...], beyng very nyghe the sayde Apostles tyme, and Cypryan, Hierome, and Saynte Augustyne not being much from the Apostles tyme, with other [...] wryters, do vnyformely agree, [Page] that thys sorte of enoyntyng came from the Apostles. For as concernyng Dionyse, he besydes manye other places doeth affyrme it in hys boke De ecclesiastica hierar­chia, and in the. iii. chapter. And amongest many other notable thynges, doth saye thus Deinde chrisma summus sa­cerdos accipiens [...] ponit diuino altari. &c. That is to saye: The cheife preiste afterwardes takynge the chrisme, doth put it vpon the diuine aulter. &c And Clemēt doth speake hereof in the. iii. boke of his recognitions in the seconde epistle thereof. Fabiane also in hys seconde epistle wrytten to all the byshops of the Easte, doeth moste playnelye affyrme the lyke. Tertullian lykewyse in hys fyrst boke agaynst Mar­tian doth the same.

And to speake of S. Cypriane, he also in hys ser­mon, De vnctione Chrismatis, in diuerse places doeth testifie it most largelye. Lykewyse S. Hierom most playnly in hys commentaryes vpon the xvi. chapiter of Eze­chiel, and vpon the. xxxiii. of Iob.

And as for S. Augustine, he most largely, playn­ly, and effectually approueth it, specially in hys secōd booke and. iiii. chapiter, Contra literas [...]. And in hys xv. booke and. xxvi. Chapiter, De Trinitate. And so doeth Euse bius in hys. vi. boke, and. xliii chapter, [...]. where speakynge of Nouatus, who was bap­tised onely in hys bedde not hauynge other thynges vsually obserued after the order & rule of the churche, he sayth thus. [...] exorcistis curatus in [...] morbum incidit, et quo­niam iam moriturus putabatur, inipso lecto quo decumbebat baptismi infu­sionem accepit, sitamenhancillum accepisse dicendum est. Imo nec [...] consequutus est post verbum quae iuxta [...] consequidebebat, [Page] obsignationem uidelicet ab episcopo [...], cum autem illa potitus non sit, quomodo spiritum sanctum est consequutus. That is to saye: Nouarus beinge cured of the exorcistes, dyd fal into a greuous disease, and because it was thought that he woulde dye out of hande, he dyd in the same bedde vpon whyche he laye sycke, receaue the infusion of Baptysme, yf a man may saye that he receaued that, but as concernyng thynges whyche as yet remay­ned vndone, and whych he ought according to the order and rule of the Churche to haue had, that is to say, the consignatiō or [...] to be geuen or conferred by the by [...], those thinges after his discease he receaued thē not and forasmuch as he had not that, how than hath he receaued the holy goost.

CONCERNINGE the latter wryters, in asmuch as they be innumerable, and vniformely do agre here vpon. I wyll not rehearse them at all, but by them, a greynge with the auncient and holye fathers of the churche, ye maye vndoutedlye see and perceaue, that thys sacrament of confirmation, or imposition of the Byshopes handes, is receaued, approued, and specy­allye commended of all Catholique menne, and at al tymes.

Seyng then that thys Sacrament of Con­fyrmation, for many considerations is so gretly to be estemed and regarded, not onelye for the auctho­ritie [Page] of Chryste, that dyd institute it, and the auctho­ritie of the churche and of the Apostles that dydde re ceaue and vse it, but also for the commoditie and pro­fyt which the sayde Sacrament dothe brynge wyth it. Therefore they doo verye wyckedlye, that in anye wyse doo contempne it. And those maye be sene, and iudged to contempne it, whiche eyther do rayle at it or ells hauyng oportunitie to haue it ministred, do re fuse it, or wyllyngly neglecte it.

And the formall wordes vsed in Confyrmatyon, (whiche in olde tyme was called Impositio manuum) are these. Signo te signo crucis, & confirmo te [...] salutis, in nomine pa­tris, & filij, & spiritus sancti. That is to saye. I sygne, or marke the with the sygne of the Crosse, and confirme the with the chrysme or oyntement of helth. In the name of the father, of ye sonne, and of the holy Ghost. And of this imposition of handes, we haue (besydes manye other places expres­sed in scrypture) a notable example in the. x. of saynte Marke, practised and vsed by Chryst hymselfe. And this Sacrament of Confirmation, or layinge of the byshops handes, was instituted ordeined, and v­sed in the catholyke Churche, to remedye the weake­nes that ryseth of the fome or rage of concupyscence, which weakenes remayneth in vs for oure exercyse, and is of two sortes, that is to say, inwarde and out­warde. The inwarde, is a certayne shamefastnes, or timerousnes, whereby we do not boldely confesse the name of Chryst, as Chryst requyreth of vs, sayinge in the tenth Chapter of Saynt Mathewe. Omnis qui [...] [Page] me coram hominibus, [...] & ego [...] patre meo [...] in coelis est: qui autem negauerit me coram hominibus, negabo & ego [...] coram [...] meo qui in coelis est. That is to saye. Euery one that wyll confesse me before men I wyll al­so acknowledge him before my father which is in heauen. And who wyll denye me before men, I wyl also denye him before my father which is in heauen. This inwarde shamefastnes rysynge withoute fayle of the inwarde weakenes, is taken awaye by confyrmation, wher in the forehead is made the sygne of the crosse, in whiche place is dys­closed our feare, and shame, in asmuche as we striken with feare, do waxe pale, and beyng ashamed, we do blushe and waxe redde. Wherfore he that is bapti­sed, is afterwardes armed in confyrmation, with the sygne of the crosse, to the intente he may therby remē ber that he shal ouercum by vertne thereof, al maner his enemies, as before hym dyd his cheife capytayne Iesus Chryst, vnder whose [...], he is now becom to be a souldiour, and lykewyse therby boldened and assured that as the distroyinge aungell, dyd forbeare and passe by those houses in Egypte, whose dore po­stes, and lyntell, he dydde see to be enointed with the bloude of the lambe, so the wicked spirite beholdynge the person baptised, and confyrmed wyth the tryum­phante sygne of the crosse is discoraged to make anye hote assault agaynst hym.

And the other weakenes whyche is outewarde, is a certayne instablenes or [...], to stand and abyde earnestlye, bothe in wordes and dedes, before [Page] all persones, and estates, to the defense and maynte­naunce of the Chrystyan relygion and faythe, to the best of his power, that the saying of S. Paule in his epistle to the Romains, the tenth chapter, may be ve refied in hym, Where is sayde: Corde creditur ad adiustitiam ore autem confessio fit ad salutem. That is to saye: Beleyfe with hart, is to iustice, but confessiō is made by the mouth to saluation.

And this outewarde weakenes, is also expelled in confyrmation, by the Chrisme of health, which maketh the person ennointed, to be in courage, and boldenes, hauing ther­in the ayde and assistence of the holye Ghost: agaynste all maner of enemies bodely or ghost­lye.

¶ Of the Sacramente of Penaunce, and Thexposition or declaration thereof.

HAVINGE nowe spoken of the Sacra ment of Baptisme, wherby alsynnes orygynall and actuall, are remytted and forgyuen: And hauinge also spo ken of the Sacrament of Confyrma­tion, whereby the partye so baptyzed and confyrmed is made able to resyste and abyde, yea and to ouercome the assaultes of all his enemyes. It shall nowe be conueniente (Forasmuche as man ha­uynge all these greate helpes, and remedyes at God­des handes dothe for all that manye tymes, by hys owne faulte, fall into synne, and then can neyther by baptysme, nor Confyrmation be pourged, or quytte hereof, but must nedes in that case haue the benefytte and helpe of Penaunce, whyche as S Hierome say­eth, is after shypewracke the seconde table or planke, to be holpen and socored by) that consequentlye, and kepynge the due promysed order, we do speake heare next of penaunce. For as it is necessarye for the bodye whan it hath surfyted and lost hys prystyne helthe, to haue physicke to restore the same agayne: so necessary it is for the soule, when by synne it is spotted or defy­led, to be made cleane and bewtyfyed a freshe by pe­naunce. For an entrye vnto whyche matter of Pe­naunce and for the more clere vnderstandynge therof ye shall note. ii. thynges, the fyrste is how this worde Penaunce is here to be taken.

THE seconde is, what is properlye mente by the [Page] [...] of Penaunce. And as concernynge the fyrste ye shall note that this worde Penaunce, as it is here in this treatise to be taken, doth signysye an inward sorowe, and greife of the harte for the sinnes [...] vs done and committed, and an hatred and de­testation of the same, wyth an earneste desyre to be purged and ridde from them, and finallye to recouer and gette agayne the grace and fauoure of GOD, by such meanes and remedies, as God hath appoynted for the obteynyng thereof, with a stedefast purpose & mynde neuer to offende agayne. For withoute suche purpose and mynde, he that sayeth he is sorye for hys offences committed agaynste the hyghe maiestye of GOD, and yet still contynueth or intendeth to conty­nue in the same, is no penitent, but a [...] a deryder of Penaunce. And in this sorte & after this acception Penaunce is commonly taken, aswell in the new as in the old Testament. And this sort or kynde of Penaunce is so necessary for manes saluati­on, that without it no man that offendeth GOD, can be saued or attayne vnto euerlasting life. And as tou chyng the second thinge it is to witte, what is mente by The Sacrament of Penaunce, [...] shall vn­derstand, that it is properly the absolution pronoūced by the preist vpon such as be penitent for their sinnes and so do acknowledge and confesse them selues to be. For the obteyninge of whiche absolution or sacra­mente of Penaunce, there are required, iii. seuerall thynges, it is to witte Contrition: Confessyon, and sa tisfaction, as beyng wayes, and meanes moste expe­dient and necessarye to obteine the saide absolutyon. [Page] And here to begyn with Contrition, whiche is the firste parte to perfecte penaunce, ye shall learne that it is a sorowe willingly taken for our synnes, wyth a purpose and intent, to confesse them, and to satysfye for them, and neuer to commytte them agayne, with out which contrition it wyll not be that anye person can be truly and perfectlye penitent, or yet haue hope of remyssyon or forgyuenesse of hys synnes, nor yet oughte the preiste to absolue anye that wanteth thys contrition.

Wherefore necessary and expediente it is for the synner, wyllinge to haue absolution of his synnes, to consyder these thynges folowing. First to haue a con­tynuall remembraunce of hys synnes. Esaye, 38. and Psaline. 37. Seconde to consyder the vylenes of the synnes, and to haue therevpon a shame in hymselfe to haue committed them. Prouer. 12. Joan. 8. 2. Pe­tri. 2. Hierome. 2. Thyrde to haue in consyderatyon both the terryble day of iudgement, and also the eter­nall payne of hell that is due for synnes, and the losse of the ioyes of heauen, from the which vnrepentante synners be excluded, Sapientie. 5. Luce, 16. 1. Petri. 4. Ecclesi. 7. Which thinges beinge soo considered on the behalfe of the sayde synner, and [...] therevpon fer­ther remembring, what a fylthye and vitiouse lyfe he hath ledde, aud howe he thereby hath prouoked the highe indignation and wrath of GOD, consyderynge also with himselfe the dygnytye and purytye of that state wherevnto he was called in baptissne, with hys promyse there made vnto GOD, [...] and besides that manifolde benefytes dayly by hym receyued of God, [Page] [...] engendre in the synner an ernest sorowe, for that he leauinge so louynge a Lorde, hath by sinne made him selfe thrall to the deuyll.

AND here vpon beinge thus moued and troubled in spyryt, & lamenting with himselfe the myserable e­state, whiche he is nowe in by his owne defaulte, he shalbe pricked and stirred in hys harte accordynge to the teachynge of the scrypture, & the instructynge of his mother holye Churche, to repayre to a pryeste be ing the minister which God hath ordayned, and ap pointed therein, to pronounce the sentence of remyssi on of synnes in this behalfe. Accordyng aswell to the counsayl of Saynt James (Jacobi. 5) as also to thex ample of them that were conuerted at Ephesus, who beleuynge dyd come, confessyng and shewynge ther actes and dedes. Actorum. xix. And because here we doo touche and speake of confession, which is the se­conde thynge towardes parfytte Penaunce, ye shall therefore knowe, that albeit, thys worde Confessyon both in scrypture and in prophane authors doth syg­nifye many thynges and in dyuerse sortes, yet Con­fession (as it is heare to be accepted and taken) is a voluntarye, lawfull, and sufficient declaratyon, or vt teryng of synne, to be made vnto the pryeste hauynge sufficyent aucthoritye to geue absolution therin. And when I do saye Adeclaration or vtteryng: I do vse the same to exclude mentall confessyon, whyche though it may and ought at all tymes to be made vn to God, yet that is not that sacramentall confessyon of which we heare speake. And when I do saye Uo [Page] Uoluntarye, I do put in that to declare that lyke as wyllyngly the synne is committed, so also willing­ly and without compulsion the confession ought to be made. And when I do say, Lawefull and suffici­ent. I do put in that, to declare yt it is not I noughe to make a bare or naked confession not carynge how or after what sorte it be made, but to make it in suche wise that it may be lawefull and sufficiente, That is to say, after dewe deliberation and consultation for sene and had, to so order the same, that it may be done as is comprehended in these verses folowyng.

Sit simplex, humilis confessio [...], fidelis.
Atque frequens, nuda, discreta, libens, uerecunda
Integra secretalacrimabilis [...].
Fortis et accusans, et fit parere parata.

That is to say: Let confessyon be playne, hum­ble, pure, faythefull, and often, not cloked, discrete, voluntarye, hauinge shamefastnes, hole, secreate, lamentable, spedy, stronge, accu satorye of hym selfe, and ready to obey.

AND when I doo put in this worde Synne. I doo that, to declare that he who commeth to confessi­on must not do as the proude Pharisie did, who prai sed himselfe and condempned the publican Luce. 8. But humbly and lowely (as is beforesayde) he muste declare and shewe his owne synne, verefying in hym selfe the saying of Salomon in the. xvii. chapiter of his prouerbes. Iustus prior est accusator sui. That is to saye: A iuste man is firste an accuser of himselfe.

AND fynallye when I doo saye those wordes [Page] Unto the priest hauing sufficiente auctoritie to giue absolution therein. I do purposelye put in them to declare that he who shall gyue absolution must be both a priest and also haue sufficient auctho­ritie to gyue absolution.

NOVV conçernyng satisfaction, which is the thirde thinge that apperteineth to perfect penaunce, ye shal knowe, that albeit this worde. Satisfaction, is di­uersely taken aswell in scripture as other where: yet as is shalbe here consydered, and as it is taken in the publyke and common vse of the catholyke Churche in thys matter, it is a chastemente or punyshmente which is inflycted or put by the preist vpon the peny­tent synner (so confessynge hymselfe) accordyng to ye nature and qualitie of the offence by him commytted And hereby apeareth that when we here do speake of satysfactyon, we do not meane that the penytente synner by any payne, or punyshmente by them to be suffred, can worthely eyther merite remission of hys synnes, or make vnto God any iuste or full recōpense equyualent to the synne, whiche he hath commytted agaynst God, and so satysfye God therby, (whiche in dede after that forte he neuer can do, for that sorte of satysfaction onely apperteyneth to our Sauyoure CHRIST, who alone by hys gloryous passyon hathe worked and purchased the same. But to satisfye (as here is ment by satysiactyon) is, the synner after [...], and confession, to submitte humblye hymselfe to suche discipline and wayes of reformation, as the priest hearyng hys synnes and offences, shall by hys [Page] [...] and wysedome, agreable to the worde of God, thinke mete and conueniente, whyche humble submission (with consent and agremente to receaue dysciplyne) made by the penytente vnto the priest be­ynge the gostlye fathere, eyther to the gyuynge of almes, makyng of prayor, vsyng of fastynge or of do­ynge any such lyke workes of penaunce, shall make the sayd penitent an apt vessell to be partaker of that onely satysfactyon procured meryted, and gotten by the preciouse death of our Sauiour CHRISTIESVS and it shall gyue great occasyon and good mater to the penytent synner alwayes after, to leade a newe lyfe declinynge from vyce, and embracing vertue, yet it shall enduce hym not onely to restore to all men, a­that euer he hathe vniustlye taken or reteyned from them, and to recompense al hurtes and iniuryes in a­ny wyse done vnto them, accordyng to hys habylitie and power. But also to forgyue vnto all mene for CHRISTES sake all suche iniuryes and trespases as they in any wyse haue commytted, or done agaynste hym. And the penytente synner being contente thus to do (wherein he shall vndoutedly muche please al­myghtye God, who by vertue of Chrystes satysfac­tion wyl accept, & allowe, of his infinit goodnes this satisfaction, & contentment so don by man) ye sayd pe­nitent synner may desire to heare ye comfortable wor­des of remyssyon of synnes, and to haue absolution therof gyuen and mynystred vnto hym by ye pryeste. Accordyng to whose desire, the preyste beynge God­des [...] therein muste (ensuinge the Gospell) pronounce and gyue vnto, and vpon the sayde peny­tent [Page] [...], the fentēte of absolution, vnto the which sentēce the sayd penitent muste geue credence, wyth perfecte fayth and beleife, that hys synnes are nowe frely forgeuen, by the merytes of Chrystes blessed passion in thys sacrament of Penaunce, hauyng this contrition, Confession, satysfactyon, and absolution, whych we haue spoken of. And albeit in the late pesti ferouse [...], that ouerwhelmed thys realme, thys Contrition, Confession, satisfaction, and Penaunce were condempned and [...]; or at the least wise in maner neglected of all folkes, yet in very dede they so ought not haue bene [...] they are allowed & approued by scrypture (as anone shalbe declared, and shewed [...] you) and haue bene euer continuallye receyued, vsed, and muche set by, as thynges most ne cessarye and profitable in the catholyke Churche, for the amendement of mennes lyues, and for theyre at­tonement wyth almyghtye God [...] to bee kepte in good estate and order, to theyr great comfort, and spe ciall releife. And amongest a greate numbre, of com­modities, that doe come by confession, thys is not the lest, that wher by custome or otherwise men be drou­ned in [...], and do not se the abhomination and fil­thynes [...], and therefore many tymes, do wante Contrition, and consequentlye remedye and helpe a­gaynst theyr synne, they hauyng a discert honest gost ly father, and [...] commyng to hym may by his good instructiō & exhortatiō groūded vpon the word of God, be styrred & moued to detest theyr synne, & to lamēt theyr noughty [...], & thervpon to entre into a new lyfe & to vse godlye conuersatiō, and honest be hauiour in al their doīges. And albeit this wai before [Page] descrybed be ye ordinary way & meanes for sinners, to obteyne remissiō of sin, & to be recōciled to ye fauour of almyghty GOD, yet in case there do lacke a preyste to make this confession vnto, and so to obteine ofhim being Goddes minister, the sayd absolution: or yt the synner by extreme necessitie cannot do and fulfyll (as of duety he ought & gladly he should) ye said workes of Penaunce in confession so enioyned vnto him: thē in that case & hauing thys good wyll, and beinge other­wise truely wt all his harte repentāt of his hole former noughty lyfe, not wanting therwt a harti mynde & vn fayned purpose through Gods grace to do the same, whē such necessitie shal cease & good occasion or opor­tunitie shalbe gyuē, the sayd sinner vndoutedlye shall haue at Godes handes pardō & forgyuenes of all hys sayd sinnes & misdoinge, for (as S. Cipryan doth say in his first boke, contra [...],) euen in the houre of death whē ye soule is ready to departe out of ye body, ye great mercyfull goodnes of God doth not dyspise Pe naūce, so yt neither ye greatnes of synne, nor ye shortnes of tyme, nor yet ye enormitie of lyfe, do exclude yt sinner from ye mercy of God if so be, ther be true contrition & vnfained change of the harte frō [...] conuersatiō. An example wherof we haue of ye thefe yt did hang vp­on ye crosse, who askyng mercy wt a cōtrite harte was in yt case forthwt made a cetezen of Paradise, & where as he deserued cōdempnation & punyshment, this his contrite hart did chaung his payne into martirdom, and his bloude into baptisme: yet thys not withstan­dyng no man ought, vpon hope of Gods mercye styll to contynue in synfull lyuing (like as no man woulde be sycke in hys bodye vpon hope to recouer healthe) [Page] for such as wyl not forsake theyr wyckednes, and yet do thynke that GOD wyl forgeue them, are full many tymes, and commonlye, so preuented wyth the iuste plage of GOD, that neyther they haue tyme to con­uerte, nor yet grace to receyue the benefitte of for­geuenes. For consideration of whych daunger, scrip­ture (Eccle. 5.) doth say thus. Non tardes conuerti ad dominū, et ne [...] de die in diem: subito enim [...] illius ct in [...] uindicte disperdet te. That is to say: Thou must not slacke to conuerte or tourne to God, and thou must not differ or lynger from daye to daye, for in dede hys anger wyl come sodenly, and in the tyme of vengeaunce he will destroie the. Wherefore embrasynge the mercye of God on thone syde, and fearyng the iustice of God on thother syde, let vs at no tyme neyther dispayre of forgeuenes of our synnes nor yet presumptuouslye remayne [...] in oure synnes, knowynge that the iustice of God wyll straytlye exacte and require the dettes of all men, which be not forgeuen or pardoned by hys clemency Here in thys matter, amongest many other thynges two poyntes are specially to be noted and considered The fyrst is that althoughe the death of Christe be a satisfaction, deseruyng and merytynge the remissyon of our synnes, and not onelye oure synnes: but of the synnes of the hole worlde (as Saynct John sayeth. 1. John. 2.) Etipse e st propitiatio pro peccatis nostris, et non pro [...] tantum sed etiam pro totius mundi. Wherby euerlastynge death is sufficicientlye of Christes parte abolished, yet on oure behalfe it taketh not alwayes effecte, by rea­son [Page] that we endeuor not our selues that it may be du­lye applied vnto vs. For such is the mercy of CHRIST that he woulde haue all to be sauede, and therefore when he approched nigh vnto the citie of Hierusalem and sawe the great enormities and wickednes ther­of he wepte vpon it and sayde. Si cognouisses et tu et quid [...] in hac dei tud quae ad pacem tibi: nunc autem abscondita sunt ab [...] Luce, 19 That is to saye, And thou yf thou hadest knowen, and that in thys thy daye, those thinges which belonge vnto thy peace, but nowe are hid from thine eyes. Luke the xix For which cause also Chryst lyke wyse in the reproche of Hierusalem cryed vnto it saying Mathei. 23.

Hierusalem hierusalem qui occidis prophetas et lapidas cos, qui at te missi sunt, quoties volui congregare filios tuos, quemadmodum [...] congregat pullos suos sub alas suas, et noluisti? That is to say: O Hierusalem Hierusalem, which dothe kyll the Prophetes and doest stone them whiche are sente vnto the, howe often wolde I haue gathered thy chyldren together, as the henne gathereth her chyckenes vnder her wynges, but thou wouldest not, Mathewe. xxiii. Accor­ding wherevnto Christ also sayde vnto his Disciples Mathei. 16. Si quis uult post me uenire: aboget semetipsum, et to [...] lat crucem suam, et sequatur me. That is to saye: [...] anye man will come after me let hym denye hym­selfe, and take his Crosse and folowe me. And immediately there doth folowe. Qui enim uoluerit animam [...] saluam [...] perdet cam. Qui autem perdiderit animam suam [...] [Page] [...]. That is to say: For in dede he that wyll saue his soule, shall lease it: and he that wyll lose his soule for my sake, shall fynde it Agreable where vnto S. Paule, not contentyd to haue sayd yt, no dampnation is to them that are in corpate to CHRIST, and whych do not walke af­ter the flesh, but after the spirite, nor beyng conten­ted to haue called them the children of GOD, ye heyres of GOD, and coheyres of CHRIST, dothe in the. viii. chapiter to the Romaynes, knitte vppe al those thyn­ges together and concludeth all the same to take ef­fect cōditionally, saying. Sitamen compatimur, vt et [...]. That is to say, [...] yet we do suffer with him­that with hym also we maye be gloryfyed And thys to be true it well appeared for that, that at the day of Judgment when the sonne of mā shall come in his glorye, and all hys holye Angelles wyth hym, and on the one syde of hym there shal stand the shipe, & on the other the goates, it shal not be suffici­ent or inoughe to say to Chryst: Syr you haue suffici­ently redemed vs by your passiō, we nede not for our parte to do any thing at all, sauing to beleue you soo to haue done, For Chryst then shal saye otherwyse vn to them, for vnto the blessed chyldren of hys father he shall saye: Venite benedicti patris mei, [...] paratum nobis reg­num a constitutione mundi. suriui et dedistis mihi māducare. &c. That is to saye: Come you the blessed of my father doo you possesse the kyngdome prepared for you from the creation of the worlde. I haue [Page] ben hungry and ye haue giuen me to eate &c. And vnto the wycked standyng on his lefte hand he for the omitting of the sayd workes of mercy, shal say. Discedite a me maledicti [...] in ignem eternum qui paratus est diabolo et ange­lis eius? Esuriui enim et non dedistis mihi inanducare &c. That is to say. Goe ye from me ye cursed, into euerlast­ing fire, which is prepared for the Deuell and his aungells, for I was hungrye and you gaue me not to eate. &c. Fynallye in fewe wordes S. Paule to the Galathians the. vi. Chapiter, dothe tell vs what is our partes in thys behalfe to do saing. Bonum autem fac [...]entis non de ficiamus, Tempore enim suo metemus, non deficicutis ergo dum tempus habemus operemur bonum ad omnes, maxime autem ad domesticos fidei. That is to saye. Let vs not be werye of well doinge, for in the conuenyente tyme we shall reape withoute ceassynge or wearynes. Therefore while we haue tyme, let vs do good vnto all folkes and specyallye vnto them which are of the houshold of faith. So that by all these scryptures it doth most euidēlye appeare, that besydes the passion of Christe, there is some what also required of vs: soo that we may not laye all the burden on Chrystes backe, thoughe he be able to beare it, but we must take parte of the burden our selues, and laye it also vpon our owne neckes to, as wherby we may be partakers and accepted to en­ioye that thing, which of Chrystes parte is fullye pur­chased all readye. The second thing most nedeful also here to be declared vnto you is, that although ye gylte [Page] of synne, be in this sacrament of Penaunce throughe the bountifulnes of CHRIST, cleane taken awaye, yet by the iustyce of GOD there remaynethe a temporall payne. An example whereof we haue in the. ii. booke of the kinges in the. xii. chapiter (where not withstan­dinge that Nathan, the messenger, and prophete of GOD had declared to Dauyd, that hys synnes were forgeuen hym, yet for all that, temporall punshemente was inflicted. And so lykewyse Exodi. 22. & Numeri 14. Besides these, we haue an other euidente example in oure owne selues, for albeit all synnes originall and actuall be in our baptisme remitted vnto vs, as hathe bene before in the Sacrament of Baptysme declared vnto you: yet the paynes doo remayne whyche are inflicted by God hymselfe for originall synne, as all the incommodities we haue therefore in our bodye, and deathe also of the same, as appearethe Genesis tertio. And though this thyng thus playnely declared maye seme to suffyce for the full instruction of the ignorante in thys sayde Sacramente Penaunce, or in the par­tes thereof, or at all, yet if anye shalbe desyrous vpon promyse made before to haue further testimonyes of Scrypture and of the fathers, they shall here folowe orderlye.

And fyrst as concernynge penaunce in gerneall, we rede in the. xviii. of Ezechiel thus. Si autem impius egerit poenitentiam, ab omnibus peccatis suis quae operatus est, & custodierit pre [...]cepta mea et fecerit iudicium & iustitiam, uita uiuet, & non morietur. That is to say: If the wicked do penaunce from all his synnes whiche he hathe commytted, [Page] and kepe my commaundementes, and doe iudgement and iustice, he shall liue wyth lyfe and shall not dye. And in the. xi. chapyter of Sapience, is wrytten. Misereris omnium quia omnia potes, & dissimulas peccata hominum propter poenitentiam. That is to saye, Thou Lorde haue mercye vpon all, for thou canste doe all thynges, and doest make as thoughe thou dyddest not see theyr sinnes, for penaūce sake. And in the, viii, of the actes, Symon Magus goyng aboute, and thynkyng that he myghte bye the holy ghost for money, was by S. Peter rebuked therfore, and also after that was counsayled, or rather commaunded thus. Penitentiam age ab haec nequitia tua, & rogae deum, si forte remittatur tibi haec cogitatio cordis tui. That is to say. Do penaunce from this thy wickednes, and pray to God, yf peraduenture thys thoughte of thy harte maie be forgeuen thee. And farther in the seconde of the Apocal. the churche of Ephesus is admonyshed and prouoked vnto penaunce after thys maner. Memoristo, unde exideris, & age poenitentiam: & pri­ma opera fac, sin autem uenio tibi cito & mouebo candelabrum tuum de lo­co suo, nisi poenitentiam egeris. Whych is to saye. Remem­ber from whence thou hast fallen, and do pe­naunce, and doo thy firste workes, but yf not I come vnto the quickelie, and will remoue thy candelsticke from his place, vnlesse thou do penaunce.

[Page]Of thys penaunce you may fyude other testymo nyes in the holy Scriptures, as Ecclesia, ii, Mat, iii, Luke, xiii. xv, xvii, Rom. ii, ii, Pet, iii, Apoca, ix. &c.

And as touchynge contrition, whyche is the se­conde thynge here consydered, what more maye be sayde therein, then that whyche the holye Gost spake by Dauydes mouth (Psal, xxxi.) sayeng. Dixit confitebor ad uersum me iniustitiam me ā domino, & tu remisisti impietatem [...] That is to say. I did purpose with my selfe and sayde: I will confesse vnto God myne vn­rightfulnes agaynst my selfe and thou haste forgeuen the wickednes of my sinne. Accor­dyng to which sense the selfe same Dauyd (crauynge the [...] of God after hys synne) dyd say. [...] contritum & humiliatum deus non despicies That is to saye. A contrite and an humble hearte (thou God) wilte not dispise. Moreouer Achab, althoughe he was neuer so euyl a man, yet hauyng remorse of cōscience for his euyl dedes, and humblyng hym selfe wyth a contrite heart he dyd heare these wordes of Goddes mouthe, spoken vnto the Prophete Esaye. Nonne uidisti humilitatem Achab coram me? quia igitur humiliatus est coram me, non inducam malum in [...] cius, sed in [...] filij sui in feram malum domui [...]. 3. Reg. 21. That is to say. Hast thou not sene Achab hum­bled before me? Therefore bycause he is thus humbled or contryte before me I wyll not bring this plage or euyll in his dayes, but in the dayes of his Sonne I wyl bringe mis­chiefe vpon hys house, or famylie.

[Page]Of thys contrition and sincere sorowfulnes of hart a great number of places are in the holye scryytures and amongest the rest, ye may consider, the, ii, cor, vii. Pal. vi, xxxvii. cxviii, Iohel, ii. Math, v. &c.

Thyrdly concernynge this Sacramentall con­fession to be proued by Scriptures and aucthorityes, yea and to haue bene of Chryst and his Apostles lefte and commended vnto vs, albeit a very grete number of places might be broughte in as the. 5. and. 16. of Le­uit. Numer. 5. Prouerb. 28. 1. Ioan. 1. &c. [...] these fo­lowinge for thys present maye suffyce: And fyrst of all consider you that the olde testamente (accordynge to the teachyng of S. Paule ad Hebreos. 10) is a fygure of the newe, and hath not the verye lyght it selfe, And seing that in the olde testamente all those that should be healed were commaunded to offer theyr gyftes, & shewe them selues to the preistes. Leuit. 14. so also in the newe testament Chryste [...] that to be done Mathei. 8. to signify that thynge whyche in the olde lawe was figured by the shewing of the persons vnto the leuitycall preistes, to be nowe in the newe testament by auryculer confession accomplyshed and fulfylled, or ells shoulde there haue bene a shadowe [...] out a body, and a fygure wythout a verytie. [...] vn­to thys sence S. Augustyne, Chrysostome, Bede and other, entreating vpon the same place or Mathewe, do fully agre. Secondely Salomon the wysest of all men (Prouerb. 27) doth saye. [...] agnosce uultum peco­ristui. That is to saye: Dilygently knowe and be holde the countenaunce or behauiour of thy [Page] [...], Not [...] thereby a brute or [...] beaste, but as S. Paule in the. ix, to the Corinthi­ans by oxen, doth vnderstand reasonable creatures, so he in the sayd place by the beast, doth vnderstande such reasonable creatures, as are vnder the charge of other, the pastors and gouernours whereof be boūde diligently to loke vpon them, perfectly to knowe thē and discreatelye to vse them: discerninge skab from skab, and lepre from lepre: Whiche thinge man (not knowyng the hart or conscience of man) cannot doo vnles it be by the partie that is infected, soo confessed and reueled vnto hym. Whiche thing openly to do [...] is not commaunded nor the matter so requyreth, and yet not to doo it secreatly and, in confession, it is syn­full and daungerouse. Wherefore S. James not re­quiryng that men shoulde openly diffame thē selues by vtteryng to other theyr synfull lyfe, and yet neuer­thelesse willing that we should vnburden oure con­stience [...] mynde penitentlye by confessyon, after that he hath spoken of the bryngynge in of prestes to annoynt the sycke, he by and by (lest parchaunce anye man shoulde thynke that mentall confessyon to God onely were sufficient) dothe saye: Confitemini ergo [...] uestra. &c. Whych is to saye. Confesse you ther for one to another your sinnes. Not meanyng that euery man to other indifferently shoulde confesse hymselfe, but referryng the matter to the preiste, of whome immediatly before he dyd speake, [...] of the visiting of the sicke and the anointinge of them and thus doth Saint Augustyne Saynt Bede, and [Page] Eusebius, vnderstand those Scryptures. And [...] you maye be assured (yf ye accordyngelye doo confesse youre synnes) that from and by Godes owne mouthe [...] are absolued, & that all preistes in the Apostles, re­ceyued full aucthoritie bothe to bynde and louse the synnes of the people, ye shall for a profe here in consi­der emongest other thinges, the facte of CHRIST in ye reuiuinge of deade Lazarus, which is notable, recor­ded in the. xi. chapiter of Saynte John, where Christ thinking it not sufficient to reuyue Lazareth, and to call hym out of his graue, sayde Lazare ueni foras. Laza­rus come forth: And there vpon lazarus by and by reuyuing, and in hys wyndinge shete rysynge, beinge bounde hand and fote, dyd come fourthe. And yet to [...] by a visible sygne the Aucthoritie to remayne with Christes [...] and their successoures to louse men bounde with synne, Chryste dyd say to them. Solui [...] uos eum et sinite abire. That is to saye. Lose you him and suffer him to goo his waie. And as for that place of the. xvi. of Saynte Mathewe, where the power of the keyes, is promysed to be geuen vnto preistes and mynisters to absolue and forgyue synnes and also for the place in the. xx. of Jhon, where Chryst after his resurrection breathinge vpon his dyscyples, and perfourmyng hys promyse dyd saye. [...] spiritum sanctum quorum remiserites peccata remittuntur eis, et quorum [...], [...] sunt. That in. Lake ye the holie Ghoste, whose sinnes ye forgiue, or release, those are forgeuen or released, and whose sinnes [Page] you withholde, they are with holden. These places I saye are so euydente, that no man can with any learnyng, or christen conscience, withstand or depraue them, but they must be most vay leable for this present purpose.

And for the establyshyng of al menes faythes here­in, here foloweth farther the consent and determina­tion of three of the moste godly and auncient fathers of the primatiue church in this case, to whose determi nation all other catholike (almost [...]) wri­ters do agree. And fyrste Clemente (the successoure of S. Peter) in his first epistle to S. James the brother of Chryst, sayth these wordes. Quod st forte alicuius cor [...], uel insidelitas, uel [...] malum, latenter irripserit, non [...] (qui [...] suae curam gerit) confit eri [...] qui [...] est, ab ipso per [...] Dei, & consilium salubre curetur: quo [...] integra [...]. et operibus bonis poenas [...] effugere, & ad [...] proeuinere. That is to say? If peraduenture anye rancor or infidelitie or any other euil hath priuely crept into any mans hart, let not him (whiche este­meth his owne soule) be ashamed to confesse those faultes vnto hym which hathe charge ouer hym, that he maye of hym be cured by the worde of GOD, and holesome [...] that he may thorough perfect faythe, & good workes, auoyde the paynes of eternall fyre, and come to the perpetuall reward of eternal lyfe,

In lyke sorte Orygen vpon the. xxxvii. Psalme and [Page] in his seconde Home ly, doth compare sinne (not con­fessed to a preist) vnto rawe and vndigested meat di­stemperatynge verye sore the stomacke, and the hole bodye, whiche yf it be vomited vp easeth the stomack and restorith health: so sayth he sinne [...] pryuelye kepte, doth inwardelye trouble the conscience: & ther fore he wylleth vs to confesse the same, and also dyly­gently to loke about, and take good hede in chusinge our spirituall yhisition, whiche maye minyster vnto vs, a conueniente medecyne for the purgynge of oure consciences.

And to knytte vp this place of pryuate, or auricu­ler confession, we wyll nowe brynge onelye one place more, whiche is written in the seconde boke of Saint Augustyne, De [...] infirmorum, in the. iiii. chapter, & wrytten to his Nephewe, lyinge on his death bedde, where he sayth thus. Sunt quidam [...] sibi adsalutem [...], si solideo, cui nihil [...], est, quem nullius later conscientia, [...] crimina. Nolunt enim, aut crubescunt, siue [...], [...] dere se sasardotibus, quos tamen inter lepram et [...] per [...] constituit dominus. Sed nolo ut ipsa decipiaris opinione, quatenus confundaris confiteri [...] uicario [...] praerubore, uel cerui cosus indignatione: nam ipsius [...] subeundum est iudicium, quë domi nus sibi non dedignatur uicarium. Ergo ad te [...] roges [...], & sacipsum conscientarum tuarum penitus [...] Non seducat te somni atium illa superstiti quae uisitando confirmat, quia saluat sacerdote [...], [...] deum peccatorum confessio. Nos autemnon abne gamus quinsit ad deum frequenter [...] confessio peccatorum, Beatus etenim qui [...] allidit [...] suos ad Petram, Petra autem Christus est. Sed [...], & testatur illud sana doctrina ( [...] tibi applandeutium [...] auribus) quoniam prius [...] sacerdotis qui mediator sit ad deum [...] salubri iudicio: alioquin & sublege & sub gratia, [...] & ostendite uos [...] dotibus ( [...]. 17) [...] diuinum, quomodo consummaretur? [...] [Page] alterutrum peccata uestra (Iaco. 5) quomodo [...]? Ergo [...] tuarum arbiter dei uice adhibeat ur [...], & [...] ci uias tu­as, & ipse, exhibebet antidotum reconciliationis, &c. which is to sai. Truely there are some which thinke it suffy­cient for theyr soule helth, if they confesse their faultes and synnes to God onely, to whome nothyng is hydde, and euerye manes conscy­ence is knowen. For they wil not, or they are ashamed, or els they dysdayne to [...] them selues to the preistes, to whome God by hys lawbearer, appointed the offyce to iudge be­twene lepre and lepre, but I would not thou shouldest be deceaued with this opinion, soo that thou shouldest be confounded to confesse thy selfe before Goddes vycar or deputye, ey­ther pynyng for shame, or styffenecked wyth disdayne, for thou must humbly stand to his iudgement, whome oure Lorde dysdayneth not to be his vicar or substitute. Therefore de syre the [...] to come to the, and make him priuie, throughlye of all thy conscience. And lette not that superstition of the dreamers de ceaue the, which in visiting, dothe confyrme or beare the in hande, that confession of thy synnes to God the preiste not beinge made priuye) doth saue the: Truely we denye not but oftentimes we must rehearse the confes­sion [Page] of our synnes to GOD, for he is blessed which wyll kepe vnder, and all to [...] hys litle ones, or his great ones, agaynst the rock, and the rocke is Chryste. But we doo testify, and the true perfect doctrine dothe testifye the same (which we doo say, least thou [...] fauour the eares of them that doo flatter the) thou nedest fyrste the holsome censure, or iudgement of a preiste, whiche maye be a [...] diatour vnto God. For els howe coulde that aunswere of God, Goe and [...] your selues to the preistes (Luk. xvii) beyng geuen bothe vnder the lawe, and also vnder grace be ful­filled? And also howe coulde that sayinge of S. James, Confesse your synnes one to ano­ther, [...]. v. be accomplyshed? Therefore in the stede of God, let there be had the preist, an arbiter or iudg of thy skarres or woundes, & do thou open or disclose vnto him thy waies or faultes, and he shall geue vnto the a mede­cyne of reconciliation. &c.

This confession to be pryuate, or (as it is termed) auryculer, you maye (markynge the place well) euy­dently parceaue. For S. Augustyne in the foresayde place (notyng the penitent, and the preist to be alone) sayeth these wordes: Non te pudeat coram uno [...]. quod non pu duit forsitan coram multis facere. &c. And againe. Melius est corā [Page] [...] aliquantulum ruberis tollerare quam in die iudicij, coram tot [...] hominum graui depulsa denotatum, [...]. That is to saye.

Be not ashamed to declare that before one man which thou waste [...] ashamed to doe perchaunce before many, or rather with ma­nye. Better it is to abyde some shamefastnes before one man, then in the day of iudgement before so manye thousandes of men, wyth, or by a greuous repulse noted, to peryshe.

But nowe fynally to speake touchyng the groun des and auctorities for satisfaction, both by the scryp­tures, and also by the other catholyke, and [...] oste auncient wryters of the Church, let vs fyrst consyder Job, who in the. xlii. chapter sayeth. Ego me reprehendo & ago poenitentiam in fauilla, & cinere. That is to say. I rebuke my selfe, and do penaunce in duste and ashes, sygnyfyenge by that, to make a satysfaction for hys [...], and that he woulde outwardely declare his contryte harte by hys bodelye affliction, after the customable fashyon vsed in scryptures, in sacke clothe ashes and dust. &c. After which maner Chryste, in the Gospell (Math. xi) when he reprehended Corozaim, and Betzaida (synnefull Cities) in whome he hadde wroughte myracles and preached of the kyngedome of heauen sayde: Si in [...] & Sidone [...] essent uirtutis [...] fac tae sunt in uobis, olim in cilicio & cincere [...] egissent, Which is. If in Tyre and Sydon had bene wrought the wonderfull workes, whiche hathe bene done in you longe ere this, they woulde haue [Page] done penaunce in sacke cloth and ashes. Wher­by appeareth that Chryste dyd not reproue the [...] of the body, but rather allowed it, as beynge a meane and waye to make satisfaction.

Further we maye consyd er the thirde chapyter of s. Luke, where vnto a great companye commynge to John to be baptysed of him, he sayde, reprouynge theyr harde hartes. Genimina uiperarum quis [...] uobis [...] auenturaira? Facite erga [...] dignos [...]. That is to saye.

You adders broode, who hath geuen you warning to fly from the wrath of GOD to come, Do ye therefore ye worthy fruites of pe­naunce. Upon which place S. Chrysostome sayeth thus. We shall do the worthy fruites of penāce yf we do thinges contrarye to the faultes be­fore committed, as if thou hast taken awaye other mens goodes, restore them, and begyn nowe to gyue thine owne, if thou haste bene a long time and aduouterer, suspend thy selfe from thine owne, and from the lawefull vse of matrimonie, and for a time bynde thy selfe to chastitie, if thou hast hurt thine neighbour either by worde or dede, make him a sufficiēt amendes, and speake wel by him, for it is not sufficient for a man that is wounded to pull out the darke out of his body, but he must al­so get medicines to heale the wounde.

[Page]To these thynges shall ye adioyne the Counsayll of Saynte Paule in the. vi. chapyter to the Romaynes where he sayth thus. Sicut [...] exhibuistis membra uestra seruire immunditiae ct iniquitati ad iniquitatem, ita nunc [...] membra [...] seruire [...] in sanctificationem That is to saye: Lyke as in dede you haue gyuen your members to serue to vncleannes, and from one wycked­nes to another, so nowe gyue your members to serue righteousnes vnto sanctification.

And fynally of this satisfaction ouer and besydes these playne and manifest scriptures the holy fathers & auncient wryters as Cypryan in his. v. sermon de lap­sis, Orygen, in his 4. hom. vpon the. 36. Psa. and in his 2. Homely vpon the. 37. Psal. Cyryll, in his third boke vpon Leuit. Hierome vpon the. x. chapiter of Ecclesi­astis, and vpon the Prophete Malachye, and the residue in sondry of theyr treatyses, haue lefte mooste sufficient testimonye. And because that they all in effecte doo agree together, one here alone shall be al­ledged for them all, and that is the holye Martyr Cypryan who in his. v, sermon entytuled, de lapsis, sayth thus. Nec cesset in agenda poenitentia atque in domini misericordia [...] canda, [...] quod minus esse in qualitate delicti uidetur: in neglecta satisfactis one cumuleter. which is. Let not the synner cease in doing penaunce and callynge for the mercye of God, least that whiche in the qualitye of ye faulte it selfe doth seme to be lytle, shoulde be accummulated or made greater, in the neg­lectinge satisfaction. Wherevpon he concludethe [Page] a generall lesson of all men easelye to be borne awaye in these wordes. Confiteantur singuli quaeso uos sratres delictum su­um, dum adhuc qui deliquit in seculo est dum [...] confessio eius potest, dum satisfactio & remissio facta per saccrdotes, apud dominum grata est. That is to saye: I besech you brethren let euerye man make confession of his faulte, whyle he that hath offended is yet here in this worlde, and while his confession maye be admytted and while the satisfaction and remission gy­uen by the preist is acceptable before GOD. [...] he sayeth further. Let vs conuerte vnto God, with al oure mynd, and expressyng our penaunce with true sorowes & lamentynges for our synnes, lette vs call for the mercye of God. In which two breyfe sentences of this mooste excellent and famous Martyr, ye do se comprised and conteyned, the hole and penitente conuersation of man to God, by contrition, Confession & satisfactyon, (which thre poyntes or partes must of necessitie be in the doer of true Penaunce, & so it is required of the said penitent, as we before haue pro­ued) And the sacrament of Penaunce it selfe, being the absolution pronoū ced by the preist vpō such true penitentes in ye said sētēce of. S. Cipriā is likewise comprehended.

¶ Of the Sacrament of the Aultare wythe Thexposition or declaration thereof.

HAVINGE [...] spoken of three notable Sacramentes instituted by Chryst and alwayes solempnely vsed in his catholike Churche, it is to wit, of Baptisme, Confirmation, and Pe­naunce, hauing also fyrst entreated of the Sacramente of Baptisme, whereby we haue a spirytual regeneration, hauyng consequently and se­condly spoken of the Sacramente of Confyrmation, commonly succeding Baptisme, and gyuing vnto vs a spirituall augmentyng and incresse of grace, bolde­ly to mayntayne and defende the professyon of oure fayth made at the tyme of our Baptisme, and hauing thyrdely set forth the sacrament of Penaunce, which purgeth and clenseth vs, fallynge by synne [...] oure baptysme, and confirmation: Mete and conueniente it shall nowe be, that we do intreate of that excellent spirituall fode, and noryshement, whiche in the sayde catholyke churche is mynistred, and gyuen vnto vs being so baptyzed, confyrmed, and pourged.

And because in the sacrament of the Aultar there is that excellent spirituall fode, and true nonryshmēt that passeth all other, it is to witte, the most precious body and bloude of oure sauioure Jesus Christ, there fore as was promysed in the preface of this boke: here nowe shalbe intreated of that moste excellente sacra­ment of the Aultare. And in dede ryght conuenient & [Page] mete it shalbe to entreate diligently and fully of thys sacrament, in asmuche as it bothe in worthynes, and dignifie, doeth greatly surmounte and passe al the o­ther Sacramentes of the Churche, as also for that of late yeres it hath most of all other, bene assaulted, and impugned, and yet of no good manne, but of the wretched sort alone.

And to begyn, thys order, in some respecte, maye herein be thought conuenient: fyrst to declare the in­stitution of thys sacrament. Seconde to set forth the vse of it.

And thyrdely, to declare the notable, or rather the vnspeakeable fruyte thereof. And as concernyng the syrste, thys, emongest other, is cheifelye to be mar ked, that after oure Sauyoure IESVS CHRISTE had (accordynge to the ryte and vsage of the olde lawe) eaten with hys twelue Apostles the fyguratiue or ti­pical pascal lambe, & (beinge risen frō [...]) had was shed his disciples fete, he (sittyng downe agayne) dyd take bread, into hys blessed handes & (giuing thākes) dyd breake it, and gaue it to hys Dyscyples, sayinge. Take and eate, thys is my Bodye whyche shalbe geuen, or deliuered for you. Lykewyse, He toke the cuppe, and gaue thankes, & gaue it vnto them saying: Drinke ye al of this for thys is my bloude of the newe testamente, whiche shalbe shed for many to the remission of theyr synnes Do this in the remembrance of me. These wordes, being spokē by ye mouthe of the [Page] sonne of Gob, who is equall in Godheade wyth the father and the holye ghoste, and testifyed also by hys holye Euaugelistes, ouer and besydes the faythefull continual testimonye of Chrystes espouse, the Catho­lyke church, who is he that can with any good grūd of Scripture or lawefull aucthoritie saye, but that whyche Chryste gaue to hys Apostles, at the maun­dye, was Christes very bodye and bloude, yea that selfe same bodye and bloude whych was geuen and shed vpon the crosse, the next day for them and al mā ­kynde. The veritie of whych Article, the Catholyke Churche, being ruled and gouerned by the holy ghost hath alwayes most constātly beleued, and taughte, declaring that in this sacrament of the Aultar there is, by the omnipotencye of God, and the vertue and force of hys word, the very body and bloude of oure Sauiour Christ, reallye, truelye, substantiallye, and in dede.

AGREBLYE wherevnto that blessed instramente of God Saynt Paule (beyng instructed by a secreat reuelation from God of the truth of thys his mistery, and speakynge of thys most blessed sacrament) dothe in the eleuenth chapiter of hys fyrste Epistle to the Cyrynthyans saye in thys maner: Ego enim accepi ao domino quod et [...] uobis: Quoniam dominus Iesus in qua [...] trade datur accepit panem: et gratias agens fregit, et dixit. Accipite et manducate, hoc est corpus meum, quod pro nobis credetur, hoc facite in meam [...], similiter et calicem, post quam caenauit dicens, hic calix nenum testa mentum est in meo sanguine, hoc facite quotie scunque biberitis in meam commemorationem, That is to saye: I in dede haue taken, or receued of oure Lorde, that [Page] whiche I haue deliuered vnto you, that is to say. That our Lorde Jesus, in that nyght in which he was betrayed, did take breade, and geuing thankes, dyd breake it, and sayde. Take ye, and eate, this is my body, whiche shalbe geuen or delyuered for you, Do you this in my remembraunce. Like wise also he did take the cup after he had supped sayinge, This Cuppe is the newe Testamente in my bloude do you thys as often as ye shall drinke of it in my remembraunce.

Besides these moste playne wordes, aswell of oure Sauioure hym selfe, at the institution of thys sacra­mente, as of S. Paule also, in the wryttynge of hys sayde secret reuelation, whych alone myght suffice to content and certifye any godly heart herein, there are so many and most euidente Authorities and testimo­nyes of the auncient holy fathers, aswell of the greke as of the Latyne Churche, concernyng the very true and real presence of Christe hys bodye and bloude, in thys sacrament of the Aultare, that to rehearse them all, it woulde be a greate and an infinite labour. And yet for the establyshyng of good mens myndes herein ye shall beare haue in a fewe, the full and vniforme consent of them all.

And fyrste, Chrysostome who was [...] of [...], (not foure hundrethe yeare after Christe) wrytynge in the Greke tounge vpon the. x. [Page] chapiter of Saynt Paules first epystle to the Coryn­thians, and (expendynge these wordes of the Apostle calix [...] cui benedicimus. That is to say: The cup of blessyuge whiche we [...] he doeth speake thus, Quid est in calice, id ipsū est quod [...] latere [...], [...] etus partici­pes sumus Whiche is to say: That whiche is in the coppe or Chalice, is the very selfe same thyng that issued or ranne out of Christes syde, ther­of weare partakers. Scconde S. Basyll beynge also a Greke, doth in his boke called hys rules, and in the. 127. question, putte forthe thys demaunde, it is to witte, with what feare and persuasion a mā ought to [...] to participate of the bodye & bloud of Christ? and he doeth make answere in thys wise. Timorem [...] docet nos ap [...] dicens. Qui manducat et bibit indigne, iudicium sibi mā ducat et bibit, persuasionem vero sirmam giguit in nobis fides verborū do­mini dicentis, hoc est corpus meum quod pro uobis traditur etc. Which is to saye: The feare in dede dothe the Apostle teache vs saying, who that eateth and drin­keth vnworthely, doth eate and drynke his owne dampnation, and as concerninge the firme persuation or constāt beleife, that dothe the faith of the wordes of our Lorde engen­dre in vs, who [...]. This is my bodi which is giuen for you. &c.

Thyrdly the great clarke Cyryl being also a Greci­an, and Archebyshoppe of Alexandria, aboue a thou­sand yeare ago, doth in hys treatise, sent to one called [Page] Calosyryus affyrme and saye, that he shoulde not dout of the real presence of Chrystes bodye in the sa­crament, concludynge, after many profes had in that behalfe, and sayinge after thys maner. Nec dubites an boe [...] sit, eo manifeste dicente, hoc est corpus meum, sed potius suscipe uerba saluatoris in fide, cum enim sit ue ritas, non mentitur. That is to saye. And thou must not doute whether thys be true or no, seyng he (that is to say Christ) ma­nifestly doth saye, This is my body, but doe thou rather receaue the wordes of our Sa­uioure in faithe, seinge he is the truthe, he doth not lye,

Nowe hauyng harde the testymonye of certayne greake authors, with whom the rest do agre. Ye shal consequently heare the testimonye of certayne nota­ble authors of the Latyne Churche, with whome the rest do also consent and agree.

And fyrst ye shal heare the moste auncient [...] of the Latyne churche, [...], who in hys trea­tise De resurrectione carnis. (speakyng of the blessed Sacra mente of the Aultare) doeth saye in thys maner. Caro corpore et sanguine Christi [...], vt et anima de deo saginetur. That is to saye: Our flesh doth eate, or feade vp­on the body and bloude of Christ, that oure soule also maye be made fatte wyth God.

Secondly in order shalbe Saynct Hylarye who is called of Saynt [...], Tuba latini eloquij and he in hys. viii. boke. De Trinitate, doth saye thus De ueritate carnis et sanguinis nō est relictus ambigendilocus. Nunc enim et ipsius domini pro [Page] [...] side no stra uere earo est et uere sanguis est, et [...] acceptd atque [...] staid efficinat, vt et nos in CHRISTO, [...] CHRISTVS in nobissit. An ne hoc [...] nonest? Contingat plane his, uerum nonesse, qui CHRIS­SVMIESVM uerum esse deum negat. That is to saye Of the veritie of the fleshe and bloude (speakyng of the flesh & bloud of Christ in thys sacrament) ther is not left a place to dout For now both by the professiō or declaration of our Lord, & by our faithe also, there is truelye fleshe, and there is truely bloude, which being receaued or taken & dronken, do cause or make thys, that bothe we are in Christe, and Christ also in vs. And whether is not thys the trueth? let it chaunce not to be true vnto them who doo denye Ie­sus Christ to be true God.

By al these most euident testimonyes af auncient fathers, it appeareth, that in the Sacramente of the Aultare are truelye and reallye conteyned the bodye and bloude of our Sauiour Iesus Christ, accordyng to the sayde institution of Christe. But because Christ toke breade into his handes, and Saynct Paule also calleth the sacrament bread, and that therevpon the heretikes haue groūded their opiniō that the thynge conteyned in the said sacrament is nothing but bread it shalbe meete to open and declare thys matter for­ther, and in what sort the Sacrament may be called bread: for the vnderstanding wherof you must know that albe it our Sauiour Christe toke very materiall breade into hys handes, yet by hys omnipotente po­wer [Page] he chaunged the nature and substaunce of bread, into the substaunce of hys dody. And lykewyse he chaunged the substaunce of wyne into the substāce of hys bloude, sayenge: Thys is my bodie, Thys is my bloude.

And thys is euidentlye proued fyrste by the. vi. of Iohn, where oure Sauioure Christe hymselfe thus sayeth. The bread that I wyll geue vnto you is my fleshe, which flesh I wyll geue for the lyfe of the worlde. In whyche wordes it is moste manyfest that Christ promysed two thynges: the one that he woulde geue a bread that should be his fleshe, and the other is, that he wold geue that fleshe for the lyfe of the worlde: Nowe yf Chryste gaue not at hys maundye a breade that was hys fleshe, and on good Fryday gaue the fleshe vpon the crosse for the lyfe of the worlde, then he kepte not hys promyse, for in no place els he dyd it, therefore, eyther must we say that Christ made a promisse and perfourmed it not (which is a wicked thynge to thynke or saye of Christe) ey­ther els must we say that keping hys promysse, he did at hys maundy geue a kynde of breade, whiche was his verye fleshe in dede conteyned vnder the forme of breade, and that the same fleshe he gaue the daye fo­lowynge vnder the vysyble forme of fleshe vpon the crosse: & so he perfourmed both his promysses, that is to say geuyng a breade or [...] that was his fleshe, & also geuyng that fleshe for the lyfe of the worlde. And for a more playne & full declaratyon of Chrystes wordes herein, ye shall note, that in the sayde syxte [Page] of Sayncte Iohn, there is mentyon made of fowre kyndes of breade.

Fyrst of the breade wherewith he myraculouslye sed fyue thousande in the wildernes, whiche was in dede very material breade and made of Barleye.

Secondly there is mention made of a bread cal­led Manna, whiche was a kynde of fode that God sent from aboue, to the children of Israell, when they in the wildernes dyd trauayle towarde the lande of promyse, whyth thoughe it be there called breade, yet breade in dede made of any kynde of grayne or corne it was not.

Thyrdly there is mention made of bread, whyche is the seconde persone in Trinitie, that is to saye, the sonne of God sent downe by hys father from heauen hither into earth to be incarnate.

Fourthlye there is mention made of breade that oure Sauioure Christe promysed to geue, whych is his fleshe, and the selfe same in substaunce which suffe red for vs vpon the crosse, and yet there called breade thoughe in dede no materiall breade in substaunce. and as for the callynge of it breade it is not materyal, for the godhead of Christ, and also manna, in the sayd chapiter are called breade, and yet no breade in sub­staunce. And here is not to bee omitted that where our Sauioure Christe speaketh of the foresayd foure kyndes of breade he doeth not speake of them all [...] one fashion, for touchynge the fyrste saythe, that he hymselfe a lytel before had geuen that breade vnto the people, and touchyng the seconde the Iewes dyd [Page] boaste that it was geuen by Moyses to theyr fore­fathers in wildernes, Lykewyse concernyng ye thyrd Chryst doth affyrme that it was at that presente sente from the father of Heauen downe to the Earth. But touchyng the fourthe, he sayd that it shoulde be of his owne gyuing vuto them, and that in tyme to come, yea and ferther that the same [...] be his fleshe, and least any man myght mystake this his saying, in such spirituall or mysticall sense, as thereby to exclude the very substaunce of his feshe and bodye, he addeth (to take awaye all doute and cauillation) that it shoulde be the same fleshe whiche shoulde be geuen for the lyfe of the worlde, as apeareth before. And hereby maye you learne that by this, worde breade mencyoned in the. vi. chapiter of Saint Ihon, & as it is here taken in this fourthe acception, and in the other two nexte goynge before, oure Sauioure Chryste dothe meane nothyng elles but a fode, and a fode may it be though there be no substaunce of materiall breade at all.

After which sort is the worde breade to be vnder­standed in the tenthe and eleuenthe chapiters of the firste epystle of Saynte Paule to the Corynthyans: where dyuerse tymes also he vsethe thys worde Panis, which ought to be Englyshed foode.

And that in verye dede there is not the substaunce of materiall breade remainynge in the sacramente of the Aultar, ye shall besyde those thynges whyche you haue hard all redy out of the scripture hear also oute of the aunciēt and catholike fathers, who do witnes as foloweth. Fyrst Chrysostome in his sermon made in [...]. speakynge of the Sacramente of the [...] [Page] (wherein in dede to oure senses there do appeare the ormes of bread and wyne) doth write in this maner. Nunc uides [...]; num uinum? num sicut reliqui cibiin secessum [...]. Nesiccogites. Quemadmodum enim siceraigniiniecta illi assimilatur nibil substantiae remanet, nihil superfluit. Sit & hie puta mysteria [...] mi corporis substantia, That is to say: Doeste thou see breade? doeste thou see wyne? do they passe into the seage from vs, as other meates doe? God forbyd that any man shoulde so thynke. for euen as the waxe whiche is cast into the fyre, is made lyke vnto the fyre, and no sub­staunce of the sayd waxe then remaineth, or is lefte, euen so do thou thynke here, the my­steryes meanynge the substaunce of the breade and the wyne) to be by the substaunce of Chrystes bodye consumed.

Eusebius Emissenus also, a Greke aucthor (and wrytinge aboue twelue hundred yeares agoo) in hys fift homi­lye or sermon De corpore domini or De pascha, [...] thus. Nec [...] quisquam primarias [...] potentiae, praesentiamaie­statis, in dominici corporis transire posse naturam. Which is to say. Let not man doute, but that the former crea­ture speakynge of breade and wyne) euen by the wynkynge or [...] of his power, by the presence of hys maiestie are able to passe into the nature of Christes bodye And agayne with­in a litle after he [...]: Quanta [...] & quam celebranda [...] diuinae benedistionis operatur attende, & [...] & impossibile non debeat uideri, quod in Christi subantiam, terrena & mortalia commu­tantur [Page] which is to saye: Howe greate then, and howe notable benefites the force and vertue of the diuin benedictiō doth worke, or bringe to passe, do thou consider, & to the in no wyse it ought to seme new or impossible, that into the substannce of Christe, earthly and mortal thinges are chaunged.

And with these two anncient and notable fathers of the greke churche, the blessed martyr Cypryā doth agre, saying in his sermon. De coena Domini in thys maner Panis istequem dominus discipulis porrigebat, non effigit sed natura muta­tus, omnipotentia uerbi sact us est caro. That is to saye. That same breade or foode whych oure Lorde rea­ched or gaue to hys dysciples beynge chaun­ged not in fourme or shape, but in nature, was by the omnipotencye of the word made fleshe.

And bycause Chryste hym felfe (who then dyd in the foresayd maner institute this Sacramente) dyd al­so at the same tyme appoynt and commaunde, bothe his Apostles, and in thē theyr successoures, to do the same which he himselfe then and there dyd sayinge, Luc. xxii. Hoc faciat in [...] commemorationcm. That is to say: Do you this in my remembraunce. Therefore no man may doubte, but at thys present also (and soo vntyll Chryst come to iudge the worlde) so ofte as the minister, so aucthorised (intendinge to do as, ye church beleueth) doth take breade into hys handes, and gy­uynge [Page] thankes, doth duely pronounce the wordes of Christe, sayinge. Thys is my body, and takinge the cuppe, and geuynge thankes, doth lyke wyse duly say the wordes of Chryste, Thys is my [...] of the newe testamente, so oft the substaūce of bread and wyne, by the wyll and power of Chryst, so com­maundyng and aucthorisynge the saide minister, is turned into Chrystes very reall and naturall body [...] bloude: and the sayd body and bloude is there so pre­sent vnder the fourmes of bread and wyne. For it is not the visible preist, thatnowe worketh thys hyghe mysterye, by his owne power or strengthe, but it is Christ hym selfe, the inuysible preist, that dothe worke it by the misterye of the vysyble preist. Lykewyse as Chryst it is, and not the preiste, that geueth vertue in Baptysme, though the [...] of the preist, both in Baptisme and also here in the Sacrament of the aul tar be requyred, and that by the speciall appoyntinge and ordeynynge of Chryst, the same so to be.

And here do you note, that the aforesaide working of Chryst, and ministerye of the preist, here touchynge the Sacramēt of the aulter, is, and hath alwayes in the catholyke churche bene called Consecration. Of whyche consecration. S. Ambrose aboue an ele­uen hundred yeare agoo, wryteth mooste notablye and fully, in his fourth boke, Desacramentis. Cap. iiii saying after this maner. Tu [...] dicis, meus panis est [...], sed panisiste panis est autem uerbasacramentorum ubi accesserit consecratio, de [...] caro Christ, [...] igitur astruamus, Quomodo potest qui panisest, corpus esse Christi consecratione. Consecr atio igitur quibus uerbis est, et cuius ser [Page] [...]? Domini Iesu Nam [...] omnia [...] dicuntur laus deo [...] oratione petitur propopulo, pro regibus pro [...]? Vbiuenitur ut [...] sacran entū, iam non suis sermonibus sacerdotes fed [...] sermonibus Christi. Ergo seruo Christihoc conficit saeramentum. That is to saye: Peraduenture thou Chrysten man wylte saye, my breade is vsuall or com­mon breade. But I [...], before the wordes of the Sacrament, it is breade, but when the cō ­sacration cometh, of the breade there is made the fleshe of Chryste. Let vs then proue howe that which is breade can by [...] be­come to be the bodye of Chryst. And by what wordes then and by whose sayinges is con­secration: by the wordes of oure Lorde Iesus (meanyng there by as he doth declare in the chapiter folowinge, these wordes, Hoe est corpus meum, & hic est san­guis meus. &c) For in all other thynges that are sayde prayse is geuen to God, and petition by prayer is made for the people, for the kynges and for other, but when it is come to that poynte that the blessed Sacrament muste be made, then the preist doth not vse hys owne wordes, but he vseth the wordes of Chryste. The speache therefore or sayinge of Chryste doth make this Sacrament.

And by and by after, the [...] S. Ambrose doth con­clude, aunsweryng to ye former question as foloweth [Page] [...] ut respondeam. Non erat corpus Christi ante consecrationem, sed post [...], dico tibi, quodiam corpus est Christi. ipse dixit & [...] est, ipse mandauit &, creatumest, That is to saye, Nowe to make answere vnto thee, it was not the body of Christe before the consecrati­on but after the consecration, I tell the that nowe it is the body of Chryst, He that is to saye Chryste sayde it, and done it is, he commaun­ded, and made it is.

In these two places of S. Ambrose, oute whole processe hether to made of thys sacrament (that is to wytte concernyng the reall presence of the verye bo­dy of Chryst in ye sacrament, concernyng also the trā ­substanciation or chaunge of breade and wyne into the body and bloud of Chryst, and fynally cōcerning the consecration continuallye ministred by the preist) is moste euydentely confyrmed and proued. And to the selfe same purpose doth Eusebius [...] write in his fyfte [...] or sermon De pascha. where amongest o­there [...] of the sacrament, he saieth thus: Inuisibilis [...] uisibilis creaturas insubstantiam corporis & [...] sui, uerbo suo, secreta potestate conuertit it a dicens: A ccipice, & commedite, hoc est enim corpus meum, & sanctisicatione repetia, Accipite ( [...]) & bibite, [...] est sanguis [...]. Argosicutad nutum: praecipient is domine repente ex [...] substit erunt excelsa coelorum, [...], uasta [...] paripotentia inspiritualibus, Sacramentis verbi praecipit uirtus & seruit effectus. That is to saye: The inuisible preist dothe tourne or conuerte the vifible creatures into the substaunce of hys dodye and bloude by his word thoroughe his secrete power thus [Page] saying Take ye, and eate, thys in dede is my bodye, and the sanctification or consecratyon [...] repeted, he sayeth, take ye and [...] this is my bloude: Therefore [...] as at the becke of oure Lorde, geuynge commaunde­mente sodenlye of nothynge the beyghtes of the heauens had there being, and also the dep thes of the wateres or fluddes, and the large nes or greatnes of the earth, so by the lyke po­wer, in spirituall Sacramentes, the vertue of the worde doth commaunde and the effecte doth serue or is obedient [...].

And more ouer the sayde Eusebius Emissenus in the sayd homyly doth saye thus. Sicut quicun (que) ad fidem Chri­stineniens ante uerba [...] ad [...] in [...] est ucteris debiti, hijs uero memoratis, moxexuitur omni face peccati ita quando [...] uerbis [...] creatura [...] altaribus imponuntur, ante quam inuocatione sui [...] consecrantur substantia illic est panis & uini, post verba [...] Christi, corpus & sanguis est Christi Quid autem mirum est, siea [...] potuit crerare, uerbo possit creata conuertere imo iam minoris uidetus esse miraculi, siid quod de uihilo agnoscitur, condidisse, iam [...], in me lius uale at commutare.

That is to saye: Lyke as whosoeuer comming to the fayth of Chryste, before the wordes of baptisme is as yet stil in the bonde of the olde debte, but after the wordes of Baptysme be spoken, he by and be is delyuered or [...] of all the [...] or vncleanes of synne, so when the creatures, be layde or put [...] [Page] the holye Aultats to be blessed wyth the [...], ther is before they be [...] the [...] of Chrystes name, the substaunce of breade and wyne, but after the wordes of Chryste, there is the bodye and Bloude of Chryste. And what maruayle is it yf those thynges whyche by hys; worde he coulde [...] of nothyng, that those thynges so created, he may by hys worde conuerte or chaunge? Nay no we it semeth to be of a lesse miracle, yf that which he is knowen to haue made of nothinge, he be able to tourne or chaunge into better, beynge alreadye made.

To these before rehearsed testimonyes we maye adioyne two other testymonyes of Saynte Chry­sostome, whereof the one is in hys. 83, Homelye vpon Saynte Mathe we where he wryteth in thys maner. Non sunt humane uirtutis haec opera: quae tunc in illa coena [...], ipse nunc quoque operatur, ipse perfecet: ministorum nos ordinem tenemus qui uero hec sanctificat, et [...] ipse est. That is to say

These wordes (Meanynge of theose workes which Chryst dyd at hys maundye) are not of mās vertue or power: those thinges which in that supper or feast, he then dyd, he also nowe it is that [...] worke or do thys matter: we doo kepe the order or place of mynysters: but he [Page] it is (meanynge Chryste) that sanctifyethe these thinges and chaungeth them. The same saynct Chrysostome in [...] homyly. De proditione Iude. sayeth also in thys maner. Et [...] est CHRITVS, qui illam ornauit mensam, ipse istam quoque consecrat Non enim homo est qui proposita de consecratione mensae domini, corpus faciet sanguinem, sed ille qui [...] est pronobis [...]. [...] ore uerba proserun­tur, et dei [...] consecrantur et [...]: hoc est ait corpus meum, Hoc uerbo proposita [...]. Et sicut illa uox quae dicit, Crescite et mul­tiplicam ni & replete terram, semel quidem dicta est, sed omni tempore sen tit effectum ad generationem, [...] natura [...] et [...] illa semel quidem dicta est, sed per omnes mensas, ecclesiae usque ad [...]. ad eius aduentum, praestat socrificio firmitatem. That is to saye. And nowe he the same Chryst is present, who did beautifie or garnyshe that [...], he also it is that doeth consecrate it, for it is not [...] that maketh the thynges set forthe or propo­sed in the consecration of the table, to be the bodye and bloude of Chryste but it is Chryst him selfe, whiche was crucifyed for vs: by the preistes mouth the wordes are pronoūced or spoken, but the thynges are consecrated by the power of GOD, and hys grace, for he (meanyng Chryste) sayeth this is my body, and by that worde the thynges set forthe or pro­posed are consecrated. And lyke [...] that voyce which sayeth, do you encrease and be [...] & do you fyl or replenishe the earthe, was [Page] but once spoken, and yet in, or at all tymes taketh his effecte to generation, nature there­with workinge, So that [...] of Chryste once in dede was spoken, and yet it, throughe out all the tables of the [...], euen vntyll this daye, and vntyll hys commyng (meaning of Chrystes last comming) doth geue strength vn to the sacrifice. And thus much haue we spoken to declare vnto you bothe by the scriptures, and also by moste aunciente and playne aucthorities, that oure Sauioure Chryst in the institution of thys Sacra­ment, dyd tourne the substaunce of breade and wyne into the substaunce of hys owne bodye and bloude, & howe also he doeth the same daylye, by the mynyste­rye of the preistes in consecratiō. And now to come to the seconde part, whiche is concernyng the vse of this sacramēt, ye shall note that this vse doth cōsist special­lye in two poyntes. It is to witte, in the oblation or offeringe of the said sacrament by the preistes vnto al myghtye God, and in the [...] of the same. And here before we do entre any further, it semeth mooste conuenient to note vnto you one synguler priuiledge (emonge many other) where in thys [...], pas­seth all other, and that is thys, where all other sacra­mentes do consist onely in the vse of them, that is to saye, in the very acte of ministration and receauynge of them, thys sacramente hath his perfection oute of hand euen as sone as the wordes of Chryst in the con secration be pronounced, [...] the sacramente be [Page] offered nor receued, according as it is here before pro­ued. And as touchyng the offering therof (common­ly called the sacrifice of the masse) ye shall vnderstand that no one poynt of Christes relygion was more no­tably prophesied of, & set forthe in the olde testamente and before the commyng of Christ, then was the con­tinuall oblation, that is to saye, this fore sayde sacry­fice of the Masse: for the prophette Malachye in hys fyrste chapyter (speakynge in the name of almyghtye GOD, and declaryng that in tyme to come, the sa­cryfices of the olde lawe should cease, and no more to be receaued or allowed at Goddes handes, but that there shoulde another kynde of sacrifyce be throughe­out the hole worlde offered vp vnto hym) doth wryte in this maner. Non est mihi uoluntas in uobis, dicit'dominus [...], et munus non suscipi. [...] de manu uestra, abortu enim solis usque ad occasum, magnum est nomen meum ingentibus, et in omni loco sacrificatur, et offertur nomine [...] ablatio munda, guia magnum est nomen meum [...] gentibus. That is to say. Pleasure is not to me in you, sayeth the lorde of hostes. And offetynge wyll I not take or accepte at youre handes, for from the rysynge vp of the sonne [...] the goynge downe of the same, my name, is greate among the gentyls, yea in euery place sacrifice is done, and a cleane meate offerynge is offered vp vnto my name, for my name is greate amonge the heathen.

The which place of the sayd Prophet Malachye to be ment or vnderstande of no other kynde of sacry­fice [Page] in the newe testament, but onelye by the sacrifice of the body and bloude of our Sauiour Iesus Christ offered vp thorowe the hole Catholyke churche in the Masse, the moste famous and auncient aucthor Ire­neus, being immediatly after the apostles tyme, doth most manifestlye wytnes in the xxxii. Chapter of hys iiii. boke wrytten [...] the [...] of [...], and other lyke [...], where he sayeth in thys maner. Sed et suis discipulis dans consilium primitias deo offerre ex suis creaturis, non quasi indigemi, sed ut ipse [...], nec ingrati [...] cum qui ex [...] & panis est, accepit, et gratias egit, dicens: [...] est [...] corpus: et [...] qui est ex [...] creatura, [...] est secundum nos, [...] confessus est: et [...] oblationem, [...] Ecclesia aò Apostolis [...] in uniuerso mundo offert deo, qui ali­menta nobis prestat, primitias suorum munerum, in nouo Testamento: de quo in [...] prophetis Malachias sic praesignificauit. Non est [...] inuobis. &c. That is to saye. [...] and also he ge­uinge counsayle to his disciples to offer vnto GOD the firste fruites of his creatures, not as that god had anye nede thereof, but that they themselues shoulde neither be vnfruitful or vnthankful, he did take that bread which was of the creature of GOD, and did geue thankes, sayinge. This is my bodye. And ta­kyng like wyse the cuppe or chalyce, whiche also is made of that creature whiche emōgest vs is commonlye (That is to saye wyne) he dyd confesse it to be hys bloude. And of the [...] testamente, he did teache a newe oblation or [Page] sacrifice, which oblation the churche takyng or receauyng of the Apostles, doeth through­out the hole worlde offer vp to GOD, who geueth vs our fode as the fyrste fruites of hys gyftes in the newe testament, of whiche offe­rynge Malachias one of the xii. prophetes did prophesie in this maner. I haue noo pleasure in you. &c.

And thys foresayd sacrifice of the body and bloud of our sauiour Chryst in the sacrament of the Aultare was not onelye longe before Chrystes commynge in most playne sorte prophesied of, by the prophete Ma­lachy (as you haue hearde) but also it was in maner euen in the beginning of the worlde [...] by the oblation of Melchise dech the Prieste of Almyghtye GOD, in that he offered breade and wyne and dyd blesse Abraham the patriarche, as itis wrytten in the xiiii. chapter of Genesis. And that thys oblation of Melchisedech beinge one of the most notable figures of the olde testament, was fulfylled and perfourmed of Chryste himselfe, when he instituted thys sacramēt and daylye is in the Masse (by the commaundement of Chryst at the tyme of the institution thereof) per­fourmed and fulfylled, ye shall here by the vndouted [...] of the fathers, which were in the prima­tiue churche, and fyrste ye shall note what the blessed Martyr [...] Cypryan dothe write hereof in hys treatyse De [...], where he speakyng of the institu­tion of thys sacrament hath these wordes.

[Page] [...] a [...], et filijs [...] facientibus operaeius, summus sacerdos panem profert et [...]. Hoc est (inquit) corpus meum Manducauerant et biberant de eodem pane et [...] lice secundum formam uisibilem, sed [...], cibus ille communis, [...] nutriendo corpori commodus erat, et. [...] corporali subsidium [...]: sed ex guo a domino dictum est, hoc facite in meam commemorationem, Haec est caromea, & hic est sanguis meus. Quotiescunque hijs uerbis, et [...] fide actum est. Panis illi substantialis, & calix benedictione solenni sacratus ad totius hominis uitam salutam (que) proficit simul medicamentum [...] ad sanandas infirmitates, et purgandas iniquitates existens.

That is to saye: The sacramentes in times past from the tyme of Melchisedech, prefigured do come forth. And the most high priest vnto the chyldren of Abraham doyng his workes doeth brynge forthe breade and wyne. Thys is sayth chryste my bodye: they dyd eate, and they did drinke of the same breade and of the saine cuppe, after the visible forme, but before these wordes, that common foode or meate was apt or fitte onely to [...] the bodye & did geue sustenaunce to the corporall life: but after that it was sayd of our Lorde, doo you thys in my remembraunce, this is my [...], and this is my bloude, as often as with these wordes, and with thys faythe, the thinge is done, that substanciall fode, and that cuppe consecrated or sanctifyed wyth the folempne benediction or blessynge, doethe profytte [Page] vnto the life and helth of the whole man be­inge bothe a medecine and also a pryncypall offerynge to [...] our [...], and also to purge our iniquities.

The same Sayncte Cypryan also in hys seconde booke of Epystles and hys thyrde Epystle (speakyng of thys sacrifyce) sayeth thus. Si lesus Christus domiuus et deus noster ipse est summus sacerdos dei patris, et sacrificium deo patri ipse primus obtuli, et hoc fieri in [...] commemorationem precipet. Vtique ille sacerdos uice Christi uere sungitur qui id quod Christus fecit, simitatur. Et sacrificium uerum et plenum tunc offert in eeclc siadco patrisi [...] offerre secundum quod ipsum Christum uideat obtulisss.

That is to saye. [...] Iesus Chryst our Lorde and GOD, be himselfe the highe presste of God the father, and he him selfe did firste offer the sacrifice to god his father, & did cōmaūde also that to be done in his remēbraūce, truely that preist doth verely occupy the place or stede of Chryste, who doth folow that whych Christ did. And then doth the priest in the churche of­fer [...] to GOD the father a true aud a full sacrifice, yf he so begynne to offer, as that he hathe sene Chryste to haue offered. Thus much sayeth Cypryan.

And here to omitte manye, or rather [...] aucthorities, and sufficient proses, as concernyng thys [...] or [...] of tho [...] one [...] of S. Ambrose; who was [...] eleuen hundred yeares agoo, and by hym also ye shall [Page] well [...], that the name of Masse is not soo stra­unge a thyng or so a new an inuention as men wolde make it. For S. Ambrose in hys fyfte boke of epystles and the. xxiii, epystle, writing vnto hys syster Marcel lina, of a certayne trouble and tumulte, [...] in the citie of Mylayne where he was byshoppe, did chaūce vpon a sondaye in the moruinge, while he was at di­uine seruice, doth saye thus. Ego tamen [...] munere: Missā facere capi, [...], raptum [...] populo [...] (quem praesbyterum dicerent Arriam) hunc autem in [...] offenderant [...] tes: [...] fiere et orare in ipsa oblatione deum coepi, ut subucuiret.

That is to saye. [...] for all that I dyd abide in mine office or diuine seruice, I dyd begynne to saye Masse, And when I was at the obla­tion, I did understande one called Castulus (whome the Arrians wolde take for a priest) to be violentlye taken of the people Hym in dede they [...] in the strete hadde founde, moste [...] I beganne to wepe, and to praye to god euē in the very oblation, that he woulde succoure or helpe.

Accordynge where vnto the blessed martyr Igna­tius in his [...] Epystle wrytten, to the Smyrnians doth say thus. [...] sine episcopo, neque offerre neque [...] immolare, neque [...] celebrare, That is to saye. It is not lawefull without the [...] neither to of­fer, neither to immolate the sacrifice, neyther to celebrate or saye Masses. And the thynge be­ynge [Page] so it maye greatly be marueyled, that this word Masse, beyng so auncient in the Catholyke churche and so termed amongest the auncient fathers thereof shuld be taken for so great an eye soore, or soo odyouse a thing, as amongest our late scymaticall preachers, it hath bene impudentlye taughte, who to blynde the peoples eyes, and do deceaue there eares, haue erro­neouslye, and maliciouslye sayde, that neyther the worde Masse, nor the thynge therin conteyned, haue bene of olde tyme allowed or vsed in Chrystes church Shortly to make an ende of testimonies, or profe of the fyrste vse of thys sacramente, whiche we doo saye to consyste in the sacrifyce therof, ye shall haue onely one testimonye more in this parte, in whiche testimo­nye, besydes the profe of the sacrifice, it is further also declared, that the wordes of Chryst, beynge dulye by a lawefull preist pronounced, whatsoeuer his lyfe or conuersation be, better or worse, the wordes always, yf there be no other let, do take theyr full effect, and o­peration: [...], and moreouer that the sayd sacrifice of the Masse doth stande in his full force not withstā ­dynge. And the sayde [...] is the sayinge off. Chrysoltome, in his seconde homyly vpon the seconde cpystle of S. Paule to Tymothy, where he wrytethe thus. Volo quidem adijcere mirabile, & nolite mirari, ne (que): turbemi­ni, Quid ueroistud est? Sacraipsa oblatio, siue illam Petrus, siue Paulus, siue cuiusuis meritisacerdos. offerat eadem est, quam dedit Christus ipse disci­pulis quam (que) sacerdotes modo quo (que) conficiunt. Nihil habet esta quam illa minus. [...] id? quia non hanc sanctificant homines, sed Christus qui illam an­ted sacrauerat. Quemadmoàum enim uerba guae loquutos est Christus, [...] sunt quae sacerdotes nunc quo (que) pronunciant, ita & oblatio [...] est: [Page] That is to saye. And in dede I wyll adde plain lye a meruelous thinge, and yet do you not wonder, nor be you troubled. But what is that, wyl you say? The sacred or holye obla­tion, whether Peter doth offer it or Paule, or of what soeuer meryte the preist be, it is the verye same thinge whiche Chryste hymselfe dydde gyue vnto his disciples, and the same whiche the preistes nowe doo make. Thys hathe no lesse then it: And whye soo [...] men doo not sanctifye this but Chryste who sanctified or consecrated that before. For like as the wordes whiche Chryst dyd speake be the selfe same whyche the preistes nowe also do pronounce, euen so the oblation or sacrifice is the same.

AND nowe to come vnto the other vse it is to wytte, of the receauynge of the Sacramente, ye shall note, that althoughe oure Samoure Iesus Christe, at the first institution of this sacramente, dydde minister it vnto his disciples, whiche were than presente, vnder both the kyndes of bread and wyne, Yet that fashy­on and maner of ministrynge is not soo necessarye to the receauer (excepte it be to the preist, whan he doth consecrate) that without the due obseruation of that waye, man myght not receaue that blessed sacramēt to his saluation. For the benefyte or hurte that com­meth to a chrysten man, by receauynge of this sacra­mente, [Page] standeth not in the fashyon or maner of recea­uynge of it, vnder one or both kyndes, but in the wor thyor vnworthy receauyng of the thynge conteyned in the same. For he that receaueth this Sacramente worthelye, vnder the one kynde, as vnder the forme of breade onely, receaueth the hole bodye and bloude of Chryst, and as many and great benefittes of Christ as he that receaueth it in both kyndes. And therefore if any man should teache, that the laye people (which by the ordinaunce and auncient custome of the catho­lyke churche, haue vsed to receaue this holy sacramēt in fourme of breade onelye) be seduced and soo cause them to thynke, that the holle bodye and bludde of Chryst, where not comprehended in that onely forme of breade, as well as in both the kyndes, this doctrine ought vtterlye to be refused and abiected, as a verye pestiferouse and deuely she doctryne. For surely scrip­ture teacheth the contrary, and also naturall reason, althoughe it cannot comprehende the hole mistery of this sacrament, yet herein it teacheth vs agreablye wt scrypture, yt that liuely body cannot be without bloud and therefore men ought to be ledde from that fonde opinion (yf any such be) both by that faith, and credit which they do owe vnto scripture, and in this poynt also by naturall reason. And chrysten men knowinge this, ought not to grudge at thys fourme and maner of receauyng of this sacrament vnder one kynd, vsed and allowed by the catholyke church, both to auoide that erroure afore rehersed, and also for manye other weyghtie considerations, concernynge bothe the ho­nor of the sacramēte, and the libertye, and commodi­tie [Page] of the hole churche, seyng that not onely lay men, but also prestes (sauinge whan they do consecrate) do vse to receaue thys Sacrament none otherwyse Let chrysten men therfore humbly apply them self, to put all erronious fantasies cleane out of ther hartes, and satisfye them selues with this, that when they receiue the sacrament worthely, though it be but in one kind they loose no parte of the profyt and benefyte promy­sed by vertue of the sayde Sacramente. And yet to stably she this poynte (touchyng the receauing of this sacramente vnder one kynde) both with testimonies of scripture, and also otherwyse, ye shall vnderstand, that whan our sauyour Christ did delyuer this sacra­mente vnder bothe kyndes, in the institution there­of, he of purpose had onely his twelue Apostles with hym, to declare vnto vs that he there dyd rather pre­scribe vnto them being preistes, how they and theyr successours should consecrate, and offer, and also they themselues in theyr ministery receaue the same, than howe it shoulde be receaued of other, not beynge of the same vocation as the Apostles were of. And ther­fore it was neuer yet lawfull, but very straytely to be punyshed yf a prest whan he dyd consecrate, and of­fer the same, dyd not withall receaue it vnder bothe kyndes. Wherein appearethe (the cyrcumstaunces of the institution beynge well marked and consyde­red, that the cammaundement and charge geuen at that tyme by oure sauioure Iesus Christ, doth not of necessitie bynde the laye men, noo nor yet the preiste, (but when he sayeth masse) to receaue vnder both kin des. Therefore many tyme in Scrypture, mentyon [Page] is made but of one kynde onely, as apperteynyng ge­nerally vnto all men, it is to wytte, of the sacramente to be receaued vnder the fourme of breade, wythoute any mention made of the other kynde or forme. As in the. vi. of Iohn, where our sauiour in a greate multy­tude of people, (besides hys apostles) makynge pro­mes of thys sacramente to be geuen by hym, in tyme then yet to come, sayeth. Panis quem ego labo caro mea est, [...] dabo pro mundi uita That is to say. The breade whiche I wil geue is my fleshe, whiche [...] I wyll geue for the lyfe of the worlde-Saynte Luke al so in hys. xxiii. chapter of hys gospel, telleth how that our sauiour Christ after his resurrection, dyd appeare in a straunge forme or shape, to two of hys dyscyples goinge towarde Emaus, and when he hade a good whyle walked and talked wyth them, and yet they knew him not, at length they came to Emaus, wher Christ syttyng with them, toke bread, blessed it, and brake it, and gaue it vnto them, and by and by theyr eyes were opened, and they knewe hym, and he vani shed out of theyr sight. Thys bread so geuē in Emaus to the two disciples, S. Augustine in his thyrd boke, Deconsensu euangelistarum And saynte Chrisostome in hys xvii. homilye vpon Mathewe, and Theophilus also, auncienter then any of them both, do expounde to be the Sacramente of Christes bodye? and yet ther the scripture (as in sundrye other places els) doeth make no mentiō of the other kinde or forme, (it is to wyt, of the Sacramente vnder the fourme of wyne) to haue bene geuen vnto them.

[Page]To this consideration appertayneth also, the won­derfull fedinge of the chyldren of Israell, in wylder­nes, the space of. xl. yeares, wyth a straunge breade called Manna, being a figure of this sacrament, as it belongethe to all chrysten people, who throughe the huge wildernes of this worlde do passe towarde the true land of promyse. And yet farther to confyrme thys thyng by an auncient and weightye testimonie ye shall here what is recorded by the excellente Au­thor Nicephorus Calistus, who beynge aboute a thousande yere ago, in his worke called Ecclesiastica histo ria in the. xiii. boke and in the seuenth chapiter thereof (wrytynge of a certayne woman, who obstynate lye longe tyme refused to receaue the catholyke rytes, of Chrystes Churche, and so obstinately, that although hyr husband moste ernestlye labored with her in that matter, and dyuerse tymes sore dyd fall out wyth her yea and threatned her ferther displesure, yf she would not vniformely receaue the chrysten relygyon and sa­ramentes, yet in her harte she woulde not be persua­ded, neuerthelesse at length dissemblyngly, she fained herselfe to be by hym herein persuaded, and therevp­on entendyng by fraude to cloke her doynges and to perfourme more easely her purpose, she made one of her maydes (whome she trusted verye well pryueye of her entent and purpose) he thus wryteth. Mulier, post [...] persimulationem annuit, ex ancillis (quam [...] sibi esse credebat) uni quid factura esset, credibit: ut per fraudem uirum falleret [...] sacrorum [...] tempore accedens illa, donum sicuti mors erat (qui [...] insti­tuti sunt quid dicam intelligunt) accepit, at que id retinens, perinde atque [...]: mysterium (que) sacro sastum occul [Page] [...], et que [...] ancilla, pro [...] panem communem domo allatum obtulit, quem illa ori admouens, in lapidis naturam induratum esse, dum den­tibus atterere conatur, sensit. &c. That is to saye: This wo man (after that she by dissimulatiō had graū ted, or agreed) did vnto one of her handmay­dens (whome she thought to be faithfull vn­to her) tell or shewe what she intended to do: to the intente that by fraude she myghte deceyue her husbande. And she the sayde wo­man commyng in the tyme of the holy miste ryes, dyd take the gyfte as the custome or maner was, (what thynge I saye or meane when I say that, they yt are instructed in chri­sten religion doo vnderstande well) And ke­pynge it, as thoughe she woulde haue fallen to prayer, leanynge dounewarde, bowed her selfe and did hide the most holy mysterye And her handmayden which stode by her, deliuered vnto her for the sayde mysterye, the common breade which she had brought with her from home, whiche common breade she the sayde woman puttynge it to her mouthe dyd the meane whyle she went about to haue broken it with her tethe, fele or perceyue it to be hardened, as turned into the nature of a stone. &c.

[Page]By which most notable historye (besydes other goodly matters there in recorded) it apeareth moste euydently that euen at the same tyme, the sacrament of the Aultare was ministred vnto the laye people vnder one kynde only, it is to wytte, vnder ye forme of breade. For yf ye consider well the wordes whiche do expresse the facte, and there wyth do note and re­member the intent of yt woman to deceaue her husbād in the recepte of this sacrament, there can be no dout herein Ouer and besydes all this it is euydent by fer­ther recorde, that al the hole body of Chrystendome with longe and moste diligent deliberation examy­nyng this matter aboue. vii. score yeres ago, by reasō of certayne disordered persones in the kyngedome of Boheme, which sterred vp emongest the people of ye sayde realme, greate vnquyetnes (the lyke whereof ye knowe well inough hath by other in some othere places with toth and nayle, bene attēpted and sette forth) touchyng thys maner of receyuing vnder one kynde, dyd then find, that laye men and wemen had of very aunciente tyme before those dayes, vsed the same fashion of receauyng the sacrament onelye vn­der the forme of breade, and that vse in the churche, to haue bene also in the former ages, generally commē ­ded and allowed, as maye appear both in the xiii. ses­sion of the generall consayle holden at Constans, & also in the thirtyth Sessyon of the general counsayle holden at Basyll, aboute sixt score yeares ago, where thus it is wrytten.

Laudabilis quoque consuetudo communicandi [...] populum sub una specie ab [...] et sanctis patribus rationabiliter introducta, [...] hastenus [Page] diutissime obseruata, & a doctoribus diuinae legis, sacrarum scriptuarum, atque canonum, multam peritiam habentibus, iam a longeno tempore com­mendare pro lege habenda est. nec allicui [...] cst eam reprobare, aut sine authoritate ecclesiae ipsam immutare. That is to say. The law dable custome also to communicate or how­sel the laye people vnder one kynde or forme beyng by the churche and holy fatheres with good reason brought in, and hitherto of most longe tyme kepte or obserued: and also of the docters hauynge great knowledge of the di­uine lawe, of the holye scryptures, and of the Canons nowe of longe tyme commended, must be had or taken for a lawe: nor lawfull it is to any man for to reproue it, or without the aucthoritye of the churche to chaunge it. The thing thus beyng mete & conuenient it is that ye authoritie [...] the churche (which is as Saynt Paule sayeth in his first epystle and thyrd chapter to Timo­the. Columna & firmamentum ueritatis. That is to saye. The Pyller and staye of truthe. do contente & satysiye vs well in thys behalfe. Hauyng nowe spoken of the institution of thys sacrament, and also of the vse ther­of, consequently there remayneth (accordynge to the promysed order) to speake of the thyrde and last part, whiche is of the inessimable fruite procedynge of the ryght vse of the sayde sacrament. And because the vse is (as we haue sufficientlye here before proued) in two fortes, it is to wytte in offerynge and in recey­uyng [Page] thereof, it shall therefore be expediente seuerally to entreate of the specyall fruite of them bothe. And fyrst touchyng the fruite of the sacrifyce of the masse, we must vnderstand, that [...] ye sacrifice which was made vpō the crosse, & the sacrifyce of the masse, as concernynge the substaunce of the thynge offered, there is no difference, for as muche as in that respecte, it is one and the same, though the maner of offerynge be diuerse, as hath bene shewed and proued hereto­fore vnto you. For in the sacrifyce made vppon the Crosse, there was the visible sorme and shape of Chri­stes bodye beynge man, yea and the visible fleshe and [...] of Chryst in the natiue forme of [...] & [...] but herein this sacrament the same fleshe and bloude of Chryst being truely in substaunce, is set [...] not in the natiue formes of fleshe and bloude, but vnder the formes of breade and wyne. And therefore emon­gest the most aunciente fathers, beynge of the Greke churche, & also of the Latyn. The one sacrifyce (made vpon the crosse, is called a bloudy sacryfyce, because vi sibly, there, out of the syde of Chryst bloude was shed. And the other (whyche by the Preiste is offered at masse vpon the Aultare) is named. Incruentum sacraficium, that is to saye: A sacrifice vnbloudye or wyth­out bloudshedynge. not because there is no [...] there, but because there is no visible effusion [...] bloud beynge there neuerthelesse in substaunce (as we at large before haue proued) both the fleshe and bloude, of Christe. And because ye shall not thynke, that thys distinction or diuersitie is an imagination or a newe inuention, ye maye for the try all hereof, read the gret [Page] and notable famouse Counsayles, and other verye weyghtye aucthorities of the Catholike Church. And [...] ye maye fynde in the epistle sente to Ne storius. from the Counsayle of Ephesus this same difference noted, in whiche Counsayle, Saynte Cyryll at that tyme was presidente, and that difference or distinctyon is [...] agayue by the same [...] in his treatyse agaynst, [...], [...] undecimo. and in the gene­rall counsayle kepte at [...], there is vsed in the Ca­nons thereof, the same distinction, whyche is before specyfyed. Nazianzen lyke wyse in his verses to the byshoppes, and in his firste [...] agaynst Iulian hath the same distinction. And so haue sondrye other ryght [...] fathers. And passynge from thys distinction to declare vnto you, the effecte and fruite that cōmeth of the dew oblation of the body & bloude of Christ in the sacrifice of the masse, ye shal vnderstād that nothinge beinge so acceptable vnto the father of heauē, as is the body & bloud of our sauiour Christ his sōne, the catholike churche therfore in al the cōclusiōs of praiers & petitions, that are made vnto the father is accustomed commonlye to saye. [...] Christum Dominum nostrum. that is to saye. Throughe or for the sake of our Lorde Chryste. or suche lyke wordes, ten­dynge euer to the same purpose, nothynge doutynge but that the thynge whiche is so asked in his name, shall ye soner be attayned, in asmuche as Chryste hym selfe, both learned vs so to doe, and adioyued thereto the promyse of obreynyng the same, as maye appeare in the. xvi. of Iohn, where Chryste sayeth thus. Si quid petieritis patrem in nomine meo, dabit uobis that is to saye: [...] [Page] ye aske my father any thinge in my name he will geue it vnto you. Nowe the Catholyke churche doeth in the sacrifice of the masse, not onelye praye in the name of Chryste (as in other her prayers) but wyth prayer doeth also offer vppe, and exhibyte therein vnto the father in heauen the bodye & bloude of hys dearelye beloued sonne oure [...] Iesus Chryste, by that meane (as beyng the very [...] and iucomparable meane, passynge all other meanes) to obteyne most frutefully, most habundantlye, & moste assuredly all the merites, and benefytes of Chrystes deathe to be applied vnto vs, and that suche prayers as are made in the time of the masse, and the sacryfyce thereof, are specyall and aboue all other effectnall S. Augustyne proueth by scrypture, dicuslynge mooste exactly thys place of S. Paule in the second chapter of hys fyrst epystle to Timothe, where Saynt Paule thus wryteth. Obsccro igitur primum omnium fieri obsecrationes, [...] tioncs, postulatioms, gratiarum actiones, pro omnibus hominibus, pro regi­bus et ommbus qui in [...] consti uti sunt, ut quietam et tranquillam uitam [...], [...] omni pietate et chastitate: [...] bonum est et accep­tum coram saluatore nostro [...] qui omnes homines uult saluos fieri et ad [...] nem ueritatis uenire

That [...] to saye. I besech you therefore aboue all thynges that obsecrations, [...], supplications, and thankes geuyng, be made or had for all men, for kynges, and for all thē whyche are in high aucthoritie, that we may lyue a quiet and a peasable lyfe, in all god­lynes [Page] and honestye. For that is good and ac­ceptable before GOD our Sauioure whose wyl is all men to besaued and to come to the knowledge of the trueth. Upon whych place S. Augustyne discoursynge very dilygentlye in his, [...] epystle wrytten vnto Paulinas, doeth saye that by those foure seuerali wordes of Saynt Paule, it is to wite, obsecrations, obtestations, supplications and thankes geuynge, are mente the foure seuerall partes frequented in the hole Catholyke Churche. in the diuine celebration whyche is done at Goddes borde. As by the fyrst worde obsecrations, to be vnderstand al that whych is sayde at the altar be­fore that the breade and the chalyce set vpon the aul­tare be blessed. By the second worde (Whiche is ob testations) to be mente all those prayers whyche be sayde from thence vnto the fractions of the hoūe, in declaration of whyche parte. Saynt Augustine doth expresly call thys sacrament the [...] of the holye Aultare. And by the thyrde worde Supplications to be vnderstanded that part wherein the byshoppe, after the foresayd fractions doth turne vnto the peo­ple and blesse them and wherein also the sacramente is receyued. And fynally by the fourth worde. Which is thankes geuyng, to be ment, the very end and conclusion of the diuine celebration. All whyche thynges concernyng the mynde of S. [...] vp­on those foure wordes of S; Paule, [...] maye more at [Page] [...] synde in the foresayde epistle of S. Augustine. So then this place of Scripture, thus vnderstanded doth most manifestly and euidently declare the great fruite and commoditie of the masse, and the oblation of the same, for immedyatlye in S. Paule foloweth, that these foure partes should be executed to the ende. Vt quietam et tranquillam uitam [...] in omni [...] & chastitate. That is, To the ende that we mighte liue or leade a quiet and peaceable life in all god­lines and honestie. Where is to be noted that when saynct Paule gaue thys exhortation to Tymo­thy, chrysten men euery where dyd lyue vnder the do­mynion of heathen princes and yet S. Paule would these foure partes to be amonge the Chrysten menne frequented and vsed, yea for the sayd heathen princes that they eyther shoulde perfectlye be conuerted there by, or at the least some what relent from theyr soo out ragious and cruell [...] wyth the chrysten men, beynge theyr subiectes. But nowe farther to procede in declaration of the inestimable [...], and fruyte whych commeth of thys sacryfyce of the masse, it shal be necessarye here to note vnto you that the fruyte thereof doth not onely extende it selfe to people beyng yet here vpon the earth lyuynge, to [...] vuto them (hauing good harte & minde to take and receyue the profitte thereof) grace and mercy at gods handes, but it is also fruitefull vnto as manye as de­partyng thys presente lyfe, are not vtterlye excluded from the fauour of God, and the hope of the fruityon of the godheade, [...] asmuche as suche are membres of [Page] Chrystes mysticall bodye, hauynge buylded vppon Chryste the foundation, not onelye golde, syluer, and precyous stones, but tymber, hey, and stubble also whyche by fyre must be consumed, before they can en­ter into the kyngdome of heauen, where is all puritie cleanenes and perfection. And that these sortes maye by the sacrifice of the Masse, be releaued, and the so­ner deliuered oute of theyr paynes, and therevpon be receaued into eternal ioye, there are besyde the ve­rye Scryptures of God, infinite authorities, of the most auncient fathers of Chrystes Catholyke Chur­che, of which authorities, we here nowe alledge cer­teyne of the mooste notable vnto you. And fyrste we wyll brynge in Sainte Chrysostome in hys. 96. ho­milye, ad [...] antiochenum. where he wrytethe in thys maner. Non temere ab apostolis hec sancita fuerunt ut in tremendis my­steriis, defunctorum agatur commemoratio. Sicunt enim illi sinde multum contingere lucrum, utilitatem multam. Stante sequidem uniuerso populo [...] nus in coelum extendente coetu item sacerdotali, uerendo (que) posito sacrificio [...] deum non [...] pro istis [...], sed hoc quidem de hiis qui in fide migratunt. that is to saye. Not withoute greate cause, of the Apostles these thinges were de­creed, that, in those dreadesul misteries. (mea­nynge the sacrifice of the Masse, where there is pre­sented and offered to god the father the body & bloud of hys most deare beloued sonne Jesu Chryst: in the presence or handlynge of whome, we oughte to trem­ble least by our vnworthynes or misorder, we shoulde otherwyse behaue oure selfe then the worthynes and dignitie of that sacrifice [...]) the commemo­ration [Page] of the deade should be had or made, for in dede they knowe well that greate com­moditie and profytte doeth come to the deade therby. For when all the people doeth stande holdinge vp they haudes to heauen, andthe companye of the priestes lykewyse, and also the dreadfull sacrifice be layed vpon the Aul­tare, howe can it be, but we shall appease or mitigate GOD prayinge for the saide dead? but this yet is to be done for suche as doe dye in the fayth. Thys fayeth Chrifostome.

And the same Chrysostome also, in his. xli. homily vpon the fyrst epistle of S. Paule to the Corinthians reprouynge suche as dyd immoderatlye lamente the deathe of their frendes, writeth in thys maner.

Sed qou abiret inquis ignoras? uel recte uixit uel secus. utrin (que), quo profectus sit, constat. Idipsnmest quod perturbat, inpuis, quia decesserit peccator sunt haec subfugium & praetextus. Nam situ idcirco mortuum do les, formare & componere uiuentem oportebat, Verum tuas tu uices, non huius deploras. Arbiret peccotor sane, gaudere decct peccata [...] esse & non accumulatum malum? uti (que) quaotum fieri potest, ut iuuetur, non lachrimis, sed prece, supplicationibus, eleemosinis, oblationibus. Non est te­mere hoc excogitatum nec frustramemoriam mortuorum inter sacra miste­ria celebramus, aut accedimus pro istis agnum illum iacentum, & [...] mundi tollentem deprecantis sed ut his consolatio hinc aliqua sict, Nec te­mere qui altari assistit inter horrenda mysteria clamat. Pro omnibus in Chri­sto dormientibus, & pro his qui memoriam celebrant illorum. &c.

That is to say. But thou saiest, I cā not tel whi ther he is gone. Canst thou not tell? eyther he [Page] lyued well, or els otherwyse, on both sides it is certaine whither he is gone. But then saith thou) that is it, that trobleth me because he departed a synner. Let this be your excuse and pretexte. For yf therefore thou art sory for him nowe deade, thou shouldeste haue enfor med and redressed him while he was alyue, but thou lamenteste thyne owne cause and not his. Althoughe truely he be gone a sinner thou oughtest to reioyse, that hys synnes are stayed or letted, and that vyce is no more hea ped or encreased, and thou oughteste to ende­uoure thy selfe by all meanes possible, that he maye be holpen, not with teares, but with praier, with supplications with almesdedes and oblations. It is not vnaduisedly or with out cause deuised, ne yet in vaine do we cele­brate the memorie of the deade, while we be at the holye misteries, or doo come prayinge for the deade) vnto that lambe there lyenge, whyche taketh awaye the synnes of ye world but that thereby some comforte, maye be vn­to the sayd deade, yea not withoute a greate cause it is, that he which standeth at the aul­tare, whyle he is aboute the dreadefull myste­ries, [Page] doth crye, sayinge. For all them whyche slepe in Chryst, and for al them whych do ce­lebrate theyr memorie &c. S. Augustyne also in the, xxii, sermon De uerbis apostoli, wryteth thus. Crationi­bus uero sanctae ecclesiae & sacrificio salutari, & [...]. sinis quae pro eorū spiritibus erogantur non est dubit. [...], ut cum eis mise­ricordius agatura domino (quam) eorum peccata meruerunt. Hoc enim a patribus traditum, uniuersa obseruat ecclesia, ut [...] qui in corporis & san­guinis communione defuncti sunt cum abipsum sacrificium loco suo commemorantur, oretur, ac pro illis qu [...] (que) id efferri commemoretur, cū uero eorū commendandorum causa, opera misericordiae [...], quis eis dubite suffragiari, pro quibus [...] allegantur? [...] omnino ambigendum est, ist a prodesse defunctis sed talibus qui ita uixerint ante mortem, ut possint eis haec utilia esse post mortem &c, That is to sai we ought not to doute but that the deade by the prayers of the holye churche, by the hole­some sacrifyce, and by the almes whyche are giuen for theyr soules, are holpen, that GOD maye be more mercifull vnto them, then ther synnes haue deserued, for the vniuersall chur­che doth obserue or kepe this, as a thynge de­lyuered or lefte vnto her from the auncient fa thers, that for thē whiche haue departed this lyfe in the communion or felowshyppe of the body and bloude of Chryste, prayer shoulde be had or made, whan at the [...] of the very sacrifice, the persōs departed, are in their peculier place remembred & mētioned also to be made, that the sacrifyce is offered for them. [Page] And when the workes of mercy are done for the departed, they thereby to be commended or betaken to the mercye of God who canne doute those workes to releiue them for whō prayer is not vaynelye alleged or made, it is not to be douted at all these thynges to pro­fyte or auayle the deade, and yet but to suche who so haue lyued before their deathe, that these thinges maye be profytable vnto them after their departure or death. &c.

Herevnto may be added one notable discourse of S. Augustyne, nothyng so longe as frutefull whyche is wrytten in his treatyse called Enchiridion ad Laurentium in the. [...] chapter of the same in these wordes. Ne (que) negradū [...] functorum animas pietate suorum uiuentium releuari, cum pro illis sas [...] offertur, uel eleemosynae in ecclesia siunt. Sed eis haec prosunt, qui cum [...], ut haec sibi prodesse possint, emeruerunt: Est [...] quidam uiuendi modus non tam bonus ut non requirat ista post mortem nec tam malus ut ei non prosint ista post mortem. Est uero talis in [...], ut ista non requirat, & est rursus talis in malo [...] nec his ualeat, cum haec [...] transicrit adiuuari [...] circa hic omne meritum comparatur quo possit post haue uitam, releuari quispiam uel grauari. Nemo autem se speret, quod hic neglexerit cum obieret apud [...] promereri. Non igitur ista quae pro defunctis [...], isti apostolicae sunt Christi, ut referat unusquis (que) secundum ea [...] per corpus gessit, siue bonum, siui ma­lum, Quia etiam hoc meritum sibi quis (que) cum in corpore uiueret, comparas uit, ut ei possint ist a [...] non [...] omnibus prosunt. Et quare [...] omnibus prosunt? Nisipropter [...], quam quis (que) gessit in corpore, Cum ergo [...] altaris, siue quarumcun (que) [...] defāctis [...] offerantur, pro non ualde bonis, gratiarum actiones sunt, pro non ualde [...] sunt, pro [...] malis & si nulla sunt adiumenta [...] qualesc un (que) uiuorum consolationes sunt. [Page] That is to saye. And it is not to be denyed that the soules of the deade, through the deuotyon of theyr frendes beinge yet aliue, are relieued or eased, whan as for them, eyther the sacry­syce of oure mediatoure is offered vppe, or al­mes is geuen in the churche. But these thyn­ges are auayleable to suche, as in theyr lyfe tyme, dyd deserue. that the same myghte doo them good. For there is a certen maner of life and conuersation, neyther so good or perfytte that it requireth or nedeth not these thynges after death, nor yet so badde, that after the de­partinge out of this [...] lyfe, it maye not thereby haue profytte and commoditie. But there is suche state of life in the good man that it requireth not such thinges And again in the extreme wicked man, suche as the state of his lyfe, that whan he goeth oute of thys world he can not by anye deuotion of the ly­uinge be holpen. Wherefore here in. thys lyfe, all deserte or merite is purchased. Wherebye a man after thys lyfe maye either be relyeued or greued. And let no man hope, that he can after his decease, obteine of God that thynge, which he here hath neglected. And therefore these suffrages which the churche dothe vse [Page] or frequent for the deade to be receaued into more fauor or mercy with god, are nothynge contrary to that saying of the Apostle saynte Paule, where he sayeth: For all we shal stand before the iudgement seate of Chryst that eue ry oue of vs may receaue, (accordynge to the dedes which he him selfe heare in bodye dyd.) eyther good or euyll. Because euerye manne whyle he liued in the bodye, dyd procure to him selfe this merite also (it is to wytte) that these suffrages may be profitable vnto hym. For vndoutedly these thinges are not auail­able to al men, and whye is that? But by reason of the difference in the life and conuer­sation of eueryche man, whiche he dyd vse while he here liued on the earthe, wherefore, when the sacrifices either of the aultar or of any maner of almes, are offered for all Chry­sten soules departed, the sayde sacrifices for very good mē departed, are thankes geuings and for suche as deceased, beinge not verie euill, they are propritiations, and finallie, for the wicked or verye euill, thoughe they are no helpes to them, being deade, yet they are to them which are aliue, some kinde of com­fortes.

[Page]And nowe forasmuch as we haue thus fully & plainly by sufficient aucthorities declared, that the sacryfyce of the masse, or (as saynt Augustyne. in his foresayde proces doth call it) the sacrifyce of the Aultare, is a uayleable for the deade, no man oughte or can doute but that the same is also auayleable to men yet liuing which with fayth and deuotion moste humblye praye almyghty god especiaily in the tyme of thys sacrifyce to applye vnto them by Chryste, that remission and [...] whiche was purchased and deserued by hys passion before. And yet as we haue in all other the formar poyntes concernynge the sacramente of the [...], so wyll we heare also alledge some plaine and pythy testimonyes for the confirmation of this parte And fyrste you shall call to youre remembrannce the saying of the Prophete Malachy (whiche is here be­fore in thys processe, alledged for the profe of thys sa­cryfyce) and note that forasmuch as god therein doth say that the sacrifyces of the olde lawe should cease & gyue place to thys pure and cleane sacryfyce (whych is offered vp to hym throughoute the hole worlde) as to a most excellent and most acceptable sacryfyce in hys syghte, therefore all those sondrye commodytyes whyche are in Moyses lawe reckened, to haue come vnto the Jewes by the sayde sacrifices of ye old lawe, must nowe muche more plentifullye and fruitefullye, come vnto vs chrysten men, by the meaue of thys soo singuler a sacrifice, so that we be worthy to enioy the effecte and fruite thereof. Ye shall secondly also cal to your remembraunce the place of Saynte Paule in hys fyrst epystle to Tymothie, and the seconde chapy­ter [Page] before of vs alledged, with the exposition of S. Augustyne vpon the same place, in whych hys exposi­tion he noteth vnto vs the foure partes of the masse, and those to be doue (accordynge to Saynt Paules mynde there) Pro omnibus hominibus pro re gibus, et omnibus qui in sublimitate constituti sunt, ut quietam et tranquillam uitam agamus, in oms ni pietate et castitate. &c. That is to saye. For al men, for Kynges, for all whyche are in hyghe auctho­ritie, to the intente that we maye leade a quy­et and peaseable lyfe, in all godlynes and ho­nestye. And accordyng herevnto Saynt Basyll (be yng aboue an eleuen hundred yeare ago) in his masse setteth fourth (as vsed in the Churche at hys tyme) thys prayer folowing Da domine ut pro nostris [...] popu­li ignorantijs, acceptum sit sacrificium nostrum. That is to say.

Graunte o lorde that for oursynnes, and the ignorances of the people, thys sacrifyce maye be accepted of the. And the lyke hath Saynt Chry­sostome also in his masse, with [...] Saynt Augu styne fully agreing, doth in very many places make mention of thys sacryfyce, & in the fruyte thereof but mooste notable in the eyght chapyter of hys, 22, boke De ciuitate dei.

But nowe to come to speake of that fruite whych the worthy receauer of this sacrament enioyeth, three or foure wordes may in thys behalfe suffyce, partelye for that neuer any chrysten man to thys day yet ther of dyd doute, and partely for that the scrypture moste playnely in the, vi: of Ihon doth saye. Qui manducat me [Page] & ipse uiuit propter me. That is to saye. He that eatethe me (meanyng of the worthy receyuynge of the sacra­ment, as the processe there declareth) he shall also liue throughe me. And what greater proffytte ioy, comforte, or blysse can come to anye man then to lyue through Chryst, which is asmuch to saye, as bothe in thys worlde to be a lyuelye member of Chryste, and [...] the lyfe to come, to be coherytoure with him in the kyngdome of heauen Accordyng wherevnto Saint Cyryll in his, 4, booke and, xvii, chapyter vpon Jhon sayeth. Nos uero si uitam eternam consequi uolumus, si largitorè immor­talitatis habere in nobis desideramus, ad recipiendam benedictionem liben­ter concurramus. That is to soye. [...] we wil obteine euerlastyng life, yf we desire to haue within vs immortalitie, let vs [...] runne to re­ceiue the qenediction, (meanynge there by thys [...] Benediction, the sacramente of the Aultare, as he commonly doth in that processe made vpon the vi, of Jhon) And the same Cyryll in hys thyrde boke and, xxxvii, Chapiter vpon [...] sayeth thus.

Viuisicat enim Corpus Christi, [...] ad incorruptionem sua participatione reducit. and by and by after in the same Chapyter he sayth. Ad coelestem gratiam accedamus, Corporis (que) Christi parti­cipes efficiamur. Sic enim sic inquam, diabolum fugabimus, & [...] inatu­roe participes ad uitam et incorruptibilitatem ascendemus. of whyche two places the fyrst is thus in Englyshe. Truelie the body of Chryst doth gyue lyfe and dothe reduce or brynge agayne them that particy­parte [Page] or be partakers thereof, to incorrupty­on. The seconde thus. Let vs come vnto the heauenlye grace, and be made partakers of the body of Chryste, for so, euen so (I saye) we shall chase awaye the deuyll, and heynge soo made partakers of the deuyne nature, we shall ascende to lyfe, and incorruption.

To these foresayd comfortable places, we wil yet adioyne two other of the holye martyr Saynte Cy­prian in his sermon. De coella domini, Wher he sayeth thus. Panis iste angelorum oinne delectamentum habens [...] mirifica, omnis bus qui digni et deuote sumunt; secundum suum de siderium sapit, ct amplius quam manua illud cremi implet & satiat edentium appetitus, et omnia car­nalium saporum irritamenta, & [...] exuper at dulcediuum uoluptatis. That is to saye.

Thys breade or fode of Angels, hauynge all delite with maruaylous power or vertue, doth sauour vnto all them which worthelye and deuoutly receyue it, accordynge to theyr hartes desyre, and more frutefullye dothe ful­fil and satiat the appetities of the eaters, than dyd that Manna in the wyldernes, and doth far passe fragantnes of al earthly sauours, ye and the peasures of all swetenes. And shortelye after sayeth thus.

Verum, his quiuerbo tenus corde [...] aridi, sacris inter sunt, ueletiam participant donis, lambunt quidem [...], sed inde necmel sugūt [...] oleum, qui [...] aliqua Charitatis dulcedine, [...] spiritus sancti [...] [Page] [...], necse iudican̄t, nec sacramenta diiudicat? sedsicut cibls communious, irreuerenter sacris ut utuntur muncribus, et dominice [...] in ueste lutulenta se in [...], [...] mclius erat uola as naria collo [...] mergi in pelagus, quamillota [...] de manu domini buc­cellan accipere, qui usque bodie [...] ssimum et sanctissimum corpus suum crcat, ct sanctisicat, ct [...], ct pie [...] diuidit. In buius prae sentionon superuacue mendicant lachrymae ueniam? nec unquam partitur contriti cordis holocaustum, repulsam. &c. That is to saye.

But they whych eyther be present at these holy mysteryes, or els receyue these gyftes onely accordyng to the outewarde worde, be ing drie in harte, & withered in theyr mynde, they truelye do licke the rocke, but thereoute socke they neither honye nor oile, whiche ne­there be quickened or nourished wyth anye swetnes of Charitie, nor fattenes of the holye Ghoste, nor do iudge them selues, nor yet dis­cerne the sacramentes, but irreuerently do vse these holye giftes, as they woulde other com­men meates, and impudentli [...] or thrust them selfes in, to come to Goddes borde in a fylthy garment. For whome it were better, that they had a milne stone [...] abute ther necke and so were drowned in the sea, then to take with an vncleane conscience, a mor­sell at the hande of our lorde: who vntil this dai doth create and sanctifie, and blesse, and [Page] to the worthie receyuers, dothe deuide thys his most true, and mooste holye bodie. In the presence of this bodie the teares of man dothe not begge forgiuenes in vaine, [...] the sa­crifice of a contrite harte dothe suffer repulse or denyall.

Wherefore confiderynge the moste excellent grace efficacye and vertue of thys sacrament, it were grate lye to be wyshed and prayed for that all chrysten peo­ple, had suche deuotion there vnto, that they woulde gladely dispose and prepare themselues, to the more often worthy receyuyng of the same. But seynge that in these last dayes, Charitie is waxed colde and sinne doth habounde, as [...] sayeth in the gospell Ma­thewe, xxiiii. that it shoulde, yet if chrysten men wyll auoyde the greate indignation of GOD, it shall be good for them, whansoeuer they receyue thys sacra­ment them selues, or be present, where it is ministred or vsed, as specially in the tyme of masse to behaue thē selfe reuerently, iu [...] deuotion and prayer, and not to talke, or walke vp and downe, or to offende other by any euyl example of vnreuerence to the sayde Sa­cramente: excepte they wyll declare them selues to haue smale regarde to our Sauiour Chryst, there bo dyly present, of whych vnreuerencye and contempte, may ensue, not onely spirituall punyshmentes of god, by withdrawing hys grace from suche vngodlye per­sons, but also bodyly and open scurge, as saint Paule sheweth in his fyrste epystle to the Corynthyans the [Page] xi. chapiter. That for the vnworthye entreatyng and vsynge of thys sacramente, manye emongeste them were weake, sycke, and dyed.

¶ Of the Sacrament of Orders, and the ex­position or declaratyon thereof.

FORASMVCHE as oure promysed or­der doth now requyre that we should next speke of the sayde sacramente of Orders, fyrste of all touchyng the said sacramente, thys is to be noted, that thoughe sometymes in scrypture in some respecte all chrysten men and women are called preistes, for that they ought and muste contynuallye offer to almyghtye God the spirituall sacrifyces of fayth prayer and other godly vertues (whiche kynde of preisthode Saynt Peter speaketh of, in the seconde chapiter of his firste epystle, and Saynte Jhon lyke wyse in the, xvi. chapiter of the Apocalipse) yet is ther [...] that generall preisthode, a certayne specyall & singuler vocation or function of preisthode and mini­stratyon appoynted by our sauiour Chryst, to be exe­cuted onelye of suche as beinge baptized, haue by the imposition of the bysshopes handes, receyued a cer­tayne grace and power to be publyke ministeres in ye catholyke churche. And of thys special kynde of priest hode, Saynte Paule in his firste chapiter of hys E­pystle to the Nebrues dyth speake saying. Nec quisdam [...] sibihonorem sed qui uocatur deo quemadmodum Aaron. That is [Page] to saye. Nor any man doeth take the honoure vnto hym, but he whiche is called of GOD [...] as Aaron was. Acordyng wherevnto Chryst him selfe, being the high preist of the new test [...] ment, fyrst sayethe of him [...] in the eyghte of Jhon. Neque enim a meipso ueni, sed ille me misit. That is to sai. Of my selfe truelye I came not, but he (meanynge the heauenly father) dyd sende me. And secondlye in the. xx. of Jhon (appoyntynge to hys apostles thys specyal office or ministration, and authorisynge them in the same) he also sayeth. [...] misit me pater & ego mitto uos. That is to saye. As my father sente me, I also sende you.

The geuyng of this speciall auchoritie of ministra tion and priesthode by the byshoppe, vnto suche per­sons as by due examination shalbe thoughte mete for that bocation, is called here the sacrament of orders: and hath alwayes so bene called, taken, and reputed from the begynnynge of christen religion vnto thys day, as appeareth most euydently by saint Augustine who in hys seconde boke. Contra epistolam parmeniani, & the xiii. chap. thereof, doeth often times cal it by the name of a sacramente: and ioyntlye speakyng of it, and of the sacramente of baptisme, affyrmeth that bothe of them are geuen by a certayne sanctification, and that neyther of them can be iterated or agayne taken, say­inge thus [...] enim sacramentum rst &c. that is to saye: Truely both of these are Sacramentes &c.

[Page]And where the sayde [...]. Augustyne in the fore­sayde place sayeth that thys sacrament of orders is ge uen with a certayne sanctification, no better or play­ner profe thereof can be had, than out of the very scrip ture, as in the. xx, of Sainete Jhon, where our sauy­our Chryst after his resurrection geuyng vnto hys a­postles auethoritie to release or retayne synnes, dyd saye vnto them in thys maner. Accipite spiritum sanctum, quorum remiseritis peccata remittuntur eis, et quorum retinueritis [...] eataretenta sunt. That is to saye. Receiue ye the holie Ghoste, whose sinnes ye remitte, they are re­mitted are forgeuen them, and whose sinnes you reteyne are reteined. To thys purpose apper­teyneth also that sayinge of S. Paule in his fyrst E­pystle to Tymothe, and the, iiii, Chapter, where he sayeth thus, Noli negligere gratiam queinte est, que data est tibi per prophetiam cum imposuione manuum praesbiterij. That is to saye. Neglecte not the grace that is in the whyche is geuē vnto the through prophesye with the imposition of handes of preisthode, And againe in the seconde epystle to Tymothie and the first chap­ter thereof, the sayd Saynt Paule doth saye thus. Admonco te ut resuscitis gratiam dei, quae est in te, per impositionem [...] nuum mearum. That is to say. I adinonyshe the, that thou stirre vp the grace of god which is in the by the imposition of my handes. By whyche wordes of Saynt Paule in the both these places far­ther ye maye note, howe thys sacrament of Orderes [...] that perfection to make it a sacramente, whyche [Page] in the difinition of a sacramente before geuen was requyred, it is to witte, a visible sygne (whyche is the imposition of the handes) and therewyth effectuallye concurraunt and annexed grace.

And for the better vnderstandyng of thys grate, ye shall marke that the same dothe consyste in three generall poyntes. The one to praye in the name of the hole churche, and for the hole Churche. An other to preache and teache the worde of GOD to all people The thyrde to minister the Sacramentes, where ye maye note that the preistes beynge amongeste other thynges called to the minystration of the sacraments and the chiefest and most pretiouse of all sacramentes being the sacrament of the Aulter, in mynystratyon whereof (as before in the exposition of the same sacra­ment, is sufficiently proued, the preist ought bothe to consecrate, and to offer. Therefore the late made my­nysters in the tyme of the scysine, in theyr newe deui­sed ordination, hauynge no aucthoritie at all giuē thē to offer in the masse the body and bloude of oure [...] our Chryst, but both they so ordered (or rather dysor­dered) and theyr scysmatycall orderers also, vtterlye dispising and impugninge, not onelye the oblation or sacrifice of the masse, but also the reall presence of the body and bloude of our sauiour Chryst in the Sacra­ment of the Aultar, therefore I say, that all such both dampnably and presumptuously dyd offende against almyghty God, and also moste pitetullye begyled the people of thys realine, who by thys meanes were de­srauded of the most blessed bodye and bloude of oure sauiour Chryst, and the most comfortable fruyte ther­of, [Page] and also of the sacrifice of the masse, and of the in­estimable fruyte which commeth thereby. Of whych thynges the truth at large and sufficiently in thexpo­sition of the sacramēt of the Aultar is already taught and proued. And seinge that euerye man (be he neuer soo simple) maye sufficientlye hereby perceaue howe these late counterfeted ministers, haue in so weighty a matter deceyued the people, concernynge eternall saluation, and greatly abused them and brought thē into a most lamentable state, you may thereby consy­der both what thankes you owe to almyghtye God who hath restored vnto you, the ryght vse of the Sa­cramentes agayne, and also howe muche you oughte to esteme the ryght [...], nowe brought home agayne, by whych as an ordynary meanes, God wor keth hys graces emongest you, & doo you not herein forget for your parte, the saying off. Paule in his first epystle to Tymothie the first chapyter which is thys. Quibene praesunt [...] byteri duplicihonere digni habeantur, maxime qui laborant in uerbo, et doctrina. That is to say. Those preistes which rule well, let them be counted or iudged worthy of double honor and specially they which labour in the word and teaching. And thus much we thinke suffi cient for the lay people to be instructed herein

¶ Of the Sacrament [...] Matrimonye, with the exposition or declaration thereof.

HAuyng hy therto obserued and kepte the ordre promysed in the preface of thys boke, entreatyng of Baptysme, Confirmation, Penaunce, and of the Sacrament of the Aultar, which all in theyr due consideration, are sacra­mentes of necessytye, hauynge also spoken of ye sacra ment of orders, whereby a spirituall multiplication of the churche, is induced, thoughe no man herein be inforsed or compelled but of his voluntarye electyon and choyse doth take and receiue it. This place now requyreth that we shal here entreate of the sacramēt of Matrimonye, whiche doth folowe next in order, whereby a carnall multiplication, very expedient in a common welth is induced. And this sacramente of Matrimony doeth differ a great deale both in mat­ter and fourme, and also in diuerse respectes els frō the other before sayde, and specially it differeth from Baptysme, Confyrmation, Penaunce, and the sacra­ment of the Aultar, for that this Sacrament of Ma trimonye is not of that necessitie as they are, but is in the free wyll of the manne, and also of the woman whiche frely maye chuse to marye, or not to marye, and neither of them is compelled of precise necessitie to come vnto it, and beynge besydes in that estate, that wythout it they maye be saued.

And verye expedient it shalve, diligently to speake of thys sacrament of Matrymonye, aswell for that [Page] the personnes, vicars, and curates maye, to all suche persons as lawfully maye be coupled in matrimony, declare, bothe the institution of Matrimonye, the holynes and efficacy there of, the mistery of this Sa cramente, and all other thynges thereto appertay­nyng, as also for that this sacrament of Matrimony (whych in our late schismaticall tyme, hath bene by seditious carnall preachers, or rather praters great­ly impugned) may hereafter for the worthynes and dignitie thereof be better estemed, accepted, & taken And to make a grounde, it shalbe well to discrybe and tell you what Matrymonye is, who is the auc­thour thereof, where it was instituted, what was ye cause of the instytutyon, who may contracte it, how it is contracted, howe it oughte to be vsed, and the gyftes or treasures of it, with other suche lyke, as they shall come in theyr place, and for the fyrste ye shall knowe, that the learned doe defyne. or describe matrimonye, to be a lawefull coniunction of a man and of a woman, hauyng in it an indiuiduall or vn­seperable bonde or knotte of lyuynge, whereby ey­ther to other muste do as that vocation requyreth.

And when I doe saye Lawefull I do speake that to exclude such coniūctions as are made betwixt mā and woman contrary or agaynst the oroer of ye lawe cōprehended in effect in these foure verses folowing.

Error, conditio, uotum, cognatio, crimen.
Cultus disparitas, uis, ordo, ligamen, honestas.
Si sis affinis, siforte coire ne quibis.
Hec sacienda uetant connubia, facta [...].

That is to saye. Erroure, seruile condition, a vowe, kynred, a notable crime, diuersitye of [Page] fayth or religion, violence, holy order, bonde to another wyfe or husbande, publike hone­stye, affinitie, and impotencie, which thyngs doe let or forbid matrimony to be made, and do disanull it, yf it be alreadye made.

And when I doe saye coniunction, I do put in that to declare that in this coniunction betwene the manne and the woman, there must be a voluntarye consent of mynde betwene the sayde man & the sayd woman, [...] beynge wyllynglye contente to take other, and to ioyne in this state of lyfe. And when I do adde and saye, of a man, and of a woman. I do put in those words, aswel to declare that matri monye can not be betwyxt anye, excepte the one be a man, and the other a woman, as also to exclude plu­ralitics of husbandes & wyues, and when I do saye, hauinge in it an indiuiduall or inseparable [...] or knotte of lyuynge I do putte in those wordes aswell to exclude that coniunction betwene man & woman, which is [...] by fornicatiō or other wise vnlawefully, and therfore hath not in it an inse parable bonde or knot, as also to declare, that after ye coniunction made betwene ye man & the woman, it is not laweful for either of thē, during theyr life to take an other, and where I doe say, whereby either to other muste doe as that vocation requireth. I doo declare therebye the offyce and duetye of the manne to the woman, and of the woman agayne to the manne accordyngelye, as that state of Matry­mony [Page] e doeth requyre, and albeit as touchynge the bonde, the man and the woman are sometymes vpō reasonable causes, approued by the lawe, separated, yet that separation breaketh not the bonde or knote of Matrymonye.

Nowethat ye knowe what Matrymonye is, ye shall also haue declared vnto yon, who was the authour thereof. For knowledge whereof ye shall vnderstande, that the blessed trinitie, hauynge new­ly made the world and beautified it with creatures, and laste of all made man, dyd consyder that it was not expedient man to be alone, and therefore as scrip ture doeth declare Genesis. ii. dyd put Adam to slepe & there in the tyme of his slepe, did take one of his rib bes, supplieng fleshe for it, and in conclusiō did make thereof a woman, called Eua, bringing her to Adam that by bothe their consentes (and the holye trinitie aydynge and assysting therein, and beyng the verye aucthor thereof) a bonde or knotte of Matrymonye myght be made betwyxt Adam and Eue, whervpō Adam beholdynge the sayde woman being brought vnto hym, and beyng vndoutedlye inspyred by the holy ghost, dyd saye these wordes folowyng.

Hoc nunc os ex ossibus meus & caro de carne mea. Hec uocabitur uirago, quoniam de uiro sumpta est, quam ob rem relinquet homo patrem suum, & matrē & adherebit uxori sue: & erunt duo in carne una. that is to sai This nowe a bone of my bones, and flesh of my fleshe, she shalbe called Virago, because she is taken of the man: Wherefore man shal leaue or forsake hys father and mother, and shall [Page] adioyne or cleaue to hys wyfe, and they shall be two in one flesh. By whyche wordes it euidentlye appeareth, that God is the author, inuentour aud maker of Matrimony: which thing to be so, Sainte Mathewe in the. xix. chapter of his ghospel, Saynct Marke in the. x. & S. Paule in the. vi. and. xi. of his fyrst epistle to the Corynthians, and the saide Saint Paule in his fyrst chapter to the Ephesians, do plainlye affirme and testifie, and so haue you thys poyncte suffyciently opened and proued vnto you.

And as touchynge the thyrde thynge, it is to wit, where Matrymony was instituted, ye shall soone learne that in the fyrste and seconde chapter of Genesis, where Moyses declarethe that almyghtye God hauynge planted paradyse, a place of great pleasure, and therein puttynge man, whome he had for­med, dyd not onelye ioyne man and woman there together, as is before sayd, but also dyd blesse the sayde man and woman, sayinge. Crescite, & multiplicamini & replete terram. that is to saye. Doo you encrease, and be you multiplied, and doe you replinyshe the earth, or worlde. Whych wordes were ofsuche ef­fecte and vertue, beynge spoken of almyghtye God, that alwayes contynuallye from the tyme that they were spoken, they doe and shall to the worldes ende worke, and be auayleable, in the generation of thyn­ges, as the greate learned man Chrysostome in hys homilye, De proditione Iude. doeth playnely testifie.

Now concernyng the fourth poynte, it is to wyt, Wherfore was matrimonie instituted, ye shal [Page] know that consyderyng the state of matrimonye, as it was in the tyme of innocencye, and before synne was committed by Adam and Eue, soo the cause of institution of matrimonye was double one concer­ning the persones maryed, and the other concerning the issue that shoulde come of them. And as touching the personnes maryed, the cause in them is that ther should be thereby, the fyrste and cheife copulation of humayne societie, hauyng a true and an amiable coniunction in it, of man and woman, the one to rule, & the other to obeye. And as touchyng the issue ye cause of marryage in that respecte, is both in honeste loue to brynge forth chyldren, and also Godlye and ver­tuously to bringe vp the same, both which causes we haue expressed and sette forth in scrypture, the fyrste Genesis, ii, where God sayeth. Faciamus ei adiutoriū simile si­bi. That is to saye. Let vs make an ayde or help vnto him lyke vnto hym selfe. And the second Genesis. i. where God sayeth, Crescite & multiplicamini & replete terram. That is to say. Do you increase, and be you multiplied & replenishe youe the earthe. And consideryng the state of matrymony as it was after the synne or fal of Adam and Eue, then besides the foresayde .ii. causes there was a third, it is to wit to avoyde fornication and that humayne weakenes and infirmitie myght haue therfore, the honest reme­dye of mariage and lawefull copulation, accordyng wherevnto Saynte Augustyne. De Genesi ad literam. in hys nynth booke and seuenth chapter, sayeth thus. Deni (que) utrius (que) sexus infirmitas propendens in ruinā turpitudinis recte excipitur honestate nuptiarum, ut quod sanis possit esse officium, sit egrotis [Page] medium. That is to saye. Finally or for conclu­sion, the infyrmitie or weakenes of both the kyndes (it is to wytte, of manne and woman) prone or readie to fall into the ruine or [...] of filthines, is well holden vppe or preserued by the honestie of matrimony, that that whi che myght be vnto the innocente or hole per sons an office or duetye, myghte be vnto the sicke or weake persones a remedy or helpe.

And here by the way ye shal note, that yf our fore fathers Adam and Eue had not sinned, thē they and theyr ofsprynge shoulde not haue bene troubled with the prickynge or styrrynge of the fleshe, nor wyth the feruor or rage of carnal lust, but should haue begottē or procreated chyldren without anye suche styrre or rage, and without any synne at all, yea and with me rite also, where after theyr fall, bothe they and theyr posteritie by the deadely lawe of concupiscence, inhe tynge vnto theyr members, (without the which car nall coniunction is not done) had not that liberty, so that nede it was, bothe them and theyr posteritie to haue some good ayde and helpe, to excuse carnal co­pulation (otherwyse culpable) and to make it lawe­ful. And herevpon S. Augustine consideryng wel ye matter doth attribute two offices vnto matrimony before the fal of mā, and the thyrd he doeth attribute vnto it after the fal of mā. But yet besides these cause or endes, for which matrimony was by god in para­dise instituted, there is another not ye least but rather [Page] and principall (yf we consider and regarde the pur­pose of God herein) whyche is, that Matrimonye or maryage shoulde be a fytte sygne or mystical token, of that mooste assured and strong coniunction, that should be betwene Christ (yet, then to come) and the church, which churche euerlastyngly before the crea­tion of the worlde, aud from the begynnynge, God dydde preordeyne, chose and electe vnto hymselfe: as Paule witnesseth in the fyrste chapters of his Epy­stles to the Ephesians and to Tyte. For the vnspeak able wysedome of God, forseyng and knowynge be­fore, that man after his creation throughe the wyly­nes and deceate of the deuyl, woulde fal, and deserue eternall death, dyd most mercifully in thys hys fore­syght [...], caste, determine, and dispose wyth hym­selfe, a meane, howe man beyng fallen, might againe be restored and regenerated. And therefore appoin­tynge vnto Chryste (who shoulde be the father, and parent of thys generation) a maryage mete therevn to, dyd to mans great and marueylous comforte in the myraculous couplynge, and conioynynge of Adā (representyng Chryst, then to come) and Eue, being formed and made of the ribbe of Adames syde, Adā beyng a slepe, dyd (I saye) as in a shadowe, and a fy­gure, shewe before, and expresse the same knotte and bonde of mariage of Christ and the church. And this (as it were) plyghtyng of trouth, for thys marryage to come, was farther by a promyse made by God to man confyrmed and ratifyed, when he sayde in the thyrd chapyter of Genesis, that the sede of the wo man shoulde with his foote tread downe the [Page] serpentes heade. Whyche promyse from the begyn­nynge, contynuallye, and from tyme to tyme, God al­myghty renued to the holy fathers and patriarches, & wylled hys prophetes to open and publyshe it.

And to passe ouer al other testunonyes, how notably and playnely dothe the prophete Oze in his thyrd cha piter speake hereof, sayiug. Et sponsabo te mihi in sempiternum et sponsabo te mihi in iustitia, in iudicio et misericordia, et in miserationibus Et sponsabo te mihi sed. &c. That is to saye. And I wyll marye the vnto my owne selfe for euermore, yea vnto my selfe wyll I marie the in righte wysenes, in iudgement, in mercie and in com passion. And in faythe also wyll I marye the vnto my selfe. &c.

Accordyng whervnto Salomon, in his notable and excellent boke called Cantica Camicorum, dydde synge and prophecie of this maryage, then yet to come, where he declarynge the great desyre and longynge that the bride had, that the daye of solempnyzynge the mary­age (standyng yet betwene hyr brydegrome and her, in onely handfastyng or plyghtyng of fayth & trouth) myght come sayeth thus [...] me osculo oris sui. That is to saye. Oh that he woulde kysse me wyth the kysse of hys mouthe. But fynallye whan the daye drewe [...], and the brydegrome was come downe into the worlde, howe dyd Ihon baptiste, the mooste holy brideman, reioyce of thys the brydegromes com mynge and that the tyme was full runne oute. And sayde as wytnesseth S. Iohn the Euangeliste in his [Page] Gospell and in the thyrd Chapyter in thys maner. Qui habet sponsam sponsus est, amicus autem sponsi qui stat & audit. eum [...] gaudit, propter uocem sponsi: Hoc ergo gaudium [...] impletum est That is to saye: He that hathe the bryde is the brydegrome. And the frende of the bridgrome who standethe and hearethe hym, reioysethe greatly to heare the voyce of the brydgrome. This my ioye therefore is fulfylled. So that here [...] howe frome the begynnynge of the worlde, the churche hathe bene berrouthed to Chryste. Hys seruauntes the prophtes were sente, whyche should call them, that were bidden to the ma riage. At length came Chryste the brydegrome, more beutyfull then the chyldren of [...], to whome whyle he dyd ascende or goo vp to the bryde chamber of the crosse, and there fallynge into slepe, the heauenlye fa­ther out of his sonnes syde, beynge opened wyth the speare of the souldier, dyd [...], and as it were shape vnto Chryste his betrouthed bryde, the church, and so beautified her and coupled them two toge­ther in suche an indissoluble band or knotte, that euer­lastynge they shall continue and cleaue together, as two in one fleshe. And so is fulfylled and consum­mate that maryage, so longe before prefigured, soo of­ten promysed to the patriarches, so playnelye spoken of by the prophetes, and contynuallye in the laweful maryage of man and woman, mystycally represented and remembred, of whyche S. Paule sayeth. Ephes. 5. Sacramentum hoc magnum est: ego autem dico in Chisto et ecclesia.

That is to saye. This (speakynge of Matrymonye) [Page] is a high or greate misterie, I meane it truely in Christe and the Churche. And thus muche haue we spoken to declare, what matrymony is, who is author thereof, where is was fyrste [...], and what were the causes of the institution. Nexte there fore accordyng to oure proposed diuision in the begin nynge of thys [...], is to speake of the. v. poynte that is, who maye contracte matrymonye. For know ledge whereof ye shall vnderstande, that the lawe or ordynaunce made concernynge persons which are to be allowed vnto, or reiected from matrymonye, is an ordynaunce, or lawe prohibytorye, that is to saye, forbyddynge some, and permyttinge, suffryng, and al lowynge ail the rest not beyng forbidden, so that who soeuer is not forbydden specially, or generally, to con­tracte matrymony, the same is consequently to be ad mytted and allowed vnto it, and this resolutyon to be true, maye be proued by the rule of contraryes, whyche here also dothe take his place, for yf I do wel knowe who cannot marye (whyche knowledge I haue had all readye gyuen vnto me in the declaration of the impedymentes or lettes to contracte matry­monye) I shall by and by knowe who may contracte matrymony. Quia contrariorum cadem est disciplina & cognito [...] de contraijs cognoscitur et [...]. In dede certayne per­sons there are forbydden bothe by the [...] and al­so be the Canon lawes, to marye togethere, as ap­peareth emongest many other places in the tytles [...]. et de consanguinitate et affinitate. In so muche that be­twene those persones that are in linea ascendenti ucl descenden ti, Mariage is vtterly forbydden, and betwene those [Page] persones that are in the collaterall lyne, maryage can not be made, yf eyther of the personnes whyche is to be maryed, be of [...] or allyaunce vnto the other in the forth degre or vnder. And of specyal prohybyty ons concerninge matrymony, ye haue mention made in Scrypture bothe in the, xviii. and. xx. chapyters of Leuytycus, and also in the. xxii. of Deuteronomij, whyche places shall sufficientlye and plainlye open & declare thys matter vnto you. And nowe concer­nynge the syxe poynte whyche is howe matrimonye is contracted, ye shall vnderstande, that yf matrymo­nye [...] consydered as touchyng the bonde and knotte thereof onely, so matrymony is contracted and made by the onelye lawefull consente of the man and of the woman, that may be coupled, and [...] together in matrymonye, for the profe whereof, words of the pre­sent tyme, or sufficient and equyualente signes, are by the order of the lawe necessaryelye requyred to testy­fye that consent.

And yf matrymony be considered as touchyng the full and hole perfection thereof, then matrymonye maye be sene so contracted, when not onelye such con sente is hadde, but also carnall copulation, there vpon doth folowe. Example after the fyrste consyderatyon maye be taken of our fyrste parentes Adam and Eue, who by our Lorde in paradyse, were before thervpon and in the state of theyr innocencye, ioyned in matry­mony, by coniunction of myndes, thoughe there then betwene them was no carnall copulation at all, and yet true matrimony, for as the lawe saythe: Nuptias non concubitus sed consensus facit. That is to saye, Consente [Page] doth make matrimonie, and not the carnall copulation or lyinge together. And as for exam ple also the seconde consideration of matrymonye, it may also be taken of our sayd parentes after their fal and when they were for theyr transgressyon expul­sed oute of paradyse, for beynge man and wyfe, they dyd then carnall knowe eche other, and had thereby generation of Chylder, as appeareth in dyuerse pla­ces of scrypture, and especially in the. v. and syxte cha­pyters of Genesys. And touchynge thys dyuersytie of considerations in matrymonye, with the dyuers syg­nifications thereof, and of many thynges elles apper teynynge vnto the same, who lysteth, maye haue re­course to the. xxviii cause & second questyon, where he may see the iudgemēt of Saint Chrisostome S. Am brose, S. Augustyne and or manye other in this mat ter, and lykewise he maye haue in the Chapyter Expu­blico, de conuersione coniugatorum. And as touching the seuēth poynte whych is howe matrimony oughte to be vsed ye shall note herein the councel of S. Paule in the. vii chapyter of his fyrst epystle to the Corinthians, wher speakyng to maried persones, and exhorting them to vse them selues in theyr vocation after a good and per fecte sorte he doth say thus. Hoc ita (que); dico fratres, tempus breue est, reliquum est [...] quihabent uxoris tanquam non [...] sint.

That is to saye. Therefore brethern I saye thys vnto you, the tyme is [...], there remayneth that they which haue wyues be as thoughe they had [...]. And the same Saint Paule declarynge howe purelye and clenely maryed folkes [Page] shoulde vse them selues in matrymonye, dothe in the fourthe chapyter of his fyrst epystle to the Thessaloni senses say thus. Hec est enim uoluntas dei sanctificatio uestra vt ab stineatis uos a fornicatione ut sciat unusquis (que) uestrum, uas suum possidere in sanctificatione & honore, non in passione desiderij sicut et gentes quae ignerant deum. That is to saye: This in dede is the wyll of GOD, youre sanctification, that ye do abstaine from fornication, that euerye one of you maye learne or knowe to possesse hys vessel in sanctification, and honour, not in the possion of desyre or luste, as the gentyles also who do not knowe GOD.

And the selfe same Saynt Paule also declarynge father howe maryed folkes should vse them selues ye one vnto the other, dothe in the fyft chapyter of hys Epystle to the Ephesians saye thus. Mulieris uiris suis sub­dita sunt sicut domino, quoniam uir caput est mulieris sicut Christus caput est ecclesiae, ipse saluator corporis, sed sicut Fcclesia subiecta est Christo ita et mulieris uiris siuis in omnibus. Viri diligete uxoris uestras sicut & Christus dilexit ecclesiam. That is to saye Lette women be subiecte vnto theyr husbandes as to oure Lorde, for the husband is the heade of the wo man, as Chryste is the head of the Churche, he is the sauiour of the bodye, and as the chur che is subiecte vnto Chryste, so let women be vnto theyr husbandes in all thynges. [...] husbandes doo ye loue youre wyues as christ hath loued the Churche. [Page] Moreouer the same S. Paule in the syxt chapyter [...] the sayde Epystle, teaching maryed folkes to whome God hath sent chyldren, howe they shoulde vse theyr chyldren, doth saye thus. Educate illos in disciplina, & correptio­ne domini. That is to saye. Bringe vppe your chyl­dren in the disciplin, and chastisement of oure Lorde. Dyuerse examples we haue of thys, in the ho lye scrypture as of Sara the doughter of Raguel, and of yonge Thoby her husband, of whom mention is made in the. viii chapyter of Thobye, and also of that godly and modest matron Sara, and Abraham her husbande, of whome S, Peter in the thyrd chapyter of hys fyrst Epystle, sayeth thus. Sit enim aliquando & sanctae mulieris, sperantes in deo, ornabant se, subiecta proprijs uiris, sicut Sara obediebat Abrahae, dominum eum uocans. That is to saye.

For so sometimes holy women also trusting in God, did [...] them selues, beynge subiecte or obedient to their owne husbandes, and Sa ra dyd obeie Abraham, callyng hym maister, or Lorde.

Lyke examples are of the godlye couples, Isaac, and Rebecca (Gene, xxv) Helcana and Anna (i. Re. i) with sondry other, whyche all dyd vse thē selues soo in the state of matrymonye, that they continuallye lyued in the feare of God in the chaste loue of wed­locke, in the honest affection or mynde towardes the bryngynge furthe of chyldren, aud dyd also diligently loke vnto the godlye education of the same. And as concernynge the. viii. and laste parte of our foresayde diuision, it is to wtte, of the treasures, gyftes, and [Page] [...] of maryage, ye shall vnderstande that S. Augustyne in his. ix boke vpon the Geneses, and the. vii. chapyter thereof, teacheth vs, that matrymo­nye conteyneth in it three gyftes, graces, or benefyts, it is to wytte a sacramente, a fayth, and an of sprynge or yssue.

Concernynge the Sacrament, he sayth that thys is speciallye herein to be obserued, it is to wytte, that betwene the man and the wyfe there be no separaty­on and that nether the man or the wyfe, beynge eche from other dismised, doo marye or couple them selues with any other, and soo the vertue of this sacra ment doth consyste properlye, and specially in the inse perable, or vnbreakeable bonde of the maryage coue­naunte, whyche (as we sayde before) is the [...] or cheife poynte belongynge to maryage. This coue­naunt, God assysteth, and this knot he knittethe and beynge once knytte, he makethe it stronge, and esta­blysheth it, yea, and further dothe geue suche grace with it, that they whyche abuse not that grace, maye be hable to kepe the marryage couenaunte vnuyola­ted, and mutually soo to loue one the other, as Chryst hathe loued, and dothe loue the churche, And by the ayde of the same grace, they shall and wyll frankelye, truelye, and moste louynglye, communycat one to an other, all thynges accordynge to Goddes lawe, and mans lawe, and al maner of chaunces, good or badde prosperitie, or aduersitie, they shall moste contentedly and quyetlye, receaue, beare, and vse together, tyll death them depart. Thys benefyte of thys sacrament doth engendre an assured boldnes, or confydence and [Page] truste of good consience, by the whych both the man and also the wyfe, are made sure that the state of ma­trymonye (into the whyche they, in the feare of God, and for honeste and vertuous respectes onelye, haue entred and truelye and holylye obserued of theyr par­tes) is not voyde of the grace of God, but that GOD hathe a care ouer them, yea and that thys theyr state of Matrimony is also merytorious: according where vnto S. Paule to Tymothey. i. Epistle. 2. Cap. sayth. Mulier [...] fiet per liberorum generationem, si [...] in fide.

That is to saye: The wyfe shalbe saued by the bryngynge forthe of Chyldren, so that [...] cō ­tynue or perseuer in the fayth. And agayne in ye laste chapiter to the Hebrues, he sayeth thus. Honorabile connubium in omnibus. & thorus imaculatus. That is to saye: Mariage in all is honorable: and a bedde vndefiled. And saynte Ambrose also in hys seconde booke of the Patryarche Abraham [...] in the. ix. cha­piter dothe saye that a notable gyfte of chastitye wyll folowe maryage, [...] the persons so maryed do thynke verely that thys maryage where in they are [...] is prouided, procured, and done of God. Thys gifte of thys sacramente to them that diligently wyll ponder and consider the same, will especyallye edyfye theyre consciences to them selues, and wyll also kyn­dle mutually the fyre of chast loue betwene them. The second benefite or gyfte of matrimonye (Saynt Augustyne sayth) is fayth, not meanynge that faythe and [...] confydence whiche we haue in God, but that faythfull true and honest dealynge, whyche is re­quired [Page] to be betwene man and wyfe, in not hauynge carnall knowledge wyth an e other: the man not with any other, then with his true and laweful wife, and the wife not with any other, then wyth her true and lawefull husbande: whiche synguler gyfte, onely God in thys sacramente imparteth and geueth of hys goodnes to them, whyche (in suche sorte as we haue declared) are maryed, or els what man or woman is there, of many thousandes, that beynge as they are [...] with the snares, [...], and alluerments of the worlde, the fleshe, and the deuyll, wolde not of­felide, and breake that bonde of faythe, and fidelitie, at the leaste, in harte and mynde, whyche Chryst hym selfe (Math. v) iudgeth to be no lesse adulterye, then the fylthy and adulterous carnall copulatoin.

Nowe the thyrd gyfte or benefytte whyche saynete Augustyne say the to be in Matrunonye is islue or of­sprynge, for whych cause cheifely matrimonye is con­tracted, wherevnto the man and the [...], com­mynge in the feare of God, oughte so to respecte and regarde theyr issue and of sprynge, that in chaste and mutuall loue, they may be get and brynge forthe chyl­dren, and in the saythe, feare, and relygion of God brynge vp, and instructe the same. And in soo doyng, matrymonye not onely is voyde and cleare from all maner of faulte, but also hathe hys certayne merite at Goddes handes. These three gyftes concurrynge in matrymonye, and causynge the accompanyenge of man and woman together in carnall knowledge, to be by thys meanes without sinne, yea, and well vsed to be meritorious to, howe greate a grace then is an­nexed [Page] to thys sacramente of Matrymony, of whyche hytherto we haue intreated.

And here to conclude this counsell semeth good to be gyuen to those that hereafter shalbe minded and disposed to marye, that they do chuse to them suche a mate, as neyther Godes Iawe, nor mannes lawe doo prohibite them to take, and with whome they maye conceyue good hope that they beynge ioyned in ma­trymonye, shall leade an holye Godlye, and comelye lyfe, euer to contynue inseperablye, durynge theyr lyues, whiche is lyke they shall dooe, when they not rashelye and indeliberatlye but with good aduyse cō ­sideringe equalitie and vertue more, then eyther car­nall luste, worldly honoure or pryuate respectes, doo in the feare of God enter into this honest state of ma­trymonye, entendynge thereby to serue God there countrye and frendes, lyuing also them selues in honestie, iustice, and temperaunce, and finallye bryngynge vp their chyldren, and gouernynge there famylye in vertue and God­lynes.


¶ Of the sacrament of extreme vnction, and thexposition or deciaration thereof.

HAuinge intreated sufficientlye of syxe of the sacramentes vsed in the catho­lyke churche, and none of them re­maynynge indiscussed, sauynge one, whiche is the sacramente of extreme vnction, we wyll nowe of it, beynge the laste in number and order, speake lastely & breifely And thoughe it be laste in number and order, as is a foresayde, and also commonlye is called the extreme vnction, that is to saye: the laste vnction, yet ye shall not vnderstand thereby that this sacrament can not be ministred at any tyme, but when a man is cleane withoute hope of lyfe, and shall in no wyse escape the death: nor ye maye not thereby vnderstande, that af­ter thys sacrament of extreme vnction, no other Sa­crament, at any tyme els, can be ministered vnto the person so anoyled. For in dede this sacrainente maye be minystred in the entrye of the syckenes, and also manye tymes ells, whensoeuer anye greate maladye or peryllous syckenes, shall come to anye man, in soo muche that he who is daungerously sycke, and there fore anoylynge and anoynted, receyuing and vsynge this sacramente, may (yf he escape the daunger and after fall into it agayne, or into any other suche lyke) haue ministred vnto him agayne thys laudable and notable sacrament of extreme vnction, whiche of it selfe is both iterable (as Penaunce Euchariste, and Matrymonye is) and not alwayes mynystred in the [Page] catholyke churche, that the sicke person so sone as he hath receyued it shoulde incontinentlye departe oute of thys worlde, and want his lyfe. But contrary wise that the sayde person both in soule, and also in bodye maye (yf it so be sene good vnto [...] God) re­couer and gette healthe agayue. And thys to be soo those notable prayers full of all godlynes and sauou­rynge antiquitie vsed nowe in the catholyke churche agreinge with the counsell and commaundemente of S. James in the last chapiter of his epystle, do eui­dently, and playnelye declare and shewe vnto vs.

And although in oure wycked tyme smale is the nō ­ber of them that do escape death, hauynge receyued this sacrament of extreme vnction, yet that is not to be ascrybed vnto the lacke or faulte of thys sacrament but rather vnto the wante and lacke of stedfast and constant fayth, which oughte to be in those that shall haue this sacrament mynystred vnto them: by which stronge fayth the power of almyghty God in the pry­mitiue churche, did worke myghtely, and effectuallye in the [...] persones enoynted, receyuynge thys holy and comfortable sacramente, and nowe for the lacke of lyke fayth in our tyme, dothe not worke after lyke sorte. Accordyng where vnto we reade in the. vi. cha­piter of S. Marke after thys sorte, Et non poterat ibi uirtu­tem [...] nisiquod [...], impositis manibus curauit, & [...] propter incredulitatem [...]. That is to saye.

And he (that is to saye Chryste) could not do any miracle there, sauing that he did cure a fewe sicke persones, [...] his handes vpon them, [Page] and he dyd meruaile or wonder for the [...] or vnbeleife of them. This sacrament [...] is not called the sacrament of extreme or last vnction for that that deathe alwayes dothe followe it, or for that that no sacrament can be minystcred after to the person enoynted, but for that speciallye that all other vnctions beinge vsed in the admynystratyon of the sacramentes, do go before, & this vnction doth folowe them. And here by the waye forasmuche as we doo speake of extreme vnction, ye shall vnderstande, that there are (as the maister of the sentence in hys fourth boke and. xxiii. distinctiou doth testifye) three kindes or sortes of vnctions, accustomed and vsed in ye chur­che, the first vnctiō, in tyme, is that where with yong­lynges (comming newly to be instructed and taught in the fayth and religion of Chryste, called in Latyne Cathecumini) are by the preiste to be anoynted wyth all vpon the breast, and betwene the shoulders, and this vnction is made onely with oyle olyue, beynge, fyrste sanctified or consecrated by the byshoppe, and after­wardes vsed by the preist in mynystration.

The seconde vnction is, that whiche is made or done, notwith oyle alone, as the former is, nor wyth balme alone, but it is made and done wyth Chrysme, whych is made of oyle olyue and of balme, and soo of two lyquors myngled and myxte together, the oyle to signifye ye clensinge & purging of the conscience and ye balme to sygnifye the swete sauor of good name & same, required to be in the partie yt is there with to be anoynted. And this vnction, so made wt chrysine, is a principall, and a cheyfe vnction, and the holye ghoste [Page] pryncipally, or chiefely, is geuen in or by it. And with thys [...] the heades of kynges and bysshoppes are to be anoynted, yea and the heades of the chyldrenne baptyzed, are here wyth aboue theyre foreheades by ye preiste to be anoynted. [...] and finallye the chyldren whiche by laynge on of the byshoppes handes, are by the sayde by shoppe to be confyrmed, muste also by the sayde bishoppe be signed with the crosse, and with the sayde Chrysme in theyr forehead be also by him anoin­ted. And the thyrde vnction, of whyche we nowe haue to speake and to intreate vppon, is that where­with sycke personnes in the places accustomed are to be anoynted withall. And thys vnction is made also of oyle olyue onelye, beynge sanctyfied or consecrated by the by shoppe whiche commonly and customablye the sayde by shoppe accordyng to the olde tradition of the churche doth in dic coenae domini As Saynct Cypryan in hys sermen de unctione doeth testifye. And Sayncte Dyonyse also in hys booke de [...] hierarchia in the fourthe chapiter. And nowe concernynge the institu­tion of thys sacrament, we doe reade Marci. vi. how Chryste callynge vnto hym hys. xii. apostles, and sen­dynge them forthe by two and two, dydde prescrybe vnto them a certayne forme of embassadge or message and dyd also geue vnto them a certayn power, which they shoulde occupye and vse.

And we doe reade also there, that the Apostles so go­inge forthe dy preach vnto the people penaunce, and that they dydde caste forth deuyles, and also that they dyd anoynte [...] oyle manye that were sycke, who there by were healed and cured. And we maye not [Page] here thynke, as manye vayne folyshe persones, folow­inge theyr owne fansyes and dreames, haue reported and sayde) that these apostles of Chryst were in thys behalfe as commone chyrurgions, and that by [...] they dyd heale and cure the sycke, for as ye shall perceyue anone by the testimonye of S. James, thys healynge and curyng was many times bothe concer­nyng the soule and also the bodye, wherefore the oyle, where wyth the Apostles dyd anoynte the sycke per sons, was sacramentall and mystycall sanctifyed oyle, and therefore dyd so worke bothe in the body and also in the soule o; the sycke personne. And after thys sorte the catholyke churche euen from the begynnyng hath accepted and taken thys to be a sacramente of Chry­stes institution and ordinaunce, and so alwayes con­tinuallye hathe reteyned and kepte it, takynge for a testimonye of the foundation and grounde thetof, the sayde. vi. chapter of Sayncte Marke, so by the aunci­ent fathers of the churche most learnedly and godlye expounded and interpretated, where vnto is adioy­ned the testimonye of Saynct James in the last cha­piter of hys canonicall epistle, wher he being a blessed apostle, & clearely expressynge and vtterynge the ma­ner and fourme of the administration of this Sacra­ment, whiche he had receaued of Chryst, and delyue­red vnto the people to be of them obserued and kepte, doth say thus. Infirmatur quis in uobis iudic at [...] & orent super eum nugentes eum oleo in nomine domine, et [...] fidei saluabit infirmum, & [...] eum dominus, & si in peccatis sit [...] ei. That is to saye: Is there any sicke emonges you? lette hym brynge in [...] priestes of the [Page] churche, and let them praye ouerhym, anoin ting him with oyle in the name of our Lord and the prayer of faythe shall saue the sycke, and our Lorde wyll lighten or ease hym, and yfhe be in sinnes they shalbe remytted vnto him. Which wordes of S. James doo manyfestlye declare this vnction or anoylynge to be a sacrament, as hauinge a visible sygne, and a promyse of grace annexed therevnto. And yf ye besydes the thynges before rehearsed, and expressed in scrypture, be desy­rous to haue the testimonyes also of the auncient fa­thers of the churche, concernyng this sacramente of [...] vnction, as ye alreadye haue hadd in all the other, ye shall heare certayne of them, bothe of the greke and also of the latyn churche. And fyrste I wyll begynne with S. Chrisostome, who in hys. iii. [...] De sacerdotio and in the syxt chapyter therof, entreating of the greate gyftes and graces gyuen by almyghtye God vnto his faythefull people by the ministerye of the preistes aswell in regeneration as also afterward in the [...] of synnes, doth incontinentlye for the profe thereof bryng in the saying of Saint James in the last chapiter of his sayde canonicall epystle saying Infirmatur (inquit apostolus) quis ex uobis? &c. Theophylacte also in his exposition made vpon the. vi. chapiter of sainte Marke, sayeth thus: Quod [...] oleo Apostoli, solus Marcus narrae, quod & frater domini lacobus, in Catholica [...] dicit, [...] tur, inquit quis in [...] inducat, &c. That is to say. That the Apostles did anoint with oile, onelye Marke [Page] (of all the euangelistes) doth shew, which thinge (meanynge this holye anoylynge) James the bro ther of our Lorde in his canonicall Epystle, doth speake of, sayinge: Is any sycke amon gest you. &c. Whereby also appeareth this place of S. James, and that [...] S. Marke to be bothe vnder stande of thys sacrament of anoylynge.

And further in the same place, he (consequentlye declarynge the misterye of the visible and materyall oyle, vsed in the ministration of this sacrament) saith. Estigitur oleum & ad labores utile, & lucis fomentum, & hilaritatis [...] fectiuum significat (que) misericordiam dei & gratiam spiritus per quam a las bore liberamur, & lucem & gaudium hilaritatem (que) [...]; aceipi­mus.

That is to saye: For oyle beinge good agaynste laboure or wearynes, being also the nourys­shemente of lyghte, and the cause or prouo­cation of gladdenes dothe signifye the mer cye of GOD, and the grace of the holye ghooste, by the whyche we are delyuered from laboure or wearynes, and doo receaue lighte ioye and spiritual gladnes. With which two places of Theophilacte, Oecumenius also a greke aucthor fully doth agree.

To these foresayd auncient fathers of the greke churche shall nowe be adioyned also other of the La­tyne Churche, and fyrste saynt Hierome vpon ye sayde vi. of S. Marke doeth saye thus. Cum ungebant oleo aegro­tos, [Page] infirmitatem, fidei [...] corroborant, That is to saye: When they (meanyng the dyscyples sent fourth by Chryste) dyd anoynte the sicke folke wyth the oyle, they by the vertue of faythe, dyd make them stronge. Accordynge wherevnto Saynte Augustyne also in the. iiii. chapiter of his second boke Deuisitatione infirmorum. wryting to his Nephewe, lyenge on his death bedde, giueth him this counsayle saying. [...] praetermittendum est illud apostoli Iacobipraeceptum, infirmatur quis in uobis? inducat praesbiteros ecclesiae ut [...] super eum, ungentes eum oleo [...], in nomine domini I E S V, & oratio fidei saluabit infirmum Ergo sic roges dete, & protefieri, sicut dixit apostolus, Imo per Aposto­lum suum dominus. Ipsa uidelicit olei sacrati delibutio, intelligitur spiri­tus sancti typicalis unctio That is to saye: That com­maundemente of Saynt James the Apostle is not to be omytted or ouerpassed of the. Is any man sicke emongest you? let him bringe in the preistes of the churche that they maye praye ouet hym, anointing him with ye holy oyle in the name of our Lorde Jesus, And the prayer of faythe, shall saue the sycke. There fore desyre thou, that of the, and for the, soo it may be done, as Saynte James the Apostle, yea rather, our Lorde by his Apostle dyd saye for surely the anointing with the consecrate oyle is vnderstand to be a typy call anointing of the holy Ghoste.

[Page]Hauinge nowe brought forth sondrye authorytyes both of scrypture and also of the fathers, we shall (to satisfye you so far forth as we can, and for the plainer openyng of this sacrament of extreme vnction) gyue vnto you heare the difinition of the same sacramente whiche is this.

The Sacramente of Extreme Unction, is the dew annoylinge of the penitent sicke person doon by the preiste, with consecrated oyle, for the remedye or easyng of the sayd penitent, in soule, and for the re­couery of corporall health if it be so thoughte expediēt to God. In which diffinition when we saye (the pe­nytent sycke person) we do meane thereby that thys sacrament is mynistred frutefully, onely to those that be members of Chrystes churche, and to such as, be­inge once fallen oute of the state of grace by deadelye synne, haue been by penaunce restored agayne to the sayde grace, and there vpon by thys sacramente are strenghethened and conforted in theyr agonye and fight agaynste the deuyll, who in the tyme of sycke­nes and vexation of mannes bodye, is moste busye to assaulte him. And albeit that thys sacramente be of thys notable effecte, yet no man oughte to conceyue thys vayne false hope of the effecte of the same, that he hauing lyued in [...] aud abhominable synne and not caryng to be from it delyuered by true penaunce shall by the onely mynystration of thys sacramente of extreme vnction, haue all hys synnes forgyuen hym.

And where further, in the sayde dyfinition, is conteyned, (for the remedye or easynge of the sayde [Page] penitent) ye shall note that concernynge the soule, no man may doute, but that at all tymes the infirmytye thereof in the sicke person duely repentinge maye the soner by the vertue of thys sacrament be eased, accor­ding to the promyse of the holy Ghooste in the aboue rehersed wordes of Saynte James, And as concer­ning the infirmitie of the body, it also maye be hoped and loked for the soner by the worthye receyuynge of thys sacrament, yf God (who knoweth oure necessi­ties, and can, and also will dispose all thynges swete­ly and also pleasauntly to the attaining of euerlasting comforte, whiche all good men cheifelye desyre and praye for) so thynke it expediente for the sycke person. And here to knytte vp the matter, where an ende is made of all the. vii. sacramentes, we can doo no lesse then of chrysten charitie to wyshe that all those (who in thys late scismaticall tyme haue vndoutedlye by ye instigation of the deuyll, eyther vtterlye contempned or litle regardrd these sacramentes, and emongeste them speciallye this sacramente of extreme vnction, will nowe after our ioyfull reconciliation to the vny­tie of the catholyke churche, regarde all the sayde sa­cramentes as they ought to do, and soo lyue heare in thys transitory worlde, that they conunynge to there extreme passage, which at one time or other they can not escape, maye from deathe come to lyfe, and from death of the body haue euerlastyng lyfe of the soule, and in conclusion after the generall resurrectiō, haue the body ioyned vnto the soule, in blysse euerlastynge whiche almyghty God graunt vnto vs all.

¶ Here nowe doo folowe the ten commaun­dementes of almyghty God, whiche are ta­ken oute of Exodus the. xx. oute of Leuiticus the xxvi. and out of Deuteronomie the. v. chapiters.

  • .i. Thou shalt not haue straūge Goddes before me.
  • .ii. Thou shalte not make to the anye grauen thinge, nor anye lykenesse of anye thynge that is in heauen aboue, aud that is in earth beneth, nor of them that be in the waters [...]? der the earth, Thou shalt not adore them, nor honour them with godly honoure.
  • .iii. Thou shalt not take the name of thy Lorde God in vayne.
  • .iiii. Remembre that thou kepe holye the Sa­both daye.
  • .v. Honoure thy father, and thy mother.
  • .vi. Thou shalt not kyll.
  • .vii. Thou shalt not commytte adultery.
  • [Page]Thou shalt not steale.. viii.
  • Thou shall not vtter or beare false wytnesse agaynst thy neighboure.. ix.
  • Thou shalte not couette thy neyghboures. x. house, nor desyre thy neighbours wife nor his seruaunt, nor hys maiden, nor his oxe, nor his asse, nor any thing that is hys.

¶ The preface of the. x. commaundementes.

THree partes of oure promyse, beynge nowe perfourmed, it is to wytte, first what fayth is, and how it is to be ta­ken in this boke, secondly the exposy­tion of the twelue articles of the chry­sten beleife, theyrdely the declaration of the. vii. sacramentes, the promysed order nowere­quyreth, that in this fourth place, the tenne commaun dementes, with theyr declaration, be set fourth vnto you, for an introduction vnto whiche ye shall note foure poyntes: Fyrste, what is the lawe, or the com­maundemente of God, Secondelye, howe the com­maundementes of God must be obserued, to the plea sure of God, and our saluation: Thyrdely, what gre uous punyshmentes God, dothe in holye Scripture threaten and manace vudoutedlye to be inflycted to the breakers of his commaundementes, and fourth­lye, what greate rewardes the keapers of hys law, & cōmaundementes, shall receaue at Goddes handes. Touchynge the fyrst poynte, whiche is, what the law and commaundemente of God is you shall knowe that the lawe of God, is a rule gyuen to vs, of God for the good guydynge of our selues. Whiche rule de­clareth, and sheweth to vs, what is the wyll and plea sure of God for vs to doo, or not to dooe, in thoughte worde. and dede. And when I call it a rule, I meane that as the bryckelayer cannot make a wal euen and strayghte, withoute the direction of hys lyne nor a mason can not hewe any coygne or assler stone, with [Page] [...] the direction of his squyre and rule, nor the [...] master can guyde or styre his shyppe safely to good hauen, or harborough, withoute the direction of the compasse, so neyther man nor woman can order, guyde, and rule theyr lyfe euenly, dyrectly, & streight­lye, to the wyll and pleasure of almyghty God, with­out the knowledge and direction of his lawe, and commaundementes, which are the lyne, rule, squyre, and compasse, whereby we maye reare our workes vpryghtly, frame our selfes in vertue constantly, and gouerne the course of lyfe into the hauen of felicitie prosperouslye. And where I saye, that the commaun dementes are geuen to vs of God, I declare thereby, that onely God hath, both (throughe the lawe of na­ture) in our hartes prynted them, and also in the law of Moyses with his owne fynger, (that is to saye, by the vertue of the holy spyryte) in two tables of stone wrytten them. And laste of all our sauioure Chryste, beynge both God and man, hath ratified and expoū ­ded them in the newe lawe of the Gospell: to the in­tent that with all diligence we shoulde studye to ob­serue and kepe the sayd commaundements, not one­ly because they are so expediente and profitable vnto vs, but especially because that thei are geuen to vs of God, who therby doth declare to vs his godlye wyll and pleasure, vnto whom both we, and all creatures els, are bounde to be obedient.

And as touchynge the seconde poynte, whiche is howe we muste obserue and kepe the commaunde­mentes of God to his pleasure, and thereby obtayne of him rewarde in heauen, ye shall here note, that we [Page] must kepe the [...] three maner of wayes, first holy and [...] in theyr perfecte number, being ten, accordyng wherevnto in the first chapiter of S. Luke, in the high and greate commendation of Zachary and Elyzabeth, the parentes of Saint Ihon Baptyste, it is wrytten. Erant autem iusti [...] de um, incedentes in omnibus mandatis et iustificationibus domini, sine quere­la That is to say: And thei both were iust before GOD, walkyng or lyuyngem all the cō ­maundementes & iustifications of GOD without any complaynte agaynst them.

And I do saye those wordes Holye and fully, forasmuch as it is not inough to kepe parte or some of the sayd commaundementes of God, and to leaue parte of them vnkepte: But as in a harpe, a lute, or a vyol (being instrumentes of [...]) euery string with other must be tuned, and none lefte vntuned, leste thereby some vnpleasant soundes, and discords might be vttered, so we muste putte all and euerye the commaundementes of God, to theyr tuneable fashion and practyse, lest that yf any be left vnused or [...] of vs, there might to the pure and cleane eares and iudgemente of Almyghtye GOD, come thereby some vnpleasaunte sownde, and vnswete reporte of our lyues and doynges.

Accordyng wherevnto Saynt Iames in the. ii. chapiter of his epistle sayeth. [...]; totam legem [...] rit, offendat autem in uno, factus est omniū reus. That is to saye: [Page] whosoeuer shall kepe the hole lawe, and yet offende in one poynte or parte thereof, is be­come gyltie of all.

The second way by whiche we must kepe ye com­maundementes of God, is that we doo kepe them with a ryght intention: that is for the loue, for the honor, and for the glory of God onelye, and not for anye honoure or glorye, to be geuen to vs, of man in thys lyfe.

For whosoeuer in doinge of hys good dedes, intendeth principally to get honor, glory or reward of man, hath a wronge intention, and hys dede soo done (yea although it be commaunded of God) is not pleasaunte or acceptable vnto God. And of thys ryghte intention speaketh our sauiour Chryst in the vi. chapiter of Saynte Mathewe sayinge. Lucerna cor­poris tui est oculus tuus, Sioculus tuus fuerit simplex, totum corpus tuum lucidum erit. Si autem oculus tuus fuerit nequam, totum corpus [...] nebrosum erit That is to saye: The light of thy bo­dy is thine [...]. [...] thine eie be simple or [...], then all thy body wilbe bright or cleare but yf thine eie be euill or nought, all thy bodye wilbe full of darkenes.

Heare by the eye is vnderstanded the intente, the regarde, or purpose of mans hart, and by the bodye, is ment the wordes, actes and [...] of man, proce­dynge from the harte, and by that intente directed and ordered.

[Page]Therefore Saynt Paule agreing herevnto doth exhorte vs, in his first Epistle to the Corynthyans, and in the. x. chapiter, saying thus. Siue manducatis, siue bibitis, siue aliud quid facitis, omnia in gloriam dei facite That is to saye: Whether ye do eat, whether ye do drink, or whether ye do any other thinge ells, do ye all thinges vnto the glory of GOD

Nowe the thyrd way whereby we must obserue the commaundementes of GOD, is with constancye and perseueraunce to contynue in the doyng of thē. For as our Sauiour Chryst sayeth in the. x. of Ma­thewe. Qui perseuer auerit us (que) in finem, hic saluus erit. That is to saye: He that doth perseuer, or continue, vn­till the very ende shall be saued. And in dede so constantlye we shoulde kepe Goddes commaunde­mentes, that no temporall payne threatened or put vnto vs in this worlde, shoulde moue vs to breake any of them. Such a constant seruaunt to God was Susanna of whome we reade in the. xiii. chapiter of Danyell, that when she was prouoked to ye synne of adultery by two olde iudges, vnder no lesse paine then to be accused in open iudgement, whiche was death by the lawe, she woulde not graunte to that synnefull dede, but sayde these wordes. Angustie sunt mi­hi undi (que), sienim hoc egero, mors mihiest: siautem non egero non effugi­am manus [...]. Sed melius est mihi abs (que) opere incidere in manus homi­num, [...] peccare in conspectu domini. That is to saye: Alas I am in trouble on euery side, for yf I com­mitte this dede it is death to me, and if I doo [Page] it not, I cannot escape your handes. Well it is better for me to fall in to the hands of mē, than to synne in the syghte of GOD.

We wyll passe ouer the honorable auncyent fa­ther Eleazar mencyoned of in the seconde boke and the. vi. chapiter of the Machabees. We wyl not stay vpon the. vii. brethern and theyr mother, spoken of in the. ii. boke and seuenth chapiter of the Macha­bees, of whiche one of the chyldren sayde. Parati sumus magis mori. (quam) patrias deileges preuaricari. That is to saye: We are redy rather to die, then to breake or transgresse the lawes of God which oure fa­thers kepte. But of late dayes, in the tyme of oure pestiferous scisme, the new broched brethern, rather woulde tumble to hel headelonge, then they would doo as the catholyke Churche from Chrystes tyme hetherto hath done, concernynge the lawes of GOD, and the rytes of the sayde catholyke churche. And yet forsoth they wyll chaleng martyrdome, but those seuen innocentes doo condempne them in this case. And thys nowe haue ye heard howe ye should kepe the commaundementes of GOD to his pleasure, firste in kepyng them all and euery of them, and not in kepyng some, and to offende in the other. Secōd­ly in kepyng them with a ryght intention, whyche is for the loue of God, and eternall rewarde, whych is God hymselfe. And thyrdly in obseruyng the same with constancye and perseueraunce to the [...] of our lyfe. In which doinge, ye kepe [...] to the plea­sure of God, and to your eternall [...] & with­oute [Page] kepyng of them ye neyther can please him, nor haue lyfe euerlastyng, accordyng to Chrystes owne sentence and iudgement, when he sayd. Si uis ad [...] in­grediserua [...]. That is to saye: [...] thou wylte entre to lyfe, kepe the commaundementes.

Nowe to come to speake of the thyrde parte or poynte of our diuision, made in the begynnynge of thys preface, it is to wytte, of the greuous paynes punishmentes, and afflictions that God in scrypture doth threaten and menace to be inflicted vpon such as breake hys commaundementes, ye shall vnder­stand first that the trangressours of Goddes law, & commaundementes are generally accursed of gods owne mouth, as the Prophette Dauyd in the. 118. Psalme declarethe, sayinge: Maledicti qui declinant a mandatis tuis. That is to saye: Cursed be they which doo declyne or [...] from thy commaun­dementes. And of the particuler, sharpe, and dred­full scourges, punyshmentes, and plages, whiche do lyght vpon the trangressours of these commaunde­mentes, ye may rede in the. [...] chapiter of Leuiti­cus, and in the. xxvii and. xxviii. chapiters of Deute­ronomy. And howe that (to the terrible example of other) almyghtye God hath from tyme to tyme exe­cuted his Justyce vpon aswell pryuate men & wo­men, as also vpon myghty rulers, prynces, kynges, and emperours, besydes thē vpon Townes, Cities, ye, & hole countryes and kyngedoms, in scourgyng, [...], afflyetynge and plagynge them, for breaking & trangressing of his lawes & commaūde­mentes, [Page] the scryptures most habundantly do testify. As that some were of the earth swalowed vp quicke euen vnto hell and euerlastynge payne, and that o­ther some (yea fyne hole Cities) with fyre & bryme­stone, poured downe from heauen were quyte brent vp and consumed, and ferther that a greate num­ber of chyldren by beares sent by God sodenly were deuoured, for theyr lewde and wycked behauioure, with very many other such lyke terrible examples in the Scryptures at large sufficientlye expressed, which were to longe, particulerlye here to rehearse, and are easye there to be founde. Wherefore to con­clude thys thyrd parte, we aduyse all men to haue contynually before theyr eyes, that dreadeful saying of S. Paule in the. vi. to the Romaynes. Stipendia pecca timors That is to saye. The stipend or rewarde of synne is death. Meanyng thereby, not onelye here in thys worlde, temporall death of the body, but also after thys lyfe, death eternal & payne in hell fyre.

And as concernynge the fowerth and last part of our first proposed diuision, it is to wytte, of the great rewarde and blessynges which shall come to them that in such sorte as before we haue expounded kepe the lawes and commaundementes of allmigh­tye God, fyrst ye shall note those comfortable words of almyghty God in ye twentyth chapiter of Exodus, where he sayth of hymselfe thus. Faciens misericordiam in millia, [...] qui diligunt me [...] custodiunt precepta mea. That is to saye: Doynge mercy vnto thousands, to thē that loue me, & kepe my commaūdements. [Page] And agayne in the. xxvi. of Leuiticus, he sayth, Si in prae ceptis meis ambulaueritis. & mandatamea custodieritis & feceritis [...]: dabo uobis pluuias temporibus suis, & terragignet germen suum, & pomis Arbores replebuntur. That is to say. If ye walke in my preceptes, and kepe my commaundementes and do them. I wil geue vnto you raynes in their due seasons: and the earth shall bringe furth her sede, and the trees shalbe replenished with fruite. In the. vi. chapiter also of Ecclesiasti­cus, it is wrytten, Cogitatum tuum habe in praeceptis dci, & in māc datis illius maxime assiduus esto, & ipse dabit ubi cor, & [...] dabitur tibi, That is to say: Haue thy thought in the preceptes of God, and be thou conty­nuallye occupied in his commaundementes and he will geue the a harte, and desyre of wysedome shalbe geuen to thee. Whych thinge is well proued by the testimonye of kynge Dauyd, who sayth of hym selfe in his. cxviii. psalme. Super senes intellexi, quia mandata tua qu. esiui. That is to saye: I haue had vnderstanding more then the olde men, because I haue soughte thy commaunde­mentes.

And here omittynge infinite testimonyes of scri­pture, whiche declare, that not onely in this worlde, all helth, welth, and prosperitie is promised to the ke­pers and obseruers of Goddeslaw, and commaun­dementes, but also after this lyfe acrowne of immor­talitie, and eternall ioye and blysse: we wyl here con­clude [Page] repeatynge agayne one shorte sentence of oure sauioure Chryste in the. xix. of Mathewe, wher he sai­eth thus. Si uis ad uitam ingredi, serua mandata. That is to saye. Of thou wylt entre into lyfe, kepe the com maundementes.

¶ Thexposition or declaration of the fyrste of the ten commanndementes which is.

‘Thou shalt not haue straunge goodes be­fore me.’

HAVINGE in this matter fyrst set forth vnto you the number of Goddes com maundements, that perfectly know­inge them ye maye bothe kepe them your selues, and also of chrysten cha­rytye teache them to other, especyally of your family and household. And hauyng in the pre face of these commaundementes declared vnto you, what is the lawe and commaundemente of GOD, howe also the commaundementes of God muste be obserued, what punyshmentes God dothe manace & inflicte to the breakers or [...] of hys com­maundementes. And fynally what rewarde the ke­pers of Goddes commaundementes shall at Goddes handes receyue. Mete and conueniente now it shall be to expounde and declare the sayde commaunde­mentes, accordynge as heretofore in the preface of [Page] hys boke hathe bene promysed vnto you, and for the better knowledge of this matter, ye shal vnderstand that thys doctryne of commaundementes conteyned in Dicalogo, that is to saye in tenne sentenses, was fyrste wrytten in two tables of stone, by the hande and power of almyghtye God, and delyuered vnto Moy­ses in a mountayne Called Sauai, to be declared vnto the Israelites or Iues, whiche were forbydden to come vppe to the Mountayne, and were beneth standynge at the foote of the hyl, the cyrcumstaunce of whyche matter is wonderfull large and notablye sette fourthe in [...]. 16. and in Deteronomye. 4. where emongeste other thynges, dotne clearelye ap­peare, that in the gyuynge of thys doctryne contey­ned in these two tables, there was a terrible or a fear full fyre, a greate smoke, and notable thunder and lyghtenynge, partly to sygnify the stony hartes of the Iues, partelye to declare the greate burden and he uynesse of the lawe, not hable of her selfe and by her owne power to iustifye, and therefore neding farther helpe of grace therein, and partelye also to putte in feare the hartes and conscyences of the people, and to styrre them vp to seke and laboure for helpe at god­dys handes, to fulfyll the saide Lawe, whych fashion and maner of gyuynge the sayde Lawe in the olde testament, doth muche dyffer from the fashyon & ma­ner of gyuyng the euangelical lawe in the newe testa ment, and yet in this there is a greate agremente in bothe that aswell in the geuynge of these tenne com­maundementes in the olde testament, as also in the gyuinge of the euangelicall lawe, in the newe Testa­ment, [Page] that was a hygh place in whych the lawe was gyuen, and also there was fyre. In the olde testamēt the lawe was gyuen vpon a grosse and earthly moun tayne whyche was called Syna, or Synai, takyng the name of a preceptes or commaundemente, in as­muche as the preceptes or commaundementes were geuen in it, to brydle and kepe vnder the headye re­bellions and styffenecked people, not suffered to come vp to it, but commaunded to be vnder it. In the newe testamente the lawe is gyuen in dede in a mountaine but yet not called Sina or Syani, but called Siō, whych by interpretation doth sounde or sygnifye a beholdynge place, from whense al [...], lye thynges maye be considered or loked vpon, and from whense beinge highe and nighe vnto heauen, heauenlye and celestiall thynges maye be holden. And therefore the blessed Apostles beynge, in theyr conclaue, in the sayde mounte Syon, were of one mynde and quyet, prayinge together and lokynge for the heauenly gyft promysed before vnto them by Chryst. In the geuing of the lawe in Mount Syna, there was fyre, lyghte nynge, and thunder, and dyuerse other thynges very terrible, to signifye the cheife strength of the lawe to consist in terror, and fearefulnes, accordynge where­vnto Saynte Paule in the forthe chapyter to the Ro­maynes, doth saye Lexiram oper. [...]. That is to saye:

The lawe doth worke or brynge fourthe wrathe. In the gyuynge of the lawe in Mounte Syon, ther was a vehemente spyryte or blaste, but yet bryngynge wyth it alacritie and Ioye, and a fyre [Page] there was, but yet not brennyng the bodye, but lyght ninge the blynde harte or mynde of man, and kynde linge his slothful and dull will vnto goodnes, so that not by terror or feare compelled as in the olde lawe, but incited & moued by harty loue, he runneth in the waye of the commaundementes, forgettyng the thin­ges behinde, and stretchynge hym towarde the thin­ges beyng before hym, that pleasing God by kepyng his commaundemētes he may accordyng to christes promyse. Mathei Deeimo nono. entre into life and reygne wyth Chryste.

In the fyrste of these two tables there are contey­ned in effecte all those thynges whiche we oughte to doo vnto god, and wherein we ought to be occupyed with god, that is to saye the very true seruyce of God aswell internall as externall. And in the seconde ta­ble are conteyned, all those thynges whych wee owe vnto our neyghboure, and howe wee on oure parte oughte to behaue oure selues to hym. And yet heare muste ye marke that thys seconde table dothe issue or comme from the fyrst table, so that the works of the seconde table cannot truelye be done wythoute the workes and dedes of the fyrst table. For then in dede we maye be sene ryghtly and well to loue our neygh­boure, when wythout consyderation of anye priuate poffytte commynge vnto vs, and wythoute anye worldelye or carnall respectes, we do onely loue hym for Goddes sake, and doo embrace and cheryshe hym as oure owne selues, bycause that God, in whome is all oure hope and truste, and to whome in harte and [Page] mynd, we haue ioyned our selues, dothe soo wyll vs and commaude vs to do. The greate clerke Orygen (whome also Saynt Hyerome foloweth) doth allote or appoynt vnto the fyrste of these two tables [...] commaundementes, makynge of Non babebis deos [...] coram me And of. Non facies tibi sculptile. two commaundementes (as we doo) vnderstan­dynge in the fyrste to be forbydden al Idolatry spyry [...] or internall, and in the second, all Idolatrye ex­ternall or bodely. And vnto the seconde table he doth allote or appoynte sixe preceptes or commaundemēts knittynge and puttynge together for one precepte or commaundement, the prohybytyon of [...] the wyfe, or Goodes of thy neyghbour. But Saynt Au­gustyne in his seconde booke of [...], vpon Ex­odus, in the. lxxi. chapyter, and as manye as doo fo­lowe Saynt Augustyne, do appoynte vnto the fyrste table, three preceptes or commaundementes onelye, ioyning our two fyrste in one, and vnto the Seconde table, appoynting. vii. preceptes or commaundemēts deuydinge [...] ten or last commaundement, whiche is concernynge the vnlawefull desyre of the wyfe and Goodes of our neyghbour, into two special [...] dementes it is to wytte.

Non concupisces [...] proximi tui and Nec deside­rabis uxorumeius, non [...] ancillam non bouem non [...], ne comniaque illius sunt. Whyche dyuy­sion or order Saynte Augustyne doethe allowe and followe, especiallye for that it settethe fourthe [Page] [...], and representeth very lyuely the mysterye of the holy Trinitie, in that, that the fyrst commaundement is referred to the father, the seconde to the Sonne, who is the name and worde of God, and the thyrde to the holye Ghost, by whose workynge in vs, we do kepe a sabboth, and do reste from all seruyle workes, whyche the fleshe, destitute of the spyryte, doth ingen [...] and bryng forthe in vs. And forasmuche as saynte Augustyne hym selfe, euen in the same place before al leged, dothe declare that bothe these maners of ioy­nynge, or partynge the two fyrst, or the two last com­maundementes, were vsed and allowed in his tyme.

And for that also neyther in the one, or in the other maner of deuydynge or reckenynge these tenne com­maundementes, eyther the sense, the worde, or anye one [...] of the matter is altered, no nor yet anye more or lesse in eyther of the sayde. ii. tables thereby contey­ned. Therfore no man ought with thys our dyuisyon (wherein for certayne good consideratyons, we fo­lowe Origene, & Saint Hierome to be in any wyse, offended.

Folowynge then thys ourorder, ye shall note that thys commaundemente. Thou shalte haue no straunge Goodes before me. as it is the fyrst in order, so is it the most cheife and princypall emongest them al, for in thys commaundement God requireth of vs these foure thinges in which consisteth his chief and pryncipall honour, it is to wytte, feare, faythe, hope, and charitie, and they to be geuen of vs vn­to hym. as beynge oure onelye and true God. And as concerning the fyrste, that is to saye, feare, howe ne­cessary [Page] a part of oure secuyce & duety towardes God that is, Salomon in the. ix. chapiter of his prouerbs playnelye and breifely declareth, saying, Principium sapien­tiae timor domini, That is to saye. The begynnynge of wysedome, is the feare of God. And of this feare also our sauioure Chryste [...], speaketh in the. xii of Luke, declaryng there that God chieflye and prin cipallye is to be dred and feared, where he sayth thus [...] eum qui post (que) occiderit corpus, habet [...] mittere in [...] hennem. I ta dico uobis hunc timete. That is to say. Feare him who [...] that he hathe slayne or kylled the body, [...] power to put or cast into hel, thus I saye vnto you, feare hym. And thys kynde or sorte of feare, is commonlye called seruyle. But there is an other kynde or sorte of feare due vnto god, wher of the prophete Dauyd in hys. xviii, Psalme, speaketh saying: Timor domini sanctus, permanet in seculum seculi. That is to saye. The holy feare of God, continueth or abydeth for euermore.

And as concernyng fayth, whiche is the seconde parte of our duetie towarde God, there is wryttē of it in the. ii. chapter of Ecclesiasticus, after thys sorte. Qui timetis dominum, credite ille, & non euacuabitur mercis uestra.

That is to saye. [...] that feare our Lorde, haue fayth in him, or geue credite to him, and your rewarde shal not be frustrate. And to entreate further offayth in god here in thys place, we nede not but do referre you to ye declaration thereof, made be­fore, both vpon the acceptions of fayth, & also vpon ye [Page] fyrst artycle of the crede. And as touchynge the thyrde parte of our bounden duety, requyred on our behalfe towarde god, which is Hope, there is wrytten of it in the sayde seconde chap. of Ecclestasticus, after thys sorte Qui [...] dominum, sperate in illum, & in oblectationem [...]. That is to saye: [...] that feare oure Lord, do ye hope in him and his mercye shall come to you, to your comforte, or delectation. And the prophet also in hys. [...]. psal. speaking here­of sayeth thus. Beneplacitum est domino super timentis eum, & in eis qui sperant super misericordia eius That is to saye: Oure Lorde hathe pleasure vnto them that feare him, and in them yt do hope vpon hys mercye Of which hope S. Paule in the. v. chapiter of his epi stle to the Romaynes, doth say thus, Gloriam in spe gloriae filiorum dei. That is to say: We retoyce or triumphe in the hope of the glorye, promised to the chyl­dren of God. But mooste notablye of this hope, the same s. Paule speaketh in the. viii. cha. of the same epi stle to the Romaynes, saynge: Spe enim salui facti sumus, spes autem quae [...] non est spes: Non quod uidit quis, quid sperat? si autem quod non uidemus speramus per [...] expectamus. &c. That is Thorugh hope truely we be made safe: but the hope which is sene is not hope. For wher fore doth one hope or trust for that whiche he doth se? but if we hope for that whyche we se not, thē do we loke for or tary by [...]. &c Nowe concernyng the fourth poynt or parte of oure duety towardes God, it is to wytte, Charitie, ye shal [Page] vnderstād that this is the most excellent & soueraigne vertue that belongeth to anye Chrysten man or wo­man. And of this vertue there is wrytten in the fore­sayde seconde chapiter of Ecclesiasticus where it is sayd, Qui timetis dominum diligite illum, & illuminabuniur corda uestra.

That is to saye. You that feare oure lorde, loue ye him, and your heartes shalbe [...]. But howe or in what sorte we maye or oughte to perfourme this true loue and charitie towardes god, that doth oure Sauioure Chryste hym selfe in the. x. chapter of Saynt Luke teache vs, sayinge. Diliges [...] minum [...] tuum ex toto corde tuo & ex [...] anima tua, & ex omnibus uiribus tuis, & ex omni [...]. That is to saye. Thou shalte loue thy Lorde GOD, wyth all thy hearte, with all thy soule, wyth all thy stren­gthe, and with all thy mynde. Whyche in effect is asmnche as yf he hadde playnelye sayde, let all thy thoughtes all thy wyttes, and al thy vnderstandyng al the partes or powers of thy soule, all thy strengthe, [...] and laboure, be directed to the seruyce and pleasure of God, of whome thou hast receyued bodye, soule, and all the gyftes wherewith the sayde bodye and soule are endued, yea and not onelye thou haste receyued them, but also besydes, thou haste receyued all thy temporall goodes, fruytes, and commodityes whatsoeuer. Wherefore the thynge thus beyng, let vs now conclude wyth Saynte Jhon in the, iiii. Cha­piter of his fyrste Epystle sayinge. Nos [...] diligamus deum quontam prior dilexit nos. That is to saye. Let vs there­for loue GOD because he fyrste hath loued [Page] [...]. And for asmuch as of bounden duety we do [...] to almyghty God, the foresayd foure thynges, feare, faith hope, and loue, or Charitie, we maye true­lye saye that all they doe transgresse thys fyrste com­maundemente, who doe not aboue all thynges, feare, God beleue in God, hope in God, and loue God. And here for your better and playner instruction, we wyll particulerly set forth vnto you the most notable trans gressoures of thys commaundemente, wherein fyrste shalbe placed the paganes, infideles, and the heathen whyche beleue not in the onely true God, but in ma­ny false and straunge Goddes. Secondly the Iewes shalbe placed, as they who in thys behalfe hyghly do offende God, not beleuyng in our sauiour Chryste cru cified, neyther takyng hym for verye God, whervpon foloweth that they do not feare hym, they do not put theyr trust or hope of saluation in hym, nor yet loue hym, but most spitefully, do hate and blaspheme hym and hys name, to theyr endlesse [...], vnlesse they in tyme do duely repent. Thyrdelye the Turkes shall haue here theyr place, and all they also that doo kepe Machometes abhominable lawe beyng mooste contrary to the lawe of Chryst, and agaynste the ho­nour and glorye of almyghty god. Forthly shal folow all heretikes, for that they do not honoure God with the true beleife, as chrysten people are bounden to do Fyftelye shall succede all those, who set theyr hartes and myndes vpon any worldelye thynge aboue God. For whatsoeuer we loue aboue God, settynge oure myndes vpon it, more then we do vpō God, or for the loue of it, offending God truely we make that, for the tyme, oure God. As the couetous manne maketh his [Page] goodes hys god, according to the saying of S. Paul Col. 3. And the glottenous man maketh his belly hys God, accordynge to the sayinge of S. Paule Phil iii And the fonde parentes many times, make their chil dren their God: in conclusion fyndinge them no god­des but deuylles, and geuen to all vngodlynes: And so of the rest who in any wyse do commit any spiritu­al ydolatrye inwardlye in theyr heart. Sixtely there shalbe here a place for all them, aswell such as do pre­sume so much vpon the mercy of God, that they feare not his iustice, and by reason thereof do still continue in theyr synne and noughtinesse, as also for them that do so feare the iustice of god, that they haue no trust or confidence at al in his mercy & goodnes. Seuenthlye they must here haue a roume, that do vse witchcrafte, Necromancie, enchauntement, or any other such like vngodly, aud superstitious trade, or haue any confy­dence in such thynges, or do seke helpe of, or by any of them: And without dout suche witches Coniurers, enchaunters, and all such like, do worke by the ope­ration and ayde of the deuyll, and vnto him for ye at­taynyng of theyr wicked enterprises, they do seruyce, and honor, of which abhomination we are warned, & expresly cōmaunded to take hede, & flye frō Leu. xix where thus it is written. Non [...] ad magos. That is Turne ye not to thē, which do vse magicall actes, or worke wt the deuyl. For wt out al doute most greuously do they offende agaynst the honoure of God, who hauing in their baptisme professed to re­nounce the deuyll & all his workes, do yet neuerthe­lesse make secrete pactes and couenauntes with the deuil, or do vse anye maner of coniurations, to rayse [Page] vp deuylles for treasure, or any other thing hid or lost or for anye maner of cause, whatsoeuer [...] be: for al such committe so high offence aud treasō to God, that there can be no greater. For they yelde the honoure dewe vnto God, to the [...], Goddes enemye and not onelye all suche as [...] charmes, withcraftes, and coniurations, trangresse thys cheife and hyghe com­maundemente, but also those that seke and resorte vnto them, for anye counsayle or remedy, accordynge to the saying of God whan he sayd. Deuterouo, xviii.

Lette no manne aske councell of them, that vse false diuinations, or suche as take hede to dreames or chatterynge of byrdes. Let there be no wytche or enchaunter emongest you, or any that askethe coun­sel of them, that haue spyrytes, nor of southfayres, nor that seke the trougthe of them that be deade, for god abhorreth all these thynges. Fynallye al kynde of vn­faythfulnes, vnpacientnes, murmuryuge and grud­ginge againste God specially in tyme of aduersitie, is a manifest and open breakyng of thys commaunde­ment. And though this much might seme sufficyente for declaration of this firste commaundemente, yet are there other thynges appertaynynge to the fuller vnderstandinge hereof, not to be of vs omytted. As firste to declare what is ment by the wordes, before me, expressed in thys commaundemente. The expo­sition whereof in fewe wordes is thys, because no­thynge can be so secrete, pryuye, close or hid from god but that it is sene with his moste persinge eyes, who (as the prophete Dauyd in the seuenth Psalme doth say) is the sercher of manes harte, and of hys inward [Page] lustes, and desyres, and who also eternally is presente euerye where, therefore we maye not eyther in dede worde, or in anye secrete thoughte, at anytyme, or in any place: committe or offende agaynst hys honoure and omnipotente maiestie. For yf we soo do, it is vn­doutedlye done, before him, that is to saye, in hys sight, who wyll not faile, for oure so doynge, to power his wrathe and his indignation vpon vs. Secondlye you shall note that God begynneth his lawe or com­maundementes at hym selfe, beyng the most worthy and wythoute all comparison, and afterward he pro­cedeth to instructe vs in our duety toward our neigh boure. Thyrdely ye shall note, both touchyng thys, & the reste of the commauudementes, that they are for the mooste parte vttered in the negatyne and not in the affirmatyue speache, not onely for that the nega­tyue dothe bynde euer and for euer, and is more ve­hement then is the affirmitiue. But also for that the negatyue doth accustomably requyre, on the contra­ry syde the affirmatyue, and denying or forbyddynge doth imploye in it a contrary commaundement: and therefore in these precepts it is not alonelye to be con­sidered what is forbydden and denyed vnto vs, but also what God (thoughe therein he [...] not vse for mail or expresse wordes) doth requyre in the contra­ry of vs. And therefore where in thys precepte in the negatyue speach it is sayde. Thou shalt not haue straunge Goddes before me There must by this negatyue, be vnderstande the affyrmatyue, that is to saye. Thou shalt onelye haue me for thy true God.

[Page]And in dede yf this precepte hade bene [...] and made in an affyrmatyue speache onelye, then the Samaritanes woulde haue gathered here of some excuse, who thoughe they worshypped one God, yet withall they worshypped manye Goddes to, as ap­peareth: 4. Begum. 17. Lyke wyse mighte the Iewes the gentylles, the heretykes, yea and the noughetye persons of the world, who thoughe they dyd and doo knowe one to be God, as Saynte Paule in the fyrste chapiter of his epystle to the Romaynes doth testifye, yet they did not honor and worshyppe him duelye as they ought to doo, as Saynt Paule in the sayde epy­stle and chapiter doth euydently declare.

And fynallye ye shall vnderstand and note, that where thys fyrst [...] is of late diuerslye out of the hebrwe tongue translated, bothe into La­ten and also into Engiyshe, (euerye one of suche translaters folowinge hys owne iudgement and fantasy therein) we haue (as becom­meth vs to do) folowed the latin tran­slation commonly receyued throughout the hole catho­like Churche.

¶ Thexposition or declaration of the [...] Commaundement, which is

‘Thou shalt not make to the any grauen thinge, nor any likenesse of anye thinge that is in heauen aboue, and that is in earthe be­neth, nor of them that be in the waters vn­der the earth, thou shalte not adore them, nor honor them, with gods honoure.’

BEcause heretofore by dyuerse [...] and vngodlye translations, this com­maundemente hath bene broughte in and alleged, not onelye agaynste ima­ges set vp in churches and vsed wyth due reuerence of the people, but also agaynst the most blessed Sacrament of the Aultare, callyuge it an Image or Idoll, and other moste [...] termes to bryng the people into contempte, and ha­tred of it, y e shall syre heare howe almost eyght score yeare agone our owne contrey men euen in tyme of heresye dyd oute of [...] translate thys place into Englyshe, and ye maye the better beleue me herein for that I haue thys booke in parchemente fayre and truely wrytten to be shewed at all tymes to any well disposed person that shall desyre it, and thereby shall indifferent men perceyue that the procedynge prea­chers or rather praters, takynge [...], and dolum, for an Image, & confoundyng the one wyth the [...] haue greatly abused, & deceyued the people, first in the xx. chap. of Exodus where the. x. cōmaundemētes are [Page] [...], and [...], thus is it wrytten.

And ye lord speek alle yts wordes, I am ye lord yi god, that hayt lad ye out of ye londe of Egypte, from ye house of yraldome, yu schalt not haue alyen goddys before me ye schalt not make to ye grauen ying, ne eny like nesse ye is in heuen a bown & yt is in eryt beneyt ne of hem yat bene in waters vnder eryt, yu schalt not anoure hem he herye hem.

And so fourth, Moreouer in the, xxvi. Chapyter of Leuiticus, where the commaundementes be also tou ched, there is it also wrytten thus. Ze schuln not make to zou a mawmette and grauen ying, netytles ze schuln rere, ne huge stone zeschuln putten in zor ery, that ze honourit.

And so [...], Besydes this in the, v, chapter of Deu­teronomy it is wrytten thus. [...] shalt not haue haue alyen Goddys in my syzt, yu schalte not make to yee grauen yinge ne lyckenesse of alle yinges yt in heuen bene aboue. And in ery byneye, and that dwellen in waters vnder ery, yu schalte not honour hem ne herye.

By these places so translated euen in the noughtye tyme, it is euydeute that men were not then so impu­dent and false as they in oure time haue bene, for they neyther coulde nor durste as some in our tyme falsely haue done, translate an Idole or a grauen thynge, in [Page] [...] anye Image, for you must vnderstand, yt betwene an Image (whyche is a name of reuerence) and an Idol (whych alwayes wyth the good is abhomyna­ble) there is a very notable and greate difference: and the difference is thys. The Drygynales, fyrste formes and parentes of Idoles, to represent by, are very vn­true and clerelye false, for hauynge the inscriptyon of goddes (as for example of god Iupiter of god Mars and of suche lyke) they are in dede the pyctures of de­uyles, and not of Goddes (god being but one) and (as the Prophete sayth Psalme. cx) Ommes dii [...] demonia. That is to say. All the goddes of the Gentyles are dyueles and yet with foly she erronyous people one taken for God Iupyter, one for God Mars, and so forthe, all beynge false. But the origynales first formes or paternes of the ymages, to represente the very thynge signified by them, are faythfull and true thys of Chryst, that of Chrystes Mother, an other of Sayncte Ihon Baptiste, and of euerye Sayncte a peculier Image, and soo to be called, because in dede there is a Chryst to haue an Image of, and lykewyse there is a mother of Chryst to haue of her an Image, and so of the rest, which to be so, we can not deny, ex­cepte we wyll falselye saye, that there is no Chryste at all, nor no mother of Chryste nor yet no Sayncte. And that the catholyke churche hathe alwayes euen from the begynnynge, put greate dyfference betwene an Idol and an Image, vtterlye abhorryng and [...] testyng the one, and deuoutly and godly receyuynge and allowynge the other, it is most euidēt to thē that [Page] wyll consyder what the churche dyd in thys matter aboute eyght hundred yeares agoo: at whyche tyme there was greate controuersye in thys matter wher vpon the cheife aud most learned men of al christen­dome dyd assemble [...] of all partes of the worlde to the cytye of Nyce in the countrye of Bethinia, beyng in Asye the [...], where they, after longe deliberatyon [...] searchynge, and moste aduised persuinge of the bokes [...] by the auncient fathers, whyche were before those dayes, dyd conclude that the vse of ymages in the catholyke Church is in no wise re­pugnaunt, wich the seconde commaundemente, it is to wytte, Thou shalt not make to the any gra uen thynge. &c. Yea and further to open and con­fyrme thys poynte, they also dyd then playnelye de­clare that in the olde testament were manye ymages and lykenesses or similitudes, not onely wythout the tabernacle and the temple, but also wythin the same made, had, and vsed by Goddes expresse commaunde mente: at whyche assembly also was clearely proued that there is a greate difference betwene the Ima­ges, whych Chrysten men do vse in theyr churches, & the Idols vnto whych the Gentyles and some times also the Iewes them selues dyd geue Gods honoure and worship. And that the ymages vsed in the chur­che were sygnes and memorialles of Chryste and the holy saynctes. And that the reuerence whych is done before the ymages, is not done or mente to be done to the wood, stone, syluer, gold, or any other suche stuffe or matter where of anye Image is made, no [...] yet to the workemanshyppe or beautiful shape thereof as [Page] though there were any suche worthynes or dignytye therin, but we beholdynge the pyctures or Images, myght be brought thereby in remembraunce of them, theyr lyues, doynges, and deathes, whose Images they are, or whome they represente, and there vpon imitate, and dilygentlye folowe to our power, all the same: as when we ernestlye and intentiuely doe be­hold the Image of the Crucifixe, we then haue good occasyon to remembre, the incarnation, lyfe, passyon, and deathe of our Sauiour Chryste. And when we beholde the Image of the blessed Uyrgyn Mary mo­ther of Chryst, we then are styrred vp to thinke in our hartes how that blessed mother beinge of our mortal humayne nature, dyd in her wombe conceyue (by a meanes far passyng the capacitie of manne or angell, to comprehende) our sauyour Chryst being bothe god and man, and that therfore we do prayse, magnyfye, and extolle her aboue all creatures, visible and inui­sible: and that for lyke reason and cause, the Images of the Prophetes apostles [...] & other [...] and derely beloued seruauutes of God, are certayne sygnes, by whych as in a glasse, we behold their god­lye conuersation, lyfe, affliction, and deathe that by the beholdynge of theyr Images we may styrre vppe and renewe in vs that affection, and loue which we haue to the very Saynctes, for theyr godlynes and vertues sakes. And besydes thys in the sayd assēblye or general counsayle, thys similitude folowyng was then thoughte mete, to open and declare some what the matter and the maner of Images in the Chur­thes of Chrysten men, wyth the vse thereof. That [Page] [...] as when we do receyue letters from an empe­roure, a kynge or greate prynce, we do kysse the seale of the sayde letters not for the waxe sake, but geuing therby our dewe honour and reuerence to the empe­rour kynge or prynce whose letters we doo receyue. Euen so when Chrysten men are before an Image, (as for example before the ymage of the crucifix) ther knelyng, or kyssyng the same hauynge in theyr hear­tes, and myndes godly intention and affection, they doe not entende or mynde thereby to adore or wor­shyppe the very Image selfe, being of wood stone [...] other matter (whiche in dede being [...] mouldered a way, for the oldenes of it, or other wyse beynge con­sumed or defaced they do regarde it nothynge at all, nor haue it in any estimation) but beholding the said Image of the Crucifix beyng as a seale, and a token or remembraunce of the passyon of Chryste, they are thereby admonished and [...] in remembraunce, to salute & adore him, who for alour sakes suffred death vpon she crosse, nayled and crucified, as the Image of thys [...] doeth effectually represent, and there­fore, that is to saye; for Chryst and hys passions sake, that sygne of the crosse maye be, and is, set vp & erec­ted in churches, houses, markette places, in hyghe­wayes and els [...], yea and wouen in garmentes or other clothes for such godly purposes and intentes that by the oft seinge and beholdyng of the same, we at all tymes and in all affayres maye be myndefull of oure Sauiour and redemer Iesus Chryste, and of hys moste bytter passion, whyche he for oure synnes dydsuffer.

[Page]The same counsayle also hath this other example; that lyke wyse as when we do kysse the booke of the Gospels, we haue not suche affection, and loue, to the parchement, paper or letters made with ynke, as for theyr sakes to kysse the boke, but hauynge onelye res­pect to those holsome comfortable and holy sayinges whych are in the boke conteyned, do for that respect and for their sakes, with al our hole hartes & mindes kysse and embrace, the booke most ioyfullye. Euen so when we doo worshyppe the Images of Saynctes, we doo not worshyppe those outwarde shapes or fy­gures, but we do worshyppe the gyftes, graces, and vertues whiche god hath wrought in those saynctes whose Images they are: for we do prayse the godly­nes of theyr lyues and styrre vp oure selues thereby, to imitate and folowe theyr fote steppes, and there withal we do make prayer vnto almyghty god that he wylbe mercifull and bountifull vnto vs, through the intercession and merites of them. And in dede we doe not speake to, nor praye vnto the Crosse of Christ, or the ymage of anye sayncte in thys wyse.

Dijnostricstis. Exod. 32. cap. That is to saye. [...] are oure Goddes. For we know ful well and are most assu­red what they are, and that they are not nor yet can be Goddes, being but only similytudes and ymages of Christe and hyssaynctes, whiche saynctes we doo reuerence and worshyppe for Goddes sake, as when we worshyppe any martyr, we glorifye God and hys gyftes in the same Martyr, and when we honoure the blessed vyrgyn Mary, mother of Chryste, we ho­noure, [Page] in her, Chryste, whose mother she is. And when we honour the apostles, we honoure, in them, hym that sent them. Besydes al these foresayd thinges expressed in the fore sayde auncient general counsayl, and there, wyth vnyforme consent agreed vpon, and decreed, you shall fynde in the same Counsayle, fayth­fully, and truely alleadged a great number of testuno­nyes for thys purpose, oute of Athanasius, Eusebius, Pam­phili, Basilius Magnus, Gregorius Nizenus, Gregorius Theologus, Iso­dorus Pelusiota, Cyrillus, Nilus, Asterius [...], Theodorus Myro­rum, A nastasius, Sophromus Euagrius, Theodorus lector, Germanus, patryarche of Constantinople, beyng all auncyent fa­thers of the Greke Churche. And oute of the Latyn Churche, there be testymonyes, there cytcd and brought oute, as of Ambrose, Hierome, and Grego­rye, of whyche fore sayde testymonyes, we wyll, for youre better contentation, and satisfaction, alleadge some, out of the very actes and recordes of the same Counsayle. And fyrst of Athanasius there is thys sai­yng noted and expressed. Qui in alicuius typum, [...], aut effigiem, ignominiosus est, in illum cuius est typus, iniuriam factam [...]. That is to saye. whoso euer is ignomini­ous, or spitefull to the forme, ymage, or pyc­ture of any, we thynke that iniurye donne to hym whose forme Image, or picture it is. Seconde of Basilyus magnus. there is in the sayde Counsayle, thys testimonye or sayinge recyted.

Quemadmodum adeo Christianam & inculpabilem nostram fidem, ueluti [...], Sic confiteor, & in comaneo. Credo autem in [...] deum omnipotentem, deum patrem, deum filium, spiritum [...] deum hec [...] adoro, & glorisico. Confiteor [...] filij [...] [Page] [...]: Deinde sanctam Mariam, [...] secundum [...] hanc deiparam [...], suspicio ctiam sanctos apostolos, prophetas, & [...] tyres, qui pro me apud deum supplicant, quo per illorum mediationem, pro pitius sit deus noster benignissimus, & remissione peccatorum mihi gratis largiatur, quam ob causam & historias imaginum illcrum honoro, & palā adoro, hoc enim nobis, a sanctis apostolis traditum, nō est prohibendum sed in omnibus ecclesijs nostris eorum historias erigimus. That is to saye. Euen as we haue receyued of GOD, oure Christian and inculpable faith, as it were by right of inheritaunce, so do I confesse it, and abyde in the same. I verelye do beleue in one God almyghtye, God the father, GOD the sonne, and GOD the holy ghost, these three beynge one God I adore and gloryfye. I cō ­fesse also, the hole dispensation of Chryste, in carnate and next the holye virgin Marye, of whome Christ toke fleshe, and was borne, I callyng her mother of God. I reuerence also the holy Apostles, prophetes, and martyres, whiche do make intercession to God for me, that thorough their mediation, oure mooste benigne god may be merciful, & frely graunte vnto me remissyon of sinnes. For whyche cause I do honoure, and openlye adore also theyr Images, for this thinge beinge of the holy apostles deliuered vnto vs is not to be letten or bydden, but in all oure churches we erecte or set vp their Images.

[Page]Besydes all these, there was in the sayde [...] generall counsayle alledged the aucthoritie of Ger­manus patriarche of Cōstantinople who sayde thus. Non offendat quenquā quod ante sanctorum imagines, lumina & [...] accendūtur, Simbolice enim ista fieri, nō lignis aut [...] bus, sed in honorem illorum opinandum est, quorum cum Christo requies: quorum honor adipsum recurrit, hoc ipsum testante sapiente Basilio, quod ergo conseruos bonos honor, erga ipsum dominum, commune [...] signum exhibet. Sensibilia enim lumina [...] sunt, immateriales illius [...] a deo datiluminis, Aromatum autem incensio, sincerum & totum sancti spiritus afflatum in replitionem significat. That is to saye.

Let it offende no man that before the yma­ges of Sainctes, Candels and [...] sauou­tyng encence are brent. For we must thynke that these thynges are done mysticallye, not vnto the very wode or stones, but in and for the honoure of thē whose reste is with Christ, the honoure of whiche sainctes repaireth or commeth agayne vnto Christe, the sage Ba­syll testifiynge the same, and saying, that the honour done to oure fellowe seruaunces be­ing good doth geue or exhibit a common [...] or signe of beneuolence to oure Lorde, or maister hym selfe. For the sensible lyghtes or candels, are a sygne of that pure and imma­terial lyght geuen of God. And the burnynge of frankencense, dothe sygnifye the pure and the ful or hole inspiration, and [...] of the holye ghost.

[Page]There was also in the saide assemble or counsayle, an other testimonye or sayinge of the sayde patryarche Germanus, and that is thys. Deūsepe [...] designasse mi racula hominibus qui admonitione imaginum argente ergadeum & sanctos eius affectu commoti fuerint. That is to say. God oftenty­mes [...] haue wrought or shewed wonderfull myracles to men, who, by the contemplation of Images, haue, with an ardent affectyon, or loue to God and hys saintes, bene moued. and styrred. And the sayde patryarche Germanus amongest very many myracles there by hym recyted both saye. yt in the ecclesiasticall hystorye of Eusebyus it is wrytten howe that in the [...] Panneada (called in the Gospell Cesarea Philyppi) before the doore of that woman which had the bloudye [...]. & was cured thereof by touchyng the hem of our sauiours garmet (as Marke in hys. v. chap. wytnesseth) there was an ymage of brasse erected, which was made according to the fourme and shape of Chryst, wearynge a longe garment, and that before the same ymage was sette direct ye the ymage of the sayde womā knelynge de­uoutely and humblye holdynge vp her handes to the sayd ymage of Chryst, and that at the fete of Chryst­es ymage a certen vnknowen herbe & of a straunge forme dyd growe, and that euer as it came in grow­ing to touche the hem of the sayde longe garmente of Chryst, then had it the power and vertue to cure and remedy all maner of diseases. Further the fathers at the sayde seuenth counsayle assembled, doo in the ac­tes and recordes of the sayde counsayle testify and re [Page] corde that thys matter of ymages was entreated of and debated in the syxt generall counsayle, kepte, and holden at Constantinople, declarynge howe that in the sayde syxt generall counsayle, it was defyned and determined that it was a chrysten vsage to haue the Image of the crucifixe, to the intente that hereby we shoulde be broughte in remembraunce of Chryste, whych toke awaye the synnes of the worlde, And at length the sayde seuenthe generall counsayle, conclu­dyng doth saye, that the honour and reuerence geuen to Images is not that kynde of honoure which is cal led Latria. That is to saye. Godes honoure. whyche onely is due to God, and muste of vs creatures be ge­uen to none other, but onelye to our creature, but it is another kynde of honoure done in remembraunce of theyr vertues, godlynes, and conuersation, and for other godlye respectes before expressed. And thys de­termination as concernyng Images, wyth all other thynges then and there agreed vpon, was of all and euery of the Patryarches, and catholyke byshoppes then and there beynge, aswell of the Greke, as of the Latyne Churche (beynge in all aboue three C. Bys­shoppes, besydes other degrees of the clergye) wyth an vniforme consent well allowed gladelye receyued, and earnestly and obedientlye obserued. [...] these premysses duely consydered and wayed, al men oughte to conforme them selues, to the vse of the Ca­tholyke Churche herein, and to folowe the rule and counsayle of Saynte Paule in hys thyrde chapyter of hys epystle to the Collossenses, where he sayeth thus. Omne [...] facit is in uerbo aut in opere: [...] in nomine domini [...] stri [...] Christi, gratias agentes deo & patriper ipsum. That is [Page] to saye: Euerye thynge whatsoeuer ye doo in worde or in dede, do ye all thynges in ye name of oure Lorde Iesus Chryste, gyuynge than­kes to GOD and the rather by or throughe Chryste. Whiche rule who that foloweth in the vse of these Images (as the hole Catholyke Churche, heretofore hath, and no we doth) can not iustlye, nor ought not to be reprehēded or misliked, nor rekoned to haue don a mysse, or to breake thys seconde commaū ­dement. For by the very wordes therein conteyned, we be not forbydden to make or to haue similytudes or Images, but onelye we be forbydden to make [...] to haue them to the intente to gyue Goddes honoure vnto them, or to take them as Godes, as it appeareth in the. xxvi. Chapyter of Leuiticus.

And therefore although Images of Chryste and hys saynctes be the workes of mennes handes: yet they be not so prohibited, but that they may be hadde and sette vp bothe in churches, and in other places to the intente, that we, in beholdyng and lokynge vpon them as in certayne bokes and signes, maye call to remembraunce, the manifolde examples of vertues whyche were in the sainctes, whome they doo repre­sent: And so we maye the rather be prouoked, kynde­led, & stirred, to yelde thankes to oure lord & to prayse hym & his said [...] and to remember and lament our synnes and offences, and to praye God, that we maye haue grace to followe theyr goodnes and holye lyuyng. [...] for an example, the ymage of oure sauiour hangeth on ye Crosse of the rode, or in paynted clothes, [Page] walles or wyndowes, as an open booke, to the in­tent that besydes the exāples of vertues, whyche we maye learne at Chryst, we may be also manye wayes prouoked to remembre hys paynefull and cruell pas­sion, and also to cōsyder oure selfes, when we beholde the same ymage, and to [...] and abhore oure fynne, whych was the cause of hys cruell deathe.

And furthermore consyderyng what hygh benefytes we receyue by hys redemption, we maye be prouo­ked in all oure distresses and troubles, to runne for comforte vnto hym. All these lessons wyth many mo, be brought to oure remembrauuce by the boke of the [...], yf we beyng fyrst well enstructed and taughte what is represented and mente thereby, do diligently beholde and loke vpon it. And as our sauiour Chryste is represented by thys ymage of the rode, euen so the holy sayntes, whych folowed hym be represented vn­to vs by theyr ymages, and therefore the sayde yma­ges maye well be set vp in churches, to be as bookes for vnlearned people, to put them in remembraunce of those sayntes, of whome they maye learne exam­ples of fayth, humilitie, charytie, pacyence, temperāce and of all other theyr vertuus and gyftes of GOD, whych were in theym. For whyche causes, ymages maye be set in the churche, and oughte not to be des­pised, but to be vsed reuerentlye, althoughe we be for­bydden to geue goodes hououre vnto theym. These lessones should be taught by euery curate to theyr pa­rysheners. And where as we vse to sense the sayde Images, and to knele before theym, and to crepe to the Crosse. wyth suche other thynges: [...] muste [Page] knowe and vnderstande that suche thynges be not, nor ought to be done to the ymage it selfe, but to God & in his honor, although it be done afore the ymage whether it be of Chryst, of the Crosse or of our Ladye or of anye other Saynte. Agayne thys commaunde­ment dyd offende generally before the commynge of Chryste, al gentylles, and people that were not of the nation of Israell, For they dyd geue goddes honoure vnto Idolles, and worshypped false godes some one some another, of the whyche forte there was a greate number. For besydes theyr common goodes, euerye countrye euery cytye or towne, euerye house and fa­milye, had theyr prayer and peculyer gooddes, where of is much mention made in authors, both Chrysten and heathen. And these gentilles thoughe they hadde knowledge of a very god, yet (as saynct Paule sayth Rom. [...]) they had [...] and vayne fantasyes, whyche led them from the truthe, & caused theym where they coūted thē selues wyse, to become foles. And agaynst thys cōmaundement offended the Iewes also manye and sondry tymes, yea almost [...]. For not­wythstandynge, that they professed the knowledge, and worshyppyng of the very true god, yet they fell to the adoration of Idoles, and false goddes, as the holye Scripture maketh, mencion in many places. And here we make an [...] touchynge. thys seconde commaun­dement.

[...] or declaration of the thyrde Commaundemente, whyche is.

‘Thou shalte not take the name of thy Lorde God in vayne.’

FOr the better and more [...] vnder standinge of thys commaundemente, you shall briefelye call to your remem braunce, that as in the fyrst cōmaun­demente there was a prohybytion to haue straunge Goddes, and therin implyed that we must haue one God onelye. And as in the seconde commaundemente there is a prohibiti­on to make to the anye [...] thynge. &c. to adore or honoure it wyth gods honoure, and therein implyed that we muste adore and honoure God onelye, wyth hys due and peculyer honoure. So lykewyse in thys commaundement beynge also a negatyue, there is a prohibition to take the name of thy Lorde GOD in vayne, and therein is imployed thys affyrmatiue that we must take and vse the name of God ryghtely, and reuetently. And hereby appeareth howe one of these commaundementes dothe depende vpon another, in verye good order. As fyrste to haue one God onelye, the seconde to geue vnto hym hys due honoure, and the thyrde to vse hys name wyth reuerence.

And here you shall learne that albeit the [...] of God, beynge of itselfe fully perfecte and mooste holy cannot, in it selfe, eyther receyue increase of honoure, and sanctification, or decrease and diminutyon of the [Page] same, yet concernynge the vse, and abuse of it, amon­gest men, it maye be taken and coūted on the one side for sanctifyed and honoured as beynge well vsed.

And on the other syde for polluted and dyshonoured as abused, and not well handled. And here shall you note, that the p ythe and [...] effecte of this cōmaū ­demente doth consyst in thys, that we must ryghtlye vse the name of GOD, and in no wyse abuse it, and ryghtlye we [...] and doo vse it, and [...], it by nyne specyall sortes and meanes, amongest other.

Fyrst by confessyng openlye the name of God, and of oure Sauyoure Iesu Chryste, openynge and expres­synge, by our mouth, the sayth of Chryst before all mē of what sorte, state, or condityou they be, when the case so requirethe, and not to cease [...] of the same, for any pleasure or paine that maye grow and be geuen to vs, or inflicted by them. Of whyche sorte and maner, our sauioure Chrysts in the [...] chapi­ter of S, Mathewe, doth speake saying. [...] me coram hominibus, [...] & ego eum coram, patre [...] qui in [...] est saying also in the, [...], of Luke. Qui me [...] & meos sermones, hunc filius hominicis erubescet, cum uenerit in maiestate [...] & patris, & sanctorum angelorum, And Saynt Paule also in the, x. chapter to the Romaynes [...]. Corde [...] ad iustitiam, ore dutem consessiofit ad salutem: The Englishe of these three sentences is thys: Euerye [...] that wyll confesse or acknowledge me before men, I also wyll confesse, and acknowledge him be­fore my father whiche is in heauen, And who is ashamed of me, or wyll not acknowledge [Page] me, and my sayinges, hym also the sonne of man, when he shall come in hys maiesty, and in the maiestye or presence of hys father, and of the holy aungelles, shalbe ashamed of, and not acknowledge. By hearte or mynde one doth in dede beleue to iustice, but by ye mouth confession is made to health or saluation.

Accordyng where vnto the prophets Dauyd sayeth. Confitemini domino & inuocate nomen eius, [...] gentes [...]. psal. ciiii. That is to say. Do you make or gyue conseffion or prayse to oure Lorde, and call vppon hys name, doe you shewe or declare a­monges the gentyles or people hys workes.

The seconde sorte and maner of ryght vsynge, and [...] the name of God, is not onely wyth out [...] but also wyth our mouth to prayse God, and gloryfie hym at al tymes, bothe in prosperitie and in [...] saying with the Prophete Dauyd in hys. xxxiii, psalme. Benedicam dominum in omni tempore semper laus [...] inore meo. That is to say. I wyll blesse oure lorde, at all tymes hys prayse shalbe alwayes in my mouth. And agayne the same prophete in the, C. ii. Psalme doth saye. Benedic anima me a domino, & noli [...] &c. That is to saye. O (my soule) do thou blesse oure Lorde, and doo thou not forget al hys gyftes or rewardes &c.

Not disagreynge wyth the sayinge of [...] hys se­conde [Page] chapiter. Sibona [...] de manu domini mala autem quare non suscipiamus. That is to saye. Yf we haue receyued good thynges at the hande of oure Lorde, why shoulde wee not also take aduersities or affliction? And of thys seconde sorte or kynde, saynt Paule in the. x. Chapyter of hys fyrste epystle to the Corinthians, doth wryte thus Omnia in gloriam dei facite, That is to saye. Doo you all thynges vnto the glorye or praise of God.

The thyrde sorte and maner of ryghte vsynge and takynge the name of God, is when his holy wordes, are truely set fourth both pryuately and openly. Pri­uatelye I saye, when the father teacheth his chyldren the mayster his seruauntes, the scholemayster his sco lers, and euery one hauynge gouernaunce, dothe in­structe them of whome he hath gouernaunce, aswell howe to beieue the articles of their crede, & to knowe and kepe the commaundementes of God, (fliynge from all synnes) as howe also to praye for grace, and to leade a godlye and a Chrysten lyfe. And openlye I saye, when the true ministers of Goddes worde doo preache and declare it syncerelye, and [...], to the edifyenge of the people, in fayth, hope, and charitie, so that the glorye of God, and the verytye of hys worde maye be lyuely and frutefullye set forthe to the people After whych sorte Chryste dydde saying, (Ioannis. 17) I haue claryfied or glorified thee (O father) vpon the earth, And shortly after agayne, sayinge in the sayde chapter. I haue made open, or decla [Page] red thy name vnto men, &c. And after the lyke sorte Saint Paule dyd sanctify the name of Chryste, (Chryste so testifyeng and bearyng wytnesse of him) Actuum. ix. where he sayeth. Vas electionis est mihi ut portet nomen meum coram gentibus, & regibus, & filijs Israel. That is to say.

He (meanynge and speakyng of Paule) is vnto me a vessell of election, or choyse to carye or beare my name before the Gentyles, and kynges, & chyldren of Israell.

The fourth sorte or maner of ryght vsyng and ta­kynge of the name of God, is by adoration, and wor­shyppynge, or honourynge it, not onelye by inwarde, and mentall but also by outewarde and external ado ration. And of this sorte and maner, S. Paule in the seconde chapyter of his Epistle to the Phylypyans, doth meane sayinge. Dedit illi nomen quod est supra omne nomen, [...] in nomine [...] omne genu flectatur, [...], terrestrium, et infernorū That is to saye. God hath gyuen to hym (mea nynge Christe) a name, whiche is aboue all na­mes, that in the name of hym, euery kne may be bowed, of the celestiall, of the terrestial, and of the infernall.

The. v. sorte or maner of the ryghte vsynge, and takynge of the name of God, is by inuocation. And of [...] kynde or sorte, you haue manye tymes menty­on made in Scripture, bothe in the olde Testamente and also in the newe, amongeste other. ii. Regum. xxii. ye haue Laudabilem inuocabo dominum, & ab inim icis [...] saluus ero and there also ye haue. In tribulatione mea [...] dominū, & ad [...] clamabo, & exaudiet de templo sancto suo uocem meam. [Page] That is to saye. I wyll call vpon oure praysea­ble, or laudable Lorde, and I shal be safe from myne enemyes. I wyll inuocate, or call vpon our Lorde in my tribulation, and I wyll crie to my God, and he wyll heare my voice from his holy temple. Like wyse is it wrytten Psal. 4 7. Et inuoca me in dietribulationis, eruam te, & honorificabis me. That is to saye: And do thou call vpon me in the daye of tribulation I wyl deliuer the, & thou shalte honor me. And concerninge the newe testament, ye haue. Joh. vi. Amen amen dico uobis si quid petieritis patrem in nomi­ne [...], dabis uobis. us (que) [...] non petistis quic (que), petite & accipietis.

That is to saye. Uerely verely I saye vnto you, if ye will aske my father anye thinge in my name, he wil geue it you, hitherto ye haue not asked any thinge, aske, and ye shall receaue.

Lykewyse ye haue John. xiii. Si quid petieritis me in nomine meo, dabo uobis. That is to saye. Yf ye aske me any thing in my name, I wil geue it you: And here for the true vnderstanding of this worde inuocation, I would ye dyd marke that this laten worde, Inuocare, yf it be taken properlye, and in his strayght sygnifica­tion, then it is asmuch to saye, as to call vpon one, as ye cheife and principal author of helth, saluation (& com­forte and by whome, ye of his owne vertue, & power, one doth receaue comforte succour & help. And ye word inuocatiō, cōming thereof, & being so takē & cōsidered there ought no inuocatiō after ye sort, to be made vnto [Page] sauynge to god alone: For he it is (as saynt James in hys epystle & first chapiter doth testifie) from wheme. Omne datum optimum, & omne donum persectum. doth come. And thys is proued by the. xix. and the. xxii. of [...] Apoca­lypse, and by the tenth and xiiii. chapyter of the actes. In dede god maye and oughte after thys sorte, and in thys consideration be inuocated and called vpon as the aucthor of al our health, saluation, and comfort as oure onely refuge, and strength, as oure onely hel­per, and socourer in tribulatiōs, and aduersities, who alone, by his owne vertue and power, and none soo besyde hym, canne saue, and protecte vs, whoe cane kyll, and yet cause to lyue, whoe canue smyte, and yet can heale, of whome the holy man Job writethe thus in hys fyrste Chapyter. Dominus dedit, dominus abstulit, sicut do­mino placuit, ita factum est, sit nomen domini benedictnm. That is to saye: GOD hath gyuen, and God hath ta­ken away, as it hath pleased GOD, so is it done, the name of oure Lorde let it be blessed. But yf thys worde inuocare, be taken largelye and oute of his proper sygnyfycatyon, then dothe it sygnyfye to make intercessyon or prayer to one, and humbly to cal for helpe vnto hym, as in anye wyse he canne, by anye manner of meanes, by hymselfe, or otherwyse helpe: and after thys sorte and consyderatyon, we wythout anye offence, maye make inuocation to other then to GOD, as bothe to hys saynctes in Heauen, and also to his reasonable creatures, beyng here memberes of hys [...] church, in earthe, as The [...], vpon ye xv. chapyter of Saynte Mathew dothe playnely de­clare, [Page] and saynte Augustyne in his boke De cura [...] es gerenda besides many other. The syxte sorte or kynde of ryghte vsynge and taking the name of God, is by ye vertue and power thereof, to exorcise & cast out deuils and wycked spyrtes, and also to shewe and set forth by the sayde power, and vertue, miracles & wonders. And of thys kynde or sorte there is mention made Marci. 16. where it is sayde. In nomine meo demonia eijcient, lin­guis loquentur nouis, serpentes tollent, & [...] quid biberint non eis nocebit, super aegros manis imponent et bene [...]. That is to saye. They (meanynge hys dyscyples) shal in my name caste furth deuils, they shall speak with newe tounges, they shal put or take away ser pentes, and yf they haue dronken anye dead­ly, or daungerous thing, it shal not hurt them they shall laye their handes vpon the sicke, and they shall be well.

The seuenthe sorte or kynd of the ryght vsyng and ta kinge of the name of God, is by the vertue and power thereof, to sanctyfye or blesse creatures. And of thys Saynte Paule in the fourthe Chapyter of hys fyrste epystle to Tymothye, dothe wrytte sayinge, Omnes creatura dei [...] per [...] bum et [...]. That is to saye. Euery creature of god is [...], or blessed by the word of God, and by prayer. The eyght sorte or kynde of the sayde [...] and takynge, is by dewe [...] of thankes. And of thys kynde or sorte Saynte Paule in the thyrde chapyter of hys Epystle to the [...] wryteth thus. Omne quodcun (que) facitis in [Page] [...] in opere, omnia in nomine domini nostri Iesu Christi facite gratias agentes deo, et patri per ipsum. That is to saye: All thing whatsoeuer ye doo in woorde or in dede, all thinges doo youe in the name of oure Lorde Iesus Christe geuinge thankes to God, and to the father by hym.

The nynthe or last sorte of the right vsing and ta­kynge of the name of God, is whan we beynge con­strayned (and especiallye whan we be put thereto by a magystrate, or offycer, hauinge [...] in aucthoritie) do swere by the name of God (makynge him by oure so doinge, witnesse of the thing [...] we do swere) the necessitie or weyghtynesse of the cause, requiring the same. And this our othe, besydes iudgement, must haue euer concurryng and annexed wt it (as god hym selfe by his prophet Ieremye doth testify & cōmaund) veritye and iustyce. For in the, iiii. chap of Ieremy it in wrytten thus, Et iurabis, Viuit dominus, in ueritate, in iudicio & iustitia, That is to saye: And thou shalt swere, oure Lorde lyueth, in trueth, in iudgement, and in iustyce. Whereby appeareth, that the first consydera tion of our othe muste be the Trueth, whych ought to be the cheife cause, and [...] foundation of our othe, that by such our othe taken, vntruthe (whyche is the worke of the deuyll) maye be destroyed, & the truth be broughte to lyghte, and opened. The seconde conside­ration in an othe is tl, at it be geuen in iudgemēt, and whan I doo say in iudgement, I do not only meane how yt it is sometymes, and many tymes geuē before a iudge, but also I do meane yt when and whersoeuer [Page] an othe is gyuen, the sayde othe must be geuen with a greate dyscretyon and delyberation, that is to saye, whan we come to take our othe, we muste fyrste con­sider the trouths of the mater, and then cōsyder whe­ther the weightines or necessitie of the matter doo re­quyre an othe, with the due circūstaunce of the tyme, and of the place, and withall, whan we doo gyue an othe, to consider whether we be hable, lawefullye to performe it or no, not omyttynge to consider, whether anye vncharytable or partiall affection, prouoke and induce vs thervnto. The thyrde consyderatyon to be had in an othe, is that we swere not but for Iustice sake. Equytye, honesty, and Ryghtewysenes.

And he that duely vseth these three consyderations, whan [...] he for the infirmitie that is in an other man, is forced to vse godes name in testymonye of hys sayinge, or for charytyes sake, is requyred, or by lawefull aucthoritie of Magystrates is compelled or put to swere anye othe, eyther by the name of GOD or by hys holye Euangelies, &c. He shall not doo euill or synne in takynge, or gyuynge the sayde othe, either in matters of religion, or ells in other worldelye af­fayres. Forasmuch as by suche a nedefull othe, Truthe, Peax, Concorde, and Iustyce, are mayntey­ned, and doubtefulnes, or [...] is taken awaye, and dystroyed, vpon whiche condityons, the maner [...] swearynge, hathe bene allowed to chrysten men, & borne withall. And therefore thoughe in daylye or famylier communication, and speache oure Sauiour Christe woulde not haue othes frequented, whervpō saint Iames also in ye. v chapyter of his epistle sayeth. [Page] Nolite iurare omnino That is to saye. Swere not at all Yet in seriouse matter, and in thynges of importaūce an othe is by Scripture, allowed, to proue and make manyfeste, thynges, that nede the testimonye. Accor­dynge wherevnto Saint Paule in the syxte chapiter of his epistle to the Hebrues, dothe saye. Homines enim per maiorem sui iurant, et omnis [...] corāfinis, ad confirmationem est iuramentum, That is to saye. In dede men doo swere by theyr better, and the ende of al their contro uersye, to confyrmation is an othe. And the same Apostle hym selfe (Galathi. i) doth swere say ing Quae autem scribo uobis, ecce coram deo, quia nō mentior. That is to saye. The thynges whyche I doo wrytte vnto you beholde before God that I lye not. Agayne the same Apostle (ii. Cor. i) like wise swearing doth saye. Ego autem testem deum inuoco in animam mcam, &c. I indede do cal God vnto witnesse vpon my soule. &c. And agayne (ii. Corin. ii. he sayeth. Deus & [...] ter domini noster Iesu Christi (que est bene dictus in secula) scit quia nō men­tior, That is to saye. God the father of our Lorde Iesus Chryste (who is blessed for euer) dothe knowe that I lye not. And agayne he sayeth. Ro. i) Testis est mihi deus cui seruio in spiritu meo. God is a witnes vnto me, whom I doo serue in my spyryte.

Thus sommewhat by the waye we haue ope­ned after what sorte and for what consyderations an othe maye be taken by goddes name. And by the pre­mysses you maye vnderstand and perceyue generally [Page] howe the name of God maye ryghtlye be vsed and [...] ken. And albeit you maye thereby haue also a greate furtheraunce to knowe whan the name of GOD is abused or not ryghtly taken, accordynge to the rule of contratyes of which heretofore, hath bene spoken and shewed vnto you, yet neuerthelesse for the more euy­dente, and playne vnderstandynge hereof, ye shall knowe, that diuerse wayes one dothe abuse and vn­ryghtly take the name of God; and so doth trangresse this commaundement. And fyrst, all suche do it, who eyther with fayre wordes, and flattering intisements or for payne, tormente, or other meanes, beinge ouer­come do denye the true God or Chryste oure Lord, or hys true, holye, and catholyke faythe, vnto whome Christe in the tenthe of Mathewe, gyuyth thretning after this maner. Qui me [...] coram hominibus, negabo et ego [...] patre meo. That is to saye.

Who shal deny me before men, I wyll denye also hym before my father. And it shall not be ta­ken for a good excuse, yf they saye, that in harte they dyd not so denye, thoughe by mouthe or outward acte they dyd it so in dede, for wrytten it is (as before is sayde) Corde creditur ad iustitiam, ore dutem confessiofit ad salutem, [...] 10 And that vngodlye by saying. Iurata lingua est, animns iniuratus. That is to saye: My toung is sworne but my harte or mynde is vnsworne, is caste oute of doores and dyssalowed, abhorred, and reiec­ted, of all true and catholyke people. Soo that herein Salomon most greuouslye offended, who for ye sake, [Page] and loue of his wyfe dyd boylde a temple to the Idol Moab, and also to Moloche the Idoll of the [...] of Aminon. And secondly agaynst this commaunde­mente doo offend alsuch, as do beare, and wil haue ye name of Chrysten men, and yet in theyr manners, lyfe and conuersatyon, doo all thynges contrarye to a Chrysten mans professyon. For whych cause, as saynt Paule (Ro. 2) dothe saye, the name of God is blasphe­med amongeste the [...] for the Chrysten men, doo saye that they doo knowe God, aud yet in theyr doynges they doo denye hym (Tit. 1) [...] they transgresse thys commaundement, who [...] seke one ly theyr owne honoure, and glorye, in theyr doynges, and gyue not god the prayse, and honour, but ascribe onelye to them selues the goodnes, glorye, and wyse­dome. Of whome the Psalmistc in the. 48. Psalme sayeth. [...] nominasua in [...] suis, That is to saye.

They haue called or pute theyr owne names [...] their landes. Fourthly althey do breake this commaundement, that doo not thankefullye acknow ledge the goodnes, bountifulnes, and mercye of God, or call not vpon his name, as they oughte to do, bothe in prosperitie and aduersitie. Fyftely [...] such as throu ghe theyr unpacience do curse and [...] them selues or almyghty God which thynge speciallye amongest hasarders, and dyceplaers is frequented and vsed, Al suche the scryptur in the. 24. of Leuiticus, adiudgeth to death. Syxtely, all they that do vse to betake them selues to the diuii (as commonly dyuerse doo) in their talke, or doo wyshe vnto themselfe, a [...] at theyr harte, and that they neuer maye come in heauen, [Page] or other suche lyke terrible thynges, yf it be not soo or so as they saye, they doo greatlye abuse and mystake the name of God. Seuenthly all they whych do disho neste or dyshonor the name of God, eyther their owne selues doynge it, or elles not agayne sayinge and rebu kynge other the doers. The commen flatterers also whych frame theyr toungue to talke as lykethe theyr lordes and Maysters, thoughe it be in verye balsphe­my and horrible vyce. Preachers also, suche as onely be men pleaseres, and doo omytte to tell the people theyr faultes, such also as beyng not lawefully called and sent do thruste them selues in, to preach the word of God, yea and they whyche wraste and mangle the scrypture with vntrue and vncatholike expositions. They also that do deryde the holye mysteryes and sa­cramentes of Chryste. And briefely al they that ether doo thynke or teache otherwyse then the Catholyke churche (beynge decyued by succession from the Apo­stles vnto our tyme) hathe thoughte and taughte, or ells vnder the pretense of preachyng Goddes worde, do in theyr sermons and collations sowe dyssensyon, tumultes. and rebellion, especially agaynste theyr go­uernours, do greuously abuse the name of God, and therefore worthy of greate punyshmente. The like pu nishmeut or rather greater the periured persones are worthy to haue, and they also (moste offendynge and worthye muche punyshmente) who in theyr common take, by an vngodly vsage, and leude custome, doo at euery other worde swere, eyther by god or his deathe or other such lyke greatly blaspheming ye name of god And who so lyst to haue this matter of swering fulli & lernedly [Page] examined, dyscussed, and declared, Lette hym repare to the chapyter, Et si Christus de iureiurando, & ther at length he shall fynde howe the sayinge of Chryste, Mathew v and the saying of Saynt Iames cap. v. wyth other places, that seme to forbydde swearinge, maye stande with other places of Scrpture, that do suffer and al­lowe the gyuynge of othes.

They (fynallye do offend) and that very greuouse lye agaynste thys commaundemente, who do breake theyr vowes made to almyghty God. For it is wryt­ten in the xxiii. chapyter of Deuternomye after thys maner. Whan thou haste made a vowe vnto thy lorde God, thou shalte not slacke or make delaye to perfourme or paye it. And in the fyfte of Ecclesiasticus, it is wrytten thus. Multo melius est non uo­uere, quam post autem promissa non reddere. That is to say.

It is great deale better not to make a vowe then after the vowe made, not to accomplishe or do the thynges promysed. And because amon­gest other thynges whych christen men doo vowe to God, one is chastitie, you shall knowe, concernynge the same, that from the very beginnynge of Christes churche, suche kynd of vowe was taken, iudged, and estemed for lawefull, honest, and godly, and that not onelye by the determination of man but cheifely also by the determination of our Sauyoure Chryste hym selfe, as appeareth in the .xix. chapyter of Saynte Mathewe. And therfore they whyche of late con­trary to theyr vowes dyd take women vnto them, vnder the name, and coloure of Matrymonye, haue [Page] greuously, [...], offended almyghtye God as appearethe. i. Tymoth. v. where it is written. Adolos centiores autem uiduas deuitd, cum [...] in Christo nube­re [...], [...] damnationem, [...] primam fidem [...] secerunt.

That is o saye: The younger wydowes doo thou refuse, for when they haue played the harlottes, agaynste Chyste, they wyll then marrye, hauynge damnatyon, because they haue frustrated or broken theyr fyrste faythe or promyse. And here to conclude vpon thys com­maundemente ye shall note that the Hebrues, or Ie­wes, to expresse, and signifye, the ineffable, and won­derfull maiestie of GOD, and his mooste hygh, and euerlastynge domination, and power, do vse, & gyue dyuerse names therevnto, with whyche beyng tran­slated into Englyshe, we do vse to name, and cal God sometymes saying, the God of vertues, sometymes ye Lorde of hostes, sometymes almyghtye, sometymes the maker of heauen and earth, sometymes the kynge of glorye, sometymes the kynge of kynges, somtymes the Lord of Lordes &c. Of whose maie­stie both heauen and earth also are fullye replenysshed.

¶ Therposicition or declaration of the fourth Commaundement which is.

‘Remember that thou kepe holy ye sabbot day’

FOr the better and more manyfest vn­derstandynge of thys commaunde­ment, ye shall knowe that thys word Sabbotte, vsed in the Englyshe toungue, beinge referred to the inter­pretation or vnderstandinge and cō mon vsage of the Hebrues, or Iewes, dothe sygnyfye reste vpon the seuenth daye, whyche we call Satur daye, and [...]: Is to take reste vppon the sayde seuenth daye, in whyche seuenth daye both they theyr chyldren, there seruauntes, and beastes, dyd take reste, and [...], from all bodelye sernyle la­boure, that they were wonte to do. Thys rest & quiet nes, with the sayde Hebrues, or Iewes, was but the rest of the body, insomuch that yf an Hebreue or Iew dyd neuer so muche occupye, or exercyse his mynde in carynge, or thinkynge vpon worldely busynes, yet yf he dyd not there with exercyse and occupye hys body with all, he was accompted to kepe the letter of thys commaundement. But wyth vs chrysten men, there is requyred a greater perfection in thys behalfe, for we muste besydes the due obsering of the sabbote in abstainyng our selues from bodily laboure, haue also oure myndes quiet and free from all suche cares and gyue our sayde myndes intierly and holy vnto god, & the contemplation of godlye thynges, not onelye pry­natelye [Page] with oure selues, but also publykelye, [...] duely to the churche, and beynge godlie assem­bled with other, there to heare the deuyne seruyce, approued, vsed, and obserued in the catholyke church and withall to geue good eare to the word of GOD beyng there preached, and to gyue thankes vnto god for hys greate benefyttes, whyche to receyue we are mooste vnworthy, consyderynge our noughty liuing and the abusynge of his sayde benefyttes. And as in ye churches we muste in the tyme of dyuyne seruyce on the sabbothe daye thus occupy oure selues deuoutlye, So in all other places, durynge the tyme of the sayde sabbothe day, we absteining from bodely labour, and other oure [...] elye busynes, by lawe not allowed, muste occupye our selues in thought, worde & in dede as maye be to the glorye of God, with the spyrytuall edifyinge bothe of our selues, and also of oure neygh­bours. And emongest other thynges vpon the sayde sabbotte daye we muste visite the sycke persones, and shewe and doo the workes of mercye to them & other, both bodely, and ghostly, euery one instructynge and teachynge his chyldren, seruaunts, and famyly in ver tue, and goodes. And albeit thys commauddemente when it was fyrste gyuen to the Iewes, dyd fyrste bynde them, and theyr successoures, to kepe holye the Saturday, beyng then taken and accepted for theyr Sabotte daye, yet to vs chrysten men the Sondaye is oure Sabbote daye, called in latten Dominica dies, and so termed and named by Saynte Ihon, in the fyrste chapyter of his Apocalypse, or reuelatyon, wher he sayeth. [...] in [...], que appellatur [...], [...] uerbum dei & [...] Iesu, fui in spiritu in dominica die, &c, That is to saye.

[Page]I was in an Ilande, whiche is called Pathe mos, for the word of God, and the testimony of Iesus Christ, I was in spirite on the sonne day, or the daie of our Lorde,

Of thys Sondaye, or daye of our Lorde, Saint Au gustyue in his. 251. Sermon, maketh a verye notable and godly processe, as well concernynge the ryght vse of it, as also of the altering of the sabbotte daye, as it was vsed amongest the Iewes, vpon the Saturday to the vse and kepyng of it vpon the Sonnedaye, as emogest the chrysten people it is obserued and kepte, And he the sayd Saynt Augustyne, speakyng in his sayde sermon vnto the people sayeth thus.

Sciendum est fratris charissmi, &c. Whyche his sermon ther (to auoyde superfluitie, and tediousnes here, in fyrste re­hersynge the Latyn, and then afterwardes puttinge there vnto the Englyshe) we wyll onelye Englyshe, & faythfully translate here vnto you, and moste worthy it is to be harde and learned. And it is this.

Most derely beloued brethern, it is to be knowen that therefore, of our holye fathers, it is ordened and commaunded to chrysten men, that in the solempny­ties of Saynctes, and moste especiallye on the Son­dayes, the sayde chrysten men shoulde take reste and cease from earthlye busynes, that they myghte be the more redyer, and prompter, to the dyuyne seruyce, as not hauynge anye impediment, or incommodytye whych myght staye, or withdrawe them from it, and myght leaue or forsake, at that tyme, earthlye care or thought, to the intente that more easely they myghte take [...] vnto or consyder, the wyll of God, of which [Page] thynge oure lorde hymselfe by hys prophet. Psalmo. 45 dothe saye. Be you styll or quyet, and do you consyder or see that I am GOD. But they who beyng entangled with diuerse cares, and busy­nesses, doo dyspyse thys sentence, or sayinge of God, and wyll not gyue, or aplye them selues, to dyuyne contemplation, I feare me, that in the iudgmente to come when they shall knocke at the gate of our lorde and requyre to be opened, our Lord will aunswere, and saye, verelye I saye vnto you, I knowe you not departe from me al you that do worke iniquitie.

And suche as nowe do neglecte to seke God, are thē of hym to be refused. Therefore my brethren, let it not be paynefull, or greuouse vnto you, vpon the Sondayes, and vpon the festyuall dayes of the Sayntes, to gyue youre studye vnto the deuyne ser­uyce. The apostles in dede, and the apostolicall men, dyd therefore decree, or determyne, the sondaye to be kept, wyth deuout solempnitie, for that oure redemer dyd vpon that daye, ryse frome the deade. And that day therefore, is called in Latyn. Dominicus. That is to saye. The daye of our Lorde. That in it we ab­steyning from earthely workes, and the enticemētes or flatterynge pleasures of the world, may bende our selues to diuine seruyces onely, giuing I saye to thys daye honoure, and [...], for the hope of oure resurrectyon, whyche we haue in, or by it. For lyke as he (our Lorde Iesus Chryste and sauyoure) dyd ryse from the deade, soo also we doo truste our selues to ryse at the laste daye. And moreouer it appearethe [Page] euen in the holye Scryptures, thys daye to be [...], or highe, for it is the fyrste daye of the worlde In it the elementes of the worlde were made, in it, Aungeles were created, In it also Chryste dyd ryse from the deade. [...] it, the holye Ghoste dyd from the heauens descend vpon the apostles, and Manna, also in the wyldernes was from heauen fyrste gyuen in it: And by these figures and such lyke tokens thys daye of oure Lorde (called Sondaye) is notable. And therefore the holye doctoures of the Church haue de­creed, or determyned, to translate, or brynge all the glory of the iudaicall Sabbote (kept on the sature­daye) into the sayde sonday, that we myght celebrate in the veritie, or truthe, that whyche they dyd kepe in fygure, for then shalbe our true rest, when the resur­rection shall be done, and perfecte rewarde, in bodye and soule together: therefore (brethren) lette vs ob­serue, or kepe the sondaye or daye of our Lorde, and let vs sanctifye it, as it was commaunded vnto thē of the olde tyme concernynge the Sabbot, the lawe maker saying (Exodi. 20) From euenyng to eue­nynge you shall celebrate youre Sabbottes. Let vs marke, or see, that oure reste by not vayne, or frutlesse, but that we, beinge fequestred, or separated frome all rurall workes, and frome all busy­nes, doo from the euenynge of the Saturdaye, vntill the eueninge of the Sondaye, gyue our selues to dy­uyne seruyce onelye, and after such sorte we do duly or well satysfye the Sabbote of oure Lorde. Oure [Page] lorde saying. Ye shall do no worke in it. There­fore let euery one to whome it is possible, come to the euensonge, and noctunall seruyce, and let hym there in the assemblye of the churche, praye to God, for hys synnes, and he that canne not thys do, let hym at the leaste, praye in hys house, and let hym not neglecte, to perfourme hys vow, and to yelde the dew or taske of hys seruyce vnto God. And in the daye lette none separate, or absente, hymselfe, from the holy celebrati­on of Masses, nor let any remayne idle at home, whē other doo go to the churches, nor occupye [...] in huntynge, and be bounden or thrall to a [...] she offyce, wanderynge or goyng about the fylde & wod­des, lyftynge vp, or exalting wyth hys mouth, crieng or shotynge, and [...] loude laughynge, and not vtterynge, from [...] bottome of his harte vnto God sighinge, and wordes of prayer. Moreouer yet some (whych is more detestable) comminge to the churche doo not occupye or gyue them selues to contynuall prayer nor wyth silence do tary out the holye celebra tion of Masses, but whyle dyuyne lessones are redde within the churche, they than withoute doo applye, or set theyr myndes, to pleade causes, or with sondrye false accusatyōs, or sclaunderes to pycke quareles, or forsoth at the dice, or vnprofytable games, or sportes to sweare lustlye.

And some tymes also (which yet is worse) wyth ouermuch wrath are set on fyre, & most bytterly doo chide, or braule, insomuch yt they assault, or lay at one [Page] an other with weapōs, or clubbes: And often tymes doo commytte murther. And thys thing is moste of all, commytted or done of those, who beyng repleny­shed with enuy, and hatred, (the [...] beyng there guyde) do goo to the assembly of the churche not for to helpe thē selues but to hurte, or endamage other. Suche in dede, yf they by murder ther do peryshe, or be taken awaye by sodayne deathe, whyther do they goo els, but with hym, whose stepes they haue folow ed, into euerlastyng tormentes. Do ye not these thyn­ges my brether, doo not deceiue youre selues, do not in youre assembly or commyng together, gyue place vnto the deuyll, but rathere prepare youre selues to be a ledginge, or dwellynge place, to Chryste, do not you therefore gyue youre selues wythout the church to [...], but wtin it geue your selues to psalmody. & prayers. Doo not bable, or talke to gither in ye chur­che, but be ye styll, or quyet, for there are verye manye and speciallye many women, which doo so chatte, in the churche, and doo so bable, that neyther they them selues, doo heare the dyuyne lessones, or seruyce, nor yet suffer other to heare. Ought such commyng toge­ther, with such an order be in the house of God. Or is it so decente to stande, or be present in the syghte of God, and holye Aungeles. Besydes thys also (whych is greatly to be lamented) I wyl with you cōplayne that there are some, and specially the great, or mygh­ty men, of thys worlde. Who whan they come to the churche, they are not deuoute, or gyuen to celebrate the prayses of God, but constraine the preyst to make shorte the masse, and to synge accordynge to theyr [Page] luste or pleasure, neyther can he followe the ecclesy­asticall maner or trade, for theyr glotteny, and coue­tuousnes that one moment of the daye myght vnto the seruyce of God, and al the reste of the daye, wyth the nyght, be appoynted, to theyr pleasures. Doo not these thinges my most derely beloued bretherē do not consente to the doers of the same, for not ouelye they that do these thynges, but they also whych consent to the doers shall peryshe. Wherefore aboue all other thynges, Do you not vpon the festiuall dayes pleade nor here causes, but at an other tyme, and that wyth iustyce, nor do you not wyth receyuyng gyftes sub­uerte iuste iudgementes, for accordyng vnto ye saying of our lorde with what iudgmēt ye shall iudge other, shalbe iudged of you. Let none of you drynke hym selfe drounkē, for ye dronkard is most lyke to the mad man: do you not by drinkyng among men put youre names out of heauen. There are verylye many (whych is worse) who not onelye doo drynke them selues dronke, but also constrayne and adiure other to drynke more than is expediente: and thereof manye tymes emongest them doo ryse, brawlynges, and manslaughter.

Doo you not consyder, brethren, whose wyll these men herein do folowe, for dronkardes and manquel lers (sayeth the apostle in the fyrste epystle to the Co­rinthians the sirt chapiter) shall not possesse ye kynge­dome of heauen. I beseche you moste derelye beloued fathers, and Mothers, Brethren, and Systeres, by the name of oure Lorde Iesus Chryste, and by hys [Page] kingdome and iudgemente to come, that you wyll withdrawe yourselues, from euerye man walkynge mordinatelye, and that you walke worthy of the vo­cation, with which you are called, and that you neg lecte not your honor, nor litle esteme the redemptyon whych is in Chryste Iesus. Ye are called the children of God, because the true sonne of God, hath delyue­red you. Study you to please, with good maner, soo great, or myghtye aparent: that he doo not delyuer you, as moste wicked seruauntes, to perpetual payne but as moste derely beloued chyldren, do brynge you to the heauenlye countrye aboue, that ye may be co­heritours with his sonne Iesus Chryst, wyth whom he lyueth, and reigneth God, in the [...] of ye holye Ghoste, for euer and euer. Amen.

Nowe leauynge here Saynt Augustyne (who of trouth in thys matter, doth, almost twelue hundreth yeare ago, speake of suche sorte, that he maye be sene eyther to haue had as noughtye ordered persones in hys tyme, as we haue nowe in our dayes, eyther ells by spyryte of prophecye, to haue sene oure tymes and doynges. Let vs retourne agayne to oure processe, and let vs, by scrypture, declare howe the. vii. daye of the weke is peculyar, and specially appoynted vnto rest, & therefore called the Sabbote: for profe wher­of ye shall fyrste haue the seconde chapyter of [...] where it is euident, that God dyd blysse the seuenth daye, and sanctyfye it. Secondlye ye shall haue for thys purpose the. xvi. chapyter of Exodus where we doorede that the rest or quyetnes of oure Sabbotte is sanctyfyed vnto God, and lykewyse in the. xxiii. of [Page] the same boke, where it is commaunded, that on the seuenth daye, both the Oxe, and the Asse, shall cease from worke, and the sonne of the bonde mayde, and the straunger, muste be refresshed. And also of thys we haue in the. xxxi. chapyter of the same boke where almyghtye God dyd by Moyses gyue commaunde­ment, to the chyldren of Israell to kepe the sabbotte and that so strayghtly, that he commaunded ye [...] thereof to be put to deathe, the [...] whereof is expressed in the. xxxv. of the sayde Exodus. And for example thereof, ye maye reade in the. xv. chapiter of Numeri. That a poore man hauyng gathered a fewe stickes, vpon the Sabbotte daye, was by the com­maundement of God, stoned to deathe: and besydes these places, ye haue a greate numbre of other places of scrypture, but these here alreadye alledged are suf­ficiente for thys purpose, to proue that the Sabbote daye or Sondaye, ought to be kepte as is before de­clared. But yet besydes the foresayde Sabbotte daye or Sonday, Chrysten men haue always, euen from the tyme of the Apostles, vsed to kepe holye sondrye feastes, aswell of our sauiour Chryst, and of ye blessed vyrgyn Mary his mother, as also of othere saynctes, in whyche feastes also men ought to cease frō worlde lye busynes, and occupatyon, yea and to spende the same in Goddes seruyce and contemplatyon of hea­nenly thynges, doing such good workes as are mete and conuenient, for the holy daye, of whyche feastes you shal hea [...] certayne auncient aucthorities of ye ho ly fatheres, for youre better instructyon herein. And [...] S. [...] in hys. 118. [...] wrytten to [Page] Ianuatius sayeth thus. [...] autem [...] non [...] custodimus, qui quidem toto terraram orbe obseruantur, datur intelligi, [...] ab ipsis Apostolis, uel plenarijs [...], (quorum est in ecclesia salu­berrima authoritas) [...] at (que) [...] retincri, sicutiquod domini passio, & resurrectio & ascensio in coelum, & [...] us de coelo spiritus sansti, anniuarsaria solempnitate celebrantur. That is to saye. Concernynge those thynges whych we doo kepe, or obserue, not beynge wrytten, but by tradition lefte vnto us, beynge suche whyche in dede are kepte througheoute the whole worlde, it is to be vnderstanded, the same ey­ther of the apostles themselues, or of generall coūsailes (whose aucthoritie in the churche is moste holesome) cōmended & establyshed or decreed to be reteyned or kepte, as that the passion of oure Lorde and resurrction, and ascension into heauen, and the commynge of the holye goost from heauen, are [...] anni­uersarye, or yearelye solempnitie, celebrated. And the same saynte Augustyne in hys. 244. sermō, De tempore, Doth there not onelye declare moste maui­festly, that the feastes of blessed martyres, were in his tyme solempnysed, and kepte holye, but also that the people dydde, on suche feastes, with greate deuotyon repayre to the churche, and for that theyr deuotyon, he there doeth declare hym selfe hyghelye to haue re­ioysed sayinge. Magnummihi gaudium facitis, (fratris charissimi) dum insolempnitatibus martyrum, tanta deuotione fidei, ad [...] cons [...]. That is to saye: You (mooste derelye velo­ued [Page] brethren) make vnto me great ioye, whi­les you, on the solempnities of the martyres, with so greate deuotion of fayth doo come to gether to the churche. And immediately after that he doth further instructe them, and in them vs howe they should vse them selues on the festyuall dayes, to the pleasure of God, and theyr owne [...], say­ing iu thys maner. Sedsivultus deo auxiliante, & uestrum profe­ctum, & nostrum gaudium, spiritualiter adimplere, ita [...] uos, & pacem & charitatem, inspirante domino, conseruare, ut contra hominem nullum odium habeatis in corde, probonis orate, ut semper ad meliora proficiant pro malis assidue supplicare, ut cito se corrigamt, & secundum ponceprum domini. Quecun (que) uultis ut faciant nobis homines, hee & uos facite omni­bus. Tunc enim in veritate pax & iustitia, & misericoraia, custoditur [...] non solum nullis hominibus malum facimus, sed etiam vbicun (que) pote­rimus adiuuare contendimus. [...] go hec Christo adiuuante fidcliter agas mus, beatos martyres in hijs quae supra diximus, praecipius et preclaris ope­ribus imitantis, partem eum illis in eterna beatitudine habere proterimus, Et tune pro nobis abs (que) ulla dubitatione sancti martires intercedunt, quan­do in nobis aliquid de suis uirtutibus recognoscunt That is to saye. If ye by Gods helpe wyll spirituallye fulfyll or make perfecte, bothe your owne profytte, and also my ioye, soo doe you amonge, or be twene your selues, kepe peace and charytye, (God inspiringe you) that agaynste no man ye haue anye hatred in youre harte, praye for the good men, that they maye alwayes en­crease to better, and for the yll men make sup: plications continuallye, that they maye quic kely amende them selues, and accordinge [...] [Page] the commaundement of oure lorde, Math. [...], Whatsoeuerye would that men shoulde doe to you, do you the same vnto al. For then in trueth or veritie, is kepte peace, iustyce, and mercye when not onelye we doo not euyll to any man, but when we indeuour oure selues, or labour to helpe whensoeuer we maye. So that yf we (Christ helpyng vs do these thyn­ges faythfully imitatinge or folowynge the blessed martyres, in those principal and nota­ble workes, wherof we dydde speake before we maye haue part with them in euerlasting blysse. And then with out anye doubte the ho­lye martyres doo make intercessions for vs, when as they doo perceaue or knowe anye of their vertues in vs.

To the foresayde places of S. Augustyne, we wil here for the same purpose nowe, ioyne the testymonye of S Hierome, who in his exposition made vpon the epystle ofs. Paule to the Galathians (and declaring these wordes written in the, iiii, chapyter of the same epystle. Dies obseruatis & mensis, & tempore, & annos, That is to saye. Ye obserue dayes and monethes, and tymes and yeares) doth wryte in thys maner. Dicat aliquis, si dies obseruare non licit, & menses, & tempora, & annos, non quoque simile crimen incurrimus, quartā sabbati obseruantes, & parasces [...], & diem dominicum, et icunium quadragesimae, & paschae festiuitatem. & pentecoste lctitiam, & prouarictate regionum diuersa in honorem [...] [Page] [...] tempora constituta. That is to saye. Som maye peraduenture saye, yf it be not lawfull to ob­serue daies, & monthes, and times and yeres, then we also (meanynge Chrysten men) runne into lyke faulte, obseruynge the wednesday, and the Frydaye fastyng dayes) and the Son­day holy daye, and the faste of Lent, and the festiuitie of Easter, and the ioyfull solemnitie of Whitsonday, & accordinge to the diuersitie of countryes diuers tymes appoynted in the honour of martyres. By whiche obiection besides manye other notale thynges this is mooste euydente that no man was so lewde in those dayes, but that he dyd obserue besydes the sondaye dyuerse other ho­ly dayes, also aswell in the specyall honour of Chryste hym selfe, as of hys holye saynctes and martyres, but because the selfe same obiection of late tyme, not by supposyng to be obiected (as s. Nierome [...]) but in dede hath by deuely she persones, for abrogatyon of ho ly dayes bene alledged: therefore we thy nke it good (besydes referynge the learned amongest you to the sayd place ofs. Nierome, where they maye fynde thys obiection aunswered and dysproued at large by two manec of aunsweres) breifly to aunswere the same ob iection in thys maner. That is to saye, that we christē men should not thynke oure selues in conscience boūd to the ceremonyalles of [...] lawe, as the Gala­thians dydde thynke, to whome sayncte Paule dyd wryte the sayde wordes before rehearsed. And in dede to consyder a daye, in no other respecte then [Page] as it doeth conteyne a tyme, so no man oughte to ob­serue in religyon more one daye then another. [...] to consyder a daye in respecte of a thynge done in the daye by God in chrysten relygion, soo we maye and ought to obserue and kepe dayes. And so doe we ob­serue and kepe the Sondaye for the resurection sake done in it, and likewyse Christmas daye for the birth sake of Chryst, beyng borne on [...] dai, & so of ye other dayes, aswell of Chryst as of hys blessed martyres, & saynctes. And to conclude in thys matter, whosoeuer lyst to reade the workes of Cypryan, Saynte Bafyll Chysostome, and saynte Augustyne, shall finde moste godly sermons of theyrs, made by thē in the Churche to the people vpon the festyuall dayes, bothe of oure Sauioure Chryst, & the blessed Uyrgyn Marye, and of the rest of holy martyes and Saynctes.

And agaynst thys commaundemente do they mooste greuously offende which in theyr hartes hate yt diuine seruyce done in ye churche, or the cath olyke preachyng of the worde of God, and by reason of suche hatrede, doo absente them selues from theyr paryshe Churche in tyme of mattens, masse, euensonge, and sermones, or other diuyne seruyce vsed in the churche, of whych sort there hath of late bene in thys realme, a greate number, and yf anye yet be lefte, God gyue thē grace hereby to knowe there [...] offence, and there­vpon spedely to conuerte them from suche theyr wyc­ked trade, and soo to auoyde the wrathe of God and eternali dampnation.

Secondly agaynste thys commaundemente they also doo offende, who thoughe they doo not hate the [Page] sayde diuine seruyce, yet for gayne and lucres sake, they do worke on the holye daye, not giuing thē selus holye to godly contemplatyon and dyuyne seruice as they ought to do. Fynally al they doo transgresse this commaundemente of God, who in tyme of common prayer, or preachynge, not onely doo not them selues geue dilygent eare and good atten­daunce therevnto, but also by wal­kynge, talkyng, and other euyl demeanour, doo lette other that woulde vse them sel­ues deuoutlye and Godlye.

¶ Thexposition or declaration of the fyfte commaundement. which is.

‘Honour thy father and thy mother.’

IN the foure commaundemēts which are declared in the former processe (be­ing the cōmaūdemētes of the firste ta ble) you haue hard yt duty, whych we do ow vnto almyghty god. In al these other folowyng (which are the cōmaū demētes of the, ii, table) you shalbe instructed of yt du­ty whych we do owe to oure neyghbour, in thoughte word & dede. And in the first of thē, we are instructed how we shall doo our duty to oure parentes, fathers and mothers, and elders here in this world to whom next after God, and aboue al other neyghbors we do owe honour and obedience. For the better vnder­standyng of thys cōmaundement, you shall note that vnder the names of father & mother are here sygnify­ed, not onelye oure naturall parentes, but dyuers o­ther also, as fyrst they whyche haue cure and charge of oure soules, who by theyr offyce, doe begette vs to the faythe of Chryste, and doo nouryshe, and brynge vs vppe in the same, after whyche sorte and maner, Saynt Paule calleth hym selfe father of the Coryn­thyans, in the fowerth chapyter of his fyrste epystle to the sayde Corynthians. And secondly we vnderstand by those names (father and mother) all cyuyll or pub­lyke magystrates and thyrdely al other who haue in any wyse power auctoritie, or gouernement ouer vs, as the mayster ouer the seruaunte. &c. To all these foresayde sortes beynge comprehended in thys com­maundemente vnder the names of father and mo­ther) [Page] we are bounden to geue due honour, whiche standeth specially in thre pointes, it is to wyt, in loue in obedience, and in reuerence. Aud herein, as tou­chynge our naturall parentes, oure sauyour Chryst in the seuenth of Marke doth say thus. Honor thy fa­ther and thy mother. He that doeth curse fa­ther or mother, shall dye the death. And Chryste hymselfe gaue herein vnto vs example, both of oure subiection, and also of obedyence, to be geuen and done vnto our naturall parentes, as appeareth in the seconde of Luke, where it is wrytten thus. And he (that is to saye Chryste) dyd goo downe wyth them, and came to Nazerethe, and was sub­iecte or obedient vnto them. and that all [...] do owe vnto theyr naturall parentes, obedyence and honoure, Saynt Paule wytnesseth in the vi, chapiter to the Ephesians saying. Chyldren be you obe­diente to your parentes in our Lorde, for that is iuste, or ryght. Honoure thy father and thy mother which is the fyrst commaundement in promyse that it may be well with the, and thou mayst be longe lyued on the earth.

The [...] whereof S, Paule also dothe wryte in hys thyrde chapyter to the Collossians. And moreouer it is wrytten in the thyrde chapter of Ecclesiasticus, af­ter thys maner, Sonne receaue with reuerence the olde age of thy father, and make not hym sad in his lyfe &c. And in the same chapter shortlye after dothe folowe thys saying. [Page] Of howe euyll fame or name is he, that forsa: keth his father, and cursed is he of God that [...], or angreth his mother. And in the, xix of the Prouerbes it is [...]. He that dothe afflicte his father, and doth flye from his mo: ther, shalbe infamous and wretched.

And in the. xx, of the sayde Prouerbes, Salomon sayth thus. He that curseth hys father and mo­ther, his light shalbe put oute of the myddeste of darkenes. In the, ix. of Genesis, Cham the sōne of Noe, brought the curfe of God, or maledictyon, to hym selfe, and his posteritye, for that he dyd dysho­noure and deryde hys father, & in the, xxxv. and, xlix. chapyters of the same booke, appeareth of the dysho­nour whyche Ruben, the fyrste begotten sonne of Ia­cob, dyd to hys father, and howe he therefore was ac­cursed. And in the seconde booke of the kynges, and the. xviii, chapyter we reade howe Absolon who in­tended to haue thrust hys father out of his kingdome was by a notable, and mooste myserable deathe plaged.

Aud of the duetye, that we doe owe vnto oure spirituall fathers, we doo reade, in the. xiii. to the He­brewes. Be ye obedient to them who haue the ouersighte of you, and submitte youre sel­ues to them for they doe diligentlye watche, euen as they, that muste gene accounte for your soules. And in the. x. Chapyter of Luke oure [Page] our Chryste sayeth, touchyng his apostles, and [...] successours. Qui uos audit, me audit, qui uos spernit me spernit, que [...] me spernit [...] quimisit me. That is to say. He that heareth you hearethe me, and he that dis­piseth you, dispiseth me, and he that dyspiseth me, dispiseth him who sente me. And moreouer Saynt Paule, in his fyrste Epystle to the [...], and the fyrste chapyter, sayeth thus.

Rogamus nos fratres, ut noueritis cos quilaborant inter uos, et praesunt nobis in domino, & monent uos, ut habeatis illos abundantius in haritate propter opus illorum, et pacem habete cum cis. That is to saye.

We do beseche you brethren, that you woll knowe them that labour emongest you and are youre ouerseers in oure Lord, and do mo­nyshe you that you will haue them more ha­bundantly in Charitie, for their workes sake and haue you peace with them.

There are of spirituall diso bedience, Terryble exam­ples, in the, xvi. [...] of the boke called Numbers where it is wrytten, howe the earth dyd sodenlye o­pen, and swallowe vppe Chore Dathan, and [...], with their [...] and theyr substaunce, for theyr disobedience, and rebellyon, agaynst Moises, & Aaron the highe preist. And howe also fyre camme from God, and dyd dystroye. 350. men whyche were of that rebellion. Further we doe rede in the [...] booke of the kynges, and the Seconde Chapyter thereof, howe that two and fortye chyldren at one tyme, were deuoured of beares, sodenlye sent of God, [Page] for that they did mocke Helyzeus, the Prophette, and mynyster of God. And howe then can they thinke, to escape the greate wrath, & indignation of god whiche of late mooste spitefullye, not onelye in [...] wordes, but in dedes, also most vnchristian lyke haue despised, vnreuerentlye vsed, and dishonored the my­nysters of Chrystes Churche.

And as concernynge the Cyuyll magistrates, ye sayde Saint Paule in the. xiii. of his epystle to ye Romains sayeth thus. Let euery soule be obediente to the higher or super or powers, for ther is no pow­er but of God. And the powers whych be, are ordeined of God, therefore he yt withstandethe the power doth tseist yeordinaunce of god. And they who do resist or wtstande that, do gette, or purchase vnto them selues, dānation: for prin ces, or rulers, are not to be feared for good wor kes, but for euill workes: wilte thou in dede not feare the power? do thou that whiche is good & thou shalt haue prayse, of ye same pow­er, for he is the minister of God, for good to yt: But if thou doo euyll, doo thou then feare, for he doth not without cause, carye, or beare the sworde, for he is ye minister of God, auenger, & [...] of them, yt doo euyll. Therefore you muste of necessitie be obediente, not onelye for wrathe sake, but also for conscyence sake, ther fore verelye doo you paye trybutes. &c. A not a­ble example of ye obedyence and duety yt euery subiect [Page] oweth to his soueraygne, we haue in the behauour of Dauyd towardes kynge Saul wryttē in the 2. 9. &. 2 chap. of the fyrste boke of kynges. And S. Peter, in his fyrst epistle, &. ii. cha. spekyng of the obedience due to kynges & magistrates, wryteth thus. Submyt your selues to euery creatur, or ordinaunce of mā, for our lordes sake, whether it be to king as one that precelleth, vnto or gouernouresor rulers, as being sent of hym, to the punishmēt of euil doers, and the commēdation, or praise of the good. And in the foresayde. xiii. chapter to the Romaynes, it is wrytten, Geue you vnto al men that which is due vnto them, to whō tribute belongeth, tribute, to whom custome custōe to whom feare, feare, to whō honor, honour. And as concernyng the duetie of the seruaunte to the mayster, therof S. Paule speaketh, Ephe. vi. saing in thys maner. ‘Ye seruauutes, be ye obediēt vnto your carnall maysters, wt feare & tremblynge, in singlenes, or simplicitie of your hart, as vnto Christ, not seruing in the eye syghte, or presence onely, as men plesers but as the seruauntes of Chryste, doyng the wyll of God, from the harte, wyth good wyl, doing your seruice as vnto God our Lord, and not vnto men. The like her­of he hath also, in the thyrde cha. to the Collossenses: and in his seconde chapiter to Tite, he doth say thus.’

‘Teache seruauntes to be obedyent vnto theyr maysters, pleasynge them in all thynges, not contra­ryeng them, not deceyuyng or defraudyng, but in all thynges, shewynge good faythe, that they maye sette furthe the doctrine of God our sauioure in al thinges’

[Page]Agaynste thys commauudemente fyrste doo all they offende, whyche thynke scorne of theyr naturall pa­rentes, for their pouertye, syckenes, aduersitie, or any mysfortunes sake, or doo denye vnto theyre sayde pa­rentes necessarye releyfe, sustentation, or succoure, with foode, clothe, or harber, in tyme of theyr necessi­tye, yf that they be hable to helpe theyr sayd [...] in thys case. But most of all they do breake this com­maundement whych doo curse theyr parentes strike thē, backbyte them vse contumelyouse, or opprobry­ouse wordes vnto them, and hate them. Secondly al they do breake thys commaundement, who doo not loue, reuerence, obeye and duly honour theyr spiritu­all parentes, and gouernours, as prelates, pastoures and all that haue cure and charge of soules, nor payt vnto them theyr tythes, and duetyes, accordyngelye as they are bound. Thyrdelye they doo offende, and that greuously agaynst thys commaundement who make sedition agaynst theyr prince, ruler or country, And they also that doo rebell or cause other to rebell, agaynste any of them, they also that are false or negli­gent in doyng theyr commaundementes. And who­soeuer wyll not loue, reuerence, obeye, or serue them with his true, and vnsayned seruyce, but wyl thynke Imagyne, or speake any vntruth, lye or euyl agaynst them [...] or consent vnto the same, or beare ther with as (the more it is to be lamented) of late hathe [...] vsed emongest vs to the great offence, and displesure of almyghtye GOD, and the dyshonour of thys hole realme, they all do breake and transgresse thys com­maundement.

[Page]Fourthlye all suche seruauntes are [...] of thys commaundemente who doo not faythefullye obeye theyr maisters commaundemenees, and fulfil them, nor vse theyr maisters, with due reuerence, side litie, & diligence, both to please them, & also in al theyr affayres, wherein they are charged, to be trustye and faythfull to the vttermost of theyr power. And here is not to be omitted that reuerence, and honor is due al­so vnto suche, as are aunciente, aged, or (as we com­monlye doo call them) fatherlye men. Althoughe they haue none of the foresayde aucthorytyes ouer vs: whyche cummelye and cyuyle reuerence, and honer GOD by Moyses commaunded vs, to obserue and kepe, as appeareth in the nintene of Leuiticus, wher it is wrytten thus. Coram cano capite consurge & honora, personam seuis, & time dominum deum tuum. That is to saye. Before the hore heade ryse thou vppe, and honor the per son of the olde man, and feare thy Lorde GOD.

Thexposition or declaration of the sixte com­maundement which is.

‘Thou shalt not kyll.’

ENtendyng nowe consequently to de­clare vnto you thys syxte commaunde ment, we thynke it good, fyrst of all to note vnto youe, howe aptelye and in howe dewe place it foloweth immedi atlye vpon those goynge before, for in the commaundementes of the fyrst table, we are tau­ght and instructed of our hole duetye towardes god whyche of all dutyes'is pryncypall at mannes han­des required, and in the fyrst commaundement of the seconde table (whyche is nowe last expounded vnto you) we are taughte oure duetye towardes oure pa­tentes both naturall, spirituall, Cyuyll, and other, to whome next vnto God, before al other men we ought to haue respect to perfourme our dutyes. And in this syxte, and the fower other that doe folowe, we are in­structed, & warned that by no maner of meanes, we hurte or endamage our neygheboure. And bycause of all hurtes and displesures that maye of man to man be done, the greatest in some dewe respecte, is murder therefore or all hurtes that thyng is in the seconde ta­ble, fyrste and chyefelye forbydden vs in these wordes Thou shalte not kyll. In whyche wordes we are not onelye restrayned from Actuall murther, and vnlawefull kyllynge of the Bodye, but also we are forbidden from commytting the same [Page] in worde or, thought yea and all the meanes leadyng or disposyng vs towardes the same, as malice, wrath enuye, disdayne, and other lyke euyl affections of the harte, and as they are prohibited so also is all sclaun­der backebytyng, scoldynge, bannyng, raylyng, skor­nynge, or mockynge, and all other euyll behauiour of our tounge, agaynste our neyghboures, which all be forbydden by thys commannemente, as beynge the rotes and occasiōs of murder and other bodely hurt.

And by the rule of contraryes (spoken of before) lyke as these thynges are forbidden and prohybyted vnto vs, soo are theyr contraryes implyed and com­maunded to be fulfylled and perfourmed of vs. It is to wytte. To loue our neyghboures lyfe and healthe wyth all our hartes, and with oure tonges to wyshe the same, and wyth our actes and dedes, to mayne­tayne and defend it. Of thys commaundement, and the duetye of vs chrysten men by the same requyred, our sauyour Chryste dothe speake in the fyfte of Ma­thewe sayinge. You haue harde how it was sayd vnto them of the olde tyme. Thou shalt not kyll, he that kyllethe shalbe in danuger of [...], but I say vnto you, that euery one whyche is angry with his brother shalbe in daunger of iudgement, and he that say­eth to hys brother Racha shalbe in daunger of Counsayle, and he that sayethe vnto his brother thou foole, shalbe in staunger of hell fyre. [Page] By these wordes of oure Sauyour Christe ye do vn­derstande that hatred wrath, and Enuy, are as gret­lye forbydden, and as greuoussye punyshed in vs Chrysten men, as was emongeste the Jewes verye bludshed and murder. For he that is wrathe or angri agaynste his neygheboure in hys harte and desyre, doth kyll him. And here doo you consyder well the wordes of thys precepte, for God dothe not saye, thy hand shall not kyll, or thy sworde shall not kyll, or thy gonne, or thy Crosbowe shall not kyll, or commyte murder, but he sayeth Thou shalt not kyll, That is to saye. Thou thy selfe, what soeuer thou arte, and which is properlye thyne, and of the as all the partes of thy body all thy inwarde thoughtes, thy affection thy wordes and thy dedes, shall not kyll. But some man maye heare saye, whye then, what shalbe done with theues, traytours eyther agaynst God, or theyr Prynce, and other suche wycked offenders, shall they not, nor maye they not lawefullye be putte to death. Yes, so it be done by magistrates therto [...]: for whan accordynge to iustyce, they do ponyshe of­fendoures, they doo not exercyse theyr owne Judge­mente, but the iudgemente of God. For of Magistra tes it is wrytten in the thyrtene to the Romaynes. Non [...] gladium portat dei enim minister est, uindex in [...] ei qui male agit. That is to say: For he (the magistrate) caryethe or bearethe not the sworde in vayne he in dede is the minister of God, an auenger vnto wrathe, to hym that dothe euyll. And thoughe the magistrate maye doo that, yet yf anye o­other [Page] shall presume without lawful [...], or [...] to kyll, or bodely to hurt or greue any man, the same vndoubtedlye doeth breake thys commaunde­mente, and is to be iudged a manqueller, accordinge to the saying of Chryst, in the. xxvi. of Mthew, [...] qui acceperint gladium, gladio peribunt. That is to say: Al they that take the sworde, shall peryshe wyth [...] swoorde, meanynge hereby, that whosoeuer of pry­uate [...], shall vse any maner of meanes to en­damage other shall by iust iudgemente peryshe hym­selfe. And all that we hytherto haue spoken, is specy­ally by vs ment, of suche dammage, as by our woor­des, thoughtes, or dedes, maye come to oure neygh­boures body: but because the soule, beynge the cheyfe parte of man, dothe incomparablye [...] the bodye, therfore ye shall here note, that, by thys commaunde­ment we are muche more forbydden to kyll or mur­der our neyghboures soule: whiche kynde of murder and slaughter of the soule, they doo commyt, who by pernytious, heretycall, and vngodlye doctryne, or by euyll counsayle, seduce the soule of theyr neyghboure, causynge it thereby to dye euerlastyngly in hell. And speciallye they herein doo offend, who not onely in theyr lyfe tyme, with theyr teachynge by mouthe, do infect theyr hearers, but wyth theyr moost vene­mous bokes lefte behynde them, doo styng to death the soules of as manye, as by the reading therof doo consente to theyr deuelyshe doctriue, and so long as such theyr bookes or wrytynges doo remayne, infec­tynge other, so long doth the dampnation of the auc­thours of suche bookes, and heresyes, continuallye [Page] more and more increase. The example whereof is put speciallye concernyng the dampnable and perni­cyouse heresy of Arrius, the payne of whom shal not be fully determinate, vntyll the daye of Iudgement, but euer styll doth and shall vntyl that daye, increase more and more. And here is not to be omytted, that they also are manquellers, and moste myserably, and lamentably offende agaynst thys commaundement, who in worde, thought, or dede, desperatly doo mur­der them selues. And hauynge thus declared vnto you three seuerall kyndes of murder, forbydden by [...] commaundement, it is to wyt, the murderynge of our neyghbours body, the murderyng of hys soule and fynally of the murder wherby one doth kyll hym selfe, it shalbe conuenient to recyte here vnto [...] the terrible paynes whiche are in sondry places of Scri­pture, manaced for murders, and vpon seuerall mur­derers. And the fyrst shalbe taken furthe of the. iiii. of Genesis, where it appeareth that whan Cayn hadde murdered hys brother Abell, almyghtye GOD sayd vnto hym in thys maner. [...] voyce of thy bro­thers bloude, doeth crye vnto me frome the earth, wherefore thou shalte be accursed vpon the earth, who hath opened her mouth, and receyued thy brothers bloude of thy hande: when thou shalte laboure or tyll the earthe, it shall not geue to the her fruytes. Thou shalte be a wanderer and vagabunde vppon the earth. And in the. ix. also of Genesis it is thus writtē [Page] Whosoeuer shal shed the bloude of man vpon the earth, his bloude shalbe shedde, for man is made to the symilitude of God and in the, xxi, of Exodus, almyghtye God doth saye. He that shall strike a man, willinge to [...] him, shall dye the death.

Moreouer in the thyrde booke of the kynges, and the. xxi. Chapyter it is wrytten, howe that when kynge Achab by the deuelyshe counsayle of his wyfe Iefabel had procured the death of Naboth for coue­tousnes of hys vyneyarde, god sent the prophet Elias vnto hym, and bad hym saye these wordes.

Thys doth the Lorde say: Thou hast killed yea, and moreouer thou haste taken possessy­on. And shortly after foloweth howe God bad hym saye. In this place in the whiche the dogges haue lycked the bloude of Naboth, they shall lycke thy bloude, and shortly after there foloweth Thus sayth the Lorde, I wyll brynge vpon the euyll or miserye, and will cutte downe they posteritie, aud wyll destroy of Achabes, euery one that pysseth against the wall. &c.

And touchynge wycked Iesabell hys wyfe, it there foloweth, Dogges shall eate Iesabell vn­der the walles of Iesraell. And of Achab likewise is there sayde. [Page] If Achab die in the citie the dogges shall eate him, and yf he die in the fielde, the fowles of the aire shall deuoure him. Moreouer in the se­conde booke of the kynges, and the. xii. chapyter, al­myghtye God sayde vnto kynge Dauyd by the Pro­phete Nathan in thys maner. Thou hast stricken with the sworde or killed Urias the Ethyte, and hast taken his wyfe to be thy wyfe and hast slayne him with the sworde of the chyl­dren of Ammon, wherefore the sworde shall not departe from thy house for euer.

These terrible threatnynges and punyshmentes ought to moue all men to be delygente and warye in obseruation of thys cōmaundement, and in no wyse eyther in thought, worde or dede, to commytte anye kyude of murder, beyng assured, that althoughe they may chaunce to escape the due ciuyll punyshement of magystrates, yet in no wyse shall they escape the gre­uous punishement at Goddes handes for suche theyr murder: yea they shalbe most well assured, that (vn­lesse they, by due meanes, doo repente, and be recon­cyled to God) they shall haue after thys lyfe (for theyr trangression) euerlastyng dampnation.

¶ Therposition or declaration of the seuenth Commaundement whyche is.

‘Thou shalt not committe adulterye.’

AS the greatest iniurye whyche a man can do to hys neyghboure, is murder whereby he takethe awaye hys lyfe from him, so the next iniury or wronge is to vyolate, or to defyle hys neyghe­boures wyfe, whyche is become one fleshe wyth hym, throughe the sacramente of Matri­monye. And therefore in good order doeth here nowe folowe thys commaundemente. Thou shalte not commytte adultery. And thys commaundemēte our sauyoure Chryst hym selfe doth in dede expounde in the Gospell, as he dydde the syxte, teachynge vs in the fyfte of Mathew, that this commaundement not onely forbyddeth all outwarde adultery, commytted in dede, but also all inwarde occasyons of adulterye, as lecherous thoughtes, desyres, lustes of concupys­cence, consentyuge in heart, and al other meanes en­ducynge therevnto. And here ye shal note yt although thys worde, adultery, doth sygnifie properly the vn lawfull comixion of a maryed man, with anye other woman, than wyth his owne wife, or els of a maried woman wyth anye other mā, then her owne [...] yet in [...], it is not taken onely for that, but also for all maner vnlawefull copulation be­twene man and woman, maried and vnmaried, and all maner of vnlawefull [...] of those partes whiche be [Page] ordeyned for generation, whether it be by adulterye fornication, in crest or any other meanes.

And a man maye euen in lawefull matrymony with hys owne wyfe breake thys commaundemente, and lyue vnchaste, yf ye doo vnmeasurably or inordinate­lye serue hys or her fleshly appetite or luste. And vpon such persones the deuyll hath power, as the aungell Raphael sayd vnto Thoby (Thoby. ix.) They that marye in such wise that they exclude GOD out of their hartes, and doo geue themselues vnto their owne carnall lustes, as it were an horse or a mule, whyche haue no reason, vpon suche personnes the deuyl hath power. Also all chrysten people ought hyghlye to regarde the obseruation of thys commaundement, consyderynge howe much God is displeased, and what vengeance he hath alwayes taken, and euer wyll take for the transgression of the same. For confyrmatyon whereof you shall vnderstande, that God in the tyme of Moy­ses lawe, commaunded that whosoeuer [...] adultery should be stoned to death. And that almygh ty God after the chyldren of Israell had commytted adultery wyth the women of Moab, and Madyan, commaunded fyrste, that the heades and rulers of the people shoulde be hanged, for that they suffered the people so to offende God. And afterwarde com­maunded also euery man to sle hys neighboure, that had so offended. In so much that there was slayne of that people the number of. xxiiii. M. and [...] moo shoulde haue bene slayne, had not Phinees the sonne [Page] of Eleazar the hygh preist, turned the indignation of God from the chyldren of Israell. For thys Phinees whan he sawe Zamry, cheife of the tribe of Simeon in the presence of Moyses, and all the people, goe vnto Cosby, a notable mans doughter of the Mady­anities, to committe fornication wyth her, he arose from emongest all the multytude, and takynge a sworde in hys hande, went into the house wher they were, and thruste them bothe thoroughe the bellyes, whose feruente mynde and zeale, God dyd so muche allowe, that he dyd therfore bothe cease from the far­ther punishment of the Israelites, and also graunted to Phinees, and hys successours for euer, the dignitie of the highest preisthod.

Also the trybe and stocke of Beniamin was soo pu­nyshed for the mayntenaunce of certayne persones of the Citie of Gaba, which had contrarye to thys com­maundement, shamfullye abused a certayne mannes wyfe that of. xxv. M. and. vii. C. men of armes, there remayned on lyue but. vi. C.

Moreouer almyghtye God for the transgression of thys commaundement, caused brimstone and fyre to rayne downe from heauen, vpon all the [...] of Sodome and Gomor, and so distroyed the hole re­gion, both menne, women, and beastes, and all that grewe vpon the earth, reseruyng onelye Loth & hys two doughters.

These terrible examples & many other lyke, almighty GOD dyd shewe in tymes paste, to the intente we should haue thē in oure contynual remēbraunce, and shulde euer stande in awe & feare so to offend god: for though be doth not presently punysh vs heare in this [Page] as he dyd the persones afore [...]. Yet his longe pacyence and forbearynge, is no allowaunce, or for­geuenes of our offenses, yf we continue styll in them but a soore accumulation, and heapynge together of Goddes wrath and indignation agaynst the day [...] Iudgement. At whych tyme in stede of thys tempo­rall payne, we shall receyue euerlastynge payne, and be (as sayncte Paule. [...], sayeth) Excluded frō the euerlastynge kyngdome of heauen. And as Chryste sayth in hys Gospell, Math, ii. Luke. xxii. and Saint Ihon in the Apocalypse. We shalbe caste into the burninge lake of hell, where is fire brimstone, weping wailinge, and [...] of tethe, without ende.

Furthermore in thys commanudement not onelye the vyces before rehearsed be forbydden and prohy­byted, but also the vertues contrarye to theym be re­quyred and commaunded, that is to saye. Fedelytpe and true kepyng of wedlocke, in them that be mary­ed, continence in theym that be vnmaryed: and ge­nerall ye in all persones, shamefastnes and chastenes not onelye of dedes, but of wordes and maners, coū ­tenaunce and thought. And moreouer fastynge, temperaunce, watchynge, laboure, and all lawefull thynges that conduce and helpe to chastytye.

And therefore agaynst thys commaundemente they all doo offende who doo take anye syngle woman, or other manes wyfe, or that in theyr heartes doo couet or desyre vnlawefullye to haue them. For as Chryste sayth (Math, the fyste. Whosoeuer beholdeth a [Page] womā coueting her vnlawfully hath alrea­dy committed adultery with her in his harte. They also doo offende agaynst thys commaundemēt that take in maryage, or oute of mariage, any of their owne kynred, or affinite, within the degrees forbyd­den by the lawe of God.

They also doo offende agaynste thys commaunde­mente who doo abuse them selues, or anye other per­sones agaynst nature, or abuse theyr wyues in ye time of theyr menstruall purgation.

They also that doo nouryshe, stirre vp and prouoke themselues, or any other, to carnall lustes, and plea­sures, songes, sightes, touchynges, gaye and wanton apparell, and lasciuious deckynge of themselues, or anye suche wanton, behauiour and intycementes.

And also all those, who do procure any suche acte, or that minister house, lycence, or place therevnto. And all counsaylers, helpers, & consenters, to the same, doe greuouslye offende, and do transgresse thys cōmaun­dement. Lykewise all they that auoyde not the cau­ses hereof, so much as they conuenientlye may as surfeitinge, slothe, ydlenes, immode­rate slepe, and company, of such, either men or women, as be vnchast, and euyll dysposed, they I saye be giltie of the trangressi­on of thys commaun­demente.

¶Thexposition or declaration of the eyghte commaundement whyche is.

‘Thou [...] not steale.’

AFter that almyghtye God hathe in the. vi, commaundemente forbydden al hurtes, dammages, and iniuryes, to be done agaynste oure neyghboure in hys owne person, and in the seuēth commaundemente hathe also forbyd­den all iniuryes, agaynste hym in the personne of his wyfe, whych next vnto hys owne body is, and ought to be, most dearelye beloued vnto hym, here nowe in thys eyght commaundemēt whyche is. Thou shalt not steale, he doeth forbyd all iniuryes & wronges to be done to oure neighbour, in hys worldelye riches goodes and Substaunce. And for the better vnder standynge of thys commaundemente, you shall note that vnder the name of thefte or stealynge, in thys commaundemente, is vnderstande all maner of vn­lawfull takynge a waye, occupying, or kepynge of an other mannes goodes, whether it be by force, extorti­on, oppressyon, [...], vsurye, Symonye, vnlawfull cheuisance, or shiftes, or els, by false bying and sellyng eyther by false weyghtes, or by false measures, or by sellynge of a thynge counterfayte for a true as gylte, copper, for true golde, or glasse for precyouse stones, [Page] and generally al maner of fraude and deceyte.

And not onely they that doo these foresaid things doo commytte thefte, but they also whyche eyther gyue counsayle, consent, or ayde, to suche their doings and they lykewise whiche winke at [...], ededes done and reuele them not accordingly.

And like as the vyces before rehearsed be forbyd den by this precept, Euen so sundrye vertues cōtrary to the sayde vyces be commaunded by the same, as to deale truelye, & playnelye wyth our neygheboures in all thynges, to gette oure owne goodes truelye, to spende them liberallye vpon them, that haue nede to fede the hungrye, to gyue drynke to the thrystye, to cloth the naked, harborowe the harbourlesse, to com­forte the sicke, to visite the prysoners: And fynallye to helpe oure neighboures, wyth [...] learnynge, good counsayle, and exhortatyon, and by all other good meanes that we can.

Agaynst thys commaundement they all doo [...], who by crafte, or violence, vpon sea or lande, spoyle, robbe, or take awaye anye other manes ser­uaunte or chylde, lande or inheritaunce, horse, shepe or cattell, fy she foule, conneyes, or deare, mony Iuels, apparayle, or anye other thynge, whyche is not theyr owne.

Lykewyse they al do offend agaynst this commaun­demente, who haue goodes gyuen to an vse, and put them not to the same vse, but kepe them to theyr owne aduauntage, as Maysters of Hospytalles, and false Executoures, who eyther doo forge coun­counterfeyte [Page] or ells adulterate the last willes, & testa­mentes of deade men, or doo suppresse, and hyde true made willes, or Testamentes, they also who doo conuert the goodes giuen to the sustentatiō of the poore folkes, or to other good and charytable vses, vnto theyr owne proffecte. And also all they who do receyuerent or stippend, for anyeoffyce spiri­tuall or temporall, and yet doo not theyr offyce be­longyng therevnto, they (I say) are trangressoures of thys commaundement.

And so lykewise all they who doo take wages, or [...], pretendyng to deserue it, and yet doo not in dede, as laborers, and hired seruauntes, who doo loyter, and doo not applye theyr busynes. And lykewyse aduo­cates, Proctoures, Attorneys, Counsayloures in any of the lawes, who some tyme, for litle payne, take much stipende, or by theyr defaulte and neglygence, marre good causes, or maynetayne false and euyll causes, or doo anye thynge to the hynderaunce of spedye iustyce, for theyr aduauntages, they (I say) do transgresse this commaundement.

Also all Idle vacaboundes, and sturdy beggers who being hable to gette theyr liuing, by labor, take such almes, where with the poore and impotēt folkes shoulde be releued, and susteined, doo offend againste thys commaundement.

Moreouer all they doo trangresse thys commaun­dement, who doo bye any stolne goodes, knowynge that they be stolne, or that doo bye thynges of them that haue none aucthorytye to sell them, or alyenate [Page] them, yf they knowe the same. And lykewyse doo they offende thys cōmaundement, who do withhold goodes stolne, or that do fynde thynges lost, & know­inge the owner thereof, wyll not restore them, or will not do theyr diligence to knowe the owner.

They also whyche doo defraude theyr hyred ser­uauntes of theyr due wages, and they that borowe any thynge, or reteyne any thing [...] vnto thē vppon truste, and wyll not restore the same agayne And they that vse false weyghtes or measures, or de­ceytefull wares, or sell theyr owne wares at an vn­reasonable pryce, farre aboue the iust value.

And they also that do ingrosse, and by anye kynde of wares whollye into theyr owne handes, to the [...] that they maye make a scarcenes thereof in other mennes handes. And sell it agayne as they lyste.

And generally also all couetous men, who by anye meanes vnlawfully doo gette, or vnmercyfullye doo kepe theyr goodes frō them that haue nede, be trans­gressours of thys commaundement.

And here (not to omit oure accustomed maner in alledginge scripture for the confyrmatyon of asserty­ons made in thys booke) ye shall haue fyrste some testymonyes of holy scrypture, speakynge of thefte in generall, and afterwarde some other speakynge of certayne partyculer and speciall kyndes of theftes, and as concernynge thefte in generall, ye shall fynde thus wrytten in the fyrst chapiter of Ecclesyastycus. Super [...] est confusio. That is to saye. Confusyon or [Page] [...] doeth fall vpon the thefe. and in the fyfte of Zacharye there is thus wrytten. God sayde to me, what dost thou see and I sayde, beholde I see a booke flienge the lēgth of it. xx. cubits and the breadeth of it. x. cubytes, and he sayde vnto me, this is the malediction or curse whi­che goeth furthe vpon the face of the whole earth, for euerye thefe, as it is there wrytten, shalbe iudged. And in the second chapter of Thoby we do reade howe that Thoby being blynde, and hea rynge the voyce of a kydde cryinge within hys house (whyche kydde hys wyfe had erned wyth her labour and he knowynge that he had no kydde of hys owne before dyd saye. Lake hede, leaste perchaunce this be a stolne kide, restore hym to the [...] owners, for it is not laweful for vs to eate, or touche any thing of theft. Moreouer S. Paule in hys fyrst epystle to the Corynthyans, & the, vi, cha­pter, doth amōgest other thynges saye thus. Nother theues nor pollers, nor couetouse men, shall possesse the kyngedome of God. And as concer­nynge certayne specyall kyndes of theft, we do reade in the. x, of Esaye. Woo be to thē who do make [...] or vnryghteous lawes, and wrytyng do wryte vniustice, to oppresse in iudgemente the poore, and doo violence vnto the cause of [Page] the humble amongeste my people, that the wydowes myght be theyr praye, what wyll ye doo in the tyme of visitation, and destruc­tion, which shall come from farre? To whom wylyou runne for helpe, or where wyll you leaue your honour, that ye be not made stope vnder the bonde, and fall with them that are slayne. And in the, viii. chapter of Amos we do find this terrible sayinge. The ende is come vppon my people of Israel: I wyl no more geue my mind to come amongest thē, and the hingles of the temple doores shall make a krykynge sayth the lorde God, many shall die, and in e­uery place shalbe cast furth secretly. Heare this Oye, who do opresse the poore, & do destroye the nedye on the lande sayinge, whan wyll this month [...] past, that we maye sel our wa­res, & the Sabbote, that we maye hyde oure corne, that we maye make the busshell lesse and maye make the sicle greater, and that we may set vp false weyghts or balances to get the pore vnder vs wyth money, and the nedy also for [...], and maye [...] ye chaf of the corne, And accordyng here vnto Salomō in the. xi. chap. of hys prouerbes doth say. He that doth hide vp his corne shalbe accursed amongest ye people, but [Page] blessynge shalbe vpon the heade of them that doo sell. And of another specyall kynde of thefte we doo reade in the, viii. of Iosue, a terrible example howe one Achan (whyche had contrarye to the com­maundement of almyghtye God conueyed certayne thynges awaye at the destruction of [...]) was stoned to deathe, and wyth al that euer he had burnt God commaundyng it so to be. Further in the. xxiii, of Exodus we reade of such as receyue brybes (& therby commyt theft) in thys maner. And thou shalte take nore wardes, for they doo blynde euen the wise and subuerte the wordes, or iudge­mentes of the iust. And in the, xvi, chapter of Deu­teronomye, the lyke is wrytten. There is an other greuous kynde of thefte, and that (the more is the pi­tie) cōmonly vsed, whych is called Symonye takyng name of Symon Magus, who fyrst attempted with mony to purchase spirituall offyce or function (which eyther to sel or bye is dampnable) and was moste bit­terlye reproued and accursed of the holye apostle S. Peter who sayde vnto hym. Pecunia tua tecum fit in perditio­nem, quoniam donum dei existimasti pecunia possidere, non est tibi pars ne (que) sors in sermone isto. That is to say. Thy monye be with the vnto perdition, because thou didest thynke that the gyfte of God maye be obtey­ned wyth money. Thou hast no parte or fel­low [...] in this worde. Nowe emongest other [...] kyndes of thefe, none was euer more drede [Page] fullye punished in scripture, than sacriledge (which is thefte, spoile, and robberye, committed in suche thyn­ges, as are dedicated or geuen to the honor of GOD specyallye, as are all churches, and all the ornaments, plate, treasure, landes, and goodes to the same belon­gynge) as appeareth in the. v. of Danyell, by the ex­ample of kynge Balthasar, and in the seconde booke of the Machabees, and the thyrde chapiter, of Helyo­dorus, whoe goynge aboute the spoyle of the temple of Hierusalem, for the threasores sake of the same soo­denlye was throwne downe to the grouude, and be­ynge sore stricken wyth blyndenes, was caryed spech les also oute of the temple halfe deade. Whych kynde of punyshment, yf it hadde bene vsed in Englande, so ofte as sacrylege hath bene commytted, what a num­ber shoulde there haue bene of them that should haue bene punyshed. But the thyng beyng of that sorte that it hath bene, and we not able to amend it, we wil yet here admonishe al men from henceforth, to make, & kepe theyr handes pure from al sacrilege And thus we make an ende of the declaration of thys com­maundemente.

[...] Thexposition or declaration, of the nynthe commaundement which is.

‘Thou shalt not vtter, or beare false wytnesse against thy neighboure.’

BEsydes the foresayde iniuryes, whiche often tymes be done to [...] neigh boures, thys commaundement being the. vi. of the seconde table, doth admo nyshe vs to auoyd and eschewe tbe do ynge of an other greate and greuous iniurye towardes our neyghboure, whiche is in bea­rynge false wytnes agaynst our sayd neighbour. And in this matter, there is here in kept a very good ordre for not onelye we are bounden to forbeare the hut­tyng or endamage of our neighbours bodye, the my­susynge of hys wyfe, and wrongefull takynge awaye of hys goodes, but also by the wyll, pleasure, and com maundemente of almyghtye GOD, we are boundē not once to open our mouth, to dyffame, or misreporte our neyghboure, or to beare vntrue wytnes or falsely to depose in anye matter agaynst oure sayde neyghe­boure.

And lyke as by thys commaundemente al euill vse of the tungue, to the hurte of our neyghboures, is forbydden, so o in, and by the same commaundemente (by the ofte mentioned rule of contraryes) there is commaunded the good and charytable vse of the tungue, all maner of wayes, to the benefytte of oure [Page] neighbonrs, as to be true and playne in oure wordes wyth hym, and towardes hym, to be faythful to hym in all couenauntes, bargaynes, and promysses. To testifye the truthe in all courtes, iudgementes, and other places, to reporte well of them that be absente, to geue true and faythefull counsayle and exhortaty­on to all goodnes, yea and to dysswade frome all euyll.

And here concernynge thys commaundement we haue mooste iuste cause to lamente and to be sory for ye malyce and euyll disposition that in these oure dayes raygnethe bothe in men and women, whose tounges are so venemous and wyeked, in [...], lyinge backbytynge, and mysreportynge, as the lyke there­of hathe not bene harde sence the begynnynge of the world, in whome truelye that sayiug of S. James in the thyrd chapyter of hys epystle maye and doth take place. Omnes natura bestiarum, volucrum, & Serpentium, et cetorum, do­mantur et [...] sunt [...] humana, linguam autem nullus hominum [...] mare potest, inquietum malum, plenum [...] mortifero. That is to saye. All kynde of beastes, byrdes, serpentes, and fysh of the sea, are tamed and haue binne made tame by man, but the tonge noo man canne tame, it is an inquyet or vnrulye euyll, full of deadlye poyson.

And to thintente that suche personnes maye hereafter (yf theye wyll not for Loue of Uertue, and Charytyes sake, yet at the leaste for the feare of punyshemente at GODDES hande) refrayne [Page] and forbeare suche theyr dampnable, and wycked spe kynge, we wyll recyte here both in generall, and also in speciall, sundrye the offenders of thys commaunde­mente, and also the punyshmente hangynge therefore ouer theyr heades. And fyrste in generaltye we wyll brynge in the. xiii. of the prouerbes, where it is thus wrytten. Qui custodit os suum, cuctodit animam suam, qui autem incon­sideratus est adloquendum sentiet mala. That is to saye.

He that kepeth his mouth, kepeth hys soule, and he that is vnaduised or rashe to speake shall feele hurtes or euylles. And in the thyrde chapter of the fyrste epystle of S. Peter, it is wrytten thus. He that dothe loue lyfe, and to see good dayes, let him refrayne his tongue from euil, and his lyppes, that they doo not speake de: ceyte. Also in the. xii. chapyter of the Prouerbes, the wyse Salomon wryteth in this maner. For the faultes of the lyppes, destruction or ruyne draweth nere vnto the euyll man. Moreouer in the. xviii. chapiter of the same boke, is this saying. Lyfe and death lyeth in the tongue, and they that loue it, shall eate the fruytes of it. And in the. xxvi. chapyter of the sayde prouerbes Salomon sayeth thus. A slipper toungue worketh ruines or destructyons. And to speake somewhat more in particuler of trans gressoures of thys commaunde­mente, you shall fyrste note, that somme of them doo beare fal se wytnes in open iudgemente, and of them [Page] the wise Salomon in the. xix. chapyter of the prouer­bes, doth speake thus. Testis falsus non erit inpunitus, That is to saye. A false wytnesse shall not be vnpu­nyshed. And yet more terribly he sayeth in the. xxi. chapter folowinge. Testis mendax peribit. That is to saye. A lyinge wytnesse shall peryshe. And further in the. xxv. chapyter of the same booke, it is wrytten in thys wyse. [...], et gladius, & sagitta acuta, homo quiloquitur con­tra proximum suum falsum testimonium. That is to saye A darte, and swoorde, and a sharpe arowe, is that man that speaketh agaynst his neyghe­boure false wytnesse. Howe heynous an offence thys is, appearethe in the. xiii. Chapyter of Danyell, where the two false witnesses (who wickedlye depo­sed agaynste the Godlye Susanna) were bothe my­raculouslye detected, and also of the people presentlye stoned to death. And no meruayle though bothe they and all other bearers of false wytnes be, by aucthori­tie of scripture, punyshed in such greuous sorte, seyng that euery one soo offendynge, in bearynge false wyt­nesse, dothe trespasse agaynste three sundry persones. Fyrste agaynste almyghtye God, whose presence the false wytnesse bearer dothe contemne. Secondelye agaynste the iudge, whome by lyinge he dothe de­ceaue. Thyrdelye agaynste the innocente party, whō by his false wytnes bearynge, he dothe hynder and hurte.

Another sorte, and special kynde of transgres­soures against this [...] commaundememēt is whē a man doth maliciouslye, backbyte, or sclaunder hys [Page] his neigheboure, though it be not in iudge mente, of whych sorte and kinde of transgressours, the prophet in hys 100 Psalme dothe saye thus. Who that doth secretely backebite his neigheboure, him doo I persecute. And in the. 24. of the Prouerbes it is sayde thus. Abhominatio hominum detractor. That is to saye, A detractor or backebiter, is abhomination a­inongeste men. And in the fyrst Chapter of ye boke of wysedome it is written. A detractione parcite linguae. That is to say Kepe youre tounge from backe­bytynge. And Sayncte Paule in the fyfte chapy­ter of hys epystle to the Galathyans dothe saye thus. If ye bite and deuoure one an other, take hede leaste ye be consumed one of an other. Besydes the foresayd specyall sortes of transgressours agaynste thys commaundement, there are other also and emongest them secrete tale bearers, and sowers of dissention betwene man and man, by theyr pryuye malitious whyspearinges, of whom the wyse Salo­mon dothe notablye speake in the. xxvi. chapyter of ye Prouerbes sayinge. Cumdefeccrint lingua extinguetur ignit & Subtracto susurrone [...] conquiescunt: That is to saye.

Whan woode wantethe, the fyre wyll goo oute, and the talebearer or whysperer beynge taken awaye, stryfes or dissentions shal cease, and by and by after, the say: e Salomon dothe saye. The wordes of the talebearer, or whysperer seme simple, but they pearce euen to the harte [Page] [...]. And in the. xxi, chapyter of [...], [...] wrytten thus. The talebearer shal defyle hys soule, and shall be odiouse in all hys doynges, Moreouer in the. xxviii, chapy. of the same boke there is this saying. Susurro, &. bilinguis maledictus, multos [...], pacem habentes That is to saye. A talebearer, or whis­perer, and a double tunged personne is accur­sed, for he hath troubled, or sette at stryfe, ma­nye, that before were in peace or frendeshippe, And to conclude touchynge this commaundemente, you shall note three or foure places more of scrypture, for your further edifyenge in thys behalfe. First in the xxi, of the prouerbes Salomon dothe saye. He that keapeth hys mouthe and hys tounge kepeth hys soule from trouble. Secondly our Sauiour Chryste in the twelueth of Mathewe doth say. I say vnto you that men shall geue accounte in the day of Judgment, for euery idle word which they doospeake. Thyrdely in the said, xii, chap. it is wrytten. Ex uerbis tuis iustificaberis, et ex uerbis tuis condemnaberis. That is to saye. Of thy wordes thou shalt be iu stified & of thy wordes thou shalbe condēned. Fourthlye. & fynallye ye shall note, yt in the, xx. of yt [...] calipse it is written of all lyers thus. [...] erit [...] no ardenti igne et sulphure quod est mors [...]. That is to say. Their parte shalbe in the lake, or pole yt dothe burne, wyth fyre, and brimstone, which is the second deathe.

[...] Thexposition or declaration of the tenthe commaundement whyche is.

‘Thou shalte not couet thy neygheboures house, nor desyrethy neighboures wyfe, nor hys seruaunt, nor his mayden, nor hys oxe, nor his asse, nor any thing that is his.’

FOr the better vnderstandyng of this tenthe, and last commaundement, ye shall note, that as the fyfte commaū ­dement (whyche is the fyrste of the se­cond table) vnder the names of father and mother are vnderstanded al supe [...] rs, and as in the syxt commaundemente, vnder the name of kyllynge, is vnderstanded all wrathe & reuengynge, and as in the seuenth commaundement vnder the name of adulterye, is vnderstande all vn­chaste lyuynge, and as in the eyght commaundement vnder the name of thefte is vnderstande al deceitfull dealynge wyth our neighboures, and fynallye as in the ninth commaundement, vnder the name of false wytnes, is vnderstande all misuse, and vntrue vse of our tounge. So in thys tenth and last commaūde mente vnder the name of desyrynge of an other mans wyfe, seruaunte, and goodes, is vnderstande all ma­ner of euyll; and vnlawefull desyre of anyething. Yea and as in thys precepte all euyll desyres are forbyd­den, euen soo in the same are imployed and commaun [Page] ded al good desyres, and the perfect obedience of our heartes vnto Gods wyll in all payntes, whyche al­thoughe we shall not fullye and absolutelye, attayne vnto, whyle we be in thys lyfe, yet thys commaun­dement doth bynde vs to enforce and endeuour oure felte there vnto by continuall fyghtynge and resyst­ing agaynst concupiscence & euyll lustes or desyres, [...] as by them man is contynuallye tempted to euyll dede and vytyouse lyuynge, [...] wytnesseth Saynt James in the fyrste chapyter of his Epystle where he sayeth thus. Nemo cum tentatur, dicat quoniam a deo tentaturdeus enim intentator [...] est, ipse autem neminem tentat, Vnusquisque vero [...], a concupiscentia sua abstractus, et illect us, de [...] concupiscentia cum conceperit, paret [...]. That is to saye: Let no man say when he is tempted to euyll that he is tempted of God, for god temptethe not to euill, neither tempteth he anye man, but euerye man is tempted, drawne, and al­lurcd of hys owne concupyscence. Than whan concupiscence [...] conceyued, it bryn­geth fourthe synne. This concupyscence (wherof the apostle Saynte James doth speake, whyche is a motion, stirringe prouokynge, or alluringe of man to synne) is routed in man from his infancye, and con­tynually doth remaine in hym, more or lesse (duryng the hole state of thys mortall lyfe) be he neuer soo per­fyte, and yet is it no synne, so longe as he doethe not delyte therin, and consent therevnto. And therfore it is wrytten in the seuententh chap. of Ecclesiasticus, [Page] in thys maner. Post concupiscētias tuas non eas, That is to say.

Doo thou not goe after thy concnpys­cences, and in the same chapter it foloweth. Si prae­stes animaetuae concupsicentias eius, faciette in gaudium inimicis tuis. That is to saye. If thou perfourme or fulfyl to thy soule her concupiscences, or lustes, she wyl make the to be a reioysyng stocke to thy enemyes. So that though we do feele in oure sel­ues a motion or suggestion to [...], eyther by euyl thoughtes remembraunce, sighte, hearyng, smelling, tastyng and touchyng, or by anye euyll counsayles, geuen vnto vs by our enemye, or any other, yea and though we begynne to haue some pleasure in the said motion or suggestion, yet yf we doo incontynentelye refrayne our wyl, so that it do not consent or graunte therevnto, we then not onelye doo not commytte anye deadely synne, but we please God, in so resistyng and suppressyng such concupyscence, and by thys ma­ner of resistynge, we shall also put to flyghte oure ene­mye the deuyll in hys most crafty or violent assaultes agaynste vs, accordynge to the comfortable encora­gynge and promyse of almyghtye God, declared by hys Apostle Saynte James, in the fourthe chapter of hys Epystle, where it is wrytten. Resistite diabolo & [...]. Appropinquate deo & appropinquabit uobis. That is to saye: Resyste the deuyll, and he shall, or wyll flye from you, drawe you neare or approche to God and he wyll approche vnto you.

And agreable herevnto sayeth Saynte Paule [Page] in the, vi, chapyter of hys epystle to the Romaynes. Let not synne reigne in your mortall bodye, that you obey the concupiscences thereof.

But here may be moued a question, what shoulde be the cause that cōcupiscence beyng the mother and nouryce of synne, shoulde remayne in a chrysten man or woman, after baptysine or penaunce, howe good howe holy, or perfecte, soeuer they be, seyng it semeth to be an impediment to do the lawes of God perfect­lye and full force to be agayne the wyll of good folke, who woulde fayne be quite of it, and canne not, and therefore doe lament and mourne daylye for the con­tynuall encombraunce they haue by it: for aunswere to whych question no doubte ye shall knowe that al­myghtye God by hys ryghteous iudgemente and in­finite wysedome doeth permitte concupiscens to re­mayne in vs after Baptysme, and penaunce, not for oure euyll or bynderaunce, but for oure good and furderaunce, not to oure destruction, but to be to vs an occasion of saluatyō. For none shalbe crouned in heauē with honor & glorye, excepte in thys lyfe they gette the victorye. 2 ad Timoth. 2. and vyc­torye they can not get excepte they fyght stoutly and manfully, and no man doth fyght but wyth hys ene­my. So yf there be no enemye there is no battayle, yf no battaile, no victorye, yf no vyctory, no Crowne, for thys cause god hath permytted concupyscence to re­mayne in vs, that we through grace ouer commynge the same, maye obteine the crowne of glory in heauē. And yt you may the better auoyde ye daunger of con­cupyscence (being alwayes so busye wt men) we wyll [Page] here declare vnto you foure specyall meanes greately aydyng to the auoydyng of the sayde daunger. The fyrste is to vse earnest prayer, the second to forbeare al occasions of synne, as to flye euyll companye, and to haue regarde to the vse of oure senses, by whyche as by wyndowes death dothe enter into oure soule, ar­cordynge to the saying of Job, in his. xxxi. chapter. Pepegifoedus cum oculis meis ut ne cogitarem quidem de uirgine.

That is to say. I haue made a couenaūte wyth myne eyen, that I woulde not once thynke of a Uyrgyn. The thyrde is to tame our fleshe and to kepe it vnder, and brynge it vnto bondage, accor­dynge to the example of Saynte Paule, declarynge in the ninth chapyter of hys fyrste pystle to the Corin­thyans where he sayth of hym selfe thus. Subigo corpus meum, & in seruitute redicd, ne cum alijs predicem, ipse reprobus efficiar. That is to saye. I chastyce or tame my bodye, and bryng it in subiection or bondage leaste whyle I preache to other I my selfe become a cast awaye. The fourth is to auoyde Idlenesse, for Idle personnes are ful of lustes and cōcupiscence. And as it is wrytten in the. xxiii, chapyter of Ecclesy­asticus. Multam malitiam docuit [...]. That is to saye: Idlenes hath taughte much euyll. As maye well be exemplyfyed in Sodoma, of whyche it is wrytten in the, xvi. chapter of Ezechyell. Beholde thys was the iniquitie of Sodom thy syster pryde, saturitie, or eatynge to the full, exces­syue wealthe, and the ydlenes of her, and her [Page] doughters. And here you shall note that when we aduyse you to flye euyll companye and Idlenes, we imploye therin that you shoulde alwayes haunte the companye of honest and godlye personnes, and also euer to be ententiuelye occupyed in some vertuous ex excyse or meditation. And by ye waye we thynke thys good to note agayne vnto you as cōcernynge concu­pyscence, that al be it not to haue it at al in thys lyfe, is a thinge to vs impossible, yet to consent vnto it, or by the grace of God to dissent from it, is a thing wel possyble vnto vs. And in dede to dissent frō or resyste concupiscence we owghte to the vttermooste of oure power, and vsyng the specyall meanes before rehear­sed or some of them, we by the grace of GOD shalbe hable so to doo. And to procede further concernynge the declaration of this tenthe commaundemente, ye shall knowe, that all they be transgressoures of thys commaundemement who by delyberatiō and ful con sent, doo cast, or set theyr myndes, and bartes, to ac­complyshe the concupyscence, and desyre whych they haue to obteyne, and gette vnlawefullye an other mans wyfe chylde, seruaunt, house, lande, cattayle, or any thyng that is theyr neyghboures. Secōdlye also they doo transgresse thys commaundement, who through enuy be sory for theyr neyghboures wealth & prosperitie, or be glade of theyr sorowe hynderaunce or aduersitie. Thirdelye and fynally all they do trans­gresse and breake thys tenth commaundemente who doonot sette theyr myndes and studyes to preserue maynetaine, and defende vnto theyr neygheboures, as muche as in them lyeth, theyr wyues, chyldren, [Page] seruauntes, houses, landes, goodes, and all that is theyr neyghboures. And thus endeth the tenne com­maundementes wyth theyr expositions, whyche al­myghtye God graunte that we maye obserue and kepe, for then we shalbe sure to haue the kyngedome of heauen and to lyue eternally in ioye and felicitie.

¶ Here nowe doth folowe the praier of oure Lorde, called the Pater noster (deuided into seuen pety­tions) beyng wrytten in the, vi, chapter of Saynte Mathewe.

Oure father whiche arte in heauen, halowed be thy name.

Thy kingdome come.

Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heauen.

Geue vs this daie our daily breade.

And forgeue vs our trespasses as we doo for­geue them that trespasse against vs.

And let vs not be ledde into temptation.

But delyuer vs from euyll. Amen.

¶ The preface to the prayer of oure lorde cal­led the Pater noster.

BEfore we shall enter vnto ye speciall decla­ratiō of the petitions conteined in the pray­er of oure lorde called the Pater noster, we (callynge to oure remembraunce the godlye coūsaile moste nedefull to be folow­ed in thys behalfe written in the. xviii. chapter of Ecclesiastycus, in these wordes. Before prayer prepare thy mynde, wyl (for your good instruction) declare fyrst of all vn­to you in what sorte you oughte to prepare your min­des before you begynne to praye. Knowe ye therefore that concernyng our dewe preparation vnto prayer three thynges are (amongest other) specyallye requi­site on oure behalfe, the fyrst is, Fayth, the second is Hope, and the thirde is Charitie, and as concer­nyng, Faith, Ye shall vnderstande that forasmuche as Praier is an eleuation, or liftinge vppe of the hearte to God, to aske of hym all suche thinges as be necessarye. And to lyfte vppe ones hearte or mynde is vnfruitefull and vnpossible wyth­out [Page] faythe, accordynge to the sayinge of Sayncte Paule who in the tenth, chapyter to the Romaynes wryteth thus. Howe shall they inuocate or call vpon him, in whome they haue not beleued. Therefore aboue all thynges faythe, yea and stronge fayth must be in vs, whensoeuer we doo goo aboute to praye, for fayth teachethe vs, two thynges, the one to knowe our owne infyrmytie, and miserable estate both in bodye and soule, the other to knowe the ma­iestye of God hys almyghtye power, and good wyll towardes vs. And of faythe wyth the greate vertue thereof in prayer, our sauiour Chryste speakyng in the xxi. of Saynt Mathewe sayinge. Omnia quecunque petie­ritis in or [...], credentis, accipietis. That is to saye. All thin­ges whatsoeuer you aske in praier, beleuinge or hauing faith, you shall receyue them.

And as concernyng Hope, Sayncte James in the fyrst chapyter of hys epystle wryteth thereof sayinge thus. Si quis autem uestrum indiget sapientia, postulet a deo quidat om­nibus affluenter, & non improperat & dabitur ei, postulet autem in side nihil hesitans, qui enim hesitat similis est fluctui maris qui auento moue­tur. & circumfertur, non ergo existimet homo ille quod aliquid accipiet a domino, That is to saye. Yf anie of you haue nede of wisedome, lette him aske of God (who giueth to al haboundantlie, and dothe caste no man in the teth) & it shalbe giuē vnto him But let him aske in faith, nothing douting, for he ye douteth, is like vnto ye waue of yt sea [Page] which is moued & tossed of the wynde. There fore lette not that man thynke that he shall re ceaue any thing at Goddes handes.

The propertye of hope, in prayer, is to cause a man pa cientlye, wyth longe sufferaunce, to abyde the wyll & pleasure of God in the obteynaunce, & perfourmaunce of hys request, and prayer. For we may not prescrybe to God anye determynate, or specyall tyme to accom­plyshe oure prayer, but we muste commytte vnto hys holy wyll, bothe the manner howe and the tyme whē to helpe vs. Accordynge as [...] prophete Dauyd doth counsayle vs in his. xxvi, Psalme sayenge:

Expecta dominum, uiriliter ageconfortetur cor tuum, & sustine dominum. That is to saye: Looke for oure Lorde or abyde the pleasure of hym, do thou manfully let thy hart be conforted, and pacyentlye doo thou susteyne oure Lorde. And of thys paty­ence in hope, and of hope in prayer, we haue a notable example in the seuenth and, viii. chapyters of the boke called Judyth, where it is wrytten, howe that a cer­tayne towne of Jewrye called Bethulia, was soore assaulted of the Assyryans, in so much that the people of the sayd towne, despayrynge of all ayde, and succor agaynste theyr enemyes, dyd ernestlye solicite, and moue Ozais theyr chiefe ruler, to render vppe the towne to the Assyrians, who than beseyged them.

And that the sayde Ozias dyd exhorte then the peo­ple to be quiet and patiente, and to abyde the mercye of GOD, duringe the space of [...] dayes, promising [Page] them that after fyue dayes yf God dyd not succoure or ayde them againste theyr enemyes, he then woulde accordynge to theyr desyres, render vppe the towne, vpon whych aunswere of Ozias, the Godly wydówe Judyth mislikyng greatly the same, dyd rebuke Ozi­as sharpelye for that he would and dyd presume to ap poynte God anye tyme, in whyche he shoulde deliuer them from the daunger that they were in, and howe also she sayde to Ozias and to other that were wyth hym, in thys maner. Quod est hoc [...] in quo consensit Ozias, ut tradat ciuitatem Assyris, si intra [...] dies non [...] uobis [...] Et qui estis uos, [...] tentatis [...]? [...] onest iste sermo quimise­ricordiam prouoces, sed potiut [...] iram exitet, et [...] accendat. Posu­istis uos tempus miserationis domini, & in orbitrium uestrum, diem constitu istis ei? That is to saye. What thynge is thys wherevnto Ozias hath consented, that he woulde delyuer the cytye to the assyrians yf wythin fyue dayes there come no succour or ayde vnto you? And who are you, that tempt our Lord God? thys speache or sayinge is not suche as may prouoke the mercy of GOD, but rather such as maye styrre vp hys anger, and kyndle hys fury, haue you putte or sette a time of the miseration or merci of our Lord, and haue apointed or prescribed vnto hym a daye after youre wyll or pleasure?

Nowe concernynge Charytie, whyche is the thyrd thynge requyred in prayer, you shall vnderstand, that wythout it, no prayer [...] be in anye wyse accepta­ble [Page] before the face of GOD. And therefore oure Sauyoure Chryste sayeth in the [...] of Mathewe in thys wyse. Yf thou offer thy gyfte at the aultar and there dooeste remember that thy brother hathe anye thynge agaynste the, leaue thy gyfte ther before the Aulter, and goo and be fyrste reconciled to thy brother, and than come and offer thy gyfte. Thus you see, howe that yf you wyl haue your prayer harde and accepted of almyghtye God, you muste of necessitie be fyrst pre­pared thervnto, by faythe, hope, and charytie, More ouer in the scryptures lefte for oure instruction, and edifienge, there are sondrye examples, teachynge vs that prayer, accumpanyed wyth fastynge and almes dedes, is made therby a greate deale the more accep­table in the syghte of almyghtye God, as apearethe in the twelue chapiter of the boke called Thoby wher the Aungell of God dothe saye vnto Thoby thelder, as foloweth. Bona est oratio cum ieiunio & [...], magis q̄ the­saurus [...]. That is to say. Prayer with fast­inge and almes dedes is good, rather then to heape vp threasures of Golde. Other examples also there are [...], as of Kynge Iosaphat and the Iewes in the. ix. [...] of the seconde boke of Pa­ralipomenon of Iudeth, and the chyldren of Israell (in the, iiii chapyter of Iudythe) of the Niniuites (in the thyrd chapiter yf ye prophet Ionas) & of Cornelius ye conturiō in the x. chapyter of the actes of the Apost­les, but these are sufficiente. And to procede further Concernynge [...], ye shall note that when [Page] (when we do praye) our intent, and the hole desyre of oure harte ought to be ioyned alwaye with the praier of oure mouth, elles that reprochs, wrytten by the pro phete Esaye, in his. xxix. Chapyter, (recyted also in the. xv. chapyter of Mathew) may wel be verified on vs, whyche is. Populus hic lahijs me honorat, cor autem corum longe esta me. That is to saye. Thys people honourethe me with theyr lyppes, but theyr harte is farre from me. And to drawe nere to oure purpose, and speciallye to speake of oure Lordes prayer, called the Pater noster you shall vnderstande, that amongeste all the prayers, whyche a Chrysten man maye make to God, there is none soo worthy, and so excellent a pray er as it is. For it was not made, and taughte vs by anye earthlye creature, no nor by anye aungell of hea uen, but by the very sonne of God, our sauioure Iesus Chryste, who is the eternal wysedome of God the fa­ther. And the prayer is soo compendions and shorte, that it maye easelye be learned, and borne in mynd of all men, so that excuse of ignoraunce, or of not know­ynge of it, or of omyttynge the frequente vse and say­ynge of it, is cleane taken awaye from all personnes hauinge the vse of reason. And thoughe thys prayer be shorte in wordes, yet it is excedynge longe, and pro founde in sence. For in. vii. petytions comprysed in it, it dothe conteyne all thynges that we canne desyre of God, whether it be for the welthe of oure soule or of oure bodye or otherwyse, and not onelye concerning thys lyfe, but also concernynge the lyfe to come. And it dothe kepe the selfe same order whyche we oughte to kepe in alloure desyres, and petytyons. For fyrste [Page] and aboue all other thinges we shoulde desyre that God be knowen, honoured, gloryfyed, and magnyfy­ed, bothe of vs, and also the people of the worlde.

And that is it, whych we do desyre of GOD, in the fyrste petition, sayinge. Hallowed be thy name, Secondlye, we shoulde desyre at Goddes handes, all thynges that are good, and that doo we in the three petitions nexte folowynge, for in the fyrste of the thre whyche is. Let thy kyngdome come. we doo aske eternall good thynges, in the seconde, whiche is, Let thy wyll be done in earth, as it is in hea­uen, We doo aske spiritual good thynges. And in the thyrde, whyche is. Gyue vs this day oure dayly breade. We doo aske temporal good thynges, apper­taynynge to our bodely sustentation.

Thyrdelye as we oughte to desyre God, to delyuer vs from al euyll, soo doo we in the three last petitions, for in the fyrste of them, whyche is. Forgeue vs oure trespaces, as we doo forgyue thē that trespace agaynste vs. we doo desyre God to deliuer vs from synne and eternall deathe, whyche is the rewarde of synne. And in the seconde whyche is. And leade vs not into temptation, We do desyre to be deliuered from our spirituall enemyes, and in the laste, whyche is. But deliuer vs from euyll. We doo desyre (be sydes other thynges) that we may be delyuered from euyles temporall. Breifely thys prayer of our Lord is so profound, soo aboundaunt and so plenteous, that there is no prayer, whether it be wryttrn in the olde [Page] testament, or in the newe; but the summe and effecte thereof is conteyned in some of these seuen petytyons Wherefore we exhorte all people to saye thys prayet ofte, distinctlye, and [...]; and well to note, the particuler declaration thereof, which here foloweth.

¶ The exposition or declaration of the fyrste petition of the Pater noster whyche is.

‘Oure father whiche arte in heauen, hallo­wed be thy name.’

WE cannot comprehend in our mynde the great goodnes of God towardes vs, in that he hath taughte vs here in the begynnyuge of oure prayer; to cal hym Oure father. Of truthe this was not vsed in the tyme of the olde testamente, amongeste the Iewes, for they lyued vn­der the bondage of Moyses lawe, as seruauntes, and durste not call God, theyr father, but Lorde, whych is a [...] of maiestye and power, but we Chrysten men are taughte by oure Sauioure Chryste hymselfe the author and maker of thys prayer, boldelye to call God oure father, whyche is a name of be [...], mercy gentlenes, and greate loue. And yf the holy pa triarche Abraham (who was called the frend of god) dyd call GOD his Lord, whan he made hys prayer vnto hym, sayinge in the. xviii. of Genesys, Shall I speake to my Lorde, seynge I am but dust and [...]? Howe muche lesse durste we haue called [Page] God our father, except that he had so taught vs, and commaunded vs to [...]. In why the hys doynge, he hath gyuen vs ryghte great cause to put our hole con fidence in hym, and to loke and truste for all good, at his hande. But ye wyll percase aske, howe hathe al­myghtye God made hym selfe to be oure father? Tru­lye it is not by natural generation, for after that sorte he onelye is father vnto Iesus Chryste but he hath made hymselfe to be our father, by adoptinge vs [...] hym, throughe faythe in Chryste Iesus whych thyng he doth in the tyme of oure baptysme, accordyng as it is wrytten in the fyrste of S. Iohn. [...] eis [...] dei fierihijs [...]. That is to saye. [...] He (Chryst) gaue vnto them power to be made the sonnes of God, to thē who beleue in hys name. And in the. viii. to the Bomaynes S. Paule sayeth. [...] haue receiued the [...] of Adop­tion, to be the sonnes of God, in whych [...] we doo crye Abba father. And in the [...] to the Ephesyans S. Paule sayeth. Be ye folowers of God as mooste dearelye beloued sonnes, and walke in loue as Chryst hath loued [...]. And in the fyft of Mathew, our sauiour. Christ saieth. Be ye perfit as youre heauenlye father is perfit. And here is to be noted a lesson, that as [...] worde father, doth declare the greate [...], mercy, and loue of GOD towardes vs as well in creation as also in the redemption of man so it [...] sheth vs agayne of oure duetye towardes hym, and howe we be bound to shew agayne vnto hym our hole harte, loue [Page] obedience, and redynes to fulfyll with all gladenes and humilitye all hys preceptes, and commaunde­mentes. And therefore whosoeuer presumeth to come to God with this prayer, and to call hym father, and yet hathe not full intente, and purpose, to vse hym selfe in all thynges lyke a kynde, and an obedyente Sonne, he commeth to him as Iudas came to Christ wyth a kysse, pretendyng to be his frende and hys ser uaunte, in callynge hym mayster, and yet he was in dede a traytoure to hym, and a deadelye enemye. And for thys consideration euerye chrysten man that intendeth to make thys prayer, ought inwardly and throughly, to searche and examyne hym selfe, and yf he fynde in hymselfe, anye notable cryme, for the whi­che he oughte to be ashamed to cal GOD his father, let hym accuse hym selfe therefore to God, and recog­nyse hys vn worthynes, saying as the prodygal sonne sayde father I haue offended the, I am not worthye to be called thy sonne. And wyth due repentaunce [...] purpose, and intente, to amende hys naughtye lyfe, let hym lyte vppe hys harte to God, and callynge for hys grace of reconciliation, let hym humbly say. Oure father. &c.

Neyther is it wythoute greate cause, that oure sauyour Chryste teacheth vs to saye. Oure father, and not My father, For thereby he geuethe vs cler­ly to vnderstande that as we our selues be the sōnes and chyldren of God, by adoption throughe faythe, so are all other Chrysten men and women the chyl­dren of GOD by the same faythe, and therefore we [Page] ought to loue them all with perfecte loue and chary­tye, as brethen and systers in God. Oure heauenlye doctoure in thys worde doeth geue vs instruction of vnitye, concorde, and peace, and to praye to God for all chrysten people, knowen and vnknowen, for and frende. And for that purpose and effecte, he hath not learned vs to saye. My father whiche art in hea uen, but he hath taught vs to saye: Oure father whiche arte in heauen: Lykewyse we saye not gyue me thys daye my daylye breade, but Giue vs thys daye oure daylye breade, nor we say not forgiue me my synnes, and trespasses, but for­gyue vs oure synnes and trespasses.

Lykewyse we saye not delyuer me from euyll, but Delyuer vs from euyll, To sygnyfye that throu­ghe faythe in Iesus Christe, we are all the sonnes of God: and therefore shoulde not the gentleman dys­pyse the yoman, nor the ryche the poore, Malachye (Malach. 2.) doth saye. Nunqui non pater unus omnium nostrum? [...] non unns deus creauit nos? quare ergo unusquis (que) nostrum despicit fratrem suum. That is to saye. Haue not we all one father? hathe not one God made vs all? wherefore than doth euerye one of vs dyspise hys brother?

The prayer in dede that the proude Pharisey made (Luke. 18) [...] not acceptable vnto God, bycause he dispised hys neighboure, the publican. Let vs al [...] knowe our selues to be brethren in god & through [Page] sayth equally to be hys chyldren. And as concerninge these wordes, whych art in heauen. we maye not by theym vnderstande, that God is conteyned, and included wythin the heauenes, as the aungelles, and holy sayntes are, for (as Salomon sayeth in the thyrd booke of the kynges and the eyght chapyter.) The heauens of heauens doo not comprehende or include hym. But in thys respecte he is sayde to be in heauen, because he, by hys almyghtye power, doth conteyne, kepe, holde vp, and mayntayne, all the hea­uens, and also all other creatures, whyche are enclo­sed, and shutte vnder the cope, or compasse of heauen accordynge as S. Paule sayeth. Collos. i. Omnia in ipso constant. That is to saye: All thynges in hym haue theyr beynge. And therefore vnto god onelye we doo saye, whyche arte in heauen. Bycause that god onely as he hath made heauen, and all thynges vnder heauen, so he onely is in all the heauens, and wyth hys almyghtye power conserueth, and kepethe them in all theyr beyng. And here must we note, that we maye not thynke, that god is so in heauen, that thereby he can not be, or is not in earth also, as shall please hym selfe. For truelye he is in all places, by hys essence, by hys presence, and by hys power, ac­cordynge as he sayethe (Hieremye. xxiii.) Nonne coelum & terram ego impleo? That is to saye, Doo not I fyll heauen and earth? and he is sayde specyally to be in heauen, for as muche as in heauen, he is manyfest, and sheweth hys godheade, hys dyuyne maiestye, [Page] power, glorye, ioye, and blysse eternall, whyche he hath promysed to geue, as a rewarde, to al suche as doo perseuer in hys fayth, and obedience, accordynge as he sayeth, Math. v. Merces uestra multa est in coelis. That is to saye. Youre rewarde is greate in heauen. And here doo you marke that these wordes, whych arte in heauen, are so placed and set furth, to styrre vp our heartes to God, and to cause in vs an inward desyre, and a greate care, and studye to come to the place where our heauenly father is: yea, and muche to couete hys syghte and presence. For lyke as a lo­uyng chylde is euer desyrous to be where hys father is, euen so oughte we euer to desyre to be wyth oure heauenlye father, and to endeuoure our selues, that our conuersation be al wythdrawen frō the worlde, the fleshe, and the deuyll, and be set vpon heauen and heauenlye thynges, as S. Paule teacheth, Phil. iii. And therefore we shoulde contynuallye wayle, and lament, because we be not wyth oure heauenlye fa­ther, saying with the prophet. Psal. cxix. wofull am I, that my dwellynge vpon the earth, is soo muche prolonged. And by these wordes shoulde there be engendred in vs, a stronge hope, of eternall glorye. And howe can we fayle thereof, yf we wyll, seynge oure heauenlye father hathe bothe the wyll, and also the power to perfourme it? Hys wyll we clearelye vnderstande, in asmuche as he made hym selfe to be oure father: hys power is well knowen, for that he is a God of power, and glorye, and maker, and preseruer of Heauen, Earthe, and of [Page] all that in them is. And here shall you further note yt these wordes. Our father whych art in heauen. are put lyke a prologue before all the seuen petitions, (yea and euery one of them may haue prefixed, before them the same prologue) declaryng playnely, that no man can saye thys prayer truely, and duelye, that no pleasure of god, and hys owne meryte, excepte he haue fayth, hope, and Charytye, for wythout faythe, nor can say truelye, O father, and wy thoute cha­rytye to hys neyghbour, no man cane say truelye and meritoriouslye, Oure father, and wythout hope, no man can saye truelye, Whyche arte in hauen doo thou remyt vs our synnes. And in these wordes Halowed be thy name, it is to be noted, that by the name of God, is vnderstande God hym selfe, the power of God, the myght, the maiestye, the glory, the wysedome, the prouidence, the mercye, and goodnes of God, and all such other good thynges, as in scryp­ture be attribute vnto God. And thys name is ha­lowed, when it is praysed, gloryfyed, sette furthe, ho­noured, and magnyfied of vs, bothe in woorde and dede.

And where in thys petytyon we praye that hys name maye be hallowed, it is not to be taken or thoughte that thys name of God, whyche in it selfe is euermore moste holy, most glorious, most meruey­louse and full of maiestye, can be eyther aduaunced or dymynished by vs, or any thyng that we can doo: but we desyre here, that thys moste holye name maye (accordynge as it is in it selfe moste holy) be so taken, [Page] vsed honoured, and halowed of vs, and of all others as well heathen as chrystened, lyke as on the contra­ry parte, thys name is sayde to be polluted, and defy­led, when we doo eyther in worde, or in deede, con­tumelyouslye, and contemptuouslye, or otherwyse dyshonor the same. We desyre therefore in thys pety­tion, that all false faythe, by the whyche men eyther mystrust god, or put theyr confidence in anye othere thyng more then in hym, may be destroyed. And that all wytche craftes and false charmes & coniurations, by the whyche Sathan and other creatures, be in­chaunted, maye cease; and geue place, to goddes holy name: and so lykewyse, that all heresyes, and false doctrynes, maye vanyshe awaye, so that goddes holy worde may be truely interpreted, and purely taught and sette furth, vnto al the worlde, and that all infy­dels maye receyue the same, and be conuerted to the ryght catholyke faythe, whereby al disceyte, hipocri­sye, and counterfaytynge of trueth, of ryghteousnesse or of holynes may clearely be extincted.

Furthermore, we do beseche, and praye god here that his name may be halowed, so that no mā should swere in vayne by it, or otherwyse abuse the same, to lye or deceyue hys neyghboure. And generallye that none shoulde fall into pryde, or ambition, into desyre of worldlye glorye and fame, into enuy malyce coue­tousuesse, adulterye, gluttonye, slouth, backbytynge, sclaunderynge of hys neyghbours, ne into any other euyll or wicked thoughtes, and dedes, whereby the name of god maye be dyshonored and blasphemed. In thys prayer also we doo requyre god to graunte [Page] vs that in all perylls, and daungers, we ruime vnto hym, as vnto our onely refuge, and call vpon hys ho­lye name, and that in oure good woorde and woor­kes, we maye please and magnifye hym, and be by hym preserued from the mooste damnable synne of vnkyndnes towardes hym. And also that we whoo doo all readye professe the ryghte fayth, may styl con­tinue therein, and maye doo, and expresse the same aswell in oure outwarde conuersation, as in confes­synge it with our mouthe, so that by oure good lyfe, and oure good workes, all other maye be moued to good, and that by oure euyll woorkes and synnes, no man maye take occasion, to sclauuder the name, or dimynyshe the laude, and prayse of God, but that all our woorkes and doynges, may redoūd to the honor prayse, and glorye of Goddes name.

¶ The exposition or declaratiō of the seconde petition, which is.

‘Thy kyngdome come.’

THys seconde petition verye orderlye, doth folowe vppon the fyrst, for as in the fyrst we do aske of God our eter­nall father, that hys gloryous name maye be knowen through out all the worlde, and be of all people, (whe­ther they be turkes, Jues, or heathen) loued, magni­fyed, and gloryfyed alwayes, aswell as it is of vs Chrysten men, which is a thynge aperteynyng to the dewe honor and glory of God, and whych we ought of dutye fyrste and pryncipallye to desyre, So in thys second petition we aske of God our heauenly father, that he wyll vouchsafe to brynge vs to hys eternall kyngdome, euermore to be wyth hym, and partycy­pante of hys enerlastyng glorye, and heauenly enhe­rytaunce, wyth Chryst Jesu our Sauiour (whych is a thyng of al other that a mā may wysh to hys owne selfe, ye chief & most greatest.) And for the declaratiō of thys second peticion, you shall vnderstand that there are two kyngdomes, the one contrarye to the other, it is to wytte, the kyngedome of god, and the kynge­dome of the Deuyll. For as concernynge worldelye kyngdomes and dominions, they [...] they be well go­uerned, and guyded by order of Jystyce, doo per­teyne to the kyngoome of god, as Saynte Paule te­stifyeth in the. xiii. chapter to the Romaynes. And [...] they be misordered, through want of [...], & vsyng [Page] Tyranye they doo pertayne to the kyngdome of the deuyll. Nowe concernynge the kyngdome of god, it is of two fortes, it is to wytte, the kyngedome of grace in thys worlde, and the kyngdome of glorye in the worlde to come: and of the kyngdome of grace, S. Paule dothe speake in the. xiiii. to the Romaynes, in thys wyse. Règnum dei est iustitia & pax, & gaudium [...] spiri­tu sancto. Qui enim in hoc seruit Christo placet deo, & probatus est ho­minibus. That is to saye: The kyngedome of God is iustyce, and peace, and ioy in the holy gost, for he that in thys serueth Chryste, pleasethe God, and is allowed with men. Lykewyse the sayd Saynt Paule speakynge of thys kyngdome of grace, doth in the fyrste chapiter of hys epistle to the Collossenses, say thus. He hath translated, or ca­ried vs, frome the power or kyngedome of darkenes, into the kyngedome of his derelye beloued sonne, in whome we haue redemp­tion, and remission of synnes. And moreouer we doo reade in the fyfte of the Apocalipse after thys maner, Fecisti nos deo nostro regnum. That is to saye. Thou haste made vs a kingedome vnto our God. For doubtles so longe as we remayne in grace, god doth raygne in vs, as in a spirituall kyngedome, and we as his faythfull people, doo obeye hym therein. And as concernynge the kyngedome of glorye in the worlde to come you shall vnderstand that oure Sa­uiour in hys second comminge, which shalbe at dōes day, shal giue entrance & perpetual possessiō therof, to [...] elect: whēhe shal say vnto them (as it is [...]) [Page] Comeye the blessed of my father, doo you posselle the kyngedome prepared for you, be­fore the creation, or beginning of the worlde! Nowe concernynge the kyngedome of the Deuyll, which is cleane contrarye to the kyngdome of God, that in dede is a dominion, or rule, and souerayntye, whych the deuyll hathe in the hartes of the wycked men and women, who accordyng to his pernycious wyll and entycynges, doo transgresse the commaun­dementes of God, and doo make them selfe bonde, and thrass to synne, wyllyngly consentynge to the de­nyles tentations, and drawen thereby to hys seruice, and holden also therein, by concupyscence of the fleshe by concupyscence of the eye, and by pryde of life. And of thys kyngedome of the deuyll, S. Paule. Ephe. ii. doth speake sayinge. He (God the father) hathe re­uyued you al at ones, when you were deade thorough your trespasses, wherein, in tymes past, you did walke accordinge to the course of this worlde, after the prynce of the kynge dome, or power of this ayre, the spirite which nowe worketh vpon the children of vnbeleif. Accordynge wherevnto oure sauiour also, Jhon. xii. doeth call the deuyll the prynce of thys worlde, that is to saye, of all euyll and wycked people, lyuynge in the worlde. And in the. xli. chapter of Job, the deuyll is called the kynge of al proude men.

And forasmuche as it is not in oure power to de­lyuer our selues from the [...] of the Deuyll, but [Page] onelye by Godes helpe (For oure perdition and vndoing is of oure selues, but oure helpe and faluation is of God. as sayeth the Prophete Ozee cap. 13.) therefore it is very necessarye for all true chri­sten people, to make this petition, incessantlye vn­to our heauenly father, and to beseche hym, according to this doctryne of Chryste, that by hys grace, & helpe we may escape the dominion and power of the De­uyll, and that we maye be made subiecte vnto hys heauenlye kyngedome. Therfore in this petytyon we dysyre God to gyue vs afore all thynges, true, and constant fayth in him, and in hys sonne Jesus Christ, and in the holye Ghoste, with pure loue, and charitie towardes hym, and all men, to kepe vs also from in­fidelitie, desperation, and malyce, whyche myghte be the cause of oure destruction, and to delyuer vs from dissensions, couctuousnes, lecherye, and euyll desyres and lustes of synne, and so the vertue of his kingdom to come, to reigne within vs, that al our heart, [...] and wyttes, wythall our strength inwarde and out­warde, maye be ordered and directed to serue GOD to obserue his commaundementes, and hys will and not to serue our [...], the fleshe, the worlde, or the De­uyll.

We desyre also that this kingdome, ones in vs be­gonne, maye be daylye cucrcased, and goo forwarde more and more, so that all subtyll and secrete hate, or slouth, whych we haue to goodnes be not suffered to rule so in vs that it shall cause vs to loke back againe and to fall into synne, but that we maye haue a sta­ble, [Page] purpose and strenghte, not onelye to begynne the [...] of innocencye, but also to procede ernestly furthe in it, and to perfourme accordynge to the sayinge of Saynt Paule (Colosse. i.) where he prayeth that we maye walke worthelye pleasynge god in all thynges beyng fruitefull in all good workes, & growynge and increasynge, in the knowledge of god. Also (Eph. iiii) he doth saye. Worke and doo the truth in cha­rite, and increase and goo forwarde in Christ. Therefore in this prayer desyrynge the kyngedome of god to come. we requyre also, that we beynge al­redy receyued and entred into the kyngdom of grace and mercye of god, may soo contynue and perseuer therein, that after this lyfe we may come to the kyng dome of glorye, whych endureth for euer, and thys is that greate and feruent desyre, where with good men beyng mortyfyed from worldely affections haue bene and be alwayes kyndled and enflamed, as appeareth by Saynte Paule, when he sayd (Philip.)

I woulde be losed from this bodye and be wt Chryste. and he sayth (Rom. eyght) We that haue receiued the firste fruites of thy spyryte, doo wayle and mourne, in our selues, [...] and loking to be delyuered from the mortalitie & miserles of this bo­dy, into the glory of the children of God.

[...] Thexposition or declaration of the thyrde petition whyche is.

‘Thy wil be done in earth, as it is in hea­uen.’

AFter that in the seconde petition we doo aske of God oure eternall father that hys kyngedome of grace, maye come vnto vs in thys worlde, & that we maye finallye come to hys eternal kyngdome in heauen (whyche is the hyghest degree of mans filicitye) there doth by ryghte order folowe thys thirde petition, wherein we doo aske of God oure eternall father, that hys wyll maye be fulfylled here in earthe, by the fulfyllynge, and ke­pynge of hys commaundementes, whyche is the best and mooste perfecte meanes, to procure vnto vs the foresaide highe degree of our felicytie. And for the bet­ter and playner vnderstandynge of thys thyrde pe­tition, you shall note that by disobedience, and synne of our fyrst father Adam, we be, as of our nature one­lye, without the grace of God, vnhable to fulfyll the wyll, and preceptes of God, and so are enclyned to loue our selues, and oure one wylles, that we canne not hartely loue, neither god, nor man, as we oughte to doo. And therfore (we being once chrysten men) it is requisite for vs to praye, that lyke as the holye aungelles and saynctes in heauen (in whome GOD reygnethe perfectlye, and holye) doo neuer cease, ne shall cease, to gloryfye hym, to prayse hym, and [Page] to fulfyll hys wyll and pleasure in all thynges, and that moste readylye and gladely, without any maner of grudgynge, or resystinge there vnto, knowyng cer­tainelye and clearelye, that hys will is [...] the best euen so that we the chyldren of God, in earthe, maye daylye and continuallye prayse God, and by our holy conuersation in good workes, and good lyfe, honour and groryfye hym, and that we maye from tyme to tyme so mortyfye oure owne naturall corrupte and synnefull appetyte, and wyll, that we maye be euer redye lyke louynge children, humbly, lowely, and obe dientlye, to approue, allowe, and accomplyshe the wil of God oure father in all thynges, and to submytte our selues wyth all oure hearte vnto the same, and to acknowledge that whatsoeuer is the wyll of GOD, the same is moste perfecte, moste iuste, most holy, and mooste expediente for the health and wealthe of oure soules, we (I say) ought also for these things to pray.

Wherefore in this petition also, we desyre of God true and stable pacience, when oure wyll is letted or broken. And that whan anye man speaketh or doeth contrarye to our wyll, yet therefore we be not oute of pacyence, [...] curse, or murmure, or seke venge­aunce agaynste our aduersaryes, or them whyche let oure wyll but that we maye saye well of them, and doe well to them. We pray also that by goddes grace we may gladelye suffer all diseases pouerty, dispysyn­ges, persecutions, and aduersities, knowynge that it is the wyll of God, that we shoulde crucyfye and mortyfye oure wylles. And whan any such aduersitie chaūceth vnto vs, to attribute al vnto the wil or suf­feraunce [Page] of GOD, and geue hym thankes therefore who doth order all suche thynges for oure weale and benefytte, eyther for the exercyse and the tryall of the good to make them stronger in goodnes and vertue, or ells for the chastysemente and amendemente of the euyll, to suppresse theyr euyll motyons and desyres.

And also we praye that whansoeuer it shall please god to call vs oute of thys transytorye lyfe, we maye be wyllyng to dye, and that consyrmynge our will to the wyll of God, we maye take our deathe gladely, so that by feare, or [...], we be not made dysobe­dyent vnto hym.

We desyre furthermore, that all oure members, eyes, tonge, hart, handes, and feete, be not suffered to follawe the desyres of the fleshe, but that all maye be vsed to the wyll and pleasure of GOD, and that ma­lycyouslye we reioyse not in theyr troubles, whyche haue resisted our wyll, or haue hurt vs, nor that we be enuyously sorye, when that they prosper and haue welfare, but that we maye be contented and pleased, with althing that is gods wyll.

¶ The exposition or declaration of the fourth petition which is.

‘Gyue vs this day our dayly breade.’

AFter that in the three former petitions we are orderly taught fyrst to desire & praye for suche thynges, as do cōcerne God, to gloryfye, & hallowe his name Secondly to desyre and praye for the cheife and principall blysse that man may haue, whiche is the kyngedome of God. And Thirdelye to desyre & praye for such cheife meanes, by whiche that [...] blysse is obteyned that is to saye by the fulfyllynge here in earth of gods wyl and pleasure. Now next and fourthly we are here taught to desyre of God, thinges that be necessarye for the foode and [...] both of our bodye & also of our soule, so longe as we shall here [...] vpon the Earthe. And fyrste as touchynge the sustenance of the bodye you shall note fyue thynges in this petition. The first is that our lorde teacheth vs in this petytyon, not to aske any superfluouse thynge of pleasure, and vayne delite, but onely thinges necessarye, & sufficiēt & there fore he biddith vs aske onelye breade, wherein is not ment [...], greate substaūce, or habundaunce of thinges aboue our state & cōditiō, but such thinges onely as be necessary for euery man in his degree that it should be one ordinary & dayly maner of sustenaūce [...], & trade of liuing, & nether inordinat nor excessiue [Page] And therefore yf we Chrysten men haue meate and drynke and cloth, that is to saye, thynges suffycyente let vs holde our selues content, for they that set there myndes on ryches, and wyll haue superfluities more than nedeth, or is expedyent to there vocatyon, they fall into daungerouse temptatyons and into snares of the deuyll, and into manye vnprofytable and noy­some desyres, which drowne men into perdityon and euerlastinge [...], for the spryng and roote of all euylls, is suche superfluouse desyre. The wyseman also makyng hys petition to our lorde. Prouerbe. 35. sayth. Gyue me neither pouertie nor excesse, but onelye thinges sufficiente for my liuinge, lest that hauinge to much, I be prouoked to denye God, and to forgette who is the Lord, and on the other syde, lest that by pouertie cō ­strayned, I fall into thefte and forswere the name of my God.

Whereby is declared that we shoulde desyre onely thynges necessarye, signified here by breade, and re­fuse and renounce superfluities vnprofitable, daun­gerous, and noysome.

The second thyng to be considered in this petiti on is, that we doo desyre and praye, not absolutelye for breade, but we doo desyre and praye for. Oure breade. By whyche wordes appeareth, that, that breade onelye is oures, which we do get, by true iuste honest and lawefull meanes, for yf we doo get ought [Page] by deceyte, fraude, crafte, or any vnlawfull or [...] wayes, that is in no wyse ours, but other mens. So that in thys worde Our, is most euidentlye implyed and conteyned a greate reproche to all those persons, which eate not theyr owne bread, but deuoure other mens breade: of whyche sorte be all those that lyue of theft, robbery, rauyne and spoyles, extortion, or craft and deceyte. They also are of thys sort who neyther doo laboure with their handes, nor otherwyse apply theyr study, theyr industry or diligence to some thinge whiche maye be good and profytable to the common wealthe, and to the honoure of GOD but doo lyue in case, rest, ydelnes, and wanton pleasure. They lyke­wyse are of thys sorte, and worthy therefore to be re­proued, who beyng in any roume, or vocation of auc­thoritye or seruice, do not fully truely and faythfullye fulfyl and performe the duetye of theyr vocation. The thirde thing to be noted in this petitiō touching our corporall sustenaunce, is, that we muste saye vn­to almyghtye God, [...], That is to saye: Geue thou, to the entente that we should not thinke yt out meate drynke, clothe, or any other worldelye sustenaunce is wonne or gotten onely by oure owne industry, wyt, and laboure (thoughe we be bounde by the lawe of God, to laboure and trauayle in our vocation, to the vttermost of our [...], for the mayntenaūce & suste­naunce of our selues and all ours) but that when we haue played and done our parte, [...] we must firmely beleue that all thinges so commynge vnto vs, are ge­uen vs, by the liberal handes of almyghty God, who [Page] doth fede both man and beaste: for of our selfe, we can not [...] nor assure or promysse oure selues anye thynge, but whatsoeuer we haue, we haue it in dede at the hande of almyghtye God, as the prophet Da­uid doth saye in his. cxxx. psalme. All thynges doe wayte or looke for at thy hande that thou shouldeste geue them meate in tyme. And when thou doest geue vnto them, they shall gather. And when thou doest open thy hand, all thynges shalbe fylled with goodnes: and when thou doest tourne awaye thy face, they shalbe in trouble or distresse. And the same Pro­phette in the. cxliiii. [...] doeth saye. The eyes of all thynges trust in thee (o lorde) and thou geuest them foode in dewe seasonne: Thou doest open thy hande, and dost fyll euery ly uynge thynge wyth thy blessynge. Nowe the fourth thynge here in too be considered, is the worde Us, which noteth vnto vs that no man ought to say in prayer. Geue me my dayly breade but Geue vs our dayly breade. Beinge therby taughte that what thynges soeuer. God dothe gyue or sende vnto vs, he gyueth them not to vs for oure owne pryuate commoditye and vse onely, but that we also, shoulde gyue to other, some parte or portion, and some fruite therof, especially to such as [...] wayes by no menes possible can yerne or get theyr lyuynge. And therfore [Page] [...] suche wycked people doo praye in vayne, who knowinge thys to be the petytyon, Gyue vs thys day our daylye breade. do not onely refuse of that thing whiche God hath sent to them, to impart some what vnto the the pore. But also wyll and doo, rather robbe and spoyle them, by fraude, deceyte, extortyon or otherwyse, that they them selues maye encrease theyr pryuate wealthe, not caryng howe vniustlye, or vngodlye they come to goodes, nor howe they kepe them, or spende them, and thys sorte of people almygh ty God abhorreth greatlye. The fyft thing herein to be considered is this worde. Hodie, That is to saye:

Thys daye. Wherby is ment, partelye the hole con­tynuaunce & time of mans lyfe, [...] inuste be refer­red to the disposition of almyghtye God, concerninge his bodily sustenaunce, and partelye, (yea and that most speciallye) that we hauinge thinges sufficyente for our [...] necessytie, should not be ouer carefull for the tyme to come. Of which thing our Sauioure Chryst in the. vi. of Mathewe doth speake, sayinge.

I say [...] you, beye not carefull for youre lyuing what ye shall eate, ne for your bodye what clothes ye shall weare, is not lyte better then meate? and your body, better thē your clothing? [...] vpon the byrdes of the ayre: they [...] not, they reapenot, they bring no­thing in ye barne, & yet your heauenly father fedeth thē, are not you of more price thē thei? [Page] vpon the lylies of the fielde, howe they grow they laboure not, they spinne not, and yet I tell you Salomon in all his glorye, was not so clothed as one of them. Nowe yf god so clothe that, which to day is grasse of ye feild and to morowe is cast into the fornace, howe much more will he considre you, O ye of lit­tle faithe: Wherefore be you not carefull or pensiue, sayinge what shall we eate, or what shall we drinke, or where with all shall we be clothed, for all these thinges the heathen doo seke after. But your father, dothe knowe that ye haue nede of all [...] thinges, wher­fore seke ye firste for the kingedome of god, & the rightuousnes thereof, and all these thin­ges shalbe giuen or caste vnto youe. Be ye not then careful for to morowe. For the mo­rowe shall care for it selfe.

And secondelye as concernyninge the sustenaunce of the soule whyche also is ment and conteyned in thys petition, ye shall vnderstande, that this kynd of fode is of two sortes. The one is that incomperable and most excellente foode, wherof Christ maketh promise in the. vi, of Ihon saying. The breade or foode whiche I will geue is my fleshe, whiche I will geue for the life of the worde. Whyche breade or fode is conteined truely, and [...] the [Page] blessed Sacramente of the aulter, wherin vnder the formes of breade and wyne (as we haue heretofore sufficientlye declared) is the very body and bloude of our Sauiour Christ, the other foode is the worde of God: accordyng as oure Sauiour doth testifye in the fourth of Mathewe saying. Not onelye wyth cor porall foode is the lyfe of man susteyned, but with euerye worde that procedeth from the mouth of God. And agreable to thys exposytyon Sayncte Augustyne in hys. 135, sermon, dc tempore, ex­poundyng this fourth petition of the, Pater noster, dothe saye in thys maner. Siquetur in oratione, panem nostrum [...] anum, da nobis hodie. Siue exhibitionem corpori necessariam petamus [...] patre, in pane significantes quicquid nobis est necessarium, siue quotidia­num panum, illum intelligamus quem accepturiestis de altare, petimus be­ne ut det nobis eum. Quid est enim quod oramus nisi ne male aliquid ad­mittamus, unde a tali pane separemur, & ucrbum dci quod quotidie prae­dicatur, panisest, non enim, quia [...] panis est uentris, ideonō est panis mentis Cum autem ista uita transierit, nec panem illum querimus, quem queric fames necsacramentum altaris habemus accipere, quiaibi, erimus eum Christo cuius corpus accepimus nec uerba ista nobis dici habent, quae di­cimus nobis, nec [...] legendus est, quando ipsum uidebimus quod est uer­bum dei, per quod facta sunt bmnia, quo pascuntur angeli. quo [...] angeli, quo sapientes fiunt [...]. &c.

That is to saye. It doth followe in our Lordes praier. Gyue vs this daye our daylye breade, whether we do aske of our father, necessarye sustenaunce of the bodye: in, or by breade, meaninge, whatsoeuer is necessarye for vs: or whether that by our dayely breade, we do [Page] understand that, which you haue to [...] from the aultar, we doo aske well of GOD, that he wyll geue it vnto vs. For what doo we pray, but that we commit not any offēce wherby we muste be separated from suche foode, or bread? And the woord of God, whi­che is dayly preached, is breade, or foode. For it followeth not, that because it is not the breade, or foode of the belly, therefore it is not the bread or foode of the mynd, or soule. And whan this life shal be once passed, we neither doo seke that breade, whiche hunger seeketh for, nor we haue nede to receiue the sacramēt of the aultar, for there we shall be with Christ whose body we haue receaued, neyther these wordes are to be spoken vnto vs, whiche we doo speake, or vtter vnto you, nor the booke is there to be redde, bycause we shall see hym who is the worde of God, by whome all thinges ar made, on whom the angels doo feede, by whom the angels are illuminated, by whome angels doo receaue wisdome &c. And hereby ye doo playnelye perceyue that in thys petition, our sauioure teacheth vs, not onelye to aske our heauenlye father for dayly sustenaunce of the bo­dye, but also to aske for the sustenaunce of the soule.

¶ The exposition or declaration of the fyfte petition whych is.

‘And for geue vs oure trespasses, as we do for­geue them that trespasse agaynst vs.’

FOr asmuche as the end, and scope, of all prayer, is onelye to obtayne thyn­ges which are good, or to be pourged preserued or delyuered, from thynges whiche are euyll. And that thys oure Lordes prayer, is not onley a moste perfecte, fruiteful, and ample prayer in sense, but also a moste perfecte fourme, where by all maner of pray­ers, eyther in parte or in the hole, are framed, or sha­pen. Therefore after the former foure petitions, in whyche we doo aske all that good is, there doeth fo­lowe in verye good order, the other three petitions, in whyche we doo aske the auoydynge of all euyll, as fyrst of synne commytted, and payne due to the same (it beynge the greatest euyll of all euyls). Secondlye of tentation, whyche is the chiefe meanes, whereby man is induced to synne. Thirdelye and lastlye, we do aske the auoydynge of all other thynges, that may be hurteful, dammageable, or [...] vnto vs, and especially for the auoydynge of the deuyl, who is to vs mooste daungerouse. And the order of the three laste petitions of the [...] noster, beynge thus opened vnto you, mete it shall be nowe to entreate of the fyrste of them, whiche is. Forgeue vs our trespasses, as we forgeue [...] yt do trespasse againste vs. [Page] In whych peticion we haue two proffitable lessones geuen vnto vs. The fyrste is that we should lerne al­wayes to be lowlye, and meke in harte consideryng that we are all synners in the syghte of God. Sainct Iohn so testifyeng, in the fyrste Chapiter, of hys first epystle, and saying. If we saye that we haue no sinne, we do begyle our selfe, and there is no veritye or truthe in vs, whervnto agreeth Salo­mon in the. xx. of hys prouerbes sayinge. Who can saye my harte is cleane, and I am pure from synne. And agayne he sayth in ye. iiii. of Ecclesiastes. There is no manne, so good vpon the earthe, but that he synneth. And moreouer, in the. 24. of the pronerbes, he sayth. Aiuste man shall fall, seuen tymes a daye, and shall ryse agayne.

By consideration of whyche our owne infirmitie & [...] to synne, we shoulde humble our selues in ye syghte of God, knowing (as Saint James doth saye in the fourth chapiter of hys epystle) God will re­siste the proude, and [...] the humble [...] doth giue grace. The seconde lesson whyche we shoulde learne in this petition, is that the forgyuyng of other mens offenses done agaynste vs, is a cause, & meanes to obteyne remissyon of our synnes, at Gods handes, accordyng where vnto our sauyoure sayeth in the. vi. of Luke. Forgeue and ye shalbe forgeuen.

And in the sixt of. Mathewe, he sayth. [...] you for­gyue [Page] to men theyr offences, than shall youre heauenlye father forgeue you, your offences and synnes. But yf you do not forgeue men neyther shall your father forgeue you youre synnes. And moreouer in the. xviii, 'of Mathewe it is wrytten howe when Peter came to our Lord, and demaunded of hym howe oft he shoulde forgeue hys brother, whyche had offended hym, and whether it was not sufficient to forgeue hym seuen tymes. Oure Lorde answered hym and sayde. I tell the Peter that thou oughtest to forgeue him not only seuen times, but seuentie times seuen times. Meanynge thereby that from tyme to tyme, we must continually forgeue oure brother, or neygheboure, wyth all our hearte, althoughe he trespasseth agaynst vs neuer so often. And Chryste also in the same place declareth the same by a parable. There was sayth Chryst, a kynge, which callyng hys seruaun­tes vnto an accompte, and fyndynge that one of them did owe vnto hym the summe of tenne thousand talentes, and had it not to pay, he cōmaunded that the saide debtor, his wife and his children, & al that he had [...] be sold, but when the debtour came vnto the kyng & praied him on his knees to haue pa­ciēce whim, promising him to pay al, ye king had pitie of him, & forgaue him ye hole debte, [Page] Nowe it fortuned afterwarde [...] thys man beinge thus acquited, mette wyth an other of his felowes, that ought hun but one hun­dreth pence, and wyth violence almooste he strangled hym and sayde vnto him. Paye that thou owest. And the sayde seruaunte his felowe, fell vpon his knees, and prayed hym to haue pacience, promysinge to paye all, but his felowe woulde not, but caste him in to prison, vntyll all was payed. And whan the reste of his felowes, seinge this crueltye, had tolde the kinge thereof, the kynge furth­with sente for this cruell felowe, and sayde to [...]. O wycked man, I Forgaue thee thy hole debte, at thy sute and request, it shoulde therefore haue beseemed the, to haue shewed like compassion, vnto thy felowe, as I she­wed to the. And the kinge beynge sore dys­pleased with this crueltye, committed hym to tormenters, that shoulde roughelye and straitelye handle him in prison, tyll he hadde payed the whole debte.

Upon this parable Chryst inferreth and sayeth. Euen so shall your heauenly father doo wyth you, if you will not forgeue euery one of you his brother, from the hearte.

[Page]Thus it appeareth playnelye, that yf we wyll be forgeuen, and wyll escape euerlastynge dampnaty­on, we muste putte oute of oure hearte all rancoure, malyce, and wyll to reuenge or to satysfye oure owne carnall affections, referrynge the punyshmente of the offenders, whyche in theyr offences haue trans­gressed the lawes of God or of the prynce, to the or­der of Justyce, where of vnder God, the prynces and rulers be ministres in earthe, in whyche doynge we vtterlye forgeue our owne priuate grudge and dys­pleasure.

And yf anye peraduenture wyll thynke it to be an harde thynge, to suffer and forgeue hys enemye, whyche in woorde and deede hathe doone hym anye displeasures, lette hym consyder agayne, howe ma­nye harde stormes oure Sauyoure Chryste suffered, and aboode for vs, what were we when he gaue hys moste precyous lyfe for vs, but horryble synners, and hys enemyes? Nowe mekelye tooke he for oure sake all rebukes, mockes, byndynge, beatynge crou­nynge wyth thorne, and the mooste approbryouse death, It is vndoutedlye aboue oure frayle and cor­rupte nature to loue our enemyes that dooe hate vs and it is a deade of greater perfection then man hath of him selfe, but GOD that requireth it, wyll gyue grace that we maye doo it yf we aske and seke for it. And therefore in thys petition oure Sauyour Christ teachethe vs to aske thys grace of our heauenlye fa­ther that we maye forgeue vs our enemyes, and that he wyll forgeue vs our trespasses, euen soo as we for­geue [Page] them that trespasse agaynst vs.

It is farther to be noted, that to forgeue oure brother hys faulte, is also to praye to GOD that he wyll for­geue hym and wil not impute his offence to hym and to wyshe to hym the same grace and glorye, that we desyre vnto our selues and also our selfe when occasi­on shall comme to helpe hym, as we be bound to help our chrysten brother.

And here we thynke it expedient, that lyke as in the former parte of thys petition we haue declared, the parte and duety of hym, whyche should for chari­tyes sake forgeue, so to declare the part and duetye of them to whom forgeuenes shoulde, be made, leaste euyll doers and noughtye mynded people myght, by the former declaration take occasyon styll to perseuer in theyr noughtye myndes an d doynges, and yet clayme for geuenes of theyr neyghbour.

Wherfore ye shal vnderstande, that forgeuenes afore spoken of, is not so mente in scrypture, that by it iustice, or lawes of prynces, shoulde be broken, con­dempned or not executed. For although our Sauy­our Chryst in thys petition doth teache vs to remytte and forgeue al iniuryes and trespasses, done agaynst vs, yet he which hathe done the iniurye, or trespasse, is neuerthelesse bounde to acknowledge hys faulte, & to aske forgeuenes therefore not onelye of God, but of hym also, whom he hath offended, and to intende to doo no more so. And furthermore to recompence, and to make amendes, vnto the parties agaynst whō he hath trespassed, accordynge to hys habilytye, and [Page] power, and as the greuousenes, and greatnes of the offence requyreth. And in case he whiche hathe com­mytted the offence, or trespasse, be obstynate, and wyl not doo these thynges before rehearsed, whyche he is bounde to doo by the lawe of God: than maye the partye whyche fyndeth hym selfe greued, not wyth­standynge any thynge that is sayd before in this peti­tion lawefully and wythout offence of Goddes com­maundementes aske, and seke, recompense of suche iniuryes as be doone to hym accordynge to the order and prouysion of the lawes of the Realme made in that behalfe, so that he alwaye haue an eye and res­pecte vnto charitye, and doo [...] for rancor or malyce or for sinister affection, neyther beare anye ha­tred in hys harte towardes hym whome he sueth, but onelye vppon a zeale and loue, of the [...] of [...], correction of vyce, and reformation of the partye that hath offended, remembrynge alwayes that he excede not or goo beyonde the lymyttes and bondes of thys generall rule, taughte by oure Sa­nioure Chryste in the gospell (Mathewe. vii.)

As ye would that other men [...] doo vnto you, euen so doo you vnto them, for thys is the lawe and the prophetes.

And thus we christen folke, wayinge forgeuenes on the one partye, and the dewtye of hym that is forge­uen on the other partye (as here nowe we be taught) [...] the better knowe how to endeuour oure selues to obserue both wayes, in such sorte as we are boun­den to obserue and folowe.

✚ The exposition or declaration of the syxte petition, which is.

‘And let vs not be led into tentation.’

FOr the better vnderstandynge of this petition youe shall note fyrste that there be two maner of tentatyons whereof one commethe, and is sene to vs by GOD, who sufferethe those that be his, to be temted by one mea­nes or other, for there probation, or tryall, albeit he so assystethe and aydeth them in all suche temptations, that he turneth all at the ende vnto theyr benefyte, and profytte. For as the wise man saieth (Eccl. xxviii) Lyke as the ouen trieth the pottets vessell, so doth tentation of trouble trie the righteous man. And with this maner of tentation, God tem­pted sundry wise, oure holye father Abraham: he ten­ted also Iob with extreme pouertie, horrible sickenes and sodayne death of his children, and daylye he ten­teth and proueth all such as he loueth.

The other tentation commeth cheifly of the deuyll whyche lyke a furiouse and a woode lyon rageth, and runneth aboute perpetually sekynge how he maye de­uour vs. And it commeth also of our owne concupys­cence, which continuallye inclineth and styrrethe vs to [...], as Saynt Iames sayeth. (Iacob. i.) Euery man is tented, drawen, and [...] 'by hys owne concupyscence Of whyche concupyscence albeit, we haue somewhat spoken before, yet here in no wyse we maye omytte to speake of it agayne. [Page] And therefore knowe ye that thys [...] is an inclination, and pronitie, of our inordinate nature to synne, whiche imperfection man hathe by the fall of Adam, so that althoughe originall synne, is taken awaye by baptysme, and the displeasure appeased be­twixte God and man, yet there remayneth a dysor­der and debate, betwene the soule and the fleshe, which shal not be extincte but onely by bodely death. For there is no man so mortifyed, so sequestred from the worlde, and so rauyshed in spiryte, in deuotyon or in contemplation, but that somme concupyscence is in hym, howe be it by goddes grace and mercye it reygneth not, nor is of God accounted for synne, nor is hurtefull, but onelye to them that by consente yelde vnto it. It wyll neuer cease but one waye or other it wyll euer assaulte vs, and yf we do not fyght with it and resiste it continuallye, it wyll ouercome vs, and brynge vs vnto bondage, so that by this oure concu­piscence, and our consent, all vyce, and synnes be in­gendred: accordynge to the sayinge of saynte Iames, (Iacob. i.) Concupiscence [...] she doth con­ceiue, she bringeth forth sinne, and that of all sortes, that is to sai, first actes and dedes, con­trary to the lawes of God, and after that vse and custome of the same deedes, and at the length she bringeth furth blindnes and con­tempte. For so the wyse man sayeth (Prouer. xviii.) The wicked man when he commeth to the bottome of sinne, setteth nought thereby. [Page] But blynded with euyll custome eyther thynke the synne, that he vsethe, to be no synne, or ells yf he take it for synne, yet he: careth not for it, but eyther vpon [...] trust of the mercye of GOD (which is in dede no ryght truste, but a very presumption) he wyll con­tinue stil in purpose to sinne; or ells vpon vayne hope of longe lyfe, he wyll prolonge, dyffer, and delaye to doo penaunce for the same, vntill the last ende of his lyfe. And often times preuented with sodayne deathe he dieth without repentance.

Wherefore considerynge howe daungerouse it is to fall into synne, and howe harde it is to aryse, ye cheif and the best waye is, to resiste (wyth Gods helpe) the first suggestion vnto synne, and not to suffer it to pre­uayle with vs, but assone as maye be, to put it oute of our myndes. For yf we suffer it to tarye any while in our [...], it is a greate peryll, lest that consente, and dede wyll folowe shortly after.

Secondly ye shall note, that our sauioure Iesus Chryste doth not teache vs in this sixt petitiō, to pray vnto God our father, that we shoulde be clerely wyth out all tentation: but that he wyll not suffer vs to be ledde into tentation, that is to saye, that whan we be tented, he wyll geue vs grace to with stande it and [...] vs to be ouercome therewith, accordyng where vnto Saynt Paule sayth (i. Corin. (x.) God is true and faythfull and will not suffer vs to be teneed, aboue that we maye beare, but he wyll so moderate the tentation, that we maye susteine and ouercome it. And S. Iames [Page] sayeth (Iacob. i.) Thynke that you haue a greate cause to ioye, when you be troubled with diuers tentations. For the triynge of your faythe bringeth pacience, and pacyence maketh perfect workes, so, that you maye be perfecte and sounde lackynge in nothynge. And almyghtye God also exhorteth vs, and callethe vpon vs to fyghte agaynst tentatiōs saying (Apo. ii.) He that getteth the victorye agaynst them, I shall geue hym to eate of the tree of lyfe. And agayne he sayeth. He that ouercommeth them shall not be hurte with the seconde deathe. And Saint Paule sayeth (ii. Timothy. ii.) No [...] shalbe crowned excepte he fyght lawefullye. That is to saye. Excepte he defende hym selfe and re­syste hys enemyes at al poyntes to hys power, & oure sauiour geueth vs a good courage to fyghte in thys battayle, where he sayeth, Ioan. xix. Be of good comforte, for I haue ouercome the worlde, that is to saye: I haue hadde the victorye of all synnes aud tentations, and soo shall you haue yf the faulte be not in youre selues. For ye fyghte wyth an aduersarye, whyche is al­redye vanquyshed and ouercome.

✚ The exposition or declaration of the seuenth and last petition of the Pater noster, whyche is.

‘But delyuer vs from euyll. Amen’

WOncerning thys, vii. petition ye shall note, that lyke as in the. vi. petytyon Chryste taught vs to desyre and praye our heauenlye father that he woulde preserue vs from the daungerous tentations of the fleshe, the worlde & the deuyll, and not to be ouercome wyth them, euen so nowe in thys seuenth and laste petityon, he dothe teache vs to praye that yf by oure fraylenes and cor­rupte nature, we through tentation, doo fall into the thraldome of the Deuyll by synne, yet that he wyll sone delyner vs from it, not to lette vs contynue in it, not to lette it take roote in vs, not to suffer synne to reigne vpon vs, but to delyuer vs and make vs free from it.

Synne is the excedyng euyll, from the whyche in this petition we desyre to be deliuered: and though in thys petition, be also comprehended ail euylles in the worlde as syckenes, pouertye, deathe, wyth other lyke aduersitie, yet cheifely it is to be vnderstan­ded of synne, whych onelye of it selfe is euyll, & oughte euer withoute condition to be eschued. And as for other aduersities, neyther we canne ne oughte to re­fuse when god shall sende them, neyther we oughte to praye for the eschuinge of thē, otherwyse then with this condition, if gods pleasure so be. Many thynges we suffer in this worlde, & take them for euyl but they [Page] be not euyll of them selfe: All afflictions, diseases punyshementes and tormentes of the bodye, all the troubles of thys worlde: and all aduersytyes, be good and necessarye instrumentes of God, for oure saluation. For God hymselfe, who canne not saye other then trueth, sayeth: Apocalip. iii. Those that I loue, I chastyse. And agayne the apostle, Hebre. xii. sayeth, He receyueth none but whom he scor­geth. Thys is a tyme of scourgynge, and the tyme to come, is the tyme of rest ease and blysse. And sure­lye it is a greate token, that we be in the fauoure of God when he doeth scourge vs, and tryeth & fyneth vs lyke golde in the fyre, whiles we be in thys world As contrarye it is a greate tooken of hys indignaty­on towardes vs to suffer vs lyuynge euyll, to conty­nue in prosperitye, and to haue all thynges after our wyl and pleasure, and neuer to trouble or punyshe vs wyth aduersitye. Therefore oure sauyoure Chryste Iesus (who knoweth what is beste for vs) teacheth vs to praye and to desyre to be delyuered, not cheyfe­ly from worldely afflyctions, trouble and aduersytye, (whyche GOD sendeth habundantlye euen to them whome he beste loueth, and wyth whome he is beste pleased) But the euyll whych we most chieflye should pray to be delyuered from, is [...], whyche of it selfe is so euil, that in no wise god can be pleased ther with.

And because oure auncient enemy the deuyll, who is the well and sprynge of iniquitye and is not onlye hymselfe an homicide, a lyer, and hater of the trueth from the begynnyng: but also is the verye roote, and occasion of all synne, & the cōmon prouoker & styrrer, [Page] of man to the same, yea and the letter or [...], of all vertue and goodnes, because thys enemye ne­uer cesseth, but continuallye serchethe by all craftes and wyles to enduce vs to sinne, and soo to [...] vs, and to bring vs thereby to euerlastynge damna­tion: Therefore lyke as we desyre here to be delyue­red from synne, soo also we desyre that oure heauen­ly father wyl saue vs, and defende vs from this euyll, the causer of synne, that is to saye, the Deuyll, and from hys powre, & tyrannye, so that he shall not by his malyce and gyles, entyce and drawe vs into synne, whereby we maye finallye be broughte vnto euerla­stynge dampnation, from the whyche also we praye here to be delyuered. And fynallye touchynge thys woorde. Amen. ye shall note that it is here, added vnto the ende of thys most excellent prayer, to teache vs thereby, that yf we doo come soo as we oughte to be prepared for to make this prayer (whych due pre­paration we before haue declared in the preface of this Pater noster) that then vndoutedlye we shall receiue of our Lorde those thinges nedefull for vs, whiche in thys prayer of the pater noster, we doo aske, whyche that we maye doe, graunt vnto vs the father the sonne and the holye ghoste, to whome be all honoure and glorye worlde wythout ende.


¶ Here folowethe the Salutation of the ar­chaungell Gabryell made to the blessed Uyrgyn Mary, taken out of the fyrst chapter of Saint Luke commonlye called the Aue Maria, with the exposition or declaration. thereof.

‘Hayle Marye full of grace, oure Lorde is with the, blessed art thou amongeste all wo­men. And blessed is the fruite of thy wombe.’

IT is not without greate and weygh­tye considerations, that oure forefa­thers, throughoute the vniuersall or catholyke Churche haue nexte after the Pater noster, set fourthe and commen­ded the Salutation of the Archaun­gell Gabryell, where wyth he saluted the blessed vyr­gyn Marye, mother of our sauiour Iesus Chryst, cal­led the Aue maria, the same to be frequented & deuoute­ly vsed and sayde of all [...]. For seynge that the hygh messenger of almyghtye God, and hea­uenly spirite Gabriel, did moste ioyfullye wyth thys salutation greete the Uyrgyn Marye, beynge then a mortall woman liuinge on the earthe, and not ha­uynge then conceyued in her [...], and chaste wombe, our sauiour Chryst, howe much more oughte we mortall earthlye and synnesull creatures, with all promptnesse and [...], to salute with the self same woordes, that [...] nowe, when as not [Page] onely she hathe brought forth our sauyour & [...] Chryst, but also she herselfe is exalted in heauē aboue all aungelles, and archaungelles: Besydes thys also the matter it selfe conteyned in thys Salutation, is of such worthynes, comforte and spirytuall fruyte to the faythfull rememberer, and deuoute frequenter of the same, that all goode men haue alwayes founde them selues by meditation hereof greately edysyed.

And thys thinge to no man can seme straunge that wyll duely marcke the pythe, effecte and weyghtye sense in the same salutation conteyned, whyche [...] wyll here [...] declare vnto you. And fyrste you shall vnderstand how that it was decreed of the hole [...] that after the fall of [...] fyrste father Adam (by whiche mankynde was exiled out of heauen) the second person in Trinitye shoulde take vpon hym the perfecte Nature of man, to redeme mankynde from the power of the Deuyll, and to reconcyle the same a­gayne vnto hys Lorde God. And for thys purpose (as S. Luke in hys fyrste Chapyter declareth) the aungell Gabryell, was sente from God to the Uyrgin Mari, with the highest message that euer was, which was to treate and conclude a leage of peace, betwene God and manne. And when thys aungell came vnto thys blessed Uirgin, he sayde these wordes. Hayleful of grace oure lorde is with the, bles­sed arte thou amongest women. And truelye thys worde Hayle or be ioyfull, is a worde moste mete and conuenyent for the aungell, commynge on a message, to begynne hys Salutation wythall. For neuer was there Creature, that hadde soo greate and Iuste cause, to reioyse for anye Benefytte, re­ceyued [Page] at godes handes, as had the blessed byrgyn Marye, for that it pleased almyghtye God to chuse specyallye and appoynte her to that moste excellente and incomparable dignytye, that of her should be con ceyued and borne, Chryste beynge both god and man the sauioure and redemer of all mankynde. And not onelye for this cause or purpose, the aungell beganne with this worde of highe comforte, but also for that he perceyued the virgyn beyng alone would be much abashed and astonyed, at hys marueylous and so­dayne comminge vnto her. And therefore thoughte it expedient fyrste of all to vtter thys worde of Ioye, and comforte, whyche myghte also put away al feare from the blessed Uyrgynne. And by these woordes Our lorde is wyth the, is signifyed that GOD, was in the vyrgyn Mary not onelye by essence, pow­er and presence, (as he is in all creatures) nor onely with his speciall grace (as he is in all holye men and women) but he was also in her by receyuynge of oure nature and fleshe of her substaunce, yea the hole Tri­nitie was with her by a singuler and specyall sorte, for the sonne of god was with her in that she concey­ued & bare him. The holye gost was with her for that she by hys power and vertue dyd conceyne. God the father was wyth her, because she in tyme concey­ued hys sonne, being of him begottē by eternall gene­ration before all tyme. And by these woordes, blessed arte thou amongeste all women, was mente that there neuer was, nor shall be woman soo blessed as she was.

[Page]And truelye she maye well be called most blessed [...] gest all women for that she had greate and hygh pre­rogatiues whyche neuer other woman euer hadde, hath, or shall haue. Is not this a hygh prerogatyue, that of all women she was chosen to be a mother to the sonne of God? And what excellent honor was she put to whan not withstandyng the decree was made of Chrystes natyuitie by the holye Trinitie, yet the thynge was not done and accomplyshed, wythoute or before her consent was graunted, for the whyche so solempne a messenger was sente? and also howe hygh grace was thys that after the defaulte made throughe the perswasion of the fyrst woman Eue, by whome Adam was brought into disobedyence, and thereby all mankynde to state of dampnation, thys blessed Uyrgyn was electe to be the instrumente, of oure reparation, in that she was chosen to beare the Sauiour and redemer of the worlde. And is not thys a wonderfull prerogatiue, to see a Uyrgyn to be a mother and conceyue her chylde wythout synne? the archaungell myghte therefore worthely saye that she the sayde Mary, was the most blessed of all other women. And wyth these wordes the aungell Ga­bryell made an ende of this salutation. But yet yee shall note that the wordes folowynge. whyche are And blessed is the fruite of thy wombe. Be not the wordes of the aungell, but of S. Elyzabeth mother of Ihon Baptist, for whan after the depar­tinge of the angel Gabriel the virgyn Marye beynge cōceiued [...] Christ, came to salute her cosē Elizabeth, she the sayde Elyzabethe beynge inspyred wyth the holy Ghost, & thereby knowyng yt the vyrgyn Mary [Page] was conceyued wyth Chryste, spake the aforesayde wordes of the fruyte, being in the vyrgyns wombe, it is to wytte, of our sauiour [...]. And here is al­so an other wonderfull thynge to be noted, for (as it appeareth in the fyrst chapyter of Saynte Luke) the chylde in S. Elizabethes wombe, that is to saye, Saynt Ihon Baptiste (whiche yet had scant lyfe) gaue testimonye to thys frute, that it shoulde saue hym and all the worlde, and as a prophette he dyd lepe for ioye, in his mothers wombe, and althoughe he coulde not than speake, yet neuerthelesse he de­clared by such signes, and tokens as he coulde, that blessed was the fruyte of that wombe. And worthe ly the thyng is called ye fruyte of her wombe, in yt the substaunce of the nature of man, whych our sauiour Chryste toke vpon hym, was taken of the nature of the moste blessed vyrgyn, and of her wombe. And so therefore it is called the fruyte, of her wombe. And he maye well be called the blessed fruyte, for that he hath saued vs, and gyuen vs lyte, contrarye to the cursed fruyte, whych Eue gaue to Adam, by whiche we were dystroyed, and broughte to deathe: But blessed is the fruyte of thys wombe, whyche is the fruyte of lyfe euerlastyng. And it is here to be noted that althoughe thys falutatyon be not a prayer of petition, supplication, or request, or suyte: Yet ne­uerthelesse, the Churche hath vsed, to adioyne it to the ende of the Pater noster, as an hymne or prayer, of laude, and prayse, partely of our lorde, and sauyoure Iesus Chryst, for oure redemptyon, and partelye of the blessed virgin, for her humble consent, gyuen, and [Page] expressed, to the auugell at hys salutation. In dede, laudes, prayses, & thankes are in thys [...] Maria, pryn­cypally gyuen, and yelded to our Lord, as to thaue­tor of our redemption: but yet here wythall the vyr­gyn lackethe not her laudes, prayse, and thankes, for her excellent and synguler vertues, and chyefiye, for that she beleued, and humbly consented, accordynge to the [...] of the holye Matrone S. Elizabethe, whan she sayd to thys vyrgyn. Luce. i. Bessed arte thou, that dyddest geue truste, and credence, to the aungelles wordes: for all thynges that haue ben spoken vnto the, shalbe [...]. Who is there now that hathe a good Chrysten heart and considereth the meanyng, the effecte folowyng the aucthor, and other the cyrcumstances of the Aue Maria, that wyll not counte, and iudge them vnwor­thy of the name of Chrysten men, who of late yeres, not onely haue in all theyr bokes, and other prynted papers, of purpose lefte oute thys godlye salutation, disdaynyng at the honour of the blessed vyrgyn Ma­ry here in conteyned, but haue also to the vttermoste of theyr power, by theyr enuyinge agaynste the com­mon commendable and deuout: vse thereof, gone about to plucke it cleane ont of mennes heartes, and myndes, and so for euer to abolyshe the memorye [...] her blessednes, moste contrarye to the determination of the holy ghoste, by the mouthe of the same vyrgyn declared when she sayd (Luk. i.) Fece enim ex hoc [...] me dicent omnes generationes That is to saye, Beholde [...] from hence forth all generations shall [Page] call me blessed, whyche thynge lyke as the aun­gell of God, and the godly matrone Elizabeth then dyd, the vyrgyn Marye, as then, beyng in mortall estate, and neyther Chryst of her then borne, nor man kynde then by Chryste redemed. So nowe, for that the sonne of thys blessed vyrgyn, hath bothe redemed vs, and also all mankynde, from eternall damnati­on, and she her selfe nowe is mooste gloriouselye pla­ced in heauen, in state of immortalitie: And thyrdly that suche notable examples also herein set before our eyes, by the Aungell and Elizabeth: And fynal­ly for that the holy goost dyd playnelye saye that all generations shoulde frome thenseforthe call her blys­sed, for these respectes, I saye, the hole catholyke churche doth moost ioyfully vse and frequent the sayde salutation, and so must we do, yf we wil be true members of the Catholyke churche.

¶ Of the, vii. deadlye synnes, and of the. vii. pryneypall vertues, and also of the eyghte Beatitudes.

HAuynge accordynge to the promysse whyche was made in the preface of thys booke entreated of faythe, as it is to be taken and consydered, in thys booke, hauynge also sette furthe the sumine and uythe of our chrysten faythe, whyche in effecte is comprysed in our cōmon Crede, makynge also declaration therevpon, [...] thyrdelye set forth the seuen sacramentes, with theyr expositions. And lyke wyse fourthlye hauynge intreated of the tenne' Commaundementes, and made theyr declaratyon. And consequentlye after that hauynge set furthe fyrste the pater nocter, and after­wardes, the Aue Maria, wyth theyr [...], and declarations, and thereby (for so farre forth, and for­somuche) accomplyshed the promysse, made in the sayde Preface, there remayneth onely nowe special­lye to be spoken, of the seuen deadly synnes, and the seuen princypall vertues, with the eyght beatitudes whiche here shalbe sette furthe (bnt yet briefelye) by­cause good hope is conceyued, that at thys nexte Parlyament, whyche (God willynge) shall begynne the. xxi. daye of the monethe of October, nexte com­mynge, or at the Conuocatyon of the Clergye of the Prouince of Canturburye, whyche is accustomed to folowe immedyatlye the same, some Godlye or­der and dyrecty on, [...] be taken amongeste othere [Page] thynges, for suche matters of religion, to be so fullye set forthe, as maye stande bothe wyth the lawes of God, and also wyth the honor profyt, and wealthe of thys realme, And bryefely therefore to knytte vppe here thys matter, ye shall knowe that there are seuen capytal or principall deadly synnes, it is to wytte.

Pride, Enuye, Wrathe, or anger, slouthe, co­uetousnes glottonye, and lecherye.

And also there are seuen pryncypall, or chyef, vertues, it is to wytte. Faythe, hope, charytye, prudence, temperaunce, iustice, and fortitude or strengthe.

Pryde, is an inordinate loue of our owne aduaun­cemente and proper excellencye of whyche doo ryse, bostynge, ostentation, hypocrisye, scysines, and suche lyke.

Enuye, is a grudge or hatred at anothers felycytie farynge well or good hap. Of whyche doo ryse.

Detractation, Murmuration, dyssention peruerse iudgmentes, and suche lyke.

Wrathe or anger, is an appetite or desyre of bengeaunce or other hurtes, whyche appetite or de­syre yf it doo cōtinue in the hearte, is properly called Hatred, Of whych wrathe or anger do ryse, Brau lyngs, and persecutyons of wordes and deedes and some tymes, Woundes, strypes, Man­slaughter, and suche lyke.

[Page]Slouthfulnes, is a werynes or tedyousnes, of anye godlye or spyrituall thynge, whyche one oughte for goddes sake to doo. Of whych slouthfulnes, doo ryse, Sluggishnes, pusillanimitie, or weake­nes of mynde, disperation. and suche lyke.

Couetousnes, is an immoderate loue oftem­porall ryches or goodes, eyther in the vnlawfull get­tynge of them, or in the vnlawfull kepynge of them, Of whych couetousnesse doo ryse deceyte, thefte, Sacrilege, [...], vsury, and all fylthye lucre or gayne.

Glottonye, is an immoderate delcctatyon, or pleasure especially taken in meates or drynkes. And in glottony one doth specially offende in fyue sortes, or maner. Fyrst concernynge the tyme as whan one dothe eate or drynke, eyther ouer earlye, or ouerlate, or to ofte. Secondly one doth offende in qualytye as whan one dothe immoderatlye desyre, ouer delycate meates or drynkes. Thyrdelye one dothe herein of­fende in quantitye, as whan one doth eate or drynke ouermuche whereof the bodye is ouercharged and the senses therof hyndered or greued, or the powers of the soule impeched or letted the bodye being made more vnhable to serue ye soule, & the soule made also moore vnhable to serue God. Fourthlye, one dothe herein offende in gredynesse or voracitie, as whan one dothe ouer gredilye and ouer hastelye, take hys meate and drynke. Fyftlye and last one doth offende herein, when he to accomplysshe hys delectation [...] [Page] pleasure, in meates or drynkes doethe cause them to be prepared, ouer curiouslye.

And as concernyng Lechery, ther is no nede here to declare it, with hys braunches & circumstaunces, in asmuche as it is at large opened before in the exposi­tion of the. vii. commaundement, and sore it is to be lamented that it is a thynge so well knowen, and so much vsed in our dayes as it is, hynderynge won­derfullye manye godlye affayres in the common wealthe.

The seuen principal or cheife vertues are, Fayth Hope, Charitie, Prudence, Temperaunce, Iustice, and Fortytude, or Strengthe. And three of these, that is to saye, Faythe, Hope, and Charytie, directly & immediatly doo tende to God who is the ende of all. And the reste, that is to saye: Prudence, Temperaunce, Iustyce and Fortitude, doo tends directlye and immediatlye to the meanes, whereby the sayde ende is [...], and directly and immediatly, to the aforsayde ende. And moreouer the sayde thre fyrst are to be consyde­red touchynge [...], the inwarde motyon of the mynde, and the other foure remaynynge, are to be [...] specially touchynge the outwarde actes, or dedes. And besydes thys the three fyrste doo con­cerne [...] doynges towardes God, and the foure other doo concerne our actes, bothe towardes oure selfe, and also towardes oure neyghboure, or euen thrysten.

The offyce of Prudency, is to chose, or embrace [Page] the good refusynge the euyl.

The offyce of Iustice is to doo vpryghtlye and strayghtly.

The offyce of Temporaunce is not to be ouerco­med or stayed or letted, by anye worldelye pleasures or vanities.

The offyce of Fortitude or strength is not to omytte or leaue vndone, any good thynge, whyche ought to be done, for [...] worldely grieues or trou­bles.

And by the way we do here note that these foure Prudence, temporance, iustice, and fortitude. are commonly called Cardinall vertues, for asmuch as they are the pryncipall and doo conteyne vnder them many other vertues.

Now concerning the eyght beatitudes forasmuch as they are moste playnelye and orderly sette furth in the. v. chapter of. S. Mathew, we wyl here rehearse the same vnto you, as they of hym are rehearsed, desi [...] you seriouslye and ofte to mediate the same, as whereby you maye bothe knowe wherin felicitie dothe consist, and howe also to attayne and comme vnto the same.

And concernynge thys matter of the beatitudes S. Mathewe in the sayd. v. chapyter doth thus [...] forth the processe thereof

Videns autem [...] turbas ascendit in montem, & cum sedisset, [...] ad [...] discipull cius, & apericns os [...], docebat [...] dicens. Beati [...] spiritu, quoniam ipsorum est [...] celorū. [...] mites, [...] ipsi [...] terram Beati qui lugent, quoniam ipsi consolabuntur. [...] quiesuriunt & [...] iustitiam, [...] ipsi saturabuntur. Beati [...], [...] ipsi [...] consequentur, [Page] [...] mundi corde, quoniam ipsi deum uidebunt. Beati [...] filij dei uocabuntur. Beati qui [...] patiuntur propter [...] ipsorum est regnum celorum. That is to saye.

And Iesus, [...] the multitude, did go vppe vnto a hyll, and whan he was set hys dysci­ples came vnto him, and he openynge hys mouthe, did teache them sayinge. Blessed are the poore in spirite. for theires is the kyng dome of heauen. Blessed are the meke for they [...] possesse the earthe. Blessed are they that doo mourne, for they [...] receaue com­forte. Blessed are they who doo hunger and thryste the iustyce, for they [...] fylled.

Blessed are the mercyfull for they [...] ob­tayne, or gette mercye. Blessed are the pure, or cleane in harte, for they shall see God. Blessed are the peace makers, for they shalbe called the sonnes or children of GOD. Blessed are they, whoo doo suffer persecution, for iu­stice sake, for theirs is the [...] of hea­uen.

And thus nowe hauinge, for the tyme, donne so muche, as one man, with this chapleynes, and fren­des coulde doo, and wisshynge that it were muche more better, and more exactlye doone then it is fy­nallye, submyttynge the whole, vnto the iu gemente of the catholyke churche, and the see Apostolyke, in [Page] all poyntes. I wyll nowe adde herevnto certayne Collectes, to be sayde, and rehearsed dayelye by the preistes in their Masse, concernynge both oure holye father the Pope, with his mooste reuerende Legate, the Lorde Cardinall poole, and also concernynge the kynges and Quenes most excellent maiesties, whose health and wealth, are our great sauegarde, and assu­raunce. And yet ouer, and besydes thys, a speciall col­lecte, or prayer, seuerallye, for the kynges prosperouse iorneye, bothe in goynge, in tarienge, and in well retournyng, to be had, whyche the holye Tryny ye, the father, the sonne, and the holye Ghost, mercifullye doo graunt, and brynge to passe. Unto whom be all honoure prayse, and glorye, for euer and euer.


¶ The three Collectes, or orations for the most ho­ly father the Pope.

DEus omnium fidelium pastor, & rector, famulum tuum Paulum papam eius nominis quartum, quem pastorem ecclesie tue precesse uoluisti, propitius respice, da ei que sumus uerbo, & exemplo, quibus pre est proficere, ut ad uitam, una cūgrege sub credito, per ueniat sempiternam, Per.


Oblatis quesumus, domini, placare muneribus, & famulum tuum Paulum papam eius nominis quartum quem pastorem populo tuo esse uoluisti, assidua prote­ctione guberna. per.


Hec nos quesumus, domini diuine sacramenti per­ceptio protegat, & famulum tuum Paulum [...] nominis quartum, quem pastorem populo tuo esse uoluisti, una cum commissio sibi grege saluat semper & muniat, per.

¶ The three Collectes or orations for the mooste re­uerend Lorde Cardynall Poole.

REge quesumus, domini famulum tuum Reginal­dum Polum, Cardinalem, sacro sancte sedis apo­stolice a latere legatum, & intercedente beata dei ge­nitrici Maria cum [...] sanctis tuis, gratiae tue in eo dona multiplica, ut ab omnibus liberetur offensis, & temporalibus non destituatur auxiliis, & [...] ternis gadeat at institutis. per.


Suscipe quesumus, domini, tibi munus oblatum, & intercedente beata dei genetrice Maria, cum omni­bus sanctis tuis, famulum tuum Reginaldum [...], Cardinalē, sacro sancta sedis apostolicae a latere lega­tum, tua propitius ubi (que) miseratione [...], at que ab omnibus quas [...] aduersitatibus redde secu­rum, ut tranquillitate precepta, ab omnium uisibilium, & inuisibilium inimicorum [...] liberatus, deuota tibi menta de seruiat. Per.

Post communio.

Subiectum [...] famulum tuum Reginaldum Polū Cardinalem, sacro sanctae sedis Apostolicae a latere le­gatum, quesumus domine inter cessione beatae deî gene­tricis Mariae cum omnibus sanctis tui, propitiatio celestis amplificet, ut & presentis uitae periculis [...], & perpetuis donis firmetur. Per.

¶ The three Collectes, or orations, for the kynge, and Quenes maiesties, and theyr counsaylers.


DEus in cuius manu sunt corda regnum, qui eis hu­milium consolator, at fidelium fortitudo, et pro­tector omniū in te sperantium, da regi uostro Philip­po, & reginae nostrae, Mariae, eorum (que) consilitatis, & populo Christiano triumphū uirtutis tue scienter ex­colere, ut perte semper reparentur ad uenian. Per.


Suscipe quesumus domine precis, & [...] tuae, quas pro salute samili tui, regis nostri Phi­lippi, & Regine nostrae Mariae, eorum que [...] rum, ac protectione fidelium populorum, tuae maiestati offerimus, sut plicantes, ut antiqua [...] ope rante miracula, super at is inimicis, secura t. bi [...] Christianorum libertas Per.


Presta quesumus omnipotens deus, ut per [...] steria sancta quae sumpsimus, rex noster Philippus, & regina nostra Maria, [...], ac po­pulus Christianus, [...] rationabilia meditantis, que tibi placita sūt, & dictis [...] ātur & factis. Per.

¶ The three collects, or orations for the prospe­rous voyage, and safe retourne of our moste noble kyng Phylyppe.

Oratio primo.

APesto domine supplicationibus nostris, & uiam [...], ac pij famuli tui, Philippi regis nostri, et omnium [...] qui in eius sunt comitatu, in salutis tuae prosperitate dispone, ut inter omnes [...] & uitae [...] marietatis, tuo semper protegantur auxilio. Per


Propitiare domini supplicationibus nostris, & has oblationes, quas tibi offerimus, pro deuoto, & [...] [Page] tuo, Philippo rege nostro, & omnibus illis, qui in eius sūt comitatu, benignis assume. Vt uiam illorum & precedente gratia tua, dirigas, & subse quente comitari digneris, ut de actu at (que) incolumitate eorum se cundum [...] die tue presidi agaudeamus. per,


Sumpta quesumus domine celistis, mysterij [...], ad prosperitatē iteneris, deuoti, & pij famuli tui, Philippi, reges nostri, & omnium eorum qui in eius sunt comitatu, proficiant, & eos ad salutaria cuncta perducant. per.

¶ The three Collectes, or orations, for the byshop of London.


COncede quesumus, domine [...] tuo [...] episcopo nostro, ut predican do, & extendo, quae recta sunt exemplo bonorum operum, animas su­orum instruat subditorum, & eterne remunerationis mercedem, a [...] pastore, perciplat, per.


Munere nostra quesumus domine placatus suscipe & famulum tuum Edmundum Episcopum nostrum [...] sibi. cōmissum, benignus sēper, & ubique misericorditer protege per


Hec nos communio domine purget a crimine, & fa­mulum [Page] tuum Edmundum, episcopum nostrum, & commissum sibigregem, benigna quesumus, pietate, cō ­serua. Per.

¶ A prayer in verses, for the prosperouse voyage, abode, and retourne of our most excellente and noble kyng, kyng Phylyppe.

  • 1. Prosper eat noster, terraque, marique Philippus Prospera sint, ut iter, sic mora, sicreditus.
  • 2. Prosper eat noster, maneat, redeat que Philippus Prospera sint terra cuncta, mari, at (que) polo
  • 3. Sit tibi rex noster, terraque marique Philippe Tam bene, (quam) tua, (quam) nostra Maria, cupit.

Ad lectorem.

Viue, uale & siquid nouistis rectius istis,
Candidus imparti, sinon, hijs utere mecum.

EXCVSVM LONDINI IN EDIBVS 10 hannis Cawodi, Typographi Regiae Maiestatîs.

HOME­lies sette forth by the righte reuerende father in God, Edmunde Byshop of London, not onely promi­sed before in his booke, inti­tuled, A necessary doctrine, but also now of late adioy­ned, and added therevnto, to be read within his dio­cesse of London, of all per­sons, vycars, and curates, vnto theyr parishioners, v­pon sondayes, & holydayes.

Anno. M. D. LV.

I. C.

The Table.

  • i. Of the creation and fall of Man.
  • ii. Of the misery of all mankynde and of hys condempnation to death.
  • iii. Of the redemption of Man.
  • iiii. Howe the redemption in Chryst is apliable to man.
  • v. Of chrysten loue and Charitie.
  • vi. Howe daungerous a thinge the breake of Charitie is.
  • vii. Of the Churche what it is, and of the com­moditie thereof.
  • viii. Of the aucthoritie of the Churche.
  • ix. Of the Supremacy.
  • x. Of the Supremacy.
  • xi. Of the true presence of Chrystes body & blud in the sacrament of the Aultare.
  • xii. Of transsubstantiation.
  • xiii. Of certen Aunswers agaynst some commō obiections, made agaynst the sacrament of the Aultare.

¶ The Bysshoppe of London to all persons, and curates, within his dioces of London.

FOrasmuch as the people of my dioces, be­yng within your seueral cures, & charge, do (as in dede of reason they maye) loke for to haue at theyr pastours hand, or at the least way, by his prouision, & meane, good instruction, and teachinge, especiallye howe to serue and please God, and how also otherwyse to do their dutie, as to any one of them in theyr degre doth appertayne. And forasmuch also as there is not now a dayes that multitude, and plenteth of preachers, whiche in tymes past hath ben, and by Gods grace, hereafter shalbe. And fynallye, for that euery one of you in your owne person, is not able to discharge the office of preaching, which many good folke do great­ly wyshe, and desyre ye could, and woulde. Therfore desyrynge to haue somethyng doue onward, til God of his goodnes prouide something better, I haue la­boured with my chapleyns, & frendes, to haue these Homelies prynted, that ye may haue somewhat to instruct, and teache your flocke withall, requyrynge, and charginge euerye one of you, that diligentlye, vpon the sondayes, and holydayes, ye reade to youre flocke, frutefully, and deliberately, one of the said Homelies. And thus fare you well. Geuen at my house in London, the fyrste daye of July. M. D. LU.

¶ An Homely, of the creation and fall of man.

THe Prophette, Dauid in his fore score and nintēth psalme, exhortyng all people to synge prayse to almigh­ti god, to serue hī in gladnes, and re ioyse in his sight, alledgeth thys as a sufficient cause thereof. Scitote quoni­am ipse est dominus, ipse fecit nos, et non ipsinos. which is to saye.Psalme, cxix. Know you that he is our Lord, it is he that made vs, and we made not our selfes. And in dede, who yt diligently wayeth ye creatiō of man, can not but therin most highly laude, & prayse almighty god, his creator. For wher in the creation of al other visible thinges, he did but onely commaunde, & will that they should be made, and incontinēt they were made; in the creatyng of man, he vsed great solemp­nitie, and many notable circumstaunces. Fyrst tou­chyng mā, he said, let vs make mā, which wordsGenes. i. be as it were the wordes of god the father, to God the sonne, & to the holy ghost, spoken after the ma­ner of men, when they go about some great matter, at what time they take good aduisement or they be­gyn, and doo ioyne with the best, & wysest counsel­lours, [Page 3] that they can get. Thys circumstaunce (not beyng necessary of goddes parte, as withoute the which he might haue created man) doth most manifestly declare the special fauour, of almyghty god to­wardes mankynde: but that nexte circumstaunce, which doth immediatly folowe thys fyrst, is a more surer profe, and declaration of gods tender loue, towardes mā, whē he sayth, Let vs make man to our owne similitude & likenes, Now mark, good people, howe much god dyd for vs in our crea­tion. He made vs in very dede like vnto himselfe; & in so doynge what could he haue done more for vs? A wonderfull excellēt benefite & comfort is it vnto vs, to consyder that man was made like vnto god. And to vnderstand this thyng the better, you shall know that the similitude, and likenes of man to god, was not in the body of man (for this you must moost cer­tenly beleue, yt the godhed is a spirite, & not a bodely substaunce) but this similitude and likenes was in ye soule, which was endued, with most heuenly & god­like qualities, as vnderstandyng, memory, and wil; with sondry gyftes also of grace. And here is to be noted by the way; that where almighty god sayeth, Let vs make man to our owne similitude, & lykenes, he geueth vs to vnderstād, yt there be three parsons in trinitie, & yet but one god. For in that he sayeth let vs make man, therein is signified, a plu­ralitie, or number of persones: agayne, in that he say­eth to our similitude and likenes, and not to oure si­militudes and lykenesses, by thys is signyfyed the [Page] vnitie also of one nature and substaunce. But to procede further concernyng the creation of man; ye shall vnderstand, that the second chapter of Moyses [...]. 2. boke, called [...], in speciall maner doth recorde the seuerall making, as well of the bodye of man, by it selfe, as also of the soule by it selfe. And as touching the body, scrypture doth there say, that. God four­med, or shaped it, of ye earthe Noting therby the excellēcy of mans body, aboue the bodyes of other li­uynge creatures. For we rede not of anye other ly­uyng creature, that god shaped, or fourmed, the bo­dy of it, but onely that he made it; and that at the cō maundement of almighty god, the earth broughtGenesis. 1. fourth foure foted beastes, & the water, in like maner, brought fourth fysshes, & foules. Only of yt body of mā scripture wituesseth yt God shaped it. And as cōcerning ye soule of mā, it is written of it, in the sayd second chapter of genesis, howe yt god breGenesis. 2. thed it into the body; which. ii. circumstaunces, as they import a marueylous excellency of man, aboue other bodely creatures, so they most clerely declare thexcedyng great goodnes of God, towardes man. Now when god had, in such a singuler fashion, cre­ted man, he gaue hym souereigntie ouer all the fys­shes of the sea, ouer the foules of the ayer, and ouer the beastes of the lande, yea and made him a Kyng, and Emperour on the earth. And yet not satisfyed with al this, he placed man in Paradyse, that is in a most pleasaunt garden, where he had planted all [Page 4] kynd of frute, beautifull to beholde, and delicious to eate, for man to fede vpon; onely one kynde of fruyte he charged hym on payne of death, (and that not of the body alone, but of the soule also) vtterlye to re­frayne from; which was the fruyte of the tree called in scrypture, the tre of knowledge of good, and euyl. And lyke as in a most maruelous sorte he made A­dam the fyrsteman, so in as marueylous, & straunge a sort he made Eue the first woman, euen of a rybbe taken out of Adams lefte syde; and her he made par­fytte, and furnyshed her with like gyftes as he had done Adame the first man: What canne we then thinke, or deuyse, that God might haue don more for vs in our creation, then herein he dyd: He made the soule immortall, that is such as shulde continue for euer without ende. He furnished it with moste sin­guler gyftes both of nature and of special grace also The body of man, in the estate of originall innocen­cie, had in it helth, strength, [...], and other like qualities, in the highest degre of perfection; it had in it selfe then, no fond lust, or concupiscens; no pronitie or inclination to euyl; no [...] in doing good, no infirmitie or wekenesse, no lacke or want of any qualitie fyt and decent for it. The body of man was then obediente to the soule; the soule altogether obedient to God. So that on Gods parte, oure ma­ker and creator, there is nothyng towardes vs but all perfection, all great kyndnes, al fatherly loue, & fauour, Holy scrypture most euydently affyrmeth yt al creatures were made good in their creation, say­ing. Vidit deus [...] fecerat et erant ualde bona, [...]. ThatGenesis. [...]. [Page] is. God sawe al things which he had made, and they were very good. Which thyng as it is generally true in all creatures concerning their cre­ation, so is it in a certen degre of excellencye to be verified in man touchyng the estate of his originall innocency. Thus we may perceaue yt in the creation of man, al was excellent & parfytte; whiche oughte greatly to inflame vs the more to loue and serue al­mighty God our most louynge creator. But for as­muche as that blessed estate is lost, & mankynd by yt losse thereof, fell into extreme miserie and wretched­nes, it is consequently to be well considered of our part, by what meanes man was brought from soo good and blessed a case, to so euyll and miserable an estate; whiche poynte well wayed, is a sufficiente grounde to cause vs on the other syde vtterly to de­test & abhorre al synne. For that greuous fal of man came of synne. Synne it was, for which God thrust man oute of paradyse; synne it was that caused the fleshe to striue agaynste the spirite, and the spirite, agaynst the fleshe; synne it was that broughte vn­to mankynde necessitie of bodyly death, and all the infirmities and diseases, which man in thys tran­sitory lyfe sustayneth; synne fynally it was, that cau sed all the posteritie of Adam and Eue to be borne in state of dampnation. But some perchaunce are desyrous fardar to knowe, by what meanes man was fyrst brought to commytte synne. For the vn­derstandyng whereof, lette vs haue recourse to theGenes. 3. iii. chap. of Genesis, where it is wrytten: how that yt wyly serpent the deuyll came vnto Eue and sayde [Page 5] vnto her: Why hath God gyuen you com­maundement not to eate of euery tree in pa­radyse? where vnto the woman answered and sayde, of the fruyte which is in paradise we eate, but of the frute of that tree yt grow­eth in the myddest of paradyse, GOD hath charged vs not to eate or touche it? leste, per chaunce we dye. Then sayde the serpente to the woman: Naye, you shall not dye. For God knowethe that whatsoeuer daye you shall eate thereof, youre eyes shalbe opened, and you shalbe like Gods, knowynge good and euyll. The woman therefore saw that the tree was good to eate of, and beautifull to the eye, and pleasaunte to beholde, and she tooke of the fruite thereof and d d eate, and gaue part to her husbāde, who also did [...].

Thus through the prouocation of the deuyll, man first fell into synne. Wherefore as we must alwayes abhorre synne and forbeare it, because of the greate misery it brought vs vnto; so shold we no les [...], and to the vttermost of our power, fly the [...] and all his suggestions, knowing that thereby we [...] fyrst induced to commytte synne. For as thys oure aduersary was busy at the [...] wyth oure fyrst parentes; so is he no les, but rather more busye with vs at thys present; as [...] Saynt Pe­terPeter. 5. in the v. chapiter of his fyrst [...], saying. [...] [Page] [...] [Page 5] [Page] [...] the deuyl as a roryng lion goeth about, seking whom he may deuour. Thys aduersary of mankynde, disdaynynge at the greate [...] that Adam and Eue were in, neuer ceasyd questyonynge, and craftyug with the woman, being the weker and frayler vessell, vntyll he [...] made them disobey gods commauudement: by whych their doynge, they lost, the oryginal great innocency which they had at there creation; which being lost, nether the body woulde be obedient to ye soule, nor the soule to god, but al was in man turned vpsidoune: yea therby they fell also into necessitie of temporall death of body, and (which is worst of all) into the estate of eternall damnation, and euerlast­ing death, both of body and soule. But now, because it maye paraduenture seme in some mans iudge­ment, that seyng the thing that Adam and Eue did, was but the eatyuge of an appell, therefore their faut was not great, nor deserued so greuous punish ment; [...] vs consyder the cyrcumstaunces, and we shall sone perceyue the offence not lyght, but verye sore and heynous. Fyrst the thyng whych god com­maunded man to forbeare, was a thyng moste easye for hym to forbeare, and so much was hys faute the greater. Besides this, whan a man is tolde before of great peryll and daunger that shall lyght vpon hym if he doo thys or that, in case after suche warnyng he offende therein, hys fault is thereby made the [...]. Thyrdly, the lesse inclynatyou a man hath to any synne, the more he synneth yfhe doo the same, Nowe Adam and Eue, had in them no inclynation [Page 9] at al, nother to one vice nor to other. Fourthly, whē a man hath late receyued great benefites at hys so­ueraygns handes, if he incontmently breake his ex­presse wyll, the contempt and dysobedience is made therby the greater. The thyng that Adam and Eue dyd eate, was in dede but an appell, yet the eatyng thereof in that case, was an high disobediēce against god, and the corrupting of al mankynd, for as much as they two were the verye route, whereof all men muste ryse; and the route being once naughte, howe can the tree or braunches, cummynge of that route, be good? Therefore S. [...] in his Epystle to ye Ro [...]. 50 maines in the. v. chapyter therof sayeth. By the of fence of one man, synne came vpon all men, to condempnation, and in the same chapiter [...] after, he sayeth to iyke [...], through the disobedience of one man manye became synners. And within a lytle after he saieth. Sinne came into this world by one mā, & through synne came death, & so death passed to al mē. Thus haue you hard fyrste the [...] kyndnes of God to man, in that he created hym in so worthye a maner; nexte ye haue harde the myschefe that com­meth to mankynd by synne; and thirdly what an ex­treme enemy [...] the [...] is vnto vs. In an other homily hereafter, ye [...] heare of the exceding great mercy of god, in [...] mākind by a meruelous maner, out of the estat of this dampnatiō. Wherfore to conclude for thys presente tyme, this shalbe to ex­horte [Page] you, that you fayle not daylye and howtelye to geue most harty thankes to almyghty God, for that he of his mere goodnes created you; & created you, not without sense, as the stones, not without reason as the brute beastes, but hathe gyuen you, all nota­ble qualities and powers that other corporal crea­tures haue, and besides, hathe perticularlye planted in you reason and vnderstāding, and [...] goodly qualities of body and soule, seuerall to the nature of man only, and not common to mā, and other erthly creatures. Thys is furthermore also to exhorte you, that remembryng what miserye came to mankinde by synne, and by such a synne, as in some mēs iudge­ment might [...] to be but very smale, it is to wytte by eatynge of an appel, you wyl be circumspecte in a uoiding of al kynde of sume, and disobedience, be the thynge in his owne nature neuer so smale a [...], whyche is by God hym selfe, or by suche as we owe obedience vnto commaunded. Fynallye and laste of al, thys is to exhorte you, to consyder dilygently that we haue a deadly cnnemy, which is yt deuil, who de fyreth oure destruction, and doth moost craftely and busely trauayle by all meanes with vs, to worke the same; of whose mooste subtyl and wilye traynes, we muste principally take hede of; whiche graunt vnto vs all, the blessed trinitie, the father, the Sonne, and the holye ghoste; to whome be all honoure and glorye worlde with­oute ende.


¶ An homely of the miserie of all mankinde and of hys condempnation to euerlastynge deathe, by hys owne synne.

THe holye ghoste, in wrytyng the holy scripture, is in no­thyng more diligēt, then to pull downe mannes vayne glo­ri, and pryde, which of all vices, is moost vniuersally graffed in mankynde, euen from the fyrste infec tion of our fyrste fa­ther Adam. And therefore, we reade in may places of scripture manye notable lessons agaynst thys old rooted vyce, to teache vs ye moost cōmēdable vertue of humilitie; howe to know our selues, & to remēber, what we be, of our selues. In the booke of Genesis, almyghty God geueth vs all, a tytle & name in oure great graunde father Adam, which ought to admo­nishe vs al, to consyder what we be, where of we be, from whence we came & whyther we shall, sayenge thus. In sudore [...] tui vesceris pane tuo, donee reuertaris in terram [...]. 3. de qua sūptuses: quia puluis es, [...] in puluerem reuertcris. That is to saye, In the sweate of thy face thou shalt eate thy breade, vntyll thou retournest into the earth, oute of whych thou waste taken: for dust thou art, & into dust thou shalt retourne, [Page] Here (as it were in a glasse) we may learne to know our selues, that we be but grounde, earthe, and dust. and that to ground, earthe, and duste, we shall re­turne agayne; whiche name and title of earthe, and duste, appoynted, and assigned by God, to all man­kynde, the holye Patriarche Abraham, dyd well re­member: and therefore he calleth hym selfe by that name, when he maketh his earnest prayer for So­dome and Gomorre, saying in the. xviii. of [...].Gen. 18. Cum sim puluis et cuius. that is to saye, seyng I am dust and ashes. And we reade that Iudith, Hester, Iob, Hieremie, with other holy men and women, inIudith. 3 and 9. the olde testament, did vse sacke clothe, and dyd castIob. 13. duste, and asshes vpon theyr heades, when they be­wayledHiere. 6. [...]. 23. theyr synnefull lyuynge. They called and cryed to [...] for helpe, and mercy, with suche a cere­mony of sacke clothe, duste, and asshes, that thereby they myght declare to the hole world, what an hum ble, and lowlye estimation, they had of theim selues, and howe well they remember theyr name, & tytle [...]. 7 aforesayde, theyr vyle, corrupte, fraile nature, duste, earth, and asshes. The booke of wysedome also, wil­lynge to pull downe oure proude stomakes, moueth vs diligently, to remember our mortall, and earthly generation, which we haue al of him, that was first made: and that all men, aswel kynges, as subiectes, doo come into this worlde, and doo goo oute of the same in lyke sorte, that is, as of oure selues, ful myse­rable, as we maye dayly see. And almyghtye God [...]. 11. commaūded his Prophet Esay, to make a proclama tion, and to crye to the [...] worlde: that all [...] [Page 8] is grasse, and that al the glorye of man, is as the flower of yt feilde, the grasse is withered, and the flower doth fal away, for the winde of our Lorde bloweth vpon it. The people sure ly is grasse, whiche dryeth vp, and the flower fadeth away, but the woorde of our Lord abideth for euer. Accordynge wherevnto, the holye prophet Iob, ha­uynge in hym selfe great erperience of miserable and synnefull estate of man, dothe open the same to theIob. 14. worlde in these workes. Homo natus de muliere, breui [...], repletur multis miserijs, qui quasi flos egreditur, et conteritur, et fugit velut vmbra, et [...] in eodem statu permanet et dignū ducis super [...] aperire oculos tuos, et adducere cum [...] in iudicium? qui potest [...] mundum de immūdo conceptum femine? That is to say Man beyngeborne of a woman, lyuynge a worte tyme, is full of manyfolde miseries; he spryngeth vp lyke aflower, & fadeth againe, vanyshyng away (as it were) a shadow, and neuer contine weth in one state. And doest thou iudge it mete (O Lord) to open thyne eyes vpon suche a one, and to brynge him to iudgement with thee? who can make hym cleane that is cōceyued of an vncleane sede? In dede all men of theyre euylnes and naturall pro­nes, were so vniuersallye gyuen to synne, that God (as the scripture testifyeth) repented ye euer he made man. And by sinne, his indygnatyon was so mucheGene. 5. and. 7. prouoked agaynste the worlde, that he drowned all the worlde wyth Noes fludde (except Noe himselfe [Page] and hys lytle householde.) It is not without greate cause, that the scripture of God, doth so many times call all menne here in thys worlde earthe, sayenge. (O thou earth, thou earth, thou earth, heare the woorde oure Lorde.) Hiere. xxii. Thys,Hiere. 22 oure ryght name, vocation, and tytle: earthe, earthe, earth, prouounced by the prophet, sheweth what we be in dede, by what soeuer other style, tytle, or digni­tye mē doo cal vs. Thus, he plainly nameth vs, who knoweth best, bothe what we be, & what we ought of ryght to be called. And thus he dyscribeth vs, [...] kynge by hys faythfull Apostle S. Paule to the Ro­maynes the. iii. Chapiter, saying. All men, JewesRoma. 3. and Gentiles, are vnder synne: there is none ryghteous, no, not one; there is none that vn derstandeth, there is none that seketh after God, they are all goone out of the wai they are all vnprofitable, there is none that dothe good, no not one, theyr throte is an open se crafte and deceyte, the pyoson of serpentes is vnder theyr lippes, their mouthe is full of cursinge and bitternes, their fette are swifte to shed bloude, destruction and wretchednes are in theyr wayes, & the waye of peace haue they not knowen, there is no feare of God be fore their eyes. Aud in an other place, that is toGala. 3. i. wit, Galathians. iii. S Paule wryteth thus: (God [Page 9] hath wrapped all nations in vnbeleif, thatRoma, [...] he myght haue mercy on all. The scripture concludeth all vnder sinne, that the promise by the fath in Jesus Christ, should be geuē Gala. [...] vnto theim that beleue. S. Paule in many pla ces, paynteth vs out in our callours, callyng vs the chyldren of the wrathe of God, when we be [...]; sayeng also, that we cannot thinke a good thought of oure selues, much lesse, we can say wel, or do wel of our selues, And the wyseman sayeth, in the bokePro, 24. of Prouerbes the iuste man falleth seuen ty­mes a daye. The mooste tried and approued mā Job, feared all hys woorkes. S. John the Baptist, beyng sanctified in hys mothers wombe, and prai­sedLuce. i. before he was borne called an aungel, and great before the Lorde, replenyshed euen from hys byrth with the holy ghost, the preparer of the way for our sauiour Chryst, to be more then a Prophet, and the greatest that euer was borne of a womā, yet he plai nely graunteth, that he had nede to be washed of Chryst, he worthely extolleth and glorifieth his lord and mayster Chryste, and humbleth himselfe, as vn worthy to vnboukle hys showes, and geueth al ho­noure and glory to God, So doeth sayncte Paule both oft, and euydently, confesse hym selfe, what he was of hym selfe, euer geuinge (as a moste faithfull seruaunte ought to doo) all prayse to hys mayster and sauioure. So doeth blessed saynte Ihon theIohn. i. and [...] euangelyst, in the name of hym selfe, and of al other holy men, be they neuer so iust, make this open con [Page] session. If we say, that we haue no sinne we deceiue our selues, and the truth is not in vs. If we knowledge our sinnes, God is faith­full and iust, to forgyue vs our synnes, and to clense vs from al vnrighteousnes: If we say. we haue not synned we make him a li­er, and his worde is not in vs. Wherfore the wysemā, in the booke called Ecclesiastes, openly deEccles. 7. clareth, that there is not one iuste man vpon the earth, that doth good, and sy nneth not. And saintePsal. 2 Dauid is ashamed of hys synue, but not to confesse hys synne, Howe ofte, howe earnestly, and how la­mentable doeth he desyre Gods greate mercye, for hys great offenses, and that God shuld not entre in to iudgement wyth hym. And agayne, howe well wayeth this holy man hys synnes, when he confes­seth, that they be so many in number, and so hydde, and harde to [...], that it is in maner vnpos­syble,Psal. 19. to knowe, vtter, or number them. Wherfore he hauinge an earnest, and depe contemplation, & consideration of hys synnes, and yet not comming to the [...] of them, maketh supplicatiō to god, to forgyue hym his prinye, secrete, hydde synnes, to the knowledge of the whych, he cannot attayne.

He wayeth ryghtly hys synnes, from the origynall roote, and spryng heade, [...] inclinations, prouocations [...], stynginges, budes, braū ­ches, dregges, infections. tastes feiynges, & sentes of them, to cōtinue in him stil. Wherefore he sayeth.Psal, 2. Marke, & behold I was conceiued in sines [Page 10] He saieth not sinne, but in the plurel number, sinnes: for asinuche, as oute of one, as fountayne, spryngeth all the reste.

And oure sauiour Christ sayth, there is none goodMath, [...]. but God, and that we can doo nothing that is good, without hym, or no man can come to the father but by hym. He commaundeth vs all to saye, that we be vnprofitable seruauntes, when we haue doone all that we can doo. He preferreth the penitente Publi­can, before the proude holye, and gloryouse Phary­sey, He calleth hymselfe a phisition, not to them that be hole, but to them that be sycke, and haue nede of his salue, for theyrsore. He teacheth vs in oure pray­ers, to reacknowledge oure selues synners, and to aske forgeuenes, and deliueraunce from all euyls, at oure heauenly fathers hande. He declareth that the synnes of oure owne hartes, doo defyle oure owne selues. He teacheth that an euyll worde, or thought, deserueth condempnation, affyrmyng, that we shall gyue an accompte, for euery ydle woorde. He sayeth he came not to saue, but the shepe that were vtterlye lost, and cast awaye. Therefore, fewe of the [...], iust, learned, wyse, perfect, and holy Pharisies, were saued by hym, because they iustified them selues, by theyr counterfeyte holynes, before men. Wherefore good people, let vs beware of such Hypocrisie, vaine glorye, and iustifienge of our selues, Let vs loke vpō oure feete, and then downe oure Pecockes fethers, downe proude harte, downe vayne claye, frayle, and brittle vessels. Of our selues, we be crabbe trees, that can bryng furth no Aples. we be of our selues, of such [Page] earth as can bryng furth but weedes, nettels, bram­bles, bryers, cocle and darnell. Our fruytes [...] decla­red in ye fyfte chapter to the Galathians. We haue neitherfayth, Charitie, hope, pacience, chastitie, nor any thinge els that good is, but of God: and there­fore, these vertues be called there, the fruytes of the holy ghoste, and not the frutes of man. Let vs there­fore, acknowledge our selues before God, (as we be in dede) miserable and wretched synners. And let vs earnestly repent, and humble oure selues hartely, to cry to God for mercye. Lette vs all confesse wyth mouth, and harte, that we be full of imperfections. Let vs knowe our owne workes, of what imperfe­ction they be, and then we shall not stande folyshly, and arrogantly, in our owne conceytes. For truely, ther is imperfections, in our best [...]: we doo not loue God, so muche as we are bounde to doo, with all our harte, mynde, and power: we doo not feare God so muche as we ought to doo: we doo not pray to, God but wyth great and many imperfecti­ons. [...]. 5, We geue, forgeue, beleue, loue, and hope vnper fectlye, we speake, thinke, and doo vnperfectly, we fyght agaynst the deuyll, the worlde, and the fleshe vnperfectly, Let vs therefore, not be ashamed to cō fesse playnely, oure [...] of imperfection, yea let vs not be ashamed to confesse imperfection, euen in al our workes, Let none of vs be ashamed, to sai with holy S, Peter: I am a synfull man. Let vs all saye with the holy prophete Dauid. We haue sinPsal, 190 ned with our fathers, we haue done amisse [Page 11] and dealt wyckedlye. Let vs all make confessi­on with the prodigall sonne to oure father, and sayLuee. [...] with hym: We haue synned agaynst heauē, and be fore thee (O father) we are not worthy to be called thy sonnes. Lette vs all saye wyth holye Baruche:Baruch, [...] O lord our God, to vs is worthely ascribed shame and confusion, and to the, righteous­nes. We haue sinned, we haue don wicked ly, we haue behaued our selues vngodly, in all thy rightousnes. Let vs al saye with the ho­ly prophet Danyell. O Lorde, rightuousnes belongeth to thee, vnto vs beldngeth cōfu­sion.Daniel, 9 We haue synned, we haue bene naugh tie, we haue offended, we haue fled frō the, wee haue gone backe from all thy precepts and iudgementes.

So we learne of al good men, in holy scripture to humble our selues, and to exalte, extoll, prayse, magnifye, and glorifye God.

Thus ye haue hearde, howe euill we be of our selus: how of our selues, & by our selues, we haue no good nes, helpe, nor saluation, but contrary wyse, synne dampnation, and deathe euerlastynge; whyche yf wee depely weyghe, and consyder, we shall the bet ter vnderstande, the great mercy of God, and how our saluation commeth onely b y Chyst; for in our selues, as of our selues, we fynde nothyng, where­by we may be delyuered from this miserable capti uitie, into [...] whyche we were cast throughe the [Page] enuye of the deuyll, by transgression of Godes com­maundement, in our fyrst parente Adam. We are al become vncleane: but we al of our selues, are not ha­ble to clēse our selues, nor to make one an other of vs cleane. We are by nature, the chyldren of Gods wrathe: we are not hable of oure selues, to make vs the chyldren and inheritours of Gods glorye, We are shepe that [...] astray: we cānot without god­des grace, and helpe, come agayne to the shepefolde: so greate is our imperfection and weakenes. In our1. Peter 2 selues therefore, maye not we glorye, which of oure selues are nothyng but synnefull; neyther maye we bragge of oure workes that we doo, whyche all be so vnperfecte and vnpure, that they are not of them selues, hable to stande before the ryghteous throne of GOD, as the holye Prophete Dauyd sayeth. Enter not into iudgemente wyth thy ser­uaunte, O Lorde, for no man that lyuethe: shalbe founde ryghtuous in thy syghte. To God therefore, must wee stye, or els shall we neuer fynde peace, rest, and quyetnes of conscience, in oure hartes. For he is the father of mercyes, and God ofPsal. 126 all consolation; he is the Lorde, with whom is plen teouse redemption. He is the God, whiche of hys owne mercy saueth vs and setteth oute his charitie, and exceading loue towards vs, in that of his owne voluntary goodnes, when we were peryshed, he sa­ued vs, and prouyded an euerlastyuge kyngedome for vs. And all these heauenly treasures are giuē vs of hys mere mercy, freelye. And for whose sake: Tru­lye [Page 12] for Iesus Christes sake, that pure, and [...]. Lambe of God. He is that dearely beloued sonne, for whose sake, God is fullye pacifyed, satisfyed, and set at one with man. He is the Lambe of God, whychei. Peter. [...] taketh awaye the synnes of the worlde, of whome it maye be truely spoken, that he dyd all thinges wel, and in his mouthe was founde no crafte, nor subtyl­tye. Lykewyse he maye saye, the prynce of the worlde came, and in me hath nothinge. He maye saye also: which of you shall reproue me of anye faulte. He is that hyghe and euerlastynge preiste. whyche hathe offered him selfe to God, whē he instituted the sacra­ment of the Aultar, and once for all, in a bloudye sa­cryfyce, doone vpon the crosse, with which oblatyon he hath made perfecte for euermore, theym that are sanctified. He is the mediatoure, betwene God and man: which payed our raunsome to God, wyth hysi. Iohn. 3 owne bloude, and wyth that, hathe clensed vs from synne. He is the Phisition, whych healeth all our dy­seases. He is that sauioure, whiche saueth the people from all theyr synnes. To be short, he is that flowing and most plenteous fountayne; of whose fulnes, all [...]. [...]. we haue receyued. For in him are all the tresures of the wysedome, and knowledge of God hydden. And in hym, and by him, haue we from God the father, al good thinges, perteyning eyther to the bodye, or to the soule, O howe much then, are we bounde to this oure heauenlye father, for these, his greate mercyes whiche he hath so plenteouslye declared vnto vs, in Chryst Iesu oure Lorde, and sauiourer What than­kes worthy, and sufficiente, can we giue to him. Let [Page] vs all wyth one accord, burst oute wyth ioyfull voi­ces, euer praysynge, and magnifying this Lord of mercy, for hys tender kindenes shewed to vs, in his dearelye beloued sonne Iesus Chryst our Lord. Let vs nowe iearne to knowe our selues, our frail­tie, and weakenes withoute anye ostentation, or vnastynge of our owne good dedes, and merytes, Let vs also knowledge the exceadynge mercye of God, towarde vs; and confesse, that as of our selues commeth all euyll, and dampnation, so lykewyse of hym, commeth all goodnes and saluation, as God hym selfe saith by the Prophet Oze. O Israel thyCze. 13 destruction commeth of thy selfe, but in me onely is thy helpe and comforte. If wee thus humbly submytte our selues in the sight of God, we may be sure, that in the time of his visitatyō, he wil [...] vs vp, into the kyngedome of his derely beloued sonne-Chryst Iesu our Lorde; to whome with the father, and the holy ghoste be all honoure and glo­rye, for euer.


¶ An Homelye of the redemption of man.

IT was declared vnto you, good chri­sten people, in ye last homelye, howe oure fyrste parentes Adā and Eue, were by the synguler good­nes, and especiall fa­uoure of almyghtye God, created ryghte worthye creatures, and in the estate of parfytte innocencye. It was also shewed howe tho­rought disobedience to theyr creator, they broughte them selues, and al mankind, into the estate of euer­lastynge damnation. Now shall you consequentlye heare, of the delyueraunce of man, out of that damp­nable estate, that is, of oure redemption. For the vn­derstandynge whereof, you must perfytlye beare in mynde that the whole nature of man, both in bodye and soule, was thorough orygynall sinne, greatelye defiled. For the soule (whych is the cheyf part of mā) loste thereby the especiall gyftes of grace, wyth whyche it was indued in the creation; and besydes that, it was also [...] in the gyftes of nature, as in memorye, intelligence, wyll, and other lyke. And the body (whych is the inferior parte) it also was by the meanes of orygynall synne, brought to the neces­sarye estate of mortalitie, so that it muste nedes die, [Page] and was throughe that synne of our sayde fyrste pa­rentes made weke, and brought to be subiecte, to [...] drye kindes of infirmities, and syckenes: and nother coulde God, of his iustice, receaue man againe to fa­uor, and state of eternall lyfe (beynge thus in body and soule, by his owne defaulte desyled) vules he were first made pure, and cleane againe: nether man was able to helpe hym selfe herein, no, nor yet anye angell at al. Wherefore, almyghty God (whose mer­cy excedeth all hys workes) pytienge the wretched case that mankinde was in, dyd appoynt, euen from the begynnynge, his onely sonne, the seconde person in trinitie, to be the sauiour of the worlde, and to re­store mā agayne, to perfit clennes, both in body, and soule; and that by the way of very iustice, in making a sull amendes, and payinge a sufficiente raunsome for synne. And thys sonne of God (accordinge to the wyll of his father,) dyd take vpon hym the nature of man, ioynynge to hys euerlastynge Godheade, the whole, and [...] nature of manhode; not making that nature of man, which he toke, a new of nothing as he dyd heauen and earth; nor yet makynge it, of a clod of earth, as he dyd yt body of Adam, but he [...] the nature of man, of the very substaunce of the vyr­gyn Mary his mother; that like as Adam and Eue, brought them selues & all theyr posteritie, through synne, into the estate of eternal dampnatiō: so Christ takinge vpon him, the very selfe same nature, beyng descended from Adam and Eue, vnto the [...] Mary, and of her beynge taken, and ioyned in hym to the [...], in [...] of person, should by his in, [Page 14] nocency, & through death, wyllingly suffered in that his most innocent bodye, not only hym self, become immort [...], & haue glory euerlasting, but make so many also, partakers of lyke blessednes, as shulde en ioye the merites of his passion. Wherefore, it is a ve­ry pernicious errour, to thynke that chryst toke not his fleshe, of the verye fleshe of the blessed Uyrgyne Mary his mother. How coulde his death haue done me good, yf it were not of the same nature that I am of? & therefore S. Paule in hys seconde chapyter ofHeb. ii. his Epistle to the Hebrues sayeth. Qui sanctificat, et qui sanctificantur, ex vno omnes, that is. He that santyfyeth, and they whych are sanctifyed, are all of one. and within a lytle after he sayeth farther, Debuit per omnia fratribus assimulari, vt misericors fieret, fidelis [...], ad [...], [...] repropitiaret delicta populi, that is Christe muste in al poyntes, become like to his brethern, that he myght be a mercifull & fruithfull Bysshop to God ward, to procure merci for the sinnes of the people. If Chryst toke not the flesh of yt Uirgin Marye, howe is that promyse fulfylled, which God made immediately after the falle of our first parētes, when he thrust them out of paradise, at which tyme, he said vnto the serpente (as it is written in ye thyrdeGene. [...]. chapiter Genesis.) I wyll set [...] betwixt the, and the womans sede, and it shall treade downe thy hedde: Lo, how mercifully God dea­leth wyth mankynde, He promysed that one shoulde be borne of the sede and stocke of Eue, which should [Page] banquyshe our ghostly enemy the diuell. Nowe in that he calleth hym the sede of the woman, he moste playnely declareth, that he must nedes haue in hym the selfe same nature that the woman had. Agayne God makyng the second promyse of the same sede, to come of the stocke of Abraham the patriarke said vnto Abraham, (as is wytnessed in the. xxii. of Ge­nesys) In thy sede shall all the nations of theGen. 122. world be blessed; & many hūdred yeres after yt, he promyssed lyke wyse to [...] Dauyd, that, the sede should come of hym to. Which promyses of al mygh­ty God, were not to be verified in Chryst, if he toke not yt substaūce of his fleshe, of the Uirgin Mary his mother. But here it may seme straūge to some, yt al­mighty god (seing he intēded from ye beginninge, to sēd hys sonne into yt world, to be incarnate for mans redēption) did defer the sendinge of hym soo longe, that is, the space of foure thousande yeares or ther­aboute. To whome it is to be aunswered, that the long taryinge of Chryste, before he was incarnate, came not of lacke of good wyl in god, towardes vs; but of vnredines, and lacke of good disposytion, to [...] hym on oure partes. For if Chryste shoulde haue commen in the begynnyng of the worlde, men would haue thought, that if God had suffered them to vse theyr owne natural powers, thei would haue attayned [...] wel inough, wythout any other helpe on Godes parte. Agayne, thoughe after longe experience, and trauayle of man, folowing the onelye lyghte, of nature, it was euydente, that he ne ded a specyall ayde from God, to the attaynynge [Page 15] of euerlastynge lyfe, yet the worlde myghte haue demed, that in case God of hys goodnes, had geuen vnto manne some speciall lyghte, and knowledge of hys wyll and pleasure, that then vndoughtedlye, wythout farther helpe, he folowynge suche specyall lyght, and knowledge, myght be able well inoughe to attayne to euerlastynge lyfe. Therefore, to take all suche excuses a waye, and that we should plaine­lye vnderstande, that after we once fell into synne, neyther the light of nature in vs neyther the know­ledge of the wyll of God, by speciall reuelation ope­ned vnto vs, was able to helpe vs; god suffred man­kynde to trauel, fyrst by the light of nature, secondly by the lawe of Moyses, and yet man ranne styll far­ther, and farther, into damnation. Whereby it appe­reth, that thoughe knowledge of the truth be necessa ry, to the attayning of [...] lyfe, yet suche knowledge (be it neuer so great) beyng in a man cor rupted with sinne, is to feble and to weake to purge hym of sinne. For purgation & clensing of sinne, com­meth by some other meanes, besides yt knowledge of the truth: aud therfore S. Paule in the fyrste chapi­ter of his epystle to the Romaines, most plainly [...] meth, that in the time of yt law of nature, men knew inough of God, but yet, not withstanding theyr kno ledge, they fell into abhominable idolatry. The wor­des of S. Paule, in that place are these. So much as may be knowen of god, is manifest in thē (that is to saye, in those whyche liued vnder the law of nature, from Adam vnto Moyses) For his inui [Page] sible thynges, euen his eternal power, & god­hed were sene of thē, being vnderstanded by the works of the [...] of the world; so that they are without excuse, bicause, that when they knew God, they gloryfyed hym not as god, nether were thankeful, but becam ful of vanitie in their imaginacions. And as yt lyght whiche men had by the lawes of nature, was not of force, to kepe them from synne, so nether the lawe of Moyses, beyng opened from god hym selfe by spe­cial reuelatiō could suffice to ryde mā from sinne (as S. Paule in the second chapiter of hys foresayde e­pistleRoma, [...] testifieth saying) Behold thou art a Jew, and thou doest rest in the law, and doest glo­ry in god, and doest know hys wyl and plea sure, & being instructed in the lawe, thou do­est allowe that is best, and doest truste that thou art a guyde of the blinde, a light to thē which art in darkenes, an instructour of the foly she, a mayster of the ignorante, and that thou knowest by the lawe the fourine of sci­ens & truth: but yet thou that teachest other teachest not thy selfe; thou ye prechest against aduoutri, art an aduoutrer thy self, thou that dooest defye Idoles, commyttest [...] thy selfe; thou that doest glorye in the lawe, through transgressing of the lawe, doest dys­honor [Page 19] God, for the name of God, throughe you, is blasphemed amongest the gentyles.

Thus it is [...], by the doctryne of Saynte Paule, that nother by the common lawe of nature, nether by the special knowledge of the law of Moi­ses, man was able to auoyde eternal dāpnation; but that he neded, besides such kōwledge, of some other helpe, that is, of amendes, to be made for hys sinnes, and thereby, to be reduced into the fauour of god a­gaine, and to haue aboundaunce of grace [...] vn­to hym, by whych grace he should both in hys know ledge be yt better established, & be able also, according to knowledge of ye truth, to walke in the truth. For thys amendes to be made, the second person in trini­tie, being god immortal, became mortal mā, & was made in all partes lyke vnto one of vs (sinne only ex cepted) [...] he did vnite vnto his godhead, the body and soule of man, in vnitie of person, in such a merue lous sort, that as in vs, the body being of [...] nature and the soule being of an other nature, doo make yet but one person, so in hym the nature of God, and the whole perfect nature of man, doo make but one per­son. Of this [...] vnion of yt godhed, & manhed in Christ, S. Iohn speaketh in the fyrst chaIohn. [...] piter of his gospell, saying. [...] factum est, ethabitauit in nobis, the worde (that is the sonne of God) was made fleshe.) (that is man) & dwelt amōgest vs. he dwelt here on the earth, (as scripture decla­reth,) aboue. xxxiii. yeares, and when he had fulfyl­led al thynges, accordyng to the sayinges of the ho­lye [Page] prophetes, whyche were to be fulfylled of hym be­fore hys passion, then he suffred death willingly, yea the death of the crosse, by suche payne, (wrongefully procured of the deuil agayne him) to raunsome man kynde oute of captiuitie, whiche it sustayned vnder the deuyll moost iustly: and that thys ran̄some shold be perfyt, he suffred sondry sortes of mooste spytefui wronges, and intollerable paynes, & tormentes, in his most pure, and innocent body; as buffeting, bin­dinge, scourgyng, plattynge on his head, a crowne of thorne, hanginge on the crosse, pearcynge of his handes and fete with nayles, openynge of hys syde with a speare, and shedynge of his mooste precyous bloude; whiche passion of his, as it is a moost parfyt myrrour, and glasse for vs, there in to beholde the ex­cedyng great loue of god towarde vs, whiche spa­red not hys onelye sonne, but for vs all gaue hym to dye, so it is a sufficient occasion, to brynge al men in extreme hatred of the deuyll, and synne: from daun­ger of whome, mankynde coulde not be rydde, but onely by so playnefull a death, of the sonne of God.

What can we loke for at gods handes, yf we synne from hence forth, but wrath and vengeaunce, seyng he hath once delyuered vs from synne, by so merciful a meanes: All that our sauyoure Christe suffered, he wyllingely suffered for our synnes, hym selfe hauing neuer deserued anye whyt of payne, as who neuer synned. ‘And yet hys passion, though it be in it selfe a sufficiente raunsome, for the synnes of the whole worlde, yet it taketh not place in all men: not for in­sufficiencie in it selfe, but for defaulte in them, that [Page] shoulde condignely receaue the merites therof.’ For this you must know; that God requyreth in vs cer­tayne thinges, to be accomplished by our owne wil­and consent, without the which, we can not ve sa­ued, no more, than yf Christ had neuer dyed for vs. What thinges these are, shalbe hereafter declared vnto you. In the meane season, lyft vp your hartes, and open them awyde, to receaue in vnto them, a great loue towardes God, who so nobylye created vs and when we, through our owne default were fallen into the estate of endles miseri, and wretched­nes, so mercyfully redemed vs, by the passion, and death of his onelye sonne our sauiour Christ. Remē ­ber that synne, and nought els, brought vs first out of Gods fauour; and that to take awaye synne, the sonne of God was incarnate, and suffered mooste paynefull death on the crosse; and therefore hereaf­ter, flee you all kynde of synne, and fight incellātly agaynst your ghostly enemye the deuyl, who being vāquished by Christ, is not able now to ouerthrow vs, if we, in the right faith of Christ, valiantly with stand hym; which to do graunte vnto vs, the bles­sed [...], the father the sonne, and the holy ghost, to whome be all honoure, and glo­ry, world without ende.


¶ An Homely declaring how the redempti on in Chryste is apliable to vs

ALthough the death & passion of our sa­uiour christ be in va lu a sufficient raun­some for the sinnes [...] the whole world, yet i effect it taketh not place in ye whole world. For neither Turke, Jew, nor in­fidel, wāting beleif in Christe, can take good by the death and passion of christ, ye scripture [...]. 16. most manifestly affyrming in the. xvi. chapiter of s. Marke, that, Whosoeuer dothnot beleue shal be dāpned, Agayne, euyll lyfe, bryngeth to the e­uyll lyuer, eternal death, beleue he neuer so wel. AsGala. 3. S. Paule wituesseth, in the. v. chapyter of his Epi stle to the Galathians, where he sayth: Walk af ter the spirite, and fulfyll not the lustes of yt fleshe. For the flesh lusteth contrary to the spi­rit and the spirit contrary to the flesh. These are cōtrary one to another, so yt you do not what ye would: But and yf ye beled of the spirit, then are ye not vnder the law. The de des of the fleshe ar manifest which are these aduoutry, fornicatiō, vnclennes, wātonnes [Page 18] ydolatry, witchcrafte, hatred, variaūce, [...], wrath, stryfe, sedition, sectes, enuye murder dronkēnes, glotteny, and such like; of which I tel you before as I haue told you in time past, that they which commit suche thinges, shal not inherit the kingdō of heuē. Thus you perceaue that to ye enioying of the death and passion of Chryst, these two poyntes are requi­sit of our behalfe; the one, to beleue rightlye, yt other to lyue vpryghtly; whych two poyntes, no man is able otherwyse to know (except it be by speciall re­uelation from God) but onely by the catholike chur­che; which catholike church, oure sauioure Chryste hath appoynted to be the onely scoole, for al men to come and repayre vnto, to learne such truth, as is mete for them to know, for the attayning of euerla styng life. This catholike church, and no other com­pany, hath yt true vnderstanding of scripture, & the knowledge of all thinges necessary to saluatiō. ToIohn. 16. this churche. Christ maketh promis, in yt xvi. of Thō saying, Whē that spirit of truth shal come, he shal teache you al truth. To this church also he maketh that other promis, written in the, xxviii, of Mathewe, where he sayth. Behold I am withMath, 28 you, to the ende of the world. This Catholike church, thus gouerned by the holy Ghost, & assured alwayes, of Chryst him selfe, neuer yet fayled, frō yt time of the Apostles, hitherto, ne shal fail to ye worl des ende; nether can it be deceued in any necessary [Page] truth, [...] as Chryst promyseth in the. xvi. of Mathe we saying. That hel gates shal not preMath. 16 uayle agaynst the churche. where by hel gates he meaneth errour, as yf he had sayd, that the catho lyke churche shall neuer be ouercome with erroure. For this cause S. Paule in the third chapter of his first epistle to Timothe, calleth the catholike church [...] 1. the piller and ground of truth. This catholike churche, must in al ages nedes be an open knowen churche, and such a companye as among which the trueth is openly preached, ells Chryste woulde not haue sayde. (as it is wrytten in the. v, of Mathew)Math. 5. A citie that is seton a hyl, can not be hid, ne ther do men light a candle, and putit vnder a bushel but on all cādelsticke and it geueth lyght vnto al that are in the house. Wherfore they do great iniury to Chryst, which saye, that the catholyke church is an vnknowen church, seinge it is that citie, which our sauiour there mente, & that candell, of which he there speaketh. So manye as deuyde them selues frō this open knowen Churche of Chryst, and refuse the doctrine thereof, thoughe they be neuer so diligent in reading ofscripture, yet shall they neuer truely vnderstande scrypture, but runne continually farther and farther into errour and ignoraunce; cuē as a mā that is once out of his way, the farther, and faster he goeth furth the more [...]. Peter 1 he loseth his labour. Saynt Peter therefore in the fyrst Chapter of his secōd epystle, geueth vs a most certayne an. sure rule, which if we folow, we shall [Page] not fayle, ryghtly to vnderstand scripture; his rule is thys. We haue (sayth he) A ryght sure word of prophecie, wherevnto yf ye take [...], as vnto a light yt shineth in a darke place, you doo wel vntil the day dawne, and the daye starre arise in your harts. So that you first knowe this, that no prophecy in ye scripture hath any priuate interpretation, For yt scrip ture came neuer by the wil of man, butholy men of God spake, as they were moued by the holy ghost. Here you se, howe S. Peter wil­leth euery man, fyrst of all, to knowe, that scripture must be vnderstanded after the generall meaning of Chrystes church, and not after the priuate inter­pretation of any seuerall man, or company. And in2 Peter. 3 the thyrde chapyter of the same Epystle, he sayeth further, that in S. Paules epistles, are manye thinges harde to he vnderstanded, whyche they that are vnlearned & vnstable, do per­uerte, as they do also the other scriptures to theyr own destruction, ye therefore beloued (seing you be [...] afore hand) beware, leaste ye with other men, be also plucked a waye through the erroure of the wicked, & fal from your owne stedfastnesse. Lo here. S Peter telleth the [...] cause, why men my svnder­stand scrypture, which is lacke of knowledge, and [Page] lacke of constancie, when men ether thorowe igno­taunce, or thoroughe inconstancie, swerue from the catholyke meanyng, and folowe priuate interpreta­tion. Such men, he sayeth, do peruerte the scryptu­res to theyr owne destruction. Saynte Paule also wrytynge to Tymothe, and willing hym to be ear­nesti. Timo 9 in the study of scripture, geueth him withal this foresayd rule, saying in the very ende of his fyrst epi­stle: O Limothie, kepe sure that, whiche is committed to thy custody, & auoide newe fangled termes, and bosting of science, false­ly so called which science whyle some dyd professe, they haue erred from the fayth. The thinge, which S. Paule sayeth was committed to [...] custodye, was the truth of the catholyk fayth, which he sayth, some fell from, by reasonne of new fangeled termes, and by reson aiso, that they tooke vpon them knowledg, beynge in dede igno­raunte. And in the thyrde chapter of hys seconde epistle to Timothie, he farther sayeth. Contynue [...]. Timo 3 thou in yt thinges which thou hast learned which also were commytted vnto the. S. I reneus also (a blessed martyr, and very nyghe to the tyme of the Apostles, a man of greate learning, and no lesse vertue, and such a one, as by the consente of all men, had the perfyt knowledge and vnderstan­dynge of scryptures) in his third boke [...] the arche heretyke, and in the fowrth chap­ter [...]. in his third [...] as of the same boke sayeth, touchyng the catholyke churche in this maner. We must not seke ye tru­eth [Page 12] among other, seing we may easely take [...] V [...] tine ch. [...] it of the church, for as much as the Apostels haue fully lefte with it (as in a rich tresury) all truth, ye who so listeth, may thence take the drinkes of life, for this is the entre to life. All other are theues, and robbers, wherfore them must we auoyd: & that doctryne that the church teacheth, we muste loue, & with great diligence embrace the tradition of the truth For what & yf a controuersy shoulde happen to ryse vpon neuer so [...] a questiō; ought not men in that case to haue recourse to the most auncient churches, in which the Apostles were conuersaunt, and ther learne the truth in that controuersy? ye, what & yf the Apostles had lefte behynde thē no wri­tyng at al, must we then not haue folowed the order of tradition, delyuered by them to such as they committid the churches vnto? to which tradition manye barbarous nati­ons, beleuing in christ, do giue credite with out any other wrytyng, then that which is in their hartes wrytten. Al this wryteth Irene us; and within a lytle after he sayeth. Yf to these barbarous nations, any man [...] preach in their owne language, these inuentiōs of [Page] heretikes, by and by they would stope their eares, and [...] as farre as they could frō him, and not once here hys blasphemous talke, thus sayth S. [...]. Now yf christen people at this [...], would folow this trad, which this bles­sed [...] here speaketh of, thē should no mārunne into heresy, but al men shold cleue fast vnto yt whol­some doctryne of the catholike churche, & abhor and detest, whatsoeuer any precher would vtter to thē, contrary to the same. For whosoeuer precheth any doctrine, not agreable to yt general [...] doctrie in the open knowen church, he it is, & such as be like to him, of whō our [...] biddeth vs to [...], sa [...], 7 yng in yt. vii. of Mathewe. Beware of false pro­phets, which com to you in shepes clothing but inwardly they are rauenyng wolues. Our sauior calleth them wolues, for yt they deuoure yt soules, of so many as giue credite vnto thē; he say­eth farder of them, that they come in lambes skins, because they pretend the woord of God, and there­with bleare the eyes of pore simple men, and make them beleue, that it is as they saye, where in [...], whatsoeuer is taught contraty to that, that al [...] openly teacheth, and from tyme to tyme hath taught, is false, and cannot possible be true, [...] les we wold [...], yt christ hun selfe wer not true. For he promyseth yt hym selfe wilbe for euer wt ye church, and yt the holy ghost, shal for euer gouerne the same. Forasmuch than, as there is no other schole on the [Page 99] earth, for men to learne theyr duety, towards god, and the worlde, but the catholyke church, nor no o­ther doctrine, auay leable to eternall lyfe, but that which the catholyke church teacheth, therefore all christē people are required, to make a solēpne vow at theyr baptisme, to beleue the catholyke churche. And he that so doeth. is in an assured trade [...] salua­tion, if in his conuersation, he folowe the same; but contrary wyse, he that [...] it not, is in a moste certayne estate of euerlastyng dampnation.

[...], that youe maye knowe, what the [...] churche dothe in all poyntes beleue, there shalbe hereafter particulerly, set forth vnto you the seuerall matters, requisite to be beleued, & practised of all Chrysten people, that no man, may haue iuste cause hereafter, to pretende ignoraunce; but al men beyng sufficiently instructed, maye, by folowynge such doctryne, attayne to euerlasting lyfe; whyche send vnto vs all, the blessed [...], the father the Sonne, and the holy [...], to whom be all honoure, and glory, [...] without ende.


¶ An homely of Christian loue or Charitie.

FOrasmuch as yt pith, and summe, of al things, which be contemed, either in the lawe, or in the prophets, doth stād and cōsist, in ye loue of God, and in the loue of [...] neygh­bour, as our [...] Christ doth [...] stifye, in the. xxii. Chapiter of saint Mathewe sayinge. [...] of theMath. 22. Pharises beyng a doctour of the lawe, tēp­ing, did aske him and say, maister, what is the great cōman̄demēt in ye law? Jesus, [...], [...] vnto him. Thou [...] loue thy [...] God, with al thy harte, wyth all thy soule, and with althy hole minde this is (sayeth he) the greateste, and firste [...]. And the seconde is like vnto it. Thou [...] loue thy neig hboure, as thy selfe and of these two commaundements al the lawe doth [...], and the Prophetes. And forasmuch also, as we can not loue God well excepte we doo loue our neyghboure, in a due order ne yet loue our neyghboure, well, excepte we doo [Page 22] [...] God, in that due order, that we oughte to doo, (Sainct Jhon the euangelist so testifyeng, and de­claryng,Iohn [...] and. [...] in the thyrde and fourthe Chapiters of his fyrst canonical Epistle.) And finally, forasmuche as he that loueth not after this sorte, is (by the testimo­nye of the sayde sainct John, in the sayd thyrd Cha­piter) iudged to be in death, therfore it is ryght ex­pediente, and necessarye, to haue alwyes thys loue, whiche nowe in oure vulgare tonge, and common talke, is ofte named, by the name of Charitie, but ve ry megerly, and coldely practised, and set fourthe in dede, as it shoulde be. And of truthe, yf we woulde iudge vpryghtly, and well, we ought to saye, that of all thinges that be good, to be taught vnto Christen people, there is no thing more necessarye to be spo­ken of, and daylye called vpon, then charitie: as wel for that al maner of woorkes of righteousnes, be cō ­teyned in it, as also, that the decaye thereof, is the [...] of the world, the banysh ement of vertue, and the cause of all vice. And forasmuch, as almost euery mā maketh, & frāeth to hym selfe a charity, after hys owne appetyte, and how [...] so euer his lyfe be, bothe vnto God, and man, yet he perswadeth with hymselfe styll, that he hathe chatitye: There­fore you shall here nowe a true, and playne descryp­tion of charity, not of mens ymagination, but of the very woordes, and example of our sauioure Jesus Christe. In whyche description, euerye man (as it were in a glasse) may consider him selfe, and see plai nely, without error, whether he be in the true Cha­ritye or not. [Page] charitie is to loue God, with al oure harte, withall our life, with al our powers, & with al our strength Wyth all our harte. that is to say, yt our hartes, mynde, & studie, be set to [...] his woorde, to trust in hym and to loue him aboue all other thynges, whyche we doo loue best, in heauen or in earthe. Wyth all oure lyfe that is to saye, that our chief ioye, and delite, be sette vpon him and his honoure, and our hole lyfe gyuen vnto the seruyce of hym, a­boue al thynges, wyth hym to lyue, and wyth [...] to dye, yea, and to forsake all other thynges, rather then hym. For he that loueth hys father or mother, sonne, or doughter, house or lād, more [...] me (saith Christ) is not worthy to haue me. [...] all oure powers. that is to say, that with our handes, and feet, wyth our eyes, and eares, [...] and tongues, and wyth all other parts & powers, both of body and of soule, we shoulde be gyuen to the [...] pynge, and fulfyllyng of hys commaundementes. This is is the fyrst, and the principal part of chariti but it is not the whole. For charitie, is also to [...] euery man, good, and [...], frende, and fooe: And [...] cause be gyuen to the contrary, yet ne­uertheles, to beare good wil, and hart vnto euerye man, to vse our selues wel vnto thē as well in woor­des, and countenaūce, as in all our outward actes, and dedes. For so Chryst hym selfe [...] & so also he perfourmed in dede. And of this loue that we ought to haue amōgest oure selues, eche to other he instructeth vs thus. (Mathewe. v.) You haue [Page] harde it taught in tymes past? Thou shalte loue thy frende, and hate thy fooe: but I tell you loue your enemyes, speake wel of them that diffame you, & doe speake euil of you: doo well to thē that hate you, praye for thē that vexe & persecute you, that you may be [...] childrē of your father, that is in heauen. For he maketh the sunne to ryse bothe vpō the euyl, and good, and sendeth rayne to the iuste, & to the vniust. For if you loue them that loue you, what rewarde shal you haue. Doo not the publicans lykewyse? And yf you speake well onely of them, that be your brethren, and derely beloued frendes. What greate matter is that? doo not the heathē yt same also. These be the very woordes of oure saui our Chryst him selfe, touching the loue of our neigh bour. And forasmuch as the Pharisies (wyth [...] moste pestilent traditiōs, false interpretations, and gloses) had corrupted, and almoost clerely stopped vp, this pure well, of Gods iyuely word, [...] that this loue, and charytie, pertayned onelye to a mans frendes, and that it was sufficient for a man to loue them whyche doo loue hym, and to hate his fooes: therefore Christe did open this well agayne, purged it, and scourged it, by giuinge vnto his god lye lawe of Charitie, a true and clere interpretatiō, which is this: that we ought to loue euery mā, both [Page] frende, and fooe: addyng thereto, what commodity we shal haue therby, and what in cōmodity by do­ynge the contrarye. What thynge can we wyshe so good for vs, as the heauenlye father, to repute, and take vs, for hys chyldren? And this shall we be sure of (sayeth Christ,) yf we loue euery man, without ex ception. And yf we doo otherwyse (sayeth he,) we be no better thā Phariseis, Publicans, and heathen persons, and shall haue oure rewarde wyth them: that is, to be excluded from the nūber of gods electe chyldren, and from hys euerlastyng inheritaunce in heauen. Thus of true Charitye, Christ taught, that euery man is bounde to loue God aboue al thinges and to loue euery man, frende, and fooe.

And thus lykewyse, he dyd vse hym selfe, ex­hortyng hys aduersaryes, rebukynge the faultes of hys aduersaryes, and whan he coulde not amende them, yet he prayed for theym. Fyrste he loued God his father, aboue al thinges, so much, that he sought not hys owne glorye, and wyll, but the glorye, and wyll of hys father: Iseke not (sayde he Iohn. v.) myne owne wyll, but the wyll of hym that sent me: Nor he refused not to dye, to satysfye hys fathers wyll, saying. Math. xxvi. [...] it may be, letIohn. 5 this cuppe of death goo from me, yf not thy wyll be done, and not myne. He loued also notMath. 26 onely hys frendes, but also hys enemyes, whych in ther hartes did beare exceding great hatred agaist hym, and in theyr tonges spake all euyll of [...], and in theyr actes, and dedes, pursued him wyth al their [Page 24] myght, and power, euē vnto death. Yet al this not­wythstanding, he with drewe not hys fauour from theim, but styll loued them, preached vnto them, of loue rebuked theyr false dortrine, theyr wycked ly­nynge, and dyd good vnto them, [...] accep­tynge whatsoeuer they spake, or dyd, agaynste him When they gaue hym euell wordes, he gaue noue euyll agayne, when they did stryke hym, he did not [...] agayne. And when he suffred deathe, he dyd not [...] them, nor threaten them, but prayed for thē and referred all thynges to his fathers wyll. And as a shepe that is led vnto the shambles to be slaineEsai. [...] Act, [...] and as a lambe that is shorne of hys flese, did make no noyse, nor resistence, euen so wente he vnto hys deathe, wythoute anye repugnance, or openynge ofhys mouthe, to saye anye euyll. Thus haue I des cribed vnto you, what charitie is, aswell by the doc tryne, as by the example of Chryst him selfe, where­by also, euery man may without errour, know hym selfe, what state and condition he standeth in: whe ther he be in charitie (and so the chylde of the father in heauen) or not. For although almoste euery [...] perswade) him selfe to be in Charitie, yea let him ex amyne none other man, but his owne hart, his [...], and [...], and he shall not be deceyued, but truely decerne, and iudge, whether he be [...] perfyte charitie, or not. For he that foloweth not hys owne appetite, and wyl, but gyueth him selfe earnestly to God, to [...] all hys wyll, and commaundementes, he [...] be sure, that he loueth God, aboue at thin­ges, and els surely he loueth hym not, whatsoeuer, [Page] he pretend, As Chryste sayd, If ye loue me kepe [...]. 14. you my cōmaundements, For he that kno­weth my commaundementes, & doth kepe them, he it is (sayeth Chryst) that loueth me. And agayne he sayeth. He that loueth me, will kepe my woorde, and my father wyll loue hym, and we wyll bothe come to him, and dwel with him. And he that loueth me not wyll not kepe my wordes. And lykewyse he that [...] good hart and mynde, and vseth well hys tongue, aud dedes vnto euery man, frend, and fooe, he maye knowe therby, that he [...] charitie. And then he is sure also that almygnty god taketh hym for his dere beloued sonne, as Sayute [...] sayeth, in the thyrde Chapyter of his fyrste canony­call Epystle. Hereby, manifestly are knowen, the chyldren of God, frō the chiloren of the dcuyll. For who soeuer dothe not loue hys brother, belongeth not vnto God. But yt per­uerse nature of man, corrupte wyth sinne, and desti tute of Gods word, and grace, thinketh it against all reason, that a man should loue hys enemye, and hath many perswasions, whyche induceth hym to the contrarye. Agaynste all whyche reasones, we ought aswell to set the teachyng, as the lyuynge of oure sauioure Chryst, who louynge vs (when wee were hys enemyes) dothe teache vs to loue our ene myes. He did paciently take for vs many reproches [Page 25] suffred beatynge, and moost cruell deathe. Therfore we be no memberes of hym, yf we wyll not folowe hym. For as S. Peter sayeth, Chryst suffered for vs, leauynge vs an example, that we shouldi. [...]. [...] folowe hym. Furthermore we must consider that to loue oure frendes, is no more but that which the­ues, adulterers, homicides, and all wycked persons doo: in so muche that Iewes, Turkes, Iufidels, and all brute beastes, doo loue them that bee theyr fren­des, of whome they haue theyr lyuynge, or any other benefites. But to loue our enemyes, is the proper cō dition onely of them, that be the children of God, the disciples and folowers of Christ. Notwithstanding mans frowarde and corrupte nature, wayeth ouer depely many times, the offence and displeasure done vnto hym by enemyes, and thynketh it a burdenin­tollerabel, to be bounde to loue them, that hate hym. But the burden shoulde be easye yuoughe, yf (on the other syde) euery man woulde consyder, what dys­pleasure he hath done to hys enemy agayne, & what pleasure he hath receyued of hys enemye. And yf we fynde no egall recompence, neyther in receyuing pleasures of our enemy, nor in rendryng dyspleasure vnto hym agayne: then let vs ponder the dyspleasu res, whyche we haue done agaynste almighty God Howe often, and howe greuously, we haue offended hym. Whereof, yf we wyll haue of God forgyuenes there is none other remedye, but to forgyue the offē ­ces done vnto vs whyche be very small in compari­son of oure offences done a [...] God. And yf wee consyder that he, which hath off [...] vs, deserueth [Page] not to be forgyuen of vs, let vs consider againe, that we muche lesse deserue to be forgyuen of God. And althoughe our enemy deserue not to be forgyuen for hys [...] sake, yet we oughte to forgyue hym, for gods [...], [...] howe great, and manyfest benefytes we haue receyued of hym, withoute oure desertes, and that Chryste hathe deserued of vs, that for his sake, we should forgyue them their trespasses, commytted agaynst vs.

But here may ryse a necessary question, to be dys­solued. If charity requyre to thinke, speake, and doo well vnto euery man, bothe good and euyl, how can magystrates execute iustyce vpon malefactoures, with charytye? Howe can they caste euyll men into prison, take away theyr goodes, and sometyme theyr lyues, accordynge to lawes: yf Charytye [...] not suffer them so to doo? Herevnto, is a plaine and brief answer, that plages and punishementns be not euel of them selues, yf they be well taken of innocentes: and to an euyll man, they are bothe good and neces­sarye: and may be executed accordynge to charitye, and with charity should be executed. For declaraci­on whereof, you shal vnderstande, that charity hath two offices, the one contrarye to the other: and yet [...] necessarye to the vsed, vpon men of contrarye sorte, and dysposion. The one office of Charitye, is, to cherishe good, and innocent men. Not to oppresse them, with false accusations, but to incourage them wyth rewardes to doo well, & [...] in well doo­ynge: defendynge them wyth the sworde, frō theyr [...]. And the offyce of Byshops, and [Page 26] pastours, is to laude good men, for wel doyng, that they maye perseuer therein, and to rebuke and cor­rect, by [...] woorde of God, the offēces, and [...] of all euyll disposed persons.

The other office is, to rebuke, correcte, & punysh, vyce, without acceptation of parsons, and thys is to be vsed, against theim onely, that be [...] men, and malefactours. And it is aswell the offyce of charitie, to rebuke, punyshe, and corrocte them, that be euyll, as it is to cheryshe, and rewarde them that be good, and innocent. Sainte Paule soo declareth, writing to the Romaynes, and sayenge, the [...] poweres are ordeyned of GOD, not to be dreadefull to [...]. 13. them that doo well, but vnto Malefactoures, to drawe the swoorde, to take vengeaunce of hym that commytteth the synne. And sayncte Paule byddethe Tymothye constantlye, and vehement­lye, to rebuke synne, by the woorde of GOD.i. Timo. [...]

So that bothe offyces shoulde be dylygently execu­ted, to impuge the kyngdome of the deuyll: the prea­cher wyth the woorde, and the Gouernoure wyth [...] swoorde. Els they loue neyther God, nor them whome they gouerne, yf for lacke of correction, they wylfully suffer God to be offended, and them whom they gouerne, to perishe. For as euery louyng father correcteth his natural sonne, when he dothe amysse, or els he loueth hym not: So all gouernoures of Realmes, Countreys, Townes, and houses, should louynglye correcte them, who be offendours vnder theyr gouernaunce. [Page] And cheryshe them who doo lyue innocently: yf they haue any respecte, eyther vnto God, and theyr office or loue vnto them, of whome they haue gouernauce,

And suche rebukes, and punyshementes, of them that doo offende, must be done in due tymes, least by delaye, the offender fall headlinges into al maner of myschiefe, and not onelye bee euyll theim selues, but also doo hurte vnto many men, drawynge other by theyr euyll example, to synne, & outrage, after them. As one theef maye bothe robbe manye men, and al­so make many theues, and one sediciouse persō may allure many, and noye a hole towne or countre. And suche euyl persons, that be so great offenders of god, and the common wealth, charity requireth to be cut of, from the body of the common weale lest, they cor­rupte other good, and honest persons: like as a good surgeon cutteth awaye a putrified, and festred mem ber, for the loue he hath to yt hole body, least it infecte other members, adioynynge to it. Thus it is decla­red vuto you, what true charitie, or christan loue is, so playnely, that no man nede to be deceyued.

Whyche loue whosoeuer kepeth, bothe towardes God (whom he is bounde to loue aboue al thinges) and also towardes hys neyghbours, aswell frende as fooe, it shal surely kepe hym frō al offence of God, and iuste offence of man. Therefore beare welaway thys one shorte lesson, that by true christian charitye God ought to be loued, aboue all thynges, and all men oughte to be loued, good and euyll, frende, and foo, and to al suche we ought (as we may) doo good those that be good, of loue we ought to encorag, and [Page 27] cherysh, because they be good: And those that be euil, of loue, we ought to procure vnto them theyr correc­tion, and dewe punyshement, that they may therby, either be broght to goodnes, or at the lest, that god, and the common welthe maye be the lesse hurte, and offended, hating alwaies, the vyce, or offence, but lo­uynge the person alwayes, as the creature of God, and as one who by nature is ioyned in kynred vnto vs. And yf we thus directe oure lyfe, by christian loue and Charytye, then Chryste doothe promyse, and assure vs, that he loueth vs, and that we be the Chyldren of our heauenlye father, and re­consiled to his fauor, being very members of Christ, and that after the shorte tyme, of thys presente and mortall lyfe, we shall haue with hym, eternall lyfe, in his euerlastyng kingdome of heauen: Ther fore to hym, wyth the father, and the holy Ghost, be al honor and glorye nowe & euer


¶ An Homely declaryng howe daunge­rous a thynge, the breache of Cha­ritye is.

Ur Saiyour Christ in ye. v. of Mathew, setteth forth an vni­uersalMath, 5 doctrine, that is, a doctrine, apper teyning indifferent­ly to all Chrysten mē and there he decla­reth, how great per fection of lyfe, ought to be in one of vs, sayinge in thys ma­ner. Nisi abundauerit iustitia uestra plus quam Scribarum, & pharisaeo rum, nonimrabit is in regnum [...]. That is to saye: Except your ryghtuousnes excede the rygh­tuousnes of the Scribes, & the Pharyseis, ye cannot entre into the kyngedome of heauē, For the ryght vnderstandynge: of which wordes, it is to be noted, that rightuousnes in thys texte, doth signisye all kynde of vertue, and goodnes, and that by the Scribes, and Pharyseis, Chryste doth here meane, certayne companies, whiche were amonge the Iewes, and dyd lyue accordynge to the letter of Moyses lawe, so vpryghtly, in the face of the worldOecume­vpon the fift of Ma [...]. that they were commonly taken for parfyt men. Decumenius, an auncient father of ye greke church doth so declare the foresayde wordes. Wherefore, when our sauioure requireth of vs, that we, in righ [Page 28] tuousnes, shoulde passe the Scribes and Phariseis, he meaneth, that we Chrsten folke shoulde not one­ly outwardely, seme good in the sight of the worlde, (as dyd the Scribes, & the Pharises,) but inward­lye also in our hartes, shoulde be lyke wyse good, in the syght of almyghtye God, whiche they were not. And because no faute is more greuouse, then the breache of Christen Loue, and Charitie, therefore immediately after the foresayde generall sentence, he instructeth vs, after all other thinges, in our du­rye, touchinge Charitie, sayinge: Dictum est antiquis, non occides, qui [...] occiderit, reus erit iudicii, Ego autem dico uobis, [...] omnes qui irascitur fratri suo, reus erit [...]. That is to saye.

It was sayde to them of olde tyme, Thou shalfe not sley whosoeuer dothe sley, shalbe in daunger of iudgemēt. But I saye vnto you that whosoeuer is angry wyth his brother, shalbe in daunger of iudgement. Behold, good Christē people, how perfit a charity Christ requireth in vs. For to vs he maketh the leaste breache of Cha­ritie, as daungerous, as in olde tyme, was the grea­test breache to the Iewes, The greateste breathe of Charitie, is murdre, and the [...] thereof amongest the Iewes, was iudgemente. The leaste breache of Charyty, is anger, and yet the punishmēt appoynted for it to vs Christians, by oure sauyoure hym selfe, is lyke wyse iudgement. Howe great dyf­ference of lyfe then, I pray you, must be betwene vs, nowe lyuynge vnder the newe lawe, and them that of olde tyme, lyued vnder the olde lawe, that is vn­der [Page] yt lawe of Moyses, when as, the selfe same payne that was then prescribed vnto them, for the hyghest degre of vncharitablenesse, is nowe dewe to vs, for the lowest degre thereof? How is it that mē flatter them selues, wyth the pleasaunte name of ChristianMath, 11 libertye, and thinke that, because Christ saieth in the xi of Mathew. Iug in meum suaue est, et onus meum leue. That is to saye. My yoke is swete, and my burden lyghte: that therefore suche streytnes of lyfe, and playnefull trauell is not requyred of vs, as was be­fore tyme of the Iewes? True it is in dede, that Christen men are not at thys presente, bounde to be cyrcumcysed, or to offer vp vnto almyghtye GOD, calues, oxen, shepe, and Gotes, or to goo thryse a yeare to Ierusalem, or to forbeare swynes fleshe, or to kepe other lyke obseruations of Moyses lawe, but as touchynge the tenne commaundemen­tes, and all mortall Preceptes contained in the old testament, we Christyans are bounde to the obser­uation of them, & of all other thynges, belongyng to the estate of the new testamente, and so bounde, as that in perfourmance, and fulfyllyng of them, we muste be muche more perfyt, and more exacte, then euer was the Iewes in obeyng Moyses lawe. Ne­ther is the yoke of Chryste called swete, nor hys bur­den lyghte, for anye ease or remission, that we maye take in oure condition, but for two other consydera­cions, of whiche the one is, the aboūdaunce of grace, gyuen nowe in the tyme of the newe testamente, farre excedynge, the measure of grace gyuen to the Iewees, folowinge Moyses lawe: the other is, the [Page 29] greatnes of rewarde, promysed to vs, aboue the Iewes, as wytnesseth amonge manye other auncientOecumē vpon the fifte of Mathew fathers, Oecumenius also, who wrytyng vpon the v. of Mathew, sayeth after this sorte. Quoniā infantia in [...]irilem iam transierit etatē, et copiosa hominibus data sit gratia et maxis maproposita sunt premia (neque eumiam possioterrae terrenorum, quem bonorum, aut prolis faecunditas aut long a vita, seu victoria contra hostas premittitur, sed reguum caelorū, adoptio et victoria contra damones) me pi [...]o magna exiguntur certaminā. That is to saye. For as­much as nowe infancy is passed into mans age, and grace is plenteouslie giuen to men and moost greatest rewardes are promised (for now nether possession of earth, & earthelye goodes, nor longe lyfe, nor fecundite of chyldren. nor victorye agaynst oure mortal enemyes, is promised, but the kingdome of heauē, adoptiō to God, and victory against deuels therefore of good reason, great fyghtes are required of vs. Thus saith Oecumenius cōcludyng that we christen men must more payne­fully, and manfully, fyght agaynst our ghostly ene­mye, then did the Iewes, because we receaue more grace then they receued, and haue promise made to vs of greater rewardes, thē they had made to thē. For these two causes, we christen men must thynke the yoke of Chryst, swete, and his burden easye, be the thinges which are requyred of vs, neuer so hard to doo, as this is one, that we may not breake cha­ritie, so muche as in the lowest degree that can be, that is in anger, whych woord, in the foresaid place [Page] of Mathew, dothe sygnify a violation of breache of charitye, not vttered or shewed forthe by any sygne but onely conceyued secretly in the harte, and there lyenge hyd, from knowledge of man, but open, and manifest to the eye of almyghty God, who seith euē the inwarde thoughtes of the harte: this breache of charitye, thoughe it seme to many a smale faute, yet Chryste declareth it to be a greuouse faute, and ma­keth it in the payne, equall with murder, committed of old tyme by the Iewes. Nowe yf Chrysten men, hauinge conceiued anger in theyr hartes, do not by and by suppresse the same, but proceade to a fardar breache of charitie, that is, to vtter theyr anger by any sygne or token, than is this ther faut greter then the other, and the punyshemente due for the same, greater also, accordynge to the woordes of Chryste who in the. v. of Mathewe saieth. Qui autē dixerit Racha [...]eus erit concilio, that is to say. He that saieth to hys brother Racha, shalbe in daunger of counsel.Math. 5. Where, by Racha, we muste vnderstande an oute­warde sygne, vttered by the mouth wyth breach of charitie, and yet such a sygne as dothe sygnifye, no expresse or particular reproch, as to thou our brother or to tushe at hym. And by councell we must vnder­stand agreat punyshmente, then was iudgemente After this our sauiour procedeth to the third degreM [...] 5. of vncharitablenesse, which is in woorde to cal our neyghboure, by any euyll name, as to call him foole. Of this third degre, Chryst sayeth. Qui autem dixerit fra­tri suo fatue, reus erit gehennae ignis, that is to saye. He that calleth his brother fole, shalbe in daunger of hell fyre. [Page 30] beholde Chrystian people, your lyfe in thys lesson, as in a glasse, and you shall see what daunger you stande in. Who is there almoost emongest vs, but yt vncharitably calleth hys neighbour fole, or som like euyl name? yea who is ther in maner that doth not far passe thys degree of vncharitablenes? And yet our sauiour nameth no mo degrees, partely, bicause the payne of thys thyrde degree beinge hell fyre, no greater payne coulde be named, for suche as should passe the same degre: partly, because the Chrystyan man should at the least be soo wary, & circumspecte, in kepyng brotherlye loue, and charitie, yt thoughe he dyd, perchaunce so farre forgette hymselfe, as to call hys brother foole vucharitably, yet fardar than so, he should not so much as thinke thoroughout hisCicero [...] his oratiō for sexte Roscius, Amerinus whole lyfe. It is written of one Solon an infidell, but yet a very polityke man, howe when he made lawes for the gouernmēt of yt famous citie of Athēs he in all hys lawes, appoynted no punyshment for a parricide, that is for suche a one, as shoulde kyll hys father or mother: and when he was demaunded, why he prouided not for that case, he aunswered, yt he verely, thought and beleued that no one beynge brought vp in Athens, vnder hys lawes: wolde at any tyme attempte suche an heynous synne. Euen so may we say of our sauiour, that he speketh but of those fore saide three degrees of [...], for that it is not lykely, chrysten men, beinge traded in Chrystes most parfyt religion, woulde at any tyme proced in the violatyng of [...] charitie, fardar then so But here may be moued a question whether our sa­uioure [Page] hath so forbydden vs to be angry, to saye Ra­cha, or thou foole, one to an other, yt in no wise anye man may soo doo, but therby he falleth in daunger of iudgement, of councell, or of hel fyre. For answere to thys questiō, it is to be noted, that our sauiour in thys place, forbiddeth vs al kynde of vncharitable­nes, and nothyng els. For asmuch then, as in yt third of Mathewe. S. Ihon Baptist calleth the scribesMath. 3. and pharisies, adders brode, and S, Paule calleth the Galathians fooles, and men without vnderstā ding, in the second chapyter of his epistle writtē to [...]. 2. them: yea Chryst hymselfe in the. xxiiii. of Luke cal­leth his dere beloued apostles, fooles, and [...] of be­lefe,Luc. 24. and the thing which they dyd, cannot be iudg­ed vncharitable, therefore we must say, that when such as haue aucthoritie, vpon a good and Godlye zeale, rebuke trespassoures, & offenders, therby to make them ashamed of there euyl doynges, and the rather to leaue the same, that this kind uf rebuking is lawfull, and in no wise ment in the foresaid talke of Chryst. But the onely thing that is there forbyd­den, is the breache of charitie, when one man mea­neth ne good at all, to an other but for the onelye satisfyeng of his vncharitable harte, wyshed hym hurte in his harte, or vtteryng his secret vncharita ble mynde, doth thou hym, or tush at him, or finally speaketh contumelious wordes, expresly vnto hym callyng him fole, ideot or by other lyke opprobrious names, Wherefore to conclude, seinge you nowe know what parfytte loue and charitie, our sauiour Chryst doth requyre to be in vs, let al accustomed [Page 31] tancour and malice from henceforth be vtterly ba­nyshed from emongest vs, that we dwelling in cha ritie, may dwell in God, and haue here in this lyfe, GOD dwell in vs, and in the worlde to come, dwell in heauen wyth hym for euer, which graunt vnto vs, the blessed trinitie, the father, the sonne, and the holye Ghoste, to whome be all honor and glory worlde without ende.


[...] An Homelie of the church, what it is, and of the commoditie thereof.

WHosoeuer (good people) wyll call to hys remembraūce, yt inestimable good nes of almyghtye God, and his inesti mable mercye, to­wards vs nothing deseruing the same yf there be any spot of heuenly grace in that person, he shall be ashamed of hys owne vnthankfulnes, and diso­bediens, and be compelled to fall downe in body & soule, before our Lorde, to aske pardon for his trās­gression. Of the which goodnes, and mercy of god, you haue a sufficiente, and moste euident declarati on, in these godly, and deuout homelies, that are set fourth to you, of the creation, & redemption, of man Neuerthelesse, for your further instruction, & gost­lye comfort in this behalfe, I haue thought good to lett you vnderstand, an other hye benefytte, geuen to vs, by our sauioure, and redemer, Iesus Chryste, that we, hauyng perfyt knowledge of God, maye euermore prayse, and magnifye hym, accordynge to our moost bounden duetye. And this hye, and hea­uenly benefyte, is the holye catholyke churche, whi che our deare, and dreadefull Sauiour, both before [Page] and after his paynefull deathe, dyd ordeyne, and ap poynt, to be for euer to vs, a moost louinge, & tender mother, a perpetual preseruation for our soule helth and a pyller of truth, in all our doutefull daungers Which churche, forsomuch as he hath bene latelye assaulted, by sundry sectes, and heresies, and so sore shaken, that manye (more is the pitie) had separate them selues from the same, and wylfully haue rune astray, beynge ledde, and caried with euerye waue and wynde of newe lerning, I purpose, by Godes grace, to open shortly to you, what this churche is, what maner of church it is, and what commoditie we haue by it.

Fyrst, the churche is a conuocation of all people throughout the whole worlde, professyng one faith of God, and one vse of all the holy sacraments, whi che churche, because it is purchased, and sanctified, by the death of oure Sauioure Iesus Christe, it is most derely beloued to God the father, and is cal­led in holy Scripture, by most hie, and excellent na mes, as Corpus Christi, Sponsa Christi, Regnum celorum. &c. that is to say. The body misticall of Chryste, the spouse of Chryst, the kyngdome of heauen.Ephes. 4. For S. Paule, speakyng of Chryste, sayeth, That he hath appointed sundry officers, to main­taine the holy ones, into the worke of mini­stration, to the edifieng of the bodi of Christ. And kyng Salomon, taught by the holy ghost dyd forsee the dignitie, and beutye of his holye Churche and sayde in the name of GOD thereby. [Page] [...] est [...] mea, perfectamea. That is to saye: One is my doue, and my perfyte one. Wyth manyCantic. 4 other such louing words: as my sister, my spouse, &c.

And Saynt Paule byddeth husbandes to loue theyr wyues, euen as Chryst loued the church. Lykewyse in the holy Ghospell, our sauiour Chryst [...]. 5. doth compare the [...], to [...] thinges, vnder the name of the [...] of [...], as vnto a kyng whych made o mariage for his sonne: somtimes to tenne Uyrgynes, and many such other by al which [...]. 20 names, & callings, we may learne that the churche is a high and excellent thing, and derely beloued to almyghty God, who for his churche sake, did gyue [...]. 25 hys onely sonne, to most vyle death, & for yt whiche also he hath prepared the kingdome of heauen.

Nowe forasmuch as we rede of an other church in the holy scrypture, which is called. Ecclesia malignanti um. The churche of the malignaunt & nough [...]. 25 tye people. And yet of late, a great number of scis­maticall persones, being in very dede members of thys malygnaunt church, haue vsurped to thē selus the name of the true churche: I intende to gyue you sufficient instructiō, to dyscerne and know the true churche of Chryst, from all hereticall and scys­maticall congregations. Fyrst this holye and true churche of Chryst, is called in our Crede, as it is in dede, the catholyke churche. That is to saye, the vniuersall church, bycause it is not lurkynge in any corner, or anye one country, but is in all countryes dyspersed, neyther is thys catholyke churche, hyd [Page 33] [...] vs, or inuisible, or vnknowen, but we maye ease ly dyscerne, and know the same. For christ doth cal it. Ciuitatem supra montem. A citie vpon an hyll. AndMath. 5, in the Gospell of Saynt Mathewe also, teachyng the order of brotherly reconciliation, he sayeth. Yf thy brother trespasse agaynst the, go and tel him his faute, betwene hym, and the alone,Math. [...] but yf he hear not the, yet take with the one or two, yf he heare not them, than tell the churche. Oh Lorde, howe shall he tell yt churche yf it be not knowen, as the euyll doo contende Lykewyse Saynt Paule speakyng, to the preystes and elders at Ephesus, doth warne thē to take hed to them selues, and to all the flocke, amonge whom [...], [...] the holy ghost (sayth he) hath placed you to rule the churche of God. Thus playnely the scripture decla­reth that the catholyke churche is and ought to be, manyfestly [...], yet lest you should any thyng doute of the vnderstandynge of these scryptures, heare I besech you, how playnely, Saynt AugustContra [...] til lib. 20 Cap. 13. [...], doth wryte hereof. Sicut per [...] nonimus ubi sit plā ­tatus paradisis, sic per uerbi [...], ubi [...] didicimus.

As by the wordes of God, we know wher paradyse was planted, so by the wordes of Chryst, we haue learned, where the churche is. Marke here (good people) that Saynt Austen in this place, doth write, agaynst an heretike beyng one of the donatyste secte, who denying the catho­lyke churche, dyd ascribe the fayth, of Chryst, and al [Page] saluation, to them selues onely, beyng a smale part of Aphrica, lyke as al scismatical congregations, in thys late tyme, haue done: some saying in germany here is Chryst, here is the church, some in Heluctia, here is christ, here is the churche: other in Bohem, here is Chryst, here is the churche, and we in Eng­lande, here is chryst, and here is the churche. Wher of euery one dyssentyng, from an other, and that in matters of great weyght, doth declare, that the spi­ryte of God, which is the spirite of truth, and vnitie promysed by Christ, to the catholyke churche, dothe not leade nor gouerne such sectes, neyther oughte they to mayntayne, and set furth, false [...], to the people, vnder the name of the churche, yet saynt [...]. Austen in ye same place, addeth hys, or rather gods threatnyng saying. Ab isto uniuerso, ad partem, quamlibit, quis quis separat hominem ille diaboli filius, & homicida conuincitur, whosoeuer doth separate one man, frō this whole, to any parte, he is proued to be the sonne of the deuyl, and a very manqueller. Alas than in what heauye case, are those, that haue separate from the catholyke churche, not one man onely, but many thousandes? surelye in heauye and miserable case: vnlesse, they doo speadelye and in due tyme repent, and do penance. Moreouer to knowe more manyfestly, the catholyke churche of Chryst, we ought to consyder what Saynt Paule wryteth, of the foundation thereof. For all scismati call congregations, though they [...] themsel­ues, apparantly, vpon the holye scrypture, yet haue [Page 30] they there profession, seuerally, taken, of some noug hty man, as saynt Augustyne sayth. They ar cal­led euery one by proper names, which they dare not denye. But the catholyke churche thou­ghAug. [...] utilitate. cred. Co 7. heretikes haue named it papystycall, yet recey­ued it neuer any other name, but catholyke, and christian, but al mē that rede, may se how gloriously some haue vsed the name of [...], Ebion, Arrianus Manicheus, [...] Donatus, and in our tyme lykewise the name of Luther, Zwinglius, Carolstadius, with thousandes such other,, which heretical fashion S. Paule doth rebuke, in his epystle to the Corinthy­ans, who were euen in lyke case, and bostyng vpon men sayd. Ego Pauli, Ego apollo. I hold of Paule, and1 Cor. [...]. I of Apollo. But the holy apostle rebuketh them saying, As long as there is amonge you, en­uying and stryfe, or [...], are you not car­nall? So that euerye christen man, and woman, may playnely se by the scrypture, that these hauing such diuision, and sundrye sectes amonge them sel­ues, are by S. Paule, accompted altogether carnal and farre vnworthy to vse the name of the churche which is the onely, and chast spouse, of Chryst. ButEphes. [...]. of the catholyke church, saynt Paule sayth. Now therfore, ye are not [...], and foreyners but you are citisens with the sainctes, and of the housholde of God, and are builded vpon the foundation of the Apostles, & prophetes [Page] Iesus Chryst hym selfe being the heade cor­ner stone. And further, bycause saynt Paule thro­ughe the holy Ghost in hym did forsee, that all he­retykes would callenge to them selfes the aucthori­tie of the Apostles, & prophetes, & that they [...] without aucthoritie or knowledge, wrast theyr wri tinges, euery one to there owne sense, therfore thys [...]. 4. holy apostle, in the same epystle, telleth vs the order whych Chryst hath apoynted to be obserued in his churche, for he saith, that Chryst ascendyng [...], dyd gyue gyftes to men, and that he made some apostles, some prophetes, some Euangelystes, some shepardes, and teachers, declarynge thereby, that in the catholyke churche, there are orders, and offycers some hyer, some lower, whome the reste ought both diligently to heare, and humbly to obey [...]. Timo. 4 So did the same S. Paule, before his death, apointTit. 1. Timothe, to the offyce of a Bishoppe, and also [...] he dyd leaue in Creta, that he shoulde ordeyne pre­stes in euery citie, whiche preistes, and Byshoppes should not be disdained, or litle regarded (as in this tyme of manye they are) but they shoulde (doynge there duetye) haue double honoure, and faythfully [...], 20 gouerne the church, as S. Paule [...]. And wri­tingeTit, 2. to Tite, he byddeth him exhorte, and rebuke with al seruentnes of commaūding, by these places of the holy scrypture, you maye easely se, and vnder stand, that in the catholyke churche, there are and ought to be degrees and orders, & that whosoeuer doth breake, contemne, or deny the same he denieth and forsaketh the verye truthe, and ordinaunce of [Page] Chryste, and his Apostles.

Nowe further, we oughte to consider, that as S. Paule [...] ordeyne Timothe, and Tyte, yea and other byshoppes, and Preistes, in his tyme, or­deyne other, delyuringe also to them, the doctryne which they haue receaued of Paule, and by conty­nual discurse of tyme euerye one hath deliuered the fayth, that they from the Apostles haue receaued, and so euen from Chryste, to this presente daye, one fayth hath euer stande stedfaste. Whiche thoughe it hath sundry tymes bene assayde, and sore pynched, yet euer hath it preuailed at the last and had the vp per hande, accordynge to Christes promise, neytherMath. [...] ought anye man lesse to credyt the catholike church because there are in the same, dyuers euyll, & wic­ked synners. For Christ him selfe, doth compare the [...]. [...]. churche to a nette, cast into the sea, whiche taketh both good and bad fyshes, but at thende, the good shalbe reserued, and the euyll cast awaye. Was not twelue chosen by Christe, yet one of them, he calleth a deuyll: Doth not Christe allo saye, that ScribesMath. 23 and Phariseis, doo syt in Moyses chayre, neuerthe­lesse, he wuld the people should obey theyr lessones? Euen so though some members of Christes catho­lyke churche, doo not lyue accordynge to theyr vo­catyon, yet ought no man therefore the lesse to re­garde the fayth and doctryne of the same churche. These thynges, good people, thoughe they are suffi cient, to declare the holye Churche, what it is [Page] and how it may be knowen, yet I besech you most diligently, to note, and cary awaye one rule, which shall neuer deceaue you, but is a sure tryall of the ca tholyke churche, and the fayth thereof. This rule is not myne, but taken out of a learned, auncient, and ryght godly father in Chrystes Churche. He sayeth. [...]. There are thre meanes to trye a churche, or [...]. doctrine the first is antiquitie, the second, is vniuersalitie, the third, is vnitie. By the fyrste we are taught, that a true doctrine must be knowē by that it is not lately spronge vp, or rysen, but com­meth from Chryst, and his apostles, and hath cōty­nued styll in the churche. By the seconde, we maye vnderstande, that a true faythe, or doctryne, of the churche is that onelye, whiche vniuersallye, in all countryes hath ben taught, & beleued. By ye thyrde we ought to learne, that a true doctryne, or faith of the church, doth always agree, and is alwaies one Nowe those three thinges wel noted, may instruct and teach any Christian man, to knowe the catho­lyke churche, whiche euersynce the Apostles tyme and in all countryes, with one consent (in al things concerning our faith) hath shewed her selfe the wor thy spouse of Chryst. Contrary wise, false doctryne and heresye, euerhath doone, and shall doo to the worldes ende, [...] arise, & [...] in priuate cor ners & neuer agre with it selfe. Which thyngs I myghte easely at large proue, and open to you by playne and manifest demonstratiō. But because [...] the next homelie, I intende to speake of the auctho [Page 30] citie of the churche, and also of the commoditie, and profite that we haue by the same, here I wil make an ende, besechyng al you (good and godly people)Roma. 13. to geue your bodyes, and soules, an humble & ho­ly sacrifyce to almyghtye God, prayinge euermore that we maye be altogether lyuely members, of our sauioure Iesus Chryst, and of hys catholike church here vpon earth, and after this life partakers of the ioyfull kyngdome of heauen, through the same our [...] Iesus Christ, to whom with the father, and the holy ghost, be all honour and glo­ry world without ende.



¶ An homely, of the aucthoritie of the chut­che declaryng what commoditie and profyt we haue thereby.

LYkewise, as in the last homelye, it was declared to you (good chrysten people) what the church is, and how it maye be knowen soo nowe ye shall learne, the auctho­ritie of the same ca­tholike church, and the commoditie, or profyt that ensueth to vs all, beyng members of the same churche. Fyrste, whan our sauioure Iesus Chryst, did send forth the twelue apostles to preach, who were, and are, the cheite, and principal pyllers of this catholyke church, he dyd geue to them great power, and aucthoritie, as saynt Mathew beareth [...]. 10 wytnes, saying: Iesus, dyd call together the twelue disciples, and gaue to them power ouer vncleane spirites that they should cast them out, and shoulde heale al maner of dis­eases, and infirmities. And sundry tymes we do rede in the holy Gospell, that our Sauiour Chryst doth speke to his Apostles, after this maner. Qui uos [...], me audit, & qui uos spernit me [...]. That is to say. [Page 37] He that heareth you, hereth me and he that [...]. [...] dispiseth you, doth dispise me. Meanyng, andIohn. 130 wyllyng thereby, that all the worlde should knowe and confesse, the aucthoritie of the catholike church which Christ him selfe dyd buyld in, and vpon these hys holy Apostles. And to the same purpose he saydIohn. [...] to thē. I am non dicam uos seruus, sed amicos &c. That is to sai. Nowe I wyll no more call you seruaunts, but frendes, for al thinges that I haue herd of my father, I haue declared to you. And agayne he sayeth, As my father sente me, euenIchn. [...] so I send you By these, and many such other pla­ces, we maye see, that our louyng [...], did giue greate aucthoritie to his apostles. But nowe it is expedient, and nedefull, to declare, in what specyall poyntes this aucthoritie doth consist, and that the same aucthoritie was not onely geuen to the Apo­stles of Chryst, but also to theyr [...], in the catholyke churche, euer to endure. Which auctho­ritie,The [...] chc [...] true [...] of the [...] prure and is [...] therof though it be greate, and manyfolde, yet these are the chefest partes thereof, that [...] doo fo­lowe. Fyrste, almyghtye God, hath geuen power, and aucthoritie, to the catholike church, to haue the true sense, and vnderstandyng, of the holy Scryp­ture, yea, and to approue also, or reproue al writing as Scripture, or no Scripture. Whiche thynge. good christen people, you may well vnderstande to be moost true, yf ye call to remembraunce, who is ye guyde, and gouernour of the church that is to wit. the holy Ghost, as Chryst dyd promyse, saying. [Page] Ego rogabo patrem et alium paraclitum dabit vobis, vt maneat [...] ineternum, that is to saye, I wyll aske my father, [...]. 14. and he wyll giue to you an other comforter, that he maye a byde with you for euer. And after that our lorde and sauiour had rysen frō death, he dyd breathe vpon hys Apostles, and sayde A ccipite spiritum sanctum Take you the holy ghost and also, [...] 20. after hys ascention into heauen, accordynge to hys merciful promise he did send downe the holy Ghost vpon his Apostles, as sayncte Luke writeth. Nowe that the holy ghoste was not geuen to the Apostles [...]. ii. onely, but also to the catholyke churche, to the worl­des ende, it is manifest: forasmuche as Chryste dyd promyse the conforter, vt maneat uobiscum ineternum. That he should abyde (sayeth he) with you for euer. Nowe we are moost [...], that the Apostles ofIohn. 14 Chryste dyd suffer deathe, for the faythe of Chryste, and that within fewe yeres, after they thus had re­ceyued the holy ghoste. Neuertheles, Christ sending furthe hys Apostles to preache, and baptyze, sayd to thē: Ecce ego vobiseū sum omnibus diebus vsque ad cōsummationē seculi That is, Behold, I am with you at al tymesMath 28. euen to the ende of the worlde. Wherefore we maye playnly see, that the holy ghoste beyng promi­sed to the Apostles, to abide for euer, and to the very ende of the world, was promised and giuen to them and to their successours in ye churche, where he doth and shal abide for euer. Now forasmuche, as the ho­lye ghoste is the gouernour and ruler of the catho­lyke churche, we ought there onely, and in no other [Page 69] corner, to searche the true vnderstandynge, and dis­cernynge of the scryptures. And for thys cause, the aūcient fathers (were they neuer so godly, & so well learned) yet woulde they neuer presume vpon theyr owne iudgements, but euer referred them selues, to the vnderstandyng, and interpretation of the catho lykechurche before them. Therfore the godly lerned and ancient father [...], wrytyng agaynst schisma­ticall [...] li 3. cap 4 here syes, sayeth thus Quid enim si qui de aliqua modica, questione disceptatio esset, nonne oporteret, in antiquissimas recurrere, Ecclesias. &c. that is to saye, but what and yf there were contention concerning some smal que stion, were it not necessarye to returne to the mooste auncient churches? and immediatly af­ter he sayeth: Quid autem sine (que) apostoli quidem scripturas relis quissent nobis, [...] ordinem sequitraditionis quam tradide­runt hijs, quibus committebant Ecclesias? what (sayeth thys holye father) yf the Apostles had lefte to vs no scripture at all, had it not bene necessarye to folowe the order of that tradytion, whyche they delyuered to those, to whome they dyd bequethe the churche? Alas (good people) how farre are many in these dayes gone from thys olde, and aunciēt rule? this blessed martir, here exhorteth or, rather commaundeth, that yf any smal dyscorde, (thoughe it be in a matter of lytle importaunce) doo chaunce, that we woulde not, accordyng to our [...], iudge therein, but though we haue no scripture for the same, yet (saieth he) we ought to folowe, kepe [Page] and obserue the tradition of the auncient churches Where as in these late dayes, the impudent [...], baue taught the zely people, that euery man should, and maye be a iudge of controuersyes, and that we oughte to obserue no tradition, nor ceremo nye, other than we fynde in the holye scripture. Of such, the same holy Ireneus dooeth speake thus, af­terIreneus. many other notable lessons to the same purposeLibrt 4. Omnes autem hij decidunt a veritate, et [...] quidem alienum [...] [...]. [...]. afferentes ad altare dei, idest, altenas doctrinas, a celesti igne conburen­tur. &c. All these (sayeth he) doo fal from the tru­eth: and the heretykes truelye. bryngynge straung fyre to the aulter of God, that is to saye, straung doctrine, [...] brent with the heuenly fyre. With such lyke thrratnynges in the same place, to those that disobey ye [...] of ye churche. Lykewyse saynct Augustyne speakyng of the baptysine of chyldren, and now that sacrament can profyt them, seyng many die before they knowAugust de li, arb lib, 3 Cap 23. the effecte of the same, affyrmeth, that the faythe of those that brynge the chylde to christenynge, shall profyte the chylde that is brought, but for his proba cion, he bryngeth thus. Hoc commendat ecclesie saluberrima [...] thoritas. This thing the mooste holsome auc­thoritie of the churche doethe commende. And euen wyth lyke reuerence, the same saint Au­gustyne, dooth many tymes submytte all hys iudg­ments, [...], 7 Inproemi o liz. De Tri. and workes to the catholyke churche. And fynally to declare hys iudgemene, concernynge the aucthoritie of the catholyke church. He sayeth. hus [Page] Ego [...] non [...] nisi me catholicae Ecclesiae [...]. yt is to saye Truly, I would not beleueAugust. comra cp Manich. the Gospel, onles that the aucthoritye of the catholyke churche did moue me thereto.Capi. 3. And we ought here to consider, that after the ascen­sion of our sauiour Christe, for the space of certayne yeares, there was no gospell at all wrytten: but all thynges, concernyng the faythfull christians, were [...], and gouerned by the disciples of Christ, being than the heades of the church. Afterward, we rede that dyuers of the dysciples of Chryste, dyd wryght Gospelles: as sainct Bartylmew Nicodemus, and an other Gospel was called Euangelium Nazarcorum̄ But the aucthoritie of the church, did onely admite those [...] euangelistes: which now the whole churche dooth retayne Whyche thing myght wel seme mar uelouse, seynge that bothe sayncte Bartylmew, and Nicodemus, were present, and dyd see the woorkes of Chryst, and also dyd here hys doctryne, where as sainct Luke dyd learne hys gospel of saincte Paule, and other, and so kewyse dyd S. Marke but here­by it doeth moost playnly appere, that the catholike [...] onely hath thys hye aucthorite, to [...] scriptures, and that scriptures allowed by yt church should not be refused of any particulare persons. Nowe therfore, seynge that the catholyke churche, bothe hath delyuered, to vs the scrypture, and in all ages and times, hath bene taken of al Godly lerned men, for the true iudge therof. I exhort, and beseche all you (good christen people) that in all doutes, [...], and [...], ye would resort to yt [...] [Page] churche, and there learne what the [...] church hath beleued, aud taught, [...] time [...] time concerninge doutes, or controuersies, and [...] wyth lowly and meke hartes ye wyll so doo, surely the ho ly ghoste wyll instructe you, he wyll comforte you, and he wyll leade you, into al trueth. But yf in such case, ye will fly from the catholyke church, & ask coū sell of your selues, or of any that doth swarue from the sayde churche, than for so much as the holy gost is not your gyde, you shall fall from ignoraunce to errour, and from doutyng, and dysputing, to plaineAn other. [...] of the chu rch herely, and so from one, to another, to the vtter con fusion, of both body and soule. Yet besides this gret authoritie of the churche, whereof you haue hearde there is an other gyuen by God, of moost hye excel­lencye, that is, power to forgiue, and pardon the pe nitent synner, and to punyshe, and correct, the obsti nate or fro warde synner, which power and auctho [...]. 13. ritie, as it was fygured in the preesthode of the olde lawe, as in Iudgyng of leprose persones, and in pu­nyshyng to death, those that did not obey the preeste [...]. 17. euē so is it giuen by our sauiour Christ in very dede in the [...], to his Apostles, and to all theyr succes soures. For after that oure sauiour had rysen from death, he came amonges hys Apostles and brethed vpon them and sayde. Accipite spiritum sanctum, quorum dimi seritis [...], dimittuntur eis, et quorum retinueritis, [...] sunt. [...]. 20, (That is) take you the holy ghost, whose sin­nes you shall forgyue. they are forgyuen to them, and whose synnes you doo retayne, [Page 97] they are retayned. Whyche authorite, by [...] woordes gyuen by Christ, though some hath or doo, contemne, and set at noughte, yet sainct Cyrill byd­deth them cease to merueyle, that Christ should giueCirill in Iohn Libe 12 cap 20 suche power, for he sayeth, Certe absurdum non est, [...] ab illis, qui spiritum sanctum in seipsis habeant Surelye, (sayeth he) it is no obsurdyte yt synnes are for­gyuē by thē which haue yt holy ghost in thē. Nowe yf you wyll marke that not the preste onely, but also the holy Ghost doth woorke in remittynge, and pardonyng synnes, than I trust you wyll see, & graunte, this aucthoritie of Christes catholike chur­che, which thyng euery chrysten man dothe [...] dayly in his crede, saying not onely I beleue the ho­ly catholyke churche, the communyon of saynctes, but addyth also, the remissyon of synnes, to be in thei Timo, [...] same catholyke church. Doo not we rede that saynt Paule dyd [...] this aucthoritie, whan he did excom­munycate Hymeneus and Alexander? dyd not the holye Byshoppe saynt Ambrose, vse this aucthoritie in euery poynte, vpon the emperoure Theodosius?Theodori Liber. 50 hist Eccle caput. 18 Which holy byshoppe perceyuynge the Emperoure had greuouselye offended, dyd not spare to excom­municate hym: yca and though he offered hym selfe obedyentlye to be receyued, yet was it after longe penaunce, that he was absolued, this holy byshoppe dyd vse the aucthoritie giuen to hym by God, & this christen emperoure, knowing the same, did with al humilitie obey. Yf the bishopes and preistes in time past, and also the [...], had learned and practised [Page] their duetyes and vocations, by this [...], sure­ly the churche of Chryst, shoulde not haue come to such great disorder as we see, neyther shoulde vyce and wyckednes, so frely haue bene vsid, but bicause this matter, is largely and lernedly, set forth in the sacramēt of penance, I wil cease to speke any more hereof, and nowe it remayneth to declare, what cō moditie and profytte we haue by thys catholyke churche, our lord and mayster chryste in the gospell of saynt [...], doeth compare hym selfe to the vine tree, and all vs to the braunches and saieth, [...] is [...]. 15. me, et ego in vobis Abide you in me, (that is to saye, in the fayth of my churche) And I wyll abyde in you. Oh mercisul Lorde, what comfort, and cō ­moditie is this, for a christen man, to haue [...] to abyde wt him: And farther he saeth. Yf you abide in me, & my words abide in you, aske what you wyll, & it shalbe granted to you. Here are we sure, yt yf we abyde in christes catholike church & embrace the fayth, and doctrine thereof, both christ hymselfe by grace, wyll abyde in vs, and also oure prayers, shall euermore be hearde. And without al doute, ther is no abidyng in Christ, vnles we abide in the vnytie of his catholyke churche. For as saynt Ciprian sayeth. Non porest habere deum patrem qui non [...] Cipriāus de simpli. [...]. [...]. He cannot haue God hys father yt knoweth not the church to be his mother But a child of God, knoing yt church to be hys mo­ther, & lying in the bosome thereof, may be sure thatGene. 78 Christ the spouse of the churche, wyll neuer forgette [Page 41] hys nedefull requestes. And as no lyuely crea­ture, was saued from death, but suche onelye as were in the arcke of Noe, so is there none sauedGen, 7. 8 from dampnatyon, but those that are in the vnyte of Christes churche. And therefore, to gyue vs warnynge, the holye doctoure Saincte Augus­tyne, speaketh in thys maner mooste playnely.August. cpist. [...] Quisquis ergo ab hac catholica ecclesia fuerit seperatus [...] libet lauda [...] uiuere existinet, hocsolo [...] quod a Christi [...] tus est nō habebit uitā, sedira [...] super [...]. that is in english Whosoeuer therfore shal be [...] this catholike church, although he think him self to liue neuer so worthely, yet for thys onelye crime ye he is separated frō yt vnity of Christ, he shal not haue life, but yt wrath of god abideth vpon hym. But what [...] is it, to allege saincte Augustine, or any other aūcient father herein, seing almyghty God by hys prophet Esay, hath, set furtheEsai. [...] to vs a lytle picture of hys church, vnder the name of a vyneyarde, and the house of Israell? There maye we see, that thynge that we by experience doo knowe. For almyghty God, in that parable decla­reth by hys Prophete, howe muche he had doone for the house of Israell, a fygure of Christes churche, in that he had plāted to them in a batsome, and frutful cuntrey, and had giuen to them good gouernoures, and orders, wherein they myghte haue lyued, and pleased hym, but forasinuche as they dyd wylfullye breake the lawes of God, & his ordinaunce, he therat ned them saying: Auferam sepem eius, et crit in direptionem. &c. [Page] I wyll (sayeth oure Lorde) take awaye the hedge of my [...], that it may [...]. Euen so hathe oure samoure Christe dealed with vs, yt people of his church. For where as by his preciouse deathe and passion, he dyd purchase vs, and lefte vs in the custodye of his catholyke church, as is before sayde leauynge also to vs, lawes to obscrue, and sa cramentes wherewith we should be preserued. And we naughty people, haue dyspysed all his most god­ly, and holsome decres, and ordynaunces, he hath of hys iustyce and accordynge to hys promyse, euen in oure tyme punished vs: and hath suffred the wycked to plucke downe the pale or hedge of his vyneyard: I meane all good order, as well in the churche, as in the common wealthe, and that for the space of many yeares paste. Nowe here chrysten people thoughe you doo not consyder the plage of sundrye synnes, that hathe in thys late seysme, possessed many mens soules, yet doo not dyssemble, nor forgette the mi­serye, that we all haue suffered outewardelye, synce we were separate from the churche of Christ: alas, what Christen bloude wythin this Realme, euen by our owne countreimen, hath bene shed? Oh Lorde, how many poore wydowes wythout comforte haue bene lefte? Nowe many fatherlesse children without soccoure? I leaue here to speake, of the vnshameles breakynge of the deade mennes testamentes, and theyr mooste godly intentes, & ordinaunces: Abbais, are poulled downe: Collegis, and Chantrees are ouerthrowen: churches are robbed, and pore Christ, (that is to saye,) the hungry and nedefull people, fa­mishe, [Page 42] and crye oute therefore. Al these surely, wyth many mo, haue come vpon vs, because we haue bene oute of the house of God. Wherefore, in the name of our Lorde Jesus Christe, let vs all togither lament, and be sory for oure goynge astraye, let vs com, and fal downe before God oure father, and confesse our,LKc. 15. transgression, and humblye desyre, that we maye be receyued into hys house, whyche is the churche, thoughe we shoulde all the dayes of oure lyues, be but hyrelynges. Quiamelior est dies vnus in [...] tuis super millia. [...]. 8; One daye (Oh Lorde) is better spente in thy house, than a thousande otherwyse.

Fynallye yf we contynew obedyente chyldren, in the bosome of our mother, the holy churche: we shall be fedde wyth lyuely faythe, oure of whyche wyll sprynge in vs, muche holynesse of lyfe, and quietnes of conscience: and yf at any tyme throughe our frail nes, we hapen to fall, we haue readye, to rayse vs vpagayne, the holye Sacramentes: throughe the comfortable helpe whereof, we be made sironge: and so daye by daye more able to procede in al kynde of vertue: and thus hauynge vpon earthe oure mo­ther, the holye churche, which is the spouse of Iesus Christe the Sonne of God, we maye be bolde to call vpon GOD our father: and be assured, that he wyl heare vs, as hys dearebeloued chyldren, and gyue vs the inheritaunce of heauen, whyche is prepared for vs, through our sauiour Iesus Christe. To whōe wyth the father, and ye holy ghost, be honour, prayse and glory, world without ende.


¶An Homelye of the Primacy, or supreame power, of the [...] gouernor of the mili­tant Church.

AS in euery natu rall, and polytyke [...], so in the chur­che militāt, (whych is a misticall body) superioritie, and in­ferioriti, must neds be amōgest yt m m­bers thereof, or ells it cannot endure.

And for thys cause speciallye, our Sa­uiour Chryste, when he was here conuersaunte, on the Earth, dyd, hymselfe, appoynte hys Apostles, & Disciples, and there successours, to haue the ouer­syght, cure, and hygh gouernement of hys church, to the worldes edde. And to the intente, that no man should contempne theyr aucthoritie, he dothe saye inIohn. 13. the thyrtenth of Saynt Ihon, Amen, Amen, Dico vobis, quis accipit si quem misero, me accipit. Qui autemme accipit, accipit eum qui me misit. That is to say. Uerely, Uerely, I saye vnto you, who that receyueth hym whome I sende, receyueth me. And he that receiueth me, receyueth hym that sent me. And in the tenth of Luke he sath, Quiuos audit me audit & qui uos [...], [...]. 10. me spernit. Qui autem me spernit, spernit eum qui misit me. [Page 43] That is to saye: He that heareth you hearethe me, and he that dispiseth yon, dispiseth mee and he that dispiseth me, dyspiseth hym that sent me. Of the Apostles also and theyr succes­sours, and of theyr charge ouer Christes flocke, doth Saynt Paule speake, in the fourthe chapiter to the Ephesyans, saying.Ephes. [...]

Ipse dedit quosdam quidem A postolos, quosdam autem Prophetas, alio­uero Euangelistas, alios autem pastores, et doctores, ad consummationem sanctorum, in opus ministerū, in edifieationem Corporis Christi donec [...] omnes in unitatem fidei, & agnitionis filii dei, in uirum perfec­tum, in mensuram etatis plenitudinis Christi ut [...] non simus paruuli flue tuantes, ne (que) clicuferamur omniuento doctrine, in nequitia hominum, in asturia ad circumuentionem erroris. That is to saye:

He (meanyng Chryste) hath gyuen or ap­pointed some to be Ipostles, some, Prophets some Euangelistes, some pastores, and tea­chers, to the perfytynge, or consummating, of the holyons, to doo the worke of the my­nistery, to edyfye the body of Chryst, vntyll we all come together, in one vnitie of fayth, and knowledge of the sonne of God, vnto the estate of a perfecte man, after ye measure of the age of the fulnes of Chryst, that from henceforth, we should not be as babes, wa­ueryng, neyther should we be caryed aboute with euery blaste of doctryne, in the wicked nes of men, in the wylynes of them, who go [Page] aboute to deceyue vs.

Thys place of Saynt Paule most playnelye set­teth before our eyes, the aucthority, and gouernemēt whyche our sauiour hath apoynted, to contynue to the ende of the worlde, in his churche, and howe the Apostles, Prophetes, Euangelistes, Preachers, and teachers, are giuen of Chryst, to hys pleple, to go­uerne them. And therewyth al Saynt Paule, in the sayde place, she weth to what ende, suche gouerne­ment, and authoritie is instituted, it is to wytte, for the spiritual edifieng of the hole body, in the fayth, & for the defense of the hole bodye, from the poyson of heresye. And in dede no one thing can so muche sup­presse heresye, as yf the Anthoritie, and gouernment [...], be accordyngly therevnto estemed, & obeyed, as [...] Saynte Ciprian, the blessedCiprian, [...]. i [...], [...] Martyr, in hys fyrst boke, and thyrd Epystle saieng. Ne (que) [...] bereses obortae sunt, aut [...] sunt scismata, [...] lnde, quod sacer [...] dei non obtemperatur. [...] unus in ecclesia ad tempus sacerdos, & [...] tempus iudex, uice Christi cogitatur, cuisi sneundum magisteria diui [...], [...] uniuersa, nemo [...] sacerdotem colle­gia [...] moueret. That is to saye: Neyther other where, or hy othere meanes, are heresies [...] vp, and scisines rysen, than hereof, yt obedience is not gyuen to the preiste of God. Nor one is consydered, or thought to be in yt churche, for the tyme, the preist, and for the time the iudge, in Christes stede, vnto which one, yf the hole fraternitie dyd (according to the heauenly commaundements) [...], no [Page 44] man woulde stirre, or moue anye thynge against the Colleges or cōpanies of preistes. Hereby you may perceyue, that saynt Cypryans cō ­clusion, or iudgemēt is, that the gouernment Eccle­siasticall, and especially of one, to be caken, and re­puted as Christes vicar, is the best meane, to let and suppresse heresies, and that such one gouernor, is [...] be o beyed, of all chrysten people, which thynge may be proued very playnely, and euidently, by the holye scriptures them selues. For the scryptures doo wit­nesse, that our [...] appoynted S. Peter, to thys hygh rowme, and charge, ouer his hole flocke, and no one of the Apostles [...]. In the. xxi. of S. JohnIohn. [...]. it is wrytten, howe, oure sauiour, after his resurrec­tion, appearing at ye sea [...] Tiberias, to certen of hys Apostles, amongest whome was Peter, dyd fyrste take breade, and fyshe, and gaue vnto them, And when they had [...] them selues, he fayde vnto Peter. Simon Iohannes diligis me plus hijs? [...] ei, [...] domine tu scis, quia amore. Dicit [...]. [...] as eagnos meos Dicit ei iterum, Simon [...]. [...] diligis me? Ait illi. Etiam domine tu scis quia amo te Dicit ci Pasce [...] meos Dicit [...]. [...] amas me? Contristatus est Petrus, qui a dixit [...] tertio, amas me? & [...] ci. Domine tu omnia nosti, tu scis, [...] amote. [...], [...] oues meas. That is to saye: Symon the sonne of Ioannes, [...] thou loue me more then these do? He aunswered vnto him, Yea Lorde, thou [...] that I loue thee. He sayde vnto him. Fede my lambes. [...] he spake to hym agayne, and sayde, Simon the sonne of Ioannes, doeste thou loue me? [Page] He aunswered: yea Lorde, thou knoweste that I loue thee. Hesayde vnto hym againe Feede my lambes. Then spake he vnto him the third tyme, and sayde: Symon the sonne of Ioannes, doest thou loue me? Peter was sorie, because Christ sayd vnto him now the thyrde tyme, doest thou loue me, and he aun swered and sayde: Lorde thou knoweste all thinges, thou knowest that I loue thee. He sayde vnto him feede my shepe. Thys processe of Scripture, hath in it, many circumstaunces to be noted. The fyrst is, that (other Apostles beynge than present, and amongest them, euē he of whom Chryst did euē make very much of, that is to say, S. Iohn) yet our Sauiour Christ, dyd dyrecte his speach, and talke, but to Peter onelye, sygnifyenge the matter, wherof he dyd speake, to appertayne to Peter chief­lye, and pryncipallye, and not in so speciall a sorte, to anye one of the apostles els. Another, and seconde circumstaunce to be here considered, is that oure sa­uioure, dyd aske Peter moost earnestly, whether he loued him, more than did the other apostles. And the thyrde cyrcumstaunce is, in that Chryste dyd com­mytte both hys lambes, and his shepe, vnto hym. These cyrcumstaunce (I saye) and other suche lyke, well considered, doo conuince, and clearelye proue, that the hyghe charge, ouere all the church militant, was especially committed to Peter.

[Page 46] [...] sauiour Chryst had not intended to giue vn to Peter a speciall authoritie, aboue the rest, what nede was there to speake this, seuerallye, vnto Peter, seing he had spoken it generallye to them all before. [...] what thing ment he els, when, in yt pre sence of all the twelue, he promised to giue vnto Pe ter the keyes of the kingdome of heauē sainge a spe ciall [...], or prerogatiue to Peter: Our saui­ourActes. [...] through his heauenly wisedome, perceyuynge, that it is most necessarye, one to be ouer a hole mul­titude, specially being a multitude congregated of so infinite a number of people, and of so sondry nati­ons, as is the catholyke churche, dyd appoynte S. Peter, to that offyce, and Peter hauinge receyued such charge at chrystes handes, did incontinently practyse and exercyse the same, and al the rest of the Apostles dyd geue place vnto him. And therfore in the first of the Actes it is wrytten, hawe that afterActes. [...] Chrystes ascension, incontinently S. Peter rose vp in the myddest of the faithfull, and [...] them to goo to the election of one, that should succede in Iu das rowme, with offyce he vndoutedlye woulde not haue takē vpon him, but that oursauiour Christ had Authorised him in such sorte, as is before decla­red. In the. ii, of the Actes it is wrytten howe thatActes, [...]. in the presence of all the Apostles, S. Peter tooke vpon him to speake in all their names to the people on whitsonday in the mourning, streight after that they had receyued the holy Ghoste, in the lykenes of clouē tunges: In the third of ye Actes, it is writtē, how yt s. Peter healed a lame mā, which was lame [Page] hys mothers wombe, and that whē the people wō ­dred at so straunge a myrycle, the sayd Peter made an oration vnto them.

In the fourth of the Actes, and in the fyfte, and syxtActe. 4, 5 9. there is the lyke, and in manye other places of the same booke. All whyche places of scripture oughte to perswade euery godly harte, to thynke that oure sauiour did giue vnto sainct Peter, that aucthorite aboue all the rest of the Apostles, vpon hys hoole church, for an vnytie, and good order, to be kept in the same. And yet for your better contentatiō here in, you shall here the authorities of the auncient fa­thers in thys behalfe.

Origine, a greeke wryter, whyche was wythinOrigenes two hundred yeares after Chryst, in hys exposition made vpon the. vi. Chapter of S, Paules epistle, to the Romaynes, wryteth thus. Petro cumsumma rerū de pas­cendis ouibu straderetur, et super ipsū tan qsuper terr am fundaretur [...] clesia, nullius confessio uirtutis alterius, nisi charitatis exigitur, That is to say: When the hyghest authoritie, orfee­dinge of chrystes sheepe, was omitted vn­to Peter, and the churche was builded vpō hym, as vpon a sure grounde, ther was re­quyred or exacted of hym, the profession of none other vertue saue onely of charitie.

The blessed martyr, saynt Cyprian, in many plaCiprian. ces, affyrmeth the same. and amongest other, in his epystle wrytten: Ad inbalanum sayeth, Manifestum est, [...]. ct per quos, remissio peccatorum dari possit, [...] dominusprimum petro su per quem edisicauit ecclesiam suam, et vnde unit at is origenē institute, [...] [Page 56] ostendit, potestatem istam dedit? That is to say, It is ma­nyfest where, and by whome, remission of synnes maye be gyuen, for oure Lord fyrste vnto Peter (vpon whome he buylded hys churche, and from whome he dyd ordeyne. and shewe, the begynninge of the vnitie, to procede) dyd giue that power, or authoritie. And in the same Epystle, (within a whyle after) he sayeth. Ecclesiam, que una [...], sundauit super unum, That is to say, He dyd founbe his chuche, which is but one, vpon one.

Sainct Basyl, in his boke against Tauonius, writeth [...] thus. Perhanc uocem intelligimus [...] filiū, qui fuit ex Bethsaida, An dreae [...], qui expiscatore, in Apostolatus ministeriū uocatis est Qui quoniam fide, prestabatecclesiae in se aedificationem suscepit. That is to say, by this voice, we vnderstād the sonne of Jonas, which was of Bethsaida, the bro ther of Andrewe, which son of Jonas was called from a fyther, to the ministerye of the Apostleshyp, and bycause he excelled in faith he had the church buy [...] vpon hym.Ambrosi.

Saint [...] in his fourth sermon sayeth. Petrus deni (que) pro [...], ecclesiarū petradicitur, sicut ait dominus [...], et [...] hanc petram aedificabo ecclesiammeam Petraenim dicitur, [...] in [...] fidei fundamenta posuerit [...] immobile, to [...] operis Christiani compagem [...] cō tineat (That is to say) Fynallye, or for a conclu­sion, Peter, for the soundenes, or substācial­nes [Page] of his deuotion, is called' the rocke of the churches, as our Lorde sayeth. Thou arte Peter, or of a rocke, & vpon this rocke wyll I builde my churche. In dede he is called a rocke bicause he was the fyrst that did laye the foundation of faith amongest the gen­tiles, & as a stone, or a rocke, that cannot be moued, he docth conteine or kepe, the frame and weight of the hole christen woorke. [...]

S, Augustyne hath the lyke in his syxe & twenty sermon, de sanctis, and in his xvi. sermon de tempore, but moost notably in his, 124. sermon de tempore wher he maketh a large processe of sainct Peter, & emōgest other thinges, speaking of Peters denial of his mai ster, he writeth thus of hym, Totius corporus morbum [...] capite cura: ecclesie, et in ipso [...] componit membrorum omniū sani tatem. That is to say. He (meanyng Chryste) doeth cure in the very heade of the church (mening Peter) the dysease, of the hole bodye, & in the very crowne, or top of the head, he frameth the healthe of all the members. Here ommyt­tynge infynite, other authorities of the auncient fa­thers, touchyng the primacye, or hyghest anthoritie ecclesiastical, to haue beue geuen vnto sainct Peter of our sauioux Chryst himselfe, I exhorte you in con sideratiō, partely of these testimonyes, some wherof are taken out of the very, scrypture, some out of the auncient and famous doctours of the churche, and [Page 999] partly, and moost especially, in consyderation of the cōsent of the hole catholike church herin, nothing to dout in thys matter, but that yt holy Apostle S. Pe ter was Christes vicar on earthe, and had hygher, and more authoritie generall, then anye one of the Apostles els, and that the special purpose, why that Christ would haue such authoritie to be in one mā, was, & is, for thepreseruatiō of vnitie in his church, whych church, is but one, and thus much for this time, shal now suffice you. In the next homely, you shal here fur­ther of thys matter.

An other Homelye of the Pry­macye.

IT is wrytten in the. viii. chapiter ofActes. 8. the actes, howe Si mon Magus, dyd offer vnto Saynte Peter mony togiue him power, that on whome soeuer he shoulde laye hys handes, the same parson myght ther­by, receiue the holy Ghost. But being for this his most wycked request greuously reproued, and fearyng withal, to conty­nue any lōger, in those parties, that is to say, in Sa maria, so nighe thappostles, he the sayde Symon Magus fled to Rome, and there by hys enchaūte mentes, dyd greatlye delude the people, as Iusty­nusIustinus [...], the martyr, a verye auncient writer, in hys se­cond Apologie, directed, or sent, to the Emperoure Antonius, doth playnely testifye: Ireneus also in his fyrst boke Contrahereses doth recorde the same.Ireneus,

And the said Simon Magus, did so delude & blind the people, that they did esteme him for a God, and dyd set vp his image, in the Citye, with this inscrip tion. Simoni de sdncto, That is to say. To Simon the holy God. But it was not longe, after those [Page 50] [...], played by Simon Magus, thus seducing yt, [...] ther, but God sent his great [...] saynct Peter thyther, (that is to say, to Rome) who both did confounde the sayd Simou Magus, and dyd also conuert a great number of the people there vnto the fayth of Chryste, as is at large, set fourthe [...]. in the. xiiii. chapiter, and second booke of Eusebius, [...] historye. Nowe this Apostle sayncte [...] [...], by the wyll, and prouidence of God, beynge brought to Rome, did there continue, bishop of that Sea, xxv. yeares, and ther also did suffer a glorious martyrdome, in the last yeare of the reygne of cruel Nero Themperoure, whyche thynges Saynte [...] Hierome in the verye begynnynge of hys worke, De [...] scriptoribus, doth wytnes in thys maner. Simon Peter the sonne of Ioannis, of the prouince of Galile, and of ye towne of Beth saida, the brother of Andrewe the Apostle af ter his byshopricke in [...], and after his preching in Pōtus, [...], Asia and Bethinia to the Iewes which were dyspersed abrode in sondry contries, came to Rome, to ouer throwe Simon Magus, and ther did kepe his sea, fyue and twenty yeres, until the last yere, it is to wyt, the xiiii. yere) of the reigne of Nero, by whom he was crucified, and so crowned with a crowne of martirdome, his heade being turned downe to the grounde, [Page] and his feete vpwarde, bycause he sayde, or accompted hym selfe vnworthy, to be eruci fyed in such forme, and maner, as hys may­ster Chryst was. [...]. [...].

S. Ambrose in his lxr. sermō, speakyng of yt matyr­dome of saynt Peter, and saynt Paule, at Rome, sai eth thus. I thinke it not done without a gret cause, that in one day, in one place, & vnder on [...], they bothe dyd suffer. In one daye, for that they should come to Christ together. In one place, that neither of them both, shoulde be destitute of Rome, and vn­der one persecutoure, that like crueltie shuld slaye them both. The day was for their me­rite, the place for theyr glory, the persecutor, for theyr vertue. And in what place I praye you dyd they suffer martyrdome? Euen in Rome, which is the heade, and cheyfe citye, of the worlde, to the intente that where the heade of superstition was, ther shuld rest the head of holynes, and where the prynces of the heathen did dwel, ther the princes of the churche shoulde lye.

Thus sayeth saynt Ambrose, whervnto agreeth Egesippus, an auncient wryter, in his thyrd booke, of [...] the distruction of Hierusalem, and like wyse Dionisius the byshop of Corinth, and Caius also which lyued [Page 50] in the daies of Zepherius the Bishop of Rome, as more at large appeareth, in the xxv. Chapyter, of the fore sayde seconde boke of Eusebius, Ecclesiasticall hy­story. Now that we haue in the homely, going next [...]. before this declared, that our sauyour dyd appointe Sayncte Peter to a greater, and hygher offyce then he dyd any other of his Apostles, and haue in [...] this homely intreated, of the abode of saynct Peter and martyrdome at Rome, we wyll consequentlye proue, that the Byshoppes of Rome, haue alwayes in the catholyke church, bene estemed, iudged, and taken, for saynt Peters successours, euen in that his speciall, and hyghest offyce, and that to him, and thē by the wyll of God doeth appertayne the gouerne­ment of Chyst es hole stocke, on earth. And fyrst I wyll begyne wyth the [...] Authoure [...], who in the thyrde Chapiter of his thirde booke a­gaynst [...]. [...]. [...] heresyes, doeth say, that the church of Rome is the greatest, the eldest, and the best knowen, of al churches, and that it was foūded, by the most glo­ryous Apostles, Peter, and Paule & that through the succession of the byshops of Rome, frō samct Pe ter, vntyll hys tyme, the truth was deryued, from hande to hande, & that it myght ther easely be foūd and had. And herevpon he sayeth further these [...] des. [...] hane enimecclesiam propter [...], necesse est omnem conuenire ecclesiam, hocest eos qui sunt ubi (que) [...] That is to say. For vnto this church (meaninge, and poynting the sea of Rome) for the more mighty principalty of it, al yt hole church of Christ, yt [...] [Page] [...] [Page 50] [Page] is to saye, all the faythful, wheresoeuer they be, muste assemble, or repayre vnto.

And saynt Augustyne, agreably herevnto, doth [...] in his. 192. Epystle, saye, that in the church of Rome, the primacy of the Apostolyke Sea, did euer florish And the same sainct Augustyne, wrytyng agaynst one Petilianus, whyche dyd blaspheme the sea of Rome (as heretykes doo now a dayes) doeth more ouer wrytte in thys maner, [...] al the byshops of the worlde, were such men, as thou dooest moost falsely report, them to be, what hath the sea of Rome hurted the, where Peter did syt, and nowe Anastasius syttethe? or what hath the sea of Hierusalem hurted the [...] Iames did sit, and now at this presēt Ioan nes dothe sit, wyth whome we are in the ca tholyke vnitie ioyned and from whome ye haue deuyded your selues, in youre wycked rage or fury why doest thou call the Aposto like sea, the sea of pestilence? If thou do it for the mēs sake, whō thou thinkest to preache the lawe, and not to fulfil the lawe, did our sauiour I praye the, any such iniurye to the sea or chaire of the scribes, and Phariscis, of whome he sayeth. They say, but they do not, &c.

Moreouer, the holye Martyr, saint Cipriane inCiprianus the thyrd Epystle, of hys fyrst booke, speakynge a­gainst [Page 52] certayne, whych dyd disobey, & [...], Cornelius, the byshoppe of Rome, writeth in thys maner. Ne (que) enim aliunde heresis oborte sunt, aut natasunt seismata q inde quod sacerdoti dei nō obtemperatur, nec vnus in ceclesia ad tēpus sa­cerdo, et ad tempus iudex, vice Christi iudicatur? Cui si secundum magis­teria diuina obtemperaret fraternitas uniuersa, nemo aduersus sacerdotū collegium, qule [...] moueret. That is to say. Of none other cause are heresyes spronge vp, or scysines ry sen, than of this that the preiste of GOD (meanyng Cornelius, the byshopp e of Rome) is not obeyed, and one is not taken in the churche, to be the hyghe preist for the tyme, and for the tyme in Christes stede a iudge, or Christes vicar, vnto whome yf the hole fra­ternitye were, accordyng to Goddes com­maundementes, obedient no man woulde any thing moue, or styrre against the colled ge or company of preistes.

Saynt Augustyne also wrytyng agaynst theAugusti­nus Epystle of a Maniche, whych Epystle is intituled, or called [...], giueth to the sea of Rome, a mer uaylous prerogatyue and doth buylde hys faythe, amongest other thinges, vpon the succession of the Byshoppes of Rome who after saynct Peter did fo lowe orderly, euen to hys time whych was, 300. ye­res after Chryste. And he wryteth in this maner Multasum. que [...] eccle sic gremio iustissime teneni, Tenet me consen­sio populoru, at (que) [...] tenct authoritas mlraculis [...] a, sperinutria charitate aucta vetustate firmata, tenet ab ipsa sede perri A postoli, cui [...] post resurrectionē suam dominus comm endauit, us (que) [Page] [...] present [...] episcop [...], successio [...], That is to saye. ther are many thinges, which of very good reason, doo kepe me, in the lawes of the catholyke church. The consent of so manye people, and nations, or countries, doth kepe me, the authoritie of the church, begon [...] myracles, nouryshed with hope, encreased with charitie, and confyrmed with antiqui tye, doeth kepe me: the succession also of bys­shoppes, from saint Peter the Apostles seat, or tyme (to whome our Lord dyd after hys tesurrection, commite his shepe to be fedde) vnto this presēt Bishopricke (meaning Rome) doeth kepe me in the catholyke church. [...] Sainet Hierome also in his Epystle to Damasius, doth set fourth very notably the premacye, and su­premitre, of the byshoppe of Rome, as beyng sainet Peters successours, and amongest other thyngs he sayth thus, Si quis cathedrae Petri iungitur meus est That is to saye. Yf any man be ioyned to Peters chaire or hold of Peters seate (meaning yt sea of Rome) he is myne, and I receyue and ioyne wyth hym.

Saynt Ambrose also in hys thyrd boke, of theAmbrosi, sacramētes, and in the fyrst Chapter, doth say thus. Ecclesia Romana hane consuetudinem non habet, cuius tipum in omnibus Sequimur. That is to say. The churche of Rome (whose forme or trade we doo folow in all [Page 52] poyntes) hath no suche custome. Other lyke auctorities of the auncyent fathers, for the primacy and suprymacy of the Sea of Rome, there are, and yt infinite. But what nede many autorities ether of scripture, or of the fathers, in this behalfe, seing very experience, hath this thousande yeres, proued, that such, as dysobeied the sea of Rome, did fal sone after into abhominable heresye, and therevpon into deui sion amongest them selues, and [...], to de structiō, or els, in processe of time, were gladde, and sayne, to retourne to ther dwe obediēce againe. Yf you be desyrouse to haue exāple in this matter loke but one those countryes, and those parsons, yt nowe be in captiuitie vnder the gret Turke, who in time past, agreeing wyth the sea of Rome, did florishe in christen religyon, & all welthe, looke also vpon Ger­many, & take example thereby, how they prospered amonges theym selues, synce they declyned from yt obedience of the sea of Rome. And it is a world, to see howe those, whome they toke for theyr greatest doctours, haue abused, seduced, and mocked them, euen in thys matter of the prymacye, for where as Luther, especiallye, and aboue all other, was theyr [...] ryngleader in thys matter: yet when he was emon gest lerned men, and shoulde talke of thys matter, wyth theym, he was so dryuen to the wal, that opē lye in wrytynge, to be shewed at thys daye, he dyd in a boke of hys intituled, Resolutio Latheriana super propo sitione sua. [...]. de potestate [...] confesse and saye playnelye, as hereafter doeth folowe. [Page] [...], [...], Ro, pontificem esse alijs omnibus, quos [...] se pontifices gerere, superiorum, est [...] voluntas dei, quā in ip so [...] uidemus. Ne (que) enim sino voluntate dei in haenc monarchiā inquam [...] potuisset. Ro, pōtifex. At uolūtas dei, quo quo modo nota fuerit cū reuerentia sulcidienda est, ideo (que) non licet temere. Ro, pontifici suo pri­maturesistere. Hec autem ratio [...] est, ut si etiam nulla scriptura. nul la alia causa esset, haec tamensatis esset ad compescendam temeritatem re­sistentium, et [...] sola ratione gloriosissimus martir Ciprianus, permult [...] epistolas cōfidētissime gloriatur cōtra omnes episcoporū quorū cun (que) ad uersorios sicut 3. Re. legimus, quod decētribus Israel discesserūt a roboā silio Salomonis, et tamen quia uoluntate dei, sine au toritate factū est, ra­tum apud deum fuit, Nam et apud theologos omnes, uoluntas signi, quam [...] operationem dei, non minus quam alia signo uoluntacis dei, ut prae [...], prohibit &c. metuenda est, Ideo non uideo, quomodo sint [...] ascismatis reatu, qui huic uoluntati contrauenienses, sest a Ro pontifieis autoritate subtrahūt, [...] est una prima mihi in superabilis ratio, [...] subijcit Ro pontifici et primatū eius cōfueri, cogir. yt is to saye The first thing, which moueth me to think or beleue, the Romayue Byshoppe to be su­perior to all other. whom at the leaste wyse we do knowe to accompte them selues for Byshoppes. is the very wyll of God which we doo see euen in the very facte or matter. For in dede without the wyl of God yt Ro­mayne Byshoppe, coulde not at anye tyme haue commē to this monarchy, or supreme rule, and the wyll of God, by what meane soeuer it be knowen is to be receyued, or ta­ken with reuerence, and therefore it is not lawefull folyshly, or hedelye to make resy­stence [Page 53] vnto the said Romayne Bysshope, in his Bysshoppryke. And this reason is soo­great, or of suche force, that althoughe noo scrypture, nor no other cause were, yet thys were sufficient ynoughe to brydle, or kepe vnder the temeritie, or madnes, of them, yt make resistance. And by this reason alone, the most glorious Martyr Cyprian, in ma­ny Epystles doth most boldely glory or re­ioyse, agaynst all the aduersaries of anye of the Bysshoppes, accordyng as we do reade in the third boke of the kynges. Where all­though the. x. tribes of Israell, dyd departe from Roboam, the sonne of Salomon, yet bycause it was done by the wyll of God, it was without other authoritie firme, & sta­ble. For also emongest all the deuines, the will of the signe, whiche they doo call the workyng of God, is to be feared no lesse, thē other signes of the will of God as precepts and thinges forbydden &c. And therefore I doo not se howe they be excused from the of­fence, or synne, of scy sine, who doing, or cō ­minge agaynst this will, doo withdrawe, or pull them selues, from the Authoritie of the Romaine Bysshoppe.

[Page]Thus much saythe Luther himselfe, and soo shall you fynd it, if ye reade his sayde worke, in the place aforesayd: and the thyng so being, you may se, what a holy father that marchant was, to deceiue the peo­ple as he dyd, and to bryng them to that wonderfull calamitie, that the thyrde or fourth generation (if yt worlde so longe do continue) shall feele, and smarte for it, as other also shall, that be in the same case. And now to returne to our owne country of Eng­lande, thys may be truly spoken, that of all [...] christen, there is none that hath (besydes the gene­ral dutie) so speciall cause to fauour the see of Rome, as England hath. For from that see, cam the faythe into this Iland, in the daies of king Lucius, about an hundreth and fyftye yeares after Chryste. And vi. Cyere after Christ, when the Saxons wer spredBede. [...]. hist, Angl. li, i, ouer the hole realme, and were infidells, ther were sent most notable, and godly preachers, hither into England, who conuerted and tourned many thou­sandes, to the fayth. And what benefites we haue in our daies receaued of that see of Rome, al menne doo [...], and feale in them selues, & do thancke god therefore, or ells the deuyll hathe wonderfullye blynded and seduced them. Now on the other syde, what miseries haue be falen emongest vs, synce our disobedience agaynst the see of Rome, and synce the tyme, that temperall prynces dyd take vpon them, that offyce, which is spirituall, and not belongynge to the regali power, but greatly distant, and dyffe­rent from the same, I nede not in words to declare, [...] as you haue felt the smart therof in dede. [Page 54] and to this day are not quyte of Gods plage for the same. Wherfore to conclude in this matter, this shal be to exhort you, and in Gods name to requyre you. to esteme the primacy, and supremitie of the sea of Rome, as an authoritie instituted by Chryst, for the quyetnes of the christen people, and for the preserua tion of chrystendome, in one catholyke, true fayth, & for the defence of it, agaynst all heresie, and wherby quyeting your selues, to serue God, in the catholike truth, you shall sonest appease his wrath, and pur­chase his fauour and grace, in this lyfe, and hereaf­ter obteyne the euerlastyng lyfe, which sende vnto you: all, the father, the [...], and the holy Ghost, to whome be al honor, and glorye, worlde wythout ende


An homilye declaringe that in the blessed Sacrament of the aultare, is the very bodye, and bloude of our Sauioure Chryst.

AFter that men are once graft in Christ and be made parta­kers of his death & passion, amonge o­ther theyr duetyes, one of the cheife is, diligētly to prepare them selues to the worthy receauyng of yt blessed Sacra­ment of the aultare where vnto are two thynges on our partes requisitBasill in [...] rules. (as sayeth saynt Basell, & good reason confyrmeth) the one, feare, the other, faythe. The feare whyche men must haue, when they prepare them selues to come to this sacrament, ought to be grounded vpō that terrible saying of saynt Paule, in the. xi, chap­ter of hys fyrst Epystle to the Corinthians, wher heaCorin. II sayth that whosoeuer doth participate therof vnworthely, doth eate and drinke his owne dampnation: The faith, which we must haue in our hartes, when we come to Gods borde, is to be buylded lyke wyse, vpon the vndonted aucthorities of scripture, whych declare moost playnlye vnto vs what meate it is, that we there eate. For the parfit vnderstandyng wherof, let vs consider, that our sa­uyour [Page 55] Chryst, beynge here on earth, did fyrste make a solempne promyse of a meate, whyche hym selfe woulde geue vnto vs, and afterwarde in dede, he dyd geue the same, accordynge to hys promyse. In the promyse makynge he sayde (as it is wrytten in the. vii, chapter of S, Jhons gospell. The breade [...]. 6. or foode that I wyll geue vnto you, is my fleshe, which fleshe I wyll gyue for the lyfe of the world. and in the same chapter he also saith My fleshe is [...] meat, and my bloud is ve rely drincke. And as he then promised, so he after ward perfourmed, euen the very laste nyghte that euer he companied with his Apostles, before hys death, at which tyme, he toke breade into his han­des, and gaue thankes, and breake it and gaue it to his disciples, and sayde. Take eate, this is my body, whiche shalbe geuen for you. Yf we cō pare the wordes spoken by Chryst, when he made the promyse of a meat, to be by hym geuen vnto vs, wt those other wordes, which he vttered in giuing of yt same, we nede not doubt of the thinges whiche he gaue. In the promyse makynge, he sayd, that he woulde geue vs his fleshe, in the perfourminge of the promyse, he geueth the same, saying, take eate this is my body. Agayne, in the promise making he affirmeth, that the fleshe, whith he woulde geue vs to fede on, should be the selfe same fleshe, yt shold be geuen for the lyfe of the world, and in the perfor maunce of his promise, he said, that the thing which [Page] gaue, was his bodye, whyche shoulde be geuen to death for vs. Nowe the circumstaunces beyng wel considered, which our sauiour vsed in the instituti­on of this most blessed Sacrament, shal greatly cō ­fyrme al godly hartes, in the true be lefe of the same The tyme was the night before he suffered deathe, to signifye vnto vs, that thys meate, being differred to the last day, that euer our Sauiour was conuer­saunt with his Apostles, must nedes be his very bo­dy, and bloude in dede, and such ameate as no other can be in any wyse comparable vnto it. Agayne, in that our sauyour dyd eate of the pascall lambe with his Apostles, immediatli before he did institute this sacrament, it most playnely declareth vnto vs, that this sacrament is a marueylous worthey mysterye and that veri thing, which the eating of the paschal lambe, in the olde lawe did prefygurate, for whyche cause, whē this was instituted that was abrogated Nether is it withoute a meruelouse consideration, that Chryst at that heauenly banket, would of pur­pose, nother haue the blessed Uyrgin Mary his mo­ther, present with hym, nor anye other of his dysey­ples, saue onely the. xii. Apostles, whome he appoin ted to be the head ministers of al his misteryes here on the earth, and specially to be the ministers of this most blessed sacrament, and the iustructours of al o­ther, touching the same. Now what meneth it, that our Sauiour was not content to offer them this sa crament onely, but with the offeryng therof, he said also vnto them. Take eate, take and drinke? Do mē vse, to offer to other, meate and drynke, for anye [...] [Page 56] purpose, but onelye that they shoulde eate and drynke thereof, but bycause it was hys bodye, and hys bloude, therefore he fyrste byddeth them take, and not feare to eate and drynke the same.

Besydes this, it is to be well noted, that yt thre Euangelystes, Mathew, Marke, and Luke, did al three agree in the maner of the institution of thys sacramēt they wryting all three their gospels at sō dry tymes, as Mathe we eyght yere after the ascen­cion [...] and The [...] philact [...] of our sauiour Chryst. Marke. x. yeares. Luke xv. yeares. And where in doubteful speaches of our sauiour Chryst, some one or other of yt Euangelists, euermore openeth playnly the very meaning of the speches, yet touchyng these words, this is my body, no one of them, maketh anye declaration vpon the same, but they all leue them to be takē of vs, as they sound, and (as of most plaine words) they make no exposition or interpretation of them at all. Whyche poynt must be well consydered, And therefore note th at where Chryst sayde. It is impossible for a rich man to entre into the kingdō of heuen. (bicause yt meaning of these wordes may be dyuer­slyMark. 10 taken, thereof) S. Marke in his tenth chapyter declareth the very meaning of them, saying: It is harde for them that trust in there substaūce to be saued. Agayne Chryst at another time said to the Iewes, loose you this timple, & in thre daies shal I build it againe, Andfor that the sense of these wordes is doughtfull, S. Ihon there expoundeth them and sayeth, that Chryst by the tē ­yle [Page] ment his body, which should be by the Iewes put to death, and by him the thirde daye shoulde be raysed from death to lyfe. In the, viii. of Ihon, oure sauiour sayeth: He that beleueth in me, as theIohn, 7. scriptnre sayeth, there shall, ryuers of quyck water flow out of him, And because this saing is obscure. S. Iohn to make it open, sayeth, that he spake those wordes, of the spirit, which they that be leued in him should receyue. In the. xii. chapiter of S, Ihon, our sauiour sayth in this maner. If I beIohn. 12. lyfte vp from the earth, I wyl draw al thin ges vnto my selfe. And S, Iohn by and by ge­ueth vs the exposition, saying, that hereby he signy­fyed, what kynde of death he should suffer. Manye other lyke places are there in the newe testamente the matter of which places, is not so hyghe, nor soo nedefull to be ryghtly vnderstanded, as yt meaning of these wordes, this is my body, and yet of these wordes, no one Euangelist maketh any exposition bycause the wordes are playnely, and symply to be taken as they were spokē. Besides al this, we haue in S. Paule in the, xi, Chapiter of his first Epistle, to the Corinthians, a goodly, and a large processe touching thys Sacrament, and yet in that whole processe, no matter to instructe vs otherwyse to be leue of it, than that there is in it the very body and bloude of our sauiour Chryst. For fyrste he vttereth the wordes of oursauiour, euen as the Euangelists do, as that he sayd this is my bodye. and he ma­keth no declaration vpon ye same. Secondly where [Page 57] none of the Euangelists make mentiō, of any paine due to the vnworthy receauer. S Paule affirmeth that the vnworthy receyuyng of thys Sacramente bryngeth iudgement, and dampnation, Thirdly, he telleth, that for the vnworthy receauing hereof, God plageth cities, and cuntryes, wyth sondrye greuous plages, as with infirmitye, with syckenes, and with death also. Forthely, he geueth vs counsell dylygent­lye to examine and trye our selfes, before we come to gods borde. If the very body and bloude of oure sauiour Chryst, be not in dede in the sacramēt of the aultare, why shold our sauiour so speake as he spake in the promisse made thereof? why dyd he, as he dyd in the instituting therof? why dyd none of the Euā ­gelists so declare christes wordes? why dyd sayncte Paule so terribly pronounce of the vnworthy recea­uynge of it, and so ernestly warne vs, of due prepa­ration to be made therefore? It is then most vndou­tedlye to be of all chrysten people beleued, that in the Sacrameut of the aultare, there is the verye body and boulde, of our sauiour Chryst, worthy of all ho­nour and glory, the selfe same in substannce, that is in heauen: which thyng for Chryst to bryng to passe, is a thyng most casye, he being God almighty, ma­ker of heauen and earth: and for hym to do, is moost semely, that as he gaue that bodye, 'to deathe to re­deme vs, so he should giue the same in thys heauenly bankitte, to fede vs, that he myght be all in all. The body of our sauiour Christ to be in very dede in hea­uen, in the visible fourme of a mā, and in the Sacra­ment of the Aultare, inuisible vnder the visible [...] [Page] of bread and wyne, nether is impossible to hys power, that made all thinges of noughte, nether vn­semely for his exceadynge great loue towardes vs, who so loued vs, that for vs, he dyd not refuse to suf­fer death, and that the deathe of the crosse: neyther yet is it agaynst hys wyll, who of hys onely mercye, so promysed, and wyth hys omnipotent word, so in­stituted it, nother is it fynally vnfytte for hys wyse dome, seynge he hath so ordeyned, that euery natu­rall mothere, nouryshe her chyldren, wyth the sub­staunce of her owne body. And why then shold chri­sten men refuse to beleue it? why do we not rather embrace it, and gyue God moste hartye thankes for it, being the greatest iewell, that euer was amonge mortal men, why do we not prepare our selues wor­thely to receaue it, and as in all other poyntes of the christen religion, so in the belefe of it, geue credite to fayth and bryng reason, and our senses, in subiectiō vnder fayth, but suffer our ghostly enemy by carnall reasons, to bryng vs away into heresie, & quite and cleane to pull the ryghte faythe out of oure hartes? Let vs all, good people, from hence forth be constaūt in the trueth, and as all the catholyke churche bele­ueth, and hath alwayes beleued, let vs vndoutedlye perswade our selues, that in the blessed sacrament of the Aultare, there is vnder the fourmes of breade & wine, the seife same body of our sauiour Christ in sub staūce, whych was borne of the Uyrgin Mary, and suffered death on ye crosse for vs, to whō wt the father & the holy gost, be all honor & glory, world wythout ende


¶ An Homelye of Transubstantiation.

THere are in the sacra ment of the aultare, ii. thinges speciallye to be considered, the one is, the body and bloud of our sauiour Christ, ther really cō teined, yt other is the fourmes of breade & wine, vnder whych the sayd body & blud are cōteined. Of the first parte ye hard in the last homely. Touching yt se­cond, the general belefe of the catholyke Churche (if there were nothing els) ought, and may be a suffici­ent grounde, for euery godly man, to build hys con­science vpon, which churche, doth beleue, that there is no substaunce of material bread, and wyne remai ning, but onely the fourmes of breade and wine, & the substaunce of Christes body and bloude, there so contayned. And yet, because some haue vainely, and curiously, of late yeares talked of thys seconde part, and haue put many fonde doutes, and scruples into peoples heades, concernyng the same, ye shall nowe at large, and fully (I trust) be instructed therin, And fyrst thys is to be noted, that God hath [...] the be­gynnynge of the worlde, manye tymes appeared to man, some tymes in one sorte, and sometymes in an [...] other. In the. xviii. Chapiter of Genesys it is wryt­en [Page] howe God and two Aungelles wyth him, dyd apeare vnto Abraham, in the lykenesse of men, and howe Abraham feasted them. Howe vaine a matter were it, (I pray you) for vs here buselye to reason, howe God or Aungell, coulde appeare lyke man? and whether they had true bodyes or no? and whe­ther they dyd eate in dede or no? and yf they hadde not true bodyes in dede, howe the appearaunce of bodyes coulde be, where the substaunce of bodyes was not? In the thirde chapter of the booke called [...] 3. Exodus, we rede, that God appeared to [...] in the lykenes of flamynge fyre, and that oute of a bushe. In the. v. of Iosue it is recorded, how one so­denly appeared vnto Iosue lyke a man, hauynge aIosue. 5. sworde drawen in his hand. What can anye manne saye, howe God shoulde appeare in a flame of fyre, or what substaunce of a sworde was, in that which appeared to Iosue: Hereby it is easy to vnderstande howdaungerous a thyng it is, to go about by mans wyt or reason, to discusse yt maner of yt workes of al­mighty God. Who seyth not, that by the meane of such presumptuous [...], men haue of late fallen into moost detestable errours, touchyng the mooste blessed Sacramente of the aultare, and haue moost spytefully rayled agaynst the same, and wyth moost vyle termes haue gested thereof, and [...], moost vily haue vsed the moost precious bodye and bloude of our sauiour Chryst in the same: In whych doing, how can they loke for anye fauour at the handes of their heauenly father, seyng in suche dispituous ma­ner, they entreate the Bodye and bloud of our sauy­oure [Page 59] Christ his sonne. But now to procede forth, tou­chyng t declaration of the secōd thyng, to be conside red in the blessed Sacramēt of the aultare: Ye must knowe that the presence of our sauyoure Chryste in thys sacrament of the aultar, is not to ye intente, that Chryste should be conuersaunt with vs here in thys Sacramēt, in such sort and maner, as he was with his Apostles when he liued here on earth, that is to saye: in the visible shape and fourme of a mā, but hys presence in the Sacrament, is to the intent to be to vs an heauenlye fode, and therefore he is presente in the sacramēt, vnder the fourmes of bread and wine so that our outwarde eyes and senses, are certifyed wyth the outwarde fourmes, and sensyble quality­es, and the whole man with al, receaueth the veryeAuguste [...] body and bloud of our sauiour Christ. S. Augustine (as is wrytten in a boke called [...] prosperi) dothe say, that christen men do honour vnder the for mes of breade and wine, which thei see with their bodely, eies, the body and bloude of our Sauiour Christ, which they do not see. Euse­biusEusibius [...]. Emissenus also, an aūcient father of the Greke churche, speaking of the foresayd two partes contei­ned in the Sacrament of the aultar, sayeth in thys maner. This is the thing which by al menes we intend to proue, that the Sacrifice of the churche doth consist, and is made of two par tes that is, of the [...] of the elemē tes, and of the [...] & bloud of oure [Page] Sauioure Chryst. S Cipryan in hys treatise en tituled. De coena domini doeth moste playnely saye, thatCipriane de coena domiui the bread whrch our Lord did giue to his dis ciples, was by the omnipotēcie of god made fleshe, & was chaūged in nature, but not in fourme. The forenamed Eusebius in a sermō of his made of the body of Chryst, dothe farder saye: that Christ the inuisible priest doth tourue visibleEuse bius Emissenu in a sermō os the bodi os Christ. creatures [...] his word, through his secret po­wer, into the substaunce of his body & blud. Now for to signify this chaung, to turnyng of bread and wyne, into the substaūce of Christes bodye and bloude, the catholyke church vseth this word, Trās­substanciatiō, which is as much to say, as the chaū ­ging of one substaunce into another: Neyther is it to be counted vnfyt that there should in the Sacra­ment of the aultare, [...] the fourme of bread, & yet not the [...] of bread, seyng God is the doer & wor­ker therof, to whom nothing is impossible. We readExo. 20. in the [...] Chapiter of Exodus, how yt when God came downe frō heauen vnto Mounte Sinai, there was heard a soūde of a trumpet, and yet mate rial trumpet was there none. In the fourth boke ofvii. chapi [...] of the fourth of the king. the Kynges, & the. vii. chapiter, God caused a sounde to be heard in the tentes of the Sirians, as if it had bene of horses, charets, and of a greate armye, & yet was there nother horse, charet, nor armye. In the thirde chapiter of Daniel, it is recorded, howe the three chyldren were in the myddest of the flamynge furnes, and yet felte no heate, soo that there was the substaunce of fyre, and yet it dyd not bourne [Page 90] whych to nature is impossyble, but to GOD is an easye matter. In the. xvii. of Mathewe we readeMath. 17 howe that Chryste was transfygurated, and that hys face dyd shyne as the Sonne, and that hys apparel was made as whyte as snowe, In the. xxiiii. of Luke, Chryst appered to two of hys dys­ciplesLu. 34, goyng to Emaus, like a straunger. In al these foresayde examples, we see as straunge a worke as is transubstantiation, & yet no man douteth of them because God is the worker, nor anye man askethe howe this, or that coulde be, but beleuethe it, and soo oughte we to doo, concernynge the chaunge of the substauuce, of breade and wyne, into the sub­staunde of Chrystes bodye and bloude, and not aske howe it may be. The blessed martyr Iustinus, affyr­methIustinus [...]. that this questyon, howe, is a token of vnbe­lefe, and S. Ciril, writing vpon the. vi. Chapiter of S. John, blamethe the Capernaites, bycause theyCiril upō the Vi of S Iohn, dyd aske howe Chryst was able to giue thē his fleshe to eate. The wordes of saincte Cyryll be these.

They aske not without great impietie how canne thys man geue vs hys fleshe and they remember not that nothing is impossible to God, but let vs (sayeth [...]) haue firme faith in the misteries, and let vs neuer in so high mat ters. eyther thincke, or aske this how. When God is the worker, let vs not aske how, but let vs leaue the knowledge of his worke toChrisost ome vpon Ioh [...] V hym selfe. S. Chrisostome lykewyse vppon the sayde. v. Chapiter sayeth, that when this questy­on, [Page] howe anyethyng is done, commeth into oure myndes, then wyth all, there commeth vnbelyfe also But bycause in scrypture the thyng that we receaue, when we come to the sacramente, is called bread, therefore men haue fansied wyth thē selues, that there must be the substaunce of matery­al breade, deceauing them selues, by mystakyng, the signification of thys worde, breade. For thoughe in oure common speach we vse to signify by thys word, bread, that one kinde of materiall substaunce which is made of corne or grayne, yet in scrpture, it signifi­eth all kynde of fode, whether it be the fode of the bo­dy, or the foode of the soule, and so dothe also the la­tyne worde, Panis, elles when we desyre god in oure Pater noster, to geue vs our dayly bread, we shold make an vnperfytte petition, whiche yet is a moosteIohn, 6. perfyt petition, wherby we aske of our heauenly fa­ther, all necessary fode. In the. vi. of Ihon, Manna is called breade, and yet was it made of no kynde of corne, or grayne, and in the same chapyter Chryste is called breade because he is the foode of the soule, and ther lykewyse the fleshe of Chryst in the sacrament, is called breade and not there onely, but in S. Pau les Epystle also to the Corinthians, for that it is the fode, whereon we fede, when we receaue the sacra ment. Agayne it is a commen trade in scrypture, to cal thinges by the name of that thinge, whyche they [...]. [...], once were, as Adam is called earth, because he was made of Earth, and Chryst sayeth, the blinde see, the lame walke, yt deafe heare, the dumme speake, mea­nyng by the blynde, lame, deafe, and dumme, suche [Page 61] as before had bene soo, but then were otherwyse. Thyrdelye, for that the fourme of breade doeth re­mayne, it is in that respecte too, called breade. For these causes, good faythfull hartes, are nothing gre ued wyth the callyng of it breade in the scrypture, but groundynge them selfes vpon the woordes of our sauioure Chryste, when he sayde, thys is my bodye, and knowynge that it to be bothe breade, and hys bodye also at once is impossible, they vn­doutedlye beleue, that by the power of GOD, the substaunce of bred, is turned into the substaunce of Chrystes bodye, and soo mnste al men beleue, that wyll be lyuely members of the catholyke churche, and in that there belefe, they muste honoure the bodye and bloude of oure sauioure Chryst, in the sa­cramente of the Aultare, as alwayes chrysten peo­ple haue vsed to doo.

Saint Austen in his exposition made vponS. [...] stin vpon the. 99. Psalme. the. 99. Psalmesayth, that it is synne, not to ho noure the bodye of Chryste, meanynge in the Sacramente of the Aultare. And (as it is before in thys Homily [...]) he also sayeth in the name of all men. We doo honoure vnder the four­mes of breade and wyne, whych we se, the bodye and bloude of Chryst, whych we doo not see. Wherfore, good chrysten people, knowing nowe what is the ryght belefe, touchynge the Sa­cramente of the aultare, embrace, and folowe the same, and cleaue faste to the catholyke churche, the [Page] spouse of Chryste, that you maye be true [...] of Chryst, to whome wyth the father, and the holye Ghoste, be al honoure, and glory world wythoute ende.


¶An Homely wherin is aunswere made to certayne common obiections, agaynst the pre­sence of Chrystes bodye, and bloude in the sacrament of the Aultare.

MEte it were, dearly beloued in our saui­our Christ, that we all should so fully, & wholy cleaue to the faith of Christes catholike church. yt no appearaūce of rea­sō to ye cōtrari ther­of, shoulde cause vs once to doute or stagger, in anye part of the same. For such a kynd of faith, doth god requyre of vs, and for suche kynde of faythe, good christen people, are in scripture called Abrahās children: which Abraham (as it is writtē in the fourthRomo. 4. to the Romaynes) cōtrary to hope, beleued in hope, that he should be the father of many nations, accordyng to that, which was spokē. So shal thy sede be. And he fainted not in the faith, nor yet cō sidered his own bodi, which was now dead euen when he was almost an hundred yere olde: nether yet that Sara was past childe bearyng, he staggered not at the promyse of god, through vnbelefe, but was strōg in the [Page] faith, & gaue honor to god, fully certified yt what he had promysed, the same he was a­ble to make good. Yf we then wilbe the childrē of Abraham, we muste not faynt in faith, nor consy­der gods wordes after the course of nature. Saint Paule in the. x. chapiter of his second epistle to the2 Corin. x Corinthians, geueth vs an example in hym selfe, howe we should alwayes brynge reason in subiec­tion to fayth, saying. The wepons of our warfare are not carnall, but mighty in God, to ouerthrowe stronge holdes, to destroy counseles, and euery hyghe thynge that exalteth it selfe agaynste the knowledge of God, & to brynge in captiuitie vnto the seruyce of Chryste, all vnderstanding: What (think you) is the cause why the Iewes beleue not in Chryste? Uerelye fyrste, because he was borue of a Uyrgyn, which is contrary to the course of nature. Secondly lykewyse, he was in vnitie of person, God & man whych howe it maye be, no mans wit is able, by natural power, to conceaue, thyrdly, because he being God and man, suffered the deth of the crosse, which for God to be content to do, semeth to natural rea­son a thyng moost absurde, but good chrysten folke geuyng place to faith, do most vndoutedly beleue in Chryst, God & mā crucified, according to yt s. Paule writeth in his first Chapter of his fyrste Epistle to2 Corin. 1 the Corinthians saying. We preach Christe cru­cified, to the Iewes a stumblyng blhcke. to [Page 63] the gentels, a folishnes, but to so many of yt ie wes & gētels as ar called, Christ the power & wysedome of God. And agreably here vnto, he sayeth also in the nexte Chapiter folowynge.

My talke, & my preachyng was not in yt per suasible wordes of mans wysedome, but in shewynge of power, and of the spyryte, that your faythe should not rest in the wisedome of man, but in the power of God. This gene­ral aduise and counsel of S. Paule, may and ought so to staye vs in the faythe of the catholyke churche, that nether carnall reasons, grounded vpon the fe­ble intelligence of mans natural wyt, nether the de ceatfull iudgement of our senses, shoulde make vs once to doute, of any one trueth in Chrystes religiō, were it neuer so contrarye to the course of nature, neuer so farre aboue our capacities, and neuer so ab­surde to the appearaunce of our outwarde senses.

But forasmuch, as through the iniquitie of these la­ter euyll yeares, diuers haue hadde sondrye fonde dowtes and scruples, put into theyr heades, especy­ally, agaynst the presence of Chrystes body & bloud, in the Sacrament of the aultare, and through such dowtes haue swarued from the true belefe therein, therefore here shall folowe aunsweres, and soluty­ons to such dowtes as haue ben most commen, that from hence for the no man shal nede to be seduced by [...] them, or other lyke.

¶ Fyrst it hath bene obiected, yt our sauiour Christ, immediatlye after that he had instituted, and dely­uered [Page] to his Apostles the sacramente, dyd say vnto them. Do this in remembraunce of me. Upon which wordes some haue concluded, that the bodye of our sauiour Christ, cannot be in the sacrament.

¶ But let vs duely waye yt words, and meaning of [...] the same, and we shall moost plainly perceaue theyr erroure, and mysvnderstandyng. Sainct Paule in hys fyrst Epystle to the Corinthians, and in the. xi. [...]. xi chapter of the same Epistle, intreating of the institu tion of the Sacrament of the aultar, and there ope nyng the true sense of that commaundemente of Chryst, sayth in this maner. As oft as you eate of that breade, and drinke of that cup, you shall shew forthe the Lordes death vntil he come So then the remembraunce whych oure sauyoure there requirethe of vs, is the remembraunce of hys death, which is past, and not presente, and therefore after most proper maner of speache, may well be re­membred. Now this remembraunce, can in no wise possibly be so lyuely, and so effectually worke in our hartes, as when we most certenly beleue, that in yt sacrament of the aultare, is verely, the selfe same bo dy in substaunce, which died for vs, and therefore yt Prophet Dauid, foreseyng in spirit, this so excellēt a memory, sayeth in his [...]. Psalme. Oure mercy­fullPsal. 110 gratious Lord, hath made a memori of all his marueylous workes, and by & by, decla [...] in what maner he maketh that memori, he ad­deth those wordes, he hathe geuen a foode to [Page] suche as feare hym. This fode (which [...] Prophet sayeth, that Christ should leaue in remembraunce of al his maruelous workes, that is, of his incarnatiō, his passion, his ascension, and glorye in heauen, and other lyke workes) most chiefely is to be verefied of the body and bloud of our sauyour Christe, in the sa­crament of the aultare. Besydes thys, the body and bloude of our sauiour Christ (as it is in the sacramēt vnder the fourmes of breade and wine) may in that respecte also very weli be a remembraunce of it selfe as it honge on the crosse, in the vysyble fourme of a mortal man, and as it is nowe in heauen, in ye forme of an immortall man. Farthermore, when our saui­our sayd. Do this in the remembraūce of me, he ment they should do the whol ministratiō, which he then dyd in remembraunce of hym, which whole ministration, cannot be accordynglye, doone other­wyse, but that there must nedes be present the very body and bloude of our sauyoure Christe. [...] Math. 26

¶ Another common obiection, there is gathered of the wordes of Christ. Mathew. xxvi. when he sayd: Poore men ye shal haue alwayes with you, but me shal ye not alwayes haue with you. Some haue vpon these wordes concluded, that the body and bloude of our sauiour Christ, cannot be in the sacrament of the aulter, for then (say they) Christ [...]. should be alway with vs, whereof hymselfe saythe the cōtrary. ¶ But yf those mē so concludyng wold no more, but confer sainct Marke, and sayncte Ma thew together, tonchynge the foresayde wordes of [Page] Christ, and by yt the one Euāgelist sayeth, would sin­cerely iudge what the other ment, they should sone perceue this ther obiectiō to be of no force or strēgth at al, to proue, that they thereby goo about to proue. For sainct Marke iu his. xiiii. Chapiter, fyrst tellethMar. 14. the story of the woman, whych cam to Chryste, and brought with her an Alablaster boxe of moost preci­ous oyntment, and poured ye ointmēnt on his head next he telleth how certene of the disciples did mur­mure, and grudge at that facte of the woman, and sayd: What meaneth this losse, and waste of oyntment? Might it not haue bene sold for more then three. C. pence & geuē to the pore? Thyrdely he telleth, howe oure sauioure beynge of­fended wyth the dysciples, for theyr murmurynge agaynst the woman, and how withall he allowing and commendynge her facte, dyd say iu this maner. Let her alone: Why are ye greuouse vnto her? she hath done a good dede: for alwayes shal you haue poore men amongest you and when ye shal please, you may bestowe your charitie on them, but me shal ye not haue al­wayes amongest you. This woman hath bestowed on me that she had, and she hathe preuented to anoint my bodi, against it shal be [...]. By this processe of S. Marke, it is euy­dent, that our sauiour in al that his talke, had a res­pecte to the charitie, whiche that womau then she­wed vpon hym, when she poured the precious oynt­mente [Page 65] on hys heade, the lyke whereof, he sayethe, no man should be able to shew on him in tyme to come, meaning, that when he should once ryse from death to lyfe, and haue an immortall bodye, that then he woulde not looke to [...] the lyke at anye man­nes handes, but that then men myght at their plea­sure bestowe on the poore, who alwayes are in the worlde in the mortall estate, and maye by charity of good folke, be releued and comforted. In such sorte in dede, oure sauiour is not nowe amongest vs, but the beynge of his body and bloud in the Sacrament of the aulter is atter another sorte. For in the Sa­crament he is, to fede vs with his body and bloude, and not vysyble to shewe him selfe vnto vs, as he thē did to his apostles, nor to haue ointment poured on hym, as he then had. ¶ Another obiection is there [...]. gathered, partely of S. Paule in the. x. of hys firste Epystle to the Corinthians (where he speakethe of a1 Corin. [...] spirituall meate, and spyrytuall drynke) partelye of Christes wordes in the. vi, of Ihon (where he sayeth that It is the spirite whych geueth lyfe, and [...] 6. that the fleshe [...] nothing) partely vpon the common maner of speakyng, vsed of the Catho­lyke churche, which calleth the Bodye and bloude of our Sauiour Chryste, in the sacrament of the aul tar, a spirituall meate, and a spirituall drynke.

¶ For aunswere to which obiection, it is syrste to [...] be vnderstanded, that one selfe thing may be bothe spirituall, and yet neuerthelesse of a corporall sub­stuunce to, [Page] As for example, the bodye of man after the [...], shall (as S. Paule wytnessheth in the. xv. cha­peter of hys fyrst Epystle to the Corinthians) be spiri1, Cor. 15 tual, & yet it [...] then the same in substaunce, that it is nowe. Agayne, Manna a meate which God [...] to the children of Israel in the wyldernes, is both in Scripture, and of the catholyke churche also, called a spiritual meat, and the water lykewyse which god gaue them out of a rocke, is called a spiritual drynke, and yet as well Manna, as the water, were of a bo­dily substaunce. In the. vi. to the Galathians, sainctGala. 6. Paule calleth mortall men, liuing then on the earth, spiritual. Wherefore spirituall, is not so to be taken alwayes, as to exclude corporall, but that thynge whatsoeuer it be, may be called spirituall, wherein is a worke wrought by god, aboue nature. For as god is a spirite so are his supernatural workes called spi rituall, and the thinges also, on, and in whome, such workes are wrought, are named spiritual thynges: and therefore. Manna, though it were of a bodelye substaunce, yet for that it came myraculously from aboue, by the onelye power of God, and not of na­ture, is, and may wel be called, a spiritual meate. And the dryncke whyche issued oute of the rocke, albeit it was in substaunce very water, yet for that God by hys omnypotency, made it sodenlye to issue out of a rocke, it is armed a spirytuall drynke. [...] bydyes lykewyse after the resurrection, shal haue in them immediatly of God, aboue yt power of nature, immortalitie, incorruptibilitie, [...] other lyke super­naturall qualities, and for that cause, they shall after the resurrectyon, be spyrytuall bodyes. Nowe then [Page 6] what necessity is there, that because the body of our [...] Chryst in the Sacrament of the Aultar, is a spirituall meate, therefore it shoulde not be also the corporall substaunce of his body; When the catho­lyke churche dothe saye, that the bodye of Chryste in the Sacramente is a spirytaull bodye, it meaneth, that it is there onelye thoroughe the almyghtye po­were of God, and not by the power, or manoure of nature, Lykewyse, when the catholyke churche say­eth, that the bodye of Chryste is to be receyued there spirituallye, it meaneth not that therefore the verye body of Chryst is not there to be receaued really & in very dede. For this worde, spiritually, dothe signi­fye onely the maner of the receauyng, and dothe not importe the substaunce of the thyng so receyued.

Besides this, the catholyke churche, beleuynge that in the Sacrament of the aultare, is alwayes reallye the body and bloude of our sauiour Chryst, doth yet put a difference in the maner of receauynge thereof, and vseth to saye, that when good men receaue the sacramente, that they receaue the bodye and bloude of Chryst, both sacramentally, and spiritually to, but when euyll men receaue that, they receaue the body of Chryst sacramentally only, & not spiritually, because they come vnto it vnworthely, and there­fore do they procure thereby, to theim selues damp­nation. But nowe to open fardar the very meaning of those worses of Chryst. It is the spirit that ge ueth lyfe, the fleshe profiteth nothing, you shal vnderstande, that these wordes are taken of the ca­tholyke church, in two most godly senses, the one is, [Page] to meane by the spirite, the godhed, and by the fleshe the nature of man, as yf he had sayde, it is the god­hed that causeth my fleshe to be able to gyue lyfe, ne ther is my fleshe the fleshe of a bare man, for then it beyng eaten coulde not profyte you, but my fleshe is vnited in vnitie of persone to the godhed, so that it is thereby able to brynge lyfe to the worthy eater ther­of.Cirill. Thus doeth Cyryil vpon the. vi. of Saynte John expounde these wordes, And to lyke purpose sainct Augustyne sayethe vppon the. vi of John, that asAugussin knowledge beyng seperated from charitie, maketh men proude, but beynge ioyned wyth charytye dothe edyfye: euen so mans fleshe not vnyted to the Godhed, and byng eaten dothe not profytte, but the fleshe of Christ, whych is in hym, in vnitie of person, inseperably vnited to the godhed, beyng worthelye receaued, muste nedes hyghly profyt. The other sēse of those wordes, to meane by the spirite, a spirituall vnderstandyng of Christes promyse, made in Caper naum when he sayde, the foode that I wyl giueIohn 6. vnto you is my fleshe: whych wordes be then vn derstanded spiritually, whē they be taken, to meane that thing which passeth the power of nature to doo and manes wyt by naturall reason to comprehende lykewyse by the fleshe, is to be ment, a fleshely vnder standynge of the sayde promysse, as to vnderstande wythout faythe in Christes deitie, as the Capernai­tes dyd, whyche toke Chryst but for a bare man, & so conceaued no otherwyse of the eatynge of his fleshe, then of commen meate bought in ye shambles. Thys sense that S. Chrysostome wrytynge vpon the. v. ofChrisosto [Page 97] John, and S. Augustyne wrytynge vpon the same Chapter. ¶ An other obiection is there, by occasyon that thys truth is not expressed in the commē crede,Obiection ¶ Whych obiection doth procede of an ignoraūce, & lacke of knowledge of the fyrst institution of yt crede.Answere. For in the primatyue churche, when men of all ages dyd sodenly turne from gentility, to the christian re­ligion, and yet then were not by and by, vpon suche there turne, admitted to anye sacrament, but fyrste were instructed in artycles, necessary for them to be­leue, before they were baptised, thys common cread was taughte them, and they were for that tyme cal­led Catechumni, that is younglynges in Chrystes religion, and begynners admytted, but to the fyrste principles of the chrystyan faythe, durynge whyche tyme they were not suffered, so muche as to be pre­sent at the masse, but after the gospel, were quyte ex­cluded from the same, as by the vndouted wrytyn­ges of the auncient fathers in chrystes church maye most euidently appeare: So that thys reason is fōd and to no purpose to say, that because it is not in the [...] crede expresly set fourth, that in the sacra­ment of the aultare, is the very [...] and bloude of our sauiour christ, therfore no christian man is boūd to beleue it so to be. S. Chrysostome, and S. Augus­tyne hauyng occasion many tymes in [...] sermo­nesChrisosto [...]. made by them, to speake of this Sacrament, for asmuch as amōg theire audience were as wel youg lynges, not yet baptysed, as other fathfull, alreadye christened did vse oft tosay. Quod [...] norāt, yt is, which yt faithful, or they yt be alredy baptised know or such lyke thing, and would not then expreslye de­clare [Page] the trueth, touchyng the sacramente of the aul­tare, for that it was not the maner to reueyle suche misteries to those yonglinges: but to them was in general, as sufficient for saluation, prescribed in that common crede, that they should beleue the catholike churche: which not onely was sufficient thā for thē, beleuynge the othere artycles of there crede, but is sufficient at thys present also for vs, cōfirminge oure selues in all poyntes to the common belefe of the ca­tholke church, whyche is the surest pyller that men maye lene vnto, be they learned, or vulearned, and such a pyller, as who that most strongly cleueth to.Obiectiō is in most assured state of euerlastyng lyfe. ¶ There are othere obiectyons vpon. iii. partyculer artycles of our crede whyche are, that Christ is ascended, and sytteth at the ryght hand of God the father, & from thense shall come to iudge the quicke and the deade. ¶ Whych articles yet being ryghtly vnderstanded, [...]. shoulde rather confyrme vs in the true catholyke be­lefe, of the presence of christes body in the sacrament of the aultare. For as it is aboue nature for a manes bodye to ascende, and aboue the worthynes of manes nature, to syt at the ryghte hande of God the father, that is, to be of equall power, and glorie with God the father, and fynallye, as it is aboue the auc­thoritie of mans nature, to gyue sentence of eternall deathe, and lyfe, vpon all mankynde, and yet euerye good manne stedfastlye beleueth al these supernatu­ral powers in Christ, touching hys manhed, bycause he is both God and man, and to god nothyng is im­possible, euen so shuld we with like belefe, knowinge that Christ is omnipotent, credite all othere thinges [Page 68] done, or spoken by Chryst, and be moost certen, that how so euer they seme in apearaunce to our reason, yet in very dede they agree, and stand ryghte well with those foresayd. iii. articles of our crede, & that though we cannot by oure wittes conceaue, howe Chryst is ascended, and is neuertheles in the Sacra ment also, yet they must nedes be bothe beleued, by­cause gods worde doth affyrme them bothe, and the catholyke churche dothe beleue them bothe, whyche churche hath alwayes taught that Chryst is in hea­uen, in the visyble fourme of a man, and in the sacra­ment, vnder the [...] fourmes of bread and wine, hys wysdome so ordeyning, that wyth oure hartes we woulde beholde hys golry, as he syttethe in, hea­uen, at the ryghte hande of the father, and wythall should fede on hys very body in the sacrament, to re ceaue the more grace, and there vpon so to be gouer­ned wyth hys spirite, that hereafter we also myghte be partakers of the lyke glory in heauen.

And albeit these solutyons myghte suffise, and instructe sufficientlye the vnlearned people, to aun­swere, bothe to these, and all othere common [...], made agaynste the Sacramente of the Aultare, troublynge moche the heades of the sym­ple people, by there folye, in crediting euyll, and per nicious schole maysters, to theyr destructyon, wher giuing credite to the catholyke churche, they myght auoyde all [...], and meryte a great deale, yet to open further the [...], and noughtines of the heretique teachers, in our tyme, and howe glad, & willinge they are to [...] the symplicitie of the vn­lerned people, ye shall haue here added, some moo [Page] obiections, and solutions geuē to them, to thys ende that if the sayde symple people haue bene infected with the sayd obiections, or such lyke, they maye be wel satisfied in their conscience, & therevpon adhere vnto the catholyke faythe, maynteyned, and ob­serued in the catholique churche, out of whych, there is no saluation. And to prorede herein, this is one o­there common obiection that much troubleth the ig noraunt people, it is to wite. ¶ How can yt bodi andObiection bloude, of our Sauioure Chryst, be in the blessed sa­crament of the aultar, seing that not only euyll men do many tymes receue the same, but fyre also maye consume it, and other like chaunces may happen vn to it? ¶ For [...] to whyche obiectiō, it is fyrst & [...] principally to be sayd, that this obiection procedethe of a vayne curiositie of them whyche rather delyte, fondly to talke of thys high mystery, theu to prepare themselues to receaue the same accordyngly. Sure we are that our Sauiour Chryste is nowe man in­corruptible, and impassible. & nether by fyre, nor by ought els, can suffer violence, and therefore where it pleaseth hym of hys tender mercy and goodnes, & for our great comforte and soule helth, by hys omni­potent word, to tourne the substaunce of breade and wyne, into hys most prerious body and bloud, in the sacramente of the aultare, and yet so to make thys turne that neuerthelesse he sufferethe the fourmes & sensible qualities of the breade and wine to remaine in there nature, as they were before the consecraty­on, it is to be vnderstauded, that the vyolence or force that is, or in ye be [...] to thys sacramente, is [Page] done onely to the fourmes, and qualities sensible, which in dede are subiecte to passibilite, & corrupti­on, but in no wise, to the vncorruptible bodi & bloud of oure sauiour Chryst, vnder them conteyned.

Doo we not read, I pray you in the fourthe of Ma­thew, how that our sauyour suffered the deuyll, to take hym, and carye hym vp into the pynacle of the temple, & afterward to the toppe of an high moun­tayne, and yet who doth not know that he suffered no vilany therby at al? The sonne beames also ma­ny tymes, do shyne on thynges impure, & vncleane, yet are they no whit thereby defyled. The bodye of mā is with a greter vnion ioyned to the soule, then are the fourmes of bread and wine, to the body and bloude of our sauionr Chryst, in the Sacrament of the aultar, and yet we know that [...], pu­trifaction, and other such lyke thynges chauncynge to our body, the soule hath in it no suche passion, for that it is immortall. The very Godhed of oure saui­our Chryst, was in vnitie of personne, vnited to hys manhod, & yet none of the passiōs, paines, or griefes which he sustayned in hys manhod, broughte vyo­lence, alteration, or chaunge to hys godhed. For the godhed is in alterable, & vnpossible. The simplicity of Chrysten people, in the primatyue churche, was suche that they beleuynge mooste certenly the body and bloud of our sauiour Chryste to be in the sacra­ment of the aulter, vnder the fourmes of bread and wine, dyd without al curious talke of the fourmes, & accidentes, bende thē selues to be [...] at masse where in the myghtye woorke of consecratyon is [Page] wrought bi god, and wherin our sauiour Christ also is, in fourmes of bread and wyne, offered vp to the heuenly father, by the preist, for the soner obteinyng of mercy, and fauoure towardes vs, and the sayde people beyng at masse, they wyth moost feruent de­uotion, dyd praye, and did honour, the blessed sacra­ment of the aulter, the body and bloude of our saui­our Christe: and besydes this they dyd oftentimes, wyth feare and tremblynge, prepare them selues to the worthy teceyte therof, and by suche theyr godly behauiour, they dyd purchase to them selues greate aboundaunce of grace, wher we by the cōtrary, and moost vnchristian behauiour, prouoke gods wrath dayly, more and more, vpon our selues, and yt whole realme. For nothyng [...] God to auenge­aunce, then the presumption of such as [...] curious­ly enter into hys hidden secretes, and thervpon doo contempne all that, whyche by theyr feble wyttes, they are not able to vnderstande.

¶ Another obiection is of the woordes of our saui­our,Obie ctiō in the. vi. of Iohn, where ne sayeth. Qui [...] Ihō, 9. [...] earnem et bibit [...] habet vitam eternam That is to saye. He that eateth my fleshe, and drinketh my bloude, hathe euerlastynge lyfe. Uppon these wordes they gather, that ii in the sacrament of the aulter, be really the body and bloude of our saui­onre Christ, then whoso receueth the sacramēt must nedes enioy euerlasting lyfe. But the scripture wit­nesseth, [...]. Cor. xi. that Iudas receaued it, and [...] Paule in the. xi. of his fyrste Epistle to the Corinthians saieth, [Page 70] that. Whoso receueth the sacrament vnwor­thely, receaueth it to hys dampnation.

¶ To this obiectiō, it is to be aūswered, that many [...] sentences of scripture, are to be vnderstande, wyth a certayne restraynte, or limittation, [...] for example the scripture sayeth, Qui credit in me habit vitam eternam.

That is to say. He yt be leueth in me, hath euer­asting lyfe. And in the fyrst Epistle of S. Iohn, &1 Iohn. 4 the fourthe chapter it is written. Quisquis confessus [...] est filius dei, [...] in [...] et ipst in deo. That is to saye Who soeuer shall confesse, that Iesus is the sonne of God, in him dwelleth God, and he in God. There haue bene, and are thousandes whyche beleue in Chryste, and that Chryste is the very sonne of God, and yet shall not for all [...] saued, but either for lacke of true [...], in other arti cles of the chrystian religion, or for lacke of good lyfe shalbe dampned. This conditiō than is to be added to the forsayde sentences, yf in suche beleif a mā dye, and therewith is faythful, in the necessarye articles and out of state of all dedly sinne, he shall then with out any doute inherit the kyngdome of heauen.

So in thys present obiection, we muste make a ly­mitation,Augu. [...] mon xi, De [...] domini and say, that whoso eateth, and drynketh worthely &c. ¶ To the cōfirmation hereof. Sainct Augustine saieth, in his eleuēth sermō. Deverbis domini. [...] Profecto est quidam modus mandueandi illam [...] quomodo qui [...], in Christo manet, & Christus in eo. Noner go [...] modo quisquam mauducauerit carnem Christi, [...] biberit [...] Christi, [...] in Christo, et in illo Christus, sed [...] quodam modo [...] [Page] [...] vtique ipse videbat [...] ist a [...]. That is to saye. Uerely, there is a certayne maner of eatyng that fleshe, after whiche maner, he that shall haue eaten it, doth dwell in Christ, & Christe in hym. Wherfore, not in what maner so­euer a man doeth eate Chrystes fleshe, and drinketh hys bloude, he dwelleth in Christe and Chryste in hym, but he that eateth, and drynketh after a certayne speciall maner, to which maner Chryst had respecte, when he spake [...] woordes. The same saincte Augustine in his fyrste boke. Contra Chrescouium gramaticū Idem con [...] Cresco [...] cumli, i. and the. xxiiii. Chapiter sayeth thus. Quid de [...] corpore et [...] domini, unico [...] pro [...] nostra, quāuis ipse dominu­dicat [...] hominis &c non [...] do­cet [...] hoc perniciosum male [...] fieri? That is to saye. What of the very body and bloude of our sa uiour, the onely sacrifyce for oure saluation? thoughe there of our Lord doth saye, vnles ye eate yt fleshe of the sonne of man. &c. doeth not yt same Apostle (meanynge Paule) teache that it also is pernicious to them, that dooObiectiō vse it not duely, and ryghtfully?

¶ An othere obiection there is also, and it is thys,Ihō 10. 15 Chryst. (Iohn. x. and. xv.) doth saye, I am a dore [...]. Cori. [...] I am a vyne, and [...] Paule. ( [...]. ad. Cozi. x.) vseth suche lyke speache, whiche speache of Chryste, and of saint Paule, in those places, doth not import [Page 17] that Christ in euery dede, by that saying was a dore or a vyne, or such lyke, but speakyng after that figu­ratyfe speache, or maner dyd meane that he was a fygure of a dore, of a [...], and such like, and that he had the propertie, of a doore, of a vyne, & so forthe Semblably (say they) when Chryst at his laste sup­per (takynge breade, and [...] it) dyd saye. This is my body, And takyng the cuppe, & gaue thankes, did say, this is my bloud of the newe testament, &c, hys speache soo pronounced, and vttered, dyd not importe, that Chryst thereby doth make of the breade and wyne, hys body, and bloud but eyther he ment, that the breade and wyne was sygnes, and tokens of hys body, and bloude, or ells that they should be [...] of hys body, and bloud [...] not his very body, and bloude in dede, and con sequently therefore, they saye, that in the sacrament of the aultare, there is neyther the body, nether the bloude of Chryst, but bare materiall bread & wyne beyng onely sygnes, tokens, and [...] of christes [...] body and bloud ther. ¶ For solutiō of this obiectiō thys may be sayd, that it is trouthe, that Christ and saynte Paule in the places before alleged, doo soo saye, as is deduced in the [...] of thys argu­mente, or obiection, and trouthe it is also that the speach of Chryst I am a dore, I am a vyne, &c. doth not importe that Chryste, by that speakynge was in very dede a dore, or a vyne, but that he was a fygure of a doore, and of a vyne, and had the [...] of the dore, and of the vyne, But when it is sayde that the semblabe is of Chrystes woordes, [Page] Thys is my bodye, this is my bloud, that is neyther true, nor doth folowe, either by the rules of reason, or of scrypture, for concernyng reson, either muste we reason, and saye, that Chryst alwayes in hys speakynge dyd vse fygures, metaphores, and tropes, (whych to saye, is moost false, as it appereth [...], 16, in the. xv. of S. Iohn) eyther els we must saye, that Chryst dyd but onelye sometymes speke in fygures and not soo alwayes, whiche being true, and there fore to be graunted, it foloweth not in reason, that thoughe Chryst in the. v. and xv. of saynt Ihon. &c, dyd speake fyguratyfiye, that therfore, here in these [...], [...]. [...] 16, woordes of Chryst. this is my body this is my bloude. he dyd also speake fyguratyfly, wherefore let these sely soules, that haue bene seduced by thys kynde of argumentes, aske theyr teachers, whe­ther they can mayntayne, and defende thys theyr owne argumēt, with soo feble a consequent, or noo And yf they can not, then tell thē yt they be very [...] lettes in dede, and as for the rule of scryptures, that is of the circūstaunce of yt letter, and [...] other places of scripture, [...] wt the same, to gather therof yt very meaning of the thing, an example, whereof we [...] 2. [...] 16, haue Iohan, ii. and. xvi. And here the vnlearned at to be taughte, that althoughe in the prophetes, and the histories of the olde testament, tropes, and fy­gures are receyued, and allowed, forasmuche as by such tropes, and fygures, the thyng spoken, is more vehemently declared, and set forth, yet (as the excel lent prelate, and notable great clerke, the Lord by­shop of winchester, nowe most worthy Lord chaū ­celet [Page] of England, in hys learned boke of confutaciō of heresies, against the sacrament of the aulter, doth prudētly aduertise vs, & clerly affirme) in ye doctrine & preceptes of the now militāt church, al thinges of our religion, & fayth, ought to be taken simply, & plainely. And in very dede, if in the sacramēt of ye aulter were not ye true bodi of Christ, but a figure, & a signi­ficatiō onely of it, thā ye sacramēts of ye new testamēt shold haue nothing more but rather lesse, thē ye sacra mēts of ye old testamēt had, which is against ye catholyke doctrine of the churche, & against al good reasō ¶ An other obiection is this, Christ at hys last sup­per,Obientiō takyng the chalice, or cup into hys handes, dyd after yt he had blessed it, saye. Thys cuppe is the newe testament, in my bloud. And seing these woordes must nedes, as they say be taken fygurati­uely, inasmuch as the very material cup it selfe, was neyther the newe testamente, ne yet the bloude of Christ, therefore lykewyse, these wordes also whych Christ, takīg bread into his hādes, blessīg it, saying. This is my body. must nedes be takē figuratiue ly.

¶ For answer whervnto, we may say, as we didAnswere say before, to the same obiection, yt this argument is noughte, & very euyl framed, for though we dyd ad­mit a figure to be herein ye cuppe, yet it foloweth not therby, yt we must nedes take ye other speche, touchīg ye body to be fyguratyue also, especially for yt in ye one spache, it is to wit, touchyng ye body, al the circūst ā ­ces of the texte, & course of scripture, do enforce vs to take the speache, properlye wherein ye other speache touching the cup, al the circumstances of the texte, and course of scripture doth importe the contrarye.

[Page]¶ An other obiection is, that Chryste hath but oneObiectiō true natural body: nowe (say they) one true natural body can not truely be but in one place, therefore say they, seyng Christes body, is truely in heauen, it can not be truely also in the sacrament of the aulter.

¶ For aunswere whereunto maye be sayde, that inAnswere dede it is true, that Christ hathe but one true natu­rall body, and where they saye, that one true natu­rall body, can not be, but in one place, it is also true, after one, & the selfe same maner of beyng, but after diuerse maners of being, one body, maye be sondrye wher, yea, and at one tyme to, it is to wyt, in heauē, in the visible fourme, and maner of man, and in the sacrament of the aulter, vnder the forme and maner of breade and wyne, and in eueryche of them, really and truely to, in those respectes, God beyng therein the doer, who is omnipotent.

¶ Ther is also another obiection, and that is thys,Obiectiō GOD can make man, but man cannot make God: now say they, if the true bodye of Christe were, re­ally, and in dede, in the sacrament of the aulter, then the priest which is a man, should therby make God, but mā cannot make God, therefore in the sacramēt of the aulter, ther is not the very true body of Christ ¶ For aunswere whervnto, is to be sayd, that thisAnswere obiectiō procedeth of a great ignoraunce, for he that maketh this obiection, taketh that the priest saying masse, and pronouncing the woordes of cōsecracion doeth make God, where in very dede, the priest go­eth aboute no suche thinges, and yf he dyd, nether be, ne yet god himselfe c [...]n make God, but the truth [Page] is that the preist being the minister of God, and god beyng ther the worker with hys worde, by the preist pronounced there, is caused the very body of Chryst to be ther present, wher it was not ther before, & yet no new body ther made, but that bodye ther presente which lōg ago was borne of the Uyrgyn Mary, the same (I say) in substaunce, is there present onely vn­der the formes of breade and wyne.

¶ An other obiection there is, and that is thys S.Obiectiō Luke, in the. xvii. chapiter of the actes, doeth testifye that S. Paule, beyng at athens, and in mars strete, before the councell there, dyd saye, amongest other wordes, that God doeth not dwell in temples made with handes, where vpon the [...], vnlernedly doth gather, that seyng the material temple is made with handes, and the sacrament of the aultar is in ye sayd materiall temple, it foloweth (say they) that the body and bloude of Chryste, can not be in it, because God doth not dwell in temples made with handes, And thys obiection hath bene soo muche iiked, and commended amongest the procedyng prechers abu­sing ye ignoraunt, yt they thought it ineuitable, & ther­fore abusyng the sayd people they caused it to be sette vp, and paynted for a gaye shew in the temples.

¶ For aunswere whervnto, this is to be tolde you, yt ther is a great dyfference betwene beyng, & dwel­lyng [...]. in a place, for a greate manye of you, (I [...] not) haue bene both in the [...] syde, in Paules churche yarde, yea and Paules churche to, wher ye haue not, with moost due reuerence, vsed and beha­ued your selues, and yet I am sure that ye dwell not [Page] there. In dede, God is properlye sayde to dwell in heauen, because he ther doth shew, and manifest his great glorye, and in the hartcs of iust, and good peo ple, he is also sayd to dwell by grace, but as for o­ther places, he is in them beyng, but not dwelling. And as concernyng the beyng of God in the sacra­ment of the aultare, forasinuch as there is the very substaunce of chrystes naturall, and true body, and bloude, taken of the Uyrgyn Mary, and that the di uinitie is, in vnitie of persō, inseperably vnited, and ioyned to the sayd bodye and bloude, therefore we must saye and beleue, that the godhed of Christ is in the sacramēt of the aultar, with his humanitie, in a very specyall sorte, and dothe not thereby dwell in the sayde sacramente, and soo this obiection is not worth a [...] butten, for all the bragges that hath bene made of it.

Other fond, and folishe obiections, ther are, which are not worthy to be answered vnto, and therfore are not nedefull to be touched, exhortyng you ther­fore in Chryst, [...], and stedfastly, to beleue the doctrine of the [...] church herein, and so shal you auoyde daunger, please God, profyt your selfe, and (lyuyng wel) come at the last to ioy euerla­styng, which graunt vnto vs the father, the sonne, and the holy ghost, to whome be honoure and glory for euer.


Tetrastichon in immodicam praesentis temporis pl [...]uiam.

Obsecro quid sibi [...]lt ingens (que) ab aethere nymbus
Noctes at (que) dies sic sine fine ruit
Mortales quoniam [...]olunt sua criminia fler [...]
Coelum pro nobis soluitur in lacrimas.

A Dialoge betwene man and the Ayre of like effecte.

These [...] showres and ragyng [...] yt dayly vs molest.
Alas ye heauens, what may this meane, is Nature nowe opprest?
The Ayre.
Thou man thy case, thy wycked state, whye wylte thou not lament.
And spedely gods grace receiue, and duely do repēt
Thy synnes so great, and eyes soo drye, thy wofull ruyne nyghe.
For the oure sircmes downe cause to powre, thys plauge doth cause vs sighe
Al creatures cke with vs now mourn, thy recheles stubourne harte.
Alas wepe thou, that we maye cease, and thus ease thou thy smarte.
Domiat saluos facregem, et reginam et [...] bene [...].

[Page]¶ Imprinted at London in Poules churchyarde, at the sygne of the holy Ghost, by Ihon Cawoode, Pryn­ter to the Kyng and Queenes Maiesties.

Cum priuilegio maiestatis.

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