A BRIEFE DESCRIP­TION OF VNIVERSAL MAPPES AND CARDES, AND OF THEIR VSE: AND ALSO THE VSE OF PTHOLEMEY his Tables. Necessarie for those that DELIGHT IN READING OF Histories: and also for Traueilers by Land or Sea.

Newly set foorth by THOMAS BLVN­DEVILLE, of Newton Flot­man in the Countie of Norffolke. Gent.

LONDON ¶Printed by Roger Ward, for Thomas Cadman. Anno. 1589.

¶ TO THE RIGHT VVORSHIPFVL M. Francis Windam, one of the Iudges her Maiesties Court of Common Pleas.

GOOD Sir, vouchsafe to receiue this poore litle Pam­phlet, partlie as in lieu of a richer Nevvyeares gift, and partlie as a token of my thankefull minde, which is more vvilling then able to deserue any one iotte of the great fauour, friendship, and diuers benefites that I haue from time to time receiued at your hands: for want of which abilitie I neither can, nor vvill loosen my selfe from any of those bondes, vvherewith you haue most straightlie bound me, but rather to increase the same, humbly praying you to continue in your good loue and fauour tovvards me, vntill I shall willinglie deserue the contrarie: In the meane time I pray God to prosper you in all your doings, and long to preserue you.

Your olde vvelvviller, bound to be alwaies at your commaundement. Thomas Blundeuille.

To the Reader.

I Daylie see many that delight to looke on Mappes, and can point to England, France, Germanie, and to the East and West Indies, and to diuers other places therein described: but yet for want of skill in Geography, they knowe not with what maner of lines they are traced, nor what those lines do signifie, nor yet the true vse of Mappes in deed: Wherefore, somewhat to instruct those that haue not studied Geographie (without the knowledge whereof me thinkes that the necessarie reading of Histories is halfe lame, and is neither so pleasant, nor so profitable as other­wise it would be) I thought good to write this little Treatise: in reading whereof, if you reape any profit thereby, I pray you bee thankeful to the Right Worshipful, and my especiall good friend, M. Francis Windam, one of the Iudges of her Maiesties Court of Common Pleas, who first motioned me thereunto, and by whose perswasion I haue the more willingly put the same in Print. Vale.

CERTAINE TEARMES OF COSMOGRA­graphie, brieflie expounded, for those that are not learned in that science, to the intent they may the better vnderstand this Treatise.

THe Axle tree of the Worlde is a right line,The Axle trre of the world. imagined to passe through the Center or midst of the earth, from the one ende of heauen to the other: the vpper ende of which Axle trée is called the Pole Artike, that is to say, the North Pole:The two Poles. & the nether end, the Pole Antartike, that is, the South Pole: vpon which two Poles, otherwise called the hooks or hengils of the world, the heauens doe turne rounde a­bout the earth. Moreouer the Cosmographers doe de­uide the worlde into diuers partes by certaine Circles, whereof some are called greater, and some lesser.

The greater are those which doe deuide the world in­to 2 equall partes:The greter Circle. whereof there be 6: that is, the Equi­noctiall, the Zodiake, the Meridian, the Horizon, and the 2 Colures.

The Equinoctiall is a great Circle,The Equi­noctiall. girding the world in the verie midst betwixt the 2 Poles, by reason where­of there are two latitudes, the one Northern, & the other Southerne.

The Northerne latitude is that space,The north latitude. which is con­teined betwixt the Equinoctiall and the North Pole.

The Southerne latitude is that space,The South latitud. which is contei­ned betwixt the Equinoctial & the South Pole: and either of these two spaces conteineth in bredth 90 degrées.

[Page] A Degree.A Degrée is one part of a Circle, béeing deuided into 360 partes called degrées.

Longitude.Againe, the circuit of the Equinoctial, containing 360 degrées, is the verie longtitude of the Earth: the first de­gree of which longitude beginneth at the the first Meridi­an, placed in the West, and so procéedeth Eastward vn­to the 180 degrée of the Equinoctiall, and from thence re­turneth by the West vntill you come againe to the 360 degree, which is the last degree of longitude. And note by the way that euerie degrée of the Equinoctiall contai­neth 60 English miles, so as the longitude of the whole Earth is 21600 miles.

The Zodiake,The Zodiake is a great, broad, and slope or shoring Circle, carrying the 12 Signes: in the middest whereof is a line called the Ecliptike line, from which the Sun neuer swarueth.

The MeridianThe Meridian is a greate Circle, passing ouer our heades, in what parte of the World soeuer we be, and al­so through both the Poles: which line when the Sunne toucheth it aboue the Horizon, it is Noonetide or midday to those that dwell vnder the same.

The Horison.The Horizon is a great Circle, deuiding the vpper halfe of the World which we sée, from the nether halfe which wee see not: in the the very middest or Center of which Circle, if in a plaine field you looke rounde about you, you shall alwaies finde your selfe to be.

The 2 ColuresNow as touching the two Colures, because they differ not in effect, though in name, from two Meridians, I leaue to speake of them, aswell for that I haue spoken of them at large in my Sphere, as also for that they are not mentioned in this Treatise.

4 lesser circlesOf the lesser Circles there be foure: that is, the two Polar Circles,The Circles Artike and Antartike. and the two Tropikes. Of the two Po­lar Circles, the one enuironeth the North Pole, & ther­fore is called the Circle Artike, & the other enuironeth the South Pole, and is called the Circle Antartike, bée­cause [Page] it is opposit to the other.

Again, of the two Tropiques, the one is placed betwixt the Equinoctiall and the Circle Artike,The Tropike of Cancer. and is called the Tropike of Cancer: and the other is placed betwixt the Equinoctiall and the Circle Antartike, and is called the Tropike of Capricorne:The Tropike of Capricorn. and each of these Tropikes is di­stant from the Equinoctiall 23 degrees and a halfe, which is the greatest declination of the Sun from the Equino­ctiall,The greatest declination of the Sun. for he neuer mounteth higher then the Tropique of Cancer, nor descendeth lower then the Tropike of Capri­corne, and these two Circles are Paralels to the Equi­noctiall.

Paralels are 2 lines or Circles,Paralels. equally distant in all places one from another. And by these foure lesser Cir­cles the Earth is deuided into 5 Zones or broade spaces,Zones. whereof there be two colde. 2 temperate, and one hotte described both in my Sphere and also in this treatise.

A Paralell of the longest day,A Paralell of ye longest day. is a space of the Earth, wherein the day increaseth by one quarter of an hower, procéeding from Equinoctiall towards any of the Poles.A Clyme.

A Clime is a space of the Earth, conteining two such Paralells wherein the day increaseth by halfe an hower, of which Clymes according to the old Writers, there be 7 declared at the full in my Sphere, and also somewhat touched in this Treatise.

A Briefe Description of vniuersall Mappes and Cardes, and of their vse, and also the vse of Ptholomey his Tables.

THis woord Mappa in latin signi­fieth a Table cloth of lynnen to couer a board: of the shape and likenes whereof vniuersall ta­bles, contayning the description of the earth, are commonly called Mappes. And first you haue to vnderstande, that euery such Mappe is chiefly traced with ij. sortes of lynes or circles, that is Meridians and paralels. The Meridians are either right or circular lynes pas­sing through both the Poles of the worlde, and are ima­gined to be drawen right vp and downe from the head to the foote of the Mappe, and are called Meridians, of this Latin woord meridies, which is as much to say as midday or noonetyde. Because that when the Sunne commeth to touch any of those lynes, it is mydday to those that dwel right vnder the same. Againe, Paralells are either right or circular lynes imagined to be equally distant one from another, which doe crosse the foresaid Meridians with right angles. Now in the verie midst of the Map is most commonly drawne from head to foote a ryght lyne which signifieth not onely the first Meridian, but also the Axle tree of the world, the vpper ende of which lyne is called the poole Artique, that is to say the North Pole, and the neather end the Pole Antartique, that is the South Poole, and this lyne is crossed in the verie midst betwixt the ij. Pooles with another great circle or right lyne called the Equinoctiall, because that when the Sunne commeth to touch this lyne or circle, the day and [Page] nyght is equall throughout the world. The one halfe of which lyne toward the right hand sheweth the east part, and thother half towards the left hand sheweth the west part of the world: so as these ij. lynes, the first Meridian and the Equinoctiall do point out the iiij. quarters of the world, North, South, East, and West, from whence the foure principall wyndes do blowe betwixt: which wyndes are set downe in most Mappes together with their Latin or Italian names in the outermost skirt or border thereof viij. other wyndes, so as in all there be xij. wyndes, whereby the auncient Greekes and Ro­manes were wont to saile. The names whereof both Greeke, Latin and English are heretofore set downe in the latter end of our Sphere.

But now to returne to our first two lynes, that is the first Meridian and the Equinoctiall, you haue to note that both these lynes or circles are deuided each of them into 360. degrees, so as euery quarter of them contayneth 90. degrees. And in the Equinoctiall are set downe the degrées of longitude, which is the length of the worlde, round about from West to East, and againe from East by West home againe: The first degrée whereof begin­neth, whereas the first aforesaid Meridian crosseth the E­quinoctiall in the verie middest of the Mappe, and so pro­céedeth Eastward vnto the number of 90 degrées, which is as farre as you can goe Eastward, sith from thence by reason of the roundnesse of the Earth, you must néedes turne backe againe by the backe side of the Sphere, or ball Westward, vntill you come to the 270 degrée, which is the farther point westward you can goe, from whence you must returne Eastward vntill you come to the 360 degrée, which is the last degrée of longitude, and endeth where the first degrée beginneth.

Moreouer in the said first Meridian, or in some other Meridian hard by it, are set downe the degrées of lati­tude, that is to say, the breadth of the worlde, both Nor­therne [Page] and Southerne: for from the Equinoctiall to the North Pole are contained in the foresaide Meridian 90. degrées, and that is called the North latitude, and from the Equinoctial to the South Pole, are contained in ye said Meridian, other 90 degrées, which is called the South latitude: and in most Mappes the Equinoctiall line is de­uided and crossed with 18 Meridians on each side of the first Meridian, deuiding the Equinoctiall into 36 seuerall spaces or distances, euery space conteining 10 degrées, and euerie degree containeth 60 Italian myles of length.

Moreouer betwixt the Equinoctiall and each of the Poles are drawen certaine Circles or lines, called (as I said before) Paralels: of which most commonly 4 are painted with red inke, signifying the 4 lesser Circles be­fore described in our Sphere, whereof the highest to­wards the North Pole, is called the Circle Artique, bée­ing distant from the Pole 23 degrées and a halfe, and the lowest towards the South Pole is called the Circle An­tartique, béeing also distant from the Pole 23 degrées and a halfe.

Now as touching the other two red Circles, the one lying betwixt the Circle Artique, and the Equinoctiall is called the Tropique of Cancer, and the other lying be­twixt the Equinoctiall and the Circle Antartique is called the Tropique of Capricorne, and each of these two Tro­piques is distant from the Equinoctiall 23 degrees and a halfe, which is the greatest declination of the Sunne, for betwixt these ij. Tropiques the Sunne continuallie maketh his course and returne, as this word Tropique signifyeth, mounting neuer higher then the Tropique of Cancer: nor discending lower then the Tropique of Ca­pricorne: for which cause some doe set downe in their Maps betwixt the sayde two Tropiques an ouerthwart line, signifying the ecliptique line, vnder which the Sun continually walketh. Now by helpe of the foresaide 4 [Page] circles, the earth is deuided into 5 zones, that is, one whotte, 2 temperate, and 2 cold. The whotte is con­tained betwixt the 2 Tropiques, in the midst of which whotte zone, is the Equinoctiall line, and of the 2 tem­perate zones, the one lieth betwixt the Tropique of Cancer and the circle Artique, and the other betwixt the Tropique of Capricorne and the circle Antartique.

Againe, of the 2 colde zones, the one lyeth betwixt the North Pole and the circle Artique, and the other betwixt the South Pole, and the circle Antartique▪ Nowe besides these foure speciall Paralels, there bee di­uers other Paralels drawne on each side of the Equinoc­tiall, both Northward and Southward, which crossing in certaine points the first Meridian marked with degrees, do shew the true latitude of euery place, and vnder what Clime or Paralell it is, and also how many howers the longest day of any place vnder euery Paralell is, begin­ning to accompte the same, eyther from the Equinoctiall vpward towardes the North Pole, alongst the first Me­ridian marked with degrees of Northerne latitudes, or els from the sayde Equinoctiall downe-warde towardes the South Pole, marked with degrees of Southerne la­titude.

Notwithstanding, they vse most commonlye to set downe the number and iust distaunces of the Clymes, Paralels, and howers in the North latitude onely, wil­ling the like numbers of Clymes, Paralels, and how­ers to bee accompted in the South latitude, euen as they are in the North latitude and with like distances. And note that in procéeding towardes the Pole from the Pa­ralell, whereas the longest day is 24. howers, they accompte the Paralell of the longest daye no longer by howers, but by monethes, that is to saye, from one mo­neth to six monethes, whereof wee haue spoken before in our sphere. The numbers of the aforesayd Clymes, Paralels and howers you shall finde set foorth in Vopel­lius [Page] Mappe alongest the first Meridian on the left hand. But hee setteth downe the numbers of the longest daies encreasing by monethes in the vttermost border of hys Mappe on the right hand betwixt the North Pole, and the circle Artique. And in that border hee setteth downe the number of leagues and miles answerable to euery Paralell, whereas also hee sheweth the three differences of Inhabitants according to their shadows, that is to say. the Periscij, Heteroscij, and Amphiscij.

Periscij are those that dwell in anie of the two colde zones, whose shadowe goeth round about them.

Heteroscij be those that dwell in anie of the two tem­perate zones whose shadowe tendeth at noone-tide but one waie, that is either North or South.

Amphiscij bee those that inhabite the whotte zone, whose shadowe tendeth both waies, that is sometime North and sometime South, as is before declared at large in our sphere.

But in the Mappe of Gemma Frizius, you shall find all these thinges set foorth on the left hand of his Mappe amongest the vttermost circles, whereas vpon the cir­cle Artique, hee setteth downe the twelue signes, ha­uing certaine compassed lines, running downe to the E­quinoctiall, meeting and concurring all in one point: at the end whereof vpon the Equinoctiall, you shall finde the number of howers, at which the sunne riseth in euery de­gree of latitude.

Also at the nether ende of hys Mappe on the left hand, he placeth a halfe quadrant, which hee calleth Di­rectorium nauticum, whereof wee shall speake heereaf­ter.

And because he would haue hys Mappe to serue both sea and land, he setteth downe a certaine number of ma­riners compasses deuided with 32 lines signifiyng ye 32. windes, which doe shew howe euery place beareth one from the other, and by what winde a Shippe is to bee [Page] directed from one part to another, which thing is also ob­serued in Mercators Mappe and others that haue writ­ten more lately, and yet nothing seruiceable for the Sea, because (as M Borowgh, Controller of her Maiesties Nauy, a man most skilful in the Art of sailing saith) no consi­deration is had in the said Maps or Cards touching ye va­riation of the Compasse, without the which they can ne­uer set downe any true or iust direction.

Now as touching the diuision and order of the partes of the Earth, most commonlie described in vniuersall Mappes, you shall vnderstand that the ancient Cosmo­graphers, not knowing then the West Indies, nor manie other places scituated both Northward and Southward (which haue bene since discouered) deuided the whole Earth onely into thrée partes, that is, Europe, Aphrike and Asia, in the description whereof, their Mappes ne­uer extended in latitude Northwards further then to 63 degrées, as I haue said before in my Sphere, and South­ward no further then to 20 degrées of the Northerne la­titude, or there about, but in longitude from West to East, beginning the same at the Ilandes called Insulae Canariae or Fortunatae, which are scituated at the West end of Aphrike, in the Sea called Mare Atlanticum: their descriptions doe extend to 180 degrées. But because a whole worlde almost hath bene founde out since those times, our moderne Cosmographers doe deuide the whole Earth into 4 partes: that is Europe, Aphrike, Asia and America, which we nowe call the West Indies. And because men of diuers Nations haue sayled round about the world, East and West, their late descriptions doe ex­tend in longitude the whole content of the Equinoctiall, which is 360 degrées: and in latitude Northwards, the same descriptions doe extende to 80 degrées: and South­wards to 66.½ as you may sée in the vniuersall Mappes lately set foorth by Mercator, and by Barnardus Putea­nus and others.

[Page]But the ancient and moderne doe greatly differ in the diuision of the partes of latitude, as well Northerne as Southerne, and also in longitude: for, whereas the anci­ent Cosmographers doe deuide each latitude into 90. degrées by certaine Paralels making 9. equall spaces, euery space containing 10. equall degrees: in the latter Mappes last mencioned, you shall finde those spaces and the degrées thereof altogether vnequall, the first 3 spaces next the Equinoctiall onely excepted, for those differ not aboue one halfe degree at the most: but from thence Northward, euery space is greater then o­ther, and euery degree in euery such space is greater then other, insomuch as the fourth space containeth 11 degrées and a halfe of those degrees which are set downe in the first space, and the fift space conteineth of such degrees 13 degrées ¾, the 6 space containeth of the said degrées 16 de­grées ¼: ye 7 containeth of the same degrées 20 degrees ½, so as the space is is twise so broade as the first space and one halfe degree more: the eight space conteineth of the said first degrees 36: further then which 8 spaces con­taining 80 degrees of latitude, their Mappes extend not Northward: and they obserue the like proportion in the Southerne latitude, sauing that they extende no farther Southward then to 66 degrees and a halfe.

Againe, they differ in longitude thus: for the mo­derne Cosmographers doe make the first Meridian to passe through the Isles called Azores, which doe stande 5 degrees more Westward then the Fortunate Islands do: through which Fortunate Islandes, Ptolomey and his fol­lowers doe appoint the first Meridian to passe.

The cause of which transposing the saide first Meri­dian is, because that the mariners Compasse doth neuer shewe the right North and South, in any other place, but onely vnder that Meridian. Yea M. Borowgh thin­keth that it would shewe it more truely, if the saide Me­ridian were placed somewhat more Westward. But in [Page] those Cardes and mappes that are made according to the rules of Ptolomey: the spaces of Paralels containing the 90. degrées of latitude, both Northwarde and South­ward, are equall, and all the degrées of euery such space, are also equall. And yet the spaces of Paralels that shew the longest day in any place, are towards the Pole, euery one more narrowe then other: for as I haue sayd before in my sphere, there are 3 kinds of paralels, that is Para­lels of the Sunne, Paralels of the latitude, & Paralels of the longest day. The causes why in these latter Maps, the degrées of latitude are made greater and greater to­wards the Poles, are set downe by Barnardus in his vni­uersall Mappe, who sayth there, that in making the said Mappe, he had 3. speciall cares: First, that the places might be so scituated, as they may haue both true directi­on and distance, and also due longitude and latitude, and as nigh as may bee, the same very shape which they haue in the sphere or globe, to which end hee hath inuented a new proportion or habitude of the Meridians to the pa­ralels, affirming that the Maps before made, are not fit for Nauigation, by reason of the crookednes and bowing of the meridians, which by theyr oblique & ouerthwart falling into the Paralels, doe so much disfigure in the vttermost parts, the true shape of the Regions as they can skant be knowen. And as for the mariners Cardes, because their Paralels of latitude are also of equall di­stance from the Equinoctiall to the very Pole; he sayth that they must needes misfashion the Regions and make the directions, distances, longitudes, and latitudes to be vntrue, and thereby cause great errors. Which to a­uoyd, hee maketh the spaces of his Paralels and degrees of latitude to encrease by little and little towardes the Pole, affirming that thereby all places shall haue theyr true shape, and also their true directions, distaunces, lon­gitudes, and latitudes.

His second care was, that the Regions and places, [Page] might haue their true quantitie and greatnes, and also true distance one from another, wherin he hath taken as he saith, greatest paines whilest he did confer the Tables of the Castilians and Portugales aswell amongest them­selues, as with diuers other Nauigations both printed and written. His third care was to shew what partes of the world were knowen to the auncient men, that the li­mits and bounds of theyr Geographie might not bee vn­knowen, to the intent they might haue their due honour and praise. And hauing shewed what places they did in their time describe both East, West, North, and South, in the end of hys speach, he affirmeth, that auncient Cos­mographers haue set down in the East Indians more pla­ces, then euer the Portugales haue as yet discouered or at­tained vnto.

This Barnardus Puteanus borne in Bruges, is by hys owne confession a Cutter or Grauer in brasse, and also a Cosmographer, whose Mappe set foorth in the yeare of our Lord 1579. doth not differ in any one point that I can finde from the last vniuersall Mappe of Mercator that famous Cosmographer, who as I vnderstand was himselfe also sometime a Cutter & Grauer of such Maps and Globes as Gemma Frizius did cause to bee printed in his time, from whom Mercator learned great part of hys most excellent skill in Cosmographie. But of one thing I am sure, ye Ptolomey was first Maister to them all, who hath set down so good and perfect rules of describing the Earth, be it whole or part, as in the opinion of most lear­ned men, no better can be inuented.

Truely when I did first beholde these latter Maps, and sawe that the Paralels towardes the Pole were as long as the verie Equinoctiall it selfe, it seemed to mee somewhat straunge, for then I said that a Shippe in say­ling about the world vnder the Paralell of 60 degrees, should by this meanes make as long a voyage as that which saileth about the world right vnder the Equinocti­all, [Page] which voyage is twice as long. For this containeth in longitude 21600 miles, which is the whole compasse of the Earth, and the other containeth in longitude 10800 miles, which is iust halfe so much and no more. But af­ter that I had taken better aduisement thereof, I found by measuring with my compasse, that one degrée of the Meridian next to the 60 degree of latitude, did compre­hend two of such degrees, as are set downe in the Equi­noctiall, and that one degree of the Meridian, crossing the the Paralel that hath 70 degrees of latitude, did compre­hend 3 degrees of the Equinoctiall line, and so I found the degrées towards the Pole; to waxe greater and grea­ter, by which degrees I perceiued their meaning was to haue the longitude of their paralels to be measured, & not by the degrées of the Equinoctiall. And by ye meanes their paralels should haue ech one as nigh as might be his due longitude proporcionally, euen as they haue in the globe.

Moreouer the shape, quantities, and distances of such Countries as haue beene found out of late daies must néeds bee more perfectly set forth in these Mappes, then in those yt haue bene made hertofore, because the true longi­tudes & latitudes of those places were not so wel known then as they are now. Albeit I feare mee that of many places in the Indies, there are as yet but fewe true longi­tudes known. For it is not so easie a thing to get the true longitude of euery place, as the true latitude thereof. And had not the late makers of Maps bene greatly holpen by the Maps and Cards of such learned Pilots as haue tra­ueiled those Countries. I doubt not, but that they should haue committed as great errours as those that wrote be­fore them. And of one thing I doe assure my selfe, that in these latter Mappes, more places are described, then euer were knowen or discouered: as for example, the North-parts of Groyneland, Crockland, & America, all which they make Islands, and yet neuer sayled about them, and spe­cially on the North side, as it may wel be gathered by the [Page] vaine attempting of diuers Nations, to finde out newe waies in the North seas to the Molucas both by East and West. For being a little entred into those seas, they are quickly driuen backe, either by extreame colde, by great Yses, or by the raging floods bred of snowe, and falling from the mountaines of the next continent, and making in some places such Whirlepooles in the Sea, as if any Shippe chance to come nigh them, it is soone swallowed vpppe. Neither doe I thinke, that King Arthur in hys time, euer sent (as it is reported) any of his people to inha­bite those Islands, beeing places in mine opinion, more méete for Whales and monstruous fishes to dwel in, then for men: and specially for English men, which are not a­ble to suffer the cold winter at Wardhouse: to which place some of our Mariners do saile in Sommer season euerie yeare. And yet Wardhouse hath skant in latitude 71 de­grées, much lesse then are they able to winter in those pla­ces that haue 77 degrees of latitude, as the North side of Groynland and Crockland hath. Moreouer the North side of the promontorye Tabin hath 76 degrées of latitude, which place, whatsoeuer Plinie saith therof in his fourth booke of Histories, yet I beleeue that no Roman came euer there to describe ye Promontory. Neither doe I be­léeue that the Fryer of Oxford, by vertue of his Art Ma­gicke euer came so nigh the Pole to measure with his A­strolabe those colde parts togither with the foure floods, which Mercator & Barnardus do describe both in the front, and also in the nether end of their Maps, vnlesse hee had some colde deuil out of the middle Region of the aire to be his guide. And therfore I take them in mine opiniō to be méer fables. Truly if any men should discouer those parts, me thinketh that the people of Finmarke & of Ward­house or such like people bordering vpon the North seas, should best doo it, hauing bodies vsed to extreame colde. But then being bred in so grosse an aire, their wits per­haps are too grosse for such a purpose.

[Page]I remember that William Boorne in his booke called the Regiment of the Sea, secteth downe fiue sundrie waies to saile into Cathay, wherof the first way is by the Cape of good hope in the outermost south part of Affrike: The second by the Sea called Mare Magellanicum. The third waye is to saile betwixt the North part of America and the Iles of Groynland and Crockland. The fourth is by Noua Zemla, whereas Sir Hughe Willoughby in seeking that way was frozen to death. The firt way is to sayle right vnder the Pole, that is first from South to North, vntill you be right vnder the Pole, and then from North to South, alledging there certaine reasons to prooue the three last waies possiblie to be as passable, as the first ij. waies well▪ knowen in these daies and vsually haun­ted.

The strongest reason that Boorne vseth to make the foresayd Seas Nauigable, is, for that the Sun by hys long tarriyng aboue the horizon, so warmeth both land and Sea, as it cannot bee ouer soone colde againe. But I pray you what heat can the Sunne yéelde to that place aboue whose Horizon he is neuer eleuated more then 23. degrées and a halfe, a verie colde winterlie heat GOD wotte. And though the colde were not so extreame as I take it to be indéed, yet in desert places, where is there a­ny safe harborow, fresh water, or any other necessary suc­cor to be had? For in taking such a iorny, let no man think to goe through without a bait, vnlesse he saile in Pegasus, and hath both winde and tide at will.

Notwithstanding, I can greatly commend those va­liaunt mindes that doe attempt such desperate voyages, and the rather when they doe it for knowledge sake, and to profite their Countrey, and not altogether for priuate gaine and lucre.

But truly for mine owne part, I thinke it vnpossi­ble that any man bred in any of the temperate zones or in the hotte zone is euer able to continue the whole iour­ney [Page] in any of those 3 waies: no, though they were much more passable then I take them to be indéede. But if they were passable in all respects, sauing for cold, then I think no Nation or people so méete to attempt those waies as those which I haue already named, or such like, borne and bred nigh vnto the North Seas. But leauing these mat­ters, let vs now shew howe euery one of the 4 foresaid parts of the Earth, that is, Europe, Affrike, Asia, and A­merica is bounded, and howe many miles each part con­taineth aswell in longitude as in latitude, according to such longitude and latitude as Mercator and Puteanus do set downe in their Maps.

Europe is bounded on the North with the North O­cean Sea,Europa. and on the South with the Sea called Mare Mediterraneum, on the East with the flood Tanais, and on the west with the West Ocean Sea. Europe in measu­ring with a right line from the furthest part of Ireland on the West vnto the flood Tanais, on the East both places hauing 52 degrées of latitude, hath in longitude. 2166. miles, and in measuring with a right line from the fur­thest parte of Morea on the South, whose latitude is 35 degrées, vnto the North Sea side hauing 72 degrées of latitude, hath in latitude 2220. miles.

Affrike is bounded on the North with the straight Sea Gibralter and with the Sea called Mare Mediterra­neum, Affrica. on the South with a sea which deuideth Affrike from the south land not yet fully knowen, and on the east with the red sea or gulfe of Arabia, and on the west with the great Ocean Atlantique. Affrike in measuring with a right line from Gambra on the west vnto the Cape de Gardasa on the East, both places hauing 10 degrees of North latitude, or there about hath in longitude 4155. miles.

And in measuring with a right line from the 50 de­gree of the Equinoctiall vnto the sea called Mare mediter­raneum, it hath in north latiude 32 degrees, which being [Page] multiplied by 60 maketh 1920 miles. In South lati­tude measuring with a right line, from th 50 degree of the Equinoctiall vnto the Cape of good hope, it hath 35 degrees, which beeing multiplyed by 60 maketh 2100 miles.

Asia. Asia is bounded on the North, with the North Oce­an sea, and on the South partly with the red sea, which Sea according to Pomponius Mela, extendeth to the Isle sometime called Taprobana now Sumatra: which is a fa­mous market place of all maner of spices. Also Asia is bounded on the South with diuers other gulphes & seas, as you may see in the Map: Againe on the East it is boun­ded with the East Indian Ocean, and with the straight sea of Anian, & on the West, it hath the floud Tanais and the Fenne of Meotis, & diuers seas, as Bosphorus Cim­merius the sea called Mare Euxinum, ye sea Bosphorus Thra­cius & Propontis, and part of the sea Mediterraneum, & part of the red sea or gulfe of Arabia, which deuideth Affrike from Arabia Felix. Asia in measuring with a right line from the flood Tanais to the promōtorie Tamos, both pla­ces hauing 50 degrees of latitude, hath in longitude 4284 miles, and in measuring with a right line from the 150 degree of the Equinoctiall vnto the promontory Ta­bin, Asia hath in North latitude 76 degrees, which being multiplied by 60 maketh 4560 miles.

America. America is bounded on ye North, with the North Oce­an sea, and on the south, with ye sea called Mare Magella­nicum, on the East with the great Ocean Atlantique, & on ye west with the West Indian Ocean, & the strait sea of Ani­an▪ America in measuring with a right line frō the straite of Anian to the furthest part of Estotilant vpon ye 64 degrée of latitude, hath in longitude 4342 miles, & in measuring with a right line from the 270 degrée of the Equinoctiall vnto the North sea, it hath in North latitude 76 degrées, which maketh 4560 miles, and yet the quantitie of the ground described in the Mappe, is not so great as the o­ther [Page] by a seauenth part: wherein I can very well excuse the Mappe-makers, not hauing perhappes as yet the true longitude of that part of America.

Finally, in measuring with a right line from the 310 degrée of the Equinoctiall vnto the sea called Mare Ma­gellanicum, it hath in the South latitude 52 degrees, which maketh 3120 miles.

Now if you would know what kingdomes, Regions, Cities, Mountaines, Fluds, Lakes, also what seas togi­ther with their Islands, Ports, Capes, Points, & baies doe belong to euerie one of the foresaid foure parts, then studie well these moderne Maps: and with your eie you shall beholde, not onely the whole world at one view, but also euery particular place contained therein. Which to describe at the ful, in writing would require a long time Wherefore leauing that to your owne Industrie, I will shew you how to finde out the longitude and latitude of a­nie place in the Mappe.

Also to know how one place lieth from another, and with what wind you haue to saile from one place to ano­ther. And finally how to finde out the true distaunce be­twixt place and place, in which thinges the chéefe vse of Mappes doth consist.

And first you haue to vnderstand, that the Meridians which you sée in the Mappe, doe serue for diuers purpo­ses. For you learne thereby that it is noone-tide or mid­day sooner to one place then to another, by marking what Meridian is more towardes the East, which the Sunne alwaies toucheth sooner then that Meridian which is more towardes the West. Also by the Meridians you know how the Eclipse of the Moone appeareth sooner to one place then to another, & with what variety of time.

For they whose Meridian is towards the West, doe séeme to sée the Eclipse of the Moone sooner then they whose Meridian is more towardes the East, whereas in verie truth the Eclipse of the moone is séene to all places [Page] (where it can be séene) at one very instant of like great­nes, & yet seemeth to be séene later or sooner, by reason of the diuersitie of the time of the day, in places standing one East or West from another. And if the distance betwixt those two Meridians doe containe 15 degrées of the E­quinoctiall, then the Eclips appeareth to bee sooner to the one then to the other by one whole hower. For euerie 15 degrees maketh an hower, and therefore looke how ma­nie 15 degrées you finde betwixt the two Meridians, so many howers are to be accounted. And if you find few­er degrées, then the time of the Eclips is to be shortned accordingly, and by attributing 4 minutes of an hower to one degrée, (for foure times 15 maketh 60 minutes, which is also one hower) you may make your account so small or great as you will. And note also that you may conceiue to be in the Mappe as many Meridians as there are degrées in the Equinoctiall.

As for the Eclipse of the Sunne, it is séene, neither ge­nerally, nor fully at the selfe same time, nor yet of the same greatnes in all places. Indeed it appeareth sooner to the Westerne Countries, then to the Easterne. But the diuersitie of the time of appearance doth depend not onely of the number of Meridians betwixt the two pla­ces, but also of the swift or slowe motion of the Moone, which comming betwixt vs and the Sunne, taketh the sight of the Sunne from vs.

Moreouer, by the Meridians you shall knowe what longitude any place in the Map hath, by dooing thus. First set the one foot of your compasse in the place it selfe, and the other in some Meridian that is next vnto it, whether it bee on the left or right hand, it maketh no matter: and from thence drawe downe your compasse following styll that Meridian vntill you come to the Equinoctiall lyne, and there marke vpon what degrée of the Equinoctiall that foote of your compasse which you did first put in the place, doth rest & there make a pricke. That done, count [Page] how many degrees that is distant from the first Meridi­an, and that is the true longitude of the place: and that longitude serueth to al the places that be vnder that Me­rian, though they be neuer so farre distant one from ano­ther North and South.

Now if you would know the latitude of any place in ye Map, that is to say, how far it is distant frō the Equinoc­tial, either Northward or southward, either of which lati­tudes cōtaineth 90 degrees. then do thus: set ye one foot of your Compasse vpon the verie place, and the other vpon that Paralel which is next it, whether the Paralell be a­boue it or beneath, it maketh no matter, and drawe your Compasse from that place following stil that Paralel vn­till you come to that Meridian, which is marked with the degrees of latitude, which Meridian in the latter Maps, standeth somewhat more West then the first Meridian dooth. And marke vpon what degrée that foote of your Compasse which you did drawe from the place doth rest, and there make a pricke. That doone, count how manie degrées that pricke is distant from the Equinoctiall, and that is the true latitude of that place. And the like lati­tude haue all they that dwell vnder that Paralell, howe farre so euer they dwell asunder, East and West. And by knowing the latitude of any place, you may quickly finde also in some Mappes vnder what Clime or Paralell such place is scituated, and of howe many howers the longest day is there, as in the Mappe of Vopellius, of Gemma Fri­zius and diuers others. But in these latter Mappes such things are not set foorth, wherefore not hauing the other maps, you may resort to the tables set down in my sphere, which doe shew all such things at the full.

Now to know how one place beareth from another, & with what a ship is to be directed from one port to another, & also what distance is betwixt 2 places, that is, how many miles one place is distant from another, the latter Cosmographers, as Mercator, Barnardus, Puteanus, and [Page] diuers others haue inuented a newe instrument called Organum directorium, which they set down in their Maps togither with the vse thereof.Organum directorium But in mine opinion not plainely inough for most mens capacitie. This Instru­ment containeth 2 Quadrants of a Circle, hauing the names of the windes written therein: And they call the vpper Quadrant Organum Superius, & the nether Qua­drant Organum Inferius. Which 2 Quadrants haue 2 lines marked with degrées, and are ioyned togither with a right angle, of which 2 lines the standing or hanging line on the left hand doth signifie the first Meridian, & is marked with 75 vnequall degrées of latitude, in such pro­portion as ye middle Meridiā of the Map hath. The other line which lieth ouerthwart, signifieth the Equinoctiall, and is marked with 90 equall degrées of longitude. But the spaces of the Paralels of latitude are in number 7 and a halfe, euerie whole space containing 10 degrees, and the halfe space but 5 degrées. Which spaces are wider and wider towardes the Pole, and of like proportion to those of the Mappe.

And note by the way that the highest right line that go­eth from the first Meridian towardes your right hand, is the East line, and the nethermost line signifiyng the E­quinoctiall is the West line. For the vpper Quadrant commeth towards you from East to South, and the ne­ther Quadrant goeth from you towardes the left hand from west to south, & in the center of ech Quadrant must be put a long thread to shewe the direction from place to place. The vse of this Instrument is thus: first hauing found out in the Map the seuerall longitudes, & latitudes of 2 places in such order as is before taught, séeke the lati­tude of the first place in the first Meridian, & there make a marke. I call here the first place, that from whence you go, and the second that to which you go. That done, seeke out in the said Meridian the latitude of the second place, & there make another marke. And from that marke of the [Page] second place draw a right line towards your right hand, so as it may be a Paralel to the Equinoctiall line. Then take the difference of the 2 longitudes by substracting the lesser out of the greater, & séeke out the degrées of that dif­ference in the Equinoctiall line, and there make a marke from which marke draw a right line that may be a Pa­ralel to the first Meridian. And whereas this line crosseth the first line there set downe a marke, then drawe a right line from the marke of the first place, so as it may passe through the crossing point. That done, if the latitude of the first place be greter then that of the second place, make a Paralell to that line with the thread of the vpper qua­drant, but if the latitude of the first bee lesser then the se­cond, then make a Paralell vnto the said line with the thread of the nether Quadrant, which with the helpe of your Compasse you shall easily doo. And that thread being stretched out amongst the winds, wil shew by what wind the second place beareth from the first. And the opposite wind is the director wherby you haue to saile: yet neither Mercator nor Barnardus do plainely shew how to find out the true distāce of 2 places by this instrument, nor yet do set down in their Maps, either skale or tronke to take the distance betwixt 2 places with the compasse, as most com­monly al other Maps & Mariners Cards haue, but do re­fer the plaine declaration thereof to other their bookes and tables which I haue not yet séene, & therefore in the mean time I thought good to set downe according to Barnardes rule, this briefe way of finding out the distance of any 2 places whatsoeuer is set down in their Maps. First with your Compasse, take the iust distance of the two lati­tudes vppon the first Meridian, which is otherwise called the difference of the latitude. And hauing layd a ruler or thread to the places, looke howe many times the foresaid distance, or difference taken with your Compasse, is com­prehended in the space that lyeth betwixt the two pla­ces, and by so many times multiplie the sayd difference, [Page] the product whereof beeing multiplied againe by 60, will shew howe many miles the one place is distant from the other. As for example, the distance or difference betwixt the two latitudes of London and Hierusalem, is 19 de­grées or there abouts, which being taken with your com­passe you finde to be two times contained in the space be­twixt Hierusalem and London. Wherefore in multiply­ing 19 degrées by 2 you find the product to bee 38 which being multiplied by sixtie, maketh 2280 miles, and so farre is Hierusalem from London by a right line. But if in measuring the distance betwixt 2 places with your Compasse there remaine any odde space not fully answe­ring the first widenes of your Compasse, then take that od space with your Compasse beeing straightned and made fit therevnto, and looke how many degrées the said odde space comprehendeth in the first Meridian, about the midst of the degrées of the foresaid difference of latitude, adde those degrées also to the rest which you haue al­ready measured and multiplied, and by multiplying the whole summe by 60 you shall haue the true distance.

Againe, it may be that the two places doe not differ at all in latitude but onely in longitude, for as I haue sayd in my sphere, 2 places may differ thrée maner of waies, that is in latitude onely, in longitude onely, or in both. And there I doe shewe howe euery one is to bee measu­red.

But because that order of measuring is somewhat bu­sie to such as are not very wel exercised in Arethmeticke, and also doe knowe the vse of the tables of sines called in Latin Tabulae Sinuum, I thought good to set downe here a more easie waie of measuring, though perhaps not al­together so iustlye, and yet without any great errour. Wherefore if the two places doe differ both in longi­tude and latitude, then you must doe as before is taught. But if they differ onely in latitude, then you haue no more to doo but to multiplie the difference of the two la­titudes [Page] by 60 miles, and if there bee any odde minutes, then to allow for euery minute one mile. As for exam­ple, Compostella and Lisbone, two towns, the one in Spaine, the other in Portugale haue one selfe same longitude diffe­ring onely in latitude, which difference is foure degrees, and 20 minutes.

Here if you multiple 4 by 60 it amounteth to 240 miles, whervnto by adding 20 miles for the 20 minutes, you shall finde the whole summe to be 260 miles, which is the distaunce by a right line betwixt Compostella and Lisbona.

But if the two places hauing one selfe latitude, doe differ onely in longitude, then looke howe many such degrées as are of equall quantity to the last degree of the same latitude are contained betwixt the two places by a right line, and by allowing for euery degree 60 miles, you shall haue the true distance, or at the least not much differing from the truth. And if you see that the two pla­ces in the mappe doe stand far a sunder, then for the more spéedines, take with your compasse fiue such degrées at once, being first prickt vpon a péece of paper which is iust 300 miles, and at the widenes measure the sayd space, and if there remain at the last any od space, then straigh­ten your Compasse and fit them to that odde space, and looke how many of the foresaid degrées that comprehen­deth, and hauing multiplied the same by 60 adde the pro­duct thereof to the former summe. As for example, Com­postella and Constantinople, hauing one selfe same latitude, that is 43 degrees of North latitude doe differ onely in longitude: Heere with my Compasse I pricke vppon a péece of paper 5 degrees like in quantitye to the last and vppermost degrée of the foresaide 43 degrees, and mea­suring with the widenes of my compasse the space be­twixt the two places by a ruler or right line I finde that space to comprehend the foresayd widenes of my compasse 6 times, which maketh 1800 miles, and that there re­maineth [Page] an odde space containing 3 of the foresaide de­grees, that is, 180 miles, which beeing added to the for­mer summe, maketh in all 1980 miles, which is the di­stance betwixt Compostella and Constantinople. Also if you would knowe the distance betwixt two townes in Af­frike, the one called Budonell standing vpon Capo viride, & the other called Ercoco, standing hard by the red sea, both places hauing one selfe same latitude, that is to saye 14 degrées of North latitude, or there abouts, and doe differ onely in longitude. Then pricke with your Compasse vp­pon a péece of paper 5 degrées, euerie one equall to the last degrée of the foresaid latitude. And in measuring the space betwixt those two places with that widenes of your Compasse, you shall finde the same to bee comprehended in the said space 12 times, which by allowing 300 miles to euery widenes amounteth to 3600 miles, and the o­uerplus of the odde space being 2 degrees, is 120 miles, which being added to the former summe, maketh in all 3720 miles: and that is the distance betwixt Budonell and Ercoco.

And if this way like you not, then multiply the diffe­rence of the 2 longitudes, by the miles answerable to the latitude of the said places, which you shall find in a speciall table made for that purpose, & is set downe in my sphere, togither with the rule and order that is to bee obserued therin. The hardest of which 2 waies in mine opinion, is much more easie than that which is to bee done by the for­mer Instrument called Organum directorium. Which in­strument Mercator and Barnardus did borrow as it see­meth to mee from that which Gemma Frizius calleth his Quadratum Nauticum, inuēted by him many yeres since: the shape, description and vse whereof, I thought it not amisse to set down here and the rather for that in mine o­pinion it sheweth both the true course and direction to a­nie place more spéedily, and with more facility then the other.



Here followeth the Mariners Quadrant.

A DESCRIPTION OF GEMMA FRIZI­us his Instrument called Quadratum Nauticum.

THis square by 2 right lines cal­led Diameters crossing one ano­ther with right angles in the ve­ry Center is deuided into foure Equall quarters, and within the said square vpon the said Center is drawne a Circle, which by meanes of the two foresaid Dia­meters is also deuided into foure Quadrants, and euery Quadrant is subdiuided with right lines into 8 partes, so as in all, there be 32 lines, signifiyng the 32 winds of the Mariners Compasse. E­uerie line hauing his proper name of wind written ther­on. And note that the right line which is drawne right downe in the middest of the square, signifieth the Meridi­an, shewing the Northpoint aboue, and the South point beneath, and the other right line, crossing the same in the Center, signifieth the Equinoctial line, which sheweth the East point on the right hand, and the West point on the left hand, and the Circle it selfe signifieth the Horizon.

Now you haue to vnderstand, that from the Equinoc­tiall line vpwards the 2 sides of the square are deuided each of them into 90 degrées of North latitude, and the other two sides from the Equinoctiall downeward, are likewise deuided on both hands into 90 degrées of south latitude. Then the head or front, & also the base of the said square is deuided in the middest by the foresaid Meridian line into 2 equall parts, wherof the first procéeding from the said Meridian towardes the right hand is deuided as well aboue as beneath into 90 degrées of longitude, and that is called the East longitude, and the other part pro­céeding from the said Meridian towardes the left hand is likewise deuided as well aboue as beneth into 90 degrées [Page] of longitude, & is called the West longitude. The vse of which instrument is thus: first knowing by some table or Mappe, the longitude and latitude of two places, take the difference of both by substracting the lesser out of the gre­ter. And if the longitude of the second place bee greater then the first, séeke the difference thereof in the front, and also in the base of the East longitude on the right hande. But if the longitude of the second place be lesse then the first, then séeke the difference thereof in the West longi­tude on the left hand. And here as before I meane by the first place that from whence you goe, of which 2 places, the first is alwaies supposed to bee in the very center of the Circle, and the other is to be found out thus: first, ha­uing sought out the degrées of the difference of the longi­tude, as well in the vpper part as in the nether part, and marked the same with one pricke aboue, and another be­neath, applie your Ruler or a thread to those 2 pricks, or els drawe a secret right line from the one pricke to the o­ther by a ruler. That done, séeke out the difference of the 2 latitudes on both sides of the square, that is to say, if the second place hath greater latitude then the first, then you must seeke the difference in the North latitude, if lesse, then seeke that in the South latitude. And hauing mar­ked the same on both hands, by setting down on each side a pricke, drawe a secret right line from marke to marke, and where the last line crosseth the first line, there make a marke, for there standeth the place whereto you would goe. Which if you would know how it beareth from the first place, then lay your ruler both to the Center and al­so to that marke, drawing a right line passing through the Center, and also through the said marke from the one side of the circle to the other, or els stretch a thred through the Center and the marke, and on that side that the mark is, you shall sée the name of the winde that sheweth how the second place beareth from you, the opposite point whereof is the winde whereby you haue to saile. As for example, [Page] if you would knowe howe Venice beareth from London.

Nowe if you séeke in the Mappe, you shall find Lon­don to haue in longitude 23 degrees and 0 minutes, and in latitude 51 degrees, and 32 minutes. Againe, you shall finde Venice to haue in longitude 36 degrees, and 30 minutes, and in latitude 45 degrees and 15. minutes or there abouts.

The difference of the longitudes is 13 degrees and 30 minutes, which because the longitude of Venice is greater then the longitude of London, you must seeke it out in the East longitude on the right hand, and marke the same both aboue and beneath. Againe, the difference of latitude is 6 degrees and 17 minutes. Which because Venice hath the lesser latitude, séeke that out in the South latitude, marking the same on both handes. That doone, laie two threads, or els drawe two right crosse lines from the foresaid markes, and where those two threads or lines doe crosse, make a marke, which marke signifieth the place whereunto you would goe▪ which is Venice.

Then from the one side of the Circle to the other, lay a ruler or thread passing through the center, and the said marke made for Venice, at the end of which thread, ruler, or line on the right hande you shall sée the winde which sheweth how Venice beareth from London, and on the left hand ye wind, wherby you haue to saile, if ye space betwixt ye 2 places were al sea. For in sailing by sea, you may not thinke to go alwaies by a right line, but often to chaunge your course according as either mainland, hedlands, Iles Currents, Sandes, Rockes, or such like impedimentes shall giue occasion: and therfore though your right course from London to Venice is to go Southwest and by East, yet being come out of the Thames to Douer, your course from thence to the Cape of Britaine is west Southwest. And from thence to the Cape Finis terrae in Spaine, it is [Page] Southwest and by South. And from thence to the cape saint Vincent in Portugale you go right South: and from thence to Gibralter almost East Southeast. Againe from Gibralter to the South point of Sardignia, your course is almost East and by North. And from thence to the south point of Sicilia almost East Southeast: and from thence to Corfu, your course is iust Northeast, and from thence to Venice, you turne againe Northwest.

Thus you see that in going by Sea, one course doth not holde, no nor yet in going by Land, sith Mountaines, Riuers, and lakes may put you out of your right course, and yet it is necessary to know how the place wherto you go, beareth from you to the intent that being out of your way, you may alwaies the better direct your course right againe to the same.

Moreouer, Gemma Frizius sayth, that by this Instru­ment you may also finde out the difference of longitude betwixt the two places from whence and whither you goe, so as you know before how the second place beareth from the first, and also the difference of their latitudes. As for the latitude of each place, you may easily finde the same with your Astrolabe, Quadrant, or crosse staffe, by taking therewith the Meridian altitude of the Sunne, or the highest altitude of some starre that you know: The order whereof I haue set downe in my Sphere. And the Coast of the Countrey and place whereunto the Shippe is to bee directed, is commonly well knowen to the Ma­riners how it beareth from the first, and specially hauing a prosperous wind.

Then knowing these two things, you must do thus: First hauing drawen a secret line or thread, from the dif­ference of the two latitudes, placed according to the rule of greater and lesser before set downe, and marked on both sides of the Instrument: draw another thread, or els lay a ruler so as it may passe thorough the Center, and the line of the wind, or coast wherby the second place bea­reth [Page] from the first. And wheras those two lines or threds doe touch, make a marke, and then lay a ruler, or extend a thread from the vpper line to the nether line of longi­tude, so as it may passe hard by the last marke, and then the thread or ruler so laid, will shew you the difference of longitude betwixt the two places. And by this meanes Gemma Frizius sayth, that the Mariners may easilie cor­rect the longitudes of places as they saile: but how true­ly, I referre that to the skilfull Pilots.

But for mine owne part, hauing to seeke out in these latter Mappes the way by Sea or Lande to any place I would vse none other Instrument of direction then halfe a Circle deuided with lines like a Mari­ners Flie, in such sort as you sée in this Figure.

THE FLIE, THE VSE VVHERE­of here follovveth.


THis Flie containeth two quar­ters of the Mariners Compasse▪ the middle line whereof mar­ked with a Crosse, signifieth the line which runneth East and West. For if the place whereto you goe, be on your right hand, then the Crosse signifieth the east point, but if it bee on your left hand, then turning the Flie towardes your left hand, the Crosse doth signifie the West point, and the right downe line crossing the foresaide middle line with right angles in the very Center, is the Meridian line shewing the North and South, according as you turne the Crosse East or West.

The vse of which Flie is thus; first with a pin or a née­dle, being thrust through the center of the Flie, pricke the pin down in the very place from whence you go, called be­fore [Page] the first place, and if the second place bee on your right hand, then turne the crosse of your Flie that way, but so as the Meridian of the Flie may be a true Paralel to the next Meridian of the Mappe that is on your left hand, which your compasse will quickly perfourme by taking therewith a iust space at both ends of the Flie be­twixt the two foresayd Meridians. That doone, extend your thread so as it may passe through both the Center of the Flie hard by the pinne, and also through the second place, and then looke vppon what winde or coast of the Flie the thread lieth, and that wind sheweth how the se­cond place beareth from you. And the opposite winde thereof sheweth by what winde you haue to sayle thi­ther.

But if the second place be on your left hand, then you must turne the crosse of the Flie towards your left hand, and hauing set downe the Center of the Flie in the first place, and with your Compasse made the Meridian of the Flie a iust Paralell to the next Meridian of the Map that is on your right hand, lay your thread to the two places as before, and marke vpon what wind of the Flie it striketh, and you shall haue your desire. The lesser that your flie be, the better, for being great it would couer too many places of the Carde or Mappe. But if the two pla­ces stand so nigh togither, as the Fly dooth couer them both, then hauing set downe your pinne in the first place, make your thread with a Noose, & hauing put the same ouer the pin, draw the thread through ye second place som­what beyond the Compasse of the Flie, and holde it there fast vntill you haue also put the Center of the Flie ouer the sayd pin or néedle, and duely placed the same in such fourme as is before taught: and in so dooing, that line of the Flie which lieth vpon the thread will shewe your course and direction aswell as if the thread lay aboue the Flie.

Trulie I doe thinke the vse of this Flie a more easie [Page] and spéedie way of direction, then the manifolde tracing of the Mappes or Mariners cards with such a number of crosse lines, as commonly are drawen therein, causing rather a confusion then otherwise: for in such Cardes as are made with right Meridians, you shall find the Flie to to bee much more seruice-able then these manifolde lines.

The vse of Ptolomeis Tables.

THus much touching the vse of Mappes and Cards, now accor­ding to my promise, I wil brief­lie shew you the the vse of Pto­lomeis Tables, or of any other ta­ble made in the forme. The chie­fest point wherof is redily to find out any place that you séeke, and to know where it standeth. For the accomplishment whereof, you must first knowe what longitude and latitude that place hath.

The longitudes and latitudes of all places described by Ptolomey, are set downe in his second, third, fourth, fift, sixt, and seuenth booke of Geographie. For in his se­cond booke he describeth the West part of Europe, contai­ning Ireland, England, and Scotland, Hispania, Gallia, Ger­manie, Hungarie, and Slauony. In his third booke, he descri­beth the East part of Europe, as Italie, Sicilia, Corsica, Sar­dignia, Sarmatia, Taurica, Peninsula, Datia, Misia, Thracia, Macedonia, Achaia, Peloponesus, Candia, Rubia, & diuers other Lands and Islands. And hee containeth all Europe in ten Tables. In his fourth booke he describeth Affrike, that is to say, so much as was known in his time, contai­ning the same in 4 Tables. In his 5.6. and 7. booke he describeth all Asia and the East Indians, whereof hee maketh 12 Tables, and in describing any Region or pro­uince, [Page] he sheweth how it is bounded both North, South, East, and West. And also what notable Cities, Flouds, Lakes, or Mountaines bee in euerie Region, and there­with setteth downe the longitude and latitude of euerie place: To which his booke, diuers haue made certaine Alphabeticall tables, containing the names of all the pla­ces that are mentioned in the foresaid books, shewing in what leafe to finde the same: to the intent that you may the more readily find out, not onely the place, but also the longitude and latitude thereof, and in what Table it is contained.

Notwithstanding, I knowe by good triall, that there are a number of places mentioned in the saide bookes, which you shall not finde in the foresaid Alphabet.

Werefore I wish that Mercator, Ortellius, Barnar­dus, Brugensis, or any other of the latter Cosmographers and setters foorth of Mappes and Cards, would take the paine to make a generall Alphabet, containing all the names that are to bee found and knowen, both auncient and moderne, of Regions, Cities, Seas, Floods, Lakes, Riuers, Portes, Baies, Hedlandes, Ca [...]es, Mountaines, and all other notorious places contained in their Maps and Cardes, togither with the true longitude and lati­tude annexed to euerie place, & agréeable to their Maps, to the intent, that euerie man delighted with the reading of Histories, may in their Mappes both generall and spe­ciall, easilie finde out anie place that hee seeketh. Which worke in mine opinion would bee most thankfullie re­ceiued of all those that delight in Geographie, to the great commendation and prayse of the Authours there­of.

For though Ptolomey, Appian, Gemma Frizius, Gastal­dus, Orontius, Munsterus, Ortellius and others haue set downe certaine names, both auncient and moderne to­gither with their longitudes and latitudes, yet they are but very fewe in comparison of all the names that [Page] are wanting, yea or of those that are comprehended in their own Cards and Mappes, all which Maps I would wish to agree in their longitudes and latitudes: for other­wise a man shall hardly finde the place which hee see­keth.

Wherefore I pray God with all my heart, that some good man that is a skilfull Cosmographer may shortlie traueile hearein to the profit of all Students in Geogra­phie.

But now to returne to my matter, which is to shew how to find out any place contained in Ptolomeis tables, I say that you must first finde out the name of the place in the Alphabet, and that will direct you to the booke wher­in it is set down, togither with the longitude and lati­tude thereof. And there also you shall find in what table it is contained.

Then hauing taken a note of the longitude and lati­tude, and also the number of the table wherein it is to be sought, resort to that table, bee it in Europe, Affrike or A­sia. In the front of euerie which table, and also in the base are set down certaine numbers of longitudes, in such sort as the vttermost and nethermost be like numbers, and do directly answere one another. Againe, on both sides of the table are set downe certaine numbers of latitude like in quantity, and directly answering one another.

Then séeke out the longitude of the place which you would find in the front, and also in the base, and marke the same with two prickes, one aboue, another beneath. From which two pricks, lay a ruler or extend a thread, holding it fast there vntill you haue found out the lati­tude of the place on both sides of the table, which beeing also marked on each side with a pricke, extend another thread from those two last prickes, and in that very point wheras the two threads do crosse, you shall find the place to be which you séeke, or at least should be there. Moreo­uer, on the right hand of euerie table, Ptolomey setteth [Page] downe most commonlie vnder what Clime and Paralel euerie place is, and by that meanes you may also knowe the longest day that any Paralell hath. For as I haue sayd before in my Sphere, euery Paralell procéeding from the Equinoctiall towardes the Pole, encreaseth by one quarter of an hower, and euery Clime containing two Paralels, encreaseth by halfe an hower.

Of which Climes Ptolomey setteth downe but seuen, but of Paralels he maketh 21 in such order as this ta­ble following sheweth, which Table consisteth of foure Columns, whereof the first containeth the seuen Climes togither with their names, and also howe many miles e­uery Clime hath in breadth. And the second containeth 63 degrées of latitude, further then which Northward, Ptolomey his Tables do not extend.

The third containeth the numbers of the 21 Para­lels, and the fourth the howers and minutes of the longest day in euerie Paralell.


The seuen Climes, their names, and miles in breadth.The de­grees of latitude.The 21. Paralels.Of the longest day in euery Paralell. The howers & m.
  63*2119 30
602019 0
1918 30
1818 0
7Dia Riphios. 195. Miles.501717 30
1617 0
6Dia Boristenes. 2251516 30
1416 0
1315 30
5Dia Romes. 240.1215 0
401114 45
4Dia Rhodou. 350.1014 30
914 15
3Dia Alexandrias. 370.814 0
30713 45
2Dia Sienes. 420.613 30
513 15
1Dia Meroes. 46520413 0
765.312 45
212 30
112 15
*The Equinonctiall line, vnder vvhich those that dwell haue no Latitude, and therfore they haue alwaies 12. howers day, and 12 hovvers night.

[Page]But you haue to vnderstand, that whereas Ptolomey maketh the furthest North part of his seuenth Clime cal­led Dia Ripheos to haue but 50 degrees and 30 minutes of latitude, the moderne Cosmographers doe allowe to those mountaines 70 degrées of latitude, affirming the same to bee those selfe Mountaines which are otherwise called Montes Hiperborei, which because they enclose a great part of the North side of the world, are called Or­bis terrae cingulum, that is to say, the girdle of the worlde, the wrong latitude whereof and of diuers other, I thinke Ptolomey had from others and not from himselfe.

For being brought vp in so warme a soile as Alexan­dria standeth in, he could neuer endure to go so far north­ward, to take the latitude of those colde Riphean Moun­taines, and therefore if you list to knowe what latitude doth truly belong vnto euerie Clime and Paralell, then resort to Orontius his Table of Climes and Paralels set downe in my Sphere, which sheweth how many degrées of latitude euery Paralell hath, togither with the long­est day, euen from the Equinoctiall to the very Pole, wherefore I leaue to speake heere any further thereof, and so for this time ende this Treatize, which if I shall perceiue to bee thankfully taken, I minde (God willing) to put in print, the description and vse of the Sphere and of the Globe, both Celestiall and Terrestiall. Also a verie plaine and briefe Arithmetike, togither with the discrip­tion, and certaine vses of the Tables of Sines, called in Latin Tabulae Sinuum. And finally, the principles of Na­uigation more plainely (I beleeue) than euer there haue beene heretofore taught, onely to helpe and further such as bee desirous to traueile by Sea, and haue not bene ex­ercised in the Mathematicall Disciplines, with­out some knowledge whereof, it is hard to bee skilfull in that Art.


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