THE LIGHT OF NAVI­GATION.

VVHEREIN ARE DECLARED AND LIVELY POVR­trayed, all the Coasts and Havens, of the VVest, North and East Seas.

COLLECTED PARTLY OVT OF THE BOOKS OF the principall Authors which have written of Navigation, (as Lucas Iohnson VVaghenaer and divers others) partly also out of manie other expert Sea­faring Mens writings and verball declarations: corrected from manie faults, and inlarged with manie newe Descriptions and Cardes.

Divided into tvvo Books.

HEERVNTO ARE ADDED (BESIDE AN INSTITVTION in the Art of Navigation) nevve Tables of the Declination of the Sonne, according to Tycho Brahes Observations, applied to the Meridian of Amsterdam. Together with newe Tables and Instructions to teach men the right use of the North-starre, and other firme starres, profitable for all Seafaring men.

BY WILLIAM IOHNSON.

AT AMSTERDAM Printed by VVilliam Iohnson, dvvelling upon the VVater, by the Old Bridge, at the Signe of the Golden Son-dyal. Anno 1612. Cum Privilegio.

AMSTERDAM
[figure]

To the Reader.

WHat great good and profit (gentle Reader) is procured unto all Seafaring men by Books of Seacardes / which heeretofore have bin made and composed by Lucas Iohnson Waghenaer / Albert Hayen / William Barents and others / wherein they with most great diligence have written the situation of the Streames / Havens and Chanels of the Seas in divers Coun­treys / it is impossible to declare / for that thereby not onely manie Ships and Merchants goods / but also manie Men have had their lives preserved / which is so manifest and well knowne unto everie man / that it were altogether needelesse and in vaine to illustrate it by examples.

It is also well knowne to everie Seafaring man / how much some Havens and Chanels in the Seas / are and have beene in processe of time cleane altered and changed / specially in these Countreys of Holland / Zealand and Freesland / which also for the most part are so much altered / since then were described by the said Authors / that some of them have now no likenesse nor similitude thereof / some are allmost spoyled / and some wholly abolished / and cleane stopt up: for the North Chanel / which by Waghenaer and Albert Hayen was described to be the best Cha­nel of the Vlie / at this present reacheth out cleane contrarie / and therewithall it is so much altered / that it can not be used but by small ships. The North Elve / which by them is described to be a deepe and faire Chanel / is also cleane spoyled / but in steede thereof the South Elve is broken out againe with a faire deepe chanel. And the place where yet within these fewe yeeres the steeple of Huysden did stand / lyeth now so farre into the Sea / that Ships full laden runne over it / both entring into / and comming out of the Texel: whereby such descriptions at this time are not onely unfit / but verie hurtfull / if a man should rule himself by them.

This considered / I (according to my abilitie / for the good and benefit of Seafaring men) have taken the Books of the aforesaid Authors in hand / to clense / correct and amende them of all their faults (besides that which I have newely gotten and collected to adde unto them) as much as possible I can: wherein I have neither spared trouble / labour nor charges / that by the aide and furtherance of manie expert and skilfull Sailers / Pilots and Masters (of whose stil and knowledge I was well assured) I might describe and declare the same / in such manner as the pre­sent worke / and the necessitie and worthines thereof requireth. Lucas Iohnson Wagenaer himself (not long be­fore he dyed) hath also by writing shewed manie notable faults / which in his Book were necessarily to be corrected and amended. As touching the Cardes / I have especially much bettered them / with the reaching of their Com­passes verie necessarie to be used / and also enlarged them / and according to the examples of the best Cardes so cor­rected them / that therein you not onely see / how you may saile into / and come out of all Havens and Chanels / but also how farre they reach / and are in widenesse and length distant from each other: which never heeretofore (be it spoken without boasting) was so perfectly and so beneficially done for the good of Seafaring men. I have also placed all the places of the West Seas under their right heights: but touching the East Seas / I could not bring that to passe before this time / because we wanted the true collection thereof / for that the same which Lucas Wage­naer [Page] writeth thereof / is false / and he contradicteth himself / which may partly be perceived by that which ensueth. He writeth / that the Sond lyeth under 56 degrees and 12 minutes / and Schagen under 57 degrees and 48 mi­nutes / whereby it should followe / (for that the said two places lye distant southeast and northwest) that they should be distant one from the other 33 or 34 Dutch myles: whereas notwithstanding he himself writeth / that they are but 25 myles distant from each other: but that both these positions are false / I prove it thus. The middle of the Ile of Ween lyeth just under 55 degrees and 54 minutes / and seeing that the Sond is but a myle and an half or two myles distant from thence / and rather westerlyer then north / then of force the Sond can not lye higher / then under 56 degrees: and so / if wee (according to the common gessing) reckon / from the Sond to Schagen 25 myles / then the Point of Schagen must lye under 57 degrees and 11 or 12 minutes / which differeth from Wagenaers posi­tion almost two third parts of a degree. Or if Schagen laye under such a heigth as Wagenaer writeth / then Schagen and the Sond should be distant from each other about 38 myles / which is not credible. Manie such like / and (as I thinke) much greater faults should be seene / if the certaine truth thereof could be found.

Besides this / I have heereunto added a Brief Institution touching the Arte of Navigation: wherein is perfect­ly shewed / what knowledge of Astronomie is necessarie for a Seafaring man: wherein hitherto there hath beene much abuse committed among them. But unnecessarie things / wherewith some Seafaring men trouble them­selves in vaine / I have omitted and wholly left out: as / what the Eccentricities / Augeas and Apogeas / the Longi­tude / Latitude / and the Paralaxes of the Planets are: all which things (as also manie other Astronomicall high Speculations) have no use in Seafaring / nor can by anie meanes further a Seafaring man.

I have likewise omitted and forborne to write anie thing of the Lengths / which men commonly call / the East and West / whereof some men boast and vaunt themselves / to have found great matters / and that a man may finde the waie from East to West so perfectly / as from South to North: but all that which hitherto / touching that matter is come to light / is not onely unprofitable / but also (if a man should trust thereunto) both hurtfull and deceitfull: whereof in the fourth part of this Book I thinke to write more at large / as also / what good and benefit a Pilot may have by the Direction of the Needle / or altering of the Compas / whereupon these newe found Lengths are built / although without ground or true foundation.

A BREEF AND SHORT INTRODVCTION FOR THE vnderstanding of the Celestiall Sphaere, as farre as it concerneth the Art of Seafaring.

CHAPT. I. Of the two Poles of the World.

THe Earth with the Waters making both to­gether a perfect and just round Globe, the which all Mathematicians by good and in­fallible reas [...]ns confirme, as also by experi­ence it is found so to be. This Globe, the Everlasting and Almightie God hath firmely placed in the middle of the world, as a center or middle point thereof, & hath so placed the Heavens as a hol­lowe Globe, with so unmeasurable wydenes round about the same, that the distance thereof is equally set, and separated from the earth in all places alike, like unto the compas of a circle which is equally drawne and separated from the middle point thereof: and hath so ordayned, that every 24 howres it is caried about the world: by the which dayly motion, it draw­eth with it all the heavenly lights, as the Sonne, Moone, and all the starres, the which also by that meanes everie 24 howres are carried round about the whole World, as it is dayly seen.

This moveing or stirring of the heavens is performed upon two sure fast pointes, that stand directly each against other, in such manner, as if a bale should be turned round upon two pinnes, as upon an axeltree. So suppose that you see a straight line stretch­ing out from one of the aforesayd pointes of the heavens to the other, like to an axeltree, the same is it that passeth right through the center, (that is through the middle of the earth) this line is called the Axeltree of the world, and the two pointes aforesayd the Poles or Axeltree pointes of the World, the one named the North, the other the South Pole: Now that this may be the better understood, I wil declare it by this figure.

In this Figure A sheweth the Globe of the Earth, which

[diagram of Earth]

unmovea­bly stan­deth in the middle of the Hea­vens, which here by the Circle B C D E is fi­gured out. The Line that reacheth from B to D going through the Earth, signifieth the Axel­tree of the World, and the Pointes B and D are the Poles or Axeltree pointes, whereof the one at B is called the North Pole, and the other at D the South Pole, upon the which the Heavens (as I sayd before) everie 24 howres are moved & borne round about the Earth.

CHAP. II. Of the Equinoctiall Line.

THe whole circle of the Heavens is devyded into 360 de­grees or steppes, whereby, by the foresayd Chapter wee may perceave, that the two poles are distant one from the other 180 degrees, that is half the circle of the Heavens. Right in the middle between both the Poles we suppose a cir­cle to be placed, which we call the Equinoctiall Line, or the E­quator, and is so called for that whensoever the Sonne cometh to this circle, the day and night is of one length throughout all the World. This circle is in all places equally distant from both the Poles of the World, to wit 90 degrees, & devideth the Hea­vens in two equal partes, whereof the one reacheth northward, and is called the North-part, the other southward, and is called the South-part, as it is plainly seen in the foresaid Globe or Fi­gure, where you see the circle E C the Equinoctiall Line, stan­ding just of one length from the Poles B D, deviding the Hea­vens into two equall partes, as the North-part E B C, and the South-part E D C.

CHAP. III. Of the Tropikes and Zodiacke.

THree and twentie degrees 31 ½ minutes northward from the Equinoctiall Line there is a circle supposed to be, which is called Tropicus Cancri, or the course of the Sonne in Cancer: for that when the Sonne cometh by course unto that circle, he beginneth to turne again towards the Equi­noctiall. And likewise 23 degrees 31 ½ minutes southward from the Equin [...]ctiall Line, there is another circle supposed to be, which is called Tropicus Capricorni, or the course of the Sonne in Capricornus, for that when the Sonne in winter tyme com­eth to this circle, he beginneth again to turne unto the Equino­ctiall. These two circles goe round about the Heavens, and are equally distant from the Equinoctiall. But how & in what man­ner toucheth the Sonne in his course (once in Sommer & ano­ther tyme in Winter) those two circles? It happeneth thus: we suppose a great circle to be in the Heavens wherein the Sonne holdeth his course, which lyeth thwart-wise over the Equino­ctiall, that is, the one half northward, the other half southward, in such manner, that in the place where he goeth most north­ward from the Equinoctiall Line, there he entreth into Tropicus Cancri, and where he goeth most southward from the Equino­ctiall Line, there he entreth into Tropicus Capricorni. The two pointes or places where he goeth or cutteth over the Equino­ctiall, stand right over against each other, so that both the Equi­noctiall and these two circles are devided into two equall parts, which pointes are called the one, the Equinoictall in Lent, and the other the Equinoctiall in Harvest, which by the Figure en­seweing more playnely appeareth.

Example.

[diagram of Earth]

Let A be the Earth, B C D the Heaven, E F C G the Equino­ctiall, B the North-pole, D the South-pole, and the Line B A D the Axeltree of the World, as aforesayd: Then the Circle K L is Tropicus Cancri, lying northward from the Equinoctial Line, & the circle H I Tropicus Capricorni southward from the Equi­noctiall Line, K F I G is the great Circle, wherein the Sonne hath his continuall course, lying crosse-wise over the Equinocti­al, reaching northward beyond the Line to Tropicus Cancri in K and southward beyond the Line to Tropicus Capricorni in I. The Equinoctiall in Lent is F, and the Equinoctiall in Harvest is G, [Page] in the places where this Circle & the Eqvinoctiall cutt or passe through each other. This Circle is commonly called the Zodi­ack, although the right name therof is the Eclipticke Line, or the passage of the Sōne, being the right middle part of the Zodiack, for the Zodiack it self is a Circle almost 20 degrees broad, that is on each side of this Circle or passage of the Sonne, 10 degrees. This Circle aforesayd is devided into 12 even partes, each part having a proper signe belonging unto it, & everie signe hath 30 degrees, so that the whole Circle (as all other Circles doe) con­teyneth 360 degrees. The names of the signes are, Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpius, Sagittarius, Capricornus, Aquarius, and Pisces, and these are placed in this manner: Aries beginneth where the Equator & the Zodiack cut or passe through each other, in the Equinoctiall of Lent, and follow in order as aforesayd, so that the beginning of Cancer is just at Tropicus Cancri. Libra on the other side, beginneth where the Equator & the Zodiack cut or passe through each other againe in the Equinoctiall of Harvest: and the beginning of Capricor­nus is just where the Zodiacke or Eclipticke Line toucheth Tropicus Capricorni, and so forth.

CHAP. IIII. Of the course of the Sonne.

IN this Zodiack or Ecliptick Line aforsayd, the middle point of the Sonne hath his course, without once going out of it, passing through it everie yeare once, that is everie moneth through one signe, and everie day almost a degree. Upon the 20 of March stilo novo, and the 10 of March stilo vechio, when the dayes & nights are just of one length throughout al the World, then the Sonne entreth into the Equinoctiall, that is to say, into Aries, the 20 or 10 of April he entreth into Taurus, the 20 or 10 of May into Gemini, the 21 or 11 of Iune into Cancer, up­on Tropicus Cancri, and then he is at the farthest of his course northward frō the Equinoctiall, then all those that dwell north­ward from the Line have their longest day, and those that dwell southward from the Line their shortest day. The Sōne holding his course, then beginneth to turne again to the Line, and the 23 or 13 of Iulie entreth into Leo, the 23 or 13 of August into Virgo, and the 23 or 13 of September he commeth again on the Line, in the beginning of Libra, makeing the dayes and nights one again of one length throughout all the World, the 23 or 13 of October he entereth into Scorpio, the 22 or 12 of November into Sagittarius, and the 22 or 12 of December to Tropicus Ca­pricorni, in the beginning of Capricornus, then are the dayes lon­gest with them that dwell southward from the Line. The 20 or 10 of Ianuarie, the Sonne commeth further, and entreth into Aquarius, about the 18 or 8 of Februarie into Pisces, and the 20 or 10 of March he entreth again into Aries. This ought also to be known and marked: that this Zodiack standeth unmoveably with the fixed Starres, with the which everie day he is caried about from East to West, without alteration: and that the Sōne doth the foresayd yearely course contrariwise, from west to east, whereby in his dayly course he is so much hindred, that in the yeare he goeth one time lesse about then the fixed Starres.

CHAP. V. Of the Declination of the Sonne and what it is.

THe declination of the Sōne is nothing els, then his departing from the Equinoctiall: or to speak more plainly, the distance or widenes that is between the Sonne and the Equinoctiall Line. When the Sōne through the aforsayd course commeth to the Equinoctial Line, then he hath no declination, which happeneth twise every yeere, that is the 20 of March and the 23 of September stilo novo, but as sone as he is on the one or the other side of the Equinoctiall, then he hath declination, and that just as much as he is gone from the Aequinoctial. And this Declination is twofold, Northward and Southward: for when the Sonne is on the north part of the Line, then his declination is Northward, and when it is on the southpart of the Line then his declination is Southward.

CHAP. VI. How you shall finde the perfect declination of the Sonne every day in the yeere.

TO knowe the declination of the Sonne perfectly everie day in the yeere, in former tymes there were tables made which served for foure yeeres, but they were gathered out of old and corrupt observations, so that at some tymes of the yeere they differed almost a fourth part of a degree from the truth, as it appeareth by the true calculation thereof made by the Learned Astronomer Tycho Brahae. And therefore for [Page] the good of all Seafaring men, not without much labour & dil­ligence I have collected a new book of degrees for foure yeares out of the aforesayd Tycho Brahae brest corrected notes, just for the Meridian (that is) after the longitude of the Low-countries, which Tables of declinations may serve without any weightie alteratiō (or that can be any hinderance unto Seafaring men) for the space of 20 yeres. Now to know how much the Sōne in eve­rie day of the yeare declineth from the Equinoctiall, first see in what yeare and moneth you are, and what day of the moneth it is, the same day seek in the first columne, and there against it in the second columne you shall finde how many degrees and mi­nutes the Sonne is gone or declined from the Equator: but to know whether it be northward or southward, you must under­stand, that frō the 10 of March to the 13 of September it goeth on the northside from the Line, and from the 13 of September again to the 10 of March southward frō the Line. But to know whether it is a Leap-yeare, or the first, second, or third year from it, we have to that end placed a small Table under this Chapter, wherein without any labour you may finde it.

Leap yeares.First yeares.Second yeares.Third yeares.
1612161316141615
1616161716181619
1620162116221623
1624162516266627
1628162916301631
[sun with face]

Here followe the Tables of the Declination of the Sonne after the New stile.

The Declination of the Sonne, serving (after the Newe stile) for the Leape Yeere.

Ianuarie.
dadeg. mi.
123 — 7
223 — 2
322 — 50
422 — 50
522 — 44
622 — 37
722 — 30
822 — 22
922 — 14
1022 — 5
1121 — 56
1221 — 47
1321 — 37
1421 — 27
1521 — 16
1621 — 5
1720 — 53
1820 —41
1920-29
2020 — 16
2120 — 3
2219 — 49
2319 — 35
2419 — 21
2519 — 7
2618 — 52
2718 — 36
2818 — 21
2918 — 5
3017 —49
3127 — [...]2

Februarie.
dadeg mi.
117 — 15
216-58
316 — 41
416 — 23
516 — 5
615 —47
715 — 28
815 — 9
914-50
1014-31
1114-11
1213 — 51
1313 — 31
1413 — 11
1512-50
1612 — 30
1712 — 9
1811 —48
1911 — 27
2011 — 5
2110 —44
2210 — 20
2310 — 0
249 — 38
259 — 16
268 —53
278 — 31
288 — 8
297-45

March.
dadeg. mi.
17 — 22
26 — 59
36 — 36
46 — 13
55 — 50
65 — 27
75 — 4
84 — 41
94 — 17
103 — 53
113 — 30
123 — 6
132 — 42
142 — 19
151 — 56
161 — 32
171 — 8
180 — 44
190 — 20
20
0 — 3
210 — 27
220— [...]0
231 — 14
241 — 38
252 — 1
262 — 24
272 —48
283 — 12
293 — 35
303 — [...]8
314 — [...]

Aprill.
dadeg. mi.
14 — 44
25 — 7
35 — 30
45 — 53
56 — 16
66 — 38
77 — 1
87 — 23
97 —40
108 — 8
118 — 30
128 — 52
139 — 13
149 — 35
159 — 56
1610-17
1710-38
1810 — 59
1911 — 20
2011 —41
2112 — 1
2212 — 21
2312 —41
2413 — 1
2513 — 21
2613 —40
2713 — 59
2814 — 18
2914 — 37
3014 — 55

May.
dadeg. mi.
115 — 13
215 — 31
315 —49
416 — 6
516 —23
616 — 40
716 — 57
817 — 13
917 — 29
1017-45
1118 — 1
1218 — 16
1318 — 31
1418 —45
1518 — 59
1619 — 13
1719 — 27
1819 —40
1919 — 53
2020 — 6
2120 — 18
2220 — 30
2320 — 42
2420 — 53
2521 — 4
2621 — 14
2721 — 24
2821 — 34
2921 — 43
3021 — 52
3122 — 1

Iune.
dadeg. mi.
122-9
222 — 17
322 — 25
422 — 32
522 — 39
622 — [...]5
722 — 51
822 — 56
923 — 1
1023 — 6
1123 — 10
1223 — 14
1323 — 18
1423 —21
1523 —24
1623 —26
1723 —28
1823 —29
1923 — 30
2023 — 31
2123 — 31 ½
2223 — 31
2323 — 30
2423 — 29
2523 — 28
2623 —26
2723 —24
2823 —21
2923 — 18
3023 — 15

Iulie.
dadeg. mi.
123 — 11
223 — 7
323 — 2
422 — 57
522 — 52
622 — 46
722-40
822-33
922 — 26
1022-18
1122-10
1222 — 2
1321 — 54
1421 —45
1521 — 36
1621 — 26
1721 — 16
1821-6
1920-55
2020-44
2120 — 32
2220-20
2320-8
2419-55
2519 — 42
2619 — 29
2719 — 16
2819 — 2
2918 — 48
3018 — 34
3118-19

August.
dadeg. mi.
118 — 4
217-49
317-33
417 — 17
517-1
616-45
716-28
816-11
915 — 53
1015 — 35
1115-18
1215 — 0
1314-42
1414-24
1514-5
1613 — 46
1713 —27
1813 — 7
1912 — 47
2012-28
2112-8
2211-48
2311 — 27
2411 — 6
2510 — 45
2610-24
2710-3
289-42
299-21
309 — 0
318-38

September.
dadeg. mi.
18 — 16
27-54
37 — 32
47-10
56-48
66-25
76 — 2
85 — 40
95 — 17
104-54
114-31
124-8
133 —45
143 —22
152-59
162 — 35
172-12
181 —49
191 —26
201 — 2
210-38
220 —15
23
0-8
240-32
250 — 56
261 — 19
271 —43
282 — 6
292 —29
302 — 53

October.
dadeg. mi.
13 — 16
23-40
34-3
44-27
54-50
65 — 13
75 — 36
85-59
96-22
106-45
117-8
127-31
137-54
148-16
158-39
169-1
179-23
189-45
1910-7
2010-29
2110-50
2211-11
2311 — 33
2411-54
2512-15
2612-35
2712-56
2813 — 16
2913 — 36
3013 — 56
3114-16

November.
dadeg. mi.
114-35
214-55
315 — 14
415-32
515-51
616-9
716-27
816-44
917-2
1017-19
1117-36
1217-52
1318 — 8
1418-24
1518-39
1618-54
1719-9
1819-24
1919-38
2019-51
2120-5
2220-18
2320-31
2420-43
2520-55
2621 — 6
2721 —17
2821-28
2921-38
3021-48

December.
dedeg. mi.
121 — 57
222-6
322-15
422-23
522 — 31
622 — 38
722-45
822-51
922-57
1023 — 2
1123 — 7
1223 — 12
1323 —16
1423 — 19
1523 — 22
1623 — 25
1723 — 27
1823 — 29
1923 — 30
2023 — 31
2123-31½
2223 — 31
2323 — 30
2423 — 29
2523 — 28
2623 —26
2723-23
2823-20
2923 — 16
3023 — 12
3123 — 8

The Declination of the Sonne, serving (after the Newe stile) for the first Yeere after the Leap Yeere.

Ianuarie.
dadeg. mi.
123 — 3
222-58
322-52
422-46
522-39
622-32
722-24
822-16
922-7
1021 — 58
1121-49
1221 — 39
1321 — 29
1421 — 18
1521 — 7
1620-56
1720-44
1820 — 32
1920-19
2020-6
2119-53
2219-39
2319 — 25
2419-10
2518-55
2618-40
2718-25
2818 — 9
2917 — 53
3017-36
3117 — 19

Februarie.
dadeg. mi.
117-2
216-45
316-27
416-9
515-51
615-33
715 — 14
814-55
914-35
1014-15
1113 — 56
1213 — 36
1313 — 16
1412 — 56
1512 — 35
1612 — 14
1711 — 53
1811 — 32
1911 — 10
2010-49
2110 — 27
2210 — 5
239-43
249-21
258 — 59
268 — 36
278 — 13
287 — 51

March.
dadeg. mi.
17-28
27-5
36 —42
46-19
55-56
65-33
75-9
84-46
94-23
103 — 59
113 — 35
123 — 12
132-48
142-24
152 — 1
161 — 37
171 — 14
180-50
190-26
20
0-2
210-21
220-45
231 — 8
241 — 32
251 — 55
262-19
272-42
283 — 6
293 —29
303 — 53
314-16

Aprill.
dadeg. mi.
14 — 39
25 — 2
35 —26
45-48
56-11
66-33
76-56
87 — 18
97-40
108 — 3
118-25
128 —47
139 — 9
149-30
159-51
1610-13
1710 — 34
1810 — 55
1911-16
2011 — 36
2111 — 56
2212-17
2312-37
2412-57
2513 — 16
2613-35
2713 — 54
2814-13
2914-32
3014-50

May.
dadeg. mi.
115-9
215 — 27
315 — 45
416-2
516-20
616-37
716-54
817-10
917-26
1017-41
1117-57
1218-12
1318 —27
1418 —41
1518 —56
1619-10
1719-24
1819 — 37
1919-50
2020-3
2120 — 15
2220 — 27
2320-39
2420 — 50
2521 — 1
2621 — 12
2721 — 22
2821 — 32
2921-41
3021 — 50
3121-59

Iune.
dadeg. mi.
122-7
222 — 15
322 — 23
422 — 30
522 — 37
622 —44
722 — 50
822 — 55
923 — 0
1023 — 5
1123 — 10
1223 — 14
1323 — 17
1423 —20
1523-23
1623 — 26
1723 —28
1823 —29
1923 — 30
2023 — 31
2123 — 31½
2223 — 31
2323 — 31
2423 — 30
2523 — 29
2623 — 27
2723 —25
2823-22
2923 — 19
3023 — 16

Iulie.
dadeg. mi.
123-12
223 — 8
323 — 3
422-58
522 — 53
622-47
722 —41
822-34
922-27
1022-20
1122 — 12
1222 — 4
1321 — 56
1421 —47
1521 — 38
1621 — 28
1721 — 18
1821 — 8
1920-57
2020-46
2120 — 35
2220-23
2320-11
2 [...] [...]—58
25 [...]9 46
2619 — 33
2719 — 19
2819 — 5
2918-51
3018 — 37
3118-22

August.
dadeg. mi.
118 — 7
217-52
317-37
417 — 21
517 — 4
616-48
716-32
816-15
915-57
1015-40
1115 — 22
1215 — 4
1314-46
1414-28
1514-9
1613 —50
1713-31
1813 — 12
1912 — 52
2012-33
2112 — 13
2211-52
2311 — 32
2411-12
2510 — 51
2610-30
2710 — 9
289 —48
299-27
309 — 5
318-43

September.
dadeg. mi.
18 —21
27-59
37-37
47-15
56 — 53
66-31
76-8
85-45
95-23
105-0
114-37
124 — 14
133 — 51
143-28
153-5
162-41
172-18
181-55
191 —31
201 — 8
210 —44
220-21
23
0-3
240 —26
250 — 50
261 — 13
271 — 37
282 — 0
292 — 24
302-47

October.
dad [...]g. mi.
13-1 [...]
23-34
33-58
44-21
54-44
65-7
75-30
85-53
96-17
106-40
117-3
127-25
137-48
148-11
158-33
168-55
179-17
189-40
1910-2
2010-23
2110-45
2211-6
2311-28
2411 — 49
2512-9
2612-30
2712-51
2813-11
2913-31
3013-51
3114-11

November.
dadeg. mi.
114 — 31
214-50
315-9
415-28
515-46
616-4
716-22
816-40
916-58
1017-15
1117-32
1217-48
1318-4
1418-20
1518-36
1618-51
1719-6
1819-20
1919-34
2019-48
2120-2
2220-15
2320-28
2420-40
2520-52
2621 — 3
2721 — 14
2821 — 25
2921-36
3021 —46

December.
dedeg. mi.
121 — 55
222 — 4
322-13
422-21
522 — 29
622 — 36
722-43
822 — 50
922 — 56
1023 — 2
1123 — 7
1223-11
1323 — 15
1423 — 19
1523-22
1623-25
1723 — 27
1823 — 29
1923 — 30
2023 — 31
2123-31½
2223 — 31
2323 — 31
2423-30
2523-28
2623 — 26
2723-24
2823 — 21
2923 —17
3023-13
3123 — 9

The Declination of the Sonne, serving (after the Newe stile) for the second Yeere after the Leap Yeere.

Ianuarie.
dadeg. mi.
123 — 4
222 — 59
322-53
422 —47
522-41
622-34
722-26
822-18
922-9
1022-0
1121 — 51
1221 —42
1321 — 32
1421 —21
1521 — 10
1620 — 59
1720-47
1820-35
1920-22
2020 — 9
2119 — 56
2219 — 42
2319-28
2419 — 14
2518-59
2618-44
2718 —29
2818 —13
2917-57
3017 — 40
3117 — 24

Februarie.
dadeg. mi.
117-7
216-49
316-32
416 — 14
515-56
615 — 37
715 — 18
814 — 59
914 — 40
1014-21
1114 — 1
1213 —41
1313 — 21
1413 — 1
1512 —40
1612 — 19
1711-58
1811 — 37
1911 — 16
2010-54
2110 — 32
2210-11
239-49
249-27
259 — 4
268-42
278-19
287 — 57

March.
dadeg. mi.
17 — 34
27-11
36 —48
46 — 25
56-2
65 —39
75-15
84 — 52
94-29
104-5
113 — 42
123-18
132-55
142 — 31
152 — 7
161 — 43
171-20
180-56
190 — 32
200 — 8
21
0 — 15
220 — 39
231 — 2
241 — 26
251 — 50
262-13
272-37
283 — 0
293 —23
303 —46
314 — 10

Aprill.
dadeg. mi.
14 — 33
24-56
35-19
45-42
56 — 5
66 — 28
76 — 50
87 — 12
97 — 35
107-57
118 — 19
128 —41
139 — 3
149 —25
159 — 46
1610 — 7
1710 —29
1810 — 50
1911-10
2011 —31
2111 — 52
2212-12
2312-32
2412 — 52
2513 — 11
2613-31
2713 — 50
2814 — 9
2914 — 28
3014 —46

May.
dadeg. mi.
115 — 4
215 — 22
315-40
415-58
516-15
616-32
716 —49
817 — 5
917-21
1017-37
1117-53
1218-8
1318-23
1418-38
1518 — 52
1619 — 6
1719-20
1819 — 37
1919-47
2020-0
2120 — 12
2220 — 24
2320-36
2420 — 47
2520-58
2621 — 9
2721 — 19
2821 —29
2921-39
3021 — 48
3121 — 57

Iune.
dadeg. mi.
122 — 5
222 —13
322-21
422 — 28
522 — 35
622 — 42
722-48
822 — 54
922 — 59
1023 — 4
1123-9
1223 —13
1323 — 16
1423 —20
1523 —23
1623 —25
1723 —27
1823 —29
1923 — 30
2023 — 31
2123-31½
2223-31½
2323 —31
2423-30
2523 — 29
2623 — 27
2723 — 25
2823 —23
2923 — 20
3023 — 17

Iulie.
dadeg. mi.
123 — 13
223 — 9
323 — 5
423 — 0
522-54
622-48
722-42
822 — 36
922-29
1022-22
1122 — 14
1222 — 6
1321 — 58
1421 — 49
1521 — 40
1621 — 31
1721 — 21
1821 — 10
1921 — 0
2020-49
2120 — 38
2220-26
2320-14
24 [...]0 — 2
2519 — 49
2619 — 36
2719-23
2819 — 9
2918-55
3018 — 41
3118-26

August.
dadeg. mi.
118-11
217-56
317-41
417 — 25
517 — 9
616 — 53
716 — 36
816-19
916-2
1015-45
1115 — 27
1215 — 9
1314 — 51
1414 — 33
1514 — 14
1613 — 55
1713 — 36
1813 — 17
1912 — 57
2012-37
2112 — 17
2211-57
2311 — 36
2411 —16
2510-56
2610 — 35
2710 — 14
289 — 53
299 — 32
309 — 10
318-49

September.
dadeg. mi.
18 — 27
28 — 5
37 — 43
47-21
56-58
66-36
76-14
85 — 51
95 — 28
105 — 5
114-43
124 — 20
133 — 57
143-33
153-10
162 — 47
172-24
182 — 0
191 — 37
201 — 14
210-50
220-27
230 — 3
24
0 —20
250 — 44
261 — 8
271 — 31
281 — 54
292 — 18
302 — 41

October.
dadeg. mi.
13 — 5
23 — 29
33 — 52
44 — 15
54 — 38
65 — 2
75-25
85-48
96-11
106-34
116-57
127-20
137-43
148-5
158-28
168-50
179-12
189-34
199-56
2010 — 18
2110-40
2211 — 1
2311-23
2411-44
2512 — 4
2612 — 25
2712-46
2813 — 6
2913 — 26
3013 —46
3114-6

November.
dadeg. mi.
114 — 26
214 — 45
315 — 4
415 — 23
515 — 42
616 — 0
716 — 18
816 — 36
916 — 53
1017 — 10
1117 — 27
1217 — 44
1318 — 0
1418-16
1518-32
1618 — 47
1719-2
1819 — 17
1919 — 31
2019-45
2119 — 59
2220 — 12
2320 — 24
2420 — 37
2520 — 49
2621 — 1
2721 — 12
2821 — 23
2921 — 33
3021 — 43

December.
dedeg. mi.
121 — 53
222 — 2
322 — 11
422 — 19
522 — 27
622 — 34
722 — 41
822 — 48
922 — 54
1023 — 0
1123 — 5
1223 — 10
1323 — 14
1423 — 18
1523 — 21
1623 — 24
1723 — 26
1823 — 28
1923 — 30
2023 — 31
2123 — 31½
2223 — 31½
2323 — 31
2423 — 30
2523 — 29
2623 — 27
2723 — 25
2823 — 22
2923 — 19
3023 — 15
3123 — 10

The Declination of the Sonne, serving (after the Newe stile) for the third Yeere after the Leap Yeere.

Ianuarie.
dadeg. mi.
123 — 6
223 — 1
322 — 55
422 —49
522 — 42
622 — 35
722 — 28
822 — 20
922 — 12
1022 — 3
1121 — 54
1221 — 44
1321 — 34
1421 — 24
1521 — 13
1621 — 2
1720 — 50
1820 — 38
1920 — 25
2020 — 12
2119 — 59
2219 — 46
2319 — 32
2419 — 18
2519 — 3
2618 — 48
2718 — 32
2818 — 17
2918 — 1
3017 — 45
3117 — 28

Februarie.
dadeg. mi.
117 — 11
216 — 53
316 — 36
416 — 18
516 — 0
615 — 42
715 — 23
815 — 4
914 — 45
1014 — 26
1114 — 6
1213 — 46
1313 — 26
1413 — 6
1512 — 45
1612 — 24
1712 — 3
1811 — 42
1911 — 21
2011 — 0
2110 — 38
2210 — 16
239 — 54
249 — 32
259 — 10
268 — 47
278 — 25
288 — 3

March.
dadeg. mi.
17 — 40
27 — 17
36 — 54
46 — 31
56 — 8
65 — 44
75 — 21
84 — 58
94 — 34
104 — 11
113 — 47
123 — 23
132 — 59
142 — 36
152 — 13
161 — 49
171 — 25
181 — 2
190 — 38
20
0 — 14
210 — 9
220 — 33
230 — 56
241 — 20
251 — 44
262 — 7
272 — 31
282 — 54
293 — 17
303 — 40
314 — 4

Aprill.
dadeg. mi.
14 — 27
24 — 50
35 — 13
45 — 36
55 — 59
66 — 22
76 — 44
87 — 7
97 — 29
107 — 51
118 — 14
128 — 36
138 — 58
149 — 19
159 — 41
1610 — 2
1710 — 23
1810 — 44
1911 — 5
2011 — 26
2111 — 46
2212 — 7
2312 — 27
2412 — 47
2513 — 7
2613 — 26
2713 —45
2814 — 4
2914 — 23
3014 — 41

May.
dadeg. mi.
115 — 0
215 — 18
315 — 36
415 — 53
516 — 11
616 — 28
716 — 45
817 — 1
917 — 17
1017 — 33
1117 — 49
1218 — 4
1318 — 19
1418 — 34
1518 — 49
1619 — 3
1719 — 17
1819 — 30
1919 — 43
2019 — 56
2120 — 9
2220 — 21
2320 — 33
2420 — 44
2520 — 55
2621 — 6
2721 — 17
2821 — 27
2921 — 37
3021 — 46
3121 — 55

Iune.
dadeg. mi.
122 — 3
222 — 11
322 — 19
422 — 27
522 — 34
[...]— 40
722 — 46
822 — 52
922 — 58
1023 — 3
1123 — 7
1223 — 11
1323 — 15
1423 — 19
1523 — 22
1623 — 25
1723 — 27
1823 — 29
1923 — 30
2023 — 31
2123 — 31
2223 — 31½
2323 — 31
2423 — 30
2523 — 29
2623 — 28
2723 — 26
2823 — 24
2923 — 21
3023 — 18

Iulie.
dadeg. mi.
123 — 14
223 — 10
323 — 6
423 — 1
522 — 56
622 — 50
722 — 44
822 — 38
922 — 31
1022 — 24
1122 — 16
122 8
1322 — 0
1421 — 51
1521 — 42
1621 — 33
1721 — 23
1821 — 13
1921 — 3
2020 — 52
2120 — 41
2220 — 29
2320 — 17
24 [...]0 — 5
2519 — 52
2619 — 39
2719 — 26
2819 — 12
2918 — 58
3018 — 44
3118 — 30

August.
dadeg mi.
118 — 15
218 — 0
317 — 45
417 — 29
517 — 13
616 — 57
716 — 40
816 — 23
916 — 6
1015 — 49
1115 — 31
1215 — 13
1314-55
1414-37
1514-19
1614-0
1713 — 41
1813 — 22
1913-2
2012-43
2112-23
2212-3
2311 — 42
2411 — 22
2511 — 1
2610-40
2710 — 19
289 — 58
299 — 37
309 — 16
318-54

September.
dadeg. mi.
18 — 32
28 — 11
37 — 49
47 — 27
57 — 4
66 — 42
76 — 19
85 — 57
95 — 34
105 — 11
114 — 48
124 — 25
133 — 2
143 — 39
153 — 16
162 — 53
172 — 30
182 — 6
191 — 43
201 — 19
210 — 56
220 — 33
230 — 9
24
0 — 14
250 — 38
261 — 2
271 — 25
281 — 49
292 — 12
302 — 36

October.
dadeg. mi.
12 — 59
23 — 22
33 — 46
44 — 9
54 — 33
64 — 56
75 — 19
85 — 42
96 — 5
106 — 28
116 — 51
127 — 14
137 — 37
147 — 59
158 — 22
168 — 44
179 — 7
189 — 29
199 — 51
2010 — 13
2110 — 34
2210-56
2311 — 17
2411 — 38
2511 — 59
2612 — 20
2712 — 41
2813 — 1
2913 — 21
3013 — 11
3114 — 1

November.
dadeg mi.
114 — 21
214-40
314-59
415-18
515 — 37
615 — 55
716-13
816-31
916-49
1017-6
1117-23
1217 — 40
1317-56
1418-12
1518-28
1618-43
1718 — 58
1819-13
1919 —27
2019-41
2119-55
2220-8
2320 — 21
2420 — 34
2520 —46
2620 — 58
2721 — 9
2821 — 20
2921 — 31
3021 —41

December.
dedeg. mi.
121 — 51
222-0
322-9
422 — 17
522 — 25
622 — 33
722 —40
822 —47
922 — 53
1022-59
1123 — 4
1223 — 9
1323 — 13
1423 — 17
1523 — 20
1623 —23
1723 — 26
1823 — 28
1923 — 29
2023 — 30
2123 — 31
2223-31 1/ [...]
2323-31
2423 — 30
2523-29
2623-27
2723-25
2823-22
2923 — 19
3023 — 15
3123 — 11

CHAP. VII. Of the fixed Starres, their declination, and how they may alter in the declination, withall shewing how men may easily learne to know them.

THe Declination of the Starres is almost like unto that of the Sonne, and is twofold, that is Northward & South­ward: those that stand Northward from the Equinoct [...]all decline northward, and those that stand Southward from the Equinoctiall decline southward. But this is the difference be­tween the declination of the Sonne and of the starres, the decli­nation of the Sonne altereth, and is increased or shortned everie day, and the one half yeere declineth northward, and the other half yeere southward: but the declination of the fixed starres is otherwise, for some of them that decline northward or south­ward, are alwayes on the north or south side of the Line: & some of them that decline northward, may decline southward, and some that decline southward may also decline northward: but that is verie long and in a great space of tyme, though some of them do it with more speed, and in shorter tyme then the rest; according to their situations in the Heavens. Some of them in­crease or decrease a minute everie three yeeres, so that everie ten or twelve yeeres they need correction, and some cannot alter a minute of their declination in 40 or 50 yeeres, as may be proved by good reason drawne from the naturall course and moving of the fixed starres. The brightest, and cheifest; and most fitte to be used at Sea, we have hereafter placed, with their right decli­nation accordig to the yeere 1608, as they by the aforesayd Ty­cho Brahae are found and observed to be situated. How great cōmoditie & profit it is for a Sea-faring man to have the know­ledge of the fixed Starres and their ordinarie course, specially in strange and long voyages, is well knowne unto all expert and skilfull Pilots. And for that in these dayes there are yet manie Sea-faring men, that have no knowledge of the fixed Starres, we will hereafter together with their declination, showe also an ea­sie and convenient way, readily to learne to knowe them, and at all tymes perfectly to knowe when each of them enter into the south or are at the highest, and are fitte to be used. In the fourth chapter it is shewed, that the fixed Starres, goe once a yeere a­bout the Heavens more then the Sonne, so that everie day they come about 4 min. further southward, which is everie weeke, a­bout half an howre, and everie moneth two howres, which that it may the better be understood, we will make it evident by an example taken from the Starre called Syrius, The great Dogge. or Canis major the great Dogge which alwayes followeth a little after the Image of the Gyant Orion & his Girdle, which is called the three Kinges,Canis ma­jor. which appeare a little over the great Dogge, it is the greatest & clearest of al the fixed Starres, which for the most part is known unto all Sea-faring men,Syrius his declination is southward from the Line, 16 degrees, and 11 minutes,

  • And it is south upon the 24 of Ianuarie stilo novo, at ten of the clocke at night.
  • The 23 of Februarie at eight of the clocke at night.
  • The 28 of March at six of the clock at night.
  • The 30 of Aprill at foure of the clocke in the eavening.
  • The 30 of May at two of the clocke after noone.
  • The 28 of Iune at twelve of the clocke at noone, even with the Sonne.
  • The 28 of Iulie at ten of the clocke before noone.
  • The 29 of August at eight of the clocke before noone.
  • The 1 of October at six of the clocke in the morning.
  • The 2 of November at foure of the clocke in the morning.
  • The 1 of December at two of the clocke in the morning.
  • The 28 of December at twelve of the clocke at night.

Whereby everie man may easily reckon at what howre and tyme this Starre is south everie day in the yeere, as well in the day tyme when you can not see it, as in the night when we may see it. And if you desire to knowe the like touching all the rest of the fixed Starres upon everie day in the yeere, then marke what was sayd before, upon what howre of the day be­fore set downe, the great Dogge commeth into the south, and then by the tables hereafter following touching the declination of the Starres, marke how long tyme the Starre you seeke for cometh into the south before or after the great Dogge, and by that meanes you shall finde the just and perfect tyme that you desire.

Heere followeth the Table of the Declination of the fixed Starres, withall shewing at what tyme each of them comes into the south, and how you shall knowe them.

The Twinnes.

GEMINI.The figure of the Twinnes standeth right north frō the great

[depiction of the constellation Gemini]

Dogge, or Canis major in this manner, as it is heere figured, the north Head thereof come [...]h 40 minutes after the Dogge into the south, his declination is two-and-thirtie degrees, & fortie minutes north­ward from the Line.

The south or lowest Head thereof cometh 54 minutes after the great Dogge into the south, and is declined northward 28 degrees, & 54 min.

The clearest in the Foote commeth a quarter of an houre be­fore the great Dogge into the south, his declination is sixteene degrees and 40 minutes northward.

Canis minor, or the Litle Dogge, called Canicula. Procyon.

The litle Dogge called Canicula, Canicula. hath three Starres in forme

[depiction of the constellation Canis Minor]

as they are heere figured:Procyon. the clearest of them, commeth 50 minutes after the great Dogge into the south, his declination is 6 degr. & 11 min. northward from the Line.

The Water Snake, Hydra.

The Harte or the clearest of the Water-snake commeth after

[depiction of the constellation Hydra]

Syrius or the great Dogge two houres,Cor Hy­dra. & 40 minutes into the south, his declination is southward from the Line sixe degrees, and nine-and-fiftie minutes, and sheweth it self with such smale Starres as are here figured, whereby he is easily knowne.

The Lyon.

The Lyon hath foure faire Starres fit for use,LEO. and sheweth it self with others as is here figured, the formost and first where­of

[depiction of the constellation Leo]

is named Regulus, Regulus. Cor Leo­nis. Basili­s [...]us, or the Harte of the Lyon, which cōmeth three houres, & 30 minutes after the great Dog into the south his declination is 13 degrees, and 51 minutes northward from the Line.

The second or the Neck of the Lyon commeth three houres thirtie minutes after the great Dogge into the south, and is de­clyned northward from the Line one-and-twentie degrees, and 48 minutes.

The Backe of the Lyon commeth after the great Dogge into the south, 4 houres 26 minutes: his declination is northward from the Line, 22 degrees and 40 minutes.

The Tayle of the Lyon cōmeth foure houres after the great Dogge into the south, his declination is 16 degrees,Cauda Leonis. and 46 mi­nutes northward from the Line.

Virgo, or the Maide.

After that followeth Virgo, VIRGO Cingulum Virginis. wherof the most principal & clea­rest Starres shewe themselves as they are here figured: the Vir­gins Gerdle commeth into the south six houres and 12 minutes [Page] after the great Dogge, his declination is five degrees, and 34 mi­nutes northward from the Line.

That in the north Wing is called Vindemiatrix, & commeth sixe howres and sixteene minutes after the great Dogge into the south, his declination is northward from the Line 13 deg. 5 min.

[depiction of the constellation Virgo]

The Corne-eare Spica Virginis, Spica-Vir­ginis. commeth 6 houres and 36 mi­minutes after the great Dogge into the south, his declination is 9 degrees and 4 minutes southward from the Line.

Bootes, the Clowne.

Seaven houres 30 minutes after Syrius, the clearest Starre of

[depiction of the constellation Bootes]

the Clowne Bootes commeth into the south, and standeth between his thighes, in forme with some others as in this fi­gure is declared, and is called Arcturus, Arcturus. his declination is one-and-twentie degrees, and sixteene minutes northward.

North Crowne.

After Bootes followeth the North Crowne, having the forme

[depiction of the constellation Corona Borealis]

almost of a circle as it is here set down in figure,Corona Ariadn [...] & by Sea-faring men is called the Hospital, & when in clear weather there are certaine cleare Starres seen therein, they are called Sicke-men: the greatest & clearest of them commeth 8 houres & 48 minutes after Canis major into the south, his declinatiō is 28 deg. & 4 min. northward from the Line.

The Waightes, Libra.

The Ballance or Waightes followe the signe of Virgo as it is

[depiction of the constellation Libra]

here figured.LIBRA.

The South-ballance cōmeth 8 houres after the great Dog into the south, his declinatiō is souhward frō the Line 14 degreees & 20 minutes.

The North-ballance commeth 8 houres 48 minutes after the great Dogge into the south, his declination is 7 degrees 52 mi­nutes southward from the Line.

The Scorpion, Scorpius.

[depiction of the constellation Scorpius]

After that followeth the Scorpiō as this figure sheweth:SCOR­PIVS. the Starre most northward in the Fore-head cōmeth 9 houres 15 min. after the great Dog into the south, his de­clination is eighteene degrees and fortie minutes southward.

The Hart of the Scorpion cal­led Antares Antares commeth nine houres eight-and-thirtie minutes after Syrius into the south:Cor Scor­pi [...]. his declination is five-and-twentie de­grees, & seven-and-twentie minutes southward from the Line.

The Snake bearer and Hercules.

Serpenta­rius.THe Snake-bearer showeth himself as it apeareth in this figure: the formost starre and that which is most north of the two that stand on the left hand cometh 9 howres 25 minutes after the great Dogge into the South, his declination

[depiction of the constellation Serpentarius]

is two degrees & eight and thirtie minutes south­ward from the Line.

The head of the Snake-bearer commeth tenne howres 48 mi­nutes after Syrius into the south, his declination is 12 degrees & 56 min. northward from the Line.

Caput Herculis.Hercules head standing by the Snake-bearers head, cometh 20 minutes before it into the south, and is declined northward fourteen degrees & 55 minutes.

Lyra.

Vultur Cadens.After that followeth Lyra, as you see it figured in this place, the

[depiction of the constellation Lyra]

greatest with 2 smale ones by it, by Seafaring men is called the Threestale, the lightest and clearest Starre of Lyra cometh 11 howres and 55 minutes after the great Dogge, or (which is all one) 12 howres and 5 minutes before him into the south, his declination is eight and thirtie degrees and eight and twentie minutes northward from the Line.

The Eagle.

The Eagle sheweth himself as this figure declareth: the clea­rest

[depiction of the constellation Aquila]

of them,Vultur vol [...]ns. Aquila. that is the middlemost of the three cometh therteen houres after the great Dogge, or eleven howres before him into the south, his declination is seven degrees five and fiftie minutes northward from the Line.

The Swanne.

The Swanne is figured as it appeareth hereby,Cygnus. the starre that

[depiction of the constellation Cygnus]

is the most north of the two in the brest cometh 13 howres, and 40 minutes af­ter, or tenne howres and 20 minutes before the great Dog into the south, and is declined northward frō the Line nine-and-thirtie de­grees and two minutes. The starre that is most south of the two in the brest is a new starre, & was first seen in Anno 1600.

The north Wing cometh 13 howres & 4 minutes after the Dogge into the south, his declination is 44 degrees and 13 mi­nutes northward.

The south Wing cometh 14 howres after the great Dogge into the south, his declination is 32 degr. & 32 min. northward.

The lightest and clearest of the Swanne,Cauda Cygni. which standeth in the tayle cometh 14 howres after the great Dogg, or 10 howres [Page] before him into the south, his declination is 43 degrees and 55 minutes, northward from the Line.

Capricornus.

The Starre most southerly and clearest of the two that haue

[depiction of the constellation Capricornus]

most light in the Hornes of Capricornus, Capricor­nus. standing as is here shewed in the figure, commeth 13 houres & 30 minutes after the great Dog into the south, his declination is southward from the Line 15 de­grees & 56 minutes.

The Flying Horse.

The Flying-horse called Pegasus Pegasus. is seene in the Heavens as it standeth figured in this place, the Starre in the mouth commeth 14 houres and 56 minutes after, or 9 houres & 4 minutes before the great Dogge into the south: his declination is 8 degrees, and 7 minutes northward from the Line.

[depiction of the constellation Pegasus]

That which standeth upō the right Hippe, or the right Legge called Scheat, Scheat. commeth 16 houres, & 16 minutes after the great Dogge, or 7 houres and 44 minutes before him into the south, his declinatiō is 26 deg. lesse one min. northward from the Line.

Even at the same tyme also the first or formost Starre in the Wing called Marcab, Marcab. commeth into the south: his declination is 13 degrees and 8 minutes northward.

The last in the Wing of Pegasus commeth 16 houres and 44 minutes after the great Dogge, or 7 houres and 16 minutes be­fore it into the south: his declination is 13 degrees and 1 minute northward from the Line.

Andromedaes Head with Pegasus starres making a great qua­drangle or square,The Head of Andro­meda. (whereby it is easie to be knowne) commeth after the great Dogge into the south, 17 houres and 24 minutes, or 6 houres & 36 minutes before him: his declination is 26 de­grees, and 57 minutes northward from the Line.

Andromeda.

The Image of Andromeda Androme­da. standeth in the Heavens as is here figured, the Starre in the girdle cōmeth before the great Dogge

[depiction of the constellation Andromeda]

into the south 5 houres & 40 mi­nutes, it is decli­ned northward 33 degrees & 35 minutes.

That in the south foot com­meth 4 houres 48 minutes before the great Dogg into the south: his declination is fortie degrees & sixe-and-twentie minutes northward from the Line.

The Starre called Fomahant Fomohant. standeth a great distance full south from the Flying-horse, in the uttermost part of the water running from Aquarius: it is a great and a cleare Starre, & com­meth 16 houres and 6 minutes after Syrius, or seven houres and 44 minutes before into the south: his declination is 31 degrees and 36 minutes southward from the Line.

Caetus, the Whale.

Caetus.

[depiction of the constellation of Cetus]

After that followeth the Whale, which hath two faire Starres in the Tayle, as here in the figure is to be seen. The Starre most northerly of them cōmeth before the great Dogge into the south 6 houres & 28 min. his declination is 10 degrees, & 28 minutes southward from the Line.

24 min. after that cōmeth the Starr that is most southward into the south, his decli­nation is southward from the Line 20 deg. & 12 minutes.

[depiction of the star Menkar]

The clearest in the mouth called Mencar, Menkar. sheweth it self with 2 others in this forme: his declination is north­ward from the Line 2 deg. & 30 min.

In the Fore-head of Aries ARIES. or the Ram, there standeth a cleare Starre, shyning with that in the Horne, in forme as this figure

[depiction of the constellation Aries]

declareth, and commeth 4. houres 43 minutes be­fore the great Dogge into the south and standeth northward from the Line 21 degr. & 26 minutes.

Somewhat northerly followeth Medusaes Head, as it is here figured,Caput Me­dusae. the clearest Starre of them commeth before the great

[depiction of the constellation Perseus]

Dogge into the south 3 houres & 46 minutes, & standeth northward frō the Line 39 degrees 24 min.

Right northward followeth the cleare Star in Perseus Perseus. in this forme, which cōmeth before Syrius into the south 3 houres and an half, his declination is northward 48 de­grees and 24 minutes.

TAVRVS.After that followeth the Bull, in the Head thereof stand some'

[depiction of the constellation Taurus]

Starres like unto a Bee-hive lying aside, the greatest, brightest, and most easterly Starre called the Bulles Eye, Aldebaran, or Oculus Tauri, commeth two houres and fourteene minutes before the great Dogge into the south, his declination is 15 deg. & 39 minutes northward from the Line.

Auriga, Erichthonius.

The Image of Auriga Auriga. or the Wagon-man, sheweth it self a litle after Taurus in the south, in forme as it standeth heere, the

[depiction of Auriga]

greatest and clearest Starre cal­led Hircus or Capella, Capella. commeth one houre, and 40 minutes be­fore the great Dogge into the south, his declination is 45 de­grees & 31 minutes northward from the Line.

The right Shoulder goeth seven-and-fiftie minutes before the great Dogge into the south, and is declined northward 44 degrees and fiftie minutes.

The Right Foot, which also is called the North-horne of Taurus goeth one houre and 22 minutes before the great Dogge through the south, his declina­tion is 28 degrees and 12 minutes northward.

The Gyant.

[depiction of the constellation Orion]

About the same tyme commeth the Gyant Orion, Orion. which being in forme as it is here sette downe is easily knowne, the Left-shoulder commeth before Syrius in­to the south, one houre & 24 minutes, his northerly declination is 5 deg. & 56 min.

The right-shoulder commeth 58 mi­nutes before the great Dog into the south and hath 7 degrees and 16 minutes nor­therly declination.

The great & cleare Starre in the Left­foot called Regel Regel. goeth one houre 32 mi­nutes [Page] before the great Dogge through the south: his declinati­on is southward from the Line 8 degrees and 42 minutes.

The first of the three Starres in the Girdle, which are called the three Kinges,Three Kinges. goeth one houre and 16 minutes before Syrius through the south, his declination is 39 minutes southward from the Line.

Foure minutes after that commeth the second or middlemost into the south, his southerly declination is just a degr. & an half.

Nine minutes after the first commeth the third or the last of the three Kinges into the south, his declination is southward from the Line two degrees and 12 minutes. These three Kinges stand alwayes and appeare a litle above the great Dogge, on the one side, whereby they are well to be knowne.

Heere after followe some Starres which showe themselves in the north, & therefore by some are called North-starres.

The Starres of the great Wagon, (verie necessarie & fitt starres for those that sayle farre southward) come in the tyme hereafter specified unto their highest.Vrsamajor The hinder wheeles come into the

[depiction of the asterism Big Dipper]

north at the highest, after that Syrius, or the great Dogge is pas­sed through the south 4 foure houres & 12 minut: the Star most northerly standeth declined from the Equinoctial, three-and-six­tie degrees and 51 minutes, and standeth from the Pole 26 de­grees and 19 minutes. The declination of the Starre most sou­therly is 58 degrees and 28 minutes, and standeth from the Pole 31 degrees and 32 minutes.

The Starre most southerly of the Fore-wheeles commeth in­to the north at the highest or right above the Pole five houres & five minutes after the great Dogge is past the south, his declina­tion five-and-fiftie degrees and 54 minutes northward from the Line, and standeth from the Pole four-and-thirtie degrees and sixe minutes.

The Fore-wheele that is most north followeth three-an-twē ­tie minutes after the other to the highest, his declination is nine-and-fiftie degrees, and 12 minutes, and standeth above the Pole 30 degrees and 48 minutes.

The Horse next to the Wagon commeth at the highest into the north, six houres & eight minutes after that the great Dogge is past through the south, and it is eight-and-fiftie degrees and seven minutes declined northward, & standeth from the Pole 31 degrees and 53 minutes.

The middlemost Horse cōmeth half an houre after the other to the highest: his declination is just seven-and fiftie degrees. It standeth therefore 33 degrees from the Pole.

The formost or uttermost Horse of the Wagon commeth to the highest 7 houres and 4 minutes after that Syrius is gone through the south: his declination is one-and-fiftie degrees, and nineteene minutes, and standeth from the Pole eight-and-thirtie degrees, and one-and-fortie minutes.

The middlemost and the clearest of the Wayters is declined northward five-and-seventie degrees and one-and-fiftie minutes, and standeth from the Pole 14 degrees and 9 minutes.

NOTA. Touching the north-starre her declination and how it is to be used with the Watchers is hereafter described.

[depiction of dragon's head]

The Dragons Head is formed as this figure declareth:Caput Dra­conis. the Starre most souther­ly that is the clearest, cōmeth at the high­est into the north 11 houres & 5 minutes after that Syrius is past southward, his de­clination is 51 degrees, & 37 min. north­ward, and standeth from the Pole 38 de­grees and 23 minutes.

Cassiopea.

[depiction of the constellation Cassiopeia]

The Image of Cassiopea Cassiopea. sheweth it self beneath the Pole in the north, as in the fi­gure it is shewed: the first star standing in the Chaire com­meth into the north, at the highest, 6 houres and 36 mi­nutes before the great Dogg, his declination is even 57 de­grees northward, and there­fore standeth from the Pole 33 degrees.

Half an houre after that followeth the Brest called Schedir, Schedir. his declination is 54 degrees, & 24 minutes, it standeth therefore from the Pole, 35 degrees and 36 minutes.

Fifteene minutes after that followeth the Starre upon the Hippe, which is declined 58 degrees and 36 minutes, so that it standeth from the Pole, 31 degrees, and 24 minutes.

Seven-and-twentie minutes later followeth the Starre upon the Knee: his declination is 58 degrees, & 10 minutes, and stan­deth from the Pole 31 degrees and 50 minutes.

NOTA. You must understand that whensoever these aforsayd North­starres come into the north at the highest above the Pole: that just 12 houres after, they come at the lowest right under it.

CHAP. VIII. How to finde the houres of the night at all tymes of the Yeere.

IN the Chapter before it is shewed, how a man at all tymes of the yeere shall perfectly know at what houre the Starres, (as wel by day as by night) come into the south or the north Now it is necessarie with all to knowe, how a man by night shal knowe and finde out what houre it is. Whereunto such an In­strument as hereafter is set downe is verie requisite, whereof you may make the like, or els you may prepare this for the pur­pose in manner hereafter following: the undermost and greatest Rondel and peece whereon the twelve moneths are marked, you must cleave upon a plaine round bord, so that (as in this Figure) the first of September be set right under, and the 27 of Februarie right over, and right in the center or middle, make a round hole, wherin you may put a reasonable wodden pinne or coper nayle, which within must be hollowe like a pipe. The other Peece whereon the houres are marked you must cleave upon another board, or peece of pastboard, and in the middle thereof also make another hole, which may goe over the nayle, & winde about it. Lastly make a Ruler of woode or coper (as the figure sheweth you) with a hole also, that it may winde about the hollow nayle, but you must looke that the one end of the Rule doth reach or stand right upon the middle of the hole of the hollowe nayle, that is, upon the center of the whole Instrument. The Instru­ment being thus prepared, if you desire to knowe what houre it is of the night by the Starres, then set the tooth that pointeth out the twelfth houre in the moveable Rōdel where the houres stand, right upon the day of the yeere whereof you desire to knowe the houre, & hold it fast standing in that sorte: after that lift the whole Instrument uppe on high & bowe the uppermost part thereof so much towards you, untill you may see the north Starre through the hollowe naile: but you must understand that the Instrument must be holden so, that the nether end of the foot thereof marked A B may stand like a water-compas. Now when you see the North-starre through the hole, then winde the Rule so long about untill that on the right side of the Rule, you may see the hinder wheeles of the great Wagon; which donne, then the Rule will point unto the houre upon the move­able Rondell what tyme of the night it is. But if it chanceth, that by any lett or hinderance you cannot see the great Wagon, then in steed thereof take the middlemost and lightest of the Watchers, and do in all pointes as aforesayd: but then you must knowe that it will be foure houres and 15 minutes later then the Rule will shew it, by reason that the aforesayd wheeles of the Wagon goe so much before the Watchers.

Here after followeth the figure of the Night-dyall, or No­cturlabium [Page]

[depiction of a nocturnal]

CHAP. IX. Of the Horizon, or the Circle that boundeth the sight.

VVHere the Heavens and the Earth, or the Waters seeme in our sight to meete together, that is called the Horizon, or the Circle-boūding-the-siight, because our sight endeth there, and can goe no further: by our Netherland Sea-farers it is also called the Kimmen. This Circle devideth the Heavens just in two even partes, so that just the one half is seene by us here above, and the other half can not be seene by us, because it is hidden underneath us: which happeneth in this man­ner.

[figure]

The Earth, (as in the first Chapter is shew­ed) standeth as a Center in the middle of the Heavens, the which by reason of the unmeasu­rable quantitie or largenes thereof, is so farre se­parated from th Earth, that the whole thicknes [Page] of the Earth in respect of the Heavens, is no more then a pointe or prick, or at least so litle that it cannot be perceived by our sight, and that which by our sight, along upon the Earth or the Water we can comprehend (which can not reach further then about three Dutch myles, that is tenne English myles) seemeth in our eyes by reason the space is so litle, to be no other then an halfe globe falling perpendicular upon a plaine, so that our sight falleth in the Heaven, as if we stood in the middle point of the World, and sawe right compasse-wise, whereby it falleth out, that just the half of the Heavens is seen by us, and the other half is not seene by us, in like manner as if a man should lay a line o­ver the center of a circle, then the one half of the circle is above, and the other half is just under. All the heavenly lights, as the Sonne, Moone, and Starres (by the turning of the Heavens) com­ming above the Horizon are seen by us, and going downe under it, goe out of our sight.

CHAP. X. Of the Meridian or Midday-circle.

THe Meridian is a circle in the Heavens, which wee must conceive to passe through both the Poles of the World, right over our heads, and crosse-wise through the Equi­noctiall, and to cutte through the Horizon right north & south. The Sonne touching this circle is at the highest: and then it is just noone, or the middle time of the day, & likewise the Starres when they come upon this Circle, they are (like the Sonne) at the highest of the Horizon, and right south, and as soone as they have past it they begin to go downward againe.

CHAP. XI. Of the heigth of the Sonne or Starres, and what it is.

THe Heigth of the Snne or Starres is nothing els but the distance or space, that is betweene the Horizon and the Sonne or Starr it self: which to understand perfectly, you must marke, that we suppose a point or prick to be right above our heads in the Heavens, that is equally distant from the Hori­zon in all places, which point is called the Zenith, or the Head-point: Now seeing that the whole circuite of the Heavens conteyneth 360 degrees, and that the just half thereof is seene above the Horizon, it is certaine that this point called the Ze­nith in all places is above the Horizon 90 degrees, whether you turne East, West, North, or South, or any other way: now when the Sonne riseth above the Horison, and ascendeth higher and higher from it, and commeth toward this point or Zenith, wee say that as many degrees as it is ascended, from the Horizon, to­wards the aforesaid point or Zenith, that the same is the height thereof, as by example, when he is risen half up from the Hori­zon towards the Zenith, then he is 45 degrees high, and if he be risen a third part from the Horizon then he is 30 degrees high, and so forth, the like is also to be understood of the height of the Starres.

CHAP. XII. How to measure or finde the heigth of the Sonne or of the Starres.

[figure]

TO finde the height, the Mathematicians have devised di­vers fitte Instruments, wherof there are two that are most to be used at Sea, which are the Astrolabium, & the com­mon Crosse-staffe, the use of the Astrolabium is plaine and well knowne unto all men, for holding the Instrument by the ring let the Sonne shine through the holes of the eares, then the ut­termost part of the Dyall (counting from belowe upwards) sho­weth how many degrees the Sonne is risen above the Horizon: as the former figure plainely showeth.

The Crosse-staffe is used thus, you must place the end of the Staffe underneath the eye, then you must remove the Crosse to and fro, untill the upper end of the Crosse standeth even upon half the Sonne or Starre, and the under end just with the Hori­zon, and then the Crosse will shewe you upon the Staffe how many degrees there are betweene the Horizon and the Sonne or Starre, that is, how many degrees they are in heigth, so you ac­count after those numbers whereof 90 standeth at the end of the Staffe that is next to your eye, the computation going backward from the other end of the Staffe: for otherwise if you reckon by those numbers that proceed forward from the end next your eye, then it will showe you how many degrees, the Sone or Starre standeth from the Zenith, or Head-point to the Horizon, as you may see by the figure enseuing.

[figure]

CHAP. XIII. How you must make a perfect Crosse-staffe and how you shall marke it.

THe Crosse-staves are often tymes made the one after the other, by imitation, or patterns, and that many times without judgment or knowledge whether the patterne be good or not, whereof notwithstanding a man ought to be verie certaine, for it is a matter of great importance and there­fore I have here set downe two severall wayes easie to be under­stood, how to make the same exquisitely and perfectly, upon good reason and good ground.

Behold in the page following the Figure with the description thereof.

[diagram]

Make an even smoth borde, and past good paper upon it, then darwe a straight line upon one edge or side thereof, as you see in this figure a line marked C A D, then make another line as you se it marcked B C, that B C A be a right & just half square, then take a good pare of Compasses, and set one foot thereof in the Angle marked C, and compasse therewith as you see B E A, so that A E B may be a right quadrant, or fourth-part of a circle, then devide it into two partes, to E, and then devide the other half (which is A E) into 90 partes, or degrees as thus: first devide it into three partes, and then devide each third-part againe into three, & then it will be devided into 9 partes, which donne, de­vide each of them into two partes, and those Devisions or partes devide into five partes, and then it wil be devided into 90 partes. then take a straight line, and lay the one end thereof upon the Center C, & so forth upon everie severall point, which you have devided in the Quadrant, and then drawe lines from the Center C through al the aforesaid pointes, as long as the bord will con­taine them, as you may see in this figure: which dōne then your Instrument is fully made & prepared to marke your Staves ther­upon. Which to doe, with your Compasses take just the half length of your Crosse, and sett the one foot thereof in the Cen­ter C & put the other at F, and doe the like from D right to G, which two pointes or prickes drawe with a straight line unto each other as you see the line F and G, and then marke where the line F G is cut through by the lines that come out of the Center through the degrees or pointes of the quadrant: for those cuttinges through, shew upon the said line the right mar­king of your Crosse-staffe: that is, you must marke your Staffe just as you see that these lines in F G are marked, by the lines that come out of the Center and passe through it, whether the Crosse be long or short, you must followe the same order that you be taught, as in the Figure the line H I is drawne for a shor­ter Crosse then the former, and K L for one that is shorter then that, viz. whose half is just as long as the line C K.

The second manner of framing your Crosse-staffe much ex­celleth the first in perfectnes and curiositie, so you devide it per­fectly with your Compasse, which is donne in this manner. Up­on an hard evē board which is pasted with paper draw a straight line, as long as your Staffe is, and with your Compasse take the just half of the length of your Crosse, whereunto you meane to marke your Staffe, and prick it as many tymes along in the sayd [Page] line as you can: and devide each of the sayd lengthes into tenne-thousand equale partes, then look upon the table hereafter enseuing, which shewe you, how many of those pointes or parts you shall marke for each degree, and that you must doe in manner following: from the end of the Staffe, which you will make the eye-end, prick just the half length of the Crosse, and there make a crosse stroake, from whence prick for everie degree so many of the aforesaid partes as the table enseuing show­eth you. As for example, for the first degree prick 178 partes, for the second 355 partes, for the third 538 partes, for the fourth 724 partes, and so forth: Remembring that you must prick all the lengths of prickes or partes aforesayd, from the aforesaid Crosse stroke, which is marked upon the half length of the Crosse: but if you can not devide the half length of the Crosse into tenne-thou-sand partes, then devide the whole Crosse so, and then take for everie degree half so manye as the table sheweth unto you: and if you can not doe so, devide half the Crosse into a thou­sand partes, and then leave the two hinder letters of the table out, as where you should for the first degree take an hundred-seventie-and-eight partes, take but 17 partes, leaving the last figure out: but if your Crosses be so smale that you can devide the half of them into no smaller then an hundred partes, then leave out the two last figures in the table. But you must understand that the more partes that you de­vide the Crosses into, your markes will fall out so much the better and perfecter.

departes
1176
2355
3538
4724
5913
61106
71303
81504
91708
101918
112131
122349
132572
142799
153032
163270
173514
183764
194019
204281
214550
224826
235108
245399
255697
266003
276318
286643
296976
307320
317675
328040
338418
348807
359210
369626
3710057
3810503
3910965
4011445
4111943
4212460
4312998
4413558
4514142
4614751
4715386
4816051
4916746
5017475
5118293
5219042
5319887
5420777
5521716
5622708
5723759
5824874
5926059
6027321
6128667
6230108
6331653
6433315
6535107
6637046
6739152
6841445
6943955
7046713
7149758
7253137
7356912
7461154
7565958
7671445
7777769
7885144
7993854
80104301
81117062
82133007
83153499
84180811
85219038
86276362
87371885
88561810
891135891
90endlesse.

CHAP. XIIII. Of the cutting of the Crosse-staffe and how a man may help and prevent all the defects of the staffe.

THere being a Crosse-staffe well and exquisitely framed, according to the doctrine of the former chapter: it falleth out that certayne ignorant persons cutt off a peece from the eye-end of the Staffe, about a degree, or a degree & an half, or two degrees long, and can give no other reason of that their doing but that it must be so, and that they have experience that it ought so to be. But questionlesse seeing they prove by their experience that they do not finde their measuring with uncutt Staves perfect and right as it should be, the fault thereof is not in the Crosse-staves uncutt, but in themselves, for that they knowe not how to use the Staffe aright, nor understand not the true ground thereof. Others that will seeme wiser then the for­mer, give a reason thereof: to wit, that the Staffe must be cutte, because of the hollownes of the eye, for that otherwise the Staff cannot come to stand so that the end thereof be conjoyned to the middle point or center of the eye or sight: this reason hath some showe of truth, but notwithstanding is alike untrue & er­roneus: for the Staffe may verie well be sett, either on the inner­most or outtermost corner of the eye, so that the sight of the eye may fall to answer just to the end of the Staffe: that this is truth we will prove with good reason as followeth.

Sette the great Crosse with the middlemost upon like de­grees: to witte each upon such as for that purpose are marked upon the Staffe: then applie the Staffe (the Crosses so firmely remayning) unto your eye in such manner, (whether it be on the innermost or uttermost corner it is all one) as that you di­scerne the endes of the Crosses both above & beneath just over each other, in forme as this figure specifieth. If then you drawe straight lines by the endes of the Crosses A B and D C they shall meete just in the middle point of your sight. And inas­much as the Crosses are placed upon like degrees, the lines afore­said shall meet just upon the end of the Staffe; seeing that that end of the Staffe representeth the center of the quadrant where­by your staffe is marked.

[diagram]

So then the foresaid lines or endes of the Crosses answer both just upon the ende of the Staffe, and also upon the sight: so that it followeth necessarily and appeareth evidently, that the ende of the Staffe & the sight meet in one: or to speak properly, both of them stand just in the center of the quadrant.

Therefore whensoever with the Crosse-staffe you wil take the height of the Sonne or of any Starre, then observe diligently: how many degrees it is elevated above the Horizon: and place the two Crosses upon so many degrees: then applie the Staffe to your eye in such manner as that you may see the endes of the Crosses just over each other, according as is taught before: in such forme then as you finde the Staffe to stand to your eye, shall you place the Staffe (taking away one of the Crosses) when you desire to measure according to such height: this is a sure rule which will never faile, neither can you possibly misse if you follow it.

CHAP. XV. Of the breadth of the Landes.

THe breadth of Landes or Countries is no other, then the distance or widenes that is betweene the said Landes and the Equinoctiall Line, which is reckoned in a double [Page] manner, that is northerly and southerly, to the number of 90. Such Lands or Countries as lye right under the Equinoctiall Line have no breadth: but such as lye northward from it, have northerly breadth, and they that lye southerly, have southerly breadth.

Example.

The Iland of S. Thomas, in the River Gaban in Guinea lyeth right under the Line, and therefore hath no breadth, neither nor­therly nor southerly.

The Cap S. Vincent in Spaine lyeth northward from the Line 37 degrees, and therefore the northern breadth of Cap S. Vincent is 37 degrees.

The point of Lezaret in England lyeth northward from the Line 50 degrees, therefore the north breadth of Lezaret is 50 degrees.

The Cap de bona Esperance lyeth southward from the Line 34½ degrees, therefore the southerly breadth of Cap de bona Esperance is 34 1/ [...]. degrees. In like manner you must understand and reckon other Landes, Countryes and Townes.

CHAP. XVI. Of the height of Landes and Countries, and what it is.

THe height and breadth of Landes & Countries although that in them selves they are divers thinges, yet they are alwaies one like unto the other: Any Countrie being si­tuated under the breadth of 30 degrees, lyeth also in the heigth 30 degrees, which by Sea-faring men is taken without difference, but what it is, or what it hath in it or signifieth fewe men un­derstand, and yet it behoveth a Sea-faring man, that seeketh for the height of any Countries, to be expert therein, for that no man without it can well understand how any Instrument (whe­ther it be Astralabium, or Crosse-staffe, no nor the Sea-com­passe it self) should wel be used: for that these things are al built upon one foundation, & like a chaine hang one upon the other. But it may be that some man will object and say, that there are many Pilots which do not well understand such things, and yet are able to goe directly unto divers places, whither they desire to sayle: which I confesse to be true: but tell me, how many times are they deceived? how manie times are they in great doubt and fear? and how seldome dare they trust unto the height which they have taken or reckoned, whē they are to seek out any coun­trie there by? how often tymes hath it heretofore happened, that for want of such knowledge, ships have sayled out of their way either behinde England or upon France, which thought to passe through the chanell between England and France, and that in so short and well knowne, and common sayled water, as to come out of Spaine or France? what would such men doe, if they should passe the Line, and were to seeke or finde out certaine I­lands? or that after they had sayled up and downe the Seaes cer­taine moneths together, should then seek out for Lande? but I am of this opinion which I knowe everie man will grant, that it is much better and more assured to goe a way being guided by his owne eye-sight, then like a blinde man to be led by another, and knoweth not whether that other seeth well or not: but to come againe to our matter, touching the height of Countries, it is no other but the height of the Pole above the Horizon, that is to say, so many degrees as the Pole in any Land is lifted up above the Horizō, so much is the height of such a Countrie: and this height agreeth alwaies with the breadth as aforesaid. In the 10 chapter it is shewed, that wheresoever a man goeth or turneth, alwaies the one half of the Heavens sheweth it self a­bove the Horizon and the other half is hidden from us: in the first Chapter it is said that the two Poles stand right one against the other, whereby it is evidently to be understood, that when­soever a man being upon the earth is right under the Equinocti­all Line, that then both the Poles of the World, lye right in the Horizon, one in the south and the other in the north: & as much as a man travaileth northward from the Equinoctiall Line, and winneth breadth northerly, so much the north Pole riseth above the Horizon: and the south Pole contrarie wise goeth so much under: & on the contrarie, as many degrees as a man goeth from the Equinoctiall Line southward, and winneth breadth south­ward, so much the south Pole riseth above the Horizon, and the north Pole goeth so much under: which may easily be under­stood by the Figure hereafter following.

[digram]

In this figure the undermost rondel that turneth about, signi­fieth the Heavens, N the north pole, S the south Pole, AE the Equinoctiall, the uppermost edge of the half moveable rundle, signifieth the Horizon, the one half of the Heavens is above it, and the other half just under it, the round bale in the middle si­gnifieth the Earth, whereon you see a litle man, that may be tur­ned upon the Earth southward and northward.

Now perfectly to marke and perceive that which is before written, that is to knowe what heigth is, & that it alwaies agre­eth with the breadth, bring the litle man upon the Earth-globe right under the Equinoctiall, that is to say, that it have no breadth, neither northward nor southward, then you shal see that both the Poles lye just with the Horizon, & that neither of them both are elevated above it, nor depressed under it: and with all you shall see that they that dwell under the Equinoctial have no heigth or elevation of the Pole, nor yet any breadth. But if you remove the man so much northward that he goeth tenne degrees upon the Earth, that is, that he commeth tenne degrees upon the north beadth, you shall see that the north-Pole shall be raised or elevated tenne degrees above the Horizon in the north, and the south Pole shall goe tenne degrees under the Horizon: and if you remove the man upon the Earth more northerly, as thirtie, fortie, or fiftie degrees, the north Pole will also be so much elevated, and the south Pole to the contrarie so much depressed under the Horizon: so that if you turne the man upon the Earth to ninetie degrees, then the north Pole also will be elevated ninetie degrees, that is the Pole wil stand right above his head, and the Equinoctiall will joyne with the Horizon in one circle: that which thus is said of the Elevating of the north Pole, is also in the same man­ner to be understood of the south Pole: for if like­wise you move the man upon the Earth in the figure toward the south, the south Pole will be elevated a­bove the Horizon, as much as the man in breadth goeth southward, and the north Pole will goe so much under the Horizon.

One thing is herein to be noted, that as much as the Pole ri­seth above the Horizon just so much the Equinoctiall goeth un­der it, and when the Pole goe [...]h under the Equinoctiall riseth a­gaine in equall proportion.

But above all you must marke, that the number of the Poles elevation added to the heigth of the Equinoctiall alwayes make even 90 degrees; so that when the Pole is elevated thirtie degrees in the north, the Equinoctiall is elevated sixtie degrees in the south: but if the south Pole be elevated above your Horizon [Page] twentie degrees, the Equinoctiall will be elevated in the north seventie degrees, which is clearly understood and shewed in this manner: we alwaies see half the heavens above the Horizon, (as aforesaid) which is twice ninetie degrees, from the south to the Zenith or the point just over our heads, and from the Zenith to the Horizon in the north. Now seeing that betweene the Equi­noctiall and the Pole there are alwaies ninetie degrees, (as is shewed in the second Chapter) it followeth that that which is beneath the Pole and the Equinoctiall, maketh also ninetie de­grees: therefore when we knowe the heigth of the Equinocti­all, and take it out of ninetie, that which resteth over is alwaies the heigth of the Pole. This also may be seene in the figure aforesaid.

CHAP. XVII. How to finde the heigth of the Pole by the Sonne.

TO finde the heigth of the Pole by the Sonne, one thing is specially to be marked, to wit, whether you are north­ward or southward from the Sonne, whether the Sonne standeth northward or southward from you is easily knowne, when you are in such a place upon the Earth as is farre from the Line, or from the Sonne, but when the Sonne is neere almost above your head, then you can not well see it with your eye, therefore set a compasse before you, that you may see where north and south is, then take your Astrolabium, and set it so that the one edge thereof stand right south, and the other north, and then you shall see at a haires breadth, whether the Sonne being at the heigth, standeth northward or southward from the head-point or Zenith: if then you will seeke the heigth of the Pole, when you are on the north side of the Sonne, that is when the Sonn is southward from you, then take the just heigth first, and as much as the declination of the Sonne is northward, take it out of your heigth & that which resteth is the heigth of the Equinoctiall in the south,With nor­therly de­clination. which subtracted out of ninetie, (as in the former Chapter is declared) then you have the heigth of the north Pole.

Example.

[digram]

In this figure let P be the north Pole, and G the south Pole, E H the Equinoctiall, A B the Horizon, Z the Zenith, and D the Sonne: let the heigth of the Sonne B D be sixtie degrees above the Horizon: the northerly declination D E eight de­grees: if then you take D E eight degrees frō B D the heigth of the Sonne, there will rest B E two-and fiftie degrees, which is the heigth of the Equinoctiall, which taken out of ninetie de­grees, resteth eight-and-thirtie degrees, for the heigth of the north Pole A P, as in the sixteenth Chapter is shewed.

If the declination be southerly, then adde it to the heigth a­foresaid taken: and then if the addition be lesse then ninetie,With sou­therly de­clination. then looke upon the heigth of the Line in the south which taken out of 90, as aforsaid, it leaveth you the heigth of the north Pole.

[diagram]

Let the height of the Sonne be D B 40 degrees, the souther­ly declination of the Sonne E D 20 degrees, then adde E D 20 degrees, to D B 40 degrees, it maketh E B 60 degrees, the height of the Equinoctiall, which subtracted from 90, as E G the distance betweene the Equinoctiall and the south Pole, then there will rest 30 for B G, that is, as much as the south Pole is gone under the Horzion: as before is shewed, so much as the one Pole is under the Horizon, just so much is the other a­bove it, the north Pole P shall here be elevated 30 degrees.

But if the height of the Sonne being added unto the declina­tion, maketh more then 90 degrees, then you must understand, that the Equinoctiall is northward from your head just so much as the aforesaid addition is more then 90 & so consequently the south Pole also shall be so much elevated.

Example.

Looke into the figure next following, wherein let the height be D B 80 degrees, and the southerly declination E D 18 de­grees,

[diagram]

then if you adde E D 18 degrees to B D 80 degrees, the height of the Sonne, there will be 98 degrees for B E, seeing then that from the Horizon B, to the Zenith Z (that is the point in Heaven right above our heads) is just 90 degrees, (as in the twelfth Chapter is taught) it followeth that E the Equinoctiall is eight degrees northward from the Zenith Z, and so 82 degrees elevated in the north, above the Horizon: when E A is taken out of 90, there resteth 8 degrees for the heigth of the south Pole G, above the Horizon B, then you must understand, that you are between the Line and the Sonne.

How you shall finde the height of the Pole, when you are southward from the Sonne.

VVHen you perceive that you are southward from the Sonne, that is when the Sōne standeth north­ward frō you, first (as beforesaid) take the height of the Sonne: then if the declination be southward,With sou­therly de­clination. take it out of your heigth which you have found, & then you shal have the height of the Equinoctiall, which subtracted from 90 it sheweth under what height you are, southward from the Line.

Example.

Behold the figure above standing.

Let A D be the height of the Sonne in 64 degrees: the sou­therly declination E D 16 degrees: which subtracted from AD the height of the Sonne, there remaineth for A E 48 degrees, the height of the Equinoctiall in the north, which subtracted out of 90, then the height of the south Pole G B will be 42 degrees.

If the declination be northerly, then adde it to the height found out, if then the addition be lesse then ninetie it sheweth you the height of the Equinoctiall, which taken out of 90, you finde the height of the south Pole.

Example.

With nor­therly de­clination.Looke on the figure with his circles as it followeth hereafter, let A D the height of the Sonne in the north be 50 degrees, and D E the northerly declination 15 degrees, then adde E D 15 to D A 50 degrees, then you have 65 degrees, for A E the height of

[diagram]

of the Equinoctiall, then GB the height of the south Pole is 25 degrees, for as in the sixteenth Chapter it is shewed, the height of the Equinoctiall E A with the height of the Pole G B alwaies make 90 degrees.

But if the height and the declination of the Sonne added to­gether, make more then 90, you must then note that the Line is southward frō your Zenith, as much as that number is above 90.

Example.

Looke on the figure in the page following, let the height of the Sonne AD in the north be 84 degrees, the declination E D 21 degrees, adde them together, then you have AE 105 degrees, which is the distance betweene the Equinoctiall E and the Ho­rizon in the north: now marke that AE is 105, and P the Pole, and E the Equinoctiall are even 90 degrees from each other: then it followeth that P from A is 15 degrees, that is the height of the north Pole above the Horizon, and so much you must be northward from the line, and you must also marke that you are betweene the Line and the Sonne.

[diagram]

How you shall finde the heigth when you are right under the Sonne.

Being just vnder the Sonne.IF you understand the rules before going well then this is ea­sie to be found. If you be right under the Sonne, that is, when the Sonne is elevated ninetie degrees, then you are even as many degrees northward or southward from the Line, as the Sonne hath northerly or southerly declination.

The explication thereof.

Suppose that you finde the heigth of the Sonne above the Horizon to be ninetie degrees, and that it is declined toward the north sixteene degrees, then are you also sixteene degrees north­ward from the Line, & the north Pole shall be so much elevated.

But if the Sonne hath no declination, that is when it standeth even in the Line, then you must understand, that you are also right under the Line, and so both the Poles are on the Horizon without any elevation.

How you shal finde the heigth of the Sonne northward in such places whereas it goeth not downe.

THey that in Sommer sayle to Moscovia, in the moneths May, Iune, and Iulie comming about the North Cape, finde that the Sonne at that tyme goeth not down there,Where the Sonne go­eth not downe. but is alwaies above the Horizon, so that a man according to the rules aforesaid, may not onely seeke the heigth of the Pole by the Sonne, when it is highest southward, but also when it is northward at the lowest, in this manner following. Take the heigth of the Sonne with the Crosse-staffe, when it is lowest in the north, and adde thereto the filling of the declination (which is such a number as together with the declination make ninetie, or so much as the Sonne standeth from the Pole) and you shall finde the just heigth of the Pole: or if you subtract the heigth of the Sonne from his declination then you shall finde how deepe the Equinoctiall is depressed northward under the Hori­zon, or in the south elevated above the Horizon, which subtra­cted from ninetie will likewise leave the heigth of the Pole, both these waies I will declare apart.

Example.

[diagram]

Marke the Figure aforegoing, where let B D be the height of the Sonne above the Horizon, in the north 7 degrees, H D the declination of the Sonne 20 degrees, then D P shall the fil­ling of the declination, or the distance of the Sōne from the Pole be 70 degrees: now if you adde P D the filling of the declinati­on 70, to B D the height of the Sonne, you shall finde 77 de­grees for B P the height of the Pole.

Another example.

If you take the height of the Sonne A D 7, from H D 20 the declination of the Sonne there will remaine 13 for H B, and so much is the Aequinoctiall in the north depressed under the Ho­rizon, which if you subtract out of H P 90, there remaineth for A P 77, the height of the Pole as above said.

CHAP. XVIII. How you shall finde the height by the Starres.

YOu must followe the same rule that is taught for the Sonne, touching all the fixed Starres in the south, with­out any difference, you may also doe the like with all Starres hard by the north, which goe round about the Pole, as the great Wagon, the Waiters, and such like: but seeing you may do it with lesse labour & trouble, I wil shew you the shortest & best way to doe it: first therefore it is necessarie for you to know, how many degrees they stand from the Pole, which in the table enseuing you may see.

 deg.mi.
The hinder wheele of the Wagon that standeth farthest north is situated from the Pole269
The hinder wheele of the Wagon that standeth farthest south is from the Pole3132
The forewheele most north is from the Pole3048
The forewheele most south is from the Pole346
The nearest horse to the Wagon is from the Pole3153
The middle horse of the Wagon is from the Pole330
The foremost horse of the Wagon is from the Pole3841
The middlemost or clearest watcher is from the Pole149
The tayle of the Swanne is from the Pole465
The brest of Cassiopea Schedir, is from the Pole3536
The clearest starre in Perseus side is from the Pole4136
The Goate Hircus or Capella is from the Pole4429

Whensoever these starres stand right above Leyen or the North-starre, then you must subtract the declinations aforesaid: but when they come right under Leyen, then you must adde it, and so you shall have the right height.

Example.

The middlemost watcher standing right above Leyen I finde to be high above the Horizō 52 degrees, from whence I subtract 14 degrees 9 minutes, (for so much he is distant from the Pole right above) then there resteth 37 degrees 51 minutes. Comming to another place and finding the same Starre to stand right under the North-starre, above the Horizon 43 degrees, I adde thereun­to 14 degrees 9 minutes, & then I finde 57 degrees 9 minutes for the height of the Pole: in like sort you must doe with the rest.

Marke.

That the declinatiō of the Starres, which we have here & also in the seventh chapter set downe, doe not agree, and fall out a­like, with that which we have set downe in our Degree-bookes of Anno 1605: the reason is that these are placed according to the yeere of our Lord 1608 and 1609 as it is said in the aforesaid Chapter, but in the aforesaid Degree-bookes, they are placed ac­cording to Anno 1600, whereby you may partly see the altera­tion of the declination of the fixed Starres.

An admonition how to take the height.

THe Sonne & the Starres cōming neare unto the Horizon shine and shewe themselves alwaies to be higher then na­turally they are, and you shall alwaies take them higher: which happeneth by meanes of the vapours & exhalatiōs, which by reason of the heat of the Sonne continually rise up from the earth: and the nearer the heavenly lights approch unto the Ho­rizon, the more are they marked of us, in regard that the afore­said vapours and exhalations the nearer they approch unto the Horizon the thicker they shewe, and by that meanes the heaven­ly lights seeme higher in our sight. The Sonne standing upon the Horizon shineth 34 min. higher in our sight then naturally he is, & the starres about half a deg, which they loose by litle and litle by rising up frō the Horizō, the Sōne to 30 deg, & the Starres to 20 deg. high: but how much that may import in severall heights [Page] as by long and much curious observation hath by the aforesaid Tycho Brahe bene found out, you shall see by these Tables fol­lowing.

A table of the Sonnes Refraction, or rising up, by occasion of vapours or exhalations.
The Sonne be­ing high0 degreesshineth34 minuteshigher then it is indeed.
1 degreesshineth26 minutes
2 degreesshineth20 minutes
4 degreesshineth15 minutes
7 degreesshineth13 minutes
10 degreesshineth10 minutes
16 degreesshin [...]th7 minutes
23 degreesshineth3 minutes
32 degreesshineth1 minutes
A Table of the Starres refraction or rising up, by occasion of vapours or exhalations.
The fix­ed Starres being high0 degreesshine30 minuteshigher then they are indeed.
1 degreesshine22 minutes
2 degreesshine15 minutes
4 degreesshine11 minutes
7 degreesshine8 minutes
11 degreesshine5 minutes
15 degreesshine3 minutes

This is requisite to be well marked by them that sayle farre northward, and finde the Sonne nere unto the Horizon: for it may differ half a degree, if you use it in the north at the lowest, and in the south at the highest.

This may peradventure by some (because they never heard of

[depiction of a tub of water]

it) be rejected, and not beleeved: but the proofe therof is easie to be made: he that will not beleeve it before he seeth it, let him take a payle or tubbe full of water, and thrust a staffe aslope into it, and he shall see that the staffe will shewe crooked, or as it were broken, as you see it figured here. The reason hereof is, that the ende of the staffe which is under the water, by meanes of the water seemeth to lift it self higher to our sight then it is.

If you will see and marke it better in another manner, put a peece of mony, or some thing els in an emptie paile, or tubbe, & then goe or steppe so farre back, that you loose the sight of the mony, and stand still there, then let another man fill the paile or tubbe full of water, and the peece of mony will be so much ele­vated or lifted up, that you shal see it a good waie above the side of the paile or tubbe, where as before you could not see it: and in such sorte the heavenly lights that are neere the Horizon, by meanes of the vapours and exhalations, are lifted up.

CHAP. XIX. Of the North-starre, and how you shall finde the Height thereby.

AL fixed Starres as in the seventh Chapter is declared, with the tyme do alter their declination, some increase, and some deminish, one more thē the other, the North-starre at this tyme is one of those, which is most subject to changing, which in Anno 1600 stood from the Pole two degrees 50½ mi­nutes, and in the yeere 1700 it wil stand two degrees and 16½ mi­nutes, so that everie three yeeres it commeth a minute nearer un­to the Pole, in Anno 1608 it stoode from the Pole two degrees 48 minutes, and thereon we have here made our reckoning, if then you will know the height by the North-starre, when it is right under the Pole, then you must adde two degrees and 48 minutes, to the height which shall be found by the Crosse-staffe, so it be right above the Pole (that is at the highest) then you must subtract two degrees 48 minutes, and then you shall have the right height, but to knowe when it is right under the pole at the lowest, then looke when the great Wagon standeth right un­der the North-starre or Leyen, if you take a lead or stick, and let it hang in your sight right upon Leyen, and the said line or stick also hangeth right between the Wagon and the horses, then Leyen is right above the Pole at the highest: to the contrarie, when the Wagon standeth above Leyen, and a Line is hanged between the Wagon and the horses, & hangeth right over Ley­en, then Leyen is right under the Pole at the lowest. This also may be marked by the Starre that standeth in the brest of Cas­siopea, [Page] for when it standeth right under Leyen, then Leyen is right under the Pole at the lowest, and when it is right above Leyen, then Leyen is at the highest above the Pole. But to know the Starres that are in the brest of Cassiopea, you must under­stand,

[diagram]

that it the second of five or the highest Starres that stand in Cassiopea: or if you take a staffe and hold it thwartwise, with one ende right between the Wagon & the horses, & the middle part over the north Starre, then the other end will show right upon the said Starre, which stande [...]h in the brest of Cas­siopea, which will easily be understood by this figure.

N is the north Starre: P, is the north Pole: W, is the Wagon: and C, are the Starres of Cassiopea, whereof B, is the brest.

This is a certaine and a ge­nerall rule which by no meanes can faile and in al pla­ces of the Earth (where we may see & use the north Star) is without any alteration.

How you must use the North starre, when you take the Watchers upon the four chief strokes in the Compasse.

AL Seafaring men commonly use the north Starre when they take the Watchers upon one of the eight-quarter strokes of the Compasse, whereunto they have certaine tables to knowe how much the north Starre standeth upon eve­rie stroke of the compasse either under or above the Pole, that is how many they shall adde or subtract to or from each Starre. In most part or the bookes made for Seafaring it is shewed, that when the Watchers stand in the east, that then the North Starre standeth beneath the Pole a degree and an half, some say a degree and 40 minutes: and again when the Watchers stand in the west, that then the North Starre standeth as much (that is a degree & an half) above the Pole. Now if East and West were used and understood by Seafaring men; when the middlemost Watcher is just East and West with the North-starre, & that generally in all heights & places without any difference, certainely they should be much deceived by such rule and custome, for such working is not generall, but in each height severall, and so working in that manner they must use severall tables. The North-starre is alwaies more under the Pole when the Watchers stand in the east, then he is above the Pole when the Watchers stand in the west, as in the table following you may see, being about the Equinoctiall it should not differ much, but there a man can not use it: but as soone as you sayle northward, & leave the Equinoctial Line, then it beginneth to alter, and the more northerly that you goe, the more it differeth, so that at last, before you come to the height of 80 degrees, and that the Watchers come to stand in the west, the North Starre is a great deale under the Pole, how much this may differ upon one str [...]ke, it may be reckoned by this example. When you are under the height of 20 degrees, and that the Wat­chers stand in the west, that is when the middlemost Watcher in the west, standeth just as high above the Horizon as the North-starre, then the North-starre shal stand above the Pole one degree and two minutes: but comeing under the height of 80 degrees, and that the middlemost Watcher standeth in the west just as high as the North-starre, then the North-starre shall stand 35 minutes beneath the Pole, which with the former differeth verie neare two whole degrees, & that upon one stroke. And although two such places are farre distant one from the other, notwith­standing hereby it may easily be perceived and understood by men of judgment that this alteration, as you sayle from the one place unto the other, by litle & litle encreaseth. Many men here­in note a great difference, because thereby they cānot gesse right, and yet can not understand what the cause therof is, so that some of them to mend it cutt off a peece of their Crosse-staffe, others make themselves tables according to their owne fantasies, one thus much, the other so much, yet without any ground or un­derstanding, so that in their need, they dare not trust to the [...]r owne doings. Others for this cause wholly reject the North-starre, [Page] esteeming it altogether unfit to take the height by: but that is done for want of understāding, for having good tables to that purpose it is as fit for use as any other starr, & to the end that mē should use it with good securitie, without any fault, I have (for the good of al seafaring men) to that end collected, & (notwith­out great labour) perfectly made a new table, wherein men may truly see, how without any fault they may use the North-star by the 4 chief points of the Compasse, that is, South, North, East & West, the rest of the points or strokes, to wete, northwest, south­east, southwest, and northeast, I leave out wittingly and willing­ly, for a man can not place any certaine marke, whereby they may make a just gesse, whensoever the watchers stand upō those strokes, so that for that cause they are subject to more falshood, and therefore it is thought good that men should not use them.

How much the North-starre goeth under or above the Pole, when you set the Watchers upon the four principal points of the Compasse, and that upon different heights.

Vpon the height of 10 degrees.

VVhen the watchers stand in the east, then the Northstarre is under the Pole 1 degree 30 minutes.

When the watchers stand in the north then Leyen is be­neath the Pole 2 degrees 23 minutes.

When the watchers stand in the west then Leyen is above the Pole 1 degree 25 minutes.

When the watchers stand in the south then the North-starre is above the Pole 2 degrees 24 minutes.

Vpon the height of 20 degrees.

When the watchers stand in the east then the North-starr is un­der the Pole 1 degree 33 minutes.

When the watchers stand north then Leyen is under the Pole 2 degrees 23 minutes.

When the watchers stand west then Leyen is above the Pole 1 degree 21 minutes.

When the Watchers stand south then Leyen is above the Pole 2 degrees 24 minutes.

Vpon the height of 30 degrees.

When the watchers stand east then Leyen is beneath the Pole 1 degree 37 minutes.

When the watchers stand north then Leyen is beneath the Pole 2 degrees 23 minutes.

When the watchers stand west, then Leyen is above the Pole 1 degree 16 minutes.

When the watchers stand south then Leyen is above the Pole 2 degrees 24 minutes.

Vpon the height of 40 degrees.

When the watchers stand east, then Leyen is beneath the Pole 1 degree 41 minutes.

When the watchers stand north, then Leyen is beneath the Pole 2 degrees 23 minutes.

When the watchers stand west, then Leyen is above the Pole 1 degree 11 minutes.

When the watchers stand south, then Leyen is above the Pole 2 degrees 24 minutes.

Vpon the height of 50 degrees.

When the watchers stand east, then Leyen is beneath the Pole 1 degrees 47 minutes.

When the watchers stand north, then Leyen is beneath the Pole 2 degrees 22 minutes.

When the watchers stand west, then Leyen is above the Pole 1 degrees 4 minutes.

When the watchers stand south, then Leyen is above the Pole 2 degrees 25 minutes.

Vpon the height of 60 degrees.

When the watchers stand east then Leyen is beneath the Pole 1 degrees 55 minutes.

When the watchers stand north then Leyen is beneath the Pole 2 degrees 21 minutes.

When the watchers stand west then Leyen is above the Pole 53 minutes.

When the watchers stand south then Leyen is above the Pole 2 degrees 26 minutes.

Vpon the height of 70 degrees.

When the watchers stand east, then Leyen is beneath the Pole 2 degrees 8 minutes.

VVhen the watchers stand north then Leyen is beneath the Pole 2 degrees 20 minutes.

VVhen the watchers stand west then Leyen is above the Pole 32 minutes.

VVhen the watchers stand south then Leyen is above the Pole 2 degrees 27 minutes.

Vpon the height of 80 degrees.

When the watchers stand east, then Leyen is beneath the Pole 2 degrees 37 minutes.

VVhen the watchers stand north then Leyen is beneath the Pole two degrees 17 minutes.

VVhen the watchers stand west then Leyen is beneath the Pole 35 minutes.

VVhen the watchers stand south, then Leyen is above the Pole two degrees 30 minutes.

These certaine and true rules being well understood, everie man may easily gesse, how he shall deale with other heights that fall betweene those heights before set downe: as for example, if you will knowe how much the North-starre standeth beneath the Pole, when the watchers stand east, at the height of 45 de­grees, first looke how much it is at the height of 50 degrees, and you shall finde 1 degree 47 minutes, and then at the height of 40 degrees, and you shall finde 1 degree 41 minutes, & for that 45 minutes is the middle height betweene 50 and 40, take the middlemost between 47 and 41, and you shall have one degree 44 minutes, & so much shal Leyen stand beneath the Pole, when the watchers stand in the east, at the height of 45 deg, in like sort you must do for al other places, & you shal faile litle or nothing

NOTE. That when it is here said, VVhen the watchers stand in the east, you must thereby understand, when the middlemost or clea­rest of the watchers standeth east, as high above the Horizon, as the North-starre, as the like is said of the watchers standing in the west, you must thereby understand, when the middlemost of the watchers standeth west even as high as Leyen: and when it is said when the watchers stand north, thereby is meant, when the middlemost watcher standeth right above Leyen: and in the south, that is right under Leyen: for, for all such measures and taking of heights, these tables are just and perfectly made, and so are they most assuredly to be reckoned upon the strokes of the compasse.

CHAP. XX. How manie leagues a man may sayle upon everie stroke before he winne or loose a degree in height, & also how many leagues you are then without the Meridian or south and north line from which you sayled.

  • VVhen you sayle rightsouth or north, then you sayle for a degree 20 leagues.
  • And you stay under the same Meridian, that is, you goe neither more easterly nor westerly then at first you did.
  • Vpon the stroke of south and by west, or north and by west, you sayle for a degree 20½ leagues
  • And then you have left the Meridian or the south and north Line, under which you were at the first 4 leagues.
    • South-south-west, & n.n.e. you sayle for a degree 21 leagues.
  • And then you are out of the aforesaid Line 8 leagues.
    • South w. by south, & n.e. by n. you sayle for a deg. 24 leagues.
  • And without the Meridian 12½ leagues.
    • South-west & north-east for one degree 28 leagues.
  • And without the Meridian 20 leagues.
    • S.w. by w. & n.e. by n. you sayle for one degree 36 leagues.
  • Then you are without the Meridian 29 leagues.
    • W.s.w. & e.n.e. you sayle for a degree 52½ leagues.
  • Then you are without the Meridian 48 leagues.
    • W. by south, & east by n. you sayle for a degree 103 leagues.
  • And then you are without the Meridian 100 leagues.
  • Sayling east or west you neither winne nor loose, but you keepe alwaies in one height.

CHAP. XXI. What is necessarie for a Seafaring man or Pilot further to know, together with an instruction to all young Seafaring men, that desire to be good Pilots.

THese aforesaid rules although that they are so necessarie & needefull for a Pilote to know, that without the know­ledge of them he can be no good Pilot, to goe anie long voyage, yet are they not sufficient to make a good Pilot, that is al are not good Pilots that understand them well. For first a good Pilot must besides them be expert at Sea, as the principall thing, which no man can learne by any speculation, but by his own ex­perience, and dealing in tyme he shall obteine it, wherby he shall [Page] know perfectly to dispose al things that occurre in the art of Na­vigation. It is most necessarie and convenient for him to knowe the Landes, and how they lye to Sea-ward, how f [...]rre, and upon what strokes of the compasse, the Pointes, Havens, and Rivers, are distant one from the other, and specially he must be perfect in reckoning his Tydes, that he may knowe everie where what Moone maketh an high water in that place, that when he would enter into any Haven or place, where he can not get in at a lowe water, then he may stay till it be half flood, or till it be high wa­ter, as tyme serveth, that he may sayle in, and save both ship and goods. It is also verie necessarie for him to knowe how the Ebbes and Floods fall out, whether it be along by, or against the Land, thereby to know when the winde is strong, whether he may lye in the streame, or goe against the streame, thereby to know whe­ther it will be any hinderance or furtherance unto him, whereon manie tymes there consisteth much. And also when a man is in the winde, whether it be in the North-sea under England, Hol­land, Flanders, or in the Chanel of the sea, under England, that he should knowe how to set his tydes and course, that he might stoppe his tides. All these things old experienced Pilots, ought willingly to shewe and learne young men that are desirous and zealous to learne the art of Seafaring, and not to hide any such thing from them, as some men doe without reason, who goe out of the waie with their Instruments, as Crosse-staves, Astrolabium and Compasses, and will not suffer the common saylers to see their work. This by some is done upon pride and unwillingnes, because they would keepe the art & knowledge onely to them­selves, and by some because they understand not their procee­dings wel, & therfore are in feare to be shamed, but let not young Seafaring men, and such as are desirous to knowe the art & cun­ning of Seafaring, for that cause leave off their studie therein, & to that end when you sayle out of any river or haven, you must reckon everie course along the reach from tonne to tonne, or frō beacon to beacon, which you must keepe well and perfectly and write it in a booke, and some times drawe the situation in man­ner of a Carde, and when you begin to leave the Land, then you must take good heede, of the Capes, Points, Towres, and other markes, and how the mouth of the Haven reacheth into the Sea, what deapth is at the enterance of the Haven, and how deepe it is both within and without, cast out your lead often tymes, and let it not rest when you are in the Haven nor in the Streame, whereby in sayling out and into the river, you shall knowe what countries are flattes, or shoring that you may beware of them, & when you are a comming without the Land, then you must ear­nestly marke what hilles or downes lie there aboutes, what chur­ches, towers, castels, or other markes stand upon them, and those you must note and counterfeit with a pēne upon severall strokes of the compasse, as they change their forme of standing by say­ling along by them, oftentymes using the lead, all which being perfectly noted, it will be a great help unto you to know the said Landes, when you come thither again.

Likewise when you passe by any strange Countrie, and sayle along so near by it that you may plainly see it, then take the coū ­terfeit or forme thereof with a penne, to knowe in what manner they shewe themselves upō such strokes of the compasse, & there let the lead fall, to see what depth and ground is there, which for your memorie you must also note, for that which you marke in that manner will staye longer by you, then that which you have but simplie seen, and heard of of an other. But when you come against any Pointes or Havens, where you meane to lade or un­lade, there you must take good heede unto your course, & marke how you sayle by that Land or Haven, and when you see any markes or towres, you must note them with a penne, and bring the markes and pointes both well together, thereby to goe right into the river, & to guide you by the lead til you be in, & when you are within and at an anker, then visite all the pointes of the Haven, and note them downe with a penne cardewise, how they reach outward and inward, that when you come thither againe, you might enter into the same place againe, and knowe the situ­ation thereof, but when you are in the open Sea, and the winde against you so that you lye by the winde, both on the one side and the other, then you must marke how long you must lye on the one bought or on the other, and when you must turne. Be­sides this you must specially note how much the ship goeth for­ward, and what you may sayle in one meale, & how the ship ly­eth, to the which ende you shall some times let the lead, or the lead line with a peece of wood hang out behinde, to see how much the ship windeth, and how much the waves casteth it out of the right course that it should hold. This you must doe upon your compasse everie evening and morning, and note it in your memoriall, that you may cast it over and peruse it againe in the Cardes, whether in noting or marking it, you should have chan­ced to have mistaken your self. You must likewise take heed to your steering, to see how much you must winde on either side in [Page] your Carde. And further when you finde a good & sure height, by your Crosse-staffe or Astrolabium, that will give you a good securitie of your right gessing, so that your compassing agreeth also with it, and then you shall certainely see in your Carde how all pointes and Countries lye from you, but if your gessing and your height agree not together, then you must warily correct your gessing according to your height, and see as near as you can whether you faile either to litle or to much in your gessing, and all this must be done with good skill and understanding in your Carde, and when you come to the place where you wil seeke for Land, then without doubt you shall land in such a place as your Instrument & good gessing shewe you.

To learne to knowe all courses and strokes perfectly by hart, to that end you must take the printed Carde and read it often­tymes over, and everie course & stroke which you finde to meet you must place togither: as from Cape Finistere to Cisarga, the West-coast of England, the Coast of Flanders, the Coast of Freesland, of Hartshals to Schagen and such like. The like you must doe with the tydes, to wete, you must note all the places (where the Mone maketh a high water upon any point or stroke of the Compasse) by each other in a Register, as in the table of the tydes hereafter enseuing you may see: and he that doth so, without doubt shall doe all things right and perfectly, and shall beare about him al the experience, and knowledge of Seafaring, needful & necessarie, which no man in the world can take from, or bereave him of.

CHAP. XXII. Of the Water-tydes and how a man shall reckon them perfectly by the Moone.

VVee have hereunto added certaine tables of the Water-tydes, as they are commonly used by Pilots, wherein is shewed upon what pointes or strokes of the Compasse the Moone must be, before it maketh a high water in any of the places set down in the tables, but you must understand, that you must not take or reckon such strokes or pointes according to our common Compasse lying flat, or driving water-compasse, but onely the north & south pointes, for they must be esteemed not after the Horizon or Kimmen, but according to the flatte or su­perficiall part of the Aequinoctiall. Therefore if you will take the Sonne or Moone by or with the common Compasse, then you must lift up the side of the Compasse so much, that the cor­ner thereof may stand right against the Aequinoctiall, & that the pinne in the middle showeth right to the Pole, and so you may take the Sonne or Moone thereafter, which will be a great dif­ference from a Compasse that lyeth flatte: for at the height of fiftie degrees, or there aboutes, and the Sonne being in Cancer, in his highest signe, that is in the highest declination, it will be half an houre before eight of the clocke before it commeth into the East, and half an houre before five before it come into the West. If you take it by a flatte Compasse, that is he goeth from East to West in nine houres, and againe from West to East in 15 houres. At the height of thirtie degrees, he commeth first a litle before half an houre past nine into the East, & a litle before half an houre past two into the West, so that in lesse then five houres and an half he goeth from East to West, & full eighteene houres and an half before he commeth againe from West to East: and seeing that the Moone some times makes his declination five de­grees more northerly then the Sonne, so it may chance that the Moone may goe an houre & more faster from the East into the West then the Sonne, so that he that will alwaise take the Sonne or Moone by our cōmon Compasse, shall often tymes much de­ceive him self if he should reckon his tides thereafter, whether it were requisite to stoppe any tides, or to enter into any havens: to prevent that, I have in the tables enseuing noted upon what houre and minute the Moone cōmeth upon such pointes, where­by the floodes are ruled, wherein onely it is necessarie to knowe the age of the Moone, that is how many tydes are past from the tyme of the new or ful Moone, for the first part of the table shew­eth the age of the Moone everie day, that is how many dayes are past since the new or full Moone. The second part of the table sheweth the houre and minutes when the Moone upon the same dayes commeth to the same stroke, as you may see on the toppe thereof, and right against it standeth the places where the Moone then maketh a high Water. As for example the Moone being 8 dayes old, I would know when it will be southwest or northeast, then I looke for the point of southwest, and in the first columne of cyfers standing under it, I tell eight downwards, or looke into the place where 8 standeth, and against it in the second columne I find 9 houres 24 minutes, and at such a tyme it is then high wa­ter in the places that are noted downe right against it, as at Am­sterdam, Rotterdam, &c. or there a southwest or northeast Moone makes a full Sea.

Heere follow the tables of the Water-tydes.

South and North.
dahou. mi. Falling of streames up­on the same stroke.
012 — 0

At the Iuttish Ilandes.

Before the Hever, Eyder, and Elve.

Before Emden & Delfziel.

Before Enchuysen, Horne and Vrck

Vpon all the coasts of Flanders.

Vpon the Foreland.

At Dover in the Pier.

At Bevesier on the Land.

At Hantom on the Kaye.

Before Sierenbergh and the Ras of Blanckaert.

At Olfe [...]snes.

In the Conduit.

At Iubleter in the Rode.

112-48
21 — 36
32 —24 
43 — 12 
54 — 0From the Nesse to Beu­nen.
64 — 48
75-36
86-24 
97-12 
108-0 
118 — 48 
129 — 36 
1310-24 
1411 — 12  
1512 — 0  

South-south-west, and North-north-east.
dahou. mi. Falling of Streames upon the same stroke.
01 — 30

Vnder Holy-land.

Before the Mase and Goeree.

Before the Veere.

At Armuyen.

Vpon the Vlack before Ramme­kens.

Before the Wielings.

On the Zeeuse Coasts.

Before the Thames of London.

Before Iarmouth

In Duyns on the Rode.

Neare the Cingle.

On the West ende of Wight.

Without Calis and Swartenes.

In Blavet.

Bulline at the Land.

12-18
23-6 
33 — 54 
44-42From Greve­lingen to Beunen.
55 — 30
66-18
77-6 
87-54 
98-42 
109 — 30 
1110 — 18 
1211 — 6 
1311-54 
1412-42  
151 — 30  

South-by-west, and North-by-east.
dahou. mi. Falling of Streames upon the same stroke.
012 — 45 
11 — 33 
22 — 21  
33 — 9

Within the Mase.

Within the Veer.

At Flusshing.

Near Bevesier in Sea.

In the Chamber.

At Winckle-Sea.

In Garnzea.

 
43 — 57

From Beunen to the Sōme.

Also frō Esta­ples to Beu­nen.

54 — 45
65 — 33
76 —21
87 — 9
97-57  
108 —45  
119-33  
1210-21  
1311 — 9  
1411 — 57  
1512 —45  

South-west-by-south, and North-east-by-north.
dahou. mi. Falling of Streames upon the same stroke.
02-15 
13 — 3

Without Fontenay.

Without Blavet.

Vnder Bulline.

Before the Wielinge.

Before the Mase.

23 — 51 
34-39

Amidst through the Hoofden.

Frō Dunkerck to Greveling.

Frō Stapels to Fecam.

From Dort­mout to Ex­mout.

45 — 27
56-15
67-3 
77-51 
88-39 
99-27 
1010-15 
1111 — 3 
1211 — 51  
1312-39  
141-27  
152-15  

South-west, and North-east.
dahou. mi.

At Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Dort, & Ziericksea.

Before Newcastle, the Tese & Hartlepoole.

In Robbenhoods bay.

Without the Flemish bancks.

In Pas de Calis.

Before Conquet.

At Pleymarques, Groy, Ar­mentiers, Heys, Kiliaets, Por thus; the river of Burdeaux.

On al the Southcoasts of Bre­taigne, Gascoigne, Poictou.

On al coasts of Biscayen, Galissien Portugale & Spaine.

On the West-coasts of Irland.

At Boeckenes, & Orkenesse.

In Hitland & Fayerhil.

Falling of streames upon the same stroke.
03 — 0
13 —48
24 — 36

Frō Cape de Ha­gu to the Iland of Ornay.

Through the Ras of Ornay.

Frō Garnsea to Casquets.

From Muylford to Ramsey.

At Fawyck in the Chanel.

At Portland in the Sack.

35 — 24
46 — 12
57 — 0
67 —48
78 — 36
89 — 24
910 — 12
1011 — 0
1111 —48
1212-36
131 —24
142 — 12 
153 — 0  

West-south-west, and East-north-east.
dahou. mi.

Frō Tessel to Pas of Calis in the Fareway.

Before Humber.

Before Flamborough & Sche­renborough.

Abruat.

In Vaelmouth.

In the Moushole.

Seven Ilands.

S. Paules without the Haven.

Betweene Garnsea and Sept Isles in the Farewater

In the Breesond.

Without the Four.

All South-coasts of Irland, as Kinsael, Corck, Iochel, Wa­terford & Cape de Clare.

Falling of Streames upon the same stroke.
04-30
15 — 18
26-6

From Ostende to S. Catelines.

From Barchfleur to Strusaert.

The Breesond out and in.

Frō Cap de Clare to the Iland Sal­tes

Between Londey and Holmen so far as Brust

From Sorlis to Englands ende.

Frō Start point to Portland.

36 — 54
47 —42
58 —30
69-18
710 — 6
810 — 54
911-42
1012 — 30
111 —18
122 — 6
132 —54
143 —42 
154-30 

South-west-by-west, and North-east-by-east.
dadeg. mi.

Betweene Pas of Calis & the Mase

At Rouanen. In the Sorlis.

Before S. Matthewes point.

In Bristowe & Croixdowne.

In the Forde between Heysat.

Bofore the Bos. At S. Marten.

Before Rochell.

Before Brouwaghe.

At Rouaen.

In the river of Burdeaux.

Within the Chanels situated on the coasts of Spaine, Por­tugale, Galissien, the South­side of Bretaigne, Gascoigne, & the west-coasts of Ireland.

Falling of streames upon the same stroke.
03 — 45
14 — 33
25 —21 
36 — 9

From Stru­saert to Die­pen.

From Lezaert to Start.

From Caep de Clare to Lon­dey.

46 —57
57 — 45
68 —33
79 —21
810 — 9
910 — 57
1011 —45 
1112 — 33 
121 — 21 
132 — 9  
142 — 57  
153-45  

West-by-South, and East-by-north.
dahou. mi. Falling of Streames upon the same stroke.
05 — 15

In Torbay and Dartmouth,

In Plimmouth and Vawyck.

In the Sea of Galles.

In Vaelmouth.

In Muylford.

At Ramsey in Wales.

Before Linne in England.

Against Londey.

In all Havens on the South­coast of Ireland.

16-3
26 — 51

Frō Isle Bas to the Four.

Frō Dorsey to Cap de Clare.

Frō the Sorlis to Lezard.

Frō Portland to Wight.

Frō Wight to Beach or Be­vesier.

37-39
48-27
59-15
610 — 3
710-51
811 — 39
912-27 
101-15 
112 — 3 
122 — 51  
133 — 39  
144-27  
155 — 15  

West, and East.
dahou. mi. Falling of streames up­on the same stroke.
06-0 
16-48

Before Hamborgh.

Before Bremen.

Before the Marsdiep or Tessel.

At Hull.

At Blackney & Wells.

Before Antwerpe.

Der Goes.

Der Gouwe.

At Concallo & S. Malo.

S. Paules in the Haven.

Without the Sorlis in the Chanell.

27-36 
38-24 
49-12 
510-0

From the Kiscasses to Berchfleur.

Frō Englāds­ende to Le­zart.

610-48
711-36
812-24
91-12
102-0 
112-48 
123-36  
134-24  
145-12  
156-0  

West-north-west, and East-south-east.
dahou. mi. Falling of Streames upon the same stroke.
07-30

At ehe Nesse by Wieringhen.

In Tessel in the Coopver­ders Rode.

At Kilduyn.

In the middle of the Chanell in the Fairway.

Neare Goutstert in the Cha­nel.

And betweene Moushole & Vaelmuyen in Sea.

Neare Plimmouth in Sea.

At Lezart by the land.

18-18
29-6 
39-54 
410-42

Frō the Iland Briack to S. Malo.

From Bergh­fleur to Seyn­hooft.

511-30
612-18
71 — 6
81-54
92-42
103-30 
114-18  
125-6  
135-54  
146-42  
157-30  

West-by-north, and East-by-south.
dahou. mi. Falling of Streames upon the same stroke.
06-45 
17-33 
28-21  
39-9

Betweene Fawijck and Vael­muyen in the Chanell.

Amidst in the Chanell.

At Briston at the Kaye

Before S. Nicolas and Podes­semske.

 
49-57From the Ilād Bas to Mar­wanen along the land.
510-45
611-33
712-21
81-9 
91-57  
102-45  
113-33  
124-21  
135-9  
145-57  
156-45  

North-west-by west, and South-east-by-east.
dahou. mi. Falling of Streames upon the same stroke.
08-15 
19 — 3 
29-51

Without the Kiscasses in the Chanell.

By Wight in the Chanell.

From Wight to Bevesier by the land.

Vpon the Coast by west the Foreland.

Without the Vlie.

 
310-39

Behinde Garn­sea in the Farewater.

Within the seven Ilands.

411-27
512-15
61-3
71-51
82-39 
93-27 
104-15  
115-3  
125-51  
136-39  
147-27  
158-15  
North-west, and South-east.
dahou. mi. Falling of streames upon the same stroke.
09-0

Before the East and West Eemses.

Before the Vlie.

Before the Scholbalgh.

On all the Freese Coasts.

Vpon the Freese and Wierin­ger Vlack

Before Crāmer Winterduyn, and Yarmouth.

Within the Seine.

At the East ende of Wight.

In the Rasse of Poortland.

Betweene Garnsea & the Kis­casses.

19-48
210-36 
311 —24In the Wyck of Bennyte. between Mor­laix and the Drieakelpots.
412-12
51 — 0
61-48
72-36 
83-24 
94-12 
105 — 0 
115-48 
126-36 
137-24  
148-12  
159-0  

North-north-west, and South-south-east.
dahou. mi. Falling of streames upon the same stroke.
010-30

At Olfersnes and Harwidgh, without the banckes.

At Leytstaffe in the Rode.

Yarmouth in the Rode. before the Thames of Lon­don.

At Margat.

At Wight within.

At Beunen, Diepen, & Seyn­hooft.

In the Fosse of Caen.

At Struysaert, & al the coasts of Normandie, & Picardie.

At S. Helene & Calveroort.

111-18
212-6 
312-54

From Bergh­fleur to Al­honga.

From Cape Dorsi to the Iland Dar­dan.

41-42
52-30
63-18
74-6
84-54
95-42 
106 —30 
117-18 
128 — 6 
138-54  
149-42  
1510-30  

North-west-by-north, and South-east-by-south.
dadeg. mi. Falling of streames upon the same stroke.
09 —45 
110-33

The Needles of Wight.

In the Chanell by Wight.

The Kiscasses.

At Garnsea in the Chanel.

Nere Leytstaffe & Yarmouth without the banckes.

At Der Gouwe.

At the Wolfshorne.

211-21 
312-9

Before Con­callo.

Before the I­land of S. Mi­chanel in the Wyck.

412 —57
51-45
62-33
73-21
84-9
94-57  
105-45  
116-33  
127-21  
138 — 9  
148-57  
159-45  

North-by-west, and South-by-east.
dahou. mi. Falling of streames upon the same stroke.
011-15

Betweene Cripplesand and the Kreyl.

Within at Olfersnes.

At Hantom.

At Portchmouth, & at Wol­fershorne.

At Calveroort in Wight. before the haven of Caen.

Within the Thames of Lon­don.

112-3
212-51 
31-39

From S. Mat­thewes point unto Backo­vens.

From Fonte­nay to S. Matthewes point.

42-27
53-15
64 — 3
77-51
85-39
96-27  
107-15  
118-3  
128-51  
139-39  
1410-27  
1511-15  

CHAP. XXIII. How you shall finde the tyme of the new and ful Moone.

THe former Tables of the Water-tydes are unprofitable & not to be used, when the age of the Moone is not known, and therefore we have hereunto added, an Almanack for the next tenne yeeres, one enseuing the other, wherein you may perfectly finde when it is a new or full Moone, and also the just tyme of the quarters.

Which to understand, you must first knowe, that all Astrono­mers reckon the day from one noone tyme to another, and to that ende reckon from one noone to the noone next after enseu­ing 24 houres, which custome also is observed in these Alma­nacks, thereby to shewe the difference betweene forenoone and afternoone. But to finde the tyme of the newe Moone or full Moone or of the quarters, then note first that there are two parts of the Almanacke noted with figures, the first shewing the daye of the Moneth standing against it whereon the Moone is new, full or in the quarters, The second sheweth the houre and mi­nutes of the same day: which perfectly to understand I will ma­nifest by an example.

Example.

Anno 1612 I desire to know in the moneth May, when it will be full Moone, to that ende I looke into the Almanack of Anno 1612, in the moneth May, & there I finde the full Moone, upon the 14 day, at 9 of the clock 38 minutes, that is at 9 in the night: but the new Moone in the same Month, is the 29 day, 22 houres and 33 minutes, that is so many houres after noone of that day, and therefore if you tell from the said noone 22 houres 33 mi­nutes, then you will finde that it shall be upon the 30 day at 10 of the clock and 33 minutes before noone. But to know upon what day of the weeke it is, you must first know the Sondayes letter for the yeere-and also with what letter everie moneth be­ginnes. the Sondayes letter you shall finde noted under everie severall yeeres Almanack. The Leape yeeres have 2 Sondayes or Dominicall letters, the first is used untill the 25 day of Febru­arie, the other from the 25 of Februarie unto the ende of the yeere, but with what letter each moneth beginneth, that you shall finde in this table enseuing.

Ianuariebeginneth withA
FebruarieD
MarchD
AprillG
MayB
IuneE
Iuliebeginneth withG
AugustC
SeptemberF
OctoberA
NovemberD
DecemberF

If then you will know upon what day of the weeke the afore­said 14 day of May falleth, then reckon upon the line of letters standing hereunder, beginning at the first B (because May begin­neth with B) to the number of 14, then your number that you reckon will ende upon A: but for that Anno 1612 is a Leap yeere, and hath 2 Dominicall letters, to were, A & G. then (as aforesaid) from the 25 of Februarie you shall use the last, which in this is G. and for that your reckoning falles upon A, that is a day after G which is Sonday, then the 14 of May will be upon a Munday. If you looke in the moneths of Ianuarie or October, you must reckon from the first A, for those moneths begin with A, and Aprill and Iune with G, and so forth.

a, b, c, d, e, f, g, a, b, c, d, e, f, g, a, b, c, d, e, f, g, a, b, c, d, e, f, g, a, b, c, d, e, f, g, a, b.

Heere followeth the Almanack for 10 yeeres, calculated upom the Meridian of Amsterdam N [...].

The Almanack for the Yeere 1611. Newe stile.
 Moone.daho. m.
Ianuarie.last quarter.511. 2
new moone1314. 17
first quarter2110. 58
full moone.281. 56
Februarie.last quarter.44. 19
new moone128. 43
first quarter1921. 19
full moone.2612. 48
March.last quarter.523. 20
new moone140. 49
first quarter214. 43
full moone.280. 22
Aprill.last quarter.418. 43
new moone1213. 53
first quarter1910. 18
full moone.2613. 0
May.last quarter.413. 2
new moone120. 16
first quarter1815. 57
full moone.262. 27
Iune.last quarter.35. 37
new moone108. 40
first quarter1622. 52
full moone.2417. 17
Iulie.last quarter.219. 57
new moone915. 54
first quarter168. 15
full moone.248. 20
August.last quarter.17. 28
new moone723. 12
first quarter1420. 42
full moone.2223. 43
last quarter.3016. 39
September.new moone67. 15
first quarter1312. 19
full moone.2115. 6
last quarter.295. 0
October.new moone516. 48
first quarter136. 37
full moone.215. 39
last quarter.286. 21
November.new moone45. 3
first quarter122. 38
full moone.1919. 0
last quarter.2613. 20
December.new moone320. 3
first quarter1123. 5
full moone.197. 5
last quarter.2522. 7

In this Yere 1611, the Golden number is 16. The circle of the Sonne 24. Dominical letter B. The Romane Indiction 9. The Epact 16. After-winter, 7 weekes 1 daye. Quadragesima Febru­arie 20. Easter day 3 of April. Assention day the 12 of May. Whitsonday the 22 of May. Advent the 27 of November. This yeere there shall be 2 Eclipses of the Sonne, which shall not be seene above our Horizon.

The Almanack for the yeere 1612. New stile.
 Moone.daho. m.
Ianuarie.new moone213. 45
first quarter1018. 10
full moone.1717. 58
last quarter.249. 46
Februarie.new moone18. 46
first quarter910. 28
full moone.164. 1
last quarter.230. 0
March.new moone23. 29
first quarter923. 11
full moone.1613. 39
last quarter.2316. 24
new moone3120. 31
Aprill.first quarter88. 0
full moone.1423. 18
last quarter.2210. 1
new moon.3010. 46
May.first quart.714. 0
full moone.149. 38
last quarter.223. 53
new moone2922. 33
Iune.first quarter518. 33
full moone.1221. 7
last quarter.2021. 12
new moone.288. 6
Iulie.first quarter423. 24
full moone.1210. 4
last quarter.2013. 15
new moone2716. 11
August.first quarter36. 20
full moone.110. 38
last quarter.193. 41
new moone.2523. 56
September.first quarter116. 22
full moone.916. 39
last quarter.1716. 4
new moone248. 0
October.first quarter16. 0
full moone.99. 29
last quarter.172. 25
new moone2317. 10
first quarter3023. 8
November.full moone.82. 16
last quarter.1510. 49
new moone224. 13
first quarter2919. 2
December.full moone.717. 57
last quarter.1418. 16
new moone2117. 47
first quarter2916. 9

The Golden number for this Leap yeere is 17. The circle of the Sonne 25. Dominicall letter A G. The Romane Indiction 10. The Epact 27. After-winter 10 weekes just. Quadragesima March 11. Easterday the [...]2 of April. Assention day 31 of May Whitsonday 10 of Iune. Advent 2 of December. In this yeere there shall be four Eclipses, 2 of the Sonne, and 2 of the moone, whereof but two shal be seen above our Horizon: the first of the Moone May 14, 9 houres 48 min. after noone, the other of the- Sonne the 30 of May, at 10 of the clock 42 min. before noone.

The Almanack of the yeere 1613, New stile.
 Moone.daho. m.
Ianuarie.full moone.67.53
last quarter.131.53
new moon.209.44
first quart.2813. 0
Februarie.full moone.419.52
last quarter.1110.41
new moon.193.15
first quarte.277. 6
March.full moone.65.47
last quarter.1221.47
new moon.2021.10
first quart.2822. 4
Aprillfull moone.414.54
last quarter.1111. 4
n [...]w moon.1914.15
first quart.279. 0
May.full moone.323.15
last quarter.112. 0
new moon.195.34
first quart.2616.35
Iune.full moone.27.48
last quarter.918.20
new moon.1718.48
first quart.2421.39
Iulie.full moone.117.19
last quarter.911.32
new moon.175.56
first quart.241.48
full moone.314.28
August.last quarter.84.44
new moon.1515.42
first quart.227. 5
full moone.2918. 0
September.last quarter.621.31
new moon.140.38
first quart.2014.55
full moone.289.39
October.last quarter.613. 1
new moon.139.24
first quart.202. 0
full moone.283.15
November.last quarter.52.45
new moon.1118.41
first quart.1817.36
full moone.2621.40
December.last quarter.414. 8
new moon.115. 9
first quart.1812.15
full moone.2615.28

In this Yeere 1613, the golden number is 18: the circle of the Sonne 26. The dominicall letter F. The Romane Indiction 11. The Epact 8. The After-winter 7 weekes 5 dayes. Quadragesima Februarie 24. Easter day the 7 of April. Assention day the 16 of May. Whitsonday the 26 of May. Advent 1 of December. This yeere there shall be 6 Eclipses, four of the Sonne, and two of the Moone, whereof but one of the Moone shall be seene upon the 28 of October. 3 houres 37 minutes after noone, all the rest shall be seen out of our Horizon.

The Almanack of the yeere 1614 New stile.
 Moone.daho.m.
Ianuarie.last quarter.223.20
new moone917.13
first quart.178.55
full moone.257.18
Februarie.last quarter.16.50
new moon.86.48
first quart.165.50
full moone.2320.37
March.last quarter.214. 2
new moon.922.23
first quart.181.17
full moone.257.18
last quarter.3122. 0
Aprill.new moon.814.37
first quarter1617.57
full moone.2316. 6
last quarter.307.46
May.new moon.86.53
first quart.167.19
full moone.2223.46
last quarter.2919.40
Iune.new moon.622.31
first quarter1417. 3
full moone.217.15
last quarter.289.49
Iulie.new moon.612.56
first quart.1323.55
full moone.2015.16
last quarter.281.51
August.new moon.52. 7
first quart.125. 2
full moone.190.54
last quarter.2619.32
September.new moon.313.56
first quart.109.54
full moone.1713. 0
last quarter.2513.45
October.new moon.30.49
first quarter916.16
full moone.173.45
last quarter.257.55
November.new moone110.55
first quarter81.31
full moone.1521.14
last quarter.240.53
new moone3020.54
December.first quarter714.34
full moone.1516.20
last quarter.2315.24
new moone307. 8

This Yeere the Golden number shall be 19. The circle of the Sonne 27. Dominicall letter E. The Romane Indiction 12. The Epact 19. The After-winter 6 weekes 4 dayes. Quadragesima the 16 of Februarie. Easter day 30 of March. Assention day 8 of May. Whitsonday 18 of May. Advent 30 December. Four Eclipses shall this yeere be seene, the first and last out of our Horizon, the second of the Moone the 23 of Aprill, 16 houres 14 minutes: the third of the Sonne, the 3 of October 55 minutes after noone.

The Almanack for the Yeere 1615. Newe stile.
 Moone.daho. m.
Ianuarie.first quarter67. 0
full moone.1411.29
last quarter.223. 0
new moone2818. 2
Februarie.first quarter52. 0
full moone.134.55
last quarter.2011.39
new moone275.48
March.first quarter622. 0
full moone.1419.35
last quarter.2118.15
new moone2818.42
Aprill.first quarter518. 0
full moone.137.15
last quarter.200. 9
new moone278.34
May.first quarter511.14
full moone.1216.35
last quarter.197. 0
new moone2623.24
Iune.first quarter42.17
full moone.110.18
last quarter.1715.44
new moone2514.31
Iulie.first quarter314.56
full moone.107.24
last quarter.173.10
new moone255.50
August.first quarter20.29
full moone.814.51
last quarter.1517.30
new moone2320.41
first quarter317.46
September.full moone.623.25
last quarter.1410.30
new moone2210.52
first quarter2913.45
October.full moone.610.11
last quarter.145.24
new moone220. 0
first quarter2819.52
November.full moone.423.46
last quarter.131.19
new moone2012. 0
first quarter273.38
December.full moone.416.17
last quarter.1220.43
new moone1923.10
first quarter2614.13

In this Yeere 1615, the Golden number is 1. The circle of the Sonne 28. Dominical letter D. The Romane Indiction 13. The Epact 1. After-winter, 9 weekes 3 dayes. Quadragesima the 8 of March. Easter day Aprill 19. Assention day the 28 of May. Whitsonday the 7 of Iune. Advent the 30 of November. This yeere there shall be 2 Eclipses of the Sonne, the first the 29 of March, in the morning between 6 and 7 of the clock, which shal be best seene of them which inhabite East-India, the other shall not be seene by us.

The Almanack for the yeere 1616. New stile.
 Moone.daho.m.
Ianuarie.full moone.311. 0
last quarter.1114. 10
new moone189.31
first quarter253.50
Februarie.full moone.26.21
last quarter.104.23
new moone1619 37
first quarter2320. 9
March.full moone.30.37
last quarter.1014.56
new moone175.44
first quarter2414. 8
Aprill.full moone.116.26
last quarter.822.17
new moon.1516.25
first quart.238.41
May.full moone.15.28
last quarter.83.29
new moone154. 0
first quarter232.40
full moone.3015.51
Iune.last quarter.68.22
new moone.1316.47
first quarter2119.18
full moone.290.25
Iulie.last quarter.514.33
new moone136.46
first quarter2110. 0
full moone.287.54
August.last quarter.323.13
new moone1122. 0
first quarter1922.42
full moone.2615.22
September.last quarter.211.21
new moone1014. 5
first quarter189. 0
full moone.2423.39
October.last quarter.22.51
new moone106.16
first quarter1717.27
full moone.249.37
last quarter.3121.25
November.new moone821.55
first quarter160.36
full moone.2221.45
last quarter.3017.54
December.new moone812. 9
first quarter157.52
full moone.2212.47
last quarter.3014.49

The Golden number for this Leap yeere is 2. The circle of the Sonne is 1. Dominicall letter C B. The Romane Indiction 14. The Epact 12. After-winter 7 weekes 2 dayes. Quadragesima Februarie 21. Easterday the 3 of April. Assention day 12 of May Whitsonday 22 of May. Advent 27 of November. In this yeere there shall be four Eclipses, 2 of the Sonne, and 2 of the moone, whereof one of the moone the 27 of August in the morning be­tweene 3 and 4 of the clock, shall be seen by us, the other shall be without our Horizon.

The Almanack of the yeere 1617, New stile.
 Moone.daho.m.
Ianuarie.new moon.70.48
first quart.1316.26
full moone.215.33
last quarter.2910.23
Februarie.new moon.511.51
first quarte.123. 4
full moone.200.35
last quarter.283. 0
March.new moon.621.32
first quart.1316. 9
full moone.2118.50
last quarter.2915.49
Aprillnew moon.56.29
first quart.127.15
full moone.2011.16
last quarter.281.52
May.new moon.416.45
first quart.1123.46
full moone.201.33
last quarter.276.44
Iune.new moon.30.50
first quart.1017. 1
full moone.1813.26
last quarter.2511. 4
Iulie.new moon.211.31
first quart.1010.15
full moone.1723.26
last quarter.2415. 6
August.new moon.10. 3
first quart.92.54
full moone.168. 7
last quarter.2222.14
new moon.3014.40
September.first quart.718.16
full moone.1416.23
last quarter.217.57
new moon.297. 0
October.first quart.77.55
full moone.140.51
last quarter.201.15
new moon.290.45
November.first quart.519.38
full moone.1210.29
last quarter.1915.38
new moon.2718.26
December.first quart.55.6
full moone.1121.39
last quarter.1910.37
full moone.2710.55

In this Yeere 1617, the golden number is 3: the circle of the Sonne 2. The dominicall letter A. The Romane Indiction 15. The Epact 23. The After-winter 6 weekes. Quadragesima Februarie 12. Easter day 26 of March. Assention day the 4 of May. Whitsonday the 14 of May. Advent 3 of December. This yeere there shall be 5 Eclipses, three of the Sonne, and two of the Moone: of al which onely the last of the Moone can be here seen the 16 of August, at 8 of the clock and 7 minutes after in the evening.

The Almanack of the yeere 1618 New stile.
 Moone.daho.m.
Ianuarie.first quart.213. 0
full moone.1010.58
last quarter.187.48
new moon.261.22
Februarie.first quart.120.32
full moone.92.13
last quarter.174.23
new moon.2415.43
March.first quart.34.34
full moone.1018.52
last quarter.1822.45
new moon.2523. 8
Aprill.first quarter114.21
full moone.911.57
last quarter.1713.31
new moon.247.32
May.first quart.12. 8
full moone.94.25
last quarter.171. 0
new moon.2315.23
first quarter3016. 2
Iune.full moone.719.34
last quarter.158.41
new moone2123.18
first quarter297.41
Iulie.full moone.79. 4
last quarter.1414. 9
new moon.218. 17
first quart.290.35
August.full moone.520.56
last quarter.1218.32
new moon.1919.12
first quart.2718.13
September.full moone.47.51
last quarter.1023.47
new moon.188.34
first quarter2611.46
October.full moone.317.10
last quarter.107.32
new moone180.36
first quarter264.40
November.full moone.22.39
last quarter.818.49
new moone1618.53
first quarter2419.37
December.full moone.112.26
last quarter.89.54
new moone1613.45
first quart.248. 1
full moone.3022.57

This Yeere the Golden number shall be 4. The circle of the Sonne 3. Dominicall letter G. The Romane Indiction 1. The Epact 4. The After-winter 8 weekes 6 dayes. Quadragesima the 4 of March. Easter day 15 of Aprill. Assention day the 24 of May. Whitsonday 3 of Iune. Advent the 2 December. There shall be seene upon the Globe of the Earth three Eclipses, 2 of the Sonne, and 1 of the Moone, but none of the three shall be seene above our Horizon.

The Almanack of the yeere 1619, New stile.
 Moone.daho.m.
Ianuarie.last quarter.74.11
new moon.158. 5
first quart.2217.49
full moone.2910.41
Februarie.last quarter.60.23
new moon.140.14
first quarte.211.14
full moone.2723.40
March.last quarter.720.54
new moon.1513.24
first quart.227.51
full moone.2914. 0
Aprilllast quarter.615.57
new moon.1323.57
first quart.2014 9
full moone.285.12
May.last quarter.68.30
new moon.138.22
first quart.1923.18
full moone.2720.39
Iune.last quarter.422. 8
new moon.1115.46
first quart.1810. 0
full moone.2612. 5
Iulie.last quarter.48.30
new moon.1023. 0
first quart.1723.30
full moone.262.51
August.last quarter.216.11
new moon.96.55
first quart.1615.23
full moone.2416.46
last quarter.3121.58
September.new moon.716.32
first quart.159.11
full moone.235.35
last quarter.303.16
October.new moon.64.32
first quart.154.12
full moone.2217.16
last quarter.299.55
November.new moon.519.32
first quart.1323.24
full moone.214.21
last quarter.2719. 0
December.new moon.513.14
first quart.1317.22
full moone.2014.49
last quarter.277.37

The Golden number of this yeere 1619 is 5: the Circle of the Sonne 4. The Dominical letter F. The Romane Indicti­on 2. The Epact 15. The After-winter 6 weekes & 5 dayes. Quadragesima, or the first day of Lent, the 17 of Februarie. Ea­ster-day the 31 of March. Assention day the 9 of May. Whit­sonday the 19 of May. Advent the 1 of December. This yeere there shal be 5 Eclipses, three of the Sōne, & two of the Moone: of which the first of the Moone the 26 of Iune, at 12 of the clock and 5 minutes at night, and the second the 21 of December, in the morning at 2 of the clock 49 min. shall be seene: the other in the Sonne shall come to passe without our Horizon.

The Almanack of the yeere 1620 New stile.
 Moone.daho.m.
Ianuarie.new moone48.26
first quart.129. 0
full moone.191. 0
last quarter.2523.11
Februarie.new moon.33.30
first quart.1020.42
full moone.1711.22
last quarter.2417.29
March.new moon.321. 0
first quart.115.30
full moone.1722.32
last quarter.2512.36
Aprill.new moon.211.33
first quarter911.55
full moone.1610.28
last quarter.247.36
May.new moon.123.26
first quart.817.27
full moone.1523.28
last quarter.241. 8
new moon.318.30
Iune.first quarter417.22
full moone.1413.23
last quarter.2216.29
new moone2916.14
Iulie.first quarter67. 0
full moone.144. 0
last quarter.225.27
new moon.2823.23
August.first quart.417.39
full moone.1219.28
last quarter.2016.11
new moon.276.57
September.first quart.37.42
full moone.1111.14
last quarter.190.45
new moon.2515.55
October.first quarter30.53
full moone.112.32
last quarter.187.44
new moone252.50
November.first quarter120, 24
full moone.916.49
last quarter.1614.16
new moone2316.34
December.first quarter116.52
full moone.95.41
last quarter.1521.52
new moone238.34
first quart.3112.50

In this Leap-yeere the Golden number is 6. The circle of the Sonne 5. The Epact 26. Dominicall letter E D. After­winter 9 weekes and 4 dayes. Easter day the the 19 of Aprill. Assention day 28 May. Whitsonday the 7 of Iune. Advent the 29 of November. Two great Ecclipses of the Moone shal come to passe this yeere: the first the 14 of Iune 13 houres, and 13 minutes after noone, the other the 9 of December at night, at five of the clock and 41 minutes.

CHAP. XXIIII. How at all tymes you shall finde the New Moone, or her age, without help of any Almanack.

VVhereunto it is requisite to know the Golden number, whereby you knowe the Epact or Keye of the yeere: the Golden number riseth everie yeere one, that is with the beginning of the yeere to the number of 19, so that everie 19 yeeres it goeth about, or makes an ende; then againe it begin­neth at 1, 2, 3, &c. To finde it in such a yeere as you desire, do thus: see how many yeeres are past since Anno 1500, which de­vide by 19, and that which resteth is the Golden number, but if nothing resteth, that is, that even 19 partes are produced out of it, then your Golden number is 19.

Example.

I desire to knowe the Golden number Anno 1608, setting the 1500 aside, I looke how many times 19 there is in 108 yeres, and I finde 5, and 13 remaining, which 13 is the Golden num­ber for that yeere, the like must be done with al the other yeres.

Of the Epact.

THe Epact or Keye of the yeere, altereth everie yeere up­on the 1 of March next after enseuing, rising everie yeere 11 to the number of 30, & when it is more then 30, then take 30 out of it, and the rest is the Epact: and so everie yeere reckon 11 more as aforesaid.

But the Epact of the Olde Stile is alwaies 10 more then the New Stile, because the Olde Stile followeth 10 dayes after the Newe Stile: so that if you adde 10 to the Epact of the Newe Stile, then you have the Epact of the Olde Stile: but if the num­ber riseth higher then 30, then leave 30 and that which remai­neth is the Epact of the Olde Stile, which you shall clearly see in the table enseuing.

How much the Epact is in everie yeere, you may perceive by this table, namely right against the Golden number, which to know without looking in a booke, you must do thus. Count the Golden number upon the three joyntes of your thumb, be­ginning with one at the undermost joynte, and count so long until you come to the Golden number of the yeere that you require, and if it endes on the undermost joynt of your thūb then the Golden Number and the Epact is al one number; but if it endeth on the middle joynt of your thumb, thē adde 10 to your Golden number, & that will be the Epact; but if it endeth upon the ende of your thumb, then you must adde 20 to your Golden number, and then you shall finde the Epact.

Golden number.Newe Epact.Olde Epact.
1111
21222
3233
4414
51525
6266
7717
81828
9299
101020
11211
12212
131323
14244
15515
161626
17277
18818
191929

Example.

I would knowe the Epact of Anno 1609, the Golden num­ber for that yeere is 14: now when I tell this number upon the three joynts of my thumb it endeth upō the middlemost joynt of my thumb, for which cause I adde 10 thereunto, and it makes 24, which is the Epact of that yeere, agreeing with the table aforesaid, this is to be understood after the new Stile.

Now if you will knowe when it is a new Moone, then take the number of the Epact of your yeere, and thereunto adde the number of the moneths since March to the moneth wherein you are, accounting that therein: if the number be just 30, then it will be a newe Moone upon the first day of the moneth, but if it be lesse then 30, then knowe that there must want so many daies of the moneth as the number is lesse then 30, before it shal be a newe Moone.

Example.

In Anno 1614 I desire to knowe when it shall be a newe Moone, in the moneth of Iulie: the Epact of that yeere is 19, whereunto adde 5 for the moneths from March, which added together maketh 24, which wanteth 6 of 30, so that the newe [Page] Moone shall be upon the 6 day of the moneth of Iulie.

But if you desire to knowe how olde the Moone is upon any daye, adde the Epact & the number of the moneths frō March; to the dayes that are past in the moneth that you are in, and if the number be lesse then 30, then it will shewe the age of the Moone, but if it be more then 30, then subtract 30 out of it, and that which then remayneth, is the age of the Moone.

Example.

In the yeere 1614 aforesaid, I desire to know the age of the Moone the 28 of Iulie, the Epact is 19, whereunto I adde 5 for the moneths past from March, and 28 more for the dayes of the moneth that are past, which together maketh 52, from which I subtract 30, & there resteth 22, and that is the age of the Moone upon that day: that which is here alledged concerneth the New Stile wholly.

CHAP. XXV. Of the Sea-cardes.

IT is well knowne unto everie man, specially to all those that understand the groundes of Cosmographie, that the Earth and the Sea together is a round bodie or Globe, so that it is impossible in such sort to set downe and shewe the same, or the partes thereof in one plat forme, or carde, that they may be well distinguished without error, for it is impossible to make a thing that is round to be like in all proportions with that which is flatte, so that the cōmon flatte Sea-cardes many tymes in some places are untrue, specially those that set forth great voyages, farre from the Equinoctiall: but the Sea-cardes that are cōmon­ly used here aboutes for the East & West voyages by Sea, they are reasonable true, or els the faults therin are so smale, that they cannot be any hinderance thereunto: they are most fitt Instru­ments to be used by sea, and our old farefathers which first pra­ctised them did great pleasure, & profit unto Seafaring men. The want that we finde in them, consisteth herein, & is thus found: If a man were to sayle to a place with three points into the Sea, the two first points might be sayled by their strokes and distan­ces, but from the second to the third place (that is the third side of the triple point) it wil fayle both in the stretching and the di­stance.

Example.

I sayle from the Lezard with a right course to the Ilands of Canaria, and from thence againe to the Ilands of Corvo & Flo­res, for the which two strokes and distances my Carde is well made, but if I wil sayle again from Corvo to Lezard frō whence I first sayled the Carde will shewe me an imperfect course, that is it will shew farther in the Carde then it is, and it shal differ al­so in the stretching, so that you must set your course more nor­therly then the Carde sheweth.

In our short wayes, as aforesaid, this is not much marked, & is litle esteemed, but they that sayle to West-India, they per­ceive it well ynough. When they sayle outward, they hold their way farre southward, and there finde their Cardes just with their due lengths, because the Cardes are made for the purpose: but returning home againe, when they hold their course nor­therly, then they finde the way to be shorter then their Cardes shew it. The cause thereof is this, all the lines in flat Sea cardes from south to north, are al over drawn just even each som other, from the Equinoctiall to the Pole: but upon a round Globe, which is made in forme like the Earth, they are not of alike widenesse, but the more Northerly they are, the nearer they come one to the other, so that two strokes of south and north, at the breadth of 60 degrees, are but half so wide one from the other as upon the Equinoctiall Line, and under the Pole they fall close together. Wherefore if two ships being under the E­quinoctiall, distant from each other 200 leagues, both of them may sayle right north without let or hinderance, & they would come to the height of 60 degrees, and be but 100 leagues one from the other, and if they should hold on the same course, they would at last meet both together under the Pole, but if you should prick the course of those two shippes in a flat Sea-carde, the distances in the Carde would remaine alike, whereby it is playnely seene, that al places in the Sea-cardes lying farr north­ward are much to great, unles they be drawne lesse, which can­not well be done, without making other places falser, but how all such places may be made even, and holpen you may see it in the Sea-cardes of West India, which were printed and made by us.

Amongst manie Pilots there is an opinion, that they had ra­ther use the written Cardes, then such as are printed, esteeming the printed Cardes to be imperfect, and say that the written [Page] Cardes are much better and perfecter, they meane the written Cardes that are dayly made by men, are everie day corrected, & the printed never: but herein they are not a litle deceived, for the printed Cardes in each respect are as good, yea & better then the written, for that the printed Cardes are once in everie point with al care and diligence made perfect, in regard that they serve for many, for that being once well made, all the rest may with as litle labour be made good as wel as bad. But the Sea-cardes that are written can not be made so sound nor with such speed, because so much cost for one peece alone were to much, but are all one after the other, with the least labour copied out, and many tymes by such persons that have litle or no know­ledge therein. Whatsoever there is yet resting to be corre­cted or made better, is as easie to be corrected in the Cardes that are printed, as in them that are written, which wee also are readie to doe at our charge, if any man can by good pro shewe us any thing that is to be corrected in the Cardes that are printed by us.

The ende of the Introduction.
THE FIRST BOOKE OF T …

THE FIRST BOOKE OF THE LIGHT OF NAVIGATION VVHEREIN ARE DESCRIBED AND DRAVVEN all the Coasts and Havens of the VVest Seas: as of Holland, Zealand, Flanders, France, Spaine and Barbarie.

ALSO Of the Ilands of Canaria, Madera, and the Flemish Ilands: together with the South and VVest Coasts of Ireland and England.

[figure]

AT AMSTERDAM Printed by VVilliam Iohnson, dwelling upon the VVater, by the Old Bridge, at the Signe of the Golden Son-dyall. Anno 1612.

Set heere the first Carde noted with N. 1.

Caarte vande Zuyder-Zee, en van de vermaerde Stro­men ende Gaten van't Vlie ende Texel, wat zan­den, platen, drooghten, diepten, ende ondiepten dae­in gheleghen zÿn, ende hoemen die zoo in't op als afzeylen schouwen ende mÿden zal.

Description de la Zuyder-Zee, et des tresrenommez fleuves du Texel et Vlie, monstrant tous sables, bancqs, secheresses et autres inconveniens sur lesdictes fleuves, et par quel moyen on les peult eviter.

CHAPTER I. THE DESCRIPTION OF the Streame running in the Flie, and the Tessel, and hovv you must sayle out of the Flie and the Tessel.

I To sayle from Amsterdam and Enchuysen to the Flie.

TO sayle from Amsterdam to the fal of Urck, you must sayle in the middle of the water to Tyort, and if you wil sayle from thence over Pampus, with a ship that drawes much wa­ter, (that is at least tenne foot or more) then keep Marker church without upon the Land of Udam, called Schyteldoecks haven, so long till the Steeple of Zuyderwou commeth even with Kin­nigherbuert: which are the houses that stand half way between Schyteldoecks haven & Diergerdam, then goe eastward to the Land, untill the New church of Amsterdam joynes with Dier­gerdam, & keepe the New-church standing so, until the church of Weesp is even with the house of Muyen,Markes of the deepest water of Pampus. if that the church of Muyen standeth nearer then the house, kepe Weesp standing so until you see Edam without the east ende of Marcken. In this chanel it is almost a foot deeper then if you sayle right through.

But to shunne Muyer-sand Mariners were woont to bring the houses that were woont to stand upon Tyort, southward of the Heyliger-stee of Amsterdam, there by a man may make some gesse,Markes of Muyder­sand. and they are good long-markes: but when Monni­kedam is about the west ende of Schiteldoecks haven, and the house of Muyen between Weesp and Muyen church, then you are against Muydersand. But to sayle right through over Pam­pus, you must keepe Diemer steeple, above or against the point of Tyort, as long as you may see Tyort, for that is a right long­marke to sayle over Pampus.

When you are right against the east ende of Marken, then you must goe northeast, and somewhat more easterly to the fall of Urck, which is almost seven leagues from thence: but when you come within a league of Urck, then you come to a hard sand called Houtrib, which stretcheth southeast and northwest crosse over the water, which hath no moore water upon it, then is upon the flattes of Wieringen or Vriesland, so that you can finde no deeper water upon it then right through.Markes of the Hout­rib. When En­chuysen is northwest, & northwest-by-west from you then you are upon the Houtrib, when Urck lyeth more northerly, then northeast from you, & that you finde Sand that is certain­ly the Houtrib, for you can not sayle so by Enchuysen sand, you are not at Enchuysen sand, before that Urck church is south­ward of the buert of houses that stand upon Urck: or when the walles of the old church stand right against the middle of the buert, then you are about Enchuysen sand,Markes of Enchuysen sand. then sayle northwest & by west til Medenblick commeth without the point of Ven, then goe west-north-west to the tonne upon Hofstede.

Betweene Urck and the Hofstede tonne there lyeth a flatt of hard sand, reaching to the ende of Enchuysen sand,The flatto betweene Vrck and Hofstede. which is no deeper then the Vries-flatt: eastward about is the deepest water, & on the west side, (which by some men is called Cat-gat) you are sooner about the High-horne or Enchuysen sand, and it is good for ships that goe not deep: when Enchuysen steeple is southwest or more westerly from you, then you are upon the flatte.

The Crosse-markes of the tonnes both upon the Creupel & Hofstede are Grootebroeck and Hem,Markes of the tonnes betweene Hofstede and the Cripple. which are two sharp stee­ples comming right over against each other, then also if a sharp steeple called Warnes cōmeth on the south-side of Stavern clif, then you have the length of these tonnes, which lye both at 3 fathome, the one upon the east banck, the other upon the point of the Creupel, the right chanel is here 4 fathomes and an half soft ground.Markes of Cripple­sand. When the steeple of Medenblick is northward of Medenblick howse, as farr as the breadth of the house, then you have gone by and past Creupel sand, then goe to the tonne that [Page 4] lyeth by Kreil, north-west, & north-west-by-north, as the winde & the streame is, the right Chanel here is scarse 5 fathome. But when you come against the Kreil, in sayling out, or about the Kreil sayling in, there lyeth right within the Kreil, on the north side a hard sand or flatte called South-Kreil, which reacheth a­long towards the tonne at the Hofstede, there at a lowe water it is but 9 foot deep: but between this banck & the north wal it is 3 fathome deepe, soft ground, and south or west it is 4 fathome and an half deepe.Markes of the flattes betweene the Kreil & the Hof­stede. The markes of this flatt are, when Mirnes a flat steeple in Friesland is right over a long Land-house, which standeth southward from Stavern church, then you are right a­gainst the said flatt.

But the markes of the tonne that lyeth before Kreil are tehse when the sharp steeple of Twisch, which standeth westward from Memelick, is right against the Corne-mill, that standeth westward from Memelick,Markes of the ton at the Creil. and when the flatte Steeple of Mir­nes is against the south side or east side of the Clif, then you are at the tonne which lyeth at the Kreil, and the Chanell is there 4 fathome and an half, and 5 fathome soft ground. But the tōne lyeth upon 4 fathome, and when necessitie compelleth you, you may sayle a cables length eastward about, then from the tonne at the Kreil, to the tonne at the Freese Plact, the course is north and by east, when Twisck is right north from Memelick, then keepe the steeple standing so, as long as you can see it, & so you shall not sayle upon any shallowes betweene the Plaet and the Kreil.

Betweene the tonne at the Kreil, and the Freese Plaet, on the west shore there lyeth a hard sand called Monicksand,Monicsād. which you may shunne well, when you are some what out of the way, but when you are about the Kreil, then you must goe north & by east, right through over the point of Breesand, to the tonne lying west from Worcum, with a ship that draweth not much water, but the right Chanell is deeper as followeth.

If you sayle with a ship that draweth much water, over the Frees-flatte, then set the flat steeple of Pandraghen (standing west of Worcum) so,Markes of the ton at the Frees-plaet. that it may stād west from the houses that lye westward from Worcum, that is a good Long-marke for the tonne that lyeth at the Frees-Plaet. If you have a ship that dra­weth much water, then goe eastward of the tonne about the Freese Plate, for there is more water then westward. When Warnes & Mirnes are right over against each other northward from Stavern then you have the length of this tonne, and when you are past this tonne, then goe north-north-east, so long, till Pandraghen commeth betweene the buert of houses and Voor­wold, if then the Cliffe standeth right upon Stavern, there you have the deepest water upon the dryest place of the flatte,Deepest water at the Vlack. then goe some what more northerly to the tonne that lyeth at the bought, for eastward of this tōne it is al flatt water to Freesland. The Long-marks of this Tōne at the bought are,Markes of the tonne at the bocht. when Pandra­ghen is right against Voorwolde, which is a steeple that stādeth westward from Worcum on the water side, you may sayle by this tonne on the east side, and if you have a ship that draweth much water, then you must goe close west by the tonne, that you may not sayle by the point of Breesand, which commeth from the west banck. These are the Markes of the deepest water upon the dryest part of the flatt: when the Newland, which is a sharp steeple standing by Bolsweert, commeth betweene Voor­wold aforesaid, and the aforesaid village or buert of houses:Markes of the deepest water on the Flat. the old Crosse-markes of the tonne at the bought are, Mirnes, Mol­queren, Hemelum, and some long buert of houses, when these four stand together, then you have the length of this tonne, which lyeth upon 14 foot, and between these two tonnes, that is the tonne at the Frees-plact, and that at the bought is the dry­est of the flatte. Now when the tonne at the bought is sidewaies on you, then goe north and by west, and some what more we­sterly, to the tonne lying west from Worcum: which lyeth up­on these markes.Markes of the ton be­west Wor­cum. There standeth a sharp steeple farre within the Land called Harich, when it is right over certaine buert-houses which lye northward of Hinloopen called Dertwisch, there this tonne lyeth upon the east wall, at 16 foot low water, & the right depth there against it, is full 3 fathome. The old markes are two villages nearest to Mackum, which stand north-east from you, & come through each other, and stand upon the water side, and when they are a litle through each other, then you shall see two litle steeples some what northerly from Bolsweert, which come within verie litle one hard by the other, in manner as the other stand separated that stand upon the water side, the one is called Idsega houses. The Cros-marks are these,Crosse-markes. there standeth a high house on the east ende of Condom, which commeth within a windbomes length neere to the south ende of Hinlopen, and when that house commeth on the south ende of Hinlopen, thē you are to near the cast banck, and when it standeth the length of a cable or more from Hinlopen, then you are to neare to the west shore, these are the markes of the tonne, at west from Wor­cum. From thence to the tonne at Iglepoint the course is north: the markes thereof are these, there standeth a sharp steeple called [Page 5] Lutgeest, with a long village crosse from you, when that stee­ple is within the innermost gap of the long village,Markes of the ton at Iglehooke then you are against the tonne, and that is a good crosse marke, but the long­markes are, when the sharp steeple of Pingom is right against the flat steeple of Corenwaert, standing upon the water side, and Pandraghen is right against a litle house which standeth north­ward from the village with the gap, or when the milles of Sta­vern stand betweene the towne and the bulwarke of Stavern, these are all good Long-markes of the tonne at Igelhooke, and this tonne when you sayle outward, may be sayled by on the east side, and so you may come northward of the mid­dle ground againe into the Vlie-streame, but not with great ships.

From Iglehooke to the Middle ground, the course is north & south, & the right depth in the Middle ground is 7 fathome, but in the chanell betweene west of Worcum and the Middle ground it is 4 fathome deepe good ground,Markes of the boye at the Middlegroūd. and the east wall is flat and the west is shoring. The tonne of the middle ground ly­eth upon these markes, when the two sharp steeples which stand northeast or there aboutes from you (that is Arum & Pingom) are both one against the other, then you have the length of this tonne, or when Bolswert is right north with a house that stan­deth north from Mackum, these are good Crosse-markes of the middle ground: Long-markes are these, when Kinswaert (that is the Looper) is right behinde Surich church, then you are right in the chanell. This Surich church standeth on the water side upon a point of land about northeast and by north from you, or when the flat steeple of Wynaldum or Wynaem which standeth north from Harlinghen, sheweth betweene Mildum & Harlinghen, then you are right in the middle ground, and unto which side Winaldum standeth nearest, unto that shore are you nearest: Wynaldum must stand betweene the east ende of Har­linghen and Mildum, but Mildum nearest: this is a right Long­marke. The right chanel in Middlegrond is 7 fathome as afore­said, and both the sides or grounds are shoring.

When you are through the Middleground & will sayle out­ward to the Vlie, you must not sayle by any pointes of sand on the west along to Monick Slot,Middle plaet. but you must not goe nearer to the west shore betweene the Middle ground and Swanebalgh, then three fathome deepe: and from Swanebalgh forward (go­ing outward) you must not goe nearer then 4 fathome, and you must be diligent to cast out your lead, specially when you come against Schieringshals, but whē you come out of the Sea home­wards you may sayle under the west shore, as it shall hereafter be declared.

When you come in out of the Sea, you may sayle by the ton that lyeth at the Middleground, for there is a flatte called Mid­dle flatte, which you may sayle eastward about, and so come southward of the ton to Iglehooke again into the Vlie-streame but not with great ships,Domini­cus plaet. this Middle plaet lyeth on the east shore, on the west shore also you sayle by a flat, called Domini­cus flatte, before you come to the Middle ground, which is also called the point of the Waert, or Doode balgh, & upon it there standeth a rowe of beakons: northward from this Flatte there is a good Rode, right over against the tonne at Swanebalgh: for there you have shallowe water and litle streames. When you are past the tonne or boye of Middle ground,Markes of the ton at Swan­balgh. then goe n. n. w. to the tonne at Swanebalgh. The Crosse-markes of this tonne are, when Bolswaert is right over a smale short house, which stand­eth southward of Cornwaert, then you have the length of this tonne, and here you may sayle by a point of sand when you goe outward. This tonne lyeth at 3 fathome on the east wall, & on the west wall you may cast out your lead and finde 4 fathome water all along to Schieringshals. When you are inward, then keepe on the cast shore with a fore-flood,Markes of the long reach. for it would draw you into this shelf before you were aware of it. The markes to sayle along by this long reach are these: you may see Mackum with a mill on the waterside, which lyeth southeast from you, & south­ward from Mackum there is a village with a flatte steeple called Idsegahuysen. Now when Pandraghen cōmeth betweene Mac­kum and this village, you neede not feare the point of sand or Doodebaigh, but if Pandraghen be nearest to Idsegahuysen, thē you are to neare to the point of sand aforesaid, but if Pandragen be nearest to Mackum then you are to neare the cast wall, these markes hold in this sort, as long as you can see them.

From the tonne at Swanbalgh to Schuytesandt, the course is northwest, and something more northerly:The tonne at Schuy­tesand. When Wynaldum is right against the point of Harlingen, then you have the length of the tonne of Schuytesand. The Long-markes are these, Bol­sworth cōmeth northward of the Sluys which standeth north­ward of Woens, and this tonne lyeth at sixe fathome on the east shore, and there it is verie shoring, the right depth is 7 and 8 fa­thome, you may sound four or five fathome on the west shore, but the east ground is shoring.

Frō Schuytsand to Kaeshooke the course is west-north-west, & east southeast, and sometimes northwest and by west, as the [Page 6] winde and streame is: for in this long reach there goeth but half tydes along the deepe, & then they goe about with the Moone, and fall almost crosse the deepe,Markes of the ton at Kaespoint. or chanell. The markes of the tonne at Kaeshooke are, when Franicker steeple commeth be­tweene the mille and the towne of Harlingen, and commeth al­so in the haven of Harlingen, or upon the mastes of the shippes which lye in the haven. This tonne lyeth on the east wall at 5 fathome, you must shunne the innermost point of Kaeshooke a litle, both comming in and going out, the right chanell is heere aboutes 9 or 10 fathome deepe.

Old VlieA litle westward from Kaeshooke lyeth the old Flie, & stret­cheth it self towards the tōne at the Nesse in the Tessel streame. The forestood is verie hard at the entering into this chanel, and you may sayle from the Sea inward at 4 fathome,Markes of the old Vlie. it reacheth southward in: when Franicker steeple is right north from the steeple of Harlingen then you are right against the old Flie, which lyeth on the west shore, and is shoring all along to the Flie.

WolfshookFrom Kaeshooke to Wolfshooke the course is northwest by north, the tonne lyeth at 4 fathome on the east side, betweene them there lyeth a new shoring drye point, whereat there lyeth a tonne. To sayle frō Kaeshooke to Wolfshooke first goe north-west and by north, or north-west to get above this tonne, and after that northwest, or north-and-by-west, to the tonne at Wolfshooke, here it is best that you keepe towards the west wal to shunne the shallowe point aforesaid.The In­schot. When you are past the tonne at Wolfshooke, take heede of the Inschot or Creeke, for there the fore flood rūneth in very strongly: it is wide & broad, and it is there as deepe as in the chanel, when you come in from the Sea, you may sayle by it at 9 or 10 fathome, it goeth in northward from the tōne at Wolfshooke: you must also beware of the fore-ebbe, for that commeth verie strongly out of the In­schot upon Schiernigshals, whereby many a ship is cast away.

From the tonne at Wolfshooke to the tonne of Schierings­hals sayle north-north-west, and north-west-by-north, as the winde and streame serveth: for as I said before, the fore-ebbe fal­leth out of the Inschot verie strongly upon Schieringshals, and the fore flood verie strongly from Schieringshals into the In­schot.Scherings­hals. Schiringshals is a point of sand which shooteth out from the west wal, which, as you come in from the Sea, you may sayle by at 6 fathome, commonly there lyeth a white tonne at it: when you sayle in this reach, looke well to the streame, and to your course that you be not driven into the Inschot nor upon Schieringshals, the right deepe betweene Wolfshooke & Schie­ringshals is 10 11 & 12 fathome.

From Schieringshals to LonghesandLongsand. the course is northwest, & northwest & by north. Betweene Schieringshals and Longe­sand is the best Rode in all the Flie streame,Freese or Pompers Rode. you goe by the west wall at lowe water, and there goeth a litle streame, the tonne ly­eth at 5 fathome, the right depth is 6 and 7 fathome. When you come in from Sea, you may sayle by Longesand on the east side, and by Schieringshals on the west side, & if you keepe at 7 fathome, you can take no hurt on neither side.

From Longhesand to the Monicke slote the course is north-north-west. Upon Vlieland there was wont to stand two Capes that were one against the other, & men were wont to sayle that Reach up and downe to Wolfshooke, but now they are broken off. The markes of the tonne at Longsand are these:The tonne at Long­sand. when the high beakon of lettingh cōmeth over the Iland of Grind, then you have the length of the tonne at Longsand.

When you come from Schieringshals & will goe to Monick­slote, then you see the milles upon the Vlieland stand in the middle right against a lowe flat downe, which sheweth some what black, for it is ful of heath.Markes to sayle from Schiering­shals to Monicke­slote. Keepe the milles standing right against it, and sayle upon it, and so you can not fayle: but if the milles stand on the east side of the downes, then you are to neare the west wall, and when the milles are nearer the west ende of the downes, then you are to neare the east wall: this is a right Long-marke from Schieringshals to Monickslote.

II. How you must sayle from Enchuysen to the Vlie and to the Tessel.

FRom the east ende of Marcken to the south chanell of En­chuysen, the course is north and by east five leagues. The chanel reacheth about south and north.The south chanell of Enchuysen When you will enter into the south chanell, then set the mast with the tonne right upon the west blockehouse or steeple, and sayle right up­on it, till Greatbrooke steeple be right against the mille, which is in the middle betweene Brookhaven and the Streecke, and then you are right against the uttermost tonne: then sayle in­ward along by the tonne, to the south Dyke, and from thence along before the towne. In the south chanell you have 8 foot water, in the Rode before Enchuysen it is 3 fathome and a foot deepe at lowe water. When Broocke is right against Broocke­haven, [Page 7] then you are right against the north ende of the Trindel, which is a sand of 3 foote deepe lowe water, which runneth a­long from the Dyke towards Leeck, and when Wynesser Wier­dyke is without the point of Leeck, then you are at the south ende of the Trindel. You may passe betweene the Dyke & this sand at 5 foot lowe water.

The north chanel of Enchuy­sen.But to sayle out through the north chanel, then goe from the Rode to the beakon north and by east; and then you shall finde the innermost tonne, which lyeth upon these markes. Groate­brooke commeth upon the land house, which standeth in the boucht of the Dyke, and the tower of the towne house is with­in a hand-staffe of the east ende of a great house, which standeth in the Breestreet. From the innermost tonne to the middlemost the course is north, and north and by west: & lyeth upon these Markes: the same landhouse is right against Boekarspel, and the towre of the towne house is right upon the gavell ende of the great house, so that you may see just betweene them. From the middle tonne to the north tonne in Hillegat, the course is north and north and by west,Markes of the utter­most ton in the north chanell. and lyeth upon these markes: Great­brooke is right against a lowe land house which standeth north from the high Hayhill which standeth upon the Dyke, and En­chuysen steeple is right cast from a high house which is in the middle of the towne, in such sort as you may see just betweene them, and also when the steeple is right against a Cape which is placed there, that is the best marke, and by that you finde the uttermost tonne, when you come from the Sea, and seeke to goe in at the north chanell.

To sayle from the uttermost tonne from Hillegat to the tōne upon Creupel,Markes of the tonne at Creupel your course is north and by west, and north-north-west, according to the winde and the streame, which ly­eth upon these markes: Brooke is right against Hem, two sharp stteeples, as before in the description of the Vlie streame is de­clared: and if you desire then to sayle to the Vlie, then sayle from thence to Kreil, as in the aforesaid description I have she­wed. In like sort if comming from Amsterdam through the fall of Urck, you desire to goe to the Tessel, and are at the tonne at Creupel, as aforesaid, then take the course hereafter set downe.

The tonne at Creupell lyeth at 3 fathome water upon the east ende of Creupel sand, and from thence to the beakon upon Creupel sand,The bea­kon upon Creupel-sand. the course is northwest, and northwest and by west; when the blunt steeple of Lutkebrooke is right against the sharp steeple of Hem, then you have the length of the bea­kon upon Creupel.

From the beakon upon Creupel sand, to the south tonne, up­on Wieringer flattes, the course is west-north-west, and north-west and by west, as the winde and streame serveth. The markes are:South ton upon Wie­ringhen flattes. Grootebrooke steeple is betweene two Hayehilles which stand east from the milles upon the north Dyke, that is a Long­marke. When the square steeple of Twisch westward of Meme­lick is right over Almerdorp, which in tymes past had a blunt steeple, but now it is fallen downe, and therefore not so well to be knowne, that was a right Crosse-marke. But upon Wierin­ghen there is a Cape set, bring that right upon the blunt steeple on the east ende of Wieringh [...]n, & sayle towardes it, & you can not misse the south tonne: and when Westlander steeple is over Cleverstee, (which is three or four houses standing upon the west ende of Wieringhen) then you may see the south tonne upon Wieringhen Flattes.How to shunn the Gammels. If you will sayle over Wieringhen flattes when you sayle outward, then note, that if Twisch first commeth upon Almerdorp, then you are to neare the Gam­mels, but if Cleverstee first come upon Westlander church then you are to neare Breesand. These are sure markes when there are no tonnes, to sayle over the flattes.

But if you will Ancker before Wieringhen flattes, then goe no nearer the flattes, then when Twisch is betweene Almerdorp and Opperdoes, for when Twisch is right against Almerdorp, then you have the length of the south tonne, as I sayd be­fore.

To sayle from the south tonne to Memelick keepe the five water milles the length of a ship on the east or south side of Me­melick, and so sayle right upon Memelick, and sayling so,To sayle to Memelick. you shall not finde lesse then 11 or 12 foot water at half flood.

From the south tonne upon Wieringen flattes to the second tonne, the course is northwest, and northwest and by north: but if you wil sayle in the deepest water, then from the south tonne you must first saile northwest so long, til that Ipelshover church is right against the water mill, called the Bolmill, and then goe northwest and by north to the second tonne. The second tonne lyeth upon the south ende of the flatt called Repel: the west chanell thereof is full 2 fathome deepe at lowe water, and hard­ly three fathome at high water. The markes of the second tonne are these: when the Corne-mill of Wieringhen is right against the open of the Oever. Right west from the middle tonne up­on Wieringhen flattes, there lyeth a hard sand or flatt, called the Sowe,The Sowe. which reacheth to the north tonne, and upon it there al­waies standeth a beakon. That flat at the east ende is verie sho­ring. [Page 8] When you sayle outward you must leave it on the bagh­borde, and you must be verie circumspect to looke unto it, for there it is not broad.Markes of the North tonne. When you have past by the middle tonne, then goe north-north-west to the north tonne upon the Flatte, and when you are right against it, then Oostlander church and the cornemill are both right against the litle chapel which stan­deth upon the Oever, which is a chapel covered with red tyles: and right against it standeth the beakon upon the Sowe.To shūne the Sowe. Vpon Wieringhen by the Oever there standeth a watch-house, when you leave the middle tonne, keepe it standing so, that you may see betweene the Oever and the watch-house, & then you shall not come neare the Sowe, that is a good Long-marke for such as knowe it. When you come to the north tōne, then hold one course, until Oostlander church be north from Wierdyke of the Oever, because of Iaepvaers Flatte,Iapevaers flatte. which you must leave on starreborde, then goe north and north & by west to the bea­kon upon Vlieter,The Vlie­ter. which standeth upon the point of the Waert, where you may sayle through the Wieringher shelf. But keepe the north tonne right against Memelick steeple, as long as you can see it, and goe north and by west, untill you see the tonne or the beakon upon the Nesse on the west wall, for on it there standeth a beakon,The Nes. or els there lyeth a white tonne, but on the east side a black tonne before the Balck, which in sayling up a man may sayle by at 4 or 5 fathome.

If you will seeke the best Roade before Wieringhen Flattes, for shippes that must be lightned, then set Westlander church right against the broken church of Strew, and there you shall finde the best Rode.

When you are at the beakon or white tonne upon the Nesse, then goe by degrees westerly, that is, north-north-west, north­west and by west, & northwest to the beakon upon Voglesand,The Bea­kon upon Vogelsād. the west wal may be sounded with the lead at 5 6 & 7 fathome. The markes of this reach are these, when the mill of Oostereynd (which is a buert house upon Tessell) is right upon the cape which is made upon the dyke,Markes of Vogelsād to Cope­vaerders Rode. then you are in the middle of the chanell, but when the milles are any thing southward or west­ward from the cape, then you are by the south wall, which is steepe, so that with lavering you can come no nearer unto it thē 8 or 9 fathome, the right deepe is 10, 11, and 12 fathome, but when you are upon Vogelsand, the south wall is flatter, but the east wall is altogether shoring, and as sone as you perceive that it beginneth to drie, thē you must winde, otherwise you would presently be upon the wall.

When you are about Vogelsand, then keepe the cape and the mil one against the other, so long until the horne is right against certaine houses, which stand a litle inward to the lād northward from Skonse, called South-haffell, let that stand so untill you be at Copevaerders Roade,Copevaer­ders Rode. and there ankor where you think good, before Oosterende it is best for smale ships, for there it is flat water, and there runneth the least streame, but most ships ankor before Geest.

III. How a man shal sayle from Coopevaerders Rode to Huysduynen, and out of the mouth of the Tessell.

IF you will sayle from Copevaerders Rode to Huysduynen, then goe southwest to the newe deepe, or goe along by Tes­sel side at 9 and 10 fathome, till you come to the Helder, and if you will sayle out at the Spaniards gat, then goe west close by the shore, and sometymes somewhat northerly, untill the capes stand right against Huysduynen, then put to the north shore at 5 or 6 fathome water, and so goe forward,Schelvis downes. but when the Wam­bus is right against a high white downe, which Pilots cal Schel­vis down [...]s, there it is flatter water, and there you may goe nea­rer to the north shore, at 3 or 4 fathome water, and as neare as you will your self, till you come out, for there the north points are altogether flat, but you must not goe near all the south wal of the Spaniards gat with your lead, for it is verie shoring.

If you wil sayle out of the Slenck,To sayle out at the Slenck. then goe out by Huysduy­nen, as I said before, untill the capes be one against the other, then goe nortdwest til the Wambus, or Sint Iohns Towre upon Tessel are within a bow length of the cape, but not right a­gainst each other. As you sayle in this manner from Huysduy­nē, be verie warie (specially with a fore ebbe) of the south shore, for that is verie shallowe, and the fore-ebbe falleth verie strong south-south-west, crosse over the Grounds, and falleth not out at the Spaniards gat before the Moone is about east north east. When the lop or inner cape of Huysduynen is even with the south ende of the downes, which is called Wierendyke, then you are close by the south shore, which are good markes for those that knowe them. When the cape upon Tessell,Markes of the inner­most ton. and the Wambus are about a bow length one neare an other, there you shal have the innermost tōne of the Slenck, thē goe west-south-west, and sometymes somewhat more southerly, as southwest and by west, then southwest (but yet do as you finde the winde [Page 9] and streame to serve your turne) and leave all those four tonnes on baghbords, for they lye all neare to the east shore, you may easily see them one after the other, the walles on either side are indifferent flat, and in the Slenck you shall finde three fathome & an half or four fathome water at half flood.Markes of the utter­most ton. When the milles upon Huysduynen are right against the old Kerckbuert, that is a fewe houses standing above north from Kickeduyn then you are right against the uttermost tonne and out of the chanel, then the Wambus is a bowe length westward from the cape of Tes­sel.

To sayle out of the Lāddeepe.But if you will sayle out at the Land deepe chanel, then rūne along by the foot strand of Huysduynen about a bowe shoote from it, and then you shal not misse the innermost tonne, which lyeth upon the threshold on the west wall at three fathome, and there it is not verie broad: Upon the Tessell on the Newe land there standeth a house with red tyles upon it, when the church of Burgh on Tessell is a shippes length neare to that red tyled house, then you hold a good course, but if the Burgher church, and that red tyled house aforesaid, are right over against each o­ther,Markes of the dee­pest water. then you should sayle upon the west shore. Upon old Iaeps bollen, when you are right against the entrie, then the ground alters verie drie, for at one cast of the lead you shal have 15 or 16 fathome, at the second seven or eight fathome, and at the third three fathome, and when the winde bloweth some­what, you may se the waves break on both sides, which you may passe through betweene them, when you are over the entrie, which continueth about three or four castes of the lead, then you have three & an half, four, & four & an half fathome deepe. Upon Huysduynen there standeth a tonne upon a mast, let that be somewhat westerly from the inner cape, which then standeth about north from you, hold it so, and then goe til you be cleane out of the chanell, and let the tonne lye to Seaward from you. When the myl upon Huysduynen is right against the high Kic­kedownes, then you are by the third and uttermost tonne, and free of all shallowes, & then direct your course which way you will.

IIII. How you shall sayle out of the Vlie.

A tonne upon the Flatte.NOrth from the Monick-sloot there lyeth a Flatte, and thereon there lyeth a tonne, from the Sloot to the tōne it is north-north-east. The tōne lyeth at three fathome, and when you sayle out you must leave it on the starreborde, in the chanell betweene the Sloot and the tonne it is 10, 9, and 8 fathome deepe, and against that tonne five fathome, from this tonne upon the Flatte to the southerlyest white tonne at Speck­hookeSpechook the course is northeast, and it lyeth on the northwall, at twelve foot deepe at lowe water, but from the tonne upon the Flatte to the black tōne at Speckhooke, the course is east-north-east, but yet as the winde and streame serveth, for with an ebbe you must sayle east, to get above the white tonne. The black tonne at Speckhook lyeth at 3 fathome lowe water, or at three fathome and an half, half stood. The chanel betweene them both is right against the tonne upon the Flat three fathome, but fur­ther forward it is dryer, so that against the white tonne it is not deeper then thirteene or fourteene foote deepe at lowe water. But when you are past the white tonne, then againe it is deeper, as three, four, and against the black tonne at Speckhooke five fa­thome at lowe water, the south wall betweene both is flatte, so that you may cast out the lead and sound it, the white tonne a­foresaid lyeth upon the south ende of Peters sand, & when you sayle out you must leave it on baghborde, and the black tonne on starreborde, a man with a ship that is something flatte bot­tomed, may sayle a litle northward from the white tonne over the aforesaid point of Peters sand, with twelve foot deepe lowe water, and a litle northerly from the northerlyest white tonne of Speckhooke enter againe into the chanell.

From the black tonne at Speckhooke, to the tonne at Hob­besand,Hobbesād. the course is north-north-west, the right depth there be­tweene them both is five, sixe, seven, eight & nyne fathome. The tonne lyeth upon the point of Hobbesand at five fathome deepe lowe water.

Right over against the tonne at Hobbesand lyeth the most northerly white tonne at Speckhooke,The north white ton at Speck­hooke. you must leave the tonne at Hobbesand on starborde, and the white tonne on baghborde, on the west shore it is verie shoring, and right north from the aforesaid white tonne on the west shore there ly­eth a Flatte, which at lowe water is cleane drie. From the ton at Hobbesand to the tonne at Bos, it is north-north-west, [...]nd that lyeth at five fathome at the ende of the Bos.The Bos. Th [...] [...]ght depth betweene Hobbesand & the Bos, is tenne, nyne, & eight fathome. The west wall is verie shoring, and you must not goe nearer then sixe fathome to the east wall, specially with a fore­flood, for it would easily carrie you behinde the Bos. From the tōne at the Bos, to the tonne at FeyhookFeyhook. the course is n. n. w. [Page 10] That is a white ronne, and it lyeth at the east ende upon the point of Peters sand, at 3 fathome lowe water, when you will goe out at the north chanell, then you leave it on baghborde, and then you must goe southward. But to goe out at Bomekens chanel, you must leave it on starreborde, and against it Bome­kens chanell is northwest, it is there 7 or 8 fathome deepe lowe water, and on the west wall lyeth Peters sand, also a drie flatte, north from the said drie flatte.Slenck through Bomekens ground. Right west-north-west from the tonne of Fayhooke there runneth a Slencke through Bome­kens ground, which at lowe water is about 12 foot deep, but it is not marked or shewed. The west ende of Bomekens chanell is verie shoring, to the ende thereof, but the east shore is flatte, which may be sounded with the line northwarde from Feye­hooke at 3 fathome and an half, without any hurt. Betweene Feyhooke and the uttermost tonneThe utter­most ton. in Bomekens chanell, there lyeth two tonnes more. From Feyhooke to the first of them it is north-north-west, & that lyeth on the east shore, at 5 fathome, from thence to the other, or almost to the uttermost, the course is north and by west, and that lyeth in the middle of the chanell at 4 fathome and an half lowe water, from thence to the utter­most tonne, it is north-north east, the uttermost tonne lyeth in the Sea, at 10 fathome, right without the point of the west land or of Bomekens ground, betweene the uttermost tonne and the second tonne at the entrie of the chanell it is 3 fathome lowe water. When you are at the uttermost tonne, then the steeple of Brandaris, & the west cape of the Schellingh are one against the other, and stand about south-east, and some what more ea­sterlie from you, when you sayle out at that chanell, & that you come to the first tonne at Feyhooke, you may goe out along by the cast land, at 3 and 3 fathome and an half, most part north-north-east, & leave the two uttermost tonnes a good way from you on baghbord, for the east shore is altogether flat and good to be sounded with the lead.

TO sayle out at the north chanel,To sayle out at the north cha­nel. sayle just south to the tōne at Feyhooke, n. and by east, to the old Legger, which lyeth on the south wall at 3 fathome, & the water is 4 fathome deepe. Betweene the tonne at Feyhooke & the Bos it is verie narrowe, and the Bos is there verie shoring, so that you cannot sound it, all along to the old Legger, where it is flatter, & so it may there be founded, Petersand, or the north wall also is verie shoring. From the old Legger to the new Legger the course is northeast and by east, & east north east, that lyeth also on the south shore at two fathome & an half, the right depth against it is 3 fathome and an half, when you come to the newe Legger,A Slenck through Petersand. then Brandaris steeple lyeth south-south-east from you. From the new Legger there runneth a Slencke crosse through Petersand, north-north-west into the Sea, upon the entrie at lowe water you have 12 foot deepe. There standeth a cape upon the Schellingh a litle eastward by the cape of Bomekens chanel, which is right against Brandaris, when you come to the new legger, and then it stan­deth with the steeple south-south-east from you, you must hold the cape so right against Brandaris, and then goe n.n.w. into the Sea, It is a faire Slenck for flat bottomed shippes, the west wal is shoring, but the east side is flatte, so that you may sound it wel. But to goe out of the north chanel from the new Legger, then the course from the new Legger to the second tonne frō with­out inward is east-north-east, and that lyeth at the east ende of the Bos, at 14 foot deep low water, & in the chanel right against it it is no deeper. From thence to the uttermost tōne, it is e. n. e. which lyeth in the Sea, right without the east point of Peter­sand, at 3 fathome: when you are at it, then the most northerly cape at the Schellingh is right against Brandaris, and then they are s. s. w. from you, & then you are out of the chanel.

BUt to goe out of the Land-deepe from the Schellingh with ships that goe not very deepe,To sayle out of the Land-deep of the Schelligh. then goe betweene the tōne at Hobbesand and the tonne at Bos, northeast to the northwest point of the Schellingh, then sayle over the point of Ielmers Flat to 4 fathome, and being over it is againe 6 and 5 fathome deepe, then sayle close along by the strand of the Schellingh,Ielmers Flatte. for so you cannot doe amisse, if you sayle not bluntly upon the shore. The north shore or the Bos is fine and flatte, which you may sound al along at 3 fathome or 2 fathome and an half, when you come to the ende of the Bos, that is right against the secōd tonne of the north chanel, there it is flat, and there is no more but 10 foot deepe, but sayle along out by the fore strand, til you get to deeper water, and from thence set your course whether you will.

IF you wil sayle out at Stortmelck,To sayle out of Stortemelck. when you are about Boots-horne, goe along by the foot-strand of the Vlieland n. and by w. for it is verie faire, or from the tōne upon the plaet, then goe n. n. w. to the innermost tonne of Stortemelck, which lyeth at 3 fathome lowe water, and it is therein the chanel between the plaet and the innermost tonne at Stortmelck 5 6 & 7 fathome [Page 11] deepe. When you come to the innermost tonne then runne north about it, and leave it on baghborde, for on the south side there lyeth the foot of the northeast point of the Vlieland unto that tonne: on the north fide of that tonne in the chanell it is 4 fathome deepe. When you are past the innermost tonne, then goe west and by south to the second tonne, which lyeth on the north wall at 5 fathome. The right depth there on the south side is 7 fathome. From thence outward you may sayle by the strand, for it is verie faire, you may runnne along by it at 3 fa­thome & an half from the second tonne to the third, that is the uttermost but one, the course is west and by south, that lyeth at 4 fadome on the north wall,A tonne at Droghe-drie. the depth against it is four fadome, this tonne is called the tonne at the Droghe Drie. From thence to the uttermost tonne the course is west, and west & by north, that lyeth in the Sea at 5 fathome, nearest to the north wal, but you may there goe somewhat northerly, for the north wall is reasonable flatte, so that you may sound it with your lead at 4 or 5 fadome. Betweene the uttermost tonne and the tonne up­on the Droghe Drie, it is not deeper at the entrie then 16 foot lowe water: when you are at the uttermost tonne,Vttermost tonne. then the cape and the mil upon Vlieland are one right against the other, & are then about east-south-east, & southeast from you.

NOTE. All the depths here set downe, are understood and described to be so at lowe water: at half floode it is all over about half a fa­thome deeper, for there it floweth a fathome up & downe with a dayly tyde,

Heere followeth the Carde N. 2.

CHAPTER II. THE DESCRIPTION OF the Sea-coasts and Havens of Holland, Sealand, and Flanders, from the Tessell to Pas of Calis, and through it.

I. To knowe the Tessell and Huysduynen, and how you shall reach and enter into the Spaniards gat, and other Chanels of the Tessell.

Tessell. THe Iland of Tessell lyeth north from Huys­duynen and hat [...] four churches: at the west ende thereof th e is a high sharp steeple cal­led Wambus, [...]omewhat more inward there is a sharpe steeple called Hoorn, and more north from those churches there is a great flatte steeple called Burch, and further east­ward there standeth a church without a steeple called the Oogh or the Koogh, which is covered with blewe slate, otherwise it is a long plaine Iland, the north pointes runne from the west ende a good waye into the Sea, on the south side thereof the Spaniards gat or chanell goeth in, as hereafter it is shewed.

EyerlandEyerland. is eastward close by the Tessel, & is fast to the Tes­sel, but with a high floode it is cut off by the Sea, (which then runneth over betweene them both) and made an Iland, it shew­eth outwardly lyke a lowe slight small Iland with small hilles, upon it there is but two houses.

Thus the Iland of Tessel sheweth it self when it lyeth about east and by north from you.

VVambus.

HuysduynenHuysduy­nen. is a short point of Land with some white downes, whereof the greatest is called Kyckeduyn, or Kyckers­duyn. Westward they are verie lowe & seeme nothing, so that at the last it is nothing but a playne sand on the east ende, called the Helder, there is also some downes: but betweene the Hel­der and the high downes it is for a long waye nothing els but a bare strand, at the east ende there stande two capes, and not many yeeres since there was a steeple, but that is gone, and the place where it stood so farre in the Sea, that now the ships sayle over it. There is nothing els specially to be marked upon it: the Tessel lyeth north from it, as is said before.

Thus the land of Huysduynen sheweth it self when it lyeth about southeast from you.

The chanels of Holland Sealand & Freesland alter & change often tymes, as it is well knowne to all Seafaring men, yet some lesse then others. The Spaniards gat continueth in a manner all at one staye, and in long tyme hath altered but verie litle, onely that everie yeer it reacheth out further northerly. But the other chanels as the Slencke and the Land deepe alter oftentymes, and sometymes verie much in a litle tyme, & therefore they are not to be described in such sort, as that they may serve for ever, I will heere shewe the situation which they now have, and there­by certefie the Reader that all those chanels are to be used with Pilots.

When you come from the west,To sayle into the Spaniard [...] gat. and seeke to enter into the Spaniards gat with a west winde, then goe no nearer to Holland then at 15 or 16 fathome, as your tyde serveth, or as the capes stand one against the other, for not farre from Keysers plaet, & right before Spaniards gat it is 15 or 16 fathome deepe, and at [Page] [Page] [Page]

Pascaarte van Hollandt Zeelandt ende Vlaen­deren, van Texel af tot deur de Hoofden, too­nende de rechte gheleghentheyt aller gaten, Zanden, bancken, diepten ende ondiepten aldaer gheleghen, nieulÿcx beschreven door Willem Iansz.

Carte marine de Hollande Zeelande et Flandres, de Texel iusques a [...] Pas de Cal [...], māstrant la vraye sunation des Ports de mer, bancq [...] de sable, profonditez, et seicheresses sitiez au long des costes desdictes Cōtreez, novellement descript per Guillai [...]me Iansi

[Page] [Page 13] one cast with the lead you shal have 13 fathome, at another cast 10 fathome, and at the third 7 fathome. For the Keysers Plaet is all shoring without, and that depth of 15 and 16 fathome reacheth a league and an half into the Sea all at one depth. To saile above Keysers Plaet,Keysers Plate. then marke the three highest downes upō the Tessel, that which standeth southerly is a white downe, and the two northerly are somewhat rough: that which is most northerly is by Pilots called,Markes to shunne Ke [...]ers Pla [...]e. the second rough downe, when you keepe the Wambus, or S. Iohns steeple upon Tessel right north with the rough downe that is most north, and so sayle upon it, then you shall not sayle upon Keysers Plaet, but goe right without it, keepe the markes aforesaid standing so, til you have the capes upon Huysduynen one upon another, so that the Looper or innermost cape standeth a w [...]nde-beames length north from the uttermost, there you shall finde the first tonne of Spaniards gat. Kyckers downe shall then stand southeast & by south from you.To finde the first tonne. The first or uttermost tonne lyeth at 4 fa­thome and an half with half flood, at the ende of Keysers Plate, sayle on the east side of the tonne, and leave it on starreborde, for Keysers Plate is also within as well as on the outside altoge­ther shoring. In Spaniards gat there are four tonnes, all on the west wall, which you must leave all on starborde as you sayle into it: from the first to the second, third, and fourth tonne it is all one course, that is south-south-east, and from thence for­ward to Huysduynen southeast, but yet you must direct your course, as winde and streame serveth. For if you will sayle into the Spaniards gat with a fore flood, then you must have the winde at least west and by south, and you must sayle south before you can lye inward, [...]ing of streame for the fore flood falleth verie strong n. n. e. crosse over the pointes, til it be half flood, & so doth the fore ebbe fal f. s. w. crosse over the pointes til half ebbe. An east and west moone make a high water without the chanell, but by the land an east-south-east, and west-north-west moone. But if it may be staye for your tyde, till that the moone be west-south-west, then you have a good tyde to sayle in, for then the streame runneth right into the chanel, and likewise the ebbe commeth first right out of the Spaniards gat, at the last or ende of the tyde. Then when you have the innermost cape standing a cap­stock beames length north from the uttermost, & are at the first tonne, then goe south-south-east inward, and leave all the tonnes on starborde, and when you are at the fourth tonne, then goe southeast to the capes upon Huysduynen, & close by the foot­strand of Huysduynen inwards. The north pointes are outward so shoring that at 8 or 9 fathome you shall not be a ships length from them, but on the innerside they are verie flatte. When you have gotten to the Spaniards gat, then you may cast your lead out upon the inner side of the north pointes, at three fathome without any hurt: but when the Wambus is right upon the a­foresaid high white downe, or eastward of it, then put some­what off from the wall to five or sixe fathome, for frō the north wall there shooteth out a point which in sayling up you may passe by at four fathome water, then goe to the footstrand of Huysduynen and sayle in close by it, and if you will be at Cope vaerders Rode, then doe as it is shewed in the first Chapter.

To sayle in at the Land deepe when you come frō the south,To sayle in at the Lād deep. then keepe from the wal five fathome, and so sayle along by the land, but goe no nearer to the wal then 4 fathome & an half, for a little south from the Kyckersdowne, there cōmeth a peece or foot of a Sand frō the wal & reacheth inward to the Sea, which you may sayle behinde at 4 fathome. The Depth that is after this point the Pilots call Ariaen Bergers Kille: but if you come out of the Sea with a strong winde, then set and keep the high­est of the Kyckersdowns east-north-east from you, & sayle upon it toward the wall, and comming against the wall you shall come into the viewe of the uttermost tonne,Markes of the first tonne. and so you shall not sayle by Ariaen Bergers Kille: the uttermost tonne lyeth at five fathome, on the west wall, leave it lying Seaward from you, and goe right northeast all along the wall, and if it be any thing rough, then may you see the waves breake on both sides. Let the second tonne also lye on baghborde, the third tonne al­so lyeth on the west wall upon the entrie of the Land deepe, at the entrie it is not verie wide, but at lowe water it is sixteene foote deepe.Markes of the west wall. Upon the Tessel on the newe land there standeth a red tyled house, now when you come against the entrie, and that the Burgh church on Tessell standeth about a ships length eastward from that red tyled house, then you are in a good way: but if the Burgh church and the red tyled house stand one right against another, then you are too neare the west wall. So soone as you are over the entrie then you have deep water, that is seven, eight, and tenne fathome, and presently after 15 and 16 fathome, then goe forward along by the footstrand of Huys­duynen inward.

The south Slenck, as it was used the yeeres forepast,To saile in at the Slenck. was An­no 1607 wholly spoyled, but to sayle in at the Slenck, as it lyeth at this tyme, set the cape upon Tessell a bowe length south­ward or eastward from Wambus, and let them stand so, and [Page 14] sayle right upon them, and so you goe a litle westward from the first tonne right into the Slenck, when the mille upon Huys­duynen are right against the old Kerckbuert (which are certaine houses which stand alone) then you are against the outmost tonne,Markes of the first tonne. which lyeth at 4 fathome half flood. In the Slenck there are four tonnes, you may easily see from the one to the other, sayle along by the tonnes and leave them on starborde, for they lye all on the eastwall, you shal finde no lesse water in the Slenck then three fathome and an half, at half [...]lood. The Land on ei­ther side is reasonable flatte, so that you may easily found them with a lead. From the first tōne to the second it reacheth north­east in, after that northeast and by east, and somewhat easterlyer, and lastly east-north-east, but look well to y [...]ur streame, and di­rect your course according to the winde. When you are at the innermost tonne, then the cape upon Tessell is a bowe length westward from the Wambus, then when you finde deeper water goe right to Huysduynen, but beware of the south wall for it is verie shoring, when you come to Huysduynen, then goe in a­long by the foot strand.

By Tessel strand, there was a deepe also wont to runne in, but now it is gonne,The Lād-deepe of Tessell. for now there runneth a Slenck or Kill through the north pointes, where at a lowe water it is about 2 fathome water, but it is not well to be used, but by small ships, and by such as are verie well acquainted therewith. To sayle into it take the Tessell side at 4 fathome, and so runne along by it till you come to the north point, and then you shal perceive that Slenck by the waves, for they are on both sides of it, as the winde blo­weth somewhat hard, there you must runne in betweene them both, at the dryest you shall finde two fathome and an half, at half flood, when you are over the shallowe and finde deepe wa­ter againe, then you may runne along by the north pointes, at 3 or 4 fathome deepe, or right towards Huysden. This chanell as I said before, is not to be used but by such as are wel skilled and acquainted therewith.

If you will goe from Huysden to Coopvaerders chanell or Rode,To sayle from Huysden to Copevaer­ders deepe or Rode. then sayle from the Newe chanel or deepe northeastward and so you shall not sayle by the land on neither side, the land on either side is very shoring, yet you may found the Tessel side with your lead at 8 and 9 fathome without any hurt: but the Wieringer side is so steepe that at one cast of the lead you shall have 12 and 13 fathome water, and at the second cast you shall be on ground.

If you desire to goe inward frō Huysden, then from the New deepe or chanel, sayle northeast or rather more easterly,To sayle from Huysden to the Vlack. as winde and streame serveth, or (as I said before) along by Tessell at 8 or 9 fathome, so long untill that Horne standeth north from the rowe of houses which stand north from the Sconce a litle with­in the Land, called South-haffel, keepe the markes standing so, and so sayle toward Vogelsand, so long till the cape on Tessell and the mille of Oosterender are one right against the other. then leave the aforesaid markes of Horne, but enter into that reach with a large winde no nearer to the south-side then at 7 fathome water, for westward by Vogelsand there reacheth a point of sand outward, which you may sayle by at five or sixe fathome water, but with an east winde, when you must laveere, or winde and turn, and that you goe crosse to and fro, then you may goe within five fathome deepe of the wall. When the cape and Oosterender milles are one against the other, keepe them so as long as you can see them, and then the corne mille and the water mille upon Wieringhen will be one against the other: when you keepe the aforesaid milles upon Tessel a bowe length southward from the cape, then runne along by the south side, but goe no nearer unto it, (when you are within the beakon up­on Vogelsand) then at 8 fathome, for there it is verie steepe, and when the Oosterender milles are a hand staffe length northward from the cape, then you are on the north side, which is altoge­ther shoring and steepe, and as soone as it beginneth to drie, you must turne as you laveere, otherwise you would presently be upon the Land.

Without the Land of the Tessel,VVhat Moone maketh a ful Sea be­fore the Tessel. an east & west Moone make a high water, and upon the Land or the shore an east-south-east, & a west-north-west Moone, but in Copevaerders Rode a south-east and by east, or a northwest & by west Moone. The streame runneth before the mouthes of the chanels about with the Sonne, so that when a ship is at Anckor without the chanel, and is out of daunger of the waves it shall have but a litle still wa­ter.

The foreflood and the after ebbe fall both together into the Sea to the Keysers Flat north or somewhat more westerly.The fal­ling of the streames To the contrarie againe the after flood and the fore ebbe, fal inward to the Land south, and somewhat more easterly, & to conclude the streames for the most part runne crosse the chanels, the flood for half the tyde falleth northeast over the pointes, and then it runneth into the Spaniards gat, but without the Land the flood runneth northeast and the ebbe southwest, therefore look well to your streames for it importeth you much.

II. The description of the West coast of Holland betweene Huys­den and the Mase, shewing what markes are thereon, & how you shall knowe them.

HUysduynen or the Tessel and the Mase, lye one from the other south-south-west, and some what southerlyer, & north-north-east, and somewhat northerlyer about 24 leagues distant. Frō Huysduynen to Petten it is 4 leagues south and by west: PettenPetten. hath a smale church with a litle steeple, & about Petten you may see two other sharp litle steeples in the North land, full south there aboutes lyeth the Houtbosch. A league south from Petten lyeth Camper Downe,Camper-downe. which is the best land there aboutes to be knowne: the north ende is a slope steep white banck, which runneth stope downewards, but the south part thereof is graye, and rough, overgrowne with heath, on the south side thereof there are many rugged knottes or downes, and sometymes there runneth a white blenck under it, whereby it is verie easily to be knowne. From Petten to Eg­mont upon the Sea,Egmont upon the Sea. it is 3 leagues. Egmont upon the Sea, also is verie wel to be knowne, for it hath a thick flatte steeple which standeth lyke a sayle in the downes, and a litle to the south from it there you may see Egmont within,Egmont within. which hath two high towres upō the Abbay, which stand one right against the other, whereof the one is sharp, the other, to wete that which is most north is flat: for that one of the speeres thereof fell downe not long since. On the north side of the Abbay there is yet a towre of the church, which yet standeth upon the old wall, but it is not so high as that upon the Abbay: So that upon the whole coast of Holland, there is no place so well to be knowne as this. From Egmont upon the Sea to Wyck upon the SeaVVyck upon the Sea. it is three leagues, which also hath a flatte steeple, when you are over a­gainst Wyck upon the Sea, then north from thence you may see the steeple of Beverwyck, which is a great high speere steeple, & besides this betweene Egmont & Wyke upon the Sea you may see Castricom and other speere steeples. From Wyke upon the Sea to Sandvoort it is 3 leagues, SandvoortSandvoort hath a speere stee­ple with a high beakon, which standeth right south from it in the black downes, which sheweth like a steeple. North from Sandvoort there lyeth a high white downe, where you may see HaerlemHaerlem. over it, which is a high four square crosse church, with a high spere steeple, which stādeth in the middle of the church, and on the north side also an other long small spere steeple, cal­led Backenesser steeple. Heere aboutes the Coast of Holland hath a great Creeke or Inwyke. From Sandvoort to NortwickNordwyc. upon the Sea it is 3 leagues, it is a flat steeple, and right against it there standeth a beakon: north from Northwick upon the Sea, you may see Northwick within the land, which is a flat steeple, whereon there is a litle cape not verie high and in the middle of the church ther is a smal towre. Frō Northwick to CatwickCatwick. up­on the Sea, it is a league, which also hath a flat steeple, which in tymes past had a spere, right south from it there standeth a high beakō, which you may easily see before the steeple, there aboute also you see within the land (when you are not far frō the land) Catwick upon the Rhine, Rinsburgh, & Valckenburgh, which are all spere steeples. From Catwick to SchevelingScheve­ling. are 3 leagues, the quier of Scheveling church is higher then the bodie of the church, as the Haeghes church is ful south frō that church there standeth also a beakon: about half a league within the land you may see the Haegh church, & it is verie wel to be known. From Scheveling to the Heyde it is two leagues, and from thence to GravesandGravesād. or the north point of the Mase, it is a league, the Heyde is a village without a steeple, but a litle within the downs there standeth a flat steeple called Monster: But Gravesant is an high spere steeple, which is verie well to be knowne, & standeth on the north point of the Mase. The BrielThe Briel. is a flatte steeple, and that standeth upon the south point of the Mase, and this whole coast of Holland, from Huysduynen to the Mase, is altogether a faire strand, you may goe as near unto it as you will, at four or five fathome water or thereaboutes.

Thus the coasts of Holland lyeth and sheweth, betweene Huysduynen and Wyck upon the Sea, when you sayle along by it about two leagues from the land.

Egmont within.

Beverwyck.

Tooghe.

Petten.

Camperduyn.

Egmont on the Sea.

Wyck of Sea

Thus appeareth the coast of Holland betweene Wyck upon the Sea and the Mase, as one sayleth along by it about a league and an half from the land.

Haerlem.

The Haegh.

Monster.

Sandvoort

Noortwyck.

Catwyck.

Scheveling.

Gravesand.

III. How to knowe the land about the Mase, and how you must sayle into the Mase, as the expert and skilfull Pilot of the Briel Iacob Bouwenson gave me instruction at large in November 1607.

ON the north side of the Mase lyeth Gravesand, which hath a high speere steeple, which is called our Ladie stee­ple, which is the best to be knowne of all others in the Mase, and a litle eastward from it there standeth a flatte steeple called Monster, on the south side of the Mase, upon the land of Vooren you shall see a great flatte steeple which is within the Briel. Westward from the Briel standeth Eastvooren, which is a flattish steeple, with a smale speere upon it, like to the Haeghs steeple.

Thus appeareth the land of Vooren, as you are about a league without the Mase

Briel.

Eastvooren.

To sayle into the Mase.If you will sayle into the Mase, then sayle til you bring both the capes which stand upon the land of the Briel, one right a­gainst the other, and then they will be about east and by south, and east-south-east from you, and sayle so upon them and you shall finde the uttermost tonne, which lyeth at four fathome & an half at lowe water, then the Haegh steeple is verie neare right against Monster, which is a flatte steeple which standeth a litle inward to the land from the Haye. From the first tonne to the second, the course is east-south-east, and so forward along to the fift tonne, so that from the first tonne to the fift you sayle along by the markes of the cape, but then you must leave them. The second tonne lyeth at three fathome and an half water, the third at the rising of the threshold, at three fathome, the fourth at the dryest of the entrie, at two fathome, but the fift tonne againe lyeth at three fathome, and being at it, you are past the shallow­est: al the tonnes in the Mase lye on the north side of the haven, and are so neare one unto the other, that a man may easily see from the one to the other, you must sayle betweene the tonnes and the land, three or four shippes length southward from the tonne it is the deepest water. From the fift to the sixt tonne, & so forward to the ninth or last tonne, the course is east, the sixt tonne lyeth also upon the north side, at two fathome & an half, but the right depth betweene the sixt tonne and the land is a­bout 5 fathome, & the nearer to the wall the deeper, when you are past by the ninth or last tōne (which lyeth right against the Nesse) then turne towards the Mayland of the Briel, where you shall see certaine boyes and some smale tonnes, you must sayle through betweene them, and so along forward by the land, to the head, where you may cast anckor, when you passe betweene the boyes and the tonnes, there you shall find tenne foot water at the lowest, but there it is verie narrowe, so that you can not lavere or winde there. Therefore if it chance that as you enter into the Mase you have a sharp winde, then marke that when you come to the seventh tonne, Eastvooren being three or four ships length westward from the uttermost cape, & about south­west from you, that you keepe those markes standing so, and goe on northeast, and so you shall goe over a Flatte of nine foot water, which is wide and broad, when you are past it, you shall have three fathome water againe, but as soone as you perceive that it beginneth to be deepe water againe, then you must pre­sently sayle southeast, towards the land of the Briel without danger, and when you are at the head there you may cast an­kor, there you have five, sixe, and seven fathome water. If you will goe farther up there you may have a Pilot, and sayle up the Mase where you desire to be.

To sayle frā north­ward into the Mase.If you come out of the north, and will enter into the Mase, then sayle along by the land of Holland at three fathome water, and goe along in that sort within the mouth or entrie of the Mase so long untill you have the capes upon the land of the Briel one right against the other, and so you shall fall upon the third tonne in the Mase, and from thence you may sayle for­ward into the Mase, as I said before.

By the footstrand of Gravesand there is now againe a fair pas­sage broken, called the Landdeepe, or Northgat or chanell, in the yeere 1608 marked at the charge of the Seatownes lying upon the Mase, and now is signed with sixe red tonnes.

To sayle into the land deepe or North-chanel.If you will sayle in at the Northgat or chanell of the Mase, comming from Sea, then set the beakons or capes that stand on the north side of the Mase full one against another, hold them so standing and sayle right forward, and then you shall sayle up­on the body of the outmost tonne, which lyeth at 18 foot lowe water: the towre or steeple of Gravesand lyeth severed from the uttermost tonne full east and by north, and the Briel lyeth from it almost southeast and by south, if then you set the towre or steeple of Gravesand east and by north from you, and sayle for­ward till the foresaid beakons come one against the other, then can you not misse the uttermost tonne. From the first tonne to the second and third is the course east-south-east. The second tonne lyeth upon twelve foot, comming thither let the capes be a capstock-beame length each from other, and the Hey stand under the downe. The third tonne lyeth at eleven foot: then Gravesand is on the high downe. The fourth tonne lyeth at 11 foot also: then commeth Monster upon the bores house. When you are past the fourth tonne then shal you finde deeper water, namely 15 and 16 foot, and there if occasion require, it is fit to anckor. But against the fift tonne it is somewhat shallower, for it lyeth at 12 foot, then commeth Monster through Gravesand. The sixt tonne lyeth also at twelve foot, and when you come unto it then commeth Eastvooren, upon the land of the Briel within the uttermost or the most westerly cape. From hence which is on the southside of the Mase sayle boldly forward to the head of the Briel south-south-east, there are no shallowes nor dangerous places, and there anckor where you please. All the tonnes upon the north chanel are red tonnes and lye all on the south wall, so that if you sayle inward you must leave them all on starborde, and sayle northward along.

They that come from Scheveling or out of the north along the strand, and will goe in at the north chanel of the Mase, must keepe along the wall at eighteene foot, and then they shall fall upon the uttermost tonne, or if you sayle nearer the shore at 11 or 12 foot, then you shall come to the second tonne. The wall or shore is verie faire without daunger, so that (if there were no tonnes) you might wholly passe by the footstrand, with the help and direction of the lead at 10, 11, or 12 foot, so deepe or shallowe as you thought good, or as the flood permitted, when you are come in by the direction of the lead so farre, that East­vooren commeth through the uttermost cape on the south wal, then you may sayle right forward to the head of the Briel, as a­fore is said.

This Situation of the North chanell was described to me in writing by the Pilots of the Briel in Ianuarie, in the yeere 1610.

All the depths here specified touching the Mase,NOTA. are to be un­derstood at lowe water, and the measure of the depth is to be understood of Mase feet, which are so much greater then the North Holland feet, that they gayne one foot in 12.

Before the Mase a southwest and by west, and a northeast and by east moone make a high water, and before the Briel a south­west, and a northeast moone, and it sloweth there with a conti­nuall daiely tyde 5 or 6 foot up and downe: a litle after that the flood beginneth to runne without before the Mase, then it fal­leth also right into the Mase, so that there is small difference to be seene, whether it be without or within the chanell or mouth of the Mase.

IIII. How you shall sayle into the Goree gat or chanell.

IF you will sayle in at Goree gat or chanell, when you come out of the west, then let the cape that standeth upon the land of Goree stand right against the steeple of Goree, and then it will stand east and by south from you, sayle straight upon it,A Flat be­fore the Goree ga [...] to the land of Goree, and so you shall goe over a great Flatte, where at lowe water at the dryest, there is not lesse then three fathome water, or a litle more. When you are over that Flat, & goe neare to the strand of Goree, then you have deeper water a­gain, 5, 6, 7, & 8 fathom, then goe forward close by the footstrād, until Goree stādeth s. w. frō you, & thē anckor where you think good, for so far inward it is good anckoring in every place. But if you come from the north or out of the Mase, then runne along by the land of the Briel at 4 fathome, but goe no nearer unto it, [Page 18] for in some places it is somewhat shoring,How to go into the Goree chanel, out of the north. and when you are so farre southward, that the steeple of Goree standeth south & by east from you, or somewhat more easterly, then sayle right up­on the Land of Goree, and then also you shal sayle over the Flat aforesaid, but when you are near the Land of Goree, then be­yond the Flat you enter into the deeper water, then goe in for­ward along by the Mayeland of Goree, (as I said before) and an­kor where you will. The Flat before spoken of is verie broad, and stretcheth crosse over the chanell, it is verie even, and all of one depth. The chanel of Goree is verie broad & wide, for when the steeple of Goree standeth betweene east and by south,Markes of Goree gat or chanel. and s. & by e. frō you, then you may without al fear sayle to the foot­strand of Goree, you must then still runne over the Flatte afore­said, and shall not finde lesse then three, and three fathome & an half water at lowe water, and when you come to the foot-strand of Goree, you shall have deeper water, then goe in forward by the mayeland as aforesaid.

To knowe Goree lād.The Land of Goree is known by the great flat steeple of Go­ree, & by a sharp litle steeple, which standeth on the west ende called Outdorp, further also you see the cape there, whereof I spake before.

Thus the Land of Goree sheweth when it is about a league crossewise from you.

Goree. Outdorp.

V. To sayle into the chanell of Brewers haven.

HE that desireth to sayle into Brewers haven, he must un­derstand that there are three bankes lying before the land, which runne along by the strand, the uttermost ly­eth at least a kenning from the land, which is called the Bree­banck,Breebanck upon it it is 7 fathome deepe but within it it is againe 19 fathome deepe. The second lyeth nearer to the land, upon the which it is five fathome deepe,The Oo­ster. Schelbāck and within it 7 fathome water. The third called the Schelbanck lyeth crosse before the mouth of the haven, without the first tonne, and upon it at lowe wa­ter it is 3 fathome water.

If you will sayle into the chanell of Brewers haven, then set the two capes that stand upon the Land of Schouwen one right against the other, and sayle upon them to the strand of Schou­wen to four fathome water: and when you have gotten to four fathome water, then runne northeast in (yet as winde & streame serveth you) & there you shall finde the uttermost tonne, which you must leave to seaward, or on the baghborde, sayle forward in that sort, so long untill that Renesse, standeth eastward of the blenck, that is the high downe which lyeth on the west side of Bruwers haven, then Goree will be right against Outdorp, or al­most one uppon the other, keepe those markes in that sort, until you have deeper water, or that you have past the second tonne, which as you enter in leave upon starborde, when you wil keep in the depest water, but you may sayle lower about. And then if you will sayle to Brewers haven, then set Bommene without the point of Ossesteert, and sayle upon it to the foot strand of Schouwen: for the sandes on baghborde are verie shoring, you must not goe nearer unto them when you lavere, then sixe fa­thome, goe forward along by the strand, to the head of the ha­ven, and there anckor, there you shal have 8 & 9 fathome deepe, the tonnes in Brewers havens chanell are layd against the Buys­ses goe out to Sea, and taken in againe when they have done fi­shing.

When a man cōmeth out of the Sea,To knowe the land of Schouwē. the Land of Schouwen when you fall upon it, sheweth to your sight with 3 or 4 high and long white downes, which are called the Woolsackes, that in the west is the highest and longest: upon the land also you may see some churches with smale speres, but on the south ende towards Sealand, there is a high four square flat church. Brewers haven hath a sharpe steeple, and the land of Scouwen reacheth it self out further east then the other landes, whereby also it is well to be knowne. From the west ende of the Land of Schou­wen there is a bad long Riffe, at least two leagues and more into the Sea, which is called the Banjaert,The Ban­jaert. from the uttermost ende of the Riffe to Botkil, it is south-south-west, and with such a course you can not misse it.

Thus the land of Schouwen sheweth when it lyeth about a league & an half thartwise from you.

Brewers haven.

VI. How you shall sayle into the Veer-chanel or Haven.

TO sayle into the Veer-haven or gat (so called in Dutch) I counsell you not to enter into it, before half flood be past, for the latter ebbe, & the fore flood fall right crosse over the Banjaert into the Roompot, to the land of Schouwen, but when the flood is half spent, then it runneth right into the Veer-haven, a south and a north Moone make the highest water in Veerhaven: and an east & west Moone the lowest water there­in: but when the Moone is southeast or northwest, then the wa­ter there is 2 thirdpartes flood.

How to sayle into Veer havē comming out of the north.If you will sayle into the Veer-haven, comming out of the north, then goe no nearer to the land of Schouwen, or the Ban­jaert then seven fathome water: for upon the Banjaert in some places it is not above 4 or 5 foot deepe, and much dryer: but beyond it, it is 7, 8, and 9 fathome soft ground, sayle about it on the outside, untill that Eastchappell is half a ships length eastward from Middleburgh, sayle with those markes to Wal­cheren,Markes to ent [...]r the haven. so long untill that the steeples of Westkerck and Coort­geen be right upon each other, or that the steeple of Coortgeen standeth a bowe length southward of the flatte steeple of West­kerck, sayle then upon it, and you shall finde the first tonne, but goe no nearer to the strand of Walcheren then 7 or 8 fathome water, for if you doe you may chance to sayle behinde a point of land called the Onrust, which commeth off from Walcheren. You must also goe no nearer to the land of Schouwen or the Banjaert, then 8 fathome water, for it is verie steepe. The first tonne lyeth at 8 fathome, on the south strand, when you come to the first tonne, you may easily see the second, & so forth from the one to the other, all the four tonnes must be left on star­borde when you goe in, and you must sayle close by them, for on both sides it is verie steep and shoring, when you are at the innermost, then sayle to the Mayland, and goe close along by it at three or four fathome, if you sayle not upon the heads, you can not goe amisse upon the Dykes.

VII. To sayle into the Botkill

SteenbāckTO sayle into the Botkill, you must do it by day, and take heede of Stonebanck, which is a banck lying a league & an half from the Land of Walcheren, along in the Sea, stretching to the Botkill. The markes of this banck are these, there standeth a steeple betweene Eastchappel,Markes thereof. and Westchap­pel, called Domburgh, now when the steeple of Middleburgh standeth just betweene Eastchappel & Domburgh, then you are at the eastende of this banck, and when Middleburgh and Dom­burgh are one against the o [...]her, then you are right over against the middle of that banck, but when Westchappel is east-south-east from you or in a black valley in the downes, then you are a­gainst the west ende of that banck.

If you will goe within or sayle eastward about that banck to enter into Botkill,To sayle about on the east side of the Steenbāck to Botkill. then place Middleburgh steeple half way be­tweene Eastchappel & Domburgh, but let Eastchappell be nea­rest, and so go towards the strand at 4 fathome and an half, 5, & 5 fathome and an half, and cast out your lead along by the wall, but when you come betweene Domburgh and Westchappell, there runneth a sand off from the Wall called the Cloots, which take heede of: therfore sayle south-south-west, or south-west & by south forward, so long untill that Westchappel standeth southeast from you, or in a black valley in the downes, keepe it standing so, untill that the two steeples of Eastchappel & Dom­burgh be one against the other, and hold the Mayland side at 4 and an half, 5 and 6 fathome deepe. And the two towres afore­said, that is Eastchappell & S. Achten or Domburgh are a litle past each other, then presently you finde deeper water, that is 9 or 10 fathome, then sayle southeast or southeast & by south, as the winde s [...]rves, along the strand to Flushing.

But if you will sayle without or about on the west-side of the Stone banck to the Botkill,To sayle on the west-side of the stone-bāck into the Botkill. then runne so long about east or west, (as you see your waie) untill that Westchappel be east-southeast from you, and then Westchappel standeth in a black valley of the downes, sayle so long [...]owards it, untill the steeples aforesaid of Eastchappel & Domburgh are one somewhat past the other, then (as aforesaid) you get deeper water, then runne forward along by the land of Flushing, the Sea-coast there ly­eth southeast, and southeast & by south. When you are against Souteland, then rūne close by the foot-strand,A Flatte against Souteland. for against Soute­land there reacheth out a Flatte, and you must sayle through betweene that Flatte and the strand, and there it is not verie broad.

The land of Walcheren is a lowe plaine land to see to, but upon it there standeth manie steeples, which for the most part in times past were sharp steeples, but at this time the most part of them are flatte, Flushing hath a spier steeple, but Westchap­pel [Page 20] hath a high flatte steeple. From Flushing to Westchappel it is three leagues, and betweene both there lyeth manie rough downes, the land betweene them reacheth northwest and by north. Next to Flushing standeth Koukerck which is a sharpe steeple, but next to Westchappel standeth Souteland, which is a flattish steeple. When you are in the Deurloy then Westchap­pel standeth bare without downes. Frō Westchappel to Dom­burgh it is a league, that also is a sharp steeple, and standeth next the strand, a quarter of a league eastward standeth Eastchappel, which is a flat steeple. About a league eastward from the Hac­ken or Polder (which is the north ende of the land of Walche­ren) there is a lowe downish land to behold. Southeast up from this Hacken lyeth the Polder, which also is a flatte steeple. By it also there standeth another flatte steeple, called Sandwick. Veer also hath a short thick flatte steeple, and upon that steeple there standeth a smal speere, so that it is verie easie to be known. But Middleburgh hath a high speere steeple, which is higher then all the rest.

Thus the land of Walcheren sheweth it self when you are in the Deurloy, or before the Splete.

VVestchappel. Souteland. Middleburgh-Souburgh. Koukerck. Flushing.

VIII. How you must sayle in and out of the Deurloy.

IF you wil sayle into the Deurloy, then you must runne over the RaenThe Raen with your lead, untill the sconce is a masts length from Westchappel, that is, that Westchappel standeth a mast length northward from the sconce, sayle towards it untill the castle of Sluys be right east frō the high downs of Casand, there at a foreflood you shall finde four fathome water, which is up­on the threshold of the chanel, where it will strait be over, and then you shall finde it a great half fathome deeper. Now when the castle of Sluys standeth on the east corner of the high downes of Casand, then goe in southeast, and southeast and by south, untill that Middleburgh commeth to the high downes, which are betweene the Isehooke and Souteland, then change your course, and goe east towards Flushing, and you shall nei­ther sayle by Shallowes nor Sands.

If you desire to come out of the Deurloy, then frō Flushing goe west so long, untill the castle of Sluys be east from the high downes of Casand, keepe those markes standing so, and goe northwest and by north forward, but as winde and streame ser­veth, and as you sayle on this sort out, then marke the castle of Sluys, and if it be east from the downes of Casand aforesaid, then you must hold your course somewhat more westerly, and if the castle standeth westward, then you must hold your course more northerly, and hold it so standing east of the downes as aforesaid, untill that Westchappel be a mast length northward from the sconce, then you are without all the Sandes that may hinder you, and may set your course whether you will.

IX. How to sayle into the Splete.

THe Splete lyeth betweene the Deurloy and the Wielin­gen, he that desireth to sayle into the Splete or the Wie­linges, he must knowe, that from the banck of the Eng­lish Pol, there reacheth a banck along the coast to Ostende, which is called the Trip,The Trip. which is about a quarter of a league broad, hard sand & verie good anckor ground, when you come out of the Sea you may perfectly sound the Trip with your lead, all along the drougth, and it is verie hard Sand. When Blanckenburgh standeth southeast and by east from you, then upon the Trip it is 6 fathome deepe with a lowe water, and the more westerly the deeper upon the Trip. When you come southeastward a musket shot length or more over the drougth or hardnes of the Trip, then presently it is half a fathome dee­per, and soft ground, which is the chanell of the Wielinges.

If you will sayle into the Splete, comming west out of the Sea, leave the coast of Flanders, and when you gesse your self to be past Ostende, then cast out your lead, untill you finde shal­lower water and harder ground, then you are against the Trip, when you have found this shallowe, be it at 6, 7, or 8 fathome water, as you are easterly or westerly, (for the easterlyer the dry­er, and the westerlyer the deeper as aforesaid) then you must not [Page 21] passe over it so towards the land, for you should fall into the mouth of the Wielinges, but you must there put about a saker shotte or more northward into the Sea, until you have it some­what deeper, and soft ground againe, for northward from the Trip it is also soft ground like the Wielinges, then runne in east-north-east, and now & then make southward towards the Trip, till you have shallowe and hard ground, which is the north-side of the Trip, hold so all along by the Trip, untill that Brugge be over against Liswegen, or that Blanckenbergh be on your side, then you are against the west point of the Raen in the Splete. If so be you can see it, then hold Middleburgh standing over a high downe, which lyeth betweene Isehooke and Soute­land, & frō which on the east side there lyeth no more downes, then goe in east-north-east, and then you shall not sayle by any banck or Raen, untill the castle of Sluys come within the high downes which lye eastward from Casand, when you have these markes goe freely forward to Flushing, without any doubt, & you shall sayle neither by Raesses nor French Pol.

But if it chance to be darke or glome wether, then you must goe along by the north ende of the Trip east-north-east, still sounding with your lead, untill you finde the drougth or hard ground of the banck, and running so east-north-east along by it, then you shall goe in betweene the Raen and the banck. The west point of the Raen is verie flatte, so that you may easily sound it, and in the chanell betweene the banck and the Raen it is soft ground, and on either side, both on the Raen and on the banck upon the shallowe it is hard ground. When in this sort you runne in east-north-east, to the dryest part of the banck, and that you putte from the banck, then it beginneth to be deeper, so that you may passe over the banck at 18 foot water half flood, but I counsell you not to goe over it, least you runne upon the French Pol, but keep along by the hard ground of the banck & direct your course somewhat easterlyer to shunne the Raesses, which reach into the Sea from the Souteland, for you can not sound them with your lead, then when you are somewhat more inward, goe east to Flushing, and then you shall sayle by no drougths.

IF you will sayle out of the Splete,How you may sayle out of the Splete. then goe from Flushing vvest and by north so long till S. Anne come vvithout the east dovvne of Casand, then may you runne forth into vvhat chanel you vvil: but if you vvill runne out of the Splete then bring Westchappel out of the dovvnes, and Middleburgh against the high dovvne which lyeth betvveene the Isehooke and Soute­land, If you be next Flanders side, then S. Anne commeth first out of the downes: but if you be next Walcherens side, then Westchappel cōmeth forth first. When Middleburgh is against the foresaid downe, then goe west-south-west, & keepe Middle­burgh so situate so long as you can see it. When Brugghe com­meth against Lisweghen, then you are past all shallowes, & you may set your course whither you will: or if it fall out that you loose the sight of Middleburgh, then runne along out by the course of Raen, which you may wholly sound with the lead, but the Pol inward is altogether steepe.

X. How to sayle into the Wielinges.

VVhen you come out of the Sea towards Flanders, and will sayle into the Wielinges, then seeke out Liswegen, that is a thick flat steeple standing in the downes: when Bruggeling standeth a Cable length from Liswegen westward, then are you from daunger of all Sands, Pols, and Rasses: keepe Bruggeling so standing and so sayle towards Flanders upon five fathome, there you finde soft ground. Then goe east-north-east or east and by north, as the winde & streame serveth: keepe the coast of Flanders at five fathome till Blanckenbergh commeth into the gappe of the Gallowes field, that is a great gappe in the downes: keepe Blanckenbergh so standing till you see Heys in another great gap in the downes, almost half a masts length east from the Ungeboedt, then is Westchappel in Flanders full a­gainst Knock: then sayle forward northeast & by east, & north­east as the winde or streame is that you may runne beyonde the French Pol. Whē S. Anne cōmeth upon that high down of Ca­sand which is most easterly then are you beyond the French Pol & al shallowes, then sayle forward to Isehook, toward Walcherē, & forward by the dyke along by the Hoofden & so to Flushing.

If you will sayle into the Wielinges when you come out of the west, with a south winde, then as it is aforesaid in the descri­ption of the Splete, you must seeke Flushing coast with your lead. When you are past Ostende, then you shall finde drie and hard ground, which is the ground of the Trip, which you must sayle over and when you are about the length of a musket shot over it, then you shal presently have half a fathome deeper water & soft ground, then you are in the chanel of the Wielinges, & in a good waie, but if then you goe somewhat more to landwards [Page 22] or southeastward, then you will loose the soft ground, and finde hard & drie ground againe, by reason of a Sand which lyeth frō Blanckenburgh about an English myle from the strand along the coast, so farre as to Wenduynen, where at a lowe water, you have 15 foot water at the dryest, you may sayle under this sand, when you goe over the Trip a litle eastward from Ostende, and so goe somewhat to farre over to the strand:To shūne the Banck of Blanc­kenbergh. but to shunne it you have no better meanes, but when you are past the hardnes and drynes of the Trip, and finde soft ground with a litle dee­per water, that then you put no more towards the land, but goe in right northeast, and sometymes northerly, according to the hardnes of the Trip or banck, and then hold off againe, till you finde soft ground againe, whereby you shall be assured, that you runne along by the south ende of the Trip, or banck in the cha­nell of the Wielinges, this doe so long untill Heys be about a masts length westward from the beakon, then you must sound no more northward with your lead for the banck there is verie steepe, for that close by the banck it is eight fathome deepe at the least. When Heyes is right against the beakon, then you are right against the shallowest of the banck or English Pol,Markes of the Eng­lish Pol. then goe still east-north-east til Heyes be a mast length eastward from the beakon, in a hole or plaine where there are no downes, then you must goe no longer east-north-east, but goe a point nor­therlyer, that is northeast and by east, to shunne the French Pol,Markes of the French Pol. so long till S. Anne is right against the easterlyest high downes of Casant, then you are past the French Pol, and all daungers. Then sayle up the Isehooke to Walcheren, and so along to Flu­shing as is said before.

Thus the coast of Flanders sheweth when you sayle out and into the Wielinges.

S. Lambert. Sluys. Knock. Heys. Liswegen-Blanckenbergh.

XI. Of the falling and running of the streame in the chanels of Sealand.

HE that will sayle these chanels, must necestarily under­stand, how the streames upon the droughts (which lye before these chanels) falle and turne that he may knowe how to governe himself wisely and warily therein.

At Westchappel before the land a south and north moone maketh a high water, & when the water is fallen half an houre, then the streame beginneth to fall outward, and when the water is risen half an houre, then it beginneth to fall in, but when you are before the Botkill, then you must understand that the ebbe first beginneth to goe, when the water hath fallen an houre, but it falleth long into the Sea.

But in the Splete, and upon the drougths lying there abouts, the tydes runne about against the Sonne, and at last falleth into the chanel, an east and west moone maketh lowest water there, and the foreflood falleth there over the shallowes towards the land, but when the moone is about east-south-east, or when the water hath flowen about two houres, upon those shallowes, then the tyde begineth to turne southward, first south-south-west, and so by the south to the east, so long till the moone be south-south-east, then the flood falleth east. But to knowe how farre westward the tyde beginneth to turne & by what markes: you must understand, when Blanckenbergh standeth about southeast and by east from you, from thence the tyde beginneth to runne eastward, but from thence westward you shall finde no turning tydes.

XII. To know all the places upon the coast of Flanders.

FLanders is a lowe hilly and downish land, full of steeples and churches, & reacheth from Calis to the point or ende of the Swyne, most altogether east-north-east, and west-southwest. To know it when you sayle along by it, from Sluys to Calis, first you have a flatt steeple called S. Anne, and then the speere steeple of Knock, which standeth further into the downes, Heys is also a speere steeple which standeth westward from the Knock, but westward frō Heys lyeth Liswegen, which hath a flat steeple standing in the downes, then followeth Blan­kenbergh, [Page 23] which is a flatte steeple, but not so bigge as Liswegen, inward to the land from Blanckenbergh standeth Bridges, and there standeth two speere steeples upon one church, and west­ward from Blanckenbergh half a league lyeth Wenduynen with a speere steeple. Betweene Wenduynen & Blanckenbergh, there standeth an other steeple, called Ian Davies steeple, but Ostende lyeth a league westward from Wackerbout, half a league west­ward from Ostende lyeth S. Catheline. A league westward frō it lyeth Middlekerck, which is a thicke flattish high steeple, from Middlekercke to Newport it is two leagues, which hath a flatte steeple, and there within the land you may see another speere steeple, a litle eastward from Newport lyeth our Ladie of Lom­bardie, which is a high flatte steeple.

From Newport to Broers it is almost 3 leagues, & from Bro­ers to Duynkerck 4 leagues, Soutcotten is a league eastward of Duynkerck, Duynkerck hath a high flatte steeple with a small speere steeple. From Duynkerck to Greveling it is 3 leagues, betweene them are these steeples, first litle Sinten a speere stee­ple, Great Sinten a flatte steeple, Mardicke a great thick flatte steeple, and S. Georges a high speere steeple. Greveling hath no steeples, but there are two milles in it, one upon the Eastgate the other upon the westende of the towne. From Graveling to Calis it is also 3 leagues, Calis hath manie speere steeples or towres, whereof one is higher then all the rest, and betweene them both are these villages, but yet without steeples, unlesse it be one or two flat steeples: first Hoogenprise & Dasen which are two flatte steeples, and Valdam a flatte church with a small speere upon it, in the middle thereof. This is the whole descri­ption of Flanders coast, from Blanckenbergh to Calis. So that the coast of Flanders betweene Calis and Blanckenbergh is 24 leagues long, or as some say 22 leagues, and Blanckenbergh frō Flushing almost 9 leagues, so that from Flushing to Calis it is at least 29 leagues, or as some say 31 leagues at the most.

That wich is heere set downe of the steeples & leagues along the coast of Flanders, is by good and expert Pilots diligently collected and set downe, and is verie necessarie and convenient to be known, not onely in regard of that which is before said touching the Wielings, but also for the sayling by the havens of Flanders, & specially for the knowledge of the Flemish coast, as hereafter it is declared.

Thus the countrie of Flanders sheweth it self betweene Neweport and Ostende.

VVenduynen. Ostende. Middlekerck. Neweport. VVackerbout. S. Catheline. Lombardie.

Thus the countrie of Flanders sheweth it self betweene Calis and Neweport, when you sayle. along by it eastward.

Neweport. The Broers Soutcotten. Duynkercken. Grevelingen. Calis Clooster at the Downes.

XIII. How to sayle in to the Havens of Flanders.

TO sayle into Ostende let the new church stand westward from the old church, & so goe in close by the west head, it is a tyde haven which you must use with high water, you must keepe the fire-beakons one right against the other, or a litle a sunder, that they may stand southeast & by south from you, and so goe in right upon them, with a ship that draweth not much water, you may sayle in there at half flood, and by night you may sayle in by the lights of the fire.

Neweport is a tyde-haven, which at lowe water is drie, at the continuall tydes, there is two fathome water, at high water,To sayle into New­port. and at a spring tyde it is 3 fathome water, but the latter flood bringeth most water upon this coast, he that will sayle into it, must stay till half flood and set the highest beakon a litle east­ward from the lesser beakon, & so he must sayle into the Duyc­ker. When the Duycker is under you have water ynough, but comming thither by night you shall understand, that they set out fire no longer then from half flood to half ebbe, which eve­rie [Page 24] man must observe. Newport as I said before, is a drie haven, and westward it is flatte water, and from the east-head there cōmeth a Sand falling downe, where at a high water you must goe over, close by the banck it is 3 fathome deepe.

To sayle into Duynkerck.At Duynkerck they burne fire by night, from half flood to half ebbe, and no longer: if you will enter into it, you must un­derstand, that the lowest beakons stand nearest to the water, which you must keepe one right against the other till you be within the heads, shunne the west-side, and runne in close by the east-head into the haven, the west-head lyeth further into the Sea then the other doth.

To sayle into Gre­veling.Greveling is a tyde-haven, vvhere you must enter at high wa­ter, there stand beakons vvhich you must hold one against the other, & so sayle in betvveene the heads, on the vvest-side there is a Sand-banck vvhich you must shunne.

But vvhen you goe along by the coast of Flanders through Wolbrechsont, and that you come at last to the Smal-banck, then you come to the vvest ende of the Sand that lyeth out at Greveling, which reacheth farre into the Sea, on the east-side thereof you may goe into the haven of Greveling, and there a great waie it is flat water, but by night you must runne in right upon the fire, and right west from the haven of Greveling, there lyeth a banck of five fathome about west into the Sea. There you may runne over it at three fathome. This Sand is called the Neweland, which lyeth along by the land to the haven of Calis.

When you are past that Sand of Newland, then sayle to the east head of Calis,To sayle into Calis. and goe in close by the head to the towne, & when you are within the west-head, then you must turne west­ward into the Cuype, where you lye drie at lowe water, but from the west-head there commeth a Sand-banck falling off, but you must runne in betweene that Sand-bancke and the east-head, when it is tyde there are two fires by which you goe in.

There lyeth also crosse from the west-head of Calis, a banck of two fathome, betweene the head or Mayeland and this banck you may goe through at 3 fathome half flood, the banck is two fathome deepe, and under Calis cliffe you may anckor at 10 fa­thome at the east-ende, but at the west-ende there lyeth a rock under the water, which is about a Culvers shotte from the land, and this Calis Cliffe lyeth betweene Calis and Swarte­nesse, whereof somewhat shall be spoken in the chapter ensewe­ing.

XIIII. The scituation and stretching of the Flemish banckes.

ABout two leagues from Ostende lyeth the Tricx,The Tricx. a banck whereon there is not above 15 or 16 foot water. When the Old church is right against the steeple of the Newe church, then you are against this banck, and when S. Catelines steeple is right against Ostende, then you sayle against that banck, betweene this banck and the head of Ostende there lyeth another banck of 3 fathome water.

Betweene Ostende & Newport there lyeth 4 bancks, which begin al four right against Ostende: the 2 nearest the land ende against Newport, the other two reach almost to Duynkerck, a­long the land. The first is called the Geere,Geere. betweene this banck and the land there goeth a chanel of 8, 9, & 10 fathome.

The 2 called LalandLaland. which endeth also against Newport, betweene these two bancks there runneth also a chanel, of 8 & 9 fathome.

The 3 is called Stroom,Stroom. which rūneth almost to Duynkerck, on the east ende having a point which reacheth east, ending al­most against Newport, it is a banck of 3 or 4 fathome, and of 5 and 6 fathome at the east ende.

The 4 called Sandele,Sandele, Calbanck,Calbanck, or Oudemoers banckOude­moers-banck. rūneth along by Breebanck, the utmost ende is at least 2½ leagues long.

Such shippes as desire to goe into Duynkerck, and will not sayle along by Flanders, runne about without these banckes, til they come against Breebanck, and then goe in by it at 5 or 6 fathome.

The chanel is 15 fathome deepe,Markes of these bancks. and everie one of these four banckes hath a drie polder, & when two flat steeples southward from Newport stand a bowe length frō each other, then you are right against these four Sands, which are no deeper with a lowe water then 1 fathome, & at a spring flood fall almost drie.

Betweene all these banckes you may anckor at 9, 10, 11, & 13 fathome, & vvithout it is 9, 10, 11, & 12 fathome deepe, you may runne over them at 4 fathome, but vvhen you are vvestward frō them, then it is deeper, that is 8 9 and 10 fathome.

Broers banckBroers-banck. is three cornerd, it lyeth close by the lād against Broers, & the Closter in the downes, & reacheth from the land about vv. n. vv. a league into the Sea, vvhen the Closter in the dovvnes or Broers lyeth s. from you, then you are on the inside of Broers banck, you may passe along betvveene this banck and the land at 4 fathome lovve vvater, but cōmonly men goe vvest [Page 25] about it, vvhē they sayle along by Flanders vvithin the bancks.

Right westward from Broersbanck lyeth Cams banck,Cams-banck. which is 3 fathome deepe, which lyeth upon manie Sandes, you may also runne betweene this banck & the land at 8, 9, & 10 fathome, you may also ride there safely against all windes upon the land of Flanders, betweene this sand & Broers banck it is 5 fathome deepe, when you goe between this banck & the land, you goe a­lōg by Quadebāck, to the entrie of the chanel before Duynkerk.

QuadebanckQuabāck. is a bāck which eastward frō the head of Duyn­kerck falleth of about 2 leagues west, ending against the heads of Duynkerck. East frō the east-head of Duynkerck havē you may lye at rode safe against a n.w. north, & n. e. winde behinde this banck, & there it is 2 fathome deep lowe water, but at the entrie it is drier. Before the mouth of the haven at Duynkerck, it is 9 or 10 fadome deepe, & on the west side of the west-head of Duyn­kerck it is 6, 7 or 8 fathome. From thence you may goe over the Smal-banckSmal bāck at 3 fathome, & goe towards the Broad-banck, this Smal-banck lyeth right crosse before the haven of Duyn­kerck, betweene Duynkerck and the Broad-banck.

From the west-head of Duynkerck there runneth a banck to­ward Greveling two leagues, which is called the Splinter,Splinter. there on the west side you may saile under the Rode at 10, 8, 6, & 5 fa­thome, you must sayle in close by the foot strand, you may sayle in betweene the land and this banck almost to the west-head of Duynkerck, but you must sayle out of it againe backward.

When you ar a good waie past the head of Duynkerck, about s.w. from the Splinter, then you rūne over a sand of 2 fathome, which is called Wilbaertsondt,Vvilbaert­sondt. being over it, it is 10, 11, & 12 fa­thome deepe againe. When Borburger steeple is in the valley of the downs, then you are against this banck, & with these markes you may sayle through the banckes n.n.w. into the Sea, and so come to the point of the Broad-banck, at 4 fathome, and then when you turne somewhat towards the land againe at 12, 13 or 15 fathome, then you may also sayle through the Broad & the Small banck e. n. e. or e. & by n. till you have past the Closter in the downes or Broers banck, which commeth downe frō the Closter a league into the Sea, eastward past this banck it begin­neth to be flat water, against Newport 4 or 5 fathome, & when you are past Newport, chose then the Maylād at 8 or 9 fathome keeping close by the land, then you shall rūne between the land and a banck called Geere, which reacheth towards Ostende, but whē you are against Ostende, you are free of the bancks, & then you may safely put to Sea to goe to the Wielinges.

There lye yet five long bancks along by the coast of Flanders when Greveling is s. e. from you then you are against the south ende of those banckes, & when Newport is s. e. from you, then you are against the north ende of those banckes,Markes of the Fle­mish banckes. they are verie long, & betweene each of them there goeth a white chanel of 8, 9, 12, 15, 16, 18, 19, & 20 fathome deepe each of a severall depth.

The uttermost banck, which is most westerly & reacheth not farre northward, lyeth from Calis Cliffe n. n. e. about 4 leagues & an half, and is 3 fathome and an half deepe, betweene this & the other banck there goeth a white chanel, of 23 & 24 fathome.

The second banck lyeth from Calis CliffeThe Cliffe. northeast and by north, about 4 leagues, and there it is 5 or 6 fathome deepe, but at the south ende there is a polder or sand of a fathome and an half. When the south ende of Winocxbergen is betweene the two flat steeples or towres that stand westward of Duynkerck, then you are against this Polder which is called the Cliffe.

There stand also three or four milles eastward from Duyn­kerck, when the uttermost is against the east ende of the towne or wall, that also is a good marke of this polder or sand, and Duynkerck towre will then stand about southeast frō you four leagues. Betweene this and the third sand there is also a chanell of 12 and 13 fathome.

The third banck lyeth northeast from Calis Cliffe, and is 4 and 5 fathome deepe, and at the south and north endes of this banck are polders or sandes, that most south is a fathome deepe, and lyeth also upon the markes of Winocxbergen, about north­west and somewhat westerlyer from Duynkerck, which is called the Polder of the dyke, or Dyke-polder. The other polder or shallowe of this banck is about four fathome and a quarter, and is called the Ruyting.The Ruy­ting. When the Closter in the downes is south east frō you, then you are against the Ruyting. Upon this banck you must be warie, for the Ruyting lyeth almost in the chanel, and with a lowe water they have but two fathome deepe, & are verie dangerous.

The fourth banck called Retlebanck,Retle­banck. lyeth north-east and by east from Calis Cliffe, and is 3, 4, 5, and 6 fathome deepe, at the southende whereof also is a shallowe, of a fathome deepe at low water, & with a spring-streame these polders are drie. Betweene this also there goeth through a chanel of 19 and 20 fathome, & so also the aforesaid banck.

Betweene all the banckes aforesaid there runne faire chanels, which you may laveere from one banck to the other, and be­tweene al the said banckes you may anckor where you w [...]ll.

The south ende of BreebanckBreebāck. lyeth east-north-east from Ca­lis Clif, and hath a sand or shallowe at the south ende, of two leagues long, and all through is three and four fathome deepe.

Westward from this banck there goeth a great chanell, of 19 and 20 fathome, which reacheth farthest northward, so that the north ende thereof is northwest and southeast from Newport: but it lyeth farre without the land, so that the north ende of these three banckes may well be the same, which is called the Broers banck, for they lye right with the north ende against Broers banck, and the Closter in the downes lyeth then south-south-east from you, about 4 or 5 leagues, and at the north ende they are 6, 7, and 8 fathome deepe.

XV. Of the running of the streame in all these places aforesaid.

IN the North Sea, the streame falleth in round more then half a tyde, in the Breadth 14 it followeth the Sonne or the moone, & falleth but one quarter right along the Sea, com­ming along by the coasts against Holland and Sealand, the streame whether it be ebbe or flood runneth right to the land, but in the middle of the tyde, then the streame runneth right a­long the Sea, but at the last of the tyde it will runne inward to the Sea, whether it be westward or northward.

How the streames fall into the Marsdeepe is also declared be­fore, that the foreflood and the latter ebbe fall northward crosse the chanels, to the last quarter of the tyde, and the latter flood with the fore ebbe contrarily southwards over the grounds.

The flood runneth not into the Mase before it be a quarter flood, and although the foreflood falleth towards the land into the chanell, yet the latter ebbe cōmeth out of the chanell over the Sands, and so fall againe one with the other into the Sea.

But if you will sayle into the Veerhaven or chanel, you must understand that the flood falleth not right in, before the moone be right southeast, and southeast and by south, and then it is a­bout half flood, for along by Sealand side the flood falleth out­ward along the Bangaert northward, against Sealand in the chanell a third part of the flood falleth towards the land, then it beginneth to fall northeast and by north.

Betweene Marsdeepe and the Mase in the chanell the fore­flood commeth out of the north Sea, and so followeth after the moone falling towards the land n. e. and n. e. and by n.

Along by the Flemish banckes, the foreflood falleth to the land over the bankes, and in the middle of the flood it falleth right into the Sea, but the latter flood falleth northward into the right chanell.

XVI. What moone maketh high water in these places.

BEfore the pointes or hookes of the Tessel an east and west moone maketh a high water.

Betweene Haerlem and Petten a w. n. w. and e. n. e. moone maketh a full Sea.

Before the Mase a s. w. and by w. and a s. e. & by e. moone make a full Sea.

Along by Sealand in the chanell without the Flemish bankes a south west moone maketh a full Sea.

Before the Wielinges, a southwest, and s. s. w. moone ma­keth a full Sea.

Along by the coast of Flanders upon the land a north and south moone make a full Sea.

Before Fulshing and the Veere, it is full Sea with a south and by west and a north and by east moone.

Before Ramekens & Armue a s. s. w. moone makes a ful Sea.

Before the Briel a southwest and northeast moone.

Before Delfs haven a w. s. w. moone maketh full Sea.

Before Rotterdam a s.w. by s. moone maketh high water.

Before Marsdeepe an east & west moone maketh full Sea.

Before Tessel at Copevaerders Rode an e. s. e. and w. n. w. moone maketh high water.

Vpon Wieringer Flat it is high water with a s. e. moone.

XVII. Of the depths against these places, and at what depths a man may see the land.

BEtweene the Marsdeepe & the Heads in the right chanel it is 23 or 24 fathome deepe, but cōming by Goodwin or about the Foreland it is 26, 28, and 30 fathome deepe, the nearer Goodwin the deeper water.

Right without the Flemish banckes it is 18, 19 & 20 fathome deepe.

Betweene the Breadth-fourteen and the land it is deepe 19 fathome, & as soone as it is 16 or 17, fathome then you begin to see the land, upō the Breadth-fourteene it is 14 fathome deepe.

The high steeples of Holland and West Vreesland are seene sooner then the downes, as Egmont upon the Sea, the steeples of Egmont within, Wyck upon the Sea, Sandvoord, and other steeples, and then you are about 5 leagues from the land, and then it is 14 or 15 fathome deepe.

But Camper downes and the downes against Hhaerlem, are seene before some steeples, now most of the steeples are flatte, except Scheveling and Sandvoort.

Before the Mase and Goree, you may see land at 14 or 15 fa­thome.

You may see Sealand frō the poope of the ship at 16 fathom.

You may see Flanders at 15 or 16 fathome, and then you are within the tayle of the Flemish banckes.

The Clif of Calis & the point of Dover may be seene when you are before the Heads at 24 fathome.

XVIII. How these places lye one from another.

  • FRom Tessel to Petten south & by west 4 leagues.
  • From Petten to Egmont s. s. west 4 leagues.
  • From Egmont to the Mase south south w. 15 leagues.
  • From the land of Vooren to Goree southwest 2 leagues.
  • From Goree to the land of Schouwen south w. 2 leagues.
  • From the land of Schouwen to Walcheren south w. 4 leagues.
  • From Flushing to Blanckenhergh w. s. w. 10 leagues.
  • From Blanckenbergh to Ostende s. w. & by west 2 leagues.
  • From Ostende to Newport west southwest 3 leagues.
  • From Newport to Duynkerck west south west 5 leagues.
  • From Duynkerck to Greveling west south west 4 leagues.
  • From Greveling to Calis w. s. w. 4 leagues.
  • From Calis to Calis Cliffe southwest and by west 1 league.

XIX. How these places lye distant from other countries.

  • FRom Tessel to Bornriffe the course southwest & northeast about 12 leagues.
  • From Tessel to the Mase the course s. s. w. 24 leagues.
  • From the Mase to Kaybanck the course s. w. & n. e. 18 leagues.
  • From Tessel to Pas of Calis southwest & somewhat more sou­therlyer, & n. e. and somewhat more northerlyer 52 leagues.
  • Calis lyeth s. w. & by south from Tessel, then you come upon the Flemish bancks, and the Foreland lyeth s. w. from Tessel, then you come upon Goodwin or Querens. Therefore eve­rie man must be verie warie and take heede thereof. The Fle­mish Banckes may be sounded with the lead, at 15 & 16 fa­thome, and the chanel is 24 & 25 fathome deepe. But Good­win is steepe and uneven, for at one casting of the lead you have 26 fathome, and at another cast of the lead you shall be fast upon the Sand, the south ende of Goodwin you may sound at 15 and 16 fathome.
  • From Tessel or Marsdeepe to Calis Cliffe s. w. by s. 52 leagues.
  • From Tessel to the Foreland southwest 47 leagues.
  • From Tessel to Orfordnesse west-south-west 36 leagues.
  • From Tessel to Yarmouth west, & w. & by s. 32 leagues.
  • From Tessel to Schilt or Crammer west 40 leagues.
  • From Tessel or Marsdeepe to Flamborough-head w.n.w. 60 le.
  • From Marsdeepe to Lieth in Schotland northwest and by west and somewhat more northerlyer 100 leagues.
  • From Marsdeepe to Newcastle w. n. w. and somewhat nor­thherlyer 81 leagues.
  • From Tessel to Bokenes n. w, and n. w. & by n. 118 leagues.
  • From Marsdeepe to Aberdyne northwest and somewhat nor­therlyer 113 leagues.
  • From Marsdeep to Lieth of Bergen in Norwaie n. 117 leagues.
  • Frō Marsdeepe to the northende of Hitland n.n.w. 160 leagues. Then you fall about five leagues eastward of the land.
  • From Marsdeepe to the Neuse n. and by e. 93 leagues.
  • From the Mase to Nase e. and by w. 29 leagues.
  • From the Mase or Goree to Dover s. w. and by w. 36 leagues.
  • From Flushing to the Foreland east and west, & somewhat sou­therlyer 24 leagues.
  • From the Wielings to Dover w. s. w. 24 leagues.
  • Out of Pas de Calis to the Riffe n. n. east 120 leagues.
  • From Calis Cliffe to the Neuse in Norwaie n. & by e. 153 leag.

XX. Vnder what degrees these places be.

HUysduynen lyeth just under 53 degrees, sayle east out of the North Sea and you shall see it.

The north cape or point of the Mase lyeth under 52 deg you shall sayle by it when you sayle east under this heigth.

Flushing, Ramekens and Westchappel lye under 51½ degrees, & under this heigth are east from you.

The Pas of Calis & Dover lye under 51 degrees 12 minutes.

Heere followeth the Carde N. 3.

CHAPTER III. A DECLARATION HOVV a man shall sayle all the Sea-coasts and Havens of Picardie and Normandie, betweene Calis and Cape de la Hague: And What Banckes, Sandes, Cliffes or Rockes, and Shallowes are there to be found, and how you may shunne them.

I. To sayle from Calis to Diepen.

IN the middle of the Heads betweene Calis and Dover lyeth the banck of Vrouwesand,Vrouwe­sandt. of 5, 6, 7, and 8 fathome deepe, the shallow­est or dryest part of Vrouwesand lyeth about west & by south from Calis Cliffe, & south, and south & by west from Dover, where it is dryest, and no deeper then 4 fathome.

This banck aforesaid reacheth along the land of Swartenesse, and lyeth nearest to the French side, it is at least 4 leagues long, on both sides of this banck, both on the east and west sides it is 20 and 21 fathome deepe.

Crosse from the west-head of Calis there lyeth a banck of 2 fathome, you may sayle betweene the head or Mayeland & this banck at 3 fathome, with half flood, you may anckor under Ca­lis CliffeRode to anckor under Calis Cliffe. at the east ende at 10 fathome water, but at the west­ende of Calis Cliffe there lyeth a Rocke under the water the length of a Culver shot from the land. The high land betweene Calis and Swartenesse is called Calis Cliffe.

A league & an half southward from Calis lyeth Swartenesse,Swartenes. which is a foule point lying out, by the which there lyeth cer­taine Rockes, you cannot anckor there, for the ground in that place is verie foule. A litle waie southward of Swartenesse there stand some fewe houses with a mill, all along to the mill you may not anckor, but you will indure some hurt and dammage either in your cables or anckors.

Two leagues southward from Swartenesse lyeth the Old­man or Tour d'ordre, Tour d'or­dre, or the Oldman. there is a faire sandie Baye, there you may lye safe & free from a north winde, it is a good Rode for north­east, east, and southeast windes, for shippes that will faile east­ward, you may anckor there at 6 or 7 fathome, so that the point or the steeple be north and by east from you.

But half waie betweene Swartenesse and the Old man lyeth S. Iohns Rode,S. Iohns Rode. there you may anckor at 15 or 16 fathome, for there it is faire ground. To anckor there you must bring the steeple of the village against the middle of the houses, but there lyeth some rockes along by the land, which you must be care­full to shunne, and goe not neare unto them.

About two leagues from Tour d'ordre lyeth Beunen or Bullen, and when such as lye at anckor under the Oldman goe on land they may from above looke downe into the River of Bullen.

Betweene Tour d'ordre & the SommeSomme. there is a great creeke, and when you are right against the Somme it is shallowe water, 3 or 4 leagues at the least into the Sea, about 6 or 7 fathome deepe, such shippes as come out of the west, are many tymes cast away there, but when you finde shallow water for a long tyme, you must understand that you are about the river of Somme.

He that wil sayle up to BullenTo sayle into Bul­len haven. must goe by the land by Tour d'ordre, at 3 fathome, and then along by the land to the middle of the river, and then keepe the middle of the chanel: the north side is full of rockes or cliffes, & from the south side there com­meth a riffe or sand shooting out and runneth a good waie by the haven, which you must be warie of, and close before the ri­ver also there lyeth a banck which you may sayle under on the south side at two fathome, & on the north side at 3 fathome, and there you may anckor or goe into the haven. It is a tyde-haven where you must goe in at a high water, and at a lowe water sit drie, as you doe in all the havens of Flanders. You may there [Page 29] runne close along by the coast, at 2, 3, 4 & 5 fathome, as drie as you will, but before the havens you must put somewhat further off because of the rockes which lye before them.

The course from the Oldman to the river of Somme is south and north, distant 8 or 9 leagues, and from Bullen to SommeSomme. it is south, and south and by west, distant 6 leagues. Betweene them there are two rivers more, the one called Cauche,Cauche. the o­ther Antij:Antij. upon the first there lyeth Monstruel and Estaples,Estaples and Mon­struel. about 3 or 4 leagues southward from Bullen. This is no spe­ciall haven, you must enter into it at high water, and keepe the middle of the chanell, you shall finde it drie when you are with­in it.

To sayle up the ri­ver SommeBefore the Somme it is shallowe water at least two leagues into the Sea, at 5 or 6 fathome, and from the north point of the river there commeth a Riffe or Sand shooting out, which runneth almost over the deepe, so that a man passing it by the south shore, he must sayle at 3 fathome water, as farre as to S. Valeries, which lyeth on the south side, & then from the south­shore there commeth another Sand shooting off, almost cleane over the river, so that as then you must turne to Crottoy, which lyeth on the north side, if it were not for the banck aforesaid, (which runneth crosse over before the haven) it were a haven for a great ship to goe into, for in the entrie of the haven it is 3 fathome, and within 2 fathome deepe, AbbevilleAbbeville. lyeth about 5 leagues upwards in the land.

From Tour d'ordre or the Oldman to Deepe, the course is s. s. w. 16 leagues, but from the river of Somme to DiepenDiepen. it is southwest and northeast, 8 or 9 leagues, betweene both, that is 4 leagues from Somme, and 4 leagues from Deepe, lyeth the river of Heu, and on the north side thereof a litle towne called Triport or Tresport, where into you must enter with a high wa­ter, as in a tyde-haven, with lowe water lying drie.

To sayle into the haven of Diepen.The Haven of Deepe, on the east side is to be entred at 3 fa­thome, there lye three tonnes in the chanel, you must sayle frō the one unto the other, leaving them on your left hand as you goe in, on the east side of the land there shooteth a peece of land out along, but if you keepe at 3 fathome, then you sayle not under that peece of land, and from the west point of the haven or towne, there commeth a great Sand running downe, and rea­cheth north: without in the chanel it is 3 fathome, and within somewhat dryer, that is 2 fathome. There may a reasonable great ship goe into the rivers of Somme and Deepe when it flo­weth, but small shippes may goe in there at half flood, at a lowe water you lye drie.

To sayle from Deepe to the river of Roane, you have first frō Deepe to S. Valerie or Valderie in CauxS. Valerie in Caux. 4 leagues. This is a drie tyde-haven, wherein you must enter with high water, whereby there goeth none but small shippes in and out from it.

From S. Valerie to FecamTo sayle into Fe­cam. it is w. s. w. 4 leagues, it is a faire tyde-haven, where at lowe water there is about 2 fathome.

There lyeth a banck or Flat on the east side of the haven, you may passe with small shippes betweene the land and this Flatte with the lead, at 8 or 9 foot water, having regard to the East­land for that is flatte.

But if you will goe about or without the Flat, then you must place Fecam steeple without the land, or without the west point of the haven, and then it will stand s. s. e. from you, and so goe into the haven, then the Sand is on baghborde. Eastward of the said haven also there is a chanell to goe in, but the west side is best, having in the haven 2 fathome water, and when you are within before the towne, there you may anckor on the west side at 3 fathome half flood, the east side is flatte.

From Fecam it is w.s.w. to Struysaert,Struysaert and Seyn­hoft. a litle towne lying in a Creeke about 3 leagues from Seynhead or Seynhoft.

Without the point of Struysaert lye two high sharp Rockes, and are about north, & n. & by e. from Seynhead 2 leagues.

From Deepe to Struysaert it is w.s.w. distant 8 leagues, and from Struysaert to Seynhead south and north 2 leagues.

About n.w. frō Seyne-head there lyeth a banck of 3 fathome at lowe water, or as some saye 2 fathome & an half. When the towne of Hable is without Seyn-head, then you are against the banck, & you goe in close by Seynhead to the first mil, & there anckor at 6 fathome, staying for a Pilot to bring you into the haven.

The land from Calis Cliffe to beyond Bullen sheweth it self thus, when you sayle along by it.

Calis Cliffe. Tour d'ordre, Oldman. The land of Bulloigne.

II. To sayle into the Rode of Newhaven & the River of Roane.

VVhen you come from the north, & will sayle up the Ri­ver of Roane,To sayle into the ri­ver of Seyne. you must sayle right to Seynhoft, so long untill the south point of the River be against the point of Seynhoft, hold it so standing, and make streight towards it, so long untill the land which lyeth east frō Newhaven be with­out Newhaven,To sayle to New­haven. then sayle to the haven of Newhaven, or if you will goe about without the banck, then winde so much off from the land, and sayle west about untill the River openeth, then sayle to the point of Tochet, and goe into it with your lead, at high water it is 3 fathome, and at lowe water a fathome deepe.

To shūne the Ret­tiers.The Rettiers lye in the middle of the River, which are stonie, hard, sandie ground.

When the land of Caen is without the point of Seyn-head, then you sayle without them if you hold south, on the north side it is 3 fathome deepe at half flood, on the south side at half flood it is but 2 fathome deepe.

To sayle into the Seyne to Newhavē.If you come out of the west, you must runne into the river of Roane with the tyde, & that when the most part of the flood is gonne, then sayle along by the land of Deepe by your lead, till you may see the river of Newhaven open, then the south ca­stle is right against the east-head and the mill, runne right upon it, but sayle but half waie to the castle and Seynhead, stay there for a Pilot, but if none come to you, then sayle right upon the castle which standeth upon the head, there it is deepe water.

When you hold Struysaert a bowe length without the land of Seynhead, then you goe without the Rettiers and the banck, then the east gate of Newhaven is right against the east-head & the east mill, then you goe right northward in from the Ret­tiers, and then you can not miscarie on the banck which lyeth towards Seynehead, and when you are a litle way from Seyne­head you must staye for a Pilot, as I said before.

The Ret­tiers.The Rettiers reach along in the middle of the River towards the point of Honfleur, and westward from them it is all full of Sandes, so that you must sayle in with high water.

He that wil enter into Newhaven he must goe in with a high water, and everie tyde lye drie.

He that will goe from Newhaven upward to Roane, he ta­keth a Pilot, you must goe with a tyde through the first drie banckes, which reach from Newhaven to Honfleur s. e. along by the south land, the banckes reach along by the north side of the River to Kilgebuf, then you are past the first banckes, but let everie man be warie of the strong spring-tyde, (by the Nor­mans called the Barre) which commeth with such a force, that you can hardly staye a ship with all her anckors and cables, for this & other daungers it is not good to sayle up the River with­out a Pilot, and it is a water for a Pilot.

The scituation or forme of Strusaert and Seyn-head when you sayle by it.

Struysaert. Seynhead.

Thus the land of Caan sheweth it self being 4 leagues from you.

III. To sayle from the River of Roane to Cape de Hague.

TWo leagues southward from the river of Roane,To sayle into To­chet. there lyeth a tyde-haven called Tochet, there standeth a bea­con on the west point of the haven, by the which you goe in, or you may goe in (with good heed) on the east side, some French shippes goe in and out that way.

From the point of Seynhead s.w. and s.w. & by s. about sixe leagues, there lye manie banckes a great waie into the Sea,To sayle into Fosse of Caen. men sayle east and west from them into the River or Fosse of Caen, which for the most part reacheth in south, & lyeth in a Creeke.

On the west side there is a Boght, you may anckor behinde it, there it is wide and broad, and all sand strand.

The east land is downie and shallowe, to enter upon with the lead, without it is farre shallowe to wete 6 or 7 fathome.

From Seynhead to Cape de Barchfleur,Cape Barchfleur or Cape de Chieren­berch the course is east and west 19 leagues.

About 4 leagues eastward lye the Ilands of S. Marke,Ilands of S. Marke. La Honge. which you may sayle round about, but it is not all to faire there.

Right west from the Ilands of S. Marke or Markel about a league lyeth la Honge, which hath a flat steeple, there westward lyeth the point of Barchfleur, with a faire Creeke,Baye of Barchfleur wherein you may lye safe against a n. n. w. winde, at 6 or 7 fathome, a north east winde bloweth right into it by the north point, which then [Page 31] lyeth from you n. n. w. there falleth a banck off from the land but a shippe may well goe over it.

This Baye and the Ilands are by our Saylers called the Hon­giers, but when you come out of the west, you shall not finde lesse then 4 or 5 fathome water, & there you are safe almost frō all windes.

From the point of la Honge to ChierenberchChieren­burch. it is 4 leagues, west, and w.n.w. Chierenberch is a small tyde-haven.

Westward from the point of Barchfleur there are foule pas­sages, when the high land of Chierenburch commeth without the Cape la Wyke, you can take no hurt on thē. A great league northeast from the point of Barchfleur there lyeth a rock under the water but no shippe can goe over it.

It is also good lying before Cape de Wyck,Rode be­fore Cape la Wyck. right east from the two high cliffes in a sandie Baye at 6 fathome.

And before Chierenburch lye the Cliffes or Ilands, which round about are faire, westward from them you goe into the Fosse of Moberille,To sayle into Mo­berille. a tyde-haven, on both sides having high cliffes or rockes four or five in number, you may passe in be­tweene them to Moberille at high water.

A league westward from thence lyeth Cape de HageCape de Hague. or Ha­gue, from Cape de Hage west & by north almost 3 leagues, ly­eth the Iland of Aldernex, or Ornay,Ornay. reaching east & west, be­tweene this Iland of Ornay & Cape de Hague rūneth the Rasse of Blanckert,Ras of Blāckaert. but westward from Ornay lye the Casquettes, or Kiscasses, which in the next Chapter shall be described.

Thus Chierenburch and the land after the Cape de Hague sheweth it self, when it is southeast from you four leagues.

IIII. How these Countries lye distant one from the other.

  • FRom Calis to Swartenesse southwest 1 ½ league.
  • From Calis Cliffe to Tour d'ordre, or the Oldman south and north distant 2 leagues.
  • From Calis cliffe to the River of Somme s. and n. 8 leagues.
  • From the river of Somme to Treport s. s. w. 8 leagues.
  • From Triport to Diepen southwest 8 leagues.
  • From Diepen to Fecam west-south-west 11 leagues.
  • From Fecam to Struysart southwest & by west 2 leagues.
  • From Struysaert to Seynhead south-south-west 2 leagues.
  • From the Seynhead to Caen in the Fosse s. s. w. 8 leagues.
  • Frō Caen to Dierliet or the point of Barchfleur n. w. 16 leagues.
  • From Dierliet to Cape de Hague west, & w. & by n. 8 leagues.
  • From Calis cliffe to Diepen south-south-west, and somewhat southerlyer 19 leagues.
  • From Calis cliffe to Struysaert or cape de Caux w. & by south, and somewhat southerlyer 29 leagues.
  • From Swartenesse to Diepen south-south-west 16 leagues.
  • From Swartenesse to Struysaert southwest & by south, & some­what westerlyer 29 leagues.

V. How all these places lye distant from other Countries.

  • FRom Swartenesse to Casquettes w.s.w. 48 leagues.
  • From Swartenesse to the Isle of Wight west, & somewhat southerlyer 36 leagues.
  • From Swartenesse to Bevechier west 20 leagues.
  • From Diepen to the Ile of Wight w.n.w. 36 leagues.
  • From Diepen to Bevechier northwest 21 leagues.
  • From Diepen to Dover north 23 leagues.
  • From Struysaert to the East ende of the Ile of Wight north­west and somewhat northerlyer 29 leagues.
  • From Struysaert to Bevechier south & north 24 leagues.
  • From Struysaert to Fierley north and by east 28 leagues.
  • From Struysaert to the point of Dover n. n. e. 32 leagues.
  • From Stonehead to Dierliet or the point of Chierenburch west and somewhat northerlyer 20 leagues.
  • Frō Seynhead or Stonehead to Portland n.w. & by w. 36 leag.
  • From Dierliet to the point of Chierenburch to Kasquettes west and by north 16 leagues.
  • From Dierliet to the Ile of Wight north, and somewhat wester­lyer 20 leagues.
  • From Dierliet to Bevesier northeast & by north 29 leagues.
  • From the Rasse of Blankart to Portland n.n.w. 17 leagues.
  • From Cape de la Hague to Kasquettes w. & by n. 16 leagues.

VI. Of the falling of the streames, and what Moone maketh a high water on these coasts.

BEfore Calis and Swartenesse the flood falleth one quarter toward the land, then it falleth north-north-east & south-south-west, [Page 32] and there on the land a southeast moone maketh an high water.

From Swartenesse to Bullen the flood falleth n. & by e. upō the land, but without in the Sea it falleth n. n. e. and s. s. w. a south-south-east moone maketh a high water there.

From Bullen to Diepen, and before the river of Somme the flood falleth a quarter towards the land, then it falleth northeast and by north, a south-south-east moone maketh the highest wa­ter in this haven.

From Diepen to Struysaert without the land in the Trave, the flood falleth northeast & by east, & the ebbe s. w. & by w.

From Struysaert to Caen in the Fosse, the flood falleth south-south-west, and the ebbe n. n. e.

From Seynhead to Barchfleur the flood falleth east and by north, & west & by south by the land, but in the chanel with­out the land the flood falleth e. n. e. and the ebbe w. s. w.

At Newhaven & in the river of Roane, it is high water with a southeast moone.

Before the haven of Caen it is high water with a south-south-east moone, & within the haven with a s. & by e. moone.

At Markel, la Honge, Berchvliet, Chierenburch and Cape de Hague by the land a s. & by e. moone maketh a high watr.

VII. At what depths you may see these places, and how you shall knowe the land.

VVhen you are through the Heads, against the Singles or about Deepe, and being a litle out of the chanel, you may see the land at 20 and 21 fathome.

The high land of Staples lyeth southward of the Oldman or Tour d'ordre, it is verie high land, the steeple of the Oldman is a thick flatte steeple, and standeth upon the northpoint of the haven of Bullen, if you fall upon the river of Somme, it is shal­lowe water, 8, 9, and 10 fathome, and then the high land of E­staples will be north-north-east from you.

The land from the river of Somme to Deepe is all sandie strand, and there you finde divers speere steeples, & some milles and trees upon the land.

About 4 leagues without Struysaert it is 20 fathome deepe.

Five leagues without the land of Caen it is 22 fathom deep.

Against the cape of Barchfleur and Chierenburch 4 leagues from the land it is 30 fathome deepe.

The land betweene Deepe and Stonehead is knowne because there stand many churches with speere steeples and other trees and houses, but Struysaert is best to be knowne, because there is a high cliffe thereon like to a high steeple, and in the Trave it is 16 or 17 fathome deepe.

La Honge is a flatte steeple lying two leagues eastward from Barchfleur, there lye the two Ilands of S. Marke eastward, which you may sayle round about.

Barchfleur is a high point, and there standeth a flatte steeple beneath upon the white land, & about eastward is more white land, and there stand two milles, & some houses upon it, where­by this point is wel to be knowne.

Upon Cape de la Hague standeth a castle with a small towre, and a litle eastward within the land there standeth a speere stee­ple, and Chierenburgh lyeth two leagues about eastward upon the water side, having a flatte steeple.

VIII. Vnder what degrees these places lye.

CAlis Cliffe lyeth under 50 degrees 52 minutes.

The river of Somme lyeth under 50 degrees 18 minutes.

The point of Struysard lyeth under 49 deg. 45 minutes.

Heere followeth the Carde N. 4.

Beschrivinge der Zeecuste [...] [...]an Picar­die ende Normandie Jtem de ghelegent­heijt aller Rivieren. Reeden ende Have­nen, tusschen Cales ende de Kiscassen ghelegen, watmen aldaer te ontm [...]eten ende waermen hem voor te wachten heeft, van nieus op veel plaetsen seer gecorrigeert en̄ verbetert.

Description des Costes marines de Picardie et Normandie, mons­trant la vraije situation de tou­tes les Rivieres, Rades et Haures entre Calais et les Casquettes, aussij tout ce qu'on peut rēcon­trer la environ, et de quoy on se doibt garder, de nouveau emendé et corrige en plusieurs lieux

CHAPTER IIII. THE DESCRIPTION OF all the Ilands, Sea-coasts, and Havens of Normandie and Britanie, situate betweene Cape de Hague and the Seims, and how you shall sayle by them

I. The situation of the Ilands of Ornay, Casquettes, Garnsey, Sarck, and Iarsey.

ON the Cape de Hague, west and by north al­most 3 leagues, lyeth the Iland Aldernex, which is also called Ornay,Ornay. it is almost three leagues long, reaching east & west. The east ende is faire, for you may there sayle indiffe­rently close by the land, but at the west ende it is verie foule. There lye some small Ilands off from the west ende, when you are past them, then you may well sayle to Iarsey, the Ilands lye close on the west ende, and southward from these Ilands there shooteth out a rocke or stone-riffe, when you are there within on the south side it is faire. The south point of Ornay is foule, he that will anckor there southward, he must be carefull to sette right east from the tyde-haven.

The Casquettes or KiscasseCasquet­te [...], Kis­casses. are distant from this Iland of Ornay w. n. w. and west and by north almost 3 leagues. The uttermost of them is a great high Clif which hath manie rockes round about it. In the middle betweene this Cliffe or Rock and the Iland of Ornay lyeth another rock, but that is not so high, but there are manie other rockes, which reach out from it to­wards the other rock, when it is lowe water then you may see them all. These two rockes are by the French men called Cas­quettes, and by the Dutch men Kiscasses. Some Shippers and Saylers are much deceived herein, which know not these Rocks, calling the land of Chierburch the great Kiscas, and the land of Ornay the small Kiscas, for the Kiscasses are nothing els but meere rockes lying out in the Sea. About w. n. w. and w. & by n. from this Iland of Ornay or Aldernex, there lye two other smooth great Rockes, called Barroches,Barroches. which lye on the west ende of Ornay close by the land.

To knowe Ornay, you must understand that the north side hath a white hill or downe, and the west ende is high & steepe downewards, at the east ende it is hillie & dalie, but lower then upon the west ende, you may see a steeple or two upon it and some milles.

Thus Ornay sheweth when you sayle along by it being four leagues from the land.

Thus Ornay sheweth it self with Casquettes, south-south-east being three or four leagues fom you.

From Ornay to Garnsey the course is w.s.w. about 8 leagues but frō the Casquettes to the west ende of GarneseyGarnsey. the course is west and by south 8 leagues. To knowe Garnesey, you must understand that the east ende is flatte and the west point steep­ing downewards.

There stand two speere steeples upon it, and some milles, and the land is dubble when you sayle northward by it about four leagues from the land, then it sheweth as it is heere set downe.

Thus Garnsey sheweth when it is crosse from you 4 leagues.

But comming out of the west, & that Garnsey lyeth e. n. e. or e. and by n. from you then it sheweth thus.

[view of Guernsey]

He that commeth out of the north, and intendeth to anckor under Garnesey,Rode un­der Garne­sey. he must goe westward about the rockes of Kaf­quettes, and so sayle upon the northende of Garnesey, until the castle which standeth upon the rocke be right against the south ende of the land, which you must hold so, untill you come by the castle, but beware of the litle Iland called Arem,Arem. for it is al­most full of rockes about it, betweene the castle which standeth in the water and the land is a good Rode, but if you will anckor without the castle, then doe it at 12 and 13 fathome, or if you will anckor betweene the point of the land and the castle, then sayle till you be at 6 or 7 fathome lowe water, and there anckor. You must understand that there aboutes it ebbeth and floweth 6 or 7 fathome up and downe at everie tyde.

Or els help your self with these markes: when you are west from the Kasquettes, then goe southeast in, untill that the east-ende of Garnesey lyeth south and by west from you, then sayle upon it, then you shall see the castle upon the rock, & then doe as you are taught before. Betweene the Kasquettes and Garne­sey it is 35 and 40 fathome almost al stone ground.

He that commeth out of the west, or from the Kasquettes & will anckor upon the southside of Garnesey, he must rūne close about by Cape de Gruse, or by the southwest ende, along by the south side of the land, and when he is full half waie from the land, he may anckor where he will at 18 or 19 fathome, and if the winde should chance to blowe southwest, or w.s.w. he may goe about the point, and anckor on the north or south side of the castle, as I said before.

From the south-side of Garnesey there lyeth a rock above the water, which men must be carefull to shunne.

There lyeth also a rowe of rockes south and by west, & s. s.w. from Garnesey called Rockedoves,Rocke­doves. about 8 leagues from it, which are at least a league long.

Frō Rockedoves to Cap Farelle the course is s.e. 11 leagues.

From Rockedoves to the Iland Briack s. & by w. 8 leagues.

From Rockedoves to the Rockes called the Monckes west & by north 10 or 11 leagues.

From Rockedoves to the rock Canine the course is south & by west 4 leagues.

From Garnesey to the seven Ilandes the course is southwest and by south 17 leagues.

From Garnesey to S. Maloes the course is south-south-west, and southeast and by south 17 leagues.

From Garnesey to Sarcke the course is e. & by n. a league.

Betweene Garnesey and Sarcke there lye two litle Ilandes. Arcke and Arem,Arcke. Arem. you may sayle betweene them: he that will anckor under Sarcke, must doe it at 26 or 27 fathome, you may anckor round about Sarcke, but from the north & south endes there shooteth out certaine rockes, whereof some of those at the north ende lye under the water, but at the south ende they lye above the water.

Sarcke, & the Rasse of Ornay, or Cape de Hague lye distant southwest and by south, and northeast and by north 8 leagues.

From Cape de Hague to the northwest ende of Iarsey the course is south-south-west, then you runne through betweene Iarsey and Sarcke.Sarcke. Sarcke and Iarsey are distant 4. leagues.

From Garnesey to IarseyIarsey. the course is southeast 8 leagues, round about under Iarsey is good Rode, on the north side you may anckor all along at 10 & 11 fathome, at the west ende there are some rockes, specially on the west point,Rodes un­der Iarsey. there the rockes lye a good waie off from the land, but betweene both pointes you may anckor at 10, 11, or 12 fathome. On the south side of Iar­sey it is also a good Rode for northwest, and west-north-west windes. On the east side of Iarsey it is good lying at rode in Ca­telynen Baye, a litle within, or eastward from the west point, on the north side of Iarsey there lye some Rockes, which are called the Paternosters.Paterno­sters. When you come out of the west, you may runne betweene them and the land at 11 fathome, and anckor before the sandie Baye, called Trinitie, there is good anckoring at 10 & 11 fathome, leaving the Paternosters, or Rockes of Pier­lech north-north-west from you.

From the west ende of Iarsey to S. Maloes the course is south and by east, and s. s. e. 8 or 9 leagues, but about midwaie be­tweene the west ende of Iarsey, and the Ile of Sicember, which lyeth before S. Maloes, there lye certaine high rockes in the cha­nel, which conteine in circuite, to sayle about them,Monkes or Minkes. about 8 leagues, which a man must be carefull to shunne, which rockes are called the Monckes.

From Iarsey to Concale the course is south-south-east, and south and by east, distant 11 or 12 leagues.

II. To sayle the coast along from Cape de Hague to S. Malo.

BEtweene Cap de la Hague and the Iland of Ornay, the Rasse of Blanckart or Ornay runneth in, from whence a man may sayle through the Ilands in divers manners to [Page 35] S. Maloes, as hereafter followeth and also along the coast by Granville and Concale.

First from Cape de la Hague or Hagu, to Cape de Vorha,Cape de Vorha. it is s. s. e. and south and by east about 8 leagues. From Cape de Hague there shooteth of a rock, which you must be carefull to shunne.

Buf-rocksWhen you are past Cape de Vorha, then you shal finde three or four high rockes called the Buff, you may goe about betwixt them and the firme land east and west: as also betweene the Rockes and Iarsey, to the Riffe of Sand called Mortefam.Martefam.

From Cap de Vorha to the said Riffe of Mortefam the course is south-south-east 8 leagues.

Against this Riffe there lyeth a rowe of Rockes reaching east & west more thē a league into the Sea. Those that are most easterly lye above the water, these Rockes are called Bufkin.Bufkin.

Be [...]ng past Buff, you leave on your right hand, (as you doe all other rockes,) a great rowe of Rockes which reach out from the southeast point of Iarsey to Granville, which are called Ec­kron,Eckron, all these rockes you leave on your right hand.

He that sayleth to Granville betweene Buff and Iarsey, let him understand that he may anckor well under the north ende of Iarsey at 11 or 12 fathome.

But comming by the sand or riffe of Mortefam, there you must sayle s. s. e. forward to Granville, betweene Mortefam & Bufkin.

Right south from this riffe of Mortefam there standeth a church with two steeples, called Quotanse.Quotanse.

From the Rock Bufkin to the utter point of GranvilleGranville. it is southeast 6 or 7 leagues, about the south point there lye two or three litle rocks, going about behinde them you goe behinde a stone or head, where at lowe water you sitte drie.

You must understand that betweene Cape de Hague and Granville the coast is full of houses, milles and trees, and that you may anckor all along by that coast at 6 and 7 fathome, speci­ally on the south side of Cape de Hague. The Cape of Vorha and Granville are two pointes shooting or reaching out.

About five leagues southward of Granville, there lyeth an Iland about a league from the firme land, whereon the castle or litle town of S. MichaelsMont S. Michael. lyeth, having a high towre which may be seene farre off, lying before the river of Averentie, which fal­leth drie into the Sea, at least a league long, so that from the strand you may see no Sea.

And about west from Granville lye the rockes of Sausee or Santsee,Sausee or Santsee. which are about 3 leagues long, reaching east & west.

From Granville to the point of ConcaleConcale. the course is south­west 5 leagues: you must runne in close by the point for there it is 8 or 9 fathome deepe, there lye three rockes off from the point, before them you may anckor at 10 fathome, but before the towne it is shallowe water.

There lye two rockes also on the north side of the towne, under them you may anckor at 5 or 6 fathome.

Within the rockes to Mount S. Michael it is verie rising ground, of 13, 9, & 6 fathome, it is all one, so that at a lowe water the whole shore is drie as I said before.

From the uttermost rock of Concale to the East haven of S. MaloesS. Maloes. west, and w. & by s. it is 5 leagues.

There lyeth a litle Iland before the haven, wheron there stan­deth a church called Sicember, you may sayle in on both sides thereof.

The east chanelThe east-chanel. goeth in by a high sharp rock, called the Meeusteen, and so you sayle upon the west Iland, then you see two small Ilands or rockes more, and on each of them there stā ­deth a litle house, which you leave on backborde, sayling upon the uttermost, and close in by it.

When you are within the cliffes or rockes, whereon the hou­ses stand, then you may anckor at 5 or 6 fathome lowe water. This east chanel reacheth south in, and upon the west land in the Baye against S. Maloes, there are three or four litle houses, which in sayling in you must keepe close upon the two afore­said Ilands whereon the houses stand, and you must sayle right up upon them, untill you are within the two Ilands or rockes, where you may anckor before the towne at 5 fathome.

At a lowe water it is there all full of rockes and stones, so that there you can hardly see through them, but sayling in the cha­nels of S. Maloes, at half flood, you can doe no hurt, so you sayle not upon any high rockes, for at high water it is there 14 fathome deepe, and it floweth everie tyde 7 fathome high.

The west chanel beginneth to runne in a litle westward of Sicember.The west-chanel of S. Maloes. Sicember is the Iland whereon the litle church stan­deth, there westward lye two or three great rockes, whereby you runne in leaving a great rock on starborde, running in close by the rockes that be most northeast and by south, and e. s. e. till you are against the two rocks wheron the two houses stand, then turne southward up to the towne as aforesaid.

The markes of the west chanel are these,Markes of the west-chanel. there standeth a mill on high upon the waie to the towne, when that is right upon [Page 36] the north or east corner of the towne of S. Maloes, let it stand so til you come to the aforesaid Ilands with houses.

The south chanel of S. Maloes,The south chanel of S. Maloes. runneth along by the land be­tweene it and the rockes, where you leave all the rockes to sea­ward, keeping the west point of the haven right against the south corner of the towne, so that betweene the towne and the Ilands you may see the place whereon the milles stand, and so you runne upon the point of the haven in, and close in by the point, and when you are at the point, then you may ankor in the Baye where the houses stand, at five fathome lowe water, in the middle of the haven there lye two or three sandes, stone ground which you must shunne.

At S. Maloes an east and west moone maketh a high water, & the streame falleth into the west haven, through the cliffes or rockes, and out againe at the east chanel: which you must marke well when you goe in at the west chanel of S. Maloes.

III. The situation from S. Maloes to S. Pauls de Lion.

ABout five leagues west from the south chanel of S. Ma­loes there lyeth a great sandie Baye, where a man may lye safe from all windes, at 6 or 7 fathome, you anckor under a great cliffe or rocke, turning westwards up towards the milles with the trees.

And almost three leagues northwest from this foresaid Sand­bay lyeth Cape de Farelle,Cape de Farelle. which also is called Cape de Late, because the castle la Late standeth east from this point, there al­so is a good Rode for a west and southwest winde.

West from Cape de Farelle lyeth a great cliffe or rocke, and west from it you may anckor in the great Sandbaye.

You may knowe Cape de Farelle by the aforesaid rock, there are many Sand bayes also in the strand, & upon the point stan­deth a great castle.

From Cape de Farelle to the north ende of the Iland BriackIland of Briack. it is west and by north 13 or 14 leagues.

Betweene them both there lyeth the Havens or Rivers of S. Brieux and Benit,S. Brieux. S. Benit. and about west from Cape de Farelle there lyeth a great rowe of out-rockes above the water, two leagues from the land.

Two leagues northwest from S. Maloes chanel lyeth the east banck, right over against Cape de Farelle, there you may ride under at 6 or 7 fathome.

You shall knowe the Iland of Briack when you come out of the east by two milles which stand upon the land about two ca­bles length one from the other, and betweene the two milles there standeth a high round hill, and on it a house, it reacheth south-south-west, & n. n. e. almost 3 leagues in length.

You may sayle round about this Iland, and anckor when you will, it is al good ground, although there lye some rockes round about it, as one a great way from the north point, called Souffe, which you must take heede of, and beware also of a rowe of rockes at the north ende, lying under the water.

In the Trave of Iarsey, Rockedove, and the Iland Briack it is 20, 25 and 30 fathome.

West-south-west a league and an half from the Iland Briack lye the Out-rockes of Pickels,Pickels rockes. which you may sayle round a­bout. They lye 4 leagues from the firme land, and east neare to the firme land there lye many blinde rockes which you must shunne.

Four leagues west from Briack, lyeth PortblankePort blāc. upon a great river called Lantriliers, East frō this haven lye manie Out-rockes, you may sayle betweene them at 6 or 7 fathome with a lowe water, about behinde the Seven Ilands, and come west­ward by the Greene Iland into the Sea againe.

From Pickels aforesaid to the Seven Ilands it is 8 leagues east and by north,Sept Isles. & w. & by s. you cannot sayle through nor be­tweene those Seven Ilands, but betweene the firme land & the Seven Ilands, there runneth a white chanel through.

The Seven Ilands are to be sayled upon at 45 fathome, and when you are against them then you see a steeple upō the firme land, whereby they are well to be knowne, this church is called Our Ladie of Brightnes.

And from the Iland which lyeth furthest east there shooteth off a Sand, at the ende whereof there lyeth a rock, for a good marke to sayle about this Sand.

Above a league south from Seven Ilands lyeth the Greene Iland otherwise called Tabeliuck,Green Iland. Taveliuc. which may be sayled round a­bout, and from thence runneth the deepe to the Driakelpotten northwest into the Sea.

The Seven Ilands are about 8 or 9 leagues long, and north­west from the west ende of them, there lyeth a rock under the water which at lowe water is above it.

From these Ilands to DriakelpottenDriakel­pottes. the course is west-south west, & e n. e. 5 leagues, these are all mightie and fearfull Out-rockes, spreading out farre and broad, and lye without the coast [Page 37] of the land about five or sixe leagues.

Betweene the Driaklepotten and the Sept Isles lyeth the ri­ver of Laminoe, and east from it the Greene Iland or Taveliuc, which may be anckored round about.

The haven behinde the Greene Iland is called Ulles haven,Vlles ha­ven. to sayle into it you must leave Taveliuc on backborde, and you must goe in south, it is a great creeke, then the river will open it self, but you must take heede of the northside of the river for it is foule.

To knowe the Driaklepotten, you shall see a high steeple stan­ding upon the land, although there it must be cleare wether be­fore you can have any sight of the land.

Along by this coast it is 50 and 45 fathome deepe, and you may easily see the land, so that in the night tyme you may come no nearer unto it then 45 fathome.

He that commeth from Voert and will sayle to S. Maloes, must goe no nearer east with a south winde, then east-northeast, but if the winde be west then goe n. e. & by e. untill you have Driaklepotten on your side, otherwise the flood would drawe you thither, the flood falleth there northwest and southeast in behinde the Seven Ilands, but by day there is no daunger when you can see.

Behinde the Driaklepotten lyeth the haven of S. Iohn de Doye,S. Iohn de Doye. almost three leagues westward from the Greene Iland, & asmuch eastward from Morlions, it is a tyde-haven, from thence you may goe to Morlions through the rockes, and anckor at 5 or 6 fathome lowe water.

West from the Driaklepotten or pottes, lyeth a great rock: about s. w. & by s. from the same lyeth the east chanel of Mor­lions,Morlions. about 4 leagues distant.

West-southwest, & west & by south from the aforesaid rock, 5 or 6 leagues lyeth the west chanel of Morlions, running in by a long craggie rock, you may sayle into this chanel south, and south and by west, to the castle of Morlaix,The castle of Morlaix and being about the castle you may sayle eastward on through the rockes, and goe from the long rock n. n. e. and n. & by e. out of the east havē into the Sea againe, as the streame serves. The flood commeth from the northwest.

Being within the castle of Morlaix, and desiring to goe to Morlions they sayle east through the rockes, it is al broken land, where with lowe water it is five fathome deepe. But if you will put into S. Pauls de Lyon,S. Paul de Lion. then sayle to the great rock with the two hornes or saddle, and sayle close along by the rock, & when you have gotten about the rock, then chuse your land, there ly­eth a village upon the land called Plainpoul,Plainpoul. sayle to it, for there eastward the river goeth in. These are all tyde-havens, but be­tweene the rock of Morlions and the Iland called Bas, it is deep ynough at lowe water to hide a shippe.

IIII. The situation of the land between S. Paul de Lyon and Heysant.

TO knowe the land of S. Paul you must understand that it is dubble land, and that there stand two speere steeples upon the church, and upon the Iland de Bas there stand two stakes up, like unto milles, it lyeth crosse before them. This Iland at the east ende hath a high craggie rock, and when you are east from this rock, then you may see two speere steeples standing a litle the one from the other, which are the steeples of Plainpoul, & you shal also see the castle of Morlaix lying south­east from you, upon a high rock.

The aforesaid uttermost craggie rock of Morlaix lyeth from the point of the Iland de Bas east, and east and by south 4 or 5 leagues, you may runne along betweene the firme land & these rockes to Seven Ilands, and in many places it is good anckor ground, for they are all great creekes, and betweene the rockes of Morlions and the Iland de Bas it is deepe ynough at a lowe water to hide a ship, you may goe in on both sides of the Iland de Bas at 7 or 8 fathome with a lowe water, and anckor where you will.

Thus the land of S. Paul sheweth it self to the Four toe, when you sayle along by it four leagues from the land.

S. Paul de Lyon. Obrevrack. Le Four.

Behinde the Ile de Bas lyeth the towne of Roscou, which hath manie great shippes, because the water is deepe there.

To goe into the east chanel,East cha­nel. when you are past the high rock, and come against the point of the firme land, you must goe in betweene it and the Ile de Bas, about west, and west & by south, and anckor at half waie the lowe Iland de Bas, at 8 or 9 fathome then you lye in the haven of Roscou.

To goe into the west chanel,West ha­ve or cha­nel. which goeth in by the land of Voert, you shall see two great long rockes lying westward, close by the firme land, and from the point of the land right east of the easterlyest long rock, there goeth a Sand off from the firme land, which is the west side of the west haven of Roscou, which runneth in by the west ende of Isle de Bas, about southeast, and when you are within, then turne northeast up under the Iland, there is the best Rode, then Roscou will lye south, and south & by east from you.

It is from the Iland de Bas to Voert or Bacovens w. s. w. & w. & by s. about 13 leagues. But from Roscou to AbbewrackAbewrack it is almost 7 leagues.

About northwest a league without the rockes of Abbewrack lyeth a rowe of rockes under the water, therefore those that put by night out of Voert, or that will laveere to the Four, must goe no nearer to the land of Abbewrack then 4.5 fathome.

To knowe the land about the Voert, there lyeth many white peeces of land, as if they were Sandbayes, & along to the Voert many long rockes, like as if they were villages, and upon the land you may see some houses standing, whereby this land is well to be knowne.

La Four and Heysant are distant almost 3 leagues, west-south west, and east-northeast.

V. To sayle betweene the Voert and Heysant through Conquet & Fontenay. Also the situation of al Creekes, Havens, and Rodes lying there aboutes.

THe Voert or Backovens,Bacovens. in French called le Four, Le Four, is kno­wen by manie out rockes which stand like black villages, and in the firme land there are manie Sandbayes.

And you shall knowe Heysand,Heysant. for that at the south ende it goeth most part sloping downe, and in the middle you see a small flatte steeple, as the figure enseuing shewe you.

Thus Heysant sheweth it self when it is s. & by e. frō you about 4 leagues.

Thus Heysant sheweth it self when it is s. e. from you a­bout 4 leagues.

When Heysant is e. n. e. from you about three leagues it shew­eth thus.

Heysant three or four leagues n. n. w. from you shew­eth thus.

From the Four to S. MathewesS. Ma­thewes. point it is s. s. e. 4 leagues. He that will sayle to Voert he must runne close by the land of Voert or le Four, there lye rockes like black villages or houses along by the land, & behinde them are manie white Sandbayes (as I have said before, shewing how to know the land) sayle close along by the rockes, til you come to the point. Upon the point there lye also two rowes of small rockes, which you may passe along by at half the length of a peeces shot, or the length of two cables, and when you are about the point you shall see three heapes of rockes lying each a quarter of a league from the other, sayle along close by them because of the north Hagles, which lye betweene Heysant and the Four.

When you are against the middlemost heape of rockes, then hold S. Mathewes Closter under the point of Conquets-ort or corner, & sayle right upon it untill you be close upon the point, without turning farre from it, because of the Bellaert, which ly­eth crosse over about two cables length from the said point and with a spring tide is above water.

And when you are by Conquets-ort or corner runne a cables length along by the same until you see the haven open,Conquet. but take good heed of the FenestiersFenestiers. which lye a cables length from the land, on the east point or side of Conquets haven.

Bus if you desire to goe into Conquets haven, then when you come close by Conquets-ort or corner bring S. Mathewes Closter without Conquets-ort, and then sayle upon the Blanck Moines, untill S. Mathewes Closter be east-southeast from you, sayle then to it, right before S. Mathewes Closter,Rode be­fore S. Ma­thewes Closter. and there anckor at 6 or 7 fathome, there is the best Rode for those that will goe northward. But he that must goe into Voert and la­veere, he must not bring S. Mathewes Closter farre without [Page] [Page]

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Pascaarte vande Zeecustē en̄ landē van Normandie en̄ Bretaigne, tusschen de Cabo de Hagu westwaert tot om Heijssant en̄ de Zeijins, vertoonen̄ de wonderlijcke gebroocken landē, menichte vā Eijlandē, en̄ clippē, aen die gewestē geleghē, hoemē die beseijlen sal, en̄ wat mē te schouwē heeft, alles gestelt op sijne rechte streckingen distantien en̄ hoochten.

Carte marine des Costes de Normandie et Bre­taigne, entre le Cap de Hagu vers ouest uisques a Heysant et les Seems, monstrant au vif les terres merveille [...]ses et entrerompues, la multitude des isles, guez et escueils, situez ausdictes en­droicts, comment le tout on navigera, et dequoij on sc gardern, le tout mis selon ses vr [...]ijes routes, distāces, et elevations ou haulteurs du Pole.

[Page] [Page 39] Conquets-ort, as soone as it commeth without he must pre­sently winde towards the land againe, because of the south Ha­gles, which lye about a culvers shotte southward frō the north Hagles.

When Halman (which is a high rock lying at the east ende of Heysant) is over against the northwest ende of the northerlyest Cheminees or Kimmenesses then you are against the Hagles.Halman. Markes of the Hagles

He that will sayle into Breest water,Breest wa­ter. must understand, that a­bout a league eastward of S. Mathewes point there lyeth a rock which he must shunne. To sayle into Breest water from S. Ma­thewes point goe e. s. e. and keepe the north ende of the sou­therlyest Kiminesses without S. Mathewes point, so long untill that the mille upon the north land is north from the trees, then sayle southward by the rock, and so you cannot erre. You may sayle within two cables length along by the north land, untill that Breest is without the point, & then sayle up to it. Or if you will sayle otherwise into Breest water, northward of the rock a­foresaid, which lyeth about a league within S. Mathewes point right against Bartrams Baye, then keepe the north land wel, and hold the southerlyest Kimmenesse covered behinde the great rock which lyeth off from S. Mathewes point, and so sayle upon the west point of Bartrams Baye, untill that the mill which stan­deth upon the north land be n. w. & by n. and the trees n.n.w. frō you, then you are past the stone. But it is best to goe south­ward by the stone, it lyeth about half a peece shot frō the north land. If you will goe into the haven of Breest, then sayle most part along by the north land, so long till that you come upon the point of Breest. When the south point of Breest water is right against the point of Croduin,Baghin rockes. then you are against Baghin, which are a rowe of rockes lying in the mouth of Breest water, about two cables length from the north side, & at a lowe water are seene, being there within, you may turne up eastward or southward before the rivers of Landerneau or Lefou, & anckor there against the south land, at 10, 12, and 13 fathome, before the litle towne called old Croduyn. Breest water for the most part reacheth in east-northeast, there it floweth everie tyde three fathome up and downe, and a southwest & by west, and north­east & by north moone there maketh a high water.

He that lyeth within Breest, must paye about twelve pence for anckor mony,Croix­duin. & for that you have a bill to signifie that you are free there, so that if you lose your shippe upon the coast of Britanie, you might there freely lay hold on your goods, other­wise it is not free: there you lye at anckor in the Sea at 8 or 9 fa­thome, and at land your ship is made fast with a rope at a tree.

To sayle from S. Mathewes point to Claesduinen or Cro­duin, keepe the southerlyest Kimmenesses without the Blanck Moines, & goe forward e.s.e. untill you come to the west point of Claesduynen, and when you are about the point, and may see the Baye open, then you shall see a church stand upō a peece of land distant from the maine, runne up to it, and anckor about the church at 6 or 7 fathome. Croduin is a great Creeke, & ly­eth almost 3 leagues distant from S. Mathewes point, right over against Croduin lyeth Bartrams Baye,Bartrams baye. there you may anckor safe against a north, and n. w. winde, at 10 or 11 fathome.

The ChemineesChemi­nees. or Kimmenesses lye southward from Hey­sant, and westward from S. Mathewes point: betweene the Kim­menesses and Heysant, a ship that will may well sayle through, it is there 6 or 7 fathome deepe with lowe water. If a man by reason of the flood cannot sayle above Heysant and the Chemi­nees, he may well sayle through between them (as I said before) it is there broad and deepe ynough, the chanel reacheth about n. e. & s. w. & going in the middle of the water you cānot erre.

He that will sayle over the Trave from S. Mathewes point to the Emperor & Emperesse, must have good regard to the rockes which lye betweene them. The ColengierColengier. lyeth from S. Ma­thewes point s. s. e. almost two leagues.

The Henne with her Chickens,Henne with her Chickens. and the middlemost Fouke­nesses lye from S. Mathewes point s.e. & by e. almost 2 leagues.

The Foukenesses lye from the west point of Croduyn about w. s. w. almost half a league.

The southerlyest FoukenesseFoukenes­ses. lyeth from the northerlyest half a league, or two shootes of a peece, and at a high water it is co­vered: and n. n. e. a cables length from it there lyeth a blinde rock, which at alowe water is also seene. The said southerlyest Foukenesse lyeth southwest & by south from Croixduin. There lyeth also another blinde rock, westward from the northerlyest Foukenes, which also at a lowe water is uncovered.

The Henne lyeth w. s. w. a peeces shot & an half from Fou­kenesse, it is a round sharp rock, which round about is deepe and faire, at 6 & 7 fathome. The ChickensThe Chic­kens. lye a bases shot n. w. & by w. from the Henne, which are two sharp stumpes, which with lowe water are even above the water, and lye about west from the northerlyest Foukenesse.

The Scheminkel hilles lye southward from the Foukenesses,Scheminc­kle bergen or rockes. you may runne betweene them at 10 fathome, to the west point of Croduin, there also is good rode and anckor ground.

The Ras of FontenayRasse of Fontenay. lyeth from S. Mathewes point south & by east five leagues, if you will sayle from S. Mathewes point over the Trave in the Ras of Fontenay, then goe south and by east, and hold the mill of Fenestiers, which standeth upon the east point of Conquets haven, over the point of S. Mathewes Closter, as long as you can see it, and when you come before the EmperorEmperor. and the Emperesse, shunne the Emperor, because of the rockes thereof which lye under the water, and beware also of the Emperesse,Emperesse for from it also there runneth a sand called the Calf,Calf. over which the streame breaketh verie much, and falleth verie stiffe from it, therefore marke your streames heere wel, for the streame runneth crosse over this Ras of Fontenay, so that with a southwest winde, and an out fall or ebbe it is verie dan­gerous to put into that chanel, as also with a calme. This chanel runneth through s. s. w.

The Seims stand a litle south from the Emperour, and reach about 3 leagues w. n. w. into the Sea,Seims rockes. & about northwest from them lyeth a rock which you must shunne.

Betweene the said Seims and Heysant, reacheth BreesandBreesond. in e. n. e. against the which reacheth that of S. Mathewes point into the Sea, w. n. w. five leagues.

East from Fontenay or the Emperesse lyeth Friesebaye,Friese bay. there you may anckor against a s. e. & by s. winde, there is good anc­kor ground.

And further east from Friese-baye lyeth Boldavids baye,Boldavids baye. a deepe wide baye reaching in e. n. e. on the east side of the ha­ven there lye two Ilands or rockes, which you may anckor un­der, there you may lye safe from all windes.

VI. The running of the streames, and what Moone maketh a high water there.

A South & by east moone maketh a high water at Cap de Hague by land.

In the Ras of Blankaert or Ornay the flood falleth s. w and the ebbe northeast, but heere you can reckon no falling of streames, for one quarter of a tyde the flood falleth crosse into the Casquettes, forth of the one haven into the other, and so out againe, but most northeast, and n. e. and by n. through the Ilands, where a n. and by e. and s. & by w. moone maketh a full Sea. In Garnsey also it is high water with a n. & by e. and s. & by w. moone.

At Concalo & Granville a w.n.w. moone maketh highwater

At S. Maloes the streames rūne in at the westchanel through the rockes, and runne out againe at the east chanel, which a man must remember when he will goe into S. Maloes.

An east and west moone maketh a high water at S. Maloes.

From the Iland of Briack in the creeke or haven of Benit the streame falleth south-east, but in the chanel it falleth e. s. e. and w. n. w. an east & west moone maketh high water there.

Behinde the Casquettes the tyde turneth against the Sonne, so that there it is never still water.

On the east side of the Iland of Briack, in the chanel in the Rode, the flood goeth s.s.e. & a west moone maketh high water.

Betweene Garnsey and the Iland of Briack in the chanel, the streame falleth e.s.e. & w.n.w. & it is there ful Sea with a west-south-west moone.

Betweene the Sept-Isles and Garnsey a w.s.w. moone also maketh a high water in the chanel.

Betweene Briack and the SeptIsles the streame falleth west, and west & by north, & a w. & by s. moone maketh a ful Sea.

Betweene the Seven Ilands and the out-rockes of Morlions the flood falleth in behinde the Driaklepottes, to the Greene-Iland, and falleth in s.s.w. but in the chanel it falleth most east, and e. & by n. and at Morlaix and S. Pauls a w. & by s. moone maketh a high water, and in the chanel a southwest & by west, and a west southwest moone.

At Sept-Isles and S. Paul de Lyon a w. & by s. moone ma­keth a high water.

From Morlions or the Iland de Bas to Voert the streame fal­leth w. & by s. and a w.s.w. and w. & by s. moone maketh high water there. Without Heysant a w.s.w. moone maketh a high water, and within the Voert a s. w. & by w. moone.

Without the Isle de Bas in the chanel the stream falleth east-northeast, and w.s.w.

The flood falleth verie stiffe upon Heysant, and through the Chimenees crosse over the Voert to the Bacovens, he that com­meth to sayle about Heysant he must be carefull hereof.

Before S. Mathewes point a s. w. & by w. moone maketh a high water. From the Four to S. Mathewes point the ebbe fal­eth south and by east, and the flood north and by west.

In Bresondt betweene Heysant & the Seims a w.s.w. moone maketh a high water. The flood runneth into Breesond towards Breest, it falleth also by S. Mathewes point in towards Backo­vens, and it raketh there verie much.

The flood falleth through verie stiffe betweene the Emperor and falleth thwartwise over to the Emperesse, & so falleth with great rakings over the Calf, which is a rock, which stretcheth of from the Emperesse, & then falleth forward also north, & north and by west into S. Mathewes point. But everie one that will sayle through this way must be warie least he be caried awaye with the streame in calme wether, and with a storme out of the north or south it is not good to come into this chanel with an out or in-fall. A southwest and by south, and a northeast & by north moone maketh a high water.

Upon all the coast of Britanie, Poictou, & Gascoigne a south­west and a northeast moone maketh a high water, and there they make no reckoning of any falling of the streame.

VII. Of the depths against these places, and at what depths a man may see these countries.

VVithout the Kiscasses about three leagues from the land it is 35 and 40 fathome deepe, there is also a pitte about n. n. e. 4 leagues from Garnsey where it is 80 or 90 fa­thome deepe, otherwise it is deepe there aboutes 40 fathome.

About four leagues from Garnsey, when it lyeth southeast from you, it is 40 fathome deepe.

About the Driaklepottes along the coast it is 50 and 45 fa­thome, and at such a depth a man may see the land but by night you must come no nearer to it then 45 fathome.

You may well runne to the Sept Isles at 45 fathome.

Betweene Ornay and Iarsey it is 20 and 28 fathome deepe.

Against the Sept Isles about 5 or 6 leagues from the land it is 40 and 45 fathome.

Against S. Pauls de Lyon about five leagues from the land it is 45 and 50 fathome.

Against Isle de Bas, & Abbewrac, or Marwanen five leagues from the land it is 50 and 55 fathome.

At the Backovens or the Four a man may see the land at 15 fathome, and you may knowe it by manie out-rockes, which stand like black villages, and in the firme-land there are manie Sandbayes. And you shall knowe Heysant because at the south­ende it goeth slope downewards, and in the middle you see a small flatte towre, and southeast from the same Iland five or sixe leagues from the land it is 75 fathome deepe, and you may see the land from the poope of the shippe.

Upon S. Mathewes point there standeth a flatte towre, and comming out of the Sea, you may see that flatte towre over the Kimenesses.

At the Seims and the Sheetes you may see the land at 60 & 65 fathome. The Seims reach west-northwest from the Empe­ror into the Sea, and about a mile from thence northwest, there lyeth a rock which you must shunne, and right there without it is 50 fathome deepe. In Breesond it is 45 fathome deepe. North from Heysant it is 50 fathome deepe, and you may also see the land. Without the Seims it is 55 fathome deepe, and then you may see the sheetes also.

VIII. How these Countries aforesaid lye distant one from the other.

  • FRom Cape de Hague to Casquettes w. & by n. 8 leagues.
  • From Cap de Hagu to Cap de Vorha s. & by e. 7 leagues.
  • From Cape de Vorha to Granville s. s. e. 9 leagues.
  • From Granville to Mount S. Michael s. s. e. 5 leagues.
  • From Granville to the West point of Concale s. w. 5 leagues.
  • From thence to the east chanel of S. Maloes west, and west and by south 5 leagues.
  • From the Iland Sicember before S. Maloes to Cape de Farelle, east and west 7 leagues.
  • From Cap de Farelle to the Iland Briack w. & by n. 13 leagues.
  • From the Ile of Briack to Pickels rockes w. & by s. 2 leagues.
  • From Pickels to the Sept Isles w. s. w. 9 leagues.
  • From Sept Isles to the rockes of Driaklepottes west-southwest 5 leagues.
  • From Driaklepottes to Isle Bas or Westpalen w.s.w. 9 leagues.
  • From the Isle Bas or Westpalen to the Four w.s.w. 16 leagues.
  • From the Four to S. Mathewes point south-southeast, & south-east and by south 4 leagues.
  • From S. Mathewes point to Claesduin or Croduin east-south-east almost 3 leagues.
  • From S. Mathewes point to the Ras of Fontenay, or neare to the Emperor s. & by e. 5 leagues.
  • The Ras of Fontenay rūneth through betweene the Emperesse and the Emperor s. s. w. and n. n. e.
  • From Cape de Hague to the west ende of Iarsey south-south-west 10 leagues.
    • Then you goe through betweene Sarke and Iarsey.
  • [Page 42]From the Kiscasses to the west ende of Garnsey southwest & by south. 5 or 6 leagues.
  • From Garnsey to Iarsey s. e. & by e. 6 leagues.
  • From Garnesey to S. Maloes s.s.e. & n.n.w. 16 leagues.
  • From the southende of Iarsey to S. Maloes s.s.e. 9 or 10 leagues.
  • From Garnesey to Sept Isles s. w. & by south 17 leagues.
  • From Garnesey to the rockes called Rockedoves south-south-west and n. n. e. 8 or 9 leagues.
  • From Rockedoves to the rock called Mincke west and by north 9 or 10 leagues.
  • From Rockedoves to the Iland Briack s. & by w. 8 leagues.
  • From Kiscasses to S. Paul de Lyon southwest 29 leagues.
  • From Kiscasses to the Four s. w. and by w. 45 leagues.

IX. How these places lye distant from other Countries.

  • FRom Casquettes to the Sorlinges west and somewhat northerly 56 leagues.
  • From the Kiscasses to Startpoint w. n. w 19 leagues.
  • From Kiscasses to Portland n. and by w. 13 leagues
  • From Casquettes to the Ile of Wight n. e. & by n. 20 leagues.
  • From Casquettes to Bevesier or the Beach northeast & by east 37 leagues.
  • From Garnsey to Lezard west & by north. 37 leagues.
  • From Sept Isles to Lezard n. w. & by w. 26 leagues.
  • From Sept Isles to Startpoint north and by west, & somewhat westerlyer 37 leagues.
  • From Sept Isles to Portland n.e. and by n. 33 leagues.
  • From S. Paul de Lion to Lezard n.w. and by n. 29 leagues.
  • From S. Paul de Lion to Startpoint n. & by e. 29 leagues.
  • From S. Paul de Lion to Portland n. e. & by n. 40 leagues.
  • From Heysant to Portland n. e. 54 leagues.
  • From Heysant to Startpoint n. e. & by n. 40 leagues.
  • From Heysant to Lezard north 29 leagues.
  • From Heysant to Sorlinges n. w. & by n. 37 leagues.
  • From Heysant to Cape de Clara in Ireland n. w. 84 leagues.
  • Frō Heysant to the Iland S. Michaels s.w. & by w. 360 leagues.
  • From Heysant to Cap Finisterre south-southwest & somewhat westerlyer 123 leagues.
  • From Heysant to Cizarga s. s. w. 113 leagues.
  • From Heysant to Cape de Prior s.s.w. 107 leagues.
  • From Heysant to Cape de Pinas south 97 leagues.
  • From Heysant to Laredo s. s. e. 113 leagues.

When you goe south and by east from Heysant, then you goe right without the Seims.

X. Vnder what degrees these places lye.

  • THe Casquettes or Kiscasses lye under 49 degrees 48 min.
  • The Sept Isles lye under 49 degrees.
  • Heysant lyeth under 48 degrees 30 minutes.
  • The Seims lye under 48 degrees 5 minutes.
Heere followeth the Carde N. 5.

CHAPTER V. HOVV A MAN MAY sayle along by the Coast of Britanie and Poictou, from Seims to the Iland of S. Martin together with all the Rivers, Havens, and Ilands, lying in and about the same Coast.

I. The situation of the land betweene Seims and Blauet.

THe SeimsSeims. (as in the chapter aforegoing is declared) are right southward from the Em­peror, and west-northwest almost 3 leagues into the Sea. From the uttermost of the Seimes to the Westpenmarques it is east-south-east and somewhat southerlyer about 13 leagues. But from the Ras or from Fon­tenay to Westpenmarques the course is southeast 9 leagues.

Betweene them both lyeth OdegerneOdegerne. a faire haven, about five leagues east-southeast from Fontenay, right before the chanell or haven there lyeth a banck, which you may runne by on both sides at sixe fathome. The south point of this haven is shallowe, therefore sayle in by the east side, and there you have not lesse then three fathome at lowe water.

The knowledge of the land betweene Fontenay & Odegerne is two round hilles, which the Hollanders call the Slaeplakens, that is the Sheetes,Sheetes. westward frō which there stand two milles, it is a verie craggie point, which without the Seims you may well see at 55 fathome, whereby this land is well to be knowne.

From Odegerne southeast & by south lye the Westpenmar­ques,Westpen­marques. which are good to knowe, for such as have once seene thē, for on the southeast ende there standeth a thick flatte steeple, & a litle westward there standeth a speere steeple, and yet some­what more westerly against the high land there standeth a vil­lage like a castle, at the east side wherof there standeth a flat stee­ple, there lye two great rockes close by the land.

The Westpenmarques runne from the firme land more then a league southeast into the Sea, you sayle east into them, leaving all the rockes on the left hand, running along by the strand, until you come by a great rock, which you must sayle southward a­bout, leaving it on your right hand, then you turne up north-northwest, and so anckor right within the rock, at three fathome lowe water, then you can see no Sea, but at a lowe water it rol­leth verie hard through the rockes.

You may from thence runne at a high water southeast be­tweene the rockes into the Sea againe, but you must take good heede. Without the great rock in the entrie of the haven it is tenne fathome deepe, so that a man might there hide a great shippe if neede were.

Thus the Slaeplakens or the Sheets with Westpenmarques shewe themselves when you sayle along by them, and are about four leagues crosse from them.

Fontenay. Odegerne. Westpenmarques,

From the Westpenmarques to Eastpenmarques or GlenantEastpen­marques. Glenant. the course is east-southeast, southward about, with such a course you may runne farre ynough without, & behinde the Eastpen­marques lyeth a haven called Bindet,Binde [...]. the east ende whereof is full of rockes, you enter into that haven by these markes: there standeth a mille farre within the land, which commeth over [Page 44] against a litle Castle which standeth upon a point within the haven, which you must hold standing one over the other, that is the east mille, and goe in northeast and northeast and by north, and so you can get no hurt on neither side of the land, and then anckor against the towne, you may also sayle behinde the East­penmarques,Rode be­hinde the Eastpen­marques. the firme land is sandie strand, where you may anc­kor at 10 or 11 fathome, nearest the Iland of Motten which is verie faire.

A league southwest from Gloyland, by us called the Eastpen­marques, there lyeth a great rock under the water, whereon it raketh continually, within & without this rock it is 40 fathome deepe, and when you goe east-southeast from the Westpenmar­ques then you runne farre ynough without them.

Thus the land of Eastpenmarques sheweth it self when you sayle by it.

About two leagues eastward of Glenant lye the Ilands of Motten,Motten. you may sayle betweene them and the firme land to Groye or Blauet, there it is 9 or 10 fathome deepe. But if you will goe through betweene Glenant and Motten, sayle along by the Iland of Motten, till you are without Glenant, & then sayle whither you would be.

Thus the land eastward of Glenant or Gloyland to Groye when you sayle along by it, openeth it self.

From Motten to GroyeGroye. the course is east and by south eight leagues. To knowe Groye, you must understand that there stand three or four milles upon it, and the east ende goeth slope downewards, whereby it is easie to be knowne.

When Groye is n. n. e. from you four leagues it sheweth thus.

Under Groye it is good anckoring for a southwest winde, at 6 or 7 fathome, though at the southeast ende of Groye there ly­eth a Sand, which you must beware of, for there it is foule ground.

Right behinde the Iland of Groye lyeth the haven of BlauetBlauet. which runneth in northeast and by north, at 4 or 5 fathome, up­on the west side of this haven there standeth a high speere stee­ple called Quinperley.To sayle into Blauet The Barse lyeth on the east side of the haven, which is a rock which commeth off from the east side of the haven. On the east side also there lye two blinde rockes which you must be verie warie of as you enter in, you must sayle in along by the west side. When you are within it is wide and broad, you may there anckor before the Iland which lyeth in the middle of the haven at 5 or 6 fathome, it is 3 or 4 fathom deepe at lowe water.

II. The situation of Bel-Isle and the Ilands lying there a­bouts, also the Creekes of Morbeam and Croisil or Croiswyke.

FRom Westpenmarques to Bel-IsleBel-Isle. or Boelin, the course is east-southeast 21 leagues. But from Groye to Bel-Isle it is south-southeast 5 leagues. To know Bel-Isle you must un­derstand that on the northwest ende it hath a rugged point, wherein there is a great saddle, you may also see some houses there upon the land, and the east ende goeth whole sloping downe, you may see it at 55 fathome.

Thus Belisle openeth it self when the northwest ende is east from you about four leagues.

When Belisle is northeast frō you 4 leagues then it she­weth ihus.

He that will seeke harbor under Belisle, must shunne the northwest ende, for there under the water there lyeth a rock a good waie from the land. When you are there within, then you sayle about two towes length along by the land, and within a bases shotte about by the north point,Rode un­der Bel-Isle. till you come to the vil­lage with the speere steeple, called S. Pauls, there standeth a ca­stle upon the point, westward from the aforesaid steeple, anckor within the point at 9 or 10 fathome, then you lye safe from a south, southwest, west, and northwest windes, if it bloweth any thing northerlyer you may remove before the east ende, which [Page 45] is half a league broad, at 10 and 11 fathome, the Iland reacheth s. e. and n. w. and as the winde bloweth so a man must remove from one Rode to another, it is good lying there. There lye ma­nie Ilands behinde Bel-Isle,Ilands be­hinde Bel-isle. but you may sayle behinde them to Groye, and Morbeam, in some places having good Rodes, and specially the middlemost which hath a good haven, which go­eth in by a great rock, but to sayle through there & back againe, a man must have some knowledge thereof, because there lye ma­nie rockes both above and under the water. The east-Iland is called the Cardinal,Cardinal. and is distant from the east-ende of Bel-Isle e.n.e. and e. & by n. about 4 leagues, they lye 3 leagues from the firme land, where there lye two great creekes or rivers, from whence a man may sayle through betweene the firme land, and the aforesaid Ilands lying behinde Bel-Isle to Croiswyke or Croixisle, and also up the River of Nantes called Loire.

He that will sayle into MorbeamMorbeam. let him goe from the east-Iland called the Cardinal, to the Mayland n.w. & n.n.w. there it is deepe 8 or 9 fathome, then goe somewhat northerlyer up­on the point which lyeth west from S. Iolme and runne in by it, within the point it is 6, or 7, & also 8 fathome deepe. When you are within the point, leave the west-point & runne close in by the east-point, and as soone as you are within the west-point of the haven, then take good heede to your streame, for the flood falleth verie stiffe into the river of Faunes, then chuse the west-land at 6 or 7 fathome, there it is all shallowe, and when the steeple of Morbeam upon the West-land is west from you, then anckor in the middle of the haven at 9 fathome, then Au­ry the innermost steeple lyeth n. n. w. from you, and the other steeple n. & by e. but the point of Mayland e. s. e.

The litle Iland that lyeth in the Sea lyeth e. s. e. & w. n. w. from the west-point of the haven, and the land from the haven to S. Iolmes steeple n.w. and s.e. and so to Croiswyke w.n.w. and e.s.e.

This Iland aforesaid lying without the haven of Morbeam, on the north-ende is foule, you must leave it on the left hand, and runne to the point of the Mayeland, and close in by it as a­foresaid, in the Trave it is 6, 7, and 8 fathome deepe.

From the east-ende of Bel-isle to Crois-isle the course is east and by north,Croixisle. and east-northeast about 11 leagues.

But he that will sayle from Blauet to Morbeam, he may sayle through behinde Groye and the Ilands lying behinde Bel-isle, and when he is within the Ilands, he must goe north-northeast, till he be before the haven of Morbeam. Before it there lyeth a rock or an Iland, as I said before, you must sayle in through the rock and the east-land, to the east-ende of the haven, and you must shunne the west-point at 6 fathome, for it is shallowe: the east-side is deepest, till you come somewhat within, then there lyeth a rock which at half flood is above the water, you must goe east, or west about it, and anckor right behinde the rock, making a towe fast on land, or as you come within the west-point, you may turne westward as I said before, untill the vil­lage of Morbeam be west from you, and there anckor at 9 fa­thome.

I said before that the land of the east-point of this haven to S. Iolmes steeple reacheth northwest, and southeast, and from S. Iolmes to Croiswyke west-northwest, and east-southeast, a­long by the land it is about 7, 8, and 9 fathome deepe, the more southward about the deeper, but against the point of Croix­wyke you have sixe and seven fathome water againe, so long un­till you be within the banck.

Behinde the west point of Croiswyke there is a RodeA Rode behin [...]e Crois­wyke. as if it were a haven, where you may lye at five, sixe, and seven fa­thome water.

And westward from the northwest-point of Crois-isle there is a flatte church upon the high land. The land of OlduynenOldu [...] lyeth close north from this church. The church standeth upon the first point of Croixwyke.

Southwest and by south from this church, two leagues from the land, lyeth a banck called the Foer,Poer. which in some places is drie at a lowe water, it lyeth a league from the northwest-point of Croiswyke, and from the east-point of Pulyen west and by north, and somewhat northerlyer, and from Bel-Isle it lyeth east, it reacheth in length southwest and northeast, when you keepe the steeple of Olduynen over against the west-point of Croixwyke, and so goe east-northeast, then you misse the banck. And when the speere steeple standeth over the height of the east-ende of the land, then you goe northward about the same banck: and when you bring Pu­lyen steeple over the northwest-point of Croiswyke or Crois-isle, then also you runne northward about the aforesaid banck. And when you sayle east-northeast from the east-ende of Bel-Isle to Croiswyke, then you goe west about the banck: but when you goe east, and east and by south, from the east-ende of Bel-Isle, then you goe east about the banck, sayle so long east, and east and by south on, untill that the steeple of CroixIsle or Croiswyke be north-northwest from you, and [Page 46] then sayle to the land, and so forth at two cables length along by the land, untill you see the rock and the haven called Pierre-passe, then sayle close in by it, it is there 4 fathome deepe.

But when you come from the Cardinal, then keepe the stee­ple which standeth west from Croixwyke over the point, then you runne northward about the banck, then sayle towards the land, about two towes length along by it, as I said before.

When you come to the east point of Croiswyke, then there shooteth a sand off frō the land,Sand of Croiswyk. which you may sound at three fathome round about. The chanel is 8, 9, & 10 fathome deepe.

The westerly steeple is Croiswyke, the high steeple standing eastward is Pulien.

III. How you may sayle into the River of Nantes, and the Baye & the situation of the Iland of Heys

IF you will sayle up the River of Nantes,The River of Nantes. and are within the banck called the Four, then you must runne to the land of Croiswyke, half a peeces shotte along by it, untill you come to the Rock with the hole, where you see through as if it were a gate, there in the chanel it is deepe 8 & 9 fathome, but against the rock it is 5 or 6 fathome deepe, and when you goe by the north point of the river, it is there 3 & 4 fathome deepe at lowe water, within to S. Nazaret it is still deeper water, as 5, 6, and 7 fathome. S. NazaretS. Nazaret is a sharp steeple standing upon an out­point, a litle within the north point of the River. The Rock with the hole is called Pierrepasse, from it you must runne at two towes length in, upon the north point of the River, where­on the sharp steeple called S. Nazaret standeth, untill you are within the rocks called les Porceaux,The Pour­ceaux. which lye in the middle of the River, betweene the Rock with the hole and the steeple a­foresaid, and appeare above the water at half tyde. A litle with­in S. Nazaret, upon the northland standeth a sharp spere steeple, when that steeple is without the south land, then you cannot hurt your self upon that rocke, & there runne northward about. A litle eastward there lyeth another sand with rocks, where you may runne eastward about with great shippes, for there it is ve­rie flatte to the point: being within the point, you may anckor at 6 or 7 fathome. Eastward from S. Nazaret there lye two villages, betweene those villages it is verie flat, & stone ground, there you must chuse the south land. But when you are half waie betweene the easterlyest village, then you may sayle upon the point of the village, till you be past it, but against the easter­lyest village on the south side, at the point there lyeth a banck called Pinbuf,Pinbuf. it reacheth almost half into the River, yet you may goe betweene the point and this banck at 5 or 6 fathome, for this is the Rode for shippes that will put to Sea.

A league further inwards in the middle of the River, there lye two banckes of stones, which at lowe water are seene above it, these banckes lye in the chanel. At PelerinPelerin. is the lading place, almost three leagues frō Nantes, from whence the wares come in boates to lade the shippes. But this is Pilot water, which you commonly take in by the aforesaid sharpe towre of S. Nazaret, where when you are within, you may anckor at 10 or 12 fa­thome, and staye for a Pilot. Those that from S. Nazaret will goe to Sea againe, must doe as followeth, sayle along by the northland, untill you come without the second point of the Ri­ver, turne then off from the north land into the middle of the River, and sayle a great way southward about Pierrepasse, and then when you may see the rock (which lyeth north from Pier­repasse) without the point, there it is four fathome and an half deepe, and when Pierrepasse is north-northwest, and n. & by w. from you, then you are right against the rocke, and there you have deeper water, at 5, 6, and at last 7 fathome, but when you come into the Trave of Picqueliers, then you have 10 and 12 fathome water.

Before the River of Nantes there lye many banckes, but at half flood you may well goe over them. And the south point of the River of Nantes, is distant from the north point, n. n. w. & s. s. e. 4. leagues. Then this land runneth into a great creeke, and there men runne into the Baye. These uneven banckes in the Ri­ver of Nantes are verie unlike, sometymes you cast 15 fathome, and presently after but 7 or 8 fathome.

But to sayle from Bel-Isle to the baye of Armentiers,To sayle to the baye. then goe on e. s. e. till you see the Closter of Armentiers, but before the River of Nantes it is uneven and banckie, when you see the Closter of ArmentiersArmen­tiers. eastward from the trees which stand into landward beyond the said Closter, then goe forward east, and e. and by n. so long untill that the Closter commeth within the castle of Armentiers, then you are within the Monck-lege,Monck-lege. then goe e. s. e. untill you are within the rock called Pierremen,Pierremen which you may goe about on both sides, and when you may see the Grave open, then you may anckor at 7 or 8 fathome, & goe on land to fetch a Pilot, for it is Pilots water. From Bel-Isle to Armentiers the course is e. s. e. about 12 or 13 leagues distant.

From Armentiers to Heys it is south and by east 7 leagues. And from Bel-Isle to HeysHeys. it is s. e. 16 leagues. The Iland of Picqueliers lyeth right upon the point of Armentiers. Between Armentiers or PicqueliersPicque­liers. & Heys, it is an uneven chanel, with manie shallowes and banckes, of 4, 5, 6, and 7 fathome.

To knowe Heyes you must understand, that you may see it beneath on the hatches, when you are at 35 fathome in the Sea, on the east ende of Heys there standeth a sharp steeple, & some houses and milles, so that it is wel to knowe.

When you sayle along by Heys almost 3 leagues of it sheweth it self thus.

In the chanel betweene Heys and Bel Isle it is 35 and 40 fa­thome, but when you are within the chanel then it is but 25 fa­thome deepe.

Under Heys there is no great good Rode,Rode un­der Heyes. for there it rolleth too much as if the water came from under the Iland, and at the north ende it is flatte water. The Rode is, when the steeple of the church is southwest from you, at 8 or 9 fathome, but you lye not safe there but from a southwest, & a west-southwest winde, and there it raketh alwaies verie much.

From Heyes to the Kiliates, or the Iland of S. Marten the course is e. s. e. 12 or 13 leagues. Betweene them both lyeth the Barse of Olone, about half a league frō the land of Poictou, but how you must shunne it & sayle by the Kiliates is declared in the chapter ensewing.

Thus the land of Poictou sheweth it self betweene Heyes and the Iland of S. Marten when you sayle along by it, being four leagues from it.

Olone.

IIII. What Moone maketh a high water on these coasts, and of the falling of the streames.

VPon all the Coasts of Britaigne and Poictou, as also up­on all the Ilandes there aboutes, a southwest & a north­east moone maketh a high water. But within the Ha­vens, Rivers, Creekes and Bayes, a s. w. and by w. and a n. e. & by e. moone, or a point later, as the Havens or Rivers stretch dee­per into the land, and there you reckon no falling of streames.

V. At what depths you may see the land, about these Coasts and Ilands.

AT the Seims and Sheetes you may see the land at sixtie and five and sixtie fathome.

Against the East and Westpenmarques you may see the land at 55 and 60 fathome.

You may see Belisle at 60 fathome, but then you must runne into the shorones or els to the toppe of the mast, but at 55 fa­thome you may see it beneath.

Heys a man may see at 60 fathome with cleare wether. You may see S. Martens Iland and the north ende of Olderdom or Oleron at 30 and 27 fathome.

VI. How these Lands lye one from the other.

  • FRom the Ras of Fontenay to Westpenmarques the course is southeast 9 leagues.
  • But from the west ende of the Seims to Westpenmarques east-southeast and somewhat southerlyer 13 leagues.
  • From Fontenay to Odegerne e. s. e. 5 leagues.
  • From Odegerne to Westpehmarques s.e. & by s. 5 leagues.
  • From Westpenmarques to Eastpenmarques e. s. e. 7 leagues.
  • From Glenant or Gloylant to Groye east & west 9 leagues.
  • From Groye to the West ende of Bel-Isle south and by east, and south-southeast 5 leagues.
  • From Glenant or Gloyland to Belisle s. e. & by e. 12 leagues.
  • From the northwest ende of Belisle to the southeast ende south­east and by east 3 leagues.
  • [Page 48]From Westpenmarques to Belisle east-southeast 21 leagues.
  • From the southeast-ende of Belisle to Picqueliers or Armen­tiers east-southeast 12 leagues.
  • From Belisle to the Cardinal east and by north and somewhat northerlyer 4 leagues.
  • From Belisle to Croiswyke e. & by n. & e. n. e. 11 leagues.
  • From the Cardinal to Olduynen e. n. e. 7 leagues.
  • From the West-point of Croiswyke, to the North-point of the River of Nantes east-southeast 3 leagues.
  • From the point of the River of Nantes to Picqueliers south-southwest 7 leagues.
  • From Pierremen to Armentiers w. s. w. 3 leagues.
  • From Armentiers or Picqueliers to Heys s. & by e. 7 leagues.
  • From the east-ende of Belisle to Heys southeast, and somewhat easterlyer 16 leagues.
  • From Heys to the Barse of Olone e. & by s. 7 leagues.
  • Frō Heys to the Kiliates or S. Martens Iland e.s.e. 12 or 13 leag.

VII. How these Countries are distant from other Countries.

  • FRom the Seims or Fontenay to the Krage of Oleron s. e. and by e. 72 leagues.
  • From the Seims to Bayone in France s. e. 112 leagues.
  • From the Seims to S. Sebastians s. e. & by s. 112 leagues.
  • From the Seims to Bilbao south-southeast and somewhat ea­sterlyer 101 leagues.
  • From the Seims to S. Andero s. s. e. 96 leagues.
  • From the Seims to Cape de Pinas or Tores south 88 leagues.
  • From Seims to Ribadeus south & by west 93 leagues.
  • From the Seims to Cape Ortegal south-southwest and some­what southerlyer 91 leagues.
  • From the Seims to Cape Finisterre southwest & by south, and somewhat southerlyer 112 leagues.
  • From the Seims to Sorles north-northwest 46 leagues.
  • From Seims without about Heysant n. & by w. 10 leagues.
  • From Westpenmarques to Viverus south-southwest 88 leagues.
  • From Westpenmarques to Cizarga s.w. & by s. 104 leagues.
  • From Groye to Cape de Finisterre s. w. 123 leagues.
  • From Belisle to the River of Burdeaux southeast 50 leagues.
  • From Belisle to S. Sebastians south-southeast, & somewhat sou­therlyer 80 leagues.
  • From Belisle to S. Andero south 72 leagues.
  • From Belisle to Cape de Pinas or Tores s. s. w. 80 leagues.
  • From Belisle to Cape de Ortegal southwest 91 leagues.
  • From Bel-isle to Cape de Finisterre southwest 123 leagues.
  • From Heys to Cape de Pinas s. w. & by s. 73 leagues.
  • From Heys to Cape Ortegal s. w. & by w. 94 leagues.

VIII. Vnder what degrees these Countries lye.

  • THe Seims lye under 48 degrees 8 minutes.
  • The Westpenmarques lye under 47 degrees 50 minutes.
  • The Iland of Belisle lyeth under 47 degrees 25 minutes.
  • The Iland of Heys lyeth under 46 degrees 48 minutes.
Heere followeth the Carde N. 6.

Eygentlijcke afbeeldinge der Zee­custen van Bretaignē en̄ Poictou, tus­schen de Semse en̄ het eijlat van S. Martin, mitsgaders alle eijlanden. Clippen, Bancken en̄ ondiepten daer ontrent gelegen, hoemen die selve custen beseijlen en̄ alle periculen bequamelick schouwen mach

Vraij pourtraict des Costes marines de Bretaigne et Poictou, situez entre les Seemses et l'fsle de Re, ensemble toutes les isles, bancs de sable, secheresses et inprofonditez la envir [...]n, comment commodieu­sement on navigera lesdictz lieux, et evitera touz perilz

CHAPTER VI. A TRVE DESCRIPTION of the Sea-coasts of France and Biscayen, betweene the Iland of Heys, S. Iohn de Luz and Cabo de Massichaco.

I. To sayle into the Kiliates and Porthus, and so to Brouwage: as also the situation of Mamm [...]sont.

THe Kiliates or S. Martens Iland is distant from Heys east-southeast 12 or 13 leagues. If you will sayle to Kiliates then runne east and by south, and east-southeast, till you be past the Baers of Olone,Baerse of Olone. which lye about two leagues from Olone, & east & by south 7 leagues from Heys, so that it lyeth right in the chanel, and because it is nothing els but rockes and stones, therefore it is not good to goe to neare to it in darke wether, you may well sayle round about them, and at lowe water they are seene. He that will sayle from Heys to KiliatesTo sayle into the [...]iates. within through the Baers, first he must hold his course east, and being within the Baers of Olone, then sayle to that land of Poictou, that reacheth from Olone to S. Martens Iland east-southeast, & from Olone to the Picqueliers n.w. then sayle by the land of Poictou, and leave two third-partes of the water to S. Martens Iland, and one third-part towards the firme land, and sayle in this sort so long untill S. Martens church be s. s. w. from you, then you may goe well over the banck before S. MartensBanc [...] be­fore S. Martens. and anckor at 5 or 6 fathome. But when the church aforesaid is south and by west from you, (for on that side of the Iland so farre inwards it is all banckie) then the chanel is deepe there 12 fathome, and when S. Martens church is southwest from you, then it is still dryer, then you may well turne toward the Iland at 4 or 5 fathome, as I said before, it dryeth up there verie quick­ly, for from 10 fathome you finde presently but five or sixe fa­thome.

If you will goe with a shippe that draweth much water o­ver the banck which commeth off from the Closter to Urck, then staye till it be half flood, for upon the banck at lowe water it is no more then three fathome and two foot water, but when it is somewhat flowed a great shippe may well goe over it. When the steeple of Lisors standeth at the north-ende of Urck or Travelenes, then you are upon the dryest part of the banck: but when the steeple is over the south-ende of the Iland, then it beginneth to be deepe againe. The markes to keepe the deepest water when you goe over the banck are these:Markes of the deepest water. hold the great steeple of Rochell a bowe length south­ward from the boxe-tree which standeth upon the northerly­est height, and so sayle over the banck. If you will anckor in the Rode before the Closter under the banck, then runne at sixe and seven fathome, and anckor there.

But if you will not anckor under S. Martens, but will goe forward to the Brand-Iland then place the steeple of Lesors or Lussoer over the house which standeth upon the litle Iland, & keepe it so, and then you cannot miscarrie upon Laverdin.Laverdi [...].

The Layerdins are certaine rockes lying a quarter of a league from the east-point of S. Martens Iland, and with a lowe water after a spring-tyde are seene above the water. You may also sayle through betweene La-verdin and S. Martens Iland, there it is deepe ynough. The markes of Laverdin are these,Markes of Laverdin. when the great steeple of Rochel commeth upon the south-point of the Bos, and that the other point northward from the Bos be right over against the north-point of the Bos, then you are right upon the Laverdin, so that whensoever you goe into the Kiliates, and that Rochell is a shippes length without the point of the Bos, then you are past the Laverdin, then you may boldly goe southeast and by south unto the Brand-I­land.

To sayle into Porthus which lyeth southeast and by east [Page 50] from Heys distant 15 leagues, it is a wide and broad haven; rea­ching in betweene S. Martens Iland and Oleron or Olderdom east-southeast. When you will sayle into Porthus;To sayle into Por­thus. you must sayle along by S. Martens Iland, to the east-ende thereof, and then if you will anckor under the Bos, keepe the great steeple of Rochel a shippes length without the Bos, then you cannot be hurt upon Laverdin; but if you will anckor under the Abbay or Closter of S. Martens Iland, then keepe the said Closter with­out the sandie point of the same Iland, and so runne into the sandie bay, on the east-side of the closter, & so you sayle not al­so by Laverdin.

At the north-ende of Oleron lyeth the Crage,The Crage of Oleron. which is a ve­rie foule dangerous rock, when you sayle through betweene S. Martens Iland and Oleron, and if you goe up into the toppe of the mast, then you may see it lye in the water, goe no nearer to it by night then 12 or 13 fathome.

When you come by the east-ende of S. Martens Iland, and sayle into Porthus, and meane to goe into Brant Iland,Brant-Iland. then you must sayle to it southeast and by east. When the steeple of the Four is over the Burnt or Brant Iland, then you may cast your ballast over borde, there it is 12 fathome deepe.

But if you will sayle up into the River of Saranten,River of Xarante. then goe southward about the Burnt Iland, you may also sayle about it northward, and sayle by the steeple of the Four, at a lowe wa­ter this River is drie four leagues within the land.

To sayle from the Burnt Iland to Browage,to sayle to Brou­wage. sayle s. s. e. and keepe the litle steeple of Heers so long west from the wood, un­til the steeple of Four be over against the red tyled house which standeth upon the south-side of the river of Sarenten, then sayle in southeast, and sometimes s. e. and by e. untill the village of Front which lyeth upō the strand be north from Soubise, when Soubise commeth within the village aforesaid, and the mill a­bove the village, then you are against the point of the east-banckEast-bāck. then goe southeast and by south, and set the uttermost steeple of Hers upon the uttermost hillock of sand whereon the Gallowes stand, and keepe them standing so, and sayle s.s.e, and then when the steeple of Hers cōmeth to the east-corner of the valley in the wood, then hold that sharp steeple right over the east-corner of the valley in the wood, & sayle so untill you are within the Creeke or River of Brouwage. At Brouwage there was somtime no one house standing, whereas now there is a fair strong towne, which hath beene so within these fiftie yeares.

The BanjaertBanjaert. lyeth along by the land of Oleron, & reacheth into the Burnt Iland, at a lowe water it is above it, and the foot or tayle thereof reacheth out farre northward. If you must la­veere outward from the Creeke to the Burnt Iland, then [...]et not the steeple of Rochel without the Burnt Iland, before you are right against it, because of the Banjaert; for so you can doe no hurt to your self.

To sayle out of the Sea into the Mammesond,to sayle into the Mamme­sondt. you must un­derstand that it reacheth in east and by north, and e. n. e. and is deepe ynough for a great shippe, when you come within it there runneth up southeast a river, where you lade salt, going towards Salis,Markes to shūne the Flatte. and when passing by it you come to the other point of Mammesont; then there lyeth a Flatte, which you must goe northward about with these markes: you must hold the mille which standeth upon the land of Oleron over against the trees, and so you goe northward about the Flatte, & there is the Rode for those that will fetch salt at Oleron.

But if you will sayle from within out of the River againe,to sayle from with in through Porthus. then you must sayle about so long east, untill that Salis be over the trees that stand within Merven. Now to shunne the tayle, or the Sand which shooteth off from the point of Oleron, when Salis is over against the trees, then sayle north and by west to the Burnt Iland, but bring Duke Charles steeple southward frō the Burnt Iland, that you may not sayle under the Banjaert, when the steeple of Hers commeth upon the wood hold it stan­ding so, until that Rochel commeth over against the north-cor­ner of the Burnt Iland, and then sayle out at Porthus. From the west-ende also of S. MartensA Riffe at the west-ende of S. Martens Iland there shooteth out a Sand, which you must shunne.

There lyeth a great rowe of Rockes in the Sea, upon the which at lowe water there is not above 4 or 5 fathome, they are called Wrkamia,Wrckamia the Sea ravels alwaies much upon them, these Rockes lye south, and s. and by w. from Heys 13 leagues, from Olone s. w. and w. s. w. from S. Martens Iland, and west from the Iland of Oleron.

To know S. Martens Iland there standeth a high steeple with a high house, and a mill upon the strand, and you shall see four or five high downes. Upon Oleron also there standeth a high speere steeple upon a redde point, whereon you may see some trees also standing, and southward there are craggie downes in two or three places.

Thus S. Martens Iland sheweth when it is n. & by e. from you.

[Page 51]

When you sayle into or out of Porthus then S. Martens Iland sheweth thus.

La Fosse de Loys. S. Marten. Closter. S. Iohn.

Thus Oleron or Olderdom sheweth it self, when you are before Porthus about four leagues from the land.

II. To sayle into, and out of the River of Burdeaux.

FRom the Krage of Oleron to the steeple of CordamCordam. it is s. s. e. and south and by east 13 leagues. To knowe the River you must understand that the downes that lye east or north from the steeple of Cordam are five or sixe white high downes, and that the land southward from it is lowe land, black downes overgrowne with heath.

The MonagesMonages. or Monasses reach off from the steeple of Cor­dam towards the high downes upon the north-land, which is a small white sand, which you may sound round about at seven fathome, till you be within the steeple of Cordam, which stan­deth upon the same Sand, yet the ende is verie steepe, for by the point of Monages it is 20 fathome deepe.

To sayle up into the River of Burdeaux, called La Garonne, you must understand that the right chanel reacheth in n. e. and by n. till you be at the high downes upon the north-land, those high downes you must set northeast and by north from you, & goe in n. e. and n. e. & by n. as winde and streame serveth, un­till you come to a peeces shotte about those high downes, then the castle at Talemont wil stand within two ships length south­ward from the point of Massie, whereon all the milles stand, and the village of Soulack within the land, will come within two shippes length of the southpoint of the River, keepe the castle that standeth upon the Sand two shippes length without the point of Messie, and then goe southeast and by east, till you are within the point of Messie, whereon the milles stand, which is 4 leagues within the River.

To get this havento get to the haven. when you come out of the Sea, then know that when the steeple of Cordam standeth e. & by n. from you, and that you rūne upon it to the markes aforesaid, that is, when the high downes upon the north-land, stand n. e. & by n. from you, then you saile without the South-asses, that is south about from them, then goe to the downes aforesaid n. e. & by n. and so further inward as I said before, that is the right chanel. But when Cordam steeple is e. s. e. from you, then you may also runne upon it forward through the Asses, to the markes afore­said of the high downes, and this chanel is three fathome deepe.

And when the steeple of Cordam is southeast, and s. e. & by e. from you, there goeth also a wide and broad chanel through the North-asses of 2 fathome deepe, which you may also rūne into, to the aforesaid markes of the high downes, and goe for­ward upon them northeast, and n. e. and by n. as aforesaid.

To sayle into the south-chanel,How to sayle into the south-chanel. you must knowe that it run­neth in by the land: set the steeple of Cordam north from you, and when Royanen is northeast, and northeast & by north from you, then the highest steeple commeth within a shippes length of the middlemost point of the north-land, and you are upon 5 fathome on the strand, then sayle upon Royan and it will still be dryer, that is four, and also three fathome, and upon the in­nermost threshold of the chanel 15 and 16 foot at high water, then when the house that standeth westward of Royan cōmeth into the middle of the Sandbaye, then rūne over the threshold, which being over runne to the point of Missie, within this thre­shold of the south-chanel it is 20 fathome deepe, & on the south land you may anckor at 6, 7, and 8 fathome.

You may also goe into this haven, all sounding with your lead along to Monages, at 4 and 5 fathome, till you be within the Flat which lyeth without the chanel.

There runneth a chanel also in by the north, which is verie crooked, you must runne to the strand at 4 fathome, and keepe along by it, and then comming against the north-corner of the high downes, there it is two fathome deepe at the deepest, and that is at the threshold of the chanel, but presently after it will be three fathome againe, then you must hold crosse off from the land, untill you get deepe water, that is 4 or 5 fathome, and be­ing there, runne up to Royan as aforesaid.

Now when you are within the haven, and come against the point of Messie, which is the point whereon the milles stand, then goe over to the broken castle called Castilion s. e. & by s. which is 8 leagues from Missie, then you must goe along by the south-land southeast into Pouliack,Pouliack which is almost 3 leagues.

In the chanel betweene Monages & the point of Missie with the milles, it is 10, 11, and 12 fathome deepe: but against the [Page 52] south-chanel it is 20 fathome deepe, but out of the chanel whe­ther it be upon the north or south-side it is dryer as 5, 6, 7, and 8 fathome, you must runne along close by the point of Messie, there also it is 22 fathome deepe, and by the point of Monasges it is also 20 fathome deepe.

Now when Royan commeth on the west-point whereon the milles stand, keepe it so standing, and goe s. e. and by s. to Cha­stillion:Chastilion in this reach it is most five fathome deepe, but going nearer to the north or south-side it is dryer, and on the north-side it is full of sand, where you may also sayle through if you knowe it. From Chastilion to Pouliack it is south-east almost 3 leagues, as aforesaid, and there it is 4, 5, 6, and 7 fathome deepe.

Against Pouliack in the middle of the River, there lyeth an Iland, which you goe eastward about streight up to Bley, and there you must goe over with the tyde, for at a lowe water it is but a fathome deepe, before Bleye it is 3 or 4 fathome deepe a­gaine, and you runne out by the north-land at 3, 4, and 5 fa­thome, and when you come before the river which reacheth up northwards, then sayle first on upon the middle of the Iland, & so along by it, untill y [...]u are against or past the gallowes, which standeth upon the east-point of the River, then along againe by the north-side to the four houses, then you must put over to the high steeple of DubelotDubelot. or Duvecot, and when you are on the south-land by the steeple of Dubelot, then you must pre­sently crosse over againe eastward about to the west-point of the bocht, then goe along by the east-land againe to Larmond, then you must crosse over againe to the houses of Chartroysen, and so along by the south-land to the towne of Burdeaux, be­fore Burdeaux it is 4 or 5 fathome deepe, in the crooking it is 5, 6, and 7 fathome. To conclude in sayling up the River there are many depths, and it is full of Sands, so that you must of­ten crosse over from one land to the other, as I have said before.

When you will sayle out of the River of Burdeaux, then you must staye at Royan for good wether and a fore-ebbe, & there­with goe out, and when you goe out, keepe the north-downes northeast and by north from you, so long untill that the steeple of Cordam be east-southeast from you, then you may sayle w. n. w. through the Asses into the Sea.

The North-Esels or Asses may well be sounded at sixe or se­ven fathome, that chanel is wide and broad, and 12 or 13 fa­thome deepe.

III. To sayle into the chanels of Occason, Bayona, and S. Iohn de Luz.

FRom Cordam to Accason it is south and by north distant 20 leagues, betweene them both there lyeth a tyde-haven called Anchises,Anchises. which may be entered by a great shippe at high water, for it is a deepe tyde-haven.

The coast from the river of Burdeaux or from Cordam to Accason is flatte, and it is there all downie land to S. Iohn de Luz.

Right before the haven of Occason,Accason. there lye three Ilands, which you may sayle in by on the north or south-side.

The north-chanelNorth-chanel. reacheth in southeast, there stand two high steeples upon the south-land, which you must hold two mastes length distant from each other, and sayle so upon them untill you are in. Right within the south-point lyeth a rowe of rockes under the water which you must shunne, and within about the middle of the haven there lyeth a rowe of blinde rockes, but when you keepe the steeples standing so, then you rūne through betweene the rockes at four fathome, and on the south-side you may anckor at four fathome lowe water.

The south-chanelSouth-chanel. runneth in betweene the south-point and the southerlyest Iland, and eastward from the village of Acca­son there standeth a black hillock upon the land, when that is n. n. e. from you, then goe right in upon it, & when you come betweene the innermost and the north-point of the haven, there lye many blinde rockes on both sides under the water: but goe right upon the black hillock northeast, and northeast and by north, before the village or small towne, and there anckor at 8, 9, and 10 fathome, in the north-chanel also you have 9 or 10 fa­thome water, betweene the north and south-point of the haven it is 5 fathome deepe, and within it is 12 fathome deepe.

From Accason to BayonaBayona. it is south and north 17 leagues, betweene them both lyeth Cabriton,Cabriton. before which in former tyme there was woont to be a through-fare for the shippes that would sayle into Bayona, through a chanel of 7 leagues long. The chanel or haven of Bayona runneth in betwene two sleight strandes, e. s. e. and e. and by s. There lyeth a Baerse before the haven, and upon the land there stand two trees or mastes keepe them one upon another, & so runne into the haven, there is at a high water & a spring streame full three fathome, at day­lie tydes two fathome and an half, but at lowe water but three [Page 53] foot water, when you come about the point, you turne up southward, and anckor before the towne at 5 fathome, within on the north-side it is pyled, to keepe the chanel deepe: and it is Pilots water.

Frō the haven of Bayona to S. Iohn de Luz the course south and by west 4 leagues. S. Iohn de LuzS. Iohn de Luz. is a tyde-haven, as if it were a peere, you must goe in there at high water, the towne ly­eth on the right hand, when it is a spring-tyde the haven is so drie, that you may goe driefoot over it, but it is a baye wherein men lye.

IIII. The situation betweene S. Iohn de Luz and Cabo de Massichaco.

THree leagues southwest, and s. w. & by w. from S. Iohn de Luz lye the rockes called the Pingnons of S. Anne,Pingnons of S. Anne. which lye close by the land. A league westward from them lyeth the Creeke of Fonteravia, it is a faire baye, where upon the head there standeth a castle, and southward from it a church. Upon the west-side of this Baye lyeth the Cape de Fi­guer,Cape Fi­gure. & upon the point of the Cape lyeth a rock somewhat di­stant from it, but the Sea cannot there passe through betweene them except it be at a verie high flood, then it breaketh a litle through: If you will anckor in this Baye of Fonteravia,Fontera­via. cast anc­kor at 8 or 9 fathome, so that the aforesaid rock be n. n. w. from you, there is it faire sand-ground, where you may lye safe from hurt by a n.w. winde. Lying in the Baye you have the Pingnōs of S. Anne e.n.e. and Cape de Figuer n.w. & by w. from you.

A league westward from Cape de Figure lyeth Passaje,Passaie. also a faire haven, on the east-side of the haven, which is verie nar­rowe, there lyeth a round rock, so that there it is ylle going in with an ebbe, but with a flood it is better, without it is verie faire, there are no shallowes at all, but onely the aforesaid round rock. The towne lyeth right within the haven on the east-side, where men anckor at seven fathome.

Almost three leagues westward from Passage lyeth S. Seba­stian,S. Sebasti­a [...]. betweene thē both there is a sand-bay, which lyeth with­in a Creeke, and there there goeth a drie litle river up into the land, there come manie barkes into it when it is faire wether.

S. Sebastians haven is good to goe into, you goe in betweene two castles, whereof the easterlyest is the greatest, it standeth al­most as if it stood upon an Iland, but it standeth upō a high hill, the westerlyest standeth upon a small Iland or Rock, which is a four-square towre: in sayling in, in the narrowe waie betweene these two castles lyeth a rock which at lowe water is 6 fathome deepe, and when the storme commeth out of the Sea it alwaies ravels upon it, it lyeth nearest unto the east-land, & on the west-land it is 10 fathome deepe. Now to shunne this rock as you en­ter in, there is a closter east from the westerlyest Iland, and there standeth a steeple, which come one over against the other, which you must runne eastward about.

Now to anckor without S. Sebastians in the Rode, you must hold the high hill, which lyeth upon the point of Cape de Fi­gure, without the easterlyest Iland aforesaid, and then you may anckor there, but if it fall to be covered under the Iland, thē you cannot anckor before S. Sebastians in the Rode, but when you are through the narrowe strait within the rock, and past the castles, then you may anckor on the east-side under the great ca­stle, there is the best Rode: & behinde the castle aforesaid there goeth up a litle water from the east-castle you may goe on foot along upon a high strand upon firme land at lowe water, but the strand at high water is covered: it is a Creeke, & within before the towne it is deepe 5, 6, & 7 fathome, & on the west-side un­der the small Iland you cannot anckor, for there it is flat & drie.

Such as come out of the west and seeke to goe into S. Seba­stians, they must keepe by the land, for it is faire. And a league westward from S. Sebastians haven lyeth a Sand-bay, where you may anckor as deepe as you will, but they that from thence will goe into S. Sebastians, they must goe in in the middle of the wa­ter, betweene both the Ilands, and leave the litle Iland whereon the chappel standeth on starre-borde, running so towards the first or second wall of the towne, and anckor there, the shalopes or barkes will come aborde to you, and help to gette you into the haven betweene the walles.

From S. Sebastians to Cape de Massichaco the course is w.n. w. 13 leagues, betweene them lye these Rodes, to wete, Gaturia and Deva.Gaturia. Deva.

Gaturia lyeth from S. Sebastian distant w. and by n. and w. n.w. 8 leagues: it is a round Baye or Creeke, where it is safe ly­ing against a south-winde, you may lye behinde the west-point before the towne upon faire Sand-ground, a n. w. winde is there corner-winde. This Baye is cōmonly called Kings-haven.

Along the coast of Biscaya betweene S. Iohn de Luz and Ga­turia it is al over faire ground, & good anckoring at 20 fathome.

From Gaturia to Deva it is 2 leagues to the west, it is a fal­ling water which commeth out of the hill.

Three leagues westward lyeth the out-point of Massichaca.Cape Mas­sicha [...]a.

Thus the land about the bocht of S. Iohn de Luz sheweth it self from Cabriton till you be past S. Sebastians.

The land of Bayona and Cabriton is downie land and [...]ea­cheth south and north.

The land Fonteravia reacheth southwest and northeast but by S. Sebastians it reacheth east and west.

Cabriton.

Bayona.

S. Iohn de Luz

Fonteravia.

Passage

S. Sebastian.

Thus S. Sebastian openeth it self when you have the sight of it seven leagues from it.

V. Of the running of the streames, and what Moone maketh a high water heere.

IN these places they reckon no falling of streames, for in all the havens lying upon these coasts a southwest & northeast moone commonly maketh a high water, but within the ha­vens or within the land a point later, that is a southwest and by west, and a northeast and by east moone.

VI. Of the depths against these places, and at what depths you may see the land.

VVithout Heys it is 35 fathome deepe, and then you may see the land as you stand belowe upō the hatches, when it is cleare wether you may see it at 60 fathome.

You may see the land of Olone beneath at 25 & 30 fathome.

S. Martens Iland and the north-ende of Oleron may be seene at 28 and 30 fathome. When you have a sight of S. Martens Iland, then on it you see a high steeple and a high house, and on the strand a mille, with four or five high downes. Upon Oleron you see a high speere steeple upon a redde point, whereon you see some trees standing, and southward it hath black downes in three or four places.

Upon the land on the north-side of the River of Burdeaux, or the steeple of Cordam you see five or sixe high white downes, but on the south-side thereof they are lowe black downes overgrowne with heath, you may see the land against the River of Burdeaux from the poope of the shippe at 30 fa­thome.

The Coast from Cordam to Accason is a flatte coast, which may also be seene at 30 fathome.

Betweene Accason and S. Iohn de Luz, you may likewise see the land at 30 fathome, and when you are about Bayona, then you see Cabriton, Bayona, Bederte and S. Iohn de Luz, which for the most part are all flatte steeples.

When you come before Passage, you may see the corner of Cape de Figure, and also S. Sebastians, and there the land lyeth in a great creeke or bowing.

About Cape de Figuer there lyeth a high hill, which on the southwest ende is verie steepe, and it is verie long, the slopenesse descending towards the north, when you are close by the land it is verie high and steepe, but when you are before S. Sebastians 7 leagues from the land then it is long, & on the west-ende stee­ping and hollowe.

When you are 8 leagues without S. Sebastians, then you may see the east-castle, and also the small Iland.

VII. How these Countries lye distant from each other.

  • FRom Heys to S. Martens Iland e.s.e. 12 or 13 leagues.
  • From Heys to Porthus or the Crage of Oleron southeast and by east 15 leagues.
  • From S. Martens Iland to Cordam, s.s.e. 16 leagues.
  • [Page 55]From the Crage of Oleron to the steeple of Cordam, or the Ri­ver of Burdeaux south-southeast, and s. and by e. 13 leagues.
  • From Cordam to Accason south 20 leagues.
  • From Accason to Bayona south and north 16 or 17 leagues.
  • From Bayona to S. Iohn de Luz s. and by w. 4 leagues.
  • From S. Iohn de Luz to Pingnons de S. Anne southwest & by west. 3 leagues.
  • From S. Iohn de Luz to S. Sebastians west 8 leagues.
  • From S. Sebastians to Gateria w. & by n. & w.n.w. 8 leagues.
  • From Gateria to Cape de Massichaco n. w. 5 or 6 leagues.

VIII. How these Countries are distant from other Countries.

  • From Heys to Ortegal s. w. and by w. 94 leagues.
  • From S. Martens Iland to Cape de Pinas s. w. 80 leagues.
  • From S. Martens Iland to Ortegal west-southwest and some­what southerlyer 99 leagues.
  • From the steeple of Cordam or the River of Burdeaux to Cape de Pinas w.s.w. and somewhat southerlyer 75 leagues.

IX. Vnder what degrees these Countries lye.

  • THe Iland of Heys lyeth under 46 degrees & 48 minutes.
  • The Middle of the Iland of S. Marten lyeth under 46 de­grees and 26 minutes.
  • The north-point of Oleron lyeth under 46 degrees 15 minutes.
  • The steeple of Cordam or the River of Burdeaux lyeth under 45 degrees 45 minutes.
  • Accason lyeth under 44 degrees 36 minutes.
  • Bayona in France lyeth under 43 degrees 45 minutes.
  • Or as some saye under 43 degrees 35 minutes.
  • The Cape de Massichaco lyeth under 43 degrees 46 minutes.
Heere followeth the Carde N. 7.

CHAPTER VII. A DESCRIPTION OF the Sea-coasts of Biscaya, betweene Cabo de Massichaco and Capo de Pinas.

I. The situation betweene Cape de Massichaco and Bilbao.

WEst-northwest from S. Sebastian lyeth Cape de MassichacoMassicha­co. 13 leagues, there goeth a ha­ven in right west from the Cape, which is a farre tyde-haven, the towne lyeth about a league into the land, upon a River which cō ­meth out of the hill, right west from Cape de Massichaco lyeth a great rock fast upon the land, and a litle west from it another, which you may well sayle about with barkes, and that lyeth upon the sharp point of Avellanes.

Southwest and by west from Massichaco lyeth the haven of Barmea,Barmea. it is a faire great Creeke, the east-ende whereof is foule, therefore you must shunne it, and goe on the west-side, and anc­kor where you will, it is wide ynough.

West from Barmea lyeth PlacentiaPlacentia. upon a litle river, the towne lyeth a litle into the land, they are all tyde-havens.

From Cape de Massichaco to Bilbao (betweene which lyeth Barmea and Placentia) it is south-southwest, and southwest and by south 7 leagues.

From Placentia to BilbaoBilbao. are almost 3 leagues, west-south­west, and west and by south. Bilbao lyeth upon a great river, downe from the which there commeth much yron: it is a good haven, but it runneth not farre in, because of the Banck called la Barse, La Barse. which lyeth crosse over the haven, which you must goe over at high water.

On the east-point of Bilbao there commeth a Sand shooting downe, you must shunne that point, for there lye stones and rockes also under the water, and it is a high steepe point, which sheweth white, yet you anckor before it at seven or eight fa­thome, from this point to the haven of Bilbao or the Barse is two leagues, south & by west, and you must anckor under this point betweene the rockes and the Peere, from whence the Pi­lots come downe, there you lye safe from a northwest winde, but a west-northwest winde is open into it. The chanel rea­cheth in by the west-land, there stand five or sixe houses upon the west-land, when the two westerlyest houses are one against the other, or when you may see betweene the two easterlyest houses which stand within the land, then you are upon the Bar­se or drougth, goe then to the castle of Portogalete south, and south and by east, close along by the castle, and sette right with­in the castle against a west-winde: though as you are before the haven then the Pilots come downe & bring you to the towne.

When you lye before the Creeke,S. Antho­nies hill. then you see Monte An­thoni west and by north from you.

Thus the land east from Bilbao sheweth when you fall upon it.

On the west-side you see a high sharpe hill, and it sheweth thus to Castro.

II. To sayle from Bilbao to S. Andero.

FRom the point of Bilbao to CastroCastro. the course is west five leagues, it is a good haven, being 6, 7, & 8 fathome deepe, and the length of the haven reacheth southwards at 10 fa­thome, [Page] [Page] [Page]

Pascarte van Biscaijen, afbeeldende de rechte gelegentheijt der Zeehavenen ende custen tusschen de C. Massichaco en̄ de C. de Pinas gelegen, alles gestelt op sijne rechte streckinghe, distantien, ende hoochden.

Carte Marine de Biscaije, demons­trant la vraije situation des Costes et Ports marins, situez entre le C. de Massichaco, et le C. de Pinas, le tout dresse selon ses vraijes routes, distan­ces, et elevations du Pole.

[Page] [Page 57] you must goe in west, & anckor at 6, 7, and 8 fathome, but further in the River to the towne it is no deeper then 3 or 4 fathome. There is no safegarde for great shippes but with a s.w. winde.

From Bilbao to S. Anthonies Hill it is west & by north 9 or 10 leagues. From Castro to Laredo the course is west distant sixe leagues: on the west-side lyeth the said Hill of S. Anthonie, which is a high hill, you may sayle close in by it, or sette this Hill south & by east from you, and so also runne in about the east-point of the haven, there it is wide and broad, and a fit ha­ven for great shippes, and there about east you may anckor at 7 or 8 fathome. Eastward against S. Anthonies Hill in the middle of the waie lyeth a rowe of rockes under the water, which you may sayle about on both sides, it ravels alwaies upō them, there within is the Rode for common shippes, and that is right be­fore the haven which is closed with a wall, but great shippes lye somewhat further off, there it is 6 and 7 fathome deepe. On the south-side of the haven there is a tyde-haven, from the which there commeth a great Sand shooting off from the east-side to S. Anthonies Hill, there within it is two fathome water, & that is right before the village, but from the village there commeth a point or tayle of sand reaching crosse out, within it at lowe water it is a fathome deepe, in the middle of the chanel it is 9 fathome, & at the point of S. Anthonie it is 20 fathome deepe.

From S. Anthonies Hill to Cape de Kesgo it is west, & west and by south 3 leagues,C. Kesgo. it is a great Cape lying east from S. An­dero, and there is faire ground.

From Cape de Kesgo to the west-point of S. Andero it is w. & by s. five leagues, and right southward from the point of S. Andero upō the east-point of Sardinis is a sandie Baye, where it is good anckoring at 10 fathome.

From Cape de Kesgo to the haven of S. Andero the course is w.s.w. distant 3 leagues. S. AnderoS. Andero. lyeth in a creeke, and there lyeth an Iland before the haven, you may goe about it on both sides, it is 8 and 9 fathome deepe, but southward about the Iland it is 5, 6, and 7 fathome deepe, after you come neare to the strand. The chanel first reacheth w. n. w. the Iland lyeth a great league within the creeke, it is from the east-point of the haven to the west-point of the land about south and north a great league. S. Anthonie and the west-point of S. Andero lye east & west from each other about 5 leagues.How to know the land about Laredo.

To knowe the land when you fall about Laredo, then knowe that on the west-side of the haven of Laredo S. Anthonies Hill lyeth, which is a verie high hill, which you see verie farre both from east and west, and right above the towne of Laredo you see also a sharp hill, as if it were the point of a diamant, or the point of a two-handed sword, and further about Laredo it is ve­rie high double land, two, three, & at some places four double.

S. Andero hath no speciall or knowne hilles, but when you are before the haven then eastward you may see the towne, and the castle standing upon a high hill, as if it were a suger-lofe, or a hay-cock, & eastward there is much double land, two or three heigth double. But when you are about Cape de Kesgo, then presently you see the castle upon the west-land.

The land eastward of Laredo being south from you, sheweth thus with a sharp hill.

Thus S. Anthonies hill sheweth it self, lying on the west­side of Laredo.

Thus S. Anthonies hill sheweth it self, when you are south-southeast from it.

III. How all the Havens and Rodes betweene S. Andero and Cape de Pinas should be sayled.

FRom S. Andero to Cape de Pinas the course is west, or a litle northerlyer 37 or 38 leagues, betweene the which these Havens following do lye.

First the haven of S. MartenS. Marten. or Settevilles,Settevilles. lying east & west 4 leagues from S. Andero, it is a tyde-haven.

From thence to S. Vincents,S. Vin­cent. also a tyde-haven is 5 leagues, the chanel goeth in on the east-side, on the west-side there com­meth a sand shooting off, and in the middle of the chanel lyeth an Iland, which you may goe about on both sides.

From S. Vincents to LhanesLhanes. the course is west three leagues, this is a tyde-haven, upon the west-side of the haven there stan­deth a church, & right within the haven a middle-flatte or sand, but you must goe about on the west-side: these are all un­knowne narrowe havens, he that hath occasion may use them.

From Lhanes to Rio de SeliaRio de Selia. the course is west five or sixe leagues, he that will goe in there must have regarde to a mast which standeth upon the east land, you must goe in close by it, for the west-side is foule within, & you must anckor within the mast before the village, it is also a tyde-haven.

From Rio de S [...]ila westwards nine leagues is Villa Viciosa,V lla Vi­c [...]a. this also is a tyde-haven, but faire: the chanel runneth in south­east and southeast and by east, close upon the west-point of the land, for the east-point is foule to the middle of the haven: there lyeth a flatte right in the middle of the haven, which at lowe water is drie, therefore as you goe in you must turne up west­ward againe, on the west-side lyeth the Plecke, you may sayle to it, and anckor upon flatte water.

Seven leagues west-ward from Villa Viciosa lyeth the out­point of Sanson,Sanson. eastward there lyeth a litle Iland whereon there standeth a steeple: betweene Sanson and the said Iland it is good rode at 7 and 8 fathome.

On the west-side of Sanson is also good rode, right before the litle haven of Sanson at sixe and seven fathome.

West from Sanson lyeth Gyon,Gyon. having a peere or pyled-head under the which the Fisshermen that dwell there laye their barkes.

A league and an half west from Gyon lyeth the Creeke of Tores,Tores. a good Rode for a southwest and west winde at 8 and 9 fathome: upon the point reaching out, standeth a high steeple.

Three leagues westward of Tores lyeth Cape de Pinas,Cape de Pinas. from whence manie rockes lye off to Seaward good half a league at least: it is sayd by some that a man may sayle through betweene the point and those rockes.

Thus the land of Biscaya sheweth it self betweene Laredo and Rio de Sella, as you sayle along by it.

Laredo. Lhanes. Rio de Sella.

Thus the land sheweth it self from Rio de Sella to Cape de Pinas, as you sayle along by the same.

Rio de Sella. Villa Viciosa.

IIII. What Moone maketh high water upon these Coasts.

AT all places and before all the havens of this coast, a southwest and northeast moone maketh a high water, but within the havens about a point later, as they reach deeper into the land, as upon the coasts of Britaigne, Poictou & G [...]coigne. Heere also they reckon no falling of streames. But the streames fall crosse to and fro.

V. How these Countries are distant one from the other, and from other Countries also.

HOw these Countries reach and are distant from each o­ther it is alreadie shewed in the description.

  • From Cape de Massichaca to Accason northeast and somewhat easterlyer 28 leagues.
  • From Cape de Massichaca to Heys north and somewhat e [...] ­sterlyer [Page 59] 60 leagues.
  • From S. Andero to the Seims n. n. w. 96 leagues.
  • From Cape de Pinas to the steeple of Cordam east-northeast, and northeast and by east 72 leagues.
  • From Cape de Pinas to Porthus or S. Martens Iland northeast and somewhat easterlyer 80 leagues.
  • From Cape de Pinas to Bel-Isle n. n. e. 80 leagues.
  • From Cape de Pinas to the Seims north 88 leagues.
  • From Cape de Pinas to Cabo de Veilli in Ireland north and by west and somewhat westerlyer 171 leagues.
  • From Cape de Pinas to Ortegal w. & by n. 29 leagues.

VI. Vnder what degrees these Countries lye.

CApe Massichaca lyeth under 43 degr. 46 or 48 minutes.

Cape de Pinas lyeth under 43 degrees 54 or 56 minutes.

The whole coast of Biscaya betweene Cape de Pinas & Cape de Massichaca lyeth about 43 degrees and 43, 44, or 45 minutes.

Heere followeth the Carde N. 8.

CHAPTER VIII. A TRVE DESCRIPTION of the Sea-coasts of Gallicia, from Cabo de Pinas to Cabo de Finisterre.

I. To sayle from Cape de Pinas to Aviles and Ribadeus.

FRom Cape de Pinas there lyeth out a rowe of rockes, which reach half a league into the sea, they say that a man may sayle betweene those rockes and that point. But right with­in or westward from Cape de Pinas lyeth a great rocke, which you may sayle through betweene it & the land.

When you are within Cape de Pinas, AvilesAviles. lyeth from thence s. s. w. three leagues, it is a good tyde-haven, where a great shippe may well enter at half flood, there is also a good Rode before this haven at 6 and 7 fathome deepe.

To sayle into this haven you must goe along by the east­side, for the west-side is verie flatte, there standeth a litle chap­pel upon the east-side which you must runne in close by, til you be within the two rockes that lye on the east-side of the haven, which you must sayle close by, & anckor a litle waie within the rockes. The towne lyeth about a league upwards. Frō the west­point there shooteth off a sand, which reacheth within along the haven to the towne, so that there on both sides it is verie shallowe. On the west-side of the haven, without in the bowing thereof there lye two great rockes, right before the litle church, in the sandie Baye, which you may sayle round about, but it is not all to faire, yet without the rockes it is good anckor-ground at 7 & 8 fathome, which is right over against the church, which standeth against the high land.

From Aviles to LuarcaLuarca. it is 7 leagues, and from Luarca to RibadeusRibadeus. the course is w. s. w. seven leagues. Or from Aviles to Ribadeus s. w. and by w. 13 leagues.

To sayle into the haven of Ribadeus you must goe close in by the west-land, on the west-side of the haven there standeth a high flatte steeple, as if it were upon the Corongne, you must sayle in along by the said steeple at two cables length, (for at the east-point there lyeth a rock under the water) thē you must sayle forward in the middle of the water, the haven for the most part reacheth in south, and south & by east, you may anckor on the east-side before Castrapol,Castrapol. or on the west-side before Riba­deus, where you will at five or sixe fathome. Within it is all flatte water, if you lye farre out or deepe within as 4, 5, 6, and 7 fathome.

Thus the land of Aviles sheweth it self when you are before Aviles.

II. To sayle from Ribadeus to Viverus, and then to Ortegal.

NOrthwest from Ribadeus about eight leagues lyeth the Cape de Brilo,Cape de Brilo. and a litle west from thence lyeth the li­tle towne of Viverus.Viverus. Westward from the baye of Cy­prian (where you may anckor at tenne fathome) there lye two great high rockes, west-northwest from those rockes about half a league lyeth the Iland of S. Cyprian,Iland S. Cyprian. which lyeth right before the haven of Viverus, whereby this haven of Viverus is well to be knowne, you may sayle round about on both sides of this I­land into the haven of Viverus, in the middle of the water south & south & by west, right before the towne, and being within you may anckor where you will, either on the east or west-side, it is there flatte water of 5, 6, 7, & 8 fathome, as you runne farre inward.

From the haven of Viverus or from the Iland of S. Cyprian [Page] [Page] [Page]

Pascaarte vande Zeecusten van Galissien, tusschen de C. de Pinas, ende de C. de Fi­nisterre, vertoonende de rechte gelegentheijt der Zeegaten en̄ havenen aldaer geleghen, hoe­men die beseijlen, en̄ alle pe­riculen en̄ ondieptē mijdē sal.

Carte marine des costes de la Mer entre le C. de Pinas, et le C. de Finisterre, mens­trant au vif la situation des Ports et haures sitnez a les­dictes costes, et comment en costoÿant icelles on evitera tous perils et lieux dagereux.

[Page] [Page 61] to Cape de OrtegalCape de Ortegal. the course is w.n. w. 9 leagues: betweene both, a league westward from Viverus, lyeth the litle towne of S. MarkeS. Marck. with a creeke, which you may ride before at 7 or 8 fa­thome, and lye safe against a s. s. w. and w. winde.

And three leagues westward from S. Markes lyeth the River of Karins,Karins. and there also it is good anckoring along to the castle of Ortegal, all the coast along is faire. From Karins to Ortegal the course is northwest 5 leagues.

Ortegal is a great point of land lying out, eastward from it you may lye safe from a northwest, west, southwest, and south winde, against the castle is the best Rode, where you may anc­kor at 8 and 9 fathome. When you come from the east, Ortegal is well to be knowne, you may see the castle stand against the high land.

Thus Ortegal sheweth when it is s.w. & by s. from you.

Thus Ortegal sheweth when the easterlyest hill lyeth south-southeast from you, and you may see the east-ende clearly eight, nine, or tenne leagues into the Sea.

Thus Ortegal sheweth it self as it is s.e. & by s. from you.

When Ortegal is southeast from you it openeth thus.

III. To sayle from Cape de Ortegal to Ferol de Corongne, and to the Iland of Cyzarga.

ABout a league into the Sea north-northwest from Orte­gal lyeth a rowe of great rockes, you may sayle between them and the firme land at 10 fathome, Ortegal & Cape de Prior are distant northeast and southwest 11 leagues..

Betweene Ortegal and Cape Prior lyeth the haven of Sigue­raSiguera. or Siverus, which is a deepe haven, reaching in southeast, the north-side is rockie & foule, you must goe in close by the west­land, sayling along by a high land at 12 fathome, within it is 10 fathome, and you must anckor before the village of Siguera at 6 or 7 fathome.

Five leagues westward from Siguera lyeth Cape de Prior,Cape de. Prior. which is a verie craggie uneven hill, which to see to is like as if it sate full of men.

Three leagues from Cape de Prior southward lyeth the ha­ven of Ferol, sayling to it you come first to two white Sand­bayes,How to sayle into Ferol. which lye northward from the said haven, wherof the southerlyest is the greatest, whereon also one or two white hou­ses stand, southward from that lyeth the north-point of the ha­ven of Ferol, and when you goe by it then the haven openeth it self, which you must runne into through the middle of the chanel e. n. e. and e. & by n. betweene two high lands, & when you are within, you must turne up northward, and anckor at 12 and 13 fathome, for before the village of Ferol it is rockie and flatte. The south-point of Ferol reacheth farre out, and is all foule, when you are in the middle of the narrowe or strait, then you may see through betweene the firme-land and the Iland of Cyzarga, in the narrowe it is 20 fathome deepe, and so narrowe that you may cast a stone upon the land on both sides thereof.

But when you come from Corongne from the west, and will put into Ferol, then from the Iland of S. Blase goe n. and n. & by w. untill you may see the haven of Ferol open, and sayle still till it closeth againe, then you shall see the great Sand-baye with two or three houses, sayle to it untill you are within the south-point of the haven, for (as I said before) it is foule and rockie, & then sayle upon the north-point of the haven, thē you sayle the haven open againe, and so goe through the middle of the cha­nel, and anckor therein as is taught you before.

To sayle from Ferol to Corongne the course is south,How to sayle into Corongne and south and by west about four litle leagues, but when you come to the west-land you must shunne it at least four or five [Page 62] cables length, for it is not verie faire: when you come to the point wheron the castle standeth, then you see a litle Iland with a small house upon it, you may sayle by it within half a cables length, and goe about by it, and then goe up westward till you come before the Fisshermens village, and there anckor at 6, 7 or 8 fathome water.

From C. de Prior to Corongne the course is south and north 6 leagues: to sayle from thence to the Carongne you must also doe as I said before.

You may sayle into the haven or entrie of the Carongne 5 or 6 leagues right southeast in, comming from Farol or Cysarga, passing by the Coruna or Corongne to FontaineFontaine. or Pitance,Pitance. where on the west-side under a rowe of rockes, you may anckor at 10 or 12 fathome, and you may runne so farre inwards that you may see no Sea.

Right against la Corongne e. n. e. lyeth another haven cal­led Pont de Mas,Pont de Mas. which teacheth in eastward, wherein also you may runne so farre that you can see no Sea, there also you may anckor at 10 or 12 fathome. There lyeth a rowe of rockes on the north-side, and over the river there goeth a great bridge.

He that commeth out of the west from Cysarga must goe in e. s. e. untill he be a litle within the steeple which standeth on the west-point of the Corongne, for on the west-side it is alto­gether foule, so long till it beginneth to come right against the castle, and then doeing as I said before.

West-northwest from the Corongne 8 leagues lyeth the Iland of Cyzarga,Cysarga. and from Cape Prior it is w.s.w 8 leagues.

But from Cape Ortegal it is southwest & by west 17 leagues, this Iland of Cysarga (which by us is called Cesarien) is round about foule.

Thus Cape Prior sheweth it self bei [...]g the east-point of Corongne.

The Land lying east from Corongne sheweth thus when it is southeast from you.

IIII. To sayle from the Iland of Cysarga to Cape de Finisterre.

FRom the Iland Cysarga south and by west, and s. s. w. lyeth the haven of Queres,Queres. which is a good haven, the west-side is faire, but the east-side is foule, therefore you must goe in along by the west-side, and when you are betweene the two landes, then runne in through the middle of the chanel, to the point, then turne up westward a league inwards, & there anckor at 7, 8, & 9 fathome, it is a faire haven for great shippes.

From the Iland of Cysarga southwest and by west, and west­southwest 12 or 13 leagues lyeth the east-point of Monsy,Cape de Bylem. called Cabo de Bilem, it is a high slopeing point with many craggie rockes, lying loose off frō the land, as if it were a steeple, it shew­eth black, and is called the Monck.Monck.

There lyeth a great rowe of rockes right before the haven of Monsy,Rockes before Monsy. s.w. and by s. from Monck, but the innermost ende of them lyeth south and by west from the Monck, for they are at least two or three cables in length, when you fall upon Monsy it is double land, and about Cape de Finisterre lyeth a high white sand reaching into the land, as if it were a sand-baye.

And as you come about Cape de Finisterre you see also a craggie hill, which runneth in so farre southwards that you may see it before Mores.

If you will enter into Monsy comming from Cysarga,To sayle into Mor­sy. you must goe in close by Cape de Bylem or Bellem, this point is al­together a high craggie sharp land full of high steepe rockes, as I said before, and when you are by the point, you must hold Cape de Coriane a shippes length without Cape de Cotte so long untill S. Maries church commeth without the point of Monsy, then goe into the east-chanelEast-cha­nel. with these markes, and sayle in s. s. e. till you passe by the church, then you shall see a rowe of rockes, runne in behinde them, and anckor there before the village of Monsy at 5, 6, or 7 fathome: as you sayle thus from Cape Bylem to Monsy, thē the rockes that lye in the mid­dle before the haven are about a quarter of a league inward to the Sea from you.

To sayle in at the west-chanel,West-cha­nel. you must goe east-southeast [Page 63] easely along by the land, & when our Ladies church commeth without the point, then you must goe towards the rocks which lye before Monsy, as aforesaid, and anckor within the rockes at seven or eight fathome, but goe not too farre in, for there shoo­teth out a sand along the haven which is verie drie.

The east-chanel is better to enter then the west chanel, but sayle not into Monsy before you see the church without the point: you may also anckor well on the north-side of the haven at 5, 6 or 7 fathome.

South from the village of Monsy there is a creeke, before the which there lyeth a shallowe reaching e.n.e. two cables length along by the haven.

Our Ladies church & the Monke lye distant from each other n. and by e. and s. & by w.

Southwest frō C. de Bylem 3 leagues lyeth Cap de Coriane.C. de Cori­ane.

And from Cape de Coriane it is south & north three leagues to Cape de Finisterre. Betweene these two Capes there is a Sand-baye, where you may anckor eastward from the great rock at 6 or 7 fathome. This is a great creeke, which reacheth farre into the land. On the north-side of this Baye there lye rockes under the water which you must shunne.

There lyeth a great Sand-baye east from the Cape de Fini­sterre, when you see it you may knowe, that you are by Cape de Finisterre, there lyeth also another betweene the haven of Corcobayona and the Cape, but the first is the greatest, but by this second the haven of Corcobayona or Seche goeth in, which for the most part reacheth in north, as in the Chapter en­seweing it is shewed.

Thus the land of Monsy sheweth it self betweene Cape de Finisterre and Cysarga, as you sayle along by it comming out of the east, about four leagues from the land.

When Cape de Finisterre is south-southeast from you it sheweth thus.

Cape de Finisterre being southeast and somewhat sou­therlyer from you sheweth thus.

Thus Cape de Finisterre sheweth it self when it is southeast and somewhat easterlyer from you.

When Cape Finisterre is southeast and by east from you five or sixe leagues it sheweth thus.

V. What Moone maketh high water heere.

VPon all these Coasts of Gallicia a southwest and a north­east moone maketh a high water, and within the chanels and havens a southwest and by west, and a northeast and by east moone, or a point later, as the havens reach deepe or farre into the Land, as upon the coasts of Biscaya and France.

VI. How these Countries lye from others.

  • FRom Cape de Pinas to Aviles s. s. w. 3 leagues.
  • From Luarca to Ribadeus w. s. w. 7 leagues.
  • From Ribadeus to Cape de Brilo n. w. 8 leagues.
  • From S. Cyprian to Ortegal w. n. w. 9 leagues.
  • From Carins to Ortegal northwest 5 leagues.
  • [Page 64]From Ortegal to Siverus southwest 4 leagues.
  • From Siverus to Cape Prior southwest 5 leagues.
  • From Cape Prior to Ferol south and by east 3 leagues.
  • From Ferol to Corongne south and s. & by w. 4 leagues.
  • From Corongne to Cyzarga w. n. w. 8 leagues.
  • From Cysarga to Queres s. & by w. and s. s. w. 3 leagues.
  • From Cysarga to Cape Bylem or the east-point of Monsy s.w. and by w. and w. s. w. 12 or 13 leagues.
  • From Cape Bylem to Cape de Coriane or Torrevian south­west 3 leagues.
  • From Cape Coriane to Cape Finisterre s. & n. 3 leagues.
  • From C. de Pinas to Ribadeus s.w. & by w. 13 or 14 leagues.
  • From Cape de Pinas to the Iland of S. Ciprian east and west 19 or 20 leagues.
  • From Cape de Pinas to Ortegal west and by north and some. what westerlyer 29 leagues.
  • From Ortegal to Cape Prior southwest 11 leagues.
  • From Cape Ortegal to Cysarga s. w. and by w. 17 leagues.
  • From Cape de Prior to Cysarga w. s. w. 8 leagues.
  • From Ferol to Cysarga east and west 8 leagues.

VII. How these Lands are situate in respect of other Lands.

  • FRom Cape de Pinas to Cap de Veel in Ireland north and west 168 leagues.
  • From C. de Ortegal to Waterford northward 160 leagues.
  • From Ortegal to Start-point north and by east, and somewhat more easterly 128 leagues.
  • From Cysarga to Cape Vejo north 160 leagues.
  • From Cysarga to the Sorlinges north and by east 138 leagues.

VIII. Vnder what heigths these Lands are situate.

  • CApe de Pinas lyeth under 43 degrees 56 minutes,
  • Or as some say under 43 degrees 44 minutes.
  • Cape de Ortegal lyeth under 44 degrees 5 minutes,
  • Or as some say under 43 degrees 52 minutes.
  • Cap de Finisterre lyeth under 43 degrees.
Heere followeth the Carde N. 9.

Pascaarte van een deel der Zeecusten van Gal­lissen en̄ van Portugal gelegen tussen de C. de Fi­nisterre ende de Barlengas, hoemen die, mitsga­ders alle Zeehavenen aldaer geleghen sal beseij­len alles gestelt op zijne rechte streckinge ende distantie van mijlen

Carte marine des Costes de la mer dune partie de Galisse et de Portugal, entre le Cape de Finisterre et les Barlenges repre­sentant aussij la vraije situation des haures et Ports de mer situez ausdictes costes, et comment on les marinera, le tout mis selon ses vraijes routes, distances de lieues, et elevations du pole

CHAPTER IX. THE DESCRIPTION OF the Sea-coasts of Gallicia and Portugal, lying betweene Cabo de Finisterre and the Barrels.

Thus Cabo de Finisterre sheweth it self when it lyeth five leagues east and by south from you.

Thus Cabo de Finisterre sheweth it self, when this craggie or rugged hill is northeast and somewhat easter lyer from you.

And then the land of Mores sheweth thus, when it is east northeast from you.

Thus lyeth the craggie hill of Finisterre when it is northeast and by north from you.

When Cabo de Finisterre is about north-northeast, and the land of Mores seven leagues northeast from you, then the Cape lyeth thus broken in three peeces, and the land of Mores thus.

I. The situation of Cabo de Finisterre, Mores, Rio Roxo, or Villa Nova.

BEtweene Cape de Coriana and Cape de Fi­nisterre (as I said in the chapter before) there goeth in a great Creeke, which reacheth farre into the land, where you may anckor eastward of the great rocke, before a Sand­baye at 6 or 7 fathome.

About a league eastward from Cape de Finisterre on the south-side lyeth the haven of SecheSeche. or Corco­via, which the Hollanders call Corcke Bayone:Corcke Bayone. betweene this haven & the Cape there lye two Sand-bayes, the first nearest to the Cape is the greatest, and by the second goeth this haven in, and reacheth in north at 8 or 9 fathome. On the east-side of the haven lyeth a great rock, and about south-southwest from this rock, (almost in the middle of the haven) there lyeth a blinde rock under the water, but runne northward untill you see the towne on the west-side, and there anckor at 6 or 7 or 8 fathome, within the river there lyeth a village or litle towne about north northeast from you.

From Cape de Finisterre to the haven of MoresMores. the course is southeast sixe leagues. To knowe the land there aboutes you must understand that when you are about Cape de Finisterre, you see a craggie ragged hill, which rūneth so farre southwards that you may see it before Mores.

When the said craggie Rock is northeast from you, then you are against C. Finisterre, and then Monte Lauro,Monte Lauro. a hill lying up­on the northeast-point of Mores, lyeth east-northeast from you. This hill called Monte Lauro is a cloven high hill, which is ea­sie to knowe.

When the craggie hill betweene Cape Finisterre and Mores lyeth east-northeast seven leagues from you, it sheweth thus.

Southeast three leagues from Cape de Finisterre there lye a companie of rockes under the water, and east-southeast also a­bout 3 leagues from the aforesaid rockes there lye some rockes above the water, & they lye northward from Monte Lauro, or the haven of Mores east and by north and west and by south distant from Monte Lauro. There lye also a number of rockes southward from the haven of Mores, and almost in the midde­waie from Monte Lauro, right in the middle of the Voert there is a blinde rock also about southwest from Monte Lauro.

He that wil sayle into Mores must sette Monte Lauro north­east and by north from him,To sayle into Mo­res. and sayle right upon Monte Lau­ro, then he shall sayle by no daungers, when he commeth to Monte Lauro, then he shall see the aforesaid outrockes north­ward from Monte Lauro, let them, as also the point of Mon­te Lauro lye two or three cables length on baghborde, & sayle so along by them, till you be past the second point, leaving the blinde-rock which lyeth in the middle of the waie on starre­borde, and when the Fisshers village which standeth northward from Monte Lauro is whole open to be seene, thē you are with­in the aforesaid blinde-rock lying in the middle of the waie, south and by east, and somewhat easterlyer from the east-ende of the aforesaid Fisshermens village.

When you come to the second point, then goe a cables length along about by it, & turne up northward, till you come before the village, or westward up before the towne, whether you will, and there anckor at 12 and 13 fathome.

To sayle into Rio Roxo,To sayle into Rio Roxo. then rūne about without the rockes which lye southward from Mores, and goe on southeast and by south, till you come before the haven of Rio Roxo, then you shall see a great number of out-rockes reaching out from the north-land almost to a great rock like an Iland, which is called Salure: you may goe north about this Iland, and so betweene it and these out-rockes, but it is verie narrowe and strait, because of the rockes aforesaid, which come off from the north-land, therefore sayle southward along forward about that Iland, lea­ving it on baghborde, or to seaward from you, untill you see the River open, then runne in through the middle of the cha­nel, untill you see the Iland of Roxo in the middle thereof, and sayle up unto it, and when you come to it, then you may anc­kor on the south-side. On the south-land there are two Sandie-bayes, where there is good anckor-ground.

When Cape de Finisterre is northeast, or north-northeast, and Monte Lauro five leagues east-northeast from you, it sheweth it self with the high land of Mores thus.

Monte Lauro. The high land of Mores.

II. To sayle into Ponte Vedro and Bayona.

FRom Rio Roxo or the Iland of Salure to Ponte Vedra, or the Iland BlidonesBlydones. the course is s. s. e. four leagues, be­tweene them both there lyeth an Iland, called Monte Car­bela,Monte Carbela. behinde it it is three fathome deepe, but right before the haven of Ponte Vedro there lyeth an Iland called Blidones, which may be sayled round about, on the north-side it is no deeper then five or sixe fathome, and within the haven on the north-side there lye two rockes called the Boos or Oxen, on the south-side of Blidones it is the right chanel to sayle into Ponte Vedro, the chanel reacheth in northeast, till you be within the Iland, in the middle of the haven there lyeth an other Iland, which you must also goe southward about, therefore goe all e. n. e. and along by the south-land, untill you see the flat stee­ple which standeth upon the south-land, there you must runne over a banck forward to the point of Ponte Vedro, there with­in lyeth the towne, & against the flatte steeple you may anckor at 8 and 9 fathome. This haven in some places is 40 fathome deepe.

Five leagues south-ward from the Iland of Blidones, lye the Ilandes of Bayona,Ilands of Bayona. when you come out of the Sea upon them, then those Ilands shine like graye or black rockes, and lye as if they were three Ilands, although the water runneth betweene them but in one place, but betweene each of them there is a val­ley.

To landward over these Ilands you may see a high hill with three hillockes, and betweene each hillock there is a valley.

There lye two such hilles, the northerlyest hath one valley more then the other, right east from this hill you may see a white closter stand against the high land, whereby this land is well to be knowne.

You may sayle in there both by north and by south of the Ilands of Bayona, and on the north-point of the Ilands there lyeth a rock under the water, about a cables length frō it which you must beware of. You may also anckor under the Ilands at 10, 11, or 12 fathome.

He that will sayle northward in,North chanel. he must runne in about the middle of the chanel, betweene the Ilands and the firme land, but nearest to the Ilands, till the havens of Vigo and Cannas lye open, then you must sayle in eastward, it is a wide haven, where on both sides, that is on the south-side before Vigo, and the north-side before Cannas you may anckor at twelve or thir­teene fathome.

You may also sayle inwards about the south-point of Ron­della, where you may laye the shippe safe in the mudde with­out anckor or cable.

But he that will goe in southward about the Ilands to Vigo or Cannas,South chanel. he must sayle in betweene the southerlyest Iland & the point of the land of Bayona, along in the middle of the cha­nel northeast, and northeast and by north 3 leagues at the least, keeping the north-haven two shippes length open, so long until that CannasCannas commeth on the north-land without the point of Fignes or Vigo,Vigo then he must let the point of Vigo lye on star­borde from him, & goe in in the middle of the chanel, between the north-land & the land of Fignes, till he be before the towne of Vigo, and there he must anckor, as aforesaid, before Cannas or Vigo where he will at 10 or 12 fathome.

But he that will sayle into Bayona,Bayona. he must sayle on from the southerlyest ende of the castle of Bayona, and when he cōmeth within the point of Bayona, he must not sayle farre into the bocht, for there lyeth a rock under the water, but then sayle to the east-point of Bayona whereon the castle standeth, and being within the castle, then turne or runne quickly southward till you be before the towne, and anckor at 4, 5, and 6 fathome, but right before the towne there lyeth a blinde rock, which you must shunne.

You may also, lying betweene the point on the other side of the aforesaid haven and the Iland or Rock, sayle through a [...] [Page 68] three or four fathome to Vigo.

To knowe the land of Bayona.To knowe the Land such as come from the south, must un­derstand that north from the hill of S. Rego half waie to Bayo­na, there standeth a closter upon the side or corner of the land, which is a good marke for Bayona to those that come out of the south. This hill of S. Rego aforesaid, lyeth right northward frō Camina, and if is a high steepe hill, which above upon the mid­dle thereof hath a clift or saddle as you beholde it, it is almost like to Monte Lauro, but it is at least once as high againe, and it is a verie good marke to knowe this Countrie. Behinde Bayona also there lyeth a high hill with three clifts in it, whereof I have spoken before, when this Hill is east-southeast from you, then you are right against the Ilands of Bayona, you may then sayle to the said Ilands if you will goe into Bayona, & then you can­not doe amisse.

When the point of Bayona is eastnortheast, and the high land east from you, then it sheweth thus, and then southward lyeth the high hill of S. Rego.

Bayona. Closter. S. Rego.

When the high hill of S. Rego is east from you, then the high land of Bayona sheweth thus, as it is heere set downe, and the Closter standeth about half waie betweene S. Rego and Bayona.

Bayona. Closter.

III. To sayle into Camina and Viana.

FIve leagues southward from the Ilands of Bayona lyeth the haven of Camina,Camina. it is a tyde-haven, which great ships must enter into at a high water, the chanel reacheth in northeast and by north, within the haven there lyeth a rock nea­rest to the south-side, upon it there standeth a house, and close southward from this litle Iland is the deepest water to sayle out and into the haven. Within the haven on the north-side there lyeth a litle Iland, whereon there standeth a steeple, which you must keepe over against the steeple which standeth upon the north-land, & so goe in upon it, in the chanel it is two fathome deepe at half flood.

From the west-side of the haven there commeth a banck of stonie sand shooting off, and there it is for the most part flat wa­ter, and verie rockie, therefore men must be careful thereof.

Seven leagues southward from Camina lyeth the Tyde-ha­ven of Viana,Viana. he that will goe into it must understand, that from the north-side of the River there commeth a stonie banck of sand shooting downe, crosse over before the River, there (when you come out of the Sea) you must goe so long southward a­bout, untill that the two fire-towres are one against the other, and then runne to the strand, so long untill that the towre stan­ding upon the north-side be over against the two houses, keepe it standing so, & runne to the rock with the mast, and sayle east­ward about from it and close along, you shal finde two fa [...]me water upon that Sand (with a continuall dayly tyde) at lowe water: when you are past that Rock, then you shall see another Rock with a mast or beakon standing theron, lying on the north side of the land within the river, rūne there likewise about close along southward, and then easely along by the north-land, untill you come before the towne, there sometimes there shooteth out a Sand, which you must shūne, & anckor before the towne. [Page 69] When you lye before the towne, then there lyeth a litle Iland southward from you, whereon there standeth a litle chappell, westward from this Iland lyeth a great banck; which at lowe water is seene above it, but there behinde the banck it is five and sixe fathome deepe, and before Viana it is seven, eight and nine fathome deepe. When you goe in you may runne south­ward, about the aforesaid banck, and come by the Iland where­on the house standeth out againe, before the towne.

Rode be­fore Via­na.You may also anckor well without in the Rode at twelve fa­thome, there is the farest ground, there take in a Pilot, because it is a verie narrowe chanel to enter into.

Or you may sayle well in with these markes: there stand two markes upon the southside, which (when you come out of the Sea) you must hold one against the other, and sayle so long to the land, untill the two markes standing on the north-side of the River are likewise one against the other, and so sayle in by the south-side, eastward about the rock whereon the mast or stenge standeth, untill you see the River open, then sayle in eastward, southward of the second rock with the steng that stā ­deth up, and when you are a bowe shotte within the said rock, then straight let your anckor fall, and carrie cables to the south land and make your shippe fast with four ropes.

IIII. The situation betweene Viana and Port a port.

FRom Viana to Port a port the course is south and by east twelve or therteene leagues. Betweene them both lyeth Villa del Conde,Villa del Conde. seven leagues from Viana and Metelin. Villa del Conde is a Tyde-haven, before the mouth thereof there lye many rockes, which may be sayled about either south or north, about them it is 5 or 6 fathome, and inwards againe there lyeth a banck crosse over the haven, which is two fathome deepe with high water, within the haven it is 3 or 4 fathome deepe, & southwards up it is deepest and safest, for on the north-side it is full of rocks, which for the most part lye under the wa­ter, so that it is best lying on the south-side at 5 or 6 fathome.

Four leagues southward from Villa del Conde, lye the great out-rockes called Lesons,Lesons. right before a tyde-haven, of two fa­thome deepe called Metelin,Metelin. & southwest from the south-point of the said Lesons, about half a league inward to the Sea, there lyeth a blinde rock under the water: betweene the land and the Lesons rockes it is sixe or seven fathome deepe.

About a league south from Lesons rockes lyeth Port a portPort a port. which hath two chanels, the one runneth in n. the other south.

The south chanelSouth-chanel. (which runneth in southward, & now the best) runneth along by the south-land, & is 3 fathome deepe, to the rock with the crosse, close in along by it, and keepe in the middle of the chanel, till you come by a great steeple, upon the north-lād, which you may see through, & there anckor. This chanel altereth sometimes, & therfore you must be careful thereof.

You must runne into the north-chanelNorth-chanel. in this manner, you must sayle along by the north-point, where now with half flood it is three fathome water, it reacheth in e. s. e. and e. and by s. there reach manie rockes crosse over the haven from the said north-point, but you runne along by them, leaving two-partes of the water on the north-side, then you runne upon the south­land, and along by it till you come to the rock with the crosse, and then in the middle of the chanel, till you come before the towne, where you have 10 or 12 fathome deepe.

V. To sayle into Avero with the situation of Cape de Montego and the Barles.

FIrst to sayle from Port a port to AveroAvero. the course is s. and by n. 10 leagues. To knowe the land, you must under­stand, that frō Port a port to Avero it is altogether sandie strand, & you may goe along by the strand at 10 or 12 fathome.

Inward to the land, upon the high land there lyeth a black hillock upō the land, when that lyeth e.s.e. from you, then you are open before Avero, and when you can not see the black hil­lock of Carmale, there lyeth a rowe of downes northward from the haven, then you are half a league from the haven.

To sayle into the haven of Avero,To sayle into Avro. you must understand that when you come upon the land at 6 or 7 fathome, then you may see three beakons made of mastes of ships upon the south-land, place them one right against the other, & so rūne in e. & by s. & e.s.e. over the banck, (at the entrie of the chanel you have but 2 fathome water at half flood) till you come by the beakons, then turne a [...]aine northwest and northnorthwest, till you be close by the north-land, then runne close by it, and so you leave all the shallowes on your right hand, untill you see the River open, then you see a house upon the strand on the west-side, then goe from thence up into the River east and by south, and eastsouth­east in the middle of the chanel betweene both landes, till you [Page 70] be before the Salt-pannes or Avero, where you may lade your shippe full of salt, when you goe upon the mastes or beakons out of the Sea, then you see a drie Sand, by the which you must quickly winde about, and sayle in by the west-land, as I said be­fore. This chanel is two fathome deepe, with dayly tydes, but within you have 4 or 5 fathome deepe.

From Avero to Cape de MontegoCape de Montego. it is south-southwest 7 leagues.

A league southward from Cape de Montego lyeth Pissago,Pissago. a Tyde-haven, in it you finde two fathome water (with a conti­nual tyde) at half flood.

Half a league westward into the Sea from this haven lyeth a banck of sixe fathome deepe, which you may anckor under at 12 or 13 fathome, it is at least a great league long, and it is best to come in about under this banck.

Comming off from Cape de Montego you may also anckor under this banck at 7 fathome.

From Cape de Montego to Pineche,Pineche. or Nova Lisbona the course is s.w. and by s. 11 leagues. From Cape de Montego to the Barlis it is s.w. 12 or 13 leagues.

The point behinde the Barlis or Barlinges, is also called Cape del Fisiron, there lyeth a rock off from the point, & there southward there is a great creeke, where the castle or towne ly­eth, there you may runne behinde with barkes, and lye safe, the towne is called Atogie, it lyeth against the high hilles.

VI. To knowe the places of this Coast.

THe Coast of Portugal about Viana is wel to be knowne, by meanes of the aforesaid hill of Rego, because it is so extreame high, and lyeth upon the water side, and the high land of Viana lyeth twise or thrise double behinde it. Be­tweene Viana, Villa del Conde, and Port a port, you may see manie steeples, and houses upon the Land, and you see Villa del Conde lye as if it were a great towne. You may knowe the Ri­ver of Port a port by the rockes called Lesons which are verie high, and lye right north from the River. But about Avero it is altogether sandie strand, and inward to the land there lyeth a black hillock within the land.

Cape Montego is a high point, & there against it in the land it is high hilles. This Cape is sometimes taken for Roxant, but that is wel to be knowne from the other, because of the Barlis which lyeth betweene both.

Thus the coast of Portugal sheweth it self from Bayona to Cape de Montego, when you sayle about four leagues from it.

S. Rego.

That which standeth heereunder belongeth to that that standeth above where the crosses stand.

☞ Cap de Montego.

When that black hillock whereby the hand is, standeth e. s. e. from you, then you are right against, or before the River of Avero.

VII. What Moone maketh high water heere.

VPon all these coasts of Portugal a northeast and southwest moone maketh a high water, but within the havens a point la­ter, as I have said before, you neede not reckon any falling of streames heere, for the flood there goeth crosse towards the land and off againe.

VIII. How these Countries lye one from the other.

  • FRom Cape de Finisterre to Mores or Monte Lauro the course is southeast 5 leagues.
  • From Rio Roxo to Ponte Vedra s. s. e. 5 leagues.
  • From Ponte Vedra or Blidones to the Ilands of Bayone south-southeast 5 leagues.
  • From Bayona to Camina south & by east 4 leagues.
  • From Camina to Viana southsoutheast 7 leagues.
  • From Viana to Villa de Conde south & by east 7 leagues.
  • From Villa de Conde to Port a port s. & by e. 5 leagues.
  • From Port a port to Avero south 11 leagues.
  • From Avero to Cap Montego southsouthwest 7 leagues.
  • From Cape de Montego to Pineche or Cape de Fisiron south­west & by south 11 leagues.
  • From Cape de Finisterre to the Ilands of Bayona southeast and by south 19 leagues.
  • From Cape de Finisterre to Port a port s. s. e. 44 leagues.
  • From C. de Finisterre to Avero s. & by e. & s.s.e. 54 leagues.
  • From Cape de Finisterre to Barrels south 67 leagues.
  • From Bayona to Barrels 49 leagues.
  • From Port a port to Barrels s. s. w. and s.w. & by s. 29 leagues.
  • From Avero to Barrels southwest 20 leagues.

IX. How these Countries lye from other Countries.

  • FRom Cape de Finisterre to great Canaria southsouthwest and somewhat southerlyer 307 leagues.
  • From Cape Finisterre to the Salvages s.s.w. 273 leagues.
  • From Cape de Finisterre to the Ile of Madera southwest and by south and somewhat southerlyer 246 leagues.
  • From Cape de Finisterre to the Ile of S. Michael westsouthwest 247 leagues.
  • From Cape de Finisterre to the Iles of Tercera w. s. w. and w. and by s. 280 leagues.
  • From Cape de Finisterre to the southwest point of Ireland n. and by west, and north 174 leagues.
  • From Cape de Finisterre to Cape de Claro south 174 leagues.
  • From Cape de Finisterre to Waterford or the southeast point of Ireland north and by east 184 or 186 leagues.
  • From Cape de Finisterre to Start-point n. n. e. 153 leagues.
  • From Cape de Finisterre to the Seims n. e. & by n. and some­what northerlyer 112 leagues.
  • From Cape de Finisterre to Belisle southwest 122 leagues.

X. Vnder what degrees these Countries lye.

  • CApe de Finisterre lyeth under 43 degrees.
  • Bayona lyeth under 42 degrees 10 minutes,
    • or as some say 42 degrees.
  • Port a port lyeth under 41 degrees.
  • Avero lyeth under 40 degrees 26 minutes.
  • Cape de Montego lyeth under 40 degrees 8 minutes.
  • The Barlinges lye under 39 degrees 40 minutes.

The other places lying on these coasts you may take the heigth thereof in the Carde with the compasses.

Heere followeth the Carde N. 10.

CHAPTER X. THE DESCRIPTION OF the Sea-coasts of Portugal and Algarve, which lye betweene the Barlinges and Cabo de S. Vincent.

I. How you shall sayle the River of Lisbon.

FRom Barlinges to Roxent the course is south and by east, and southsoutheast, distant 16 leagues. Behinde the Barlinges or Barlis there is a good Rode and anckor ground,Rode be­hinde the Barils. a­gainst the Hermites house, where you may anckor at 10 fathome, under the great Iland, as it standeth marked in the Carde, you may goe south and north on both sides thereof, behinde them as you will, for there it is faire.

Behinde the Barlis lyeth Cape de Fisiron, and right south frō thence lyeth a high round hill, which our saylers name Yonge Rocxent.Yonge Rocxent. From Cape de Fisiron to Rocxent it is south & north 15 or 16 leagues. Rocxent is a point of land well to be knowne, for although you are a great waie from it, yet you may see the sharp hillock of Syntra closter.

When Roxent is east and by south and eastsoutheast from you seven leagues then it sheweth thus.

Thus Rocxent sheweth being northeast from you 7 leagues.

A league east from the point of Roxent lyeth the Rode of Cas [...]alis, where you may lye safe from a northwest, north, and northeast winde, at 12 or 13 fathome, as drie as you will. A great league east from Cascalis lyeth the point of S. Iulian or S. Giles,S. Giles. thereon standeth a strong castle, and that is the north-point of the River of Lisbon, and the north-chanelNorth-chanel. of the said River go­eth up the length of a bullets cast in by it.

To sayle in by this point, you must sayle within a mastes length of the castle, and keepe the north-land to Restiers, and so to Lisbon, commonly you anckor before the village of Bolin, at 12 and 13 fathome, but you must take heede that you enter not into the haven with still water, and with an ebbe, for it falleth verie strong upon the north Shops or Sops. The chanel of S. Giles reacheth in e. & by s. and when you are within you must sayle e.n.e. and n.e. and by e. and when you come against the closter at Restiers, then you must make somewhat towards the south-land, otherwise you must hold all along the north-land, as aforesaid.

To sayle into the Crake-chanel,To sayle into the Crake-chanel. then you must place Casca­lis over the point of Roxent, untill the steeple (which you may see standing above the closter at Restiers) commeth over against the white closter which standeth furthest from Restiers, that is, over against S. Katherines closter, then goe in n. e. and n. e. & by n. keeping these markes standing thus, until you come with­in S. Giles point, and so goe in along by the north-land of Re­stiers, till you be within the castle, and then anckor where you will: with these markes you may sayle into & out of the Crake chanel. Or if you come from the west, and will goe into Crake-chanel, then place Cascalis over against the west-ende of Rox­ent, and so sayle about the North-capes, untill the towne of Lis­bon be within two ships length of the south-side of the River, and sayle in so, n. e. & n.e. & by n. when you see the Sandbaye within S. Giles point, then you are in a good waie.

But if it should fall out that you may not see the towne nor [Page] [Page] [Page]

Pascaarte vande Zeecusten van Portugal tusschen de Barlenges en̄ de C. de S. Vincente geleghen, ver­toonende nae't leven de ware geleghentheijt vande vermaerde Riviere van Lisbona, hoemen die mitsgaders andere Zeegaten aldaer op en̄ afseijlen sal, en̄ waermen op de selfde gewesten hem voor te wachten ende te hoeden heeft.

Carte marine des costes de Por­tugal situeez entre les Barlenges et le C. de S. Vincente, representant au vif la vraije situation de la fa­meuse Riviere de Lisbone et au­tres Ports la environ, com­ment en les navigant on se gardera de toutes inpro­fonditez, bancx de sa­ble et autrez perilz.

[Page] [Page 73] the castle, then keepe the Sandbay (which lyeth within S. Giles) n.e. & by n. from you, and so sayle in n.e. and n.e. & by n. and hold the course of the North-Sops at 8 or 9 fathome, and when you begin to come against S. Giles point, then saile softly along by the north-land, as I have said.

To laveere in the Krake chanel.He that will laveere out of and into the Crake-chanel must leave the steeple aforesaid (standing in the land) a ships length southward, & a ships length northward from S. Katherines clo­ster aforesaid, and then turne everie boute, and so laveere out & in. And goe not out of or into this chanel with a calme or an ebbe, for it falleth verie stif over the east-ende of the Cachops.

If you will goe out of the Crake-chanel, take good heede to the steeple, when it commeth under the high-land, then set it right west from the second white closter, and goe on s.w. & by s. then the steeple will come upon the closter.

But if you must laveere out then looke well to your tyde, for the streame falleth verie stif over the Cachops, [...] that with a calme it is dangerous to goe out and into this chanel, but speci­ally in sayling out with an ebbe, for that falleth crosse over the Cachops, therefore looke wel to it in calme wether.

II. To sayle to S. Vves or Setubal, & so to C. S. Vincent.

S. Vves point. C. Spichel.FRom Roxent to S. Uves point the course is s.e. & by s. 11 leagues. It is a point well to be known, because there lyeth a high round hill thereon, also you see the upper part of the castle of Sizember, upon a flatte hill, as if it were a great ga­vel ende of a countrie-house.

Thus S. Vves point sheweth when it is east and by north from you 7 leagues.

S. Uves point is called Cape de Spichel, right south about the point there is a rent or cloven place in the land, there against it is good rideing at 9 and 10 fathome, and before Sisember you may also anckor at 15 or 16 fathome.

Five leagues eastward from Cape de Spichel, or S. Uves point lyeth S. Uves, where there lyeth a great banck before the haven, there standeth a white castle beneath the high land upon the water, when it is n.n.e. from you, then you are right before the chanel or haven.

He that will sayle to S. Uves over the banck comming down from S. Uves point he must keepe the west-point of Sisember a ships length without the east-point,To sayle into S. Vves. and so goe forward e. & e. and by n. untill the castle of Palmelo, which standeth above S. Uves commeth in a valley over the white castle which standeth upō the water side, then saile in right n.n.e. til you be within the castle which standeth upon the water, and then within a cables length in by the north-land n.e. & by e. till you are before the towne of S. Uves or Setubal. But whē the castle of Palmelo cō ­meth under the land, so that you can see it no more, then there standeth a white house on the north-side of the castle that stan­deth upon the water side, keepe that standing so, & runne in up­on it, till you be within the white castle, and then goe along by the north-land, as I said before, till you be before the towne of Uves, & anckor before the Fishermens village at 6 or 7 fathome. Upon the banck it is 3 fathome and a half water at half flood, & when you sayle over it you finde seven shallowe or drie places, By the south-land also there goeth in a chanel, but that is onely for barkes, between this chanel & the right depth, the banckes in some places lye so drie, that they lye almost above the water.

Now to goe over the deepest water in the banck of S. Uves as you sayle out, with shippes that drawe much water, when you set sayle from the white castle, then set the white house over a­gainst the north-side of the castle, so that you may see through them, and hold it so, untill S. Uves point begins to come with­out the east-point of Sisember, then bring the white house on the south-side of the castle which standeth upon the water side, and so runne out, for there you shall have the deepest water, but whē you may see the castle of Palmelo, that is a right long mark to runne over the banck. Then the white castle must be n.n.e. & somewhat northerlyer from you.

Frō S. Uves point to C.S. VincentC. S. Vin­cent. it is s. & s. & by e. 29 leag. between them there is no knowne havens. But eastward about from Cape S. Vincent you may anckor before a sand-bay at 20 fathome, against a n. & n.n.w. winde.

But to know the land, you must understand that between C. S. Vincent & S. Uves point there lye some high hilles, called Sa­lines, & half a league n. from Cape S. Vincent, there lyeth a high whitish cliffe in the land, which is higher then the other land, when you see it then you are by the Cape, & upon the point of S. Vincent there standeth a broken closter, & close by the Cape there lyeth a high rock. The whole coast of Algarve may be knowne by the Fgge-hilles,Fig-hilles as also Cape S. Vincent.

Thus the land about Cape S. Vincent sheweth it self when you come from the north, and sayle along by it.

Blewe-hill. Salines. Figge-hill C. S. Vincent

III. What Moone maketh the highest water heere.

AS upon all the other Coasts of Portugal and Gallicia, so also heere upon these described Coasts, a northeast and southwest Moone maketh high water, but within the chanels or rivers a streeke or two later, according as they reach deepe or farre into the land. And because the flood heere com­meth crosse against the land, and crosse back from the land, so have you heere no falling of streames.

IIII. How these Countries lye distant one from the other.

  • FRom Barlinges to Roxent s. & by e. & s.s.e. 16 leagues.
  • From Cape de Fisiron, Pineche, or Nova Lisbona to Rox­ent south and north 15 or 16 leagues.
  • From Roxent to Cape de Spichel, or S. Uves-point southeast and by south 11 leagues.
  • From C. de Spichel to C. S. Vincent s. & s. & by e. 29 leagues.
  • From Barlinges to Cape de S. Vincent s. and by e. 54 leagues.
  • From Roxent to Cape de S. Vincent s. & by e. 37 leagues.

V. How these Countries are distant from other Countries.

  • FRom Barlinges to great Canaria s. s. w. 248 leagues.
  • From Barlinges to the Palma s.w. & by s. 256 leagues.
  • From Roxent to great Canaria southsouthwest & some­what westerlyer. 340 leagues.
  • From the River of Lisbon to the Isle of Salvages 208 laagues.
  • From the Ri [...]er of Lisbon to Porto Santo s.w. 160 leagues.
  • Frō the River of Lisbon to the Ile of Madera s.w. 174 leagues.
  • From the River of Lisbon or from Roxent to the Ile of Terce­ra west 274 leagues.

VI. Vnder what heigths these Countries lye.

  • THe Barlinges lye under 39 degrees 40 minutes.
  • Roxent lyeth under 38 degrees 52 minutes,
    • or as some saye 39 degrees.
  • Cape de Spichel or S. Uves-point lyeth under 38 deg. 25 min.
  • Cape S. Vincent lyeth under 37 degrees.
Heere followeth the Carde N. 11.

Afbeeldinghe der Z [...]usten, tusschen de C. de S. Vincente en̄ de Strute van Gibraltar: als een deel van Algarve, de groote Condaet, en̄ de custen van Andalusien, ver­toonende de rechte gelegentheijt aller Rivieren, Have­nen, en̄ Reeden aldaer geleghen. Jtem alle Sanden, Bancken, Clippen, ende Rudsen, diemen in't be­seijlen derselver plaetsen te schouwen en̄ te mijdē heeft

Pour traicture des costes marines entre le C. de S. Vincente et l'estroict de Gibraltar, comme une partie d'Algarve, la grande Condade, et les costes d'Andalusie, monstrant au vif la vraije situation de toutes Rivieres, Havres, et Rades desdictes cos­tes. Item de tous Bancqs, sables, escueilz et roch­ers, que en navigeant lesdictes lieux on a veviter.

CHAPTER XI. THE DESCRIPTION OF the Sea-coasts of Algarve and Andalusia, lying betweene Cabo de S. Vincent and the Strait of Gibraltar.

I. The situation betweene Cape S. Vincent and Cape de S. Maria.

RIght east from Cape S. Vincent about the second point in the Sand-baye,Rode un­der Cape S. Vincent there is good Rode for a northwest and north-windes, at 14 or 15 fathome, from Cape de S. Vincent to Cape de S. Maria or Faro, east or a litle southerlyer 19 or 20 leagues, betweene thē both lyeth Lagos or Laves,Lagos or Laves. and Villa Nova. From Cape de S. Vincent to Lagos it is east and by north seven leagues, there is a tyde-haven which rūneth through betweene the rockes, behinde a girdle of Sand, but at a lowe water it is drie, there you may also lye at anckor against a northwest, west­northwest, and a north winde, at 10 or 12 fathome.

Villa NovaVilla No­va. lyeth about four leagues eastward from Laves, betweene them both, almost three leagues from Laves, & more then one from Villa Nova there lyeth a blinde rock, which you must think upon. Villa Nova is a faire haven, it runneth in north and north and by west, and at half flood you have therein two fathome water. Within the haven on the east-side there ly­eth a litle Iland or rock, whereon there standeth a steeple or a house, and upon the land there standeth a great mast with a bar­rel upon it, when that steeple or house is right against the said mast, then you must sayle upon it right into the haven, by the east-land, till you be past the steeple, the west-side is flatte and drie, then when you come by the mast, you must turne up west­ward before the towne of Villa Nova, where you may anckor at four and five fathome.

From Villa Nova to Faro,Faro, C. Maria. or Cape S. Maria it is about nine leagues, upon the strand there standeth a fire-beakon, and from the point there shooteth off a Sand which you must shūne, you must goe in east to the haven of Faro, it reacheth west, and west northwest, you must leave the steeple on the left hand, and the strand of Tavila on the right hand, running in at two or three fathome, and being in, you may anckor right over against the towne of Faro under the Iland, at three fathome, the chanel at half flood is two fathome deepe.

To knowe this land when you come out of the Sea, you must understand that Cape S. Maria is a round hillock, by the which you may knowe the whole land of Condado.

Thus Cape S. Vincent sheweth it self when it lyeth seven leagues northwest from you.

When Cape S. Maria lyeth northeast and by north from you, then it sheweth thus.

II. To sayle from Cape de S. Maria to Saltees.

FIve leagues northeast & by north from Cape de S. Maria or Faro lyeth Tavila,Tavila. which is a crooked drie haven, which al­most everie yeere altereth, and is not to be trusted to sayle into it, unles it be first marked with beakons or boyes, at half flood it is scarse two fathome, and you lye right within the downes at [Page 76] four fathome.

From Tavila to AimonteAimonte. the course is e.n.e. five leagues.

Aimonte is a deepe haven, and one of the best havens in all Condado, it reacheth in northwest by the east-land, and at half flood it is 3 fathome deepe, there lye some sands before the cha­nel, the markes thereof are these, there standeth a tree upon the east-side of the haven, when Aimonte is over against the tree, then you are east from the Sands, which lye before the haven, then you goe to the foot-strand, and runne in along by it, n. w. and n.w. & by w. and when you are in, then you must turne up northwards before the towne, or if you will be before Port Ma­ria, then you must followe the n.w. course, untill you come before the castle, within it is wide and broade, and sixe or seven fathome deep.

There goeth in a haven also by the west-land, where you come crosse in out of the Sea, but that by the east-land is dee­pest.

From Aimonte to LeepeLepe. or S. MichaelsS. Michael. the course is e. & by n. seven leagues. Leepe hath uncertaine chanels, which you may not trust to sayle into without a Pilot, for they alter continual­ly, now the chanel which lyeth east from the great Iland is the best, from thence you must turne up westward againe to Ta­ron, and to the River, and so come to Leepe, where before the deepe you take in your lading.

S. Michaels chanel was woont to runne crosse over into the Sea and with half flood was three fathome deepe, and before S. Michaels it is five fathome, from whence with a high water a man may well goe over the River to Leepe. Men were woont to goe in by Taron, but for securitie it is necessarie to take in a Pilot.

From S. Michaels to PalosPalos. or SaltesSaltes. the course is east, and e. & by south seven leagues. Heere you sayle into great Condado, this haven runneth in by the west-ende of Red-downe, there standeth a great broad tree westward frō the white cliffe, which you must hold over against a redde downe, as if it were redde earth, this downe runneth slope downwards, runne with these markes to the strand about north, and n. & by w. then the stee­ple of Odier which standeth above Wolves, will come over a­gainst the east-side of the chanel, hold it standing so, and sayle a­long by the strand, within two cables length, till you be about the point, then you may runne up north to Palos, or n. w. to Wolves, and there anckor at 6 or 7 fathome.

There within it is 6, 7 and also 3 & 4 fathome in sayling up, thereafter as you sayle up farre or not. This chanel is at the thre­shold with half flood three fathome and an half deepe, within it is five fathome deepe.

There commeth also a chanel out of the Sea, running in be­tweene the Sandes, then Wolves will be on the east-side of the chanel, and you must sayle in northnorthwest, and when you are within the haven, then doe as aforesaid, this chanel is three fathome deepe.

To knowe the land heereaboutes you must understand, that on the west-ende of Red-downe there lyeth a white shoring­land somewhat cliffie, being redish earth or chalck, he that fal­leth upon it may thinke that he is by the haven of Saltes, there stand some boxe-trees thereon, otherwise the land is cleane without trees, and it is reddish sand, & therefore is called Red-downe.Redde downe.

III. To sayle from Saltes to the River of S. Lucas.

FRom Saltes to the River of S. Lucas the course is s. e. and s.e. & by s. distant about 8 or 9 leagues.

He that will sayle into the River of S. Lucas, he must place the great tree over the north-ende of the white closter which standeth eastward from S. Lucas,To sayle into the River of S Lucas. and sayle out & in with those markes, & so at the dryest at lowe water & dead streame, you shall have three fathome, and with high water and dead streame you shall have 22 foot of scarse 4 fathome. Now when the castle of Scipion and the church beginne to come one upon the other, then you come to the first stone or sand, & when the castle and the church are right over, or against each other, then you are upon the dryest, and then they stand right s. s. w. from you. And when the castle and the church come againe through each other, then you have deepe water againe, that is, three and an alf and four fathome with lowe water and dead streame, then sayle forward in with the same markes of the closter & the tree, but you must looke well before you, that you bring not the mi [...] (which standeth east from S. Lucas) over against the round clo­ster, which standeth right east beneath the towne, but keepe thē a bowe length asunder, and so sayle in through the best chanel or depth. But if the round closter and the mille come one over against the other when you sayle in, then you shall touch upon the stones or sandes. When you are over the Sandes and are gotten in, then sayle to the strand of S. Lucas, untill you see the [Page 77] River cleane open, to shunne the Sand, which shooteth off from the northwest-point of the River, and sayle along by the land, & anckor before the church with the crosses, which standeth be­lowe in the downes, at 5, 6, or 10, or 12 fathome, as neare as you will, you may also laveere out of this haven with indifferent shippes or boates, but you must looke well before you, for it is not verie wide.

By the land of Scipion there goeth also a chanel in, to reach it, you must sayle in within two cables length close by the said land, until you are within the second Sand, then you must turne or put off from the land, until you come to the aforesaid markes of the closter and the great tree, then runne forward in upon them as aforesaid. S. Lucas River is good to knowe by Redde-downe, for it lyeth on the east-ende thereof.

IIII. To sayle from S. Lucas to Calis.

FRom Scipion to Calis Malis the course is southeast, nine leagues. Calis is knowne by the Granado hill, when that is e.n.e. and e. & by n. from you, then Calis lyeth e. & by n. from you, then sayle up unto it, and you cannot misse Calis.

Upon the point of ScipionScipion. there lye rockes, but they are a­bove the water. And betweene the point of Sipion and Calis, four leagues from Scipion lyeth Rottum, from whence there shooteth a great stone-riffe or sand.

Baye of Calis.If you will sayle into Calis Baye, you must runne upon the rockes which lye upon the west-side of the Baye, which are cal­led los Puercos,Los Puer­cos. sayle in upon them within two cables length, at 6 or seven fathome, till you be before the towne of Calis, and there anckor as deepe as you will, at 8, 10, 12, or 15 fathome, it reacheth in for the most part, e.s.e. and s.e. & by e.

But there lyeth a stone under the water which is called the Diamant,Diamant. about n.n.e. and n.e. & by n. from Puercos, a litle league, and when S. Catherins chappel is e.n.e. from you, then you are against that stone or rocke, which at half flood hath 3 fathome water upon it. The markes of this rock are these, when S. Maries church commeth over the north ende of Calis (which is a closter standing without Calis) there standeth also a house upon the hill, which you goe along by to Xeres, when that house commeth over against the chappel which standeth upon the side of the water, westward from Marie-port, when those markes are one over against the other, then you should sayle up­on the stone, which at the dryest with high water is but 3 fa­thome and a half, but sette the two high hilles which are south from the waie to Xeres, so that they may be a litle asunder, and come not one under the other, then you sayle not upon this stone or rock.

The Puercos rockes lye about half a league from the north-point of Calis, he that lyeth in the Rode before Calis, hath the Puntal south or there aboutes from him, after he cōmeth neare to Calis, but southward from Calis there lyeth a rocke, but goe no nearer unto it then 7 fathome.

Calis Baye is wide and broad, and you anckor there at 5 or 6 fathome, a northwest winde commeth into it, therefore if anie man will goe in behinde the Puntal, he must goe on southeast in betweene the point of Porte-real and the Puntal, and then runne up upon the point of Puntal,Rode be­hinde Puntal. where you lye safe from all windes, you may there also set a shippe drie to make it cleane, and if you goe into the Creeke, then you must take in a Pilot, & runne into the water of Porte-real, and leave the Iland on back­borde, then you shall gett Herodes creeke open, then sayle in through the middle of the chanel to the Salt-hilles.

When you sayle to Calis the Granado-hill will stand east, and then it sheweth thus.

V. To sayle from Calis Malis through the Strait.

C. Trafal­gar.TO sayle from Calis to the Strait, you must goe south & s. & by e. to the point of Trafalgar, then you runne farre ynough without the banckes or rockes which lye s. s. e. from Calis. From S. Sebastians point to the point of Trafalgar it is s.s.e. 11 leagues. There lyeth a stonie banck two leagues into the Sea, west and by south from the Iland of Tarifa,Tarifa. which is 8 9 and 10 foot deepe at the dryest, when the winde bloweth hard [Page 78] you may see the Sea ravle upon it. If you will enter into the Strait, you must sayle close by the land, or farre from the land, but it is best in the middle of the Strait, when you are as farre from the land on the one side as on the other. From the point of Trafalgar or Tarifa to Gibraltar the course is e. and e. & by s. 5 leagues. On the west-side of Gibraltar there is a faire Rode to anckor in,Rode be­fore Gi­braltar. where also it is good anckoring, but a southwest winde bloweth into it, you lye there safe against a west winde, and a south-winde bloweth just upon the point of the land of Gibraltar.

C. Spartel.Cape Trafalgar, and Cape de Spichel or Espartel lye distant s. & by e. and n. & by w. 9 leagues. East from Cape de Spartel lyeth Tanger,Tanger. in a great creeke and sandbaye, there standeth a castle upon the west-point of Tanger, somewhat high, and then somewhat higher upon the hill there standeth a watchtowre, & east from Tanger there standeth another broken watchtowre, so that Tanger is good to knowe. When you are against Tanger, the coast to Scheminckel-hill reacheth most e.n.e. and e. & by n. therefore goe e.n.e. and e. & by n. forward, for that is the right course through the Strait. In the night keepe most upon the Barbarie side, for it is verie faire, and the Spanish side is all foule. Gibraltar or Iubleter (as our saylers call it) and SeutaSeuta. lye distant s. & by e. and n. & by w. 8 leagues.

From Gibraltar to MaribellaMaribella. the course is n.e. & by n. it is a Rode to lade reasons, oyle and other fruites in.

From Gibraltar to Cap de Mol, on the west-side of Malaga, the course is n.e. 24 leagues. When you lye in the Rode at Ma­laga, then that point lyeth about 3 or 4 leagues s.w. from you.

From Gibraltar to Velis MalagaVelis Ma­laga. the course is n.e. & by e. a­bout 33 leagues, and lyeth about 7 leagues eastward from Ma­laga.

From Velis Malaga to Cape de Gato the course is e. and e. & by s. 16 leagues. From thence to Carthagena it is 19 leagues, that is a good haven, there you lye safe from all windes.

At MalagaMalaga. you lye at 15 or 16 fathome safe frō a west-winde, but an east-winde bloweth cornerwise. To knowe Malaga you must understand, that there standeth a castle on high, eastward from it, and there come two walles downe from it to the Sea, to another castle that standeth upon the water, the rode is now before that castle, for at the other rode it is foule, by meanes of casting of ballast into it.

At Velis Malaga you lye at 14 fathome, with an east or La­vant winde it is there open, but there is good ground.

At Maribella you may anckor at 12 or 13 fathome, there stā ­deth a steeple by the water, bring that in the middle over against the towne, and anckor there, there is the best ground.

Thus the Spanish-coast sheweth it self when you are without the Strait, when the north-point is about seven leagues north and by east, and the innermost point northeast from you.

When Tarifa is north from you, then the land sheweth thus, & the point of Gibraltar lyeth northeast from you.

Tarifa.

VI. What Moone maketh high water upon all this Coast.

AT Calis in the baye a s.s.w. moone maketh a high wa­ter, and also in the Strait of Gibraltar.

At Calis before the baye a s.w. & by s. and a n. e. & by n. moone maketh a high water.

Before the River of S. Lucas a s.w. & by s. and n.e. & by n. moone maketh high water.

Before the Condado a s.s.w. moone maketh a high water.

Before Palos Moger and Wolves a south and north moone maketh a full Sea.

At Cape S. Vincent and Cape S. Maria a southwest and n.e. moone maketh a full Sea.

The ebbe falleth without the Puercos south about to the Strait, & the flood falleth north about towards the land, but the most part of the flood falleth crosse into the land about the Ha­vens, a s.w. & by s. moone maketh a high water in the Strait, & when it is faire wether, commonly it is there four houres flood and eight houres ebbe, but the streame goeth most part with the winde, by this everie man may gesse how it is.

VII. How these Countreys are distant one from the other.

  • FRom Cape S. Vincent to Lagos or Laves the course is east and by north 7 leagues.
  • From Lagos to Villa Nova east 4 leagues.
  • From Villa Nova to Cape Maria or Faro e. & by s. 9 leagues.
  • From C. Maria or Faro to Tavila n.e. & by e. 5 leagues.
  • From Tavila to Aimonte e.n.e. 5 leagues.
  • From Aimonte to Lepe e. & by n. 7 leagues.
  • From Lepe to Saltes or Palos e. and e. & by s. 7 leagues.
  • From Saltes to the River of S. Lucas or Sibiona southeast, and southeast & by east 8 leagues.
  • From S. Lucas or the point of Sibiona to the point of Calis southeast 9 leagues.
  • From Calis to the point of the Strait s.s.e. 11 leagues.
  • From the point of the Strait called Trafalgar or Tarifa to Gi­braltar e. & by s. 7 leagues.
  • From Cape S. Vincent to Cape Maria east 18 leagues.
  • From C.S. Vincent to Calis e. & by s. 48 or 50 leagues.
  • From Cape S. Maria to Saltes e.n.e. 24 leagues.
  • From Cape S. Maria to Sibiona east 29 leagues.
  • From C.S. Maria to the Strait e.s.e. and s.e. & by e. 46 leagues.
  • From Lepe to Sibiona e.s.e. 16 leagues.
  • From Saltes to Calis s.e. and s.e. & by s. 16 leagues.

VIII. How these Countries lye distant from other Countreys.

  • FRom Cape S. Vincent to Cape Cantin south 87 leagues.
  • From Cap S. Vincent to Cape de Geer south & somewhat westerlyer 134 leagues.
  • From C.S. Vincent to the Iland of Lanzarotte s.s.w. 165 leag.
  • From C.S. Vincent to Great Canaria s.w. & by s. 211 leagues.
  • From C.S. Vincent to Isle de Palma s.w. 224 leagues.
  • From C. S. Vincent to Porto Santo s.w. & by w. 137 leagues,
    • and to Madera s.w. & by w. 157 leagues.
  • From C.S. Vincent to Isle S. Maria west 262 leagues.
  • From C.S. Maria or Faro to Cape Cantin s. & by w. 91 leagues.
  • From Cap S. Maria to Great Canaria southwest and southwest & by south 220 leagues.
  • From C.S. Maria to the Ile of Madera s.w. & by w. 93 leagues.
  • From Calis to Great Canaria southwest 240 leagues.
  • From Calis to the Ile of Madera w.s.w. 200 leagues.
  • From Cape Trafalgar to Cape de Spartel s.e. 9 leagues.

IX. Vnder what degrees these Places lye.

  • CApe S. Vincent & S. Maria lye under 37 degrees.
  • The Coast of Condado lyeth under 38 deg. 15 & 20 min.
  • The Iland of Calis lyeth under 36 degrees 30 minutes.
  • The middle of the Strait of Gibraltar lyeth under 35 degrees & 50 minutes.
Heere followeth the Carde N. 12 and 13.

CHAPTER XII. A TRVE DESCRIPTION of the Sea-coasts of Barbarie, betweene Cape de Spartel, or the Strait of Gibraltar and Cape de Geer.

I. From the Strait of Gibraltar to Cape de Cantin.

CApe de Spartel or Spichel (which is the south-point of the Strait of Gibraltar) lyeth distant from the north-point, called Cape de Trafalgar south and by east,C. Trafal­gar. and north and by west 9 leagues.

From Cape Spartel south 7 leagues lyeth Arsyla.Arsila. Before Arsila there lyeth a rowe of rockes, where you may sayle through at two places, you may goe at the north-chanel with great shippes, but at the south-chanel with small barkes, & you must then anckor betweene the towne and the rockes.

From Arsila to LarageLarage. or Alarache the course is south and by west 8 leagues, there runneth in a River to Larage, but it is verie crooked and drie, you can not goe into it with anie great shippe, but onely with barkes & Frigates, you anckor there be­fore the Rode, at 16, 17 and 18 fathome. This coast reacheth all south & by west, and southsouthwest, it is from Larage to Ma­mora 20 leagues. MamoraMamora. lyeth upon a River, which is two fa­thome deepe in the entrie thereof, but in the rode it is 20 fa­thome deepe, a southwest moone maketh a full Sea along this coast. South from Mamora lyeth Salee, & from SaleeSalee. to Anafe or AlgasseAnafe or Algasse. it is southwest and by south, that is a great decayed towne, you may yet see five or sixe towres standing up, when you come to the land, it lyeth 19 leagues east from Masagam. From Anafe to Azamor it is s.w. & by w. 14 or 16 leagues, there you may anckor at 14 or 15 fathome, & there you lye safe against a southwest winde. Two leagues more about west lyeth Masagam, he that will sayle to MasagamMasagam. must knowe, that there are Pilots to bring in a shippe, for it is a great creeke, but it is not too faire, so that manie shippes could not lye there upon faire ground. On the west-point of the Baye there lye some rockes, which are not seen at high water, but at lowe water they lye bare, when you lye in the right Rode, then the west-point lyeth northwest from you, and the other point east. West from Masagam there standeth a towre upon a point.

From Masagam to Cape de Cantin it is westsouthwest 13 or 15 leagues, when you come to Cape de Cantin,C. Cantin. you must shūne the land somewhat, for there shooteth off from it a hard rock somewhat into the Sea.

Thus the land sheweth betweene Masagam and Cape Cantin, being verie even and lowe land all along to Saffia, you see nothing on it but a small towre by a valley, which is called Casa Cavalgero.

Thus Casa Cavalgero sheweth when it is south from you seven leagues.

Eijgentlijke vertooninge der westcustē van Barbarien, tusschen de Strate van Gibraltar ende de C. de Cantin, zampt aller Reeden Havenen ende Rivieren aldaer gelegen, en hoemen die bequa melijck sal beseijlen.

Vraije pourtraicture des costes occidentales de Barbarie, entre lest [...]ict de Gibraltar et le C. de Cantin, ensemble de toutes Rades, Haures, Ports et Ri­vieres situez ausdic tes costes, et commet commodieusement on les navigera

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Afbeeldinge nae't leven der Zee­custen van Barbarien. van de C. Cantin zuijdwaert tot verbij de C. de Geer, mitsgaders de gelegent: heijt van't eijlant Mogodor, alles op zij­ne rechte streckingē en hoochte gesteli.

Delincation au vif des costes ma­ritimes de Barbarie, entre le C. de Cantin et le C. de Geer, ensemble la situation de l'isle de Mogodor, le tout commodieusement accōmodé selon ses vraijes distan­ces, routes et haulteurs du pole.

When the north-point of Saffia is southeast five leagues from you then it sheweth thus.
When you are about seven leagues southwest and by west from Cape Cantin, then it openeth thus, then the point of Saffia is east southeast four leagues from you, and sheweth thus.

II. The situation between Cape Cantin and Cape de Geer.

FRom Cap Cantin to the point of Saffia the course is south and somewhat westerlyer 5 leagues. From Cape Cantin as aforesaid there shooteth off a stonie Sand, which you must shunne, when you are past that Sand you see two or three rockes as a vessel or boate in a Sandbaye, and the land there is round about black to looke on, whereby you shall knowe that you are not farre frō the point of Saffia.C. Cantin. Cape Cantin is a lowe smoth point, whereon there standeth a fire-towre, there about it is all even and smothe land, as if it were Normandie, along from Asamor to Saffia, so that you may knowe it well by the plainnesse. When you sall a litle northward from the point of Saffia, or put to land, then upon the plaine land you see two houses, the one (which is easterlyest) is called Casa Cavalgero, and the other standeth upon Cape de Cantin, which is the fire-towre aforesaid.

He that wil anckor in the Baye or Rode before Saffia,Saffia. let him place the point a litle more westerlyer then north from him, it is there almost 18 fathome deepe, but he that desireth to sette further within the boucht, must set the northerlyest point of both, a shippes length without the other which lyeth nearest to you, then those pointes will be northnorthwest and north & by west from you, & the thicke towre on the south-side of the ca­stle of Saffia, will then be east, and e. & by n. from you, there is the best Rode at 10, 11 and 12 fathome, you may anckor also so much further inward, untill the pointes be almost hard by each other, & that the towres, which you goe by on land, are against the thick towre which standeth above upon the castle, there al­so it is good anckoring, this Baye is a round Baye or Creeke, when you fall southward from Saffia, you must understand that the land southward from Saffia is high and uneven land, & most part double land, so that thereby you may easely knowe whe­ther you be north or south frō Saffia, for the land on the north­side of Saffia (as I said before) is lowe and plaine ground.

From the point of Saffia to the Iland of Mogodor it is south-southeast 16 or 17 leagues,Iland of Mogodor. and so the land reacheth from Saffia to Mogodor, & also forth to Cape de Geer, the land is all high and double land, and it is all faire sandie strand.

Against the north-ende of the Iland Mogodor, there cōmeth shooting off frō the fast land a great rowe of hard rockes, where­of the utmost, or they which lye next to the Iland Mogodor lye high above the water, he which commeth out of the north, and will sayle beyond Mogodor, he must runne betweene the Iland, and the foresaid rockes, hard by the rockes, it is in the entrie be­tweene the Iland and the rockes five fathome deepe. Within the foresaid rockes there lye on baghborde certaine other rockes, which at high water lye under water, & at lowe water appeare above water, when you come to the ende of them, then you may runne about toward the firme land, and there anckor be­hinde the rockes at 3 fathome lowe water: there is faire sand­ground, [Page 82] but notwithstanding there is not verie good riding: for because of the breaking of the Sea upon the aforesaid rockes, it taketh there verie strongly, so that with a storme there is verie daungerous lying in that place: but further inward behinde the Iland it is good lying at 2 fathome and an half. From the south­ende of the Iland stretcheth out a litle rock toward the firme­land: almost against the foot-strand, but southward from the foresaid litle rock there stretcheth out a banck from the firme­land a league into the Sea. If you will sayle out at the south­ende, then runne along by the shore of the firme-land till you are about the foresaid litle rock, and then runne out with the plummet by the banck: and then presently you shall finde dee­per water as 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, fathome, then sayle whether you please.

From the point of Saffia to Cape de Geer it is south-south­west 48 leagues,C. de Geer. but from Mogodor the same course it is 31 leagues, betweene them both about northeast 7 or 8 leagues from Cape de Geer, there lyeth a point called Cap de Taffala­na,Cap de Tafalana. there you may anckor under it safe, against east & northeast windes, there it is all sandie strand. Upon the south-point of Cape de Geer there standeth a castle, and when you are more then two leagues s.s.e. from Cap de Geer, then you see it with­in the land, over the downe-land, and you may see the Moores castle on the southende of the high-land.

He that will anckor in the Baye or in the Rode of Cape de Geer,Rode of C de Geer. he must runne so farre into the Creeke till the Moores ca­stle be north from him, then the Christians packhouses will be northeast from him, and there it will be 7 or 8 fathome deepe, the north-point will then lye northwest & by west from him, & there shooteth out a litle sand, against the castle there lyeth a rowe of rockes under the water, and there southerly you goe in to anckor, against the Christians packhouses it is the best rode. But you must be verie carefull in this Rode, touching your anc­kors, the tie-anckor must alwaies stand before the winde, which bloweth out from the land, the other anckors to sea-ward, you must hold the sheete or plecht-anckor alwaies readie against it stormeth, then you must bring it out s. w. when it will be a storme, you may see it before by the Sea-downes, you must also keepe the fock-sayle readie upō the yarde, if you should chance to slippe your anckor, that you may help your self the best you canne, in this Baye there is good store of fish to be taken, when you are there at anckor, then they goe by turn [...]s to fish, in the morning by daye, & come aborde againe about 8 of the clock.

Thus the land southward from the south-point of the Baye of Saffia sheweth it self when it is westnorthwest two leagues.

When you are westnorthwest, or crosse from Mogodor two leagues the land sheweth thus, and it is double and high land.

Mogodor.

When you are southsouthwest from Cape de Taffalana three leagues, then the land sheweth thus to Cape de Geer, and they are seven or eight leagues distant.

Cap de Geer. Cap de Tafelana.

When you are three leagues southsoutheast from Cape de Geer, then it sheweth thus, and then the Baye is cast and by south from you, and it is downe land.

Cap de Geer.

III. How these places are distant one from the other, and from other Countreys.

  • HOw these places and landes are distant one from the o­ther, for the most part it is shewed particulerly before.
  • From Cape de Spartel to Cantin southwest and some­what southerlyer 75 leagues.
  • From Cape de Cantin to Cape de Geer west 53 leagues.
  • From Cape de Geer to Cape de Non southsouthwest, & south and by west 28 leagues.
  • From Cape de Geer to the point of S. Crus s. e. 5 leagues.
  • From Cap de Non to O fin south 13 leagues.
  • From Cap de Non to Cap Bayador s.w. & by w. 69 leagues.
  • From Cape de Geer to Cape de Bayador southwest and some­what westerlyer 93 leagues.
  • From Saffia to Madera east and west 131 leagues.
  • From Cape de Geer to Madera w. n. w. 133 leagues.

IIII. Vnder what degrees these Countreys lye.

  • CApe Spichel or Spartel lyeth under 35 degrees 32 minur.
  • Masagam lyeth under 32 degrees 52 minutes.
  • Cape Cantin lyeth under 32 degrees 40 minutes.
  • The Ile of Mogodor lyeth under 31 degrees 32 minutes.
  • Cape de Geer lyeth under 30 degrees.
  • Cape de Non lyeth under 28 degrees 32 minutes.
  • Cape de Bayador lyeth under 27 degrees.
Heere followeth the Carde N. 14 and 15.

CHAPTER XIII. THE DESCRIPTION OF the Canarie and Flemish Ilands.

I. Of Lancerota, Forteventura, and great Canaria.

THe Ilandes of Canaria are seven in number, that is, Lancerota, Forteventura, Great Ca­naria, Tenerifa, Gomera, Palma and Ferro.

The Iland of LancerotaLancerota is distant from Cap de S. Vincent s. s. w. about 166 leagues. It hath a haven at the northeast ende, be­tweene the two Ilands Alegranca and Gra­tiosa, and you come in from northward, you may runne there so far in that you may come by Lancerota againe into the Sea, there it is 10, 15 and 20 fathome deepe, and there men lye safe from all windes.

On the east-side of Lancerota there is also a good Rode, be­fore the towne, but there lyeth a banck northward which you must shunne, you must runne southward about the banck, and then anckor at 10, 11, or 12 fathome.

Betweene Lancerota and Forteventura,Forteven­tura. there lyeth an Iland where you may anckor on both sides at 15 or 20 fathome.

At the Iland Forteventura you may anckor under the north and south endes at 15 and 20 fathome, & also on the northwest and southeast sides. On the southeast or east-side you may anc­kor before the town of Forteventura, at 15 or 16 fathome, there is a faire Rode.

At the northwest side you may anckor before the village at 20, 25 or 30 fathome, as deepe as you wil, the land on the north­west-side runneth up with a great boucht. It is from the nor­therlyest Ilands of Lancerota to the west-point or Forteventura about 33 leagues.

The Iland of Great CanariaGreat Ca­naria. lyeth distant from Forteventu­ra e. and w. 18 or 20 leagues. He that will sayle into the Rode of Great Canaria he must understand, that the Rode lyeth be­hinde the northeast point; on the east-side of the land, right against the castle which standeth upon a point of land, when the said northeast point lyeth s. e. 6 or 7 leagues from you, then it seemeth to be an Iland, for it is fast to the other land onely by a sandie strand, and that strand is not broad, and the northeast point is verie high. He that will put into the Rode, he must sayle about by the northeast point,The Rode of Great Canaria. untill the castle lyeth about n. w. and by n. from him, and there anckor at 8, 9, 10 or 12 fathome, then the north-point lyeth n. e. & by n. from you, & the south-point s. s. e. On the south-side of Great Canaria there is a faire Baye, where a man may also anckor wel.

Thus the northwest-side of Canaria sheweth it self.

II. The situation of the Iland of Tenerifa.

FRom the north-point of Canaria to the northeast-point of Tenerifa it is w. n. w. & e. s. e. 21 leagues.Rode of S. Crus. In Tenerifa the rode is on the southeast-side, before the towne of S. Crus, where there is a faire Sand-baye, right north from the towne is the best Rode at 20 and 24 fathome, then Punto de Nago the northeast-point, lyeth about n. n. e. from you, and the south-point of Tenerifa will then be s. & by west from you. When the Pico of Tenerifa is westsouthwest from you, then you are open before the Rode of S. Crus, and when you lye in the Rode of [Page] [Page] [Page]

Pascaarte vande Eijlanden van Canarien, vertoonende de rechte gelegentheijt der Custen ende Reeden vandien, Item hoese in rechte streckingen ende waere distantie van malcanderen verscheijden ende hoese in hoochte gelegen sijn.

Carte marine des Isles de Canarie, repre­sentant au vif la vraije situation des costes et rades dicelles, Item comment ils sont distantes l'un de l'autre selon leurs vraijes routes, distances, et elevati­ons du pole.

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Afbe [...]l [...]linghe nae't leven van [...]e Reede­v [...]o de sta [...] Angre aen't Eglāt Tercera Vray [...]if pour t [...]a. et de ia Rade d [...] [...] d'Angra en l'Jsle de Terrera.

SANCT MICHIELS

De Suydt hocek van het Eylandt FAYAL

Pascaarte vande Eijlanden van Madera en Porto Santo, vertoonende de gelegentheÿt vande Reeden aldaer en hoese van malcanderen zijn gheleghen.

Carte marine de les Jsles de Madera et Porto Santo, monstrant comment elles sont situeez l'un de lautre, ensem­ble la situation de leurs Rades.

[Page] [Page 85] S. Crus then you may see the Iland of Great Canaria, which ly­eth southeast from thence about 13 leagues.

On the northwest-side of Tenerifa lyeth the Rode of Gerra­chia,Rode of Gerrachia. and it is from the north-point of Punte de Nago to Gerra­chia w. s. w. and saw s. w. & by w. 8 leagues. He that will anckor be­fore Gerrachia, he must anckor westward from the rock with the crosse, called the Lyon, that the said rock may lye southeast & by east and southeast from him, then you lye right before the towne, and then you looke right into the streete of the towne, through S. Dominicus closter, there it is faire ground at 36 or 40 fathome, then the Pico wil lye right west by the towne. You may anckor no nearer to the land then at 35 or 36 fathome, nea­rer on the land or on the rock it is not faire, & westward to the Sand called Lapania it is also foule ground. This is a naughtie Rode, therefore they that come here must looke well to them­selves, and have a care of their anckors and cables, & keepe them fixe and readie, as also their sailes, that they may move when it stormeth.

There is also a small haven before Gerrachia, wherein men may lye with a fewe shippes; but to sayle into it, you must have a Pilot, on the west-side of the haven there lyeth a rock under the water, but it ravels alwaies upon it, within the haven you anckor alwaies at 5 or 6 fathome, & you must put out two anc­kors before toward the Sea, with a cable upon the rockes, & an anckor behinde upon the land, that the shippe may not winde, and the ground is there foule, you must keepe your cables well with boyes and tonnes, to keepe them from the ground, this is a good haven in Summer, for then commonly it is good we­ther, but in winter I counsel you not to put in with your sh [...]ppe there, for the waves of the Sea come out of the n. w. sometim [...]s rūning in so stifly, that it is not possible to hold a ship, although it had tenne anckors out. It happened certaine yeeres past, that a number of shippes were cast awaie in that haven, and a good manie houses of that towne were washt awaie with the water.

Betweene Gerrachia and the east-ende of Tenerifa; there are three places more to lade wine in, that is Laramela, Relecho, and Oratana.La [...]mela, R [...]cho, and Ora­tana.

On the southwest-ende of Tenerifa there is another litle ha­ven or baye called Adessa, where also it is good anckoring, but a s.w. winde bloweth open into it, there you lade much wine.

Thus Tenerifa sheweth when the Pico is westsouthwest from you, and then you are open be­fore the Rode of S. Crus.

When the Pico is southeast from you it sheweth thus, and then you are open before the Rode of Gerrachia.

III. Of the Ilands of Palma Gomera and Ferro.

FRom Tenerifa to the Iland la PalmaLe Palma. the course is w. n. w. 20 leagues, in the Ile of Palma there is a towne, where men use to lade, called S. Crus, which lyeth about the middle, on the southeast-side of la Palma, it is a faire baye. If you come from the north and desire to anckor in the Rode of Palma, you must runne in so farre in the creeke, until that you be southward or past by the head or the bridge, and then anckor at 25 or 30 fa­thome. But in winter tyme you must not anckor so neare the strand, because of southeast, and southsoutheast windes, for then you should lye to neare the strand, you must there put out two anckors at one hole, and a tye-anckor behinde, to keepe the ship right in the Rode, there lyeth a high white rock with a crosse east from the towne, there is the best rode, right north from the towne there is a faire Sand-baye, there it is good anckoring at 20, 30 or 35 fathome, thereafter as men lye farre off, this Rode is called Rammel-rode, when you lye in the rode of Palma, you may from thence see the Pico of Tenerifa e. s. e. from you, the Iland of Palma is verie high and full of trees, whereby it is well knowne, On the southwest-side of Palma also there is a place where you may lade wines, which is called Tassa Corda.Tassa Cor­da.

About five leagues west from the west-ende of Tenerifa ly­eth the Iland Gomera,Gomera. which on the north-side hath a good ha­ven of 10 fathome deepe, where it is good lying for almost all windes, better then in anie of the other Ilands, but there is no­thing to be laden, you may anckor before the haven at 20 fa­thome, there also you must shift anckor-place, as at Gerrachia. The rode of Adessa in Tenerifa lyeth there right against it, east from it, about five leagues. When you lye at Gomera, then the rode of Palma is northwest & by north from you 16 leagues.

The Iland FerroI. Ferro. lyeth from the Ile Palma south & by west 13 leagues distant.

Thus the Ile of Palma sheweth it self when it is about east 16 or 17 leagues from you.

Thus the Iland of Palma sheweth vhen it is south, and south and by east from you nine or tenne leagues.

Thus the Iland of Palma sheweth it self when it is southwest and by south from you four or five leagues.

IIII. The Ilands Salvages, Madera and Porto Santo.

GReat Canaria & SalvagesSalvages. lye distant from each other n. n.w. and s.s.e. 40 leagues. Southwest from Salvages ly­eth a rock, which a farre off sheweth like a sayle, it lyeth 3 leagues from the Ile, under the southeast-side of the Iland, it is a good rode for a northwest and west winde, it reacheth s.w. & n.e. to the uttermost rock, & it is faire ground 15 or 16 fathome deepe, it is but half a league long. The west-ende of Salvages is foule farre of, therefore you must shunne it, and therefore chuse rather to sayle eastward then westward about it.

Fortie leagues north from Salvages lye the Serters,Serters. which are three litle Ilands, lying on the east-ende of the Iland of Madera, whereof the nearest to the land is the smalest, and lyeth about a league from the land, that which is farthest from the land is the greatest, and lyeth four leagues from the land, if you come out of the north, or from Porto Santo, you may sayle wel through betweene the Iland of Madera & the Serters, there it is wide & broad ynough, but from the east-ende of MaderaMadera. there lyeth a blinde rock in the Sea, which you must shunne. In the Iland of Madera, before the towne of S. CrusS. Crus. it is a good rode at 20 fa­thome, but before FonsyaelFonsyael. it is the right rode to lade at, by the Lyon it is best to lye at 30 or 40 fathome. On the southwest-side before MarasyloMarasylo. it is also good anckoring at 16 and 18 fa­thome, there it is good ground in everie place.

Porto SantoPorto San­to. lyeth from Madera northeast 13 or 14 leagues it reacheth most s.e. and n.w. At each ende of the Iland lyeth a great rock, the Rode is on the southwest-side, east frō the crag­ged rock before the haven, where you may lye safe with barkes.

When Salvages is e.n.e. from you five leagues it sheweth thus.

When Salvages is e.s.e. five leagues from you it sheweth thus.

Thus the Iland of Madera sheweth when you come out of the north, and that the middle of the Iland is twelve or therteene leagues from you, the southeast ende is verie cragged when it is neare unto you, and the northwest-ende goeth slopeing downe, and it is a steepe point.

Thus the Iland of Madera sheweth when it is southwest from you.

When Madera is westsouthwest from you therteene leagues it sheweth thus.

When Madera is s. from you 16 leagues it sheweth thus.

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When Porto Santo is southwest from you about nine leagues it sheweth thus.

Thus Porto Santo sheweth, about southeast from you sixe or seven leagues.

V. Of the Flemish Ilands, S. Michaels, Tercera and Fayael.

MAdera and the Iland of S. MichaelS. Mi­ [...]haels. lye distant from each other northwest and southeast 136 leagues. If you desire to anckor under S. Michaels, you must understād that the Rode is on the southwest-side of the Iland, comming about the east or west-point of the Iland you shall see two townes, before the westerlyest is the Rode at 20 & 25 fathome, this towne is called Punto del Gada, or Punt Algato, there the coast reacheth w.n.w. and e.s.e. to a towne called Villa Fran­co, the elyeth an Iland before it, betweene the Iland and S. Mi­chaels it is deepe 5, 6 and 7 fathome.

From S. Michaels to Tercera the course is n. w. & by w. 35 [...]eagues, [...] under Tercera the rode is on the south-side of the land, west frō the rockes, right before the towne of Angra, betweene two pointes reaching out, whereof the westerlyest reacheth a good waie into the Sea, and on the ende thereof hath two verie high hilles. This point is called Bresil, and when you come out of the Sea, it sheweth from farre as if it were separated from the land, upon each of these pointes sticking out, there standeth a castle for defence of the shippes, which lye there in the Rode, it is there in the Rode deepe 20 and 25 fathome, and on the west-side of the aforesaid point of Bresil, there is a great Sandbaye to anckor in, where there is a village called S. Martens, if you come from the north, or the east, and desire to anckor in the Rode of T [...]c [...]ra, you must sayle upon the land about the east-point, and sayle all along by the two Ilands called the Ilheos, which lye a litle east from the Rode, you may sayle through betweene those Ilands & Tercera, it is 15 fathome deepe betweene them, and you may sometimes goe without the Ilands, and sayle so long westward, untill you come to the aforesaid point of Bresil, there you may anckor right east before the towne of Angra at 10 or 12 fathome, or commonly men sette the Sea-anckor at 16 fathome, & the tye-anckor towards the land, at 8 or 9 fathome, a southeast winde bloweth there flatte in, betweene the two Ilands aforesaid it is 6 fathome deepe sandie ground, and they lye about a bowe shotte from each other. But betweene those Ilheos & the Iland of Tercera, it is a great canon shotte distant. A litle to Seaward from these Ilands, there lye three or four rockes above the water, which are called Los Frailes, and three leagues east from the towne of Angra, there lyeth a Creeke cal­led Port Iudeo,Porto Iu­deo. there the Spaniards entered upon the land with all their powre, when they tooke the Ile of Tercera from the Portugales.

If you will goe from Tercera to Fayal,Fayal. hold your course w. s.w. to the east-point of S. George, which is distant from thence 11 leagues, And through betweene the Pico and S. George to Fayal it is 16 leagues, it reacheth most w. n. w. betweene them. The Iland Fayal lyeth west from Pico distant a league.

If you will anckor in the Rode before Fayal, you must anc­kor in the Creeke right before the village of Fayal, at 14 or 15 fathome, there it is sand-ground, & there goeth a strong streame both ebbe and flood.

On the south-ende of Fayal lyeth a litle haven, if you will sayle into it, you must goe in by the southwest-point, and so [Page 89] long about by the land, untill you see the haven open, sayle a­bout by the southwest-point, untill you come in the narrowe betweene the rockes, which lye off from the west-side, and as soone as you begin to come within the rockes, then let your anckor sall at 5 fathome, and carrie ropes on the east-side of the land, to be made fast to the stakes that are there purposely sette. The haven is small, so that there cannot above four or five ships lye in it, for further in it is all flatte water.

Thus the Iland of Tercera sheweth when it is east and by south about seven leagues from you.

Vhen Tercera is four leagues southwest from you, then it sheweth thus, the west-ende of Tercera is higher then the east-ende, and therefore it is reasonable well to be knowne.

Thus the Iland of S. George or Ioris sheweth when it is westsouthwest from you seven leagues.

Thus the Iland Gratiosa, when it lyeth westsouthwest four leagues from you, sheweth it self.

VI. What Moone maketh a high water at these Ilands.

VPon all these Canarie Ilands a s.w. and n.e. moone ma­keth a natural tyde, or high water, as upon the coasts of Spaine, Portugal, Gallicia, France, and other places.

VII. How these Places lye distant from each other.

  • FRom the west-point of Forteventura to the Iland of Great Canaria east & west 19 or 20 leagues.
  • From the north-point of Canaria to Punto de Nago the north-point of Tenerifa w. n. w. 21 leagues.
  • From Punto de Nago to Gerrachia westsouthwest, and south­west & by west 9 leagues.
  • From Tenerifa to Isle de Palma westnorthwest 20 leagues.
  • From the west-ende of Tenerifa to Gomora west 5 leagues.
  • From Palma to Fer [...]o south & by west 13 leagues.
  • From Great Canaria to Salvages n. n. w. 40 leagues.
  • From Gerrachia to Salvages n. n. e. 29 leagues.
  • From Tenerifa to Isle de Madera north 72 leagues.
  • [Page 90]From Great Canaria to the east-ende of Madera north and by west 85 leagues.
  • From la Palma to Madera n. & by e. 53 leagues.
  • From Salvages to the Serters of Madera north 40 leagues.
  • The uttermost of the Serters reacheth from Madera 4 leagues.
  • From Madera to S. Michaels northwest 136 leagues.
  • From S. Michaels to Tercera n. w. & by w. 35 leagues.
  • From Tercera to the west-ende of S. Georges w.s.w. 11 leagues.
  • From the west-point of S. Georges to Fayal w.n.w. 16 leagues.

VIII. How these Ilands are distant from other Countreys.

  • FRom the west-ende of Forteventura to Cape de Bayador southsoutheast 20 leagues.
  • From Lancerota to Cape de S. Vincent n.n.e. 166 leagues.
  • From Great Canaria to Calis Malis northeast 240 leagues.
  • From Great Canaria to Cape S. Vincent northeast & by north 212 leagues.
  • From Great Canaria to Roxent northnortheast and somewhat easterlyer 240 leagues.
  • From Great Canaria to Cape de Finisterre northnortheast and somewhat northerlyer 308 leagues.
  • From Tenerifa to Lezard n. n. e. 467 leagues.
  • From la Palma to Cape de S. Vincent n. e. 224 leagues.
  • From Madera to Cape de Geer e. s. e. 134 leagues.
  • From Madera to Saffia east 131 leagues.
  • From Madera to Calis eastnortheast 200 leagues.
  • From Madera to Roxent northeast 164 leagues.
  • From Madera to Cape de Finisterre northeast and by north and somewhat northerlyer 245 leagues.
  • From S. Michaels to Cape de Finisterre e. n. e. 246 leagues.
  • From Tercera to Cape de Finisterre eastnortheast, and east and by north 279 leagues.
  • From Tercera to Lezard northeast and by east 388 leagues.

IX. Vnder what degrees these Countreys lye.

  • THe Iland Lancerota lyeth under 28 degrees 35 minutes.
  • The north-ende of Great Canaria lyeth under 28 deg.
  • The north-ende of Tenerifa lyeth under 28 deg. 40 min.
  • Isle de Palma lyeth under 28 degrees 32 minutes.
  • Salvages lyeth under 30 degrees.
  • The southende of Madera lyeth under 32 degrees,
    • but the north-ende lyeth under 32 degrees 30 minutes.
  • Porto Santo lyeth under 33 degrees.
  • S. Michael lyeth under 38 degrees.
  • The Iland Tercera lyeth under 39 degrees.
Heere followeth the Carde N. 16.

Beschrijvinghe der Zeecustē vāde Zuijd sijde on Oost-zijde vā yerlant van de C. de Clare Oostwaert verbij de Eijlandē vā Saltez. Noordtwaert tot aē Dondalck, hoemē alle havenē aldaer bescijlē sal, en waer voor mē hem te hoeden heeft, alles gestelt op rechte streckīgē distātiē en hoochte des Pool [...]

Deschriptiō de les costes marines meridiona­les et Oriētales d'Irlande, cōm [...]ncant du C. de Clare vers l'Est iusques a les isles de Sal­tez, de la vers le Nort iusques a Dondalck, cō ­prennant touts havres et Ports desdictes costes, et monstrant comment on les navi­gera, et de quoij en se d [...]ibt garder

Afbeeldinghe van [...] [...]wee voornaemste Havenen op de west custe van [...]erlant, als Lemrick ende Galwaij, watmē int [...] comen en uijtseijlen aldaer te schouwe [...] heeft Pourtraicture des d [...]c principaux Havres de la coste occidentale d'fr [...]de Lemrick et Galwaij, monstrant ce qu'on [...]a eviter, en les entrant et iss [...]t.

CHAPTER XIIII. A TRVE DESCRIPTION teaching how you may sayle the Sea-coasts and Havens of the VVest, South and East-side of Ireland.

I. How to sayle to the Havens of Gallowaye and Lemrick, and the Ilands thereaboutes.

TThe Iland BlackrockBlackrock and Cape Dorsey lye distant s. & by w. & somewhat southerlyer, and n. & by e. and somewhat northerlyer 53 leagues: betweene them both lye the Havens of Galloway and Lemrick.

If you will sayle into Gallowaye,Galloway. you must rūne in through betweene the Ilands, or along by the firme land northeast to the point Galor, then you must yet goe in n. e. to the other point, and then forward three leagues more s. & by e. till you be before the towne of Galloway, where you may anckor at 6 or 7 fathome, it is there all ouer good anckor ground, a great depth and faire Creekes. You may also anckor well without, behinde the Ilands at 12 fa­thome, there also it is good anckor ground in everie place.

From the Ilands before Galloway to the Iland of Aromen,Aromen. it is about sixe leagues: behinde the Iland of Aromen it is also a good Rode: the Iland CalosCalos. lyeth about a league southward from Aromen, and behinde it also there is a Rode.

From Aromen to the haven of LemrickLemrick. it is about 5 leagues southwards, before the mouth of the said haven there lye two rockes, the one south by the haven, and is called Cockuyt, the other north by the haven, and is called Boye, you must sayle in by Cockuyt, and runne east, and east & by north a league till you be about the point Blaway, and from Blaway to the castle Lamor e. s. e. 4 leagues, and from the castle Lamor to Griel south seven leagues, from Griel to Lemrick s. & by w. 4 leagues, there you may anckor before the towne at 6 or 7 fathome, you may also anckor before Blaway, and there take in a Pilot, and he will bring you before the towne.

  • Further it is from the Ilands before Galloway to Blasquay
    B [...]asq [...]y.
    southsouthwest 18 leagues.
  • From Blasquay to Dorsey
    Do [...]y.
    southeast 2 [...] leagues.
  • From Dorsey to Cabo de Claro e. and by s. 13 leagues.

II. What Havens and Places lye betweene Cabo de Claro and Cape Velho.

YOu may knowe Cape de ClaroCape de Claro. by reason it is all broken land, when you come somewhat better east about, and are by the land, you shall see a high point reaching out, which reacheth farre without the other land into the Sea, the south-ende whereof is verie much shoring downe, and on the highest part thereof there standeth a castle with three towres, which is decayed, the middle towre is yet the highest, it lyeth 12 leagues eastward from Cape de Claro, & right north from this out-point, (by our saylers called Cape de Velho,Cape Vel­ho or Old­head. & by the Eng­lishmen Oldhead) lyeth the haven of Kinsale, a faire haven deepe & broad, comming from the east, or the west along by the land: this point seemeth to be an Iland, because on the west-side it is lowe, but it is fast to the firme land by a small peece of land, and there you may anckor under it on both sides as drie as you wil.

From Cape de Claro to the aforesaid Cape de Velho or Old­head, the course is east and by north 12 leagues.To goe in­to the Ilands of C. de Cla­ro. To runne into the Ilands of Cap de Claro, you must understand that there ly­eth a towne westward upon the high land, you must there goe east to land, and so goe in eastnortheast, leaving the lowe Iland to landwards, and the uttermost Iland of Cape de Claro to seawards, and so running in to the second Iland, whereon the closter of Claro standeth, there on the west-ende there is a sandie baye, where you may anckor at eight or nine fa­thome.

There goeth also a chanel into the Sea close alōg by the west Iland, which is 12 fathome deepe, on the east-side of the chanel [Page 92] there lyeth a rock above the water, which you must shunne, and in sayling out you leave it on the east-side, and right within the rock you may anckor.

If you will sayle further into this haven of Cape de Claro, you must runne through betweene the Ilands to Baldermore,Balder­more. and shunne somewhat the Iland of Cape de Claro, for from it there runne manie blinde rockes, therefore you must sayle to the other Iland. But when you are half waie by the Ile of Cape de Claro, then you must make to the narrowe waie, to goe through it, it is therefore the most part all about three fathome deepe, but in the narrowe waie it is drie at lowe water, therefore you must goe over there with the tyde, there you may anckor on what side you will, whether it be under the closter at Claro, or on Baldermore-side, which is the east-side, where it is 5 and 6 fathome deepe.

The haven of Baldermore goeth in north, and in it it is 11 or 12 fathome deepe at lowe water, on the east-point of Balder­more there lye two high steepe rockes, as if they were steeples, the one somewhat higher then the other, & there eastward there goeth in a haven, which is called Castle-haven. And a league eastward from it the Haven of Somrack,Somrack. which is 8 or 9 fa­thome deepe, before the haven there lyeth a great rock, which you may runne in by on both sides, but the east-side is best, for the west-side is somewhat foule. To sayle in by this rock it is distant at l [...]ast the length of the shotte of a great peece of Ord­nance, you shall there finde a towre standing, and against it you may anckor at lowest water, it is there good lying, in the mid­dle there lye two blinde rockes, which at half ebbe are above water, and betweene these two rockes, there lyeth a rock above the water, therefore you must runne in close by the land, leaving the rockes on backborde, the haven is not above eight shippes long in length, you may sayle through under these Ilands of Cape de Claro in manie places, and anckor, for it is all broken land, as if it were Norwaie.

East from Somracke, and about 4 leagues west from the out-point of Kinsale lyeth Rossen,Rossen. a tyde-haven, which at a lowe wa­ter falleth drie, you may see the church with the towres in the valley, westsouthwest from the point there lyeth a stone under the water.

There lyeth an Iland betweene Rossen and Kinsale or Cape de Velho, also in the creeke, which is called Roem, which you may sayle round about, & also anckor behinde it. Three leagues eastward frō this Iland Roem lyeth Cape de Velho or Oldhead.

Thus the point of Rossen sheweth when it is west and by north from you.

III. How to sayle into all the Havens betweene Cape de Velho and Waterford.

CApe de Velho (as I said before) is a high point reaching out, when it is the length of the shotte of a great peece,To sayle into Kin­sale. or a quarter of a league s. s. w. from you, then you are open before the Haven of Kinsale, & you may see into the same, and see the towne of Kinsale lye on starborde of the haven, this is a deepe haven, and reacheth in n. n. w. which before it hath no foule entrie, but onely a blinde rock, which lyeth off from the east-point of the haven, you may sayle in in the middle of the water betweene both the lands, there it is seven fathome deepe, and when you are a litle within the castle, then you must turne up westward, and anckor on the west-side at 5, 6, & 7 fa­thome, you may also runne in further and lye safe against all windes, on either side there standeth a flatte towre, & there east­ward lye two black rockes a litle within the Sea, not farre from each other, the one is called Kockul, and the other (which is the easterlyest) Rock.

He that commeth out of the east, and would sayle into the haven of Kinsale, he must understand that there lyeth a blinde rock which shooteth off from the east-point of the haven, (as I said before) therefore he must keepe the rock called Rock with­out the rock called Kockul, so long until that the castle standing within on the east-side of the haven commeth without the east-point of the haven, and then you take no hurt upon the blinde rock, then sayle in n.n.w. and anckor at 6 or 7 fathome, as above said, the Haven of Kinsale lyeth from the point with three towres north, and north & by west a great league.

Thus the point of Kinsale whereon the castle standeth she­weth, when you are half a league from it w.s.w, & then you see the haven of Kinsale open.
Thus the land sheweth right east from Kinsale.

When you are a league east from the two black rockes afore­said, or three leagues from Oldhead with the castle with three towres, and are close by the land, then you see two steepe hil­lockes or rockes in the land, as if they were steeples, standing not farre one from the other, which stand about two leagues west from the mouth of the haven of Corck,Corck ha­ven. & when you are by the easterlyest hillock, then you may see the haven of Corck, which reacheth in n.n.w. within it is wide and broade, running into a broad river, which goeth up into the land, & right within the haven there lyeth an Iland, which may be sayled round about, but on the south-side it is good anckoring, at 6, 7 & 8 fathome, on the west-side there lyeth a village, by the which you sayle up to the towne of Corck, two leagues higher into the land.

There standeth a castle also from whence there shooteth off a Sand, & there within there lyeth a tyde-haven in a Sandbaye.

On the east-side right about the point there standeth a bro­ken castle, upon the lowe land, and somewhat more eastward in the valley there standeth a four-square towre, and about a great league east from the haven, there standeth a towre on high up­on the point close by the water side, by the same there stand tenne or twelve strawe howses, & a league more eastward (two shipps length from a lowe point) there lyeth a round long rock, which is growne greene above, and on the east-side of the point standeth a flatte towre, which you may see when you are a great peeces shot [...]e e. n. e. from the aforesaid round rock, otherwise you see al lowe land to the point of Iochul.

This Haven of Corck at lowe water is 7 fathome, & also 10 fathome deepe, so that you may laveere it both out and in, and on the east-side there lyeth a rowe of rockes, about two shippes length from it, which you must shunne.

Thus the land sheweth which lyeth west from Corck.

Thus the land sheweth east from Corck to Iochul.

About 4 leagues eastward from Corck lyeth a point called Balicot,Balicot. behinde it you may goe and anckor at 4 or 5 fathome.

From Korck to IochulIochul. it is e. n. e. almost 6 leagues, it is a tyde-haven, reaching along in by the east-land n. w. and n. w. & by n. there lyeth a rock on the west-side, and the west-side is a sandie strand along to the towne.

He that will sayle into Iochul must runne under the Iland of Tapul, and there staye for an after-flood, then there is four fa­thome water upon the banck, then sayle north & by east upon a league right to the haven of Iochul, and when you are within then anckor before the towne where you will.

Betweene the point and the towne there standeth a closter, where also you may anckor, and yet you may strike over to the east-land, and so runne up the river, within it is 3, 4, and 5 fa­thome deepe, from the east-side of the haven, there come a rowe of rockes shooting off, wel half waie into the haven, and right without these rockes it is at lowe water no more thē 5 or 6 foot deepe, but at a high water it is deepe ynough.

About 5 leagues east from Iochul there lyeth a tyde-haven called Dongarvel,Dongar­vel. which is also 8 leagues from Waterford, the same reacheth in n. n. w. but in the haven it is full of rockes, & at a lowe water it is drie, so that you must goe in at a full Sea, & runne in betweene the rockes, it is a narrowe haven, but within it is deepe inough, the towne lyeth upon the west-side of the ha­ven, and right n. w. within the land there lye three high hilles, which are called Cape de QuynCape de Quyn. or Kary Quyn, whereby you may knowe this land, & when they lye n. n. w. from you, then they are crosse from you, and then you are right before the ha­ven of Dongarvel, when those hilles lye n. n. e. from you, then you are before the haven of Corck, and when they lye n. from you, then you are right before the haven of Iochul, but when they lye n. w. from you, then you are right before the haven of Waterford.

From Iochul to WaterfordWaterford it is e. n. e. 11 or 12 leagues.

The haven of Waterford reacheth n. and n. & by w. in be­tweene two steepe lands, it is a faire wide haven, and 11 fathome deepe as you enter in, but when you are a litle within, there ly­eth a banck on the west-side, which is long & broade, comming almost into half the haven. Against this banck it is but three fa­thome [Page 94] deepe at lowe water: therefore when you are a litle within you must chuse the east-side, & sayle close by the castle, which standeth within the haven, and when you are within the castle then you finde 7 fathome deepe, and when you are at the ende of the banck, then you must turne to the west-side, & anc­kor at 4 or 5 fathome, before the litle towne of Passagie, from whence the River goeth westward further into the land.

On the west-side of the haven it is all flatte high land, and on the east-side there standeth a high white flatte towre, which is called Balmus,Balmus. whereby the haven of Waterford is well to be knowne. Two leagues east from Iochul there standeth also ano­ther high towre called Ardimore, but it is black, that you may see 4 leagues into the Sea, betweene the out-point of Kinsale & Waterford along by the whole coast, there stand manie other flatte towres, but that by Waterford standeth further out, be­cause it is great & high. And the aforesaid three high hilles cal­led Cape de Quyn are verie good and knowne markes, whereby this Coast of Ireland is well descried and knowne. A league east from Kinsale there lye two black rockes, and west from Iochul there lye two round rockes, which are overgrowne with greene weeds, otherwise there are no rockes upon this Coast.

The Ilands of Saltees lye east from Waterford, and you may sayle from Waterford through betweene the Ilands of Saltees and the firme land.

IIII. How you shall sayle by the east-side of Ireland from Saltees to Dondalck.

FRom the Ilands of Saltees to the haven of WatchfordWatch­ford. it is 5 leagues, he that will sayle into Watchford, he must set the towre (standing upon the north-side inward within the haven) west and by north from him, then he shall runne be­tweene Saltbanck and Watchbanck, sayling in betweene both the lands, and sette within about the point at 4 or 5 fathome.

From Watchford to WexfofdWexford. it is n. & by w. 5 leagues. He that will goe into Wexford, he must bring the towne of Wex­ford (lying on the north-side in the haven) west from him, so he shall sayle betweene Watchbanck and Griel, where betweene both the banckes it is 10 and 12 fathome deepe, then sayle in forward west, and shunne the south-point of the haven, for it is somewhat foule, and when you are within then sayle along by the south-side, till you come before the towne of Wexford, and and anckor at 4 or 5 fathome.

From Wexford to DublinDublin. it is n. and n. & by w. 5 leagues. He that will sayle into Dublin must bring the towre (standing on the north-side of the haven) w. n. w. from him, sayling in betweene the banck called Griel, and the sand of the Iland Lam­baye,Lambaye. betweene them both it is 12 fathome deepe, sayle al along by Lambaye at 7 fathome, and runne so at seven fathome by the sands to the haven, shunning the south-point, for that is foule, therefore hold the northerlyest towre in Dublin on the second point upon the south-side, then you cannot miscarie, then sayle about the second point, and then turne up westward and anckor before the towne at 4 or 5 fathome.

Under Lambaye there is also a good Rode, in the boucht at 7 or 8 fathome. You may also sayle through betweene Lam­baye and DagalbanckDagal­banck. to Dublin.

Five leagues north from Dublin lyeth the haven of Drodag.Drodag. He that will sayle into it he must bring the towre (standing up­on the northside of the haven) w. n. w. from him, as the line sheweth, to shunne the foule waie which runneth off from the south-point, and so sayle westward in, untill he be in, then tur­ning to the south-side, he must sayle in betweene the south-side and the Iland of Carol, which lyeth in the middle of the haven, and sayle till you be before the towne of Drodag, and anckor at 4 or 5 fathome. From Dublin to Drodag it is 8 leagues. On the north side of the haven of Drodag there lye three Ilands.

From Drodag to DondalckDon­dalck. it is north 7 leagues. He that will sayle in there must knowe, that on the south-side of the ha­ven of Drodag there standeth a castle, you must sayle in by the south-side, keeping the towre, which standeth north from Don­dalck, over the round point of the north-side, as the line shew­eth, for from the north point of the haven there runneth a rowe of rockes, therefore you must sayle in by the south-side till you be about the point, and then turne up southward, and anckor before the towne at 4, 5, 6 and 7 fathome. East from Dondalck there lye also five or sixe Ilands.

V. What Moone maketh high water in these places.

ON all the havens and places lying on the West-coast of Ireland a northeast and southwest moone maketh a high water. But on the South-coasts a w. s. w. and e. n. e. moone, but within the chanels or haven a point later, that is a [Page 95] west and by south, and an east and by north moone.

In the open water and in the chanel without the land a s. w. and northeast moone.

VI. Of the falling and running of the streames.

VVithout Cape de Claro by the land the flood falleth east and the ebbe west.

Betweene Cape de Claro and Waterford the flood fal­leth eastnortheast along by the land.

In the chanel of Galles or S. Iohn betweene England & Ireland the streame falleth northeast and southwest.

VII. Of the ground and depths of Ireland, and how you may knowe the land.

BEtweene Cape de Claro & the point of Dorsey you may see the land at 58 and 60 fathome.

Betweene Cape de Claro and Waterford you may see the land at 45 fathome, and you may see all the coast of Ireland at 35 and 40 fathome, and at 35 fathome you are not farre with­out the land, and therefore by night you must goe no nearer to Ireland then 40 fathome.

VIII. How these places are distant from each other.

  • FRom Cape de Claro to Cape Velho e. & by n. 12 leagues.
  • From Cape Velho to Kinsale n. & by w. a great league.
  • From Cape Velho to Corck n. e. & by e. a great league.
  • From Corck to the east-point of Waterford e. n. e. 20 leagues.
  • From Cape de Velho to the Ilands of Waterford eastnortheast 29 leagues.

The whole South-coast stretcheth e. n. e. and w. s. w.

IX. How these places are distant from others.

  • FRom Gallowaye to the Ilands of Aran w. s. w. 8 leagues.
  • From Blackrock to Rokot n. & by w. 60 leagues.
  • From Cape Dorsey to the Sorrels s. e. & by e. 58 leagues.
  • From Cape Dorsey to Cape Finisterre south and by east, and south 164 leagues.
  • From Cape de Claro to Englands ende s. e. & by e. 54 leagues.
  • From Cape de Claro to the Sorrels southeast 47 leagues.
  • From Cape de Claro to Cape de Finisterre south 164 leagues.
  • From Cape de Velho to Englands ende s. e. 46 leagues.
  • From Cape de Claro to Sorrels s. e. & by s. 40 leagues.
  • From Waterford to Gresholme e. & by s. 21 leagues.
  • From Waterford to Milford east and by south and somewhat southerlyer 23 leagues.
  • From Waterford to Englands ende south & by east and some­what easterlyer 37 leagues.
  • From Waterford to the Sorrels south and somewhat easterlyer 40 leagues.
  • From Waterford to Cape de Finisterre s. & by w. 168 leagues.
    • or 170 leagues.

X. Vnder what degrees these Countreys lye.

  • CApe de Claro lyeth under 51 degrees 20 minutes,
    • or as some say 51 degrees 38 minutes.
  • Cape de Velho or Oldhead lyeth under 51 deg. 28 min.
    • or as some saye 51 degrees 42 minutes.
  • Waterford or the towre lyeth under 52 degrees 4 minutes,
    • or as some saye 52 degrees just.
Heere followeth the Carde N. 17.

CHAPTER XV. A DECLARATION HOVV to sayle by the Sea-coasts and Havens of VVales: Also from the Chanel of Bristowe to Englands ende, and to the Sorlinges.

I. How to sayle by Wales, from Ramsey to the Naes, and to Cardif.

IT is from the Ilands of Saltees in Ireland to the Iland of Ramsey,Ramsey. or the north-point of Wales, east and by south 19 leagues. Right north from Ramsey lyeth the Bishop with his Clarkes,The Bi­shop with his Clarkes. which are certaine rockes, which runne out a good waie from the north-point of Wales s. w. into the Sea. Upon the said North-point there lyeth a towne, called S. Davies, and from thence northward the land reacheth northeast and southwest.

Two leagues southward frō Ramsey, lyeth the Iland of Gre­sholme,Gresholm. and there betweene them both lyeth the Broad-baye,Broad-baye. to goe into it you must sayle through betweene the aforesaid Ilands or Rockes, the one lyeth on the north-side, the other on the south-side, it is a good Rode for shippes that will goe to Bristowe, and it is there safe lying against north, northeast, and east-windes, at 7, 8 and 9 fathome. The said Ilands are well to be knowne, thereby to knowe the said point of Wales, the land there reacheth n. n. w. and s. s. e.

Right south from the Iland of Gresholme lyeth Milford ha­ven,Milford haven. which first reacheth in n. e. which is a deepe and wide ha­ven, in the middle thereof there lyeth an Iland, within it is verie good anckoring, for it is a good haven. About five English miles within the land there lyeth a towne called Carcewe.

Two leagues eastward from Milford lyeth S. Gawins point,S. Gawins point. which is the south-point of Wales, which is also called the White-point.

Four or five leagues eastward from S. Grawins point lyeth the Iland of Caldye,Caldye. where you may anckor roūd about against all windes. This Iland lyeth before a great Creeke, which al o­ver is good rode. He that will goe before the towne of TinbuyTinbuy. he must take heede of a rowe of blinde rockes, which lye north­wards from Caldye under the Water, but if you will sayle to Tinbuy, eastward from Caldye, you may sayle close along by the Iland: you may also come about west from Caldye, but there it is not verie wide, it is a strait waie, but all through it is deepe ynough, & being east frō the rockes you may anckor wel.

East from the Iland of Caldye there lyeth a white point, cal­led Wormshead-point,Wormes point. which hath manie white chalck spottes on the land, whereby that point is well to be knowne. There eastward it is a good rode for west, north, and northeast and by east windes, in a great creeke, and southeast from this out-point there lyeth a great banck, which reacheth off from the NaesThe Naes. w. & by s. and w. s. w. five leagues.

You may also sayle through this banck and the Naes to Car­dyf or the Holme before Bristowe, and this sand is called Naes-sand.

He that will goe into this baye or creeke eastward, he must sayle in close by the Nase, or he must come out of the west, there it is wide and broad.

East from the Nase there lye two Ilands, close by the coast of Wales, the one called Barrey,Barrey & Sily. the other Sily. Cardyf and Flat­holme lye eastward from them, the north-side is most drie and flatte water.

CardyfCardyf. is a tyde-haven, but there is a verie faire rode for ships that will goe about east or west, for there lye manie sands eastward, which at lowe water are drie.

He that will goe into the rode of Cardyf, he must runne in betweene Flatholme and the point of Cardyf, but there lyeth a rock in the haven which he must shunne, there lyeth also a stone s. e. and s. e. & by e. from the west-point of the land under the water: but when it is high water you may goe over all that that at half flood is not covered. Cardyf Rode is a faire rode, where you may lye safe against all windes.

Pascaarte van het vermaert Ca­nael van Bristou, vertoonende aēt Zuijden de Zeecusten achter Engelāt, vande Sorlinghes af tot Bristou toe, Jtem aen't Noorden de Cus­ten van bijna geheel Wals Enge­landt, met een deel van Yerlant.

Carte marine du Canal de Bris­tou, monstrant au Su les costes marines d'Angleterre de les Sorlin­ges iusques a Bristou au Nord qua­si toutes les costes de Wallie, et aussi une partie de Jrlande, le tout dressé selon ses vraijes elevations du pole, routes et distances.

Thus Wales sheweth it self from Wormshead to Cardyf.

II. To sayle from Naes and the Holme to Bristowe.

HE that will sayle from the Naes to Bristowe, he must goe to the Stepeholme,Stepeholm which lyeth e. s. e. about seven leagues from thence, you must sayle north along by it, & leave FlatholmeFlatholm. on backborde, which lyeth somewhat more inwards then St [...]peholme.

But he that wil sayle from Londey to Bristow, he must keepe the English side to the Naes, then he is within the great banck which runneth along by Wales, called the Naes sand, you may also sayle with ships that drawe but litle water from the Stepe­holme, with half flood, but there it is verie flatte, there is but two fathome water at lowest water, and under Stepeholme you may anckor when you will at 4 and 5 fathome.

To sayle in the right chanel through betweene the Holme, you must goe nearest to Flatholme side, for there is the deepest water, with an open winde you may sayle as neare as you will, yea so neare as that you may cast a stone thereon. Frō the east-land there cōmeth a shallowe shooting off, under which a man may sayle as he commeth out of the west. To shunne this shal­lowe as you will sayle from Flatholme to Brust, set Flatholme when you are past it, southwest from you, and hold it so, untill you have sayled a Dutch myle, then observe a litle Iland, which lyeth almost thwart against you, upon the English coast, where­on stand two milles, and upon the heigth of the firme land stan­deth one mill: now when the mill which standeth upon the high land commeth upon the west-ende of the Iland, then you are past the point of the foresaid English ground, so that then you cannot sayle under it, then goe eastnortheast by the Eng­lish ground, which you may sayle with your plummet at 3, 4, or 5 fathome, or you may come as neare as you will, for it is ve­rie flatte. When the mill which standeth upon the high land commeth to stand betweene both the milles which stand upon the foresaid Iland, then are you wholly past the English groūd, then boldly sayle toward the English coast, and so close along if you please to Passis point, keepe along by the foresaid coast, and sayle close about the corner of Passies point, whē you are about the point so anckor there at the Kings rode, betwixt the point and the River of Brust, next to the River, at 8 or 9 fathome, there is good clay ground. He that will goe into the River, shall be conducted by the Pilots. It is from Flatholm to Passies point deepe in the chanel 14 or 15 fathome at half flood. Heere you must keepe the English side, for the side of Wales is verie unevē and full of banckes, which in manie places fall drie, you come no nearer that coast then 12 fathome, for in sayling toward the coast at one cast you shall have 10 fathome, and at the next be fast on ground, and that wholly from Flatholme to over against Brust. When you are about Passies point you may sayle along by the coast forward northerly to the River of Severne, that is also a faire River as Brust, fitte to sayle into.

Thus the land of England sheweth from Axbridge westward to Ilfordcombe, when you sayle along by it.

III. To sayle into the Havens betweene the Holms & the Sorlinges.

BEtweene the Holmes & Ilfordcombe on the English side, & betweene the banckes on the Welsh side in the mid­dle of the chanel, it is 15, 16, 18, 20, 25 and 30 fathome deepe, the nearer you come to the Holms the flatter water it is. When you come from the west, and are within the Iland of Londey, then you may see the land on both sides, that is, both England and Wales.

In this chanel behinde England manie shippes in times past were woont to manie times to overshoote themselves,How it cō ­meth that shippes sayle be­hinde Eng­land and mistake their course. which was for want that they had not taken their heigths well, and thought that they were in the chanel betweene England and France. And it happeneth sometimes at this tyme also, and that by their owne default, whereby it is to be marked, how necessa­rie it is for a Sayler to be skilfull therein. But he to whom it may happen so hereafter may heereby understand the situation of these parts, all the coast of England, from the ende of Eng­land to the Holme, is altogether faire, but the Welsh coast is most part all foule and flatte water, from the River of Bristowe to Caldye, & lyeth most full of bancks & sands, as I said before.

Now to sayle out of the chanel of Bristowe, it is from the Holme to Londey w. s. w. 19 leagues.

And 11 leagues west from the Holmes lyeth Ilford-combe,Ilford-combe. which is a haven which at lowe water is 3 or 4 fathome deepe. Before the haven it is good rode at 8 & 9 fathome, half flood.

From Ilfordcombe to BedefordBedeford. it is s.s.w. 7 leagues. It is a Tyde-haven, but a faire chanel, where manie shippes may goe out and in, it devideth it self into two Rivers, upon the east Ri­ver there lyeth a towne called Barnestable, and on the right side as you goe in Bedeford lyeth.

From Bedeford to the west-ende of LondeyLondey. it is n. n. w. five leagues. Under Londey you may anckor on both sides at 14 & 15 fathome.

From the point of Bedeford to Hartland pointHartland-point. are 7 or 8 leagues. This out-point lyeth right west from Londey.

From this point to PadstowePadstowe. or Stoupart the course is s. w. and n. e. 7 leagues. Stoupart is a creeke, where there is a good rode at 7 or 8 fathome. On the west-side there lyeth a blinde rock under the water, and at the point there lyeth a rock high a­bove the water. West from this point there are manie white sandie bayes, or chalck-bayes in the land, whereby it is a good land to be knowne.

Betweene Padstowe or Stoupart & the Cape of Cornewall lyeth the haven of S. Ives,S. Ives. (by the Hollanders called S. Uves) on the east-side there lyeth an Iland or a great rock above the wa­ter, and the towne standeth upon the west-point of the land, there you must runne in betweene the rockes & the west-point, then turne up westward, and anckor before the towne at 6 and 7 fathome, this haven at half flood is 14 fathome deepe.

From Stoupart to Cape of CornewallThe Cape of Corn­wall. s. w. & by s. & some­what westerlyer, and n. e. and by n. and somewhat easterlyer 12 leagues, and from S. Ives aforesaid it is five leagues.

From the Cape of Cornewal there lyeth an Iland or rock in­wards to the Sea, called Bresam,Bresam. you may sayle through be­tweene the Cape & the said Iland to Englands ende. Englands ende lyeth from the Cape of Cornewall south about 5 leagues, the situation thereof, as also of Sorrels is shewed in the next Chapter.

When the Iland of Londey is n.n.w from you it sheweth thus.

When Londey is north from you it sheweth thus.

Thus the land east from Padstowe or Stupaert shew­eth when it is three leagues east and by south from you.

Thus the land of Padstowe or Stupaert sheweth when you sayle along by it, and are three or four leagues from it.

The land west from Stoupaert sheweth thus when you sayle along by it three leagues from it.

The land betweene Englands ende and the point of Cornewall or the Iland Bresam sheweth thus when you are behinde Englands ende, & it is about five leagues long.

IIII. Of the falling and running of the Sreames.

IN the Chanel of Bristowe, betweene Londey and Milford, the streame falleth n. e. & by e. and n. e.

At Ramsey in the Chanel of S. Davies the flood falleth northeast & by north.

In the Chanel of Bristowe within the Holme the flood fal­leth n. e. & by e. and the ebbe s. w. & by w.

In the Chanel of Bristowe betweene the Holmes and Lon­dey the flood falleth e. n. e. and w. s. w.

Between Londey and the Sorrels the flood n.e. & ebbe s.w.

V. What Moone maketh a high water in all the places aforesaid.

AT Milford or Wilford a west and by south moone ma­keth high water.

Likewise on the Coast of Wales a west and by south moone maketh a full Sea.

Also against the Iland of Londey a west & by south moone maketh high water.

At the Iland of Londey & the Holmes it is high water with an east and west moone.

Within at Bristow it is high water with a w. & by n. moone.

In the Sorrels a s. w. & by w. moone maketh a high water.

Without the Sorrels in the chanel a s. w. & by w. moone.

VI. Of the depths heere, and at what depths you may see the Land, and how it is to be knowne.

BEtweene Englands ende and Londey in the chanel it is 45 fathome deepe, & you may see Cornewall at 44 fathome.

At Wales about Milford, and there northward from it you may see the land at 42 and 45 fathome.

In the Chanel betweene the Holmes and Bristowe it is 12, 13 and 14 fathome deepe, and you see the land on both sides, the English land is the fairest.

You may see Sorlinges at 45 and 46 fathome, & the ground is oasie, with some small stones among it. Eleven or 12 leagues w. n. w. and w. & by n. from Sorrels it is 56 and 57 fathome deepe, and the ground there is so soft that you can hardly get it to stick upon the lead, & sometimes you shal have small shelles.

Betweene Hartland point and S. Ives, against Padstowe or Stupaert, there are manie white chalck hilles, and so all along to the ende of England, whereby you may knowe that Coast, upō Englands ende you see alwaies a towre or two. When you are n. from the Sorrels, then you see a towre or castle upon the east Iland, and the Sorrels then lye most upon two Ilands although they are more then two, & without upon the easterlyest of the Ilands there lye two great rockes, which are verie craggie like hillockes, & without at the uttermost there lye three high black rockes, whereby you may learne to knowe these Lands.

VII. How these places are distant from each other.

  • FRom Ramsey to Milford s. & by e. 5 leagues.
  • From Milford to S. Gawins point s. e. & by s. 4 leagues.
  • Frō S. Gawins point to the Nase e. & somewhat s. 17 leag.
  • From the Nase to Stepeholme e. s. e. about 7 leagues.
  • From Stepeholme to the river of Bristow n. & by e. 12 leagues.
  • From the Holmes to Londey w. s. w. 20 leagues.
  • From Londey to the Cape of Cornwall southwest, and south­west and by south 28 leagues.
  • From the Cape of Cornwal to the ende of Englād s. 5 leagues.
  • From Gresholme to Milford s. s. e. 3 leagues.
  • From Ilfordcombe to Bedeford w. s. w. 7 leagues.
  • From Bedeford to the westende of Londey w. n. w. 5 leagues.
  • From Hartland point to Padstowe s. w. 7 leagues.
  • From Stupart to the Cape of Cornwal s. w. 12 or 13 leagues.
  • From Milford to Londey s. & by e. and s. s. e. 12 or 13 leagues.
  • From Milford to Englands ende or the Cape of Cornewall southsouthwest 32 leagues.
  • From Milford to the Sorrels southsouthwest & somewhat we­sterlyer 40 leagues.

How these places are distant from the Havens of Ireland it is shewed in the chapter before.

VIII. Vnder what degrees these Places lye.

  • THe Haven of Milford lyeth under 51 degrees 50 minut.
  • Londey lyeth under 50 degrees 20 minutes.
  • The Cape of Cornwal lyeth under 50 degrees 25 minut.
Heere followeth the Carde N. 18.

CHAPTER XVI. A TRVE DESCRIPTION of the Sea-coasts of England, that lye betweene the Sorlinges and Portland.

I. The situation of the Sorlinges, and from Englands ende to Lezard.

FRom the point of Cornwall, or the Iland of Bresam to Englands ende it is south & north five leagues. From Englands ende there lye some rocks,A Rode behinde the rockes at Eng­lands ende. which shoote off from it, where you may anckor behinde them at 8 and 9 fa­thome: you may sayle behinde them when you come either north or south, on the south-side it is narrowe, but deepe ynough, at least 10 fathome, but out of the north it is best to come in betweene them, there it is 8 & 9 fathome deepe. But there lyeth a rock under the wa­ter on the left hand, close by the north-point of Englands ende, which you must shunne.

The SorrelsThe Sor­rels. or Sorlinges are distant from Englands ende w. s. w. & leagues. Betweene them both lye SevenstonesSeven­stones. w. s. w. and w. & by s. from Englands ende distant four leagues. It is a rowe of rockes whereon it alwaies rayles, and are not above the water. Sevenstones is distant from Sorlinges n. e. & by e. and e. n. e. three leagues.

Three or four leagues from Englands ende s. s. w. and s. w. & by s. there lyeth a sharp rock in the Sea, which at half flood is above the water, and is indifferent faire, it is called the Wolf,The Wolf. it is distant from Sorlinges east and west 5 leagues.

To sayle into the Sorlinges Ilands, when you come out of the east, [...]o sayle into Sor­rels. you must sayle in by the east-land at 8 or 9 fathome, there lyeth a sconce right without the castle, from thence also there shooteth off a stone under the water, you may sayle tho­rough betweene the said stone and the sconce. To shunne the stone also that lyeth in the haven, you must understand, that there lye two rocks on the west-side within the haven, one grea­ter then the other, keepe the greatest over against the smalest, & sayle nearest to the north-side, and hold them so, and then you runne wide ynough without the point at 10 fathome, but nea­rer you may not goe unto it.

If you will goe southward into the Sorrels,To sayle out of the south into the Sor­rels. you must looke well before you, because of the stone that lyeth in the haven, you may well sayle about on both sides, but the east-side is the best and fairest. But to goe into the best of the chanel, and to goe as neare unto the rock as well you may, then hold the two rockes aforesaid (which lye on the west-side of the haven) the smallest under the greatest, nearest unto the north-side, as I said before, and so sayle about the point, and turne up northward, until you may see the towreful in the middle of the sandie bay, there anckor at 7 or 8 fathome, you may hold the said two rockes, (which are within the haven on the west-side) a litle di­stant one from the other, so that you may see just betweene thē, then you are right north or east from the rock which lyeth in the haven, and then you must runne in so by the east-land, then the said rock will be on the west-side, but on the innermost point of the Iland, against the Pale there lyeth a rock under the water, which you must shunne, and then runne up northward, until you may see the towre in the sandie Baye, as I said before.

The Sorrels on the west-side are all full of rockes, & have ma­nie chanels to come in, but the south-chanel or haven is best.

When you come to the Sorlinges on the south-side then you see a flatte steeple in the Sandbaye or valley, and west it is al full of Ilands & rockes, the ground is stonie with some redde shels, you may see the south-land at 52 fathome.

Englands ende hath two round hilles,To know [...] Englands ende. & on the highest there standeth a speere steeple, and when you goe somewhat nearer, you discover also upon the uttermost ende another speere stee­ple or towre, in the lowe land, so that the ende of England is well to be known, the ground is whitish sand, mingled with red sand and shelles.

From Sorrels to Lezard it is east and west 16 or 17 leagues. But from Englands ende to Lezard it is e. s. e. 10 or 11 leagues. Monsbaye lyeth there betweene both, & betweene Monsbaye [Page] [Page] [Page]

Eÿgent [...]ijck beworp naet leven van alle Haven [...]n, Gaten, en̄ Re [...]den, gheloohen den­de Zeecusten van Engelandt, tusschen Engelandts eijndt, ende Poortlandt, oock vande rechte gele­gentheijt vande Sorlinges, Hoemen deselve ge­westen beseijlen ende hem van alles [...]at aldaar van zanden, bancken, clippen, en̄ ander on­diepten te ghemoeten is, wachten sal.

Vraije et vive delincation, de touts les Havres, Ports, et Rades de Mer, situez entre les Sor­linges, et Portlande, aussij la vraÿe situation des­dictes Sorlinges, Comment on singlera lesdicts endroicts, et se gardera de tous sablons, bancs, rochers, et autres perilz quil ij a. a. rencontrec

[Page] [Page 101] and the Sorrels lyeth the rock called the Wolf, whereof I spake before,The Wolf. it lyeth east from Sorrels 5 leagues, and from the Wolf to Monsbaye it is 8 leagues.

To sayle into Mōs­baye.If you will enter into Monsbaye comming from Englands ende, or from Lezard you must runne upon a castle which stan­deth upon a high round rock; untill you come within half a league neare unto it, then you shall turne up west, and sayle to the Baye, untill you see the Iland on the west-side, whereon the two stumpes stand like beakons, leave that on the left hand, and sayle close along by it, for there it is faire, but leave the castle a great waie on the right hand, for there it is foule. When you come within the Iland or rock, then you shall see a great Sand­baye there behinde it, where you may anckor under at 7 or 8 fa­thome, there you may lye safe against a s. s. e. winde, but a s. e. and specially an e. s. e. winde bloweth open into it, otherwise you lye safe there against all other windes.

From Monsbaye to Lezard the course is s. e. and n. w. five leagues: The north-side is all full of rockes to Lezard. From Le­zard also there lye some rockes. And east from Monsbaye there lye rockes a league into the Sea, in darke gloemie wether a man must be carefull to take heede of them.

To knowe Lezard, it is a small lowe point,To knowe Lezard. and on the south-ende there standeth a steeple, and on high towards the north-ende there standeth a sharpe steeple, you may see Lezard at 55 fathome, the ground is white and redde shellie sand.

When the Sorrels are southwest from you four leagues, then they shewe thus.

When the Sorrels are southea [...]t from you three or four leagues they shewe thus.

When Sorrels is southeast and southeast and by east from you three leagues then it sheweth thus.

When the Sorrels are eastnort [...]east from you three leagues then they appeare thus.

Thus Englands ende sheweth when it is east from you four leagues.

Thus Englands ende sheweth when you see it first, comming out of the Spanish Sea, it is good to be knowne for there stand divers steeples and towres upon it.

Thus the land sheweth betweene Englands ende and Lezard, when the castle of Monsbaye is north, and Lezard about east and by north from you.

Thus Lezard sheweth being east and by north from you sixe or seven leagues.

II. To sayle into the Havens and Rodes that lye betweene Lezard and Ramshead, the west-point of the Haven of Plimmouth.

FRom Lezard to Famouth south and north 4 leagues.

Hi [...]ord h [...]n.B [...]tweene Famouth and Lezard lyeth Hilford, where you may runne in through the middle of the haven, be­tweene a sloping and a lowe point, on the south-side lyeth the sloping point, and on the north-side the sharp point, it is a short haven to sayle into, and within the haven on the south-side there standeth a G [...]ntlemans house, belowe upon the strand, & on high there standeth a companie of trees, which you place one over against the other when you runne into the haven. On the north-side also there stand two or three trees, which come a masts length westward from a house, which standeth in a white sand-baye, sayle so in the middle of the haven, & anckor at 6 or 7 fathome. On the south-side there standeth a sharp steeple upon the high land, and on the north-side there standeth a castle upon the shoring land,To s [...]le [...] [...]th. this is in the haven, wherein fewe shippes enter for feare of daunger.

To sayle into Famouth, you shall first see a castle on the high land, on the west-side of the haven, then runne along in within two cables length by the east-land, there lye rockes upon the in­ner side of the east-point of Famouth, you must goe in close by th [...]m, and then sayle upon the high land, which lyeth on the west-s d [...]. Behinde in the haven there standeth a white chalke peece of ground, & there also you see a box tree, you must hold it ov [...]r against the north-point of the high west-land, & so sayle to the high land, untill you come to it, and you shall not have lesse water at half flood then 5 fathome, & that is betweene the east and west castles, or a litle within them, and you may also when you come within the west castle sayle forward, to the middle of the high land, which you see on the west-side of the haven, and at the north-side of the high land you may anckor at 12, 13 and 14 fathome.

You may also strike over to the east-land, & anckor under the banck which commeth running off from the east-castle in the middle along the haven, at 6, 7 and 8 fathome. This banck at lowe water is almost drie, and it is soft moorish ground, so that you lye fast in the durt when you fall on ground there.

You may also runne about west from the stone which lyeth in the haven, t [...]en you must hold the west-land side whereon the castle standeth, at 5 or 6 fathome, for it is no deeper then 6 or 7 fathome at half flood, but on the east-side of the stone it is 7 or 8 fathome deepe. Four leagues upward from Famouth ly­eth a towne called Traeren.

Two leagues east frō Famouth lyeth the point of the Dead­manshead,The Dead­manshead. which is a round hill, which towards the west goeth slope downe, it is double land, and there westward there stan­deth a mille at the ende of a sharp steeple, there also stand some houses upon the land, and a litle westward you may see the ca­stle of Famouth, upon a round hillock, against that high land, it is well to be knowne for such as come out of the west from Le­zard.

From the Deadmanshead to Fawick it is northeast 4 leagues.Fawick.

Fawick lyeth in a great Creeke, it is a Tyde-haven, where a shippe may enter at half flood, on the east-side of the haven there standeth a litle church, with a steeple, and on the west-side there standeth a white church with a flatte steeple, at the west-ende being somewhat greater then the church upon the east-ende.

If you will sayle into Fawick you must staye till half flood, & so sayle in the middle of the chanel, betweene the east and west pointes, & when you are within the point, then you may chuse what side you will, yet there is most water by the west-side, be­tweene the stakes & the steeple that standeth upō the west-side.

But if you goe in by the west-side, then you must presently turne off when you are within the stakes, and sayle almost in the middle of the haven, nearest to the west-side, to the towne that lyeth on the west-side of the haven, there is a deepe pitte, where a man may lye with a shippe of sixteene foot deepe aflote at a lowe water.

You maye also sayle further in, untill you see a wall on the west-side of the haven, and behinde it there standeth a village: a shippes length southward from the wall it is good lying fast­ned with four ropes, for there you lye close by the east-side.

You may also sayle in further to a hollowe place that lyeth on the west-side, wherein a water-mill standeth, but goe not to neare the north-point thereof, for there lyeth a rock under the water, and when you are somewhat past it, then you may towe the shippe in the middle of the water, for there it is best lying for shippes that drawe much water: but south from the afore­said wall a shippe of 16 foot may lye aflote.

Right within the east-point of the haven of Fawick there ly­eth a village, and right before the village there is a deepe poole, [Page 103] where you may goe in with three or four shippes, & the depth goeth right within the east-point.

But if you goe in by the east-point, and will lye in the said poole, you must sayle within the stakes, and put somewhat off from the east-land, that you may goe nearest to the west-land, for on the eastland there reacheth a flat along the haven, which beginneth right against the first house of the westerlyest village, and if it so fall out, that you can not gette in there, then let your anckor fall without the stakes, and make your shippe fast with ropes within, for that a shippe which draweth sixteene foot wa­ter may lye aflote within the stakes at a dead streame.

RamsheadFrom Fawick to Ramshead (the west-point of the haven of Plimmouth) it is westsouthwest, and eastnortheast 6 leagues.

Betweene them there lyeth an Iland called Lowe, where you may anckor under it, at 5 or 6 fathome, you may goe both on the east and west-side, but the east-side is wydest and best to goe in.

Thus Lezard sheweth when you sayle along by it.

Thus the land sheweth betweene Lezard and Deadmanshead.

Lezard. Famouth. Deadmanshead.

III. How to sayle into Plimmouth, and from thence into Goutstart

Rode un­der Rams­head.NOrth from Ramshead, close under the land, a man may anckor in a sandbaye, at 8, 9, and 10 fathome, for there it is faire.

From Ramshead to the Meustone or Idestone it is south 3 leagues.

Idestone lyeth from the point of Plimmouth s. & by w. and southsouthwest 4 leagues.

The haven of Plimmouth reacheth in n. n. e. If you will goe into Catte-water, you must goe in betweene the eastpoint and the Iland, upon the point of Plimmouth, so long till you see Catte-water open, and then runne in betweene the point of Plimmouth and the east-point to the north-land, and anckor before the steepe shoring land, at 4 or 5 fathome at a lowe wa­ter because of the continuall tyde.

There lyeth a stone under the water westward from the Ilād, which at a lowe water hath but 3 fathome water upon it.

If you will goe behinde the Iland, east or west from the said stone, which lyeth within the Iland, as I said before, then runne to the Iland, till you be at five fathome at a lowe water, untill the Fishermens village commeth on the west-side of the valley, then you are west from the stone, & you must goe through be­tweene the Iland and the stone, and when the fishermens village which standeth behinde the wall, is in the northside of the val­ley, then you goe east from the stone.

But if you will sayle over the stone, then you must hold the steeple of the fishermens village over the north-side of the val­ley, and sayle to the land of Plimmouth, untill the wall standing on the land of Plimmouth sheweth endelong to you, & so long till Catte-water cōmeth open to you, then you may well sayle behinde the Ilād into Westcomfer, or anckor behinde the Iland at 12 or 13 fathome, & then you are past over the stone, at three fathome and an half, at lowest water.

And comming before Westcomfer in the narrowe waie, then you must goe through the middle of the water right in, & then strike up on the left hand, and anckor at 15 or 16 fathome. In the narrowe it is 15, 16, & 17 fathome, and also 20 fathome deepe, and behinde the Iland 8, 9, 10, and 12 fathome.

In the haven of Plimmouth there lye two or three blinde rockes, at three fathome and a half at lowe water, the markes thereof are these, there standeth a steeple and a mill east from Plimmouth, & west from the Iland there standeth a gentlemans house, when the towre of the house commeth over against the point which lyeth against the Iland, & the steeple & the mill east from Plimmouth are one over against the other, thē you are up­on the innermost stone, which at lowe water is 4 fathom deepe.

When the west-point of Westcomfer commeth on the point which lyeth west from the Iland, then you are upon the utter­most stone, and there it is 3 fathome & an half deepe, with lowe water and a spring-tyde.

Upon the eastpoint of Plimmouth haven there lyeth a rock verie round and high, which by the Englishmen is called Meu­stone, but by the Dutch saylers Cocxbroot, because it is so round. Frō that stone or rock 7 leagues e. s. e. lyeth Goutstart, under the point of Goutstart you may anckor safe against a northwest winde.

Thus the high land on the east side of Plym­mouth sheweth.

Thus Goudstart sheweth it self when it is seven leagues north from you.

IIII. The situation of the land betweene Goutstart and Portland.

Rode un­der Gout­start.VNder the point of Goutstart on the east-side you may anckor safe against a n. w. winde, at 10 or 11 fathome, betweene the church which standeth upō the high land & the point of Goutstart, so that the point may lye s.w. frō you.

West from Goutstart there lyeth a haven called Salcem, but from Goutstart to Dartmouth it is northeast 3 leagues.

Dartmouth lyeth in betweene two high lands, and on each side of the haven there lyeth a castle,Dart­mouth. it is a narrowe haven, so that in tyme of war there was woont to be a chaine layd crosse over the haven, and on the west-side there standeth a church upon the high land.

To sayle into Dart­mouth.To sayle into Dartmouth when you come out of the west, you must sayle so long about east, or along by the west-side un­till the Kaye of the village, (which lyeth on the east-side of the haven) commeth in the middle of the chanel, then sayle up up­on it, in the middle betweene both the lands, and be readie with your boat, if the winde should chance to whirle, that then you might towe in, & then turne on the west-side before the brew­house and anckor at 10 or 12 fathome, for within it is a wide ha­ven, and you may as well anckor before the village as before the brewhouse. There lyeth a blinde rock on the east-side of the ha­ven of Dartmouth, the markes to sayle out of the daūger there­of are these, there is a redde point east from Dartmouth, which upon the water is black, and in the redde there lyeth a white stone, when the white stone is over against the black point, then you are right over against the said rock, which lyeth before the haven of Dartmouth, but when you see the Kaye of the village then doe as aforesaid, and you shall not sayle by the stone.

Four leagues east from Dartmouth lyeth the baye of Tor­baye,Torbaye Rode. where you may anckor, you must place the west-point s.e. and s. s. e. from you, and there you lye safe against a southwest winde at 7 or 8 fathome.

On the east-side there is also a Tyde-haven, where there is good anckor ground, at 4 or 5 fathome, as you are close by or farre from the land.

From Torbaye to Portland it is east, and east & by north 13 leagues. About 5 leagues n. and n. & by e. from Torbaye ly­eah the creeke of Tops or Exmouth,Exmouth. where you may lye safe [...] ­gainst a south-winde, at 7 or 8 fathome, good anckor ground, on the south-side of the Single which lyeth before the tyde-haven of Exmouth, so that the rockes of Totmanstone lye south, and south and by east from you.

From Exmouth to Portland the course is e. s. e. 13 leagues.

Betweene them both, close by the land there lyeth an Iland call [...]d Cob.

Thus the land sheweth betweene Goutstart and Torbaye.

Thus the land on the west-side of Portland sheweth when you sayle along by it.

Thus Portland sheweth when you come from the west.

Thus Portland sheweth when it is north and by west from you seven leagues.

Thus Portland sheweth when you come from the east.

As long as Portland lyeth west and by north from you, then the east point is high and steepe, but when it beginneth to come [Page 105] northnortheast from you, then it lyeth as it were round to your sight, and when it lyeth more easterly from you, then the west­side is the highest and steepest.

V. Of manie depths and fashions of grounds which men finde when they come out of the Sea, to seeke out the chanel betweene Heysant and the Sorrels, taken out of the search made by Adrian Ger­ritson of Haerlem.

SOuthwest and by south from Seims seven leagues it is 72 fathome deepe,The Seims and the ground is slopie white great sand, as if it were wreathed small stones, with small peeces of shelles, graye flatte stones, and white shining needles, sayle from thence n. and n. & by e. then you are in a good waie to Hey­sant.

The SeimsAbout 2 leagues s. w. from Seimes it is 52 fathome deepe, & the groūd is there white yellowe, with some smal redde shelles, manie graie ragged needles, & with some white shining points, as if they were needles. If a man found 70 or 80 fathome there, they would judge it to be good chanel ground, for it is white yellowe rough long sand.

The SeimsAlso w. s. w. from the Seimes, so farre from the land that you may see the Sheetes from the poope of the ship verie well, there it is 54. fathome deepe, the ground there is redde white yellowe, and black peeces as if it were parings of cheese, with some great redde sand amongst it.

West and by south 8 or 9 leagues from Seims at 65 fathome there the ground is white yellowe, and some small redde shellie sand, with some peeces of shelles, which are not over great, and with much white-yellowe long sand, with small white points of needles, such as men cast in the chanels.

He [...]s [...]nt.Seven leagues s. w. from Heysant, or thereaboutes, where you may plainely see from the poope of the ship at 70 fathome, there the ground is white yellowe great sand, with some peeces of crampen, some peeces of white thinne shelles, & some graye flatte hackled stones.

Southwest & by west from Heysant about 19 or 20 leagues, at 78 or 80 fathome, the ground is white yellowe great sand with shining needles, white peeces of crampen, graye yellowe flatte stones, and peeces, as if they were of oyster shelles.

West and by south from Heysant 21 leagues, at 86 fathome, there the ground is redde yellowe and black, with a litle white round sand amongst it, shewing as if it were shel-sand. But at 80 fathome, 21 leagues west from Heysant the ground is yellowe and shellie, with some graye rugged needles, as if they were the endes of small rye.

Also at 80 fathome,Heysant. 24 leagues from Heysant w. & by s. the ground is rough sand, with manie peeces of redde white yel­lowe and graye shelles, and peeces of crampen or shelles.

From Heysant west 16 or 17 leagues, at 75 fathome, the ground is pale yellowe great sand, with peeces of white thinne shelles, and graye peeces of crampen, or of oyster shelles, and white shining needles.

Eight or 9 leagues from Heysant it is 70 fathome deepe, the ground is redde yellowe white & graye shellie sand, with redde yellowe and black peeces of shelles, & small redde yellowe black graye litle stones, and some white needles.

Fortie-eight Leagues w. & by n. from Heysant, and w. s. w. frō Lezard 50 leagues, or thereaboutes, it is 95 fathome deepe, the ground is redde yellowe and black sand, with small white round shellie sand, some small peeces of shelles or crampen, and some small peeces of thinne shelles.

Thirtie three leagues w. & by n. from Heysant, & 28 leagues s. w. & by s. from Sorrels at 95 fathome, there the ground is graye, redde yellowe with black sand amongst it, & some darke redde peeces, and pale yellowe peeces of shelles, to conclude it is there small graye redde shellie sand, and the best course from this ground is e. n. e. it is almost under the heigth of nine-and-fortie degrees.

Four-and-twentie leagues w. or w. & by n. from Heysant, and s. & by w. from the Sorrels 21 leagues, at 80 fathome, there the ground is white, graye, redde yellowe smal shellie sand, with small redde and white peeces of shelles, and to see to, it is like ground mustard seed, it is under the heigth of 49 degrees.

Seven or 8 leagues west, and w. and by n. from Heysant at 68 or 70 fathome, the ground is white yellowe small shel-sand, with many graye curld needles amongst it.

About 31 leagues west, & somewhat northerlyer from Hey­sant at 90 fathome, there the ground is small white rough long sand, mixt with a litle redde and yellowe, and with some shining needles, with two or three peeces of white graye shelles, and when you goe there n. e. & by n. till you be under 55 fathome, the ground is yellowe and white great shellie sand, with white peeces of shelles, then you may see the Sorrels 9 or 10 league [...] northward, or somewhat westerlyer from you.

Westnorthwest from Heysant 21 leagues, and s. w. & by s. from Lezard 28 leagues,Heysant. at 80 fathome, there the ground is gray redde shel sand, and upon the lead there commeth a peece of white or graye crampen or shelles, with redde and yellowe pee­ces of shelles, and manie peeces of needles.

Nine leagues n. w. & by n. frō Heysant the ground is white yellowe rugged shellie sand, with graye short needles, and shy­ning needles, there also stickes on the lead things like strawes, when you goe n. e. from thence then you sayle upō Goutstart.

Twentie leagues n. w. and by n. from Heysant, & 16 leagues s. w. & somewhat southerlyer from Lezard at 68 fathome, there the ground is white yellowe redde small round sand, with some white shyning needles, and a graye short needle or two, and two or three peeces of white shelles.

Nineteene leagues n. n. w. frō Heysant, & 12 or 13 leagues s. s. w. from Lezard it is 68 fathome deepe, the ground is there of all kinde of hackled stones, graye, redde, and black, with redde peeces of shelles, and some graye hackled needles.

Nineteene leagues n. and by w. from Heysant, & southward from Lezard, there it is 62 fathome, there the ground is white, shellie sand, with white needles and graye needles, & white pee­ces of shelles, and two or three redde stones amongst it.

Sorrels.Twelve or therteene leagues about west frō Sorrels, or some­what northerly, there it is 60 fathome deepe, and the ground is graye oasie ground, with small black sand mixed among it, and in some places at the same depth, it is white graye oasie small sand, with peeces of thinne white shelles among it, with a peece or two like parings of cheese, and this ground you cannot gette upon the lead with tallowe, for it will not stick upon it, unlesse you putte butter or grease under the bottome of the lead, and in no place els you have this groūd at this depth, so oasie as there, and therefore you must certainely know, that there you are be­hinde the Sorrels, or behinde England, that is west from Sorrels.

West from Sorrels seven leagues, there also it is oasie ground graye sand, with two or three peeces of cheese parings.

Lezard.Seven or eight leagues southsouthwest from Lezard at 60 fa­thome, there the ground is white great sand, with a litle redde, and white shelles, and shyning white needles.

Tenne or eleven leagues southwest from Lezard at 60 fa­thome, there the ground is yellowe peeces of shelles, and graye peeces of soft flatte stones, as if they were parings of cheese, and some redde peeces of shelles, without anie sand therein.

Southwest and by west from Lezard, and southsouthwest from Sorrels 19 leagues, there it is deepe 78 fathome, there the ground is graye yellowe redde shellie ground, with redde yel­lowe and blewe peeces of shelles and crampen, and a peece or two as if it were cheese parings, or peeces of oyster shelles, and two or three shining needles, at the heigth of about 49 degrees 30 minutes.

Fiveteene or sixteene leagues southwest and by south from Goutstart at 57 or 58 fathome,Goutstart. there the ground is all manner of peeces of shelles, and crampen, with a litle white yellowe shel­lie sand, and all manner of stones, graye peeces like parings of cheese, some rough needles, shyning needles, and things like as if they were carnels or measels that are in bakon.

Southwest from Goutstart 16 leagues, at 53 fathome, the ground is white redish shellie sand, with peeces of crampen, and redde and graye stones.

Southsouthwest 11 or 13 leagues from Goutstart at 50 fa­thome, the ground is white yellowe small shellie sand, with some peeces of white shelles, and graye ragged, & shyning nee­dles. To conclude he that soundeth much, findes manie sortes of Ground, and sometymes much alteration, in small changing of places. But he that findeth depth with white shelles and litle needles, he must understand that he is nearest to Heysant. But if he finde brannie ground, or black stones mingled with white measels or carnels, then he is nearest to the Sorlinges.

The tokens or signes of Heysant depth,Markes of Heysant and Sor­rels. you shall finde small white sand and shelles, and small things, it being oasie and white, then Heysant lyeth n. e. from you, and if you finde all along things like needles, then Heysant lyeth southeast from you, but if you be not sure of these grounds, then you must goe north­wards, & if you finde it deeper, then you are towards the Seims, and if it be dryer then you are in the chanel northward from Heysant. If you are betweene Heysant and the Seims at 70 fa­thome, then the ground wil be stones, like black earth sand. And if you finde the ground great redde sand, then you must goe northward, untill you finde white sand ground, & long carnels or measels, then you must knowe that you enter into the cha­nel.

VI. Of the falling and running of the streames about these Landes.

FRom Sorles to Lezard the flood falleth northeast and the ebbe southwest.

From Lezard to the Deadmanshead it flalleth n. e. and s. w.

From Deadmanshead to Ramshead the flood falleth e. n. e. & the ebbe w. s. w.

In the chanel betwene Lezard & Goutstart against Fawick the flood falleth e. & by n. and the ebbe w. & by s.

From Ramshead to Goutstart by the land within the Ideston or Mens [...]one the flood falleth e. s. e. and the ebbe w. n. w.

From Goutstart to Portland in the middle of the chanel the flood falleth e. n. e. and the ebbe w. s. w.

Against Dartmouth by the land the flood falleth n. e. & by n. and the ebbe s. w. and by s.

Against Tops or Exmouth in the Creeke the flood falleth n. n. e. and the ebbe s. s. w.

VII. What Moone maketh high water at these places.

IN the Sorlinges a s. w. & by w. moone maketh high water.

In the mouth of the chanel of England a southwest and northeast moone maketh full Sea.

Without the Sorrels in the chanel a s. w. & by w. moone.

At Englands ende and in Monsbay a westsouthwest moone ma­keth high water.

At L [...]zard on the land an e. s. e. & w. n. w. moone makes ful Sea.

The like also at Hilford.

In Famouth an east and by north moone maketh a full Sea.

Without Famouth an e. & by s. moone maketh full Sea.

Against Fawick in the chanel an e. s. e. moone makes full Sea.

In Plimmouth & Fawick a w. & by s. moone makes high water.

Against Goutstart in the chanel a w. n. w. and e. s. e. moone m [...]keth high water.

In Dartmouth and Torbaye a west & by south moone maketh high water.

Against Portland in the chanel a southsoutheast, and a north­northwest moone makes a full Sea.

VIII. At what depths you may see these Countreys.

YOu may see the Sorlinges on the north-side at 48 fa­thome, but on the south-side you may see th [...]m at 52 fa­thome.

Englands ende you may also see at 52 fathome.

You may see Lezard at 55 fathome, the ground is white and redde shellie sand.

The Deadmanshead may be seene at 42 fathome, from Le­zard along to Goutstart.

You may see Goutstart at 45 fathome.

The high land of Plimmouth may be seene at 50 fathome, being north from you, it is high double land, lying upon two hilles, the same high within the land runneth all along the land from Fawick to Dartmouth, and you may see the land of Dart­mouth at 45 fathome.

IX. How these Countreys lye distant from each other.

  • FRom the Sorrels to Englands ende e. n. e. about 8 leagues.
  • From Englands ende to Lezard e. s. e. 10 or 11 leagues.
  • From Lezard to Famouth n. & by e. 4 league.
  • From Famouth to the Deadmanshead east & by north and east northeast 4 leagues.
  • From the Deadmanshead to Fawick n. e. 4 leagues.
  • From Fawick to the Ile of Lowe east 3 leagues.
  • From the Ile of Lowe to Ramshead e. n. e. 5 leagues.
  • From Ramshead to Goutstart e. s. e. 8 leagues.
  • From Goutstart to Dartmouth n. e. 3 leagues.
  • From Dartmouth to Torbaye northeast 3 leagues.
  • From Torbaye to Tops or Exmouth north 5 leagues.
  • From Exmouth to Portland e. s. e. 13 leagues.
  • From Sorrels to Sevenstones northeast and somewhat norther­lyer 3 leagues.
  • From Sorrels to the Wolf east 5 leagues.
  • From the Wolf to Englands ende n. n. e. 3 leagues.
  • From the Wolf to Lezard e. and by s. 11 leagues.
  • From Lezard to Deadmanshead n. e. 7 leagues.
  • From the Deadmanshead to Ramshead e. n. e. 8 leagues.
  • From Ramshead to Meustone south 3 leagues.
  • From the point of Plimmouth to the Meustone southsouthwest and somewhat southerlyer 4 leagues.
  • From the Meustone to Goutstart e. & by s. & e. 7 or 8 leagues.
  • From Torbaye to Portland e. & somewhat north 13 or 14. leag.
  • From the Sorrels to Lezard east 16 leagues.
  • From Lezard to Goutstart e. & by n. 20 or 21 leagues.
  • From Goutstart to Portland northeast and somewhat more eastward 19 or 20 leagues.

X. How these places are distant from other Countreys.

  • FRom the Sorrels to Waterford in Ireland north and some. what westerly 40 leagues.
  • From Sorrels to Cape de Claro n. w. & by n. 40 leagues.
  • From Sorrels to Cape de Finisterre south and by west & some­what westerlyer 151 leagues.
  • From Sorrels to Heysant s. e & by s. 37 leagues.
  • From Sorrels to the Casquettes east and somewhat southerlyer 56 leagues.
  • From Lezard to Tercera s. w. and by w. 387 leagues.
  • From Lezard to Tenerifa s. s. w. 467 leagues.
  • From Lezard to Cape Finisterre southsouthwest, and then you runne about 5 leagues without it, 153 leagues.
  • From Lezard to Heysant south 29 leagues.
  • From Lezard to Septisles s. e. and by e. 27 leagues.
  • From Lezard to Garnsey e. and by s. 37 leagues.
  • From Goutstart to Heysant s. w. and by s. 40 leagues.
  • From Goutstart to S. Paul de Lyon s. & by w. 29 leagues.
  • From Goutstart to Septisles south and by east and somewhat easterlyer 37 leagues.
  • From Goutstart to Casquettes e. s. e. 10 leagues.

XI. Vnder what degrees these Countreys lye.

  • THe south-side of Sorrels & Lezard lye under 50 degrees.
  • Goutstart lyeth under 50 degrees 12 minutes, or as some saye 50 degrees 20 minutes.
  • Portland lyeth under 50 degrees 30 minutes, or as some saye 50 degrees 40 minutes.
Heere followeth the Carde N. 19.

V [...]oon d [...] nae't leven vanac Zeecustē van Engelan [...] tusschen Poo [...]tlant en̄ Doveren, en̄ voort N [...]rtu [...]ert tot het Voorlāt, Jtem van­de geleg [...] [...]jt der Engde tussche Vruncrijck en̄ Enge [...] [...]t, oock wat sanden Banckē en̄ ge­vaerlijck [...] Droochtē aen die gewesten zijn geleghen al [...]e [...] na rechte mate, streckingen, ende hoc [...] [...]en vand [...] Poole gestelt.

Representation au vif des Costes marines D'Angleterre entre Portlande et Douvres, Jtem de la situation de l'estroict entre France et Angleterre nommé le Pas de Calais, aussi quels Bancqs, Sables, Guez, et autres perilz entour et envir [...] ̄ lesdictes costes on a a eviter et fuir, tout accommodé selon sa droicte me­sure, vruijes [...]vutes, et [...]levatio [...]s du Pole.

CHAPTER XVII. A TRVE DESCRIPTION how you may sayle into the Havens betweene Portland and the Foreland.

I. To sayle by the Ras of Portland, and into the Haven of Poole.

THe Ras of Portland beginneth about half waie from Portland,The Ras of Port­land. and endeth against the middle of S. Andrewes land, in some places it is all banckie, and sometimes it is deeepe 7, and then 10, and then 15 fathome;

Rode in Portland.If you come from the west and desire to goe into Portland, you may runne along within two cables length, or the shotte of a peece by Portland, and sayle westward about the point up before the castle, where you may lye safe against a south, and a south and by east winde, at 7 or 8 fathome, but with a southwest, and a southsouthwest winde, a man must take heede of the ravelings, which begin half waie from Portland, and ende half waie at S. Andrewes land.

About a great league north from Portland there lyeth a litle Tydehaven, which at lowe water is drie, it is called Weimouth, before it you may anckor at 4 or 5 fathome.

Men commonly anckor under Portland at 10 or 11 fathome, that the point may be south and by east, and southsoutheast from you.

To sayle into the haven of Poole.By the east-point of S. Andrewes land, three leagues west frō the Needles of the Ile of Wight, you runne into the haven of Poole, which is a good haven for shippes that will goe about eastward. To goe into it goe along by S. Andrewes land, at 5 or 6 fathome with half flood, but when you come against the Cingle or the other land, then loose westward to the point, and there anckor, for there you lye safe against a s. w. and s. s. w. winde. But if you will sayle into the haven of Poole, then shall you perceive another point bearing out, so soone as you are gone about the foresaid point, by the which standeth a high white steepe rock like a mast, almost like the Needle on the west ende of Wight, there you may sayle about at 4 or 5 fathome. Now when you are about the said point with the needle goe forward northwest, and you shall see right before you a high flat hill rising up out of the other land, keepe that hill betweene both the shores, and sayle right forward. But if it chance that you must laveere, then spare not your lead, & runne no further westward as you crosse, then that the foresaid flatte hill cōmeth upon the west-land: for so soone as the hill beginneth to come upon the west-land, you must turne, or els you shall presently be on ground: when you be turned, then crosse no further east­ward then that the foresaid rock cōmeth upon the east-downe, which is a high, graye, sharp downe, lying upon the east-side: if you hold these markes so, then you have water ynough at half flood. Where it is shallowest, at lowe water there is in the cha­nel 10 or 11 foot water, yet it floweth but five foot up and downe. A southeast and northwest moone maketh high water there: but it floweth twise in a tyde: for a south and by east moone maketh there also full Sea, and that commeth by reason of the fore-ebbe which falleth out of Wight. When you are within the chanel, then goe on northeast, and keepe the bea­kons which stand on the east-land on starreborde, and goe up reasonable close. The shores on both sides are verie steepe, and the chanel is not wide, but without the deepe or chanel it is ve­rie flatte. It is Pilots water.

When you be by Portland then S. Andrewes land thus, when you sayle along by it.

Portland.

II. To sayle into the Havens of the Ile of Wight.

FRom Portland to the west-ende of the Ile of Wight it is 11 leagues e. n. e. but to Wolfertshorne it is 13 leagues east and by north and west and by south.

To sayle into the west-ende of the Ile of Wight.To sayle into the west-ende of the Ile of Wight, you must sayle right upon the Needle of the Ile of Wight, rūning in close along by the Needle, within a cables length thereof, because of the sands which lye of from the Cingle, before the west-ende of the Ile of Wight, whereby the chanel or haven is not al to wide, and when you are within the Needle, you must turne over to the castle which standeth upon the Cingle, because there lye some rockes upon the Iland under the water, it is betweene the Needle and the banck five fathome deepe, with lowe water.

Markes of the haven of the Needle.The markes to sayle right into the Haven of the Needle are these, when you hold the inner point of the Iland without the Needle, or the castle which standeth upon the Cingle without the Needle, and so runne till you be within the banckes, being there within, you must put of somewhat to the Cingle, and when you are within the Cingle, then leave two third-parts of the water on the left hand, and so sayle before the village of Newton, and there anckor at 9 or 10 fathome. But if you will sayle further to Calveroot, you must sayle so long untill South­hampton commeth without the point, there is the best Rode, and the best lying in all the Havens of the Ile of Wight, at 10 or 12 fathome.

To sayle into the east-ende of the Ile of Wight.To sayle into the east-ende of the Ile of Wight, then you must sette the easterly castle over the Lime-kil (which is a white place in the land, lying beneath the castle) which you hold stan­ding so, untill the Swan-cliffe commeth within or under the point of the Ile of Wight, then you must bring the Lime-kill over against the east-ende of Porchmouth, which you must hold in that sort, until the castle that standeth west from Porch­mouth commeth upon the wood. These markes standing thus, you shall sayle neither by flattes nor sands, and you come some­tymes about S. Helens church, and when the castle of the Ile of Wight cōmeth without the Swan-cliffe, and S. Ellens church two shippes length within the redde-point, then you sayle not by the sand.

And if it fall out that you cannot see the Lime-kill,Markes not to sayle by the Sand. then you must hold the castle west from the Swan-cliffe, untill S. Ellens church commeth a ships length without the point of the Iland, then you may freely goe northwest without sayling by the sand, then you must sette the four-square steeple betweene the east-ende of Porchmouth and the castle, but when the castle on the west-side of Porchmouth cōmeth upon the east-side of the wood, then you sayle neither by flattes nor sands, as I said be­fore.

When the easterly white place is a shippes length westward from the wood, which standeth west from the castle,Other markes. then you are east from the sand.

And when the Swan-cliffe is within the point, then also you are within the cliffe.

The markes of the Flat are these, there standeth a four-square steeple in the land,Markes of the Flat. and a castle upon the water eastward from Porchmouth, against the castle there standeth a white place cal­led the Lime-kill, as I said before, when that is east from the said castle, so that you may see just betweene them, then you are up­on the Flatte, which at lowe water is 10 foot deepe, and then the castle west from Porchmouth, standeth on the west-side of the wood.

But when the four-square steeple on the west-side commeth to the foot of the castle, then the castle west from Porchmouth, standeth on the west-side of the wood, and there at lowe water it is 12 foot deepe upon the Fatte. And when the four-square steeple, standeth betweene the east-ende of Porchmouth and the castle right betweene the lime-kill and the steeple, and the castle west frō Porchmouth at the west-ende of the wood, there it is 11 fathome deepe at high water.

And when the lime-kill standeth against the towre of Porch­mouth, and the castle on the west-ende of the wood, then you have 10 fathome deepe at high water.

When S. Ellens church lyeth southwest & by west from you then the southeast-ende of the Flat lyeth northeast & by north from you, and the west-ende north & by east.

Thus the Iland of Wight sheweth when you sayle along by it, being three or four leagues of from it.

III. To sayle from the Ile of Wight to Bevesier.

FRom Wight to the east-ende of Wembridge at twelve fa­thome the course is eastnortheast 6 or 7 leagues,Wem­bridge. and from Wembridge to Bevesier east and by north, and somewhat easterlyer 13 leagues.

You may sound Wembridge at 12 fathome, crosse over in the land there standeth a steeple against Wembridge, when that is northnorthwest from you, then you are against Wembridge: and when Swan-cliffe is w. & by n. and w. n. w. from you, thē you are without Wembridge: if you be acquainted with the place, you may sayle through betweene the land & Wembride.

Betweene Wembridge and Porchmouth there runneth in a great Haven, whereon there lyeth a towne called Chychester, which by some is placed upon the River of New-haven, which is otherwise.

Arundel.From Wembridge to Arundel, it is eastnortheast 5 leagues. This is a deepe Tyde-haven, where at half flood a great shippe may well goe in, you goe along by the west-land, northeast, and in the mouth of the haven you have 2 fathome, betweene both the lands 3, and within the haven 4 and 5 fathome at lowe wa­ter, where you anckor before the village.

In this Haven the Englishmen build manie shippes, because within the River there is much timber.

Eight leagues east from Arundel lyeth the River of Newer­havē,Newer­haven. where there rūneth in two chanels, the one west, the other east: that on the west-side goeth in close by the west-land, and is two fathome deepe at lowe water.

The east-chanel goeth in along by the Cingle, & is three fa­thome deepe. In the same men lye at rode west frō Bevesier, for it is a good havē, wide & broad, & is 4 or 5 fathome deepe with­in at lowe water. But on the east-side, within in the same haven there lyeth a blinde rock, which you must shunne. At this haven of Newer-haven begin the Seven-cliffes, which reach to Beve­sier. Under Bevesier against the west-ende of the Seven-cliffes you may anckor right against the Cingle, whereby you rūne a­long into Newer-haven, at 7, 8, or 9 fathome, you may also anc­kor on the east-side of Bevesier at 6, 7 or 8 fathome, then the point shall be south, and south and by west from you.

Bevesier is the best known land in the whole chanel along, & you may see the land without Bevesier, against the Seven-cliffes or Kenning-land at 23 or 30 fathome.

Thus the land of Bevesier sheweth with the Seven-cliffes

IIII. To sayle from Bevesier to Dover, and then to the Foreland.

FRom Bevesier to the point of the Cingle it is eastnortheast 8 leagues.

To sayle into the Chamber.He that will sayle into the Chamber comming out of the west, he must keepe Bevesier without the point of Fierley, and runne so on upon the Cingle, & then along by the Cingle within two cables length, to the ende of the Cingle, then you must turne up westward, leaving the beakons on the right hand, til you be before the castle which standeth upō the South-Cin­gle, there you may anckor in the River of Rie, at four & five fa­thome, when you sayle up, you must leave the beakons on starreborde, (as is said before) for the beakons stand upon the darisen, and at lowe water they are drie, along to the towne of Rie, and it is all beakoned along.

On the east-side of the Cingle, you may also anckor in Rum­ney-baye,Rumney-baye. before Rumney towre, running in so farre that the point of the Cingle, be south, and south and by west from you, there it is seven and eight fathome deepe, there you may anc­kor.

From the Cingle aforesaid to the north-point of Dover it is northeast and by east 9 leagues.

Before Dover you may anckor safe against a north,Rode un­der Dover. and a northwest winde, right against the castle is the best anckoring at 10 fathome, for there it is faire ground.

To sayle into the Downes, sayle easily in by the point of Do­ver, all along by the land, within two cables length,To sayle into the Downes. and sette beneath the middle castle, at seven or eight fathome.

To sayle through betweene Goodwin and the land.When you come out of the west and will goe in betweene Goodwin-sands to the Foreland, you must goe n. and by e. so long untill that the mill which standeth upon the Foreland, come on the west-side of the valley, which is in the Foreland, going all along north and by east, and northnortheast, untill the towre which is upon the Foreland cōmeth upon the east-ende of the valley, then you are north from the Quernes, then the flatte steeple which standeth upon the land of Dover will be upon or right over the third white chalck hill which lyeth north from the point of Dover, this is a right long marke to sayle through betweene the Quernes & Goodwin-sands, as well from the east as from the west.

To sayle north within Goodwin sands.If you will goe north within Goodwin sands, you must goe no nearer to the Quernes then seven fathome, placing the point of Dover southsouthwest from you, and there you goe in at the best depth, the [...] when the flatte steeple which standeth upon the Foreland cōmeth within Ramsgate or the valley, then you are against the Quernes,Markes of the Qu [...]rnes. and when the mill commeth within Ramsgate then you are south from the Quernes.

When you lye in the Downes, & that the inner point of Do­ver cl [...]ffe is southsouthwest frō you, then the Quernes lye north and by east from you, and the north-ende of Goodwinsands ly­eth northeast from you.

The aforesaid north-ende of Goodwin sands, lyeth s. e. and by east from the Foreland, a great league, the Quernes lye along

Thus the land of Dover openeth when you are we [...]t from Wo­man or Vrowen-sand through the Heads.

by the Foreland towards the Downes.

When you will sayle without Goodwin sands to the Fore­land, then hold the point which lyeth west from Dover,To sayle without Goodwin sands to the Fore­land. with­out the point of the downes, and goe in north-east, till the Fore­land be northwest and by west from you, then you may well goe to the Foreland and anckor before Margat, or where you will, but right against the steeple which hath the mill by it, is the best rode: or when the point of the Foreland is southsouth­west, and southwest and by south from you, there also is good anckoring at 8 or 9 fathome.

You may also goe betweene the Quernes and the Foreland,To goe within the Quernes to Sand­wich. to Sandwich, but there lyeth an other Sand, called the Three-stales, betweene it and the Quernes, it is 3 fathome deepe, and betweene the land and the said sand it is also 3 fathome deepe at half flood, but the Quernes are in short tyme much lessened, & cleane gone, so that the north ende is almost gone.

Betweene Margat and the Reculvers you may anckor in all places at 6 or 7 fathome at half flood.

Thus Fierley sheweth when you sayle along by it four leagues from the land.
When you goe from the Downes to the Foreland, then the land sheweth thus.

V. Of the running and falling of the streames in these places.

FRom Portland to the Ile of Wight the flood falleth east & by north, and the ebbe west and by south.

From the Ile of Wight to Bevesier likewise east and by north, and west and by south.

By Bevesier on the land before the Seven-cliffes, the flood falleth east and by south, and the ebbe west and by north.

From Bevesier to the Single it falleth eastnortheast, and west­southwest.

From the Singles to Dover the flood falleth northeast & by east, and southwest and by west.

In the middle through the Heads the flood falleth northeast and by east, and the ebbe southwest and by south.

From Dover to the Foreland the streame falleth within Goodwin-sands through over the Quernes south and north, & by the Foreland in to the Reculvers, over the Brakes the flood falleth westsouthwest, and west and by south.

About without Goodwin to Kintesknock, the flood falleth north and by west and northnorthwest, there the flood com­meth both from north and south, and meete each other, and fall [Page 113] so in to the sands, and the havens or chanels.

In the chanel without the Flemish Banckes, it is 23 and 24 fathome deepe, but close by Goodwin sands it is 28 and 29 fathome deepe, and then you are not two peeces shotte from them, therefore he that sayleth out of the Marsdeepe to the Heads, he must not goe otherwise then southwest, and south­west and by south, & he must also staye much upon the streame, for in this place it is verie fit & necessarie to be done, and when you gesse that you have sayled 40 or 45 leagues, then chuse the Flemish Banckes at 20 and 18 fathome, and when you are sure of the ground, then goe southwest, and at last southwest & by west, then you shall come into the middle of the Heads.

VI. What Moone in these places maketh high water.

AGainst the Ile of Wight before Wolvertshorn a south & by east moone maketh a full Sea.
At Hampton at the Kaye a south and a north moone.
Within the Needles of the Ile of Wight a southeast & by south moone.
At S. Ellens and Calveroort a southsoutheast moone.
At Bevesier on the land a south and north moone.
Without in the chanel a s. s. w. moone.
In the chanel of Winchelsey a south and by east moone.
Against the Cingle a southsouthwest moone.
Betweene Dover and the Cingle the like.
At Dover a south and north moone maketh a full Sea.
In the middle betweene the Heads a southwest moone maketh full Sea.
In the Downes a southsouthwest moone.
On the Foreland a south and north moone.

VII. What depths are about these places.

IN the chanel betweene Portland and the Casquettes it is 40 fathome deepe, and when it is cleare wether, then you may see the land on both sides, & the nearer you are to England the shallower.

Without or against the Ile of Wight it is 38 fathome deepe, and you may see the land.

Without Bevesier against the Seven-cliffes or Kenningsland it is 28 and 30 fathome deepe.

Betweene Winchelsey & Picardie in the middle of the cha­nel it is 26 and 27 fathome deepe, and you may see Fierley and the land of Dover.

Vrouwen or Woman-sand lyeth in the middle of the Heads, & at lowe water it is but sixteene or seventeene foot deepe, but it is narrowe, and runneth about south to the land of Bullen. This Sand lyeth south and by east from Dover, and from Calis­cliffe west and by south. On both sides of this Banck, both on Picardie and on the English side it is 22, 23, and 24 fathome deepe.

VIII. How these places aforesaid lye distant one from the other.

  • FRom Portland to the west-ende of the Needles of the Ile of Wight e. and by n. and e. n. e. 11 leagues.
  • Frō S. Andrewes land to the Needles of the Ile of Wight east about 4 leagues.
  • From the Needles of the Ile of Wight to Wolfertshorne east & by south 4 leagues.
  • From the Ile of Wight to Wolfertshorne, & up to Wembridge at 12 fathome eastnortheast 5 leagues.
  • From Wembridge to Bevesier east and by north 13 leagues.
  • From Bevesier to Fierley eastnortheast 5 leagues.
  • From Fierley to the Cingle eastnortheast 3 leagues.
  • From the Cingle to Dover n. e. and by e. 9 leagues.
  • From the point of Dover or the Downes to the Foreland north 7 leagues.
  • From Portland to Wolfertshorne e. and by n. 13 leagues.
  • From Wolfertshorne to Bevesier e. & by n. 19 or 20 leagues.
  • From Bevesier to the Cingles e. n. e. 8 leagues.

IX. How these parts lye distant from other Lands.

  • FRom Portland to Heysant southwest 53 leagues.
  • From Portland to S. Paul de Lyon s. w. & by s. 40 leagues.
  • From Portland to the Casquettes s. & by e. 13 leagues.
  • From Portland to Seynhooft or Stonehead southeast and by east 37 or 38 leagues.
  • From the Ile of Wight to Casquettes southwest and by south 20 leagues.
  • [Page 114]From the east-ende of the Ile of Wight to Struysaert southeast and somewhat southerlyer 29 leagues.
  • From the Ile of Wight to Deepe or Diepen east-south-east 37 leagues.
  • [...]rom Bevesier to Casquettes southwest & by west 37 leagues.
  • From Bevesier to Struysaert south and north 24 leagues.
  • Fr [...]m Bevesier to Diepen southeast 21 leagues.
  • From Bevesier to Swartenesse 20 leagues.
  • From Dover to Deepe south 23 leagues.
  • From Dover to the Wielings eastnortheast 24 leagues.
  • From Dover to the Mase or Gorce n. e. and by n. 35 leagues.
  • From the Foreland to Texel northeast 45 leagues.

X. Vnder what degrees these Countreys lye.

  • POrtland lyeth under 50 degrees 30 minute [...].
  • The Ile of Wight or Wolvertsshorn lyeth under 50 deg-36 minutes.
  • Bevesier lyeth under 50 degrees 48 minutes.
  • The point of Dover lyeth under 51 degrees 10 minutes.
  • The point of the Foreland lyeth under 51 degr. 28 or 30 min.
The ende of the first Book.

A table of the first Book, conteyning the Arguments of everie Chapter.

  • CHapter I. Describeth the Vlie-streame and Tessel-streame: Item the Vlie and Tessel. pag. 3.
  • Chap. II. Describeth the Coasts of Holland, Zealand & Flanders, from Tessel to the Pas of Calis. pag. 12.
  • Chap. III. Describeth the Sea-coasts of France, betweene the Pas of Calis & the Kasquettes. pag. 28.
  • Chap. IIII. Describeth the Sea-coasts of Bretaigne, and of all the Ilands situate betweene Cape de Hague and the Seims. pag. 33.
  • Chap. V. Teacheth how you may sayle the Sea-coasts of Bri­taigne & Poictou, frō the Seims to the Iland of S. Marten. pag 43.
  • Chap. VI. Describeth the Sea-coasts and Ilands of France & Biscaya, betweene the Iland Heys and Cape de Massichaca. pag. 49.
  • Chap. VII. Describeth the Sea-coasts of Biscaya, betweene Cape de Massichaca and Cape de Pinas. pag. 56.
  • Chap. VIII. Describeth the Sea-coasts of Gallisia from Cape de Pinas to Cape de Finisterre. pag. 60.
  • Chap. IX Describeth the situation of the Coasts of Gallicia and Portugal, from Cape de Finisterre to the Barrels. pag. 65.
  • Chap. X. Describeth the Coasts of the Sea of Portugal & Al­garve, from the Barrels to Cape de S. Vincent. pag. 72.
  • Chap. XI. Declareth the situation of the Sea-coasts of Algar­ve and Andalusia, betweene Cape S. Vincent and the Strait of Gi­braltar. pag. 75.
  • Chap. XII. Describeth the Sea-coasts of Barbarie, from the Strait of Gibraltar to Cape de Geer. pag. 80.
  • Chap. XIII. Describeth the Canarie and Flemish Ilands. pag. 84.
  • Chap. XIIII. Describeth the Sea-coasts of the West, South, and East-side of Ireland. pag. 91.
  • Chap. XV. Describeth the situation of the Sea-coasts & Ha­vens of Wales, and of the Chanel of Bristowe. pag. 96.
  • Chap. XVI. Describeth the Coasts of England from the Sor­rels to Portland. pag. 100.
  • Chap. XVII. Describeth the Havens & Sea-coasts betweene Portland and the Foreland. pag. 109.
The ende of the Table.
THE SECOND BOOK OF T …

THE SECOND BOOK OF THE LIGHT OF NAVIGATION VVHEREIN ARE DESCRIBED ALL THE COASTS Havens and Ilands of the North and East Seas:

As, of Friesland, Iutland, Denmarke, Pomerland, Prusia, Leefland, Sweathland, Norwaie, Lapland and Muscovia.

AS ALSO all the North and East Coasts of Scotland and England.

[figure]

AT AMSTERDAM PRINTED BY VVILLIAM IOHNSON, DVVELLING upon the VVater, by the Old Bridge, at the Signe of the Golden Son-dyall. Anno 1612.

Heere followeth the Carde N. 20.

CHAPTER I. THE DESCRIPTION OF the Ilands and Chanels lying betweene Vlieland and the Elve.

I. Of the Ilands of Vlieland and the Schellingh:

THe Iland of the Vlieland is three leagues long, and is well to be knowne, on the east ende there lie high white bāckes or downes; but on the west it is flatte or lowe land. On the west ende there standeth a church with a mill east frō it. From the west ende there­of there shooteth out a Sand a good waie in to the Sea.West Vlie­land deep. West from this rock, betweene Vlieland and Eyer­land there runneth in a chanel called the Wester gat, or West-Vlieland-deepe, but it is not for great shippes, but onely for fi­shermen, for therein there is not above 8 or 10 foot water. At the east ende there standeth a mill with a cape, which are markes to shunne the grounds that lye before the Vlie. The east ende of the Vlieland, and the west ende of the Tessel are distant from each other 8 leagues.

East from Vlieland lyeth the Schellingh; which is about three leagues long,The Schel­lingh. upon it there stand four churches & one chappel: the westerlyest is a high flatte steeple called Brandaris; which is well knowne by all Seafaring men. About the middle of the land there stand two steeples, the westerlyest is a statte steeple, called Zeerip, the easterlyest is sharp and is called Midland, and east frō it there standeth a high speere steeple called the Horne, and a chappel called S. Iohns. On the east ende there lye high downes, but not upon the west ende, but one onely called the Lit, betweene Midlands and the Lit it is lowe flat land. On the west ende there standeth three capes or beakons, the westerly­est is for Bomekins gat, the easterlyest for the north gat or cha­ne, but the middlemost is for the Slencke, which runneth from the Newe ligger through Peters sand into the Sea.

Thus the Iland of the Vlieland sheweth being about two leagues crosse from it.
Thus the Schellingh sheweth when you sayle along by it about two leagues from the land.

II. To sayle into the chanels of the Vlie and first of Stortemelck.

HOw you must sayle up and downe the Vlie streame, and how you shall sayle out of all the chanels of the Vlie streame, it is at large declared in the first Cha­pter of the first Book. But how a man shall reach the said chanels without, and sayle into them I will heere at large tru­ly declare.

To sayle into Stortemelck (that is the Land-deepe of Vlie­land) set the cape and the mill upon the eastende one against the other, and sayle up upon it, and so you shall finde the ut­termost tonne lying at five fathome, the cape and the mill shall then stand eastsoutheast, and southeast and by east from you. This uttermost tonne lyeth nearest to the north side, yet you may well goe somewhat north about it, for the north side is reasonable flatte, so that comming out of the north, you may sound it at five or sixe fathome, till you be with­in the uttermost tonne. The second tonne,The Dro­ghe drie. called the tonne upon the Droghe drie, lyeth east, and east and by south from the uttermost, at four fathome on the north side, the right depth there against it is also four fathome, with lowe water. When you sayle in you leave that on the bagh­borde.

Betweene this tonne and the uttermost tonne, it is not dee­per upon the Droghe drie or drumpel then 16 foot with lowe water. From the second tonne to the third the course is east and by north, that lyeth on the north-side at five fathome, but the right depth there against it, is seven fathome, you may sayle in all along by the strand of Flieland to this tonne without misdo­ing, for it is all faire. From the third tonne to the fourth or in­nermost the course is east and by north, that lyeth at 3 fathome on the south-side, that is, at the point of the Sand, which com­meth off from the north-point of the Vlieland. From the third tonne to this tonne you must leave the foot-strand of Vlieland, because of the said Sand, and runne north about by the tonne. It is there in the chanel 4 fathome deepe at lowe water. From thence forward to the tonne upon the Flat the course is south­southeast, or sayle forward by the foot-strand of the Vlieland to Langesand, for that is all verie faire, there in the chanel it is five sixe and seven fathome deepe.

III. The situation of Boemkens haven.

BOemkens gat is now at this time, the best chanel of all the chanels of the Vlie. If you will sayle into Bomekens gat, comming out of the Sea, then set the westerlyest cape on the Schelling against the steeple of Brandaris, and then they wil stand about southeast from you, then sayle upon them, and so you shall finde the uttermost tonne at tenne fathome, which ly­eth at the ende of Boemkens ground. Boemkens ground shoo­teth off with a long small sand, to that uttermost tonne, and are both without and within verie uneven and sloping, a litle south or west from the tonne you shall be close by it at 12 fathome, so that at one cast with the lead you shall have 12 fathome, the se­cond but 8 or 7, and the third 3 or 4 fathome, with flat botto­med ships you may goe west without from the uttermost tōne, a faire waie at 12 foot water. When you come from without a­gainst it, then it drieth up apace, as I said before, and as soone as you are over the point of sand, thē it is 3 fathome deepe again. From the uttermost tonne to the second tonne, the course is southsouthwest, there betweene them both, it is at the driest of the drumple 3 fathome deepe, at lowe water: being over it, it is deeper againe to the second tonne, which lyeth in the middle of the w [...]ter, at 4 fathome and an half at lowe water. The west side (as I said before) is steepe & shoring, but the east side is a great waie flatte, you may sound a great waie east about the two ut­termost tonnes along by the land, at three, and three fathome & an half to the third tonne. From the second tonne to the third, the course is south and by east, which lyeth on the east-side at 5 fathome, and betweene the second and the third tonne it is 7 fa­thome deepe in the chanel. From the third to the fourth (which is the tonne at Feihook) the course is s. s. e. it is a white tonne and lyeth upon the east-side at 3 fathome,Feihook. there against it in the Bomesgat or chanel it is the narrowest, and there in the middle of the water it is 7 or 8 fathome deepe at lowe water. The west-side there against it is verie steepe and sloping, so that when a shippe lyeth against or upon it with the beak-head, it will lye 7 fathome deepe behinde at the sterne, and right crosse from Fei­hook on the west-side lyeth the sand called Peter sand, which at lowe water is all drie. If you will sayle in at this chanel, you must reckon well your tydes, for without the chanels the streames fall along by the land, and crosse over the Bomekins­gat, till it be half flood or half ebbe, but then the flood begineth to fall right into the chanel, and at half ebbe to fall right out of it, which a man must have great care to thinke upon, and to re­member, when you wil sayle out or into this chanel with a sharp winde. From the wite tonne at Feihook to the tonne at the Bos,Bos. the course is southsoutheast, it lyeth at five fathome on the east-side by the point of the Bos: betweene the white tonne at Fei­hook and the tonne at the Bos, in the chanel, it is 7 or 8 fathome deepe. From the tonne at the Bos to the tonne at Hobbesand,Hobbe­sand. the course is southsoutheast, when you sayle up you may sayle under it at 5 fathome, the right depth there betweene them both is 8, 9 and 10 fathome. The tonne lyeth at the point of Hobbesand at 5 fathome lowe water, the west-side is all shoring and steepe as I said before, & you must goe no nearer to the east-side then 6 fathome, specially with a foreflood, for that would bring you lightly behinde the ende of Hobbesand. Right over against the tonne at Hobbesand lyeth the northerlyest white tonne of Speckhook, which you must leave on starreborde, and right north from that white tonne there lyeth a Flat, which at lowe wat [...]r is drie. From the tonne of Hobbesand to the black tonne at Speckhook,Speck­hook. the course is s. s. w. it lyeth at 3 fathome lowe water, but the right depth against it is five fathome: be­tweene the tonne at Hobbesand and this tonne, it is in the right chanel 8, 6 and 5 fathome. East from this tonne the Newe or South Iettingh goeth in, and there the flood falleth strongly in. The black tonne at Speckhook, and the southerlyest white tōne [Page] [Page] [Page]

Be naminghe der plaetsen die op de Elve met letteren aenghewesē werdē

  • a De Schortonne
  • b De Rostonne
  • c De ton op de Meem
  • d De Grutpot
  • e De witte ton op de nieuwe gronden
  • f De noord Elve

Op de Weser en̄ Iaa

  • a De ton op t hoost
  • b De ton op't coers
  • c De Mellum tonne
  • d De ton op Bollenzÿl
  • e De baecken [...] op Bollenzÿl
  • f De eerste ton op t Vlack
  • g t Vlack
  • h Cappelmans zandt
  • i De Iaa ton
  • k De Steenbalgh
  • l De backens van't Wadt
  • m Aenten oste Ieppe plaet

In dese twee colommen weeden veaclaert, de plaetsen, die op de we­ser, Jaa ende boyde de Eemsen met letteren aenghewosen werden.

De Eemsen

  • a Geltsacx plaet
  • b De Mieuwe steert
  • c De wolden
  • d Borckummer balgh
  • e De Ransel
  • f Steven Ianszoons ton
  • g De Hondt
  • h De Paep
  • i Iannens sandt ofte Reydersant
  • k Nesterlandt
  • l Brouwers plaet
  • m Memer zandt
  • n T' baeken op de Hoghe horn
  • o De ton op Conincx plaet
  • p De ton op Hamburgher zandt
  • q Memer Balgh

Nieuwe beschrÿvinghe van alle de Eylandē ende Gaten der Zee, die gheleghen zÿn langs de custen van Vrieslandt Groeninger­landt Embderlandt etc. van Vlielandt af tot de Elve toe, nu nieulÿcx na harc Je­aēwoordighe gheleghentheyt perfectelÿck beschrev [...] [...] Willem lansz. [...]. 1697

Van de Scholbalgh, de Lauwers, en de Schille

  • a Tnoordwester gat vande Scholbalgh
  • b Thooghe zandt
  • c Tnoordooster gat
  • d De Paerdemarckt
  • e De Knockebalgh
  • f Sÿmons zant
  • g Bosch sandt
  • h De zanden die van Rottum na den Bosch toe strecken

Aenwysingh der namen, van het Vlie, Amelander gat. de Schol­balch, Lauw­ers en de Schille.

Vant Vlie ena [...] Amelander gat

  • a. De Boomkes gronden
  • b. Pieters zandt
  • c. Den Bos
  • d. De ton op den Bos
  • e. De ton op Feyhoeck
  • f. De nieuwe leggher
  • g. De oude leggher
  • h. Ielmers plaet
  • i. De ton op Hobbezandt
  • k. De ton op Speckhoeck
  • l. De ton op de Plaet
  • m. De nieuwe Ietting
  • n. Coggedieys gronden
  • o. Camper zandt
  • p. De Plaet
  • q. De ton op Gerritshonden
  • r. De witte ton op de Plaet
  • s. Coggedieps gronden

Description de toutes les Isles et Ports de mer gisant au long des costes de Frise, de Groeningerlandt Emderlandt etc. de Vlielande jusques a la Rivie­re l' Albe, novellement et parfaictement descript selon leur vraye situation, per Guillaume Iansz.

[Page] [Page 5] lye about east and west distant from each other, but the tonne at the Flat lyeth about w. s. w. from the black tonne at Speck­hook,The Plate. but heere you must looke well to your streames & to the winde, for with the flood you must sayle west, to get above the tonne at the Plate, when you sayle up you leave the white tōne on starreborde, and that lyeth at 12 foot lowe water, but the tonne at the Plate lyeth at 3 fathome, and that you must leave on baghborde, right against it it is in the chanel five fathome deepe. But betweene these two tonnes, that is, betweene the blacktonne at Speckhook and the tonne at the Plate, it is verie shallowe, for there at lowe water against the white tonne that lyeth betweene them both, there is no more water then 14 or 13 foot. The white tonne is distant from the tonne at the Plate n. e. and s. w. you may also sayle somewhat north from this white tonne, over the southerlyest point of Petersand, for when you come in, and are a litle past the tonne at Hobbesand, & the northerlyest white tonne at Speckhook, then there runneth a chanel or gutter about southwest through, wherein at lowe wa­ter there is not lesse then 12 foot deepe, when you are through it, and come against Vlieland, and get deepe water againe, then you must sayle in right forward along by Vlieland.

The New Iettingh.East from the tonne at Speckhook goeth the Newe Iettingh in, as I said before, you may sayle into it, and come right north from the tonne of Langesand againe into the Vlie, therein lye three tonnes. When you come in, and will sayle in the Newe Iettingh, then you must leave the black tonne at Speckhook on starreborde, & goe on s. s. e. to the first tonne, there in the cha­nel it is 8 fathome deepe. From the first to the second tonne it is south, from the second to the third s. & by w. & there against it, it is deepe 3 or 4 fathome at lowe water. These tonnes lye all on the west-side which is verie steepe, but Hobbesand or the west-side is flatte, which you may sound with the lead, to the high beakon, which standeth upon the point of the Iettingh. From the third tonne to Langesand, the course is s. w. then when you come against the tonne at Langesand, there upon the drumple lye two small tonnes, which you sayle through be­tweene, and then you are right north from the tonne at Lange­sand. In the Vliestreame, there upon the said drumple it is 14 or 15 foot deepe at lowe water.

But to sayle into the Iettingh, when you come about the high beakon, there lyeth a white tonne at 3 fathome and an half on the south-side upō a point of sand, which without you may sayle under, leave it on starreborde: from thence you must goe southeast forward to the second tonne, there in the chanel it is 8, 9 and 10 fathome, the north-side is all shoring so that you can not sound it, upon it there stand some beakons, but the south-side is faire and flatte, there you may sound it all along at 3 & 4 fathome, the second tonne is a black tonne, and lyeth upon the north-side upō a Sand, which in going up you may sayle under. From the second tonne to the third, the course is s. s. e. and s. e. & by s. when you are past it there is good Rode on the south side, that is on Langesands side, at 3 or 4 fathome, then the towne of Harling will lye e. s. e. from you.

IIII. The situation of the North chanel.

THe North chanel was within fewe yeeres become the best chanel in the Flie, but it is so much altered, that now at this present it can hardly be used by great shippes, but onely by small and flatte bottomed shippes. To sayle into the North chanel, set the northerlyest or easterlyest cape upon the Schelling right upon Brandaris, then they will stand about s. s. w. from you, sayle upon them almost to the Schellingh strand, there you shall finde the tonne at 3 fathome, right without the easterlyest point of Petersand, leave that to Seaward from you, and sayle w. s. w. to the second tonne, which lyeth at the east ende of the Bos at 14 foot lowe water, and there against it is no deeper in the chanel, for thereabouts it is dryest, for when you are past it it is deeper againe, and you must leave that tonne on baghborde. From the second tonne to the newe ligger,Newe lig­ger. (that is the third tonne, as you count them comming in) the course is w. s. w. that tonne lyeth at 2 fathome and an half, on the south side, and there against it in the chanel it is 3 fathome & an half deepe. When you are by this new ligger, then the middlemost cape and Brandaris stand one against the other, and are s. s. e. from you. From thence, or right n. n. w. there runneth a chanel through Peters sand into the Sea, in it there is 3 fathome,The Slēck or Gutter. and without in the drumple 12 foot water. When you have the said cape and Brandaris one against another, keepe them standing so, and so you goe right out of that gutter: also when you will come in out of the Sea, and have the said cape & Brandaris one over against an other, and sayle upon them, then you shall goe by the newe ligger into the north chanel, this is a faire gutter for small shippes, the west side is shoring, but the east side is flat, which you may altogether sound with your lead.

Old Lig­ger.From the Newe ligger to the Old ligger the course is west­southwest, and southwest & by west, it lyeth also on the south-side at three fathome, but the chanel there is north four fa­thome deepe lowe water, the north side is all through shoring, but the south side is outward somewhat flatter, but inward it is also shoring. From the Old legger to the tonne at Feihook the course is southwest and by west, yet that reach it is all four fa­thome deepe, you must goe close southward from the white tonne at Feihook.,Feyhook. for there it is verie narrowe, and the Bos is all shoring, so that you can not sound it. Now when you are past the white tonne, then you come into Bomekins chanel, & you finde deeper water, that is, five, sixe and seven fathome. From thence you must sayle southwest forward, to the tonne at the Bos, and further as is said in the description of Bomekins chanel.

V. The situation of the Land-deepe of the Schellingh.

THe Land deepth goeth in by the foot strand of the Schellingh, it is a faire chanel for small shippes. To sayle into it goe along by the uttermost tonne of the north chanel by the foot strand, and so runne in by it, you cannot there doe amisse, ulesse you sayle bluntly upon the land, now when you come almost against the northerlyest cape, or about the length of the second tonne of the Northerne chanel, there it is dryest, and there at lowe water it is no more but tenne foot deepe, being over it, it is three, four and five fathome deepe, sayle forward by the strand, to the northerlyest point of the Schellingh, there against it it is sixe fathome deepe. Now when you have the length of the northwest point of the Schel­lingh, then goe southwest to the tonne at the Bos, but take heede to your streames, that you be not caried by the flood upon Ielmers Flatte, which lyeth betweene the Schellingh, and the tonne at Hobbesand. Now when you sayle southwest from the northwest point of the Schellingh, then you runne over the point of Ielmers Flatte, along at four fathome, and you come betweene the tonne at the Bos and the tonne at Hobbesand into Bomekins chanell,Ielmer Flatte. and then goe southsouth­east to Speckhook, and so forth inward as you are taught be­fore.

VI. Of the Iland of Ameland, and how you must sayle into Amelands chanel.

ABout two leagues eastward from the Schellingh lyeth Ameland, reaching eastnortheast and westnorthwest four leagues. Upon the westende of Ameland there standeth a cape, and also a great flatte steeple called the Holmes,Hoelum. the roof of this church is broken off, but the hindermost part of the roof with the gavle is yet on, and standeth upon the side walles. There was woont also a church to stand in the same Iland cal­led Midland church, but that is broken downe, but on the east side of Holme church there standeth a mill, with a house west from the mill, also there standeth a broad towre. There about where Midland church was woonte to stand, there lye three or four downes, which are lowe, flat and somewhat long. On the east ende it is knollie black land, mixed with some white among it. But quite upon the east ende, there lyeth a faire high round white downe, which is verie well to be knowne. From the west ende of Ameland there reacheth a Sand almost three leagues into the Sea, which is called Borneriffe.Bor [...]riffe. And west from that riffe Ameland chanel goeth in. This Borneriffe and the north points of Tessel lye distant from each other northeast & south­west 12 leagues.

Thus Ameland sheweth, being about two leagues and an half from it, when you are ove [...] against it.

IF you will sayle into the Chanel of Ameland, comming out of the Sea, then set the cape which standeth upon the east ende of the Schellingh, right against the steeple of Horne, and sayle upon it, and so you shall finde the uttermost tonne, which lyeth at the ende of Borneriffe, at five fathome lowe water. Or if you come out of the west, then runne upon the strand of the Schellingh, at lowe water at five, or five fa­thome and an half, and so goe along by the strand, and you shall sayle right upon the uttermost tonne. Now when you come to the uttermost tonne, then the cape and the steeple of Holme upon Ameland are also one against the other, and stand then east and somewhat southerlyer from you, but Horne church [Page 7] and the cape upon the Schellingh shall then stand southsouth­west from you.

From the uttermost tonne to the second tonne the course is east, and a litle southerlyer, or hold the church of Holme upon Ameland standing right against the cape, & sayle upon it from the first tonne, then you shall not misse the second tonne, which lyeth at seven fathome. When you have the length of the se­cond tonne, then you are past the Coggie deepes grounds. When you sound along by the Schellingh at four fathome, then you shall not sayle under the Coggie deepes grounds. Be­tweene the first and the second tonne it is five or sixe fathome deepe in the chanel.

From the second to the third tōne the course is east, and east and by north,Gerrits Honden or Dogges. that is the tonne at Gerrits honden, which lyeth at three fathome and an half lowe water. You leave all these tonnes on baghborde when you sayle in, for Borneriffe on the inner side is all shoring, and specially Gerritshonden. Now when you sayle from the second tonne to the tonne upon Ger­ritshonden,Camper­sand. then Camper Sand is on your starreborde, and ly­eth cleane drie, you may sayle as close by it as you will. Be­tweene the second and the third tonne it is nine and eight fa­thome deepe in the chanel. When you sayle against Camper Sand, you must put over from it to the tonne at Gerritshonden, about eastnortheast, to runne above the Plate, which lyeth south from Gerritshonden,The Plate. for there betweene them both it is not wide. Betweene Gerrits Honden & the said Plate it is three fathome deepe at lowe water. The Plate at the north ende is flatish, so that there you may sound it with your lead.

When you sayle into or out of this chanel, keepe good ac­count of the streames, and specially take heede of an ebbe, for it f [...]lleth strongly crosse over this chanel, northnorthwest, over Borneriffe along into the Sea.

When you are above the Plate, there lyeth a white tonne at three fathome,The white tonne. or sixeteene foot water, which you must leave on starreborde, and runne there east about it. This white tonne lyeth distant from the tonne upon Gerrits Honden southeast, past the tonne presently you finde deeper water, as eight, nine, tenne, and twelve fathome, then goe forth southeast & by east, so long, untill the steeple of Holme commeth over the south point of Ameland, where the Scutes lye, then you may goe in­to the bought, where on the south side it is verie flatte, & there you may ancker at five or sixe fathome, but on the north side it is altogether shoring. This reach from the white tonne till you be in the boucht is 9, 10, and 12 fathome deepe, and on both sides is altogether shoring.

If you wil goe further into the Horsen, then goe on from the bocht eastnortheast, along by the south side, at 5 or 6 fathome,To sayle to the Horsen forward. so long till that Heynoms chamber (that is a redde tyled house) be a handspake length north from Holmer church, there ancker at 5 or 6 fathome, there is good anckor ground, and there you lye safe from all windes, there also goeth a litle streame. The north side is al shoring, & the chanel there is 12 fathome deepe.

Borneriffe without also is all shoring.The situa­tion of Bornriffe. When you come out of the Sea, you must goe no nearer to it then 12 fathome, for then you shall not be farre off from it. The whole Coast of Holland and Freesland a man may not goe nearer unto in darke wether nor by night then 14, 15, and 16 fathome,Warninge. because of the grounds and Sands. When you come out of the east along by Ameland, you cānot sayle under Borneriffe, but if you runne along by it at seven fathome, then you shall not goe a cast of a bullet outward from it.

A southeast & northwest moone maketh a high water with­out, in the chanel of Ameland, and also upon the land.

VII. The situation of Schiermonickooghe, and how you shall sayle into Scholbalgh.

THe Iland Schiermonickooghe lyeth from the east ende of Ameland distant east, & somewhat northerlyer three leagues, it is a lowe smooth Iland, about two leagues long, there stande no special markes upon it, but on the west ende there stand two capes, with a white downe, otherwise they are all lowe blackish downes or hillockes, but higher then upon the east ende, mixed with white. The east ende is a long flatte strand, with lowe rugged downes.

Betweene Ameland and Schiermonickooghe the Schol­balgh goeth in. Men were woont to goe in along by Schier­monickooghe, but that chanel is closed up within, and whol­ly spoyled.

Thus Schiermonickooghe sheweth, when it is about two leagues crosse from you.

To sayle into Scholbalgh, set the capes upon the westende of Scheermonickooghe one right against the other,To sayle into the Schol­ba [...]gh. then they shal stand about e. s. e. from you, sayle upon them, then you shall finde the first tonne, which lyeth in the Sea, at 7 fathome lowe water. From the uttermost tonne to the second tonne it is s. e. it lyeth at 4 fathome on the south side, as you sayle in you must leave it on starreborde, and goe with a flood at the least e. n. e. to the third tonne, which l [...]eth upon the point of the sand at 3 fathome, but betweene this tonne and the second the chanel is dryest, that is two fathome and an half at lowe water, and that right without the third tonne, the south side is faire and flatte, and you may sound it, but the north side is all shoring, you must also look well to your streames, for the flood falleth strongly southward crosse the lands, and the ebbe contrarie. When you are past the third tonne, the course to the beakon upon the high Sand is south, there it is deepe 7, 8 and 9 fathome. From the beakon upon the High sand sayle forth s. s. e. s. e. and east, all along by the beakons, along till you be before Oostmerhorne, and there anckor, on the south side it is all steepe and deepe, and verie white, but the north side is somewhat flat.

Northeast chan [...]l.West from the Horsmarket there goeth another chanel in, where at lowe water you shall have but 8 foot deepe, first it rea­cheth w. s. w. and sometimes somewhat southerlyer, but keepe along by the Horsmarket,The Hors­market. specially with a south winde, so you shall goe to the third tonne, at the northwest chanel, (which ly­eth upon the point of the chanel) and so into the deepe, leave that tonne on starreborde, and goe forward southward to the beakon upon the high sand, and there forth, as you are taught before.

VIII. Of the Iland the Bosch, and how you must sayle into the Lauwers.

FOur leagues east from Schiermonickooghe lyeth the I­land of Rottum, betweene them both lyeth an Iland cal­led the Bosch, which not manie yeeres since was wholly overwhelmed, and washt awaie with a storme, and is now againe (by meanes that men have begunne to plant heath upon it) growne up againe, so that now there lye two or three faire townes upon it. Betweene this Iland of the Bosch and the Ooghe the Lauwers goe in.

The the Iland the Bosch sheweth thus with two hillocks.

To sayle into the Lauwers rūne in east, close along by Schier­monickooghe.Markes of the Lau­wers. There stand two towres in Groningherland, whereof the smallest or the shortest is the loper, or the inner­most, and is called Liens or Leens: the longest or that which standeth nearest to the water is called Hoorhouses: set the stee­ple of Liens a bowe length west from Hoorhouses, then it will stand upon the foot strand of Schiermonickooghe, keepe them standing so, and runne upon the strand of the Ooghe, for there you cannot miscarie, before in the chanel it is wide and broade, and at lowe water no deeper then two fathome and an half, but when you are over the drumple, then it is 4, 5, and 7 fathome deepe, and reacheth in s. e. & by s. keepe upon the Ooghe side, but beware you sayle not under the Knockbalgh,Knock­balgh. Symons sand. which rea­cheth through betweene the foot strand of the Oogh, and Sy­mons sand, yet keeping upon three, or two fathome and an half you neede feare nothing, for everie yeere it lesseneth much, and is almost cleane spoiled, but it is best along by the High sand, on the east side, there also you can gette no hurt. Now when you are against Symons sand, there both the sides of the land are sho­ring, so that you cannot well sound them with the lead, turne then somewhat southward up about Symons sand, and anckor there at 7 or 8 fathome, there it is good lying. You must looke well to your streame, for there it falleth strongly both out & in.

IX. To sayle into the Schille.

EAst from the Bosch goeth in the Schille. If you will sayle into the Schille then place the two aforesaid steeples of Leens and Hoorhouses one right against the other, and so rūne upon the Boscher sand, until you get drougth of the sand,Boscher sand. you may sound in al along west from Boscher sand, and also east along to Rottum sand. About a yeere, or a yeere and an half since, the chanel was almost 5 fathome deepe, but now before in the chanel at lowe water, no more then two fathome & an half, but being over the drumple or threshold it is 10 or 12 fathome deepe, first it reacheth in s. e. til you come to the drie sand, that is the sand of the Bosch, go in thereby e. s. e. to that Ilād of the [Page 11] Bosch, there you must sayle in close by the land, for there it is verie narrowe betweene the Bosch and the Sands, which come shooting off from Rottum, & the Bosch is verie shoring. If you will anckor there,Rode un­der Bosch. then turne about right behinde the point of the Bosch, there it is good lying at 6 or 7 fathome: but if you will goe somewhat better in, then turne off frō the Bosch, when you are full past it, and chuse the north side, for that is faire and flat, and that you may sound, but on the north side there lye manie sands, which you may sayle under. Sayle forward along by the north side till you be behinde Rottum, and there anckor at 8 or 9 fathome,Rode be­hinde Rot­tum. you lye there safe against all windes. Wh [...]n you will sayle into or out of this chanel, looke well to your streame, for it falleth strongly into and out of this chanel.

To knowe the situation of the steeples in Groninghe land, you must understand,To knowe Leens and Hoore­house. that when the steeple of Leens (which is the shortest) is a sparre length west from Hoorhouse, then there commeth a high house just as much eastward from Hoorehouse as Leens is west from it, so that then Hoorehouse steeple stan­deth just in the middle betweene them, th [...]n you are right open before the Lauwers as I said before. When those steeples afore­said are one upon the other, then they stand s. s. e. and some­what southerlyer from you, then you are right against Boscher sand. But when Leens church leaveth that house and Hoore­house steeple, then you come against the Sands which shoote off from Rottum to the Bosch. A southeast and northwest moone maketh a full Sea in these chanels or havens.

X. The situation of Rottum and Borcum, and how you shall sayle into the West Eems.

Rottum.THe Iland of Rottum is a small Iland, almost a league and an half long, and is verie easely knowne: the west ende is high and steepe, & the rest is lowe downe land. Upon the east ende there stand two capes or beacons: the greatest or the loper standeth upon the east ende of the flat strand, and the smallest standeth upon the south side of the downes, there stand also two houses upon it, the one upon the west ende, the other in the middle of the land in a lowe ground.

Borcum is also an Iland well to be knowne, it is three leagues long,Borcum. commonly when men come out of the Sea it sheweth in three partes, as if it were three Ilands, but when you come out of the west, then it sheweth in four partes, for the water run­neth through it in three places, when it is a high flood. The towne of Embden hath placed a high thick towre upon the west ende thereof, which you may see farre into the Sea, & west from the towre there standeth a lowe church. From the west ende of Borcum there shooteth off a Sand,Borcum sand. a great waie into the Sea, which is called Borcum sand. There southward, betweene Borcum and Rottum the west Eems runneth in, the best chanel in all these coasts along.

Thus the Ilands of Rottum & Borcum shewe when you sayle along by them about two leagues from the land.

Borcum.

Rottum.

If you wil sayle into West Eems, then place the capes or bea­cons upon Rottum one against the other,The ut [...] ­most tōne. then they wil stand a­bout s. e. from you, sayle out of the Sea upon them, then you shall finde the uttermost tonne, lying at 6 fathome lowe water. But if you come out of the w [...]st along by the land at 7 fathome then you shal also see the aforsaid tōne, when you are at the first tonne, then Borcum steeple will stand e. from you, and the west ende of Rottum will be about s. e. & by s. from you. To land­ward from the second tonne there lyeth a Flat called Geltsack flat, which reacheth with her foot along to the fourth tonne;Geltsac [...] Plate. where upon at lowe water is no more then 15 16 or 17 foot.

From the first tonne to the second, third & fourth the course is e. The second tōne lyeth at 5 fathome, the third at 4 fathome & an half, that is upon the driest part of West Eems. The fourth tonne lyeth also at 4 fathome and an half, upon the point of the said Flat. All these tonnes you leave on starborde when you sayle in. When you come out of the west, and are against the Lauwers or the Bosch sand, kepe along by the land at 5 fathome untill you be past it, then sayle on freely east, then you shal rūne through within Geltsack flat, at 3 fathome and an half, and so come by the fift tonne, into the deepe of West Eems, but keepe the south side.Harling banckes. Harling bancks which were woonte to reach out to seaward, at the westende of Rottum are cleane gone & worne awaie, so that now it is wide & broad betwe [...]ne Rottum & the said flatte.

The Sand of Borcum is without and at the ende verie flatte, when the capes or beakons upon Rottum stand southeast from you, then you may goe well over the sand, right to the fourth tonne, you shall there finde no lesse then sixteene foot water upon the foot of the Sand, at lowe water, for it is flat & broad, but when you come within the Sand of Borcum, on the inner side it is shoring, and then there shooteth off a point or foot of Sand, which in sayling up you may sayle under, you may goe no nearer to it then 7 fathome all along to Borcum.

The fift tonne lyeth distant from the fourth s. e. and by s. & lyeth in the middle of the chanel at eight fathome. But with an ebbe and a southerlie winde you goe s. e. on, or els you would soone fall upon Borcum Sand, or behinde the point of Sand which commeth shooting off from Borcum Sand.

From the fift tonne to the sixth, seventh and eigth the course is all east and by south. The sixth tonne, as also the seventh, lye in the middle of the chanel, at 8 fathome: but the eigth lyeth at 5 fathome,Huyberts Flat. upon the point of Huyberts Flatte, which by others is called the Hackes, which is a Sand which shooteth off from the south-side, you cannot miscarie with your lead on Rottum or on the south side, but you may sayle under this sand of Huy­berts Flat at 5 fathome lowe water, but at 6 fathome you must goe without about it. When you are by this tonne upon Huy­berts Flatte, then Borcum steeple standeth about n. n. e. from you, and there against it, it is 12 fathome deepe in the chanel.

Stephen Iohnsons tonne.From the tōne at Huyberts plate to Stephen Iohnsons tōne the course is southeast. That lyeth betweene the Balgh beacon and the Ruyt beacon, at seven fathome and an half. Betweene these two tōnes the Eems is 10 or 12 fathome deepe. But when you goe by the tonne at Huyberts Plate then you must turne somewhat off from Borcum to shunne the Mieuwe sand, which commeth shooting off from the Wolden, or the south ende of Borcum, which when you will goe in, you may sayle under at five fathome.

Westward from Stephen Iohnsons tonne, standeth Wadt beakon,Wadt bea­con. where right south Wadt goeth in. But on the other side right over against the aforesaid tonne, lyeth the Ransel: which is a sand that commeth shooting off from the north side, which in sayl [...]ng up, you may sayle under at 5 fathome. The markes of this reach,The Ran­sel. and to shunne the Ransel are these: upon the south ende of Borcum there lye two downes, which are called the Wolden,The Wol­den. hold the steeple of Borcum on the west side of these downes, or west from them, then you sayle not by the Ransel. In this reach it is 9 and 8 fathome deepe.

From Stephen Iohnsons tonne to Docke tonne the course is s. e. Betweene these two tonnes there standeth a beakon on the south side, called the Ruyt beacon,Docke tonne. Ruyt bea­con. by this tonne the Eems is in the chanel about 7 fathome deepe, and the tonne lyeth on the south side at 5 fathome, upon a sand which in sayling up, you may sayle under. The flood falleth verie strongly behinde this tonne into Docke chanel, which you must be verie carefull of.Docke chanel. The markes of Docke tōne are these: when the closter of Dam, which is a flatte church, commeth west from Old closter, so that you may see just betweene them, then you have the length of this tonne, and then these markes are about south from you. From Docke tonne to the last tonne it is e. s. e. when you are past it then you shall see the beacons on the west side, sayle all about by them. The reach from Eems horne to Delfes Ile rea­cheth all southerly, up to Wadem. The markes of Eemshorne are these, there standeth a mill in Embden land,Markes of Eemshorn about east and by north from you, and there standeth a high house north from the church, when that mill standeth betweene the house and the church, then you have the length of Eemshorne, and there stande three or four beakons about Eemshorne, which leade you to Groning land. When you come to Docke tonne and are past it, then you may sound all the west side to Oterdam, at 5, 6, and 7 fathome, but goe no nearer unto it, for it is verie steepe and shoring, but there you may sayle under the east side at 6 fa­thome, when you come within Eemshorne sayling up, for there lyeth a Flat on the east side called the Hound,The Hound. The Pap [...] which is a hard sand, and somewhat more inward there lyeth an other Flat, cal­led the Pape, also a hard sand, and are fast one to the other. But heere the west side is all soft & claye ground to Oterdam. You must keepe along by the west side, and followe the beacons which stand along. This reach stretcheth first s. s. w. and s. and by w. and about in a boucht or hollowe place s. s. e. and by Groning land southeast.

To shunne Reyders or Iannens sand, which is a Flatte which lyeth in the middle of the Eems, betweene Oterdam & Reyde,Reyders and Ian­nens sand. (upon it at lowe water there is no more then tenne foot deepe) then take heede of Oterdam, which hath a flat church without a steeple, and standeth upon the banck of Groning land, when you come thither then you must strike over to Embden land to the Knock, which is now a broken steeple, standing in the wa­ter upon the point, when you have the Knock then rūne with­in two ropes length by the north side, along to Loegherhorne,The Knock. [Page 11] and so you shall not sayle by this flatte. There standeth a flatte steeple between Knock and Loegherhorn,Markes of Reyder sand. called Gerrits Swart, when you may see through this steeple, or when this steeple and the church come one upon the other, then you are against this Flat.

When you sayle up the West Eems, then you must leave all the tonnes on starreborde.

A southeast and northwest moone maketh a high water with out the Eems. In the Balgh a southsoutheast and northnorth­west moone. But before the towne of Embden a south and south and by west, and a north and north and by east moone.

XI. The situation of the Iland Iuyst, and how you must sayle into the East Eems.

THe Iland Iuyst lyeth about a league and an half e. n. e. from Borcum. It is a lowe Iland, but the west land is a high steepe point, and grayish land: the east ende also is higher then the middle. The church standeth in the middle of the land, the steeple is somewhat sharp, and standeth at the east ende of the church. You cannot see the church but when it is against a lowe peece of ground, or a valleye. Betweene Borcum and Iuyst the East Eems goeth in.Iuyst sand. From the west ende of Iuyst there reacheth a Sand, at least two leagues west into the Sea, you may sound it without at 3 or 4 fathome, and south from it you goe into the East Eems.

Thus the Iland Iuyst sheweth about two leagues crosse from you.

To sayle into the East EemsIf you will sayle into the East Eems, then set the church up­on Borcum south from you, and so if it be cleare wether, then you shall see through the steeple, sayle upon it & you shall finde the uttermost tonne, which lyeth at four, or four fathome and an half lowe water.

From the uttermost tonne to the second tonne the course is east and by south. The ende of Iuyst sand, betweene the two sands, on the inner side is verie shoring and steepe, so that you cannot sound it, but somewhat more inward from the second tonne it is flatter, so that there you may easely sound it.

The second tonne lyeth at three fathome lowe water, at the point of a long small banck or point, which commeth shooting off from the east ende of Borcum, which is called Brewers flat,Brewers flat. which you may sayle under, this Sand on the north side is all shoring. Betweene the first and the second tonne it is four fa­thome deepe at lowe water, but against the second tonne it is deeper againe, at 8 or 9 fathome. From the second tonne the East Eems reacheth in east and by south, and eastsoutheast, and sometimes somewhat southerlyer, but from the second tonne with a flood you must goe east, and east and by north, that you may not be lead into the fore side of Brewers flat. Iuyst sand is inward from the second tonne flatte, so that you may sound it at 5 or 6 fathome, but come no nearer unto it, and so you shall not sayle under Memers sand, which is a sand,Memers sand. which within Iuyst shooteth off from the foot-strand of Memers sand.

As soone as you have deeper water againe, then goe first east­southeast, then southeast, to the beakon upon the high Horne,Beacon upon the high Horn. which standeth on starreborde upon the drie sand, turne south­ward or westward up behinde the beakon, there is the rode and there you may anckor at 5, 6 or 7 fathome, as you thinck good, it is there good lying for a south winde. The East Eemes there against it is wide and broad. The east ende of Borcum is flatte, you must use your lead, when you goe there out or in with a shippe that draweth much water.

About southeast, and south & by east from the beacon afore­said lyeth the tonne upon Conincx flat, [...] King [...] [...]. upon a sand that shoo­teth of from the south side, this tonne and the said beacon you must leave on starreborde, and there betweene them both on the south side there is good anckoring. At Norden in East vrie­sland there are two flatte steeples, whereof the one is great and flat, the other long and slender, which stand one close by the other, when these steeples come a shippes length east from the easterlyest side of the Bant, (which is a small Iland upon the Wadt) then you have the tonne upon Conincx flat, that is a good long marke, and when Iuyst steeple is n. n. e. from you, it is a good crosse marke of the said tonne.

From the tonne at Conincx flat to the tonne at Hamburgh sand, the course is s. e. and s. e. & by e. it lyeth at three fa­thome,Tonne at Hambur­ger plate. but this is Pilots water for great ships. You may there goe through a Kille or small gutterie chanel into the West Eems, and come out against the southerlyest tonne in the West Eems. To sayle through this Kille, leave the tonne upon Ham­burger sand on baghborde, and sayle along by the beacons, lea­ving [Page 12] them on starborde. It is at both endes of this Kille three fa­thome deepe, and in the middle 5, 6, & 7 fathome, it reacheth through about s. s. w. into the West Eems.

Memer balgh.Memer balgh lyeth about half a league within Iuyst, be­tweene the beacon upon the high Horne, and the tonne at Co­nincx flat, that is on the east side of the East Eems, and reacheth most north in. It is a good rode for small ships that wil goe west about, or without about. Also within the balgh which runneth in by the high Horne, there is a good rode for small ships which will goe east about, and reacheth in south.

Iuyst sand.When you come out of the east, then you may sound Iuyst-sand, for without it is flat, as I said before, but without in the point of the said Sand there is a Sheare or Dodebalgh like two points, where betweene them it is 3 fathome & an half deepe.

A southsoutheast and northnorthwest moone maketh a high water in the East Eems.

XII. Of the Ilands & Chanels which lye betweene the East & West Eems.

Buys.EAstward from Iuyst lyeth the Iland Buys, which is a short small Iland, and upon all that Coast there is no Iland so litle as it is, it sheweth like two hillocks, the easterlyest is the highest and sharpest.

Betweene Iuyst & Buys goeth in the Buys chanel, the towne of Embden was woont to put tōnes in it, but now it is no more done, because it altereth so much.

Norderny.Above a league and an half east from Iuyst lyeth Norderny, but betweene them both lyeth the Iland of Buys. This Iland of Norderny is knowne by a broad flat towre, which standeth up­on the west ende, but sometimes you see but litle thereof. A­bout the middle of the land, nearest to the east ende, there lyeth a high white downe, whereby you knowe it, otherwise it is all uneven ground, full of hillocks. Betweene Norderny and Buys the Norther deepe or the Norderny runneth in.

Thus the Ilands Norderny and Buys shewe being about two leagues crosse from you.

Norderny. Buys.

A league east from Norderny lieth the Iland Baltrum, which is about two leagues long,Baltrum. and a litle shorter then Norderny. There standeth nothing upon this Iland whereby a man may knowe it, but on the east ende there is a high downe, which on the toppe is sharp, and the west ende is lowe downes. When the aforesaid high downe is s. e. & by e. from you, then it is round about to be seene, & at the westende there goeth a gulf through Betweene Baltrum & Norderny the Wichtery rūneth in,Wichtery. which is a chanel whereof there is nothing to be written, for it altereth manie times. Anno 1606 it was 2 fathome & an half deepe, but Anno 1607 there was no chanel to be foūd of 4 or 5 foot water.

Thus Baltrum sheweth when it is about 2 leagues crosse from you.

The Iland of Langheroogh lyeth a league east from Baltrum,Langher­oogh. it is four leagues long, without it there is a faire strand, it hath three or four downes whereby you may knowe it, which lye from about the middle of the land to the west ende, they lye a good waie one from the other, and on the toppe are even & flat. Betweene Langheroogh & Baltrum goeth in the Acumy,Acumy. with­in it there lye two tonnes, but it is no chanel for great shippes, it reacheth out by Langherooghe, first n. e. and after somewhat easterly, along by the foot strand of Langherooghe, but there is no hold to be taken of it, it altereth so often.

Thus the Iland of Langherooghe sheweth being about two leagues from you.

Betweene Langherooghe & Wrangheroogh lyeth the Iland of Spickerooghe, which is about a league long.Spiker­oogh. On the east ende there was wont to lye a smal Iland, which was wel to be known called Litle Spickeroogh, but that is all washt and eaten awaie. On Spickerooghe there standeth nothing to knowe it by, but it is downie and hillie, and black land, like the other Ilands. Be­tweene Spickerooghe & Langherooghe the Oxebalgh goeth in.Oxebalgh.

Thus Spikeroogh sheweth it self, when it is about two leagues from you.

Wrangheroogh lyeth three leagues east from Langheroogh,Wranger­oogh. it is about a great league long, it is a lowe white Iland, but at [Page 13] the east ende there lye high broad white downes, & at the west ende the Earle of Oldenburgh hath caused a great thick towre with two speeres to be set, whē they stand one against the other, then you are by the uttermost tonne of the Weser, you may see this towre with two speers in the Sea. Betwene Wrangheroogh and Spikeroogh the Harrel goeth in,The Har­rel. about southsoutheast, it is also marked with two tonnes by the towne of Embden, but it is not to be trusted, for it altereth manie times, and serveth not also for great ships.

Thus the Iland of Wrangeroogh sheweth when it is about two leagues crosse from you.

To conclude the land from Bornriffe to Wrangheroogh rea­cheth e. n. e. and w. s. w. 29 leagues, or as some saie 31 leagues. But the chanels which lye there betweene the East Eems, and Wrangheroogh are no chanels for great shippes, nor we cannot write anie thing of them, which may be trusted unto, for manie times in short space they alter both in stretching & depth.

XIII. How men shall sayle up to the Iaa and West Weser.

IF you will sayle into the Iaa or West Weser with a south winde, then rūne upon the strand of Wrangheroogh at 4 fa­thome: but if the winde be westerlie, then goe at 5 fathome, & so goe along in by the strand of Wrangheroogh at 4 or 5 fa­thome, untill you be a good waie within, or at the ende of the foot strand of Wrangeroogh, there you shall finde the first tōne, which lyeth at lowe water at 5 fathome, then Menser church shall shand south from you. Against this first tonne is the redde sand verie shoring, which you leave on baghborde, but the tōne on starborde. When you goe in also against this first tōne there commeth a Sand shooting off from the south side, which is the innermost point of Steenbalgh, which you saile under at 3 & an half or 4 fathome, and the first tonne is layd upon this point of Sand.Steen­balgh. This Steenbalgh goeth in east by Wrangheroogh, the south side of this Balgh is shoring, & the north side is flat, so that you may sound it. In this Balgh it is 10 foot deepe at lowe wa­ter. From the first tonne to the second, and so forth to the third, it is east.The Iaa tonne. The second tonne lyeth at two fathome and an half, & the third at 3 fathome, that is the Iaa tonne, which lyeth upon the entrie of the High waie.The High waie. It is verie uneven betweene the first and the third tonne, you have twice a depth of 5 or 6 fathome, and then againe two, and two fathome and an half.

If you will sayle from the Iaa up to Weser,Mellem tonne. then sayle by the third tonne over the entrie of the High waie, n. n. e. to Mellem tonne, but you shall finde no more water there at lowe water, upon the aforesaid drumple or entrie, or by the third tōne, then 10 or 9 foot, & when you are over it you shall get deeper water againe, and then you are in the Weser: but looke well to your streames, for the ebbe falleth verie stif n. n. w. out of the Iaa,Falling of streames. & to the contrarie the flood falleth verie hard inward, so that you cānot get over the streame with still wether, therefore you must looke well thereunto.

But if you will sayle up the Iaa, then leave the third tonne on baghborde, and from thence goe up for the most part south,Hormmer­scheel. to the point of the banck of land called Hormmerscheel, and when you come to it, then the Iaa is wide and broad, and without the said banck there standeth a beacon or two, for ships that wil goe before the Wadt. If you will goe further up the Iaa, then keepe al the west side, but when you come against the church without a steeple, which standeth by the banck, there you must leave the west side, because of the Aenten or Ieppe flatte,Aenten or I [...]ppe flat. which shooteth off far along by the west side, & sometimes at lowe water lyeth drie. The west side reacheth most s. e. & somewhat southerlyer.

A south & north moone maketh a high water at the Iaa, and there it floweth dayly two fathome and an half up and downe.

XIIII. To sayle up the Weser.

TO sayle up the Weser, goe no nearer to Wrangheroogh then seven fathome, and when you have 7 fathome, then turn off to 11 fathome, there you shall finde the first tōne without in the Weser,Red sand. lying at the point of the redde sand at 7 fathome, then Menser church is s. s. e. from you, which is a flat church without a steeple, standing in Vroukens land. Now whē you are against the first tonne, and that the west ende of Wran­gheroogh is s. s. w. from you, then you runne yet upon the point of the red sand at five fathome.

From the uttermost tonne to the second, third, fourth & fift tonne the course is right east, and they lye all at seven fathome, the south side (that is the Redde sand) nearest, each a point dif­fering from Menser church, so that Menser church lyeth from the second tonne southeast, from the third south, from the [Page 14] fourth south and by west, from the fift southsouthwest. This fift tonne is called the tōne upon the Head,Tonne at the Head. and because you should knowe it before all the other tonnes, there standeth a pole upon it of half a fathome long, with a white knotte upon it. Right against the tonne at the Head now there lyeth a white tonne, which Anno 1608 was there first laid upon the white ground. Betweene these tonnes you must marke your streames wel, for the flood cōmeth out of the northwest, & falleth along over the red sand, and the ebbe the contrarie. The right depth against these tonnes aforesaid at the comming in is 11 fathome deepe, but against the tonne upon the Head it is five fathome at lowe water.

Right before the Weser lyeth the Middle plate,The Mid­dle plate. the easterly­est ende, or the innermost side beginneth right north from the tonne at the Head, by the white ground, and stretcheth along the reach, to the third tonne, accounting from without, this plate is on both sides flat to be sounded, and there lyeth a white tonne on the west side of the said plate, about south and north from Menser church, which when you come in you must leave on baghborde. If you will goe east from the plate out againe, from this tonne upon the Head to sayle to the Elve, then sound about by the white tonne at 4 or 5 fathome, till you be in the Sea.

To sayle by east of the Middle plate out the Weser.To sayle up out of the Weser, the course from the tonne up­on the Head to the sixt tonne is s. e. and n. w. then Menser church shall lye from you s. w. & by s. and there against it, the Weser is about 20 fathome deepe. But from the sixt tonne to the seventh, that is, the tonne upon the Cours,The tonne at the Cours. or the Wapper-tonne the course is southeast, this tonne is also called the South­west tonne, because Menser church as then lyeth s. w. from you. The Iaa tonne lyeth about south and south and by west from this tonne. From the tonne upon the Cours to Mellem tonne the course also is southeast. You may sayle under Mellem tonneThe Mel­lem tonne. at sixe fathome. Menser church shall then lye from you s. w. & by west. From Mellem tonne to the tonne upon BollensileBollensil. the course is s. e. and somewhat easterlyer. There you must looke well to your streames, for the flood falleth strongly in to the west side. Langheworder church lyeth right south and by east from this tonne at Bollensile: over against the tonne at Bollen­zil, upon the point of the black ground lyeth a white tonne, come no nearer unto it at half flood then four fathome and an half: for if you sayle inward, you may sayle under the point at four fathome. From the tōne at Bollenzil to the beacon at Bol­lenzil the course is s. s. e. and s. e. & by s. and then Longwor­der church shal stand about south from you. You leave the bea­con on starreborde, when you come in, and within the beacon at Bollensil there is a good rode for a west winde. From the bea­con upon Bollensil to the first tonne upon the FlatThe Flat. the course is southeast, till you are a litle beneath the beacon, but then it is eastsoutheast. The markes of the first tonne upon the Flatte are these, when you may see through the holes of Langheworder steeple, then you are against the first tonne, and then Longwor­der church is as southerly as s. s. w. from you. From the first tonne upon the Flat to the second the course is e. s. e. Betweene these two tonnes there stand five beacons, on baghborde as you come in, upon the black ground. From the second tonne upon the Flat to the Mailand the course is southeast & by south, but when you are against Wadnis, or the Maieland, then sayle along close by the greene side to Blixem,A rode within Blixem. there is a rode for great ships that will put to Sea.

As at the Iaa so at the Weser a south and north moone ma­keth a high water, and it floweth there two fathome & an half up and downe.

XV. The situation of the East and West Til or Breebalgh, and how you shall sayle into it.

EAst from the Weser lye the south groundsSouth grounds. of the Elve, there goe in two faire and deepe balgen or chanels, of 10, 12, and 13 fathome, they are called the Till or Breebal­ghen,Brebal­ghen. the westerlyest lyeth about so farre west, that a man may see the newe worke from thence.

If it should chance that comming east from the Weser, you should fall upon the south grounds, then sayle upon the south grounds at 4 or 5 fathome, but not much nearer, for that is somewhat shoring, and when you goe in that manner along by those grounds, in the same course you shall finde 8, 9, yea and 10 or 12 fathome water soft ground, then for certaine you have that of the Breebalgh or the west Till,West Bree­balgh or West Till. keepe then the land on which side you will, and goe so about by the grounds, at 4 or 5 fathome by the lead, and you shall finde faire and good rode under the sands, so that you shall there lye safe from all windes. This West Till first reacheth in e. s. e. along by the north side it is deepest, and on the south side when you sayle out you sayle not under anie Sands, but as you goe in. Now when you are [Page 15] somewhat within, then it reacheth up southerly, and there are several chanels, where you may sayle through, for such as are driven to doe it.

East Til.The East Till haven lyeth betweene the West Til and the Hondbalgh, which runneth in at seven fathome, the east point (or the old Schor-horne) which is a sand which reacheth farre out, you may sayle under at 7 fathome, when you will goe to the Elve. This Till also (as the other) reacheth eastsoutheast in, when you come first in, but a litle further in somewhat easter­lyer. You may heere take which side of the land that you will, for when you come in you shall there finde shelter among the sands for all windes, and in this chanel it is not lesse then seven fathome water.

But the HondbalghHond­balgh. lyeth right west from the Sh [...]ortonne or Schorhorne. If you will goe in with small shippes, to goe over the Wadt and sayle into the Weser, then when you have the Schortonne goe in s. s. e. the Hondbalgh is indifferent wide, but hold that course until you come against the beakons, which you must leave on starreborde, when you will goe up you may sound the Schorhorne from without cleane within, but not the west side, for there lye flattes, which you may sayle under from without, at 9 fathome, but upon the Schorhorne you cannot miscarrie.

XVI. Of the Iland of Holie land.

THe Iland of Holie land, and the uttermost tonne on the Weser lye from each other south, and somewhat wester­lyer, and north and somewhat easterlyer, when it is faire and cleare wether, then you may see Holie land, when you lye in the Weser, by the tonne at the Head. But Holie land and Born­riffe lye distant s. w. & by w. and n. e. & by e. according to the common opinion 32 leagues. When you come out of the west and beginne to see Holie land, it is a high reddish steepe point which is flatte upon the toppe. If you will anckor under Holie land when you come out of the west, then runne upon that land at 10 or 12 fathome. As you sayle so to the south point and goe somewhat neare to the land, you shall see a rock like a small steeple stand close by the high land, which is called the Monck,The Monck. which is almost as high as the high land. About s. s. e. and the third or fourth part of a league from this rock there ly­eth a stone or rock under the water,A rock under wa­ter. but if you keepe at 8 or 9 fathome, then you runne about without this Stone, and cannot hurt yourself upon it: when the Monck is covered by the other land, then you are against that stone, but when the said Monck commeth a handspake length past, or without the other land, there is good rode, and there you may anckor at 10 or 11 fa­thome, there it is faire ground, & all over cleane, if it were not for wrackes of ships that have beene cast awaie, or lost anckors, whereof there are manie there, when you be there at 9, 10 or 11 fathome then you lye safe against a westsouthwest, northwest, & north windes. From the point whereby the Monck standeth there shooteth a smal Sand frō the land, which you may sounde at 3 fathome. You may also goe from the land at 5 fathome, & sayle safely from the rock aforesaid, that is, through betweene the rock and the sand, but if you goe deeper, at seven fathome, then you shall sayle upon the rock. But at 8 or 9 fathome then you goe without the stone.

From the north side of Holie land there reacheth also a bad sand almost a league into the Sea,Holie land sand. so that you may goe no nea­rer to the north along then at 9 or 10 fathome, and when you will goe north about Holie land, comming so farre that the east ende of Holie land is south, and south and by east from you, then sayle boldly to Scholvers point, which is a flat point, and that you may sound at 5, 6 and 7 fathome. For if there you will put off at 8 fathome, then you must runne 3 leagues off from the land, and the right chanel which is betweene the Hever and the Holie land, is not above 9 or 10 fathome deepe. Now when you come about the point into the rode, and that Scholvers point is northeast, and the Cliffe southwest from you, there it is good anckoring at five fathome.

Scholvers pointScholvers point. is the point where the south haven lyeth within, & reacheth from the high land about east into the Sea, and from the uttermost ende of Scholvers point, there reacheth a banck of three fathome, to the point where the Monck stan­deth, there within it is verie good lying for ships that drawe not much water, and it is the south haven of Holie land.

A southsouthwest and northnortheast moone maketh there high water.

When Holie land is e. n. e. five leagues from you it shew­eth thus.

When Holie land is north and by east from you it shew­eth thus.

XVII. How you shall sayle up the Elve.

HOlie land and the Schor-tonne (that is the uttermost tonne of the Elve) lye distant southeast and by east, and northwest and by north.

When you come out of the west, & are past Holie land with a northerly winde, then you may runne to the north ground without feare at 10 or 12 fathome, for betweene Holie land and the s [...]uth ground, or betweene the north ground and the south ground it is 20 fathome deepe, along to the Elve, but the nearer that you goe to the Elve, the shallower water you finde. When you are within Holie land, & finde shallowe water of the North grounds, you may sound it all along to the Elve at 8 fathome, for it is flat: but the South grounds are verie shoring, you may goe no nearer unto them by night then 10 or 12 fathome, for if you goe nearer unto them, then you may sayle under the West Til or Breebalgh, at 10 or 12 fathome.

To sayle up the Elve, you must understand, that the North Elve which was woont to goe in north by the Newe grounds, is now so much altered, that you can hardly finde two fathome water in it: but to the contrarie the South Elve, southward from the Newe grounds, is broken through with a faire depth, so that Anno 1606 was tonned by them of the towne of Hamburgh, as heereafter is shewed, which was delivered unto me in writing, by Symon Derrickson of Vlieland, who with great diligence hath sounded and found out the same.

When you come from Holie land, or out of the west, and see the Newe worke, then bring the beacon and the Newe worke one against the other, and then they will stand southeast and by south from you, keepe them standing so, & sayle forward upon them, then you shall finde the Schor tonne, which lyeth on the south land, against the Schor horne at 10 fathome half flood, leave it as you sayle on starreborde, for the south side is all sho­ring, from the Schor tonne to the second tonne the course is east and by south, it lyeth at 8 fathome lowe water, and the Newe worke then standeth from you south & by east. From the se­cond tonne to the third the course is east & by south, that lyeth at 5 fathome, the Newe worke shall then stand from you s. s. w. From the third tonne to the fourth the course is still east & by south, it lyeth at 4 fathome and an half, then the Newe worke lyeth from you s. w. & by s. Right over against this tōne there lyeth a white tōne, which lyeth at the foot of the New ground, which as you sayle up you must leave on baghborde, but all the black tonnes lye on the south side, and you must leave them on starborde. From the fourth to the fifth tonne, and the sixth and seventh tonne, the course is still east & by south. The fifth tonne lyeth at three fathome and an half, and against it it is the dryest place of the Elve, the Newe worke standeth distant from it s. w. and n. e. The sixth tonne lyeth at five fathome, and the Newe worke from it southwest and by west. The seventh tonne lyeth at 7 fathome, and is distant from the Newe worke s. w. & by w. and n. e. & by e. From the seventh to the eigth tōne the course is s. e. that is the tonne in the Ros, it lyeth at 8 fathome, when you are against it, then the Ros beacon is against the steeple of Gron or Groen. Right over against the tonne in the Ros, on the north side, there lyeth a white tonne, upon a sand which com­meth shooting off from Romarlplate, which in sayling up, you may sayle under at 4 or 5 fathome, but when you are past Ros-beacon, then there is a church with two speeres upon a steeple called Oldenbrooke, when the speere steeple of Wordt cōmeth west from Oldenbrooke, then they are south from you, then you may sound Romerlplate at 6 fathome without daunger, o­therwise that plate is shoring without, and you may sayle under it, as I said before. From Ros tonne to the tonne at the Meem, the course is s. e. and s. e. & by e. From the tonne at the Me­em to the Gurtpot, or the first tonne upon the flat, the course is e. s. e. From thence to the tonne at the Oost, or Pilgrims sand it is e. & by s. From Pilgrims sand to Brunsbuttle, the course is east and east & by north. You may sayle under Pilgrims sand at 5 or 6 fathome. From Brunsbuttle to the tōne at Saltshorne, or Vryburgher sand, the course is east and east & by north, all a­long by the north land. From Saltshorne to the tonne which ly­eth against the Steur it is e. and by s. and e. s. e. From Steur to the tonne at Gringeroots sand, the course is s. e. and s. e. & by e. This tonne lyeth against Bilenburgh, and lyeth more then half in the deepe. Betweene this tonne & the tonne at the Steur lyeth another tonne in the chanel. But from the tonne at Grin­geroots to the tonne at Stadersand s. e. & by s. and s. s. e. This tonne you must leave on starborde. From Stadersand to Wil­lemsvliet, or the tonne of the Luy, it is s. e. and s. e. & by s. And frō the tonne at the Luy to the tonne at Terloo, the course is e. s. e. From thence to the tonne at Hanebal, the course is e. and by w. From Hanebal to the tonne at Blanckenes sand, the course is east and east & by north, and you must hold the tonne against a great tree, and so you runne by the north land, til you [Page 17] be past the tonne.

From Blanckenes sand to the tonne in the bocht, the course is e. s. e. And from the tonne in the bocht to the Eckehout e. & by n. there it is 3 or 4 fathome deepe when you are in the right Kille or chanel, and there lye the great ships to lade and to unlade.

Thus the Newe worke sheweth when you come before the Elve.

XVIII. Of the running of the streames, and what moone maketh high water in these places.

BEfore the Vlie a southeast and northwest moone maketh a high water. What moone maketh a high water within the chanels of the Vlie and Tessel streame, and how the streames runne there, it is at large described in the first Chapter of the first Book. Without the Vlie the streames fall along by the land, till it be half flood or half ebbe, and then they begin to fall into Bomekins chanel, and to fall out againe. The fore-flood commeth over Bomekins ground, and so falleth into the Schellingh, out at the north chanel, so that the fore flood ma­keth an ebbe in the north chanel, and to the contrarie the fore-ebbe maketh a flood there. Now when the flood beginneth to fall in, which is sooner in Stortmelck then in Bomekins chanel, then it falleth verie stif upon the Schellingh, & behinde Grindt into the Iettingh, which you must take heede of, but when the flood is about half spent, then it beginneth to fall right in, as in the description also is shewed, but at the other chanels of Frees­land the flood falleth sooner in.

Without in Ameland chanel a southeast & northwest moone maketh a full Sea, and also on the land.

At the same time it is also high water before the Scholbalgh, the Lauwers and the Schille.

Before West Eems a southeast & northwest moone also ma­keth high water.

In the East Eems and in Borckummerbalgh a s. s. e. and n. n. w. moone maketh high water.

Before the towne of Embden a south or south and by west, and north and north and by east moone maketh high water.

Before the chanels betweene the East Eems and the Weser, a s. and s. & by e. and a n. and n. & by w. moone maketh high water.

Under Holie land with a n. n. e. and s. s. w. moone it is a full Sea.

Before the Weser and before the Elve, a north and south moone. There the flood commeth northwest without, and the ebbe southeast, and so fall strongly over the grounds.

In the chanel betweene the Elve and the Vlie, the fore floods come out of the North Sea, and goe about with the Sonne, and fall but half the tyde along by the land, that is eastnortheast, & the ebbe westsouthwest.

XIX. Of the Groundes and Depths about these Countries, and at what depths you may see the land.

THe Iland of the Vlie, the Schellingh, and Texel you may see at 15 or 16 fathome.

Against the Schellingh you have white Sand, & close by Peters sand it is 12 or 13 fathome deepe. You must take heede of the grounds of the Vlie, as of Bornriffe, for they are ve­rie shoring.

You may see Ameland at 12 fathome, and it is verie farre flat at 12 and 13 fathome, so that at 15 fathome you can not see it.

You may see Schiermonickoogh at 12 and 13 fathome, and then it is about four great leagues from you.

You may see Rottum and Borcum at 14 and 15 fathome. A­gainst Borcum the ground is great redde sand, with some black amongst it.

Iuyst may be seene at 13 and 14 fathome, and three leagues from the land it is 12 fathome deepe.

Buys and Norderny you may see from the poope at 12 and 13 fathome.

Baltrum, Langheroogh and Wrangheroogh you may see at 14 and 15 fathome.

About Holie land it is 7, 8 and 9 fathome deepe, that is, on the inner side: but without on the west side it is 15, 16, 18 and 19 fathome, and at such depths you may see the Holie land.

What notable markes stand upon these Ilands, whereby you may knowe them, it is perfectly and at large declared in the de­scription of them.

XX. How these lands are distant from each other.

  • FRom the Vlie to the northnortheast ende of the Broad fourteene the course is westnorthwest 8 leagues.
  • Petersand and Borneriffe lye distant about northeast and by east, and southwest & by west 4 leagues.
  • From Borneriffe to West-Eems e. n. e. about 13 leagues.
    • or as some will 15 leagues.
  • From Borneriffe to Wrangheroogh about 29 leagues.
  • From Borckummer riffe to Wrangheroogh e. n. e. 16 leagues.
  • From East Eems, or Iuystriffe to Schortonne n. e. 20 leagues.
  • From Wrangeroogh to the Newe worke e. n. e. 8 leagues.
  • Holie land and Borneriffe lye distant n. e. & by e. and s. w. & by w. as men commonly say 32 leagues.
    • or as some say 34. leagues.
  • Holie land & Borkummer riffe lye from each other n. e. & s. w.
  • Holie land and Langheroogh lye distant northnortheast and southsouthwest.
  • Holie land & the uttermost tonne in the Weser lye distant from each other, south and somewhat westerly, and north and somewhat easterly. But the tonne at the Head in the Weser, and Holie land lie distant south and north 8 leagues.
  • Holie land and the Schor tonne or the Newe worke lye distant s. e. & by e. and n. w. & by w. 8 leagues.

XXI. How these Lands are distant from other Countreys.

  • FRom the Vlie to the Ile of Silt in the Coast of Iutland northeast 47 fathome.
  • From the Vlie to Rincoper or Numer deepe northnorth­east and somewhat easterlyer 59 leagues.
  • From the Vlie to Bovenberghen northnortheast, and somewhat northerlyer about 69 leagues.
  • From the Vlie to the Sand at sixteene fathome north and by east 61 or 63 leagues.
  • From the Vlie to the Neus north & by east 85 leagues.
  • From the Vlie to Schuytenes north and by west, and somewhat northerlyer 107 leagues.
  • From the Vlie to Fairehill n. w. & by n. 144 leagues.
  • From the Vlie to Hitland northwest and by north and some­what northerly 152 leagues.
  • From the Vlie to Tinmouth or Newcastle w. n. w. 91 leagues.
  • From Borneriffe to the Neus north, or as some saye somewhat easterlyer 83 leagues.
  • From the Eems to Bovenberghen north & by east 60 leagues.
  • From the Eems to Flamborough Head west & somewhat nor­therly 85 leagues.
  • From Holie land to Bovenberghen n. and by w. 50 leagues.
  • From Holie land to Hanglip in Hitland n. w. 147 leagues.
  • From Holie land to Boeckenes n. w. and by w. 123 leagues.
  • From Holie land to Lieth in Schotland west and by north, and somewhat northerlyer 120 leagues.
  • From Holie land to Tinmouth or Newcastle west, and some­what northerly 107 leagues.
  • From Holie land to Scarborowe or Flamborough Head west, and somewhat southerly 94 leagues.
  • From Holie land to the Holme before Iarmouth westsouth­west, and somewhat westerlyer 72 leagues.

How Holie land lyeth distant from the Iuttish Ilands, and from all the havens or chanels lying on Iutland you shall finde in the Chapter ensewing.

Heere followeth the Carde N. 21.

Pascaarte vande westcuste van Juthlant ende Holsterlant vertoenende de gelegent­heijt van de Reviren de Elve de Eijder en̄ de Hever, Voort alle de futsche Eijlanden ende alle Zeegaten tusschen de Elve ende den Reefhorn geleghen met alle Sanden Reven ende Banck daer outrent alles gestelt eF zijne rechte streckinghen ende coursen:

Carte Marine de la coste occidentale de Futhlande et Holsterlande, remostrant la si­tuation des vivieres de l'Elbe, Eijder et Hever, en outre toutes les Mes de Juthie et embonchures de mer, situeez entre l'Elbe et le Reefhorn, Semblablement tous bancs de sable lieux areneux et dangereux entour lesdictes places, le tout exactement pose selon ses vraÿes routes et distances.

  • A Westersijd
  • B de Reefhorn
  • C Dode bergh
  • D Doel-sant̄
  • E Schelling kroegh
  • F Langhe legh
  • G Wisdijc sant
  • H Panu knut
  • I Grauwe die [...]
  • K Harlsam
  • L Reuck en Rust
  • M Ameren bor
  • N Nubal cylant
  • O de Quade
  • P Utto
  • Q de Koebargh
  • R Nieuwe gronden
  • r Hecke sant
  • S Blau oort
  • ss de steert vāde hont
  • T Vogel sant
  • V Schorre horn
  • U Nieuwe gronden
  • W Ooster ende W. tijl
  • X Myd plaets
  • Y Ton opt hoost
  • Z t'Rroode sant
  • Z Steen balgh

CHAPTER II. THE DESCRIPTION OF the Sea-coasts of Iutland, and the Iutish Ilands, lying betweene the Elve and Rifhorne.

I. To sayle into the South and North Pip.

IN the Chapter before it is shewed how you shall sayle into and out of the Elve. About seven leagues north from the Elve lyeth the Eyder, but there right south lyes the North Pip, and a league south from the North Pip lyeth the South Pip,The South Pip. which lyeth right east from the Holie land, and goeth in e. s. e. at 5 or 6 fathome, through the North grounds, and at the north ende of Hodemer sand commeth into the flat streame, whereon there standeth a beacon, which you must leave upon the starre­borde, when you will sayle up into this haven.

The North PipNorth Pip. as I said lyeth a league northerlyer then the South Pip, and is seperated from the Eyder by a Sand, which is called Blaweoort,Blawoort. or the point of the Hound, which runneth off from the beacon upon the Hound, and so farre in [...]o the Sea, al­most half waie to Holie land. There right south the North Pip goeth in, and reacheth in most part east and east & by south, to the beacon at the Hound.

Erom the beacon at the Hound to Hudemer sand it reacheth forward most s. e. and s. e. & by e. you may sound it frō with­out cleane within along by the south side at 3 and 4 fathome, as farre as within the beacon at the Hound, leaving the said bea­con on baghborde.

When you come within Buysen, there it is twice or thrice crooked, and there standeth a beacon upon the north ende of Hudemer sand, leave it on starborde, and then goe up eastward, till you be about the Sand, which shooteth off from Hudemer­sand, there you shal finde a beacon, which you must sayle up un­to, and leave it on baghborde, and goe s. w. then you shall finde another beacon upō the east side of the flat streame, standing up­on Roomaerder sand, saile out by the same, leaving it on the left hand, and then you shall come out at the old Elve.

II. To sayle up into the Eyder.

RIght north from Blauweoort the Eyder goeth in, and lyeth distant from Holie land east & by north, and when with that course you fall upon the land, then you shall see a sharpe steeple upon Eyder towne called Gartinghen,Gartin­ghen. which is an indifferent long steeple you must bring it on the south side of the downes, which are called the South heads,South heads. and then they stand from you n. e. & by n. or somewhat easterlyer, & with these markes you must sayle over Blauoort, so long untill you finde deepe water, as 5 or 6 fathome soft ground, then you shall see a sharpe steeple stand in Ditmarse called Weselborne, bring that east or some­what southerlyer from you, & goe in e. & by s. and sometimes somewhat easterlyer, till the Buys be s. e. and by s. from you, and that the beacon at the Hound standeth s. s. w. from you, then Ees will come a ships length north from Tatinghen, which is the southerlyest of the two flatte churches standing upon Ey­derland, then goe up northnortheast, for then you are within the Newe grounds, then there commeth a Sand on the starre­borde side shooting off from Ditmarse, which is called Hecke sand,Hecke sand. when you are past this Hecke sand & the Newe grounds, then you come against the greene land of Coebergh or Cow-hill.

A litle waie within Koebergh there commeth a Sand shoo­ting off from Eyder side, which you may sayle under, as you goe along by the Eyder side, so that you must runne into a Dead chanel, where you must come backward out againe. Behinde or in it there lyeth a small village of seven or eight houses called Ulckhorne,Vlcke­horne. there men lade oxen, and there the oxen come to be bought.

When you come about Heckesand or against Koebergh or Cowe-hill, then the Eyder reacheth from the aforesaid Sand which commeth shooting off from Eyderstede east & by south. When you are past that Sand, then the Eyder reacheth east­northeast, and northeast and by east to Tonninghen.Tonnin­ghen. There al­so they lade oxen.

Or to get into the Eyder otherwise,To goe a­nother waie into the Eyder. when (as I said before) you come from Holie land, then bring Gartinghen before the downes, and rūne by the south side at 3 fathome, keepe the stee­ple [Page 20] standing so, and sound about by the south side, till you gett deeper water, and bring the sharpe steeple in Ditmarse aforesaid east or somewhat southerlyer from you, hold that standing so till you be within. But if you will goe up the Eyder, then chuse the north side when you come in, because of the Pip, for with­out the Pip and the Eyder is all one chanel, and the sand of the Hound whereon the beacon standeth, shooteth there betweene them both a great waie into the Sea, as I said before, and you may sayle over the sand into the north Pip, a litle westward frō the beacon at the Hound,Beacon at the Hond. therefore you must there runne over the sand in time, if you will goe into the Eyder, otherwise you may sayle under the north side inward from without.

But from the north you cānot well get to the Eyder, because of the points which rūne off from the grounds. But there looke well to your streames, for without the Grounds the streames fall in most part southeast, and northwest out, and a south and north moone maketh a high water there.

The Eyder is 6 or 7 fathome deepe, soft ground. And when you will goe out of the Eyder into the Pip,To goe out of the Eyder into the Pip. then you must goe out so farre, untill Tatinger church come upon the east ende of Ees, there you may goe over the Hond sand, you shall not there have lesse then two fathome and an half at high water.

The Land chanel of the Eyder.The Land chanel, or the Northchanel of Eyder for the most part reacheth in e. & by n. right up upon Koebergh, you must get to that from the north, to sayle in north from the Newe grounds, they lye upon the south side of this chanel, and then you come against the Koebergh againe into Eyder streame.

About two leagues north from Koebergh, or from the said Land chanel, there lyeth another chanel or balgh, which you may sayle up into, there stand two beacons in it, and it reacheth in most east & by north to the south downes of Ees, then you may goe along by the land, till you be behinde the Iland Utto. You may also in that chanel runne along by the south downes of Ees, to Koebergh, and so come againe into the Land chanel of Eyder, but it is verie crooked. You may not use this unles you be driven to it, these are bad chanels, because they are flatte so farre out, therefore it is not well to be done, unlesse a man be forced to search these chanels of necessitie.

Thus the land of Eyder sheweth

Ees Gartinghen. North head. Tatinghen. South head.

III. How to sayle up the Hever.

TO sayle from the Newe worke, or from Schor tonne to the Hever, you must understand that the course is north and south, distant 11 leagues, but alwaies looke well to your streames, for as I said, the fore flood falleth verie stif crosse over the grounds into the land, & the ebbe contrarie, but when you are half waie, then you meete with Blawoort sand (whereof I spake before) at the depth of two or three fathome.

But to sayle from Holie land to the Hever, then goe on n. e. and somewhat easterlyer, according as the winde and streame suffer, and runne upon the Grounds at 6 or 7 fathome, then you shall finde an indifferent high steeple, which on the toppe is sharpe, it is called Pielworme,Piel­worme. set this steeple northeast and by north from you, and a mast length south from the southerlyest Cowehouse, which standeth upon the Iland of Nubal,Nubal. keepe the steeple standing so, and sayle up to it, then you shall finde the uttermost tonne, then goe from the first tonne to the second tonne northeast, and northeast and by east, and comming to it, then Pielworme steeple will stand n. n. e. from you. Frō thence the course inward is n. e. & by e. and when you come a good waie in, thē you finde two beacons standing there on starborde, upon a drie sand called the Quade,The Quade a drie sand. right over against it cōmeth the North chanel into the right Hever. The North chanelNorth-balgh. com­meth reaching in from the north, about east and by north from Pielworme, and commeth right upon the Ile of Nubal, where­on the Cowehouse standeth, and you may sayle up northward or n. n. e. frō the Cowe house to the ende of the strand, where there standeth a flatte church, it is a deepe chanel. You may also sayle from the Ile of Nubal into the right Hever, and then you come against the Quade againe into the right deepe, as is afore­said. To sayle up into the Hever the course from the first bea­con to the third is e. & by n. sayle along by the beacons, lea­ving them on starborde. Betweene the first and third beacon on the north side it is all full of sands and flattes, there you may sayle behinde them.

By the third beacon the South chanelSouth-balgh. commeth into the He­ver, and commeth running off from the Iland Utto, about n. e. & by n. and reacheth from the northende of the Ile of Utto in­to the Sea, and it is above a league to sayle into the Sea.

From the the third beacon to the two other beacons, the course is northeast and by east, then you come to the Greene [Page 21] land, which lyeth on starborde, then it is a four squared chanel, which is wide and broad, you may there sayle in the middle of the water to Hoesem,Hoesem. just to the bridge, or you may anckor where you will.

Without in the Hever the north side is shoring, therefore keepe by the south side, till you are within all the beacons. The chanel is two fathome and an half deepe at half flood, and it is verie farre flatte water. There lyeth also a banck a good waie without the Hever, which you must remember when you will sayle in. A south and north moone maketh a high water there.

IIII. To sayle into the Small or Narrowe Chanel.

THree or four leagues north from the Hever lyeth the Small-deepe.Small deepe. He that will sayle from Holie land to the Small-deepe must goe northeast and by north, & runne upon the Grounds about west and by north from Pielworme, then the south ende of Ameren will be north or there abouts from you, then seeke for the south-side, and sound about it, you cannot doe amisse on the south side, for it is a rising ground, which lyeth farre without the land, then sayle in north and by east, northnortheast, and northeast and by north, then you shall finde a sand or raveling, which you must leave on baghborde, you may sound about by it, untill you come in, you must keepe the south side, and sound about by it, going in northeast and by north. On the north side there lye manie sands and out-points, but if you let the aforesaid shallowe lye on starborde, then you come into a Dead chanel, where at the beginning you shall have 7 fathome deepe, but it runneth all on a heap to nothing. And when you have sounded so farre about the aforesaid shallowe, that you come against the south ende of Ameren, then you may sayle under the north side, for there commeth a sheare of the Wadt shooting off from Voren. Then chuse the south side till you come against Voren.

V. To sayle into the Roode deepe or Silter chanel.

TO sayle into the Roode deepe or Silter chanel, comming northward, or out of the Sea, you must runne in the sight of the Iland of Ameren, and about the middle of the Iland of Ameren there lyeth a white round hill, a litle high­er then the other hillocks, in a lowe plaine valley in that Iland, place that downe or hill northeast from you,Markes to reach the chanel. and keepe it stan­ding so, and runne up upon it, untill you be within the sand, which shooteth off from the Foretrap, and is commonly called Ameren borne,Ameren Borne. and you cannot faile thereon, for then you shall have no lesse then three fathome water upon the point of the Sand, and comming within the said Sand, 11, 12 or 13 fathome water. Sayle so forward till the north ende of Ameren be north & by east from you, when you have these markes standing thus as aforesaid, then runne upon the north ende of Ameren, till you come within the drie sand, there you may anckor where you will, or sayle as farre in as you will, and sound along by the sand. The strand of Ameren also is a faire strand, without sands, which you may sayle under. But when the said hill lying upon Ameren is e. n. e. from you, and you should sayle up to it, then you goe to neare the said sand of Silt. The hill then is divided into two partes, and then the northerlyest is the smallest.

But if you will sayle into the Roode deepe or the Silter cha­nel cōming from Holie land,To sayle into Silter chanel cō ­ming out of the south. & see the land, then set the north­ende of Ameren north and by east from you, till you come be­tweene Ameren and Silt sand, and then so in by Ameren strand, till you be about the north point of Ameren, so long till Ame­ren lyeth south, and s. s. w. from you, you may not sayle anie further into this chanel, for then you come against the Iland of Vooren. There lye two riffes or bad sands, the one lyeth about w. s. w. from Ameren, and is drie above the water, which is a great waie f [...]at, at 3, 4 and 5 fathome, and by the Iutters is cal­led the Borne, or Ameren Borne,Ameren Borne. although it is not fast to Ame­ren, for the Roode chanel goeth in there betweene them both. It is not also fast on the Voortraps or the south ende of Silt, al­though it cōmeth shooting off from thence, for betweene them there goeth a Fishermans chanel into the Sea of a fathome and an half, where the Fishermen goe daily out to fish, specially they of the Iland of Vooren. This is the uttermost Sand lying on the chanel, such as use much to these places, as to Repen and the places there abouts, are verie fearefull of Ameren borne, when they come from the Holie land, and they finde this drie sand about w. s. w. from Ameren. The other Sand shooteth off from the south ende of Ameren,The other Riffe. Ameren. reaching about south and south and by west into the Sea, along by the land. This also by manie is called the Borne, or Ameren borne. If you come from Holie land, & will goe north about, you neede not feare this Sand, for it shooteth out most by the land.

Thus the Iland of Ameren sheweth.

VI. To sayle into the haven of List.

ABout eight leagues north from Silter chanel there lyeth a verie faire haven called List, which runneth in at the north ende of the Iland of Silt. To sayle into this haven of List comming out of the south,Markes to reach the chanel. then runne so long about the north at 6 or 7 fathome, untill you see a small Iland within the land, without the point, whereon you shall then see a howse standing, which is called Iurtmans house, when you have that house a masts length without the point of the List, then goe in e. & by s. and e. s. e. and keepe these markes standing so, until you are within the point of List, then turne up about the point southward, and anckor before the Voochts house, there it is 9 or 10 fathome deepe.

Without in the chanel there lyeth a Flat or Sand called Haef sand, that you leave on baghborde when you come in, without it is verie flat, and you may sound it when you come out of the north.Markes to avoide. Haef sand. To shūne it when you come north ward, you must turne or put of so far from the land, till the redde cliffe cōmeth with­out the downes, or that you see it full, for then you may well goe over Haefsand, with ships that goe not verie deepe. And al­so when you come out of the haven of List and will goe north about, then sayle so farre out, that you may see the cliffe, then you may also goe over the said Sand. This Sand reacheth off from the south ende of Rem, a good waie into the Sea.

On the south side of the haven of List, there lyeth another Sand or Banck, along by the land, not verie farre without the strand, named Rust or Rusting.Rust or Rusting. To sayle into the chanel of List comming from the south, you must in tyme sayle upon the land of List, about the redde Cliffe, because of the Rust, which com­meth shooting off from the north ende of List, along by the strand, and when you are by the land, and come a good waie within the redde Cliffe, then there commeth a Flatte shooting off from the land, which you must shunne somewhat, but you may sound it verie well, and keepe all the foot strand, and you can not faile therein. Rust is a small banck,The situa­tion of Rust sand. which shooteth a­long by the strand, and beginneth against the innermost point of List, and reacheth till it commeth about the redde Cliffe. From the inner point of List also shooteth off a Sand which you must also take heede of. Now when you come within the innermost point of List, and are before it, then you may anckor where you thinke good.

But if you will goe to Lutke Tunderen,To sayle to Lutke Tunderen. then leave the Sand, which lyeth south from Iure sand on starborde, & rūne through betweene them both, but if you will goe to Hoesem or to Silt, over the Wadt,To sayle over Wadt to Hoesem. then leave that Sand on baghborde, and upon Voorn there stand two or three trees, which you must keepe a­gainst the westerlyest church or steeple, and so you must goe to Voorn.

Betweene Haef-sand or Haes-sand and the Iland of Rim, there goeth another chanel in,The Land deepe of List. of about a fathome and an half water. The Ile of Rim is about 3 leagues long, without it is ve­rie flat, so that you can hardly see the land at sixe or seven fa­thome.

About eight or nine leagues without the Iland of Silt there lyeth a Banck along by the land of eight or nine fathome deepe, it is about two leagues long, and neare as long as the Iland, be­tweene this Banck and the Iland, it is thirteene fathome deepe, but when you are at nine fathome without the Iland of Silt, then Holie land lyeth about south from you.

Thus the Iland of Silt sheweth when you sayle along by it.

List. The redde Cliffe. Heydom Foretrap.

VII. To sayle into Knuyts or Ryper Chanel.

FRom the Haven of List to Knuyts or Ryper chanel the course is north & south, about 7 leagues: but Ryper deepe and Holie land lye distant north and somewhat southerly, and south and somewhat easterly. To sayle into Knuyts or Ry­per chanel, when you come out of the south, then runne by the flat of Rim and Manu, about to the south ende of Phanu, called South head or South point, then you shall see two capes or bea­cons upon a drie sand stand a litle southward from South head, bring these beacons a litle before each other, that is, the inner­most or longest a litle, or a hand spake length north frō the shor­test or uttermost, then they wil stand east, or somewhat norther­ly from you, let them stand so, and there you shall finde the ut­termost tonne, which lyeth at four fathome on the north land, which you must leave on baghborde, & goe to the second tōne, e. and by s. and when you are by the first tonne, then you may see the second, yet they lye a great waie one from the other, you must leave the second tonne also on baghborde, keepe along by the south land till, you be past the beacons, for there shooteth off a Flat from the uttermost beacon to the second tōne, which you must shunne somewhat. When you are past the beacons, then loose because of the Sand whereon the beacons stand, and there anckor where you will, for there it is deepe and shoring or steepe, there you can doe no harme. The Ryper shippes which come out lye there staying for a winde. In this chanel it is 20 foot water at half flood, but at a high water it is not the best chanel, for it is narrowe and flat a great waie without: and then when you have gotten that, then you may see both the sides of the land ravle, when the winde bloweth somewhat hard. But when you come out of the north, then you must rūne upon the south ende of Phanu, untill you see the beacons aforesaid, and then do as I shewed you before. The Moone being southsouth­west, and northnortheast maketh there a high water.

VIII. To sayle into the Grouwe deepe, and Schellingh kroegh.

ABout n. e. and n. e. & by n. from the north ende of Pha­nu there lyeth a little Hill as if it were an Iland, called Luysbergh.Luys­bergh. A litle north frō it there lyeth a long plaine sand hill which is called Langhelech,Langhe­lech. from thence the land rea­cheth northwest, from the south to the west side.

Betweene the north point of Phanu & Langhelech Grouwe deepeGrouwe-deepe. goeth in. To sayle into it whē you come out of the south runne along by the Iland, & sound along about the north point, till you gette deeper water. The north ende of Phanu is flat ve­rie far. Now when you get deeper water, then you shal see three or four hillocks about northeast from you, upon the high land, with a flat steeple called Holm or Bruynum, bring this church a cables length north from the hillocks, and then when you have the depth, then those markes are northeast from you, then goe in n. e. and keepe the south side, till you come within by the drie sand, called Smeur sand,Smeur-sand. which shooteth off from Phanu, there you may well goe along by direction of the eye without fayling, and let that be on starborde as you come in. The lands there on both sides are verie shoring, both WisdykeWisdyke. (which is the Flat which lyeth in the chanel) and Smeursand also. When you are past the point of Smeursand, then turne over to Wis­dyke, and there anckor, till you have the lowest water, then you may sayle to Hartinghen, and goe to Wardt or WoordtWoordt. which lyeth 8 or 9 leagues within the land, but the River goeth croo­ked, wheron now & then a house or Gentlemans lodging lyeth.

A southsouthwest and northnortheast moone maketh high water heere, and it floweth heere with a continual tyde about a fathome up and downe.

From Phanu to Schellinghrock it is four leagues. Betweene them both lyeth Suydersid,Suydersyd. which is a River of 8 or 9 foot wa­ter. The land betweene Langhelech and Suydersid is knottie downe land, rough and overgrowne with heath. If you chance to come to land, or to fall upon Suydersid, and could not get in­to the chanel, then chuse the land of Langhelegh, you may rūne upon it without anie daunger, but keepe at 2 fathome & an half, then you cannot mis-sayle that Kroech, for you may sound all this land frō Langhelegh till you be within SchellinghkroechSchellingh kroech. at three fathome and an half: but if you come to three, or three fathome and an half, then you would sayle misse the drie sand, and goe without the Kroech aforesaid. Schellingh kroech rea­cheth in northwest for the most part,To sayle into Schel­lingh kroegh cō ­ming out of the north. and there you lye safe a­gainst all windes, as if you laye in the Ketle at Koninghsber­ghen.

But if you come out of the north & will goe into this haven, you may well sound about that drie sand at three fathome. And when you come by the innermost point of the drie sand, there shooteth a Sand off, but you may see it well and avoide it: [Page 24] nowe when you come to the east ende of that Sand, then loofe up by the Sand into this Kroech, and there anckor at two fa­thome and a foot water, there it is somewhat wide, you may well goe in a pritie waie, and laveere in. A southsouthwest and northnortheast moone maketh a full Sea there, but the further you goe about northward to Iutland,NOTA. there goeth lesse streame, and it floweth lesse up and downe.

On the north ende of the aforesaid drie sand lyeth the Dead-hill, which is a short peece of a downe, which lyeth alone, when you are somewhat off from it, then it sayleth under the other land, and then you see it not. But comming from the south and north, then you may alwaies see it lying. From Dead hill to the south ende of the drie sand, it is all faire strand, and faire flatte ground. If you will anckor under the drie sand when you come out of the north,Rode un­der the drie sand. then you may sound along by it round about, and get good harbor for a northwest winde, and also for wester­lie windes.

Right north from the Dead hill lyeth the Horne, where the Reef horne shooteth out, whereof I wil speake more in the next Chapter.

Thus the Iland of South-sid sheweth south from the Dead hill.

Dead-hill. South-side. Langelegh. Luysbergh.

IX. Of the falling & running of the streames at these Ilands and Coasts of Iutland, and what Moone maketh high water there.

IN the Pip, Eyder and Hever a south and north moone ma­keth high water, the flood commeth there out of the north­west, and the ebbe southeast, & runneth so over the North-grounds.

In the chanel of List or Silt a south & north moone maketh high water, and the flood commeth out of the northwest, and falleth litle along by the land, but the ebbe the contrarie.

In Knuytes Seepe a southsouthwest and a northnortheast moone maketh high water: there also the flood commeth out of the northwest, and falleth more then a great quarter thereof along by the land, and the ebbe the contrarie.

In the havens of Suydersid, Grouwe deepe, and Schellingh­kroegh a s. s. w. and a n. n. e. moone maketh high water. The flood there also commeth out of the northwest, and falleth over the Reef horne to the Iuts Ilands, the ebbe also to the contrarie off from the land to the North Sea.

X. Of the groundes and depths about these lands, and at what depths you may see them being at Sea.

IN Ditmarse, the land of Kidingh, and Botjaghers land the groundes lye so farre without the land, or the Coasts, that you can not see the Coasts, unlesse you clime up into the toppe of the mast.

The groundes of Hever, and the bancks of the Small deepe without Strand & Yederstee, they lye about two leagues with­out the Coasts of the land.

Betweene Holie land and Ameren or Strand it is 10 or 11 fa­thome deepe, and at that depth you may see both the lands, if you clime up into the shrowdes. You knowe Strand by the stee­ple of Pielworme, standing upon the south ende of the land, there stand more churches & steeples upon the Iland of Strand, but none of them is so well to be knowne as Pielworme.

Ameren is a great league long, it is all lowe downes, over­growne with heath.

The Iland of Silt may be seene at 10 fathome, upon the Iland nearest to the north ende there lyeth a high shoring redde cliffe going steepe down on both sides. On the south side of the cliffe there standeth a flat church with a lowe clock-house, and east­ward standeth another church with a high thick steeple, called Heydom. The north ende of the land is called List, but the south ende is called the Voortrap.

XI. How these Lands lye distant from each other.

  • FRom the uttermost tonne of the Elve to the Eyder north and south 7 or 8 leagues.
  • From the Eyder to the Hever the land standeth north­northwest [Page 25] and southsoutheast 5 leagues.
  • From the Hever or the south ende of Strand to the south ende of Ameren n. n. w. 5 leagues.

Ameren is a small Iland of two leagued long.

Two great leagues north from Ameren lyeth Silt, it is about five leagues long, and reacheth s. and by e. and n. and by w.

From the north ende of Silt called List to the south ende of Rim or Rem it is n. e. and s. w. a league long, and the Ile of Rem is three leagues long, and reacheth most south and north.

From the north ende of Rem to the south ende of Manu it is n. e. and s. w. a league long, but you can not well see it, be­cause of the grounds and great flats which reach out there from the Sea.

Manu and Phanu lye about two leagues distant from each o­ther. Manu is about half a league long. The Iland of Phanu is about three or four leagues long, and reacheth from Phanu­knuyts to Knuyts chanel s. s. e. and n. n. w. This Iland hath also a faire bottome, but the north ende is flat verie farre to the Grouwe deepe.

Frō Phanu to Deadhill or Dodenbergh it is about 4 leagues. Betweene them both lye the havens of Grouwe deepe & Schel­linghkroegh, as it is shewed elswhere.

XII. How these Countreys are distant from other Countreys.

  • FRom Holie land to the Eyder it is east and by north and west and by south 7 leagues.
  • From Holie land to the uttermost tonne in Hever it is n. e and s. w. 8 leagues.

You may anckor by the uttermost tonne in Hever, and see Holie land plainly.

  • From Holie land to Small deepe or Ameren northnortheast, & somewhat easterlyer, and southsouthwest and somewhat sou­therlyer 11 leagues.
  • From Holie land to Silt haven or List the course is north and by east distant 19 leagues.
  • From Holie land to Knuyts deepe or Reper deepe north, and north and by east 25 leagues.
  • From Holie land to the Horne or Dodenbergh north and south 32 leagues.
  • From Knuyts deepe or from the Iland Phanu to the Vlie south­west and by south 51 leagues.
  • From the Iland of Silt to the Vlie n. e. and s. w. 47 leagues.
Heere followeth the Carde N. 22.

CHAPTER III. A TRVE DESCRIPTION of the situation of the Seacoasts and Havens of Iutland, from Dodenbergh till you come about Schaghen.

I. Of the situation of the Horne and of the Reefshorne.

RIght north from Doden-bergh lyeth the point called the Horne,Horne. betweene Suyder-side and Wester-side, which there maketh a Horne of the land: for there southward the land reacheth eastsoutheast and westnorth­west to the Grouwe deepe, but there nor­therly it reacheth north and south to We­sterside. Westerside is a village betweene Blawenbergh and the Horne.

About this point or Horne there runneth off a long banck, at least 12 leagues about westsouthwest into the Sea, called Reefs­horne,Reefs­horne. or as some say the Divels horne. This banck in some pla­ces lyeth all drie, specially seven or eight leagues into the Sea, where this banck is no deeper then two and an half or three fa­thome a foot lesse, a shippe that sayleth upon it, may sometimes be seene just from the land, but by the land it is at the deepest,Depth up­on Reefs­horne. that is four fathome a foot lesse. He that commeth there with a shippe that goeth deepe must take heede thereof, for this Banck on the northwest side is so shoring, that a man at one cast of the lead hath 22 fathome, the second cast 15 fathome, and the third cast 3 fathome.

But it is an assured thing, when you are on the west side, or north from the Reefshorne, then you may sound along by the wall at 6 or 7 fathome, till you come by the said Horne, but then you shall finde a drie sand, which rūneth off from the land called the Uyl,The Owle which northward is verie shoring, you may goe no nearer north unto it then seven fathome. Right southward there beginneth Reefshorne to runne off from the land, & there it is a small banck,Depth up­on Reefs­horne by the land. there you shall for certaine finde but three fa­thome, or three fathome a foot lesse, for two or three casts with the lead, as the winde bloweth, and as you goe forward, for pre­sently againe you have five fathome, sound then forward about by that drie sand, where you desire to be, as I told you before.

According to some mens opinions, Dogghers sand begin­neth from this banck: for as a man earely in the morning setteth sayle out of Rincopers haven, with a southwest course, and a good northeast winde, then you are about three or four of the clock in the afternoone, yet at nine fathome, whereby it may partly appeare, that Dogghers sand should have her first begin­ning from this banck, and the rather, for that Dogghers sand ly­eth there abouts.

To knowe the land heereabouts,To knowe the land. you must understand, that about four leagues north from the said Horne, there lyeth a high hill called Blawebergh, which on both sides goeth plainly sloping downe, it is somewhat blacker then the other land, and overgrowne with heath, and lyeth a litle from the strand. And southward from this Blauwebergh, as I said before, the fishers village called Westerside lyeth: and betweepe that village and the Horne lyeth a black hillock, also a Gentlemans house, other­wise it is altogether hillie ground.

Thus the land sheweth betweene the Horne or Dodenbergh, and Numans haven.

Blauwebergh. Dodenbergh.

II. To sayle into Numans chanel or Rincopers haven.

NOrth from the aforesaid Blauwebergh there lye three or four lowe downes, & by Numans chanel or haven there lye two great sand hilles close by each other.To knowe Numans chanel. North from these Sand hilles Numans haven runneth in, and the land betweene Numans haven and the Dodenbergh reacheth for the [Page] [Page] [Page]

Ware afbeeldinge der Zeechusten vant noorder deel van Jutlandt vanden doodenbergh af tot om den-hoeck van Schagen, tonende hoe­men die selve beseÿlen, en̄ de ondiepten daer neffens gelegen schou­wen sal

Vraÿ pourtraict des Costes marines de la partie Septentrionale de Jutlande, commencant du mont dict doodenbergh jusqu'a'lentour la poincte de Schagen, monstrant comment on les navigera et evi­tera les gues ÿ environ.

[Page] [Page 27] most part south and north about seven leagues. There it is alto­gether a faire strand, and the best part of this coast to be knowne is Blauwebergh, and the two aforesaid sandhilles.

If you will sayle into Rincopers havenTo sayle into Rin­copers ha­ven. or the chanel of Nu­man, then goe along by the land of Westerside at sixe or seven fathome, til you come to the two aforesaid great white downes, then you shall see two beacons stand, whereof each hath a bar­rel upon it, on the north side of the haven, upon a lowe land, bring them one against an other, then they will stand north, or north and by east from you, and there you shall finde a tonne, unlesse it be laid otherwise. But right before the chanel of Nu­man lyeth a sandie flat called Gladde Iaep:Gladde Iaep. if you will sayle into the south chanel, then leave this flat on baghborde, and runne in close by the south side or foot strand, whereon the said downes lye, to the beacons, for there you can have no hurt, for you may sound them easely, and that is the most assured course to sayle in by the strand, if you looke well to your lead. When you are past by Gladde Iaep, then rūne to the north side where­on the said beacons stand, for you must there sayle about them, as close as you will: it is a lowe plaine point, verie faire and alto­gether steeping. Now when you are within this point, you may anckor there where you will. This haven from without reach­eth in most north, and north and by east, untill you are within the Gladde Iaep, then you must goe somewhat easterlyer to the point aforesaid, it is a haven that hath a good streame, because there lyeth so great a chanel within it, but it floweth there but litle up and downe, not above two foot and an half, with a day­ly tide. A southwest and northeast moone maketh there high water.

North-chanel.Right north from Gladde Iaep there runneth another chanel in, but there is but eight foot water in it.

When you are within Numen haven, then forward it is Pi­lots water,To sayle from Nu­mit chanel to Rinco­pen. but ships that goe not deepe, they may well sayle up, unles it be at a lowe water. The depth runneth by Numits strand, and when you keepe Numits strand, whereon the bea­cons stand, then you can not goe amisse: but as soone as you put off from thence, then you may sayle under the sands or sheares, which reach off from the Wadt to the land of Numit, therefore runne so long close by the strand of Numit,Markes of the Sands. till a church with a flat steeple (which standeth about east from you, against the high land of the Holme) commeth on the south side of the high land, then you are within the sands and outsands, then you must leave the strand, and goe in n. n. e. and n. e. & by n. till there commeth a round hillock close south, or right over against a blewe church, which standeth upō the high land of the Holme, then goe in northeast and by east, till the aforesaid blewe church commeth against a Gentlemans house, which standeth belowe close by the water, in the lowe land, then sayle north and north and by east, till you be before Rincopen, for there it is wide and broad. The right depth there is two fathome and two foot. Rincopen and the haven of Numen lye distant from each other four leagues.

North from Rincopen there runneth a River into the land, whereon there lye two small townes, the one called Hostebro,Hostebro. the other Huysbuy,Huys buy. they lye at least seven or eight leagues into the land.

Half a league south from Bovenberghen there goeth another small haven out of the Sea inward, it is called Trosmond.Trosmond chanel. There stand two masts, which you must hold one over against the o­ther, and so goe in, within it there lyeth a village called Tros­mond, from thence you may sayle over the Wadt to Rincopen.

This haven or chanel is sometimes closed up, and sometimes againe botes or crayers and small ships may goe out of and into it, but it is reckoned for no haven.

III. Of the situation of Bovenberghen and the Holmen.

FRom Rincoper haven or the haven of Numan, to Boven­berghen, the land reacheth most north & south 10 leagues, and betweene them both it is all over a faire strand, with white downes, which are overgrowne with heath, when you sayle along by it, then you may see the blewe within the land of Rincopen called Holmes, above over this land.

Betweene Bovenberghen and ReefshorneBankes betweene Reefshorn & Boven­berghen. there lye some bancks, of 7, 8, and 9 fathome, and some that are deeper.

BovenberghenBovenber­ghen. is a long plaine hill, in the middle having a round hillock or hill, and upon this hill standeth a church with a steeple, you may see the land at 13 and 14 fathome. But if you come upon Bovenberghen to land, then it openeth in three hilles, it is a shoring steepe point, the middlemost hil is the high­est, whereon standeth the church aforesaid, with a flat steeple, and on both sides of this hill there stand other churches, which are not so high. You may see the land at 13 or 14 fathome. The ground is great redde sand, with some small stones therein.

From Bovenberghen to the Holmen the land reacheth north [Page 28] northeast 9 or 10 leagues, but it lyeth in a Creeke, and it is black hillockie downish land, overgrowne with heath, and there stan­deth now and then a flat steeple in the land. And there lyeth a banck of 10 fathome about five leagues from the land, but it continueth not long.

Iutland Sand.Betweene Bovenberghen and the Holme, from thence the Sand reacheth off from the land west into the Sea, and when you goe over that Sand, at 12 and 13 fathome, then the Neus lyeth from you northwest and by north 24 leagues.

The HolmesHolmes. is a plaine point, which on the northeast side goeth shoring downe, and in the middle upon this hill, there standeth a four-square church without a steeple. When that heigth of the land is southsoutheast from you, and that you may justly see the north ende, then it is 15 fathome deepe, great rough sand, with some stones amongst it.A stonie banck north frō Holmes. There lyeth a banck of stone (like the Trindle of Lesou) two leagues northeast or somewhat easterlyer from the north point of the Holmes, that is betweene the north and the east points, so that the two third parts of the water is almost betweene this stone-banck and the north point, and the other third part betweene the east point & the said stone-banck, and there is not above 12 foot water upon it, there hath some ships bin cast awaie upon it. This east pointEast point lyeth about four leagues eastward from Holmes, and is also a high shoring or sloping point, as if it were Holmes. Right a­gainst this east point there shooteth a Sand half a league into the Sea, which you may sound about at seven fathome, but as some say you may goe through betweene the land and this Sand.

Thus the land betweene Bovenberghen and the Holmes sheweth, when you sayle along by it two leagues from the land.

East point. Holmes Bovenberghen. South of Bovenberghen.

III. The situation of the Coasts of Iutland, from the Holmes to Schaghen.

FRom the Holmes to Robbeknuyt the course is northeast nine leagues. And right west from Robbeknuyt, in the creeke to the east point, there stand five churches with flat steeples, which stand nearest to Robbeknuyt, there lye also two blewe lands betweene the East-point and Robbeknuyt, and there the land lyeth in a Creeke, and chere also you see a cloven hill or downe before you come to Robbeknuyt. It is there all along flatte strand. East from Holmes there goeth in a water cal­led Misdorp,Misdorp. and right west from the white Cliffe of Robbe­knuyt there also runneth in a litle River whereon there lyeth a towne called Werlom.Werlom.

Robbeknuyt is a high round hill, and right upon the heigth of the hill there standeth a church with a sharpe steeple.To knowe Robbe­knuyt. But east about from this point there goeth a great Creeke about to Hartshals. Against Robbeknuyt it is verie farre flat, for fifteene fathome depth is at least two leagues from the land. And about four leagues from the land there lyeth a banck of nine fathome, which reacheth along by the land. And against Robbeknuyt there lyeth a stone or rock about a league from the land.

From Robbeknuyt to HartshalsHartshals. it is southwest and by west four leagues. The land as I said before reacheth that waie with a creeke or bowing, and there standeth a flatte steeple betweene them both, but nearest to Robbeknuyt, and there you see the high land of Laclowe over that high land.

Hartshals is a long plaine hill,To knowe Hartshals. on the east ende going some­what shoring downe. And right against Hartshals there lyeth a sandie or stonie ground, about a quarter of a league from the land, whereon some men saye manie ships have been cast awaie, but it is litle used.

From Hartshals to Schaghen the course is eastnortheast eight leagues. The land east from Hartshals is altogether downie and hillockie land, you may see the high land of Laclowe beyonde it, and you finde along upon these Coasts, no such plaine hilles as Bovenberghen, Holmes, Hartshals, and Robbeknuyt. A litle waie within the point of Schaghen there standeth a flat church with a flat steeple, when this church is southsoutheast from you, then there runneth a Sand or Flat off from the land, and there you must put somewhat off from the land, otherwise it is all shoring strand betweene Hartshals and Schaghen; but you may sound that Sand about at sixe or seven fathome.

Upon the east ende of the outmost of Schaghen there stan­deth a fire beacon, as if it were a sand beacon, and when the church is southwest and by west from you, then the fire beacon and the steeple are one against the other, and then you are right against the Sand of Schaghen,Markes of Scha­ghen sand. which reacheth off from the point eastnortheast, and east and by north almost a league into the Sea. When you goe along by the land, and goe under it at five or sixe fathome, then you may sound the Sand: but com­ming south out of the Sea, you can hardly found it, for it is sho­ring, and then come no nearer unto it then 12 or 13 fathome.

To knowe by sure markes when you are past this Sand,Markes to knowe that you are past the Sand. as well over the one side as the other, then marke that as you come out of the west, and the old church and the fire beacon are one against the other, then you come upon the west side of the Sand: but when you come out of the south or the east, & that old church is against or within the south ende of the village, then you are upon the south side of the Sand. When the stee­ple and the fire beacon are southwest and by west from you, then they are one against the other, and then you are against the Sand, as I said before: and when the steeple is southwest, and southwest & by south from you, then you are without or west from the Sand: but when the steeple or fire beacō is westsouth­west, and west and by south from you, then you are within the Sand. This you may by night take by your compas, & marke it so, to see whether you be within or without the Sand, when the fire lighter maketh a cleare bright fire. You may sette well on both sides of the Sand, so that you may put off from it at 7 or 8 fathome.

Some saye that upon necessitie a man might goe betweene this Sand and the land at two fathome and an half.

About two leagues without Schaghen towards Hartshals,Bancks betweene Schaghen and Harts­hals. two leagues from the land there lyeth a banck of 10 or 12 fa­thome, and within this banck it is 16, 17, and 18 fathome deepe.

Betweene Schaghen and Masterland or Norwaie it is all soft ground, and the nearer to Norwaie the deeper water, but when you come out of the Sond, and are in the chanel, and finde no ground at 18, 20, and 22 fathome, it is a signe that you are a­bout Schaghen Sand.

When you come out of the west about Schaghen, and will goe to the Sond or to the Belt, then take heede of the streame out of the Belt,Of the streame out of the Belt. for cōmonly it falleth out of the Belt towards Norwaie, specially when the winde hath blowne a while east or northeast, this streame by night or in darke wether will car­rie you under Norwaie before you are aware thereof, therefore be carefull thereof, and gesse accordingly.

Thus the land betweene the Holmes and Schaghen sheweth, when you sayle along by it.

Schaghen. Hartshals. Robbeknuyt.

IIII. How these places lye distant one from the other.

  • FRom the Dead hill or the Horne to Numans chanel or Rincoper chanel it is n. and by w. 7 or 8 leagues.
  • From Rincoper deepe or Numans chanel to Bovenber­ghen north and by west 11 leagues.
  • In general from Deadehill to Bovenberghen the land of Iutland reacheth n. & by w. and s. & by e. 17 or 18 leagues.
  • From Bovenberghen to the Holmes n. n. e. 9 leagues.
  • From the Holmes to Robbeknuyt northeast 9 leagues.
  • From Robbeknuyt to Hartshals n. e. and by e. 4 leagues.
  • From Hartshals to Schaghen e. n. e. 8 leagues.

V. How these Countreyes are distant from other Countreyes.

  • FRom Rincoper or Numans chanel to the Vlie southsouth­west and somewhat westerlyer 59 leagues.
  • From Bovenberghen along by Iutland without the grounds to the Elve or the uttermost tonne south and by east about 51 leagues.
  • From Bovenberghen to Holie land south and by east, and some­what southerlyer about 45 leagues.
  • From Bovenberghen to the Vlie or Borneriffe southsouthwest about 69 leagues.
  • From Bovenberghen to the Foreland s. w. & by s. 120 leagues.
  • [Page 30]From Bovenberghen to the Holmes before Iarmouth south­west 93 leagues.
  • From Bovenberghen to Flamboroughhead w.s.w. 100 leagues.
  • From Bovenberghen to Scarborough westsouthwest & some­what westerlyer 100 leagues.
  • From Bovenberghen to the River of Newcastle or Tinmouth west and by south about 107 leagues.
  • From Bovenberghen to Buqunesse w. and by n. 107 leagues.
  • From Bovenberghen to the Neus n. w. & by n. 24 leagues.
  • From the Sand at eighteene fathome to the Vlie south and by west 61 or 62 leagues.
  • From the Sand at eighteene fathome to the Heads at Calis southsouthwest about 120 leagues.
  • From the Holmes to the Neus n. w. 19 or 20 leagues.
  • From the Holmes to the Vlecker n. w. & by n. 19 leagues.
  • From the Holmes to Mardon north 24 leagues.
  • From the Holmes to Langhesond n. & by e. 28 or 29 leagues.
  • From the Holmes to Farder n. n. e. 36 leagues.
  • From Schaghen to Tinmouth w. s. w. 136 leagues.
  • From Schaghen to the Neus west 33 leagues.
  • From Schaghen to Vlecker w. and by n. 25 or 26 leagues.
  • From Schaghen to Reperwick west and by north, and west­northwest 24 leagues.
  • From Schaghen to Mardon n. w. and by w. 20 or 21 leagues.
  • From Schaghen to Langhesond northwest and by north, or a a litle northerlyer 21 leagues.
  • From Schaghen to Fardero n. and by w. 21 leagues.
  • From Schaghen to Ottrum n. and by e. 23 or 24 leagues.
  • From Schaghen to Masterland e. n. e. 12 leagues.
  • From Schaghen to Nydingh e. and by s. 15 or 16 leagues.
  • From Schaghen to Waersberghen e. s. e. 19 or 20 leagues.
  • From Schaghen to the Trindle southeast 8 leagues.
  • From Schaghen without the Trindel s. e. and by e. 8 leagues.
  • From Schaghen to Lesou, or the northende of the Sand south­southeast 8 leagues.
Heere followeth the Carde N. 23.

Pascaarte vande Belt, verthoonende de Oostersche Zeecustē van Iutlandt, de gelegentheijt vande Melversondt, Wedersont. Jtem aller Eijlanden, Jnwijcken, Droochten, Reven, ende Sanden, En hoemen in't beseijlen van die Gewesten hem voor alle pe­riculen hoeden ende wachten sal.

Carte Marine de la Belt, representant les rivages orient­aulx de Juthlande, la situation de la Melversonde et Weder­sonde, auecq toutes les Isles et goulphes, seicheresses, bancs de sable, et lieux dangereux, et comment navigant en ces quar­tiers on se gardera et evitera touz perilz et dangiers.

CHAPTER IIII. THE DESCRIPTION OF the Belt, VVedersond, and Melversond, and of all the Ilands lying thereabouts.

I. The situation of Lezou and the Trindle, and how you shall sayle from Schaghen to Seebuy

FRom Schaghen sand to Lezou the course is s. s. e. eight leagues.The situa­tion of Lesou. Lesou is a foule Iland, which is round about flat, and compassed a­bout with manie banckes, & sands shooting out. At the south ende it is but two fathome deepe, above two leagues from the land, and from the south ende whereon the church standeth there shooteth a Sand into the Sea, two leagues and an half, which you may anckor under safe against a s. s. e. winde. Also on the other side of the south ende there shooteth off a sand, so that when the aforesaid flat church is east, and northeast from you, there you cannot see the land when you are within a league of it: but you may goe so neare to the north ende, that you may lye at anckor under it safe against a south winde, at 3 4 and 5 fathome. From the north ende also there shooteth off a sand to the Trindle, but you may sound it about at three or four fathome, through betweene Lesou and the Trindle.

Trindle.The Trindle lyeth northeast, or somewhat northerlyer from the northende of Lesou about two great leagues, & from Scha­ghen sand southeast and northwest eight leagues. It is stonie sand ground, about 4 foot deepe, and about sixe or seven akers of land great, reaching along by the chanel of the Sea: On the north side alwaies there lyeth a tonne, whereby men may know it a farre off. You may sayle well through betweene Lesou and the Trindel, and the nearer to the Trindel the deeper water, and the nearer to Lesou the flatter & shallower. Close by the Trin­dle it is 5 or 6 fathome deepe.

Zeebuy.But to sayle from Schaghen to Seebuy, the right course is south and by west 7 leagues. When Schaghen lyeth about n. w. and by w. from you, and that you are a league from it, there it is 17 and 18 fathome deepe: and when Schaghen is west, and west and by south a league, or a league and an half from you, there it is 34. or 35 fathome deepe. And come no nearer to Scha­ghen by night then 14 or 15 fathome. Now when you wil sayle from Schaghen to Seebuy, then you goe by the small Helmes,Small Helmes. lying south and by west 4 leagues from Schaghen, and if you will goe into the Belt, then you leave them on starborde, going all south and by west to Zeebuy. And he that will anckor un­der the Helmes,Rode un­der the Helmes. comming off from Schaghen, he must runne to the land at three fathome, and runne in betweene the strand & the Helmes, untill he be within the rockes, there you may anc­kor or goe through at three fathome, along by the foot strand, and when the rockes of Helmes are east, and east and by north from you, there is the Rode, at four and four fathome and an half.

The Helmes are three Ilands, the southerlyest the Iutters call the Dien or the Dee, the middlemost Holmes, and the norther­lyest the Grasholme, and by it there lyeth another litle Iland. You may sayle through betweene the southerlyest and the mid­dlemost, but nearest to the southerlyest Iland: there is betweene them four fathome water. The best Rode to lye in for litle ships behinde the Helmes, is betweene the middlemost and the sou­therlyest Iland, a litle nearer the ferme land then the Ilands, but for great ships the best lying is by the Grasholme.

Betweene the Holmes and the ferme land in the faire-water, it is at the least three fathome deepe.

When you come on the south ende of the rockes, there run­neth a Sand off from the Helmes to the strand,Sand of the Helmes called Boutfer­riffe or sand, where the great stones lye upon the strand, but kee­ping at three fathome you can doe no hurt upon this sand, and you may so goe out againe at the south ende of Zeebuy.

A league east from Helmes there lyeth a heape of stones which you must beware of, when you will goe into the Belt.

A shippe that goeth not deepe may sayle round about the Helmes, for there at the least it is three fathome water. In the chanel betweene the Helmes, and the north ende of Lesou it is [Page 32] 10 fathome deepe soft ground,Depth be­tweene the Helmes & Lesou. and before Zeebuy in the rode it is 4 and 5 fathome deepe. Lesou lyeth about four leagues from Zeebuy. On the west side of Lesou lye the Dwalegrounds, which lye north from the aforesaid Sand (which shooteth off west into the Sea, from the south ende of Lesou, whereon the flatte church standeth. These Dwalegrounds are verie uneven, of 3, 4, 5, and 6 fathome deepe, and within Zeebuy there are also flat grounds of 4, 5, and 6 fathome. The chanel betweene the Dwalegrounds and the flattes of Zeebuy is seven and eight fathome deepe.

II. To sayle from Zeebuy to Aelborgh and Stevenshooft.

To sayle into Ael­burgher chanel or haven.FRom Zeebuy to Aelburgher chanel the course is south & by west 7 leagues. On the north side of the chanel there standeth a flat steeple called Hals, in the chanel there lyeth a tonne, and upon the south land there stand two capes, which you must bring one against the other, and then you finde the tonne. The haven first reacheth in w. and by s. about a cables length, then you goe n. w. and by w. right up to Hals, and goe in by the north side till you be against Hals, for from the south point of the land there commeth a Flatte shooting off, which you must shunne: being against Hals, you must then goe s. w. & by w. to the bocht or hollowe ground, and in the crooking you must shunne the north side somewhat, then goe northwest and by west againe along to the second crooking, then s. s. w. and then w. s. w. to the towne. Before in the haven at the tōne it is two fathome deepe, and there within a litle while after five or sixe fathome: but to sayle into it it is best to take a Pilot. By the south side also there goeth in a chanel of 6 or 8 foot deepe.

The towne of Aelburgh lyeth four leagues upwards in the River, within the land: also west along by these Coasts there lye some bancks, there you must shunne the land somewhat.

When you sayle from the Helmes to Stevenshooft, through betweene the Dwalegrounds and the Flats of Zeebuy, then you finde flat grounds about half waie betweene Stevenshooft and Zeebuy of 5, 6, and 7 fathome. This shallowe is called the Sweteringh,The Swe­teringh. lying above two leagues eastward from Aelbur­gher haven, and the chanel there betweene them both is about 10 or 11 fathome deepe.

From Aelburgher haven to Haselin the course is southeast and by east about twentie leagues.

From Aelburgher haven to StevenshooftStevens­hooft. the course is s. e. and by s. about nine leagues. There betweene them both the land lyeth in a great Creeke, wherein the two townes called Mariacker and Randersen doe lye. MariackerMariacker lyeth from Ael­burgher haven south, and south and by west four leagues, and from Stevenshooft five leagues. Betweene Mariacker & Steven­hoofr lyeth the River of Randersen,Randersen which runneth crooked a­bout so farre up into the land, to the towne of Schandelburgh, where the King of Denmarke hath a great fishing, and also ma­nie times commeth there to hunt.

Thus the land and the church of Aelst sheweth two leagues and an half east from Aelburgher haven.

Aelster church. Melver hill.

III. To sayle from Stevenshooft to the Ilands of Syro, Wero, and Sampso, and forth through the Wedersond to the Melversond.

FRom Stevenshooft to Haselin the course is e. s. e. thir­teene leagues, and HaselinHaselin. without is full of foule Sands and grounds: you shall finde further and larger description of Haselin and Anout, as also of the foule waies and shallowes lying thereabouts in the tenth Chapter of this Book.

Right south from Stevenshooft lyeth a litle towne called Oruntbuy, there lye the Chalck grounds right before the River of Grimsond in a Creek, right about the point of Stevenshooft,Oruntbuy Chalk-grounds. that is a sand two or three foot water deepe, but not farre from it, it is 10 fathome deepe, you may sound it at 4. fathome. You may sayle up the GrimsondGrim­sond. to Grimsteed, which is a lading place of Boeyers.

From Stevenshooft to Great HelmesGreat Helmes. the course is s. s. w. a­bout 7 leagues. The land from Stevenshooft to the point of Ebeltud reacheth s.s.w. seven or eight leagues. EbeltudEbeltud. is a litle towne lying against the Great Helmes inward to the land. Be­tweene [Page 33] the Great Helme & Iutland it is 6 and 7 fathome deepe. Close by Stevenshooft and the point of Ebeltud it is 8, 9, and 10 fathome deepe. The great Helme hath two Sands, one up­on the north side, and the other upon the south side.

From Stevenshooft to SieroSiero. the course is s. s. e. 8 leagues. North from Siero lyeth a land-losse ground divided into two Sands,Sands of Siero. which you must shunne.

These two Sands in some places lye above the water.

From the Great Holme to the Iland WeroThe Iland Wero the course is n. n. w. and s. s. e. four leagues, and there it is 4 or 5 fathome deepe.

The situa­tion of Kayholme and SampsFrom Wero there runneth a shallowe to Kayeholme, and a­bout Kayholme: and also about the Ilands Samps, it is all full of drie grounds, and they runne all to the great Iland Sampso.

From Great Holme to the Iland SampsoSampso. it is s. w. and n. e. four leagues.

Sand of Sampso.From the north ende of Sampso there shooteth off a Sand north into the Sea, there you may sound close about, to come into the Rode of Sampso, when you will anckor there, there at the Rode it is 10 fathome, and under the Swan grounds you lye safe from all windes.

From the south ende of Ebeltud to AerhuysenAerhuysen the course is west, and west and by south five leagues, there it is all flat water, that is 2 and 3 fathome deepe. He that will anckor in the Rode before Aerhuysen, let him bring the great steeple in the middle betweene the two other speeres, there is the best ground, and good Rode at 3, 4, or 5 fathome, so drie as one will.

South by Aerhuysen the WedersondWeder­sond. goeth in, between Iut­land and Sampso: he that will sayle into it must be wel acquain­ted there with, for there it is all full of Sands and shallowes, and also by night you can not use the chanel, because of the sands and shallowes, and by daie also you must looke well about you, and spare not your lead, but you may anckor and lye at rode there all over. When you will sayle through the Wedersond,To sayle through Weder­sond. comming from Great Holme or Ebeltud, then leave the Iland TonsTons. and the Swan grounds on baghborde, running forth all a­long by the coast of Iutland at 2 or 3 fathome, till you be past Horsens, or the Iland of Endelau, which Iland of Endelau a man may not goe neare unto on the west side, because of all the grounds which lye on the west side thereof.

Betweene EndelauEndelau. and the firme land it is narrowe water, stretching from Wedersond south through the Swan grounds,Swan-grounds. on both sides it is drie, it is but a chanel to sayle through.

When you come off from Melversond, & will sayle through the Wedersond, it is best to runne along by the Iutland side, till you be against the River of Horsens, there you must then put somewhat off from the land, & sayle upon the Ile of Tons, then you goe through betweene the North and South grounds, lea­ving the Ile of Tons on starborde. When you are past Tons, then you must goe out close by the north point of Sampso, to the land of Ebeltud, it is altogether one course from Horsens to Tons, and forth to Sampso, and the point of Ebeltud, that is, al­together northeast and southwest 8 or 9 leagues.

Frō Horsens or the Iland Endelau to MelversondMelver­sond. the course is s. s. w. 7 leagues. Melversond is a deepe Sond, of 20 and 25 fathome, and is verie crooked to goe in. It goeth in betweene Fuynen and Iutland, which are two high lands.

From the Iland Ebelo to Melversond the course is southwest and southwest and by south five leagues.

From Sampso Rode to the Ile of EbeloEbelo. the course is s. s. w. and s. w. and by w. five leagues. And from the south ende of Sampso to Ebelo the course is s. w. and by w. four leagues.

Frō Sampso to RoemsRoems. the course is s. e. & n. w. 5 leagues.

The northwest Coast of Fuynen reacheth southwest and by west 8 leagues. The Iland of Ebelo lyeth a league from it, yet you cannot goe through betweene it and Fuynen, it lyeth right before Bowens. South from the Iland there lyeth a great stone or rock under the water, betweene this Rock & the Iland lyeth the Rode before Bowens,Rode be­fore Bou­wens. at 8 or 9 fathome.

IIII. To sayle from Syro and Wero to Langheland, and forth about Fuy­nen to Melversond, also along by Zeland to Golversond.

BEtweene Syro and Wero lyeth a bad sand, long & broad,Haters Sand. reaching further then half waie to Siero. When you will sayle through betweene the two Ilands aforesaid, above Russenesse, you must leave two third parts of the water lying on Wero side, and goe in s. s. w. and s. and by w. to Roems, that is nine leagues.

The said sand is called Haters sand, and it is on the east side it is verie hard and stonie, and if you come from Boltsack you must runne close by the Iland of Wero, to shunne the Sand, the chanel betweene the sand and Wero is not to broad, but it is three and three fathome and an half deepe.

He that cōmeth eastward of Wero through betweene We­ro and Haters sand, and will sayle to Roems, let him goe right [Page 34] south by east, & so he shal rūne about a quarter of a league east­ward of Boltsack, and fall right east from Roems. In like manner he that goeth from Roems or a litle east of it, north and by west he falleth betweene Wero and Haters Sand right in the faire­waie. One may runne through betweene Roems and Fuynen at two fathome, but you cannot goe through there with great ships. From the north ende of Fuynen there shooteth off a Sand at least a quarter of a league into the Sea. Within Roems in the land of Fuynen there lyeth a litle towne to lade at, which is cal­led Cartmond,Carte­monde. there commonly lye two tonnes in the haven, you may sayle in by them: the haven goeth in east, on the west side it is flat, the tonnes lye along by the flats, and in sayling up you leave them on starborde: this haven is 12 foot deepe.

From Romps to SproSpro. or KnuytshooftKnuyts­hooft. the course is s. & by e and s. s. e. five leagues. Betweene Siero and Knuytshooft it is 12 and 13 fathome deepe, but betweene Romps and Siero it is 10 or 11 fathome deepe.

Right south about the point of Knuytshooft in Fuynen ly­eth the Haven of Nyburgh,Nyburgh. when you are about the point, then you goe close up to the towne, about a league northwestward it is 6 or 7 fathome deepe, you lye there with your ship at the Kaye, and have anie thing caried aborde that you will.

From Knuytshooft to Langheland the course is s. e. four leagues, & then you leave Spro on baghborde, frō the southeast ende of Spro there shooteth off a Sand which you must shūne.

At the northende of Langheland lye the Ilands of Frissel,Frissel. which are verie foule round about.

From Knuytshooft to the Iland of Tassingh the course is s. 4 leagues: you must leave Frissel on the left hand, and you must runne through betweene Frissel and Fuynen. If you will goe to Swinburgh,Swin. burgh. then from Frissel goe to the southeast ende of Fuy­nen s. s. w. and you shall come to an Iland, where you may goe about on both sides, through betweene Tassingh and the Iland, or you may runne along by the land of Fuynen, till you come to the towne of Swinburgh, which lyeth over against the Iland of Tassingh, & against the point of Fuynen there lyeth an Iland called Olmes,Olmes. then you must strike up westward. You may also goe about on the other side of Tassingh, & leave the Iland Arr, & the foule grounds that lye between Arr & the southeast ende of Fuynen on baghborde. Upon those Grounds it is not above 6 foot deepe. And when you come by the Iland of Olmes or the southeast point of Fuynen, then (as aforesaid) you must strike up westward, about the point of Fuynen to Woburgh. On the south side of these Grounds aforesaid there goeth also a chanel through, which goeth west and west and by south, betweene the Grounds and the Iland of Arr. In this Iland of Arr there is a towne called Copingh.Copingh. This foule ground is 2 leagues long, & the Iland of Arr is also two leagues long, both of them reach east & west, & Monke IlandMonke Iland. lyeth at the ende of these grounds, in Fuynen before Woburgh: it hath two Sands, the one com­meth from the southeast ende, and shooteth east into the Sea, the other commeth from the north point, and reacheth north­east into the Sea. But when you sayle north frō these grounds, that is, betweene Fuynen and these grounds to Woburgh, then you goe upon the said Ile of Monke, and an Iland or two more, which you must leave on the left hand, and runne all along by the land of Fuynen, about w. and w. and by n. to the point of Askens,Askens. which is about five leagues from the southeast point.

From the east point of Askens to the Iland Areu and Toreu,Areu and Toreu. the course is w. and by n. and w. n. w. above 2 leagues. These two Ilands lye one over against the other, the one on Iutland, the other on Fuynen land, and you must goe through betweene two Sands, which runne one against the other, and there it is 4 or 5 fathome deepe.

North or west frō Areu the chanel of HaddersleuHadder­sleu. begineth, and reacheth in about w. and by s. upon it lyeth the towne of Haddersleu, which is above two leagues within the land.

From Areu or Toreu to Melversond the course is n. n. w. 5 leagues, which you goe into southward: first you goe westward in to the chanel of Coldinghen,Coldin­ghen. which is a wide chanel, which goeth about a league into the land, when you will goe through Melversond, then you leave it on the left hand, and goe up east­ward to the towne of Melver,To sayle through Melver­sond. where you come againe into the crooked. Melversond goeth out northward, with a great croo­king, and then you must goe out againe into the broad water north from Fuynen, as I taught you before.

You may also sayle out from Areu or Aelsche chanel s. s. w. to Apenrade,Apenrade. and so behinde about the Iland of Aelsens till you come into the chanel of Flensburgh.

To turne againe to the Belt: it is from RosnesRosnes. n. n. w. going west from Syro. From Rosnes shooteth a Sand off to seaward, but a litle east from Rosnes, that is, from the point which lyeth half waie at Haselin, there reacheth a Sand off, above a league & an half into the Sea, that lyeth at the ende quite drie, you may boldly runne about close by the drie, for not farre from it it is eight fathome deepe.

From Rosnes to Spro south and north 8 or 9 leagues. Be­tweene Rosnes and Spro lyeth CallenburghCallen­burgh. in Zeland, which also is a lading place, and about two leagues south from Callen­burgh shooteth a flatte along the Coast, about three quarters of a league from the strand of five fathome deepe.

From the east ende of Spro shooteth a stonie banck off, and over against it commeth a Flat shooting off from the land, there betweene them it is 4 and 5 fathome deepe. But behinde or a­gainst Spro lyeth Cassuer,Cassuer. a faire Haven, where also lying at the Kaye you may have your goods caried into the ship.

From Spro to Langheland the course is s. e. and by s. four leagues. Right against Langheland lyeth Golbersond, whereof I will speake in the Chapter following.

V. How these places lye distant from each other, and also from other Countreys.

ALthough in the description of this Carde of the Belt frō Schaghen to Langheland, most part of the reachings of the land from one place to another is set downe, yet I thought it requisite to set and place them heere in order one af­ter the other, as I have done in the rest of the descriptions, and the rather, for that I thinke it will be profitable for Saylers, when men (having them all together by themselves) may the readier and sooner finde such stretchings as they desire to see.

  • From Schaghen to Lesou s. s. e. 8 leagues.
  • From Schaghen to the Trindle s. e. 8 leagues.
  • From Schaghen to the small Helmes s. and by w. 4 leagues.
  • From Schaghen to Zebuy s. and by w. 7 leagues.
  • From the Helmes to Zeebuy 2 leagues.
  • From Zeebuy to Aelburgher s. and by w. 7 leagues.
  • From Aelburgher chanel to Mariacker s. and s. by w. 4 leagues.
  • From Aelburgher deepe to Stevenshooft s. e. & by s. 9 leagues.
  • From Aelburgher chanel to Haselin s. e. and by e. 20 leagues.
  • From Stevenshooft to Haselin e. s. e. 13 leagues.
  • From Stevenshooft to the great Holme s. s. w. about 7 leagues.
  • Frō Stevenshooft to the point of Ebeltud s. s. w. 7 or 8 leagues.
  • From Stevenshooft to Siero s. s. e. 8 leagues.
  • From Great Holme to Wero s. s. e. 4 leagues.
  • From Great Holme to Sampso southwest 4 leagues.
  • From the south ende of Ebeltud to Aerhuysen west and west & by south 5 leagues.
  • From the Rode of Sampso to Ebelo southsouthwest, and south and by west 5 leagues.
  • From the south ende of Sampso to the Iland Ebelo southwest 4 great leagues.
  • The northwest coast of Fuynen reacheth s. w. & by w. 8 leagues.
  • From Ebelo to Melversond s. w. 5 leagues.
  • From Endelau to Melversond southsouthwest and somewhat southerlyer 7 leagues.
  • From Sampso to Roems s. e. 5 leagues.
  • From west from Siero to Roems s. s. w. and s. & by w. 9 leagues.
  • From Wero to Bultsack s. s. w. 4 great leagues.
  • From Bultsack to Romps s. s. e. and s. and by e. 4 leagues.
  • From Romps to Knuytshooft s. & by e. and s. s. e. 5 leagues.
  • From Knuytshooft to Langheland s. e. 4 leagues.
  • From Knuytshooft to the Iland Tassingh south 4 leagues.
  • From the southeast ende of Fuynen to the east ende of Askens west, and west and by north 5 leagues.
  • From the point of Askens to the Ilands of Toreu & Areu west and by north and westnorthwest 2 leagues.
  • From Areu to Melversond n. n. w. 5 leagues.
  • From the point of Rosnes in Zeland to the Ile of Spro south 8 or 9 leagues.
  • From Spro to Langheland s. e. and by s. 4 leagues.
Heere followeth the Carde N. 24.

CHAPTER V. A DECLARATION HOVV you shall sayle forth through the Belt to Femeren, and along by the Coasts of Holst, Mechelenburgh and Pomerland: Also the situation of Laland, Falster, Borneholme, and the places lying there abouts.

I. The situation of the Golversond, of Laland, Falster, and Meun so farre as to Steden.

THe Iland of Langheland is about eight leagues long, and reacheth south and north, there east against it lyeth the Golversond, which reacheth in north from Laland, and reacheth all up to Nestvelt, and Worden­burgh, and commeth into the Greensond, and in that Wolf-chanel or Wolve-gat go­eth into the East-sea againe. Before Golversond there lye three Ilands: the one called Wedero, which lyeth at the point of La­land, and is fast to it by a Sand, so that you may not sayle through betweene them, there northward you goe into Gol­versond,To sayle into Gol­versond. leaving it on starborde. The other two lye north from the said Iland of Wedero: the first whereof is called Arnis, and the other Ooms. Ooms is a litle plaine Iland, but Arnis is the greatest, it lyeth nearest Zeland, and is full of trees. From the Iland Ooms a Sand stretcheth off southwest to seaward, which is at least a league long, and at the ende flat, that you may runne over with the lead, and when you will sayle into Golversond you must let these two Ilands lye on baghborde of you. The Iland Laland at the west point,The Sand of Laland. over against the south ende of Langheland hath a Sand or Hooke, which reacheth off from Laland half over the Belt: to shunne it, you must runne along a quarter of a league east from Langheland:Markes of Lalands Riffe or Sand. or if you leave two third parts of the water on Lalands side, and the other third part on Langhelands side, then also you shall not sayle upon it. When you come out of the south and will goe into the Belt, and that then the steeple of Mascou, which standeth upon La­land, commeth to be northeast and by east from you, then you are past that sand, and it lyeth south from you. In this chanel betweene Laland and the south ende of Langheland it is sixe & seven fathome deepe.

From the south ende of Langheland to Femeren the course is southeast and by east seven leagues.

Now when you come off from Langheland, and have past the Sand or Hooke of Laland, the South coast of Laland rea­cheth there east and west. There lyeth a long Sand along, which is called the Redde-sand,Tha Red-sand. and reacheth out till it commeth be­fore Golversond, which runneth in betweene Laland and Ge­ster. North from this Sand there is a Rode of sixteene and eighteene foot water, before the townes of AelholmeAelholme. and Ro­buy,Robuy. where you may lade nuttes and barley.

Betweene Laland and Gester against this Redde sand (as I said) the Golversond goeth in, you may there goe into it, and come out againe into the Belt: but in this chanel there is small depth, for there lyeth a stone-bancke within crosse over the cha­nel: in it there lyeth a towne called Nicopen,Nicopen. which lyeth up­on the Iland of Falster a league within Gester.

From Gester Gester-sandGester-sand. shooteth off, at least two leagues into the Sea, it is a drie Sand. East from Gester-sand lyeth an I­land called Bout,Bout. and there it is all flat or shallowe water at 3 or 4 fathome.

East from Bout GronesondGrone­sond. goeth in, it goeth there through the land, by the towne of Stuybekuyp,Stuybe­kuyp. and commeth north by Laland againe into the Belt. Gronesond reacheth in about west and west and by north at threefathome, there lyeth a Sand on the left hand of the haven, called the Tolck,Tolck. which you must shunne, you must there goe in east, you may goe in by the land of Meun, at fourteene or sixteene foot water, the said towne of [Page] [Page] [Page]

Beschrijvinghe vant zuij­der deel vande Belt, en hoe­men de Custen van Mekelēborch Pomeren, met de Landen daer te­gen over tusschen Femeren en̄ Born­holm geleghē beseijlen, en̄ alle Revē en Sanden daer ontrent schouwen sal.

Description de la partie meridionale de la Belt, comment qu'on doibt mariner les costes de Mekelenbourgh, Pomere et les pais la viz a viz situez entre Femere et Bornholm, et eviter tous bancs de sable et dangiers la environ.

[Page] [Page 37] Stuybekuyp lyeth about a league inward.

From Gestersand to MeunMeun. the course is northnortheast eight leagues, but from Bout to Meun it is northeast about seven leagues.

Rode un­der Meun.From Golversond to Meun the land lyeth in a Creeke, there you anckor safe against a northeast, north, northwest and west windes at five or sixe fathome. If you come out of the Sond and will goe south from Meun, you may goe as neare Meun as you will, and loose westward up by the point, and anckor where you will at 5 or 6 fathome.

On t