FIRST PREACHED, THEN PENNED, and now at last propyned to the Lords inheritance in the Presbyterie of Lanerk, by M. William Birnie the Lord his Minister in that Ilk, as a pledge of his zeale, and care of that reformation.

MATT. 8.22. Follow me, and let the dead bury the dead.

EDINBVRGH PRINTED BY ROBERT CHARTERIS PRIN­ter to the Kings most Excellent Maiestie. 1606.

TO THE (TRVELY) NOBLE, IAMES MARQVES OF HAMMILTON, EARLE of Arrane, Lord Auen, Aberbroth, &c. the Shiriffe principall of Clydisdaill, and Prouost of Lanerk, True felicity wished, both here and hence from God in Christ Iesus.

THere is nothing wherein the Antichristian crew is found more condemnable (Noble Marques) nor that by their lin-sey-wol-sey confusions, they haue dared clamp the sincere twist of Gods trueth, with the torne clouts of their brain-sicke superstitions, instanced especially in their many fold sepulchromany. Whose blame therefore we blase, that such cullours of Asdod remaine not so standered out, euen in Israels campe, vnder this our protested refor­mation. But to award the malignance of any gain-said af­fection, I strong-hold my self (by this nuncupation of you) vnder your Marqueships Mecenatisme. For as by the fo­ster-father-hood of such high callings, Gods Altar-mens trauels in his own trueth, ought to be steil-bowed▪ so these great-good gifts of nature and grace, in body and minde, that God hes garnelled vp in you, does plentifully promit that comfort to vs. For (to Gods glory I speak, beside these personal parts of such vigorous talnes in statur & strength, so dexterously kythed by a peereles pausty in all campe­strial prowes, and pas-tyming exployts, that (if I may say it) by a grace-full Gygantinisme, the commonly dough [...]y are become your dwarfes) your minde (which is more) thogh yet adolescent, is so magnifickly inner-manned▪ that in rauersing these forraine territories (as ye Heroikly in­tend) ye can se no singular thing, that in some compēdious Micro-cosmo-graphy does not shine in your self. And [Page] therefore, althogh the Magogick negotiation of Schittim (the bordel of both the whordomes) hes ship-wreaked the soules [...]f some, almost of your rank, yet being so mainly munitioned with that panoply of God, I hope to see your triumph ouer such temptations: As happily did your hea­uen-dwelling Father of incorruptible memory. For so long as ye resolue to loyalize the loue of your soule to the Lord, and of your body to the betrothed breasts of that Lady that ought it, the gates of hell shall not preuaill. But least ye prolong too long the iust experience of these high expectations, that Kirk and Country conceiues of you, be intreated (my good Lord) to retrinch and abridge your forain tary: that so not onely the viduity of vs your wel willing followers by your fairing away, may be remoued: but also the pinching langour of these two your dayly beed-Ladies: your Mother, to wit, the mirrour of all godly graue matronisme, and your Spouse now the yong fruteful Matriarch of that multi-potent Marquesad. So shall Dauid enioy his owne Ionathan, and Israell, now in his growing need his mediating Ioseph, of all men now-adayes most skant: But the Lord by his pasport of protection giue your Lordship continuall conuoy to your rinks end. And grant that ‘Coelum non animum mutet qui trans mare currit.’

The incessant Orator to God for your Lordship M. W. B.

The blame of Kirk-buriall.

The proposition of the matter, Chap. I.

THere be three seuerall stations that the di­uine Prouidence by degrees hes assigned to man, wherby he may mount to immor­talitie: First the wombe, a mansion for nine moneths: next the world that indureth to dissolution: last the graue, the tabernacle of bodilie rest vnto the resurrection: to the consideration of the first two whereof, althogh Philosophy may auaile (as Physick for our incarnation, and Ethick for our worldlie well) yet to the science of the last, the Graue, Theologie is onelie sufficient, as a subiect that farre ouer-reaches Natures reason. For we see that howsoeuer the Corinthi­an error that doubted, or Saducean herisie denied the resurrectiō, in our christian Kirk seeme extinguished: yet the practise of ma­nie in buriall processe, argues not onlie irresolution, but incredu­litie, whereof kirk-buriall is badge: as wherein by a sacrilegious conuersion they make Gods Sanctuarie their Golgotha, that is, the Kirk a caluarie or cairne of dead mens skulles. Which sinne, lest it seeme to walke safely vnder protection of the Kirks con­niuence, or of the commons conceat that counts it indifferent, I in­tend to decypher, beginning at burials definition.

The definition of Buriall. Chap. II.

NOw Buriall I finde to be that religious ceremonie whereby our defunct bodies are interred vnto the resurrection. For as in deing destruction is resembled,Caluine in Act. 9 37. so by buriall (that is the reuer­sion of life) immortalitie is represented. I call it a ceremonie, in re­spect it is not of that essentiall necessitie to christian welfaire, as without the which we will be prejudged of the resurrection. For although casually euen the godly may fall vnder the in lake of funerall exequies, yet of burial neuer: For whatsoeuer element shall dissolue this elementall body in this mother dust,Ionas. 2. Lucan [...]. the same is his tombe: and must repledg him at the requisition of the great day: as did the Whale in the type Ionas. For as Lucanus to Cesar saye▪ (who after the Pharsalian defeate of Pompey his [...]ost [...] [Page] inhibite to burne,Viues vpon the Cittie of God 1. lib. 12 cap. that is after the Romane vse to bury the slane, ‘Capit omnia tellus quae genuit, coelo tegitur qui non habet venam’. The which transuersed meanes,

The earth is ready to receiue her broode,
And heauens will couer when leame tombes cannot do ide.

And Virgil affirmes that whom the world neglectes vnburyed nature in tombes.De Cini. Dei Wherefore Augustine refuting the Heathen (who for the misery of the vnburied Gospellers, inflicted by the Gothes at the saccadge of Rome, inferred the discredite of the Gospell it selfe) makes answere that buriall is rather a solace to the liuing nor subsidie to the dead: and so but a ceremony. But such a one, that withall remember it is so religious, that althogh it be not among the pointes of Gods absolute and immediate worship,2. Sam. 2.5. yet as opportunity serues, it is religiously and conscien­tiously to be cared for. As it hes euer beene, not by the Kirk onely, but by the very world: who in many outward thinges hes beene accustomed to murgean and apishly to imitate the Kirks holy ceremonies, thogh neither in substance nor the right sence. For in the Greeke lawes of Solon, the latine of Numa, and Ro­mane of Iustinian we find a rigorous vigour against buriall viola­tion. According as wheresoeuer immortality it beleeued, the same is in force:Le [...]i [...] in hist [...]auig. in Brasiliam. in such sort that among the lately discouered Brasilians (people whose bellies otherwise are burials to foes whom they eate) yet for their friends they digge graues, though not to our forme in length but to their owne in hight: so that the defunct is rather set in a tun nor tombe, ouer end on their feet, the more viuely to testifie their faithlesse hope of the resurrection.

Of the end of buriall. Chap. III.

BVt the faithfull who rests rightly perswaded, does religiou­sly celebrate buriall for the conscience of a double duety. The first being due to the dead, the other to the liuing. The due we ought to the Lords dead is the buriall honour: the which as part of their remuneration among men, for their good life should follow them as deing in the Lord. Apoc. 14.13. So that the faith­full as forfoghten in the wearisome warfair of this militant life, af­ter the victory of dissolution, should be streeked downe in graue the down-bed of restfull repose. Where otherwise the depri­uation [Page] thereof, or debarring there from hes euer beene inflicted as a most ignominious punishment against the most criminall. According to the law imperial against parricids and such.Ierem. 2 [...]. And in the diuine law, no buriall was the asses burial the portion of rebellious Ioachas: wherefore the burial dueties by the old latines were called Iusta: such a justum due to each man as burials necessity by natures right required. For to defraude the most landles liuer on [...]e, at lest of his septipedall inheritance so equally proportioned to all by death, without partiality in mettage, it were a shamelesse sacriledge. Againe in respect of the liuing the right vse of buriall is expresly profitable: were it but for the hatching of hope, and fostring of faith, in the article of rising againe from the death. For as in Eccl. 12. the graues periphrase (beth gnolam) signifies the se­cular house: so shall it no longer be inhabite then the tyme come, (when by him that liueth for euer) tyme shall neuer be more. Reuel. 10.6. For the giuing vp of the godlies ghost may featlie be compared to three-thinges: first it resembles the Propheticall ra­uishments that Ierome, Ezechiel and others had: and Paul speaks of 2. Cor. 12. for the soule in dissolution (as the Psalmist saies psal. 90) flees vpward with the winges of immortalitie to the owne e­lement (Heauen) to be with him that gaue it, repledging the body to her mother earth, Eccles. 12, till such time as the spirit return to invest her corps as a garment of glorie thenceforth for euer. A­gaine, Dissolution is like that matrimoniall desertion, that vppon mutuall consent the Apostle i. Corinth. vij. for a time permites to the farther and freer vse of fasting and praying. For the body in graue, growing vp to incorruption, and the soule in heauen confirmed in immortality, shall joyfullie at last joine in full glo­rification. The which without both (that is bodilie incorruption,1. Cor. 15. and spirituall immortality) is not made vp to perfection. For euen as Zippora (thogh Moses wife) in her Madianitish maners, was not meet to joine with Israel Exo. 5. til after the farther tryall of time she was better prepared. Exo. 18. So this our carnall carion is not meet for a heauenly match, til in the graue it be trained to the incorruptible estate. And last it is likened by the Apostle first Cor. xv. to a seed: which thogh by death it be sown incorruption dishonour, and weaknes in the grauely fielde of the graue, yet hauing fructified to incorruption, glory and power, shall at la [...] [Page] in the Lords haruest, be glaned in, by his Angel with the sharpe sicle. Apoc. 14. and reaped vp to the fruition of soueraine felicity for euer. For although death in his legacie registrate in the 12. of the Preacher, bequeathing the spirit to God that gaue it, doth de­liuer the body but to the owne dust, yet the vigour of that testa­ment does but indure to the terme-day of generall refreshment. Act. 3. for the Innes of eternity are alreadie arled in for our far­ther assurance,Hiero. ad pammach. by our two faithfull furriours (Enoch and Elias) the Lords exemed ones to the same end. So then for honour of the dead, and hope to the liuing (if to the first we be not fraudu­lent, nor among the second faithlesse) we must grant the debt of buriall duetie.

Of the generall abuse of Buriall ceremonies. Chap. IIII.

NOw this duety in respect it is discharged in ceremonies (in any kynde whereof, it hes euer beene impossible to keepe measure without the direction diuyne) what sort here are lawfull, vnder comparison with the lawlesse it rests to define. And first all buriall ceremonies may be reduced to two ranks: for some are funerals, seruing for preparation to; and some sepulchrals, seruing for placing in the graue the defunct. The ceremoniall variety of both, whereof my labor were infinite, let be vaine to descryue. For to giue but a glance in funerall, the Greke and Romane did burne their dead, in rogo, as they styled their funerall fire; the Indean with Got-seame did besmeare, the Schithean swallied, the Egiptian pickled with bryme, but the Gerrens a Schithian sect, after exinteration bespyced their gutlesse goodsirs: that so ridi­culously,Sylli. 13. lib. by corruptible meanes they might assay to reteene fu­gitiue incorruption,Cicer. lib. 2. de leg. and lib. 3. de tuscu quaest. as Lucian in his Dialogue de luctu: And Silius Italicus the Poet in his 13 booke doe testifie of many such foolish feats. Againe in sepulchrals, the variety is found no lesse vaine, euery Nation seruing it selfe with the owne vowstie deuise. For first according to the number of the elements, so hes the se­pulchrall receptacles of humane bodies fourefold bene found. Some chosing the floting fome for their tombe, as among others the African Lotophagians, others preferred to wither in the aire, as of old not a few in Egypt and Ethiopia, that so preuenting the stinck of putrifaction by scowdring their skins in the Sunne, [Page] they might reserue their dead friends extant to be ordinar accom­bents with them at their tables. And (which more deserues mockage) sometyme the mony lesse Ethiopian by ingadging his reasted parent vpon reuersion might releeue his want. Yea, and the fire (although fearce) hes not bene forborne, as to the which in defraude of the wormes many hes be taught their body both bone and lyre. That so pitchering vp their onely relict asses in vrnes, they might make a proud thought a very poore pompe. And althogh the worlds rest in common with the Kirk hes made choise of the moulds of their mother earth (as the graue onely designed by God, warranted by the words exemples, and keep­ing best relation to our resurrection, as out of whose lare onely we may properly be saide to rise) yet in the vsage thereof how in­finitly men hes deborded, Histories records.

Of the due direction in Buriall. Chap. V.

BVt lest I shoulde (as some doe) in telling vyce, teach it, I will turne me rather to teach as I can, what, or what not the Kirk should doe, nor toomely to talke what hes beene done abroad by the world in this earand: except so far as by outward exemples we may confrōt our present confusions, wherat I aime. And because nowadayes buriall is ordinarilie traduced as a scrip­turelesse thing, and so amongst indifferents to be vsurped at the vnstayed arbitriment of men, how and where both they wil haue it: I will here appeale men from their pet-wils, nowhere else but to the wordes authoritie. For although to these that are without spirituall spectacles, euery minute of our sepulcromany seme not in expresse scripurall termes to be condemned (being to the spirit of God as parenticide was to the Law giuer,Licurgus. against the which he gaue no law, lest he shold not suppose such inhumane an abomi­nation) yet by his grace, I shall discouer their particular conui­ction in euery corrupt abuse by the same. And first I would men wist that the word, Gods sword, as it is said Hebr. 4.12. so it is found to be twin-edged. For by the one edge which is of expres warrant from positiue lawes it cuttes,Hieromi. in Isa. 66. and by the other as e­quiualent, which is of collected consequences, it carues and con­uinces the catiue consciences of the criminall. For although the ten words of Moses tables, seeme onely to ayme at the ten broad [Page] sinnes, that negatiuely they inhibite, yet there are none of their infinite broode and of-spring, that may not be particularly re­pledged to his mother kinde: and so incurre the reuerence of some one of the Decalogue lawes. But in respect the cases of sin, are become so infinite and intricate that some like mangrels doe participat of diuers kindes: and others so subtilly twisted by the deuill, that yet they rest vnacknowledged. For this cause the Lord hes supplied the generality of his law as the text, by his remanent word as the commentar. By the benefite whereof we may easi­ly particularize our subtillest sinnes whatsoeuer: and that by two speciall meanes. First by the rule of Analogie, and next by the benefite of example. To the twitch of the which, where expresse warrant wants, we must either qualifie or controle our proceed­ings, as we shall doe in this our particulare anent buriall. That what we see therin neither answerable to Analogie nor exemple of the word we may conclude it is sin.Quint. lib. 1 Now Analogy in any thing is that conuenient proportion, whereby euery part is correspon­dent to the whole. As in musical instruments, thogh there be ma­ny different strings yet must they al be tuned to harmonical pro­portion which is the Analogie: otherwise the ingratious discord in the eare of the least string, wil mar al the mirth. Now scriptural Analogie is two fold, the one is of faith, the other of manners. That of faith is the platforme of knowledge that directs vs a­right in all, and euery one of the articles of the same, the which by versing and searching the Scriptures may so be conceiued in the minde of the faithfull, that in faith they need not erre. And this A­nalogy the Apost. Ro. 12.6 speaks of: where he seems to designe the Apostolical creed that Tertulian calles the Canon or Analo­gy of faith. The which also 2. Tim. 2. he commendes vnder the name of the paterne of wholsome words. Againe the Analogy of maners is that platform of right, that we oght to obserue in euery our action, according to the warrand of the will of God. And this Analogy by searching and versing of Gods law Psal. 1. the canon of our conuersation may be so learned by the conscience that for lake of knowledge we need not sin. And this the Psalmist very frequently calles the path way of God. As Psa. 17. and 27. and 119. Now this Analogy of manners wherewith here we haue only a­do, being the morality or the law, exacts thre things in euery our [Page] action. First that the matter done, be good; next that the maner of doing be wel; and last in both that we euer ayme at the right end. As in our own particular we shall expone. And first for burial, it is an action and a good action as being answerable to both the general tytles of Moses two tables, piety and charity: that it shold be done no christian wil contrauert: but in the other two, how the same may be wel, and to the right end: that is formall and direct, there stands the question. In the which cace a christian duety wer to consult. First with their conscience the register of the wordes Analogy. The which if a christian of knowledg wold but vouch saue to do, he shold soone finde the oracle of Analogy for his in­formation. But now most men alas are so deeply addicted to affe­ction, that they neyther make count nor question how or where they should bury: contrare whom one day their criminall consci­ence will crye judgement, except they repent. And if thou loth to hear conscience, yet list to hear the direction of the words Analo­gy to thy reformation. Where first learn, that howsoeuer the form and end of al actions ar to be examined by the general inscription of the law (loue) how to wit we haue therein respected. First that souerane loue we oght to God, and next that proportionall loue we oght to our neighbor: yet in matters of this kinde (and al such specially that consists in ceremonies) there is particular analogy to be obserued that the Apost. 1. Cor. 14. sets down. Who willes al things, and consequently burial ceremonies to be conformed to honesty & order last vers. and the end to tend to edification v. 26. vpon the which Analogicall rules, then we shal first controle the customs of mens burials, & conclude what by Analogy is lawful.

Against the contempt of buriall and insufficiency of buriall yardes. Chap. VI.

THe first rule that directs the forme, containes two cautions, & that for good causes. For according to the forked foly vsed in buriall, which either is contemned, or else ouer caried in pomp, this rule does restraine both: by ranging contempt vnder the rule of honesty and pomp, vnder the rule of order, that they no wayes exceede. Now as for buriall contemptes, if we peruse humane histories, as namely Caelius, Cicero in his Tusculan questions, Crinitus, and diuers others: we shall finde them haue many con­spirators: whereof we shall recite such as make for vs. We reade [Page] of the Albanes that of the defunct tooke no care at all: The Sa­beans vsed them for fulzie: The Troglodites for mockage: The Hircanes exposed them to dogges, that for the nonce they nuri­shed. But among the first of this crew were the doggish Cyniks, who would in no sort consent to be buried. As we read of Minip­pus and Diogenes of whom it is recorded, that being to dye, he directed his corps to be exposed. And being admonished that so he should be torne by birds and beasts, did reiyre a taunt, in re­quyring a cudgell to be coutched beside, whereby to weare his wirriers away. And being insisted with that it would be to small vse, since death was but senslesse: why then (said he) are ye solist what befall a senslesse carrion? But this kinde of reprobate Phi­losophy rather becomes renigat mindes then christian men. For if reprobates were by the Kirk knowne (as they are with God barred vp from hope) so might they justly be debarred from the benefite of christian buriall. And this Cynicisme although we seeme not to professe, yet if we walke the land abroad we will finde many folke not flyting free in it. For our Kirk-courtes or yardes, are become more lyke pwind-folds nor burials: as be­ing ordinarly be dunged by pestring and pasturing brute. Not far from subscryuing the desperat legacy of some that can be content to bestow their bowke to the burroughmure, if God wold take the soule. According to the conceaty resolution of Theodore, who being by the tyrant Lysimachus minassed with the gibbet,Viues on the Citty of God chap. 12. answered that his own minzeons only had it to feare and not he, to whom all was one, whether to putrifie aboue, or vpon, or within the earth. But as this a buse is contrare to the Apostles de­cencie commanded, so is it also against the common law that prouids buriall to be had in holy reputation. So that to empty the bladder,O to. frising. lib. 4. let be the belly about buriall (as they called it minxisse in patrios cineres) was reput nefas, that is iniquitie, let be inciuilitie. And for this cause the faithfull after Constantine (who first ser­ued edicts of liberty to edifie temples, whereas before the Kirks had alwaies beene serued onely with holy Innes) in founding of Kirks, taking the type at Ierusalems temple, did among the rest counterfaite the courts by Kirk yardes, the which for this com­manded decencie they dedicated to buriall vse. The which there­fore by the Greeks (as thereby appeares the workes beginners) [Page] were called Caemiteria. And that not without Emphase, seeing (as Atheneus sayes) it was the name before of sleeping celles for strangers: and so the allusion wanted not edification. And albeit the reason of the rest of the resemblance betwixt Temple and Kirk, as of the Quier to the holiest place within the vaile, &c. cannot so easily be espyed, yet the reason of this may well by this rule of decency, according whereto since we haue a Country law of our owne extant, enacted for reparation of ruinous Kirks,Marie Par. 9 Act. 76. Iames 6. Parl. 15. Act. 232. and their yardes, it is the part of all Pastors to vrge the benefite of it, that so our common burials becomming seemely cemiteries, our Kirk buriers may be depriued of the pretence of their infen­sibility and profanation. For the Apostles mynde is in his rule, that natures abscenities be decently couered and oueruailed with her mothers mouldes.

Against seculare pompe in Funerals. Chap. VII.

THe other extremity that commes against the Apostles or­der is pompe. The which as it is found more common, so it brings with it more perturbation. But for the more particular de­ciphering thereof, we shall range it in two rankes: the one sort of it being ciuile or seculare, the other superstitious. Againe the first, according to the duplicity of burial ceremonies, is found double. For partly in the funerals, and partly in the sepulchrals of men it is to be seene. In funerall pompe if we should view the customes of antiquity, and ballance the same with these of our dayes, as in few thinges we will be found inferiour, so in some far to sur­mounte them in vanity. To be shorte for commoditie of this our present comparison, vnder the olde names of Funerall offi­ces, we shall set downe the whole auncient funerall proces, and confer it with ours of the new now. All the which ceremonies for memory may be ranked in two sortes. Whereof some did in common concerne the whole funerall preparation:Seneca. the generall ouersight whereof, appertained to their Libitmarii, that is fune­rall men, that among the rest had the cure of funerall feasts. Now heerein althogh we inlake the officers,2 Sam 5. yet is not the office inter­mitted: for their buriall bankets we haue not learned to imitate onely, but in our aruelles to exceede, where rather in the day wherein a good one or great one falles, as being a breach of Gods [Page] hand in his Kirk, should be celebrate with fast and measurable mourning. The second sort of their ceremonies, were employed about the defuncts persone, consisting in three pointes. First in mourning for the dead, next in addressing the corps for the graue, and last in his conuoyance thither. In mourning beside the interessed that made it in earnest, they had their made out mour­ners of the feminine sex, that best could do it: whom they styled Praefi [...]ae. And these the Preacher 12.5. seemes to respect in men­tioning the mourners of the streetes. But in this also we are more antick nor antiquity: for in steed of humane teeres that best can expresse the owne smart, some will haue trumpets; and in steed of mourning in the dust, as they did oft-tymes, we mumchance and mourgean in such dilicate duilles, better feated for wowing nor woing, that heires or widowes neuer dallies more nor vnder their duilles. But the Lord will haue at such hypocrysie in the end. The next point of their personall funerals, was their peremptor preparation to the graue, consisting in two ceremonies: for be­fore that by the Libutinarian cure the dead was weind,Suer. in the pol­linctors inbalmed, and Sandapilarianes bespised, the corps of the great, and this also is superstitiouslie sometyme exceded among some of the best rank: on whom after Anatomicall exinteration, Apotheticary applications are so excessiuely employed, that oft tymes such prodigall profusion of arromaticall gummes (if they were otherwise charitably bestowed) might make sundry poore indifferently rich. Now the last funerall duety appertained to the Vespilones, or bear-men, whose peculiare calling was (beeing followed in rankes by the Acoluthists their friends,Domit. wherof now the Roman Bishops hes bereft them) to cary their corps in their coffins to the graue. Such as wee see mentioned in Luke 7.14. But among the rest also, how far this auncient simplicity is mueterate, who beholdes our great burials may easily consider. For althogh the death by all men should be thoght to be a kynde of defeat from God, yet our Heroik burials are oft led lyke a mar­tiall triumphe, wherein the toutting of trumpets, trampling of steades, and trouping of men ranking themselues vnder stately standerts, and punicall pinsels, displayed for whiuering in the winde, may sufficiently testifie the dedolence of men, as if by an vndantoned courage they would quarrelously demand the com­bate [Page] in reuenge of the dead. And as if the worme (man) were able to stand out against the thunder-bolts of death delashed by God. but alas, if in death we could count our just kinsh we might ra­rather dismay and feare. For although in the kingdome of the se­cond comming we shall triumph with our head Christ, ouer the stingles graue. 1. Cor. 15. yet as first being by death defeat, the first fall is ours euen to the dust. Ge. 3. Wherein for our due desert here we deserue with Christs theues to haue our legges broken, rather nor in pompe our badges borne. For looke how far fellonie may glory in her fetters, so far may we in our funerals wherewith we but feard death. For as some Gentiles, where gold is vernaculous and plentifull, their catiues thogh therewith enchained,Tertul. de habitu mu­liebri. yet rema­nes catiues: so to vs, thogh our graue were of enamelled gold, yet it is but our graue, the monument of our common misery, that by diuine mercy onely may be remedied without farther meanes. And as a blood-gush made Iulian at last, to knowe Christ,Euseb. Ec­cles. histor. and Alexander (thogh the maine Monarch) his mortality (against the which he had beene be flattered before) so if we be not frentick, our funerals should teach vs our transitory estate. For of all pride this pompe I esteeme it most perillous, in respect that if the world will haue by it the graue restored to her victory, God for a meet­ing to the world will restore death to his sting. For a document therefore against the which, the Lord did closly conuey the body of his owne dissolued Moses, from being the object of such fecklesse ostentation and perillous pompe. Deut. 34. The which seeing in that great one the Lord did not allow, why should our far lesse ones lawleslie claime it? And this for that ciuile pompe that in buriall funerals is found blameable.

Against seculare or ciuile pompe in sepulchrals. Ch. VIII.

THe sepulchrall pride of men is nothing inferiour. For (al­though before we deduced, that among al the elements the earth to be the most seemely sepulcher, yet) in the vsage thereof the earthlings hes laboured to transcend the earth in pryd, as in a touch we shall showe. The name sepulcher as it is in common v­sed for all graues, so it implyes two seueral kindes. Whereof some are peculiare to some persons onely, and others common to all. Again of the peculiar sort, sum ar proper to singular persons only [Page] and others to mo, yet being of one sort or family. To the proper kynde of sepulchers (as in the world, yet for the most part out of the Kirk) the choise of place hes beene (as many where it remaines) indifferent: euen so in the Kirk to the death of Sara it seemes to haue beene, at what tyme Abraham first to eschew that promiscuous confusion, and for a more actual possession of his promised Canaan, vnder his pilgrimag, did acquyre a field for his constant buriall Gen. 23. wherein he and his Sara, Isaac and his Rebeka, Jacob and his Lea, three maryed matches in others armes attendes the resurrection. Gen. 48. And although the estate of Gods gathering Kirk then requyred the decency and order of common buriall, yet we finde the necessity thereof neuer holden absolut. For as among diuers necessities the meanest must yeeld, so Iacob, hauing his head homeward from Sechem to Mambre (where his father dwelled at his sepulcher) and within one dayes trauell to his rinks end, sustening in his campe a double irrup­tion by death (in the first whereof, he was depriued of Debora his vmwhile mothers Nurce; in the other of Rachel, the wife of his choise) to auoyde the suspition of superstitious curiositie, he yeelds to the most present necessity, and suffers the treto ly wher it fell. Eccle. 11. by entombing Debora at the oake of Bethel, and Rachel in the way to Ephratah without farther cariage Gen. 35. So then we see that euen after the institution of common buriall, the vse of proper vpon necessity (which beeing lawlesse can bring no disorder) was neuer inueterat nor thoght vnlawfull. For as sound doe they sleepe by the mure edge that are folded vp in the fauour of God (though it were by the Pest) as in the most stately tombe.Quid. For as fishe in euery sea is at home, so we in euery earth, if we be the Lords, to whom the earth and her imple­ments do all appertaine. Psal. 24. And as this consideration ser­ues to confound the superstitious opinion of the prerogatiue of some sepulchrall places, for their hallowed moulds, so does it for the blame (by the way) of these farland conuoyences of the dead to their homed tombes, defrauding the weary corps of the desi­red rest. For althogh vpon some propheticall respects, Iacob and Ioseph both, commanded their cariage from Egypt to Canaan, Gen 50. yet without the like cause, their case is no warrant. Let men therefore rather translate their curiositie of sepulchrall care, [Page] in a serious cure, how they may be gathered vp aright to their grandsirs in God, and in the common faith of our father Abra­ham. In doing whereof we shall be blessed with the bed-fellow­ship of Iesus in our buriall lare, where euer it be. Otherwise if thy graue were of gold, yet it is but the gate of hell.

Of the diuers kindes of pompous sepulchers. Chap. IX.

THe proper sort of sepulchers, the world (as I said) hes labored to make them proudly proper: so french hes men beene in their fashions. For many to eternize their soone forgot memory, and to gaine the vogue of this vaine world, hes prepared Pyra­mides of pomp, others pillers of pride, some mousolies of maruel.Laert. lib. 1. As if such superciliosity, could sweeten the bitter swarfes of their sowre death, the wickeds greatest euill. But, as oft it occurres (according to the prouerb, that he that hountes doth not ay rost) so it may befall others that did Pharao Cenchres (that drowned King of Egypt) who hauing a sepulchrall Pyramide elabored by the panefull taske of Gods people, wherein he desingde to ly,Ioseph Anti. lib. 2. yet his funerals was found in red-sea floode. And as both the name of a Pyramide did signifie, and the forme resemble fire, so is he now for his pride plotted with Pluto in the flame of hel. For oft­tymes what men does propose in pride, God disappointeth in his displeasure.

Of the common and allowed sort of Buriall. Chap. X.

THe comon kinde of sepulchers are more answerable to Pauls order, and to that sort of the Saints communion, that consists in lying together in graue. Yet they are found diuers. For some hes beene acquyred▪ and as conquished to that vse: as Abrahams caue in Makpela. Gen, 23. And Akeldama Matt. 27. Others were munificently dedicate. As Iehosaphats vaile by Ierusalem. In the which some, out of Ioel 3. hes conjectured that the conuocation of the great day should be. Other parts againe are found of olde mortified to that vse: lyke Caluary: so called (as some thinke) from Adams brane-pan, there found, if all be true that is alledged. Of some one of the which sorts are all Coemiteries or clostered pla­ces, wherein our bodies being keeped from the carnage of beasts, are lade a part to the resurrection. For sepelire (though Durand [Page] thinke it to be from sine pulsis) yet I take it to be from se-palliare, that is,Duaren. de benef Eccle. to couer apart, as our buried bodies be. Now this sepul­chral communion for the commonty of it, none should contemn. For althogh the place remane common, yet to auoyde confusion of rankes the sepulchrall preparation (I thinke) may be different. For true honours monuments should euer haue place. And what vertue hes win in this world, should not be suffered to dy with death. And therefore Rachael, the joy of her Iacob, is not onely buried, but by a distinct monument memorized. Gen. 35. with the ods of a piller that Debora wantes. And Iudaes Kings the types of the great King, dwelt after death in Dauids princely tombe. 1. K. 62.Ioseph. Ant, lib. 7. ca. 1 [...]. The mighty Machabees were monumented in Modine their owne mount. 1. Mac. 9. Ioseph. ant. 13. But this licence is to be onely allowed vpon a three folde condition. First of personall discretion, whereby this kynde of honour may redound onely to the honorable in God For as the graue of Elisha wold not contain the souldiers corps. 2. King. 13. No more should the graue of the godly honourable be profaned with the gracelesse ginge. The next caution is to keepe distinction of place, that men presume not to seeke honour where God onely should; for feare of his jelousie, who cannot abyde Dagon to play jake fellow-lyke. And sen God hes taken in the Kirk for his owne Innes, let it suffice thee, lyke a doore-keeping Dauid. Psal 84. or a watch­man Vrias. 2. Samuel 11. to ligge in the court without. Yea, sen all the earth is before vs that wee may ly where wee will choise, if nothing can content our greede but the Lords peace, we are guilty with Achab of Naboths wine-yarde. The last caueat is moderation: that in making thy monument thou keepe such a measure that it become not another Mausoly, that is, the worlds ninth maruell. For as that sepulchrall monster that Queene Ar­timise made to her husband Mousolus the Carian Kirk (from whom the rest of that ranke of sepluchers were named Mau­solies) was exposed to the salt taunts of dogged Diogenes, so may all that sort of sepulchromany be set vp to the mockage of others.Enclan. in di [...]lo. Maus. & Diog. For let the world thinke it but a fond foly to bellishe the out-side of a within rotten tombe, with beauty and braueries excesse. But if thou must haue a monument mak thy choise of any of the two lawfull sortes, that before the Kirk-buriall crop in, [Page] being but of the newest come-ouer antiquity, was onely in vse. For some there was that to the imitation of Abraham,Durand. de Camit. made vp little caues or voltes, for buriall vse Such as we finde, not a fewe abroade about our oldest Kirkes, no doubt after the example of the Excedrall domicils that, serued the Priests for reuesteries,Ioseph. [...] bello Iu [...]. lib. 6.6. or Garderobs in the lewishe Temple. And because they were but adjacent and incontiguous, being but seuerally set as to-falles to the continent Kirks, they got therefore among vs the name of of Iles, that yet they keep. And this kynde may content our most honourable. That so they may ly, if they list, lyke vnto Leuites in compasse round about the Lords house. The other sorte of sepulchrall monuments were tombes: that beeing tumorous a­boue for better capacity, were after the counterfoote of Iosephs arke. Gen. 50. Conforme to the which custome (although now meane men be worse to content) we see sundry of our crowned Kings, whose monuments yet remanes in the Ile Columb-kill,Hector Boe. Chron. to haue beene Kingly entombed in the Court not the Kirk. An vse with vs at least vnkend (as thereby appeares) within this last periode of tyme containing fiue hundreth of yeares. So then seeing our Nobles now may be as of olde they were then so ho­nourablie eased, with ones princely Iles or tombes, why should they wilfully incurre vnnecessar profanation, by burying in Kirks? An vse that onely Papistry hes hatched as anone we shall showe. And seeing some (euen of all sortes) in the light of the Lord hes begunne to reforme, let the rest in the loue and feare of God follow. For if they be happie that leades others to righte­ousnesse. Daniel 12. surely that felicity shall be imparted to the faithfull followers.

Of superstitious pomp in buriall. Chap. XI.

THus hauing deciphered (so farre as serues this turne) the in­ciuility of this their ciuile pomp, rests to speake of that which is superstitious. A matter of more ado,Bellarm. de purgat. as wherin the Lord is more immediatly injured nor in the other. For as throughout the Anti­christian worlde, the exorbitance of superstitious exequies are found infinite (as in their bel-ringinges, lampe-lighting, di­rige singing, incense burning, holy watering, letanie pray­ing, soule-massing, vigilles keeping, and such other geare may [Page] be seene) so we that will be called Christians, and hes protested to forleit that lore, and to be reformed, yet in our sepulchrals, at least, we adheere too much to that old deformity. For as among them the wel deseruing by the purse, and liberality in legacy, was in vse to be Kirked vp in burial: so here, which is more our head-strong ones, whose deseruing hes bene but sacrilegious Kirk-rob­bing doth clame to no lesse. So that althogh they seeme to make nyce in praying for dead, yet vpon the dead they will or else not: in bowing their knee no where else but on their forbeers bellies: which ceremony how sib it is to the old superstition, I wold they could count. For superstition is lyke some serpents, that though they be couponed in many cuttes, yet they can keepe some lyfe in all: right so superstition that can hang by one haire, does liue in this point. And if we chock it not quyte, perhaps it shall hatch more. And in end it may be that it out-reason thee thus. If thou hast attained to that sepulchrall prerogatiue, to ly in the Kirk, why should thou want that olde priuiledge to be prayed for in death▪ And if thou be to ly at the Altar, how wanrst thou a Priest to say thy soule Masse?Virgilius. Beware of this closter logick. For if once thou bee led to a going in it thou shalt bee drawen to a running with it in end. So easie is the discent of Auerne.

How Kirbburiall superstition crop in. Chap. XII.

Against the poyson of this Papistry, there are two preserua­tiue considerations that may aware it. First if we will but weigh whence and when this corruption crop in, next how ack­wart it is against our Analogy, and the words warrant. For first howsoeuer this superstition is (now long) becomme most penny-rife Papistry, yet among Papists it is not home-bred. But the foly of it is first to be fathered on the olde Heathen. VVho wanting well grounded hope of heauen, and sufficient horror of hell, be­came plunged in infinite errors anent the estate of the dead. For first hauing diuided the world in men good or bad,Aug. de ciuit & Viues on it lib. 9. cap. 11. as we doe: they subdiuided both againe in two rankes. As the good in these of the best sort, whom for their merit they made Gods: and in a seconder good sort, to whom although they allotted the Flizean fields, yet so that they reserued them to a care of the residue re­licts heere, vnder the name Lares. VVho in our tong are Brunies [Page] the which by vulgar deceiued vote, were spirits employed for the benefite of our militant mortality heere. Their bad againe were lykewise of two rankes. The first was the worst sorte: who as the best of the good were their Eudaemonies, so these as the worst were repute Cacodaemones, or incarnate deuilles,Virg. 6. Aere. to whom they assigned the pitte of Pluto for prison. The next were the not so bad: who being not Lares, but Laurae or Lemures, that is, bogils or Gaistes, were by the world adjudged to such a purgatoriall pen­nance, that wandring in a vagarant estate about graues and al­rish deserts, they were suspended till their pennance was ended from elisean repose. To remeede the which misery superstition (the foster mame of all error) tooke frankely in hand. For to pur­chase repose to such restlesse spirits, they began to consecrate the burials of the dead to their deader Gods. Inscryuing their tombes with a trigram of D. M. S. a diton that meaned, Dus manibus Sa­crum, as if they said, this tombe is consecrate holy to the graue Gods. And for farther effectuating of their purpose they dischar­ged a double duety; First in the celebration of certaine funerall fe­stiuities to the honour of the graue Gods Manes. And these they called Necia. The next were their sacrifices for the dead, and these were either Iusta, and such as were common for al,Cyril. lib: 2, de leg b. or Paren talia and peculiare for parents or friends. VVhich being done to them all was thoght well. To the which processe if we shall col­lation the Roman custome this day, we shall finde them yet in such hote tread, that though in profession they be but papists, yet in practise the are pagans to. For first in ranking the world, they are both alike: for thogh to the good they giue heauen, yet to the best (their canonized saints) they pray, and makes heathen gods.Bellarm. de purgat. And as to the worst sort of the wicked, they adjudge hell, yet to the not so bad, they likewise allot a purgatorie, wherein they al­ledge the soule must ly vpon reuersion at least, of some trentals of masse, according to the pursse-merite of men wherin how rightly they resemble the olde rite let the world judge. For though they keepe a ratryme of letanies (lyke the old Iusta) to all, yet to their pursse-friends parentals are keeped peculiare. And for sepul­chrall consecration, they are so farre from missing one jot of their lesson, that they haue rather learned more nor their master had. For they cannot onely take in hand to consecrate the sepulchrall [Page] monuments of their supposed saints, to become the said sanctua­ries of God:Against the 48. an. of th [...] Couns. of W [...]rm. an. 815. but by symoniacall transsubstantiation they can set out againe the same sanctuary in seale to be a sepulcher, that is to say, a necromanucal amphitheater rather nor a theologie schoole, where either God must get his way, or be content to dwell in a dedicate Innes to Idoles, and remaine among the loathsome graues. So then sen the source of this superstition is from the old Heathen (the which in running through Rome is made the more muddy) as thou would not seeme to patronize such papisticall paganisme, by de neuer by thy buriall in Kirk.

Of the tyme when Kirk-buriall was receiued. Chap. XIII.

FOr the tyme when first this prat came in practise, the search­er will finde it but an after-shot of antiquitie: as the back-treading of tymes will teache For throughout the first foure thousand yeares it rested vnknowen: In respect that during the formest two from Adam to Abraham (whose Histories the first eleuen chapters of Genesis compryses) wherein although the fathers at that tyme did neyther want (I doubt not) places of publicke worshippe nor buriales, yet sen wee neyther reade of Kirks nor buriales, me kill lesse of Kirk-buriales. The next two to Christ, wherein lykewise we finde rather Kirk types nor Kirkes, but all free of buriall. For according as we may equally almost, subdiuyde that tyme in foure fiue-hundreths of yeres pe­riodes: In the first whereof there was onely Altares of wor­shippe to the Tabernacle: the which continued in the next to the Temple: and the Temple in the thirde to the second Tem­ple, the vvhich vvith the synagogues did occupy the last. Now if any Historie either sacred or profane in fragment or full in the Kirk or the vvorlde, did euer mention buriall at Altar or Tabernacle, in Temple or Synagogue, I will giue ouer the pleay. VVhere contrary wayes, the ceremoniall vncleannesse by the touche of the dead contracted, seemes highlie to im­porte against that profanation. But leauing these Leuiticales to the owne tyme, let vs proceede in the progresse of tyme, wherein the constant silence of the insuspect auncients does testifie their misknowledgment and disclamation of the same: as a superstiti­on that is not onely late, but (as many of the Papisticall punkes [Page] hes secreetly slipped in the Kirk, without solemnitie: And but then at last when the Kirk beganne to growe no better worthie, but to become a buriall: as being a denne of theeues, deseruing the Lords cord-tawes. And if I were posed of my pettie opinion heerein, as I am sure, the most pure fiue hundreth yeares of Christ was free of this euill; as whereof the formost three hun­dreth the Kirk had no Kirkes till Constantines edict. And in the fourth hundreth likewise wherein Emperour Honorius trans­porting the miraculouslie discouered relictes of Steuen and o­thers, for the farther honourable commemoration, did lay them in no Kirk, but neere the Cittie walles of Ierusalem. Yea, in the sixth hundreth and fourtie foure, we finde an inhibitiue Canon against all Kirk-buriall in the counsell of Bracaren. A token that but then that repressed corruption beganne to peepe out, that long after became strong. So I doubt not but that it was in the dysemellest dayes onely that it came in, as a late birth: to witte after the error of purgatory, praying and massing for the dead, worshipping of Saintes and their relictes, and hallowing of mouldes. For so soone as the Kirk-ground came by the opinion of holy prerogatiue for soules helpe, the oportunity and priui­ledge was both sought and boght to ly there. Lyke the money-changers, who thoght to speed better by their troke in the temple nor any where else: whose tables as the Lord ouer-threw, so may he justly our temple-tombes. But (to come as neere as conjecture may lead to Kirk-burials beginning) there hes bene two kinde of Kirks in our christian world (althogh now tyme and commodity of reformation may inueterat the platte) for some are common as builded vpon the publick charge that of old were called Paro­chials, comprising for the most part a millenarie of people. As in our Country plat and parochial distribution we may commonly see. The other sort againe was peculiar and more priuate,Durand. de Eccles. of two kindes likewise. For some were particularly appertaining to such religious places as were destinate to the irreligious swarmes of Monks and Friers. The which sort in artificial curiosity exceded al others. The rest wer chapels founded by secular men that had might, according to the blind zeal of the tym, for their priuate ease and superstitious showe to haue a peculiare Priest of their owne like Micah Iudg. 17. Now Kirk-burial althogh it be now come [Page] without blush, yet it brake not in bradelings, but as it were by de­grees, and some shame. For first the monasticall Kirks by it were defiled, as these that were neuer cleane. For as (according to the old saying) all thinges were set to seale at Rome, so was Kirk-buriall by that Romanist rable, who with Esau selling Gods grace made the people with Micah to buy Gods curse in that case. And althogh at first they made nyce & long held their Ab­bay burials royall and onely for Kinges, by whom they were founded: yet in end they were for pryce exposed to the Ranget. But ere all was done, about the play end this pryde waxed so populare, that all kynde of Kirkes became as common as the Kirk [...] styles. Whereby by many that Heresie is yet acclaimed for heritage, thogh of late conquest. Whose afterling entry falling out in the dreg of all tymes (wherein the world lay besotted, and swattering in all sorte of superstition) doth render it not onely suspect, but also may serue for satisfaction to such as vses to say they must ly with their fathers, of whose absence to speake spa­ringly, better it were thou let them ly and followed them not in all things: For as the most part in many actions lyke this, hes for their best pretence their ignorant simplicity: So (I doubt not) if now they had life in their boulke, they would yet ryue sheets, breake beares, tumble downe tombes, with Pauls spirit at Listra, to testifie their reclamation of such profanity. Act. xiiij.

What Analogy we should obserue in our burial. ch. XIIII.

THus hauing bewrayed whence and when Kirk-buriall cor­ruption crop in: Restes the other point for full resolution to showe how far it is against the Analogie of maners, as the word meanes. For as by the Apostles general rule of order and decency we see what we should not, so by particular instances of this A­nalogie out of the word, let vs heare what we should, whereof we finde a perfite direction: for there is nothing requyred for the due direction in buriall, that although not in precept, yet of set purpose, otherwise is not set downe. But first we haue to distin­guishe betweene these buriall ceremonies, that being legal, were subiect to Abrogation, and such as Analogie does reserue in­changeable. For of the first that onely concernes funerals, we read two thinges discharged, the duety of mourning, and corporal [Page] addresse to the graue. In mourning (beside the motion naturall that we read in Abraham for his Sa [...]a. Gen. 23. and should be in al) there was a ceremoniall sorrowing for common edification. Which though by Egiptians, it was keeped in the excesse of se­uenty dayes (as no hopelesse Gentile, to whom death is so great an euill, can keepe measure) yet the mourning in Israell was but made in a sabboth of dayes, contenting them with the teinde of Egypts tyme. For as Ioseph did first enjoine Iacobs mourning to sabbaticall Gen. 50. in remembrance of that eternall sabboth wherein our teeres for euer shall be wyped away) the season of ceremoniall sorrow was so limited thereafter as Eccle. 22.August. de Ci [...]i. Dei. Hero­dian 4. lib. and Amon 19. testifies. Againe the ceremonies of preparation were partly vsed in embalming, and partly in bapti­zing (that is) in the Iudaicall manner of bathing the bodyes of their dead. The which both hes beene of olde vse, both in Kirk and world. As witnesses Ennius his verse, ‘Tarquinii corpus bona femina lauit & vnxit.’ Affirming the corps of sticked Tarquin to be both bathed and balmed. But for the ceremony of enbalming vsed in the Kirk, it was at two tymes: to wit, immediatly before first, and then imme­diatly after the expyring of lyfe. The first wee see in the 26. Matt. employed by Matte on Christ vers. 12. And this ceremony in the miraculous age of the Apostles was made a symbole for faith of their power to heale the sick,Damascen. tractat. de Ortho. sid. that as before Christ that oyle serued to cherishe expectation, so after for application of him who was the annoynted to the faithfuls comfort. Iam 5.14. from whence afterward superstition fand out a fecklesse sacra­ment. Againe their dead they did likewise annoynt. As to this vse Nicodemus did buy his Alloes and Mirrhe. Ioh. 19. But the Lord who on the Croce hade made consummation, by his pro­uidence preuenting that oportunity, would not be buryed with ceremony, but simply after the Iewish Analogicall maner, that is, the type taine away. Confer Ioh. 19▪40. with Mark. 15. as for their baptismes and washing ceremonies, them they vsed as in lyfe, for legal purification. So in death, for bathing a ceremonie that at the first hand was not inueterate. For in Acts 9. we read that before Tabitha was lade vp, she was washen. This custome the Apostle respects. 1. Cor. 15. in mentioning the baptised for dead. [Page] vers. 29. for to the Heb 6.2. where moe sorts of baptisme is men­tioned nor one, the type and the substance (that is) the legal sort of baptisme, that did resemble, and the Euangelicall that was resembled are both contained in the words homonimie. The v­sage of the which ceremoniall rites,Ierus. 6. part of purificat. hee may reade that list in the Iewishe Thalmudes. As for vs that by the law of christian li­berrie are fred, hauing now fruition of the bodie, we haue not the vse of the shadowe. For although they for their suspended ex­pectation of the brydgromes comming, had vnder the Law to mourne in his absence, yet sen to vs his kingdom is come, that ce­remonial sorrow we should transcharge in joyful hymnes, accor­ding to the vse obserued to haue bene in some christian funerals by Ierome.Ierom. in the life of Paule the Hermite And if mourne we will, yet doe as Christ bade the women therein, Luke xxiij. that is, mourne nor for death the dore of hope now, but for sinne deathes mother: that so our sorrowe may vent at the right vaine. For sen death is bereft of his sting in Christ, it becommes but a passage to lyfe. And sen for their crysme we haue gotten selfe. Christ, and for their bap­tisme ours, let vs not be content to change the corps with the sha­dow. And this for the old ceremoniall vse subject to abrogation, wherein if we doe but the vaile away, there will remaine the sim­ple sort that analogy requires: for in burial betwixt that they did, either in funerals or sepulchrals and that vve should yet doe, the moueable ceremonie was onely the ods: that is, in being cloathed in cleane linnene with Christ, Ioh. 19.40. and caried in a coffine, lyke the man of Nain Luke 7.12. we may be laide (not in the Kirk, as contrare al Analogie, but) in a comely, closse, clean, com­petent Kirk-ile or yarde, that so associating our selues with the predecessor saints, and not by ked in with the belly-god beastes, that blindes the world with buriall in Kirk, we may rise with the rest, in comely array to our rest for euer.

All buriall actions should tend to edification. Ch. XV.

THis for the Apostles rule touching that honestie and order required in the analogicall vse of our buriall. Rests now the analogicall end that we ought to aime at, which he calles edifica­tion, 1. Cor. 14.25. which seeing in al things he commends, Ergo in burial. Now edification is but a borrowed word, for our buildings [Page] are spirituall. For as Salomons many thousand artificers were ex­ercised about the building of the materiall temple:Ioseph Ant. lib. 8 cap. 7. so must we the many millions of the greater nor Salomons men, be occupyed in making vp the spirituall, and in squairing our selues as the Lords lyuely stones: that being sounded on all sides, we may soane a­right in the Lords aslare work the which is our edificatiō And this in respect of the oportunity of application can no where be more peremptorly promoued nor in buriall, the which beside that it beares in hand (euen in death) immortall hope (as being but a ga­thering vp of Gods saints to their fathers Gen. 25. a sleep. 1. Thess. 4. a seede j. Cor. xv. a rest from our trauels. Appo. 19. &c.) it is a most powerfull preacher of mortification and humility. And so,Concil. Colō part. 7. cap. 5. mekill better it is to be in the house of mourning nor joy, that as the one serues but to tickle our lustfull appetytes yet the being in the other will abate all carnall affection. Exemple whereof we may finde euen in excommunicate Ishmael, who thogh he could not abyde his borne brother Isaac, during the lyfetyme of their common father Abraham, yet the sore sight of that saint his syres death, did so tawne the truculent turke that he became content to partake in the common paines of his fathers funerals with the son of promise. For but the remembrance onely of death or buriall and their consequences (that Ecclesias. calles our last things) is an effectuall [...]wband of affection and restraint to sin. To the which vse S. Ierome made his mort-head to serue. And surely if we could but sufficiently make our vse of that anotomicall description of our immortality and misery, that the preacher sets down Eccle. 12 in such enigmaticall poesie, that as it passes all humane elegance & eloquence, so I think it wold make our craw-down fedrum fal, and make vs sit downe in the dust of mortification. But, alas, the mynds of men are so els-where bewitched, that against this Ana­logical end that we shold propose for edification, in steed to mor­tify by burial showes, they most exceede in pryde therein. So that mens nuptial festiuities ar ofttimes exceeded by their necial folies in making their burials with the tempter. Matt. 4. a mont to show worldly glory, rather nor with the Preacher to teach this worlds vanity. For burials now are become the occasion not onely of the brugling brags of men, but of the contemp also of Gods hous and seruāts. And wheras burials shold flow the hony of edification (as [Page] did the medicinall graue of Hyppocrates the honey of health) they are rather whyles▪ like Herods, whose birth day as it was Iohn Baptists buriall. Matt. 14. so was his buriall day tragicall to the noble Iewes: whom to get himselfe mourned, he made to be slane. Ioseph. anti. lib. 17 chap. 8. So then sen Kirk-buriall is at the best excuse but pryde, as being a clame of exemption from com­mon case, and consequently against edification, the Apostles right end, I conclude it is sin.

Of buriall exemples. Chap. XVI.

NOw hauing found by Analogies lyne Kirk-buriall beyond square, it restes to rype vp the rule of exemple. The second of the two meanes, that the Lord hes employed for our easier in­formation in his obedience. For as by propheticall instruction we are taught what we ought to do, so by exemples instance we are showen how the same hes beene done by others: for authen­tick exemples are the very practised speculation of the Law it selfe. Wherein the spirit is so plentifull, that there is no case of our conuersation,Ierome on Daniel. that may not either be qualified or controled by scripturall exemples; seeing they are of two sortes. For some are to be noted as improper, that being certaine singular actions of some odde men, whose warrand if it wanted not, yet being at least extraordinarly vouchsafed, they could requyre no ordinare imitation. Such as the patriarchall polygamie, &c. For as the Lord said to his two disciples (that after the counterfoote of Elias 2. Kinges 1. would haue commanded a consuming fire to come downe, against the in hospitall Samaritanes. Luk. 9.) They are ca­ried with an vnknowne spirite, that would imitate anomalous exemples. And this sort (that thou be not deceiued) the indyte­ment of Analogy will easily discerne from proper exemples: whose vse is onely set downe for vs. 1. Cor. 10. the which likewise are of two sortes. For as the Lords lawes are either imperatiues of good or inhibitiues of ill: so are the exemples conforme. For some are of imitation to perswade good, and others of abstinence to disswade euill. And therefore they are to the Apostle types. 1. Cor. 10. that is, exemples answerable to the law the Architype from heauen. And so throgh this conformity of Canonick ex­emples to Authentick law, exemples becommes no lesse nor [Page] lawes. Where through we see that not onely the fiue bookes of Moses beares the tytle of the lawe, but the whole bookes of the old Testaments Bible also Ioh. 10.34. and xv. 25. that so wee may learne to count the comprysed exemples for consecrate lawes. For like as the sanctification and obseruation of the Do­minicall day (although it had no more warrand nor Dominicall and Apostolical exemples, yet) the same does importe a vigorous necessitie of law to imitation For euen as in a sea-fairing flot, the formest by saile doth fuir before with lantern and flag as fade whom the rest should follow: or lyke the eagle in sore, trayning her yong to flee: so did our auncient admirals and fathers of faith pestere the righteous paths, for the vse of our exemplare imita­tion. But for our purpose; let vs licere looke what light of exem­plare lawes in buriall hes beene borne before, for vs to followe. And first as in the word there is nothing more frequent nor bu­riall exemple, in all the which there is a tenorall processe so e­qually and vnchangeably euery-where obserued, that they are not onely injurious, that count it without scripturall direction, but also vnjust that would infringe anywayes the old forme, that in funerals we finde was simple, without pompe or pryde, and in sepulchers was sober, without superstition or profanation of any place appointed for Gods publick worship. So that this one-fold Analogie so euenly obserued, did justly deserue in deed the prag­maticall power of a perpetuall law. For sen first we finde the pri­mitiue paterne of buriall proponed by Abraham: next without interruption of the same a perpetuatl practise in Israel; and last a peremptor confirmation thereof by Christ, it can be no lesse nor a law to continue for euer. And to begin at the originall institu­tion, we finde it first solemnly set downe in the consecration of Abrahams conquest caue, where he designes it for buriall vse. Gen. 25. and so beginnes the first (at least expresse) Cemiteriall law. For then the faithfuls father for posterities exemple, will not lay nor be laide in Mambre, where the altar was, but in Makpe­lachs caue onely competent thereto. In the which History (be­side the literall sense that so planely does speake against altar graues, and for cemiteriall simplicitie) there is an elegant allegory gathered for farther explanation. VVhereby the caue in the field end may import, that a place should be set apart for a monu­ment [Page] of memento mori: in looking whereon we may learn to loath this lyfe,Benzo in hist noa [...] orbis. that once we must leaue. And so like some American Kings, whose custome is to comburie their concubines in tombe with themselues, so must we our old-mans affections before we dissolue. Againe for the processe of afterling practise we finde it precise to the paterne as the owne positiue law. For till this day in [...]ury the reserued vestigies of the synagogues sepulchers,Ier. in locis hebraicis. are euer seene in some apart place from thence where Gods sanctua­ries was. So that Ierusalem, howsoeuer memorable for the many-fold monuments of Peeres and people both (which besides the peculiar of Princes, prophets or priests) had foure sorts common to people: as the brok Kedron for Citizens, Aceldama for stran­gers, Caluarie for the crucified, and Topheth or gehenna for I­dolaters.) yet all were without the verie cittie wals, let be the tem­ple. And so farre in the fieldes end, that not onely for a religious respect were they separated from the places of God, but in a po­litick conseate also from their owne, in permitting no cittie bu­riall. And therefore is it that the Lord does at Nain meete the corps caryed vvithout as not lavvfull to be laide vvithin the cittie, Luke 7. Conforme to the which wee finde some Roman lawes,Criuit lib 2. as by Emperour Hadrian, all cittie buriall was forbid vn­der the vnlaw and amerciament of fiftie crownes. And this aun­cient policie wee perceiue practised in the ouldest of our owne countrey Kirkes: that not vvithout interuall are situate from townes. for the farther conuenience of Kirk-courtes for bu­riales. And this custome (I thinke) the Author of the Heb. 13. regards in allusion:Iosep. Ant. lib. 8. Iero. in locis hebraicis. vvho reasons that in respect the Lord did suf­fer (and lykewaies was buryed) without the cittie campe, that we therefore should goe without to get him where he is. And al­though Iudaes Kings by princely prerogatiues aboue populare priuiledge were laide in the latte of Dauid with himselfe in Sion, that makes not against. For the middle Ierusalem (that was then the temples towne) was inclusiuely walled apart by it selfe, and distinct from Dauids cittie in Sion.Durand. de Caemit. So that if men be so nyce of their owne nest and dwelling (that althogh once the vse was to bury at home in their house graue, yet to auoyd the deads flewer they were constrained to bury abroad) why should we presume to be so prodigall of the place appoynted for the Lords repare? [Page] For what euer in this case is ciuilly absurde, can neuer be answe­rable to ecclesiasticall honestie and order. Now last this buriall constitution of Abraham, as it was customable to his kynde, so was it confirmed by Christ in the conformity of his buriall a­ction, as if that had bene but the type of this So that as Ioseph and Nicodeme, executors of the exequies of Christ made conscience to keepe that custome: So Iohn in his 9. calles it ( [...]) that is, the Iewes manner,Origen. con­tra Celsum. thenceforth christianly to be obserued as be­ing consecrat by Christ, whose sepulcher was for the same cause, simple and at the cittie side. Where through we see that this kinde of imitatiue exemples are but as as many founded laws to forfait, without fauour all forme of Kirk-burial. For althogh that accor­ding to Isidore his destruction these exemples be not leges, Lib. Etym. 5. that is, written as laws, but exemples for vs, yet by the generall name they are (iura) that is, rights to be obserued sen to that vse they are insert. For seeing that law (that we call ius) is either naturall, ciuile or nationall: it followeth, that these kynde of expressed ex­emples of simple buriall must be lawes: as being first naturall, as we may read of the Emmet, and bee, who buries their dead, but without their hyues: and ciuile, as we heard before both of the cu­stome and constitution keeped against cittie buriall, let be of the Kirk: and last, of nations, for Kirk-buriall is a thing neuer heard of before, nor without Antichristianisme. Therefore the same must serue for an irrefragable legislation. The which by Abra­hams primitiue institution becomming Ius publicum, or a com­mon law: and by Israels practise Plebiscitum,Aug. on Iohn tract. 12. or the common conclusion: and by the common confirmation at last, obtained by the conformity of Christs buriall thereto, becommeth a constitu­tion, implying the edge of an edict for our perpetuall imitation. As the very word that Iohn wayles herein ( [...]) doth importe, not onely a custome but a constitution also.

What house a Kirk is and how far by buriall it is profaned Chap. XVII.

THe contrare kinde of exemples that negatiuelie are set down to exhort to abstinence from their imitation rests to consider. For as by negatiue laws we are forbidden, so by the conform exē ­ples we must forbear the vnlawful actions of mē which the Lord [Page] hes set as on the shalde shoare, lyke beakens to warne the ship­wreake of soules: but in this our particulare, although there be nothing more plentifully scriptured nor buriall exemples, yet such a constant conformity hes euer beene keeped therein, that lay aside ceremonies, wee may imitate any of all without error. And althogh the barbarity of Kirk-buriall (as of old vnknown) be without particular exemple, yet sen it is but Kirk profanation, we finde against it prohibitiues anew, for the generall. For the more commodious application whereof, it were heere requisite once to define what kinde of house a Kirk is, that so men may make conscience to vsurpe the same against the owne vse. What it is we may read, as it wer, in that Architectoral deliniation of the Lords passe ouer parlor Mar. xiiij. the which (as it is descriued first in dimension to be high and large, next in apparrell to be comely prepared. And last, for that tyme at least particularly consecrate to the Passe ouer vse) So telles it that Bethel the domicile of God, must be first an Ecclesie or Kirk, a tabernacle for the congrega­tions repare,Durand de Eccles. that is, of such competent capacity as may easily containe the particular flock. Next that it be for bewtie a Basi­lick or temple, fit for contemplation of Gods promised presence there. Matt. xviij xx. which bewty (although it must keepe bounds of christian simplicity, yet) no warrand will allow emu­lation in houses humane, according to the Centuries conscience Matt. 8.8. whose roofe he acknowledged (with himselfe) vn­worthy to receiue the Lord. For as Dauid disdained to dwell in a palice of Cedar while the Lords Arke remaned in tents. 2. Sam 7. so Salomons palice (how princely so euer) yet was it magnifi­cently exceeded by the house he builded to God.Ioseph. Anti. lib. 2. cap 2. Bernard. in apolog. 1. King. 8. and 9. But this elegance (without exces) and comelinesse (without cu­riosity) I vrge, because, alas, although the vmwhile zeale of Gods house did eate the godly vp with Dauid. Psal. 69. Yet now it is contrarily come to passe, that the zeal of the godlesse does eat vp Gods house,August. de sermone Dei in monte. his portion and all. And sin, that in our owne expe­rience hes beene oft punished by the Prophecy of Haggai. 1.4. &c. And last the Kirk must be according to the patern an oratory or house of prayer. Isa. 56.7. that is, destinate to the onely end of Gods worship. So then vnder these three conditions (to wit, of amplitude, ornacy; and vnprostitude chastity to any other vse [Page] nor the owne) but specially the last it becommes a Kirk. As for that, all Kirk-worshippe is vnder one comprised in the name of prayer by the Prophet, there is a triple cause. First for that ori­ginall encoenie or dedication prayer, vttered at the temple con­secration, it became after intituled alwayes the house of prayer. j. King 8. and consequently euen so Kirks, because (beside that the olde holy places vnder the law had lyke the annoynted per­sons a mistick meaning seruing to Catechise in the knowledge of Christ) they caryed also some materiall resemblance of such Gospell places, as should be set apart for the worship of God. As first the Apostles Analogicall allusion of Altar and temple worshippe then to Kirk ministration now imports. j. Cor. 9. and next was acknowledged by the selfe Iewes, in supplying the de­fects of the second temple by building synagogues. Acts. xv.xxj. And last also the righteous accommodation of the Prophecy it selfe Isa. 567▪ may proport. For there such a house of prayer is proponed that should be Catholicklie patent to all people of the vvorld: vvhich onely is competent to the Euangelicall temple. Mark. xj.xvij. So then for conscience of that autentick conse­cration, that in common may concerne all the Oratories of God,Gratian. De­ciet part. 2. christians should not lyke cursed ones and Papists, vsurpe them to a sinister vse. For they in consecrations being more not super­stitious, admitting the vncouth exercise of buriall, are contrare themselues, and prodigally profane. Againe the Kirk is called the house of prayer, because no pointe of Gods vvorship, can ei­ther be seasoned or sanctified without prayer, as testifies the A­postle j. Tim. 4.5. And last the Kirk is so called for the wordes homonimie, or variety of sense for ( [...]ephillah) that wee expone prayer (lyke the roote that it springs from) does import more. For althogh the 90. Psa. in number be intituled a praier, yet from the matter it is rather a preaching: so that this way to be the house of prayer by figure, is to be dedicate to the administration onelie of the publict points of kirk-worship. The which points (as be­ing also the onely vndenyable and viue marks of a visible Kirk) are but three: to wit, the word, sacraments and discipline, as if wee looke throgh the rent vaile we may soone perceiue. For althogh there was without the temples inner-uaile a variety of ceremonial vtensiles to be seene, yet within and before the Arke of pre­sence [Page] there was but three pledges of perpetuall monument con­signed: the tables of the law▪ the sacramentall vrne, and the rod of Aarons rule, shadowes of that trinity of the token [...] that only may tel vs vvhere the true Kirk is Heb 9. VVhere the Apost. mentio­ning the golden censor with all (wherin Iohn in the Reuel. places the odoriferous prayers of the saints) means the same that we say: that neither word, sacramēts nor discipline can be in season with­out prayer. So then to resume that parlor or place that is compe­tentlie spatious & speciose in outward forme, and spiritually ple­nished with no implements but the owne proper three, is the on­lie Bethel and dedicate house to God And to assume, but burial-kirks are not such: Ergo. The Assumpion may be sene in the mis­use of the foresaid all three kirk properties. For first by kirk-bu­riall kirk-bounds are so mistrammed, and in many places either so eatten vp vvith intaking Iles, or the passage so impeshed with thorter some throughes: or at the least, the pauement so partiallie parted to paticulare men, that if they cleaue to that they haue calked, the people that rests (as by a proude purpresture postpo­ned) must byde at the dore. Againe, the cullors of their comelines are become so vncouth, that in stead of Basilick beautie there is oft to be seene the badges of buriall in black dolie duill. And the the more to skar away christian contemplation, ye will finde for object to your eye the conuoysances of knights, portracts & pin­sels of men. So that Gods seemely sanctuarie beeing transferred to the (vvithout vvhited, but vvithin rotten) sepulchers of men odious to Christ Matth. 23. becommeth in populare opinion thereby the alrishe Innes of bogles and Gaists. So that many for that presumed feare dare not enter alone in the Kirk. But seeing as Tertulian sayes,Tertul. de re­surrect. carnis that sepulchers are but mortuorum stabula, that is, stables for the dead, there can be nothing more incompatible nor the same thing to be made an buriall beere, and to remaine a Kirk both at once. As by weighing the scripturall equiuocati­ons, that are bestowed on both Kirk and graue, maybe consi­dered. For as the Kirk hes many names in common with heauen (as Bethel, and the port of heauen. Genesis xxviij. &c.) Euen so the graue (beside the twelfe names wherewith it is commonly called, as [...] (sometyme the name of Gehenna, for the boulkes of many muddy men that fell in that greene) [...] [Page] Sepulchrum, Sepulchretum, Mausolium, Dormitorium,Dur. de caem. Iero. on the 2. Chro 33. Monu­mentum, Tumulus, Vrna, Spelunca Bustum) it hes yet seauen names more, that by scripturall equiuocation are common with hell. So that the originall words of the text may be exponed to meane of either. And first in Prouerb. 30.16. it is called Schaol,R. Ios. Ben Leui. that is a place of insatiable apetyte. Next is Abaddon, or of perdi­tion. Psal. 89.49 Thirdly Zal-maneth, the shadow of death. Psal. 107. Fourthly Erets Tachtau, the lowest parts of the earth. Psal. 86 13. Fifthly Tit Hauon, or myrie clay. Sixtly Borschaon, the pit of tumult both mentioned in the 40. Psalme 3. verse. And lastly it is also called Bor Schachath, that is, the pit of corruption Psal. 55.24. All the which as they agree to the graue as the graue and gate of Hell, so doe they by the same figure to the golfe it selfe. And by consequence, to make Bethel, or Gods house (which should be lyke heauen) the place of insatiable appetyte, or of cor­ruption, perdition, the shadowe of death, a pit of tumult, a myrie clay, &c (as in deed the Roman Kirk-buriers doe) in a Giganto­machy, they prease to commix the heauen with the hell. And last for the vse, who sees it not thereby so miserably transferred from the owne to an vncouth vse, that verie lyke these Herodians that mingled their sacrifices with bloode, Luke chap. viij. they pel­mell the dead with the liuing all in one Kirk. For sen buriall a­ction is of that nature that it needeth no prayer, if we shall inuey the same in prayers house, what doe we else but par-take with the profane in their Paganicall papistrie, that prayes for the dead? And so by impropriating the Lords prayer house to be a burial-Kirk we incurre profanation.

Documents against Kirk profanation. Chap. XVIII.

BVt to aware that sore sin of profanation, there are three kinds of documents in the register of God, that maye make vs for­beare: Symbolicall, to witte, ceremoniall and hystoricall. All the which vve shall at least touch by the instance of some exemples. Of the first kinde there is one Exod. 3. For seeing the Kirk is that burning Busse, vvhereof the boundes that were neere about by diuine presence were holy, how mal-apert are men to aproche not onely shodde, but with shod-shooles to seug [...] vp the sanctu­ry-ground? The ceremoniall sorte among Moses his Leuiti­cals [Page] we finde frequent. For beside that buriall in Kirk may be counted with the lintsey wolsey confusions, or like the commix­tion of sundrie seeds) it may be put with the legal pollutions con­tracted from the dead: the which was of such speciall profanatiō, that to approch the Tabernacle vnder that kinde of vncleannes, was punished with anathematicall excommunication. The reue­rence of the which law we see Ioseph is ware to incur, euen with Pharao, tovvard whom (for all his ovvn credite) being vncleaned by the dead, he is enforced to imploy the domesticks of court, to sute his libertie of going vp to Canaan, to burie his father. And hence is this old vse wherby the dore-cheeks of the dead wer de­signed vnclean by the funeral cypres vvherwith they wer deckt, as the burning of bedstray of the defunct does yet: a reason whose respect may restraine kirk buriall, seeing it is but kirks pollution. And last, for historiee of punished profanation (beside diuers a­mong the Prophets,2. Macca 3. Ios ben Gor. Eb. cap. 1. as of Huza 1. Sam. 6. and Huzia 2. Kings 26) among the profane, the exemples thereof are infinite. As one of Heliodore, who (masgre the Priest) making violent irruption in the Temple was scourged by God, and plagued with impotency till the Priest prayed. But (beside these propheticall, apocriphall, or profane proues) there is a popular experience that long since hes founded the opinion, that beside the profanation of the whol Kirk was odious. The sacriledge but of a Kirk-stone (though it were hid in a strong hold) were better nor a cannon of battery to brangle downe all. Then to conclude, sen the Lords Kirk is to vs no lesse then our Altar of lyuelie offerings Rom. xij. j. the tabernacle of our congregation. j. Cor. xj xvij. our arke of Gods presence. Matt. xviij.xx. or temple of his worshippe. j. Cor. xiij.xiiij. our synagogue for the Lector of the law and exhortation thereon. Act. xiij.xv. our Passe ouer parlor, let no person presume to incurre this cryme of this profanation. The which as the arch-synagogues of olde did punishe with apo-synagogie; so should Kirk-pastors now ding it with the discipline rod.

Refutation of all obiections making in showe for Kirk-buriall. Chap. XIX.

THis ramasse of these reasons in the by gone discourse being thus made it were tyme to stint here: were not the great hart­ted [Page] patrones of this creased cause, hes resting some rag-footed re­sons that we must refute, that when their be masked kirk-buriall shall be be-reft of her fig-tree buskings, they may either rest at the trueth, or lyke renigate recusants refuse without reason. For all they can bring for buriall in Kirk, is builded vp vpon the san­dy foundation of three griplesse grounds For first there is a crafty sort that pretends reason from the causes nature: next there is a combersome kynde, that vnder cullour of a right claime playes captane play. And last the confused commons, does argue from their owne vse and others exemple. The first sect againe hes two sorts to reason the cause: The pan-sauoring Papist, and the dan­gerous indifferent. For to the first no buriall is blest eneugh,Remists in Apoc. ca 9. that is not among the memorials of martyres, and canonized saintes for their soules helpe in Kirk: In the which religious reason (al­though both dead prayer and purgatory might be taine in to re­fute, yet) I will not digresse, but hold on the point. So then where they alledge that religious buriall should be in religious place, and consequently in the Kirk, they faill in their following:Durand. de Eccesia. as by their owne domesticke distinction of hallowed places may ap­peare. For (fen some they call sacred as quiers, and others sancta or holy, as Kirks: a third sort religious as buriall courts) it will rather follow that buriall an action of the religious ranke onely ought to be restrained from the whole Kirk to the court with­out. For indeed (to speake lyke no Papist) properly no place by it self is more holy nor others, for al the earth is the Lords Psa 24 1. yet in a metonimicall meaning, the continent Kirk is called sa­cred or holy for the seruice of God contained therein,Conci. Gang and should be secluded therefore from all other vse. For what proceeding so euer we purpose to approue before God, he propones as a con­dition to obserue oportunity in doing of meete tyme and place, to these that would finde him a thankfull master: according to the document giuen in his censure of the exchange in the temple. Matt. 21 For althogh these marchants might be excused through their religious pretence, whose vent was to furnish the far land Iewes, being vnprouyded of a demisicle for the Tabernacles tri­bute Exod. 30. and a turtle for the sin offering. Leuit. 5. Yet for their preposterous choise of the place they are condemned. For vpon the di [...]ray of making prayers house a caue of knaues▪ their [Page] doome was to be scourged away for all their religious excuse. whereinto I could wish this sort to take head: for to presume v­pon the prerogatiue of buriall, for being in Kirk-place, it were a braine-sick brade.Greg. ans. to August Bish. of Canterb. For as Gregory sayeth, we ought not to loue the thing for the place, but the place for the thing it self. And if o­therwise it were, why doe they so part [...]lly step-barne the pursse-miserable poore from such a soul-helpe? but hereof eneugh. Our indifferents againe are well dangerous. For in making all place a­like lawfull for buriall laire, they cast in the Kirk as it were to the mends. Like serpenting satan that could abide no tree vn-taisted in all the garden. Gen. 3. But the reason of this racklesse assertion I could neuer read: but by the contrare (sen indifferencies are things whose action imports interest neither to faith nor good maners) misnurtered Kirk-buriall is not indifferent.August. ad [...]. 11 [...]. VVhat if a man would but minte to burye a body in the presence chamber of a Prince? would not the kempes of the corps-guarde not onely account him as clunishe, but cudzell him also for his capped con­seate, and such idiot indifferencie? and yet it is more to misuse the cabinet of God. And suppose that it were by nature to be ran­ked among indifferentes, yet it cannot remaine of that kynde. For by the Apostles law 1. Corinth. 10. all indifferent libertie is bounded by edification and neighbourly loue, the which in Kirk-buriall a man cannot keepe; because it breedes a kynde of contempt of the secluded sorte, and a stumbling offence to the tender. And although it was long (yet louselie) held as indifferent in the doylde dayes, yet beeing now but vmwhile, and as an hes-beene, should neuer be more. In respect of the Kirk-sence and inhibition serued at the instance of God against Kirk-buriall by our nationall assemblie, conueened in the spirit of God about the first reformation. The vigour whereof should strike vpon all that are not Kirk out-lawes, vnworthie of the communion of saints: And this for the craftiest ground from the causes nature. The next squader that commes in, are captanes of cheef, who when they haue proudly prefaced their ancester kirk merite, they sacrilegiously will vsurpe a possessiue pronoun, and with a full mouth say, this kirk, or at least this kirk-laire is mine. And so wil conclude, by the law, I may ly here▪ But the inspection of peeces will finde this talke toome. And this kinde as of most [Page] cumber is of two sortes: the first are the patrons of the laick e­state: the rest are but portioners and possessors of old (as they al­ledge) of a Kirk-buriall place. The patron doeth reason his right to proceed of the reseruation of a buriall priuiledge at the found­ing and dedication of their Kirks by their forebeares; wherein (I think by their leaue) they play fast and louse. For what is it else to dedicate the same thing a Kirk, and yet deteene it a buriall,De cult. san. lib. 3. cap. 4. but to giue with the one hand, and to grippe againe with the o­ther? Lyke Bellarmine who with a jugling distinction maks kirks as they are temples to appertaine to God, but as they are basilice that is, sumptuous buildings to appertaine to the saintes of their dedication, the which gif-gaffing with God is the verie simoni­call sin of Anani and Saphira his wyfe, punished with perdition. Acts. 5. Against the which Esopes taile may well serue for a tant, whose colzer and fuller taking vp an Innes, in respect of their contrare cullours could not lodge together. For the colzear by cowming the walkers whyte webs did weary him away to shift for himself: As by our col-blacke behauiour heerein we are lyke to doe to God. And if we looke to the law of Cherem, that is, of things deuoted to God. Leuit. 27.29. we see what we once annex to the crowne of Christs Kingdome, the vnion is so indissoluble that neyther prescription of tyme, vsucapion of person, nor bout-gate of circumstance can giue a regresse; if this greedie worlde could be induced to beleue. So it rightly we reason the patro­nall right, their tittle beeing onerous and not lucratiue,1. Sam. 2. Platina & Polidore Vug. in the life of Clement [...]. they ought the Kirk a plane patrociny and protection of law. But vvhen by the contrare vnder this patronage pretence, they ey­ther pinche the patrimony, or yet the Kirk-place, of Laik pa­trones they becomme but lawlesse publicans, lyke Hophnees vvith elcrookes to minche and not Samueles, to mense the of­ferings of God: Or otherwaies like the templarian Knights, who beeing sometimes the kempes of the Kirkes, became at last the contemptuous tramplers of her liberties and robbers of her rents.Nico de Mil. in his repert. au [...]um. But this kind of patronage, though it leane on a law, yet (by olde canons) it wants place in burial that by special exēption hes beene euer remitted to the spirituall barre, onely meete for buriall de­cisions. And this for the Patrones pretences, which I pray God it may haue power as much for to mooue their affectiones, as it is [Page] able to conuince their conscience. Againe the kyndely claime by possession that some cleaues to (that they will haue so done old that the antiquitie is forgot) does rest yet to resolue. But first I would demand at this sort (as did the King at the garmentlesse guest, that being called and not chosen came to the wedding Mat. 22.) how came they there? for once they must grant me the Innes was the Lords: but how their intrusion hes ejected God out, ad­uyse with their answere till the great day, or else in tyme with re­morse repossesse. And if they claime tytle, condiscend of the kynde. For the Iewes doe comprise all titular rights vnder one of three: acquisition, like Abrahams (in the conqueis of the caue Gen. 23.) Heredation, like Isaacs (succeding thereto) lucrifaction, like Iacobs, whose wealth was the winning of his owne hand-hammers. But none of these sorts can compasse the Kirk. For if they call it conquies or the penny-worth of their pecunial pryce, that is but simony sold & sacriledge boght. Is it their heirship by ancester right? they succeed to a vice by inquest of error. For ther can be no cedence to such a succession. And last, for to win such a wagde, sen none can propone such a pryse, I think shame shold neuer let them say it. The best then remaines, that what heerein by cauillation, with Zacheus, they doe vnjustly possesse, they male at least (within him) to the interessed Kirk, an one-fold redresse in the feare of the Lord. The camshoch commons now at last coms in a rere warde to debate the cause: who rather flytes nor formes reason, some from domestick vse, others from exoticke exem­ple. For vse as their greatest gunne, they would seeme to say some what: alledging to a most auncient custome of keeping the pre­decessor lare in buriall. [...]rian. de [...]. part 2. To beeme-fill the which they may bring (I confesse) some canons of counsels: But what makes this for the cause? for thogh I should admit as lawfull, such earnest adherence to paternall graue, yet sen the Kirk is no buriall at all, how can it be claimed by thee throgh thy forbears? Or by what reason did the first of thy vpward lyne that lyeth in the Kirk, leaue off his forbeares laire that lay in the yarde, if not farther yond? But this reason I may rightly regyre: that sen the first followers of that foly in buriall Apostasie, shaping themselues schismatick Kirk-sepulchers, did lawlesly leaue the auncient laire of their better aduysed elders, they are vnworthy of imitation. And to pretend [Page] conscience of keeping vse in misuse, thou wantst both right wit and sound information. For suppose (by the Apostles order 1. Cor. 14.) the loue of parental laire be indifferently lawful, yet the necessitie was neuer absolute, as we shew before; no not in the lawfull place, let be in the Kirk. For althogh Jacob seeme to vrge it Gen. 49. and that to entertaine his posterity in full hope to re­turne (whereof the thre patriarchall burials were a special pledg) yet did he it without superstitious respect to Macpelaes caue. Witnes himselfe: in laying his departed Rachael, thogh not farre from M [...]mre in Eprathaes way. Gen. 25. and Ioseph: whom the congregation conueyed (not to his fore-fathers caue) but to Se­chem. Ios. 24. the Propheticall pledge of his double portion. Gen. 28. As for Ieroboams Prophet, whom for his preuarication they pretend to haue beene punished with the depriuation of his paternall saire. 1 King, 13. the Lords wordes meanes more then they marke. For (as the 25. verse may commen: the 21.) the sense is, that being preuented by death (as he was by the lyons lench) he should neuer see home nor ly in the common laire by a peace­able death. Otherwise the penalty of his presumption in the want of the vsuall laire, had beene but slight, seeing buryed he was. So then vnder sko [...]gh of the conscience scruple, to adheare to this vncouth vse, it were but conceate and no conscience. For beside the vnnecessity of keeping this custome, the consideration of the impossibility of it should resolue the doubts in respect of succes­sional multiplications. For as neither all Adams children, no nor Iaphets Gentiles, can be contained in graue with themselues, what tombe could intumulate any entyre race of folks.Durand. de Caen it. And ther­fore in temple foundations (because nature in graue craues el­bow-roume, and abhorres to be rufled with ouer frequent dis­couery) because the center Kirk was both incompetent and inca­pable of the congregations dead, there was alwayes a circumfe­rent yarde of thirty foote in compasse at least, or more, if the oc­cation of farther confluence requyred, set apart to burial bounds in common to all. But if thou would stand vpon a parentall so­cietie in graue (seeing the deserters deserues to be deserted) seeke vpward to them that most Analogically liued in the purest times: whose exemple thou may imitate with lesse heresie hazard. For as in ciuile entries to heritage, if it be for the better, men can make [Page] leap-yeare of their father and seeke farther vppe: why may not thou in this case bissextile some bodily forebeares, that so thou may enter to the most immaculate aunciety and fathers of faith, whom all thou wilt finde not in the Kirk but in her courts bu­ryed? as I reede you doe, or else in errour thou shalt more erre. For since vse is an euill ruse vvhere warrand is avvay, let reason ouer-rule and ordour reforme. The sconce againe that they carie of others exemple, is rather found an excuse for the fact, nor a reason for it. But the wyte makes a wrong no more the better, nor did the trajection of our first parents fall Genes. chap. 3. on the author of it sathan, auailed vvith God. For in sifting out their sinne to the far end (from Adam to Eua, from her to that e­uill one at last) as he did punishe all by proportion (the seducing serpent with a curse, the inducing Eua with a crosse of subjection and the grinding paines of her birth, the ouer easily adduced A­dam with the care and sweatty labours of this militant lyfe) So may the Lord doe in this proces of ours. For as the symoniacall seducers, that first lade this block before the blinde, with the im­mediate transmitters of Kirk-burial tradition, for this tymes ex­emple deserues at least, at the handes of God both a crosse and a cursse: the very same they may justly also incurre, that does obstinatly insiste in the trace of such foole-hardy footsteps. For the which cause then, seeing in authentick exemples are but E­giptian reedes that doe harme the hand of him that leaneth on, we should looke how we should liue by the law, and not to goe louse by lawlesse exemples. And this far for such patrociny that Kirk-buriall procutors doe vse pragmatically to pleade. But the practicians now keepes vp for the as good, a reason in oddes, that lyke a pittard hes more pith nor all the rest whatsoeuer, that they vse to take from the vse of a forehammer. The conclusion whereof in their clubbe-law, doth oft tymes make the Kirk-dore fling on the floore. And althogh to beligger the lodgings of mē, for feare of their murther-holes, they wil looke ere they loupe, yet to enforce the Kirk-house (as if God had no gunnes) there are many of small feare. But to refute a reason so rough, since it doeth passe our pastorall reach, in humble reuerence we remitte the same to the ciuile power, as by right appertaines. That they who by calling should be the foster-fathers of the Kirk, Isa. 49. [Page] may by the rod of their charge, represse such vnreasonable inso­lence, as they will answere to him that set them in ranke. And because that a publict law would best ridde the martch (if so be that such feete may come so farre ben) I doe present this peti­tion on the knees of the Kirk to his Highnesse selfe, that accor­ding to our expectation founded vppon his Majesties gratious response (not far from the Assemblies sute heere-anent) he wold procure an inacted law to beem fill the Kirk acts against Kirk-buriall: whereby secluding all from the Kirk-laire, the great ones and good ones whom qualitie and condition does exeeme from popular case, may in tyme begin to talke of a tombe, or else a new Ile for buriall vse.

A recapitulation of some former reasons against buriall in Kirk. Chap. XX.

NOw here ere I end, for the more populare application I will contriue an clench of some former reasones in sylogistick forme: by the which self-momus may see Kirk-buriall blame vn­denyablie induced: and that men may in familiar vse, as it were, beare the same about at their belt. For (beside that wee haue showen it a prat of proud pryde. chap. xj. &c. before) we may proue it also to be not onely a shamefull superstition, but also a most peruerse profanation. And first to be superstition I proue it this way. All action that is atouer and against the statute of the Lord is but superstition (for so the very etimologie of the word doth beare: for superstitio is quasi supra statutum. (Dei) that is aboue or at ouer, or against the statute of God) but Kirk-buriall is a­boue, yea, against the statutes of God, Ergo, it is superstition. The assumption I proue: All that is against the wordes Analogie is a­gainst the statute of God (as none will deny) but Kirk-buriall is against the words Analogie. Ergo, it is against the statute of God. The assumption I proue: All action that is against the Apostles rule of decency and order in the manner of doing, and edification in the end, is against Analogy (for these things he does requyre j. Cor. xiiij. 26. and 40. vers.) but Kirk-buriall is found to be such Ergo, it is against the wordes Analogie. The assumption yet I proue in partes. First it is against Analogicall order of buriall▪ read the 15. chap. before. Next it is against Analogicall decency, [Page] read chap. 18. Last it is against Analogicall edification read chap. xvj. Ergo against Analogie, and consequently it is superstition. Againe I reason, al actions that is against the authentick exemples of the word, that like lawes are commended to vs for ordinar i­mitation, are superstition. 1. Cor. 10. but Kirk-buriall is so, Ergo it is superstition. The assumption I proue by induction of tyme. chap. 14. and persons. chap. 17. So that we haue there clearely proued that before the tyme of Antichrists discouery Kirk-bu­riall was vnknowne, and against the constant tennor and Analo­gie of coemiteriall exemples that are contained in scripture: the which we haue sufficiently prouen to haue the force of a law, and of necessitie to be followed chap. xvj. So then since Kirk buriall is against scripturall Analogie and exemple, it is superstition. A­gaine that it is profanation, it is lykewise manifest by the wordes Etimologie: for profanum being quasi antevel extra farum, is that that is vnholied, and depryued of sanctification. And so contrare to the Greek word [...], which being (as many think) from a pri­vatiue particle [...] and [...] that signifies the earth meanes a sanctified or separate thing from earthly vse to an holy end. So then I rea­son all transferrence of a separate thing from an holy end to a common vse is profanation. chap. xviij but Kirk-buriall is such. Ibid. Ergo profanation. Againe all Paganisme or Papistry is pro­fanation: but Kirk-buriall is both. cap. xij & xiij. Ergo profana­tion. So these with the rest of my vnrecited reasons closes vp this conclusion, vse Kirk-buriall no more. Against the which what spirit will gaine say but that of contradiction that Angels cannot perswade Whereby some do prattle of buriall rather nor learne to dye. But if old canons were to vrge (whereby men was proui­ded to bury but where they payed their teynds) I see not where a great sort of our cumber somest Kirk-buriers should ly: who be­ing to [...]-masters of the teynd [...] themselues hes for-faulted their freedome of all sort of laire. But the Lord let the world see what sacril [...]g [...] and profanation is, that being forewarned of the day of euill in making redresse, they may seeke to be redressed in the re­deeming Lord.


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