THE PROTESTANTS EVIDENCE, TAKEN OVT OF GOOD [...]ORDS; Shewing that for Fifteene hundred yeares next after CHRIST, divers worthy [...]uides of Gods Church, have in sundry weightie poynts of Religion, taught as the Church of England now doth: DISTRIBVTED INTO SEVERALL CENTVRIES, and opened, By SIMON BIRCKBEK, Bachelor in Divinitie, sometime Fellow of Queenes Colledge in Oxford, and now Minister of Gods Word [...] Gilling in RICHMONDSHIRE.

LONDON, Printed for Robert Milbourne, and are to bee sold at the Signe of the Grayhound in Pauls Church-yard 1635.

TO THE RIGHT WOR­shi [...]full, HV [...]FREY VVHARTO [...] of Gillingwood, Esquire, Receiver Generall of his Majesties R [...]v [...]nues within the Arch-Dea­conry of Richmond the Bishopricke of Dur­ham, and Northumberla [...]d, my m [...]ch respected Patron, G [...]ace and Peace bee multiplied.


THe free accesse which you made mee, for the ex­ercise of my Ministerie within your do­nation, (what time, besides o­ther Sutors, you had a sonne of your owne, whose sufficiencie of Gifts might have anti-dated his yeares, and made him ca­pable [Page] of greater Preferment, had God been pleased to have continued his life) hath so farre engaged mee unto you, that I have laid hold on the first oportunitie, whereby I might manifest my thankeful­nesse unto you; which I could not better expresse, than by Dedicating this Trea­tise to your Name and Memory, besee­ching God, that as hee hath hitherto done great things for you, and given you a Benjamins portion above your brethren,Gen [...]s [...] 3.34. so hee would still continue his favours to you and yours, and blesse you, both in your owne person, and in your fruitfull & pro­mising off-spring. Now if this Trea­tise seeme not no sutable a Present either to your yeares or disposition, which call you indeed rather to a poynt of Devotion, than Disputation; the truth is, it is a Con­troversall Treatise, yet it is withall a just and Defensive War, which I have under­taken, rather for the clearing of our owne (cast, than the infesting of others; and the end I aime at, is to discover the truth, [Page] and guide others therein; And I know it would please you at the heart, to see such as have gone astray, reduced into the old way,Ierem. 6.1 [...]. which the Prophet calls the Good way. If any shall reape benefit by this Worke, and thanke the Authour for his paines, I shall foorthwith take them up, and bestow them wh [...]re they are due, namely, next under God, upon your selfe, upon whose Gleabe these first Fruits of mine grew, and are now (in such sort as you see) gathered into this Store-house, and sequestred into severall Centuries, for the Churches use and benefit, by one of her meanest Proctors, but

Your much bounden Kins­man, and Beneficiary, SIMON BIRCKBEK.


CHristian Reader, this Treatise was first occasioned, and af­terwards composed in ma­ner as followeth: The Pro­phet Hosea 7.8. Hosea saith of Ephraim, that hee had mixt himselfe a­mong the people; that Ephraim was as a Cake on the hearth not turned, baked on the one side, and raw upon the other; that is, Popula [...] Israel non solum f [...]it in­f [...]ctu [...] Idololatriâ Ieroboam, sed & Idololatrijs Gen­tilium existentiū circa populum Is­rael. Lyra in loc. in poynt of Religion, was partly a Iew, and partly a Gentile. It was my lot to fall upon a Charge, which like Ephraim, was part Protestant, part Papall, and the one side questioned with the other, Where their Religion was before Luther? Whereunto I addressed such answere, as I thought might satisfie the weake, and represse the clamourous; but the matter growing to farther debate, it occasioned me to draw a Ca­talogue of our Professors. Now it fell out, that about the same time, M Doctor [...]e [...]ly (one who is exc [...]llently verst in Controver­sies) [Page] had with good successe stood up in this quarrell with Iesuit Fisher. I acquainted him therefore with the businesse, and he gave mee the right hand of Fellowship, Galath. 2.9. encouraging me to go on with my Catalogue: but I found it too hard a taske for me, (though I had good helps from others, namely from the wel-furnished Libraries of my much respected friends, Ma­ster D. Potter, the worthy and learned Pro­vost of Queenes Colledg in Oxford, and Mr. W. Richardson, Minister of Gods Word at Bo­rough Church in Westmerland, a very learned and revere [...]d Divine, & also my good neigh­bour M. Nathaniel Hawksworth) to procure such Records as might prescribe for 1500 yeares together: so that it caused me travell as far as Oxford, there to visit those famous private and publike Libraries, where I became an eye-witnesse of divers parcels of Evidence, wher­of I made use in this Treatise. And now ha­vi [...]g my materialls about mee, I though [...] my selfe tollerablie furnisht for the Worke; and yet if I had had [...]he whole Bodleian-Vaticane Library about me, I might sometime have bin at a stand, if I had not had some Living Libra­rie to consult withall. Whereupon (having to deale with a companie of subtill Adversa­ries, like the sonnes of Zerviah, of whom Da­vid complained,2 Sam. 3 39. that they were too hard for him; [Page] and lest the truth, and the Churches Cause might seeme to suffer through my weaknesse) I repaired, by entercourse of Letters, to my learned Counsell Mr. Dr. Featly, and hee (I thanke him) was readie to resolve me when I was in doubt, and to direct mee, (yea and correct mee also) when I was at default; and indeed I was well pleased with the Obeliskes and dashes of his pen; for, as Salomon saith, The wounds of a lover are faithfull. Prov. 27. v. 6. I have used the helpe of Ancient and Moderne Writers, forreine and domestick, and namely, the Re­verend and learned Bishops, and Doctors of our Church; insomuch as I may say in Sam­sons language,Iudg, 14.18. That if I had not ploughed with their Heifer, I had not so easily unfolded divers Popish Riddles. I have dealt faithfully in the businesse, not wresting, nor wittingly mis­alleadging any Authours testimonie, nor yet sleightly proposing the Adversaries Argu­ment: for that had beene to have set up a shaw-fowle of mine owne framing, and then have battered it in pieces with mine owne Ordna [...]ce; but I have done as the Is­raelites, who went downe to the Philistims to sharpen their tooles:1 Sam. 13.10. I have set as keene an edge on the Adversaries Arguments, as Bellarmines, Parsons, or Brereleyes Forge could afford. I conf [...]sse the Worke is larger, than I either de­sired, [Page] or expected; but it could not well bee otherwise and speake fully to a thousand yeares and a halfe, and withall cleere the Evi­dence as it went, from the Exceptions of the Adversary. I have also been long about it and so my worthy Doctor tells mee; but withall hee puts mee in hope, it may prove like the [...]ardius enasci­tur seris umbram factura N [...]potibus Cupressus. Cypresse tree, which though it bee long a growing, yet wh [...]n once it is growen up to a tree, the shade of it s [...]rves for an harbour to the child unborne, the issue hereof I leave to GOD. This onely I may truely say of this Worke, It hath stood mee to some charges, and cost mee much paines and travell; Al which (were it an hundred times more than it is) I should thinke well bestowed, if the Church of God, and my Charge profit by me, and the Christian Reader pray for me.

S. B.

Catalogu [...] Testium Veritatis. OR, A Catalogue of such VVitnesses as are produced in th [...] Treatise, for proofe of the PROTESTANTS Religion, dispo­sed according to the times wherein they flourished.

Witnesses produced in the first Age, from Christs birth to 100 yeares.
  • The twelve Apostles.
  • Saint Paul, and the Churches of the Romanes, and others.
  • Anno 63. Ioseph of Arimathea, who brought Christianitie into Britaine.
  • 70. Dionysius Areopagita. The Bookes that beare his Name, seeme to bee written in the fourth or fifth Age after Christ.
  • 100 Ignatius the Martyr.
In the second Age from 100 to 200.
  • 150 Iustine Martyr.
  • 166 Hegesippus.
  • 169. The Church of Smyrna, touching the Mar­tyrdome [Page] of their Bishop Polycap.
  • 170 Melito, Bishop of Sardys.
  • 177 Pope Eleutherius his Epistle to Lucius, the first Christian King of Britaine.
  • 180 Polycrates of Ephesus, and the Easterne Churches, touching the keeping of Easter.
  • 180 Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons.
  • 200 Clemens Alexandrinus.
In the third Age, from 200 to 300.
  • 201 Tertullian.
  • 230 Origen.
  • 230 Minutius Felix.
  • 250 Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage.
  • 300 Arnobius.
  • 300. Lactantius.
  • Anno 291 Amphibalus, and his associates mar­tyred in Britaine; and Saint Alban. ann. 303.
In the fourth Age, from 300 to 400.
  • 310 A Councill at Eliberis in Spaine
  • 317 Constantine the Great.
  • 325 The first Generall Councill at Nice, against the Arrians.
  • 330 Eusebius Bishop of Caesarea.
  • 337 Ephraim the Syrian.
  • 340 Athanasius Bishop of Alexandria.
  • 360 Hilarie, Bishop of Poitiers.
  • 364 A Councill at Laodicea.
  • [Page]370 Macarius the Aegyptian Monke.
  • 370 Cyril Bishop of Hierusalem.
  • 370 Optatus Bishop of Mela in Africke.
  • 370 Ambrose Bishop of Milain.
  • 370 Basil the Great, Bishop of Caesarea.
  • 370 Gregorie Nazianzen.
  • 380 Gregory Nyssen, Bishop of Nyssa in Cap­padocia, brother to Basil.
  • 381 The second generall Councill at Constanti­nople, where Macedonius was condemned.
  • 390 Epiphanius, Bish. of Salamine in Cyprus.
In the fifth age, from 400 to 500.
  • 406 S. Chrysostome, Bish. of Constantinople. Andr. Rivet. Critici sacri.
  • 415 S. Hierome. idem.
  • 420 S. Augustinus.
  • 429 Palladius, sent (by Pope Celestine) into Scot­land; and Germanus (by the French Bishops) into Britain, to beat downe Pelagianisme.
  • 430 Vincentius Lirinensis wrote against the Pelagians, and Nestorians.
  • 430 Cyril Bishop of Alexandria.
  • 430 Theodoret the Historian, Bish. of Cyrene.
  • 431 The third generall Councill at Ephesus, where Nestorius was condemned & deprived.
  • 450 Leo the Great.
  • 451 The fourth generall Councill at Chalcedon, where Dioscurus & Eutyches were condēned.
  • 490 Gelasius the Pope.
In the sixth age, from 500 to 600.
  • [Page]520 Cassiodore, Abbot of Ravenna.
  • 520 Fulgentius, Bishop of Ruspa in Africke.
  • 529 A Councill at Aurange, against Semi-Pela­gians, and Massilians.
  • 540 Iustus Orgelitanus claruit ann. 540. Tri­them. de Scriptor. Ecclesiast.
  • 545 Iunilius, Episcopus Africanus.
  • 545 Primasius, a Bishop of Africke. Bellar. de Scriptor. Ecclesiast.
  • 540 Rhemigius, Bish. of Rhemes. Andr. Rivet.
  • 553 The fifth generall Councili at Constantino­ple, to confirme the Nicen Councill.
  • 560 Dracontius.
  • 580 Venantius Fortunatus, Bish. of Poictiers, a Poet, and Historian.
  • 596 Augustine the Monke, Mellitus and Lau­rence, sent into Britaine by Pope Gregorie.
  • 596 The Britaines Faith.
  • 600 Columbanus, or Saint Colme of Ireland.
In the seventh age, from 600 to 700.
  • 601 Greg. the First, the Great, placed by Bellar. in this seventh age. Bell. de Script. Eccles.
  • 601 Hesych. Bish. of Hierusalem. Bellar. ibid.
  • 630 [...]sidore, Bishop of Sevill, Disciple to Gre­gorie the Great.
  • 635 Aidanus, Bishop of Lindasferne, or Ho­ly [Page] Iland, and Finanus his Successour.
  • 681 The sixth Generall Councill at Constanti­nople, against the Monothelites, who held that although Christ had two Natures, yet hee had but one will.
In the eighth Age, from 700 to 800.
  • 720 Venerable Bede the Saxon.
  • 740 Ioannes Damascenus.
  • 740 Antonius Author Melissae.
  • 754 A Council held at Constant. wherein were condemned Images, and the worshipers of them [...]
  • 768 Clement, B. of Auxerre, Disciple to Bede.
  • 787 The second Councill at Nice, about restoring of Images.
  • 790 Alcuinus, or Albinus, an Englishman, Dis­ciple to Bede, and Tutor to Charlemaigne: this Alcuinus laid the foundation of the Vni­versitie of Paris.
  • 794 A Councill at Frankford, wherein was condemned the second Councill of Nice, for approoving the worshipping of Images.
  • 800 Carolus Magnus, and Libri Carolini.
In the ninth Age, from 800 to 900.
  • 815 Claudius Scotus.
  • 820 Claudius Taurinensis, against Image-wor­ship.
  • [Page]824 A Councill at Paris about Images.
  • 830 Christianus Druthmarus, the Monke of Corbey.
  • 830 Agobard, Bishop of Lyons.
  • 840 Rabanus Maurus, Bishop of Mentz, Dis­ciple to Al [...]win.
  • 840 Haymo, Bishop of Halberstadt, Cousin to Bede.
  • 840 Walafridus Strabus, Abbot of Fulda, Dis­ciple to Rabanus; hee collected the Ordinarie Glosse on the Bible. Trithem. de script. Eccles.
  • 861 Hulderick, Bishop of Auspurge.
  • 862 Iohn Mallerosse, the Scottish Divine; or Io­annes Scotus Erigena; hee was slaine by the Monkes of Malmsbury.
  • 860 Photius, Patriarke of Constantinople; he wrote the Nomo-Canon.
  • 876 Bertram, a Monke and Priest of France.
  • 890 Rhemigius, Monke of Auxerre; hee wrote upon Saint Mathew.
  • 890 Ambrosius Ansbertus, the French Monke.
In the tenth Age, from 900 to 1000.
  • 910 Radulphus Flaviacensis Monachus. Bel­larm. quò suprà.
  • 950 Stephanus Eduensis Monachus. Idem.
  • 950 Smaragdus the Abbot.
  • [Page]975 Abbot Aelfrick, and his Saxon Homily, and his Saxon Treatise of the Old and New Testa­ment, both translated into English.
In the eleventh age, from 1000 to 1100.
  • 1007 Fulbert, Bishop of Chartres.
  • 1050 Oecumenius.
  • 1050 Berengarius.
  • 1060 Radulphus Ardens.
  • 1070 Theophylact, Archbish. of the Bulgarians.
  • 1080 Anselme, Archbishop of Canterbury.
  • 1090 Hildebert, Archbishop of Tours.
  • 1100 Anselmus Laudunensis, Collector of the Interlinear Glosse.
In the twelfth age, from 1100 to 1200.
  • 1101 Zacharias Chrysopolitanus.
  • 1120 Rupertus Tuitiensis.
  • 1130 Hugo de Sancto Victore.
  • 1130 Bernardus Clarae-vallensis.
  • 1130 Peter Bruis, and Henry of Tholouse.
  • 1140 Peter Lombard, Master of the Sen­tences.
  • 1150 Petrus Cluniacensis.
  • 1158 Ioannes Sarisburiensis.
  • 1160 Petrus Blesensis, Archdeacon of Bathe.
  • 1170 Gratianus.
  • [Page]1170 Hildegard the Prophetesse. Trithem.
  • 1195 Ioachimus Abbas.
  • 1200 Nicetas Choniates.
In the thirteenth Age, from 1200 to 1300.
  • 1206 Gul. Altissiodorensis.
  • 1215 Concil. Lateranense, & Cuthb. Tonstal. Dunelm. Episcop. de eodem.
  • 1220 Honorius Augustodunensis. Bellarm.
  • 1230 Gulielmus Alvernus Parisiensis Epis­copus.
  • 1230 Petrus de Vineis. Trithem.
  • 1240 Alexander de Hales.
  • 1250 Gerardus and Dulcinus.
  • 1250 Hugo Cardinalis.
  • 1250 Robert Groute-head, or Grosse-teste, Bishop of Lincolne.
  • 1256 Gulielmus de Sancto Amore.
  • 1260 Thomas Aquinas.
  • 1260 Bonaventura.
  • 1260 Arnoldus de Novâ villâ.
  • 1300 Ioannes Duns Scotus.
In the fourteenth age, from 1300 to 1400.
  • 1303 Barlaam the Monke, and Nilus Arch­bishop of Thessalonica.
  • [Page]1320 Gulielmus Ockam.
  • 1320 Nicol. de Lyra, a converted Iew, who commented on all the Bible.
  • 1320 Marsilius Patavinus.
  • 1320 Michael Cesena. Trithem.
  • 1320 Dantes.
  • 1320 Durandus de S. Portiano.
  • 1330 Alvarus Pelagius.
  • 1340 Iohannes de Rupe-scissâ. Trithem.
  • 1340 Thomas Bradwardin.
  • 1343 The Kings of England oppose Papall Pro­visions, and Appeales, Anno 1391.
  • 1350 Richardus Armachanus.
  • 1350 Robert Holcot, the Englishman.
  • 1350 Francis Petrarch. Bellarm.
  • 1350 Taulerus, a Preacher at Strasbrough. Bellarm.
  • 1370 Saint Bridge [...].
  • 1370 Iohn Wickliffe, and the Lollards.
  • 1386 Gregorius Ariminensis.
  • 1400 Sir Geoffrey Chaucer.
In the fifteenth Age, from 1400 to 1500.
  • 1410 Petrus de Alliaco, Cameracensis. Bell.
  • 1410 Iohn Gerson, Chancellour of Paris.
  • 1411 Petrus Dresdensis, and Iacobellus Mis­vensis.
  • 1414 Iohn Hus, and Hierome of Prague.
  • [Page]1414 Constantiense Concilium.
  • 1417 Nicholaus Clemangis. Trithem.
  • 1420 Ziscay, the Captaine of the Hussites.
  • 1420 Laurentius Valla.
  • 1426 Iohn Rochezana, Disciple of Hus.
  • 1430 Paulus Burgensis.
  • 1430 Alphonsus Tostatus, Bishop of Avila.
  • 1430 Thomas Walden.
  • 1431 Basiliense Concilium.
  • 1440 Bessarion the Cardinall.
  • 1453 Iohn de Vesalia.
  • 1460 Nicolaus de Cusa.
  • 1460 Dionysius Carthusianus.
  • 1479 Wessellus, Preacher at Wormes.
  • 1480 Gabriel Biel.
  • 1490 Iohn and Francis Picus, Earles of Mi­randula.
  • 1494 Trithemius the Abbot, teste ipso.
  • 1498 Hierome Savonarola, burnt at Florence for Religion.
  • 1500 Ernestus, Archbishop of Magdeburge.
In the sixteenth Age, from 1500 to 1600.
  • Anno 1517. Martin Luther published his Propo­sitions against Indulgences; and shortly after opposed the Popes Supremacie, Purgatory, and other Tenets of the Pontificials of Rome.

A Catalogue of Authours cited in this Treatise, with the time and place of their Edition.

  • ADo Viennens. Chron. 1512.
  • Agobardi opera, Parisijs 1605.
  • Aelfrickes Sermon on Easter day, printed at London by Iohn Day, and reprinted Lond. 1623, with his Saxon Treatise of the old and new Testament.
  • Aeliani varia Histor. Graeco-lat. Tiguri 1556.
  • Paulus Aemilius de gest. Francor. Basileae the place expressed, but not the yeare.
  • Alcuini opera, Paris [...] 1617.
    • — idem de Trinitate, Lugd. 1525.
  • Alexander de Ales (his) Summa in quatuor partib. Papiae 1489.
  • Clem. Alexandrini opera Graec [...], ex Biblioth. Medicaeâ, Flo­rent, 1550.
  • Petr. de Alliac [...] Cardin. Cameracens. in lib. 1, 3, & 4. Sentent. Paris.
  • Monachi Altissiodorens. Chronologia Trecis, 1609.
  • Gul. Altissiodorens. in Sent. Paris. 1500.
  • Alvarus Pelagius de planctu Eccles. Venetijs 1560.
  • Ambros [...]j opera tom. 5. Basileae 1538.
  • Bishop Andrews Answer to Cardinall Perron's Reply, Lon­don 1629.
    • — ejusdem Responsio ad Bellarmini Apologiam, Lon­don 1610.
  • Ambros. Ansbertus in Apocalyps. Colon. 1536.
  • Anselmi opera [...] Colon. 1573.
  • Anselmi Laudunens. Gloss. Interlinear, apud Lyran. Lugdu­ni. 1589.
  • [Page] Antiquitates Britanicae Hanoviae 1605.
  • S. Antonij Melissa in Biblioth. S. Patr. per Margarin [...] de la Bigne.
  • Thomae Aquinatis Summa. Paris. 1608.
  • Thom. Aquinatis opera Antuerp. 1612.
  • Radulphus Ardens in Dominical [...] cited by Doctor Vsher in his Answ [...]r to the Iesuite.
  • Gregor. Ariminens. in prim. & secund. Sentent. Venet. 1503.
  • Ric. Armaca [...]i Sermones contrà Fratres Mendicant. & Quae­stion. Armenor. Paris. 1511.
  • D. Arnobius advers. Gentes. Antuerp. 1582.
  • Articles of Religion in England, London, 1631. — In Ire­land, London 1629.
  • S. Athanasij opera Graeco-Lat. Paris 1627.
    • — Latin. in 4. tom. Basil 1556.
  • Io. Aventini Annales Boiorum, Ingolstad. 1554.
  • Augustini opera in 10. tom. Basil 1529.
  • A [...]orij Institution. Moral. tom. primus, Colon. 1602.
  • [...]oh. Balaeus, de Scriptor. Britan Basil. 1559.
  • The Prudentiall Ballance, weighing the Catholike and Prote­stant Religion, 1609.
  • Theodori Balsamon. Com. in Canones, Paris. 1561.
  • Caesaris Baronij Annales in 10. tom. Antuerp. 1597.
  • Basilij opera S [...]aeco-lat. tom. 2. Par. M.DCXVIII.
    • — Lat. Antuerp. 1568.
  • Bedae opera in 8. tom. Basil. 1563.
    • — Ec [...]lesiast, Histor. Gent. Anglor. Antuerp. 1550.
  • Master B [...]dels Letters to Master Wadesworth, London, 1624.
  • Robert Bellarminus de Controvers. Fidei, Ingolstad. 1587.
    • — de Scriptorib. Ecc [...]esiast. Colon. 1622.
    • — de Indulgentijs & Iubilaeo. Colon. 1599.
  • Benno Cardinal. de Vitâ & Gest. Hildebrandi, in Fascie. re­rum expetend & fugiend. Colon. 1535.
  • Iaco. Philip. Bergomens. Supplement. Chron. Venet. 1503.
  • Bernardi opera, Paris. 1513.
  • Philip Ber [...]j Pithanon Diatribae 2. Tolosae. 1608.
  • [Page] Bertold. Constantiens. Appendix ad Hermanni Chron. Fran­cof. 1585.
  • Bertram de corp. & sang. Domini. Colon. 1551.
    • — Anglicè. Lond. 1548.
  • Bessarion. Tract. de Sacram. Euchar. habetur inter [...]iturgias S. Patr. Antuerp. 1560.
  • Biblia Latin. per Sanct. Pagnin. Lugdun. 1527.
  • Bibliotheca Patrum, tom. 14. Colon. Agrip. 1618.
  • Bibliotheca S. Patr. tom. 9. Edit. secunda, per Margarin de la Bigne, Paris. 1589.
    • — cadem tom. 8. Paris. 1575.
  • Bibliotheca vet. Patr. seu Scriptor. Ecclesiasticor. tom. 1. Grae­co-lat. Paris. 1624.
  • Magna Bibliotheca, vet. Patr. tom. 15. Colon. 1622.
  • Gabr. Biel super Canone Mi [...]sae. Lugdun. 1542.
  • Bishop Bilson, of Subjection, Lond. 1586.
  • Pet. Bles [...]nsis opera, Mogunt. 1600.
  • Bonaventurae opera, tom. 7. Romae 1588.
  • Tho. Bradwardin. de Causâ Dei contrà Pelagium. London. 1618.
  • Io. Brereley, (his) Protestants Apologie. 1608.
  • Breviarium Roman. Lugd. 1548.
  • Edward Bre [...]rewoods Enquiries of Languages and Religions, Lond. 1614.
  • Brigittae Rev [...]lation. Nurenburg. 1521.
  • Rich. Bristow (his) Motives. Antwerp. 1599.
  • Abr. Bucholceri Chronolog. Basil. MDCXI.
  • Gul Budaei opera Basil. 1556.
  • A Bull graunted by Pope Pius the fifth, to Docto [...] Har­ding.
  • Paul. Burgensis Addit. ad Lyran. inter opera Nicol. de Lyra. Paris. 1590.
  • Anthon. Cade (his) Iustification of the Church of England. London 1630.
  • Tho. de Vio Caietan. Comment. in tertiam part [...] Summae A­quinat Bononiae. 1520.
    • — In Epist. Pauli. Lugdu [...]. 1556.
  • [Page]Gul. Camdeni Britannia Lond. 1600.
    • — Anglice Lond. 1610.
  • Edm. Campiani Ratione [...] Cosmopoli. 1581.
  • Codex Canonum vetus Eccles. Romanae. Lutetiae. 1609.
  • Canones Apostolorum & Concilior. ex Editione Ioan. Ti­lij Graec.
    • — & Lat. Lutet. Paris. 1620.
  • Thom. Cantipratanus de mirac. & exempl. memorabilib. sui temporis, Duaci. 1605.
  • Melchior Canus de loc. Theolog. Lovan. 1569.
  • Barthol. Caranza (his) Summa Concilior. Antuerp. 1577.
  • Hugo Cardi [...]alis Postillae pa [...]t. 6. Paris. 1539.
  • Carion Chronic. à Caspar Pe [...]cero auctum. Witebergae. 1570.
  • Caroli Magni libri quatuor contrà Imagines, Francof. 1608.
  • Dionys. Carthusiani opera, Colon. 1533.
  • Georg. Cassandri de Articul. Religion. Consultatio. Lug­dun. 1608.
    • — Liturgica. Colon. 1558.
    • — De Officio pij viri in dissidio Religionis Colon. 1577.
  • Cassiodorus in Psalmos, Paris. 1519.
  • Alphons. de Castro advers. Haeres. Venet. 1546.
    • — de justâ Haereticor. punitione, Antuerp. 1568.
  • Mathias [...]laccius Illiricus (his) Catologus testium veritatis stu­dio & curâ Si. Goulartij. Gen. 1608.
  • Ambros. Cathaerini disceptatio de Certitudine Gratiae. Ro­mae. 1551.
  • Georg. C [...]dreni Annales Graec. & Lat. Basil. 1566.
  • Centuriae ecclesiast. Histor. Magdeburg. Basil. 1569.
  • Edw. Chaloners Treatise upon Credo Eccles. S. Catholicam, Lond. 1625.
  • Sir Geoffrey Chaucers Workes, Lond. 1602.
  • Mart. Chemnit. loci Theologi [...]. partes 3. Fr. 1608.
  • Ioann. Chrysostomi opera Graec, in tom. 8. Etonae. 1613.
    • — Ejusdem opera Lat. in tom. 5. Paris. 1588.
  • Zacharia [...] Chrysopolitan. Episcop. in Concord. Evangel. 1535.
  • David. Chytrai Chronolog. Helmaestadij, 1593.
  • Nicol. de Cl [...]mangijs opera, Lugd. Batav. 1612.
  • [Page]Pet. Cluniace [...]s. opera, Paris. 1522.
  • Robert. Cocus (his) Censura quorundam Scriptor. veterum. Lond. 1614.
  • Ioan. Cochl [...]i Histor. Hussit. Mogunt. 1549.
  • S. Col [...]mban. in libro cui titul. Paraenetic. vet. cum notis Gol­dasti. 1604.
  • Philip de Cominees (his Historie of Lewis the eleventh, and Charles the eighth, Gallic [...]. A Paris. 1551.
  • Concilia General. & Provincial. per Severin. Binnium [...] tom. 4. Colon. 1606.
  • Concilia General. Edit. Romae, 1612.
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Errata si [...] corr [...]ge.
  • In Epist. Ded. pag. 1. lin. ult. reade antedated. pag. 2. lin. 16. no, r [...]so.
  • In Praef. ad Lect. pag. 4. lin. 2. and spe [...]ke, r. being to speake.
  • In Catal. test. in the 5. Age, lin. 2. dele. Andrew Rivet. lin. 10. B. of Cyrene, r. B. of Cyrus, or Cyria.
In the first Alphabet.
  • Pag. 7. lin. penult. r. they practise. p. 18. in marg. li. 17. r. 1590.
  • pag. 35. lin. 18. [...] r. [...].
  • pag. 39. in marg. li. 21. cap. r. cont. pag. 42. l. 19. other, r. the other.
  • pag. 55. l. 25. Christ, r. God. p. [...]9. l. 5. learned, r. taught.
  • pag. 76. lin. 12. adde, and we truely eat the word flesh.
  • pag. 78. l. ult. substance, r. person. pag. 16 [...]. lin. 2. haec, r. he. viz.
  • pag. 182. lin. 15. were condemned, r. were not condemned.
  • pag. 237. lin. 2. glorifieth, r. glorieth.
In the second Alphabet.
  • Pag. 14. in marg. lin. 1. nulluum, r. nullum. p. 31. l. 28. r. by a straine.
  • pag. 32. lin. 24. dele. as. pag. 34. lin. 31. saith, r. hath.
  • pag. 51. in marg lin. 14. r. sibi ipsi. pag. 62. lin. 3. r. I used.
  • pag. 84. in marg. l. 13. r. salvatione. pa. 100 in marg. l. 8. r. tenuerim.
  • pag. 116. l. 14. r. heare. pag. 123. l. 31. remaine, r. to be abolished.
  • pag. 155. liu. 29. universall, r. easterne. pa. 161. lin. 13. did, r. I did. & in marg. lin. 4. xiiij, r. xij. pag. 197. lin. 24. many, r. may.
  • pag. 204. lin. 2. 60. r. 600. pag. 206. lin. 1. god, r. good.

The nine Articles of Religion hand­led in the severall Centuries of this Trea­tise, are these:

  • 1 Concerning the Scriptures sufficiencie.
  • 2 Of the Scripture Canon.
  • 3 Of Communion in both kindes.
  • 4 Of the number of Sacraments.
  • 5 Concerning the Eucharist.
  • 6 Touching Worship of Images.
  • 7 Concerning Invocation of Saints de­parted.
  • 8 Of Iustification.
  • 9 Of Merits.

By the way ar [...] handled,

  • The Popes Supremacie.
  • The power of Calling Councills.
  • Appeales to Rome.
  • Priestes Marriage, &c.



GOod morrow Neighbour, are you going to Church so early?


I am Sir, and I should bee glad of your company.


So should I be of yours; but I doubt, wee goe not to the same Church.


I am going to a Protestant Church, and I take that to be a true member of the Catholike.


It is not; for the true Church is ever gloriously visible, and had visible Professors in all ages; but yours was not in being, (Prot. Apolog. Tract. 3. chap. 2. sect. 2. p. 330. saith Father Brereley) untill Luthers dayes: and Father Campian Testes res omnes & reculae, nullam in orbe religionem nisi nostram imis unquam radicibus insedisse. Camp rat. 10. calls to witnesse, res omnes & reculas, all things both great and small, things and thinglings, that never any other Religion but the Catholike, tooke any deepe root upon the face of the earth. And hee saith further, That Seculis omninò quin­decim, non oppidum, non villam, non domum repe­riunt imbutam doctrin [...] suâ. id. rat. 3. one cannot spie out so much as one towne, one village, one house for fifteene hundred [Page 2] yeeres that savoured of your doctrine: And Iesuite Coster saith, Constat manifestè, neminē to [...]o o [...]be morta­lium, ante M. Lutherum, hoc est, an [...]e annū 1517 [...], qui eam fidem ten [...]r [...]t. Coster. E [...]ch [...]id. Co [...]trovers. cap. 2. It is manifestly evident, that none in the universall world before Luther, in the yeere 1517, held that Faith, which Luther, and Calvins Schollers professed.


This is but a vaine [...]lourish of the Iesuites, and con­trouled by their owne man Bristow, who acknowledgeth, that Bristowes Motiv [...]s. Presat. & Motive 45. some there have been in many ages, in some points, of the Protestants opinion.

Now for our Tenet, this it is; The Church, (that is the societie of Christian people, professing saving faith) is never totally hidden; but there bee still some, that hold the right faith, and deliver it over to others; and yet in time of persecution, and the like cases, the Church is not alwayes so conspicuous, as that a man seeing her outward pompe and ceremonies, may poynt her out, and safely joyne himselfe to such a company: for thus Sub regimine Rom. P [...]rt — i [...]a visibili [...] & palpabi [...] ut est caetus po­puli Romani [...]ellarm. lib. 3. de E [...]cle [...]. cap. 2. Bellarmine makes the Church to be a Societie subjecting themselves to the See of Rome, teaching trueth without errour, and this Companie as visible, as are the Citizens of Rome. Now for the Protestant Church, though it have not bin alwayes gloriously visible; yet it hath been evermore so visible, as the true Church ought to be.


Saint Austin saith, In Sole, id est [...] in ma­ni [...]estatione. Aug. t [...]m. 7. cont lit [...] Petil. l. 2. cap 32. He hath set his Tabernacle in the Sun; Is not the Church then conspicuous as the Sunne?


You may not argue from such Allusions as are taken from the outward pompe of the world, thereby to de­scribe the inward beautie of the Church.

2. Besides, according to the true reading, So [...]t po [...]uit taberna­ [...]al [...]m in eis, id est, in ci [...] ­ti [...] Hie [...]on. i [...] Psal. 18. to. [...]. the mea­ [...]ing is; he hath set up a seat for the Sunne in the heavens, that there it might be viewed as on a scaffold: now this Sunne may be eclypsed.

3. Againe, this was onely an Allusion which Saint Austin used against the Donatists, (who pinned up the Church within a corner of Afri [...]k, as now the Papists [Page 3] confine her to Rome) thereby telling them, there were many Churches besides theirs, to bee seene as cleare as the Sunne, if the Donatists could discerne them.

4. Lastly, though Austin termed the Church in die­bus illis, in his owne time, to be set as it were in the Sun; yet he denies not, but that afterwards, in declining ages, this Sunne might bee darkened, and the Church make but small appearance in the time of persecution, as the same Father Ecce [...]ia non apparebit, impi [...]s tunc persecuto [...]ibu [...] v [...]tra modum savientibus. Aug. epist. 80. tom. 2. speakes.


The Church is as a Citie upon an hill Math. 5.15.16., a light upon a Candles [...]icke, and therefore conspicuous.


1. This also is an Allusion, which yet Saint Chri­sostome Chrysost. in Math [...] c. 5. hom. 10. tom. 2. understands to be meant of the Apostles; that they were to looke to their car [...]iage, since they were to preach abroad, and had many looke [...]s on.

2. Againe, though the Church be set on a hill, yet as the Aramites could not discerne [...]he citie of Samaria, whither the Prophet led them, till their eyes were ope­ned, 2 Kings chap. 6. no more can one discerne, or diffe­rence the true Church from the malignant, and con­venticles of the wicked, untill his minde be enlightned. And thus Austin Montem [...]on vide [...], n [...]lo mireris; oculos non habent. August tract. 1. in epist. Ioan. tom. 9. tolde the Donatists, they could not see the Church on the hill, because their eyes were blinded, to wit, either with ignorance, or malice.

In a word, this Hill may bee hid with a mist, this Sunne obscured with a cloud, and the Moone ecclip­sed. The blessed Apostles were no corner-creepers, yet were they not seene and acknowledged for true prof [...]ssors by the Scribes and Pharisees, that dwelt but hard by in Iewrie.

Howsoever, what is this to Rome, if shee hold the socket, and want the light? if she be seated on a hill, yea seven hills, like A [...]o [...]al. 17.9. Babylon?


Will you call Rome Babylon?

[Page 4]

Your owne Iesuites Babylon mater forni­cationum, Roma quidem est. Ribera in cap. 14. A­ [...]ocal. nu. 39. call Rome Babylon; neither can this bee meant of Heathen Rome, but of Rome Christian, and as it shall bee at the end of the world: for so speakes De Româ intelligen­dum, non solum quali [...] sub Ethnicis I [...]peratoribus o­lim fuit, sed etiam qualis i [...] fine seculi futura est. Ri­ber. in 14 Apocal. nu. 42. Rib [...]ra; and Colligitur [...]o [...]am, extremis mu [...]di [...]mp [...]ri­bus, post quàm a f [...]ie defe­ [...]erit, ad s [...]mm [...]m potenti­am perve [...]uram. Vi [...]gas in cap. 18. Apoc. com. 1. sect. 4. Viegas saith, After that Rome shall fall from the faith. Now Heathen Rome could not fall from the faith, since it never professed the faith: therefore the prophecie is to bee fulfilled in Rome Papall, and Christian.


If thy brother offend thee, Math. 18.17. tell the Church; then must we needs know the Church.


1. Wee are bid tell the Church, that is, her Pastors and Governours, when there is such a standing Mini­stery, and publike discipline exercised.

2. But in case Tyrants hinder the open meetings of Christians; even then also in some good sort, though shee bee not so outwardly visible to her foes, yet may the Church take notice; as the faithfull in the prima­tive Church met together privately, and observed or­ders for reforming of abuses, being knowne one to an­other as friends, but unknowne (as such) to their foes.

In a word, one may tell the Church, though for the time shee bee hid from her foes; even as one may tell a message to his friend, who for the time is hid from his enemie.


Some of yours say, Napier [...] the Re­vel. P [...]op. 35. The Church was invisible for divers ages.


They say not it was simply invisible, but they speake respectively; so that looking on those times, which fell out somewhat before, and after the first sixe hundred yeeres, and seeing the title of Vniversall Bishop (which Grego [...]y detested as Quisquis se univer­ [...]le [...] Sa [...]er [...]otem [...]o [...]at in [...]tion [...] suà Anti [...]h [...]st in [...]. Greg. [...]pi [...]t. lib. 6. [...]p 30 to. 2. Antichristian) setled on the Pope, a­bout the yeere 666, and that this Revel. 13.18. number so fitly a­greed [Page 5] to the Man of sinne: as also looking downe­ward to the thousand yeere, wherein Satan was Revel. 20.3. loo­sed, and the Turke and Pope grew great; looking here­on, and comparing the Church as shee was then (under Gregory the seventh, Ann. 1075. Hildebrand, forbidding Marriage, and deposing the Emperour) with her selfe in the primitive ages, they said shee was in manner invisible in the Westerne Ho­rizon, to wit, in respect of that degree, and measure of the light of the Gospell that brake forth in the time of the Reformation. Besides, during the time menti­oned, it was visible enough, in the Greeke and Easterne Church: and for the Westerne, it had the same sub­sisting and beeing with the best members in the Ro­mane Church.


Master Napier saith, Napier on the Re­velat. p. 68. & 191 & 161 cited by the Prot. Apolo­gie tract. 2. cap. 1 sect 4. Our Religion hath raigned uni­versally, and without any debatable contradiction 1260 yeeres; Gods true Church most certainely abiding so long la­tent and invisible: And Master Perkins [...] E [...]po­sit. of the Creed. pag. 400 Pe [...]kins saith, That for the space of many hundred yeeres, an universall Apostasie o­verspread the whole face of the earth, and that your Church was not visible to the world.


Master Napier saith not, that your Religion raigned so universally; neither doth hee speake in generall of the whole body of the Romish Faith, and of the uni­versall Antiquitie thereof, which is the poynt in que­stion; but onely of the first originall of the papall do­minion, and Antichristian kingdome, as hee calleth it, as Bishop Morton hath well Prot. Appeale. [...]. 1. c. 8. sect. 2. in Marg. lit. F. observed: neither yet was this papall Hierarchie, or as Master Perkins calls it, Master Perkins on the Creed. pag. 307. po­pish Heresie of being intituled, Vniversall Bishop of the Church, carried without the opposition of severall Councells, and Worthies in Gods Church; as (God willing) hereafter shall appeare.

For the place cited out of Master Perkins, it is as we in our common phrase of speech use to say, That all the [Page 6] world is set on mischiefe, because so many delight in wickednesse. Neither is this manner of speech unusuall in the Scriptures, From the Prophet to the Priest, all deale falsely, saith Ie [...]emy 6.13. and Omnes querunt que [...]. [...] in 2. [...] Ph [...]lip. Saint Paul saith, All secke their owne, and not that which is Iesus Christs, Phil. 2.21. b [...]sides hee saith, I [...] had overspread the face of the earth: Now a large fi [...]ld may be over-spread with Tares and weedes, and yet some good corne in the field: Nei­ther saith Master Perkins, that our Church was simply invisible, but that it was not visible, to the world; and withall he tels us where it was. It lay hid (saith he It lay hid un [...]e [...] the ch [...]ffe of Pope [...], [...]nd the t [...]uth of this, the Reco [...]ds o [...] [...]ll Ag [...] ma [...]fe [...]. M. [...]rkins on the [...]. [...]ag. 4. [...].) vn­der the chasse of Poperie. Now the graine is not ut [...]erly invisible, whiles it is mingled with cha [...]se in the same heape.


Was not the Church ever gloriously visible?


It was not; for (as S. Austin [...] in solo A­b [...]l [...] August. in Psal 12 [...] tom. 8. saith) it was sometimes onely in Abel, and he was slaine by his brother; in E­noch, and hee was translated from the ungodly; it was in the sole house of Abraham, Noah, and Lot.

Afterwards how was it so notably conspicuous, when as both Israel and Iudah fell to Idolatry, 2 [...]. 28.24. & [...]9.7.8. in the times of Achaz and Manasse? when as those Kings caused the Temple to be shut up, the Sacrifice to cease, and erected Idols in every Towne?

Besides, at our Saviours comming, we find but a short Catalogue of true professors mentioned, to wit, Ioseph and Mary, Zacharie and Elizabeth, Simeon and Anna, the Shepherds in the fields, and some others.

When Christ suffered death, his little flocke (as hee called it) [...] was scattered, his disciple [...]led, [...] and none almost durst shew themselves, [...] save Mary and Iohn, and some few women, with o [...]hers.

After our Saviours death, the Apostles, and their fol­lowers were glad to meet in [...] Chambers, whiles the Priests, Scribes and Pharisees bare all the sway in the [Page 7] Temple; [...]o that (as the Page 1 [...]. Treatise of the true C [...]urch [...]s visibilitie ha [...]h it) if a we [...]ke body had then enquired for the Church, it is likely, they had beene directed to them.

In [...]he time of those Ten persecutions, there could not be any knowne assembly of Christians, but foorthwith [...]he Tyran [...]s labou [...]ed to root them out: but (as T [...]rtullian saith) S [...]men est Sanguls Christianorum. Tertull in Apologet. cap. 50 to. 1. The blood of the Martyrs was the seed of the Church, they were pe [...]secuted, and yet they increased.

Af [...]erwards, when the Arrian Heresie overspread all, so that all the world was against Athanasius, and he, and some few Confes [...]ors stood for the Nicen Faith; (inso­much as Hierome said, Ingem [...]it totus orbis, & Arri [...]num se esse mi­ratus est. Hieron. advers. Luciferian. tom. 2. The world sighed and groaned, marveiling at it selfe, how it was become Arrian,) what a slender appearance did the true professors then make? and yet in such dangerous and revolting times, even small Math. 18.20. Phil [...]m. 2. assemblies of particular congregations, where­soever dispersed, serve to make up the universal Church Militant: so that the Reader is not to be discouraged, if hee find not the Protestant Assemblies so thronged, since it was not so with the primative Church; and S. Iohn foretold, Apocal. 12 14. That the woman, that is, the Church, persecuted by the Dragon, that old Serpent the Devill, and his instruments, should flie into the Wildernesse, where the Lord promised to hide her, till the tempest of persecution were over-blowne; wherein God dealt graciously with his Church, for had her enemies al­wayes seene and knowne her professors, they would (like cruell beastes) have laboured to devoure the damme with her young, the mother with her chil­dren.

Now whereas the Papists brag of their Churches Visibilitie, their owne Rhemists are driven to confesse, Rhem. Annot. on Thessal. 2.2. sect 6. that in the raigne of Antichrist, the outward state of the Romane Chu [...]ch, and the publike entercourse of the faithfull with the same, may cease, and practise their Religion in secret: And Iesuite Suarez thinkes it [Page 8] probable, Non est incredibile, Romam propè Antichrist [...] tempora, it a a [...]lic [...]a [...], ut quasi in Angulo, [...]el in [...]a­vernis terrae delitescat. Suarez Defensio fide [...] Ca­thol. lib. 5. c. 21. That the Pope shall professe his faith in se­cret. Where is then your Tabernacle in the Sunne? your light in the Candlesticke? when as your Church and Pope shall walke with a darke Lanterne, and say Masse in a corner.


Why was not the Church alwayes so conspicuous?


Because sometimes her best members, (as Athana­sius, Hilarie, Ambrose, and others) were persecuted as He­retikes, and ungodly men; and that by learned per­sons, and such as were powerfull in the world, able to draw great troupes after them, of such as for hope, fa­vour, feare, or the like respects, were ready to follow them: In this, and the like case, when false Priestes broach errours, and deceive many, Tyrants persecute Gods Saints, and cause others to retire; then I say, (when the faithfull want their ordinarie entercourse one with another) the number of the Church malig­nant maybe great, in comparison of those that belong to the true Church.


If the Church were not alwayes so conspicuous, in what sort then was it visible? a visible Church you grant.


In the generall militant Church, there have in all ages been some Pastors and people, more or lesse, that have outwardly taught the truth of Religion in sub­stance, though not free from errour in all poynts; and these have beene visible by their ordinary standing in some part of Gods Church.

Besides, for the more part there have bin also some, that withstood and condemned the grosse errours and superstition of their times; and these good men, whiles they were suffered, taught the truth openly; but being persecuted by such as went under the Churches name, even then also they taught, and administred the Sacra­ments [Page 9] in private, to such faithfull ones as would joyne with them; and even in those harder times, they mani­fested their Religion by their Writings, Letters, Con­fessions; at their Iudgement, Martyrdome, or otherwise, as they could.

Now (as learned Doctor White in his Defence of his Brothers booke hath observed) The Orthodoxe F [...]i [...]h. chap. 3. Para­graph 3. whensoever there bee any Pastors in the world, which [...]ither in an open view, or in the presence of any part thereof doe exercise (though in private) the actions of true Religion, by sound teaching the truth, and right administration of the Sacraments, this is sufficient to make the Church visible, by such a manner of visibilitie, as may serve for the gathering and preserving of Gods elect. Now such visible Pastors and people, the Protestant Church was never utterly destitute of.


You seeme to make the Church both visible, and invisible.


May not one bee within, and seene with his friends, and yet hidden to his enemies? visible to the seeing, and invisible to the blind? Indeed Tyrants, Infidells, and Heretikes, they knew the true beleevers, as men of another profession; but blinded with malice and unbe­liefe, they acknowledged them not for true professors: Acts and Monu­ments. vol. 2. lib. 10. pa. 1616. as M. Bradford told D. Day, Bishop of Chichester; the fault why the Church is not seene of you, is not be­cause the Church is not visible, but because your eyes are not cleare enough to see it; and indeed, such as put not on the spectacles of the Word to finde out the Church, but seeke for her in outward pompe, are much mistaken.

Aelian in his History tels us of one Nicostratus, who being a well-skilled Artisan, and finding a curious piece of worke drawne by Xeuxis that famous Painter, one who stood by, wondered at him, and asked him, what pleasure hee could take, to stand as hee did, still gazing [Page 10] on the picture: to whom hee answered; [...]. AElian. [...] Histor. lib. 14. cap. 47. Hadst thou mine eyes, my friend, thou wouldest not wonder, nor aske me that question, but rather be ravished as I am at the inimitable art of this rare and admired piece. In like manner, if our Adversaries had their eyes annoyn­ted with the eye-salve of the holy Spirit, they might easily discover the Protestant Church, and her visible congregations. The Aramites, 2 Kings 6. chap. could not discerne the citie of Samaria, whither the Prophet led them, untill their eyes were opened; no more can one discerne, or difference the true Church from the malignant, and conventicles of the wicked, untill his mind bee enlightned. And thus Saint Austin told the Donatists, Mo [...]tem non vident, nolo [...]eris; oculos non habent. August. Tract. 1. in epist. Ioan. tom. 9. They could not see the Church on the hill, because their eyes were blinded, to wit, either with ig­norance, or malice.

Saint Austin compares Ecclesia propter ip­sam mutabilitatem Luna nomine in Scripturis signa­tur. Aug. tom. 8 in Psal. 10. & tom. 2. [...]p. 119. the Church to the Moone, which waxeth and waneth, is eclipsed, and sometime, as in the change, cannot be seene; yet none doubts but still there is a Moone. The Church sometimes shines in the cleare dayes of peace, and is by and by over-cast with a cloud of persecution, as the same Austin Aliquando obscura­tur. Id. ep. 48. saith: The Moone is not alwayes in the Full, nor the Church ever in her glorious aspect.


If your Church were alwayes visible, where then was it before Luthers time?


I might also aske you, Where was a great part of your Religion before the Trent Councell, which was but holden about the yeere 1534.

Now for our Religion, it was for substance, and in the affirmative parts, and positive grounds thereof, (the question being not of every accessory, and secondary poynt,) it was I say, contained in the Canonicall Scrip­tures, wheras you are driven to seeke yours in the Apo­cryphall, in the Trent Creed, the Trent Councell. Now [Page 11] ours it was contained in the Apostles Creed, explayned in the Nicene and Athanasian, confirmed by the first foure generall Councels, taught in the undoubted wri­tings of the true, ancient, and orthodox Fathers of the primative Church, justi [...]ied from the tongue and penne of our adversaries; witnessed by the confessions of our Martyrs, which have suffered for truth, and not for trea­son. This is the Evidence of our Religion; whereas for proofe of yours, in divers poynts, you are driven to flie to the bastard Treatises of false Fathers, going un­der the name of Abdias Linus, Clemens, S. Denys, and the like; as sometime Perkin Warbek a base fellow feig­ned himselfe to be King Edward the fourths sonne, and for a time went under his Fabian. Chron. ad Ann. 1495. name: and yet these Knights of the poste, must be brought in to depose on your be­halfe, though others of your side have cashiered them as counterfeits Se [...] D Iames of the Bastardy of false Fathe [...]s, and D. Raynolds Confe­rence, Chap 8. Divis. 2..


If your Professors were so visible, name them.


This is no reasonable demaund; you have rased our Records, conveied our Evidence, clapt up our Witnes­ses, and suborned your owne; you have for your owne advantage, (as is already showen by that learned Anti­quary of Oxford, D. Iames A Treatise of the corruption of Scripture, Councels, Fathers., and others, and shall (God willing) appeare in the Centuries following,) you have I say, corrupted Councells, Fathers, and Scriptures, by purging and prohibiting what Authors, and in what places you would; and now you call us to a tryall of Names.


Particular men may mis-coat the Fathers, but our Church hath not.


You have; witnesse your expurgatory and prohibi­tory Indices, or Tables, whereof since my selfe have of late bin an eye-witnesse, and seene divers of them both [Page 12] in the publike and private Libraries in Oxford; I will therefore acquaint the Reader with the mysterie thereof.

When that politike Councel of Trent perceived, that howsoever men might bee silenced, yet bookes would be blabs, and tell truth, they devised this course: They directed a Commission to a company of Inquisitors, residing in severall places, and therby gave them power to purge and prohibit all manner of Bookes, Humanitie and Divinitie, ancient & late, in such sort as they should think fit. Vpon this Cōmission, renued as occasion ser­ved, the Inquisitors set forth their severall expurgatory, and prohibitory Indices, printed at Rome, in Spaine, in the Low-countries, and elsewhere; and in these Tables (yet to be seen) they set down what books were by thē forbidden, and which to be purged, and in what places ought were to bee left out, whensoever the Workes should be printed anew: for according to their Tables or Corrections, books were to be printed afresh. Now to make sure worke, they got as many of the former E­ditions of the Fathers workes, as they could, into their hands, and suffered no new Copie to come foorth, but through their fingers, purged according to their Receit: neither feared they that their adversaries would set foorth the large volumes of the Fathers Workes, or o­thers, having not the meanes to vent their Impressions, being forbidden to be sold in Catholike countries. By this meanes, the Romane Censurers thought to stop all tongues and pennes, that none should hereafter speake or write otherwise than the Trent Councell had dictated [...] and so in time all Evidence should have made for the Ro­mane cause.

Hereby the Reader may perceive, that had their de­vice gone on, they would in time, by their chopping and changing the writings of the Ancient at their plea­sure, have rased and defaced whatsoever Evidence had made for us, and against themselves. But so it pleased [Page 13] God, that howsoever they had carried the matter cun­ningly in secret, yet at length all comes out, their plot was discovered, and their Indices came into the Prote­stants hands. The Index of Antwerpe was discovered by Iunius D. Iames part 4. of the Mysterie o [...] the Indi­ces expurgatorij. pag. 21.; the Spanish and Portugall was never knowne till the taking of Cales, and then it was found by the English.


Might wee not purge what was naught?


Indeed, if you had purged or prohibited the lewd writings of wanton Aretine, railing Rablais, or the like, you had done well: but under-hand to goe and purge out the wholesome sentences of the Fathers, such as were agreeable to the Scriptures; thus to purge those good old men, till you wrung the very blood and life out of them, bewrayeth, that you have an ill cause in hand, that betakes it selfe to such desperate shifts.

Neither can you justly say, that you have corrected what others marred: for it was your side that first kept a tampering with the Fathers Works, and corrup­ted them. Francis Iunius reports, [...]unius in praefatione arte [...]ndicem Expu [...]gato i­um B [...]lgi [...]um [...] se edi­tum. 1586. referente An­dr [...] Rivet lib. 3. Critici Sacri. cap. 16. that hee comming (in the yeare 1559) to a familiar friend of his, named Lewis Savarius, Corrector of a Print at L [...]yden, found him over-looking Saint Ambrose Workes, w [...]ich Fr [...]llo­nius was printing; whereof when Iunius commended the elegancie of the Letter and Edition, the Corrector told him secretly, it was of all Editions the worst; and drawing out many sheets of now waste paper from un­der the table, told him, they had printed those sheetes according to the ancient and authenticke Copies: but two Franciscan Fryers had by their authoritie cancelled and rejected them, and caused other to bee printed, and put in their roomes, differing from the truth of all their owne books, to the great losse of the Printer, and won­der of the Corrector: so that had yo [...] prevailed, nei­ther olde nor new, Greeke, nor Latin Fathers, nor later [Page 14] Writers, had been suffered to speake the truth, but ei [...]her (like Parra [...]s) been ta [...]ght to lispe Popery, or for ever bee [...] put to sil [...]nce. The best is, the Manuscripts (which by Gods providence are still preserved amongst us) they m [...]ke for us, as D. Iames, excellently vers'd in Antiquitie, hath showen at large D. Ia [...]e [...] his Manu­duction to Divinitie..


Have [...]ee purged ought in the Fathers, or Scriptures, that was not to bee purged?


You have, as appeares by these instances following; St. Chrysostome in his third Sermon u [...]on Lazarus, and elsewhere maintaineth th [...] pe [...]spicuitie and plainnesse of the Scrip [...]ures, saying, In [...] S [...]riptu­r [...]s [...] quaecun­que [...]unt nec [...]ssaria Ch [...]y­sos [...]. tom. 4. in 2 Thess [...]l. h [...]mil. 3. That in divine Scriptures all necessary things are plaine. Hee likewise holdeth, that faith onely sufficeth in stead of all, saying, Illud unum ass [...]vera­ve [...]im, quod so [...]a fides p [...]r se salvum sec [...]rit Chry. [...]o. 3. de Fide & L [...]ge natu­ [...]. & to. 1. in P [...]al. 13. This one thing I will affirme, That faith onely by it se [...]fe sa­ [...]eth. In like sort Saint Hierome holds, Impium per sol [...]m [...]i­dem [...]usti [...]icat De [...]s Hier. to. 9. in ca. 4. ad Rom. That faith only justifieth, that workes doe not justifie, that Images are not to be adored. Now all this is to be found, even toti­dem ve [...]bis, in the selfe same termes in the Fat [...]ers text; and yet the Index of Spaine (published by Cardin [...]ll Quiroga, and reprinted at Samur, by the honour of the French Gentilitie, the Lord of Plessis) comes in, and gives these Fa [...]hers a strong purge, commaunding [...]x Chrysost [...]mi Indi­ce edit. Basi [...]ae delea [...]tur— Iusti [...]tio ex fide sol [...]; Scripturae omnibu [...] volenti­bus perviae ac [...]a [...]ile [...] [...]x Ind [...]ce Hieroa [...] [...]lende sunt—Fides sola justi [...]icat. Imago [...] tanti [...] vene­randa. Opera non justi [...]i [...] p. 106 Index libr. Expu [...] ­gat. per Q [...]rog. Sal [...]u [...]i. 1601. & M [...]. 1584. all the sentences above named, to bee blotted out of the Fathers Indices, or Tables.

In like sort hath another Index of Spaine Ind [...]x [...] j [...]s­su Be [...]nar [...]i [...]e Sand [...]al & R [...]xas M [...]i [...]i, 1 [...]2. & per [...]ur [...]etin [...]en [...]u [...] 1019., printed at Madrill, reprinted by Turretine, and still preserved and kept in the Archivis, or Treasurie of Monuments in the [...]ublike Libra [...]y at Oxford, dealt with the Index, or Ta­ble of S. Austin and Athanasius, as by these few in­stances may appeare.

Blot out, say the Spanish Inquisitors, Ex Indi [...]e Augustini delent, Non m [...]r [...]t [...] nostra [...] seu [...] [...] De [...] coro [...]t in nob [...]; [...]el [...]nt [...] Sancti [...]o [...]norandi imit [...]ti [...]e, non a­d [...]ratio [...]e; Ex Athanasij Ind [...]ce d [...]ent, Ad [...]ra [...]i soli­us Dei est. Creatura nulla ad [...]ran [...]. Creatura [...] cre­atura no [...] ado [...]er. Index Expurgator [...] quo su [...]ra. these words out of Saint Austins Index, to wit, Wh [...]n God crowneth our merit [...]s (that is good deeds) hee crowneth nothing else but his owne gifts: and, The Saints are to bee honoured for [Page 15] imitation, not to bee adored for Religion: as also out of A­thanasius Index, that God onely is to bee worshipped, that the creature is not to adore the creature. Now all these must bee rased out, notwithstanding they bee the selfe-same words, which these Fathers used in the Text Ipsissima verba sun Augustini; C [...]m Deus co­ronat merita nostra, nihil aliud coronat quam mune­ra sua. tom. 2. ep. 105. Et Honorandi sunt propter i­mitationem, non adorandi propter religionem. tom. 1. de vera relig cap. 55. & [...]. Athanas. orat. 3. contra A [...]rianos..

Now this is no good dealing, since these Tables and Indices t [...]uely gathered out of the Fathers Workes, might have served for a hand to poynt at the chiefest Sentences in each Au [...]hour; but they have either re­mooved, or turned the hand aside, to the great hi [...]derance of those, which upon a sudden occasion are to see what such a Father saith to such a point, and have not the leasure to peruse over the whole booke.


We have not purged the Fathers Text, but only the Index.


You have put out the very Text it selfe out of Saint Cy [...]ill, whose words are; Cy [...]il. Al [...]xandr. to. 5. comment. in Esaiam lib. 1. cap. 1. Fidei autem gra­tiam, &c. Now this faith which is the gift and grace of God, is sufficient to purge, not onely them which find themselves somewhat ill, but those also that are dange­rously diseased: Now all this is commanded to be blot­ted out by the expurgatory Index of Spaine Ex Divi Cyrilli Com­mentarijs in Isaiam Lau­rentio Humphredo int [...]r­p [...]ete; [...]x T [...]xtu deleantur illa verba; Fidei autem gratiam, cùm his qui val­dè inquinati sunt, tùm eti­am paulùm m [...]rbo [...]ff [...]ctis, satis ad emundationem va­lituram esse fidem dicit. Index Expurg. per Qui­rog. Mad [...]id [...] 1584..

Neither can it be justly replied, that these words are put out of Cyril, as not being the Authors words, or not truely translated by our men; for they bee Cyrils owne words faithfully translated, and the copie agreeth with the Originall; yea, this golden sentence thus ra­sed, is still to bee found in Cyrils Workes, set fo [...]th by your owne man Gentian Hervet.

Neither yet hath Gods Booke escaped your finge [...]s, witnesse the Bible set forth by your owne men: The B [...]ble of Ro­bert Stephens, with the double Text, and Vatab­lus Annotations. there wee reade in the Text [Levit. 26. chap.] according to your translation; Thou shalt not make to thy selfe an Idoll, and graven thing: your Index saith, Deleatur illud, Scul­ptilia prohibet si [...]ri. Ind. Expurg. per Quirog. Ma­drid. 1584. Blot this out of the marg [...]nt, that graven things are forbidden.

Againe the Text saith [1. King. 7.3.] Prepare your hearts to the Lord, and serve him onely; your Index [Page 16] saith, Deleantur illa Verba. rv [...]endum soli Deo. Blot out this glosse, that wee must serve God onely. Besides, Christ is noted to bee the sacrifice for our sinnes; now these words, Christ is the sacrifice for our sinnes, must bee dashed out Psal. 39. lit B. ad ma [...]g deleantur illa verba; Christus hostia p [...]o peccatis nostris.. In like sort, they have blotted out these words in Vatablus Annotations Ex Bibl. Vatabl. An­not. Esai [...] 8. nu 32. de­ [...]nt; Qui c [...]edent in De­um, sal [...] [...]; qu [...] verò non [...] peribunt. [...]ud. Ex­ [...]. M [...]drit. 1612.; They that beleeve in God shall be saved, and they that beleeve not shall perish.

Now if these sayings alleadged, be to be found in the Fathers and Scriptures, not onely in the same sense, but totidem verbis, in the same termes; why doe they then blot them out of the Fathers Indices, or the Mar­gents and Concordances of the Bible? they might as well raze them out of the very Text of Fathers and Scripture; but this they durst not openly attempt, and therefore under hand they wound both Scripture and Fathers through the sides of their Expugatorie and Prohibitorie Tables.


Your men have published Parsons Resolutions, and Granadoes Meditations, and therein have changed and al­tered divers sentences.


Some private men amongst us have dealt so with some late Writers; but withall they professed, that they had changed and altered their words; thereby to shew, that with a little helpe, your bookes, such as doe tend to godlinesse of life, might lawfully bee r [...]ad of us; now what you did, you did it secretly, and under hand, whereas ours dealt plainly and open­ly. Besides, you have altered, and changed the wri­tings of the Ancient at your pleasure; and then would make the World bel [...]eve, you have onely corrected the faults of the Print, or some such matter.

Now as you worke by your Expurgatory Indices; so doe you also by your other tricke of Prohibitorie; whereof you make this use, that in case (upon the evi­dence given in by good Authors) the verdict bee like to goe on our side; then you bring a Prohibition [...] and [Page 17] remove the matter to be tried by Tradition.

But it is no wonder you prohibit our Writers; for you have forbid Gods Booke; and called it into the Inquisition; Forbidding the having, or reading of any part of the Bible in the vulgar Tongue Quaeritur, [...] ex [...]ediat sacra volumina in verna [...]u­las linguas converti [...] Re­sp [...]ndeo, min [...]m [...], qui [...] [...] variae haeresi [...] & [...] caus [...] nas [...]re [...]tur. Az [...] ­r [...]us Ins [...]i [...]. Mor [...]l. to. 1. lib. 8 cap 26. p [...]g. 715., tho it be set forth by Catholikes; and, howsoever you winke at the matter where you cannot helpe it, yet in countries generally Popish, as in Spaine, and elsewhere, The Bible and each part thereof in the vulgar tongue, is utterly prohibited, as your owne Iesuit witnesseth In H [...]spania, in Indi­ce librorum prohib.—Regu­la sexta sic habet. Prohi­bentur Biblia in vulgari li [...]gua, cum omnibus suis partibus. Azo [...]us quo su­p [...]à pag. 714..

And this have divers felt with us in Queene Maries dayes, and of late Iohn Murrey Episcop. Eliensis in Respons. ad Apolog. Bellar. cap. 11. pag. 266. a Merchant of A­berden in Scotland, who having a New Testament in the ship, was accused by the Serchers, brought before the Inquisition, and lost both his goods and life for it.

To close up this point, you have laboured to roote out all memory of our Professors: for example sake, Is King Edward the sixth stiled (and that worthily) A Prince of admirable towardnesse? Is Fredericke Duke of Saxonie tearmed, Christianissimus Princeps, A most Chri­stian Prince; this commendation of King Edward must be left out in the next impression, & so must the Dukes title of Christian Prince: and thus they deale with our Writers, Is Melanch [...]on tearmed A man famous for all kind of learning? and Bucer sirnamed the Divine? doth Beatus Rhenanus in his notes upon Tertullian call Pelicane A man of admirable learning and holinesse of life? All these Epithets and Titles the Romish Inquisitors have commanded to be blotted out Pag. 148. Ex Mi­chaelis Beutheri Fastis & Ephimerid. ubi agit de Phil. Melanchtone, delean­tur illa verba, Vi [...] in omni literarū genere clarissimus. Mart. Bucerus Theologus, deleatur verbum Theolo­gus, Frideric. Christianiss. Princeps, deleantur illae du [...] voces, Christianiss. Prin­ceps. Edovardus sextus ad­mirandae indolis adoles [...]ens; deleā [...]ur haec verba, Admi­randae indolis adolescens. Ex Beati Rh [...]nani notis in T [...]rtulliani librū de Coro­na Militis, deleantur illa verba, Pelicanus homo mi­ra sanctitatis ac eruditio­nis. Index Expurgat. per Quirogam Salmuri 1601. & Madriti 1584.. Yea, whereas Oeco­lampadius and Doctor Humfrey of Oxford have taken good paines in translating some parts of Cyrils Works, they a [...]e but slenderly rewarded; for Possevine Oecolampadius & Laur. Humf [...]edus aliqua Cyrilli verterun, in quibus eorum nomen imprimis era­dendum est. Possevini appa­rat. to. 1. verbo Cyrillus. saith, that by all meanes their names must bee razed out of those Translations. And another Iesuite tells us Ex [...]ungenda sunt no­mina, nisi in libris Catholi­corum hae [...]etici nominentur per ignominiam et contem­p [...]um. Azor. mor. Instit. li. 8. cap. 26. pag. 676., that Our names must not be suffered to stand upon Record: nor Protestant Writers once so much as to bee named ei­ther in their owne Workes or others, unlesse it bee [Page 18] per contemptum, by way of scorne and reproach; and yet you bid us name our men.


Wee have purged some bookes, but not corrupted the Scrip­tures.


Your Trent Councell makes Pa [...] pi [...]tatis aff [...] ­ctu, & reverentià vene­rutur [...]yn [...]d. [...]nd. Sell. 4. Decr. 2. Traditions of equall cre­dit, and to be embraced with the like godly affection, as the Scriptures are to be reverenced. Is not this to min­gl [...] water with wine, base mettall with good Bullion? and so indeed a corrupting of Scripture.

Besides, you have (which is Revelat. 22.18.19. fearefull) detracted from Gods Word, tha [...] which was written with his owne finger, to wit, the second Commandement, against the worship of Images; and because the words thereof are sharpe, and rip up the heart-strings of your Idolatrie, you have therefore omitted them in your Catechismes, Vaux Catechisme pag. 31 What is the [...]e­cond C [...]m [...]ndement of God? [...] t [...]ke the Name o [...] GOD in vaine—& pag. 51.52. [...]e subd [...]vides [...]he tenth Cō ­mandement, and so it is in [...] Catechisme Prayer bookes, and in your Office of the blessed Vir­gin, set foorth by commaund of Ossi [...]u [...] B. M [...]ae P [...]. v. P [...]nt. [...]ssu [...]dit. A [...]twerp. M. D. &c. Pius Quintus; and to salve up the matter, lest thereby wee should have no more then nine Commaundements, you have cut the tenth into two. You might well have left the words [...]here, that Gods people might know there was such a Commandement, howsoever they had counted it, the first, or the second.

Now, as you have detracted, so you have added to the rule of Faith, by thrusting into the Canon, the Apo­cryphall bookes, which Hierome (the best languaged of all the Father,) Hi [...]ronym tom. 3. in Prologo Gal [...]ato in Prae­ [...]at. in lib. Reg. rejected.

Lastly, you doe not only allow, but impose on others a corrupt translation of Scripture, to wit, the vulgar La­tine Edition, whereas wee referre our selves to the Ori­ginals. Now surely, wee may better trust an originall Record, than a Copie extracted thence; and it is more wholesome to drinke at the well-head, than at a corrupt and muddie streame. Now the Latine Edition (which you follow, and preferre before all others) it is but a [Page 19] Translation it selfe; but the Hebrew and Greeke which wee follow, are the Well-springs and Originalls. Is not this now a manifest corrupting of Scripture, to bind all men, (as your Trent Councell doth Nemo illam reij cere quovis praetextu audeat. Synod. Trid. Sess. 4.) that none dare pre­sume to reject this Translation; which by your owne men is confessed Quanquam eam quae passim legitur D. Hiero­nymi Germanam editio­nem haudquaquàm esse arbitramur. Sanctes Pag­nin. praef. suae inte [...]pret. Biblior. ad Clem. 7. Pont. not to be Saint Hier [...]mes, and already showne to be a corrupt one by the learned of our side B. Mortons Prot. Ap­peale. lib. 4. c 18. sect. 3.


I looke to have your Professors named.


Restore us entire our Evidence which you have mar­red, and made away; returne us our Witnesses which you have chained up in your Vatican Library, and else­where, and wee accept your challenge. But doe you in­deed looke to have our professors named? and why so? the true Church of God may bee visible, though the names of her visible professors from time to time can not be shewed: there might be thousands of professors in former ages, and yet (happily) no particular authen­tick Record of their names now extant; or if extant, yet so as we cannot come by them. Neverthelesse (to answere you at your owne weapon) I hope to make it cleare, that God hath dealt so graciously with his Church, as that he hath continually preserved suffici­ent testimonies of his truth, that are ready to be depo­sed on our side, and that successively from age to age: so that I may say, as Saint Ambrose did in the like case; Et literas quidem po­tuistis abolere, sed fidem non potuistis au [...]erre. Am­bros. [...]om. 2. de Spirit [...] Sancto. lib. 3. cap. 11. You may well blot out our Letters, but our Faith you shall never abolish. Papists may conceale our evidence, and wipe out the names of our Professors out of the Re­cords; but when all is done, the Protestants faith is perpetuall.

Now, in that we yeeld thus farre to their importu­nitie, we doe not this, as if it were simply necessary for the Demonstration of our Church, to produce such a Catalogue of visible Professors in all Ages; but one­ly out of the confidence of the truth of our cause, and [Page 20] partly to stop the mouth of our clamorous adve [...]saries; For it is Tertullians Rule, Tamen in ea [...]em side [...]onspirantes non mi [...]us [...] d [...]pu [...]antur pro [...]orsangui [...]ate [...] [...]e [...]ullian. de [...] [...]dve [...]s [...] tom. 2. that A Church is to bee accoun­ted Apostolike, if it hold Consanguinitie of Doctrine with the Apostles. Now, what though we could no [...] successively name such as taught as we doe; yet because God hath promised there should be alwaies in the world a true Church, (having either a larger or smaller number of Prosessors, (it sufficeth that we are able out of Scrip­ture to demonstrate that we maintaine the same Faith and Religion, which the holy Apostles taught, and Christ would have to be perpetuall; this I say sufficeth to manifest our Succession, although all Histories were silent of the names of our Professors.

Now, that I am to speake of the Church in her se­verall and successive Centuries and Ages, to give the Reader some Character and touch thereof, I will be­ginne with the fi [...]st 600. yeares next after Christ; wherein ten severall times during the fi [...]st three Centu­ries, the Church was persecuted by Tyrants, and al­most continually assaulted by Heretikes; yet in the end, Truth prevailed against Error, and Patience over­came her Pers [...]cutors. This is the time wherein our learned Bishop Iewell, challenged the Papists, to shew any Orthodoxe Father, Councell, or Doctor, that for the space of those 600 Yeares, taught as the present Church of Rome did: the like challenge was lately renued by my deare friend, that worthy Divine, Do­ctor Featly of Oxford, challenging [...] the Iesuits to pro­duce out of good Authors, any Citie, Parish, or Ham­let, within 500. yeares next after Christ, wherein there was any visible assembly, that maintained in generall, the Articles of the Trent Councell, or such and such points of Popery, as at the Conference hee named in particular. Now of this period, the first 300. yeares thereof, [...] were the very flower of the Primi­tive Church, because that in the [...]e dayes the truth of the Gospell was infallibly taught, by Christ and his Apo­stles, [Page] and that in their owne persons; as also by othe [...]s that lived to heare, see, and converse with those blessed Apostles, and disciples of Christ Iesus; and this (haply) made Egesippus, an ancient Authour, call the Church of those dayes, [...]. Hegesippus a­pud Euseb lib. 3. Hist. cap. 32. & lib. 4. cap. 22. edit. Graec. an uncorrupt and virgin Church: and yet was this virgin Church ill intreated by such a sowed the tares of errour, which yet the carefull husbandman in time weeded up: neither indeed for the space of these first 300, could those Tenets of Poperie get any footing, their Papall Indulgences were yet unhatched, their purgatory fire was yet unkindled; it made not (as afterwards) their pot boyle, and their kitchin smoake; the Masse was yet unmoulded, Transubstantiation was yet unbaked, the treasury of Merits was yet unminted, the Popes transcendent power was uncreated, Ecclesia­stickes were unexempted, and deposing of Kings yet undreamed of: the Lay-people were not yet couzned of the cup, Communion under one kinde, was not yet in kinde, it was not then knowne, that Liturgies and prayers were usually and publikely made in a tongue unknowne: they did not then worship and adore any wooden or breaden god; they worshipt that which they knew, and that in Spirit and truth Iohn 4.22.24., and they called on him, in whom they beleeved Rom. 10.14: so did they, and so doe wee. In a word, in the former ages of the Church, Sa­tan was bound, after the thousandth yeare hee was loosed, and after the middle of the second Millenary, about the yeare 1370, hee was bound anew. Concer­ning the Churches estate in the next five hundred yeares,The Estate of the Church in the 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 Age. it grew very corrupt: so that of these times we may say, as Winefridus, borne at Kirton in Devonshire, after surnamed Boniface, was wont to say, Beat Rhenanus lib. 2 rerum Germanic. pag. 98. Bonifacius rogatus an licéret ligneis cal [...]ibus sa­crificare; respondit, oli [...] aureos sacerdotes ligneis vas [...]ulis litasse nunc vers [...] vice ligneos aureis [...]ti. In old time there were golden Prelates, and woodden Chalices, but in his time woodden Prelates, and golden Chalices; knowledge was now decayed, Princes, Prelates and others were now more busied in building, or beautifying materiall Temples and Chappels, than in the gathering together [Page 22] of living stones, and reedifying Gods spirituall Tem­ple: so that in this time of Monkery, many religious Houses were erected, either out of voluntary Devoti­on, or enjoyned Penance: Now, insteed of the right administration of the Word and Sacraments, came in the dumbe guize of the Masse; and the people instead of the pure milke of the Word, were intertained with feigned Liturgies, Legends, and Miracles, & their con­sciences loaden with a number of unprofitable Cere­monies, and unwarrantable Traditions; now there was great con [...]idence put in holy Graines, hallowed Beades, Agnus Dei's, and the like Babies; and the honour due to the Creator, was given to the crea [...]ure. Now the people made many fond vowes, went many merry Pilgrimages, and beheld many garish Processi­ons; now they were taught that ab [...]tinence from meates and drinkes was Meritorious; that the opus ope­ratum, the worke done was sufficient in their Sacra­ments, and their Devotions, and much of this service performed in an unknowne tongue. Now the crownes of Martyrdome wherewith the first Bishops of Rome were honoured, were changed into a Triple Crowne, and the Pastorall Staffe, beganne to quarrell with the Princely Scepter; and all these things were carried by the name of the Church, the People many of them beleeving as the Church beleeved, and this Church was the Roman, and this Roman Church, was the Pope.

The Chur [...]hes state in the and 16. [...]entu [...]s.Concerning the Church in the next 500. yeares, e­ven to these our times; the Church began to recover her strength [...] and the light of the Gospell was notably discovered by Waldus in France, and his followers, Wickliffe in England, Iohn Hus, and Martin Luther in Germanie. Now also by the benefit of Printing (which was found out in the fifteenth Century,) the Tongues came to bee knowne, Knowledge increased, Bookes were dispersed, and Learning communicated; the Scrip­tures [Page 23] were perused, the Doctors and Fathers read, Sto­ries opened, Times compared, Truth discerned, and Falshood detected.

Now because there hath already, and will hereafter be occasion to speak of Antichrist; I will therfore heere point out his severall Ages. About the yeare 607. Anti­christ began in part to appeare and show himselfe, rising by degrees untill he came to the height of impietie; for as other things, so Antichrist also, was to have his ri­sing, growth, height, and fall; even as monstrous and huge Beasts goe with their young ones many yeares, as other creatures doe many monthes. The maine strength of the Romish Antichrist consisted in those two Swords, the Spirituall and Temporall; now the Pope did not at once attaine to the managing of these two Swords; but by degrees he came to usurpe this two­handed Sword.

The first step that hee made to the throne of pride, was about the yeare, 607, when Pope Boniface the third, by the grant of that murderer Phocas, tooke to himselfe the Title, Authoritie, and Supremacie over the whole Church.

The next time, that he notoriously shewed himselfe, was after the thousand yeare, when Gregory the [...]eventh claimed and usurped both the Swords; that is, a Sove­raigne and Universall Iurisdiction, not onely Ecclesia­sticall over the Clergie, but also Temporall over Kings and Emperours: unto this second Soveraigntie they had long aspired, but never attained untill the time of this Hildebrand, in whom Antichrist came to his growth: yea, the Pope was discovered to be Anti­christ by those Catholike Bishops, the Bishop of Flo­rence Florentinus Episco­pus a [...]firmare solitus [est] Antichristum natum esse. Platina in Paschal. 2., and Robert Grosthead Bishop of Lincolne Ergò si qui [...] animas perdere non [...]ormidat, non­nè Antichristus meritò est dicendus? Math. Paris. in Henr. 3. ad an. 1253., and others. Vpon this discovery of the Man of Sinne, sun­dry of Gods people refusing the Marke of the Beast, seve­red themselves from the Papall Communion; where­upon the Pope and his Faction raised grievous persecu­tions [Page 24] against the servants of God.

To speake yet more particularly; the degrees of Antichrist may thus be reckoned. He had his Birth or rising in Boniface the third,Anno 607. who tooke to himselfe that Antichristian title, of universall Bishop, which his Predecessor Gregorie so greatly condemned. Hee had his growth,Ann. 788. or increase in the time of Pope Adrian the first, and the second Councell of Nice, who jointly agreed to set up the Adoration of Images, and the practice therof to be generally received in the Church.

Ann. 1 [...]75.Hee came to his Kingdome, and reigned in Pope Hildebrand, who excommunicated and deposed Henry the fourth, the lawfull Emperour, and gave away his Empire to Rodulph, and after his death to others.

Ann. 1517.He was in his jollitie, and triumphed in Pope Leo the tenth, and his Lateran Councell; s [...]ewing himselfe a God in pardoning sinnes, delivering soules out of Pur­gatorie, defining Faith; setting himselfe above a ge­nerall Councell, controuling, and judging all men, him­selfe to be judged by none; professing (for so it is re­corded of Gregory the seventh [...] Deus [...] se errare n [...] p [...]sse gloreatur. Ave [...]t n. Annal. Bo [...] [...] l [...] 5. p [...]g [...] 5 [...]3.) That he was a God, and could not erre.

In a word, (as my learned kinsman hath deciphered him) [...] of the sit [...] [...] Co [...]n [...]ell. [...] [...]3. [...]. when he usurped an universall authoritie over all Bishops, the Pope was but Antichrist Nascent; when he maintained the doctrine of Adoration of Images, he was Antichrist Crescent; when hee exalted himselfe a­bove all Kings and Emperours, hee became Antichrist regnant; but when he was made Lord of the Catholike Faith, so that none must beleeve more, nor lesse, nor otherwise then hee prescribed, hee became Antichrist Triumphant. Thus did the Pope in processe of time become a perfect Antichrist, playing the Hypocrite and Tyrant, both in Church and State; exalting him­selfe a [...] a Monarch over Gods house; making his owne word, and definition, of equall authoritie with holy [...] Pontisi [...]is Summ [...] [...] & [...] lib. 2. c [...]p. 2. [...] B [...]ll [...]r. lib. p [...]imo pag. 1 [...]. c [...]p. [...]. [...]t pl [...]è appareat ex [...] p [...]pe [...]disse Rom [...] ­ni fo [...]tif [...]is Fidei Decre­ [...] san [...]e & sancita mu­ [...]re. Baron. ad [...]nn. 373. [...]um. 21. Scrip­ture; usurping temporal Iurisdiction over Civill States, [Page 25] murthering Christs servants that yeelded not to his becke. His last Age, is his declining age, wherein the Lord by the spirit of his mouth [2 Thess. 2.8.] that is, by the Ministerie of his Word, Shall consume this Man of Sinne; and this is come to passe in part; For hee is already fallen into a Consumption, whereon he irrecoverably languisheth, notwithstanding all the help that can be made him, by his Colledge of Physicians, Canonists, Schoolemen, Priests and Iesuits; but for his finall Destruction wee must expect it at the glorious comming of our blessed Saviour.

The summe of all is this, the Pope having pearkt himselfe above his fellow Bishops, it grieved him to be subject to Kings and Emperours; not to exalt himself above them, he distracted both Church and State in the point of Image-worship, which occasioned much blood­shed in Christendome, and then having weakened the Empire, he became superior to Kings and Emperours: there being nothing now but the Church in his way, he preuailed over it by his Lateran Flatterers, who set the Pope above a generall Councel, that is, aboue Gods Church; a Generall Councell being indeed the Repre­sentative Church of God here on earth, and the Pope himselfe being the Vertuall Church, for so Gretser confes­seth, Per Ecclesiam intel­ligimus pontificem Rema­num. Grets. Def. cap. 10. li. 3 de verbo Dei § Iam. p. 1450. & ibid. A [...]. pag. 1451. non abnuo. that by the Church they do meane the Pope for the time being. Now to this height the Pope came under pretence of the Churches government, the Churches discipline racking the spirituall censure to a civill punishment; by the Church solemnities in crowning Emperors; by his Excommunications, Absolutions, and Dispensations, he rose to his greatnesse of state; by the doctrine of workes meritorious, Iubilees, Pardons, and Indulgences, hee maintained his State.

And now I come to shew out of good Authors, that in nine severall weighty poynts of Religion, the best guides of Gods Church for the space of 1500 yeares, have taught as the Church of England doth.

THE FIRST CENTVRIE, From the first yeare of Grace, unto the yeare One Hundred.
Christ Iesus and his Apostles the Protestants Founders.


WHom doe you name in this first Age, that taught the Protestant Faith?


I name our blessed Saviour Christ Iesus, and his Apostles, Saint Paul, and his Schollers, Titus and Timothie, together with the Churches which they plan­ted, as that of the Romanes, Corinthians, and the rest. These I name for our first Founders, and top of our kin, as also Ioseph of Arimathea, that buried Christs body, a speciall Benefactor to the Religion planted in this land. These taught for substance, and in the positive grounds of religion, as we doe in our Articles, Liturgies, Homi­lies and Apologies, by publike authoritie established in our Church of England. Besides these, there were but few Writers in this age, whose undoubted Works have come to our hands; yet for instance sake I name that blessed Martyr of Christ, Ignatius Bishop of Antioch, [Page 28] who for the name of Iesus, was sentenced to bee d [...]vou­red of wild beasts, which hee patiently indured, saying, Euseb Histor [...]cles. lib 3. cap. 33. I am the Wheat or graine to bee ground with the teeth of beasts, that I may be pure Bread for my Masters tooth: let fire, rackes, pulleys, yea, and all the torments of Hell come on mee, so I may winne Christ. Here also, according to the Ro­man Register, I might place Dionysius Areopagita, whom they usually place in this first Age, as if hee were that Denys mentioned in the Acts 17.34. Actes, whereas indeed hee is a post natus, and in all likelihood lived about the fourth Age, and not in this first; for Denys [...]. Dionys. epist. ad Demo­phil. saith, That the Christians had solemne Temples like the Iewes, and the Chancell severed, with such and such sanctification, from the rest of the Church; whereas the Christians in this fi [...]st age, made their assemblies to prayer, both in such private places, and with such simplicitie, as the Apostles Acts 1.13. & 12.12. & 20 8. did, and as the times of persecution suffered Andr. Rivet. Critici Sacri. lib. 1. cap 9. rat. 6. them.

Againe, Denys tells us, that when hee wrote, Monkes were risen, Dionys. Eccles. Hie­rar [...]h. cap. 6. and they of credit in the Churches, and many Ceremonies to hallow them; whereas in the A­postles time, when the true Dionysius lived, Monkes were not heard of; yea, Chrysostome saith, [...]. C [...]ys. Homil 25 in Moral. super cap. 11. ep ad Hebr. That when Paul wrote his Epistle to the Hebrewes, there was not then so much as any footstep of a Monke.


I challenge Saint Denys for ours; hee was (as our Rhe­mists Rhemists Annot. on Acts 17. say) all for the Catholikes.


Take him as he is, and as he comes to our hands, hee is not wholly yours, but in some things cleane contrary to you; as namely in the Sacrament of the Lords Sup­per, wherein you vary from us most. Besides, hee hath not your sole receiving of the Priest, nor ministring un­der one kind to them who receive, nor Exhortations, Lessons, Prayers, in a tongue which the people under­stand not, he hath not your Invocation of Saints, no [...] [Page 29] adoration of creatures, nor sacrificing of Christ to God, nor praying for the soules in purgatory: so that in things of substance, and not of ceremony onely, he is ours, and not yours, as I hope will appeare by his Writings: for we will (for the time) suppose him to be a Father of this first age, although the bookes which beare Saint Denys his name, seeme to bee written in the fourth or fifth age after Christ.


Can you proove that Christ and his Apostles taught as you doe?


Wee have cleare testimonies of Scripture, Math. 26.27. & 1 Cor. 11.23, &c. which appoint Gods people to receive the blessed Cup in the Sacrament, and to be present at such a divine service as themselves understand 1 Cor. 14.15, &c.; wee have expresse command forbidding Image-worship Exod. 20.4. Deut. 4.15.; against Invocation of Saints it is said Esay 63.16., that Abraham knoweth us not, and Isaac is ignorant of us; and the blessed Angel refused all religi­ous honour and Adoration Apoc. 19.10. & 22.8, 9.. Likewise against Merit of workes, and workes of Super-erogation, it is said Rom. 8.18., that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compa­red with the glory which shall bee revealed in us; and that wee are unpro [...]itable servants, when we have done all that was commanded us, we have but done that which was our dutie to doe, and the like.


You alleadge Scripture, and so doe wee; yea in some things the Scripture is plaine for us, as where it is said, Math. 26.26. This is my Bodie.


What though it make for you in shew? so doth it for the Anabaptists, where it is said, Acts 4.32. that the Christians had all things common: you will not hence inferre, that be­cause in such an extremitie, their charitie (for the reliefe of others) made things common concerning the use, that therefore we should have no property in the goods that [Page 30] God hath given us? It is not the shew and semblance of words, but the sense thereof that imports the truth. Saint Paul sayes of his Corinths, 1. Cor. 12.27. Ye are the body of Christ, yet not meaning any Transubstantiation of substance: but h [...]reof anon in his due place.


The Scriptures make not for you, but as you have tran­slated them.


For any point we hold, we referre our selves to the Originalls; yea, wee say further, let the indifferent Christian Reader, (who hath but tollerable understan­ding of the Latine Tongue,) compare our English tran­slations, with those which your owne men, Pagnine, Arias Montanus, and others have published, and they will finde but little countenance for Poperie; and namely, for Communion in one kind, and Service in a strange Tongue, which (as is already proved) hath bene decreed directly contrary to Gods expresse word, but let us come to the particulars.

Of the Scriptures sufficiency, and Canon.

The Church of England holds, Arti [...]les of Religi­on. 6. Ar [...]i [...]. that Holy Scripture containeth all things necessary to salvation: so that the [...]e is no doctrine Homily 1. the first part of the exhorta [...]ion to holy Scripture. necessary for our everlasting salvation, but that is (or may bee) drawne out of that Fountaine of truth, as being either expressely therein contained, or such as by sound inference may bee deduced from thence: and this is witnessed by Saint Paul, saying, that 2 Tim. 3.15, 16, 17. they are able to make us wise unto salvation, that the man of God may bee perfited, and throughly furnished unto all good workes; which they should not bee able to doe, if they contained not a perfect doctrine of all such poynts of faith, as we are bound to b [...]leeve, and duties to bee pra­ctised. And if it be said, that S. Paul speakes of the man of God, such an one as Timothie was, it holds in others also: for if the Scripture be so profitable for such and [Page 31] such u [...]e [...], that thereby it perfects a Divine, much more an ordinary Christian; that which can pe [...]fit the tea­cher, is sufficient for the learner.


Doe you disclaime all Traditions?


We acknowledge Traditions concerning Discipline, and the Rites and Ceremonies of the Church; but not concerning the doctrine, or matter of faith & Religion.

You equalize unwritten traditions to holy Scripture, receiving them, saith your Trent Councell, Nec [...]on traditiones ipsa [...] tum ad fidem, tum ad mores pertinentes— Part pietatis affectu as reveren­tià suscipit, & venera­tur. Concil. Trid. S [...]ss. 4 Decret. 1. with equall re­verence, and religious affection, as you receive the holy Scrip­tures themselves: we da [...]e not doe so, but such traditions as we r [...]ceive, we hold and esteeme farre inferiour.

Concerning the Scriptu [...]e Canon, the Trent Councell accurseth Si quis librum Hester, Daniel [...]s, Baruch, Eccle­siastict, Sapientiae [...] Iudith, Tobiae, duorum Mac [...]abae­orum libros pro Canonicis non susceperit, Anathem [...] sit. Concil. Trid. Sess. 4. such as receive not the Bookes of Machabees, Ecclesiasticus, [...]oby, Iudith, Baruch, Wisdome, for Canonical Scriptu [...]e. Now wee retaine The sixth Arti [...]le of the names and number of Canonicall Bookes. the same Canon which Christ and his Apostles held and received from the Iewes, unto whom were committed the Oracles of Rom 3.2. God, be­ing, as Saint Augustine speakes, Codicem portat Iudaeus undè credat Christianus; Librarij nostri facti sunt, quomodo solent servi post Dominos codices ferre. August. in Psal 56. to. 8. The Christians Library-keepers. Now the Iewes never received these Bookes which wee terme Apocryphall into their Iosephu [...] contra [...] ­pionem. lib. 1. Canon: yea, Christ himselfe divided the Luke 24.44. Canon into three severall rankes, i [...]to the Law, the Prophets, and the Psalmes; now the Apocryphal come not within this reckoning. Indeed (as S. Hierome saith) The Church reades these Bookes for ex­ample of life, and instruction of manners; but yet it doth not apply them to stablish any Doctrine.

Of Comunion under both kindes, and the number of Sacraments.

If any shall say, The Church was not induced for just causes to commun [...]ca [...]e the [...]ay people under one kinde, v [...]z of bread onely, and shall say they [...]rred in so doing, let him bee accursed, Si quis dixerit Eccle­si [...]m non [...]ustis causis ad­ductam ut Latios sub pa­nis ta [...]tummodo spe [...]e cō ­municaret, aut in eo erras­se, Anathema sit. Conc. Trid C [...]n. 2. Sess. [...]1. saith the Trent Councell. Now our Chu [...]ch holds, Arti [...]les of England, 30. Art. Articles of Ire­land 97. That both the parts of the Lords Sacrament, [Page 32] ought to b [...]e ministred to all Gods people: so tha [...] ac­cording to us; In the publ [...]k [...] celebra [...]ion of [...]he E [...] ­cha [...]ist, Communion in bo [...]h kinds, ou [...]ht to bee given to all sorts of C [...]ri [...]ians, righ [...]ly disposed and prepared: and this o [...] Tenet is ag [...]e [...]able to Christes Institution M [...]th. 26 [...]27. and Precept, [...] in Ioan. [...] who saith expr [...]sly and li [...]erally, Drink yee all of this. It agrees a [...]so with Saint Pauls 1 Cor [...] 11 [...]28. [...] pr [...]cipit ut h [...]bitur. Cyp [...]an. de Coena Dom. precept, and with the practice of the holy Apostle [...], 1 Cor. 10.21. & cap. 11.23.26. and the pri [...]ative Church.

Dionysius Arcopagita, who (as you say) was Saint Pauls Scholler, and Disciple, relates [...], &c. Di [...]ny [...]. A [...]co­p [...]g. Ec [...]les. H [...]erarch. c. 5. — [...]. Id. Ibid. [...]ap. 3. the practice of the Church in his time, on this manner; After the Priest hath prayed that hee may ho [...]ly distribute, and that all they that are to partake of the Sacrament may receiue it worthyly; he breakes the Bread into many pieces, and divides one Cup among all. Ignatius, who was Scholler to Saint Iohn the Evangelist, saith; [...]. [...]gnat. [...]p. ad Philadel [...]h. That one Bread is broken unto all, and one Cup destributed unto all.


Bellarmine saith, In [...]atinis [...]ed [...]cibus. non habetur. [...]us Ca [...]x o [...]ibus d [...]stri [...]utus; sed un [...]s Calix [...]tius Ecclesiae: est enim communi [...] [...]alix qui pro om [...]ibus [...]sse tur Deo Ne (que) multum [...]iden­dum est Grae [...]s Codici­bus. Bella [...]m. lib. 4. de Euchar. cap. 26. the words of Ignatius are not as you alleage them; There is one Cup distributed unto all; but, there is one Cup of the whole Church, and though the Greeke Copies reade as you doe, yet he saith, That much credit is not to be given to them.


Shall we give more credit to a Transl [...]tion, then to the Originall? If the Well-head and Spring bee cor­ [...]upted, how shall the Brooke, or Streame runne cleare? It may be indeed that divers errors are crept both into the Greeke & Latine Copies, but for the place alleag [...]d, there is no colour of corruption, in asmuch as the same that Ignatius spake of the Bread, the same are repeated of the Cup according to Christs Institution; and how­soever Bellarmine may produce some Latine Copie, that translateth the words of Ignatius, as Bellarmine sets them downe, Vnus Calix totius Ecclesiae; yet (as D. Featly observes in the Grand Sacriledge of the Romish Church) [Page 33] Vitlemius, and divers other Latin Copies following the originall verbatim, render them thus, Vnus Calix omnibus distributus, that is, One Cup distributed unto all, and not as Bellarmine, and Et unus Calix qui pro omnibus nobis distributus est. Bar. Annal. tom. 1. ad ann. Christ. 109. Ita legit locum Ignatij Ep. ad Phi­ladelph. Baronius ad Ann. 109 sect. 25. would have it; as if Ignatius had said, that one Cup was distri­buted not [...], omnibus, but [...], pro omnibus, not to all, but for all, that is, for the behoofe and benefit of all. Howsoever they wrest it, Ignatius tels us of one Cup, and this not the Priests Cup, but the Churches Cup, and this Cup was distributed. But now adaies in the Masse, there is no distribution of the Cup.


Christ spake these words, Drinke yee all of this, on­ly to the Apostles, Mandatum solis A­postolis datum [...]uit. Bel­larmin. de Euchar. lib. 4. cap. 25. § [...]estat. as they were Priests, and not to the Laitie.


By this meanes, you might take away the Bread, as well as the Cup from the Lay-people; for when Christ administred the Sacrament, none were present (for ought we know) but onely the Apostles.

Besides, the Apostles were not yet fully ordained Priests, though they had beene once sent to Preach; Christ after his Resurrection breathed on them the holy Ghost, and fully endued them with Priestly power. Iohn 20.22.

Againe, the Apostles at this Supper were Com­municants, not Ministers of the Sacrament; Christ was then the onely Minister in that Action. Now Christ delivered them the Cup as well as the Bread, saying to the same persons, at the same time, and in the same respect, Drinke yee all of this, to whom hee had said before, Take, and Eate, giving both alike in charge; so that you must either barre the people from both, or admit them to both: now if neither precept of eating or drinking belong to the Laitie, the Laitie are not at all bound to receive the Sacrament.


Although it be said of Drinking the Cup [Doe this in remembrance of me;] Yet the Words [Doe this] are spoken Absolutely Post p [...]nis conse­ [...]tionem ab [...]lutè pon [...] ­tu [h [...]c [...]ac [...]t [...]] p [...]st [...]ali­c [...]n verò idem [...]p [...]titur, sed [...]um [...]nditione, Quo­ [...] b [...]beritis, Id. ibid. §. [...]. of the Bread, and but Conditionally of the Cup, namely [as often as yee shall drinke it: 1 Cor. 11.25.] So that these Words, Doe this in remembrance of me, inferre not any Commandement of receiving in both kindes.


According to your Tenet, our Saviour saith not, Doe this as often as you Lay men communicate; but when­soever you receive the Cup and drinke, then doe it in remembrance of me; as much as to say, as often as you Lay people drinke, which needeth never be done by you (according to Romish Divinitie) Doe this no­thing in remembrance of mee: Besides, as there is a Quotiescunque, as often, set before the Cup, As oft as you drinke; so there is a Quotiescunque set before the Bread, As often as you shall eate this Bread, (vers. 26.) so that quoti [...]scunque biberitis, as often as you Drinke, cannot make the Precept Conditionall in respect of the Cup, more than of the Bread; it being alike referred to the Bread and to the Cup.


We wrong not the Laitie, ministring unto them under one kinde onely; they receiving the same benefit by one, that they should doe by both, Christs body and bloud being whole in Concil. T [...]id. Sess. 13. cap 3. each; so that the people receive the bloud together with the Host, by a Concomitancy.


In vaine have you devised Concomitance, to dis­guise your sacriledge of the Cup taken from the peo­ple; as if our Saviour Christ were not sparing enough in ordaini [...]g as few outward Ceremonies as might wel be; but that he must doe that by two, which might have beene compassed by one; or as if he would have the Ministers receive his body and bloud superflu­ously; [Page 35] that is to say, both in the Bread, and in the Cup too, which was sufficiently received in either of them. Againe, though the devout Communicant, receiving Christ spiritually by Faith, is thereby pos­sessed of whole Christ crucified, in the inward act of the soule; yet we deny, that the whole is received Sa­cramentally in this outwad act, under one onely part of this Sacrament: so that if Concomitance were gran­ted, yet Communion in one kinde is not justifiable; for although it deprive not people of Christs bloud, as it is a bodily part conteined in the veines; yet it de­priveth them of the bloud of Christ, as it was shed, powred out, and offered in sacrifice for them; neither can su [...]h manner of receiving shew foorth the Lords death, which is one chiefe end of the celebration of this Sacrament, 1 Cor. 11.28. The breaking of Bread repesenteth in no wise the effusion of bloud; this is lively represented by the powring out of the conse­crated Wine, and d [...]inking of the Cup, there being a perfecter signification in both kinds then in one.

Lastly, though the people might receive the blood together wi [...]h the host, [...]et he that so receives the blood, cannot properly bee said to drinke: now Christ saith expresly, Vnlesse you drinke his blood, you shall not have life in you, Iohn 6.53. which place your Papists themselves understand of the Eucharist.

Concerning the number of Sacraments, the Trent-Councell accurseth Si quis dixerit, aut plu [...]a esse Sacramenta, [...]ut pauciora quam septem, A­nathema sit. Concil. Trid. Sess. 7. all such as shall say, that the number of Sacraments is either more or lesse then seaven: but our Church holds, Art. 25. that of the Sacraments of the Newe Testament, there bee two ordained of Christ our Lord in the Gospell, that is to say, Baptisme, and the Lords Sup­per; and those five, which by the Church of Rome are called Sacraments, to wit, Confirmation, Penance, Orders, Matrimony, and Extreame Vnction, are not to be accounted Sacraments of the Gospell Art. of Ireland. Art. 87..

Now that there are and ought to be two Sacraments [Page 36] onely in the New Testament, appeareth hereby, in that there is no promise made unto us of life everlasting in Iesus Christ, which is not sufficiently witnessed, and as­sured unto us by these two 1 Cor. 10.1, 2, 3. & cap. 12. verse 13.Sacraments. For the summe of all the promises of God in Christ, is reduced unto these two heads: that for his sake we are received into the favour, and houshold care of God; and that being once received, we shall be continued in the sa [...]e for e­ver: the former whereof is sealed unto us by Baptisme for our entrance and admission into the Covenant; and the later by the Lords Supper, for our continuance, growth, and confirmation therein. These two were in­stituted by Christ; Hoc facite, Doe this in remembrance of mee Math. 28.19. & Luke 22.19., is our warrant for the one; and goe teach and bap­tise, for the other x; there is deepe silence in the rest.

Of the Eucharist.

The Trent Councel holds, Synodas declarat, per consecrationem pa [...]is & vt [...]i, conversion [...]m sieri t [...] ­tius substantiae p [...]n [...]s in substantiam corporis Chri­sti, & to [...]i [...]s [...]ub [...]tan [...]iae v [...]ni in substantiam [...]an­guinis ejus. Concil. [...]id. Sess. 13. cap. 4. that there is a conversion of the whole substance of bread and wine into the substance of Christs body and blood, wrought by the words of consecration; and that there onely remaine the semblances and shewes, the outward shape [...], Romanentibus dun­taxat spectobus [...] & vini. Id. Ibid. Can. 2. formes, or accidents of bread and wine: yea, the Councel accurseth Id. ibid. Can. 2. such as affirme bread & wine to remaine in this Sacrament after consecration. And yet S. Paul tells us, 1. Cor. 11.26. that after consecration it is bread, which is broken and ea­ten; & it is no lesse than fivetimes so called after the pre­tended change. Neither is it called Bread, because it was bread, but because it is bread, not in name onely, but in nature and properties: for after consecration, the bread and wine they nourish the body, and comfort the heart as before but the bare formes of bread and wine, as the roundnesse of the Hoste, or colour of the Wine, (such as they say onely remaine, the substance thereof being abolished) cannot nourish without corporall substance. Now our Church holds, A [...]ti [...] of England [...] 28 Of Ireland [...]3. that the change of the substance of the bread and wine, into the substance of the body and blood of Christ, commonly called Transubstantiation, cannot be [Page 37] prooved by holy Writ, but is repugnant to plaine te­stimonies of holy Scripture.


How doth it appeare that Christs bodie and bloud are not corporally given and taken in the Sacrament?


By these reasons: First, wee receive the body and blood of Ch [...]ist in the Sacrament, as the Disc [...]ples of Christ did in the first I [...]stitution of it. Now the body and blood of Chri [...]t were not corporally received by them, but onely spiritually.

Secondly, Christ his body is ascended and taken up into heaven, and the heavens must containe him, Acts 3.11. till the end of the world.

Thirdly,Math. 28.6, 7. Luke 24.39. Iohn 20 27. Christ hath but one body, and that a true body, and such as cannot be in many places at once and it filleth a place wheresoever it is, and may bee both seene and felt. This was also the judgement of other [...], whom you much reverence. Dionysius Areopagita held not Transubstantiation [...] For he distinguisheth b [...]tweene the substantiall Sign [...]s, and Christ sign [...]fied by them, saying; [...]. Di [...]nys. Areopag. Eccles. Hierarch. cap. 3. that By those reve [...]end Signes and Symboles, Christ is signified, and the faithfull made partakers of him. He calleth not t [...]e ministration of the holy mysteries the sacrificing of Christ unto his Father (as the Pa­pists doe;) but a Typicall or [...]. Id. ibid. c [...]p 3. Symbolicall Sacrifice, that is a figu [...]e or signe of that great sacrifice: and the same Denys (as Imm [...] & Dionysius cap 3. Eccles. Hier [...]rchiae Eucharist [...]m vocat Anti­typon. B [...]ll [...]rm. lib. 2 de Eucha [...]ist. c. p. 15 §. Sed hoc. Bellarmine confesseth) calleth the Sa­crament an An [...]i [...]ype, and that after consecration; so that according to Saint Denys, the Elements of Bread and Wine in this Sacrament, are Types, Antitype, and Symbols, that is, Figures and Signes of the body and bloud of Ch [...]ist; and yet not onely bare, naked, and Signes significative, but re [...]lly ex [...]ibiting Christ, for that is Denys his word, to wit, [...], that the faithfull there­by partake Christ Iesus.


The Scripture is plaine for us, where Christ saith, This is my Body. Math. 26.26.


Although Christ say, This is my Body, yet hee saith not (as you doe) this is made, or shall be changed into my Body; he sai [...]h not, that his body and bloud is conteined under the shapes or formes of B [...]ead and Wine.

Againe, you that stand so for the Letter, take not Christs Words litterally; for it is an improper speech to say, This is my Body, that is, the thing conteined un­der these formes, is by conversion, and substantiall transmutation, my Body; but your Papists maintei­ning Transubstantiation, expound Christs words in this, or the like manner; therefore in the point of Transubstantiation, you depart from the Letter, and consequently make it figurative. You indeed alleage the Words and Letter, but not the true meaning; we be­leeve Christs words in their right sence; now the shew makes for you, the sence and substance for us. Now though Christs Body is not according to his materiall substance wholly and intirely, under the outward e­lements, yet the Bread may bee truly termed Christs Body, because of a Relative and Sacramentall union, and donation of the thing signified, together with the Signes worthily received.


What reason have you to interpret these words figura­tively; this is my body, that is, this bread is a signe of my body, and not plainely and literally as they sound.


Figurative speeches are oftentimes plaine speeches; now there be no other Figures or Tropes in the Lords Supper, but such as are, and alwaies were, usuall in Sacraments, and familiarly knowne to the Church. Now Sacraments must bee expounded Sacramentally, [Page 39] and accordingly the words alledged must not bee taken literally, but figuratively. Christ taking bread, and brea­king bread, said of the same, [This is my body] now this cannot bee properly taken, therefore for the right ex­pounding of these words, we are necessarily to have re­course to a figurative interpretation; and the reason hereof is that common Maxime, Bishop Morton a­gainst the Masse. Booke 2. chap. 1. sect. 4. and cha. 3. sect. 6. Disparatum de dispa­rato non propriè praedicatur, that is, nothing can bee pro­perly and literally affirmed joyntly of another thing, which is of a different nature. By this rule, bread and Christs body cannot bee properly affirmed one of ano­ther; bread being of a different nature from flesh, can no more possibly be called the fl [...]sh or body of Christ li­terally, than lead can be called wood: and this makes us interpret the words figuratively; and wee have in Scripture most manifest places, which proove these wo [...]ds, [This is my body] to be figuratively taken and un­derstood, because in Scripture whensoever the signe (as the Bread) being called Christ's body, hath the name & appellation of the thing signified, the speech is alwayes tropicall and figurative. And this agre [...]th with S. Au­sti [...]s Rule: Si enim Sacrament [...] quandam similitudinem e­arum [...]erum quarum S [...] ­cramenta sunt, non ha [...]e­rent, omninô Sacramenta non essent: ex hâc autem similitudine plerum (que) etiam ipsa [...]um rerum nomina ac­cipiunt. Sicut ergo secun­dùm quendam modum Sa­cramentum corporis Chri­sti corpus Christi est. Aug. tom. 2. epist. 23. ad Bo­nifac. Sacraments bee signes, which often doe take the names of those things, which they doe signifie and represent: therefore doe they carry the names of the things themselves: thus is the signe of the Passeover, the Lambe, called the Passeover, Math. 26.17. Exod. 12.11, 27. the Rocke, the signe of Christ in his passion, is called Christ, and the Rocke was Christ, 1. Cor. 10 4. Circmmcision, the signe of the Covenant, called the Covenant, and Bap [...]isme the signe of Christs buriall, called Christs buriall: for so saith S. Augustine, Vt Baptismus dicitur sepulchrum; sic, H [...]c est Corpus meum. August. cap. Faust. lib. 20 cap. 21. Non enim Dominus du­bitavit dicere, [...]oc est cor­pus meum, [...]um signum da­ret corporis sui. August tom. 6. contra Adimant. cap. 12. —Figura est ergò praeci­piens passioni domini esse communicandum. Id tom. 3 lib 3 de Doctr. Ch [...]ist cap. 16. that as Baptisme is called Christs bu­riall, so is the Sacrament of the Body of Christ call [...]d his Bo­dy. Now this shew, or semblance of words concludes not, that Christ or the Lambe were really the Rocke, the Passeover, but that these things are meant figuratively, it being usuall in Scripture, specially in such Sacra­mentally speeches as this is we are now about, to give [Page 40] the name of the thing to that which it betokeneth; and so to call, Circumcision the Covenant, because it is a signe th [...]t betokneth the Covenant, and so of the rest. Be­sides the other part of the S [...]crament, to wit, This Cup is the New Testament in my blood, Luke 22.20. is figura­tiv [...], and not to be literally taken: for you your selves s [...]y,Non [...]gamus in ver­b [...] [...] [...]pum es [...]e. Bel­ [...] lib. 1 c [...]p. 11. § R [...]s [...]ondeo. that Calix, or the Cup is there taken for that which is i [...] the cup: so that your s [...]lves admit a trope in the institution of this Sacrament.


If these figurative spe [...]ches were true, yet I cannot see what argument you can draw from hence, or how you can hence prove any thing against our Tenet, saith our [...]nglish The Lord Ar. Ba­ [...]o [...] num [...] [...], 4 [...] touching some mis-allegations. Baron: for it is a rule in Divinitie, that Theologia Symbolica non est a [...]gumentativa, that figurative speeches affoord no certaine proofe in matters of Faith.


The ze [...]lous, Reverend, and learned L. Bishop of Du­r [...]sme, Doctor Morton, tells A discharge of five Impu [...]ions of mis-alle­gati [...]ns, [...]lsely c [...]a [...]ged upon the (now [...] Bishop of Dure [...]me, by an English B [...]on. pag. 133, &c. ad. num. 42.43. your Baron and his Sugge­ster, that upon the no-p [...]oper sense of the words, [This is my body] it must follow, that there is no Transubstan­tiation in your Romish Masse, no Corporall presence, no r [...]all Sacrifice, no proper eating, no lawfull divine adoration therof: and as for the rule, that Symbolicall arguments m [...]ke no necessary Conclusions, the said learned and reve [...]end Father saith, That this makes not against us, touching the fi [...]urative wo [...]ds of Christ, This is my bo­dy, the position maketh onely against them, who extract either a lite [...]all sense out of a parabolicall and figurative speech, as Origen did, when having r [...]ad that scripture [...] Th [...]re bee some that castrate th [...]ms [...]lves for the kingdome of God, (wh [...]ch was but a p [...]rabolicall speech) hee did real­ly, and therefor [...] f [...]lishly castrate himselfe: or else, when men t [...]r [...]e the words of Scripture, properly and literally spoken, int [...] [...] figurative meaning [...] as when Pope Inno [...]ent th [...] third, t [...] p [...]oove that his Papall authoritie was above th [...] Imp [...]riall, a [...]l [...]dged that Scripture, Gen. 1. [Page 41] God made two great lights, the Sun, and the Moone; as if the Imperiall like the Moone, had borrowed its authoritie from the Papall, as from the Sun: or as Pope Boniface 8, from those words, Luk. 22. Behold, here are two swords, ar­gued, that both the temporall and spirituall sword are in the Pope, as he is Vicar of Christ. Now such kinde of Symbolicall reasoning is indeed of no force. [...]ut by that position was it never forbid, whensoever in Scrip­ture the name of the thing signified, is attributed to the symbol or signe, that then the Symbolicall and Sacra­mental speech should be judged tropicall. But this kind of exposition was alwayes approved of Christ, and by his Church: so here, Christ taking bread, and breaking bread, which was the symbol and signe of Christs bo­dy, and saying of the same Bread, [This is my body] the sense cannot possibly bee literall, but al [...]ogether figu [...]a­tive, as hath bin shewne by divers [...]xamples in Scripture, to wit, the signe of the passing over, called the Passeover; the Rock, but a signe of Christ, called Christ: In each on [...] of these the Symbols being a Signe and Figu [...]e, the speech must infallibly bee Figurative. And therefore Bread, being a Figure of Christs Body, is called Christs bo­dy Figuratively. And thus farre our learned Bishop of Duresme.

Of Images, and Prayer to Saints.

The Church of Rome holds, Imagines hab [...]ndas & r [...]tinendas esse, a [...]que [...]is debitum honorem ac venerati [...]nem impertien­dam. Bull [...] Pij qu [...]rti su­per formâ Iu [...]am [...]nti, ad calcem Concil. Trid. & Conc. T [...]d. Ses [...]. 25. that Images are to bee had and retained, and that due honour, worship, and venera­tion is to bee given to them; The Church of England holds, Ar [...]ic 22. that the Romish doctrine of Adoration of Ima­ges and Reliques, and also of Invocation of Saints is groun­ded upon no warra [...]tie of Scripture, but rather rep [...]gnant to the word of God. And so indeed we finde, that the Lord in his Morall law hath condemned Exod. 20.5. Levit. 26.18. in g [...]nerall all I­ma [...]e [...] and Idols devised by man, for worsh [...]p and ado­ration. And this Precept being a part of his Morall law, it binds Deca [...]ogi verba ipse per seme [...]ipsum om [...]ibus simititèr Dominus [...]quu­tus est; & ideo sim [...]ter pe [...]manent a [...]ud [...]os, [...]xten­sion in & aug [...]entum, sed non dissolut [...]o [...]m a [...]pi­entta, per ca [...]tem ejus ad [...]ntum I [...]enaeus [...]o [...]. Haere [...]. lib. 4. cap 31. us in the state of the new Testament, as it [Page 42] did the Israelites of old: for in all the Apostles do­ctrine, wee doe not finde that ever this pr [...]c [...]pt was ab [...]ogated; so that it bindes, Israelites, Christians, and all.


If all worship of Images be forbidden, (Exod. 20. ver. 4, 5.) then all making of them is forbidden, for the same pre­cept which saith, thou shalt not bow downe to them, nor worship them; saith also, thou shalt not make to thy selfe any graven Image.


Our learned Bishop White, hath answered for [...]: the Ground and Proposition of this argument (saith he) D [...]ctor Whites Re­ply to Iesuit Fish [...]rs An­swer. Fi [...]st point. §. 3. p. 266. is fal [...]e; for worshipping of Images is forbidden, as the principall object of that negative precept, and as a thing Morally evill in his very kind: but making them is forbidden, (onely) when it is a meanes subservient to worship; and because it may be sepa­rated, both in his owne nature, and in mans intention from that end and use; therefore the one is simply forbidden, and the oth [...]r is onely prohibited, when it becom­meth a meanes, or instrument to other: for we mislike not pictures or Images for historicall use and ornament; now this distinction and disparitie betweene making and wo [...]shipping, is comfirmed by the example of the [...]razen Serpent, made by Gods owne appointment; for when the same was onely made, and looked upon, it was a Medicine, when it was worshipped, it b [...]came a poyson, and was destroyed. 2 Kings 18 [...]4.

To proceed [...]; the Church of Rome holds, Sa [...]os un [...] [...]um Christs regnante [...], vene­randos a [...] (que) i [...]vocan [...]os esse Bulla P [...] Q [...] quò s [...] ­p [...]a. [...]t Con [...]. Trid. Sess. 25. that the Saints raigning with Christ, are to be worshipped and pray [...]d unto; but this we hold is not warranted by Gods word, but rather repugnant to it: for we are commanded to invocate God in the name of Christ Iohn 16. [...].; and our Savi­our himselfe inviteth us, to approach with confidence to the throne of his grace Iohn [...]5.16. Ephes. 3.12. Hebr. 4.16.: he is rich in mercie [...]phes. 2.4., to such as call upon him; and more compassionate, better able, and more willing to helpe us than any Saint or [Page 43] Angel; and he is appointed by God to be our Interces­sour Rom. 8.34. H [...]br. 7.25. We reade in the new Testament, many exam­ples of people which made supplication immediately unto Christ, but not of one which made intercession to the Virgin Mary, or to the blessed Saints or Angels. And if any question with this our negative concluding from Scripture; Saint Hierome upon occasion did the like, saying, Non credimus, quia non legimus. Hieron. ad­vers. Helvidium. tom 2. we beleeve it not, because we reade it not.

I will close up this point with that advise which Ig­natius gave the Virgins of his time; [...]. Ignat. in Epist. ad Phila­delph. not to direct their prayers and supplications to Saints or Ang [...]ls, but to the Trinity (onely). O ye Virgins, have Christ alone before your eyes, and his Father in your Prayers, being enlightned by the spirit.

Of Faith and Merit.

The Trent Si quis dix [...]rit, sol [...] side impium jus [...]ifica [...]i, A­nathema sit Conc. Trid. Ses [...] 6. Can. 9. Counc [...]l accurseth all such as say, that a si [...] ­ner is justified by Faith on [...]ly, or deny that the good workes of holy men doe truly Merit everlasting life, Si quis dixe [...]it justi­fi [...]ati hominis opera bona non verè mereti vitam ae­te [...]nam [...] Anathema sit. I­dem S [...]ss. 6. cap. 16. Can. 32. our reform [...]d Churches hold, Artl [...]. of England 11. and of Ireland 34. that wee are accounted righteous b [...]fore God, onely for the Merit of Iesus Christ, applyed by Faith [...] and not for our workes or Merits. And when we say, that we are justified by Faith onely, we doe not meane that the said justifying Faith is alone in man, without true repentance, hope, charity, and the feare of God; for such a Faith is dead, and cannot justifie. Art. of Ireland [...] 36. Even as when we say, that the eye onely seeth, wee doe not meane, that the eye severed from the head doth see, but that it is the onely pro­p [...]rtie of the eye to see. Neither doth this Faith of Christ, which is within us, of it selfe justifie us, or deserve our just [...]fication unto us (for that were to account our selves to be justified by the vertue or dignity of something within our selves:) but the true meaning ther [...]of is, that although we heare Gods Word and beleeve it, although wee have Faith, Hope, Charity, Repentance, and the f [...]are of God within us, yet we must renounce the Merit of all our vertues, and good deedes, as farre too weake and unsufficient to deserve remission [Page 44] of our Sinnes, and u [...] justification; and therefore we must trust onely in Gods mercie, and the Merits of our only Saviour and justi [...]ier Iesus Christ. Neverthelesse, because Faith doth directly send us to Christ for our justification, and that by Faith given us of God, we emb [...]ace the promise of Gods mercie, and the remission of our Sinnes, (which thing none other of our vertues or workes properly doth:) therefore the Scripture useth to say, Rom. 3.28.—42, &c. that Faith without workes, and the ancient Fa­thers of the Church to the same purpose, that onely Faith doth justifie us. Homily of Salua­tion 2. Part.

Now for the Poynt of Merit, it is neither agreea­ble to Scripture nor reason, for we cannot Merit of him whom we gratifi [...] not; we cannot gratifie a man with his owne; now all our good is Gods already, his gift, his proprietie: What have we that we have not received? saith the Apostle, 1. Cor. 4.7 not our Talent onely, but the im­provement also is his meere bounty; there can be there­fore no place for Merit.


Wee hold the ancient Romane Faith.


That is not so, as may appeare by these instances.

Saint Paul taught Rom 9.11. Rom 11.5, 6. his Romanes, that our Ele [...]ion is of Gods free grace, and not ex operibus praevisis, of workes fore-seene.

He taught, that we are justified by Rom 3.28. Rom 4 2, &c. Faith onely; we conclude that we are justified by Fa [...]th without the work [...]s of the Law, which is all one as to say, a man is justified by Faith onely.

He taught, that eternall life is the gift of God, Rom. 6. [...]3. and there­fore not due to the Merit of workes: that, the good workes of the Regenerate are not of their owne condig­nitie meritorious, Rom. 8.18. nor such as can deserve heaven, and the sufferings there expressed are Ma [...]tyrdomes sancti­fied by grace.

He condemned Images, though made to resemble the true God; and taught Rom. 1 23, 25. that to bow the knee reli­giously [Page 45] to an Image, or to worship any creature, is meère Idolatry.

He taught Rom. 10.13, 14. that we must not pray unto any but unto God onely, in whom we beleeve: and therefore not to Saints or Angels, since we beleeve not in them.

He taught that Rom 7.7.—8.10. concupiscence is a Sinne, even in the regenerate:Apos [...]olus Concupi­scentiam peccatum voca [...]; non licet nobi [...] autem ita l [...]q [...]. Possev. in Apparat. verbo Patres. and Possevine the Iesuit confesseth, that Saint Paul called it so, but saith he, we may not call it so.

He taught, Rom 4.9, 17, 23. that the Imputed righteousnesse of Christ, is that onely that maketh us just before God.

Thus taught Saint Paul, thus the ancient Romanes be­leeved: from this Faith our latter Romanists are de­parted.

Here then let the Reader judge, whether it be likely that Saint Paul, who (as Theodoret Variam quidem & Om [...]is generis doctrinam per haec scripta exhibet Apo­stolus. Thedoret. tom. 2. in argum. Epist. ad Rom. Gen [...]iano Herveto Inter­p [...]et. saith) delivered doctrine of all sorts, and very exactly handled the Points thereof, should neverthelesse (writing at large to the Romane Church) not once mention those maine points, where­in the life of Poperie consists; namely, the Popes Mo­narchical Iurisdiction, Transubstantiation, Communion in one kinde, Service in an unknowne tongue, Popes pardons, Image worship, and the like, if the Church of Rome were then the same that now a dayes it is.

Now if these points mentioned, were no Articles of Faith in the ancient Romane Church, in Saint Pauls dayes, when their Faith was spoken of throughout the whole world; Rom. 1 8. then they be not Articles of Faith at this day, but onely Additions to the rule of Faith, such as the corruption of the times hath patched up, and pieced it withall: for it is a ruled case in the Quan [...]um ad sub [...]stantiam Arti [...]ulorum fi­dei, non est sactum corum augmentum, sed quantum ad [...]xplicationem, quia quaed [...]m explicitè cognita sunt à poster [...]oribus, quae à prioribus non cognosceba [...] ­tur explicitè. Aquin. [...].2 ae. qu. 1. Art. 7. Schooles, that the body of Religion may grow in respect of far­ther Explanations, but it cannot increase in Substantiall points; even as a child (as Vicentius Lirinensis Imi [...]etur anim [...]r [...] Religio rationem co [...]po [...]i, q [...]ae licet annorum pr [...]ss [...] num [...]ros suos evolv [...]t & explicent, [...]alem tam [...]n quae cra [...]t perma [...]ent; qu [...] parvuloru [...] a [...]tus [...] [...]o [...]um. Vincent [...] [...] contra Haeres. ca. 29. [...]aith) though he grow in stature, yet hath he no more limbs, when he becommeth a man, than he had when he was a child; so the Church hath no more parts, or Articles of Faith in her riper age, than she had in her infancie, [Page 46] and by this rule, new Rome is a Monster, if she have more [...]word o [...] li [...]bs of Faith now in her declining age, than ancient Rome had in her flourishing age.

And herein we challenge our adversaries to shew the body of their Religion pe [...]fited in this first and purest age, what time the Church was in her vigour, and the Scripture Canon finished and consigned: but they dare not be tried by the booke of Scripture. Now for us, we willingly put our cause to bee tried by that honou­rable and unpartiall Iury of Christ and his twelve Apo­stles, and the Evidence that shall be given by the testi­monie, and vivâ voce, of holy Scripture; but they turne their backs, and fly from this triall.

But I proceed, and come to Ioseph of Arimathea, whom I named for one of our Ilands speciall Benefactors; it was this Ioseph (as our best Antiquaries say Gildas in the life of Aurel. Ambr [...]sius; and William Malm [...]bury a­pud C [...]b [...]en. in Belge or S [...]me [...]jet.) that toge­ther with twelve other Disciples his Assistants, came out of France into Britaine, and preached the Christian Faith in the Western part of this Iland, now called Gla­stenbury; which place in ancient Charters, was termed the Grave of the Saints, the Mother Church, the Disci­ples foundation: whereby it is very likely, that our land was first converted by Ioseph of Arimathea being sent hi­ther by S. Phillip, & not from S. Peter, and that not from Rome, but from Arimathea, which was not farre from Hierusalem, so that Hierusalem is the Mother of us all, as both Hierome Io Hieru [...]alem pri­mum fund. t [...] Ecclesi [...]. to­ [...]ius o [...]b [...] Ecclesias sem­ [...]it. Hieron. tom. 2. in Isai cap. 2. [Ex Sion I [...]x ex [...], & v [...]bum Domi­ [...]ex Hieru [...]lem] and Theodoret [...]. Th [...]odoret Histor. Eccles l [...]b 5. cap. [...]. say. And this is the ra­ther probable, because that upon Austin the Monks com­ming into England, the British Bishops observed their Easter, and other points of difference, according to the Gre [...]ke or Easterne Church, and not after the Romane Westerne Church; which makes it probable, that our first conversion came from the Christian converted Iewes, or Grecians, and not from the Romanes; but howsoever it were, or whence-soever they came, wee blesse God for the great worke of our conversion.

THE SECOND CENTVRIE, From the yeare of Grace, 100. to 200.


WHom doe you name in this Age?


In this Age lived Hegesippus of the Iewish Nation, afterwards converted to Christi­anitie. Melito Bishop of Sardis: Iustine Martyr, who, of a Philosopher, became both a Christian and a Martyr. Now also lived Irenaeus Bishop of Lyons in France, sometimes Scholler to Polycarp, and both of them Mar­tyred fo [...] the name of Christ; of this Polycarp, Bishop of Smyrna it is recorded, Eus [...]b. lib. 4. cap. 15. that being urged by the Ro­mane Deputie to deny Christ, he stoutly replied on this manner: I have served him these foure-score and six yeares, and he hath not hurt me, and shall I now deny him? Now also lived Clemens Alexandrinus, who was Scholler to one Pantenus, these two seeme to be the Authors of V­niversities and Colledges, for they taught the Grounds of Religion, not by Sermons and Homilies to the peo­ple, but by Catecheticall doctrine to the Learned in the Schooles.

Now that in point of doctrine we consent with the Worthies of this Age, it may appea [...]e by the testimo­nie of Iren [...]us, a Disciple of those that heard Saint Iohn the Apostle, for he Irenaeus lib. 1. cap. 2. & 3. layeth downe no other Articles of [Page] Faith, and Grounds of Religion then our ordinarie Ca­techisme teacheth: besides he sheweth that in the unitie of that Faith the Churches of Germany, Spain, France, the East, Aegypt, Libya, and all the World, were founded, and therein sweetly accorded: as if they had al dwelt in one house, all had had but one soule, and one heart, and one mouth.Regula est autem Fi­dei, ut [...]am hinc quid [...]re­damus prositeamu [...], illa scili [...]et: qu [...] creditur u­num omninò D [...]um esse, &c. Tertul. de p [...]aes [...]ip­ [...]ione advers. haeret. c. 13. The like doth his contemporary Tertullian, he gives the fundamentall points of Religion, gathered out of the Scriptures, and delivered by the Churches, the same which our Church delivereth, and no other for the Rule of Faith.

Of the Scriptures Sufficiencie, and Canon.

Irenaeus saith, Quià S [...]ipturae qui­dem perfec [...]e sunt, quippè [...] ve [...]bo D [...]i & spi [...]itu e­jus dic [...]ae. [...]en. lib. 2. c. 47. The Scriptures are perfect, as spoken from the Word of God, and his Spirit: and Erasmus Solis Scripturarum praesidijs pugnat a [...]ve [...]sus [...]atervam. Here [...]ic [...]rum. Erasm p [...]aefat. in Iren observes, that Irenaeus fought against the troupes of Heretikes, onely by the forces and strength of Scripture, indeed he sometimes char­geth them with the Churches tradition, (wounding them with their owne weapon:) but this was with such un­doubted tradition, as were in his time thought to bee Apostolike, which he might easily discerne living so neere the Apos [...]les dayes.

Melito, Bishop of Sardis, being desired by Onesimus to send him a Catalogue of the Bookes of the Old Te­stament, [...]. Eus [...]b. lib. 4. cap. 26. makes no mention of Iudith, Tobit, Ecclesi­asticus, nor the Maccabees: and yet he profes [...]eth that he made very diligent search to set downe a perfect Cannon thereof. And this is likewise confessed by Bellarmine; many ancients Multi vete [...]um ut Melito, aperte s [...]q [...]ti sunt Hebreos [...] non G [...]ae [...]os. Bell [...]r [...] de ve [...]b. Dei lib. 1. cap. 20 § Ad alter in. (saith he) as namely Melito [...] did follow the Hebrew Canon of the Iewes.

Of Communion under both kinds; and number of Sacraments.

Iustin Martyr saith, [...]. Iust. Ap [...]log. [...]. in fine p 162. they which are called Deacons among us give to every one that is present of the consecrated Bread & Wine [...] adding withal, [...] In­ [...]. Id. ibid. as Christ cōmanded them: now these words which mention Christs Commandement, Respondeo, illa verba Iustini, ubi commemoratur Christi praceptum, non pertinent ad Communionem, sed ad consecratio­n [...]m. Bell [...]rm. lib. 4 de Euchar. cap. 26. §. Re­spondeo. Bellar­mine [Page 49] would haue to belong to the Consecration only, & not to the Communion; whereas I [...]stin extends Christs precept to both, both being injoyned in that precept, doe this in remembrance of me: so that we have both Christs precept, and this Ages practice for our Communion in both. Clemens Alexandrinus wrote a booke against the Gentiles,Stromata. which he calls [...], (as ye would say) wo­ven after the manner of coverings, mixed with the te­stimonies of Scriptures, Poets, Philosophers, and Hi­stories, and therein he hath these words: [...]. Clem. A­lexandr. Stromat. lib. 1. pag. 94. When they di­stribute the Holy Eucharist, as the custome is, they permit e­very one of the people to take a part or portion thereof: and what he meaneth by Eucharist, himselfe explaineth, saying, [...]. Idem Paedagog. lib. 2. cap. 2. pag. 35. the mingling of the drinke and of the Water and the Word, is that which we call the Eucharist: so that ac­cording to him, not Bread onely, but Bread and Wine is the Eucharist, and of this every one of the people participated in his time, and therefore all dranke of the Cup. Iustine Martyr in his Apologie for the Chri­stians Iustin. Apol secund [...]. specifies no other Sacraments, than Baptisme, and the Lords Supper; and yet in that treatise of his, he was justly occasioned to mention the Sacraments of the Church; and there he relates the manner of their Church-service, Liturgies, and Commnuion: so that there had beene a fit place for him to have named those other five, if the Church had then knowne them.

Of the Eucharist.

That the substance of Bread and Wine, remaineth in the Sacrament after the words of Consecration, al­beit the use of the elements bee changed, is cleere by the Fathers of this Age. Iustine Martyr saith, Iustin. Apolog. 2. that the elements of Bread and Wine in the Sacrament of the Supper, are made flesh, and the bloud of Iesus, in that same manner that the eternall Word of God was made flesh: but so it is, that the substance of the Divine na­ture, neither evanished nor yet was changed into the [Page 50] substance of flesh: and in like manner, the Bread is made the Body of Christ, neither by evanishing of the substance thereof, nor yet by changing the substance thereof into another substance.

Iustine Martyr telleth us, that the Bread and the Wine, even that [...] [...]u [...]in. A­polog. 2 in sin sanctified food wherewith our bloud and flesh by conversion are nourished, is that which we are taught to be the flesh and bloud of Iesus incarnate. Our Lord, saith Clemens of Alexandria, [...] C [...]m. A­l [...]andr. Paedagog lib. 2. cap. 2. pag 38. did blesse Wine, when he said, take, drinke, this is my bloud, the bloud of the Vine. Ire­naeus saith, Quomodo autem ju­stè Dominus, si alterius Patris existit, hu [...]us [...]on­ditionis quae est secundum nos, accipi [...]ns pa [...]em, suum corpus esse consit [...]batur. [...]en. lib 4. c p 57 [...] that our Lord, taking Bread of that condition, which is usuall among us, confessed it to be his Body: and Et cali [...]em similtèr, qui est [...]x ea c [...]atur [...], quae est se [...]undùm nos, suum sanguinem con [...]ss [...]s est. Id. ibid. lib [...] 4. cap 32. the Cup likewise containing that creature which is usuall among us, his bloud: so that in their construction, it was Bread and Wine which Christ called his Body; it was Bread in substance, mate [...]iall Bread, and the Body of the Lord in signification, and Sacramentall relation. The Lord called Bread his body, now since Bread could not be his body substantially, it must needs be, it was onely his bo­dy Sacramentally.

Of Images, and Prayer to Saints.

Concerning the use of Images, we find that in these best & ancient times, Christians were so far from bring­ing them into their Churches, that some of them would not so much as admit the Art it selfe of making them, so jealous were they of the danger, and carefull for the prevention of deceipt, whereby the simple might any way be drawn on to the adoring of them: we are plainly fo [...]bidden, saith Clemens Alexandrinus, [...] [...] Cle­ment. Alexan. Protrepti [...]. ad Gent. pag 24. to exercise that de­ceitfull Art; for the Prophet saith, Thou shalt not make the likenesse of any thing, either in the Heaven, or in the Earth beneath. [...]. Id. Pae [...]dag. lib. 3. cap 2. p [...]g 58. Moses commandeth men to make no Image, that should represent God by Art, [...]. Id. P [...]o­treptic. pag. [...]1. for in truth, an Image is a dead matter, formed by the hand of an artificer, but we have no sensible Image made of any sensible matter, but such an Image as is to be conceived with the understanding, [...]. Id. in Protreptic. oratione Adhortat ad Gentes. pag. 23.— [...]. I­bid. pag. 20. yea but thine [Page 51] Images are of Gold: be it so: now I pray thee, what is Gold, or Silver, Iron, Brasse, Ivorie, the Adamant, Diamond, or Precious Stones? Are they not terra et ex terrâ, are they ought but Earth and made of the Earth? now being nothing else but a piec [...] of more refined Earth, I have learned [...], not [...], terram calcare, non colere; to walke on the Earth, and not to worship it; to set my foote on it, not to bow my knee to it. And thus farre Clement of Alexandria, holding it a monstrous thing to bow downe to a stock or a stone.

Irenaeus reckons it among the abuses of the Gnostikes, Imagines quasdam de­pictas, quasdam de reliqu [...] Materi [...] fabricatas ha­bent, dicentes formam Christi factam [...] Pilato, e [...] has coronant. Iren. lib. 1. cap. 24. that they had certaine painted Images, and others made of o­ther stuffe, saying, that it was the Picture of Christ made by Pilate.

When the Emperour Adrian, in favour of the Christians Alexander Imperator Christo templum facere voluit, eumque inter Deos recipere: quod & Adri­anus cogitasse fertur, qui templa in omnibus civita­tibu [...] [...]ine simulachris jus­serat fieri, quae hodie id­circo quia non habent nu­mina, dicuntur Ad [...]iani [...] quae ille ad hoc parasse di­cebatur, sed prohibitus est ab ijs qui consulentes sa­cra, repererāt omnes Chri­stianos futuros si id optatò eveniss [...]t, & templa reli­qua deserenda. Lamprid. in Alexandro. had commanded that in every City, Churches should be built without Images, which at this day are called Adrians Temples, because they have no Gods in them; which they said he made for that end: to wit, to pleasure the Chri­stians; it was presently conceived, that he prepared those Temples for Christ, as Aelius Lampridius no­teh, in the life of Alexander Severus: which is an evi­dent Argument, that it was not the use of Christians in those dayes to have any Images in their Churches.

Learned Master Casa [...]bone in his notes upon this place of Lampridius, Historiam istam ad Tiberium potius referendā puto, quam Adrianum. Hadrianum autem templa sieri suo nomini mand [...]sse, quae eo morte praerepto im­perfecta postea & fine si­mulachris mansere; unde factum ut in animum inducerent multi non [...]ibi sed Christo templa ista extruxisse Adrianum, quibus assentitur Lampridius; ut qui norat, quod ignorare tum poterat nemo, & Iudaeos o [...]im in Hierosolomytanâ aede [...], Deum co [...]uisse, & suis etiam temporibus Chri­stianorum templa ejusmodi esse, qualia adhuc memorià suâ B. Augustinu [...] cum alibi prodit fuisse, tum in Psalmi 103. enarratione. Isaac. Causabon. in notis in hunc locum Lamp [...]id. thinketh that this story is rather to be re­ferred to Tiberius the Emperour, [...]han to Hadrian: and that Adrian causd Temples to be dedicated to his owne name, and th [...]se Temples, Adrian being prevented by death, remained unfinished, and without any Images at all: whence it came to passe, that many w [...]n thought that Adrian built those Temples not to himselfe, but unto Christ, and with these agreeth Lam­pridius [...] as one who knew, that which none could then be igno­rant of, that both the Iewes in the Temple at Hierusalem did [Page 52] worship God without Images and Pictures, as both Strabo and Dio write, and that in their dayes the Christian Churches were such, as afterwards Saint Austine reports them to have beene in his dayes.

Saint Austin upon the hundred and thirteenth Psalme, Hoc enim veneran­tu, quod ipsi ex auro ar­gento (que) [...]ec [...]runt, sed enim & nos plara (que) inst [...]umenta & vasa ex hujus modi ma­teri [...] vel metallo habemus in usum celebrando [...]um Sacramentorum Et sunt pro­ [...]cto etiam illa ins [...]rumen­ta vel vosa, q [...]d aliu [...] quàm opera manuum ho­minum? ve [...]untamen nun­quid or habent, & non lo­quentur? Nunquid its sup­plicamus quia per ea sup­plicamus Deo? plus val [...]nt s [...]melachra ad curvandam infael [...]m animam quod os hubent, oculos, aures; quàm id corrigendam, quod non loquentur, non vide­hunt, non audient. Aug. in Psal. 113. conc. 2. expounding those words of David, that Idols have a mouth and speake not, makes this objection, that the Church hath also divers instruments and vessels made of gold and silver, for the use of celebrating the Sacraments: but he answers, have these instruments mouths and speake not, eyes and see not? doe we addresse our prayers to them? now sure­ly he could not have spoken thus, if he had Images in Churches, or if Images had bin a part of the Churches Vtensils and moveables in his dayes.

Concerning Prayer to Saints, Iustine Martyr, Cle­mens Alexandrinus, and Tertullian have reported the pub­like formes of Christian service, and Religious excer­cises of the Primitive Christians, and yet make no mention of Prayer to Saints, or Angels, but onely of Prayer directed to God in the name and mediation of Christ alone.

Irenaeus tels us, Ecclesia per u [...]iver­sam mundum—Nec invo­cationibus Angeli [...] fac [...] ­ [...] a' [...]quid, nec incantatio­nibus, n [...] aliquâ pravâ curiosirate [...] sed mundè, & [...] & m [...]i [...]estè oratio­nes di [...]igentes ad Domi­num qui omnia facit, & nomen Domini nos [...] [...] Christi [ [...]nvo [...]ant, virtu [...]t [...]s] secundum utilitates b [...]onum sed non a [...] se­ [...]ducti [...]ne [...] per [...]e [...]it. [...]n. [...] 2. c [...]p [...] [...]7. [...] Fe­ [...] de [...] tius. that in his dayes the Church, per uni­versum mundum, throughout the whole World, doth nothing by Invocations of Angels, nor by Incantations, nor any wicked curiositie, but decently, comely, and manifestly, directeth her Prayers to God, which hath made all, and calls upon the name of our Lord Iesus. Irenaeus [...]aith not (as [...]Nec invo [...]ationibus Ang [...]l [...]] mal [...]gnorum vi­d [...] [...]p [...]tuum. [...]ev. [...]d. [...]. t [...]s in locum Ir [...]n [...]ei. Fevardentius, and the Papists now a dayes would teach him) that the Heretikes called upon false and imaginary Saints and Angels, and the Church upon the true Saints, and holy Angels; but this he saith, that the Church called upon God in Christ Iesus. Eusebius in his Storie, setteth downe Ver­batim a long Prayer used by Polycarp the Martyr, at the time of his suffering, wherin, if Invocation of Saints had beene reputed any part of Christian devotion in those dayes, he would undoubtedly in so great perill and at his dea [...]h, have recommended himselfe to God [Page 53] by the Prayers and Merits of Saints: but his forme of Praier is Protestant-like, tendered to God himselfe only by the mediation of Christ, concluding his Prayer in this man­ner: [...]. Euseb. Hist. lib. 4. cap. 15. therefore in all things I Praise thee, I blesse thee, I Glo­rifie thee through the eternall Priest [of our profession] Iesus Christ thy beloved Sonne, to whom with thee, O Father, and the Holy Ghost, be all Glory, now and for ever. Amen.

When the people of the Church of Smyrna desired to have the body, or bones of their Martyred [...] Bishop Polycarp to buriall, the Iewes perswaded the Governour not to grant it, for that then the Christians would leave Christ, and worship the body of Polycarp: to which surmise they re [...]urne this answer: [...]. Eccle. Smy [...]n, apud Euseb. l. 4. hist. cap. 15 pag. 39. we can never be indu­ced either to forsake Christ, which hath suffered for all that are saved in the World, [ [...] [...] with religious worship.] or to worship any other for him, being the Sonne of God [ [...]] wee adore him; but the Martyrs, as the Disciples and followers of the Lord [ [...]] them wee love worthily. Now when they say, that they cannot worship any other: our lear­ned and divine Antiquarie Doctour Vsher An Answer to the Iesuits Challenge. Of payer to Saints. pag. 426. observeth, that the Latine Edition of theirs, which was wont to be publikely read in these Churches of the West, ex­presseth their meaning in this manner: Nunquam Christum relinquere possumu [...] Cristi­ani, neque alterì cuiquam precem orat [...]onis impende­re. Ex Passionario MS. vij. Kalend. Febr. in Bib­liotheea Ecclesiae Saris­buriensis, & D [...] Robert [...] Cottoni. Wee Christians can never leave Christ, who did vouchsafe to suffer so great things for our Sinnes, nor impart the supplication of Prayer unto any other.


Irenaeus termeth the blessed Virgin V [...]i virgini [...] Evae vir­go Maria [...]ie [...]e [...] Advoc [...]a. I [...]en. lib. 5. c. 16. edit Gal­lasij c. 19. edit. Fevard. the Advocate of Eve.


Indeed Bellarmine Bellar. l. 1. de Sanct. Beat. c. 19. quid clar [...]us? cryeth up this place with a quid clarius? what can be said more plainely? and Fevar­dentius, answerable to his name, falls not upon Gallasius about this place. Now Irenaeus his meaning (as elswhere he expresseth himselfe, Sicut Eva, & fibi et universo generi humano causa facta est mortis; sic & Maria, e [...] [...]i, & uni­verso generi humano causa facta est salutis. Iren. lib. 3. cap. 33. [Causa salutis] causa pro organo exteriore accipitur. N [...]col. Gallas. in loc.) is this, and no more, that as by Eva Sinne came into the World, and by Sinne death; so by the Virgins meanes, life and salvation instrumentally, in that [Page 54] she was that chosen vessell of the Holy Ghost, to beare him in her wombe, who by taking flesh of her, redeemed us from the curse of death. And thus she was the Advo­cate or Comforter of Evah and her children, by bea­ring Christ, and not because she was invocated, as a me­diatour, after her death by Evahs children.

Of Faith and Merit.

Irenaeus (as Chemnitius observeth Et [...]è quid allud est, quam exclusiva, quod Ire­ [...]au [...] habet. lib. 4. c. 37.38. Non aliter servar [...] ho­mines ab antiquà Se [...]pentis plag [...] nisi credant in cum, &c Chemnit. loc. Theo­log. de Iustif. 2. part p. 773.) though he speake not expressely of Sola Fides, yet he useth termes equiva­lent to that exclusive particle: saying that there is no way to be saved from the sting of that old Serpent the Devill, but by beleeving in Christ.

The Fathers of this Age, the most of them allea­ged (if not all Mi [...]i nondum satis liquet Graece ne scripserit, an Latine, etiamsi magis arbi [...]or L [...]tine scripsisse. E [...]in [...] pr [...]fat. in Iren. Phrasis ejus [ [...]en [...]e [...]] Graecismum redolet. Bel­larm. de S [...]riptor Eccles.) wrote in Greeke, and could not under­stand Merit. And Polycarp the Martyr in his Prayer a­bove mentioned, useth the terme [...], not for to de­serve, but for to attaine, procure, or find favour. I thanke thee O Father (saith he [...]. Euseb. lib. 4. cap. 15.) [...], that thou hast graciouslie vouchsafed this day and this houre to allot me a por­tion among the number of Martyrs. Now surely had the doctrine of Merit beene Catholike in his dayes, he would doubtlesse being now in extremis, and upon his fiery tryall, have recommended himselfe to God by the Prayers and Merits of Saints; but he neither pleades his owne, nor others Merits, none but Chaists.

In this Age Polycrates Bishop of Ephesu [...], and other Ea­ste [...]ne Bishops in Asia, withstood the Pope about keeping the Feast of Easter; Euseb. hist lib. 5 ca. [...]1.22, 23. they prooved their custome to be received from Saint Iohn, and that it was practised and continued by Polycarp the Martyr, and others. This did so vex Pope Victor, as that he excommunicated the Churches of Asia V [...] omnes Eccle [...]ia A­ [...] ab eodem V [...]ctore Ro­mano [...]xcommunicat [...] [...]ue­ri [...]. Bell [...]. de verbo Dei lib [...] 3 [...] cap. 6. § Secundo.: neither did he revoke his Q [...]d Vic [...] sententiā s [...]m m [...]ve [...]it, nusquam le [...]im [...] Bellarm. lib [...] 2. de P. [...] c 19. § [...] at obijcit. censure for ought that Bellarmine can find: and yet Irenaeus a godly Bishop of Lyons in France, sharply rebuked Euseb. cap. 23. the Pope for trou­bling the peace of the Church: yea P [...]lycrates stood at [Page 55] defiance with the Pope, and contemned his threates, Euseb. cap. 22. to wit, excommunications.


This was no great difference.


If it were a matter of small weight, why then would the Pope excommunicate so many famous Churches for dissenting from him therein? Besides, Bellarmine saith, Qu [...]niam ergò Papa vide [...]at illam diver [...]itatem de Paschate adferre secum Haere [...]in. Bellar. de Rom. Pont. lib. 2. cap. 19. S. Quoniam. that the Pope conceived that this difference might breede heresie; belike then he thought it a mat­ter of consequence.

Howsoever by this oposition to the See of Rome we may observe: that had those ancient Churches of Asia acknowledged the Popes Supremacie, they would not have thus opposed his Constitutions, nor sleighted his Censures.

In this Age also I find that when Lucius a Christian Prince in this our Britaine, sent to Pope Elentherius, to receive some Lawes thence, the Bishop returned him this Answer, as appeares by a Letter or Epistle usually inserted Haec Epistola com­muniter habetur inter le­ges Divi Edwardi. Anti­quitat. Britan. pag. 5. in Margine. amongst the Lawes of Saint Edward the Con­fess [...]ur: Habetis penes vos in regno vtram (que) paginam, c [...] illis Dei gratia per Conci­lium regni vestri sumere po [...]estis legem, vicarius ve­rò Dei [...]is in regno. An­tiquitat. Britan. p [...]g. 5. There are already within your owne Kingdome the Old and New Testament, out of which by the Councell of your Kingdome, you may take a Law to Governe your people, for you are the Vicar of Christ within your own kingdom. Whence we may observe, that (howsoever the Papists now a­dayes labour to prove Bellarminus lib. 2. de Rom. Pont. ca. 19. probare nititur primatum Papae [...] ex ferendi [...] legibus, & cen­suris. the Popes Supremacie, by his giving of Lawes, and inflicting his Censures on others,) yet in these ancient times, even by the Popes owne acknow­ledgement, the King was held to be Supreame Governour within his owne Kingdome.


Belike then, Britaine was now Converted to the Faith.


It was converted before this time, for in the Raigne of this Lucius, Dicetas, Deane of London, a Manuscript in the Kings Library ad ann. 178. alledged by M. S [...]eds History of Great Br [...]tain, Book 6. cap. 9. sect. 18. lived those two learned British Divines, Elvanus of Glastenbury, and Medvinus of Wells; and [Page 56] these two were sent by King Lucius to the Bishop of Rome, to desire a supply of Preachers to assist the Bri­taines; and with them returned Faganus and Damia­nus, and these jointly with the Britaines, preached the Gospell, and Baptised amongst the Britaines, whereby many were daily drawne to the Fa [...]th of Christ, and the Temples of the heathenish Priests their Flamines, and Archflamines (as they termed them) were converted into so many Bishops, and Archbishops Sees; as the Monke of Chester, Ranulphus Higden, Polychronic. lib. 4. cap. 16. pag. 163. reports. Neither yet is this to be called a conversion of our Iland, but rather a new supply of Preachers [...] for Iohn Capgrave a Domynick [...] Frier, (one whom Conv [...]rsi [...]n of Eng­land, 1 Part. Ch [...]p. 1. num. 25. Parsons commends for a Learned man) reports, that Elvanus the Britaine, had dispersed thorow the wilde fields of Britaine, those seeds of the Gospel, that Ioseph of Arimathea had for­merly Ioseph ab Arimathea anno ab I [...]carnatione 63. cum d [...]cem socijs i [...] Bri­tannia fid [...]m Christi prae­dicab [...]nt. Nova Legenda Angliae pag. 187. colum­n [...] 4. sowne, and that the Pope made Elvanus Bishop in Britaine, and Medvinus a Doctour to preach the Faith of Christ throughout the whole Iland; which sheweth that when they were sent Ambassadours to to Ele [...]therius Bishop of Rome, they were then no novi­ces, but learned and practised Divines, as one of their owne Historians Lucius Brittaunorum Rex literas per Elvanum & Medvinum viros rerū divinarum peritos ad cum mitte [...]at [Eleutherium] Richardus Vitus Basing­stoochiensis. Histor. lib. 5. pag. 1. calleth them.

THE THIRD CENTVRIE, From the yeare of Grace, 200. to 300.


WHom name you in this Age?


In this Age there flourished Tertullian, Origen, and Saint Cyprian; now also lived Minutius Felix a famous Lawyer in Rome, Arnobius and his eloquent Scholler Lactantius. Tertullian was a man of a quicke and pregnant wit; hee wrote learned and strong Apologies in the behalfe of Christians; Cyprian read daily some part of his writings, and so reverenced him, that hee used to say to his Secretary, Ad notarium dicere consuevit, Da Magistrum, Tertullianum videlicet de­signans. Hieron. in Catal. Scriptor. Eccles. Da magi­strum, helpe me to my Tutour, reach me my master; meaning Tertullian: afterwards, through spight of the Roman Clergie, hee revolted to the Montanists, and was taken up with their idle Prophecies, and Revelations.

Origen was in this his age, a mirrour of piety, and of learning of all sorts, both divine and humane; he con­ferred the Hebrew text, Euseb. lib. [...]. cap. 16. with the Greeke translations, not onely of the Septuagints, but also the translations of Aquila, Theodosion, and Symmachus; hee found out other editions also, which hee set forth and called them Octupla or [...], because every page contayned eight columnes, or severall translations, such as were then in estimation: hee was of so happy a memory, that hee [Page 58] had the Bible without booke; Scripturas memori­tèr tenuit. Hier. ad Pam­mach. & Ocean. Novu [...] et vetus Testa­mentum v [...]lut alter Esdras memor [...]tèr noverat. Tri­ [...]hem. de scriptor. Eccles. and could at the sam [...] time dictate unto seven severall Clarkes or Nota­ries: Septem Notarijs po­tuit dictare. Trithem. Ib. hee was of such esteeme, that divers would say, Vincent. Lirinens. de H [...]res. cap. 23. Malle se cum Origene errare, quàm cum alijs ver [...] sentire; that they had rather erre with Origen, than thinke aright with others: hee exhorted others to Martyrdome, and from his child-hood was himselfe desirous of the honour thereof; but in the seventh persecution under Decius hee fainted, and his heart was so overset with feare to have his chaste body defiled with an ugly Ethiopian, that hee chose rather to offer incense to the Idoll, then to bee so filthily abused; for this cause hee was excommunicated by the Church of Alexandria, and for very shame fled to Iudea, wher [...] he was not on­ly gladly received, but also requested publikely to preach at Hierusalem: But so it was, Epiphanius cōtr [...] H [...] ­resin 64. lib. 2. tom. 1. in [...] ­dit. L [...]. falling upon that place of the Psalmist; Vnto the ungodly saith God; why doest thou preach my Lawes, and takest my Covenant in thy mouth? whereas thou hatest to bee reformed, and hast cast my words behind thee: [Psalm. 50.16.17.] These wo [...]ds so deepely wounded his heart with griefe, that hee clo­sed the booke, and sate downe and wept, and all the congregation wept with him. In expounding the Scriptures, hee was curious in searching out of Allego­ries; and yet falling on that place Math. 19.12. Some have gelded themselves for the kingdome of heaven, hee tooke those words literally, and gelded himselfe, to the end hee might live without all suspition of uncleannesse: Amore castitati [...], ut mulier [...]bu [...] securè auderet pradicare, se castrari fecit. Trithem de Scriptor. Ec­clesiast. whereas hee expounded almost all the rest of the Scriptures figuratively. Hee held a fond opinion, con­cerning the paines of devils, and wicked men, after long torments to bee finished. It is usually said of him, Vbi bene scripsit, nem [...] melius, ubi malè, nemo pejus: where hee wrote well [...] n [...]ne better; so that wee may say of him, as Ieremy of his figs, the good, none better, the evill, non [...] worse, Ier. 24.2. Cypria [...] [...] was a learned godly Bishop, and glorious Martyr, he erred (indeed) in that he would [Page 59] have had, such as had beene baptized by Heretikes, if afterwards they returned to the true Church, to bee rebaptized: yet he was not obstinate in his errour: hee was as A [...]stin saith of him, Non solum do [...] sed etiam do [...]ibilis. August. l. 4. de Baptis. cap. 5. not onely learned, but docible, and willing to bee learned; and that Satis f [...]cilimè o [...]tendit se correctu [...]um fuisse sen­tentiam suam, si quis e [...] de­monstraret. Id. Ibid. lib. 2. cap 4. hee would most easily have altered his opinion, had this question in his life time beene debated by such learned and holy men, as afterwards it was: so that S. Austin makes this observation touching Cyprians errour; Prop [...]ere [...] non vidit aliquid, ut per [...]um aliud super eminent [...]us videre [...]ur. Id. Ibid. lib. 1. cap. 18. hee therefore saw not this one truth touching Rebaptization, that others might see in him a more eminent and excellent truth; to wit, his humilitie, modestie, and ch [...]ritie.

Of the Scriptures sufficiencie and Canon.

Tertullian, though hee stood for Ceremoniall tradi­tions unwritten, and for Doctrinall traditions which were first delivered from the Apostles by word of mouth, and afterwards committed to writing; yet dea­ling with Hermogenes the Hereticke in a question con­cerning the faith, (whether all things at the beginning were made of nothing?) presseth him with an Argu­ment ab Authoritate negativè; Whether all things were made of any subject matter, I have An autem de aliquâ subjacenti materiâ f [...]cta si [...]t omnia, [...]usquam ad­huc legi; Scriptum esse do­ceat Hermogenis Officina. Si non est scriptum, tim [...]a [...] vae illud adijci [...]tibus aut de [...]rahentibus des [...]inatum. Tertul. advers. Hermog. cap. 22. as yet read no where (saith hee) Let those of Hermogenes his shop shew that it is written: if it bee not written, let them feare that w [...]e which is allotted to such as adde or take away: but for him­selfe hee professeth, that Adoro Scripturae pi [...] ­n [...]tudin [...]m. Id. Ibid. hee adoreth the fulnesse of the Scripture. And why may not wee also argue nega­tively, touching divers Tenets of Poperie? that from the beginning it was not so, Math. 19.8.

In the two Testaments (saith Origen In quibus liceat om­ne verbum quod ad D [...]um pe [...]tinet r [...]quiri et discuti; atque ex ip [...]is om [...]em re­rum scientiam c [...]pi. Si qu [...]d [...]tem super [...]uerit quod non divina Scriptura de­cernat [...] nullam aliam de be­re terti [...]m scripturam ad authoritatem scientiae sus­cipi. Orig. in Levit. Ho­mil. 5. tom. 1.) eve [...]y word that appertaineth to God may bee required and discussed; and all knowledge of things out of them may be understood: but if any thing doe remaine, which the holy Scripture doth not determine; no other third Scripture ought to be received for to authorize any knowl [...]dge. Origen in his exposition upon the first Psalme, faith, w [...]e may not bee ignorant, there are [Page 60] two and twenty bookes of the old Testament after the He­brewes; which is the number of the Letters among them. This is likewise witnessed by Eusebius, Euseb. lib. 6 Histo [...]. cap [...] 24. that as Origen received the Canon of the Iewes, so likewise he re­iected those sixe bookes which wee terme Apocriphall with the Iewes.

Of Communion under both; and the number of Sacraments.

Tertullian speaking in generall of Christians, saith, Caro corpore et san­guine Christi [...]escitur, ut & anim [...] de Deo sagine­tur. Tertul de Resurrect. cap. 8. the flesh feedeth upon the body and blood of Christ, that the soule may be fat [...]ed, as it were of God: hee speakes of the body and blood of Christ as distinct things; saying, Corpore & sanguine; and elsewhere he mentions the Cup given to a Lay-woman, saying, De cujus manu d [...] ­ [...]iderabit? de cujus po [...]ulo participabit? Ter [...]ul. lib. [...]. ad V [...]orem cap. 6. from whose hands shall shee desire the Sacramentall Bread, of whose Cup shall shee participate? hee speaketh of a Christian woman mar­ried to an Infidell, and sheweth the inconvenience of such a match, whereby the faithfull wife was like to bee debarred of the comfort of receiving the Sacrament, and drinking of the Lords Cup. Origen maketh this question; Populus in usu habet sanguinem bibere. Origen. hom. 16. in Num. What people is it, that is accustomed to drinke blood? and hee answereth the faithfull people. Hereunto Bellarmine sai [...]h; Respondeo, habet in usu, non in precepto Bellar. de Euchar. lib. 4 cap. 26. the people did drinke, but they had no comm [...]nd so to doe; where hee grants us, that communi­cating under both kinds, was the Agend or Church practise in this age: besides, Origen in this very place alleadgeth Christs praecept for the Cup out of the sixt of Iohn.

Cyprian speaking of such as in time of pers [...]cution, had lapsed and not stucke to the truth, and ther [...]upon were barred from the Communion, hee desires that upon their repentance they may bee admitted, and hee gives this reason: Quomodo a [...] Martyrij poculum idone [...]s facimus si non eos pri [...]s ad bibendum in Ecclesi [...] pocu ū Domini jure cōmunicationis admit­timus? Cyprian. epist. 54. [...]om. 1.—lib. 1. epist. 2. in alijs edit. How shall wee sit them for the Cup of Martyrdome, if before wee admit them not by right of Com­munion to drinke of the Lords cup in the Church? And againe; In calice Domini san­ctificando, & plebi mini­strando, non hoc faciunt, quod Iesus Christus sacri­ficij hu [...]us auctor et doctor, [...] et do [...]uit. Id. Epist. 63.—lib. 2. ep. 3. Because some men out of ignorance, or simplicity [Page 61] in Sanctifying the Cup of the Lord, and ministring it to the people; doe not that which Iesus Christ our Lord and God, the Authour and Institutour of this Sacrifice did and taught: Where albeit the maine scope of the Epistle bee, to prove the necessity of administring the Sacrament in Wine, and not in meere water, as the Aquarij did; yet on the bye he discovers the practice of the Church for both kinds; and saith expressely, that the Cup was mi­nistred, or delivered to the people.

Tertullian, in divers places Nec alibi conjunctos ad Sacramentum Baptis­matis, & Eucharistiae ad­mittens. Tertul. advers. Marcion. lib. 4. cap. 34. & de Co [...]onâ Militis. cap 3. of his works acknow­ledgeth the same Sacraments with us, to wit, Baptisme, and the Lords Supper: and Beatus Rhenanus in his notes upon Tertullian, observes the same, and for this hee is brought under the Spanish inquisition, Censurae Inquisitio­nis Hispanicae in B. Rhe­nani Aannotationes ad Tertullian. Prout edita sunt in [...]udice Libror. Ex­purgator. jussu Quiroga. Madriti 1584. ex libro 4. advers. Marcion. Dele­antur illa verba, [Baptis­mus & Eucharistia duo Sacramenta Primitivae ec­clesiae.] and roughly en­tertained for his paines, as appeares by a Censure passed on him, and extant Tertulliani opera cum c [...]stigat. Fr. Iunij in Bib­liop. Commel [...]o. 1609. in the latter end of Tertul­lians Works.

Of the Eucharist.

Tertullian disputing against Marcion, who denied that Christ had a true Body, confuteth him by a reason drawne from the Sacrament of the Supper, in this manner.

A Figure of a Body, presupposeth a true Body, for of a shew or phantasie there can be no Figure.

But Christ gave unto his Disciples a Figure of his Body.

Therefore Christ had a true Body.

Tertullians words are these: Ac [...]ptum panem & distributum discipulis, cor­pus suum illum fecit, hoc est corpus meum dicendo, id est, Figura corporis mei: figura autem non fuis­set, nisi veritatis esset cor­pus: c [...]terum vacua res, quod est phantasma, figu­ram capere non posset. Ter­tul. advers. Marcion. lib 4. cap. 40. Christ taking the Bread, and distributing it to his Disciples, made it his Body, saying, This is my Body, that is to say, this is a figure of my Body, but a figure it could not be, unlesse there were a Body of a truth and in deed: for a void thing as is a fantasie, can receive no figure. Here Tertullian affirmeth expressely of Bread, which he received into his hand, and distributed to his Disciples, that it it is a figure of Christs Body. The Rhemists an­swer, Rhemists Annot. on Math. 26. chap. sect. 9. that when some Fathers call the Bread, a figure or [Page 62] signe, they meane the outward formes of Bread and Wine; but Tertullian proving the truth of Christs humanitie, by the Sacrament of the Supper, interprets these words, This is my Body, that is to say, the figure of my Body; where, if by the figure of Christs Body, there were nothing else to be understood, but the formes, and outward shapes, the Here [...]ike upon this construction might have concluded for himselfe; that the figure of his Body is nothing but a bare forme and shape of a thing, there­fore he himselfe was nothing else but a [...]hew of a Body, no true Body.

Others expound Tertullians words in this sort: Master Fisher in D. White [...] Reply 6 point. pa. 400.401. The figure of my Body is my Body, or this Bread which under the Law, was a figure of my Body, is now my Body.

But Tertullian both here, and in divers other places, [...] Deus in E­vangelio reve [...]avi [...], panem corpus suū appellans. Ter­tul. con. Marcion. l 3. c. 19. Panem quo corpus suum repraesentat. Ibid. l. 1. c. 14. Et contra Iudaeos. cap. 10. makes Bread the Subject of the proposition, this is my Body, now the Accidents and shape of Bread, are not Bread.

In a word Tertullian sheweth that Christ called Bread his Body, in saying, this is my Body, as the Prophet Iere­mie [Venite mittamus lig­num in [...]nem ejus. Ierem. 11.] Vti (que) in corpus; sic enim De [...]s in Ev [...]ngelio, panem corpus suum appel­lan [...] ut & hin [...] [...]am eum intellig [...] corpori [...] sui figu­ram p [...]ni dedisse, cujus re­tr [...] co [...]poris in panem Pro­phetes figuravit. Tertul. l. 3. advers. Marcion. c. 19. called the body bread, in saying, Let us put wood upon his bread, meaning his Body; shewing them both to be spoken equally in a figurative sense. For although Tertullian say, that the Bread of the Old Testament was a figure of Christs body, yet he denyeth not there­by that it is so in the new.

The truth is, Tertullians exposition is so full for us, that Gregorie Valence rejects it. Greg. de Valent. in Sum. Aquin. tom. 4 disp. 6. de praes [...]nti [...] Ch [...]isti in Euchar. pag. 968. Paris. 1609.

Cyprian in the third Epistle of his second booke, saith, Vinum fuit, quod san­guinem suum dix [...]t. Wee find that the Cup which the Lord offered was mixed, and that that which he called bloud was wine. So that if we aske Cyprian, what consecrated thing it was which Christ had in his hands, and gave to his Disciples? he answereth, D [...]dit Dominus no­ster in mens [...] proprijs ma­nibus panem & vinum; in cruce verò manibus mili­tum corpus tradidit vulne­r [...]dum. Vt significant [...] & sig­nificata eisdem vocabuli [...] consecre [...]tur. Cypr. lib. de V [...]ctione num. 7. it was bread and wine; and not absolutely that, which hee gave up to be crucified on the Crosse by Soul­diers, (namely) his body and bloud; if againe we demand of Cyprian, why Christ called the bread which he had [Page 63] in his hand, his body? he readily answereth, saying, the things signifying (or signes) are called by the same names, whereby the things signified are termed.


Cyprian saith, that this bread is changed, not in shape, but in nature, naturâ mutatus, Panis iste non e [...]igie, sed naturâ mutatus omni­potentia verbi factus est ca­ro. Cypr. de coena. Dom. nu. 6. and by the omnipotencie of God, is made flesh: now omnipotencie is not required to make a thing to be a signe significant. Omnipotentia non requiritur, ad faciendum ut res aliquid significet. Bel. lib. 2. de Euch c. 14.


Bellarmine saith, Bellar de scriptor. Ec­cles. & lib. 2 de Euch [...]r. cap. 9. § extet. Et de Confirmat. lib. 2. cap. 6. Cyprian was not the Author of the booke De Coenâ Domini; and he saith well, for these Sermons are extant Doctor Iames of the Bast [...]rdie of Fathers. Part. 1. pag. 12. in All-Soules Colledge Library in Oxford, in an ancient Manuscript under the name of Ar­noldus Bonavillacensis, and Dedicated not to Pope Corne­lius, (as these are pretended) but to Adrian the fourth, about the yeare 1150, the same time that Saint Bernard lived, and wrote an Epistle to this Arnoldus.

But to let it passe for Cyprians; it followes not, the bread is changed in nature, therefore it is Transubstantia­ted; for every change of nature is not a change of sub­stance; nature implies qualities and properties, as well as substances: an evill man changeth his nature when he becomes a good man, yet is he not Transubstantia­ted; bread is ch [...]nged when of common it becomes consecrated to an holy use, and office, and omnipoten­cie is required to make the dead and corruptible ele­ments, a bit of bread, and a draught of wine, not one­ly significative, but truly exhibitive seales of the body and bloud of Christ; and to elevate them so high as to bee chanels and effectuall instruments of Grace.

Besides, the Author by the words naturâ mutatus, changed in na [...]ure, understood not a coporall change; for in the same sentence he declareth himselfe, Et sicut in person [...] Christi, humanitas vide­batur, & la [...]ebat divini­tas; it [...] Sacramento visi­bili, ineffabiliter divina se insudit essentia. Cypr. de coena Dom. num. 6. by the ex­ample of Christs humanitie, which being personally united to the Deitie, is changed, but not so as that it loo­seth his naturall forme and substance.

Origen against Christs Body going into the Draught.

To proceed, Origen saith, Ille cibus quì sanc [...] [...]icatur per verbum Dei, per (que) objecrationem, juxta id quod habet materiale, in ventrem abit, & in se [...]es­sum [...]ij citur; caeterùm jux­ta precationem qu [...] illi a [...] ­cessit pro port [...]o [...]e [...]idei fit ut [...]lis: nec materia panis, sed super illum dictus ser­mo est, qui prodest non in­dignè domino comeden [...]i il­lum: & haec quidem de Typico Symbolicoque cor­pore. Origen. in Math. cap. 15. that meat which is Sancti­fied by Gods Word and Prayer, as touching the materiall part thereof, goeth into the belly, and is voyded into the draught; but as touching the Prayer which is added according to the portion of Faith, it is made profitable; neither is it the mat­ter of bread, but the word spoken over it, which profits him that doth not unworthily eate thereof; and these things I speake of the Typicall and Symbolicall bodie. Here wee see Origen disting [...]isheth betweene the Spirituall bread, which is the reall body of Christ, and the bread Sacra­mentall, saying, that not that body, but this bread goeth into the draught, or seege, which no sanctified heart can con­ceive of Christs body.

Now whereas Bellarmine saith, Bellar. lib. 2 de Eu­c [...]ar. cap. 8. §. ad tertium. that the Accidents onely are called by Origen the materiall part: wee answer that it was never heard that meere Accidents were cal­led (which are Origens words in this place) either meates or materialls.

The truth is, this place of Origens touching the ty­pical and symbolical body, is so cleere for us, that Six­tus Senensis growes jealous of it: to speake my mind free­ly (saith he Ego, ut liberè pronun­ [...]em sen [...]entiam meam su [...]picor hunc locum suisse a [...] hereticis depravatum. Sixt. Sen. Biblioth [...] Sanct. lib. 6. Annot 66.) I suspect this place to bee corrupted by He­retikes.

Of Images, and Prayer to Saints.

Concerning Images, Origen replieth thus to Celsus the Philosopher; that [...]. Origen. contr. Celsum. li. 7. pag. 3 [...]6. it is not a thing possible that one should know God, and Pray to Images; and that Christians did [...]. Id. ibid. pag. 387. not esteeme these to be Divine Images, who used not to describe any figure of God, who was invisible and without all bodily shape, nor could endure to worship God with any such kinde of service as this was. In like manner, when the Gentiles demanded of the ancient Christians, Cur nullas aras ha­bent, te [...]pl [...] nulla, nulla nota simula [...]hr [...]? Min. Felix in Octavio. pag. 27. why they had no knowne Images? Minutius Felix returnes them for [Page 65] answer againe: Quod enim simula­ch [...]um Deo singam, [...]ùm si recte existimes, sit Dei ho­mo ipse simulachrum. Id. ibid. pag. 104. What Image shall I make to God, when man himselfe, if thou rightly judge, is Gods Image? and a­gaine, Cruces c [...]iam n [...] co­limus, n [...] optamus. Id. ibid. pag. 97. we neither worship, nor wish for Crosses: these holy Images which vaine men serve, want all sense, because they are earth. Now who is there that understandeth not, that it is un [...]it for an upright creature to be bowed downe, that he may worship the earth? which for this cause is put under our feete, that it may be troden upon, not worshipped by us, Ipsae imagines sacrae, quibus vaniss [...] homines servlunt, omni sensu c [...] ­ [...]ent, quoniam terra sunt: quis autem non intelligat, nesas esse rectum animal curvari, ut ad ret t [...]ram? quae id [...]irco pedibus nostris [...]ubjecta est, ut cal [...]and [...] nobis, non adoranda [...]it. L [...]ctan [...] Divinar. Iustit. li. 2. cap. 18. wherefore there is no doubt, that there is no Religion, wheresoever there is an Image: Quare non est dubi­um, quin Religio nulla sit, ubi [...]u [...] (que) simulachrum est. Id. ibid. cap 19. thus farre Lactantius.

Tertullian stood not onely against adoration of Ima­ges, but al [...]o against the very making of them; Idolum t [...]m sieri qu [...]m coli Deus prohibet. Tertul. de Idolatr [...] c [...]p. 4. & 5. as for­merly Clemens Alexandrinus had done.

Concerning Saintly Invocation, Origen saith, [...]. Origen lib. 8. cont. Celsum. pag. 432. wee must endeavour to please God alone, and labour to have him Propitious unto us, procuring his good [...]will with godl [...]nesse, and all kind of vertue. And if Celsus will yet have us to procure the good [...]will of any others, after him that is God over all, let him consider, that as when the body is moved, the motion of the shadow thereof doth follow it; so in like manner, having God favourable unto us, who is over all, it followeth that wee shall have all his friends, both Angels, and Soules, and Spi­rits loving unto us. And whereas Celsus had said of the Angels, that they belong to God, and in that respect, we are to pray unto them, that they may be favourable to us; to this Origen answereth in this manner: [...]. Id. ibid. pag. 406. Away with Celsus his Councel, saying, that we must pray to Angels; for we must pray to him alone who is God over all, and we must pray to the Word of God, his onely begotten, and the first borne of all creatures, and we must intreat him, that he as high Priest would present our Prayer (when it comes to him) unto his God, and our God.


Iesuit Fisher saith, M. Fishers Rejoynder to D. Whites Reply. that Origen in his writings upon Iob O bea [...]e Iob ora pro no­bis miseris. Orig. l 2. in Iob and Numbers Quis dubitat quod san­ctique (que) orationibus nos [...] ­vent. Orig. in cap. 31. num. taught Invocation of Saints.


Bellarmine saith, Bellar. de Scriptor. Ec­cles in Origen. that Origen was not the author of [Page 66] those bookes upon Iob: for therein is mention made of the Homousians (so the Arrians called the Orthodox belee­vers). Now the Arrians rose not till after Origens time.

Origen indeed upon the Canticles saith, Si dix [...]ris sanctos pro nobis orare non erit incon­veniens. Orig. in Cant. cap 2. it is not incon­venient to say, that the Saints pray for us; and in his Ho­mily upon Iosuah, he [...]aith, Ego fic arbitror, quod om [...]es illi qui do [...]mie [...]uat ante no [...] P [...]tres, pugnent nub [...]seum, & adj [...]e [...]t nos oratio [...]ib [...]s sui [...]. Origen. in Ios. Homil 16. I doe thinke thus, that all those Fathers who are departed this life before us, doe assist us with their Prayers: and in another place he saith, [...]m [...] si etiam ex­trà corpus positi sancti, a­gunt aliqu [...], & laborant pro nobis, ha [...]atur hoc quoque inter [...]ulta Dei, nec [...]ha [...] [...] committenda m [...] st [...]ria. I [...]. lib 2 in epist. ad Rom cap 2. if the Saints that have left the body, and be with Christ, doe any thing, and labour for us; let this also remaine among the hid­den things of God, and mysteries that are not to be committed unto writing. Now we yeeld that the Saints pray for us in generall; yet hence it followeth not, that we should direct our prayers to them. Besides, Origens, if, and, as I suppose, and it is not inconvenient to say so; these are but [...]aint affirmations, shewing that he speaketh doubtfully, as on not fully resolved that it was so, and in conclusion determineth, si laborant pro nobis, if in particular, upon particulars, they doe labour for us, yet it is amongst Gods secrets, and a mysterie not to be committed to writing.


It appeareth by Saint Cyprian, Si quis nostr [...]m pri­er d [...]vin [...] dignationis ce­ [...]eritate pracesseri [...], p [...]r­severet [...]pud cum nustra dilectio pro fratribus & sororibus [...]pud m [...]ericor­d [...]m Patris non ce [...]et o­ratio Cypr. lib. 1. epist. 1. vel (ut in alij [...] edit.) epist. 57. ad Cornel. & de Dis­cipl. & ha [...]itu. virg. that the Faithfull u­s [...]d to covenant in their life time, that whether of them went to heaven before the other, he should pray for his surviving friend.


Concerning Saint Cyprians conceipt, that the Saints after death remembred their old friends here, as having taken fresh and particular notice of their severall states, votes, and necessities; it followeth not thence, that other Saints unacquainted with our particular desires and exi­gents, doe in particular, and by their merits, intercede for the living; and though they should make sute on our behalfe, yet we have no warrant to pray to them.

To close up this poynt of Prayer to Saints, Tertul­lian, Cyprian, Gregory Nyssen, with others, have written [Page 67] set Treatises de Oratione, of Prayer, and therein they de­liver nothing touching this Saintly invocation: but teach us to regulate Alitèr orare quàm Christus do [...]uit, non igno­rantia sola est, sed & cul­pa. Cypr. de Orat. Dom. all our Prayers according to that perfect patterne prescribed by our great Master; where­in wee are required to direct our Petitions unto our Fa­ther which is in heaven: Math 6.9. Luk. 11.2.

These things (saith Tertullian Haec ab alio orare non poss [...]m quàm à quo me sci [...] consecuturum, quoniam & ipse est qui solus praestat, et ego sum cui impetrare de­betur, famulus e [...]us, qui e­um solùm observo. Tertul. in Apologet. cap. 30. in his Apologie for the Christians in his time) I may not pray for from any other, but from him of whom I know I shall obtayne them; because both it is he who is alone able to give, and I am he unto whom it appertaines to obtaine that which is requested, being his ser­vant, qui eum solum observo, who observe him alone.

Of Faith and Merit.

Origen saith Dicit sufficere solius Fidei Iustificationem. Orig. lib. 3. in epist. ad Rom. c. 3. that Faith onely suffiseth to justificati­on; and concerning Merit, the same Origen saith, Vix mihi suadeo, quòd possit ullū opus esse, quod [...]x debito remunerationē Dei depos [...]at; cùm c [...]iam hoc ipsum, quòd agere aliquid possumus, vel cogitare, vel proloqui, ipsius d [...]no [...] & largitate [...]aciamus. Orig. lib. 4. in epist. ad Rom. c. 4. I ca [...] [...]ardly hee perswaded, that there can bee any worke which may require the reward of God by way of debt, seeing this very thing it selfe, that wee can doe, or thinke, or speake any thing, we doe it by his gift and largesse.


Did not Origen and Tertullian hold Purgatory?


Bellarmine indeed alledgeth Bellar [...] lib. de purgat. cap. 4. §. tertio. Tertullians Booke de Ani­mâ for proofe of Purgatory; but it is well knowne Hoc etiam Paraclet commendavit. Tertul. de Animâ. cap ult. that hee was led with the spirit of Montanus the Here­ticke when he wrote that booke: and for Origen, Bellar­mine Non desue [...]unt, qui purga [...]orium adeò proba [...]riot, ut nullas poenas nis [...] pu [...]gato [...] [...]as post ha [...]c vit [...] agnoverin [...], it a O [...]genes sensit, qui & Daemonibus t [...]ndem salutem polli [...]tur. Bellar. ibid. c 2. § Por [...]. confesseth, hee was one of those who approoved so much of Purgatory, that he acknowledged no other paines after this life, but Purgatory penalties onely; so that with him Hell and Purgatory were all one.


In Saint Cyprians time, Cyprian lib 3 [...]p [...]. 15. Tertulli [...]n de Pudicit [...] cap 22. the Martyrs intreated the Church for mitigation of penance imposed upon some offenders; so that the satisfactions and suffering of Martyrs were communicated to others, and thereby their indulgence or pardon was procured.


In those times of persecution, when many weake ones fell away from the open profession of the truth, and sacrifised to Idols, the Church sought by all meanes to honour Martyrdome, and incourage Christians there­unto; so that upon the request of imprisoned Con­fessors, and designed Martyrs, the Bishops were wont to release some time the Canonicall censure injoy­ned by the Church: but these Martyrs did not he [...]eby think that they had made satisfaction for the temporall paine of Sin. Besides, this was spoken of living Martyrs, and not of Ma [...]tyrs defunct; and of releasing censures, & forgiving faults in this world only, & not in Purgato [...]y.


Did not Cyprian hold Saint Peters Supremacie?


Hee might doe much with Pamelius his helpe, who hath taken the Marginall glosse, Petro primatus datur, and put [...] Fathers. [...] M. Be [...]el in his [...] to M. Wadsworth p [...]g. 101. B. Bilson. Di [...]ference of sub [...]ction and reb [...]llion. [...] part pag. 89. it into Cyprians text; whereas Cyprian in the self [...]-same Treatise saith, Hoc erant ut [...]que & [...] Ap [...]oli, quod [...]uit [...], par [...] consortio [...] & hon [...]ris & po­ [...]—sed exordium ab [...]. Cypr. de [...] Eccl [...]siae. the rest of the Apostles were e­ven the same that Peter was, being indued with the like fel­lowship of honour and power. Cyprian indeed reverenced the Sea of Rome, yet would hee have her keepe with­in h [...]r bounds, as appeares in the case of Fortu [...]atus, and others; for so it was, Cyprian having censured them, and fearing lest they should flie to Rome, and there seeke favour and protection from that Sea, and so worke distraction between Rome and Carthage, makes a decree to prevent Appeales to other places, or claimes of other Bishops: and this Synodall Epistle is sent to Pope Corn [...]lius, perswading him not to admit of their complaints: Seeing that it is decreed of us all (sayth S. Cyprian) N [...]m [...]um s [...]tutum sit [...], & [...]q [...]ū sit pa [...]iter a [...] jus [...]um, ut [...] causa illic [...] ubi est crim [...]n [...] non [...] agere il­lic [...] [...]uam, ubi & [...] sui [...] p [...]s [...]unt; [...]si si pau [...]is d [...]speratis & [...] mino [...] vi [...]tur [...]sse [...] [...]pi [...]oporum in [...] constitutorum [...] qui [...] de illi [...] judicav [...]runt. C [...]p [...]ian lib 1 e [...]ist. 3. in [...] [...]p [...]st. 55. that it is meet and right that every mans cause be heard where the crime is committed; and every Pastor hath committed unto him a portion of the Flocke (of Christ) which hee is to gov [...]rne, and whereof hee is to give an account unto God; and they who are under our governement ought not to [Page 69] gad and wander, but they should pleade their cause there, where both Accusers and Witnesses may bee had; except some few desperate and naughty fellowes thinke the authority of the Bishops of Africke, which have already judged and condemned them to be l [...]sse, meaning lesse than that of Cor­nelius, to whom they fled.

Here wee finde opposition made to the Sea of Rome by that Catholike Cyprianus semper est habitus in nume [...]o C [...]t [...]o­lic [...]rum. B [...]lla [...]min. lib. 2. de Concil cap 5 § Altera Martyr Cyprian and others, even in the weighty poynt of Appeales: for so Bellarmine Appellatio e [...]t c [...]r [...]is­s [...]mum A [...]gumētum Prin­cip [...]tus. Bellarm. lib. 2. de Rom Pont. cap. 21. makes appealing to Rome, and not appealing from thence, a main [...] proofe of the Popes Supremacie.

Now to close up this age, and to looke a little home­ward; all this time the Christian Religion flourished quietly in Britaine, till in Dioclesians dayes (which made vp the tenth persecution) their Churches were demo­lished, their Bibles burnt, their Priests and their flocke murthered: for now was Saint Alban beheaded Math. Westmon. ad annum 303. at the City Verulam, now called after him Saint Albanes, of whom Fortunatus Presbyter an ancient Poet sayth:

Albanum egregium foecunda Britannia prof [...]rt.
Fruitfull Britaine bringeth forth,
Alban, a Martyr of great worth.

Hee was the first that in Britaine suffered death for Christ his sake; whereupon he is called our Stephen, and the Proto-martyr of Britaine. In like sort his Teacher, or Instructer Amphibalus Math. Westmon. Ibid. was cruelly Mar­tyred at the same place, being whipped about a stake, whereat his entrailes were tyed, and thus winding his bowels out of his body, was at last stoned to death; so also was Iulius and Aaron Master Speeds Histo­rie lib. 6. cap. 9. sect. 19. Martyred at Leicester; and in Lichfield so many, that the place became another Colga­tha, or field of dead corps, for which cause the City doth beare a field charged with many Martyrs diversly tortured, they beare it for their Seale of Armes, even unto this day, as Master Camden hath recorded. Now these Martyrs they suffered for that truth which we at [Page 70] this day hold; and not for Popish Tenets, which then were not in being.

We have now Surveyed the Fathers Faith, and pra­ctice of the Church, for the first three hundred yeares next after Christ; and by this particular, (as Hercules whole body was measured by the breadth of his foote) the Reader may proportion what were the Churches Creed, and her Agends generally and constantly taught and practised in these times, and I doubt not but he shall find, that for substance of Religion they held as wee doe, and not as the moderne Papists doe; so that in comparison of Originall, and Primitive Antiquity, Poperie is but noveltie, and this hath beene already shewne, when as we drew the Character of the three first Centuries. I will now onely give instance in the point of Indulgences, and shew, that in these best and ancient times, there were no such Popes pardons, as af­terwards were marted. For in latter times we find it recorded in the Salisbury Primer, Horae B. virginis Mar [...] ad Sarisburtensis [...]cclesiae ritum [...]um Oratio­nibus & Indulgentijs Pa­ris. 1529. that Iohn the two and twentieth, for the mumbling over of some short Pray­ers, granted a Pardon of no lesse, than a million of yeares. Besides, these three Prayers be written in the Chappel of the holy Crosse in Rome, who that devout­ly say them, they shall obtaine ten hundred thousand yeares of Pardon for deadly sinne, granted by our Ho­ly Father, Iohn the two and twentieth Pope of Rome: and of another Prayer to be said as one goes thorow a Church-yard, the same booke saith, as followeth: Ioannes Papa 12. concessit omnibus [...]icenti­ [...]us orationem sequentem transe [...]d [...] per C [...]emeteri­um tot ann [...]um Indulgen­ti [...]s, quot fue [...]unt ibi cor­pora inhumata [...] cons [...]itu­tione ipsius Coemeterij. Id. quò supra. Pope Iohn the twelfth granted to all that shal say the Pray­er following, as they passe by any Church-yard, as many yeeres of Indulgences, as there have beene bodyes there buried since the Consecration of the said Church-yard.

In the same booke, there is power given to one lit­tle prayer beginning with O bone Iesu, to change the paines of Hell into Purgatory, and after that againe, the paines of Purgatory, into the joyes of Heaven. This Prayer is written in a Table that hanged at Rome, [Page 71] in Saint Peters Church, neere to the high Altar, there, as our holy Father the Pope is wont to say Masse; and who so that devoutly with a contrite heart daily say this Orizon, if he bee that day in the state of eternall damnation, then his eternall paine shall be changed him into temporall paine of Purgatorie, and if he have deserved the paine of Purgatorie, it shall bee forgotten and forgiven, through the infinite mercie of God. Now sure I thinke that Antiquitie cannot paralell such presidents as these.

THE FOVRTH CENTVRIE, From the yeare of Grace, 400. to 500.


WHat say you to this fourth Age?


This was a learned Age, Bucolceri Chrono­log. hoc tempore fulserunt in Ecclesia Dei clarissi­ma lumina. ad Ann. 365. for now there lived Optatus Bishop of Milevis in Africa, and in Asia there lived Epiphanius Bishop of Cyprus, Cy­ril Bishop of Hierusalem, Macharius the Monke, Basil the great; the Christian Demosthenes, as Erasmus calls him Dan Tossanus in Synopsi de Legendis Patri­bus. cap. 3., Gregory Nazianzene sirnamed the Divine, and Grigory Nyssen brother to Saint Basil, these three were e­quall in time, deare friends, and of neere alliance; now also lived the Hammer of the Arrian Heretickes Atha­nasius the great, Bishop of Alexandria, great indeed for [Page 72] his learning, for his vertue, for his labour, for his suffe­ring, when almost the whole world was set against him; but above all great for his Creed, the Athanasian Creed. He suffered much trouble for the truth, but God upheld him, so that he dyed in peace, full of dayes, after he had governed the Church of Al [...]xandria six and forty yeares: Nazianzene compared Percuti [...]tibus Ala­mas [...]ffi [...]itur. Nazianzen. orat. 31. in laudem Atha­nasij. him in time of adversity to the Adamant, for that no trouble could breake him; and in time of prosperity to the Load-stone, for that hee allured the hearts of men, more intractable then Iron, to imbrace the Truth of God.

In Europe there lived Hilarie Bishop of Poictiers in France, and Ambrose Bishop or Millaine; Ambrose was a man of noble parentage, under the Emperour Valentini­an hee was Governour of Liguria, he was chosen from a secular [...]udge to bee Bishop of Millaine, and was faine to be christened before he could be consecrated, he was zealous and resolute, hee sharpely reproved Theodosius for the sl [...]ught [...]r of the innocent people of Thessalonica, hee was grievously troubled by the Lady Iustina, mo­ther to Valentinian the second, he said to his friends that were about him at his death, P [...]ssid. de vità Au­gustini. cap. 27. tom. 1. Non sic vixi, ut me pu­deat inter vos vivere, nec mori [...]imeo qu [...]a bonum ha­bemus Dominum Et Bu­chol [...]er. in Chronol. ad Ann. 398. I have not so lived, that I am ashamed to live longer, nor yet feare I death, because I have a good Lord.

Of the Scriptures sufficiencie.

Athanasius saith, [...] Athan. orat 1. cont. Gent. tom. 1. sufficiunt per se, vertit Petr. Nann [...]us. the holy Scriptures given by inspi­ration of God, are of themselves sufficient to the discoverie of truth; now if they be (as the word signifieth) all­suf [...]icient to instruction, then must they needs be all suffi­cient to all instruction in the truth intended, and not one­ly sufficient for this or that point, as Bellarmine would have it L [...]quitur non de om­nibus d [...]gm [...]bus, sed so­l [...]m [...]e duobus. B [...]ll [...]r de verbo Dei non script [...]. li. 4. cap. 11. §. Profert. Saint Hilarie commendeth Verè te D. Constanti Imperator admiror, [...]idem tantùm [...] [...] ea quae scripta sunt deside antem. Hilar. de [...]rinit. lib. 2. the Emperour Constantius, for desiring the Faith to be ordered onely accor­ding to those things that be written: th [...] same Hilarie Su [...]ebat quul [...] cre­de [...]tibus Dei se [...]m [...] quid enim in eolem Sacramento saluris hum [...]n [...]e non conti­n [...]tu [...]? aut quid sit quod reliquum est, aut obs [...]rii? pl [...]na sunt omnia ut à ple­ [...] & persecto [...]acta. Id. ibid. lib. 2. as­sures us that in his dayes, the word of God did suffice the beleevers; yea, what is there saith he, concerning mans sal­vation, [Page 73] that is not conteined in the word of the Evangelist? what wants it, what obscuritie is there in it? all things there are full and perfect.

Saint Basil saith, [...]. Basil. [...]. de si­de, Inter Ascetica, [...]ive exercitamenta Monach. tom. 2. it is a manifest falling from the Faith, and an argument of arrogancie, either to reject any point of those things that are written, or to bring in any of those things that are not written.

Gregory Nyssen layeth this for a ground, [...]. Greg Nyssen. de Animâ & Resu [...]rect. to. 2. edit. Gr. & Lat. pag. 639. which no man should contradict; that in that onely the truth must be acknowledged, wherein the seale of the Scripture testimonie is to be seene.

The same Father in an oration of his, calleth the Scripture, [...]. Id. tom. 2. deijs qui adeunt Hierosol. an even, streight, and inflexible Rule; neither ment [...]oneth he any more rules but this on [...]; and ad­ding the word ipsa to the Rule, he delareth the same to be an adaequate, and onely Rule.

Of the Scripture Canon.

The Councell of Laodicea saith, Quae autem opor [...]eat legi, & in authoritatem recipi haec sunt; Gen [...]sis &c Not mentioning the Controversed Bookes. Con [...]il. Laod. Can. 59. Ca­ranz. in Sum. Concil. we ought to reade onely the bookes of the Old and New Testament; yea the same Councell recites onely those Canonicall bookes of Scripture which we allow, and the Canons of this Councell though a provinciall Councell, are confirmed by the sixt generall Councell in Trullo: now if it be re­plied, the Laodicean Councell excludes the Apocrypha, the Carthaginian Councell receives them, and both these were confirmed in the sixt generall Councell, held in the Palace called Trullo, and how can this stand toge­ther? the matter is thus reconciled; the Laodicean speakes of the Canon of Faith, the Carthaginian of the Canon of good manners; to both which the sixt Coun­cell subscribed in that sence, and we to it.

To proceed, Hilary tells us; In viginti duos libros, Lex Testamenti ve [...]is deputet [...]r, u [...] cum litera­rum numero conveni [...]ent. Hil. in Prolog. in Psalm. explanat. the Law of the Old Te­stament is conteined in two and twentie bookes, according to the number of the Hebrew letters; and Athanasius saith the same, and as touching the Apocryphall bookes, as namely, the booke of Wisedome, Maccabees, and the rest, [Page 74] he saith; Praeter i [...]os au [...]em [...]unt ad [...]uc alij e [...]u [...]dem veteris Instrumenti Libri, qui non sunt Canonici, qui Catechumenis ta [...]tum le­gantur, Sapientia Sal [...]m [...] ­nis, &c. Athanas. in Sy­nopsi. Libri non sunt Canonici; they are read onely to the Caetechumens, (or novices in Religion) but are not Canonicall.

Epiphanius after he had reckoned up the Canon of two and twentie bookes, censureth the bookes of Wise­dome and Ecclesias [...]icus in these words; [...] Epi­pha [...]. in [...]. de pond. & mens they are fit and profitable, but not reckoned amongst those bookes which are re­ceived by our Church; and therefore were neither laid up with Aaron, nor in the Arke of the New Testament.

Ruffinus, in his explanation of the Creede, which is found among Saint Cyprians workes, and so attributed to him, setteth downe the Catalogue, conteining all those bookes which we admit, secluding all those that are now in question; wee must know (saith he) Al [...]j [...]bri sunt qui [...]n sunt Canonic [...], sed E [...]cle­siastici à maso [...]ib [...]s appel­lati sunt, ut Sapientia Sa­lomonis [...] & alia Sap. quae d [...]citur filij Syrach, ejus­dem ord [...]n [...] est Liber T [...] ­bi [...], & Iud [...]th & Mac­cab eorum Libri — quae omnia legi quidem in Ec­clesijs volue [...]unt, non t [...] ­men pro [...]erri ad authorita­tem ex his Fidei con [...]r­m [...]nd [...]m. Ru [...]in. sive Cy­p [...]an. in explic. Symboli. pag. 189 par. 1580. that there be also other bookes, which are not Canonicall, but are called of our Ancestors, Ecclesiasticall, as is the Wisedome of Salo­mon, Ecclesiasticus, Tobias, Iudith, and the bookes of Mac­cabees; all which they will indeed have to be read in the Church, but not to be alledged for Confirmation of Faith. To this testimonie of Ruffin, Canus a Popish writer thus re­plieth: Ru [...]inus (pa [...]e Le [...]to­r [...] [...]ictum sit) [...]a [...]rum tra­d [...]ti [...]n [...]s igno [...]avit Canus Loc. [...] l 2. c. 11. although Ruffin did affirme, that the bookes of Maccabees were to be rejected by the tradition of the Fathers, yet by the Readers leave, he was ignorant of that Tradition; as if Canus a late writer, were better skilled in the Pri­mitive tradition than Ruffinus, or Cyprian.

Gregorie Nazianzen nameth [...]. Greg N [...]z. in edit. G [...]ae [...]o-lat to. 2. num 33 [...] all the bookes that wee admit, save that he omitteth the booke of Hester, be­ing misperswaded of the whole, by reason of those Apocryphall additions to it.

Now Bellarmine would shift off such testimonies as these, by saying; S [...]i [...]bat rem non fu [...]sse a [...] a G [...]rali Con [...]il [...]o d [...]s [...]tam. Bel [...]r. de ver­bo Dei. li. 1 cap. 10. it was no fault in them to reject these book [...]s, because no generall Councell in their dayes had decreed any thing touching them. But we aske how it came to passe, that so many Catholike Divines after this pre­tended decree of their Canon rejected these bookes, as others had done before; for some in every Age rejected th [...]m.

Of Communion under both; and number of Sacraments.

Gregory Nazianzene saith of his sister Gorgonia, in this manner: [...]. Gr. Nazianz. orat. 11. in laud. Gorgon. ac [...]icubi quidpiam sig­norum preciosi corporis aut sanguinla manus condide­rat. Interprete Iac. Billio. tom. 2. orat 35 edit. Lat. if her hand had laid up any portion of the types or tokens of the precious body, and of the bloud: he saith, that his sister after she had communicated, she laid up some part of the Sacrament, of the body and bloud of Christ, now as she kept the consecrated bread in a cloth, so she might carry the wine in a viall; howsoever this religi­ous woman received in both kinds.

The same Nazianzen bids, [...]. Greg. Nazian. orat. 40. in sanctum Baptism. tom. 1. reverence the Lords Table to which thou hast accesse, the bread whereof thou hast beene partaker, the cup which thou hast communicated, being initia­ted in the passions of Christ.

Athanasius, being accused for breaking a Chalice, wri­teth thus; [...]. Hie enim usus est C [...]li­ci [...] & p [...]aeter cum alius nullus; eo (que) solo vos legi­timo ritu propinatis populo. Athan. Apolog. 2. contra Arrianos. to. 2. p [...]g. 385. Petro Nannio Interprete. What manner of Cup? or when? or where was it broken? in every house there are many Pots, any of which if a man breake, he committeth not sacriledge; but if any man willingly break the sacred Chalice, he committs sacri­ledge; but that Chalice is no where, but where there is a law­full Bishop: This is the use destin'd to that Chalice, none other; wherein you, according to institution, doe drinke unto, and be­fore the Laity. This was the custome in Athanasius his dayes.

Saint Ambrose speakes to a great secular Prince Theo­dosius in this sort; [...]. Theodoret [...] hist. eccles. lib 5. cap. 18. — & Ambros. in orat. ad The­odos. How dare you lift up to him those hands, from which the blood yet droppeth? will you receive with them the sacred body of our Lord? or how will you put in your mouth his precious bloud, who in the commanding fury of your wrath have wickedly shed so much innocent bloud? The same Saint Ambrose, in his Ambros. de Sacra­mentis [...] tom 4. & de ijs qui Mysterijs initian [...]r. Treatise that hee wholly set apart for the laying foorth of the Doctrine of the Sa­craments, specifyeth not any other, than either those two of ours, Baptisme, and the Lords Supper; and yet wee have of his (as they are divided) six [...] bookes de [Page 76] Sacramentis, of the Sacraments. And so I come to treat of the Sacrament Of the Eucharist.


You have produced Hilarie and Cyril of Hierusalem, on your side, whereas they make for us in the poynt of the Sa­crament; Saint H [...]larie sayth, nos verè verbum carnem cibo Dominico sumimus; Hil. l. 8. de Trinitate.


Hilaries testimony was much urged by Mr. Musket Priest, and was notably cleered by Doctour Featly, in the second dayes disputation; now to the place allead­ged he sayth, The Word truely became Flesh, truely, to wit, by Faith and Spiritually, not with the mouth, and carnally.


These words of Hilarie, Sub Sacramento communican­dae carnis, and the like following, nos verè sub mysterio carnem corporis sui sumimus, wee truely receive the Flesh of his body under a mystery, prove the reall presence of Christs flesh under the formes of bread and wine.


Saint Hilarie, by the words, [Sub Sacramento, and sub mysterio carnem sumimus], meaneth nothing, but that in a mystery, or Sacramentally, we eate the true flesh of the Sonne of God; sub mysterio is no more than in my­sterio, that is, mystically, under a similitude, in a simili­tude, or after a resemblance.


St. Hilarie sayth, in the booke alleadged [de veritate carnis & sanguinis non est relictus ambigendi locus] of the trueth of Christs flesh and bloud there is no place left for doubting.


Neither doe we doubt of the truth of Christs body and bloud, but firmely believe the doctrine of the true Inca [...]nation of Christ.


Hilarie saith [in nobis carnalibus manentem per carnem Christum habemus] we men consisting of flesh and bloud have Christ remayning in us by his fl [...]sh.


So wee have by reason of our mysticall union with Christs flesh, and not by any corporall transubstantia­tion of our flesh into Christ. The same Hilarie saith [nos in eo naturaliter inessemus, ipso in nobis naturaliter permanen­te] Christ is naturally in us, and wee in him, but wee are not in him naturally or carnally by any transubstantiation, therefore neither is he so in us; these termes then of Hila­ [...]ies, [permanent [...]m in nobis carnaliter silium] the sonne re­mayning in us carnally, note onely a greater and more reall union, than barely by consent or concord of will, such as the Arrians acknowledged onely betwixt the Father and the Sonne, denying an unitie of nature, purposely to avoid that text, I and the Father are one [...] Hilary speaking of this neere union, calleth it the myste­rie of a true and naturall union, [mysterium verae ac natu­ralis unitatis] and so indeed it is, in respect of Christs inseparable union which hee hath with us by his incar­nation, by which he is become flesh of our [...]lesh, and bone of our bone; and in respect of our mysticall union with him and his body, whereby wee become members of Christs body, and quickned by his spirit.


Saint Cyril in his fourth Catechisme saith, He that in the marriage of Cana changed water into wine, by his onely will, is not hee worthy that wee beleeve him that he hath chan­ged wine into his blood?


S. Cyrils place maintaineth not Popish transubstantia­tion; for in this, the shapes and accidents remaine, and the materiall substance is corrupted; but in our Savi­ours miracle in the second of Saint Iohn, the shapes, accidents, and forme were changed, and the common [Page 78] materiall substance remained, Iohn 2.9.


Cyril saith it is not simple bread and wine, it is not [...]. ibid.


Hee sheweth his meaning to be this, namely, that the consecrated bread, is not common, ordinary, and meere naturall bread; but sanctified, elevated, and changed to supernaturall use and operation. And so I proceed.

The Elements called Antitypes after Consecration.

The Fathers of this age, treating of the Sacramen­tall Signes, call them Similitudes, correspondent types or figures of the body and blood of Christ; the figure of the body and blood of the Lord Iesus, saith Similitudinem p [...]etiosi sanguinis bibis. Ambr. de Sacram. lib. 4. cap. 4. Ambrose: and Nazianzene speakes (as wee have heard) of his sisters laying up some portion of the types or tokens of Christs precious body and blood; and againe, [...]. Greg. Nazian. A­polog. orat. 1. tom. 1 quo­modo illud magno [...]um my­steriorum Antitypum ipsi offerre a [...]derem? how durst I offer unto him the type of so great a mysterie; in l [...]ke sort Cyril of Hierus [...]lem cals Cyril. Hierosol. 5. Cate [...]he [...]. Mystag. them types and antitypes; and they call the Symboles after Consecration [Anti­types.] Now that which is a figure, similitude, and representation of a thing, is not properly the same.


It followeth not Rhemists Annot. on Luke 22. Sect. 7 on Heb. 1. sect. 1 & the Rejoyn­der to D. Whites Reply the 6. point. the Eucharist is termed the figure of Christs naturall body, therefore it is not substantially and pro­perly his body. The figure of a thing may be the same with the thing figured. Christ Iesus is a figure of his Fathers sub­stance, [Hebr. 1.3.] and yet is the same substantially with the Father, Iohn 10.30.


There is such opposition of Relatives, as that the signe and the thing signified cannot bee the same in that very respect and point, wherein they are opposite: for the instance brought, it followeth thus; the sonne is the cha [...]acter of his Fathers substance, ergo the Son is [Page 79] not the Father, though of the same substance, nor is the Father the Sonne: so must the opposition of necessity hold; the Sacrament is the figure, signe, and represen­tation of Christs body, ergo it is not the body of Christ, but sacramentally, and figuratively.

In a word; you say, that Christ is a Character, and figure of his Father, and yet of the same substance; but to have spoken home to the matter in question, you should have said, that Christ a figure of the Fathers person, is yet the same person that the Father; which is utterly false.

To proc [...]ed, Saint Ambrose saith; Si ergo tanta vis est in sermone Domini, ut in­ciperent esse quae non e­rant quantò magis opera­tor [...]us est, ut sint quae [...] ­rant, & to aliud commu­t [...]ntur. Ambr. de sacram. l 4 ca. 4. if th [...]re bee such v [...]rtue in the words of our Lord, to make those things that were not, to begin to bee; how much more powerfull is his word, that they remaine the same they were, and yet bee chan­ged into another thing? hee holdeth the bread and wine in the Lords Supper to remaine, to bee the same tha [...] they were; therefore they are not changed in sub­stance, for then they should not be the same they were; yet hee saith they are changed into other, to wit, not in sub­stance but in qualitie, use, and signification; for so hee saith, Ante benedictionem alta species nominatur post consecrationem corpus sig­nificatur. Ambr. lib. de ijs qui mysterijs initian [...]r. before the blessing of the heavenly words another kind is named; after the Consecration, the body of Christ is signified. Now if by the consecrated bread in the Eucharist the body bee signified, then is not bread essenti­ally the body.


Saint Ambrose in the ninth chapter of such as are newly instructed in the mysteries saith; Ambr. de ijs qui myster. initiantur. cap 9. Moses his word changed the water of Aegypt into blood; if so great was the bene­diction of man, what may wee thinke of divine Consecration where the very words of our Saviour worke: hee saith also, Quia benedictione etiam Natura ipsa muta­tur. Id. ibid. that by benediction or consecration the nature of the Elements in the Lords Supper is changed.


Among the six or seaven examples bro [...]ght by Saint Ambrose, only two are substantiall, and the rest acciden­tal, [Page 80] for in the place alledged, he addeth also these exam­ples; that Moses divided the Red Sea, that Iordan turned his cou [...]se, that the bitter waters of Mara were made sweet; in all which workes of God there was no Tran­substantiation; for the waters and the Red Sea were the same in nature and substance, as they were before; so that by these examples it appeareth, that notwithstan­ding Saint Ambrose say, the nature is changed, yet he meant a change in qualitie onely, and not in substance. And such a change there is in the Eucharist; the Ele­ments are changed, when of common and naturall creatures, they are made sacred, and become Channels, and Instruments of saving grace; and such a change Ambrose meant; for comparing these miracles of the Prophets, wherein God changed the nature of things, with the change that is wrought in the Sacrament, he saith, Non minus est novas rebu [...] dare, quam mutare natura [...]. Ambr loco citat. that it is no lesse to adde some new things, unto things, than to change the nature of things, averring plainly there­by that the bread had received some new thing, without loosing the nature of bread; and such a change is not strange, for thus a piece of waxe becomming the Kings Seale changeth it's nature without Transubstantiation.

Besides, the Fathers use the like Tenour of speech of the Sacrament of Baptisme, and yet doe not hence inferre any Transubstantiation: they say, Non agnosco usum na­turae, ubi est excellentia gratiae. Ambros de ijs qui myst. [...] cap. 9. Quid v [...]listi? [ [...]q [...]as [...]ti que] sed non solas. Id. ibid. cap. 3. the word of Christ is most efficacious to alter the propertie of natu­rall water, and to give regenerating force and vertue to it. Saint Ambrose saith, that in Baptisme man is chan­ged, and made a new creature. Learne (saith he) Post [...]aquàm consecratus es, [...] creatura esse coepisti. Serm [...] Christi [...]reaturam omnem muta [...]e consueverit, & mutat quando vult instituta na­tur [...]. Idem de Sacram lib. 4. c [...]p. 4. how the word of Christ is accustomed to change every creature, and when he will he altereth the course of nature.

Saint Cyril saith, Spirit [...]s Sanct [...] opera­tione [...]. [...]y [...]il. Alexandr. [...] Ioan li. [...] cap. 4 [...]. [...]om. 1. Ge [...]rg. Tra [...] [...]. the waters are changed into a divine nature. And Gregorie Nazianzene saith, [...]. Greg. N [...]zi [...]n [...] pag. 643 tom. 1 Paris. 1609. that by Baptisme we put on Christ, by Baptisme we are changed or transmuted into Christ. Now from hence we cannot infe [...]re that ei­ [...]her the water of Baptisme, or regenerate persons are changed by Transubstantiation; the change is not cor­porall [Page 81] in either of the Sacraments, but mysticall in use and signification.

In the Church (saith [...]. Macar. Aegypt. Homil. 27 Macarius, Scholler to Saint An­thonie) bread and wine is offered; the type of his flesh and bloud; and they which are partakers of the visible bread, doe Spiritually eate the flesh of the Lord. Now according to this Father, bread and wine are taken, bread and wine are offered; and these be the types or tokens of the bo­dy and bloud: and that they be so called after Conse­cration, is likewise acknowledged by Bellarmine. Bellar. de Euchar. li. 2. c. 15. § Sed haec.

And we may farther observe that the words of Ma­carius are so cleere for the spirituall, and not corporall receiving; as that some were faigne to set a Marginall glosse Offerendum esse in Ecclesi [...] panem & vinum exemplar exhibens carnem ipsius & sanguinem [...] su­mentesque de pane visibili upon Macarius his text.spiritaliter carnem do­mini edere. Macar. homil. 27. in Bib. S. Patr. tom. 2. edit. 2. pag. 398. per Marg. de la Bigne. Par. 1589.

Of Image-worship.

The Councel of Elliberis in Granado in Spayne, spiritaliter, id est, non vi­sibili modo, & eo quo edi­tur alia caro [...] sed spirita­li & indivisibili. in mar­gine. decreed Placuit, pic [...]uras in ec­clesia esse non debere; ne quod colitur aut adoratur in parietibus depingatur. Concil. Eliber. cap. 36. That no Pictures should or ought to be in the Church, lest that which is worshipped or adored, should be painted on walls. Now it will not serve to say, that the Councel onely forbad the painting of Images on Church-walls, where in time of persecution, or otherwise, they might be defa­ced; as if they might be set or hung in tables; for the Councels decree runs generally, saying, It is our mind that Pictures ought not to be in the Church. Now if it for­bad the very being of them in Churches, then surely it utterly condemned their adoration.

Melchior Canus chargeth this ancient Councel with impietie, Illa [Lex] impiè à Con­cilio Elibertino lata est de tollendis Imaginibꝰ. Melch. Canus loc. theol l. 5. c 4. for making such a decree de tollendis Imagini­bus. Saint Ambrose saith, Non vult se Deus in lapidibus coli. Ambr. in ep. 31. ad Valent. Imp. lib. 5. tom. 3. God would not have himselfe worshipped in stones: Quae Ecclesia i [...]anes Ideas, & vanas nescit si­mulachrorum figuras, sed veram novit Trinitatia substantiam. Id. de fug [...] saeculi. cap. 5. tom. 1. the Church knoweth no vaine Idaea's, and divers figures of Images, but knoweth the true substance of the Trinity. The fact of Epiphanius (which himselfe records Epiphan. edit. Lat. in fine operum. in his Epistle to Iohn Bishop of Hierusalem, translated by Saint Epist. Epiphanij ad Ioan. Hierosol. in tom. se­cundo oper. Hieronymi. Hierome out of Greek into Latine) is very famous in this case, namely, how himselfe found a Picture in the Church of the village of Anablatha, [Page 82] which (though it were out of his owne Diocesse) yet in an ho [...]y zeale he tore it, and wrote to the Bishop of the place, beseeching him that no such Pictures might bee hanged up, as being contrary to Religion.

The words of Epiphanius are these: Inveni ibi velum pen­ [...]n [...] in sori [...]s ejus [...]m ec­cl [...]si [...] tinctum atque depi­ [...]tan [...]. & habens imaginem quasi Christi vel Sancti cu­jusd [...]m, non enim satis me­mini, cu [...]as imago suerit; cùm ergè hoc vidissem, in Ecclesia Christi contra ou­t [...]rit [...]ē Scripturarum ho­minis pend [...]e Im [...]ginem, sci [...]illud— Epiphan. quò [...]up [...]a. I found there a vayle hanging at the doore of the Church dyed and painted, and having the Image as it were of Christ or some Saint; for I doe not well remember whose Image it was: when therefore I saw this, that contrary to the authority of the Scriptures, the Image of a man was hanged up in the Church of Christ, I cut it, and gave counsel to the keepers of the place, that they should rather wrap and burie some poore dead man in it: and after­ward hee intreateth the Bishop of Hierusalem (under whose governement this Church was) to give charge hereafter, Dein [...]ps p [...]aecip [...]re in Eccl [...]si [...] C [...]risti is [...]i [...] is­mo [...]ivel [...] quae contrà R [...] ­ligionem nostram veniu [...]t non appendi. Id. Ibid. that such vayles as those which are repugnant to our Religion, should not be hanged up in the Church of Christ.

I know indeed, that Iesuit Fisher would shuffle off this evidence, by saying, that it was the picture of some prophane Pagan; b [...]t Epiphanius himselfe saith, it had imaginem quasi Christi, vel Sancti cujusdam, the image as it were of Christ, or of some Saint: surely therefore the Image went for Christs, or for some noted Saints, neither do [...]h he finde fault with the irresemblance, but with the Image, as such. Baronius saith, [...]ono [...] astarum poti­ [...] [...]gmentum quam Epi­p [...]anij ge [...]a [...]um scrip­tum Baron. A [...]l. tom. 4. ad ann. 392 nu. 59. they are rather the forged words of some Image-breakers, than of Epiphanius: Bellarmine would disproove them by sundry conjectures, which Master Rivet An [...]. [...] Criti [...]i Sa­cri. lib. 3. cap. 29. rejects, and defe [...]d [...] the foresayd Epistle of Epiphanius, clearing it from all the Cardinal's cavills: a [...]d surely if we observe Epiphanius his practice about the foresayd Image, and his Doctrine of Mariam ne­mo adoret, we may well thinke these two had both one Father.


The Idolatry forbidden in Scripture, and disliked by the Fa­thers, is such as was used by Iewes and Pagans; and this wee Christians practise not.


Indeed the Apostle, when hee disswadeth Christi­ans from Idolatry, propounds the Iewes fall, saying, Neither be yee Idolaters, as some of them were [1 Cor. 10. 7, 8.] The like also hee addeth touching another sinne, Neither let us commit fornication, as some of them did: as well then might one pleade that Iewish or Heathenish fornication were onely reprehended, as Iewish or Hea­thenish Idolatry, it being a foule sinne, whether it bee committed by Iewe, Pagan, or Christian, and more haynous in the Christian, who professeth Christ, to practise that which Gods word condemneth in the Iewes and Pagans for Idolatry.


The Heathen held the Images themselves to be Gods, which is farre from our thought.


Admit some of the simpler sort of the Heathen did so, what shall wee say of the Iewish Idolaters who e­rected the Golden calfe in the wildernesse? can wee thinke that they were all so sencelesse, as to imagine that the calfe, which they knew was not at all in rerum naturâ, and had no being at that time, when they came out of Aegypt, should yet be that God which brought them out of Aegypt. [Exod. 32.4.] And for the Heathen people, though they (haply) thought some divine Ma­jestie and power was seated in the Images; yet they were scarcely so rude as to thinke the Images which they adored, to be very God; for thus we find them usually to answer in the writings of the Fathers: Deo [...] inquitis per si­mul achia veneramur. Ar­nob. contra Gent. lib. 6. sect. 10. Wee worship the Gods by the Images; and, Nec Simulachrū nec Daemonium colo, sed per [...]ffigiem corporalem ejus rei signum intu [...]r, quam cole­re debeo. August. in Psal. 113. concion [...] secunda. I neither worship the Image, nor a Spirit in it, but by the bodily portraiture, I doe behold the signe of that thing which I ought to worship.


Though the Heathen did not account the Image it selfe to be God; yet were those Images set up to represent either things that had no being, or Devils, or false-Gods, and in that re­spect [Page 84] were Idols; whereas we erect Images onely to the ho­nour of the true God, and of his servants the Saints and Angels.


Suppose that many of the Idolatrous Iewes and Hea­thens Images were such as you say they were, yet they were not all of them such: howsoever, Idolatry is com­mitted by yielding adoration to an Image of the true God himselfe, as appeareth by the first Chapter of the Epistle to the Romanes, where the Apostle having said, that God shewed unto them that which might bee knowne of him; and that the Invisible things of him, that is, his eternall power and Godhead, was manifested un­to them by the creation of the World, and the contem­plation of the creatures; hee addeth presently, that God was sorely displeased with them, and therefore gave them up unto vile affections, because, They changed the Glory of that incorruptible God, into an Image made like unto corruptible men, and to birds, and foure-footed beasts, and creeping things: whereby it is evident, that the Ido­latry condemned in the wisest Heathen, was the adoring of the invisible God, whom they acknowledged to be the Creatour of all things, in visible Images fashioned to the similitude of men and beast, as the admirably learned, Bishop Vsher hath observed Doctor Vshers Ser­mon the 18. of Febr. ann. 1620. in his Sermon prea­ched before the Commons House of Parliament in Saint Margarets Church at Westminster.

Of Prayer to Saints.

There wanted not some, who even in the Apostles daies under the pretence of Colloss. 2.18. Humilitie, labored to bring into the Church the worshipping of Angels, which car­ried with it [...]oid.. vers. 23. a shew of Wisdome (as Saint Paul speakes of it;) not much unlike that of the Papists, who teach their simple people, upon pretence of Humilitie, and their owne unworthinesse, to prepare the way to the Sonne, by the servants, the Saints and Angels; this they coun­selled [Page 85] (saith Ill [...] ergo hoc consul [...] ­bant utique humilita [...]e u­tentes, di [...]entes universo­rum De [...]m, nec cerni nec ad cum perveniri poss [...]; & opo [...]tere p [...]r Angelos divi­nam sibi benevolentia [...] concili. re. Theodoret in Coloss. cap. 2. to. 2. Gen­tiano Herveto interprete. Theodoret) should be done, using humility, and saying, that the God of all was invisible and inaccessible; and that it was fit men should get Gods favour by the meanes of Angels. And the same Theodoret saith Oratoria sancti Mi­chaeli [...]. Theod quò suprà. that they had [...], Oratories, or Chappels of Saint Michael. Now the Councel of Laodicea, to meete with this errour, so­lemnly decreed; [...]. Concil. Laodice [...] can. 35 In edit. T [...]lianâ [...] p. 841. that Christians ought not to forsake the Church of God, and goe and invocate Angels, and pronoun­ced an Anathema against any that should be found to doe so, because (say they) He hath forsaken our Lord Iesus Christ, the Sonne of God, and given himselfe to Idolatry. And Theo­doret mentions the Canon of this Councel, and declares the meaning of it in these words: Hanc e [...]iam l [...]gem sequens, Laodicena Syno­dus, & volens veteri illi morbo mederi, Lege cavit ne precarentur A [...]gelos, & ne reli [...]qu [...]r [...]nt Dominum nostrum Iesum Christ [...]. Theod. in 3. cap. ad Col. Whatsoever ye doe in word or deed, doe all in the name of the Lord Iesus, giving thanks to God, and the Father by him.

The Synod of Laodicea also following this Rule, and de­siring to heale that old disease, made a Law, that they should not pray, unto Angels, nor forsake our Lord Iesus Christ: now there is the same reason of Saints, that there is of the Angels.


Iesuit Fisher in his Rejoynder to Doctor Whites Reply, the second and third point, saith, The Councel and Theodo­ret are thus to be understood, that Angels are not to be honou­red as Gods.


How appeareth it that Christians were so rude in those Ages, as to imagine that Angels were Gods? or that sacrifices after the Pagan manner, were due to them? It appeareth by Theodoret, that those whom he condemneth did not thinke the Angels to be Gods, but that they served them as ministring Spirits, whose ser­vice God had used for the publishing of the Dicentes, [...]uisse [...]ege [...] p [...]r eos dat [...]m, id est, per Angelos Theod. in 2. c [...]p. Coloss. Law.


Bellarmine saith; Conciliu [...] non dam­n [...]r qu [...]mlibe [...] v [...]n [...]r [...]tio­nem Angelorum, sed eam quae Deo prop [...] es [...]. B [...]l­lar. de sanct. Beat lib. 1. c. 20. § Hie [...]on [...]m [...]. The Councel forbad all worship of Angels, called Latreia, as being proper unto God: but Bin­nius liketh Mihi magis pl [...]cet [...]x­positio Baronij, q [...]ia it hoc Canone [...] ac religiosam venerationē [...] Deo­rum, eo [...]ū nimirum quos Gentiles Idololat [...]ae ve­nerab [...]ntur, Christ [...]nis interdictā es [...]e. B [...]. in Sy­nod Laodic p. 294. [...]ol. 2 [...]. Baronius exposition better, who saith, The [Page] Councel onely forbad the religious worship of false and hea­the [...]sh Gods.


Bellarmine doth wrong in restraining the Councels speech to a speciall kind of worship: for Theodoret saith generally, that the Councell forbad the worship of Angels. Neither did the Councell meane thereby to forbid the religious worship of false and heathenish Gods; for Theodoret mentioneth the Oratories of Saint Michael, and of such Angels as were supposed to give the Law, and therefore were not ill Angels.

Baronius perceiving that the place in Theodoret tou­cheth the Papists to the quicke, telleth us plainely, Ex his vide [...]s (quod necessario dicendum est) Th [...]oderetum haud satis feliciter (e [...]us pace sit di­ctum) assecutum esse Pau­l [...] verborum sensum. Ba­ron Annal. tom. 1. ann. [...]0. sect. 20. That Theodoret, by his leave, did not well understand the meaning of Pauls words: and that those Oratories of Saint Michael were anciently erected by Catholikes; as if Baronius a man of yesterday, at Rome could tell better what was long since done in Asia, than Theodoret a Greeke Father, and an ancient Father and Bishop, living above twelve hundred yeares agoe, not farre from those parts, where these things were done.

Others, to avoid the force of the canon, have cor­rupted the Councell, making this reading; Non oportet ad angu­los cong [...]egationes [...]acere. [...]aranza in summâ Con­cilior. That men should not leave the Church, to pray in angles or corners; tur­ning Angelos into Angulos, Angels into Angles or cor­ners; but Veritas non quaerit angulos, the truth will ad­mit none of these corners; neither hath the word [...] any affinitie at all with corners. To proceed, the Fathers of this age affirme, that religious prayer is a proper worship belonging to the sacred Trinitie; and by this argument [Rom. 10.14 [...]] conclude against the Arrians and Macedonians, that Christ Iesus and the Holy Ghost are truely God, because Christians believe in them, pray unto them, & they accept their petitions.

Athanasius saith; [...]. Athanas. orat. 4. contr. Arri [...]n. No man would [...]ver pray to receive any thing from the Father, and from the Angels, or from any of the other creatures. Gregory Nyssen saith: [...]. Greg. Nyssen. cont. Eu­nom. tom [...] 2. orat. 4. pag. 146. Wee are [Page 87] taught to worship and adore, that nature onely which is uncrea­ted; Anton. Meliss. lib 2. Serm. 1. and accordingly Antonius in his Melissa hath set downe the foresaid sentence; but the Spanish In­quisitors have commanded Deleatur dicti [...], [...] ­lum modo. Ind. [...]. p [...] Quirog. Madr. ann. 158 [...] that the word Onely should bee blotted out of his writings: Now the word Onely, is the onely principall word, whereupon the whole sentence dependeth.

In like sort, where Athanasius saith, that [...]. A [...]an. to. 1. orat. 3. contr. Arrianos. God onely is to bee worshipped, that the Creature is not to adore the crea­ture, that neither men, nor Angels are to be worshipped. The popish Index (as is already observed in the Preface to this Treatise) hath razed Ex Athanasij Indi [...] d [...]lean [...]ur. Adorari soliu [...] Dei est, Creatura creatu­ram non adorat. Ind [...]x­purg. Madr. 1612. E [...] per Tu [...]re [...]n. Genev [...]. 1619. these sayings out of his Index, or table, which yet remaine in the text.

Epiphanius tels us of some superstitious women that were wont to offer up a Cake to the blessed Virgin, and this vanitie hee calleth [...]. Epiphan. in hae [...]esi Collyrid. haer 79 p 1065. the womans Heresie, because that sexe mostly vsed it, but hee reproves them saying; [...]. Id. Ibid pag. 10 [...]4.1065 Let Mary bee in honour, but let the Father, and the Sonne, and the Holy Ghost bee worshipped, let no man worship or adore Mary; and indeed hee bends all his force against that point of adoring; no lesse then in sixe severall places, saying; [Mariam nemo adoret.] Now Adora­tion being condemned, it can not bee conceived, that adoring her, and offering to her, they prayed not also to her, and required of her, somewhat againe. All which Epiphanius reprooves.

Saint Ambrose speaking of our Advocate, or Master of Requests, saying; Q [...]id enim t [...]m [...] C [...]r [...]stum quam Ad­vocatum apud D [...]n [...] Pa­t [...]em ad [...]are popul [...]rum? Ambr tom. 4 in Psal. 39. What is so proper to Christ, as to stand by God the Father for an Advocate of the people? Sed tamen tu solus Domine invocandus [...] Ambros. tom 3. de [...] Theodsij and elsewhere hee saith, Tu solus Domine invocandus es, thou Lord onely art to bee invocated: and whereas there were some that about this time sued unto Saints and Angels, saying; Am [...]ros. tom. 5. in Rom cap. 1. Wee have recourse to Angels and Saints with de­votion and humilitie, that by their Interc [...]ssion God may bee more favourable unto us. Saint Ambrose (or who ev [...]r else was author of those Commentaries upon Saint Pauls Epistles that are framed among his workes) hath [Page 88] well m [...]t with them, calling it, So e [...]t tam [...] pu [...]o [...]em p [...]ssi n [...]g [...]c [...]i Dei, [...] u [...]i [...]x [...]us [...]tione, dicentes p [...]rist [...]s pos [...]e ire ad De­um [...] si [...]ut per [...]mites per­ [...]e [...]atural Regē Id ibid. A miserable excuse, in that they thinke to goe to God by these, as men goe to the King by an Of [...]icer: Goe to (saith he) Age, nu [...]qui [...] t [...]m de­mens est aliqui [...], aut salutis suae imm [...]m [...]r, ut honorisi­centiam Regis vindicet C [...]mit [...]— nam & ideò ad Regem per Tribunos aut Comites itur, quia homo u­ [...]i (que) est Rex, & nes [...]it qui­b [...]s debeat Rempublicam credere. Ad Deum autem (quē uti (que) nihil latet, om­nium enim me [...]ita no [...]it) promerend [...]m suffragatore non opus est, sed mente de­vot [...]. ubicun (que) talis locu­tus suerit ei, respondebit il­li. Id. ibid is any man so mad, or so unmind­full of his salvation, as to give the Kings honour to an Officer? for therefore doe men goe to the King by Tribunes or Officers, because the King is but a man, and knoweth not to whom to commit the state of the Common wealth: but to procure the favour of God, from whom nothing is hid (for he k [...]oweth the works of all men) wee need no spokesman but a devout mind: for wheresoever such a one shall speake unto him, he will answer him. This testimonie is so full, that it makes mee re­member what I have seene written with his owne hand, in Saint Ambrose his Margent by Archbishop Hutton, (one that by Campians testimony Matheus Huttonus, [...]ui v [...]r nominatus in pau­cis. ve [...]sare patr [...]s dicitur. Campian. Rat. 5. was well verst in the Fathers) namely, hoc testimonium jugulat pontificios, this evidence choakes the Papists.


The place alleadged is none of Saint Ambroses; nei­ther was hee the Authour of those Commentaries on Saint Paul's Epistles Commentaria in Epi­stolas S. Paull à multis non creduntur Amb [...]sij, nec si­ne causà. Bellar. de Scrip­tor. Eccles. ad ann. 374..


Wee are not so streightned, that wee need make a­ny great reckoning whether they bee his or no; for wee have alleadged other places of Saint Ambrose out of his workes, of which there is no question. And yet they are usually cited under Saint Ambrose his name: Bellarmine in five severall places alleadgeth them, R [...]bertus Cocus in censu [...]a Scripto [...]um Vet. p. 133. and in particular this Commentary on the Romanes; and the Rhemists they vouch them too: and when a­ny thing in these Commentaries seeme to make for them, then they cry them up and say, Bea [...]us Ambrosi [...]s in cap 3. prime ad [...]imoth. inqui [...]; D [...]mus [...]ius Ec [...]l [...]si [...] di [...]itur, cujus [...]odi [...] Rector e [...]t Damasus. Bellarm de R [...]m. Pont. l. 2 c 16 §. Certius [...]. Amb [...]os. Beatus Ambrosius; and when they would thence proove the Pope to bee the ruler of the whole Church, then the stile runnes Blessed S [...]int Ambrose in his Commentaries saith thus, and thus: and then Saint Ambrose is the Authour of them.


Where Saint Ambrose saith, Thou Lord onely art to bee invocated, it is (saith Cardinall Perron) very true, of In­vocation absolute, soveraigne, and finall.


This is as much as wee desire, saith our acute and learned Bishop of Winchester DoctorB. And [...]ews Answer to Cardinall Perrons Re­ply. Pag. 44.45. Andrewes; for as for their relative and subalterne Invocation, wee know them not; and it is likely the Fathers knew not of any such oblique meanes to helpe men in their devotions: for if they had, so many, so diverse Fathers, in so many Treatises, specially where they wrote de Oratione, of Pray­er, must somewhere have mentioned them.


Saint Ambrose saith, Ad Deum suffragatore non opus est; now suffragari is to give ones voice. God indeed needs not any (be they Elements, Stars, Angels, or Saints they meant) to interpose betweene God and men, pour l' en­former, to informe him: but there needs some to inter­pose betweene God and men, pour les favoriser, to pro­cure favour on our behalfe.


Although the word in Heathen Authours be used in that sense, yet in the Churches stile, Suffrages are ta­ken for Prayers; and in their Portuises language I find that Suffrages Suffragia de S. An­tonio. Ora pro nobis Bea [...] Pa [...]er Antoni. Hor [...] B [...] M [...]r. are used for Ora pro nobis: now to the poynt. God, as hee needs not any Referendarie to give him intelligence, nor Counsailer to give him advice; so neither needeth bee any Solliciter to incline him to heare the Prayers of a devour spirit, but the great Me­diatour of all, which is Christ our Saviour, saith our learned Winchester. Id Ibid. pag 43.


Bellarmine replyeth, Intelligi [...] [...] Dei, q [...]a [...]i [...], D [...]us [...] eg [...]r interpretibus, [...]um. ps [...] p [...] se om [...]a vid [...], & int [...]llig [...]; tam [...]n [...]x [...] lepus est suff [...] [...]. Bel. li. 1 d [...] Sa [...] Be [...]. cap. [...]0. §. Ad [...] that non opus est su [...]ragatore, is not sayd on our part, but on Gods.

R [...]joynder.

It would bee asked of him, saith the same learned [Page 90] Bishop, Id. ibid. p 44. when it is sayd, Ad D [...]um suffragatore non est opus; whether non est opus, sh [...]ll bee non est opus nobis, or non est opus Deo; to say, non est opus Deo, were absurd; so i [...] must bee non [...]st opus nobis, and so the opus est must needs lye on our parts.


Bellarmine saith, Dico [...] cum agere con­trá [...]thnicos, qui As [...] ­tum cursus col [...]bant, Bel­lar. de Sanct. Beatit. li. 1. cap. 20. §. ad [...]ocum Am­br [...]si [...]. that Ambrose speakes against the Heathen that worshipped the Starres: whereupon hee saith that they worshipped their fellow servants, that is, Creatures.


How doth it appeare, that they were so rude, as to i­magine that the Starres were Mediatours to God for them?


What doe you say to the testimonies of Athanasius, Ambrose, and Epiphanius, alleadged Quintum Arg [...]m [...]n­tum ex P [...]t [...]b [...]s, Athanas. serm 3. c. Ar [...]ian [...] docet ne­q [...]e Angelos, ne (que) homin [...]s sanct [...]s ad natione colend [...]s esse. Epiphan. in haer. Col­l [...] rid sepius r [...]petit, Ma­ri [...]m non [...]sse adoran lam, sed solum Deum. Ambros. in cap. 1. ad Rom. repre­hendit e [...]s qui adorant c [...]n­servos. Bell [...]r. de Sanct. Beat [...] l. 1. c [...] 11. §. Quintum. against praying to Saints?


Iesuit Fisher in his Rejoynder to Doctour Whites Reply, sayth, I. F. Rejoynder to D. Whites Reply, the 2 and 3 poynt. The Fathers are thus to be understood, that Angels are not to be honoured as Gods, nor by Sacrifices in the heathenish manner.


This answer is defective; for the Fathers not onely when they answer Heathens, but when they instruct Christians, deliver the like speeches; as appeareth by Chrysostome in the fifth Age. Besides, how doth it ap­peare that Christians were so rude in those Ages, as to imagine that Angels were Gods? or that Sacrifices af­ter the Pagan manner, were due to them?


B [...]llarmine saith farther, Ad ultimum ex Pa­tribus [...]ico co [...] loqui con [...]r [...] erro [...]es Ge [...]ti [...]um, qui [...]x h [...]miribus [...] [...]sserebant. [...] l. 1 de [...] §. ad ultimū collat cum [...]ine c. 11 that the Fathers alleadged doe speake against the errours of the Gentiles, who made wicked men departed, their Gods, and did offer Sacrifice unto them.


By this Reply of Bellarmines, the Reader (saith the Right reverend & learned Lord Primate Doctor An answer to a Ch [...]llenge m [...]de by a Ie­suite in Ireland. S. Of prayer to Sain [...]s. pag [...]76 Vsher) may discerne the just hand of God, confounding the mans wits, that would thus abuse his learning to the up­holding of Idolatry; for had he beene his owne man, he could not possibly have failed so fowly, as to r [...]ckon the Angels and the Saints, and the very mother of God her selfe (of whom these Fathers, specially Epiphanius, doe expressely speake) in the number of those wicked persons, whom the Gentiles did take for their Gods.


Wee give Latrîa, or worship to God; and Dulia, or service to the Saints.


You give a higher worship to God, and a lesser to his Saints; like that wanton Roman Dame, who thought to excuse her folly, by saying, Ioannes Rainaldus de Idololatria. Rom Eccl. lib. 1. cap. 1. num 13. ex Ci­cerone in oratione pro Caelio. she companied with Me­tellus as with a Husband, and with Clodius as with a Bro­ther, whereas all was due to her husband onely; so doe these spirituall wantons part stakes in Gods worship, whereas all religious worship is due to God alone.

Neither will this distinction salve the sore; for the Scripture useth these terms without any such difference: Hebrai [...]um verbum, Ghabad, quod [...] redditur apud Spetuaginta, Deut. 6.13. in loco quem Christus [...]itat, Mat [...]. 4.10 [...]: reddite [...]. 1 Sam. 4. vbi scriptum est in lau­d [...]m Israelitarum, [...]. for the word Latria, which you appropriate to Gods service, is applied to men, as in this place: you shall doe no servile worke, the word used is Latria, [L [...]vit. 23.7.] the word is [...]: so contrariwise, the word Dulia, is taken in Scripture for the proper service of God, as in this place, serving the Lord with all Hu­mility, the word there used is Dulia; so that this distin­ction is idle, since that Religious worship and service is all one.


We doe not invocate the Saints by Faith, as Authors of the benefits we crave.


Your They pray dir [...]ctly, absolutely, and fin [...]lly to Sain [...]s, to give such and such gif [...]s & graces them­selves; and divers instan­ces are given in this kinde by Bishop Andrews in his Answer to Card Pe [...]r [...]n's Reply. P [...]g 58.59. &c. practice sheweth the contrary, for you pray to the Virgin Mary in these termes: O [...]fic. B. Mar. pij v. jussu edit. and the office of the Blessed Virgin ac­cording to the [...]ef [...]rmed Latine a [...] S. Omers. 1621.

Maria mater gratiae,
Mater misericordiae;
Tu nos ab hoste protege,
Et horâ mortis suscipe.
Mary Mother of H [...]avens grace,
Mother, where mercy hath chiefe place;
From cruel Foe, our soules defend,
And them receive when life shall end.

The Crosse is likewise devou [...]ly saluted in this man­ner: Breviar. Roman. Sab­bat. infrà Hebdom. 4. Quadrages.

O Crux ave spes unica,
Hoc passionis tempore;
Auge pijs justitiam,
Re [...]s (que) dona veniam.
All haile O Crosse, our onely hope,
In this time of the passion;
Increase thou justice to the godly,
And give to sinners pardon.


You have alleadged divers Fathers against praying to Saints, give me now leave to produce such testimonies as Bel­larmine brings in Bellar. l. 1. de Sanct. Beatit. cap. 19., for invocation of Saints.


The learned Bishop [...] on our side, Bishop Ad Cardinalis Bellar­mini Apolog [...]m Respons. cap 1 pag. 40 &c. His Answer to the 20. Chap [...]er of Cardinall Perron's Reply. Andrewes and Bishop Montague Master Rich: Mon­tague now Bishop of Chichester his Treati [...]e of In­voc [...]t [...]on o [...] Saints., have particularly examined the severall testimonies alleadged by Bellarmine, and found that hee hath utterly failed in his proofes.


Let us heare the Fathers themselves speake; for their testi­monies seeme to be cleere for us; for instance sake. Nazian­z [...]n rep [...]rts Viginem Mariam ro­g [...], u [...] p [...]r [...]li [...]ant [...] Vn­g [...] [...]. Gregor. Nazianz [...]n Or [...]t. in Cy­prian. that Cyp [...]ian whiles hee was a Pagan, and a Conjurer, he fell in love with Iustina a Christian virgine at [Page 93] Antioch, whom, when as by wooing and ordinary meanes hee could not winne to his will, hee went about to intice and prevaile with by Magicall spells and conjurations; which the Damosell perceiving, besought the Virgin Mary to succour her, being a distressed virgin.


This goes under his name, but (haply) is none of his; for it is not likely that Nazianzene (one of so great learning, judgement, and memory) could (as Billius sp [...]akes Tam foedo errore pro­lapsum esse Billius in not. ad locum.) be so grossely mistaken, to ascribe that unto Saint Cyprian Bishop of Carthage in Africke, that (if it were at all) was done by one Cyprian the Deacon of Anti­och in Asia. But yet say it were Nazianzen's owne report, it being but a private act, out of the devout affection in a Mayd, it cannot bee drawne to a rule of Faith; nei­ther is it proposed as an example to bee followed, but onely by way of bare narration what shee did: the re­later passeth not his owne censure upon it; yea, but hee taxeth it not; though hee did not, yet others, and (by name) Epiphanius in the same age taxed such of that sexe, as offered Cakes, and the like presents, and oblations to the blessed Virgin.

Lastly, the story saith, that despayring of all other remedies [...], shee flyeth to God, and then assumeth for her Patron and Protectour Christ Iesus her Spouse; and after this: [...], shee besought the Vir­gin Mary to succour her, being a distressed virgin. First, she flyeth to God; secondly, shee maketh Christ her Pa­tron; thirdly, she requesteth the Virgin Mary (in zeale rather than upon knowledge.) And although Nazianzen (speaking onely by hearesay) reporteth that shee sup­plicated (not by any Collect, or set forme of devo­tion, but by a short ejaculation) to the Virgin Mary; yet this was done by her in the last place, and after shee had first sought to God and Christ: Whereas, in their Romish devotions, our Lady hath their orizons first [Page 94] addressed to her; and our Lord hath them but as it were at second hand, the reve [...]sion of th [...]m.


Gregory Nyssen cals to Theodore the Martyr, saying, F [...]trum tuorū Mar­tyrum [...]oge chorum, & [...] omnibus una depre [...]are. Greg Nyssen. [...]at. in S. Theodor. gather together the troopes of thy brother Martyrs, and thou with them joyntly, beseech God to stay the invasion of the Barbarous Gothes.


Nyssen spake this in a Panegyricall oration, as an Ora­tour, not as a Divine, in a popular sermon of Comme­moration, not in doctrinall determination.

In like sort Bellarmine objects Nazianzen in his ora­tions calling unto Cyprian, Basil, and Athanasius, with a tu autem è supernis nos respice, Nazianzen. in orat. in Atha [...]as. doe thou favourably looke upon us from an high; Whereas, this is no direct invo­cation, but rather a vote, wish and desire that Basil and Athanasius might doe so and so; for it is not respice nos, but o si; or Vtinam nos respicias, and so hee speakes of Basil, and now Basil is in the heavens offering as I thinke sa­crifices for us, and praying for the people: hee comes with an [...], as I take it, as I am perswaded; it was but his opinion, and conjecture; being indeed nothing but a Rhetoric [...]ll flourish.

The like answer may serve to that of Hierome, who concluding his Funerall Oration upon Paula, desireth her in heaven, to assist him with her prayers; Vale ò Paula, & cult [...]ris tu [...] vl [...]imam [...]ene­ [...]tutem orati [...]nibus [...]uva. Hieron. in Epitaph. Pau­lae. the [...]peech h [...]e useth is no more but a Rhetoricall Apostro­phe or conversion to her. Besides, it is but [...] a wish; and not [...], a direct prayer unto her.

In the like manner [...]or proofe of prayer to Saints Bellarmine alleadgeth two Poets, Paulinus and Prudenti­us; now wee answer him in his owne words, Nihil aliud di [...]o, nisi mor [...] [...]ëtico [...]usiss P [...]u­dentium. Bellar lib 2. de Pu [...]gat. cap. 18. §. Ad. who when Prudenti [...]s was alleadged against him in the point of Purgatory, hee puts it off, saying, Prudentius played the Poet, so say wee, that they spoke it in a poeticall vaine, as others in a straine of Rhetorike: Now in Poetrie, men take more libertie; besides, their words [Page 95] serve them not at will, as they doe in prose: but they must often take such to make up their verse, as were otherwise inconvenient to bee used; moreover, the heate of their invention carrieth them further often­times, then in a temperate speech, they would be car­ried.


Saint Ambrose exhorts widowes to pray to the Angels and Martyrs, Obsecrandi sunt An­geli, Martyres, speculato­res vitae, actuumque no­strorum. Ambros. lib. de Viluis. whom hee calleth beholders of our lives and actions.


Saint Ambrose was chosen from a secular Iudge, to bee Bishop of Millaine, and was faine to bee christned before hee could bee consecrated. Now this booke de Viduis, of widowes was written about the beginning of his christianitie and divinitie both: Bishop Andrews An­swer to Ca [...]dinall Per­ron's R [...]ply, prooves this out of Baronius in the l [...]e o [...] Saint Ambrose. and therefore it is not strange, if in his beginning and novice ship hee said some things, for which hee afterward [...] corrected himselfe; of this sort is that which he hath in the booke alleadged, which shewes hee was a novice in di­vinitie, when hee wrote that booke de Viduis, for there hee doubts, whether the Martyrs had any sinnes or n [...]; and then saith, Qui proprio sanguine, etiam si quae habuerunt, peccata laverunt. Amb [...]. de Vid. [...]oco citato. That the sinnes they had, they did them­s [...]lves wash away with their owne blood: Whereas the ho­ly Scripture gives us no other L [...]ver for our sinnes than the blood of Iesus Christ, Who hath loved us, and washed us from our sinnes in his owne blood Apocal. 1.5.. And againe, Apoc. 7.14. & 1 Iohn 1. vers. 7. The Saints have washed their robes in the blood of the Lambe. Now the blood of Martyrs is not the blood of Christ: and therefore that speech was neither so safely, nor properly set downe. Besides, the words rea [...]h not home, it is onely his opinion, that the Saints and Ang [...]ls are our Patrons, Videmur, Quorum vide [...]ur n [...] ­bis quoddam corporis pig­nore patrocinium v [...]n [...]ica­re. Ambr. loc. citato [...] Wee seeme to have their pa [...]ronage, and yet it is but Patrocinium quoddam, a certaine kind of gardian ship.

But what Saint Ambrose's opinion was touching this point, no man can better tell than himselfe, who else­where [Page 96] saith Ad Deum autem pro­merendum, Suff [...]agatore non opus est, sed mente de­votà. Ambros. in Rom. cap. 1. Tom. 5. That to procure Gods favour, wee need no spokesman but a devout mind: and againe, Sed tamen tu solu [...] Domine invocandu [...] es. Ambr. de obitu Theodo­sij. tom. 3. Thou onely O Lord oughtest to bee invocated and prayed unto.


Saint Cyril of Hierusalem saith, Facimus mentionem etiam corum qui ante nos obdormierunt, ut Deus O­rationibus aliorum, susci­piat preces nostras. Cyril. Catech. 5. mystag. That wee make mention of those that sleepe in the Lord before us, that by their Intercession God would receive our prayers. Thus he in his mystagogicall Catechismes.


The learned Andr. Rivet. Critici sacri. lib. 3. cap. 8. & Rob. Coci censura Patrum pag. 118. doe thinke that Cyril of Hierusalem was not Author thereof, but one Iohn Bishop of Hierusalem, who lived about the yeare 767, a great advocate of I­mages; and indeed it may seeme so by some idle stuffe we find in them, as namely, where it is said, [...]. Cy­ril Catech. 4. That the wood of the Crosse did increase and multiply in such sort, that the earth was full thereof.

But, be it Cyrils of Hierusalem, it makes not for the Ro­mists. All he saith is this in effect; he supposeth that those holy ones with God, doe continually pray unto God, which prayers he desires God would mercifully heare, and grant unto them, for the good of his servants here on earth.

Lastly, he sayth mentionem facimus; and so did the ancients in their Commemorations, mention the God­ly Saints deceased, and yet without any direct invoking of them. And so Saint Austin saith: Suo loco & ordine nominatur, sed non invo­cantur. Aug. lib. 22. de ci­vit. Dei cap. 10 tom. 5. That the Martyrs were named at the Communion Table, but yet not invocated by the Priest. Saint Austin flatly opposeth invocantur, to nominantur; nominantur, sed non invocantur, so that they might be nominated, and mentioned, (as Cyril speakes) and yet not at all invocated.


Saint Hilary saith, Intercessione Ange­lor [...] indiget infirmitas no­stra. Hilar. in Psal. 129. that by reason of our infirmitie, we stand in need of the intercession of Angels, and the like he hath upon the 124 Psalme. Hilar. in Psal. 124. Nec leve praesidium in An­geli [...], qui Ecclesiam qua­dam custodiâ circumsep [...] ­ [...]unt.


Hilary speakes onely of Angelicall intercession: not [Page 97] a word touching invocation or intercession of Saints. And if any intercession be intended, it is that in gene­rall for the whole Church.

In the other place upon the 124 Psalme, Hilary speaks neither of Saints praying for us, nor of praying to them, but sayth: That the Church hath no small ayde in the Apostles, Prophets, and Patriarkes, or rather in the Angels which hedge and compasse the Church round about with a certaine guard, the ayde therefore he meaneth, is the example and doctrine of Circuibat cum Sa­cerdotibus & populo om­nium orationum loca, ante Martyrum & Apostolo­rum thec [...] jacebat cilicio prostratu [...], & auxilia sibi [...]ida Sanctorum intercessio­ne poscebat. Ruffin. lib. 2. hist cap. 33. the Saints departed, and the ministerie of the Angels.


The Emperour Theodosius went in Procession with his Clergy and Laity, Circuibat cum Sa­cerdotibus & populo om­nium orationum loca, ante Martyrum & Apostolo­rum thec [...] jacebat cilicio prostratu [...], & auxilia sibi [...]ida Sanctorum intercessio­ne poscebat. Ruffin. lib. 2. hist cap. 33. to the Oratories and Chappels, and lying prostrate before the Shrines and Monuments of the Apostles and Martyrs, he required ayde to him­selfe by the faithfull intercession of the Saints.


The Emperour did not invocate any Saint, or Saints at all; onely upon that exigent of the rebellion of Eu­genius and his complices, he repayres to the Shrines and Chappels of the Apostles, Martyrs, and other holy Saints; there he made his prayers unto God in Christ, not unto them, desiring God to ayde him against his e­nemies, and the rather upon the prayers and intercession of the Saints on his behalfe; now invocation followes not presently upon intercession. Theodosias Sancto­rum invocator [...]; [...]li­ud enim est pos [...]re à San­ctis auxilium, quo [...] [...] invocare [...] aliu [...] a Deo poscere, Sanctorum i [...]ter­cession [...]: ex inte [...]cessione non [...]uitur invocatio. D [...]ct Andrew [...]s in Re­spons. ad B [...]l [...]r. Apolog. cap. 1. P [...]g 45.


Sozomen telleth us that the Emperour before he joy­ned battaile, he earnestly intreated to be assisted by Saint Iohn Baptist.


The learned Bishop, Bishop Mountague answereth, T [...]eatise of Inv [...] ­cation of [...] that the credit of this story may [...]e questioned; for Socrates and Th [...]odoret elder than Sozomen, have it not; and Sozomen himselfe hath no greater warrant for i [...] then hea [...]e say; [...], the report is; but who the Author [Page 98] was, wha [...] credit it was of, is not related. But suppo­sing the truth of the story, Ruffinus hath the very forme of the Prayer which the Emperour made, Ruffinus quò sup [...]à and there is no mention therein of invocating either Saint or An­g [...]l. Socrates saith, Dei [...]plo [...]avit [...] S [...]rat. hist. lib 6 [...] p. 4. that the Emperor implored Gods as­sistance, and had his desire; Theodoret saith, De [...]m pr [...]cab [...]ur. The [...]d [...]b. 5. [...] p. [...]4. that the E [...]perour prayed to God; so that the Emperour had repayre unto God alone, without any mediation at all. [...] Sozom. [...].

I have consulted with the Originall, and there indeed I find that the Emperour being in Saint Iohn Baptist's Church which Theodosius hims [...]lfe had built, [...]. Pag. 102. edi [...]. Rob. Ste­phani. In Lat. editione Ruffin. l 7 cap. 24. He called to have Saint Iohn Baptist's assistance in the battaile; he did not directly call upon S. Iohn Baptist, but he called upon God, that he would appoint the Baptist for to a [...]d him.

But be it that he called upon the Baptist indeed; yet this was done in the second place, after he had first im­mediatly called upon God hims [...]lfe.


Athanasius in his Sermon upon the Annunciation of bless [...]d Virgin, sayth to the Virgin Mary, In [...]lina aurem tuam [Ma [...]ia] in pre [...]es nostras [...] & ne [...]blivi [...]caris populi tui — & in [...]rà, ad [...]e cla­m [...]m [...]s — & in [...]ra — [...] ­t [...]rc [...]de Hera, & Domi [...] & Regina, & mate [...] Dei pro nobis Athan [...] serm. in Evang. de s [...]nct. Deipara. se [...] A [...]nunciat. Incline thine cares to our prayers, and forget not thy people.


Indeed this speakes home, but it is not the true Atha­n [...]sius, but some counterfeits bearing his name; and this is confessed by the two Arch pillars of Poperie, Bellar­mine and Baronius; for howsoever Bellarmine, to make up his number, produce B [...]llar. lib. 1. de Sanct. B [...]at [...]t. cap. 19. Athan [...]sius for proofe of Saint­ly invocation; yet the same B [...]llarmine when he is out of the heat of his controversies, and is not tied to main­taine [...]he invocation of Saints, but treateth of other mat­ters; then, in his Catalogue of Ecclesiasticall wri [...]ers, he is of another judgement; and saith Sermo de sanctissi­mà D [...]i [...]a [...]a, non vi [...]tur esse S At [...]anasij, sed [...]l [...]u­jus [...]oste [...]ioris [...] qui nost sex­tum Co [...]cilium fl [...]ruerit. Bell [...]. de Scriptor Eccles. ad ann. 304. in Athana­sio. that this Ser­mon of Athanasius of the Annunciation of the blessed Virgin, seemeth not to be Athanasiusses, but some later write [...]s, who lived af [...]er the six [...]h generall Councel.

Baronius also is of the same judgement: B [...]ron. tom 1. Annal. ad ann. Ch [...]isti. 48. and indeed [Page 99] he that shall consider and w [...]i [...]h what the true Athanasius writes, to wit, [...]. Athanas. to. 1. orat. 3. contr. Arrian. That God onely is to be worshipped: that the creature is not to fall downe and worship or supplicate the crea­ture: nor Sanctos non à crea [...]o postulare, ut auxiliator s [...]. At [...]anas. or t. 2 con. Ar­rian. pet. Nannio Interp. to make the Saints (being but creatures, & no cre­ators) speciall helpers and opitulators: he (I say) that shall duely weigh these things, will easily conceive when he reads this Sermon of the Annunciation, that either Atha­nasius was not constant to his own doctrine (which is not to bee imagined, or that this Homily alleadged is none of the true Athanasiusses, it is so farre different from his other doctrine.


Bellarmine, for proofe of Saintly invocation, B [...]llar. de Sanct Be­atit. lib. 1. cap. 19. allead­geth a place out of Eusebius; the testimonie speaketh thus, as there it standeth reported out of the thirteenth Booke, and seaventh Chapter of his Evangelicall Prepa­ration: Verae pietatis milites, u [...] Dei amicos honoran [...]es, ad monument [...] quoque il­lorum accedimus, vot [...]que ipsis sacimus, tanquam vi­ris sanctis. quoram inter­cessione ad Deum non pa­rum juvari p [...]ofitemur. Eu­seb. lib 13 praep [...]rat. E­ [...]angel. cap 7. This we daily doe: we honour those heavenly Souldiers, as Gods friends, we approach unto their Monuments, and pray unto them, as unto Holy men, by whose intercession we professe our selves to be much holp [...]n.


Eusebius speakes not of particular invocation for par­ticular 1 intercession: but of generall mediation of the Saints in heavē, who pray for Saints on earth in general, according to the nature of Communion of Saints, with­out any intercession used to thē, or invocation of them, by that other moity of the Church Militant o [...] earth.

Secondly, Eusebiu [...] doth not enlarge his speech to all the Saints departed, but unto Martyrs onely, whom he 2 calle [...]h Heavenly Souldiers. Now the case of Martyrs and other Saints is not equall: for in the opinion of the Ancients, that of Martyrs was fa [...]re above all o­ther depa [...]ted with God; as enjoying mo [...]e priviledge from God, with Christ in glory, by some specially enlarged dispensation, than they the other holy Saints did, as Saint Augustine Augustin. [...]e cur [...] pr [...] mortuis. ca [...] 8. teacheth.

3. Thirdly, the place alleadged is taken out of a 3 [Page 100] corrupt translation made by Trapezuntius, and after­wards followed by Ad M [...]numenta quo (que) [...]lorum acce [...]mus, vota (que) ipsi [...] sacim [...]. Euseb. de P [...]aep [...]rat. Evangel. lib. 13 c [...]p. 7. Euseb. ope [...]a Io. Dadraei, Parisij [...]. 1581. Dadroeus a Doctour of Paris, who set forth Eusebius. Now Eusebius hath no such thing as is pretended; his words in his owne language are these: [...]. Eu [...]b. [...] 13. c [...]. 11. ex [...] [...]phani. Lute [...]. 1544. It is our custome, to come to the Tombes and Monu­ments [of the Martyrs] and to make our prayers at, or bef [...]re those Shrines, or Tombes, and to honour those blessed soules. Pl [...]saith they used [...], to present them­se [...]ves at the Martyrs Tombes, [...], and to make their prayers, [...] at those [...] those To [...]bes and Monuments; he saith not [...], to these Martyrs, as Bellarmine would have it. It is onething to pray ad memorias Martyrum, before or neere the Sepul­chers of [...]he Martyrs, as anciētly they were wont to doe: & another thing to say (as our adversari [...]s doe) that these Praye [...]s were made unto the Martyrs themselves: the truth is, they were made unto God to p [...]aise him for the assista [...]ce given unto the Martyrs, and to crave of God 4 the like G [...]ace.

4. F [...]urthly, and lastly, Eusebius in the same treatise doth fully expre [...]se himselfe touching this matter, say­ing, [...]. [...]useb [...]b [...]d. lib. 4 c [...]p. 10. pag. 88. & 89 We are taught to worship God onely, and to honour those blessed Powers that are about him, with such honour as is fit and agreeable to their [...]state and condition: and againe, [...]. Id. ibid l 4. c. 21. p. [...]. in edit [...] Ro. S [...]eph g [...]ae. l. [...]et. 1544. To God onely will we give the worship due un [...]o his name, and him onely doe we religiouslie worship and adore.


Saint Ephraim the Syrian [...] 18. in [...] to. 3. p. 247. saith, Wee pray you O ye [...] bl [...]ssed Spirits, vouchsafe to make intercession to God for us miserable sinners.


The D. Fulke in his An­not. in Rhem. Test. upon 2 Peter 1 15. Et Rob Co [...] [...] Scr [...]pt. Vet. p. 118. learned take exceptions at this Ephraim, as being a counterfeit, lately brought to light, and not set forth in his native language, but taught to speake in the Roman tongue: [...]ut bee it that it is the true Saint Ephraem, yet hee saith nothing directly for praying to Saints: for it is but an Apostrophe in generall, which [Page 101] infe [...]reth no co [...]lusion a [...] all, no [...] is it directed to any one peculiar Saint, b [...]t [...]o the Saints i [...] gene [...]all. Now it is con [...]essed that they pray to God Pro nobis miseris peccatoribus; and this their b [...]other-like aff [...]ction, and Saint-like performance, is an [...]speciall pa [...]t of the Communion of Saints.

Besides, Ephraem (take him as hee comm [...]th to our hands) delivereth that which overthrowe [...]h Saintly Invocatio [...]; for hee prayeth to God onely, without mentio [...]ing any Saint at all; Nec in me quidquam bont reperio, quod in con­spectu tuo memorari poss [...]t, nisi hoc solum, quod praeter te, aliam ignorem. S. E­phraem. sermon. p [...]g 65 tom. 1. yea hee saith expresly, That hee knoweth no other save God, to whom hee should present his prayers; and yet more fully Idem ibid. pag. 269. edit. Vossian [...]e. saying; Tibi soli redemptori supplico, To thee only my Saviour and Redeemer I make my prayer and supplication. And thus speakes Ephraem when once he is out of his p [...]osopopei­aes, and Rhetoricall compellations, his pa [...]egy [...]icks, and commendatorie orations of the Saints.

Of Iustification by Faith onely.

Concerning Iustification by Faith onely, Saint Am­brose (or some of the same standing with Ambrose) Author Commenta­riorū in Epistola [...] Pauli, aeq [...]alis, si [...]e dubio Am­brosij fuit. Bellar. lib. 4. de Iustif. cap. 8. is cleare and plentifull throughout his Commentaries on Saint Pauls Epistles.

Sol [...] fide justi [...]icati sunt dono Dei. Id. in 3 ad Rom. Et impius per solam fidem justificatur apud De­um. Id in 4. Rom. They are justified by faith alone, by the gift of God; yea, hee farther saith, Nullum opus dici [...] le­gis sed solam f [...]d [...]m dand [...]m in caus [...] [...] Id in c. 10 No worke of the Law, but one­ly faith is to bee given in Christ's cause. Saint Hilarie saith, Fides enim sola justi­ficat. Hilar Comment. in Math. canon [...] 8. That which the Law could not unloose, is remitted by Christ, for faith alone justifieth. Saint Basil saith, [...]. Basil Homil. 22. de Humilitate. to [...] 1. That it is true and perfect rejoycing in the Lord, when a man is not puffed up with his owne righteousnesse, but acknowledgeth his want thereof, yet r [...]joyceth that hee is justified by faith alone in Christ.

By this that hath beene said, it appeareth, that when wee say, Faith onely justifieth, wee have not departed from the doctrine of the ancient Fathers in this point of Iustification.

Of Merit.

Concerning Merit, Saint Ambrose saith, Nam [...]de mihi tan­ [...]um meriti, cui indulgentia pro coron [...] est Amb [...]os. in [...] virg. [...]om. 1. Whence should I have so great merit, seeing mercy is my crowne? and againe, Q [...]d p [...]ssums dignū praemis [...] [...] Dei [...] [...] d [...]creto­rum in homines [...] pro­cedit. Amb [...]os. in P [...]m. 11 [...]. serm 20 to [...] What can wee doe worthy of the heavenly re­wards? the s [...]ff [...]ring [...] of this time are u [...]worthy for the glory t [...]t is to come: therefore the forme of heav [...]nly Decrees doth proceed with men, not according to our me [...]its, but according to Gods mercy.

Basil saith, [...]. Basi [...]. in Psal. 114. [...]. 1. Everlasting rest is layd up for them that strive lawfully in this life; not to bee rendred according to the d [...]bt of workes, but exhibited by the grace of the bountifull God to them that trust in him.

Macarius the Aegyptian Hermite, touching the gift which Christians shall inherit, averreth; Si qu [...] ex quo crea­t [...]s est Ala [...] ad con [...]um­m [...]tion [...]m us (que) mundi cer­ [...] [...] Satan [...]m, & [...] e [...]lictiones, [...] it perag [...]et, [...] ad [...]pturus. M [...] ­ [...]ar homil 15 in [...]erpre [...]e Ioanne P [...], in Bibl. S. Patr. tom. 2. edit. 2. pag. 353. ed [...]. [...]ute [...]ae, per M [...]g [...] 158 [...]. That this a man may rightly say, that if any one from the time wherein Adam was created unto the very end of the world did fight against Satan, and undergoe afflictions; hee should doe no great matter in respect of the glory that hee shall inherit; for he [...] shall reigne together with Christ world without end.


You produced Saint Cyril of Hierusalem, as if he should witnesse for you, whereas hee is ours; and your Mr. Cooke tell [...]th us Censina S [...]r [...]p [...]o [...]um Peterum. pag. 117. that Bellarmine often alleadgeth him on our be­halfe.


The learned make question whether Cyril, or Iohn B. of Hierusalem were the Author of those Cate­chismes; and surely in some part thereof there bee di­vers things unworthy of that ancient and learned Cy­ril, who is the more to be beloved of the Orthodoxe, as he was greatly hated of the A [...]rians; yet even in these Catechismes (take them as they come to our hands) Master Rivet, a learned, and judicious Divine, finds many testimonies And [...]. Ri [...]et Crit. [...] l. 3 cap 9. & 10. that make for us, and against the Papists: For instance sake, Cyril in his Catechisme, having numbred all the bookes of the old Testament omitteth all those that are controverted; and saith, [Page 103] Cyril. Hierosol. Ca­tech. 4. Peruse the two and twenty bookes, but meddle not with the Apocrypha; meditate diligently upon those Scriptures, which the Church doth confidently read, and use no other: Hee saith, [...]. Id. Ca­tech. 4. That the safetie and preservation of faith consists not in the eloquence of words, but in the proofe of divine Scrip­ture. The same Cyril saith, Cyril Catechesi My­stagogicà 5. [...]. Receive the body of Christ with a hallow hand, saying Amen, and after the partaking of the body of Christ, come also to the cup of the Lord. The same Cyril saith, [...]. Cyril. Catech. My­stag. 4. that the words [my Body] were Spoken of the bread. Christ thus avoucheth and saith of the Bread, this is my Body. He resembleth the consecrated oyle where­with their foreheads were annoynted, to the consecrated bread in the Eucharist. Looke (saith he, [...]. Idem. Catech. Mystag. 3. Thou doe not thinke it to be onely bare and simple oyle, for even as the consecrated bread after prayer and invocation is no more common bread, but Christs body; so the holy oyle is no more bare and simple oyle, or common, but Charisma the gift of Grace: whence (as Master Rivet saith) Andr. Rivet. Critici sacri. lib. 3. cap. 10. wee may thus argue as is the change in the oyle, such there is in the Eucharist; but in the oyle there is no change in substance, but use, and sanctification by grace; and therefore there is no substantiall change or con­version in the Elements of bread and wine when they become the body and blood of Christ.


Saint Cyril saith, Cyril. Catech. My­stag. cap. 4. Know you for a surety, that the bread which is seene of us is not bread, though the taste find it to bee bread, but the body of Christ: insomuch as Bellarmine upon this testimonie saith, Bellar. lib. 2. de Eu­char. cap. 13. §. Quarto. Quid clariùs dici potest? What can be said more plainely?


Cyril saith; The bread which is seene of us is not bread, and the same Cyril saith [...]. Cy­ril Catech. 3. of the Water in Baptisme, it is not simple water, let the one satisfie the other. Cyril saith of the bread, as hee doth of the oyle; that it is no bare, simple, or common oyle; but Charisma, the type, and symboll of a spirituall gift; and so hee meant of the bread, the Consecrated bread; that it is no ordinary or [Page 104] common bread, but of different use and serv [...]ce, and yet the [...]ein not any change of substance at all. Neither doth Cyril say as Bellarmine corrup [...]ly tra [...]slateth it, or at le [...]st m [...]kes use of a corrupt tr [...]nslation, Sub [...] datur [...] Eu [...]h [...]r. [...]. 3 § [...] That the body of C [...]rist is given Sub sp [...]cie pan [...]s, Vnder the forme of bread; but (as it [...]s in the Greeke) [...]. Cy [...]l. [...]. 4 Vnder the type of bread; even as hee saith afterwards, [...]. Id [...]. 5. Thinke not t [...]at you taste bread, but t [...]e Antitype of Christs body; so that hee calleth the cons [...]crated bread and wine, [...]ypes, and Antitypes, that is signes of the body and bloo [...] of Christ. Now where [...]s Cyril would not have us judge of th [...]s Sacra­ment by our taste or sense; it i [...] true; that as the Bread and Wine are [...]ound and whi [...]e, a [...]d sweet in taste, our bo­dily senses m [...]y indeed perceive th [...]m; but as they are types, and A [...]titypes, that is, sign [...]s Of the body and blood [...]f Christ, so [...]hey a [...]e spi [...]itually to bee discern [...]d, with our understanding onely; as the Reverend and learned D [...]ctor Morton, Lo. Bishop of Coventry and Lichfi [...]ld, and now Lord Bishop of Dur [...]sme, hath ob­served B. Mo [...]ton [...]. Book 3. [...]h [...]p. 4 [...] 4.. Lastly the same Cyril saith, [...] That wee have r [...]pentance, and remission of sinnes, confined onely to the terme of th [...]s pr [...]s [...]nt life: More might be alleadged out of the same [...]y [...]il, but these may su [...]fice to shew what hee in his Ca [...]echismes taught his schollers, touching the Scrip­tur [...]s s [...]ffic [...]encie, a [...]d Ca [...]on, Communion in both kinds, the Eucha [...]ist and Purgatory.

Before I clo [...]e up this Centurie, I must needs speake of Constantin [...] the Great, and the two generall Coun­cel [...] held in this Age.

In [...]his age flourished the honour of our nation, that Christian P [...]ince Constantine the Great, borne of our co [...]n [...]rey woman H [...]l [...]na; both of them Britaines by bi [...]th [...] Roy [...]ll by descent, Saints by esti [...]ation, and true Catholikes by profession.


Do [...]tor [...] and Master Brerely show them to have b [...]n [...] o [...] [...] [...].


Our reverend and learned Doctor, Doctor Abbot, late Bish [...]p of Salisbury, hath sufficiently confuted your Bishop, and acquitted them from being Papists; since they held not the grounds of Popery, as at this day, they are maintayned.


If constantine were no Papist, of what faith t [...]en was hee?


Hee was of the true, ancient, Christian Faith, as may appeare by these instances following.

Hee held the Scriptures sufficient for deciding mat­te [...]s of Faith, and accordingly prescribed this rule to the Nicene Councell, saying, [...]. [...]heodor. E [...]cl [...]s Hist li. 1. cap. 7. Because the Apostles Bookes doe plainely instruct us in divine matters; therefore we ought to make our Determinations upon Questions, from words which are so divinely inspired: he saith not that the Scrip­tures plainely teach us what to thinke of the nature and substance of God (as Bellarmine would Bellar lib. 4. de ver­bo Dei cap. 11. wrest it) but al­so of the holy Law, and things concerning Religion; for so doe the words sound in the originall [...]. [...]h [...]od. quò supra.; and here­in (saith Theodoret) Theod. quò suprà. the greater part of the Councell obeyed the voyce of Constantine. Constantine held it not the Pop [...]s peculiar to summon generall Coun [...]lls; for hee called the Councell of Nice himselfe [...]. Theod. lib. 1. cap 7., and therein sate as President and m [...]deratour, receiving every mans opinion, helping sometimes one part, sometimes ano­ther, Eus [...]b de vit [...] Con­stantini [...] lib. 3. cap. 13. reconciling them when they were at ods, untill hee brought them to an agreement in the Faith.

The same E [...]perour by his roy [...]ll Letters [...]. Id. ibid. li. 3. c 23. Prescri­bed to the Bishops such things as belonged to th [...] good of Gods Church; yea hee held himselfe to bee a Iu [...]ge and su­preme Governour in Causes Ecclesiasticall: for hee professeth (speaking generally of all so [...]t [...] of men) if any shall rashly or undadvisedly maintaine these pesti­lent assertions (meaning the Arrians) [...]. Theod. l. 1. cap. 1 [...]. His saucinesse shall [Page 106] be [...] instantly curbed by the Emperours ex [...]cution, who is Gods Ministers. Moreover Constantine never sought to the Pope for pardon, hee never worshipped an Image, never ser­ved Saint nor Shrine, never knew the Masse, Transub­stantiation, nor the halfe Communion: hee prayed not for his Fathers soule at the performance of his Fune­ralls, [...] de vi [...]a C [...]n­stan lib. 1 [...]ap. 16. used no Requiems nor Diriges at his Exequies; he wished not any prayers to bee made after his death for his owne soule; but having received Baptisme newly before his death, professed a stedfast hope that needed no such after-prayers, saying; [...]. Id ibid. l. 4. c. 63. Now I know indeed that I am a blessed man, that God hath accounted mee worthy of immortall life, and that I am now made partaker of the light of God. And when they that stood about him wished him longer life, hee answe [...]ed, [...]. Id. I [...]id. gr [...]dit Rob. S [...]e­p [...]ni Lutetiae an. 1544. That hee had now attay­ned the true life, and that none but himselfe did understand of what happinesse he was made partaker, and that he therfore hastned his going to his God. Thus Constantine dyed outright a Protestan [...], hee craved no after-prayers for his soule, hee dreaded no Purgatory, but dyed in full assurance of going immediately to his God. Was this Prince now a Trent papist?

Now to proceed; the fi [...]st Generall Councell in Christianitie, after the Synod of the Apostles, was that famous fi [...]st Councell of Nice, consisti [...]g of 318. Bishops, the greatest lights that the Christian world then had; it was called about 325 yeares after Christ, against Arrius, that denyed Christ to bee ve [...]y God; from this Councell wee had o [...]r Nicen Creed, it was summoned not by the th [...]n Bishop of Rome, but by the Emperour Constantine, Gathering th [...]m together out of di­vers Cities and Provinces, as thems [...]lves have l [...]f [...] [...]ccor­ded [...]: Wee produce the sixth Canon of this Coun­cell, against the Popes monarchicall Iurisdiction; the [...]enour thereof is this: [...]. Con [...]il. Ni [...]n. 1. [...] 6 [...]ag. [...]8 [...] ex edit. Tilij Pa [...]s. 1 [...]0. Let ancient customes hold, that the Bishops of Alexandria should have the government over Aegypt, Lybia, and Pentapolis, because also the Bishop of [Page 107] Rome hath the same custome; as also let Antioch and other Provinces hold their ancient priviledges: Now these words of the Canon thus limiting and distinguishing the severall Provinces, and grounding on the custome of the Bishop of Rome, that as hee had preheminence of all the Bishops about him, so Alexandria and Antioch should have alL about them, as likewise every Metropo­litane within his owne Province: these words (I say) doe cleerely sh [...]w, that before the Nicene Councell, the Pope neither had preheminence of all through the world (as now hee claymeth to bee an universall Bi­shop) nor ought to have greater preheminence (by their judgement) than he had before time, this being the effect of the Canon, to wit, That the Bishop of Alexan­dria shall have authority over his Diocesses, as the Bi­shop of Rome over his.


Bellarmine saith, Sensus est, quià ità Pontifex Romanus con­suevit permittere. Bellar. lib. 2. de Pont. cap. 13. §. Quarta. the meaning of the Canon is, that the Bishop of Alexandria should have the Provinces there men­tioned, because the Bishop of Rome was accustomed to permit it so to bee.


The words of the Canon are, Because the Church of Rome hath the like custome, here is not one word of per­mission. They bee indeed (as learned Bishop Morton saith The Grand Impo­sture of the (now) Church of Rome, by the Bishop of Coventrie and Lich­field. Chap. 8. sect. 2) words of comparison; that the Bishop of A­lexandria should injoy his priviledges accordingly as the Bishop of Rome held ancien [...]ly his: as if one should say, I will give this man a crowne, b [...]cause also I gave a crown to his fellow.

Besides, Cardinal Cusanus understandeth the Canon as we doe, in this sort; [Quoniam parilis mos est] id est, sicut Ro­manus habet omnium su­orum Episcoporum potesta­tem; ita & Alex [...]ndri­nus ex more habet per Ae­gyp [...]um [...] &c. Card. Cusan. concord. Cathol. l. 2. c. 12 As the Bishop of Rome had po­wer and authority over all his Bishops, so the Bishop of Alex­andria, according to custome, should have thorowout Lybia, and the rest.

Here by the way, the reader may observe, that though the Pope should have a large circuit for his Diocesse, [Page 108] yet was n [...]t this Iurisdiction given him, by the Law of Go [...], but by the custome of men. Let old cust [...]mes b [...] k [...]pt s [...]ith the Councel: he [...]e was no ordinance of Christ, acknowledged, no Text of Scripture alleadged for it, as now a day [...]s; Tu es Petrus, and pasce oves, and tibi da [...]o claves; Thou art Peter, f [...]ed my sheepe, and unto thee will I give the Keyes of the Church. The P [...]p [...] held it not then, as it is now pre [...]ended, [...] 2. de Pont cap. 12. Iure Divino [...] by divine ordinance, but onely by use and custome which may be altered, and was upon occasion; for when Constantino­ple became the Imperiall City, then was the Bishop thereof equalled with Rome as appearet [...] by the Chal­cedon Councel.

About the yeare 381 the second Generall Councel, was held at Constantinople, against Macedomus, who de­nyed the Divinity of the Holy Ghost; [...]t consisted of an hundred and fifty Bishops; it was called not by the Pope, but by the Emperour Theodosius the elder. [...]. Socrat lib. 5. [...]. cap. 8.

This Councel confirmed the foresaid sixt Canon of the Nicen, which bounded the Bishop of Rome (as well as other Bishops) within the precincts of his owne Pro­vince. The third Canon of this Councel of Constanti­nople speakes in this tenour: [...]. Sy­nod. Occumen 2. can. 3. p [...] 306. edit. Tilij G [...]aece. That the Bishop of Constan­tines City, that is, Constantinople hath P [...]erogatives of honour next after the Bishop of Rome, because it is new Rome.

THE FIFTH CENTVRIE, From the yeare of Grace, 400. to 500.


WHat say you of this fifth Age?


We are yet within the compasse of the first 500 yeeres next after Christ, and so neerer to the time and truth of the Prim [...]tive Chu [...]ch: now for this present Age, it may for choice of Learned men, be compared to the Golden Age, for now flourished the Golden mouthed Chrysostome, Oh ve [...]ustat [...]m [...]l [...] ­quij C [...]ysostomus id est, os am cum nommatur [...] [...] ­them. de Sc [...]ptor. Eccle­siast. the Well languaged Hierome and Saint Austin the very Mall and Hammer of Heretikes.

Chrisostome was [...], the most copious wri­ter of any of the Greeke Fathers now extant; he was an eloquent Preacher, full of Rhetoricall figures, and amplifications; so that his veine and gift lay rather in the Ethique and Moral part of divinity, In Ethicis plus ex­c [...]ll [...]t [...] quam in Didasia­ [...] & Ex [...]geticis [...] Dan Toll [...]n [...] in Synopsi de le­gendis Pa [...]ibus. working upon the affections, than in the doctrinal and exegetical part, for information of judgement. By his liberty of speech in Pulpit, he drew the hatred of th [...] great ones of the [...], and of the Emperour hims [...]lfe, but above all, of the Empresse Eudoxia, upon his head: so that she, and Theophilus, Patria [...]ke of Alexandria procu [...]ed his depo­sition and banishment, with commandment to [...]ney [Page 110] his weak [...] body with excessive Travels from place to place, untill he concluded his life, Sozo [...]en. lib. 8. cap. ui [...]. hist. Eccles. about the yeare foure hundred and eleven.In [...]xlio ponti m [...]i­tur, Anno 411. T [...]it [...]em. de Scrip Eccl [...]s.

Hierome was borne in Dalmatia, and instructed at Rome. He travailed abroad into France, and other pla­ces, of pu [...]pose to increase his knowledge, at Rome hee acquainted himselfe with Honourable women, such as Marcella, Sophronia, Principia, Paula, and Eustochium, to whom he expounded places of holy Scripture, for hee was admitted Presbiter; he served Damasus Bishop of Rome in sorting his Papers; his gifts were envied at Rome, therefore he l [...]ft Rome, and tooke his voyage to­wards Palestina: by the way he acquainted himselfe with Epiphanius, Nazianzen, and Didymus Doctor in the Schoole of Alexandria, and sundry other men of note and marke. In the end he came to Iudea, and made choice of Bethlem the place of the Lords Nativity to bee the place of his death. At Bethlem, Paula a noblewoman (who accompanied Hierome, and his brother Paulinianus from Rome) upon her owne charges builded foure Monaste­ries, whereof her selfe guided one, and Hi [...]rome another. Hierome was [...] well skilled in the tongues; but he wa [...] a man of a Chollericke and sterne disposition, more inclinable to a solitary and Monkish li [...]e, then to f [...]llowship and societie: neither Heliodorus in the wil­dernes, nor Ruffinus out of the wildernes, could keep in­violable friendship with him, hee flourished about the yeare 390. but he lived unto the yeare 422,Hier [...]n [...]mu [...] mo [...]it [...]r [...] & Theod [...]. T [...]them i [...]d [...] & therfore we place him in this fifth Age, and so doth Bellarmine. [...] lib 2 de Eu­c [...]rist [...], cap. [...]3.

Augustine in his younger yeares was infected with the errour of the Manichees; his mother Monica prayed to God for his conv [...]rsion, and God heard her pra [...]ers; fo [...] by the p [...]eac [...]ing of Ambrose, bish [...]p of Millaine, an [...] by reading the life of Antonius the Heremite, hee was wonderf [...]lly moved, and beganne to disl [...]ke his former conversation. He went into a quiet Garden ac­co [...]panied with Alipius, and there as he was with teares [Page 111] bewayling his former course, and desi [...]ing Gods grace for working his c [...]nversion, hee heard a voice sa [...]i [...]g unto him, Augustin. [...] lib. 8. cap. 12. Tolle & lege, and againe, Tolle & lege, that is to say, Take up and reade, Take up and reade: at the first hearing, hee thought it to bee the voyce of boyes or maydes speaking in their play such words one to ano­ther: but when hee looked about, and could see no­body, he knew it to bee some heavenly admonition, warning him to take up the booke of holy Scripture (which he had in the Garden with him) and read. Now the first place that fell in his hands, after the opening of the booke, was this: Rom. 13. vers. 13 14 Not in gluttony and drunkennesse, neither in chambering and wantonnesse, nor in strife and en­vying [...] but put yee on t [...]e Lord Iesus Christ, and take no thought for the flesh to fulfill the lusts of it. At the reading whereof, hee was so fully resolved to forsake the va­nities of the world, and to become a Christian, that immediately thereafter hee was babtized by Saint Am­brose, with his companion Alipius, and his sonne Adeo­datus. Hee was afterwards made bishop of Hippo in A­frica. Hee defended the truth against the Manichees, Pelagians, Donatists, and whatsoever errour else pre­vail [...]d in this age. Hee is to bee commended, in that hee revised his owne Writings, and wrote his retracta­tions, or r [...]cognitions. When he had lived 76 yeares, hee re [...]ed from his labours, before the Vandales had ta­ken the towne of Hippo which in the time of Augustines sickenesse they had besieged: and thus was hee transla­ted, and taken away, before hee saw the evill that came upon the place. Isai. 57.1.

Besides these learned Trium virs, there lived in this age Theodoret bishop of Cyrus a towne in Syria, Cyrill bishop of Alexandria, Leo the great and Gelasius bishops of Rome, Vincentius Lirinensis a great impugner of He­resies, as also Sedulius of Scotland Sedulius Presbiter, na­tione Scotus, claruit Anno 430. Trith [...]m. de Script. eccles., whose Collecti­ons are extant upon Saint Pauls Epistl [...]s, Sedulij Scoti Hi [...]er­niensis, in omnes Epistolas [...]auli Collectane [...] excus. Basil. 1528. and his testi­monies frequently cited by the learned L. Primate [Page 112] Doctour Vsher in his Tr [...]atise of the ancient Irish Re­ligion.

O [...] the Sc [...]iptures sufficiencie.

Saint Augustine saith, In [...] qu [...] aper [...]è [...]. Aug de Doct [...]n. [...] li. 2 c 9 tom. 3. In those things which are layd downe plainely in the Scriptures, all those things are found, which appertaine to faith and direction of life.

Bellarmine would shift off this place by saying, Loquitur de ill [...] [...] quae necessa [...]ia sunt omnibus simplici [...], qu [...]lia sunt quae habentur in Symbolo Ap [...]tolico, & D [...]alogo. Bellar. lib. 4. de Ve [...]bo D [...]i non sc [...]pto. [...]p 11. §. ultimo. That Austine meant, that in Scripture are contayned all such points as are simply necessary for all, to wit, the Creed, and the Com­mandements; but beside these, other things necessary for Bishops and Pastors [...] I [...]. ibid. § [...]. were delivered by tradition: but this stands not with Austines drift, for in the Treatise allead­ged de Doctrin [...] Christianâ, hee purposely instructeth not the people, but Christian Doctors and Teachers; so that where he saith, In the Scriptures are plainely set downe all things which containe Faith, Hope, and Charity, he mea­neth (as elsewhere Aug. de [...] Christ. lib. 1. cap. 1. & lib. 4 [...]a [...]. 4. hee expresseth himselfe) all things which are necessarily to bee believed, or done, not one­ly of the Lay people, but even of Ecclesiastickes. In like sort the same father saith; [...] Those things which see­med sufficient to the salvation of believers, were chosen to bee written.

Vincentius Lirinensis [...] saith, that the Canon or Rule of Scripture is perfect, abundantly sufficent in it selfe for all things, yea more than sufficient; neither is this a false sup­posall, as a Iesuit pretends it to be, [...] but a grounded truth, and the Authors doctrine: Li [...]inensis indeed ma­keth first one generall sufficient Rule for all things, the sacred Scriptures; Secondly another, usefull in some cases onely, yet never to be used in those cases without Scriptures, which is, the Tradition of the Vniversall Church, and generall consent of Fathers. The first was used by the ancient Church from the worth that is in it selfe; the other is used to avoyd the jarring interpretati­ons of perv [...]rse Heretike [...] that many times abuse the sa­cred Rule & Standard of the Scripture. Now we admit [Page 113] the Churches Interpretation, as ministeriall to holy Scripture, so it be conformable thereunto. And wee say with the learned Rejoynder to the Iesuit Malounes Reply: Rejoynder to the Ie­suits Reply, sect. 5. pa. 1 [...]0. Bring us now one Scripture expounded (according to Lirinensis his Rule Quod ubi (que) quod sem­per, quod ab ominibus credi­tum est. Lirin. ) by the Vniversall consent of the Primi­tive Church, to prove Prayer to Saints, Image worship in your sense, and we will receive it.

Saint Cyril saith, Non omnia quae Do­minus fecit cōscripta sunt, sed quae scriben [...]s tam ad mores, quam ad dogmata putarunt sufficere. Cyril. Alexand. tom. 1. lib. 12. in Iohan. cap. ult. that All things which Christ did are not written, but so much as holy writers judged sufficient both for good manners and Godly faith. And in another place he saith, Sufficit divina Scrip­tura ad faciendum eos qui in illà educati sunt sapien­tes et probatissimos et suf­ficientissi [...]am habentes in­telligentiam. Cyril. tom. 1 lib. 7. cont. Iulian. pa. 159. The holy Scripture is sufficient to make them which are brought u [...] in it wise, and most approved, and furnished with most sufficient understanding.

Saint Hierome reasoneth Negatively from the Scrip­tures, saying: Vt haec quae scripta sunt non negamus, it [...] [...]a quae non sunt scripta renu­imus. Natum Deum esse de virgi [...]e credimus, quia legimus: Mari [...]m nupsisse post partum non credimus, qula non legimus. Hieron. tom. 2. advers. Helvid. As we deny not those things that are written, so we refuse those things that are not written; That God was borne of a Virgin we believe, because we reade it; That Ma­ry did marry after shee was delivered we beleeve not, because we reade it not.

Saint Chrysostome saith, [...]. Chrysost. in 2. epist. ad Thess. tom. 4. edit. Savilij p [...]g. 234. that All those things that are in holy writ are right and cleere: that, Whatsoever is neces­sarie, is manifest therein; yea, he calleth the [...]. Id. Hom. 13. in 2. ep. ad Cor. To. 3. edit. Savilij. pag. 624. Scripture, The most exact Balance, Square, and Rule of Divine veritie.

This was the Fathers Rule of Faith of old, and the same a perfect one; but the Papists now adayes make it but a part of a Rule, Regula Fidei, non to­talis, sed partiali [...] Bellar. lib. 4. de verbo non scripto. cap. 12. §. Dico. halfe a Rule; and piece it with Tradition.

Of the Scripture Canon.

Saint Hierome, who was well skilled in the tongues, travailed much, and saw the choycest Monuments of Antiquitie, as also the best Libraries that the Easterne Parts could afford, and was therefore likely to meete with the best Canon, nameth all the Bookes which we admit, and afterwards addeth: Hic Prologu [...] Scrip­turarum quasi Galeatum principium omnibus libris quos de Hebraeo vertimus in Latinum convenire potest, ut scire valeamus qui [...]quid extra hos est inter Apocrypha esse ponendum; igitur Sapientia quae [...]ulgo Salomo [...]is inscribitur, & Iesu [...]ilij Syrach liber, & Iudith, & Tubias, & Pastor [...] sunt in Canone. Hieron. Tom. [...]. prae [...]at. in libr. Regum. Whatsoever is besides [Page] these, is to be put amongst the Apocrypha; and that therfore the Booke of Wisedome, of Iesus the Sonne of Syrach, of Iu­dith, Tobias, and Pastor, are not in the Canon.

The same Hierome having mentioned the Booke of Wisedome, and Ecclesiasticus, and delivered his opinion, that it is untruly called the Wisedome of Salomon, and at­tributed to him, then addeth: [...]. That as the Church rea­deth Iudith, Tobias, and the Maccabees, but receiveth them not [...]or Canonicall Scriptures; so these two Bookes, ( [...]amely) the Wisedome of Sal [...]mon, and Iesus the Sonne of Syrach, doth the Church reade for the edification of the p [...]ople, not to confirme the authority of any doctrine in the Church.


The Carthaginian Councel received those Books which you account [...] [...]arthag te [...] ­tium Can 47. Apocryphall.


They received them in Canonem Morum, not in Cano­nem Fidei. It is true ind [...]ed that Saint Austine, and the African Bishops of his time, and some other in that Age, finding these Bookes which Hierome and others rej [...]ct as Apocryphall, to be joyned with the other, and to­gether read with them in the Church, seeme to account them to be Canonicall; but they received them onely into the Ecclesiasticke Canon Ho [...] [...] [Macca­b [...]um] non Iul [...]i sed [...] Can [...]nicis ha­b [...]t Aug. de Civit Dei. lib. [...]8. cap. 36. tom 5. & de M [...]abil. S. [...]cripturae. li. 2. cap. 34. tom 3. serving for Example of life, and instruction of manners: and not into any part of the Rule of Faith, or Divine Canon, as Saint Austine spea­king of the Bookes of the Maccabees distinguisheth, say­ing: Quo [...]um supputatio t [...]mp [...]rum, non in Sc [...]iptu­ru sanctis, quae Cano [...]cae app [...]lla [...]tu [...], [...]ed in alijs in­venitur, in quibus sunt M [...]ccabaeorum L [...]b. [...] Aug de C [...]vit. D [...]. lib. 18 c. 36 This reckoning is not found in the Canonicall Scriptures, but in other Bookes, as in the Maccabees; plainely distin­guishing betweene the Canonicall Scriptures, and the Bookes of the Maccabees: Wherein, (saith he In [...] libr [...], et si aliqui [...] mi [...]abilium numero in [...]erendum i [...]veniatur, de ho [...] tamen nul­l [...] cur [...] [...]a [...]iga [...]imur, quia tintum ag [...]r [...] pr [...]posui [...]us [...] ut d [...] divi [...]i C [...]on [...] mira­b [...]l [...]bus exp [...]sition [...]m t [...]ge [...]. August. de Mirabil. S. Scr [...]ptu [...]ae lib. 2. cap. 34.) There may be something found worthy to be joyned with the number of those miracles; yet hereof will we have no care, for that we intend the miracles, Divini Canonis, which are received in the Divine Canon.

Of the booke of Iudith he tels us, L [...]br [...]m Iu [...]th, in Ca­none S [...]iptur [...]rum Iudei non [...] dicunt [...]r. Aug. d. Civitat. Dei. lib. 18 c [...]p. [...]. The Iewes never re­ceived [Page 115] it into the Canon of Scriptures; and withall there he professeth, That the Canon of the [...]ewes was most Authen­ticall.

Touching the bookes of Wisedome, and Ecclesiasti­cus, he tels us, Sapientia & Ecclesi­asticus, propter eloquij non­nullam similitudinem, ut Salomonis dicatur, obtinuit consuetudo, non autem esse ipsius dubitant doctiores. Id. ibid. lib. 17. cap. 20. that, They were called Salomons, onely for some lik [...]n [...]sse of Stile, but the Learned doubt whether they b [...]e his.

Lastly, the Councel of Carthage, whereat Saint Au­stine was present, Prescribing that no bookes should be read in the Church as Canonicall, but such as indeed are Canonicall, leaveth out the booke of Maccabees, as it appeareth by the Greeke Edition, Synod. Carthag. apud Balsam. in editione Ioh. Tilij. though they have shuffled them into the La­tine; Caranza in summ [...] Concil. & Codex Cano [...] vetus Ecclesi [...] Romanae. which argueth suspicion of a forged Canon.

Now to this ancient evidence of Hierome, and Au­stine, the Papists make but a poore Reply. Canus saith, Hieronymus non est regula fidei— nondū eares satis erat explorata. Ca­nus loc. Theol. li 2. ca. 11. that Hierome is no rule of Faith; and that the matter was not then sufficiently sifièd: Bellarmine saith, Adm [...]tto Hieronymū in eâ [...]uisse opinione, qu [...]a nondum generale Conciliū de hi [...] libris aliquid statue­rat. Bellar. de ve [...]bo Dei li. 1. ca. 10. § Respondeo. I admit that Hierome was of that opinion, because as yet a Generall Councel had decreed nothing touching those bookes; and Saint Austin might likewise doubt thereof; so that by Bellarmines confession, Hierome, and Austine, in this point are ours.

Of Communion under both kinds.

Saint Chrysostome sai [...]h, [...]. Chrys [...]st. sup 2. Co [...] Ho­mil. 18. tom. 3. edit. Savilij pag. 645. that whereas Vnder the Law, there was a difference betweene Priests and Laicks in com­municating of victim [...]s; In the n [...]w it is otherwise; for one body and one Cup is ministred to all.

Hierom saith Sacerdotes qui Eu­charistiae serviunt, & san­guinem Domini populis e­jus dividunt. Hieron s [...]p. Sophon cap 3. tom 6. that the Pastors administred the Eucharist, and distributed the bloud of our Lord to his people; the same Hierome report [...]th how Exuperius Bishop of Tholouse in France was wont to carry the Cōmunion to perso [...]s ab­sent. There was no man (saith he) Nihil illo d [...]tius qui corpus Domini can [...]stro vi­mineo, sanguin [...]m po tat in vitro. Hieron Epist. ad Rusticum. tom. 1. richer than Exuperius, who carried the Lords body in a Wicker basket, and his bloud in a Glasse. It is true indeed that the Bishop sold the Church [...]Plate for the reliefe of the poore; Avaritiam eje [...]i [...] è t [...]mplo Hier ibid.— sac [...]o vasa erogavit in usum pauperum E [...]asm. in loc. Hiero [...]ymi. so that he was driven to use Osier baskets, and Glasse-cups; but [Page 116] withall the story saith, he carried the consecrated bread and wine severally and apart, and not by way of Con­comitancie.

Besides that, the wine might be carried abroad in a viall, to sicke persons, without any such danger of spil­ling, as the I. F. Rejoynder to D. Whites Reply, 7. point. Iesuit dreames on.

Saint Austine saith, Non solum nem [...] p [...]o­hibetur, sed ad bibendum poti [...]s omn [...]s exhortantur, qui vo [...]un [...] [...]bere vi [...]m Aug. to. 4 [...] qu. 57 sup Le­vit. Sang [...] Abe. sig [...]ic [...]t sanguine [...] Ch [...]isti, qu [...] [...] ­niv [...]sa ec [...]les [...] acce [...]t [...] di­ [...]it Amen. Id. [...]bid. qu. 49 All that would have life are ex­h [...]ted to drinke of the bloud; and, that The whole Church having received the Cup, answereth, Amen.

Pope L [...]o r [...]proveth such as in his time refused the Cup, which is a token that the Cup was then in use a­mong the Laietie, his words are these: Cum (que) a [...] tegen [...]am in [...]id [...]litatem s [...]am, n [...]st [...]is a [...]de [...]nt interesse myst [...] ­ [...]i [...], ita in Sac [...]am [...]nt [...]m [...] se tem [...]er at, ut interdū [...] lateant, ore i d [...]g [...]o C [...]risti corpus accip [...]urt, s [...]guinem auté Red [...]mptioni. [...] strae hauri­re omnia [...] d [...]linant; quod ide [...] v [...]str [...]m volumus s [...]i [...]e sanctitatē ut vobis hujus­modi hom [...]nes et his mani­festentu indi [...]ijs, et quorū depre [...]ensa [...]rit sacri [...]ega [...], n [...]tati et proditi, á S [...]ncto um societate, s [...] ­cer [...]ta i aut [...] crit [...]te pel­lantu [...] Leo ser. 4. de Qua­drages. Whereas some to hide their infidelitie come sometimes to Catholike Churches, and are present at the celebration of sacred mysteries, they so temper the matter that with unworthy mouthes they receive the Lords body, but decline to drinke the bloud of our Redemption. I would [...]herefore have your holinesse take notice, that by these signes they may be discovered, and their Sacrilegious dissem­bling may be found out and descried, that being thus discove­red they may by Priestly authoritie he cast out of the societie of the Saints.

In like sort Gelasius enjoyned Communion in both kinds. We have found (saith he) Comperimu [...] autem quod qui la [...] [...]mptà tan­t [...]odo corpo is sacri po­ti [...]ns, a calice sacri cruno [...]is abstincant; qui proculdubi [...] (quùm neset qu [...] super­slitione do [...]entur obst [...]ing [...]) aut integra sa [...]ramenta re­cipiant aut abinteg [...]is ar­ce [...]tur: quia divisio uni­us eju [...]dem (que) mysterij fine gra [...]d sacrilegio non potest perven [...]re. Dec [...]e [...] 3. part. de Con [...]ecrat. Dist. 2. cap. Comperimus autem. That certai [...]e having received a po [...]tion of the sacred body onely, abstaine from the Cup of the most holy bl [...]ud; which men because they are said to be intangled with I know not what superstition, either let them receive the whole Sacrament, or else let them be wholly [...]xcluded from receiving; because there can be no dividing of one and the same mysterie without grievous Sacriledge.


Gelasius (hap'ly) speaketh of some [ [...]ut integr [...]] Hoc [...]t [...]lli [...] de Confi [...]i [...]nte. G [...]o [...]a ibid. Priests who con­secrated the elements, but themselves received not in both kinds.


The words hee useth are Recipiant, and Arceantur, which doe evidently prove, that he speakes of the peo­ple, who doe not themselves receive the Sacrament, but [Page 117] from the Ministers hand; as also the word Arceantur, that is, Let them not be received, though they offer them­selves.

Besides, the ancient histories speake not of any Priest that ever made scruple of drinking of the Chalice which himselfe had consecrated.


The Manichees had an opinion, Vinum non bibunt di­centes fel esse tenebra­rum. August. de Haeres. 46. Tom. 6. that Wine was not cre­ated by God, but by some evill spirit, and that Christ did not shed his bloud on the Crosse, and hereupon they ab­stained from the Chalice: therefore the Church in de­testation of this errour, for a time commanded Com­munion under both kinds; The Rejoynder to Dr. Whites Reply. upon this occasion Gelasius made the Decree recorded by Gratian.

R [...]joynder.

This was not done upon occasion of the Manichee's errour; for before ever they appeared in any number, Communion in both kinds was practised, as appeareth by the Apostles, Ignatius, Iustin Martyr, Irenaeus, Tertullian, and Saint Cyprian. Now Cyprian the youngest of these flourished about the yeere two hundred and fiftie Floruit Cyprian ann 250. Bell. de Script. eccles., and the Manichees rose not till about the yeere two hundred seventy three. Manichaei a Manete quodam dicti sunt circ [...] annum 273. Prateolus de Haeres. lib. 11.

Againe, although Leo speake of the Manichee's, yet Iesuit Vasques sayth, Leo non commendavit usum Calicis contra Ma­nichaeos, sed admonuit ut diligētur observarent quos­dam Manich [...]os, qui ut se Ca [...]holicos simularent, ita sumebant calicem, ut san­guinem non haurirent in alterâ specie. Vasquez qu. 80. art. 12. Disp. 216. nu. 42 that He commanded not the use of the Cup because of them, but required that those which feigned themselves Catholikes, and came to the holy Communi­on, receiving the bread, and taking the Cup into their hands, pretending that they dranke the wine, and yet did not, should carefully be observed. Now among a multitude of Communicants some few might hold the Cup to their mouth, and make shew of drinking, and yet receive no wine. The Cup then was not for a time only allowed to the Laicks by Leo and Gelasius, thereby to discover who were Manichees; but in these Popes dayes the Cup was usually and ordinarily given to the Laicks, and upon the refusing of the Cup (then in use [Page 118] among the Catholikes) the Manichees were discovered; otherwis [...] how could the Pope have reproved their pra­ctice? How could the Manichees have be [...]ne espyed and k [...]owne, if they and the Catholikes had received in one kind both alike? For this is the token that Leo would have them knowne by, for that Th [...]y refuse to drinke the bloud of our Redemption; by which words it is cleere, that the Cup was off [...]red orderly unto them, as unto others, but th [...]y refused it.

Now touching the place of G [...]lasius, the same Vas­qu [...]z sayth, Quid [...]m probabiliter exp [...]ic [...]nt de [...] Mani­ [...]ae [...], q [...]i communicabant sub alte [...] specie tantum: [...] licet [...] verbi [...] poss [...]t [...] red­dit, non [...] esse [...] ut sine gran­di sacrilegio divi li [...]que­at nempe intellige [...]e vide­tur ratione suae signifi [...]at [...]onis & institutionis. Vas­quez. in 3. part. Tho [...]ae q [...]aest. 81. Disp. 216 nu. 76. that Whereas some of his part apply the same to the Manichees, yet this exposition agreeth not with the last branch of the Canon [...] for therein he teacheth That the mysterie of the Eucharist is of that natu [...]e in regard of it selfe, that without gri [...]vous sacriledge it cannot bee d [...]vided and se­vered the one part from the other, to wit, because of the insti­tution and signification. Admit then, that the Manichees occasioned this Decree; yet this Decree is backed with a generall [...]eason which forbids all to communicate in one kind onely, under the perill of Sacriledge: so that the Popes Canon reacheth not onely to the Manichee, but to all such as halve the Communion, be they Ma­nichees, o [...] Papists, or whatsoever they be.

Of the number of Sacraments.

Saint Austine Dormi [...]ti Ad [...] fit E­vi de [...]atere, mortuo Chri­sto per [...]utitur la [...], ut pros [...]ant Sacram [...]nta, qui­b [...]s formetur Ecclesia. Au­gust. tract. 9. in Ioan. & tract [...] 15. to 9. Leo ep. 22. with others, tell us, That the Sacraments of the n [...]w Law flowed out of Christ's side: now none issu­ed thence, but the Sacrament of water, which is Bap­tisme, and the Sacrament of bloud in the Supper.

The same Austine sayth, Qued [...]m pa [...]ca pro multis cad [...]mque factu fa­cillim [...], & intellectu au­gustissima & observatione cass [...]ssima, ipse D [...]minus, et Apostolica tradidit Di­sciplina, sicuti est Baptis­mi Sacramentum & cele­bratio corporis & sangui­nis Domini. Aug de doctr. Christ. [...]ib. 3 c. 9. tom. 3 Our Lord and his Apostles have d [...]liv [...]red unto us a few Sacraments in stead of many, and the same in doing most easie, in signification most excellent, in obs [...]rvation most rev [...]rend, as is the Sacrament of Baptisme, and the celebration of the body and bloud of our Lord. And the same Father speaking of the same Sacraments (whi [...]h he calleth, for Sacramentis [...]ume [...]o paucissimis, observatione facillimis signifi [...]atione prestantissinis, so [...]iet t [...]m novi pop [...]li colligavit; si cuti est Baptisinus, & cō ­munic [...] Corporis, [...]t san­g [...]i [...]is i [...]fius Aug. epist. 118 ad Ianuar. tom. 2. number the fewest, for observation, easiest, for signification excellentest) withall indeed addeth [Page 119] a si quid aliud, if any such other Sacrament bee to bee found in Scripture, but himselfe could not find any o­ther; for he concludeth them within the number of two, saying, H [...]ec sunt Eccl [...]siege mina Sacramenta. Aug. de Symbolo ad Catech. tom. 9. These be the two Sacraments of the Church.

Of the Eucharist.

Saint Chrysostome saith, Sicut enim antequàm sanctificetur pani [...], panem nominamus: divin [...] autem illum sanctificante grati [...], mediante Sacerdote, libe­ratus est quidem ab appel­latione [...]anis, dig [...]us aut [...]m habitus est Dominici cor­po [...]is appellatione etiamsi natura panis in ipso re­mansit Chrysost [...] ad Cae­sa [...]ium Monach. that Before the Bread be san­ctifyed, we call it Bread, but when Gods grace [after conse­cration] hath sanctifyed it by the meanes of the Priest, it is freed from the name of Bread, and is accounted worthy of the name of the Body of Christ, although the nature of the Bread remaine still in it.

Ch [...]ysostome sayth the nature of bread remayneth after consecration, they say nothing remaines but the outward formes and accidents of bread.


Bellarmin Ne (que) in toto Chryso­stomi opere ullus est liber. vel Epistola ad Caesa [...]ium. Bell. lib. 2. de Euchar. cap. 22. §. Respo [...]deo. saith that this Epistle is not extant amongst Saint Chrysostome's Workes: and when Peter Martyr ob­jected this place to Stephen Gardiner Bishop of Winche­ster, the Bishop replyed, Non est hoc [...]oannis Chrysostomi, sed [...]oanni [...] cujusdam Constantinopoli­tani Pet. Mart. defensio doctrinae de Eucharistiâ adversus Gardinerum. pag. 368. That it was none of Chryso­stomes, but another Iohns of Constantinople.


What though it were not then extant? diverse par­cells of Chrysostome have beene lately found out, and an­nexed to his other Workes.

Besides, the same Bishop Gardiner reports, Stephen Gardin [...]r in his Explication of the true Catholike faith, tou­ching the Sacrament of the Altar. pag. 116. that Pe­ter Martyr saith, that this Treatise of Chrysostome was extant in a Manuscript, and found in the Library at Flo­rence; and that a Copie thereof remained in the Arch­bishop of Canterburies hands. Againe, they that would father t [...]is [...]rea [...]se on another, the [...] must bring us an­oth [...]r Iohn of Constantinople, besides Chrysostome, and tell us what time hee lived; it is usuall with the Church-storie, and S [...]int Austine, and Ierome to call Chrysostome Iohn of Consta [...]tinople, or Priest of Antioch. Lastly, this Authour saith nothing but what Saint Ambrose, Gelasius, and Theodoret have vouched.

[Page 120]For whereas the H [...]retike E [...]tyches taught that Christ his body was changed into the substance of his Divinity after the resurrection; and that the substance of his body re­mayned no more the same; Pope Gelasius confuteth him by a similitu [...]e and comparis [...]n drawne from the Sa­crament, to wit, T [...]at as the substance of Bread remayneth after consecration; so Christ his bodily substance remained af­ter the resurrection. His words are these: [...]rta Sacrame [...]ta quae [...] & sanguinis Christ, d [...]vira r [...]s [...]st, propter qu [...]d, [...] p [...]r ead [...]m divinae [...], [...]nsortes natu [...] ti­men esse non des [...]t [...]b­stanti [...] vel natura pa [...] & vini. G [...]l [...]sius de du b. natur. in Christo, con [...]à Fu [...]ichen. p [...]g. 233. B [...]sil. 1528. & in Bi [...]ioth. Patr. to. 5. pag. 475. Pa [...]is. 1575. The Sacraments which wee receive, of the body and [...]loud of Christ, are a di­vine thing, by meanes wh [...]r [...]of wee are made partakers of the divine nature; and yet the substance or nature of Bread and Wine doth not cease to be. The Papists they tell us, that af­ter consecration the substance of bread and wine is abo­lished, and the sha [...]e [...], accidents, & quantity therof only remaine: but this is contrary to these Fathers assertion, who say, there ceaseth not to be the very substance of bread and wine. Neither will it serve to say Loq [...]tur de Essen [...]ia & natu [...]à accident [...]um. B [...]ll [...]r. lib. 2. de Euchar. c. 27. § S [...]d. & Gelasiu [...] i­dem docet quod The [...] ­do [...]etus. Bellar. ibid. § E­adem. that Ge­lasius by substance meant accidents: for if Gelasius had not taken the word substance properly in both places, he had not concluded against the Hereticke.


Pope Gelasius was not the Author of this No [...]andum est Gela­si [...]m i [...]um non [...]uisse Ro­m [...]num Ponti [...] Bellar. loco citato. §. Vbi [...] Treatise, but some other of that name.


There be divers Authors that entitle Pope Gelasius to it? but were it Gelasius Bishop of Caesarea, as Bellarmine seemes to incline Id Ibi [...]., or a more ancient Gelasius, Gelasius Citizenus, as Baronius would have it Bellar. d [...] sc [...]ipt. [...] [...]les [...]. in Gel [...]s [...]o Papa, an [...]o [...]2.; the record is still good against our adversaries, for it is confessed on all sides, that he was an Orthodoxe Father, and very anci­ent.

Theodoret brings in Eranistes in the person of an Eu­tycl [...]ian Heretike, who confounded the two natures in Christ, and (falsely) held, that The body of Christ after his Ascension, being Glorified, was swallowed up of the Deitie, and continued no more the same humane and bodily essence, as be­fore his resurrection it had been; and for defence of this his [Page 121] Heresie, he takes his comparison from the Eucharist and argues in this sort: [...]. The­odor. Di [...]log. 2. cap. 24. p [...]g 113. Even as the symbols or signes of the Lords body and bloud, af [...]er the words of Invocation (or Consecration) are not the same, but are changed into the Bo­dy of Christ; even so after his Ascension was his body chan­ged into a divine substance.

To this Objection of the H [...]retikes, the Orthodoxe or Catholike (which was Theodoret himselfe) replies, and retorts his owne instance upon him thus: You are caught (saith he [...]. Id. Ibid.) in your owne net, for as the mysticall signes in the Eucharist, after sanctification (or Consecration) doe not goe out of their proper nature, but continue in their former fi­gure, and substance, and may be seene and felt as before: so the body of Christ after the Resurrection remaineth in it's for­mer figure, forme, circumscription, and (in a word) the same substance which it had before, although after the Resurrection it be immortall, and free from corruption. In which pas­sage we see the Heretike held, that Bread is changed after consecration into the substance of Christ's body, and so do our adversaries; the Orthodoxe or Catholike taught, that Bread after consecration remaineth in substance the same, and so doe we teach. Theodoret indeed (and so doe we) ac­knowledged that Christ's body after his Ascension was changed from a corruptible, to an immortall and glorious body, but yet not changed in substance; it still remained the same in substance; even as the Elements in the Sacrament remaine the same in substance, Ne (que) enim signa my­sti [...]a post sanctification [...]m r [...]c [...]ūt à suà naturà [...] ma­nent [...]nim in priore su [...] ­s [...]anti [...], et figur [...], et fo [...]m [...] & videri et tangi poss [...]n [...], sicut & p [...]ius. Theodor. tom 2. Dial. 2. Inconfusus. Gentiano Herveto Inter­prete. that they Were before consecration, and may be seene and fealt, though they be changed in use, from common to con­secrated bread and wine.

Now if the Elements of Bread and Wine (accor­ding to this Orthodoxe Father) remaine in their former substance, shape, and species, then is not the whole substance of bread and wine changed into the whole substance of the body and bloud of Christ; and where is then your Transubstantiation.


B [...]llarmine answereth this place by distinguishing the word [...], substantia, saying Non loq [...]itur de sub [...]st [...]ntiâ quae dist [...]nguitur c [...]trâ [...]; sed de essentiâ & naturâ Acci­dentium, quae ipse perpetuò symbo [...]a appell [...]t. Bellar. li. 2. de Euchar. c. 27. §. Sed.; When Theodoret saith, [...]hat the substance of the Elements remaynes, and is not chan­ged, hee speaketh not of substance, as it is opposed to accidents, but of the [...]ssence and nature of accidents, which hee alwayes understandeth by Symbols.


Theodoret in this very Dialogue exactly distinguish­eth betweene Substance and Accidents; and sheweth that by [...] hee meanes not Accidents, but Substance properly so taken, saying; [...] The­odor. Dial. 2. ca [...] 22. p. 105. Therefore wee call a body sub­stance, and health and sicknesse an accident; by which pas­sage it is evident against Bellarmine, that Theodoret takes not [...] for the es [...]ence, specially of accidents, but for substance prope [...]ly so called, as it is opposed to Acci­dents. Besides, if Theodoret had thought (as the Papists hold) that the substance of bread and wine ceaseth, and is changed into the very body and bloud of Chirst; and that the accidents thereof onely remaine, as name­ly the whitenesse, roundnesse, taste, or the like; then could not this Father have drawne or r [...]torted an Ar­gument from the Sacrament, to pro [...]ve that the sub­stance of Christ's body remayned after his ascension; for then (as the learned on ou [...] side have well observed) Bi [...]hop W [...]te [...] Re­ply to Iesuit Fi [...]hers An­swer, 6. point. Doctor Featlies Con­ference with M. [...]gleston. and Wo [...]d. the Hereticke upon the doctrine of Transubstantiati­on, might have inferred this erronious opinion, about the humane nature of Christ, to wit, that as in the Eu­charist there is onely the outward shape and forme of bread, and not the reall substance: even so in Christ, there was the shape and forme of flesh but not the ve­ry nature. The same Theodoret saith, [...]. Th [...]od. [...] c [...]p 8. p. 34. that our Saviour honoured the visible symbols with the name of his body and bloud; not changing the nature, but adding grace to nature. The same Th [...]odoret saith, [...]. Id. Ib [...]d. that our Saviour gave the signe the name of his body. What can a man say more ex­presse? then that in th [...]se words, This is my hody, our Sa­viour [Page 123] hath given to the signe, that is to say, to the bread, the name of his body.


You stand much upon Theodoret, but Gregorie Valence Theodoretus de alijs quibusdā erro [...]ibus in Con­cilio Ephesino notatu [...] fu­it, etiamsi posteà resipuit. Greg. de Valentia lib. de Transub. cap. 7. sect. 11. pag. 390. volum. de reb. fi­dei controvers. tells you that Theodoret was taxed of errour by the Councell of Ephesus, although he afterwards revoked his errour.


You should have showne that the Councell taxed him with errour in this point of the Sacrament; or that he retracted this opinion as erronious, and then you had said somewhat.

It is true indeed, that at fi [...]st he was not so firme in his faith, being too much addicted to Theodorus Bishop of Mopsvestia, and to Nestorius, so that he wrote against the twelve Chap [...]ers which Cyril composed against the Nestorians; but afterwards he revoked his errour, and accu [...]sed Nestorius, Mariam virginē quae peperit Dominum nostrum Iesum Chris [...]um, non [...] dicendam, sed [...] [dixit Nest [...]rius] Danaeus in Aug. de Hae­res. cap. 91. ex Evagrio. and whosoever should not con­fesse the blessed Virgin to bee the mother of God, whereupon th [...] Councell of Chalcedon received him in­to their Communion. D. Crakentho [...]pe of the fifth generall Coun­cell. cap. 9. nu. 9.

Besides, in the Dialogues alleadged, Theodoret hath notably opposed the Grand Heretique Eutyches, and ther­in shewed himselfe very Orthodoxe.

I proceede to Saint Austine, the Oracle of the La­tine Fathers; whose judg [...]ment touching the Eucharist hath beene in part declared in the first Centurie. Hee held that those words, This is my Body were to be taken in a figurative sence; his rule is, that whensoever the Signe (as the Bread) being called Chris [...]'s body, hath the name of The thing signified, the speech is alwayes fi­gurative, Ex hac autem simili­tudine plerum (que) e [...]iam ip­sa [...]um r [...]rum nomina acci­piunt, quarum Sacramen­ta sunt, sicut ergò secun­dum qu [...]dam modum Sa­crame [...]tum Co [...]po [...]is Chri­sti [...]orpus Christi est. Au­gustin tom. 2 Ep [...]st. 23 ad Bonifa. for Sacraments be signes which often doe take the names of those things, which they doe signifie and repr [...]sent, Therefore doe they carry the names of the things themselves. Thus Baptisme the signe of Christ's buriall, is called Christ's buriall; now as Vt Baptismus dicitur sepulchrum, si [...] hoc est cor­pus meum. Aug. con. Faust. lib. 20 cap. 21. Baptisme is called Christ's Burial, so is the Sacrament of the Body of Christ, called his Body; [Page 124] and againe, Non enim Dominu [...] d [...]bitavit dicere, hoc est corpus me [...]m [...] cum sig [...]n [...]aret co [...]poris sui. August. to 6 contr. Adimant. c. 12. Christ doubted not to say, This is my Body, when he gave a signe of his body. The same Father upon occa­sion of Christ's speech, Except you eate the flesh of the Son of man, [Ioh. 6.53.] gives us this general rule; Q [...]quid in s [...]rmone divino ne (que) ad morum ho­nestatem, neque ad si [...]i veritatem propriè ref [...]ri pot [...]t, siguratum esse cog­nos [...]. Aug. lib. 3. de do­ct [...]. Christ. c. 10 [...] tom 3. That whenso [...]ver we find in Scripture any speech of commanding some heynous act, or forbidding some laudable thing, there to hold the spe [...]ch to be figurative, even as this of eating the flesh of Chr [...]st. Now of this Sacrament doth not Christ say, Take, eate, This is my Body? Saint Austines words are these: Si preceptiva locutio [...]lagitium aut facinus vi­detur [...]ubere, figurita est [...] ut [N [...]si manduc [...]veritis [...]arnem meam] sacinus vi­detur jubere. Id. Ibid. c. 16. If the Scripture seeme to command any vile or ill fact, the speech is figurative; Except ye eate the flesh of the Sonne of man, and drinke his bloud, yee have no life in you; facinus vel flagitium videtur jubere, Christ seemeth to command a wicked and sinfull act; figura est ergo; It is therefore a figurative speech, Figura ell ergo, pr [...]e­cipiens passioni Domini es­se communicandum [...] et [...]ua­vitèr a [...]que utilitèr rec [...] ­dendum in memori [...] quod pro nobl [...] caro [...]jus [...]rucis [...] ­xa & vulnerata sit. Id. Ibid. Commanding us to partake of the passion of Christ, and sweetly and profitably keepe in me­mory that his flesh was crucified for us. Now for the man­ner of our feeding on Christs body, the same Father tells us, Q [...]omodo in c [...]um [...] mittam, ut ibi s [...] ­dent [...]m t [...]neam [...] s [...]dem [...], & [...] August. sup. [...] 50 tom. [...] that It is not corporall and sensuall, but spirituall, credendo by believing: How shall I send up my hand into heaven, to take hold on Christ fitting there? Send thy Faith (saith he) and thou hast hold of him. Againe, [...]. 25. Why prepa­rest thou thy teeth and thy belly? Believe, and thou hast eaten; and againe, [...] enim [...]. Id. Ib [...]d. [...]. 20 [...] For this is to eate the living bread, to believe in him; he that believeth in him, eateth.


You rely much upon Saint Augustine, but he makes for us, as may appeare by that place where he saith, [...] illud corp [...] in manibus [...] Aug. to [...] [...]. in Psal 33. Con [...] 1. tom. 8. that Christ at his Supper carried himselfe in his owne hands.


Our learned Doctor, Bishop Morton hath notably cleered Bi [...]hop Mor [...]on of [...]he M [...]sse, Booke 4. ch [...]p. [...]. s [...]ct. 8. this place. Saint Augustine expounding the 3 [...]. Psalme, and falling upon a wrong translation of that place in Samuel 1.21.13. And David feigned hims [...]lfe mad in their hands, reades thus, He carried himselfe in his owne hands. Now this cannot (saith he) be meant of David, or any other man literally; they are meant then [Page 125] of Christ, when he said of the Eucharist, This is my body. Now these words, Et ferebatur in manibus suis, are nei­ther in the Originall Hebrew text, nor in your vulgar Translation, for there it is [...] & collabebatur inter manus eo­rum, David playing the mad man, slipt, or fell into the hands of others; they that transcribed the Septuagint mistaking [...], his hands, his owne hands, for their hands occasioned this interpr [...]tation. Now Saint Au­stine interprets himselfe, and answereth his Quomodo fe­rebatur? with a Quodammodo, an Et ipse se portab [...] Quodāmodo. Aug. in Psal. 33. conc. 2. Adverbe of likenesse and similitude, saying that After a certaine manner Christ carried himselfe in his owne hands, and thus he qualifies his fo [...]mer speech; so that it cannot be understood of Christs Corporall carrying of his body properly in his owne hands; but Quodammodo, af [...]er a so [...]t: and thus Saint Austine saith, Sicut secundum quen­dam modum Sacramentum Corporis, corpus Christi est; [...]ta Sa [...]ramentum sidei Fides est. Aug. epist. 23. ad Bonifac. Secu [...]dum quendam modum, this Sacrament after a sort is the body of Christ, n [...]t literally, but as Baptisme (the Sacrament of Faith) is called faith, to wit, figuratively and im [...]roperly.


You alleadged Saint Chrysostome against Transubstan­tion, but he makes for it, saying, Qu [...]madmodum si ce­ra igni adhibi [...]a illi assimi­latur, nihil substantiae re­manet, nihil superfluit: sic & hic pu [...]a mysteria con­sumi corporis substantia. Chrysost tom. 3. Homil. de Euchar. in Encoenijs. Doest thou see bread? doest thou see wine? doe these things goe to the draught as o­ther meates doe? not so, thinke not so [...] for as when waxe is put to the fire, nothing of the substance remaineth, nothing redoun­deth; so here also t [...]inke thou the mysteries consumed with the substance of the body of Christ.


This place (as Bishop Bilson saith) Bish. Bilson of Chri­stian Subjection, the fourth part, pag. 658.659. &c. makes not for you; for you say the substance is abolished, but the ac­cidents of bread and wine remaine: but when you put waxe in [...]o the fire, nothing, neither shew, nor substance, nor accidents remaine; and yet if you consult the Schooles, they will tell you the accidents onely perish, the matter doth not.

Neither doth Chrysostome say, that the mysteries are consumed by the body of Christ [...] but hee saith, So [Page 126] thinke when thou commest to the mysteries; that is, thinke not on the elements, but lift up the eyes of thy minde above them, as if they were consumed: and this hee spoke to stirre up the Communicants, rather to marke in this Sacrament the wonderfull power and effects of Gods spirit and grace, than the condition, and naturall digestion of the bread and wine. And it is cleare that this was his meaning: for in the very next wordes following he saith Num vides panem? num vinum? Nè putetis corpus accipere ab homine, sed ex ipso Seraphin forci­pe ign [...]m. Chrysost. de Euchar. in Encoenijs. [...].; Wherefore approaching (to the Lords Table) doe not thinke that you receive the divine body at the hands of a man, but that you take a fiery coale from a Sera­phim, or Angel, with a paire of tongs. By this straine of rhetoricke Chrysostome (as his manner is) perswadeth the people to come to the Lords Table with no lesse reve­rence, than if they were to receive a fiery coale (as Esay did in his vision) from one of the glorious Seraphims. Chrysostome had no intent that the bread was transubstan­tiated, no more than that the Priest was changed into an Angel, or his hand into a payre of tongs, or the body of Christ into a coale of fire; and hee useth the same amplification in both the speeches, the same phrase [thinke you] and at the same time, and to the same people: so that if one bee (as certainely it is) a straine of rhetoricke, why not the other also? Sixtus Senensis gives a good rule for interpretation of the Fathers spee­ches, specially in this argument; Non sunt Conclonato­rum verba semper eo rigore ac [...]p [...]end [...], multa enim Declamatore [...] per hyper­bolen enunciant Hoc inter­dum Chrysostom [...] cō [...]ingit. Sixt. Senens. Biblioth. lib. 6. anno [...] 152. The sayings of Prea­chers, are not to be urged in that rigour of their words; for af­ter the manner of Oratours, they use to speake many times hy­perbolically, and in excesse. And hee instanceth in Chryso­stome, as well hee might, for hee is full of them, even there where hee speakes of the Sacraments, hee saith, Dentes carni suo in­fe [...] Chrys. tom. 3. Homil. 45. in Io [...]n. That our teeth are fixed in the flesh of Christ; that [...] Lingu [...] cruentatur hoc admirabill sanguine. Chrys. tom. 2. Homil. 83. in Ma [...]h. our tongues are dyed red with his bloud; and againe, Ille non te baptizat, [...]. [...]d Homil. 50. in Math. That it is not the Minister, but God that baptizeth thee, and holdeth thy head. Now these and the like sayings must be favou­rably construed, as being improper speeches, rhetori­call straines, purposely uttered to move affections, stirre [Page 127] up devotion, and bring the Sacrament out of contempt, that so the Communican [...]s eyes may not bee finally fixed on the outward elements of bread and wine, be­ing in themselves but transitory and corruptible crea­tures; but to have their hearts elevated and lift up by faith to behold the very body of Christ, which is re­presented in these mysteries. Otherwise, the Fathers come downe to a lower key, when they come to speake to the point, yea or no: and accordingly Saint Chryso­stome, when once he is out of his Rhetoricall veine, and speaks positively and doctrinally, sayth, Quando hoc mys [...]e [...]i­um trad [...]dit, vinum [...]radi­d [...]t. Chrys Homil. 82. in Math. When our Lord gave the Sacrament, hee gave wine; and againe, [...]. — [...]. Ch [...]ys. in Hebr [...] 10. Hom. 17. to [...] 4. pag. 523. edit. Savilij. Doe wee not offer every day? Wee offer indeed, but by keeping a me­mory of his dea [...]h; and hee puts in a kind of caution, or correction, lest any should mistake him; Wee offer (saith hee) the same Sacrifice, or rather the remembrance thereof. And such a Commemorative and Eucharisticall sacrifice we acknowledge.


Saint Cyril of Alexandria, useth the word corporally, saying; Corporaliter enim s [...] ­lius per bened [...]ctorem my­sticam nobis, ut [...]oma uni­tu [...]; Spi [...]itualitèr autem ut Deus. Cyrill. in Ioan. lib. 11. cap 27 tom. 1. that by the mysticall benediction, the Sonne of God is united to us corporally, as man, and spiritually, as God.


Hereby is meant a full perfect spirituall conjunction with the sanctified Communicants, excluding all man­ner of Imagination, or fantasie; and not a grosse, and fleshly being of Christ's body in our bodyes, according to the appearance of the letter; otherwise, this incon­venience would follow, that our bodies must be in like manner corporally in Christ's body; for Cyril as hee saith, Ch [...]ist is corporally in us, so he saith, Communicatione cor­poris et sanguinis Christi, ipse in nobis est, & nos in ipso. Id. ibid. l. 10. c. 13. weare cor­porally in Christ; by corporally then he meaneth, that neere, and indissoluble union, in the same sence that the Apostle useth it, saying, In him dwel [...]eth all the fulnesse of the Godhead bodily, Coll. 2.9. bod [...]ly, that is indissolubly.

B [...]sides, Christ is likewise joyned corporally to us [Page 128] by the Sacrament of Baptisme, and yet therein there is no Transubstantiation.

Of Image-worship.

Saint Hierome saith; Nos unam venera­m [...]r Imaginem quae est I­mago invisibilis et omnipo­te [...]tis Dei. Hi [...]ron to. 50. li. 40. in Ezech c. 16. We worship one Image which is the Image of the invisible and omnipotent God. Saint Austine saith, N [...]lla imago e [...]us coli debet, nisi illa quae hoc est qu [...]d ipse, nec ipsa pro illo sed cum illo. Aug ep 119. ad Ianuar. cap 11. No Image of God ought to be worshipped, but that which is the same thing that he is, meaning Christ Iesus, [Col. 1.15. Hebr. 1.3.] nor yet that for him, but with him. And as for the representing of God in the similitude of a man, he resolveth that it is Vtterly unlawfull Tale simulac [...]um Deo nefas est Christiano in templo collocare. Idem tom. 3. de Fide & Symbo­lo cap 7. to erect any such Image to God in a Christian Church. He condem­neth the use of Images, even when they are not adored for themselves, but made instruments to worship God, saying, Sic omnino [...]rrare me­ruerunt, qui Christum & Apostolos ejus, non in san­ctis codicibus. sed i [...] pictis pari [...]tibus quaesierunt. Id. to. 4. de Consens. Evang. lib. 1 c. 10. Thus have they deserved to erre which sought Christ and his Apostles in painted Images, and not in written bookes. The same Austine writing of the manners of the Catholike Church, directly severeth the case of some men, who were wont to kneele superstitiously in Churh yards before the tombes of Martyrs, and the painted histories of their sufferings; these private mens cases he severeth from the common cause, and approved practice of the Catholike Church, saying, Nolite consectari tur­bas imperitorum, qu [...] vel in ips [...] ver [...] Religione su­perstit [...]osi sunt. Novi mul­tos esse sepulchrorum & picturarum adoratores: n [...]nc vos illud admoneo, ut aliquando Ecclesi [...] Catho­licae maledicere desi [...]atu, vi [...]uperando m [...]res homi­num, quos & ipsa co [...]dem­ [...]at [...] & quo [...] quoti [...]ie tan­q [...]am malos [...]ilios corrigere st [...]det. Id. to. 1. de mor. Ec­cles. Cathol. cap. 34. Doe not bring in the company of rude m [...]n, which in the true religion it selfe are superstitious. I know many that are worshippers of Graves and pictures. Now this I advise that you cease to speake evill of the Catholike Church by upbraiding it with the manners of those men, whom she her selfe condemneth, and see­keth every day to correct as naughtie children, so that in Saint Austines times, (as is already no [...]ed) See in the second Centurie S. Austins testi­monie on the 113. Psalm. Images, and Image-worship were not used by any generall warranted pra­ctice; if some mis-informed men used it, this could not in Saint Austines opinion, make it a Church duty, neces­sary and Catholike, or draw it to bee a generall cu­stome.

Bellarmine answereth, Dico Augustinum scripsisie cum librum in primordio conversion [...] su [...] ad sidem Cath [...]licam; ta­men posteà meli [...]s instructu [...] excusavit [eos ritu [...]] ab Idololatri [...] Bell [...] li. de Imag. cap. 16. §. Dico. that Saint Austine wrote this in the beginning of his Conversion to Christianitie, and [Page 129] that upon better information he changed his mind; but he tells us not in what part of his Retractations this is to be found.

Divers other shifts besides are used herein: and some fly to the distinction of an Idoll and an Image, but that will not se [...]ve; for the word [...] is often transla­ted Simulachrum, a likenesse or simili [...]de; and as eve [...]y Idoll is an Image of some thing, so every Image wor­shipped turnes Idoll; there may be some ods in the lan­guage, but none in the thing it selfe.

Bellarmine minceth Bellarm. de Imaginib. cap. 23. & 25. the matter, and would have the Image worshipped, not prope [...]ly, and because of it selfe, but reductively, inasmuch as it doth expresse the Sampler: Others Thom [...]s 3. part. qu. 25. art. [...]. hold that the Image is to bee worshipped in it selfe, and with the s [...]m [...] wo [...]ship that the person is, which is represented; so that the Cruci­fixe is to be reverenced with the selfe same hon [...]ur that Christ Iesus is. And as for the vulgar people, they goe bluntly to it with down [...]right adoration Cassander saith, Mani [...]e [...]tius [...]st, quam ut multis verb [...] [...]xpl [...]c [...]ri debeat— ita ut [...]l summ [...] adorationē quae [...]el [...] Pa­g [...]n [...] suis f [...]nu [...]c [...] is [...]x­hib [...]i [...]on [...]ucuit, nil [...] no­stris reliqui [...]ctum esse vid [...] atur. Call [...]d [...] Con­sult. de Imagin. It is more manifest, than that it can bee denyed, that the wor­ship of Images and Idols hath too much prevailed, and the sup [...]rstitious humour of people hath beene so cockered [...] that no­thing hath beene omitted among us, either of the highest ado­ration and vanity of Painims, in worshipping and adoring Images. Polydore also saith, Sunt exim be [...]e mul [...]i [...]u [...]iores, qui Imag [...]nes [...]o­la [...]t non ut sig [...], s [...] pe [...] ­i [...]e qu [...]si ipsae [...]easam ali qu [...]m habeant [...]t ijs magis fi [...] q [...]àm C [...]isto, vel alijs Devis q [...] d [...]ca [...]ae sunt P l [...]d. Vng. de In­v [...]nt. li. 6 c [...]p. 13. People are growne to such mad­nesse, that there are many rude and stupid persons, which a­dore Images of wood, stone, marble, and brasse, or paint [...]d in windowes, not as signes, but as though they had sense; and they repose more trust in them, than in Christ or the Saints, to which they are dedicated. Ludovicus Vives saith, M [...]i [...]stiani in re bo [...] ple [...]un (que) pe [...]ant, quo [...] Divos D [...] (que) [...]on a iter venerantur q [...] De­um. Nec video in m [...]ltis q [...]d fit dis [...]imen i [...] [...] [...] [...]um opinionem de Sanctis, & il quod G [...]n [...]il [...]s p [...]t [...] ­hant de suis D [...]. [...]. Vives Schol [...]n Au [...]ustin. de Civit. D [...]. l. 8. cap. 27. Sai [...]ts are esteemed and worshipped by many, as were the Gods among the Gentiles.


The honour or dishonour done to the Image redoun­deth to the person represented, or p [...]ototype, as ap­peares by our being uncovered, & using reverence in the Kings Chamber of presence, and before his Chaire of [Page 130] estate, when his person is absent; in like sort, the ho­nour, and worship due to the Image, redoundeth to Christ and his Saints: now if an Image bee capable of contempt and reproach, it is also capable of honour and worship.


The Rule [The dishonour done to the Image redoundeth to the person] is true, specially in civill affaires, when the Party would be honoured by the Image: and thus was Theodosius grieved with them of Antioch, Theodoret lib. 5 [...]i­stor. cap. 19. for casting downe his wives Statue. It may also redound to the p [...]rson by accident, that is, when a man doth a thing with a purpose to dishonour him; as Iulian did, Sozomen [...]. lib. 5. cap. 20. when hee pulled downe the Image of Christ, and set up his owne.

Besides, these contraries are not paria; for it suffi­seth, to the dishonouring of God, that there bee an e­vill affection or intention: but a good intention is not sufficient to the honouring of God, except the meanes, as well as the meaning bee prescribed of God.

Lastly (as learned Bishop White saith Bishop Whites Re­ply to Iesuit Fishers An­swer, point 1. pag. 228.) this Simi­litude halteth: for the Kings Chaire of State, and his image, when they are honoured or dishonoured, are conjoyned with his person, by civil ordinance and rela­tion: but the artificiall Image of Christ and his Crosse are not conjoyned with Christ, by divine ordination, or by relation grounded on Christs Word, but by an i­maginary act of the superstitious worshipper; also ci­vill and religious worship, are of diverse beginnings, and formes, and every thing that is possible, lawfull, and commendable in the one, is not so in the other.


Adoration is performed to Images, as being done outwardly, relatively, and transitorily unto the Image; inwardly, affectuously, absolutely, and finally unto Christ.

Ans [...]er.

If you adore Images outwardly, relatively, and transitorily, then (as the same Bishop saith Id. ibid pag. 246.) you make Images a partiall object of adoration: but God himselfe who saith, I will not give my glory to another (to wit, in whole or in part) neither my prayse to graven I­mages (Esay 42.8.) hath excluded [...]mages from copart­nership with himselfe in adoration,

Of Prayer to Saints.

Concerning Prayer to Saints, Saint Hierome, or who­soever Recte quo (que) Commen­taria in Proverbia tribu­untur Bedae, non Hierony­mo. Bellar. de Script. Ec­cles. seculi quarti. else was the Authour of those Commentaries on the Proverbs, sayth Nullum invocare, id est, in nos orando vocare nisi Deum debemus. Hie­ron. tom. 7. in Proverb. cap. 2.: Wee ought to invocate, that is, by Prayer to call into us none but God.

And in another place, Quicquid dixero, quia ille non audit, mutu [...] videtur. Id. to. 1. ad He­liodor. Epitaph. Nepoti­ani. Whatsoever I shall utter see­meth dumbe, because hee (Nepotian) being defunct, heareth me not. Theodoret upon the 2. and 3. Chapter to the Co­lossians expressely sayes (and that by the authority of the Councell of Laodicea) that Angels are not to bee prayed unto: and if not Angels, not Martyrs.

Saint Austi [...]e in his booke which hee wrote of true religion, saith; Non sit nobis Religio cultus hominum mortuo­rum. Aug. tom. 1. de verâ Relig. cap. 55. The worshipping of men that are dead should bee no part of our religion. Papists invocate Saints in the Liturgie of their Masse, which the Ancients did not. Saint Austine saith expressely, that Martyrs were named at the Communion Table, but not invocated: his words are these, Ad quod sacrificium, sicut homines Dei, qui mundum in eju [...] confessione vi [...]r [...]nt suo loco et ordine n [...]minantu [...], non tamen à Sa [...]erdote qui sacri [...]icat, i [...]o [...] antur. August. li. 22. de [...]ivit. Dei. c. 10. to. 5. At which Sacrifice the Martyrs are named in their place and order, as men of God, which have overcome the world in the confession of him; but yet notwith­standing, they are not invocated by the Priest which sacri­fiseth.


This place is thus answered: Non tamen à sacerdo­te qui sacri [...]icat, invocan­tur; Deo quippe, non ipsis sacrificat. [...]ac. Pa [...]el. Li­tu [...]g. secul. 5. tom. 1. Non invocantur ut Dij. L [...]. Coquaeus.—Card Perron. The Priest doth not invocate Saints by direct Prayer. Besides, the Sac [...]ifice is directed to God the Father alone, and that may be the reason why the Saints are not invocated.


Saint Austine excludeth all invocation of Saints, both direct and indirect, in the administra [...]ion of the Eucharist. Nei [...]her will th [...]se distinctions helpe them; for though the invoc [...]tion of them be not a direct, absolute, and so­v [...]raigne invocation, yet if it be an indirect, relative, or [...]bal [...]erne invocation, an invocation it is: (and such a one is the invocation at the Altar in the Masse: for thus it is, M [...]nuale Ec [...]esi [...] Sa­li [...]b [...]is. In Canone Mi [...]iae Libera nos Domine ab omnibus malis, &c. interced [...]nte pro nobis beatâ virgine, &c. beatis Apostolis, &c. cum omni­bus Sanctis.) and so what shall become of Saint Augu­stine's non invocantur, who knew none of these distincti­ons of the Cardin [...]ll's, which in that Age, and many Ages after were not heard of, Bi [...]h [...]p A [...]d [...]ewes Answer to Ca [...]di [...]l per­ron's Reply. pag. 3 [...] 38. saith our learned Bishop of Winchester.

Neither can the Cardi [...]all alleadge any reason, why if the Saints may be prayed unto, they may not be so, as well by the Priest as by the people; as well at M [...]sse, as at Mattines; as well in the body of the Church, as at the Altar?

A [...] for th [...]ir new distinction, of Sacrificall and unsa­crificall Invocation, and their conceit, that the Sacrifice is Offered [...]nto God the Father alone, it is (sayth the same Lea [...]n [...]d Bishop) B [...]l [...]. And [...]ewes ibid. refuted by the Canon it selfe of the Masse: th [...] concl [...]sion whereof, M [...]nuale Eccle [...]. Sa­li [...]bar. ibid. is Placeat tibi sancta T [...]i [...]i [...]as obs [...]q [...]ium servitut [...]s meae, &c. So that that the Sacrifice is offer [...]d [...]o the whole Trinitie. Besides there are divers Coll [...]ct [...] more [...] directed unto Christ himselfe, and [...]l of them said, Dum assistitur Altari.

Now in case that any upon consideration of their own [...] unworthin [...]sse, and Gods dreadfull Majestie, should se [...]k [...] to Go [...] b [...] mediation of others; Saint C [...]rysostom [...] of all the F [...]he [...]s is most plentifull in refu­ting this course of Int [...]cession by others. When thou hast need to sue unto men (sai [...]h he) [...]. [...] Serm. 7. de [...] tom. 6. Edit. S [...]vil p [...]g [...]02. thou art forced first to deale wit [...] doore keepers, an [...] Po [...]ters, and to intreat Parasites and Flatt [...]rers, and to goe a long way about. But with God [Page 133] there is no such matter; he is intreated without a [...] Interces­son: it sufficeth onely that thou cry in thine heart and bring teares with thee; and entring in straightway thou mayst draw him unto thee.

And for example hereof, he sets before us the wo­man of Canaan, Shee entreated not Iames, (sayth he) [...] Idem in dimis­sione Chana [...]ae tom. 5. Edit. Savil. p. 190. shee beseecheth not Iohn, neither do [...]h she come to Pe [...]er, but brake thorow the whole company of them, saying, I have no need of a M [...]d [...]atour, but taking repentance with me for a spoakesman, I come to the fountaine it selfe. For this cause [...]id he d [...]scend, for this cause did he take flesh, that I might have the boldnesse to speake unto him: I have no need of a mediatour, have thou mercie upon me. And whereas some repose such co [...]fi­de [...]ce in the intercession of the Saints, that they looke to receive greater benefits by them, than by their owne p [...]ayers, he brings in againe the w [...]man of Canaan, and wi [...]heth us to observe, [...]. Id [...]m Se [...]m. in Philip. v. 18. c 1 de pro­fectu Evang. tom. 5. Edi [...]. Savil p [...]g 417. How when others intreated, he put her backe: but when she her selfe cryed out, pr [...]ying for the gift, he yielded. Yea, he sayth farther; that, [...]. Id [...]m in Acta A­post. c. 16. Homil. 36. God then doth most, when we doe not use the entreatie of others: for as a kind friend then blameth he us m [...]st, as not daring to trust his Love, when we entreat others to pray unto him for us: thus use we to doe with those that se [...]ke to us: then we gratifie them most, when they come unto us by themselves and not by others.


Chrysostome spoke thus, Protulit haec, adver­sus quosdam d [...]sides, qui [...] Divor [...]m patrocinio [...]mmi [...]tu [...]t, ut interdū ipsi [...] se t [...]t [...]s in peccata a [...]ciant. Sixtus Senens. Annot 123 [...] ut [...]esert No­bil [...]l mimus in notia in Chrysostomum. against such idle fellowes as Committed th [...]ms [...]lves wholly [...]o the patronage of their Tu­ [...]elar Saints, and themselves lived in their Sinnes; or he ut­tered such speeches Homily wise, Haec [...]. di­cuntur, non [...]. Nobil. Fla [...]in. not [...] Chrysost. as in the Pulpit, not Dogmatically, as delivering his judgement.


As if a man might not deliver his judgement in the Pulpit; for albeit in figures and phrases, and manner of handling, there is s [...]me d [...]ff [...]rence, betweene a Preacher before the people, and a R [...]ade [...] before the learned; yet no learned Go [...]ly man, such as Chrysostome was, will so advisedly, so vehemently, and often times as he did, [Page 134] utter any thing in the Pulpit, before the weaker, the truth whereof he is not able to justifie in the Schooles before the best learned.

Neither we [...]e they whom Chrysostome taxed so very laz [...]e, but rather such as tooke more paines than nee­ded; and (as hee saith) went a long way about, by se [...]king to their patrons, mediatours, and favourites; whereas hee shewes them a neerer may, to wit, to goe immediately to the Master of Requests, Christ Iesus.


You have produced diverse Fathers against Saintly invocation, and much pressed Saint Chrysostome's testi­mony, whereas hee makes for us; for Chrysost [...]me saith Sanctis suppli [...]t [...]us a [...]cedit, ut pro se apud De­um interced [...]nt. Chrysost. Homil. 66. [...]d popu. An­tio [...]hen. that the Emperour laying aside all princely state, stood hum­bly praying unto the Saints, to bee intercessours for him unto God.


Bellarmine indeed alleadgeth Bell [...]r lib. 1. de Sanct. Beatit. cap. 19. Chrysostome's sixty sixt Homily Ad populum Antiochenum [...] and yet the same Bellar­mine, upon better advise, when he is out of the heat of his polemick controversies, & comes to a pacifick Trea­tise of the Writings of the Fathers; then hee tells us, [...]x Homi [...]ijs ad pop An [...]io [...]he [...] viginti & una tant [...]m [...]eperiri [...] in antiqu [...]s [...] Bellar. li. de Script. [...]c [...]les. [...]d an. 398. that Chrysostome made but one and twenty Homilies to the people of Antioch, and that no more are to bee found in the ancient Libraries.

And yet posito, sed non concesso, admit that these words were Ch [...]ysostome's indeed, yet they reach not home; for they speake onely what the Emperour did de facto [...] not d [...] jure: it is onely a relation, what hee did out of his private devotion, it is no approbation of the thing done. Now what some one or two shall doe, carryed away with their owne devout affection, is not straight way a rule of the Church.

Besides, though the Saints interceded for us, yet it will not hence follow, that wee are to invocate them, having no warrant from God so to doe: now in such a [Page 135] high poynt of his worship, wee must keepe us to his command Deu [...]er. [...]2.32., and that must guide ou [...] devoti [...]n.

The other places of Chryso [...]tome alleadged by B [...]llar­mine speake of the Saints living, and not of the Saints deceased.

Lastly, Chrysostome (as hath beene observed in the poynt of the E [...]cha [...]ist) speak [...]s oftentimes rather out of his rhetorick [...], than out of his divinity. Sixtus Se­nensis delivereth this observation concerning the Fa­thers, and hee names Chrysostome, Non sunt Conciona­torum verba semper eo ri­g [...]re accipienda; multa e­nim D [...]clamato [...]es per Hy­perbolen enunciant Hoc inte [...]dum Chrysostomo [...]on­tingit. Sixt. Senens. Biblio. lib. 6. annot. 152. That in their sermons we may not take their words strict [...]y, and in rigour, because they many times breake out into declamations, and declare and re­peat matters, by Hyperboles, and other figurative speeches. In a word, whatsoever Chrysostome report of others, himselfe (as wee have heard) was all for our immedi­ate addresse of our Prayers unto God.


Bellarmine saith, Theodoretus in Histo­ria Sanctorum patrum, sin­gulas vitas ita concludit; ego autem huic narrationi finem imponens, rogo & quaeso ut per horum inter­cessionem divinum conse­quar auxilium. Bellar. li. 1 de Sanct. Beat. c. 19. that Theodoret shutteth up the story of the Father [...] lives in these termes: My suit and request is, that by the Prayers and intercession of the Saints, I may finde divine assistance.

And the same Bellarmine saith, Multa it [...]m habet de Invocatione Sanctorum lib. 8. ad Graecos. Bellar. quò sup [...]à. that Theodoret in his booke of the Greekes hath much touching Prayer to Saints.


Theodoret saith onely, Rogo & quaeso, I beseech and in­treat, not th [...]s, nor that Sa [...]nt, but God alone: to this end and purp [...]se, that by their intercession and prayers, I may have assi [...]ance.

Now to the booke de curandis Graecorum affectibus questioned, whether i [...] be Rob. Coci Censur [...] Patrum. pag. 195. Theodoret's, or no; wee op­pose that which is Theodoret's out of question; upon the second and third Chapters to the Colossians, where hee exp [...]essely sayes (and that by the au [...]hority of the Councell of Laodicea) Angels are not to be prayed to, and if not Angels, then not Saints and Ma [...]tyrs.


Saint Austine sayth, Injuri [...] est en [...] pro [...] 17. de ve [...]b. Apost li. It is injurie to pray for a Martyr, by whose prayers we on the other side ought to be recommended.


This place is not to the pu [...]pose, for he sayth onely that the Saints pray for us, which thing we have never denyed. We doe out of Godly conside [...]ations pre­sume, that albeit they know not the necessity of particu­lar men, yet they pray for the Church in generall. But that wee should for this cause invocate them, or yield them any religious service, S. Austine doth not avouch.

The other testimonies alleadged by Bella [...]mine, out of Saint Austine, are all for Martyrs, and not for Saints; now in Saint Aust [...]nes opinion, the Martyrs had an e­sp [...]ciall priviledge above other Saints.

B [...]sides they might well have spared the alleadging of Saint Austine, Theodoret Chrysostome, Prudentius, Saint Ambrose, Origen, Irenaeus, and othe [...]s, in proofe of Sai [...]t­ly invocation; ina [...]much as these with divers others, are by their great Author Sixt [...]s Senens. Bibl. San [...]t. lib. 6. Annot 345. [...] of this [...]pinion. Sixtus Senensis reckoned up amongst them that held the Saints departed did not in­joy the presence of God, [...]ill after th [...] generall Resurre­ction; which if they h [...]ld that they did not, then would they not hold that they were to bee prayed to; they being secluded from Gods presence, being onely in [...] in Secreti [...] [...] A [...]g li [...]. 2. de civit. De [...] cap 9. tom. 5. Some certaine Receptacles or Wards, Omnes in und com­mun [...] (que) [...]ustodia detinen­tu [...]. Lact [...]n. li 7. cap 21. attending in the porch or base Court abroad; not ad­m [...]tted to the presence of the Almighty; and so not seeing [...] hearing nor knowing, whether prayer were made to them at all, or no; being but as yet in Atrijs, as Ber­nard would have it Primum in taberna­cul [...]; secundam in A [...]rijs; tertio in Do [...]o De [...]. Be [...]n. [...]erm. 3. de omnibus San­ctis.. For in such Retiring or drawing roomes, they placed the soules of all the faithfull, except those of the Martyrs.


Maximus Taurinensis in his Sermon upon Saint Agnes, sayth, Vt no [...]tri meminisse [...] quib [...]s pass [...]mus preci [...]us [...]. S. Ma­x [...] [...]erm. de S. Agn [...]te. in M. B [...]blioth Patr Co­lon. 16.8. to 5. pag. 29. By all such Prayers and Orizons as I can conceive, I beseech the [...], vouchsafe to remember me.


The [...]e Sermons of Maximus, as great as he was in name, they are not greatly to be esteemed; M [...]ximi Homiliae, & r [...]tiquae ferè quae de Tempo­re, de Sanctis circumferun­tur, maximae faciend [...]e non sunt. Eliens. Respons. ad Bell. Apolog. c. 1. p 42. inasmuch as they goe with an Aliâs, sometimes under one name, sometimes under another, Tribuuntur simul, & S. Ambrosio, et S. Maximo. Bell. de S [...]r. Eccl. ad ann. 420 Maximi Taurinensi [...] sermones, ai [...] Perkinsus, incen [...]tae fid [...] sunt; ex ijs e­nim plu [...]imi varijs autho­ribus ad s [...]ribuntur. Andr. Rivet. Crit. sacri. l. 4. c. 23. having inde [...]d no certaine knowne Father: so that they are not to goe for Maximes in divinity, or rules of Faith.

But suppose they be his owne words; they are but a Rhetoricall flourish which he used in his commendato­rie, Panegyricall Sermon upon Saint Agnes her Anni­versarie; and he speakes but faintly, Quibus possumus precibus; in effect Bishop. Montagu of the Invocation of Saints. pag. 207. as I can, so I direct this my addresse unto thee: heare and helpe me accordingly as thou canst, and maist: so the man, in the point was not so fully perswaded of that, or any Saints assistance, as that hee went farther than opinion.


Victor Bishop of Vtica, when the Church was peste­red with the barbarous Vandals, Adestote Angeli Dei, Deprecamini Patria [...]chae, orate S. Prophetae, estote Apostoli Suffragator [...]s, praecipuè tu Petre B. qua­re files pro ovibus et agnis? S. Victor V [...]icens. l. 3. de perseq. Vvandal propè si­nem. & in Biblioth. Patr. tom. 7. pag. 1928 Par [...] [...] ­dit. per Margarin. de la Bigne. ann. 1589. calleth to the Angels, Prophets, Patriarks, and Apostles, to Deprecate, and Pray for the distressed Church.


Victor Bishop of Vtica, is an Historian; and such are Narratores, relaters of other mens Acts, not Exposi­tores, of their owne opinions; narrations have no more weight or worth, then have those Authors from whence they proceed.

But Vic [...]or in this place laying aside the person of an Historian, takes up the carriage of a Panegyrist meere­ly, as appeares by his expostulating with Saint Peter, and chiding him, which was not really and indeed, but onely Rhetorically, and Figuratively, saying, Why art thou Blessed Saint Peter silent? Why dost not thou above all the rest take care of the Sheepe and Lambes committed unto thee: Now if this were a straine of Rhetoricke, why al­so is not that his compellation of the Saints Triumphant to assist the Church Millitant, and then distressed.


Fulgentius speakes [...]co [...]maes is [...]os cursu [...] n [...]ture V [...]g [...] M [...]ri [...] in Domino nostro [...]esu Christo [...]us [...]epst ut [...] ad se [...] s [...]ntnis subventi [...]; [...]t sic restaura­ [...]er omne ge [...]us [...] ad se vententium n [...]va E­va si [...]ut omne gen [...]s vir [...] ­rum Ad an no [...]us recupe­rat Fulgent. in serm de Laud. B. Ma [...]iae. of the blessed Virgins helping all suc [...] women as [...]lie unto her.


The same Au [...]hor goes on (th [...]ugh Bellarmine conceale it) & tell [...] us, that the Virgin Mary (whom he intitles the new Eve, as Christ is called the new Adam) restored all wo­mankind, as Christ did all mankind. Shall we th [...]nk that the true Fulgentius (a man of worth in his time) would thus par [...] stakes be [...]wixt Christ Iesus and the Virgin Mary, in that great work of our Redemption? Surely, this is some coun [...]erfeit going under the name of Fulgentius. And so I finde, that the whole Homily is in the tenth Tome of Saint Austin's workes, u [...]der the Title of the fiftee [...]th Sermon de Tempore. And the Divines of Lovan In Appendice ad deci­mum tom [...]m Augustini. Pa [...]is. 1586. found it ascribed unto Severianus in some Copies, an [...] print [...]d amongst Fulgentius his wo [...]kes; so that it appeares to be but filius populi, some b [...]e issue, whose Father being meane and u [...]knowne, yet the brat is layd at some ho­nest mans doore.


Et per [...]on [...]m aemula­tionnē ip [...]o [...]um ambite suf­ [...]ragia. [...]eo serm. 5. de E­p [...]phan. V [...]de cu [...]dem in se [...]m, d [...] annive [...]sar [...]o suae assumptionis, & de [...]anct. Petro & Paulo & Lau­ [...]n [...]o.Saint Leo would have us to make sute for the votes, prayers, and suffrages of the Saints, speci [...]lly Saint Peters.


Saint Leo goes no farther than this, By his merits and prayers wee hope to finde assistance. Besides, he speakes of Intercession without any Invocation.


The Fathers in the Chalcedon Councell said, Flavianus Martyr pro nobis oret. Concil. Chalced. act. 11. Let the Martyr Flavianus pray for us.

A [...]swer.

Flavianus, a Catholike Bishop was murdered for an Hereticke by the Ephesin Latrocinie, and Dioscarus his Faction; the worthy Councell of Chalcedon loosed him af [...]er his death, and honoured him as a Saint and Mar­tyr: insomuch that upon the mention of his name, the [Page 139] Fathers there assembled made this joynt acclamation, Flavianus lives after his death: Let the Martyr pray for us. Now this was votum, non invocatio, a wish, and no direct invocation. Or if they will reade it, Martyr pro nobis orat, the Martyr prayes for us, to wit, in geneall, wee doe not denye it, nor doth it helpe their cause.

By this we see what to thinke of the thirty Fathers Greek and Latine, mustered up by Bellarmine for proofe of Saintly invocation; they may (as learned Winche­ster observes) 1. Verè Patres, sed non verè citantur. 2. Verè citantur, sed si­dei suspect [...]e. 3. Et ve [...]i P [...]tres, & verè citantur, sed nihil ad rem. Resp. ad Card. B [...]l­larm. Apol. cap. 1. p. 39. bee put into three rankes; some of them being indeed true Fathers, but not truely alleadged: others truely alleadged, but they bee not homines legales, good men and true Fathers, but counterfeits, bea­ring their names: others be true Fathers, and truly al­leadged, but they speake not ad rem, to the poynt in question.

To come to particulars; there be seaven of the thir­ty, who lived after the first five hundred yeares,Post-nat [...]. G [...]egory the first, Gre­gory of Turon, Bede, An­selme, Bernard, Dama­scen, Theophylact. so that they are later, and Post-nati unto Primitive antiquitie, being out of the verge of the limited time, and out of the compasse of the Churches puritie; Damascen living about the yeare seven hundred and thirty, and Theophy­lact surviving William the Conquerour, some of them also be partiall, as speaking to the poynt when it got some footing in the Church.

There be others to the number of eight,Suspect [...]e Fidei. Ign [...]tius, Cornelius Pa­pa, Athanas. de S. Deipa­ra, Ephraem de laude Ma­riae, Nazianzen upon Cy­prian, Cyril's Catechisme, Chrisos [...]ome's 66. Homily ad popul. A [...]tioch, Tulgen. de laude B. Mari [...]. who have put on the visour of antiquitie, and would seeme anci­ent, but are justly suspected to bee ranke counte [...]feits; and men of yesterday in comparison.

Two or three of the Greeke Fathers are wrong cited, by a false writ, and a corrupt translation.

There be seven other of the witn [...]sses,Non verè citati. [...]asil in [...]rat in 40. Martyr. Eus [...]bius de praep. Evang. who speake not positively as Divines, but like Poets, Panegyrists, & Oratours, with Figures, Apostr [...]phe's, and Prosopopei­ae's in a Poeticall veine, and Rhetoricall streine;Rhetoricantur Paties. Nazian [...]ere, Hie [...]ome. S. Maxi [...]us, Nyssen. of this ranke is Nazianzen's Respice de caelo; Hierome's Vale [...] Paula; Maximus, his Itaque ô splendida virgo; Nyssen, [Page 140] his comp [...]llation to Theodore the Martyr, Coge chorum Martyrum; Saint Victor, Victor, Paulinus, Pruden­ti [...]s. his adestote Angeli, and Paulinus and Prudent [...]us with th [...]ir Poetry.

The o [...]her sixe tha [...] remain [...] upon record, speake not to the poynt:Patres ve [...] citati, sed nihil ad rem. they t [...]ll us indeed of the Saints inte [...]ce­ding for us, to wit, in gen [...]rall; but this inferre [...]h not our invocation of them.

They tell us also of some private mens opinion, and the pract [...]ce of so [...]e few; but this doth not wa [...]rant it to have beene the doctrine and practice of the Church.

Of Ius [...]ification by Faith.

Al [...]hough Faith onely justifie, yet is not Faith alone, or solitarie in the person justified; even as the eye though it onely see, yet it is n [...]t alone in the body, but joyned with the rest of the members; in like sort, Faith a [...]d Charity where they are not both joyntly together, there (as Leo sayth) Vbi non simul fuerint, simul d [...]sunt. Leo S [...]rm. 7. de Qu [...]d [...]ges. they are both wanting.

Saint Augustine saith, Sola Fides Christi mund [...]t August. in Psal. [...] tom. 8.—praecogn [...]tis, quod non fuerant credituri in Fide, qu [...] [...] a p [...]catorum obligattone li­berari. That Faith onely purifieth the [...]eart.

Saint Chysostome often useth the selfe same Chrysost in cap. 4. ad R [...]m. tom. 4 & de side & l [...]g [...] nature. tom. 3. forme of spe [...]ch, to wit, t [...]at Faith onely justifieth.

Saint Augustine saith, Ipse ergo p [...]atum ut [...] in ip­so; [...] non suum, [...] nec in [...], s [...]d in nobis [...] Aug. tom. 3. in En­chi [...]id. ad [...] cap. 41. He is sinne, and wee are justice; not our owne, but Gods; not in our selves, but in him; as he is sinne, not his owne, but ours; not in hims [...]lfe, but in us: so are wee made the ju [...]tice of God in him, as he is sinne in us; to wit, by Imputation.

And againe, In [...] Fidei pro non peccanti [...]us h [...]b [...]ntu [...] qui­bus peccata n [...]n imputan­tur Id. tom. 8. in P [...]al. [...] 18 conc. 3 [...] In the way o [...] Faith, they are reckoned for no sinners (and therfore are [...]eputed Iust) who have not their sinnes imputed to them.

This f [...]ee remissi [...]n of sinnes he elswhere notably describeth, saying, Si texit [...] Deus, n [...]luit adv [...]t [...]re; si noluit [...]dve [...]e [...]e, [...] animad­verte [...]e, [...] punt [...]e, no­luit [...], malu [...]t ig­noscere Id [...] s [...]p [...] Ps [...]l. 31. If God hath covered our sinnes, he will not obs [...]rve them, he will not thi [...]ke upon them, to punish them, he will [...]ot take knowledge, but rat [...]er pardon t [...]em.

It i [...] cle [...]re also out of Saint Austine, that there is such impe [...]fect on in our wo [...]ks, as tha [...] they cannot justifie. All our Righteousnesse (saith he) I [...]sa [...] n [...]stra [...] [...]it [...], ut [...] remissi­one [...]o st [...]t [...] per [...]e [...] [...] virtutu [...] Id tom 5 de civit. Dei. li. 19. cap. 27. standeth ra [...]her in the re­mission [Page 141] of our sinnes, than in any perfection of justice; and againe, V [...]e et [...]am laudabil [...] vitae hominum, si r [...]mot [...] misericordi [...] discutia [...] e­am Id. tom. 1. confess. lib. 9. cap 13. Woe be to the commendablest life we leade (saith he) if thou Lord setting thy mercie aside, shoul [...]st [...]xamine it; but this is our comfort, God dealeth graciously with us, accepting our willing desires, in sted of the worke done, as Saint Paul saith, 2 Cor. 8.12. and accordingly Saint Austine saith, Omnia mandata [...] deputantur, quando qu [...] ­q [...]id non fit ignos [...]tu [...]. Id. to. 1. Retract. lib. 1. cap 19. All the commandements of God are then estee­med to be done, when as that is forgiven, whatsoever is not done.

Of Merit.

Concerning Merits, or the dignity of good workes equall to the Reward, Saint Paul is against it, saying; Ro [...]. 8.18. That the suff [...]rings (Martyrdomes) of this prese [...]t time are not worthy to be compared to the glory that shall b [...]e revealed in us; and both Hierome [...]ieron super Ephes. 2. tom. 9. and Chrysostome C [...]rysost. oper. imper­fect in Math Homil 53. alleadge this place against Merit. Leo saith, N [...] (que) enim de quali­ [...] um [...]perum [...] Leo [...]erm [...] de As­sump. [...] Id. serm [...] de Pass. Dom. The measure of coelestiall gifts depends not upon th [...] quality of workes. Saint Au [...]tine sai [...]h, No [...] pro merito qui­dem [...] [...]itam ae [...]er­n [...]m sed ta [...]tum pro gra­t [...] [...] [...]oan. tract. 3. tom. 9 Thou shalt not receive eternall life for thy merit, but onely for grace. And they speake reason; for hee that would merit or deserve any thing at another mans hand, must of himselfe [...] Hil [...]r de T [...]init lib. 11. by his owne power, doe something, that the other had no former claime unto: now our good workes, inasmuch as they are good, are God [...] fr [...]e gifts. Wee are not sufficient to thinke any thing that is good. 2 Cor. 3.5. It is God that worketh in us both the will and the deed Philip. 2.1. And Man stands bound to God, either in strict termes of law, or by way of gratitude, as his creature, servant, and sonne, to doe him the uttermost of his service.

My good deeds (saith Austin) [...]. Aug. [...]. lib 10. cap. 4. [...]om 1. are thy ordinances, and thy gifts; my evill ones [...] are my sinnes, and thy judgements. Theodoret saith, [...] & [...] non mer [...]dem sed glor [...]am vo­cavit [...] quae expectantur. Theod. in Rom. 8. tom 2 Gentiano Herveto inter­prete. The Crownes doe excell the Fights, the re­wards are not to be compar [...]d with the labours; for the labour is small and the gaine great that is hoped for; and therefore t [...]e Apostle called those things that are looked for, not wages, but glory (Rom. 8.18.) not wages, but grace (Rom. 6.23.) [Page 142] The same Theodoret saith, Temporalibus labo [...] ­ [...]us [...]terna i [...] aequilibrio [...]on respondent. Id. [...]n Rom. 6. vers. ul [...]. That things eternall doe not an­swer tempor [...]ll labours in equall poyze.

Saint Hierome saith, Si nostra considerem [...]s merita desperandum est. Hieron. lib 17 [...]n Isai. cap. 64. to. 5. Nullum opus dignum Dei justitià reperietur. I­dem lib. 6. in Esai. cap. 13. If wee consider our owne merits, we must despaire: And againe, When the day of judgement or death shall come, all hands shall faile, because no worke shall bee found worthy of the justice of God.

Saint Chrysostome speakes very pathetically, Chrys. tom. 5. de Com­punct. Cord. ad Stelech. post [...]ed [...] in Lat. editione. [...]. Chrysost. de Compunct. Cord. ad Ste­lechum. tom. 6. edit. Savil. pag. 157. Etsi millies moriamur, Although (saith hee) wee die a thousand deaths, although wee did performe all vertuous actions, yet should wee come short by farre of rendring any thing worthy of those honours which are conferred upon us by God.

Indeed the Lord rewards good workes, but this is out of his bounty, free favour, and grace, and not as of desert. Rom. 4.4.

In giving the Crowne of Immortality as our reward, God crowneth not our merits, but his owne gifts; and, when God crowneth our merits (that is, good deeds) hee crowneth no­thing else but his own gifts, saith Qu [...]d ergo praemium [...]mmorlit it is poste [...] [...], coronat dona sua, non me­rita tu [...]. August. in Ioan. tract. 3. tom. 9. Cun Deus coronat [...], ni [...]il aliud [...] quam. M [...]nera sua Id. epist. 105. tom. 2. Saint Augustine. So that God indeed is become our debtour, not by our deser­ving [...] but by his owne gracious promise.

God is faithfull, who hath made himselfe our debtour, (saith Austin) Fidelis Deus qui se postrum debitorem fecit; [...]on aliquid à nobis accipi­endo, sed tanta nobis pro­mitendo quicquid promisit, indigmis promisit. Id tom. 3. in Psalm. 100. not by receiving any thing from us, but by promising so great things to us: whatsoever he promised, hee promised to them that were unworthy. In a word, though hee give heaven propter promissum, for his promise sake, and because hee will bee as good as his word, yet it is not propter commissum, for any performance of ours.

This was the doctrine of old, but the Rhemists have taken out a new lesson, saying Rhemists Annot. up­on Hebr. 6. sect. 4. That good works are meri­torious, and the very cause of salvation; so farre, that God should be unjust, if hee rendred not heaven for the same.

Now by this that hath beene alleadged, the Reader may perceive, that besides diverse other worthies of these times, S. Augustine the honor of this Age, agreeth with us in diverse weighty poynts of religion, as also in the matter of Gods free grace and justification, inso­much as Sixtus Senensis saith, D. Augustinus dum toto spiritus ac verbo [...]ū ar­dore pro defensione Divinae gratiae pugnat advers. Pe­ [...]agianos, liberum arbitriū cum [...] divinae gratiae ex [...]oll [...]ntes, in alterā quasi [...]oveam delabi vid [...]tur mi­nus (que) interdum tribuere quā par sit liber [...] hominis volū ­tati Sixt Senens. in Bibl. Sanctâ lib. 5. in prae [...]at. Whil'st Saint Austin doth [Page 143] contend earnestly against the Pelagians, for the defence of di­vine grace, he doth seeme to fall into another pit, and sometimes attributeth too little to Free-will.

And Stapleton saith, Vtcunque in hac dis­putatione modum fortasse excesser [...]t Augustinus Sta­pleton. de Iustificat. lib. 2. cap. ult. t [...]at Austin (haply) in his dispu­tation against the Pelagians, went beyond all go [...]d measure.


Saint Austin prayed for the dead, to wit, for his mother Monica, desiring God not to enter into judgement with her.


What though hee did so? the Examples of Christi­ans (which sometimes slip into superstition) are no rule for to ord [...]r our life, or devotion thereby.

Besides, if hee prayed for eternall rest, and remissi­on of sinnes to his deceased mother, this was not for that hee doubted shee injoyed them not, or that he fea­red shee indured any Purgatory paines; but hee sued for the continuation, accomplishment, and manifesta­tion thereof at the generall resurrection. Yea, even then when he prayed so, hee saith, Et credo jam feceris, quod te rogo. Aug. Confes. lib. 9. cap. 13. tom. 1. hee believes that the Lord had granted his request, to wit, that his mother was out of paine, and that God had forgiven her her sinnes: Which argueth, that it was rather a wish, than a Pray­er, proceeding more out of affection to her, than any necessity to helpe her by his Prayers, who was then (as he perswaded himselfe) in a blessed estate: so that how­soever Saint Austin at first made a kind of prayer for his mother, yet a little after (as it were repressing himselfe) he saith, he believeth that shee is in a blessed state.

The Letters of Charles the great unto our Off a King of Mercia, are yet extant; wherein he wisheth, Deprecantes ut pro [...] interaedi jubea [...]i [...], nullam habentes dubitationem, be­atam illius anima [...] in re­qu [...]e esse; sed u [...] fidem & delectionem nostram osten­damus in amicum charissi­mum. Carol. Magnus a­pud Guliel. Malmesbu. d [...] gest. Reg. Anglor. L 1. c. 4. That inter­cessions should be made for Pope Adrian then lately deceased; not having any doubt at all (saith he) but that his blessed soule is at rest, but that wee may shew our faithfulnesse and love to our most deare friend.

In a word, Saint Austin's prayer was not (as Popish prayers now a dayes are made) with reference to Pur­gatory; and therefore it makes nothing against us.


Did not Saint Austine hold Purgatory?


That some such thing should be after this life, it is not (saith he) Tale aliq [...]id etiam post h [...]n [...] vitam [...], incredibi­le non est [...] ut [...]m ita sit [...], [...]t aut taveniri aut la [...]cre. Aug. in En [...]hi­ [...]id. cap. [...] tom. 3. incred [...]ble, and whether it be so it may be i [...]quired, and ei­ther be found, or remaine hidden. In another place he lea­veth it uncertaine, Siv [...] ib [...] tan [...]um, sive et hic [...] ibi; sive [...]deo hic, ut non [...]i, sae [...]ularia q [...]mvis a [...] ne ven [...]alt [...]) [...] ig [...]em transi [...] [...]iae tribulati [...] [...]nveniant, non [...]d [...]guo quia so [...]sitan verum est. Aug. de C [...]vit. De [...]l. 21. c. 26. & de Fide & oper. c. 16. tom. 4. Whether onely in this life men suffer, or whether there follow some such temporall judgements after this life, so that Saint Austine saith, it is not incredible, and it may be disputed whether it bee so, and perhaps it is so: words of doubting, and not of asleveration, but in other places he gives such reasons as overthrow it. Tertium penitus igno­rantus, im [...] nec esse in Scriptures Sanctis inveni­mus. Aug. Hypog. l. 5. to 7 The Catholike Faith (saith he) resting upon divine authority, believes the first place, the kingdome of heaven, and the second hell, a third wee are wholly ignorant of; yea wee shall finde in the Scrip­tures that it is not. Neither speakes he onely of places eternall that are to continue for ever; besides, he there purposely disputes against Limbus Pucrorum, and rejects all temporary places, not acknowledging any other third place, and elsewhere he saith, Nec est ullus ulli me­dius locus, ut p [...]ss [...]t esse nisi cum D [...]bolo qui non [...] cum [...]hri [...]to. Aug de [...] mer [...] & [...]miss. [...]. 1. c. 28. Habent gaudium [...] & m [...]l [...] to m [...]ntum Id. in Io­an. [...]ract 49. tom. 9. There is no middle place, hee must needes bee with the devill, that is not with Christ; and againe, In [...] e [...]um quemque [...], in hoc cum com [...]re­hendet mundi nov [...]ssimus d [...]es Id epist. [...]0. Where every mans owne last day finds him, therein the world's last day w [...]ll hold him. Thus farre Saint Austine according to the Scriptures, which ac­knowledges but two sorts of people, Children of the kingdome, and children of the wicked; faithfull and unfaith­full, M [...]th. 13.38. And accordingly two places after this life, Heaven and Hell, Luke 16.23. Mark. 16.16. Neither doth the Scrip [...]ure any where mention any temporary fire after this life; the fire it speakes of, is everlasting and unquenchable, M [...]t. 18 8 [...] & 3.12. and so doth Austine take it; Non da [...]o quod non [...]; ignem [...] 8. Aug. in Psal. 80 and as for that fi [...]e which Saint Paul mentions, 1 Cor 3.15. It is not a Purgatory, but a Probatorie fire.


Master Brerely hath set forth Saint Austines Religion, agreeble to ours.


The Learned on our side have confuted him; See Saint Austins Summes by M [...] Cromp [...]on. and have prooved out of Saint Austines undoubted wri­tings, that he agreed with the Church of England in the maine poynts of Faith and Doctrine.

And so I come from Fathers, to Councels, and first to the sixth African Councel, held at Carthage, and another at Milevis; both which denied Appeales to Rome. Now the case was this; Apiarius a Priest of Africa, was for his scandalous life excommunicated Ap [...]a [...]ium, loci is [...]ius Episcopus, quampiam ob causam à c [...]tu [...]idelium ex­clusit, [...]und [...]m (que) Synodus ex­auctoravit, q [...]em Sozimus Papa ad se conjugtentem, causamque ibi probant [...]m absolvit, & cum literis ad Synodum [...]em [...]ssum recipi imperavit. Binnius in Cō ­cil African sextum tom. 3 concil O [...]cum. 8. act. 6. p. 867. edit. Colon. 1606. by Vrban his Dioc [...]san, and by an African Synod: Apiarius thus censured, fled to Pope Zozimus, who restored him to his place, & absol­ved him, & this he did, pretending that some Canon of the Nicen Councell had established Appeales from other places to Rome: the Bishops of Africa, not yielding too hastie credit to this allegation, debated the matter with Pope Zozimus and his successors, Boniface and Celestine for the space of foure or five yeares together, at length, In Co [...]cilijs verioribꝰ qu [...]e accip [...]u [...]tur Nic [...]na [...]a S. Cyril. Alexan. Ecclsiae et [...] venerabili Attico Constā ­tinopol. Antistite miss [...] — in quibus tale aliquid non potuimus r [...]p [...]re. Binn. in Conc. Charth. 6. c. 105. p. 646. tom. 1. Sed nunquam in Concilio Niceno in L [...] ­tini [...] Codicib [...] legimus—in nullo Codice Graeco ea po­tu [...]mus inv [...]ni [...]e. Id. Ibid. cap. 101 pag. 64 [...] col. 2.when the true and authentical copies of the Nicen Coun­cell were searched by Cyril Patriarke of Alexandria, and Atticus Bishop of Constantinople, and that neither in the Greeke nor Latine copies, this Canon touching Ap­peales to Rome could be found; then the African Bi­shops told the Pope that he should not meddle with the causes of men in their Province, nor receive any such to Communion as they had excommunicated. For the Councel of Nice, (say they) Decreta Nic [...]na pru­dentiss [...]mè justiss [...]m [...] (que) p [...]o­viderunt, quaecu [...]que nego­tia in suis locis, ubi o [...]ta sunt, [...]inienda. Id. Ibid. ca. 105. pag 646. Did consider wisely and up­rightly that all matters ought to be determined in the places in which they began. Chiefly sith it is lawfull for any, if he like not the sentence of his Iudges, to appeale to the Synods of his owne province, yea, or farther also to a generall Synod: to wit, of the Dioces By [Vnive [...]sall] is meant a Synod of the Di­ocese and not of the whole World. Conc. Con­stan [...]inop. Can 6.; Vnlesse there be any perhaps, Nisi fortè quispiam est qui credat, unicuilibet posse Deum nostrum exa­mini [...] inspira [...]e justitiam, et innumerabilibus congre­gatis in Concilium Sacer­dotibus denegare— nam ut aliqui tanquam à tuae san­ctitatis la [...]ere mi [...]tantur, rulla inven [...]mus P [...]trū Sy­nodo, ne fumosum typh [...] saecu [...]i in Eccl [...]si [...]m Christi vid [...]amur inducere. Binn. qu [...] sup [...]à cap 105. Con­cil Carthag. pag. 646. who will imagine that God would inspire the triall of right into one man, and denie it to a great number of Bishops assembled in a Synod: and so going forward with proofe, that the Pope ought not to judge their causes, either at Rome himselfe, or by his Legates sent from Rome; they touched his attempt [Page 146] in modest sort, but at the quicke, Condemning it of pride, and smoakie statelinesse of the world.


It may be (saith Master Brerely) Pro [...] Apology, tract. 1. sect. 7 subd. 2. that the Arrian He­retikes had corrupted the Nicen Councel, and therefore this Canon which the Pope alleadged could not bee found there.


Had this pr [...]t [...]nded Canon made ought against Christ's Divin [...]tie, we might have suspected the Arrians to have corrupted it, if they could; but this concerned the Pop [...]s ju [...]isd [...]ction in matter of Appeale, and trench'd not upon the Ar [...]ians tenet.


Perhaps, the Pope when hee alleadged the Nicen Councel, meant the Sardican Councel, Bellar li 2 de R [...]m. [...]. 25 & [...] quo suprà. wherein it was de­creed, That they in Af [...]icke might appeale to Rome.


The African Fathers say, In null [...] in [...]enimus p [...]trum Synodo. Con [...]. Carthag. cap. [...]05. They could not meet with this pr [...]tend [...]d Canon in any Synodall of the Fathers, and therefore neither in the Nice [...] nor Sardican Councell, nor any other that could binde the whole Church. Be­sides, Saint Austin who was a principall actour in these African Councells, and subscribed to them Subs [...]ripserunt Ali­ [...]i [...] Au [...]ust [...]us et [...]aeteri Epi [...]copi 217. Concil. Ca [...] ­thagin. ca 101., hee was not ignorant of the Catholicke Sardican Councell; for as Binius observes, Hoc concilium O [...]cu­me [...] ab A [...]gustino epist 162. plenarium universae [...] Con [...]ilium. [...]. no [...]. in C [...]nc [...]l. Sardi [...] §. [...] tom. 1. S Austin in his 162 Epistle calls it a plenary or full Councell of the whole Church; neither indeed cou'd S. Austin be ignorant therof, inasmch as he rea [...] diligently the acts and decrees of every Councell, and sear­ch [...]d all Registries, by reason of the many conflicts hee had with Heretickes, saith Baronius Omnia [...]portuit Con­cilia [...] Baron. ad an. 347 [...]. 74.. Neither could t [...]e Afric [...]n Bishops b [...]e possibly ignorant of this Sar­dican Councell, inasmuch as some thirty sixe of them were present at it, [...] 2 p [...]g. 407 and subscribed to it, together with Gratus Primate of Carthage. Besides, it was yet with­in their memory, being held [...] 3 [...]7. B [...]ron [...]od. ann [...] nu [...] 1. [...] an. 4 [...]4 Ba [...]on. & Catholic [...]m Sa [...]di [...]ense habit [...]n suit, [...] tum est A [...]i [...]anum. Bar. ann. 347. little above fourscore yeares before this African Councell: neither could [Page 147] they be ignorant of the Decrees of that Councell, in­asmuch as they were wont to bring a Copie of such Decrees as were agreed upon in generall Councells, as themselves say, Conc. Carth. 6. ca. [...]. that Caecillianus brought with him the Decrees enacted at Nice, at which hee was present. Now if they knew this Sardican Councell, and the De­crees thereof, and yet knew no such Decree therein for Appealing from Africke to Rome, it followeth that the Pop [...]s preten [...]ed Canon for Appeales was no Ca­non of the holy Sardican Councell, and is therefore justly suspected to be forged by some of the Popes Fa­ctours, who would gladly have brought all the G [...]iest to his Mill, and the maine Sutes of Christendome unto his Court and Consistory.


Bellarmine saith, Bellar. lib. 2 [...] de Rom. Pont. cap. 24. that the Decree forbad onely the Priests, and inferiour sort of the Cleargie to appeale to Rome, but not the Bishops.


This is an idle allegation; for the African Bishops provided for the conveniencie of their Priests and Cleargie, to hinder them from vexatious cou [...]se [...], and wastfull expences in the poynt of Appeale, by saving them from unnecessary travailes beyond the Sea; and therefore they intended much more, that they them­selves should b [...]e freed.

Besides, the Decree runs generally, and forbids all sorts of Apellants, from Africke to Rome, as well Bishops as others: the tenour of the decree is this: Quod si ab eis (id [...]st Epis [...]opis vi [...]ini) provo [...]ā ­dum put [...]verint, non pro­vocent nisi ad Africana Con [...]ia, & ad Primates pro [...]inci [...]rum s [...]rum, a [...] t [...]ansmarina autem qui pu­t [...]verit appelland [...], [...] nullo [...] [...]ricam in Commu­nione [...]. Con [...]il. [...] pag. [...] pa. 6 [...]3.

It was thought good, that Priests, Deacons or other inferior Clerks, if in their causes they complaine of the judgements of their Bishops, and if they Appeale from them, they shall not Appeale but to the African Councels, or to the Primates of their Povinces; but if any shall thinke that he ought to Ap [...]peale beyond the Sea (meaning to Rome) let him not be recei­ved any longer into the Communion of the Church of A­fricke.

[Page 148] Binnius tells us, In hoc concilio, non jus appeland [...] ad Sedem Apo­stolicam sed tantum modū p [...]osequend [...] appellationis per Legatos a Latere, con­trove [...]sum [...]uis [...]e, a [...]t Bin­nius in Con [...]. C [...]rch [...]g. 6. [...]om. 1. pag 619. that the question was not about the right of Appealing to the See of Rome, but de modo, tou­ching the manner of the Popes admitting Appeales, of prosecuting and deciding complaints by his Legates, â latere; but the decree forbids Appeales from Africke to Rome, and condemnes not onely the manner, but the matter it selfe.


You say Saint Austine opposed the Pope; but he was in good savour with Bonifacio [...] Bellar. [...] Pont cap. 25. [...] Augustinus. Zozimus, Boniface, and Celestine.


Saint Austine kept good termes with the Bishops of Rome, Augustini [...]pist. 90. ad Boni [...]ac Papam. and he had reason for it; because they were great Patriarkes, and he had occasion to use their helpe and countenance, for quelling the Pelagian Heretikes and others; and yet notwithstanding when their factors began to usurpe jurisdiction over other Churches, then hee might stand for the right of his African Churches, and give his vote freely in the Councel.

And thus we have found opposition made to the See of Rome by a whole nationall Councel, in the weighty poynt of Appeales; for so Bellarmine makes appealing to Rome, and not Appealing from thence, a maine proofe of the Popes supremacie. Appellatio est certis­sunum Argumentum prin­ [...]p [...]tus Bell. li 2. de Rom Po [...]t. cap. 21.

Now to proceede, about the yeare foure hundred thirtie and one, was the third generall Councell held at Ephesus, against the Nestorian heresie which divided Christ into two persons; it was summoned, not by the Pope but by the Emperour Theodosius the younger, At his becke, and by his command. [...] [...] authorit [...]tate ac nutu Theolos [...] cogeb [...]tur. [...]agr. hist. lib. 1 cap. 3.

In the yeare foure hundred fiftie and one, the fourth generall Councel was held at Chalcedon, against Eutyches, (who in opposition to Nestorius) confounded the na­tures of Christ, making of two distinct natures, his hu­mane and divine, but one nature; whereas Nestorius rent is [...]under his person, making two of one; this Councel was called not by the Pope, Sacerdotes Chal [...]edo­n [...]m venerunt [...]uxta nostra prae [...]epta. Concil. Chale. apud B [...]n. tom. 2. act. 3. pag. 84. but by the Emperours E­dict: [Page 149] it was first called at Nice and then recalled from thence, and removed to Chalcedon, wholly by the dis­posing of the Emperour; yea, Leo Bishop of Rome, wrote to the Emperour instantly beseeching him, to call it in Italie: all the Priests (saith he) Omnes mansuetud [...]nē vestram cum gemitibus & lac [...]rimis supplicant Sacer­dotes g [...]neral [...]m Synodum jubeatis intra Italiam ce­lebrari. Leo Epist. 23. doe beseech your clemencie with sighes and teares, that you would command a generall Councel to be celebrated in Italy. But their request was denied; it was held at Chalcedon for the ease of the Bishops of Asia: Leo could not have it where hee would, but where and when the Emperour appointed; and Leo was glad to send his deputies thither.


The Emperours summoned Councels, but by the Popes consent. Dico nullum Concili­um generale Catholicum [...] solo Imperatore indictum, id est, sine consensu & au­thoritate Rom [...]ni Ponti [...]i­cis. Bell. lib. 1 [...] de Concil. cap. 13. § Ad h [...]c.


It is true indeed, that the Popes consent was to these a [...]cient Councells, but no otherwise than as the con­sent of other chiefe Bishops; they consented because they could not chuse, because they resolved to bee o­bedient, but they could not appoynt either place, or time.

To proceed; This famous Councell of Chalcedon renewed and ratifyed the Canon of the second General Councell held at Constantinople [...] and accordingly (fol­lowing their example) gave the Bishop of Constantinople equall priviledges with the Bishop of Rome. The tenour of their decree runneth thus, [...]. Synod Chal­ced. act. 16 can 28. pa. 350. in editione [...]ilij. Our fathers have very right­ly given the preheminence to the See of ancient Rome, be­cause the City was the seate of the Empire; and wee moved with the same reasons have transferred the same preheminence to the s [...]at of New Rome (that is to say Constantinople) thinking it reason that the City honoured with the Empire, and with the presence of the Senate, and injoying the same priviledges as Ancient Rome, being the seat of the Empire, did; and being after it the next should in matters Ecclesi­asticall have equall advancement.

Here wee see the reason which the Councell gives [Page 150] why Rome had the first place, was not because it was so ordained by Gods law, jure divino Supponi [...], quod Roma­na sedes tunc primatū ha­bere me [...]uerit, cum Romani or [...]is imperio potirētur at (que) adeo non divino, sed huma [...]o jure caput Eccle­ [...]inum effecta suerit. Not. Binn [...]j in Conc. Chal. act. 15 p [...]g. 180. tom. 2., or in Saint Pe­ters right; but by the cosent and constitutions of men, because Rome was sometime the imperiall seat; and the seat being thence translated to Constantinople, upon the same reason Constantinople was made equall with Rome.


The Popes Legats protested against this A Leg [...]t [...] Ponti [...]icis [...]l [...]matum est. B [...]lla [...]m. lib. 2 de Rom Pon [...]. cap. 18. § [...]. Ca [...]on you alleadge.


It is a rule in law; Est autem [...] [...]e­cr [...]um [...]oncilij [...] a m [...]j [...]r [...] part [...]. Bel. li 2 de [...]oncil. c 11 § At [...] lib. [...] tit. 17. de Reg. Iu [...]s 160. That is accounted the act of all, which is publikely done by the greater part, by the most voyces; otherwise there would bee no judgement gi­ven, because some perverse ones would still dissent. Now all the Councell, save onely the Popes Legates, consented upon the Canon; and they were to be ruled by [...]he major part of the Councells votes: neither doe we finde that anciently the Pope had a negative or ca­sting voyce in Councels; and therefore the Chalcedon Councell notwithstanding the Legates opposition, pro­fesseth, Haec omnes dicimus, haec om [...]ibus placent. Con­ [...]l. C [...]alced. apud Bin. act. 16. pag 137. tom. 2. Hae [...] omnes dicimus, this is all our vote, and Tota Synodus, Et [...]ota Synodus ap­pr [...]havit. Ibid. the whole Councell hath confirmed this Canon for the honour of the S [...] of Constantinople. And accordingly the whole R [...]latio Synodi ad Le­onem p [...]st C [...]ncil. Chalced. [...]ct. 16. p. 14 [...]. Councell wrote to Pope Leo.

Why bu [...] the Popes Legat [...]s approoved it not, Contra [...]ic [...]io nos [...]ra [...]. Ibid. pag. [...]37. they contradicted it. True, in this particular they dissented. But because they as al other Bps, even Pope Leo himselfe, consented un [...]o that generall Maxime, That the judge­ment of the greater part shall stand for the judgement of the whole Councell [...] in that generall both the Le­gates of Leo, and Leo himselfe, did implicitè, and virtu­ally consent to that very Canon, from which actually and explicitè they did then dissent. For which cause, the most prudent Iudges truely said, Tota Synodus, the who [...]e Councell hath approved this Canon; either explicitè or implicitè, either expressely or virtually approved it. Yea the whole Councell professed the same, and that even in the Synodall relation of their Acts to Pope Leo, say­ing: [Page 151] Wee have confirmed the Canon of the second Councell for the honour of the See of Constantinople; declaring evi­dently that Act of approving that Canon to be the Act of the whole Synod, although they knew the Pope and his Legates contradicted it, as my learned kinsman Do­ctor Crakanthorpe hath well observed. Doctor Crakanthorp of the fift general Coun­cell. chap 18. sect. 29.

In a word, what though the Popes Legates were absent at the making of this Act, because they would not bee present, and when they were present disclaimed it? the major part of the Synodall voyces carryed it; and so the Decree passed, and was afterwards confirmed by the sixth Generall Councell.


The Canon which equalleth the Patriarke of Con­stantinople to the Bishop of Rome makes not against us, since it was not confirmed by the Pope, who onely confirmed such Leo scribit, se Conci­lium illud app [...]obasse so­lùm quantum ad explica­tionem Fidei. Leo Epist. 59. ad Concil. Chalced. Bellar. li. 2. de Rom. Pont. cap. 22. § secundo. Canons as concerned matters of Faith. Now Councells are not of force till the Pope ratifie them. Conciliorum Iudicium tum demum firmum est cum accesserit Romani Pontificis confirmatio. Id. ibid. lib. 4. cap. 1. §. Sed.


By this reason you will make the Popes supremacie no Article of Faith; And what though Leo opposed the Canon, yet as Cardinall Cusanus saith, Sed ita usus obtinuit longo tempore. Cusan. con­co [...]d. Cathol. li. 1. ca. 16. Vse and cu­stome carryed it against the Pope.

Besides, a Councel may be approved, though the Pope approve it not; and so was the second generall Councel called against the Macedonian Heretikes and others; it was held by the Catholike Church a lawfull generall Councel, though none of the Popes before Gregories time approved it, for Gregorie speaking of the Canons of that Councel, sayth, Et Canones quidem Constantinopolitani Con­cilij Eudoxianos damnant; sed quis fuerit eorum au­thor Eud [...]xius, minimè di­cunt. Romana autem eccle­sia [...]osdem Canones vel ge­sta Synodi illius hactenus non habet, nec accipit; in hoc autem eandem Syno­dum accepit, quod est per eam contrà Macedonium definitum. Greg. Epist. l. 6 indict. 15. epist. 31. Eosdem Canones, vel gesta Synodi illius, hactenus non habet, nec accipit, the Ro­mane Church neither hath, nor approveth those Ca­nons or Acts; so that the Romane Church, untill Gre­gories time, neither approved the Canons nor Acts of that second generall Councel. And that is it, which Gregory intendeth, saying, hastenus non habet nec accipit, [Page 152] not meaning that till the yeare wherein he writ that E­pis [...]le; for himselfe before professed, Et [...] Syno­d [...]s [...] Id [...]p l [...]b 2 [...]dict. 1 [...]. [...]. to embrace that s [...]cond Councel a [...] one of the foure Evangelists: but un­till Gregories time, hactenus, untill this age, wherein I live, w [...]s the second Councel, the Canons or Acts thereof, not ha [...] nor approved by the Romane Chu [...]ch; and yet all this time, it was held an approved Synod; as the same D. Crakanthorpe hath observed.Dr. [...] of [...] 18. [...] 2 [...].


Had not the Bishop of Rome the priority?


He ha [...] a priority of Order, Honour, or Place be­fore others; but not of Iurisdiction over and above o­thers; but even as Ambassadors take place one of ano­ther, yet have no dominion one over another.


Was not Rome highly esteemed of old?


Old Rome was highly esteemed. First, because the [...]e the Apostles taught, and Rome professed the true Faith, and divers of her Bishops were Martyrs.

Secondly, because Rome was sometime the chiefe seat of the Empire, and so the chiefe City had a chiefe Bishop.

Thirdly, because the Easterne or Greeke Church was often at odds, the dissention; the [...]efore such as were distressed had their recou [...]se for Councel and helpe, to the Patriarke of the West, the Bishop of Rome, an [...] this made him much r [...]spected; and her bishops with [...]ll being Godly men, and in good favour with the Empe [...]ou [...]s, they of [...]en times [...]elieved such as were di­stressed: thus Iul [...]us bishop of Rome helped the banished Athanasius: for these, and the like respects the Fathers sp [...]ke reve [...]ently of Rome, as she was in diebus illis, in their time. But what is this to Rome in her corrup [...] e­s [...]ate? whil [...]s the Pope challengeth to himselfe infalibi­lity of judgement, and not content with the primacie [Page 153] which his auncestors held, this Romane Dio [...]rephes se [...]kes preheminence, affecting not only an Hierarchie in the Church, but a Monarchy over the whole Church, as if Saint Peter (whose successour he pretends to be) had h [...]ld the Apostolike chayre, as it we [...]e in Fee, for him and his Successours for ever, and the other eleven had held thei [...]s for terme of life onely.

And now to looke hom [...]wa [...]ds to our Britaine: in this Age we find our au [...]cestors, besides their common ene­mies the Scots, Picts, and Saxons, troubled with another more secret, but as dangerous, to wi [...], the Pelagian here­sie, wherewith Pelagius (a Romane Monke, borne in Lit­tle Britaine) with his Disciple Celestius, beganne to infect these Northerne parts. But after they, and their here­sies were condemned in the Councels of Carthage and Mela, Pope Celestine sent Palladius into Scotland, as also our neighbours the French bishops (at the request of the Catholique English) s [...]nt Sanctio. Germanus in Britanniam ven [...] & pe­lagia [...]am hae [...]si [...] p [...]o [...]iga­ [...]it M [...]th. Westmon. ad ann. 446. Germanus bishop of A [...]xerre, and Lupus bishop of Troys in Champeigne, into England, to beat downe Pelagianisme, which they happily sup­pressed.

Now also there was a Provinciall Councel Master Speeds Histo­rie. lib. 6. cap. 9. held in Britaine, for the reforming of Religion, and repairing of the ruin'd Churches, which the Pagan marriage of Vortiger had decayed, to the great gri [...]fe of the people. A plaine token that their zeale continued ev [...]n unto those day [...]s: for so it was, whiles Vortiger a British Prince marryed with the fayre but Infidel Rowena, Hen­gists daughter, this Saxon match had almost undone both Church and State, whilest (as Beda Histor. An­glor. lib. 1. cap. 15. Bede complaines) Priest's were slaine standing at the Altar, and bishops with th [...]ir flocks we [...]e murdered; till at length, they assembled a Councel to repayre those decayes which this marriage had made.

Now to close up this Age, the Reader may observe that we have surveyed the first foure Generall Councels, which Gregorie the Great Greg. ep l. 2. ind [...]ct 11 ep. 10. Savino [...]ubdi [...]o [...]o. & lib 1. Epistola [...]. indict. 9. epist 24. pro [...]essed that he [...]mbraced as [Page 154] the foure Gospels: and indeed they were called ag [...]inst those foure Arch-heretickes that pestered the C [...]urch: the first was h [...]ld at Nice, against Arrius a Pri [...]st of Al [...]x­andria, who held that Christ was neither God, nor e­ternall, but an excellent creature, created before all creatures. The second at Constantinople, against Macedoni­us, who held, that Christ was not of the same essence; not [...], consubstantiall, and of the same substance, with the Father, but onely [...] like to him; and that the Holy Ghost was not God, but Gods Minister, and a creature not eternall. The third at Eph [...]su [...] against Nestorius, who held, that Christ had two severall per­sons, but not two wills; Cum Ecclesia distra­ [...]eretur. & pars Mariam [...], Homini­param, pars [...] D [...]i­param nominand [...]m a [...]ir­marent, Nestorius, voc [...]m [...], qu [...] Maria ap­pell [...]retur, [...]xcogitavit. E­vage. Histor. Ecclesiast. lib. 1 cap. 7. and that the Virgin Mary was not to be called [...], the mother of God, but [...], the Mother of Christ. The fourth at Chalcedon, where Dioscorus, and Eutyches were condemned. This Eutyches (confuting Nestorius) fell into other heresies, and con­founded the two natures of Christ, making him (after his union) to have but the divine nature onely.

Besides, the Reader may farther observe, that upon the survey of these first foure Generall Councells (so much esteemed by S. Gregory) it is found, that they con­fined the bishop of Rome to his bounds, with other Patriarkes; and they equalled other Patriarchall Seas to the Romane: so that hereby is discovered the vanity of Campian's flourish, saying, Concilia generalia mea sunt; primum, ulti­mum m [...]ia. [...]amp. Rat. 4. Generall Councells are all ours, the first, and the last, and the middle. For we imbrace such Generall Councells as were held in those golden Ages, within the first sixe hund [...]ed yeares, or there­abouts.

The middle ranke, beginning at the second Nicene, unto the Councell of Florence, held in the Ages of the mingled and confused Church, they are neither wholly theirs, nor ours.

The two last, the one at Lateran, the other at Tr [...]nt, these (being held by the drosse of the Church) are theirs.

AN APPENDIX to the fi [...]th CENTVRIE.
Of the Fathers Authoritie.


YOu have produced the Fathers for these five or sixe hun­dred yeares, as if they had beene of your Faith; whereas you dissent from th [...]m, B [...]lla [...] de notis Eccles. c [...]p. 9. and refuse their tryall: but wee ho­nour them, and appeale to the joynt co [...]sent of An [...]iquity.


Where wee se [...]me to vary from them, it is eith [...]r in things humane, arbitrarie and indifferent, or in matters not fully discussed by the ancient, or in poynts which were not delivered by joynt consent of the ancient, or in things which are reproved by plaine demonstration of holy Scripture, and wherein the Fathers permit li­berty of dissenting, and the Papists thems [...]lves usual­ly take it. Neither would Saint Austine Neminem velim sic amplec [...]i mea omnia, ut me sequatur, nisi in eis quibus me non errare perspexerit. Aug de persever. Sanct. cap. 21 tom. 7. (the fai [...]est flower of Antiquity) have his Reader follow him farther than hee followeth the Truth, not denying but that as in his maners, so in his writings many things might justly be Multa [...]sse in opuscu­lis meis quae [...]ossunt justo judicio culpari. Id. de orig. anim [...] cap. 1. tom. 7. taxed.

Neither doe we refuse the triall of the Fathers, true­ly alleadged, and rightly understood, witnesse the chal­lenge made by Bishop Iewell Master Iew [...]ls Ser­mon at Pauls Crosse., and seconded by Doctor Whitaker W [...]itak [...]r in [...] Rat. 5 Camp., and Doctor Featly; yea, Doctor Whita­ker T [...]ti ad nostras partes pervolant. Id. ibid. (as Scultetus observeth) Patres in maximis judicijs toti sunt nostri, in le [...]ioribus varij, in paucis­simis ac minutissimis ve­stri. Scultetus in Medullae Patr. parte 2. c. 15. p. 140. was confident, That the Fathers, although in some matters they be variable, and part­ly theirs, partly ours, yet in the materiall poynts they be whol­ly ours, and theirs in matters of lesser moment, and some few [Page 156] Tenets. Likewise, that great light of Oxford Doctor Rei­nolds, in his Conference with Master Hart, solemnely protested, Conference with Hart. chap. 8. divis. 6. that in his opinion not one of all the Fathers was a Papist; for (saith he) The very being and essence of a Papist consists in the opinion of the Popes supremacie; but the Popes supremacie was not allowed by any of the Fathers, as he there proveth against Hart: not one then of all the Fathers was a Papist.


May wee not ground our Faith upon the Fathers Testi­monies?


Wee reverence the ancient Fathers, but still with re­servation of the respect wee owe to that Ancient of dayes, Daniel 7.6. their father and ours, who taught young Elihu, Iob. 32.6. to reprove his Ancients, even holy Iob amongst them, Iob 33.12. him alone doe we acknowledge for the father of our Faith, on whom wee may safely ground in things that are to bee belie­ved. For every Article of Christian Faith must bee grounded on divine revelation Audi dicit Dominus, non dicit aut Ambrosius, aut Augustinus, sed dicit Dom [...]nus. August. Epist. 48 tom. 2.; but all opinions of the Fathers are not divine revelations, neither doe the Fathers challenge to themselves infallibility of judge­ment. S [...]int Austine saith, [...] Au [...]ust. Epist. 19. This reverence and honour have I learnt to give to those Bookes of Scripture onely, which are called Canonicall, that I most firmely believe none of their Authors could any whit erre in writing: But others I so reade, that with how great sanctity and learning soever they doe ex­cell, I therefore thinke not any thing to be true, because they s [...] thought it; but because they were able to perswade me, ei­ther by those Canonicall Authours, or by some prob [...]ble reason, that it did not swerve from truth.

Neither doe our Adversaries yield inf [...]llibil [...]ty of judgement t [...] the Fathers; Baronius saith, [...] 34. The Church doth not alwayes, and in all things follow the Fathers inter­pretation of Scripture. Bellarmine saith [...] c. 12. § R [...]p [...]nd [...]o. Their writings are no rules of Faith, neither have they authority to binde. [Page 157] Canus tells us, Reliqui ve [...]ò scripto­res inferiores & human [...] sunt deficiunt (que) interdum, ac monstrum quando (que) pa­riunt. Canus loc. Theol. l. 7. c. 3. nu. 7. That the ancient Fathers sometime erre, and against the ordinary course of nature bring forth a mon­ster. And it may bee some of the well-gifted moderne Doctors may see as farre as some of the ancient. Friar Stella, though it bee farre from him to condemne the common exposition given by the ancient holy Doctors, Yet I know full well (saith he Bene tamen scimus Pygmeos Gigantum hume­ri [...] impo [...]itos, plusquam ip­sos Gigantes videre. Stella [...]narr [...]t. in Luc. cap. 10. p. 15. to. 2. super illa verba, Consiteor [...]ibi Pater. that Pygmeis being put upon Gyants shoulders, doe see farther than the Gyants themselves. Neither doe wee speake this, as if wee refused the try­all of Fathers, but partly to bring the matter to a shor­ter issue, and partly to give the word of God (the foun­dation Ephes. 2.20. on which wee build our faith) it's due; for we doe usuall [...] produce the Fathers testimonies, thereby to shew our consent with the ancient Church.


Will you charge the Fathers with errour?


The Fathers being but men have erred through o­versight and affection.

Saint Cyprian, and a whole Councell with him [...]r­red in the point of Rebaptization, Cyprian in epist. 73. ad Iubian. tom. 1. whiles through too much hatred of Heretickes, they condemned the Bap­tisme of Heretickes as unlawfull, and would have them baptized anew.

Origen, Misericordi [...]r suit O­ [...]igines, qui & ipsum Di­abolum, atque Angel [...]s e­jus post graviora pro Meri­ti [...] & diuturniora suppli­cia, ex illi [...] cruciatibus eru­endos, atque sociandos S. Angelis cr [...]didit. Aug. de Civit Dei lib. 21. cap. 17. tom. 5. & ibid. c. 24. Ori­gen in his booke [...], held this opinion. through too much compassion of the wic­ked, thought that the Devills themselves should bee saved at length.

Tertullian through spite of the Romane Cleargie, re­volted to the Montanists, Hoc etiam Paracle­tus commendavit. Tertul. de Animâ. cap. ult. and was taken up with their idle Prophecies and revelations.

Divers of the Fathers were tainted with the errour of the Chiliasts, or Millenaries, Sixt. Senens. Biblioth. lib. 5. annot. 233. mistaken herein in that they thought that Christians af [...]er the Resurrection should raigne a thousand yeares with Christ upon the earth, and there should marry wives, beget children, eate, drinke, and live in corporall delights; which er­rour, though flatly repugnant to the Scriptures, (which [Page 158] say Matt [...]. 22 30. & 1. thessal. 4.17. that in the Resurrection, they neither marry, nor are given in marriag [...], but are as the Angels in heaven) they fell into; part [...]y by conf [...]unding the first, and se­cond Resurrection, Revel. 20.5. and par [...]ly, by taking that carnally, which was mystically meant in the Reve­lations, Revel. 21.10. and 22.2.

Besides, the Fathers in the exposition of Scripture, doe of [...]entimes differ each from other, as Sixtus Se­nensis hath observed in his Bibliothecâ. lib. 5.


Though particular Fathers doe erre in some things; yet the body of them is [...]ound; now we are bound to B [...]lla Pl [...] 4. super formà Iuram. interpret the Scrip­ture according to the joynt consent of the Fathers.


You have forfeited your bond, for in the division of the ten cō [...]andements (to conceale your Idolatry tou­ching Image worship forbidden in the second) you goe against the streame of antiquitie, the learned Iewes, the Fathers Greeke and Latine, for though Saint Austin, August. quest. 71. in Exo [...]. tom 4. in respect of the mystery of the blessed Trinitie, placed three commandements in the first table, and seaven in the later, yet there be a dozen of the Ancients that di­vide them as we doe; namely, the Hebrewes, as Phi­lo Philo Iud [...]eus in libro de Decalogo., and Iosespus shew Ioseph Antiquit. Iudaic. lib. 3.; and amongst the Grecians, Gre­gorie Nazianzene Greg. N [...]zianzen. in Carm. [...]5. in D [...]alog, Origen Origenes in Ex [...]d. Ho­mil. 8 tom. 1., Athanasius At [...]anas in Synopsi [...] Scripturae tom 4., Chrysostome Author Oper [...] imper­ [...]ecti in Math. Homil. [...]9., or whosoever was the Author of the worke unperfit upon Mathew; amongst the Latines, S. Ambrose Ambros in Epist. ad Ephes. cap [...]. tom. 5., S Hierome Hie [...]on i [...] 6. cap ep ad [...]phe [...], and one more ancient then they both, to wit, August. qu [...]st [...] vet & [...] 7. tom. 4. the Au­thor of the questions of the old and new Testament, go­ing under Saint Austins name. And for Historian [...], Sulpi­tius Severus, in his sacred Historie Sup Severus Sacr [...]e [...] lib. 1 cap 16., and Zonaras in his Annals Zo [...]ras Arnal tom 1, they be of the same mind; where is now your submission to the joynt consent of the Fathers?

In like sort, you hold [...] Trid. [...] 5. [...] orig. & [...] 6. de [...]ustif. can. 23. that the blessed Virgin was free from all spot of Originall sinne [...] and yet the Scrip­ture sayth, That in Adam all have sinned, Rom. 5.12. and your owne man Melchior Canus produceth seven­teene [Page] Fathers to the contrary: Sancti omnes qui in e­jus rei m [...]moriam incide­runt uno [...] asseverarunt, Betam virginem in pecca­to originali conceptā. Mel. Canus loc. Theol. l 7. c. 1. Sancti omnes, all the holy Fathers, that have mentioned this matter, (uno ore) with one consent affirme, the blessed Virgin to have beene conceived in Originall sinne. And yet these be the men that crake of the unanimous consent of Fathers, that the Fathers are as sure to them, Patr [...]s tam sunt no­stri quam Gregorius deci­mus tertius. Camp. rat. 5 as Gregory the thirteenth is a lo­ving Father to his children of the Church. The truth is, whatsoever they say of the Fathers to dazel the peo­ples eyes withall they use them as Merchants doe their Counters, sometimes standing for pence, sometime for pounds, even as they be next and readiest at hand, to make up their accounts; neither are they farther enter­tained, then they favour the keyes and authority of the Church, saith Duraeus Ne (que) enim Patres cen­sentur, cum [...]uum aliquid, quod ab Ec [...]l si [...] non acce­perunt, vel scribunt, vel d [...]cent. Du [...]aeus Resp. ad Whit. [...] rat. 5. p. 140.; now by the Church he meanes the Roman Church. And Grets [...]r saith, E [...]tenus, non Pater sed vitricus, non Doctor, sed seductor est. Gretser de jure p [...]ohibendi libros. lib. 2. cap. 10 pag 328. that if the Fa­thers teach otherwise than the Church, (namely the Roman Church) then they bee not Fathers, but step-fathers: not Doctours, but Seducers. Cornelius Mus the Bishop of Biton­to sayth, Ego [...] ut ingenue fate­ar plus vni summo Pon­tifici creder [...]m in his quae fidei Myst [...]ria tangunt, quam mille Augustinis, Hieron [...]m [...], G [...]egorijs ne dicam Richardis, Scoti [...], Gulielm [...]. C [...]rnel. Musso. Comment. in Rom. c. 14. pag 606. That in points of Faith, he giveth more cre [...]it to the Pope, than to a thousand Austines, Hieromes, Grego­ries; and yet these be the men that cry up the Fathe [...]s. Now if the Fathers make so much for them, or they of the Fathers; how is it that they corrupt the writings of the true Fathers, and devise such sleights to elude their testimonies? how is it that they are driven to fly to the bastard treatises of false Fathers going under the name of Abdias, Linus, Clemens, S. Denys, and the like Knights of the Poste, brought in to depose on their behalfe; though others of their owne side have cashiered them as counterfeits? See Doctor Iames of the Bastardy of fal [...]e Fa­thers; and Doctor Rei­nolds Conf [...]rence with Hart Ch [...]p 8. Divis. 2. for instance sake; amongst the Popes decretall Epistles, the first of Clemens written (as is pre­tended) to Iames the brother of the Lord, is vouched by Bellarmine, Bellar. de Rom Pont. lib 2. cap 14. for proofe of the Popes Supremacie; as also by the Rhemists, Rhem. Annot. in Pet. 1.15. to prove that Peter promised Saint Clement, that after his departure he would not cease to pray for him and his flocke; now this Clement is pretended to be the same that lived in the Ap [...]stles [Page 160] times, and is mentioned by Saint P [...]al. 4 3 Paul, but it is disco­vered for a coun [...]erfeit; for in this Epistle it is said, that Peter prayed Clemens to write (after his death) this Epi­stle to Iames the brother of the Lord, to comfort him, and Clemens did so; whereas Iames was dead long be­fore Peter, Eus [...]b. hist lib. 2 c. 23. Ioseph. antiq. Iud. lib. 20 cap. 8. Qui tamen [S. Iacobꝰ] octo ante Petrum annos Martyrio vitam sinierat. Cusan. lib. 3. de Concord. Cathol. cap. 2. & lib. 2. c. 17 about an eight yeares at least, now what a sencelesse thing is this to write letters to a dead man, specially knowing him to be dead: and hereupon Car­dinal Cusanus hath cast off this Epistle as counterfeit: In deed Turrian the Iesuit striveth to defend Ostendamusque veri­ssima esse, quae B. Petrum docuisse Clemens dicit. Fr. Turrian. defens. Canon. & epist. Decretal. lib. 4. cap. 4. pag. 306. this Epistle, but yet hee cannot shew by what carryer Clement did send the letters to Saint Iames. And yet must these bee vouched under the reverent names of Saints Abdias, Saint Linus, Saint Clement, Saint Denys; beeing not much unlike (as one in Budaeus compares Quales sunt quae aedi­ [...] sacri [...] mutulares sta­tuae pilis aut columnis im­ponuntur—patere [...]os ni­hilo utiliores statuis lapi­deis esse. Budaeus de Asse. lib. 5 pag. 277. some grave pontifician Fathers) to antiques in Churches, which bow and crouch under vaults and pillars, and seeme to beare up the Church, as sometime the Pope thought hee saw the Church of Saint Iohn Latterane totter, and ready to fall, had not Saint Dominick upheld it with his shoulder The life of Saint Dominicke., whereas these doe not beare up the Church, but are borne out by the Church, and are indeed but puppets.


Master Wadesworth saith, Hee found the Catholickes had farre greater and better armies of evident witnesses than the Protestants.


Master Bedel answereth Master Wadesworth, Bede [...]s Letters to Wads [...]worth pag. 109. 110 that had it pleased God to have opened his eyes, as hee did Eli­sha's servants, hee might have seene, that there were more on our side than against us. Besides (as Master Bedel saith) the Romane Doctors may bring in whole armies of wit­nesses on their side, when they change the question, and prove what no body denyes; as when the question is, whether the Pope have a monarchy over all Christians, an uncontrollable jurisdiction, and infallibility of judge­ment, [Page 161] Bellarm. de Rom. Pont. lib. 2 cap 15 & 16. answe [...]ed by D. Field. lib. 5 cap. 35.36. Bellarmine alleadgeth a number of Fathers, Greek and Latine, to prove onely that Saint Peter had a pri­macie of honour and authority, which is farre short of that supremacie which the Popes now claime, and which is the question.

So also to prove the verity of Christs body and blood in the Lords Supper, Bellar. de E [...]char. li. 2. toto. Bellarmine spends the whole booke in citing the Fathers of severall Ages. To what pur­pose? when the question is not of the truth of the pre­sence, but of the manner, whether it bee to the teeth or belly (which hee in a manner denyes) or to the soule and faith of the receiver.

So also Bell [...]r. de Purgat. lib. 1. cap. 6. Bellarmine for the proofe of Purgatory al­leadgeth a number of Fathers (as Ambrose, Hilarie, Ori­gen, Basil, Lactantius, Ierome) but farre from the pur­pose of the question, and quite beside their meaning: for they spake of the fire at the end of the world (as Sixtus Senensis saith Sixt. Senens. Biblio [...] lib. 5. Annot. 171.) and Bellarmine cites them for the fire of Purgatory before the end.

In like sort, for proofe of Saintly invocation, Bellar­mine musters up thirty Fathers, of the Greeke and La­tine Church Bellar. l. 1. de Sanct. Beat. cap. 19.; now here is an army of ancients able to fright some untrained souldiers; but it is but like the army that troubled the Burgundians, Voyans grande quā ­tité de lances debout, si leur sembloit;—ils trou­uerent que s'estoient [...]ās chardons. Philip. de Com­minees Cronique du Roy loys vnziesme Chapit. xix. Who lying neere to Paris, and looking for the battaile, supposed great Thistles to have beene Launces held upright: or like those souldiers mentioned by Plutarch in the life of Agesilaus, who bombasted, and embossed out their coates with great quarters, to make them seeme bigge and terrible to the enemy; but after they were overthrowne, and slaine in the field, Agesilaus caused them to be stript, and bid his souldiers behold their slender and weerish bodies, of which they stood so much in feare, whiles they loo­ked so big upon their enemies: the like may be sayd of Bellarmine's forces, they keepe a great quarter, but when they come to joyne issue for it, they are soone defeated. For of the Fathers alleadged by Bellarmine, [Page 162] th [...]re be (as is already showne in the fifth Age) seven of the thirty, which bee no Fathers, but post-nati, punies to primitive Antiquity.

Eight of them bee justly suspected not to bee men of that credite, as that their depositions may bee ta­ken.

Two or three of them are wrong cited by a writ of errour, being either ignorantly, or wilfully mis-tran­slated.

Seven others of them speake like Poets, Oratours, Panegyrists, not dogmatically, but figuratively, with rhetoricall compellations, expressing their votes, and desires.

The other sixe that remaine, they speake of Interces­sion in generall, not of Invocation in pa [...]ticular, of some few p [...]oples private practice, but not of the Chu [...]ches Office, Agend, or Doctrine generally taught, practi­sed, and established.

Besides (as Master Moulin saith) M. Moulins waters of Siloe, or Con [...]utation of Purgato [...], Chap. 7. pag. 324. among so many Authours as might fill a house, it is an easie matter to finde somewhat to wrest to a mans owne advantage, and never to bee perceived, because few men have these bookes, and of them that have them, few doe reade them, and of those that reade them, fewest of all doe understand them.

But that wee may the better conceive the meaning of the testimonies and allegations of the Fathers, let us observe such cautions as the learned M. And. Rivet tract. de Pat [...]um auto [...]it. c. 11. Bi [...]hop M [...]untague his Treatise of the Invocati­on of Saints. pag. 155. Doctor F [...]atlyes Disput. vvith M. M [...]sk [...]t pag. 100 have set downe for our helpe herein.

The Fathers writings bee either Dogmaticall, Pole­micall, or Popular.Cau [...]ion.

Caution.In their Dogmaticall, and Doctrinall, wherein they set downe positive Divinity, they are usually very cir­cumspect: in their Polemickes, and Agonistickes, earnest and resolute: in their Homilies, and popular discourse, free and plaine.

Caution.In their con [...]roversall writings, it fall's out sometimes, [Page 163] that through heat of disputation, whiles they oppose one errour, they sl [...]p in [...]o the opposite; like one that labouring to make a crooked thing straight, bends it the quite contrary way: thus Hierome wh [...]les he affronts such a [...] impugn'd virginity, himselfe quarrels at lawfull Matrimony; otherwise the Fathers in their Polemiques, whiles they keepe themselves close to the question in hand, their tenets are ever most sound, and direct.

In their Homilies,Caution. and exhortations to the people, they st [...]ive to move affections, so that they runne forth into figu [...]es of Rhetorick, and keepe not themselves close to points of doctrine.

Of this kind of speech, Sixtus Senensis gives a good Rule, to wit, Non sunt Conciona­torum verba semper eo ri­gore accipienda, multa e­nim Declamatores per Hy­perbolen [...]nunciant, ho [...] interdum Chrysostomo con­tingit. Sixt. S [...]nens. Bib­lioth. lib. 6 Annot. 152. that Their sayings are not to be urged in the rigour, because that Orator like they speake Hyperbolically and in excesse; and he gives instance in Chysostome, as well he might; for in the point of the Sacrament, he used such Rhetoricall straines, as hath beene noted in the fifth Centurie: and Hierome saith of himselfe, Rhetoricati sumus, [...]t in morem De [...]lamatorum, pau [...]ulùm Ins [...]mus. Hieron. advers. Helvid. I have played the Oratour, in manner of a declamation, to wit, by way of amplification, and exaggeration.

Saint Hierome observes, Ant [...]quam in Alexä­d [...]à quasi Daemonium me­ridianü Arius [...] innocenter quaedam & mi­nus cau [...]e loquuti sunt. Hi­eron. in Apolog. 2. advers. Russinum. pag. 220. That before that Southerne Devill Arius arose at Alexandria,Caution. the ancients spake cer­taine things in simplicitie, and not so warily: Saint Austine makes the like observation touching Pelagius; how that the Fathers, ante mota certamina Pelagiana, extended the power of Free-will above measure, having then no cause to feare, there being no Pelagius then risen up in the world, an enemie of grace, and advancer of nature. Vntill the Pelagians beganne to wrangle, the Fathers (saith Saint Austine, Tali qu [...]stione nullus pul [...]abatur; vobis [pela­gianis] nondum litiganti­bus securius loque [...]atur I [...] ­annes [Chrysostomus.] Au­gust. lib. 1. cont. [...]u [...]i [...]n. c. 6. tom. 7. and he gives instance in Saint Chryso­stome) tooke lesse h [...]ed to their speeches, to wit, in the poynt of Originall sinne, and free-will, but after that the Pe­lagian heresie arose, it made us, saith the same Austine, S [...]d non erat [...]x [...]tus hanc haeresin [ [...]] —multo vigila [...] [...] di­ligentio e [...] (que) re [...] d [...]t nos [Pelagius] [...] li 3. de doctr. Ch [...]ist. c. 33. tom. 3. Multò vigilantiores, diligentioresque, much more diligent, and vigilant in scanning of this point. In like sort, the Doctors that lived in the middle ages, what time Popery [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page 164] was not yet growne to his height, they spoke not so wa­rily in the poynt of justification and grace, yet they left not the truth of God without a witnesse, 1 Tim. 6.12.

C [...]u [...]ion.We must not take up such customes as were some­tim [...]s used, in the Church, and make presidents of them, as if they had beene warranted by the Church, and the Fa [...]hers then living; for the Fathers, being taken up wi [...]h weightier matters, winked at other faults, and were driven to beare with what they could not redresse. Saint Austine complaineth of the superstition of cer­taine Christians, that in Church yards did kneele be­fore the Tombes of the Martyrs, and before the pain­ted Histories of their sufferings. Novi multo [...] [...]sse [...] pulchro [...]um & pict narum ad [...]rato [...]es. Aug. de mo­rib. ec [...]les. cap 34. tom. 1. Qui aut [...]m se in memorijs Martyrum inebr [...]ant, quo­mod [...] à nobis approbari possunt? sed [...]liud est quod decemus, aliud quod susti­ [...]em [...]s Idem c [...]ntrà Fau­stum M [...]nich [...] lib. 20. cap. 21. t [...]m. 6. I know many (saith he) who worship Sepulchers and Pictures, I know many who drinke most excessively over the dead. The good Bishops saw these malladies in their flocks, and desired to reforme them, but they feared lest the rude people should hinder their r [...]formation, so that they were constrained to tollerate these and the like abuses; insomuch that the same Au­stine speaking of them saith, Quod a [...]tem institui­tur pre [...]er con [...]uetudinem, ut quasi observatio Sacra menti sit [...] approbare non p [...]ss [...]m, etiamsi multa hu­ [...]u modi propter nonnulla­ [...]um v [...]l [...], vel turbulentarum personarum [...] devi [...]andi libe­ [...]is impr [...]bare non audeo. Aug. Epist. 119. d Ianuar. Approbare non possum, I can no way allow them, and yet liberius improbare non audeo, I dare not freely reprove them: and why? lest thereby I ei­ther offend some good men, or provoke some turbulent spirits.

And the same Father speaking of such as dranke, drunke over the Sepulchers of the dead, withall he ad­deth: S [...]d [...]liud est quod do­s [...]m [...]s, aliud quod sustine­mas; aliud quo [...] praecipere [...] & [...]. Au [...]. contrà Fau­stum Mani [...]. li 20 ca. 21. It is one thing that we teach, another that we tollerate; it is one thing that which we are commanded to teach, another thing we are commanded to correct, and which we are constrai­ned to beare withall, untill that it be amended.

Neither indeed is it to be marvailed, if the learned among them, and such as were lately come from the Philosophers Schooles into Christian Colledges, and a people newly crept out of Paganisme; I say it is not to be marvailed, if they retained something of their for­m [...]r Tenets and customes; but these are no presidents for us who have now better learned Christ Iesus.

Cau [...]ion.For farther caution, wee may make use of that rule [Page 165] which Bellarmine layeth downe; and it is this: Wee must (saith Oportet ex verbis a­pe [...]ti [...] S Patrum expone [...]e ea [...] quae videntur obscura et dubia in alijs Patribus. Bellarm. lib. 2. de Euchar. cap. 37. §. Ex. hee) conferre the Fathers one with another, and the same Father oft times in diverse Treatises with him­selfe; and by those things that are clearely set downe in one place, or one Fath [...]r, expound those things that seeme more ob­scure and doubtfull in another.

Now wee accept of this rule, and thereby defeat diverse of our Adversaries allegations; for example: Those words of Saint Ambrose Quia benedictione e­tiam Natura ipsa muta­tur. Ambros. de ijs qui myster. initiantur cap. 9. are much pressed, Be­nedictione natura mutatur, By benediction or consecration the nature of the elements in the Lords supper is changed; and yet Saint Cyrill Spiritus sancti opera­tione ad divinam aqua re­formantur naturam. Cyril. Alexand. sup. Ioan. lib. 2. cap. 42. tom. 1. Georg. Trapezontio Interprete. saith as much of Baptisme; namely, That the Waters are changed into a divine nature.

They will not hence inferre a Transubstantiation in Baptisme; why will they then from the like words in Saint Ambrose inferre a Transubstantiation in the Lords Supper?

Those wordes of Gregory Nyssen [...]. Greg. Nyssen. Orat. Catechet. cap. 37. pa. 536. are much pres­sed, namely; Panem in corpus Christi [...]; Bread to bee changed into Christs Body. Now let Nyssen expound Nyssen, who in the words immediately going before saith, Corpus Christi ad divinam dignitatem [...], that Christ's body is changed or turned into a divine excellen­cie; and yet this is done without any Transubstansiation at all.

In like sort, that of Theophylact is much urged, Bellar. lib. 2. de Eu­char. c. 34. § Sed— addu­cit testimonium Theophy­lacti [...]a c [...]p. 26 Math. & in cap. 6 Ioan. dicentis pa­nem transmutari in car­nem Domini. who saith of the Bread, That it is trans-elementated into the body of Christ, hee useth the word [...]: Now Theophylact may expound Theophylact, who in the very same place saith, [...]. Theo­phyl. in Ioan. cap. 6. vers. 54. pag. 654. Nos in Christum [...], that wee also are trans-elementated into Christ; that a Chri­stian is in a manner trans-elementated into Christ: Now they will not say, that wee are transubstantiated into Christ; therefore neither doth Theophylact by the word Trans-elementation used of the Bread and Wine, un­derstand any substantiall, but onely a Sacramentall change. The like is showne in the testimonies objected [Page 166] out of Hilarie in the fourth age, and Cyrill of Alexandria in the fifth, answered by themselves.

Caution.Wee are to make a dfference of the Fathers age, and w [...]itings, as also of their gifts; Saint Austin wrote more soundly than Origen, though Origen were his An­cient; for Origen turned almost all into Allegories; yet as with Wines, so in Writings, usually the elder the better, and the Water neere the Spring-head runnes cleare and sweet; so it was with the Fathers that wrote during the first five hundred yeares next after Christ: others, that wrote after the first sixe hundred yeares, such as Damascen, Anselme, and the like, they were post-nati to primitive antiquitie, and out of the verge of the Churches purity, as also some of them partiall, for so was Damascen a party in that Image quarrell in the Easterne Church; and therefore in that case his testi­monie is to be barred.

Besides, for the answering of allegations out of the Fathers, wee must sever the bastard treatises, from the true and undoubted writings of the Fathers: for ex­ample, Dionysius Hierarchy is a counterfeit; Clements constitutions are suspected, and Cyprian de Coena domini, is not Doctor Iames, of the Bast [...]rdie of Fathers. p [...]rt. [...]. p. 12. Cyprians; as is already shewne in the third Centurie.


If these be counterfeits, how is it that your selves pro­duce divers testimonies out of them; as also out of the Commentaries of Saint Hierome, and Saint Am­brose, upon Saint Pauls, Epistles, which yet your selves doe not hold them to be Saint Hieromes and Saint Am­broses Rob. C [...]ci Consura Pa [...]um. p. 133. & 143. And. [...]ivet Critici sacri. lib. 4. c. 5. de Hieronymi exegeticis. Id. lib. 3 c. 18. de [...]bijs & suppositijs to­ [...]i 4. & 5. Ambrosian.?


It is not to bee marvelled, if some of our learned Protestants (admitting the bookes were written by them whose names they doe beare) doe thence pro­duce testimonies against you: for it is a rule in Law, Tynd [...]rus Tract. de Testibu [...]. Testem quem quis inducit pro se, tenetur recipere contre se, [Page 167] you have produced them for your owne benefit, and the [...]efore in reason you cannot disallow of them now, though it be to your great hinderance, you first produ­ced these witnesses, and now that they are in the face of the Court, you must give us leave to examine them upon crosse Interrogatories.

To close up this point; the Fathers are more to bee credited, when they conclude a thing de fide, dogmatic [...] didactic [...], doctrinally, positively, purposely, by way of setting forth a matter of faith; than when they write Agonistic [...], Master Harding. 1 [...]. Artic. division 10. that is to say by way of conten­tion and disputation, or obiter, touching a point onely upon the by, and as it may serve and suite with the point they have in hand, without farther respect there­unto. They are more to be credited when they speake Categoric [...], assertivè, with asseveration; than speaking onely Historic [...], and ex opinione aliorum, relating onely the opinion of others, or what was done, and not de­livering their owne judgement; they are more to bee esteemed wh [...]n they speake as Divines in a professed discourse, than when they speake as Orators, Poets, Panegyrifts, and in a popular Demegorica, non sunt Lit is Decretoria. D. An­drewes Resp. ad Card. Bel­larm. Apolog. cap. 1. pa. 42. discourse.

In a word, wee must observe, what they write out of their private opinion, and what they deliver as the judgement of the Church: when any of them goe alone, it is not so safe following them; but where wee have their unanimous and joynt consent in any mate­riall point, wee may more securely rely upon them; and this was one of King Iames his directions for Stu­dents in Divinity King Iames his Cyg­nea Cantio, or Direction [...] for Students in Divini [...], published by D. Featly.: and I find the same rule in Vincen­tius Lirinensis; to wit, Quicquid non unus, aut duo tantum, sed omnes pariter uno eodem (que) cōsen­su, apertè, frequenter, per­severāter, tenuisse, scrip­sisse, docuisse, cognoverit, id sibi quo (que) intelligat abs­ [...]ue ullá dubitatione [...]e­d [...]ndum. Vincent. Lirin. cont. Haeres. c 4. &c. 39. That wee may rely upon that, not which one or two of the Fathers, but either all (or most of them) have taught, and that manifestly, frequently and con­stantly.


Although in some things the Fathers make for you, yet in the point of Merit, prayer for the dead, and prayer to Saints [Page 168] they are against you; Bellar. de N [...]t Ec [...]les. lib. 4 cap. 9. § Item. they used the word Merit, and held as wee doe.


The Ancients used the word Merit (and so also they used the termes, Indulgences, Satisfaction, Sacrifice, a [...]d Penance) but quite in another sense then the later Romanists doe: the Fathers who use it, tooke up the word as they found it in ordinary use and custome with men in those times, not for to deserve, which in our language implyeth Merit of condignity, but to incurre, to attaine, impetrate, obtaine and procure, without any rela­tion at all to the dignity, either of the person or the worke; thus Saint Bernard concerning children pro­moted to the Prelacie, saith; L [...]tiores interim quòd virgas evas [...]r [...]nt, q [...]am quòd meruerint principa­tum. Be [...]n. Epist. 22. They were more glad they had escaped the rod, than that they had merited (that is, ob­tayned) the pr [...]ferment. Saint Augustine saith, P [...]o actione gratia­ [...]um flammas meruimus o­dio [...]um. Aug. lib 3. con [...]à Lit. [...]. c. 6. tom. 7. that hee and his fellowes for their good doings, at the hands of the D [...]natists, In steed of thankes merited (that is, incur­red) the flames of hatred: on the other side the same Fa­the [...] affirmeth, Pro p [...]rse [...]utionibus [...]t bla [...]phemys vas electionis me [...]uit n [...]min [...]ri. Id. de pr [...]d [...]st. e [...] grat. c. 16. That Saint Paul for his persecutions and blasphemies merited (that is, found grace) to bee named a vessell of election. Saint Gregory hath a straine concer­ning the sinne of Adam, which is sung in the Church of Rome, at the blessing of the Taper; [...] Cerei [...] O [...]alix [...] quae [...] ac ta [...]tum meruit [...] Ma­ [...]le E [...]les. Sarisbur. [...]g. 30 O happy sinne that merited (that is, Found the favour) to have such and so great a Redeemer. In like sort by merits they did ordi­narily signifie workes, as appeares by that of Saint Ber­nard, saying, N [...] (que) enim [...], ut p [...]p­t [...]r [...]a vita [...]eterna deb [...] ­tur [...] jure. Merita o [...]nia [...] D [...]i [...]unt. Be [...]n serm. 1. in Ann [...]n [...]i B. Mariae. The merits of men are not such, that for them eternall life should bee due of right; for all merits are Gods gifts.

Neither did the ancient Church hold merit of Con­dignitie, but resolved according to that of Leo; N [...] (que) [...] de quali­ [...] [...] do­no [...]um Leo S [...]m. 12. de [...]. Dom. The measure of celestiall gifts depends not upon the qualitie of works; they were not of the Rhemists opinion, Rhemists Annot. up­ [...] H [...]br. 6. sect. 4. That good works are meritorious, and the very cause of salvation; so farre that God should be unjust, if he rendred not heaven for the same. They were not so farre Iesuited as with Vas­quez [Page 169] Vasquez in primam secundae qu. 114. to hold, that Opera bona justorum ex seipsis, absque ullo pacto & accep [...]atione digna esse remuneratione vitae aet [...]r­nae, & equalem valorem cōdignitatis habere ad con­sequendam aeternam glori­am. Vasquez Comment. in primā. secund. q [...]. 114. disp. 214. cap. 5. in initio [...] The good works of just persons are of themselves, without any covenant and acceptation, worthy of the reward of eternall life, and have an equall value of condignitie to the obtaining of eternall glorie.


You cannot denie, but that prayer for the dead is ancient.


The manner now used is not ancient, for they that of old prayed for the dead, had not any reference to Purgatorie, as Popish prayers are now adayes made.

It is true indeed, that anciently they used Comme­morations of the defunct; neither mislike wee their manner of naming the deceased at the holy table; in this sort, they used a Commemoration Missa Chrysostomi, in Biblioth. Patr. graeco-lat. Par. 1624. & inprimis sanctissi­mae Virginis. ordo Liturgiae B. Ioann Chrysostomi ex versione Leonis Tusci apud Cassand [...] in Liturgiae. ca. [...]. of the Patri­arks, Prophets, Apostles, Evangelists, Martyrs, and Confessours, yea of Mary the mother of our Lord, to whom it cannot be conceived, that by prayer they did wish their deliverance out of Purgatorie, sith no man e­ver thought t [...]em to be there; but if they wished any thing, it was the deliverance from the power of death, which as yet tyrannized over one part of them; the hast­ning of their resur [...]ection, as also a joyful publike acqui­tall of them in that great day wherein they shall stand to bee judged before the judge of the quicke and dead, that so having fully escaped from all the consequences of sin (the last enemie being then destroyed 1 Cor. 15.26.54. and death swallowed up in victorie) they might obtaine a perfect consummation and blisse, both in body and soule, according to the forme of our Churches At the buriall of the dead. Liturgie.

In the Commemoration of the faithfull departed, retained as yet in the Romane missall, there is used this Orizon: R [...]quiem aeternam do­na ei [...] Domine, & lux per­petua luceat eis. Agenda Mortuorum, in Antipho­nario Gregorij. apud Pa­mel. to. 2. p. 175. O Lord grant unto them eternall rest, and let everlasting light shine unto them: and againe, Hanc igitur oblatio­nem, quam tibi pro comme­moratione animarum in p [...] ­ce dormientium suppliciter immolamus quaesumus Do­mine, benignus accip [...]as. Pamel. Liturg. pag. 610 tom. 2. This oblation, which we humbly offer unto thee for the Commemo­ration of the soules that sleepe in peace, we beseech thee O Lord, receive graciouslie; and it is usuall in the Ambrosian, and Gregorian Office, and in the Romane missall, to put in [Page 170] their Memento, the names of such as sleepe in the sleepe of Peace, & omnium pausantium, and to entreate for the spi­rits of those that are at rest: Mem [...]nt [...] Domine eo­rum qui dormiunt in som­no pa [...]s. A [...]brosiana Missa, in orat pro defun­ctis. Pamel. Liturg. pag. 303. to. 1 & Canon Mis­sae, in Officio Gregor. a­pud. Pamel. pag. 182. to. 2. Remember, O Lord, thy ser­vants, and hand maides, which have gone before us with the Ensigne of Faith, and sleepe in the sleepe of Peace; now by Pausantium, Pro Spiritibus pau­santium Ambrosij, Augu­stini, Fulgentij, Isidori. Missa Mozarabe. Muza­rabes di [...]ebantur mixti A­rabibus. In Liturg. Pamel. pag. 642 [Et Pausantium] quo nomine intelligi puto, Confessores qui in Domi­no, & sanct [...] pace quies­ [...]unt. Id. Ibid. pag 645. Pamelius understands, such as sleepe and rest in the Lord. Where we may observe, that the soules un­to which Everlasting blisse was wished for, were yet ac­knowledged to rest in Peace, and consequently not to be disquieted with any Purgatorie torment. So that the thing which the Church anciently aymed at in her supplications for the dead, was not to ease or release the soules out of Purgatorie, but that the whole man (not the soule separated onely) might find mercie of the Lord in that day, as sometime Saint Paul prayed for Onesipho­rus, 2 Tim. 1.18. even whiles Onesiphorus was yet alive. Besides, they desired a joyfull Resurrection, as appeares by seve­rall passages, and Liturgies; by the Aegyptian Liturgie attributed to Cyril Bishop of Alexandria, where we find this Orizon: Resuscita corpora e­orum in die quem constitu­isti secundum promissiones [...] veras et mendacij ex­pertes. Cyr. Litur. ex Arab. in Lat. conversa. pag. 62. Raise up their bodies in the day which thou hast appointed, according to thy promises which are true and cannot lye. And that of Saint Ambrose, for Gratian and Valenti­nian the Emperours: Te qu [...]eso, summe De­us, ut charissimes [...]uvenes maturà resurrectione sus­cipes, et resuscites; ut im­maturum hu [...] vitae isti [...]s cursum maturà resurrecti­one com [...]enses. Ambros. de obitu Valentin. I doe beseech thee most high God, that thou wouldst raise up againe those deere young men with a speedie resurrection; that thou mayst recompence this untime­ly course of this present life with a timely resurrection.

As also in Grimoldus his Sacramentarie; Omnipotens s [...]m [...]iter­ne Deus, coll [...]ca [...]e digna [...]e corpus et animam & spiri­tum samuli tui N. in sini­bus Abrahae Isaac & Ia­cob, ut [...]um dies agnitionis tue venerit inter sanct [...]s et electos tuos eum ie [...]usci­ta [...]i praecip [...]as. G [...]moldi Sacramentor. lib. in to. 2. Liturg. Pamelij pag 456. Almighty and everlasting God, vouchsafe to place the body and the soule, and the spirit of thy servant N. in the bosomes of Abraham, Isaac, and Iacob; that when the day of thine acknowledge­ment shall come, thou mayst command them to be raised up a­mong thy Saints and thine Elect. The like is found in the A­gend of the dead, Vt in Resurrectionis glorià inter Sanctos tuos resus [...]tari mercantur. A­genda mortuorum, in An­tiphonario Gregorij in Pa­melij Liturgi [...]. to. 2. p. 175 already mentioned.


Invocation of Saints was anciently used.


I answer, that though in respect of later times, Prayer [Page 171] to Saints and some other of our adversaries Tenets may seeme ancient, and gray-headed; yet in respect of the first three or foure hundred yeares next after Christ, they are not of that ancient standing: now the true tri­all of antiquitie is to be tak [...]n from the first and purest ag [...]s; for as Tertullian telleth us, Id verius quod prius, id prius quod & ab initio, ab initio quod ab Aposto­lis. Tertul. advers. Marci­on. lib. 4. cap. 5. Id esse verum quodcun (que) primum, id esse adult [...]rum quod­cun (que) posterius. Id. advers. Praxeam. cap. 2. Id Do­minicum & verum quod prius traditum; extraneum & falsum quod posterius immissum. Id. de praescrip. advers. Haeret. cap. 31. That is most true, which is most ancient, that most ancient which was from the beginning, that from the beginning which frō the Apostles, so that which at fi [...]st was delivered to the Saints, is truest; and the good seed was first sowne, and after that came the tares.

Besides, what though some poynts in Poperie were of a thousand yeare [...] standing? it is not time that can make a lye to be truth; antiquitie without truth is but antiquitas erroris, an ancient errour; and there is no p [...]ae­scrip [...]ion of time can hold plea against God and his truth.

Neither yet can you prescribe for divers Tenet [...] Sco­tus that was termed the Subtile Doctor, telleth us, Vaū tamen addit Sco­tus, quod minimè proband [...] est, ante Lateranense Con­cilium non fuisse dogma fi­dei Transubstantiationem. Bellarm. lib. 3. de Euchar. cap. 23. § Vnum. that before the Councel of Lateran (which was not till the yeare 1215) Transubstantiation was not believed as a poynt of Faith. This did Bellarmine observe as a thing remarkable in Sco­tus, although he doth not approve the same.

Cassander saith, Satis compertum est universalem Christi Ec­clesiam in hunc us (que) diem; occidentalem verò s [...]u Ro­manam mille omplius à Christo annis, in sol [...]mni praesertim et ordinaria hu­jus Sacramenti dispensati­one utram (que) panis & vin [...] speciem omnibus Ecclesiae Christi membris exhibu [...]s­se; id quod ex innumeri [...] veterum Scripto [...]um, t [...]m Graecorum, quàm Laticerū testimonijs manifestum est. Cassand. Art. 22. Consult. de ut [...]â (que) specie. It is sufficiently manifest, that the V­niversall Church of Christ untill this day, and the Westerne or Romane Church, for more then a thousand yeares aft [...]r Christ, did exhibit the Sacrament in both kinds to all the members of Christs Church, at least in publike, as it is most evident by innu­merable testimonies, both of Greeke and Latine Fathers. So that the barring of the Lay-people of the Cup, came not into the Church by any publike decree, till the Councel of Constance, which was held in the yeare 1414, some two hundred yeares agoe.

Fisher Bishop of Rochester saith, De quo tamen [pur­gatorio] apud pris [...]os illos nulla, vel quam rarissima fiebat mentio; sed et Grae­cis ad hunc us (que) diem non est creditum. Ro [...]ens. ar [...]. 18 [...] contra Lutherum. that of Purgatorie there is very little or no mention amongst the ancient; and that the Grecians doe not believe it to this day.

In like sort, their Latine service, which Pope Vitalian brought in, Papa Vitaltanus, omnia in Christianorū t [...]mpl [...]s per suos sacrificos in latino ser­mone fieri jussit. Wolf. Le­ction. m [...]mor [...]bil. pa 74. ad an [...] 6 [...]6. is not of Primitive antiquitie, for it was [Page 172] not generally put upon the Church until the yeare 666. which is the number of the name of the beast mentio­ned in the Apocalypse, Revel. 13.18. and found out by Irenaeus Sed & Lateinos no­men sexcentorum sex [...]gin­ta sex numerum [habet] & valde verisimile est, Latinienim sunt qui nunc regnant. Iren l. 5. advers. Haer. cap. 25. edit. Galla­sij cap. 30. edit Fevard. to arise out of the numerall letters of the word Lateinos; now this name [...] wel suites with the Pope whose Faith and Church is the Romish or La­tine Church, and his publike Service in Latine, and his translation of Scripture in Latine.

Now touching prayer to Saints; It is true, that such as had lapsed, and fallen in time of persecution, were wont to implore the prayers of Ma [...]tyrs and Confessours imprisoned for the Cyprian l. 3. [...]p. 15 Tertull. de pudiciti [...]. c. 22. Gospel; that by their interceding for th [...]m, they might procure some ease or relaxation of such canonicall censures as were enjoyned them by the Church, & Cyprian was of opinion, that the Saints aft [...]r death, remembred thei [...] old friends here, as having tak [...]n fresh and particular notice of their severall states, votes, and necessities; and hence grew that compact betwixt Cyprian and Cornelius, that whether of them went to heaven before the other, he should pray for his survi­ving Si quis nostr [...]m prior divinae dignationis celeri­tate praecesserit, perseveret a [...]ud cum nostra dilectio pro fratribus & sororibus a­pud misericordiam patris non cesset oratio. Cypr. l. [...]. cap 1. vel (ut in alijs edit.) ep. 57. ad Cornel. & de Discipl. & habitu virg. friend. Now this soliciting of Martyrs before their deaths, brought in the next Age a custome to call upon them after their deaths: yet so as they did not di­rectly invote them. For so it was; for the better preservation of the memory of Saints and Martyrs, they had their Commemoration dayes, and were wont to meet at the Tombes and Monuments of Martyrs, where they kept their anniversary, and yearely solem­nities, and made speeches in their praise and commen­dations; and in these their orations they spoke to the deceased, as if they had beene living, and present there, but these were onely straines of rhetoricke, Figures, and Apostrophee's, rather Declamationes rhetorum, flow­ers of rhetoricke, than Definitiones Theologorum, decisi­ons of Divines. In this kind Gregorie Nazianzene saith, [...]. Greg. Nazian. orat 3. in Iulian. Heare, O thou soule of great Con [...]antius, (if thou hast a­ny understanding of these things) and as many soules of the [Page 173] Kings before him as loved Christ. The like he hath in his funerall oration which he made upon his Sister Gorgo­nia, where he speakes thus unto her: [...]. Id. orat. unde­cimâ in Gorgon. If thou hast any care of the things done by us, and holy soules receive this ho­nour from God, that they have any feeling of such things as these; receive this oration of ours, in stead of many, and be­fore many funerall obsequies. He speakes doubtfully and faintly, If thou hast any sense or apprehension hereof; and, if you be affected with these things; it seemeth hee thought that the defunct had not ordinarily notice of things done on earth, neither will it serve to say as Bellarmine doth, Si, non est dubitantis, sed affirmantis, ut [...]um di­cit Apostolus ad Philemo­nem, Si habes me so [...]ium, suscipe illum. Bellarm. de Sanct. Beat. li. 1. cap. 20. § ad locum Nazianzeni dico. that Si, is not dubitantis, but affirmantis, not a terme of doubting, but of asseveration, as that of Saint Paul, If thou count me therefore a partner, receive him as my selfe. For there is no man, but if he reade these places unpartially, Heare, if there be any sense, and, Heare, if God grant it as a priviledge to soules deceased to have sense of these things, but he will conceive that Si is not put for, For; or quoniam, or as a note of affirming, but as a note of doubt, at least in the parties that spake it.

Hitherto the Saints were rather Vocati, called unto, as comprecants, to joyne their prayers with the living, than Invocati, Directly called upon, or prayed unto; yet in processe of time the prayers made to God to heare the Intercessions of the Saints, were changed into prayers, to the Saints, to heare our intercessions themselves: For wee deny not but that among the ancient writers, there are some places found which speake of the Inter­cession of the Saints; there are also wishes found that were made by living men, that the Saints would pray for them; but this is not the difference betwixt us, whether the Saints pray for us, but whether wee must pray unto, and call upon them? for wee grant, that the Saints in heaven doe pray for Saints on earth in generall, Et tamen ge [...]raliter orantibus pro indigenti [...] supplicantium. Aug. de [...]u­râ pro mortuis c. 16. to. 4. according to the nature of communion of Saints; but their intercession for us in generall, will not inferre our invocation of them in particular.

[Page 174]There are also in ancient Writers p [...]rticular exam­ples to bee found of some, that ou [...] of their owne pri­vate devotion have called upon Saints; but thi [...] can­not raise up a tenet in Religion to bind the Church, either for doctrine or practice; for what one or two shall doe, carried away with their owne devout affe­ction, having zeale (hap'ly) not according to know­ledge, is not straight way a Ru [...]e of the Church, nor one of the Churches Agends. The thing wee stand upon is this; that there were not any Collects, nor set formes, nor any di [...]ect Invocation of Saints put into the Common-service, and publicke Liturgie of the Westerne Church untill the dayes of Gregory the Great, or there abouts, sixe hundred yeares after Christ; so that their Saint-invocation is not so ancient as they would beare the world in hand.

In a word, there is much difference betweene the ancients, and moderne Romists herein; for in the compellations which the ancients used, they pleaded onely Christs merits, making the Saints (high in Gods favour) competitioners to the throne of grace with the Saints living on earth: but not content herewith, the Schooles afterwards held meritorious Invocation of Saints, wherein the Saints owne merits were brought in, and pleaded. Wee pray unto the Saints (saith the Ma­ster of the Sentences) Oramus ergo ut inter­cedant pro nobis, id est, ut merita eorum nobis suffra­gentur. Petr. Lombard. l. 4. dist. 45. lit. G. That they may intercede for us, that is to say, That their merits may helpe us; and Biel speakes to the same effect. Sanctos invocamus, ut medi [...]tores, quorum meritis et intuitu nobis Deus con­ferat, quae ex nostris acci­pere minus sumus digni. Bi­el. in Can. Missae lect. 30.

THE SIXTH CENTVRIE, From the yeare of Grace, 500. to 600.


WWhat say you of this sixth age?


Quod dies [...]egat, dies dabit; what one age affords not, another doth: and dies dedit, I trust wee have got the day in the two last, justly stiled the learned Ages. The Reader is not now (in the close of the first 600 yeares) to expect so full and frequent Testimonies as formerly: such as wee find wee pro­duce, Actes 14.17. For God hath not left himselfe without witnesse.

Of the Scriptures Sufficiencie and Canon.

Iustus Orgelitanus compares the Scriptures to Davids Tower wherein hang a thousand shields, and all the targets of the strong men; In S. Scripturâ omnis fortium armatura reperi­tur, ex quâ vel contrâ Di­abolum, vel ministros eju [...] fortitur repugnatur. Iust. Orgelit. in cap. 4. Cantic. it being furnished with all sorts of armour, to encounter Satan, and his Instruments withall.

Saint Bede records of the successors of Colum-kille the great Saint of Ireland, That they Tantùm ea quae in Propheti [...]is, Evangelicis et Apostolicis literis discere poterant, observantes. Be­da lib. 3. Hist. cap. 4. observed only those workes of pietie and chastitie, which they could learne in the propheticall, evangelicall, and apostolicall writings; and these they esteemed as their chiefe riches, according to that of Columban. in Mono­ [...]lich. & in Epist. ad Hu­n [...]ld. Columbanus:

Sint tibi divitiae divinae dogmata legis.

[Page 176] Iunilius an African Bishop, treating of the Canoni­ca [...]l bookes, and having said that some account Tobie with others Canonicall, he puts the question, and then resolves it: Why are not these bookes inserted amongst the Canonicall Scriptures, and he names amongst other Tobie, Esdra, Iudith, and the second of the Maccabees? Be­cause (saith he) Quare hi libri inter Canonic [...]s S. non c [...]runt? Quoniam apud Haebraeos quo (que) super h [...]c diff [...]ren­ti [...] recipiebantur, sicut Hieron. caeteri (que) testantur. Iunil. African. de part. di­vinae legis lib 1. c 3. to. 1. Bibl. Patr. Par. 1589. The Iewes did make a difference of them, as Saint Hierome, and others witnesse.

Of Communion under both kinds, and number of Sacraments.

Hinemar in the life of Rhemigius Archbishop of Rhemes (who converted King Clovis of France to the Christian faith) Cassandri Liturg. ca. 31. Pamelij Liturgi [...]. pag. 618. tom. 1. reports that the Archbishop gave a Chalice for the peoples use, with this Motto;

Hauriat hinc populus vitam de sanguine sacro
Injecto, aeternus quem fudit vulnere Christus.
Rhemigius domino reddit sua vota sacerdos.
Rhemigius Priest, that gave this cup,
Prayeth that in it the people sup;
And still draw life from flowing blood
Out of Christs side, as of a flood.

Hee saith not, Hauriat hinc Clerus, but populus; not, Let the Priest, but let the people drinke of this ministeriall Cup, as Cassander cals it.

The Divines of this Age (as others of former times) Duo tantùm Sacra­menta Theologi hujus sex­tae aetatis agnoscunt. Illyric. Catalog. test. verit. li. 6. ac­knowledged onely two Sacraments, Baptisme, and the Lords Supper.

Of the Eucharist.

Fulgentius speaking of the Eucharist, saith; In isto sacrificio gra­tiarum actio a [...] (que) comme­moratio est carnis Christi, quam pro nobis obtulit. Augustin de fide ad Petr. Diacon. cap. 19. In this sacrifice there is a thankesgiving and remembrance of the flesh which hee offered, and the blood which Christ shed for us; and S [...]crificium panis & vini Ecclesia Catholica per universum orbem terrae of­ferre non cessat. Id. ibid. this sacrifice of bread and wine was offered throughout the whole Catholike Church.

Here Fulgentius mentions a Sacrifice not proper and propitiatorie for the quick and dead, but Eucharisticall, and [Page 177] Commemorative, of prayse and thankesgiving, a lively me­moriall, and representation of the Sacrifice offered on the Crosse.

The words alleadged are found amongst S. Austines workes; but Bellarmine Tribuitur à multis Fulgentio. Be [...]tramus hunc librum sub nomine Fulgen­tij citavit. Bell. de Scrip­tor. Eccles. sect. 5. in Au­gustino. saith; Many father them on Fulgentius, and that Bertram citeth these words under his name, and so indeed I find it: howsoever, were it Austin, Bertram de Corp. & sang [...] Dom. [...]udiamus quid B. Fulgentius in libello de Fide dicat. or Fulgentius, the Master, or the Scholler; so they taught, and so wee learned, both from them and others, namely Offerunt quidem S [...] ­ [...]erdotes nostri, sed ad re­cordationē mortis ejus. Pri­mas. in Heb. cap 10. Primasius, Offerimus quidem, sed recordationem sacientes mortis ejus. Ambros. in Hebr. 10. Ambrose, and Eandem hostiam offe­rimus, [...], vel potius recordatio­nem ipsius. Chrysost. in Hebr. 10. Homil. 17. Chrysostome, who by way of correction say, Wee offer the same sacrifice, or rather the remembrance thereof. Besides, the same Fulgentius saith, Filium Dei unicum per fidem recipiunt. Fulg. de Incarn [...] & grat. ca. 26. They receive the onely Sonne of God.

Of Images, and Prayer to Saints.

Fulgentius saith, In primo Decalogi mandato, sicut unius Dei cultur [...] servitus (que) manife­stissimè praecipitur; ità om­ni Creaturae adoratio ac servitus à fidelibus exhi­benda vehementissimè pro­hibetur. Fulgent. ad Do­natum. That as in the first Precept, the worship of one God is manifestly commanded; so the faithfull are utterly forbidden to yeeld the service of Adoration to any creature.

Dracontius in his booke of the Creation, saith; Dracont. Poetic. Hexa­meron. in Bibl. Patr. to. 8. edit. 2. Par. 1589. It is Gods pleasure, Esse nihil prorsus se praeter ubiquè rogandum. That nothing beside himselfe should every where be prayed unto.

Of Faith and Merit.

Primasius saith, that Non ex operibus, sed sol [...] [...]ide per gratiam, vi­tam habere te nosti Pri­mas. in cap. 2. ad Galat. We are freely justified by faith only, and not by workes.

Fulgentius saith, Sola [...]ides eripit Iesu Christi. Fulgent. de Incar. & grat. cap. 16. From this our originall corruption, not any power of nature, or letter of the Law, but faith onely in Iesus Christ doth free us.

Now this saving faith, though it never goe alone, yet may there be some gift of God, which it alone is able to reach unto, Columban. in Mono­stych. pag. 62. as Columbanus also implyeth in that verse:

Sola fides fidei don [...] ditabitur almo.

[Page 178]Concerning Merit, Fulgentius saith; Grati [...] autem eti [...]n ipsa ide [...] non injust [...] dici­ [...]ur, quià con sol [...]m Deus [...] suis dona sua reddit; se [...] quià tantùm etiam ibi [...] d [...]vinae retributionis exuberat [...] ut incomp [...]rabi­litè at (que) in [...]ff [...]bilitèt om­ne meritum, quamvis bonae et ex Deo d [...]tae, humanae vo [...]u [...]tatis at (que) uperationis [...]. edat. Fulg. [...]d Monim. lib. 1. cap 10. Our glorifica­cation is not unjustly called grace, not onely because God doth bestow his owne gifts upon his owne gifts; but also because the grace of Gods reward doth so much there abound, as that it exceedeth incomparably and unspeakably all the merit of the will, and worke of man, though good, and given from God: and N [...]ll [...]t [...]nùs [...] salubriter [...] [...]e­mus, tàm in no, [...] nostro ope [...]e tanqu [...]m nostrum nobis aliq [...]d ve [...] ­dica [...]e. Id. [...]bid. That this is wholesome doctrine, to challenge nothing to our selves in any good we doe.

And Iustus Orgelitanus saith, Et ide [...] quicquid justi in bonis op [...]ribꝰ [...]uc [...]ficat, totum est referendum ad Christum. Iust. Orgelit. in cap. 2. Canti [...]. Wee must thanke the Stocke Christ Iesus, if any good fruit grow on our branches.

Cassiodore saith, That Qu [...]i [...]m vocatio Do­mini omne meritum praece­dit; nec in venit dignum sed fa [...]it: id [...]ò c [...]m gratuita, alioqa [...]n justa diceretur. C [...]ssiodor. in Psal. 5. Gods vocation goes before our merit, not [...]inding us worthy, but accepting us for such.

The Councell of Orange hath notably decreed a­gainst the Semi-pelagians. There are many good things (saith the Councell) Multa in homine bo­ [...] sunt, que [...] [...]acit [...], nulla v [...]ro [...] homo bona quae non Deus praestet ut [...] homo. Concil. Ara [...]sic [...]. [...]. Cano. 20. C [...]r [...]nz [...] in summà Con­cil. done in man, which man doth not; but man doth no good things, which God doth not make man to doe. Hoc [...]ti [...]m salubrit [...]r pro [...]item [...]r & credimu [...], quod in omni opere bono, non nos in [...] & [...] per Dei [...]; sed ip [...]e nobis nullis praecedentibus b [...]nis meritis, & [...]dem & amorem [...]ui [...] in­spirat. Canon. 25. Ca­ [...]an [...]a ibid. This also doe wee wholsomely professe and believe, that in every good worke wee doe not begin, and are holpen afterwards by the mercy of God; but hee first of all, no good merits of ours going before, inspireth into us both faith and the love of him: which place Binnius hath Concil. tom. 2. pag. 392. Edit. Colon. 1606. corrupted, reading for nullis, multis; many good workes going be­fore: surely this was none of his good workes to cor­rupt the Councell.

Now also was held the fif [...]h Generall Councell at Constantinople, Anno 553. [...]. Evagr. Eccles. Histor. li. 4. ca. 11. Called by the Emperour Iusti­nian, and not by the Pope.

This Councell confirmed the decrees of the for­mer; and withall (according to the former Canons) decreed, Can. 35. That the See of Constantinople should have equal dignity with the See of old Rome. Vnto these forraine testimonies, we may joyne some of our owne, namely, the Britaines about the yeare five hundred ninetie sixe, what time as Gregory the Great sent Austin the Monke into England.


It was our Gregory, and his Austin that first converted your Iland.


It was converted long before Austins comming, even in the first Age of the Church, as is already showne. Besides, at his comming, there were in Bri­taine Septem Britonum E­piscopi, et plures viri do­ctis [...]imi. Beda hist. Angl. lib. 2. cap. 2. seven Bishops, with other learned men, professing and teaching the Christian faith; and above two thousand Monks in the Monastery of Bangor, Qui omnes [Monachi] labore maruum su [...] um vivebant. Galfrid. Mo­numetens. Hist. Reg. Bri­tan. lib. 11. cap. 12. All living with the labour of their hands. Yea, Geffrey of Monmouth spea­king of Cornwaile, and the Westerne parts, saith; In parte autem Brit [...] ­num adhuc vige [...]at Chri­stianitas, quae à tempore E­l [...]utherij Papae habita, nū ­quam inter eos defecerat. Id. quò suprà. & Math. Westmon. ad anu. 596. In a part of the Britaines, Christianity yet flourished, the which being received in the dayes of Eleutherius (in the yeare 179.) Never fayled amongst them; so that Austin was not our first Converter.


You say the Britaines held the Christian faith; how then differed they from our Austin?


They differed both in Ceremonies, and Substantiall doctrine; namely, in not acknowledging the Popes Su­premacie, which is now a grand Article of the Romane Faith: for whereas Austine came with a kind of Legan­tine power from the Pope, and for the execution of this Commission (not unknowne to the Ilanders) used both prayers and Fertur minita [...]s prae­dixisse. Beda hist. li. 2. c. 2. & Math. Westmonast. ad ann. 603. threats, to move them to conformi­ty with the Romane Church, at least for their manner of baptizing, and keeping of Easter; but they told him plainely, that At illi nihil horum se facturos, ne (que) illum pro Ar­chiep. habitu [...]os esse re­spond [...]ant. Id. ibid. They would not yeeld to any of his mo­tions, nor acknowledge him for their Arch bishop: yea, Dinoc [...]orum Abbas, mi [...]o modo liberalibus arti­bus cr [...]ditus diversis argu­menta [...]ionibus ipsos ei nul­lam subjectionē d [...]be [...]e re­spondit. Galfii. quò [...]uprà. Di­nooch the Abbot of Bangor, a learned man, made it appear [...] by divers arguments, when Austine required the Bishops to be subject unto him, that they ought him no subjection; yea, they farther added, Cum Archi [...]pis [...]o­pum suum hab [...]rent [...]ui deh [...]rent et v [...]ll [...]t [...], externo ve [...]ò Episcopo se mi [...]mè subjectos [...]ore. An­tiquir. Britan. in Augu­stino. pag. 46. That they had an Arch-bishop of their owne, him they ought and would obey, but they would not be subject [Page 180] to any forraigne Bishop. For such an one (belike) they held the Pope to be.

Neither can it bee truly alleadged that they refused his jurisdiction, not his religion; for Bede saith, Cu [...]ctis qu [...] di [...]ebant, [...] lab rabant. Beda quò supra. That they withstood him in all that ever he sayd: now surely hee sayd somewhat else besides his Arch-bishopricke, and his Pall; or else he had beene a very ambitious man. Besides, in the dayes of Laurentius, Austines successour, Bishop Daganus denied all Communion, Nam Daganus Epi­scopus ad nos veniens, non solum [...]ihum sumere nobis­ [...]um, sed nec in eodem ho­spitio voluit. Bed [...] lib. 2. Histor. cap. 4. And refused to eate bread in the same Inne, wherein the Romish Prelates lodged; belike then they differed in matters of weight.


Wherein stood the difference, what doe you hence inferre, whether were you not beholden to our Austine?


The Romans kept their Easter, in memorie of Christs Resurrection, upon the first Sunday after the full Moone of March, the Britanes kept theirs in memory of Christs Passion, upon the fourteenth day of the Moone of March, on what day of the weeke soever it fell; this they did after the example of the Easterne Churches in Asia, grounded on a tradition received from Saint Iohn; whereby it seemeth, the British Church rather follow­ed the custome of the East Church in Asia, planted by Saint Iohn, and his disciples, than the Romane; which yet had they been of the Romish jurisdiction, they would (in all likelyhood) have followed; now since they followed the Easterne custome, it is probable, that our first conversion to Christianitie, came from the Converted Iewes, or Grecians, and not from the Romanes; and that Britaine was not under their juris­diction. But whencesoever our Conversion were, wee blesse God for it.

Now concerning Austine, and the Britaines; we ac­knowledge to Gods glory, that howsoever the super­fluitie of Ceremonies which Austine brought in, might well have been spared; yet Austine, and his Assistants, [Page 181] Iustus, Iohn, and Melitus, converted many to the Faith. Neither can we excuse the Britaines, for Nec suam praedicati­onem inimicis suis impen­dere [volebant.] Gal [...]rid. quò suprà. refusing to joyne with Austine in the conversion of the Pagan Saxons; yet withall we must needs say, they had just reason to refuse to put their necks under his yoke: and surely if Austine had not had a proud spirit, he would onely have requested their helpe for the worke of the Lord, and not have sought dominion over them: which makes it very probable, that his obtruding the Popes jurisdi­ction over the Britaines, occasioned that lamentable slaughter of the Britaines. For when as Austine solici­ted the Britaines to obey the See of Rome, Antiquit. Britan. cap. 18. out of Amand. Xier­xiens. a Fryer Minor col­lecteth thus; Mo [...]a est dis­cordia propter [...]orum ino­bedientiam ad Augustinū. — Saxones conversi vole­bant Britones Augustino subdere. and they denied it; then did Ethelbert a Saxon Prince, late­ly converted by Austine, stirre up Edelfred the Wild, (the Pagan King of Northumberland) against the Britaines; whereupon the Infidel Saxon Souldiers, made a most lamentable slaughter of the Britaines, assembled at Westchester; and that not onely on the Souldiers pre­pared to fight, but on the Monks of Bangor assembled for prayer; of whom they slew twelue hundred, together with Dinooch their Abbot; all which (as Ieffery Mon­mouth saith) Et sic mille ducenti eorum in ipsa die, Martyri [...] decorati, regni caelestis ad­epti sunt sedem. Gal [...]rid. Mon. lib. 11. cap. 13. being that day honoured with Martyrdome, ob­tained a seat in the Kingdome of Heaven. And this was the wofull issue of their stickling for jurisdiction over other Churches.


Baronius Britanni schismatis rei. Baron. tom. 8. ad ann. 604. nu. 65. calleth the Britaines Schismaticks, for not yeelding to the Pope.


The Britaine Church had anciently a Cantuariens. Episco­pus alterius Orbis Patri­archa dicius est. Berterius in Diatribâ. 2. cap. 4. Patriarke or Primate of her owne like other Provinces; to him the other Bishops of his Church were subject, and not to the Romane.


The Nic [...]n Councel condemned the Quartadecimans (and in them your Britaines) for Hereticks, Three Conv [...]rsions of England, p [...]t. 1. ch [...]p. 3. nu. 13. & [...]4. saith Par­sons.


To his testimonie, we oppose the Iudgement of a Frier minorite who expressely Amand Xierxiens a­pud Antiquit. Britan. in Augustino pag. 48. Brito­nes [...]uerunt Catholici. calleth them Catho­likes. Besides, had that famous Councell of Sar­dice, held our British Bishops for Hereticks, they had never admitted them to give sentence in that Councel, as they did: Britanniarum Epis­copi se ad magnum Sardi­cum Conci [...]um cōtul [...]unt. Athanas. Apolog 2. to. 2. for by name, Restitutus Bishop of London, Athanas. ibid. pag. 407. subscribed thereunto; and was likewise p [...]esent at the Synod of Arles in France, as Parsons Three C [...]ntrove [...]s. part. 1. chap 9. nu. 7. reporteth out of Athanasius.

Againe, those who kept Easter on the fourteenth day precisely, were of two sorts.

Some as Polycrates, and other Bishops in Asia, kept it so, meerely in imitation of Ipsum est quod B. E­vangelista Ioannes cum omnibus quibus praerat ec­clesijs, celeb [...]asse legitur. Beda hist. li 3. ca. 25. Saint Iohn the Evangelist; as an ancient, but yet an indifferent, and mutable rite or tradition; and these were condemned for Hereticks, and such were our Britaines.

Others kept the fourteenth day, even eo nomine, and by vertue of the Mosaicall law; holding a necessity of observing that peremptory day, as appointed by Moses [...] now this was the meanes to bring Iudaisme, which quite abolisheth Christ, and evacuateth the whole Go­spel; like those who amongst the Galathians urged Cir­cumcision, to whom Galat. 5.2 [...] Saint Paul professeth, that Christ should profit them nothing. And this was it was condem­ned in the Quarta-decimans: but of this the Britaines were cleere.

They should indeed have conformed themselves to the Councels decree; yet because that decree was not a decree of Faith (no farther then it condemned the Ne­cessitie of observing the fourteenth day, and therein condemned the Quarta [...]decimans) but a decree of Or­der, discipline, and uniformity in the Church; when it was once knowne, and evident, that any particular Church condemned the necessitie of that fourteenth day; the Church by a connivencie permitted, and did not censure the bare observing of that day.

[Page 183]The same Concil. Nicen. Can. 20. Councel decreed, that on every Lords day, from Easter to Whits [...]ntide, none should pray knee­ling, but standing; wherein the Church (notwithstan­ding the decree) useth the like connivence, not strictly binding every particular Church to doe so; so long as there is unitie, and agreement in the doctrines of Faith; the Church useth not to bee rigorous with particular Churches, which are her children, for the varietie and difference in outward rites, though commanded by her selfe, as my learned kinsman Dr. Crakanthorp of the Popes temporall Mo­narchie. Chap. 12. Doctor Crakanthorpe, hath well observed.


This odds about keeping Easter was but of small weight.


It was so, if we consider our Christian Galat. 4.9. libertie in the observation of times; y [...]t was it held a matter of that consequence, that Pope Victor Omnes Ecclesiae Asiae à Victore excommunicatae fuerint. Bellar. de verbo Dei. lib. 3. cap. 6. Excommunicated all the Churches of Asia, which differed from him in the ob­servation thereof.


What conclude you from your Britaines Faith?


Vpon the Premises, it followeth; that seeing the doctrine of the Popes Supremacie over all Churches, was no part of the Britaines Faith when Austine came; therefore neither was it any part of their Faith in Eleu­therius dayes, no nor in the Apostles time neither; since as Mathew of Westminster saith, A [...]ide Christi nun­quàm recesserant Britan­norum reliqu [...]ae Matth. Westmon. ad an. 586. The Britaines Faith never failed.

Againe, seeing the Britaines Faith, (Convers. part. 1. chap. 9. nu. 3. as Parsons truly affirmeth) was then; to wit, at Austines comming, the same which the Romanes, and all Catholike Churches embraced: it further followeth, that the Popes Supre­macie, was no materiall part of the Romane Faith, or of any Catholikes, either in Pope Eleutherius time, or in the Apostles dayes; for had it beene so, the Britaines (who changed not their Faith, but kept still the substan­tiall [Page 184] grounds thereof) would likewise have held the Popes Supremacie; yea, doubtlesse, those Catholike Bishops of Britaine, had they but knowne and believed (as now it is given out) the Pope to be Iure divin [...], by divine right, and Gods appointment the Monarch of the whole Church, they would have yeelded obedience to Austine, and in him to the Pope; but they opposed it as being urged by those of the Romish faction; so that it was not then, (as now it is made) one of the chiefe heads of the Romish Faith: for now a dayes, men are made to believe that out of the Communion of the Romane Church, nothing but hell can be looked for: and subjection to the Bishop of Rome, as to the visible Head of the Vniversall Church, V [...]i [...]as cùm Capite R [...]m [...]no [...] s [...]mper [...]uit nota [...] [...]atholi­cae. Bell. li. 3 de [...]. milit. cap. 2. & 5. — et [...]xtra­vagant Commun. dema [...]o­rit. & [...]bed. Cap. unam Sanct. Sub [...]sse R [...]m. Pon­tifici omni [...]umanae creatu­r [...] desinimus omninò esse de necessitate solutis. Is required as a matter necessary to salvation. But this was no part, nor Article of the ancient Britaines Creed, and therefore they with­stood it; and if it were no Article of Faith them, sure­ly it is none now a dayes.

To close up this point: hereby is overthrowne the maine Article of the Romane Creed. For, if (as the Pa­pists [...]ulla pij. 4. pro soi­m [...] Iuramenti professions fid [...]i. Dat. Rom. an. 1564. say and sweare) there be no salvation out of the Romane Communion, then is the case like to goe hard with the one thousand two hundred British Monks of Bangor, stiled Saints and Martyrs, that died out of the Roman Communion, and yet within the Commu­nion of Saints. But this Grand Imposture of the [now] Romane Church, is notably discovered by the learned and zealous Bishop of Coventrie and Lichfield, Bishop Morton, [...] L. Bishop of Durham. Doctor Morton, now Lord Bishop of Durham.

My conclusion shall be this: out of the holy Ca­tholike Church of the Creede, there is no salvation; but out of the fellowship of the Romane Church there hath beene, and is salvation, as appeares in the case of these our British Martyrs, therefore the present Romane Church is not (as it is pretended) the Catholike Church of the old Creede, but a particular of the new Trent Creede.

THE SEVENTH CENTVRIE, From the yeare of Grace, 600. to 700.


PRoceede to name your men.


I name Gregory the great, whom Bel­larmine usually Bellar. de Scriptor. ec­cles. sect. 7. et li. 2. de Eu­char. cap. 22. placeth in this seventh Age, for that hee lived unto the yeare 605, what time (as Trithemius saith) Trithem. de Script. Eccles. he dyed: Now also lived his Scholler Isidore Bishop of Sivil in Spaine, usually Trithem. ibid.— et in praefat. Etymolog. edit Ve­net. ann. 1583. termed Isidore the younger. Now also by Bellar­mine's account (though others make him much ancien­ter) lived Hesychius Bishop of Hierusalem, with other Worthies, as namely the Britaines of Wales, as also Saint Aidan, and Finan, now also was held the sixth Generall Councell.


I challenge Saint Gregory, hee is ours.


Gregorie indeed lived in a troublesome time, whiles the Goths and Vandals overranne Italie, and Rome was be­sieged by the Lombards. There was then also great decay in knowledge, and scarcity of able men to furnish the Church withall; and few in Italie (as Baronius saith Vt [...]aud in promptu esset, qui utrius (que) linguae peritus esset. Baron. An­nal. tom. 8. ann. 593 nu. 62.) that were skilled both in Greeke and Latine. Yea Gregory [Page 186] himselfe Nam no [...] nec Gr [...]ecum [...] Greg tom. 2. [...]p. lib. 9. epist. 69. pro [...]esseth that hee was ignorant of the Greeke tongue; yet was he st [...]led the great, and yet not so great, as godly and modest. It is commonly said of him, That he was the last of the good Bishops of Rome, and the first of the bad ones; Primus Papa et Pon­tificij Cho [...]i pre [...]ult [...]r, & ultim [...] Epis [...]opus Roma­nus. And R [...]ve [...]. Critic. s [...]cri li 4. cap. 29. That he was the first Pope, and leader of the Pontifician companies, and the last Bishop of Rome. Hee was supe [...]stitious in diverse things, hee lived in a decli­ning age, and as in time, so in some truths came short of his predecessours; yet, he taught not as your Trent Papists doe, but joyned with us in diverse weighty poynts of Religion. [...]. Panke [...] Collecta­ne [...] out of S. Gregory.

Of the Scriptures sufficiencie, and Canon.

Gregory held the Scriptures sufficiencie, saying, In ho [...] volumine cun­ [...] q [...]e aedis [...]cant s [...]ripta continentur. Greg. in Eze­chiel. li. 1. Hom. 9. tom. 2. What­soever serveth for edification, is contayned in the volume of the Scriptures; Flu [...]nta pl [...]nissim [...], quià de quibuscun (que) s [...]ru­pul [...] in scriptu [...]is consilium quaeritur [...]ine minoratione ad plenum invenitur. Id in Cant. cap. 5. wherein are all resolutions of doubts fully and plentifully to be found; they being like a full Spring, that can­not be drawne drye.

Hee approved the vulgar use of the Scriptures, Greg lib 4. Ep. 40. ad Theod. [...] to. 2. ex­horting a Lay-man to study them; because (saith hee) Scriptura Epistola Dei ad Creaturam suam. Id. li. 4. ep. 40 Et p [...]r [...]am Deus loquitur omne quod vult. Id. moral. lib. 16. cap 17. tom. 1. they bee as it were Gods Letter or Epistle to his Creature, wherein he reveales his whole minde to him.

And lest any complaine of the difficulty of the Scrip­tures, he compares them to a Scriptura qu [...]si flu­ [...]ius est planus & altus, in quo & Agnu [...] ambulet, & [...] epist. ad L [...]and. cap. 4. Praet [...]. in Iob to. 1. River, wherein there are as well shallow Foords for Lambes to wade in, as depths for the E­lephant to swim in. And Isidore saith, that Vtris (que) manet com­munis, et parvulis, et per­fectis. Isidor. de sum. bo­no lib. 1. cap. 18. the Scripture is common to petty Schollers, and to Proficients. And where­as Heretickes use to alleadge Scripture for themselves; Gregory saith, Greg. Moral. lib. 8. cap. 8. they may bee confuted by Scripture it selfe, even as Goliath was slaine with his owne sword.

Gregory held the bookes of Maccabees Apocryphall; Wee doe not amisse (saith Ex libri [...] lic [...]t non C [...]<